Sample records for cephradine

  1. Colorimetric detection of cephradine in pharmaceutical formulations via fluorosurfactant-capped gold nanoparticles. (United States)

    Lu, Chao; Zhang, Nan; Li, Jinge; Li, Qianqian


    The aggregation of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) capped with nonionic fluorosurfactant (FSN) could be induced rapidly and selectively by cephradine degradation products, but not by cephradine and other excipients in pharmaceutical formulations. A new detection method for cephradine has been developed based on the cephradine degradation products-induced aggregation of the GNPs. The present approach offers various advantages, such as simplicity and high selectivity. Under optimum conditions, the lowest detectable concentration of cephradine through this approach (S/N=3) is 0.8 microg mL(-1). The calibration curve was linear over the range of 2.0-10.0 microg mL(-1) for the detection of cephradine. The recoveries of cephradine were found to fall in the range between 97% and 105%. We have validated the applicability of our method through the analyses of cephradine in pharmaceutical formulations. Good agreements were obtained for the determination of cephradine between the present approach and official method.

  2. Calculation of the molecular properties of five cephalosporins: cephradine, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefprozil and ceftobiprole

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    Elso Manuel Cruz Cruz


    Full Text Available Background: The side chains attached to the 7-amino cephalosporanic acid, the structural basis of cephalosporin, condition its molecular properties and cause differences in its pharmacological action. Molecular modeling contributes to further knowledge about this relationship. Objective: To calculate structural and electronic properties of five cephalosporins: cephradine, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefprozil and ceftobiprole. Methods: A theoretical study using quantum mechanics methods to model the structure and electronic properties of the cephalosporins listed above was conducted. Molecular geometries were optimized with semi-empirical calculations, according to the parameterized number three model. The molecular properties were calculated following the density functional theory. The densities of atomic charges and the frontier orbitals were analyzed. Comparisons were established to measure the effect of substituents on the properties of the beta-lactam ring. All calculations were run on personal computers belonging to the Medical Sciences University of Las Tunas, from November 2009 to March 2010. Results: The structural parameters of the beta-lactam ring do not change as a result of changes in the side chains. The ring has a marked tendency to planarity. The ceftobiprole is different from the rest of the cephalosporins in the spatial disposition of the side chain, which facilitates access to the carbonyl carbon. There are no significant variations in the charge densities, especially in the positive charge of this carbon. Conclusions: The structure and electronic properties of the beta-lactam ring have no significant changes among modeled cephalosporins. The three dimensional structure of ceftobiprole favors a higher reactivity.

  3. Preparation and characterization of uniform nanosized cephradine by combination of reactive precipitation and liquid anti-solvent precipitation under high gravity environment. (United States)

    Zhong, Jie; Shen, Zhigang; Yang, Yan; Chen, Jianfeng


    In this work, a novel direct method, which was combined with reactive precipitation and liquid anti-solvent precipitation under high gravity environment, had been developed to prepare nanosized cephradine with narrow particle size distribution. Compared with commercial crude cephradine, the prepared cephradine showed a significant decrease in particle size, a significant increase in the specific surface area and shorter dissolving time when used for injection. The characteristic particle size was between 200-400 nm. The specific surface area increased from 2.95 to 10.87 m2/g after micronization. When the amount of L-arginin decreased from 0.25 to 0.18 g, the mixture of nanosized cephradine and L-arginine could still dissolve in 1 min. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis indicated that the physical characteristics and molecular states remained unchanged after the recrystallization process. This method had potential application in industrial fields because of its low cost, efficient processing and the ease of scaling-up.

  4. Comparative study on pharmacokinetics of Cephradine in diabetic and normal rats

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    LIANG Jun; FU Ting; HAN Guo-zhu; LU Li


