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Sample records for cephradine

  1. Cephradine (Velosef) penetration of mandibular bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlehurst, R J; Rood, J P

    1990-04-01

    The concentration of cephradine in serum and mandibular bone was assayed in 28 patients undergoing 3rd molar surgery following a single 1 g intravenous injection. Serum and cortical bone samples taken simultaneously, contained mean cephradine concentrations of 42.11 micrograms/ml and 2.61 micrograms/g respectively. These results, when compared with those reported for other bony sites including the femoral head and knee, show a reduced bone penetration with a bone-to-serum ratio of approximately 0.06:1. PMID:2111359

  2. Interaction of cephradine monohydrate with Cetyldimethylethylammonium Bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We carry out the interaction of CDM drugs with CDMEAB conductometrically. • We examine the effect of drugs on the critical micelle concentration of CDMEAB. • Two critical micelle concentrations are obtained for drug-CDMEAB system. • Electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between drug and surfactant are proposed. • Effect of KCl and K2SO4 is observed on interaction between drug and surfactant. -- Abstract: Interaction of cephradine monohydrate (CDM) with Cetyldimethylethylammonium Bromide (CDMEAB) has been studied by conductance measurements in pure form and in the presence of salts like potassium chloride (KCl) and potassium sulphate (K2SO4) over the temperature range of (298.15 to 318.15) K. From conductivity vs. surfactant concentration plots, two critical micelle concentrations like c1∗ and c1∗ were obtained for (CDM + CDMEAB) systems. The variation of c∗ values of CDMEAB in the presence of CDM is the indication of the interaction between CDM and CDMEAB. For the (CDM + CDMEAB) system, the values of c∗ values are higher in magnitude in contrast to that of pure CDMEAB in water over the range in temperature studied. In aqueous solutions of KCl and K2SO4, the c∗ values are changed with the increase of the concentration of salts and hence the micellization is dependent on salt concentration. The ΔGm0 values were negative and the spontaneity of micellization process is found to be increased with increase of temperature. The values of ΔH1,m0 and ΔS1,m0 indicated that the drug mediated CDMEAB aggregation in water was controlled at lower temperatures while at higher temperatures the aggregation was both enthalpy and entropy controlled. The ΔH2,m0 and ΔS2,m0 values revealed that the micellization in water was both enthalpy and entropy controlled at lower and higher temperatures though the effect of entropy at middle temperature was dominant. The results indicated that binding interactions between CDM and CDMEAB are both

  3. Comparative study of cephradine and amoxicillin-clavulanate in the treatment of recurrent urinary tract infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Brumfitt, W; Hamilton-Miller, J M

    1990-01-01

    Eighty-eight female patients with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections were treated according to a randomization scheme with either 1 g of cephradine every 12 h (47 patients) or 375 mg of amoxicillin-clavulanate every 8 h (41 patients) for 7 days. The treatments were equally effective (cure rates of 89% for cephradine and 88% for amoxicillin-clavulanate) and showed similar relapse rates (cephradine, 14%; amoxicillin-clavulanate, 11%). Adverse effects were similar in both groups (ce...

  4. Comparison of pivmecillinam and cephradine in bacteriuria in pregnancy and in acute urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumfitt, W; Franklin, I; Hamilton-Miller, J; Anderson, F

    1979-01-01

    48 non-pregnant domiciliary patients referred by general practitioners and 50 pregnant women were treated for bacteriuria with either 500 mg cephradine or 400 mg pivmecillinam every 6 h for 7 days. In the pregnant women, cure rates were over 90% after 2 weeks for both compounds, and after 6 weeks were 86% for cephradine and 78% for pivmecillinam. Cure rates in the non-pregnant were 83% for cephradine and 95% for pivmecillinam at 6 weeks. Seven patients (3 given cephradine, 4 given pivmecillinam) stopped treatment due to side-effects. Overall, side-effects (many of which were trivial) were more common in patients treated with cephradine (51%) than in those receiving pivmecillinam (33%). It is concluded that both drugs are highly effective in these two common types of urinary infection. PMID:231299

  5. Effect of amoxicillin-clavulanate and cephradine on the fecal flora of healthy volunteers not exposed to a hospital environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Brumfitt, W; Franklin, I; Grady, D.; Hamilton-Miller, J M

    1986-01-01

    A 7-day course of either cephradine or amoxicillin-clavulanate treatment caused no significant change in fecal flora composition, except that staphylococci were virtually eliminated in both groups. Some amoxicillin-resistant coliforms were isolated after treatment in both groups, but cephradine- or amoxicillin-clavulanate-resistant coliforms were rarely isolated.

  6. Synthesis, spectroscopic and biological studies of transition metal complexes of novel schiff bases derived from cephradine and sugars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fe(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) metal complexes of novel schiff bases derived from Cephradine and sugars (D-Glucose, L. Arabinose and D-Galactose) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, thermal analysis, electronic absorption and FT-IR spectral studies. It has been found that schiff bases behave as bi-dentate-ligands forming complexes with 1:2 (metal:ligand) stoichiometry. the neutral nature of the complexes was confirmed by their low conductance values. The biological activities of complexes have been evaluated against two gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two gram positive (Bacillus subtilis and staphylococcus aureus) bacteria by Agar diffusion disc method. It has been found that the complexes have higher activity as compared to the pure Cephradine against the same bacteria. (author)

  7. Development and validation of reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for analysis of cephradine in human plasma samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An HPLC method with high precision, accuracy and selectivity was developed and validated for the assessment of cephradine in human plasma samples. The extraction procedure was simple and accurate with single step followed by direct injection of sample into HPLC system. The extracted cephradine in spiked human plasma was separated and quantitated using reversed phase C/sub 18/ column and UV detection wavelength of 254 nm. The optimized mobile phase of new composition of 0.05 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate (pH 3.4)-acetonitrile (88: 12) was pumped at an optimum flow rate of 1 mL.min/sup 1/. The method resulted linearity in the concentration range 0.15- 20 micro g mL/sup -1/. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.05 and 0.150 Microg.mL/sup -1/, respectively. The accuracy of method was 98.68 %. This method can 1>e applied for bioequivalence studies and therapeutic drug monitoring as well as for the routine analysis of cephradine. (author)

  8. Effect of reconstitution solvents and containers on kinetics and safety of cephradine neutralised with L-arginine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of reconstitution solvents such as water, 0.5% metronidazole solution, 0.9% sodium chloride and 5% dextrose injections, have been investigated on the kinetics of degradation of cephradine neutralised with L-arginine contained in glass, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and polyethylene pthalate (PET) containers at 5, 15 and 30 degree C. The analytical method described in USP-31 for the analysis of cephradine injection was employed in this study and validation in respect of specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision was observed. The degradation of the compound showed first-order kinetics and the degradation rate constants Kobs were found in the range of 1.84-3.07 * 10/sup -3/h (r2= 0.990-0.999) at 5 degree C, 2.3-4.2 * 10/sup -3/h (r2= 0.993-0.999) at 15 degree C and 7.18-9.97 * 10/sup -3/h (r2= 0.998-0.999) at 30 degree C, respectively. Cephradine showed maximum stability in dextrose solution followed by water, sodium chloride and metronidazole injections, however, linear effect of containers on degradation rate could not be established. The extended degradation did not change the kinetics of the reaction. The abnormal toxicity/ safety test on mice for the admixtures in different containers at various temperatures showed no abnormal toxicity. (author)

