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Sample records for cephradine

  1. Cephradine (Velosef) penetration of mandibular bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlehurst, R J; Rood, J P

    1990-04-01

    The concentration of cephradine in serum and mandibular bone was assayed in 28 patients undergoing 3rd molar surgery following a single 1 g intravenous injection. Serum and cortical bone samples taken simultaneously, contained mean cephradine concentrations of 42.11 micrograms/ml and 2.61 micrograms/g respectively. These results, when compared with those reported for other bony sites including the femoral head and knee, show a reduced bone penetration with a bone-to-serum ratio of approximately 0.06:1. PMID:2111359

  2. Calculation of the molecular properties of five cephalosporins: cephradine, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefprozil and ceftobiprole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elso Manuel Cruz Cruz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The side chains attached to the 7-amino cephalosporanic acid, the structural basis of cephalosporin, condition its molecular properties and cause differences in its pharmacological action. Molecular modeling contributes to further knowledge about this relationship. Objective: To calculate structural and electronic properties of five cephalosporins: cephradine, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefprozil and ceftobiprole. Methods: A theoretical study using quantum mechanics methods to model the structure and electronic properties of the cephalosporins listed above was conducted. Molecular geometries were optimized with semi-empirical calculations, according to the parameterized number three model. The molecular properties were calculated following the density functional theory. The densities of atomic charges and the frontier orbitals were analyzed. Comparisons were established to measure the effect of substituents on the properties of the beta-lactam ring. All calculations were run on personal computers belonging to the Medical Sciences University of Las Tunas, from November 2009 to March 2010. Results: The structural parameters of the beta-lactam ring do not change as a result of changes in the side chains. The ring has a marked tendency to planarity. The ceftobiprole is different from the rest of the cephalosporins in the spatial disposition of the side chain, which facilitates access to the carbonyl carbon. There are no significant variations in the charge densities, especially in the positive charge of this carbon. Conclusions: The structure and electronic properties of the beta-lactam ring have no significant changes among modeled cephalosporins. The three dimensional structure of ceftobiprole favors a higher reactivity.

  3. Comparative study on pharmacokinetics of Cephradine in diabetic and normal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Jun; FU Ting; HAN Guo-zhu; LU Li

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) on pharmacokinetics of cephradine (CED) by comparing the difference in pharmacokinetic behaviours of CED between diabetic and normal rats. Methods DM was induced in male rats by a single iv injection of alloxan 60 mg·kg-1; rats whose blood glucose was over 16 mmol·L-1 were taken as DM group. The rats were divided into DM group and normal control (CTL) group, which were subdivided into low dose (90 mg·kg-1) and high dose (180 mg·kg-1) subgroups. CED was administered by iv or po routes. Blood samples collected at different time post dosing were analyzed by RP-HPLC to yield CED plasma concentration time course. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Kromasil C18 column (250×4.6 mm ID, 5 μm);mobile phase, consisting of 0.025 mol·L-1 KH2PO4-MeOH-CH3CN (87; 6 : 7 v/v), was delivered at 1.0 mL·min-1; UV detector was set at 261 nm.The peak area ratio of CED to cephalexin (CEX) as internal standard vs concentraion of CED was used to construct calibration curve. 50 μL aliquots of TCA-deproteined plasma samples were injected into chromatograph. Results The methodology validation including specificity, precision, accuracy, recovery, limit of quantitation, linearity, stability, etc., showed that the HPLC assay developed by us completely met requirements of pharmacokinetic study Both DM and CTL groups showed the two-compartment model for iv dosing and extravascular one-compartment model for po dosing as well as first-order kinetics. However, in iv experiment, DM group, when compared with CTL group, presented a significantly shortened t1/2β and MRT as well as increased CL, reflected by t1/2β 84-91 vs 116-120 min, MRT 61-70 vs 103-119 min;CL 23-25 vs 18-19 mL·min-1·kg-1(P<0.05);in po experiment, a markedly shorter t1/2 K and tmax as well as greater CL and Cmax in DM group than in CTL group were found; meanwhile, DM rats suffered from remarkably increased kidney weight (KW) and KW/BW ratio relative to CTL rats

  4. Effect of Infusions of Non-Antibiotic Antibacterials Alone and in Combination with Cephradine on Milk Yield of Buffaloes Affected with Clinical Mastitis

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    M. Yousaf*, G. Muhammad1, M. Z. Khan2 and S. U. Rahman3

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of four non-antibiotic antibacterials alone or in combination with cephradine in buffaloes on milk yield of mastitis affected quarters. For this purpose, 270 clinically mastitic quarters were grouped in randomized pattern. Non-antibiotic antibacterials viz., 2.5% chlorpromazine (2 ml, 4% lidocaine (10 ml, 10% povidone-iodine (10 ml and 99.5% dimethylsulphoxide (20 ml alone and in combination with first generation cephalosporin (cephradine 500 mg were instilled into clinically mastitic quarters daily for five days. The group administered cephradine alone served as control. Mean milk yield (L/quarter per day was recorded before administration of treatment and over a period of 4 weeks post initiation of treatment. Among the 4 non-antibiotic antibacterials tested alone, chlorpromazine (CPZ showed significantly higher (P<0.05 recuperative effect on the milk yield of clinically mastitic quarters of dairy buffaloes. However, dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO when infused alone, further aggravated (P<0.05 the milk yield loss, indicating negative effect on milk yield improvement. Adjuncting cephradine with each of the non-antibiotic antibacterials, the lidocaine-cephradine group showed the highest effect (p<0.05 on net recovery of milk yield on day 28 post initiation of treatment. It was concluded that that CPZ can be used in clinical mastitis in buffaloes as a low cost alternative to expensive branded antibiotics. Further, the use of lidocaine with cepheradnie was superior to all other combination regimens in milk yield recovery.

  5. Intravenous cephradine injection inducing pediatric hematuria%静脉滴注头孢拉啶注射液引起小儿血尿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    普连梅

    2016-01-01

    目的:本文主要探讨静脉滴注头孢拉啶注射液引起的小儿血尿临床分析。方法我院在2014年1月至2015年12月期间共收治了17例静脉滴注头孢拉啶注射液引起的小儿血尿患者,对患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析,观察患者的预后情况,并探讨引发血尿的因素。结果17例患者,立刻停止使用头孢拉啶,给予碱化尿液等治疗后,12例患者24小时内肉眼血尿消退,3例患者48小时内消退,2例患者73小时内消退,所有患者均在7天内康复。结论本次研究结果表明,静脉滴注头孢拉啶注射液引起小儿血尿后,及时停药并给予碱化尿液等治疗,具有良好的预后效果。%Objective the article mainly discussed clinical analysis of intravenous cephradine injection inducing pediatric hematuria.Methods review and analyze clinical data of 17 pediatric hematuria patients caused by intravenous cephradine injection treated in our hospital from January 2014 to december 2015, observe their prognosis and explore factors causing hematuria.Results cephradine was immediately stopped for 17 patients and after therapy of alkalized urine, gross hematuria of 12 cases subsided within 24 hours, 3 cases subsided within 48 hours, 2 cases subsided within 73 hours, all patients recovered within 7 days.Conclusion study results showed pediatric hematuria induced by intravenous cefradine injection should stop the medicine in time and treat with alkalized urine therapy, which showed a good prognosis.