    Objective To study effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) on pharmacokinetics of cephradine (CED) by comparing the difference in pharmacokinetic behaviours of CED between diabetic and normal rats. Methods DM was induced in male rats by a single iv injection of alloxan 60 mg·kg-1; rats whose blood glucose was over 16 mmol·L-1 were taken as DM group. The rats were divided into DM group and normal control (CTL) group, which were subdivided into low dose (90 mg·kg-1) and high dose (180 mg·kg-1) subgroups. CED was administered by iv or po routes. Blood samples collected at different time post dosing were analyzed by RP-HPLC to yield CED plasma concentration time course. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Kromasil C18 column (250×4.6 mm ID, 5 μm);mobile phase, consisting of 0.025 mol·L-1 KH2PO4-MeOH-CH3CN (87; 6 : 7 v/v), was delivered at 1.0 mL·min-1; UV detector was set at 261 nm.The peak area ratio of CED to cephalexin (CEX) as internal standard vs concentraion of CED was used to construct calibration curve. 50 μL aliquots of TCA-deproteined plasma samples were injected into chromatograph. Results The methodology validation including specificity, precision, accuracy, recovery, limit of quantitation, linearity, stability, etc., showed that the HPLC assay developed by us completely met requirements of pharmacokinetic study Both DM and CTL groups showed the two-compartment model for iv dosing and extravascular one-compartment model for po dosing as well as first-order kinetics. However, in iv experiment, DM group, when compared with CTL group, presented a significantly shortened t1/2β and MRT as well as increased CL, reflected by t1/2β 84-91 vs 116-120 min, MRT 61-70 vs 103-119 min;CL 23-25 vs 18-19 mL·min-1·kg-1(P<0.05);in po experiment, a markedly shorter t1/2 K and tmax as well as greater CL and Cmax in DM group than in CTL group were found; meanwhile, DM rats suffered from remarkably increased kidney weight (KW) and KW/BW ratio relative to CTL rats

  5. Effect of Infusions of Non-Antibiotic Antibacterials Alone and in Combination with Cephradine on Milk Yield of Buffaloes Affected with Clinical Mastitis

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    M. Yousaf*, G. Muhammad1, M. Z. Khan2 and S. U. Rahman3


    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of four non-antibiotic antibacterials alone or in combination with cephradine in buffaloes on milk yield of mastitis affected quarters. For this purpose, 270 clinically mastitic quarters were grouped in randomized pattern. Non-antibiotic antibacterials viz., 2.5% chlorpromazine (2 ml, 4% lidocaine (10 ml, 10% povidone-iodine (10 ml and 99.5% dimethylsulphoxide (20 ml alone and in combination with first generation cephalosporin (cephradine 500 mg were instilled into clinically mastitic quarters daily for five days. The group administered cephradine alone served as control. Mean milk yield (L/quarter per day was recorded before administration of treatment and over a period of 4 weeks post initiation of treatment. Among the 4 non-antibiotic antibacterials tested alone, chlorpromazine (CPZ showed significantly higher (P<0.05 recuperative effect on the milk yield of clinically mastitic quarters of dairy buffaloes. However, dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO when infused alone, further aggravated (P<0.05 the milk yield loss, indicating negative effect on milk yield improvement. Adjuncting cephradine with each of the non-antibiotic antibacterials, the lidocaine-cephradine group showed the highest effect (p<0.05 on net recovery of milk yield on day 28 post initiation of treatment. It was concluded that that CPZ can be used in clinical mastitis in buffaloes as a low cost alternative to expensive branded antibiotics. Further, the use of lidocaine with cepheradnie was superior to all other combination regimens in milk yield recovery.

  6. 头孢拉定胶囊的人体生物等效性研究%Study on Bioequivalence of Cephradine Capsules in Volunteers

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    刘红梅; 吴琳华; 曲福军; 于景翠; 赵红光; 张一飞



  7. HPLC method setup in chemistation and cerity NDS for cephradine HPLC testing%Chemistation和Cerity NDS中测定头孢拉定含量的方法设置

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    本文提供一个利用安捷伦公司两种不同色谱软件:Chemstation和Cerity NDS测定原料或制剂中头孢拉定含量时HPLC方法设置的指导.头孢拉定和头孢安苄最终结果可同时由色谱软件自带的计算功能得到.这种方法设置在制药行业中较常见,可以应用于其他类似产品的HPLC测定.

  8. Analysis on Anti-bacterial Effect of Three Antibiotics by Bioassay%微生物法对三种抗生素抗菌作用的分析

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    顾勤芬; 虞盘兴; 武煜; 管明敏


    Objective To boserve the antibacterial effect of several commonly used oral antibiotics clinically, chooseproper drugs according to the sympotms and take the price into consideration. Methods To analyze the antibacterial effect inclinical of Ampicillin, Cephradine and Cifram on commomly seen pathogens, including G+ and G- bacteria. Results Thereis some difference between three antibiotics in the effect on bacteria. Cifram has stronger antibacterial effect compared withAmpicillin and Cepgradine on Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterococcus faecalils. The effect ofAmpicillin on Staph. Aureus is far superior to Cifran and cephradine. Cephradine is ineffective to Enterobacter cloacae andPseudomonos aeruginosa. Only Cifran has antibacterial effect on Pseudomonos aeruginosa. Conclusion To select and usedrugs reasonably and clinically. to indective diseases, such factors sa variety of pathogens, the sensitivity of antibiotic,potency, the price of drug should be considered comprehensively. Not all expensive drugs have satisfied therapeutic effect.