  9. Calculation of the molecular properties of five cephalosporins: cephradine, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefprozil and ceftobiprole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elso Manuel Cruz Cruz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The side chains attached to the 7-amino cephalosporanic acid, the structural basis of cephalosporin, condition its molecular properties and cause differences in its pharmacological action. Molecular modeling contributes to further knowledge about this relationship. Objective: To calculate structural and electronic properties of five cephalosporins: cephradine, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefprozil and ceftobiprole. Methods: A theoretical study using quantum mechanics methods to model the structure and electronic properties of the cephalosporins listed above was conducted. Molecular geometries were optimized with semi-empirical calculations, according to the parameterized number three model. The molecular properties were calculated following the density functional theory. The densities of atomic charges and the frontier orbitals were analyzed. Comparisons were established to measure the effect of substituents on the properties of the beta-lactam ring. All calculations were run on personal computers belonging to the Medical Sciences University of Las Tunas, from November 2009 to March 2010. Results: The structural parameters of the beta-lactam ring do not change as a result of changes in the side chains. The ring has a marked tendency to planarity. The ceftobiprole is different from the rest of the cephalosporins in the spatial disposition of the side chain, which facilitates access to the carbonyl carbon. There are no significant variations in the charge densities, especially in the positive charge of this carbon. Conclusions: The structure and electronic properties of the beta-lactam ring have no significant changes among modeled cephalosporins. The three dimensional structure of ceftobiprole favors a higher reactivity.

  10. Comparative study on pharmacokinetics of Cephradine in diabetic and normal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Jun; FU Ting; HAN Guo-zhu; LU Li

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) on pharmacokinetics of cephradine (CED) by comparing the difference in pharmacokinetic behaviours of CED between diabetic and normal rats. Methods DM was induced in male rats by a single iv injection of alloxan 60 mg·kg-1; rats whose blood glucose was over 16 mmol·L-1 were taken as DM group. The rats were divided into DM group and normal control (CTL) group, which were subdivided into low dose (90 mg·kg-1) and high dose (180 mg·kg-1) subgroups. CED was administered by iv or po routes. Blood samples collected at different time post dosing were analyzed by RP-HPLC to yield CED plasma concentration time course. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Kromasil C18 column (250×4.6 mm ID, 5 μm);mobile phase, consisting of 0.025 mol·L-1 KH2PO4-MeOH-CH3CN (87; 6 : 7 v/v), was delivered at 1.0 mL·min-1; UV detector was set at 261 nm.The peak area ratio of CED to cephalexin (CEX) as internal standard vs concentraion of CED was used to construct calibration curve. 50 μL aliquots of TCA-deproteined plasma samples were injected into chromatograph. Results The methodology validation including specificity, precision, accuracy, recovery, limit of quantitation, linearity, stability, etc., showed that the HPLC assay developed by us completely met requirements of pharmacokinetic study Both DM and CTL groups showed the two-compartment model for iv dosing and extravascular one-compartment model for po dosing as well as first-order kinetics. However, in iv experiment, DM group, when compared with CTL group, presented a significantly shortened t1/2β and MRT as well as increased CL, reflected by t1/2β 84-91 vs 116-120 min, MRT 61-70 vs 103-119 min;CL 23-25 vs 18-19 mL·min-1·kg-1(P<0.05);in po experiment, a markedly shorter t1/2 K and tmax as well as greater CL and Cmax in DM group than in CTL group were found; meanwhile, DM rats suffered from remarkably increased kidney weight (KW) and KW/BW ratio relative to CTL rats

  11. Effect of Infusions of Non-Antibiotic Antibacterials Alone and in Combination with Cephradine on Milk Yield of Buffaloes Affected with Clinical Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    M. Yousaf*, G. Muhammad1, M. Z. Khan2 and S. U. Rahman3

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of four non-antibiotic antibacterials alone or in combination with cephradine in buffaloes on milk yield of mastitis affected quarters. For this purpose, 270 clinically mastitic quarters were grouped in randomized pattern. Non-antibiotic antibacterials viz., 2.5% chlorpromazine (2 ml), 4% lidocaine (10 ml), 10% povidone-iodine (10 ml) and 99.5% dimethylsulphoxide (20 ml) alone and in combination with first generation cephalosporin ...

  12. Calculation of the molecular properties of five cephalosporins: cephradine, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefprozil and ceftobiprole Cálculo de propiedades moleculares de 5 cefalosporinas: cefradina, cefalexina, cefadroxilo, cefprozilo y ceftobiprole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elso Manuel Cruz Cruz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The side chains attached to the 7-amino cephalosporanic acid, the structural basis of cephalosporin, condition its molecular properties and cause differences in its pharmacological action. Molecular modeling contributes to further knowledge about this relationship. Objective: To calculate structural and electronic properties of five cephalosporins: cephradine, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefprozil and ceftobiprole. Methods: A theoretical study using quantum mechanics methods to model the structure and electronic properties of the cephalosporins listed above was conducted. Molecular geometries were optimized with semi-empirical calculations, according to the parameterized number three model. The molecular properties were calculated following the density functional theory. The densities of atomic charges and the frontier orbitals were analyzed. Comparisons were established to measure the effect of substituents on the properties of the beta-lactam ring. All calculations were run on personal computers belonging to the Medical Sciences University of Las Tunas, from November 2009 to March 2010. Results: The structural parameters of the beta-lactam ring do not change as a result of changes in the side chains. The ring has a marked tendency to planarity. The ceftobiprole is different from the rest of the cephalosporins in the spatial disposition of the side chain, which facilitates access to the carbonyl carbon. There are no significant variations in the charge densities, especially in the positive charge of this carbon. Conclusions: The structure and electronic properties of the beta-lactam ring have no significant changes among modeled cephalosporins. The three dimensional structure of ceftobiprole favors a higher reactivity.Fundamento: las cadenas laterales unidas al ácido 7-aminocefalosporánico, base estructural de las cefalosporinas

  13. Kinetic Spectrophotometric Determination of Certain Cephalosporins in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Mahmoud A.; Osama H. Abdelmageed; Tamer Z. Attia

    2009-01-01

    A simple, reliable, and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of eight cephalosporin antibiotics, namely, Cefotaxime sodium, Cephapirin sodium, Cephradine dihydrate, Cephalexin monohydrate, Ceftazidime pentahydrate, Cefazoline sodium, Ceftriaxone sodium, and Cefuroxime sodium. The method depends on oxidation of each of studied drugs with alkaline potassium permanganate. The reaction is followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the rate of change of abs...

  14. ANTIMICROBIAL POTENCY AGAINST MICROBES FOUND IN CLINICAL SAMPLES AND TOXICITY STUDIES ON SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Jahan; Mansoor Ahmad; Mehjabeen; Sikandar Khan Sherwani; Ghazala Raza Naqvi

    2013-01-01

    The antibacterial and antifungal activities of Terminalia arjuna, Tephrosia purpurea and Thuja occidentalis extracts were investigated against the standard drugs, which are presently available in the market as Gentamicin, Cephradine, Amoxicillin clavulanate, Norfloxacin and Itraconazole. Well method was used for antimicrobial activity and the zones of inhibition were measured in millimeters. The antibacterial activity was observed on three gram negative bacteria i.e. Escherichia coli, Klebsie...