  6. Calculation of the molecular properties of five cephalosporins: cephradine, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefprozil and ceftobiprole Cálculo de propiedades moleculares de 5 cefalosporinas: cefradina, cefalexina, cefadroxilo, cefprozilo y ceftobiprole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elso Manuel Cruz Cruz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The side chains attached to the 7-amino cephalosporanic acid, the structural basis of cephalosporin, condition its molecular properties and cause differences in its pharmacological action. Molecular modeling contributes to further knowledge about this relationship. Objective: To calculate structural and electronic properties of five cephalosporins: cephradine, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefprozil and ceftobiprole. Methods: A theoretical study using quantum mechanics methods to model the structure and electronic properties of the cephalosporins listed above was conducted. Molecular geometries were optimized with semi-empirical calculations, according to the parameterized number three model. The molecular properties were calculated following the density functional theory. The densities of atomic charges and the frontier orbitals were analyzed. Comparisons were established to measure the effect of substituents on the properties of the beta-lactam ring. All calculations were run on personal computers belonging to the Medical Sciences University of Las Tunas, from November 2009 to March 2010. Results: The structural parameters of the beta-lactam ring do not change as a result of changes in the side chains. The ring has a marked tendency to planarity. The ceftobiprole is different from the rest of the cephalosporins in the spatial disposition of the side chain, which facilitates access to the carbonyl carbon. There are no significant variations in the charge densities, especially in the positive charge of this carbon. Conclusions: The structure and electronic properties of the beta-lactam ring have no significant changes among modeled cephalosporins. The three dimensional structure of ceftobiprole favors a higher reactivity.Fundamento: las cadenas laterales unidas al ácido 7-aminocefalosporánico, base estructural de las cefalosporinas

  7. HPLC method setup in chemistation and cerity NDS for cephradine HPLC testing%Chemistation和Cerity NDS中测定头孢拉定含量的方法设置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟志刚

    2005-01-01

    本文提供一个利用安捷伦公司两种不同色谱软件:Chemstation和Cerity NDS测定原料或制剂中头孢拉定含量时HPLC方法设置的指导.头孢拉定和头孢安苄最终结果可同时由色谱软件自带的计算功能得到.这种方法设置在制药行业中较常见,可以应用于其他类似产品的HPLC测定.

  8. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of cephalexin and cephradine in pharmaceuticals%流动注射化学发光法测定头孢氨苄和头孢拉定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪敬武; 熊和玉

    2004-01-01

    基于KMnO4在酸性介质中氧化头孢氨苄和头孢拉定产生微弱的化学发光,同时借助甲醛对发光的增强作用,采用流动注射技术,建立了以上两种头孢类抗生素药物的测定新方法.方法检出限分别为0.096和0.10 μg/mL;相对标准偏差分别为1.6%和1.8%(n=11),线性范围分别为0.8~25和0.8~32 μg/mL,进样频率为60次/h.本方法已用于药物制剂的测定.

  9. Kinetic Spectrophotometric Determination of Certain Cephalosporins in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Mahmoud A.; Osama H. Abdelmageed; Tamer Z. Attia

    2009-01-01

    A simple, reliable, and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of eight cephalosporin antibiotics, namely, Cefotaxime sodium, Cephapirin sodium, Cephradine dihydrate, Cephalexin monohydrate, Ceftazidime pentahydrate, Cefazoline sodium, Ceftriaxone sodium, and Cefuroxime sodium. The method depends on oxidation of each of studied drugs with alkaline potassium permanganate. The reaction is followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the rate of change of abs...

  10. Antibiotic resistance and plasmids carriage among Escherichia coli isolates from chicken meat in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred and thirty-one Escherichia coli isolates from raw chicken meat were tested for antibiotic susceptibility to twelve antibiotics, namely ampicillin 10μg, cefoparazone 30μg, cephradine 30μg, ciprofloxacin 5μg, chloramphenicol 30μg, enrofloxacin 5μg, erythromycin 15μg, kanamycin 30μg, nalidixic acid 30μg, tetracycline 30μg, trimethoprim 5μg, and vancomycin 30μg. The plasmid isolation was carried out according to the method described by Maniatis et al, with modifications as in the protocol provided by Taq Dye Deoxy Terminator Cycle Sequencing Kit (ABI P/ N 401150). The newly modified method is a mini alkaline-lysis / PGE precipitation procedure and easy to perform on large numbers of samples. The graphical method of relating the logarithm of the molecular weight of a DNA molecule (log C) to its electrophoretic mobility (m) in gels was used to determine the molecular weight of plasmid. Plasmids of known molecular weight from E. coli V517 were used as standards for calibrating the size of plasmid DNA molecules. In this study DNA fragments are referred to as plasmids. In all Escherichia coli isolates resistance to ampicillin (96.2%), cefoperazone (83.3%), cephradine (93.9%), ciprofloxacin (78.0%), chloramphenical (75.6%), enrofloxacin (72.0%), erythromycin (84.0%), kanamycin (50.8%), nalidixic acid (94.7%), tetracycline (90.2%), trimethoprim (94.7%) and vancomycin (100%) was observed (Table I). Plasmid occurrence rates of 81.7% were observed among E. coli isolates from the chicken meat. The number of plasmids ranged from 0 to 8 and the sizes of plasmids ranged from 1.2 MDa to 118.6 MDa. Plasmids were detected in 93.8% of E. coli isolates that were resistant to all 12 antibiotics and in 90.5% of E. coli isolates resistant to 11 antibodies (Table II). Three (2.8%) E. coli isolates harboured 8 plasmids and showed resistant to 12 antibiotics (Table III). The antibiotic resistance among the E. coli isolates in this study was compared and it was found a

  11. Quantitative liquid chromatographic determination of cefatrizine in serum and urine by fluorescence detection after post-column derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombez, E; Van der Weken, G; Van den Bossche, W; De Moerloose, P

    1979-09-21

    A fast, specific and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure for the determination of cefatrizine, an orally active cephalosporin, in serum and urine is proposed. The drug is determined by the internal standard method, using cephradine as the internal standard. The separation is carried out on a reversed-phase column, filled with octadecylsilane chemically bonded microparticles. The eluent is a mixture of acetonitrile with 0.025 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7). Quantitation is effected by fluorescence detection of the fluorophores formed after post-column derivatization with fluorescamine in a packed-bed reactor. The chromatographic conditions and the conditions for the post-column derivatization are discussed. The method has been applied to serum and urine samples, which were analysed after deproteinization with trichloroacetic acid and injection of the clear supernatant. The accuracy and reproducibility of the procedure were investigated by the determination of the cefatrizine content in spiked serum and urine samples. PMID:528641

  12. Considering Respiratory Tract Infections and Antimicrobial Sensitivity: An Exploratory Analysis

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    Amin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to observe the sensitivity and resistance of status of antibiotics for respiratory tract infection (RTI. Throat swab culture and sensitivity report of 383 patients revealed sensitivity profiles were observed with amoxycillin (7.9%, penicillin (33.7%, ampicillin (36.6%, co-trimoxazole (46.5%, azithromycin (53.5%, erythromycin (57.4%, cephalexin (69.3%, gentamycin (78.2%, ciprofloxacin (80.2%, cephradine (81.2%, ceftazidime (93.1%, ceftriaxone (93.1%. Sensitivity to cefuroxime was reported 93.1% cases. Resistance was found with amoxycillin (90.1%, ampicillin (64.1%, penicillin (61.4%, co-trimoxazole (43.6%, erythromycin (39.6%, and azithromycin (34.7%. Cefuroxime demonstrates high level of sensitivity than other antibiotics and supports its consideration with patients with upper RTI.