  9. Clathrate type complexation of cephalosporin antibiotics : function, design and application

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    Kemperman, Gerardus Johannes


    This thesis deals with selective complexation of the Ø-lactam antibiotics Cephalexin, Cephradine, Cefaclor and Cefadroxil. These life-saving antibiotics belong to the class of the cephalosporins and are already on the market for approximately 25 years. An important driving force behind innovations o

  10. [Antibiotic prophylaxis with cephalosporins in heart surgery]. (United States)

    Reichart, B; Klinner, W; Adam, D


    60 minutes after i.v. injection tissue levels of 7 different cephalosporins were obtained using biological assay. The following concentrations were measured: cephalothn 1.4 micrograms/g; cepharin 4.7 micrograms/g; cephacetrile 11.2 micrograms/g; cephradine 15.4 micrograms/g; cefazedone 26.9 micrograms/g; cefamandole 40.3 micrograms/g, and finally cefoxitin 43 micrograms/g. The high tissue levels of cefamandole and cefoxitin are especially remarkable as i.v. doses of both antibiotics had been 50 mg/kg body weight ( doses of all other cephalosporins 100 mg/kg body weight). Except cephalothin, all cephalosporins tested were suitable for antibiotic prophylaxis in cardiac surgery.

  11. In Vitro Antibacterial Effect of Effective Microorganisms( EM) on Aeromonas hydrophila

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    Zhu; Zhixiu; He; Houjun; Zhang; Wenbo; Wu; Xiangdong; Wan; Gen; Deng; Shunzhou; Liu; Songlin


    In order to understand in vitro antibacterial effect of antibiotics and EM on Aeromonas hydrophila,14 isolates of A. hydrophila were isolated from diseased fish and aquaculture in the study. PCR amplification results of aerolysin gene( Aero gene) of isolates indicated that 7 out of 14 isolates were pathogenic A.hydrophila. In vitro antibacterial test indicated that 14 isolates were resistance to penicillin G,ampicillin,cephradine,cefazolin,tetracycline,terimethoprim,lincomycin and cephalexin,but showed high sensitivity to cefotaxime and furazolidone. In vitro antibacterial effect of EM on 14 isolates of A. hydrophila was positively correlated with concentration,and EM with the concentration greater than 60% had antibacterial effect on 14 isolates.

  12. Evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of anise wastes against some multidrug resistant bacterial isolates

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    Mohamed Khaled Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is becoming a serious problem, especially after the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. To overcome this problem, new and effective antibacterials or resistance modulators are highly needed and plant kingdom represents a valuable source of these compounds. In this study we investigated the antibacterial and resistance modulatory activity of Aniseeds waste Residue Extract (ASWRE and Star Anise Waste Residue Extract (SAWRE (post-distillation against 100 isolates belonging to two Gram positive (Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus and four Gram negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Phenolic compounds of anise wastes were determined by HPLC. The antibacterial activity of anise waste extracts assays were performed by using inhibition zone diameters, MIC and MBC. Evaluation of synergy interaction between anise waste extracts and certain known antibacterial drugs like Cephradine, Chloramphenicol, Tetracycline and Amoxicillin was carried out using disc diffusion method, MIC and the fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC. The results showed that HPLC method has been developed for the determination of 25 phenolic compounds from waste extracts. Both ASWRE and SAWRE have significant antibacterial activity against all of the test bacteria. SAWRE was found to have higher amounts of phenolic compounds contents that might be responsible for their comparatively higher antibacteria activity than ASWRE. Irradiation at 10 and 30 kGy did not significantly affect the antibacterial activity of both ASWRE and SAWRE. The combination of anise waste extracts and the tested antibiotics mostly showed synergistic effect. Synergistic interaction was most expressed against Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp1 and Staphylococcus aureus (Sa1 by Tetracycline and chloramphenicol; Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P2, Klebsiella pneumoniae (K3, Acinetobacter baumannii

  13. Phototransformation of cephalosporin antibiotics in an aqueous environment results in higher toxicity. (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Huan; Lin, Angela Yu-Chen