  15. Resistance pattern of clinical isolates of staphylococcus aureus against five groups of antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the samples received in pathology laboratory, Pakistan institute of Medical Science, Islamabad, 5069 samples had bacterial growth, among these 2580 (51%) samples were Gram-positive cocci and 1688 were Staphylococcus aureus during a period of two years. Out of these Gram-positive cocci 56% were resistant to penicillin group, 27% were resistant to cephalosporin group, 22% were resistant to aminoglycoside group 15% were resistant to quinolone group and 31% were resistant to other antibiotics (cotrimaxazole, erythromycin, aztreonam, vancomycin, nitrofurantion and meropenam). Antibio-grams of Gram-positive cocci were determined against various antibiotics by disc diffusion method. The rate of resistance to most of the antibiotics such as ampicillin, piperacillin, carbenicillin, penicillin, cephradine, cefotaxime, erythromycin, ceclor, ofloxacin, pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, cotrimexazole (septran), gentamicin, meropenem, ceftazidime, erythromycin, tobramycin, enoxacin was higher when tested against the isolates collected from pus as compared to those from blood and urine. Antibiotic resistant strains were more prevalent in pus samples than other clinical isolates (blood and urine). The randomly selected 155 strains of Staphylococcus aureus when tested against five groups of antibiotics showed resistance rate against ampicillin (92%), cephradine (92%), cephradine (60%), and gentamicin (58%). However intermediate resistance was found in case of vancomicin (38%), in hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients. (author)

  16. Antibiotic resistance and plasmids carriage among Escherichia coli isolates from chicken meat in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred and thirty-one Escherichia coli isolates from raw chicken meat were tested for antibiotic susceptibility to twelve antibiotics, namely ampicillin 10μg, cefoparazone 30μg, cephradine 30μg, ciprofloxacin 5μg, chloramphenicol 30μg, enrofloxacin 5μg, erythromycin 15μg, kanamycin 30μg, nalidixic acid 30μg, tetracycline 30μg, trimethoprim 5μg, and vancomycin 30μg. The plasmid isolation was carried out according to the method described by Maniatis et al, with modifications as in the protocol provided by Taq Dye Deoxy Terminator Cycle Sequencing Kit (ABI P/ N 401150). The newly modified method is a mini alkaline-lysis / PGE precipitation procedure and easy to perform on large numbers of samples. The graphical method of relating the logarithm of the molecular weight of a DNA molecule (log C) to its electrophoretic mobility (m) in gels was used to determine the molecular weight of plasmid. Plasmids of known molecular weight from E. coli V517 were used as standards for calibrating the size of plasmid DNA molecules. In this study DNA fragments are referred to as plasmids. In all Escherichia coli isolates resistance to ampicillin (96.2%), cefoperazone (83.3%), cephradine (93.9%), ciprofloxacin (78.0%), chloramphenical (75.6%), enrofloxacin (72.0%), erythromycin (84.0%), kanamycin (50.8%), nalidixic acid (94.7%), tetracycline (90.2%), trimethoprim (94.7%) and vancomycin (100%) was observed (Table I). Plasmid occurrence rates of 81.7% were observed among E. coli isolates from the chicken meat. The number of plasmids ranged from 0 to 8 and the sizes of plasmids ranged from 1.2 MDa to 118.6 MDa. Plasmids were detected in 93.8% of E. coli isolates that were resistant to all 12 antibiotics and in 90.5% of E. coli isolates resistant to 11 antibodies (Table II). Three (2.8%) E. coli isolates harboured 8 plasmids and showed resistant to 12 antibiotics (Table III). The antibiotic resistance among the E. coli isolates in this study was compared and it was found a

  17. Quantitative liquid chromatographic determination of cefatrizine in serum and urine by fluorescence detection after post-column derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombez, E; Van der Weken, G; Van den Bossche, W; De Moerloose, P

    1979-09-21

    A fast, specific and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure for the determination of cefatrizine, an orally active cephalosporin, in serum and urine is proposed. The drug is determined by the internal standard method, using cephradine as the internal standard. The separation is carried out on a reversed-phase column, filled with octadecylsilane chemically bonded microparticles. The eluent is a mixture of acetonitrile with 0.025 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7). Quantitation is effected by fluorescence detection of the fluorophores formed after post-column derivatization with fluorescamine in a packed-bed reactor. The chromatographic conditions and the conditions for the post-column derivatization are discussed. The method has been applied to serum and urine samples, which were analysed after deproteinization with trichloroacetic acid and injection of the clear supernatant. The accuracy and reproducibility of the procedure were investigated by the determination of the cefatrizine content in spiked serum and urine samples. PMID:528641

  18. Structure and function of multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) and their relevance to drug therapy and personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nies, Anne T; Damme, Katja; Kruck, Stephan; Schaeffeler, Elke; Schwab, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE; SLC47A) proteins are membrane transporters mediating the excretion of organic cations and zwitterions into bile and urine and thereby contributing to the hepatic and renal elimination of many xenobiotics. Transported substrates include creatinine as endogenous substrate, the vitamin thiamine and a number of drug agents with in part chemically different structures such as the antidiabetic metformin, the antiviral agents acyclovir and ganciclovir as well as the antibiotics cephalexin and cephradine. This review summarizes current knowledge on the structural and molecular features of human MATE transporters including data on expression and localization in different tissues, important aspects on regulation and their functional role in drug transport. The role of genetic variation of MATE proteins for drug pharmacokinetics and drug response will be discussed with consequences for personalized medicine. PMID:27165417

  19. In Vitro Antibacterial Effect of Effective Microorganisms( EM) on Aeromonas hydrophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu; Zhixiu; He; Houjun; Zhang; Wenbo; Wu; Xiangdong; Wan; Gen; Deng; Shunzhou; Liu; Songlin

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand in vitro antibacterial effect of antibiotics and EM on Aeromonas hydrophila,14 isolates of A. hydrophila were isolated from diseased fish and aquaculture in the study. PCR amplification results of aerolysin gene( Aero gene) of isolates indicated that 7 out of 14 isolates were pathogenic A.hydrophila. In vitro antibacterial test indicated that 14 isolates were resistance to penicillin G,ampicillin,cephradine,cefazolin,tetracycline,terimethoprim,lincomycin and cephalexin,but showed high sensitivity to cefotaxime and furazolidone. In vitro antibacterial effect of EM on 14 isolates of A. hydrophila was positively correlated with concentration,and EM with the concentration greater than 60% had antibacterial effect on 14 isolates.

  20. Comparison of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectrum for Three Cephalosporins under Different pH Condi-tions%不同酸碱条件下三种头孢菌素表面增强拉曼光谱的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娟; 张雁

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the Raman spectrum and the surface enhanced Raman spectrum ( SERS) of cefalexin, cefadroxil and cephradine, and analyze the surface enhanced Raman spectrum of the three compounds under different pH conditions. Methods:The Raman spectrum and the surface enhanced Raman spectrum of the three compounds under different pH conditions were detected and measured by a portable Raman spectroscopy. Results: The results showed that the three compounds could exhibit characteristic peak information in the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy corresponding to that in the normal Raman spectrum, and the pH values had certain impact on the surface enhanced Raman spectrum of the three substances. Conclusion: Both the Raman spectrum and the surface enhanced Raman spectrum of cefalexin, cefadroxil and cephradine reflect certain fingerprint characteristics, and it is feasible to use Raman scattering method to identify the three cephalosporins.%目的:研究头孢氨苄、头孢羟氨苄及头孢拉定的拉曼光谱及表面增强拉曼光谱,对三种化合物在不同酸碱条件下的表面增强拉曼光谱进行分析。方法:用便携式拉曼光谱仪对三种物质的常规拉曼光谱与不同酸碱条件下的表面增强拉曼光谱进行考察。结果:研究表明,三种化合物均能在表面增强拉曼光谱中表现出跟常规拉曼光谱相对应的特征峰信息,酸碱度对于三种物质表面增强拉曼光谱的检测均有一定影响。结论:头孢氨苄、头孢羟氨苄及头孢拉定的拉曼光谱及表面增强拉曼光谱均体现出一定的指纹性特征,用拉曼光谱法鉴别这三种头孢类抗菌药是可行的。