  13. Structure and function of multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) and their relevance to drug therapy and personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nies, Anne T; Damme, Katja; Kruck, Stephan; Schaeffeler, Elke; Schwab, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE; SLC47A) proteins are membrane transporters mediating the excretion of organic cations and zwitterions into bile and urine and thereby contributing to the hepatic and renal elimination of many xenobiotics. Transported substrates include creatinine as endogenous substrate, the vitamin thiamine and a number of drug agents with in part chemically different structures such as the antidiabetic metformin, the antiviral agents acyclovir and ganciclovir as well as the antibiotics cephalexin and cephradine. This review summarizes current knowledge on the structural and molecular features of human MATE transporters including data on expression and localization in different tissues, important aspects on regulation and their functional role in drug transport. The role of genetic variation of MATE proteins for drug pharmacokinetics and drug response will be discussed with consequences for personalized medicine. PMID:27165417

  14. In Vitro Antibacterial Effect of Effective Microorganisms( EM) on Aeromonas hydrophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu; Zhixiu; He; Houjun; Zhang; Wenbo; Wu; Xiangdong; Wan; Gen; Deng; Shunzhou; Liu; Songlin

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand in vitro antibacterial effect of antibiotics and EM on Aeromonas hydrophila,14 isolates of A. hydrophila were isolated from diseased fish and aquaculture in the study. PCR amplification results of aerolysin gene( Aero gene) of isolates indicated that 7 out of 14 isolates were pathogenic A.hydrophila. In vitro antibacterial test indicated that 14 isolates were resistance to penicillin G,ampicillin,cephradine,cefazolin,tetracycline,terimethoprim,lincomycin and cephalexin,but showed high sensitivity to cefotaxime and furazolidone. In vitro antibacterial effect of EM on 14 isolates of A. hydrophila was positively correlated with concentration,and EM with the concentration greater than 60% had antibacterial effect on 14 isolates.

  15. Comparison of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectrum for Three Cephalosporins under Different pH Condi-tions%不同酸碱条件下三种头孢菌素表面增强拉曼光谱的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娟; 张雁

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the Raman spectrum and the surface enhanced Raman spectrum ( SERS) of cefalexin, cefadroxil and cephradine, and analyze the surface enhanced Raman spectrum of the three compounds under different pH conditions. Methods:The Raman spectrum and the surface enhanced Raman spectrum of the three compounds under different pH conditions were detected and measured by a portable Raman spectroscopy. Results: The results showed that the three compounds could exhibit characteristic peak information in the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy corresponding to that in the normal Raman spectrum, and the pH values had certain impact on the surface enhanced Raman spectrum of the three substances. Conclusion: Both the Raman spectrum and the surface enhanced Raman spectrum of cefalexin, cefadroxil and cephradine reflect certain fingerprint characteristics, and it is feasible to use Raman scattering method to identify the three cephalosporins.%目的:研究头孢氨苄、头孢羟氨苄及头孢拉定的拉曼光谱及表面增强拉曼光谱,对三种化合物在不同酸碱条件下的表面增强拉曼光谱进行分析。方法:用便携式拉曼光谱仪对三种物质的常规拉曼光谱与不同酸碱条件下的表面增强拉曼光谱进行考察。结果:研究表明,三种化合物均能在表面增强拉曼光谱中表现出跟常规拉曼光谱相对应的特征峰信息,酸碱度对于三种物质表面增强拉曼光谱的检测均有一定影响。结论:头孢氨苄、头孢羟氨苄及头孢拉定的拉曼光谱及表面增强拉曼光谱均体现出一定的指纹性特征,用拉曼光谱法鉴别这三种头孢类抗菌药是可行的。

  16. Engineering of drug nanoparticles by HGCP for pharmaceutical applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TingTing Hu; JieXin Wang; ZhiGang Shen; JianFeng Chen

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews our work on the fundamental principles of high gravity controlled precipitation (HGCP) technology, and its applications in the production of drug nenoparticles, which was carded out in a rotating packed bed (RPB). Several kinds of drug nanoparticles with narrow particle size distributions (PSDs) were successfully prepared via HGCP, including the 300-nm Cefuroxirne Axetil (CFA) particles, 200-400-nm cephradine particles, 500-nm salbutamol sulfate (SS) particles (100 nm in width), end 850-nm beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) particles, etc. Compared to drugs available in the current market, all the drug nanoparticles produced by HGCP exhibited advantages in both formulation end drug delivery, thus improving the bioavailability of drugs. HGCP is essentially a platform technology for the preparation of poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles for oral and injection delivery, and of inhalable drugs for pulmonary delivery. Consequently, HGCP offers potential applications in the pharmaceutical industry due to its cost-effectiveness, efficient processing end the ease of scaling-up.

  17. Assays of residual antibiotics after treatment of {gamma}-ray and UV irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ji Hye; Nam, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Hun [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Seung Ho; Lee, Myun Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    The pollution of antibiotics is a major cause of spreading antibiotics resistant bacteria in the environment. Applications of ozonation, UV, and {gamma}-ray irradiations have been introduced to remove antibiotics in the effluents from wastewater treatment system. In this study, we compared the chemical (HPLC) and biological (antimicrobial susceptibility test, AMS) assays in measuring of the concentrations of residual antibiotics after {gamma}-ray and UV irradiation. Most samples were degraded by {gamma}-ray irradiation (1 {approx} 2 kGy). However, lincomycin and tetracycline were not degraded by UV irradiation. The concentration of residual antibiotics, that was treated with {gamma}-ray and UV irradiation, measuring by bioassay was similar to HPLC. The concentrations of {gamma}-ray irradiated cephradine measured by AMS test were 2 times higher than of HPLC assay, indicating AMS test is more sensitive than HPLC assay. These results indicate that {gamma}-ray irradiation technique is more useful than UV irradiation, and biological assay is more useful to detect the antibiotics and toxic intermediates in antibiotics degradation.

  18. Kinetic Spectrophotometric Determination of Certain Cephalosporins in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Omar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, reliable, and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of eight cephalosporin antibiotics, namely, Cefotaxime sodium, Cephapirin sodium, Cephradine dihydrate, Cephalexin monohydrate, Ceftazidime pentahydrate, Cefazoline sodium, Ceftriaxone sodium, and Cefuroxime sodium. The method depends on oxidation of each of studied drugs with alkaline potassium permanganate. The reaction is followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the rate of change of absorbance at 610 nm. The initial rate and fixed time (at 3 minutes methods are utilized for construction of calibration graphs to determine the concentration of the studied drugs. The calibration graphs are linear in the concentration ranges 5–15 g mL−1 and 5–25 g mL−1 using the initial rate and fixed time methods, respectively. The results are validated statistically and checked through recovery studies. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of the studied cephalosporins in commercial dosage forms. Statistical comparisons of the results with the reference methods show the excellent agreement and indicate no significant difference in accuracy and precision.