    Photodegradation may be the most important elimination process for cephalosporin antibiotics in surface water. Cefazolin (CFZ) and cephapirin (CFP) underwent mainly direct photolysis (t(1/2) = 0.7, 3.9 h), while cephalexin (CFX) and cephradine (CFD) were mainly transformed by indirect photolysis, which during the process a bicarbonate-enhanced nitrate system contributed most to the loss rate of CFX, CFD, and cefotaxime (CTX) (t(1/2) = 4.5, 5.3, and 1.3 h, respectively). Laboratory data suggested that bicarbonate enhanced the phototransformation of CFD and CFX in natural water environments. When used together, NO(3)(-), HCO(3)(-), and DOM closely simulated the photolysis behavior in the Jingmei River and were the strongest determinants in the fate of cephalosporins. TOC and byproducts were investigated and identified. Direct photolysis led to decarboxylation of CFD, CFX, and CFP. Transformation only (no mineralization) of all cephalosporins was observed through direct photolysis; byproducts were found to be even less photolabile and more toxic (via the Microtox test). CFZ exhibited the strongest acute toxicity after just a few hours, which may be largely attributed to its 5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol moiety. Many pharmaceuticals were previously known to undergo direct sunlight photolysis and transformation in surface waters; however, the synergistic increase in toxicity caused by this cocktail (via pharmaceutical photobyproducts) cannot be ignored and warrants future research attention.

  14. Antibiotic resistance of Clostridium perfringens isolates from broiler chickens in Egypt. (United States)

    Osman, K M; Elhariri, M


    The use of antibiotic feed additives in broiler chickens results in a high prevalence of resistance among their enteric bacteria, with a consequent emergence of antibiotic resistance in zoonotic enteropathogens. Despite growing concerns about the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains, which show varying prevalences in different geographic regions, little work has been done to investigate this issue in the Middle East. This study provides insight into one of the world's most common and financially crippling poultry diseases, necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens. The study was designed to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in C. perfringens isolates from clinical cases of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens in Egypt. A total of 125 isolates were obtained from broiler flocks in 35 chicken coops on 17 farms and were tested using the disc diffusion method. All 125 isolates were resistant to gentamicin, streptomycin, oxolinic acid, lincomycin, erythromycin and spiramycin. The prevalence of resistance to other antibiotics was also high: rifampicin (34%), chloramphenicol (46%), spectinomycin (50%), tylosin-fosfomycin (52%), ciprofloxacin (58%), norfloxacin (67%), oxytetracycline (71%), flumequine (78%), enrofloxacin (82%), neomycin (93%), colistin (94%), pefloxacin (94%), doxycycline (98%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (98%). It is recommended that C. perfringens infections in Egypt should be treated with antibiotics for which resistant isolates are rare at present; namely, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephradine, fosfomycin and florfenicol.

  15. Engineering of drug nanoparticles by HGCP for pharmaceutical applications

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    TingTing Hu; JieXin Wang; ZhiGang Shen; JianFeng Chen


    This paper reviews our work on the fundamental principles of high gravity controlled precipitation (HGCP) technology, and its applications in the production of drug nenoparticles, which was carded out in a rotating packed bed (RPB). Several kinds of drug nanoparticles with narrow particle size distributions (PSDs) were successfully prepared via HGCP, including the 300-nm Cefuroxirne Axetil (CFA) particles, 200-400-nm cephradine particles, 500-nm salbutamol sulfate (SS) particles (100 nm in width), end 850-nm beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) particles, etc. Compared to drugs available in the current market, all the drug nanoparticles produced by HGCP exhibited advantages in both formulation end drug delivery, thus improving the bioavailability of drugs. HGCP is essentially a platform technology for the preparation of poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles for oral and injection delivery, and of inhalable drugs for pulmonary delivery. Consequently, HGCP offers potential applications in the pharmaceutical industry due to its cost-effectiveness, efficient processing end the ease of scaling-up.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy on the management of acute paediatric urinary tract infection in a general paediatric unit

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    Fahisham Taib; Bakht Jamal


    Objective: To ascertain diagnostic accuracy of paediatric urinary tract infection (UTI) in a general paediatric unit of a district hospital. Methods: Retrospective case note review and comparing to the final computerised database of Human in-Patient Enquiry (HIPE) at Portiuncula Hospital, Galway, Ireland. All children from 0-16 years of age with the diagnosis of UTI were enrolled within the 3 year study period. The information was first retrieved from HIPE system to capture list of patients. Case notes revision was followed to extract data under standardized pro-forma for demography, accuracy of diagnosis, treatment instituted and investigation ordered. Patients’ data was reviewed according to updated definition. Results: There were 85 cases treated for UTI during the 3 year period, and only 45 cases were considered as genuine UTI according to diagnostic criteria. Out of 45 cases, 16 cases were considered as suspected UTI cases. Escherichia coli was noted to be the commonest organism. Cephradine has been used as the first line treatment as per local guideline;however, different antibiotic regimes were based on physician’s preferences. The sensitivity of the current method of UTI diagnosis remained at 64%when comparing final diagnosis in the HIPE system. Conclusions: UTI can be difficult to accurately diagnosis in certain clinical cases. Decisions made should be individualized and tailored according to clinical suspicion and presentation of the patients. Improvement to ensure accurate diagnosis is vital to ensure correct data capture in the HIPE system thus giving valuable information and resource for future care.