  1. Diagnostic accuracy on the management of acute paediatric urinary tract infection in a general paediatric unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fahisham Taib; Bakht Jamal

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain diagnostic accuracy of paediatric urinary tract infection (UTI) in a general paediatric unit of a district hospital. Methods: Retrospective case note review and comparing to the final computerised database of Human in-Patient Enquiry (HIPE) at Portiuncula Hospital, Galway, Ireland. All children from 0-16 years of age with the diagnosis of UTI were enrolled within the 3 year study period. The information was first retrieved from HIPE system to capture list of patients. Case notes revision was followed to extract data under standardized pro-forma for demography, accuracy of diagnosis, treatment instituted and investigation ordered. Patients’ data was reviewed according to updated definition. Results: There were 85 cases treated for UTI during the 3 year period, and only 45 cases were considered as genuine UTI according to diagnostic criteria. Out of 45 cases, 16 cases were considered as suspected UTI cases. Escherichia coli was noted to be the commonest organism. Cephradine has been used as the first line treatment as per local guideline;however, different antibiotic regimes were based on physician’s preferences. The sensitivity of the current method of UTI diagnosis remained at 64%when comparing final diagnosis in the HIPE system. Conclusions: UTI can be difficult to accurately diagnosis in certain clinical cases. Decisions made should be individualized and tailored according to clinical suspicion and presentation of the patients. Improvement to ensure accurate diagnosis is vital to ensure correct data capture in the HIPE system thus giving valuable information and resource for future care.

  2. Bacterial culture of perfusion blood after open-heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, R; Hjersing, N

    1980-10-01

    The results of routine culture of 595 consecutive specimens of perfusion blood are presented. Ten per cent of the specimens yielded bacteria overall, but it was found that the isolation rate was increased to 17.7% when the prophylactic antibodies being given during the bypass were specifically neutralised. Coagulase-negative staphylococci and diphtheroids formed the majority of organisms isolated, but Gram negative bacilli or "coliform" type were also occasionally found. A comparison of the relative findings in patients receiving prophylactic flucloxacillin or cephradine showed that the isolation rates of coagulase-negative staphylococci and diphtheroids were lower in the group receiving flucloxacillin. The origin of the bacteria isolated from perfusion blood remains uncertain but speciation of coagulase-negative staphylococci from perfusion blood and similar organisms isolated subsequently from catheter tips in the same patients revealed no evidence that the two sources of organisms were linked. Although organisms are easily and commonly found in perfusion blood, the relevance of this phenomenon to post-operative endocarditis is not clear. PMID:7008242

  3. Characterization of the oral absorption of several aminopenicillins: determination of intrinsic membrane absorption parameters in the rat intestine in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinko, P. J.; Amidon, G. L.

    1992-01-01

    The absorption mechanism of several penicillins was characterized using in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion in the rat. The intrinsic membrane parameters were determined using a modified boundary layer model (fitted value +/- S.E.): Jmax* = 11.78 +/- 1.88 mM, Km = 15.80 +/- 2.92 mM, Pm* = 0, Pc* = 0.75 +/- 0.04 for ampicillin; Jmax* = 0.044 +/- 0.018 mM, Km = 0.058 +/- 0.026 mM, Pm* = 0.558 +/- 0.051, Pc* = 0.757 +/- 0.088 for amoxicillin; and Jmax* = 16.30 +/- 3.40 mM, Km = 14.00 +/- 3.30 mM, Pm* = 0, Pc* = 1.14 +/- 0.05 for cyclacillin. All of the aminopenicillins studied demonstrated saturable absorption kinetics as indicated by their concentration-dependent wall permeabilities. Inhibition studies were performed to confirm the existence of a nonpassive absorption mechanism. The intrinsic wall permeability (Pw*) of 0.01 mM ampicillin was significantly lowered by 1 mM amoxicillin and the Pw* of 0.01 mM amoxicillin was reduced by 2 mM cephradine consistent with competitive inhibition.

  4. Assays of residual antibiotics after treatment of {gamma}-ray and UV irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ji Hye; Nam, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Hun [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Seung Ho; Lee, Myun Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    The pollution of antibiotics is a major cause of spreading antibiotics resistant bacteria in the environment. Applications of ozonation, UV, and {gamma}-ray irradiations have been introduced to remove antibiotics in the effluents from wastewater treatment system. In this study, we compared the chemical (HPLC) and biological (antimicrobial susceptibility test, AMS) assays in measuring of the concentrations of residual antibiotics after {gamma}-ray and UV irradiation. Most samples were degraded by {gamma}-ray irradiation (1 {approx} 2 kGy). However, lincomycin and tetracycline were not degraded by UV irradiation. The concentration of residual antibiotics, that was treated with {gamma}-ray and UV irradiation, measuring by bioassay was similar to HPLC. The concentrations of {gamma}-ray irradiated cephradine measured by AMS test were 2 times higher than of HPLC assay, indicating AMS test is more sensitive than HPLC assay. These results indicate that {gamma}-ray irradiation technique is more useful than UV irradiation, and biological assay is more useful to detect the antibiotics and toxic intermediates in antibiotics degradation.

  5. Antibiotic resistance of Clostridium perfringens isolates from broiler chickens in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, K M; Elhariri, M

    2013-12-01

    The use of antibiotic feed additives in broiler chickens results in a high prevalence of resistance among their enteric bacteria, with a consequent emergence of antibiotic resistance in zoonotic enteropathogens. Despite growing concerns about the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains, which show varying prevalences in different geographic regions, little work has been done to investigate this issue in the Middle East. This study provides insight into one of the world's most common and financially crippling poultry diseases, necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens. The study was designed to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in C. perfringens isolates from clinical cases of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens in Egypt. A total of 125 isolates were obtained from broiler flocks in 35 chicken coops on 17 farms and were tested using the disc diffusion method. All 125 isolates were resistant to gentamicin, streptomycin, oxolinic acid, lincomycin, erythromycin and spiramycin. The prevalence of resistance to other antibiotics was also high: rifampicin (34%), chloramphenicol (46%), spectinomycin (50%), tylosin-fosfomycin (52%), ciprofloxacin (58%), norfloxacin (67%), oxytetracycline (71%), flumequine (78%), enrofloxacin (82%), neomycin (93%), colistin (94%), pefloxacin (94%), doxycycline (98%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (98%). It is recommended that C. perfringens infections in Egypt should be treated with antibiotics for which resistant isolates are rare at present; namely, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephradine, fosfomycin and florfenicol. PMID:24761735

  6. Current efficacy of antibiotics against Klebsiella isolates from urine samples - a multi-centric experience in Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Farhan Essa; Mushtaq, Ammara; Irshad, Mubashira; Rauf, Hiba; Afzal, Noureen; Rasheed, Abdur

    2013-01-01

    Due to emergence of bacterial resistant strains, the effectiveness of current antibiotic treatment without culture/sensitivity testing is questionable. Our study aims to assess the present sensitivity profiles of Klebsiella isolates from urine samples and provide options for empiric prescription in critically ill patients. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates collected over a period of 28 months till January 2011 from 1,617 urine samples of subjects presenting with Urinary Tract Infections were identified at a local diagnostic lab using standard protocol and subjected to Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion sensitivity testing. MICs were also estimated by E-nephelometry. Among 20 drugs used, low sensitivity was found to amoxicillin (0.1%), doxycycline (11.5%), nitrofurantoin (15.5%), amoxiclav (18.2%), gentamicin (35.4%), pipemidic acid, cephradine (40.3%) and cotrimoxazole (43.1%). The isolates were more sensitive to cefuroxime (55.9%), cefixime (57.7%), ciprofloxacin (62.5%), ofloxacin (63%), ceftriaxone (66.2%), ceftazidime (66.4%), cefotaxime (66.6%), fosfomycin (77.5%) and amikacin (89.4). Most effective were cefroperazone.sulbactam (95.8%), piperacillin.tazobactam (95.7%) and imipenem (97.7%). Self-medication, lack of awareness, and the misuse of antibiotics by doctors has exacerbated the menace of microbial resistance. The study warrants the prudent choice of drugs in adherence with prevailing sensitivity profiles. PMID:23261722