  19. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of certain cephalosporins in pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Mahmoud A; Abdelmageed, Osama H; Attia, Tamer Z

    2009-01-01

    A simple, reliable, and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of eight cephalosporin antibiotics, namely, Cefotaxime sodium, Cephapirin sodium, Cephradine dihydrate, Cephalexin monohydrate, Ceftazidime pentahydrate, Cefazoline sodium, Ceftriaxone sodium, and Cefuroxime sodium. The method depends on oxidation of each of studied drugs with alkaline potassium permanganate. The reaction is followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the rate of change of absorbance at 610 nm. The initial rate and fixed time (at 3 minutes) methods are utilized for construction of calibration graphs to determine the concentration of the studied drugs. The calibration graphs are linear in the concentration ranges 5-15 mug mL(-1) and 5-25 mug mL(-1) using the initial rate and fixed time methods, respectively. The results are validated statistically and checked through recovery studies. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of the studied cephalosporins in commercial dosage forms. Statistical comparisons of the results with the reference methods show the excellent agreement and indicate no significant difference in accuracy and precision. PMID:20140078

  20. Diagnostic accuracy on the management of acute paediatric urinary tract infection in a general paediatric unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fahisham Taib; Bakht Jamal

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain diagnostic accuracy of paediatric urinary tract infection (UTI) in a general paediatric unit of a district hospital. Methods: Retrospective case note review and comparing to the final computerised database of Human in-Patient Enquiry (HIPE) at Portiuncula Hospital, Galway, Ireland. All children from 0-16 years of age with the diagnosis of UTI were enrolled within the 3 year study period. The information was first retrieved from HIPE system to capture list of patients. Case notes revision was followed to extract data under standardized pro-forma for demography, accuracy of diagnosis, treatment instituted and investigation ordered. Patients’ data was reviewed according to updated definition. Results: There were 85 cases treated for UTI during the 3 year period, and only 45 cases were considered as genuine UTI according to diagnostic criteria. Out of 45 cases, 16 cases were considered as suspected UTI cases. Escherichia coli was noted to be the commonest organism. Cephradine has been used as the first line treatment as per local guideline;however, different antibiotic regimes were based on physician’s preferences. The sensitivity of the current method of UTI diagnosis remained at 64%when comparing final diagnosis in the HIPE system. Conclusions: UTI can be difficult to accurately diagnosis in certain clinical cases. Decisions made should be individualized and tailored according to clinical suspicion and presentation of the patients. Improvement to ensure accurate diagnosis is vital to ensure correct data capture in the HIPE system thus giving valuable information and resource for future care.

  1. 腹膜透析相关性腹膜炎的菌谱及其药敏分析%Bacterial spectrum and antimicrobial sensitivity in CAPD-related peritonitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱伟平; 崔彤霞; 徐庆东; 李中和; 张桦

    2011-01-01

    Objective To find out the antimicrobial sensitivity characteristics of bacteria from CAPD-related peritonitis patients in an attempt to optimize the clinical therapy. Methods We collected 79 episodes of peritonitis from 50 patients between January 2006 and August 2010. We then analyzed the changes of bacterial spectrum and the differences of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. SPSS 13.0 software was used for the analyses. Results In the 79 peritonitis episodes, gram-positive organism infection was found in 34 episodes (44.3%), gram-negative organism infection in 17 episodes (21.5%), fungus infection in one episode (1.3%), mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in one episode (1.3%), and bacterial culture was negative in 25 episodes (31.6%), with the positive culture rate of 68.4%. In staphylococcus strains, the percentage of resistance to Penicillin and Ampicillin was >90%, that of resistance to Cefazolin was 30.0%, and that of resistance to Cephradine was 0. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was not found in this study. In streptococcus strains, the percentage of resistance to Streptomycin, Levofloxacin and Vancomycin was low. In gram-negative organisms, most of them were sensitive to Amikacin and Imipenem/Cilastatin, but the percentage of resistance to Ceftazidime was 17.6%. Conclusion In addition to the traditional antibiotics of Cefazolin and Ceftazidime, Cephradine combined with Amikacin are preferable for the treatment of CAPD-related peritonitis.%目的 通过分析腹膜透析相关性腹膜炎患者的资料,总结感染病菌的菌谱和药敏特点,以指导临床治疗.方法 收集中山大学附属第五医院腹膜透析中心50例持续性不卧床腹膜透析患者共79例次腹膜炎资料,分析菌谱并采用统计软件比较各种抗生素的耐药率之间是否存在差异.结果 在79例次腹膜炎中,G+菌感染共35例(44.3%),G -菌感染17例(21.5%),真菌及结核菌各1例(各1.3%),

  2. Isolation, Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Pathogens of Exudative Epidermitis%仔猪渗出性皮炎病原的分离鉴定及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉玉; 吴家强; 郭立辉; 王兴东; 安利国; 王金宝

    2011-01-01

    为消除渗出性皮炎对仔猪的危害,对发生该病的病死仔猪进行细菌分离培养.通过革兰氏染色、生化试验与16S rDNA基因序列同源性分析鉴定:分离出的两株细菌为猪葡萄球菌和松鼠葡萄球菌.猪葡萄球菌和松鼠葡萄球菌能分别产生表皮脱落毒素ExhB和ExhC,表明这两株葡萄球菌都有致病力.猪葡萄球菌和松鼠葡萄球菌均对头孢菌素Ⅰ类(先锋霉素Ⅰ、Ⅴ、Ⅵ)、头孢噻肟和丁胺卡那敏感,在临床上可选择这些药物预防和治疗该病.%To eliminate harm of exudative epidermitis (EE) to piglets, pathogens of EE were isolated and studied.Two gram positive staphylococcus strains were isolated from sick piglets suffered EE.The two isolates were identified as staphylococcus hyicus and staphylococcus sciuri by biochemistry test and analyzing the sequence of 16S rDNA gene.S.hyicus can produce exfoliative toxin ExhB,while S.sciuri can produce exfoliative toxin ExhC, which indicates the two isolates are pathogenic.The two isolates are sensitive to cefalotin,cephazolin,cephradine,cefotaxime and amikacin which shows sick piglets can be treated with these antibiotics.

  3. Urinary Tract Infection and Drug Susceptibility Pattern in Patients of a Medical College Hospital in Bangladesh

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    Rafiul Alam Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common and frequently encountered serious morbidity that afflicts the tool not only to all segments of human population but also results in increasing antibiotic resistance due to persistence and mismanagement of the ailment. The present study aimed to ascertain the current situation of antimicrobial resistance of urinary tract infection. Objectives: To find out pyuria by direct microscopy, isolation and identification of the organisms by culture and to know the susceptibility pattern of organisms causing urinary tract infection. Materials and Methods: A total of 180 midstream urine samples were subjected to aerobic bacteriologic culture in the department of Microbiology, Cox’s Bazar Medical College and 250-bedded Sadar Hospital, Cox’s Bazar during the period of March to October 2012. Specimens were collected from hospitalized and outdoor patients of different age and sex groups. All specimens were examined by routine microscopy to find out significant pyuria (>5 pus cells/HPF. Strict aseptic precautions were taken all through the culture system. Results: Out of 180 specimens, 101 (56.11% culture yielded significant growth of single organism and 79 (43.89% yielded no growth. The isolated organisms were E. coli 74.26%, Klebsiella species 12.87%, Enterococci 4.95%, Staphylococcus saprophyticus 3.96%, Pseudomonas species 1.98% and Proteus species 1.98%. The highest sensitivity was shown by imipenem (100% followed by ceftriaxone (65%, azithromycin (65%, ciprofloxacin (60% and less sensitive to amoxycillin, cotrimoxazole, cephradine and nalidixic acid ranging 15–30%. Conclusion: The findings of the present study recommends that UTI should be treated by selective antibiotics obtained from culture and sensitivity test to minimize increasing trend of drug resistance.