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    Noor Jahan


    Full Text Available The antibacterial and antifungal activities of Terminalia arjuna, Tephrosia purpurea and Thuja occidentalis extracts were investigated against the standard drugs, which are presently available in the market as Gentamicin, Cephradine, Amoxicillin clavulanate, Norfloxacin and Itraconazole. Well method was used for antimicrobial activity and the zones of inhibition were measured in millimeters. The antibacterial activity was observed on three gram negative bacteria i.e. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and one gram positive bacteria i.e. Staphylococcus aureus. The antifungal activity was investigated against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The cytotoxic effects (LD50 of the crude extracts were also observed on brine shrimps (Artemia salina using Etoposide as an internal standard. The crude extract of T. arjuna bark exhibited less potent antimicrobial activity as compared to crude extract of T. arjuna heart wood. Bark extract of T. arjuna showed no cytotoxic activity but heart wood extract showed this activity in brine shrimp bioassay technique. The crude extract of T. purpurea showed positive cytotoxic, potent antibacterial but no antifungal activity. The crude extract of T. occidentalis showed good antibacterial low antifungal and low cytotoxic activity. T. arjuna showed most potent antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity while T. Purpurea and T. oocidentalis posses less potent activities.

  18. Encouraging good antimicrobial prescribing practice: A review of antibiotic prescribing policies used in the South East Region of England

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    Mayon White Richard T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Good prescribing practice has an important part to play in the fight against antimicrobial resistance. Whilst it was perceived that most hospitals and Health Authorities possessed an antibiotic policy, a review of antibiotic policies was conducted to gain an understanding of the extent, quality and usefulness of these policies. Methods Letters were sent to pharmacists in hospitals and health authorities in across the South East region of the National Health Service Executive (NHSE requesting antibiotic policies. data were extracted from the policies to assess four areas; antibiotic specific, condition specific, patient specific issues and underpinning evidence. Results Of a possible 41 hospital trusts and 14 health authorities, 33 trusts and 9 health authorities (HAs provided policies. Both trust and HA policies had a median publication date of 1998 (trust range 1993-99, HA 1994-99. Eleven policies were undated. The majority of policies had no supporting references for the statements made. All policies provided some details on specific antibiotics. Gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were the preferred aminoglycoside and quinolone respectively with cephalosporins being represented by cefuroxime or cefotaxime in trusts and cephradine or cephalexin in HAs. 26 trusts provided advice on surgical prophylaxis, 17 had meningococcal prophylaxis policies and 11 covered methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. There was little information for certain groups such as neonates or children, the pregnant or the elderly. Conclusion There was considerable variation in content and quality across policies, a clear lack of an evidence base and a need to revise policies in line with current recommendations.

  19. Isolation, Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Pathogens of Exudative Epidermitis%仔猪渗出性皮炎病原的分离鉴定及耐药性分析

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    张玉玉; 吴家强; 郭立辉; 王兴东; 安利国; 王金宝


    为消除渗出性皮炎对仔猪的危害,对发生该病的病死仔猪进行细菌分离培养.通过革兰氏染色、生化试验与16S rDNA基因序列同源性分析鉴定:分离出的两株细菌为猪葡萄球菌和松鼠葡萄球菌.猪葡萄球菌和松鼠葡萄球菌能分别产生表皮脱落毒素ExhB和ExhC,表明这两株葡萄球菌都有致病力.猪葡萄球菌和松鼠葡萄球菌均对头孢菌素Ⅰ类(先锋霉素Ⅰ、Ⅴ、Ⅵ)、头孢噻肟和丁胺卡那敏感,在临床上可选择这些药物预防和治疗该病.%To eliminate harm of exudative epidermitis (EE) to piglets, pathogens of EE were isolated and studied.Two gram positive staphylococcus strains were isolated from sick piglets suffered EE.The two isolates were identified as staphylococcus hyicus and staphylococcus sciuri by biochemistry test and analyzing the sequence of 16S rDNA gene.S.hyicus can produce exfoliative toxin ExhB,while S.sciuri can produce exfoliative toxin ExhC, which indicates the two isolates are pathogenic.The two isolates are sensitive to cefalotin,cephazolin,cephradine,cefotaxime and amikacin which shows sick piglets can be treated with these antibiotics.