  7. ANTIMICROBIAL POTENCY AGAINST MICROBES FOUND IN CLINICAL SAMPLES AND TOXICITY STUDIES ON SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS

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    Noor Jahan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial and antifungal activities of Terminalia arjuna, Tephrosia purpurea and Thuja occidentalis extracts were investigated against the standard drugs, which are presently available in the market as Gentamicin, Cephradine, Amoxicillin clavulanate, Norfloxacin and Itraconazole. Well method was used for antimicrobial activity and the zones of inhibition were measured in millimeters. The antibacterial activity was observed on three gram negative bacteria i.e. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and one gram positive bacteria i.e. Staphylococcus aureus. The antifungal activity was investigated against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The cytotoxic effects (LD50 of the crude extracts were also observed on brine shrimps (Artemia salina using Etoposide as an internal standard. The crude extract of T. arjuna bark exhibited less potent antimicrobial activity as compared to crude extract of T. arjuna heart wood. Bark extract of T. arjuna showed no cytotoxic activity but heart wood extract showed this activity in brine shrimp bioassay technique. The crude extract of T. purpurea showed positive cytotoxic, potent antibacterial but no antifungal activity. The crude extract of T. occidentalis showed good antibacterial low antifungal and low cytotoxic activity. T. arjuna showed most potent antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity while T. Purpurea and T. oocidentalis posses less potent activities.

  8. Kinetic Spectrophotometric Determination of Certain Cephalosporins in Pharmaceutical Formulations

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    Mahmoud A. Omar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, reliable, and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of eight cephalosporin antibiotics, namely, Cefotaxime sodium, Cephapirin sodium, Cephradine dihydrate, Cephalexin monohydrate, Ceftazidime pentahydrate, Cefazoline sodium, Ceftriaxone sodium, and Cefuroxime sodium. The method depends on oxidation of each of studied drugs with alkaline potassium permanganate. The reaction is followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the rate of change of absorbance at 610 nm. The initial rate and fixed time (at 3 minutes methods are utilized for construction of calibration graphs to determine the concentration of the studied drugs. The calibration graphs are linear in the concentration ranges 5–15 g mL−1 and 5–25 g mL−1 using the initial rate and fixed time methods, respectively. The results are validated statistically and checked through recovery studies. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of the studied cephalosporins in commercial dosage forms. Statistical comparisons of the results with the reference methods show the excellent agreement and indicate no significant difference in accuracy and precision.

  9. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of certain cephalosporins in pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Mahmoud A; Abdelmageed, Osama H; Attia, Tamer Z

    2009-01-01

    A simple, reliable, and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of eight cephalosporin antibiotics, namely, Cefotaxime sodium, Cephapirin sodium, Cephradine dihydrate, Cephalexin monohydrate, Ceftazidime pentahydrate, Cefazoline sodium, Ceftriaxone sodium, and Cefuroxime sodium. The method depends on oxidation of each of studied drugs with alkaline potassium permanganate. The reaction is followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the rate of change of absorbance at 610 nm. The initial rate and fixed time (at 3 minutes) methods are utilized for construction of calibration graphs to determine the concentration of the studied drugs. The calibration graphs are linear in the concentration ranges 5-15 mug mL(-1) and 5-25 mug mL(-1) using the initial rate and fixed time methods, respectively. The results are validated statistically and checked through recovery studies. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of the studied cephalosporins in commercial dosage forms. Statistical comparisons of the results with the reference methods show the excellent agreement and indicate no significant difference in accuracy and precision. PMID:20140078

  10. Antibiotic sensitivity profiles determined with an Escherichia coli gene knockout collection: generating an antibiotic bar code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anne; Tran, Lillian; Becket, Elinne; Lee, Kim; Chinn, Laney; Park, Eunice; Tran, Katherine; Miller, Jeffrey H

    2010-04-01

    We have defined a sensitivity profile for 22 antibiotics by extending previous work testing the entire KEIO collection of close to 4,000 single-gene knockouts in Escherichia coli for increased susceptibility to 1 of 14 different antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, rifampin [rifampicin], vancomycin, ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, metronidazole, streptomycin, fusidic acid, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, erythromycin, and triclosan). We screened one or more subinhibitory concentrations of each antibiotic, generating more than 80,000 data points and allowing a reduction of the entire collection to a set of 283 strains that display significantly increased sensitivity to at least one of the antibiotics. We used this reduced set of strains to determine a profile for eight additional antibiotics (spectinomycin, cephradine, aztreonem, colistin, neomycin, enoxacin, tobramycin, and cefoxitin). The profiles for the 22 antibiotics represent a growing catalog of sensitivity fingerprints that can be separated into two components, multidrug-resistant mutants and those mutants that confer relatively specific sensitivity to the antibiotic or type of antibiotic tested. The latter group can be represented by a set of 20 to 60 strains that can be used for the rapid typing of antibiotics by generating a virtual bar code readout of the specific sensitivities. Taken together, these data reveal the complexity of intrinsic resistance and provide additional targets for the design of codrugs (or combinations of drugs) that potentiate existing antibiotics. PMID:20065048

  11. Antibiotic Sensitivity Profiles Determined with an Escherichia coli Gene Knockout Collection: Generating an Antibiotic Bar Code ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anne; Tran, Lillian; Becket, Elinne; Lee, Kim; Chinn, Laney; Park, Eunice; Tran, Katherine; Miller, Jeffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    We have defined a sensitivity profile for 22 antibiotics by extending previous work testing the entire KEIO collection of close to 4,000 single-gene knockouts in Escherichia coli for increased susceptibility to 1 of 14 different antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, rifampin [rifampicin], vancomycin, ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, metronidazole, streptomycin, fusidic acid, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, erythromycin, and triclosan). We screened one or more subinhibitory concentrations of each antibiotic, generating more than 80,000 data points and allowing a reduction of the entire collection to a set of 283 strains that display significantly increased sensitivity to at least one of the antibiotics. We used this reduced set of strains to determine a profile for eight additional antibiotics (spectinomycin, cephradine, aztreonem, colistin, neomycin, enoxacin, tobramycin, and cefoxitin). The profiles for the 22 antibiotics represent a growing catalog of sensitivity fingerprints that can be separated into two components, multidrug-resistant mutants and those mutants that confer relatively specific sensitivity to the antibiotic or type of antibiotic tested. The latter group can be represented by a set of 20 to 60 strains that can be used for the rapid typing of antibiotics by generating a virtual bar code readout of the specific sensitivities. Taken together, these data reveal the complexity of intrinsic resistance and provide additional targets for the design of codrugs (or combinations of drugs) that potentiate existing antibiotics. PMID:20065048

  12. Prevalence of Uropathogens in Diabetic Patients and Their Corresponding Resistance Pattern: Results of a Survey Conducted at Diagnostic Centers in Dhaka, Bangladesh