  4. 748例β-内酰胺类抗菌药物不良反应分析%Analysis on 748 Cases of β-lactam Antibiotics Drug Adverse Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树强; 邢蓉; 王群; 师佩兰; 谢冬梅; 许健

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解蚌埠地区β-内酰胺类抗菌药物致药品不良反应(ADR)的发生情况.方法 对2010年1~12月蚌埠地区上报的748例β-内酰胺类抗菌药物ADR病例报告,按性别、年龄、给药途径、药品类别、ADR累及系统-器官及临床表现等进行统计、分析.结果 ADR涉及的β-内酰胺类抗菌药物共26种,ADR发生频次以阿莫西林居首位,其次为头孢氨苄和头孢拉啶;主要的ADR类型为皮肤及其附件损害,占47.48%;1例严重ADR.结论 应规范β-内酰胺类抗菌药物的临床应用,以减少ADR的发生率.%Objective To investigate the situation of β- lactam antibiotics drug adverse reactions in Bengbu region. Method According to gender, age, administration route, drug category, organs or systems, clinical manifestations Involved with ADR, and so on, 748 cases of β-lactam antibiotics drag adverse reactions in Bengbu region reported from Jan 2010 to Dec 2010 were analyzed. Results 26 β-lactam antibiotics drugs were involved with ADR. As to the ADR frequence, the highest was related to amoxicillin, and then were related to cephalexin and cephradine. The major organ-system damage involved in ADR was skin and appendages disorders, which accounted for 47.48% of the total, and a serious ADR occurred. Conclusion Clinical appliance of β-lactam antibiotics drug should be standardized to reduce the ADR incidence.

  5. Encouraging good antimicrobial prescribing practice: A review of antibiotic prescribing policies used in the South East Region of England

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    Mayon White Richard T

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Good prescribing practice has an important part to play in the fight against antimicrobial resistance. Whilst it was perceived that most hospitals and Health Authorities possessed an antibiotic policy, a review of antibiotic policies was conducted to gain an understanding of the extent, quality and usefulness of these policies. Methods Letters were sent to pharmacists in hospitals and health authorities in across the South East region of the National Health Service Executive (NHSE requesting antibiotic policies. data were extracted from the policies to assess four areas; antibiotic specific, condition specific, patient specific issues and underpinning evidence. Results Of a possible 41 hospital trusts and 14 health authorities, 33 trusts and 9 health authorities (HAs provided policies. Both trust and HA policies had a median publication date of 1998 (trust range 1993-99, HA 1994-99. Eleven policies were undated. The majority of policies had no supporting references for the statements made. All policies provided some details on specific antibiotics. Gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were the preferred aminoglycoside and quinolone respectively with cephalosporins being represented by cefuroxime or cefotaxime in trusts and cephradine or cephalexin in HAs. 26 trusts provided advice on surgical prophylaxis, 17 had meningococcal prophylaxis policies and 11 covered methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. There was little information for certain groups such as neonates or children, the pregnant or the elderly. Conclusion There was considerable variation in content and quality across policies, a clear lack of an evidence base and a need to revise policies in line with current recommendations.

  6. Prevalence of Uropathogens in Diabetic Patients and Their Corresponding Resistance Pattern: Results of a Survey Conducted at Diagnostic Centers in Dhaka, Bangladesh

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    Manik C. Shill

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Urinary tract infection is the second most common clinical indication for empirical antibiotic treatment in primary and secondary health care settings. The incidence of diabetes mellitus throughout the world is increasing strikingly and in the long run, it has some major effects on the genitourinary system which makes diabetic patients more liable to urinary tract infection. This study is designed to reveal the distribution of uropathogens in diabetic patients according to age and sex, and corresponding resistance patterns.Methods: A six-month retrospective review of urine culture assay data from August 2009 to January 2010 from randomly selected 85 patients who suffered from both urinary tract infection and diabetes was conducted. Relevant information was retrieved and analyzed statistically using Microsoft® Excel 2002 software.Results: The study showed that females are more vulnerable to pathogenic attack than males throughout a wide age distribution. In terms of pathogenic distribution, Escherichia coli was the highest followed by Streptococcus sp., Acinetobacter, Klebsiella pneumoniae and few others. Though Meropenem showed no resistance with E. coli, Acinetobacter and Klebsiella pneumoniae, in the case of Streptococcus sp. it exhibited resistance of 25%. Amikacin exhibited only 3% resistance with E. coli, whereas no resistance with Acinetobacter and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and most interestingly showed 75% resistance with Streptococcus sp. Gentamicin exhibited no resistance with Acinetobacter while 26.9%, 50% and 87.5% resistance with E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus sp. respectively. Hence, Nitrofurantoin exhibited less resistance 11.9% compared to 12.5% resistance with E. coli and Streptococcus sp. Nitrofurantoin was highly prone to resistance with Acinetobacter and Klebsiella pneumoniae (100%, 50% respectively. Cephalosporins (cephradine, cefixime, ceftriaxone, cefepime etc. showed moderate resistance (avg. 50

  7. Isolation and Identification of Streptococcus agalactiae from Dairy Cow Mastitis in Qinghai Province%青海地区奶牛无乳链球菌的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨有武

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is one of pathogenic bacterium that inducing mastitis of dairy cow. In order to master the popularity and laid the reference for selection of medicine to treat mastitis, 258 samples were collected from 16 dairy cow farms in Qinghai province, and 137 Streptococcus strains were isolated,including Streptococcus agalactiae 42 strains after subculture, gram straining, plasma-coagulase test, CAMP test, biochemical tests and animal pathogenicity tests. The results indicated that Streptococcus agalactiae was the primary pathogenic bacteria of mastitis. All of Streptococcus agalactiaes were hypersensitive to cephradine, and partially resistant to amikacin ofloxacin, ampicillin and sulfanilamide group after K-B medicine sensitivity test.%无乳链球菌是导致奶牛乳房炎的常见病原菌之一,为了掌握青海地区无乳链球菌的流行情况及常用药物的敏感性,从而为本地区更好的预防与治疗奶牛乳房炎提供保障.本试验在青海地区16个奶牛场共采集258份乳房炎乳样,经革兰氏染色与绵羊鲜血琼脂培养基培养纯化,获得疑似链球菌137株;随后经玻片法血浆凝固酶试验、CAMP试验、生化试验与动物致病性试验对无乳链球菌进行鉴定,结果显示,137株链球菌中含有无乳链球菌42株,分离率为30.7%;经K-B纸片扩散法对无乳链球菌耐药性检测结果显示,该地区无乳链球菌主要对头孢类高度敏感,对氧氟沙星、磺胺类、氨苄青霉素与阿米卡星中度敏感.