  20. Urinary Tract Infection and Drug Susceptibility Pattern in Patients of a Medical College Hospital in Bangladesh

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    Rafiul Alam Khan


    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common and frequently encountered serious morbidity that afflicts the tool not only to all segments of human population but also results in increasing antibiotic resistance due to persistence and mismanagement of the ailment. The present study aimed to ascertain the current situation of antimicrobial resistance of urinary tract infection. Objectives: To find out pyuria by direct microscopy, isolation and identification of the organisms by culture and to know the susceptibility pattern of organisms causing urinary tract infection. Materials and Methods: A total of 180 midstream urine samples were subjected to aerobic bacteriologic culture in the department of Microbiology, Cox’s Bazar Medical College and 250-bedded Sadar Hospital, Cox’s Bazar during the period of March to October 2012. Specimens were collected from hospitalized and outdoor patients of different age and sex groups. All specimens were examined by routine microscopy to find out significant pyuria (>5 pus cells/HPF. Strict aseptic precautions were taken all through the culture system. Results: Out of 180 specimens, 101 (56.11% culture yielded significant growth of single organism and 79 (43.89% yielded no growth. The isolated organisms were E. coli 74.26%, Klebsiella species 12.87%, Enterococci 4.95%, Staphylococcus saprophyticus 3.96%, Pseudomonas species 1.98% and Proteus species 1.98%. The highest sensitivity was shown by imipenem (100% followed by ceftriaxone (65%, azithromycin (65%, ciprofloxacin (60% and less sensitive to amoxycillin, cotrimoxazole, cephradine and nalidixic acid ranging 15–30%. Conclusion: The findings of the present study recommends that UTI should be treated by selective antibiotics obtained from culture and sensitivity test to minimize increasing trend of drug resistance.

  1. Etiología y sensibilidad bacteriana en infección urinaria en niños. Hospital Infantil Club Noel y Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

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    Iris de Castaño


    , cefadroxil, cephalexin, cephradine, trimethoprim-sulfa, ampicillin–sulbactam, cephalothin and cefazolin. Conclusions: E. coli is the main cause of UTI in the pediatric population of Cali. Usual recommended antibiotic and antibacterial for UTI empiric therapy are cephalexin, trimethoprim-sulfa, ampicillin, and amoxicillin. In accordance with the results in the present study resistance of bacteria to these medicaments was high. Antibiotics and antibacterials with better sensitivity were: cefuroxime, cefproxil, cefixime and nalidixic acid which the authors recommend for empiric oral therapy while the urine culture is in process and final results arrive. In spite of norfloxocin good sensitivity, its use should be reserved for especial cases where resistance to other antibiotics is found. If there is an indication for intravenous treatment, ceftriaxone or amikacin are recommended.

  2. Epidemiological Investigation of Swine Pathogenic E.coli in Guangxi Small and Medium-scale Farms%广西中小规模猪场大肠杆菌病流行情况调查

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    陈凤莲; 赵武; 黄红梅; 覃绍敏; 华俊; 马玲; 吴健敏; 杨威


    从广西23家中小规模猪场采集病料,分离、鉴定出致病性大肠杆菌56株,并对其进行血清型鉴定和耐药性检测,结果鉴定出43株致病性大肠杆菌,分属于16种血清型,其中以O138、O18、O85、O9和O21为优势血清型,占定型菌株的69.76%;用20种常用抗菌药进行药物敏感性试验,发现高敏的药物有头孢拉啶、头孢唑啉、头孢曲松、头孢西丁、多黏菌素B、新霉素、壮观霉素和阿米卡星;而不敏感的药物有青霉素、阿莫西林、强力霉素、卡那霉素、万古霉素、林可霉素.说明这些猪场大肠杆菌的耐药性十分严重,应加强生物安全措施等进行综合防控.%56 strains of swine pathogenic E.coli were isolated from 23 small and medium-scale pig farms in Guangxi, and its serotype identification and detection of drug resistance showed that the 56 strains belonged to 16 serotypes, out of which O serotype viz, O138 ,O18 ,O85 ,O9 ,O21 were predominant, occupying 69.76%.The detection of drug resistance of 20 frequently used antibiotics indicated that most E.coli trains were highly sensitive to Cephradine, Cefazolin, Ceftriaxone, Cefoxitin, Polymyxin B, Neomycin, Spectinomycin, and Amikacin, but insensitive to Penicillin, Amoxicillin, Doxycycline, Kanamycin, Vancomycin, Lincomycin, which points to the fact that drug resistance of E.coli in these pig farms has been very grave, and that measures such as biotic safety should be strengthened to undertake comprehensive prevention.