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    Manik C. Shill

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Urinary tract infection is the second most common clinical indication for empirical antibiotic treatment in primary and secondary health care settings. The incidence of diabetes mellitus throughout the world is increasing strikingly and in the long run, it has some major effects on the genitourinary system which makes diabetic patients more liable to urinary tract infection. This study is designed to reveal the distribution of uropathogens in diabetic patients according to age and sex, and corresponding resistance patterns.Methods: A six-month retrospective review of urine culture assay data from August 2009 to January 2010 from randomly selected 85 patients who suffered from both urinary tract infection and diabetes was conducted. Relevant information was retrieved and analyzed statistically using Microsoft® Excel 2002 software.Results: The study showed that females are more vulnerable to pathogenic attack than males throughout a wide age distribution. In terms of pathogenic distribution, Escherichia coli was the highest followed by Streptococcus sp., Acinetobacter, Klebsiella pneumoniae and few others. Though Meropenem showed no resistance with E. coli, Acinetobacter and Klebsiella pneumoniae, in the case of Streptococcus sp. it exhibited resistance of 25%. Amikacin exhibited only 3% resistance with E. coli, whereas no resistance with Acinetobacter and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and most interestingly showed 75% resistance with Streptococcus sp. Gentamicin exhibited no resistance with Acinetobacter while 26.9%, 50% and 87.5% resistance with E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus sp. respectively. Hence, Nitrofurantoin exhibited less resistance 11.9% compared to 12.5% resistance with E. coli and Streptococcus sp. Nitrofurantoin was highly prone to resistance with Acinetobacter and Klebsiella pneumoniae (100%, 50% respectively. Cephalosporins (cephradine, cefixime, ceftriaxone, cefepime etc. showed moderate resistance (avg. 50

  13. Encouraging good antimicrobial prescribing practice: A review of antibiotic prescribing policies used in the South East Region of England

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    Mayon White Richard T

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Good prescribing practice has an important part to play in the fight against antimicrobial resistance. Whilst it was perceived that most hospitals and Health Authorities possessed an antibiotic policy, a review of antibiotic policies was conducted to gain an understanding of the extent, quality and usefulness of these policies. Methods Letters were sent to pharmacists in hospitals and health authorities in across the South East region of the National Health Service Executive (NHSE requesting antibiotic policies. data were extracted from the policies to assess four areas; antibiotic specific, condition specific, patient specific issues and underpinning evidence. Results Of a possible 41 hospital trusts and 14 health authorities, 33 trusts and 9 health authorities (HAs provided policies. Both trust and HA policies had a median publication date of 1998 (trust range 1993-99, HA 1994-99. Eleven policies were undated. The majority of policies had no supporting references for the statements made. All policies provided some details on specific antibiotics. Gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were the preferred aminoglycoside and quinolone respectively with cephalosporins being represented by cefuroxime or cefotaxime in trusts and cephradine or cephalexin in HAs. 26 trusts provided advice on surgical prophylaxis, 17 had meningococcal prophylaxis policies and 11 covered methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. There was little information for certain groups such as neonates or children, the pregnant or the elderly. Conclusion There was considerable variation in content and quality across policies, a clear lack of an evidence base and a need to revise policies in line with current recommendations.

  14. Urinary Tract Infection and Drug Susceptibility Pattern in Patients of a Medical College Hospital in Bangladesh

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    Rafiul Alam Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common and frequently encountered serious morbidity that afflicts the tool not only to all segments of human population but also results in increasing antibiotic resistance due to persistence and mismanagement of the ailment. The present study aimed to ascertain the current situation of antimicrobial resistance of urinary tract infection. Objectives: To find out pyuria by direct microscopy, isolation and identification of the organisms by culture and to know the susceptibility pattern of organisms causing urinary tract infection. Materials and Methods: A total of 180 midstream urine samples were subjected to aerobic bacteriologic culture in the department of Microbiology, Cox’s Bazar Medical College and 250-bedded Sadar Hospital, Cox’s Bazar during the period of March to October 2012. Specimens were collected from hospitalized and outdoor patients of different age and sex groups. All specimens were examined by routine microscopy to find out significant pyuria (>5 pus cells/HPF. Strict aseptic precautions were taken all through the culture system. Results: Out of 180 specimens, 101 (56.11% culture yielded significant growth of single organism and 79 (43.89% yielded no growth. The isolated organisms were E. coli 74.26%, Klebsiella species 12.87%, Enterococci 4.95%, Staphylococcus saprophyticus 3.96%, Pseudomonas species 1.98% and Proteus species 1.98%. The highest sensitivity was shown by imipenem (100% followed by ceftriaxone (65%, azithromycin (65%, ciprofloxacin (60% and less sensitive to amoxycillin, cotrimoxazole, cephradine and nalidixic acid ranging 15–30%. Conclusion: The findings of the present study recommends that UTI should be treated by selective antibiotics obtained from culture and sensitivity test to minimize increasing trend of drug resistance.

  15. 65株不同圈养野生动物源性肠杆科菌的药敏分析%Application of the Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test for Enterobacteriaceae in 65 Species of Captive Wild Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄淑芳; 胡新波; 王才益; 江志

    2011-01-01

    Using the method of K-B antimicrobial susceptibility test(AST),we analyzed the drug susceptibility of intestinal rod bacteria to 10 kinds of clinical antibiotics including penicillins,cephalosporins,dilute aminoglycoside,quinolones,and sulfonamides.Intestinal rod bacteria were sampled from wild animals held at Hangzhou Zoo.The most effective drugs were the third generation cephalosporin,cefoperazone,and cefotaxime,which eliminated 83.1%of bacteria.Less effective antibiotics included quinolone and aminoglycoside drugs,which eliminated 60%or more of bacteria.Least effective was cefradine,a first generation cephalosporin.Effectiveness of cephradine was 58.5%,while that of ampicillin penicillin was 43.1%,and that of sulfamethoxazole of quinolone sulfa was 21.5%.This research provides a basis for clinical medication of captive wildlife.%采用K-B法药敏试验,分析圈养野生动物肠杆科菌对青霉素类、头孢类、氨基糖甙类、喹诺酮类、磺胺类的10种临床常用抗生素的药敏情况。结果显示:最敏感的是头孢稀类的三代头孢,头孢哌酮和头孢噻肟,其敏感率均为83.1%;较敏感的为喹诺酮类和氨基糖甙类药物,敏感率大于或等于60%;敏感性较差的是一代头孢中的头孢拉定、磺胺类药中的复方新诺明、青霉素类的氨苄青霉素,其敏感性分别为58.5%、43.1%和21.5%,被研究结果为兽医临床用药提供了依据。

  16. Etiología y sensibilidad bacteriana en infección urinaria en niños. Hospital Infantil Club Noel y Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

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    Iris de Castaño

    2009-11-01

    , cefadroxil, cephalexin, cephradine, trimethoprim-sulfa, ampicillin–sulbactam, cephalothin and cefazolin. Conclusions: E. coli is the main cause of UTI in the pediatric population of Cali. Usual recommended antibiotic and antibacterial for UTI empiric therapy are cephalexin, trimethoprim-sulfa, ampicillin, and amoxicillin. In accordance with the results in the present study resistance of bacteria to these medicaments was high. Antibiotics and antibacterials with better sensitivity were: cefuroxime, cefproxil, cefixime and nalidixic acid which the authors recommend for empiric oral therapy while the urine culture is in process and final results arrive. In spite of norfloxocin good sensitivity, its use should be reserved for especial cases where resistance to other antibiotics is found. If there is an indication for intravenous treatment, ceftriaxone or amikacin are recommended.