  8. 65株不同圈养野生动物源性肠杆科菌的药敏分析%Application of the Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test for Enterobacteriaceae in 65 Species of Captive Wild Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄淑芳; 胡新波; 王才益; 江志

    2011-01-01

    Using the method of K-B antimicrobial susceptibility test(AST),we analyzed the drug susceptibility of intestinal rod bacteria to 10 kinds of clinical antibiotics including penicillins,cephalosporins,dilute aminoglycoside,quinolones,and sulfonamides.Intestinal rod bacteria were sampled from wild animals held at Hangzhou Zoo.The most effective drugs were the third generation cephalosporin,cefoperazone,and cefotaxime,which eliminated 83.1%of bacteria.Less effective antibiotics included quinolone and aminoglycoside drugs,which eliminated 60%or more of bacteria.Least effective was cefradine,a first generation cephalosporin.Effectiveness of cephradine was 58.5%,while that of ampicillin penicillin was 43.1%,and that of sulfamethoxazole of quinolone sulfa was 21.5%.This research provides a basis for clinical medication of captive wildlife.%采用K-B法药敏试验,分析圈养野生动物肠杆科菌对青霉素类、头孢类、氨基糖甙类、喹诺酮类、磺胺类的10种临床常用抗生素的药敏情况。结果显示:最敏感的是头孢稀类的三代头孢,头孢哌酮和头孢噻肟,其敏感率均为83.1%;较敏感的为喹诺酮类和氨基糖甙类药物,敏感率大于或等于60%;敏感性较差的是一代头孢中的头孢拉定、磺胺类药中的复方新诺明、青霉素类的氨苄青霉素,其敏感性分别为58.5%、43.1%和21.5%,被研究结果为兽医临床用药提供了依据。

  9. Identification of a ferritin-like protein of Listeria monocytogenes as a mediator of β-lactam tolerance and innate resistance to cephalosporins

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    Krawczyk-Balska Agata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis. The β-lactam antibiotics penicillin G and ampicillin are the current drugs of choice for the treatment of listerial infections. While isolates of L. monocytogenes are susceptible to these antibiotics, their action is only bacteriostatic and consequently, this bacterium is regarded as tolerant to β-lactams. In addition, L. monocytogenes has a high level of innate resistance to the cephalosporin family of β-lactams frequently used to treat sepsis of unknown etiology. Given the high mortality rate of listeriosis despite rational antibiotic therapy, it is important to identify genes that play a role in the susceptibility and tolerance of L. monocytogenes to β-lactams. Results The hly-based promoter trap system was applied to identify penicillin G-inducible genes of L. monocytogenes. The results of reporter system studies, verified by transcriptional analysis, identified ten penicillin G-inducible genes. The contribution of three of these genes, encoding a ferritin-like protein (fri, a two-component phosphate-response regulator (phoP and an AraC/XylS family transcriptional regulator (axyR, to the susceptibility and tolerance of L. monocytogenes to β-lactams was examined by analysis of nonpolar deletion mutants. The absence of PhoP or AxyR resulted in more rapid growth of the strains in the presence of sublethal concentration of β-lactams, but had no effect on the MIC values or the ability to survive a lethal dose of these antibiotics. However, the Δfri strain showed impaired growth in the presence of sublethal concentrations of penicillin G and ampicillin and a significantly reduced ability to survive lethal concentrations of these β-lactams. A lack of Fri also caused a 2-fold increase in the sensitivity of L. monocytogenes to cefalotin and cephradine. Conclusions The present study has identified Fri as an important mediator of

  10. 肉鸡沙门氏菌的分离鉴定及药敏试验%Isolation, Identification and Drug Sensitive Assay of Salmonella From Broiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王傲雪; 张凌云; 张桉潮; 李昆鹏; 张秀丽; 梁晚枫; 张林波

    2013-01-01

    为了解吉林省某地鸡源性沙门氏菌的感染及耐药情况,对该地7个肉鸡场150份病鸡组织样品进行细菌分离,并进行了血凝试验、致病性试验和药敏试验.分离得到26株沙门氏菌,经血凝鉴定有19株呈阳性,其中5株呈强阳性并均能使雏鸡致死.药敏试验结果显示,该5株沙门氏菌对头孢噻肟较为敏感;对氨苄西林、替米考星、林可霉素、阿奇霉素和头孢拉定表现出极高的耐药性,耐药率高达100%;诺氟沙星、恩诺沙星、环丙沙星、强力霉素和氯霉素5种临床用药与痢菌净不具有协同或累加作用.试验结果表明,沙门氏菌是危害该地肉鸡养殖场的主要病原菌之一,且耐药性十分严重.%To find out the situations about infection of Salmonella and its drug resistance somewhere in Jilin province,the bacteria were isolated from 150 tissue samples of sick broiler of 7 farms in this city,and hemagglutinin test,pathogenity test and drug sensitive test were carried out.26 strains were isolated,and 19 strains were identified positive by the HA,of which five were strongly positive and killed broiler,drug sensitive test results showed that the 5 strains of Salmonella were more sensitive to cefotaxime,and very high resistance to ampicillin,tilmicosin,lincomycin,azithromycin and cephradine,resistance rates as high as 100 %.Norfloxacin,enrofloxacin,ciprofloxacin,doxycycline and chloramphenicol didn't have synergistic or additive effect with mequindox which was used in clinical.These results suggested that Salmonella was one of the main pathogens harmful to the broiler of farms,and resistance was very serious.

  11. 415例介入治疗患者抗菌药物预防使用情况分析%Prophylactic Use Situation of Antibacterial Drugs in 415 Cases of Intervention Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王怡苹; 秦侃; 汪永宏; 范鲁雁

    2014-01-01

    目的:调查介入手术患者围手术期预防使用抗菌药物情况,分析存在的问题。方法回顾性分析医院2012年1月至12月介入手术患者抗菌药物使用情况,剔除原有感染已使用抗菌药物的病例,同时实施干预管理。结果监测患者415例,预防使用抗菌药物27例,使用率6.51%;用药天数1~7 d,平均1.78 d;使用频率排名前5位的依次为头孢孟多、头孢西丁、青霉素、头孢哌酮他唑巴坦、头孢拉定。结论介入手术患者抗菌药物预防性使用情况比较合理,但仍存在用药时间过长、选取不正确等情况,需进一步提高临床医师对抗菌药物使用知识的了解,提高抗菌药物预防性应用的合理性。%Objective To investigate the perioperative prophylactic antibacterial drug use in the patients with intervention surgery and to analyze the existing problems. Methods The retrospective analysis was performed to investigate the perioperative antibacterial drug use in the patients with intervention surgery from January to December 2012. The cases of original infection treated by the antibacterial drugs were excluded and at the same time the intervention management was implemented. Results A total of 415 cases were monitored, 27 cases used the prophylactic antibacterial drugs with the use rate of 6. 51%,the medication time ranged 1-7 d, average 1. 78 d. The top 5 of antibacterial drug use frequency in turn were cefamandole, cefoxitin, penicillin, cefoperazone tazobactam and cephradine. Conclusion The use of perioperative prophylactic antibacterial drug use in the patients undergoing intervention surgery is basically rea-sonable, but there are still some conditions such as too long time of antibacterial drug use and incorrect selection of antibacterial drugs, which needs to further increase the clinical doctors' understanding on the use knowledge of prophylactic antibacterial drugs for enhanc-ing the rationality of prophylactic