  3. 不同种类抗生素影响重症肌无力小鼠神经肌肉接头处的传递功能%Effect of different kinds of antibiotics on transmission function at neuromuscular junction in mice with myasthenia gravis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓敏; 王云甫; 胡芳; 吕永宁; 刘昌勤; 曹学兵; 杨汉菊; 徐楚鸿


    BACKGROUND: It is recently found that some kinds of antibiotics can aggravate the obstruction of neuromuscular junction(NM J) transmission,exacerbate myasthenia gravis (MG). Hitherto, there are few reports about the effect of antibiotics on transitive function on animal models. Along with the appearance of new antibiotics, the effects of the antibiotics on NMJ transitive function need to be further observed.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of aminoglycoside antibiotics, fluoroquinolone antibiotics and cephalosporin antibiotics on the transitive function of NMJ in MG, and to provide an experimental basis for using those antibiotics securely in clinic and for selecting those antibiotics to treat MG properly.DESIGN: Randomized controlled study based on experimental animals.SETTING: Department of nosocomial infection, neurology and pharmacy in a university hospital.MATERIALS: The experiment was conducted at the Neurological Institute of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology from March 2002 to January 2003. Totally 150 healthy female C57BL/6mice, 6 - 8 weeks old, weighting 18 - 20 g, were divided randomly into 4groups: normal group( n = 10), MG group( n = 10), saline group( n = 10)and antibiotics group( n = 120) . Mice in antibiotics group were divided randomly again into gentamicin group, etimicin group, ciprofloxacin group,fleroxacin group, cefuroxime group and cephradine group, with 20 mice in each group.INTERVENTIONS: C57BL/6 mice were immunized with the acetylcholine receptor(AChR) protein in complete Fruend' s adjuvant(CFA) to establish experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis(EAMG) . Mice in saline group were injected normal saline and mice in antibiotics group were injected antibiotics(10 mg/kg), lasted 14 days. Mice in MG group were without any treatments. On the 7th day after the last immunization and the 14th day after the antibiotics treatments, MG scores was evaluated, repetitive nerve stimulation(RNS) and the levels of

  4. Isolation and Identification of Streptococcus agalactiae from Dairy Cow Mastitis in Qinghai Province%青海地区奶牛无乳链球菌的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Streptococcus agalactiae is one of pathogenic bacterium that inducing mastitis of dairy cow. In order to master the popularity and laid the reference for selection of medicine to treat mastitis, 258 samples were collected from 16 dairy cow farms in Qinghai province, and 137 Streptococcus strains were isolated,including Streptococcus agalactiae 42 strains after subculture, gram straining, plasma-coagulase test, CAMP test, biochemical tests and animal pathogenicity tests. The results indicated that Streptococcus agalactiae was the primary pathogenic bacteria of mastitis. All of Streptococcus agalactiaes were hypersensitive to cephradine, and partially resistant to amikacin ofloxacin, ampicillin and sulfanilamide group after K-B medicine sensitivity test.%无乳链球菌是导致奶牛乳房炎的常见病原菌之一,为了掌握青海地区无乳链球菌的流行情况及常用药物的敏感性,从而为本地区更好的预防与治疗奶牛乳房炎提供保障.本试验在青海地区16个奶牛场共采集258份乳房炎乳样,经革兰氏染色与绵羊鲜血琼脂培养基培养纯化,获得疑似链球菌137株;随后经玻片法血浆凝固酶试验、CAMP试验、生化试验与动物致病性试验对无乳链球菌进行鉴定,结果显示,137株链球菌中含有无乳链球菌42株,分离率为30.7%;经K-B纸片扩散法对无乳链球菌耐药性检测结果显示,该地区无乳链球菌主要对头孢类高度敏感,对氧氟沙星、磺胺类、氨苄青霉素与阿米卡星中度敏感.

  5. 65株不同圈养野生动物源性肠杆科菌的药敏分析%Application of the Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test for Enterobacteriaceae in 65 Species of Captive Wild Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄淑芳; 胡新波; 王才益; 江志


    Using the method of K-B antimicrobial susceptibility test(AST),we analyzed the drug susceptibility of intestinal rod bacteria to 10 kinds of clinical antibiotics including penicillins,cephalosporins,dilute aminoglycoside,quinolones,and sulfonamides.Intestinal rod bacteria were sampled from wild animals held at Hangzhou Zoo.The most effective drugs were the third generation cephalosporin,cefoperazone,and cefotaxime,which eliminated 83.1%of bacteria.Less effective antibiotics included quinolone and aminoglycoside drugs,which eliminated 60%or more of bacteria.Least effective was cefradine,a first generation cephalosporin.Effectiveness of cephradine was 58.5%,while that of ampicillin penicillin was 43.1%,and that of sulfamethoxazole of quinolone sulfa was 21.5%.This research provides a basis for clinical medication of captive wildlife.%采用K-B法药敏试验,分析圈养野生动物肠杆科菌对青霉素类、头孢类、氨基糖甙类、喹诺酮类、磺胺类的10种临床常用抗生素的药敏情况。结果显示:最敏感的是头孢稀类的三代头孢,头孢哌酮和头孢噻肟,其敏感率均为83.1%;较敏感的为喹诺酮类和氨基糖甙类药物,敏感率大于或等于60%;敏感性较差的是一代头孢中的头孢拉定、磺胺类药中的复方新诺明、青霉素类的氨苄青霉素,其敏感性分别为58.5%、43.1%和21.5%,被研究结果为兽医临床用药提供了依据。