  17. Isolation and Identification of Streptococcus agalactiae from Dairy Cow Mastitis in Qinghai Province%青海地区奶牛无乳链球菌的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨有武

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is one of pathogenic bacterium that inducing mastitis of dairy cow. In order to master the popularity and laid the reference for selection of medicine to treat mastitis, 258 samples were collected from 16 dairy cow farms in Qinghai province, and 137 Streptococcus strains were isolated,including Streptococcus agalactiae 42 strains after subculture, gram straining, plasma-coagulase test, CAMP test, biochemical tests and animal pathogenicity tests. The results indicated that Streptococcus agalactiae was the primary pathogenic bacteria of mastitis. All of Streptococcus agalactiaes were hypersensitive to cephradine, and partially resistant to amikacin ofloxacin, ampicillin and sulfanilamide group after K-B medicine sensitivity test.%无乳链球菌是导致奶牛乳房炎的常见病原菌之一,为了掌握青海地区无乳链球菌的流行情况及常用药物的敏感性,从而为本地区更好的预防与治疗奶牛乳房炎提供保障.本试验在青海地区16个奶牛场共采集258份乳房炎乳样,经革兰氏染色与绵羊鲜血琼脂培养基培养纯化,获得疑似链球菌137株;随后经玻片法血浆凝固酶试验、CAMP试验、生化试验与动物致病性试验对无乳链球菌进行鉴定,结果显示,137株链球菌中含有无乳链球菌42株,分离率为30.7%;经K-B纸片扩散法对无乳链球菌耐药性检测结果显示,该地区无乳链球菌主要对头孢类高度敏感,对氧氟沙星、磺胺类、氨苄青霉素与阿米卡星中度敏感.

  18. Identification of a ferritin-like protein of Listeria monocytogenes as a mediator of β-lactam tolerance and innate resistance to cephalosporins

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    Krawczyk-Balska Agata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis. The β-lactam antibiotics penicillin G and ampicillin are the current drugs of choice for the treatment of listerial infections. While isolates of L. monocytogenes are susceptible to these antibiotics, their action is only bacteriostatic and consequently, this bacterium is regarded as tolerant to β-lactams. In addition, L. monocytogenes has a high level of innate resistance to the cephalosporin family of β-lactams frequently used to treat sepsis of unknown etiology. Given the high mortality rate of listeriosis despite rational antibiotic therapy, it is important to identify genes that play a role in the susceptibility and tolerance of L. monocytogenes to β-lactams. Results The hly-based promoter trap system was applied to identify penicillin G-inducible genes of L. monocytogenes. The results of reporter system studies, verified by transcriptional analysis, identified ten penicillin G-inducible genes. The contribution of three of these genes, encoding a ferritin-like protein (fri, a two-component phosphate-response regulator (phoP and an AraC/XylS family transcriptional regulator (axyR, to the susceptibility and tolerance of L. monocytogenes to β-lactams was examined by analysis of nonpolar deletion mutants. The absence of PhoP or AxyR resulted in more rapid growth of the strains in the presence of sublethal concentration of β-lactams, but had no effect on the MIC values or the ability to survive a lethal dose of these antibiotics. However, the Δfri strain showed impaired growth in the presence of sublethal concentrations of penicillin G and ampicillin and a significantly reduced ability to survive lethal concentrations of these β-lactams. A lack of Fri also caused a 2-fold increase in the sensitivity of L. monocytogenes to cefalotin and cephradine. Conclusions The present study has identified Fri as an important mediator of

  19. 415例介入治疗患者抗菌药物预防使用情况分析%Prophylactic Use Situation of Antibacterial Drugs in 415 Cases of Intervention Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王怡苹; 秦侃; 汪永宏; 范鲁雁

    2014-01-01

    目的:调查介入手术患者围手术期预防使用抗菌药物情况,分析存在的问题。方法回顾性分析医院2012年1月至12月介入手术患者抗菌药物使用情况,剔除原有感染已使用抗菌药物的病例,同时实施干预管理。结果监测患者415例,预防使用抗菌药物27例,使用率6.51%;用药天数1~7 d,平均1.78 d;使用频率排名前5位的依次为头孢孟多、头孢西丁、青霉素、头孢哌酮他唑巴坦、头孢拉定。结论介入手术患者抗菌药物预防性使用情况比较合理,但仍存在用药时间过长、选取不正确等情况,需进一步提高临床医师对抗菌药物使用知识的了解,提高抗菌药物预防性应用的合理性。%Objective To investigate the perioperative prophylactic antibacterial drug use in the patients with intervention surgery and to analyze the existing problems. Methods The retrospective analysis was performed to investigate the perioperative antibacterial drug use in the patients with intervention surgery from January to December 2012. The cases of original infection treated by the antibacterial drugs were excluded and at the same time the intervention management was implemented. Results A total of 415 cases were monitored, 27 cases used the prophylactic antibacterial drugs with the use rate of 6. 51%,the medication time ranged 1-7 d, average 1. 78 d. The top 5 of antibacterial drug use frequency in turn were cefamandole, cefoxitin, penicillin, cefoperazone tazobactam and cephradine. Conclusion The use of perioperative prophylactic antibacterial drug use in the patients undergoing intervention surgery is basically rea-sonable, but there are still some conditions such as too long time of antibacterial drug use and incorrect selection of antibacterial drugs, which needs to further increase the clinical doctors' understanding on the use knowledge of prophylactic antibacterial drugs for enhanc-ing the rationality of prophylactic

  20. 肉鸡沙门氏菌的分离鉴定及药敏试验%Isolation, Identification and Drug Sensitive Assay of Salmonella From Broiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王傲雪; 张凌云; 张桉潮; 李昆鹏; 张秀丽; 梁晚枫; 张林波

    2013-01-01

    为了解吉林省某地鸡源性沙门氏菌的感染及耐药情况,对该地7个肉鸡场150份病鸡组织样品进行细菌分离,并进行了血凝试验、致病性试验和药敏试验.分离得到26株沙门氏菌,经血凝鉴定有19株呈阳性,其中5株呈强阳性并均能使雏鸡致死.药敏试验结果显示,该5株沙门氏菌对头孢噻肟较为敏感;对氨苄西林、替米考星、林可霉素、阿奇霉素和头孢拉定表现出极高的耐药性,耐药率高达100%;诺氟沙星、恩诺沙星、环丙沙星、强力霉素和氯霉素5种临床用药与痢菌净不具有协同或累加作用.试验结果表明,沙门氏菌是危害该地肉鸡养殖场的主要病原菌之一,且耐药性十分严重.%To find out the situations about infection of Salmonella and its drug resistance somewhere in Jilin province,the bacteria were isolated from 150 tissue samples of sick broiler of 7 farms in this city,and hemagglutinin test,pathogenity test and drug sensitive test were carried out.26 strains were isolated,and 19 strains were identified positive by the HA,of which five were strongly positive and killed broiler,drug sensitive test results showed that the 5 strains of Salmonella were more sensitive to cefotaxime,and very high resistance to ampicillin,tilmicosin,lincomycin,azithromycin and cephradine,resistance rates as high as 100 %.Norfloxacin,enrofloxacin,ciprofloxacin,doxycycline and chloramphenicol didn't have synergistic or additive effect with mequindox which was used in clinical.These results suggested that Salmonella was one of the main pathogens harmful to the broiler of farms,and resistance was very serious.