  12. 鼻中隔偏曲矫正术围手术期应用抗生素的临床意义%Evaluation the significance of antibiotics in septoplasty peri-operation duration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付亚峰; 冯肖连; 林美芳; 龙朝庆

    2015-01-01

    Absract:Objective To study the real necessity of antibiotics in septoplasties.Methods A total of 180 patients underwent septoplasty and were randomly divided into group A (n =60),group B (n =60)and group C (n =60). Group A was without antibiotics,group B and group C were respectively given cephradine(3.0 g)or cefamandole (1.5 g)both in the anesthesical induction and post-operatively for 3 days.Results There were 6 cases(10.0%) infected in group A,7 cases(11.7%)infected in group B,and 5 cases(8.3%)infected in group C.The infection rate had no significant difference in the three groups (χ2 =0.370,P =0.831).Conclusion In peri-operative period of sep-toplasty,routine prophylactic use of antibiotics can not reduce the incidence of post-operative infection.%目的:探讨鼻中隔偏曲矫正术围手术期预防性应用抗生素的临床意义。方法收集鼻中隔偏曲患者180例,随机分成三组,A 组60例,围手术期不用任何抗生素;B 组60例,术前30 min 及术后3 d 内静脉滴注头孢拉定(3.0 g);C 组60例,术前30 min 及术后3 d 内静脉滴注头孢孟多酯(1.5 g),比较各组术后感染率。结果A 组感染6例(10.0%),B 组感染7例(11.7%),C 组感染5例(8.3%)。三组患者术后感染率差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.370,P =0.831)。结论鼻中隔偏曲矫正术围手术期常规预防性应用抗生素不能降低术后感染发生率,提示围术期可能不必要预防性应用抗生素。

  13. 常用抗生素在体外环境中对血清肿瘤标志物检测的影响%Effects of commonly used antibiotics in vitro environment on detection of serum tumor markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔梅; 邢长永; 甄君

    2011-01-01

    Objeetive To discuss the effects of 11 commonly used antibiotics in vitro environment on the detection of serum tumor markers. Methods To select 50 samples of serum tumor markers and 20 normal serum samples respectively,and to join in the serum of eleven commonly used antibiotics, and to detect AFP, CEA, CA125, CA153 and CA199 five types of tumor markers before and after the content changes by chemiluminescence immunoassay and to analyse the result by using the t-test. Results Joined the penicillin lactic acid sodium, acyclovir, ciprofloxacin and sodium chloride, ceftazidime, cefuroxime sodium, ornidazole tablets, ceph radine, the value of AFP was different after detection (P<0.05). Accession of chloride, ceftazidime, cefuroxime sodium, cephradine, azithromycin dihydrogen phosphate after CEA value differences (P<0. 05). Joined acyclovir, cefuroxime sodium, cephradine, imide cilasatin sodium CA125 after testing was different (P<0.05). In joining the penicillin sodium, cefuroxime sodium, piperacillin sodium and sulbactam sodium(2 : 1),ornidazole tablets,acyclovir CA199 detection value when there was a difference(P<0.05). In joining the penicillin sodium, cefuroxime sodium, piperacillin sodium and sulbactam sodium (2 : 1),ornidazole films, polyimide cilasatin sodium, ceftazidime CA153 detection value after differences ( P< 0. 05 ). Conclusion In most of the 11 commonly used antibiotics on tumor markers except gentamicin sulfate, they have clinical significance to improve the accuracy of tumor markers by exclude drug interference factors.%目的 探讨十一种常用抗生素在体外环境中对血清肿瘤标志物含量的影响.方法 50份肿瘤患者血清和20份正常血清中分别加入11种常用抗生素,采用免疫化学发光法检测AFP、CEA、CA125、CA153和CA199五种肿瘤标志物前后含量的变化,采用 T检验进行统计学分析.结果 加入青霉素钠、阿昔洛韦、乳酸环丙沙星氯化钠、头孢他啶、头孢呋辛

  14. 副猪嗜血杆菌的分离鉴定及药敏试验%Isolation, Identification and Antibiotic Susceptibility Test of Haemophilus parasuis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉龙; 夏伟; 陈永松; 耿晶; 刘辉; 詹天龙; 李白; 侯喜林; 朴范泽

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if there is Glasser's disease in Heilongjiang,which provide a theory basis for the prevention and control of Glasser's disease. The dead piglets with polyserositis and arthritis were collected and the bacterium was isolated from the samples. Then the physical and chemical properties of isolated strain were identified, its 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR,and this DNA fragment was subsequently cloned and sequenced. The sequenced results were analyzed by BLAST in GenBank. The homology and evolution relations analysis of the similar sequences were done by DNAS-tar. The drug sensitivity testing was done by isolated strain. The results indicated that a pantomorphic NAD dependent strain was isolated, the results of the physical and chemical properties and PCR showed that was Haemophilus parasuis. The phyletic evolution analysis results of the isolated strain 16S rRNA gene showed that it was in same subgroup with the Haemophilus parasuis in China,Japan and American,however that was in single subgroup in Spain; drug sensitivity testing showed that it was hypersensitive to spectinomycin and cephradine.%黑龙江省近几年频繁发生以多发性浆膜炎、关节炎、脑膜炎以及急性死亡为特征的传染病,为猪场造成严重经济损失,为了确诊是否有副猪嗜血杆菌感染,采集病死猪肝脏、脾脏和肺脏等病料,进行副猪嗜血杆菌的分离;对其理化特性进行鉴定,应用PCR方法对其16S rRNA基因扩增后进行克隆测序,将测序结果在GenBank上进行BLAST分析,把相近的基因序列应用DNAStar软件进行同源性和进化关系分析;用分离菌株进行药物敏感性试验,筛选敏感药物.结果分离出一种具有多形性的NAD依赖性菌株,经鉴定为副猪嗜血杆菌;16S rRNA基因进化分析结果表明,分离菌株与以往报道的副猪嗜血杆菌中国、日本和美国分离株属于同一亚群,而西班牙分离株属于单独的亚群;

  15. 社区医院门急诊抗菌药物应用情况调查分析%Investigation and Analysis of Antibiotic of Community Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘焱; 杜淑贤