  6. 常用抗生素在体外环境中对血清肿瘤标志物检测的影响%Effects of commonly used antibiotics in vitro environment on detection of serum tumor markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔梅; 邢长永; 甄君


    Objeetive To discuss the effects of 11 commonly used antibiotics in vitro environment on the detection of serum tumor markers. Methods To select 50 samples of serum tumor markers and 20 normal serum samples respectively,and to join in the serum of eleven commonly used antibiotics, and to detect AFP, CEA, CA125, CA153 and CA199 five types of tumor markers before and after the content changes by chemiluminescence immunoassay and to analyse the result by using the t-test. Results Joined the penicillin lactic acid sodium, acyclovir, ciprofloxacin and sodium chloride, ceftazidime, cefuroxime sodium, ornidazole tablets, ceph radine, the value of AFP was different after detection (P<0.05). Accession of chloride, ceftazidime, cefuroxime sodium, cephradine, azithromycin dihydrogen phosphate after CEA value differences (P<0. 05). Joined acyclovir, cefuroxime sodium, cephradine, imide cilasatin sodium CA125 after testing was different (P<0.05). In joining the penicillin sodium, cefuroxime sodium, piperacillin sodium and sulbactam sodium(2 : 1),ornidazole tablets,acyclovir CA199 detection value when there was a difference(P<0.05). In joining the penicillin sodium, cefuroxime sodium, piperacillin sodium and sulbactam sodium (2 : 1),ornidazole films, polyimide cilasatin sodium, ceftazidime CA153 detection value after differences ( P< 0. 05 ). Conclusion In most of the 11 commonly used antibiotics on tumor markers except gentamicin sulfate, they have clinical significance to improve the accuracy of tumor markers by exclude drug interference factors.%目的 探讨十一种常用抗生素在体外环境中对血清肿瘤标志物含量的影响.方法 50份肿瘤患者血清和20份正常血清中分别加入11种常用抗生素,采用免疫化学发光法检测AFP、CEA、CA125、CA153和CA199五种肿瘤标志物前后含量的变化,采用 T检验进行统计学分析.结果 加入青霉素钠、阿昔洛韦、乳酸环丙沙星氯化钠、头孢他啶、头孢呋辛


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Shao; Jianfeng Chen


    nanosized CaCO3, TiO2,SiO2, ZnO, Al2O3, ZnS, BaTiO3, BaCO3, SrCO3, Al(OH)3 and Mg(OH)2 flame retardants, and organic nano-pharmaceuticals including benzoic acid, salbutamol sulfate and cephradine. This technology received extensive attention in the field of nanomaterials fabrication and application. Dudukovic et al. commented, "The first large-scale application of RPB as a reactor occurred in China in production of nano CaCO3 by HGRP (high gravity reactive precipitation)of carbon dioxide and lime. Uniformly small particles were made in the RPB due to achievement of a sharp supersaturation interface and very short liquid residence times in the device." (Dudukovic et al., 2002). Date et al. said, "HGRP represents a second generation of strategies for nanosizing of hydrophobic drugs. In our opinion, among various methodologies described eariier, supercritical anti-solvent enhanced mass transfer method and HGRP method has potential to become technologies of the future owing to their simplicity, ease of scale-up and nanosizing efficiency" (Date et al., 2004).As-synthesized nano CaCO3 was employed as a template to synthesize silica hollow spheres (SHS) with mesostructured walls. Characterizations indicated that the obtained SHS had an average diameter of about 40 nm with a surface haviors of Brilliant Blue F (BB), which was used as a model drug. Loaded inside the inner core and on the surfaces of SHS,BB was released slowly into a bulk solution for as long as 1 140min as compared to only 10min for the normal SiO2nanoparticles, thus exhibiting a typical sustained release pattern without any burst effect. In addition, higher BET value of the carrier, lower pH value and lower temperature prolonged BB release from SHS, while stirring speed indicated little influence on the release behavior, showing the promising future of SHS in controlled drug delivery (Li et al., 2004).Nano-CaCO3 synthesized by the high gravity method was also employed as a filler to improve the performance of