  1. 副猪嗜血杆菌的分离鉴定及药敏试验%Isolation, Identification and Antibiotic Susceptibility Test of Haemophilus parasuis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉龙; 夏伟; 陈永松; 耿晶; 刘辉; 詹天龙; 李白; 侯喜林; 朴范泽

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if there is Glasser's disease in Heilongjiang,which provide a theory basis for the prevention and control of Glasser's disease. The dead piglets with polyserositis and arthritis were collected and the bacterium was isolated from the samples. Then the physical and chemical properties of isolated strain were identified, its 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR,and this DNA fragment was subsequently cloned and sequenced. The sequenced results were analyzed by BLAST in GenBank. The homology and evolution relations analysis of the similar sequences were done by DNAS-tar. The drug sensitivity testing was done by isolated strain. The results indicated that a pantomorphic NAD dependent strain was isolated, the results of the physical and chemical properties and PCR showed that was Haemophilus parasuis. The phyletic evolution analysis results of the isolated strain 16S rRNA gene showed that it was in same subgroup with the Haemophilus parasuis in China,Japan and American,however that was in single subgroup in Spain; drug sensitivity testing showed that it was hypersensitive to spectinomycin and cephradine.%黑龙江省近几年频繁发生以多发性浆膜炎、关节炎、脑膜炎以及急性死亡为特征的传染病,为猪场造成严重经济损失,为了确诊是否有副猪嗜血杆菌感染,采集病死猪肝脏、脾脏和肺脏等病料,进行副猪嗜血杆菌的分离;对其理化特性进行鉴定,应用PCR方法对其16S rRNA基因扩增后进行克隆测序,将测序结果在GenBank上进行BLAST分析,把相近的基因序列应用DNAStar软件进行同源性和进化关系分析;用分离菌株进行药物敏感性试验,筛选敏感药物.结果分离出一种具有多形性的NAD依赖性菌株,经鉴定为副猪嗜血杆菌;16S rRNA基因进化分析结果表明,分离菌株与以往报道的副猪嗜血杆菌中国、日本和美国分离株属于同一亚群,而西班牙分离株属于单独的亚群;

  2. 社区医院门急诊抗菌药物应用情况调查分析%Investigation and Analysis of Antibiotic of Community Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘焱; 杜淑贤

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our center in 2009 on the application of antimicrobial agents were analyzed in order to promptly identify problems, to better promote the hospital's scientific management and rational antimicrobial agents in clinical use. Method: January to December in 2009, Centre for Emergency Department a total of 47,578 electronic prescriptions, the number of prescriptions with antibiotics, the use of antibiotic type and quantity of sales amount of DDDs ( DDDs ), average daily costs ( DDDc ) value, etc. statistical analysis. Result: Antibiotic prescription 10952, 23.02% of the total number of prescriptions, involving a total of seven classes of antibiotics 36 species; antibacterial drug sales amount to the total amount of medicine sales 31.04%; which eephalosporins antibiotics annual retail sales exceeded 38% of the retail value, dominant; DDDs sort of gatifloxacin capsules, cephradine capsules and cephalexin capsules of the top three. Conclusion:The center basically rational use of antimicrobial drugs, but still need attention to their security, to further enhance the level of rational drug use.%目的:对我社区卫生服务中心2009年抗菌药物应用情况进行统计分析,以便及时发现问题,更好地促进医院的科学管理和抗菌药物在临床的合理使用.方法:收集2009年1月至12月中心门急诊电子处方共47578张,对含抗菌药物的处方数、所用抗菌素种类和数量、销售金额、用药频度(DDDs) 、日均费用(DDDc)值等进行统计分析.结果:使用抗菌药物处方10952张,占总处方数的23.02%,涉及抗菌药物共7类36种;抗菌药销售金额占西药销售总金额的31.04%;其中头孢菌素类零售金额超过全年抗菌药物零售金额38%,占主导地位;DDDs排序中加替沙星胶囊、头孢拉定胶囊和头孢氨苄胶囊居前3位.结论:我社区卫生服务中心使用抗菌药物基本合理,但仍需重视其安全性,进一步提高合理用药水平.

  3. SYNTHESIS AND APPLICATION OF NANOPARTICLES BY A HIGH GRAVITY METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Shao; Jianfeng Chen

    2005-01-01

    nanosized CaCO3, TiO2,SiO2, ZnO, Al2O3, ZnS, BaTiO3, BaCO3, SrCO3, Al(OH)3 and Mg(OH)2 flame retardants, and organic nano-pharmaceuticals including benzoic acid, salbutamol sulfate and cephradine. This technology received extensive attention in the field of nanomaterials fabrication and application. Dudukovic et al. commented, "The first large-scale application of RPB as a reactor occurred in China in production of nano CaCO3 by HGRP (high gravity reactive precipitation)of carbon dioxide and lime. Uniformly small particles were made in the RPB due to achievement of a sharp supersaturation interface and very short liquid residence times in the device." (Dudukovic et al., 2002). Date et al. said, "HGRP represents a second generation of strategies for nanosizing of hydrophobic drugs. In our opinion, among various methodologies described eariier, supercritical anti-solvent enhanced mass transfer method and HGRP method has potential to become technologies of the future owing to their simplicity, ease of scale-up and nanosizing efficiency" (Date et al., 2004).As-synthesized nano CaCO3 was employed as a template to synthesize silica hollow spheres (SHS) with mesostructured walls. Characterizations indicated that the obtained SHS had an average diameter of about 40 nm with a surface haviors of Brilliant Blue F (BB), which was used as a model drug. Loaded inside the inner core and on the surfaces of SHS,BB was released slowly into a bulk solution for as long as 1 140min as compared to only 10min for the normal SiO2nanoparticles, thus exhibiting a typical sustained release pattern without any burst effect. In addition, higher BET value of the carrier, lower pH value and lower temperature prolonged BB release from SHS, while stirring speed indicated little influence on the release behavior, showing the promising future of SHS in controlled drug delivery (Li et al., 2004).Nano-CaCO3 synthesized by the high gravity method was also employed as a filler to improve the performance of

  4. SYNTHESIS AND APPLICATION OF NANOPARTICLES BY A HIGH GRAVITY METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei; Shao; Jianfeng; Chen

    2005-01-01

    nanosized CaCO3, TiO2,SiO2, ZnO, Al2O3, ZnS, BaTiO3, BaCO3, SrCO3, Al(OH)3 and Mg(OH)2 flame retardants, and organic nano-pharmaceuticals including benzoic acid, salbutamol sulfate and cephradine. This technology received extensive attention in the field of nanomaterials fabrication and application. Dudukovic et al. commented, "The first large-scale application of RPB as a reactor occurred in China in production of nano CaCO3 by HGRP (high gravity reactive precipitation)of carbon dioxide and lime. Uniformly small particles were made in the RPB due to achievement of a sharp supersaturation interface and very short liquid residence times in the device." (Dudukovic et al., 2002). Date et al. said, "HGRP represents a second generation of strategies for nanosizing of hydrophobic drugs. In our opinion, among various methodologies described eariier, supercritical anti-solvent enhanced mass transfer method and HGRP method has potential to become technologies of the future owing to their simplicity, ease of scale-up and nanosizing efficiency" (Date et al., 2004).As-synthesized nano CaCO3 was employed as a template to synthesize silica hollow spheres (SHS) with mesostructured walls. Characterizations indicated that the obtained SHS had an average diameter of about 40 nm with a surface haviors of Brilliant Blue F (BB), which was used as a model drug. Loaded inside the inner core and on the surfaces of SHS,BB was released slowly into a bulk solution for as long as 1 140min as compared to only 10min for the normal SiO2nanoparticles, thus exhibiting a typical sustained release pattern without any burst effect. In addition, higher BET value of the carrier, lower pH value and lower temperature prolonged BB release from SHS, while stirring speed indicated little influence on the release behavior, showing the promising future of SHS in controlled drug delivery (Li et al., 2004).Nano-CaCO3 synthesized by the high gravity method was also employed as a filler to improve the performance of