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our center in 2009 on the application of antimicrobial agents were analyzed in order to promptly identify problems, to better promote the hospital's scientific management and rational antimicrobial agents in clinical use. Method: January to December in 2009, Centre for Emergency Department a total of 47,578 electronic prescriptions, the number of prescriptions with antibiotics, the use of antibiotic type and quantity of sales amount of DDDs ( DDDs ), average daily costs ( DDDc ) value, etc. statistical analysis. Result: Antibiotic prescription 10952, 23.02% of the total number of prescriptions, involving a total of seven classes of antibiotics 36 species; antibacterial drug sales amount to the total amount of medicine sales 31.04%; which eephalosporins antibiotics annual retail sales exceeded 38% of the retail value, dominant; DDDs sort of gatifloxacin capsules, cephradine capsules and cephalexin capsules of the top three. Conclusion:The center basically rational use of antimicrobial drugs, but still need attention to their security, to further enhance the level of rational drug use.%目的:对我社区卫生服务中心2009年抗菌药物应用情况进行统计分析,以便及时发现问题,更好地促进医院的科学管理和抗菌药物在临床的合理使用.方法:收集2009年1月至12月中心门急诊电子处方共47578张,对含抗菌药物的处方数、所用抗菌素种类和数量、销售金额、用药频度(DDDs) 、日均费用(DDDc)值等进行统计分析.结果:使用抗菌药物处方10952张,占总处方数的23.02%,涉及抗菌药物共7类36种;抗菌药销售金额占西药销售总金额的31.04%;其中头孢菌素类零售金额超过全年抗菌药物零售金额38%,占主导地位;DDDs排序中加替沙星胶囊、头孢拉定胶囊和头孢氨苄胶囊居前3位.结论:我社区卫生服务中心使用抗菌药物基本合理,但仍需重视其安全性,进一步提高合理用药水平.

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility of community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens isolated from patients in primary hospitals in Shanghai from 2007 to 2010%2007-2010年上海市社区医院呼吸道感染常见病原菌及其耐药性调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春妹; 胡必杰; 高晓东; 鲍容; 谢红梅; 黄声雷; 陶黎黎; 何礼贤

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the etiology of community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTI) and the antimicrobial resistance of the major pathogens in primary hospitals in Shanghai.Methods Patients with CARTI were prospectively recruited from 30 primary hospitals from December 2007 to July 2010.Those who had used antimicrobials within previous 2 weeks were excluded from the study.The clinical information such as temperature,white blood cell (WBC) count and percentage of neutrophils was recorded,and throat swab or deep cough sputum was collected to isolate pathogens.The specimens were collected and couriered to the Zhongshan Hospital microbiology laboratory within 2 h for bacterial culture.The minimal inhibition concentrations (MIC) of penicillin G,amoxicillin,cephradine,cephalexin,cefadroxil,sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and azithromycin were determined using the agar dilution test.Results Totally 806 qualified cases were enrolled in this study.Fever (T ≥ 38 ℃) was present in 51.7% (n =417),and increased WBC count (> 10 × 109/L) was noted in 68.5% (n =552 cases)of the patients.For bacterial culture,184 strains were isolated from throat swabs of 688 patients with upper respiratory infection;the most frequently isolated bacteria were Haemophilus influenzae (44,23.9%),Staphylococcus aureus (44,23.9%) and Group G streptococcus (43,23.0%).Thirty-three strains were isolated from 118 patients with lower respiratory infections,with Haemophilus influenza (21,63.6%),Group G streptococcus (6,18.2%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (3,9.1%) as the leading pathogens.All strains of Haemophilus influenzae were susceptible to azithromycin.The susceptibility rate of Streptococcus pneumoniae to penicillin was as high as 94.7%,while that to azithromycin was significantly decreased (21.1%).The MIC90 values of cephalexin,cefadroxil and ceftazidime for β-hemolytic streptococcus spp were ≤2 mg/L.Conclusions Upper respiratory infections were responsible for

  17. SYNTHESIS AND APPLICATION OF NANOPARTICLES BY A HIGH GRAVITY METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei; Shao; Jianfeng; Chen

    2005-01-01

    nanosized CaCO3, TiO2,SiO2, ZnO, Al2O3, ZnS, BaTiO3, BaCO3, SrCO3, Al(OH)3 and Mg(OH)2 flame retardants, and organic nano-pharmaceuticals including benzoic acid, salbutamol sulfate and cephradine. This technology received extensive attention in the field of nanomaterials fabrication and application. Dudukovic et al. commented, "The first large-scale application of RPB as a reactor occurred in China in production of nano CaCO3 by HGRP (high gravity reactive precipitation)of carbon dioxide and lime. Uniformly small particles were made in the RPB due to achievement of a sharp supersaturation interface and very short liquid residence times in the device." (Dudukovic et al., 2002). Date et al. said, "HGRP represents a second generation of strategies for nanosizing of hydrophobic drugs. In our opinion, among various methodologies described eariier, supercritical anti-solvent enhanced mass transfer method and HGRP method has potential to become technologies of the future owing to their simplicity, ease of scale-up and nanosizing efficiency" (Date et al., 2004).As-synthesized nano CaCO3 was employed as a template to synthesize silica hollow spheres (SHS) with mesostructured walls. Characterizations indicated that the obtained SHS had an average diameter of about 40 nm with a surface haviors of Brilliant Blue F (BB), which was used as a model drug. Loaded inside the inner core and on the surfaces of SHS,BB was released slowly into a bulk solution for as long as 1 140min as compared to only 10min for the normal SiO2nanoparticles, thus exhibiting a typical sustained release pattern without any burst effect. In addition, higher BET value of the carrier, lower pH value and lower temperature prolonged BB release from SHS, while stirring speed indicated little influence on the release behavior, showing the promising future of SHS in controlled drug delivery (Li et al., 2004).Nano-CaCO3 synthesized by the high gravity method was also employed as a filler to improve the performance of

  18. SYNTHESIS AND APPLICATION OF NANOPARTICLES BY A HIGH GRAVITY METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Shao; Jianfeng Chen

    2005-01-01

    nanosized CaCO3, TiO2,SiO2, ZnO, Al2O3, ZnS, BaTiO3, BaCO3, SrCO3, Al(OH)3 and Mg(OH)2 flame retardants, and organic nano-pharmaceuticals including benzoic acid, salbutamol sulfate and cephradine. This technology received extensive attention in the field of nanomaterials fabrication and application. Dudukovic et al. commented, "The first large-scale application of RPB as a reactor occurred in China in production of nano CaCO3 by HGRP (high gravity reactive precipitation)of carbon dioxide and lime. Uniformly small particles were made in the RPB due to achievement of a sharp supersaturation interface and very short liquid residence times in the device." (Dudukovic et al., 2002). Date et al. said, "HGRP represents a second generation of strategies for nanosizing of hydrophobic drugs. In our opinion, among various methodologies described eariier, supercritical anti-solvent enhanced mass transfer method and HGRP method has potential to become technologies of the future owing to their simplicity, ease of scale-up and nanosizing efficiency" (Date et al., 2004).As-synthesized nano CaCO3 was employed as a template to synthesize silica hollow spheres (SHS) with mesostructured walls. Characterizations indicated that the obtained SHS had an average diameter of about 40 nm with a surface haviors of Brilliant Blue F (BB), which was used as a model drug. Loaded inside the inner core and on the surfaces of SHS,BB was released slowly into a bulk solution for as long as 1 140min as compared to only 10min for the normal SiO2nanoparticles, thus exhibiting a typical sustained release pattern without any burst effect. In addition, higher BET value of the carrier, lower pH value and lower temperature prolonged BB release from SHS, while stirring speed indicated little influence on the release behavior, showing the promising future of SHS in controlled drug delivery (Li et al., 2004).Nano-CaCO3 synthesized by the high gravity method was also employed as a filler to improve the performance of