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Sample records for cephalothin

  1. Compound list: cephalothin [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cephalothin CLT 00141 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/cephalothin....Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/cephalothin...T/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/cephalothin.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ftp://ftp.bio...sciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Single/cephalothin.Rat.in_vivo.Kidney.Single.zi...p ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Repeat/cephalothin.Rat.in_vivo.Kidney.Repeat.zip ...

  2. A case of cephalothin-associated urolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan WM Lim

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ivan WM Lim1, Peter JO Stride1,2, Robert L Horvath31Department of Medicine, Redcliffe Hospital, Redcliffe, Queensland, Australia; 2University of Queensland School of Medicine, Redcliffe, Queensland, Australia; 3Infectious Diseases Department, Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: We present a case of osteomyelitis requiring prolonged intravenous cephalothin complicated by symptomatic calcium oxalate urocalculi formation. Patients on long-term ß-lactam antibiotics with lower urinary tract symptoms may have urolithiasis rather than a urinary tract infection.Keywords: urolithiasis, urinary tract infection, cephalothin

  3. A case of cephalothin-associated urolithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan WM Lim; Peter JO Stride; Horvath, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    Ivan WM Lim1, Peter JO Stride1,2, Robert L Horvath31Department of Medicine, Redcliffe Hospital, Redcliffe, Queensland, Australia; 2University of Queensland School of Medicine, Redcliffe, Queensland, Australia; 3Infectious Diseases Department, Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: We present a case of osteomyelitis requiring prolonged intravenous cephalothin complicated by symptomatic calcium oxalate urocalculi formation. Patients on long-term ß-lactam ant...

  4. Cefoxitin and Cephalothin: Antimicrobial Activity, Human Pharmacokinetics, and Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumfitt, William; Kosmidis, John; Hamilton-Miller, Jeremy M. T.; Gilchrist, James N. G.

    1974-01-01

    Cefoxitin, a semisynthetic cephamycin, has been compared with the widely used parenteral cephalosporin, cephalothin, in terms of antibacterial activity, human pharmacokinetics, and toxicity. For both compounds, minimal inhibitory concentrations were within the therapeutic range against the 156 gram-positive cocci tested (except group D streptococci), but cephalothin was 8 to 20 times more active. Regarding the 313 gram-negative organisms tested, both antibiotics were of approximately equal activity against cephalothin-susceptible strains, but cefoxitin was outstandingly superior against Providencia spp. and indole-producing Proteus spp., and markedly better against Serratia marcescens and Bacteroides fragilis. Against these organisms, cefoxitin but not cephalothin would be expected to be therapeutically valuable. Antibiotic activity levels in the serum and urine of 18 human volunteers after parenteral administration were higher and more prolonged in the case of cefoxitin, which had an average terminal serum half-life of about 45 min and a urinary recovery of about 90%. Cefoxitin was entirely nontoxic and, given intramuscularly, slightly less painful then cephalothin. These preliminary results suggest that cephamycins may prove to be a significant chemotherapeutic advance. PMID:15830475

  5. Increased incidence of postoperative infections during prophylaxis with cephalothin compared to doxycycline in intestinal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, Gunnar; Nilsen, Roy M; Svensen, Rune;

    2009-01-01

    controls. The registration included time periods when the regimen was changed from doxycycline to cephalothin and back again. RESULTS: The SSI in the colorectal department increased from 19% to 30% (p=0.002) when doxycycline was substituted with cephalothin and decreased to 17% when we changed back...... to doxycycline (p=0.005). In the gynaecology department the surgical site infection rate did not increase significantly. Subgroup analysis showed major changes in infections in rectal resections from 20% to 35% (p=0.02) and back to 12% (p=0.003). CONCLUSION: Doxycycline combined with metronidazole...

  6. Cefoxitin, a New Semi-synthetic Cephamycin: An In-vitro and In-vivo Comparison with Cephalothin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmidis, J.; Hamilton-Miller, J. M. T.; Gilchrist, J. N. G.; Kerry, D. W.; Brumfitt, W.

    1973-01-01

    The activity of cefoxitin was compared with that of cephalothin against 229 bacterial strains. Cefoxitin was more active against most Gram-negative strains, notably against indole-producing Proteus spp., which are usually resistant to the cephalosporins. Cefoxitin was not susceptible to any significant extent to degradation by β-lactamases produced by Gram-negative organisms. Against Gram-positive organisms, however, cefoxitin was considerably less active than cephalothin, but minimum inhibitory concentrations for Staphylococcus aureus were well within therapeutically attainable blood levels. Pharmacokinetic studies in 18 volunteers showed a higher and longer sustained antibiotic activity in serum and urine after injections of cefoxitin than after equal doses of cephalothin. Urinary recovery of cefoxitin activity was also much higher than that of cephalothin. No evidence of toxicity due to cefoxitin was found. Cefoxitin was slightly less painful after intramuscular injection than cephalothin. PMID:4202265

  7. In vitro susceptibility of cephalothin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Amikacin and selected new beta-lactam agents.

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, B T; Meyer, R D; Pasiecznik, K A

    1982-01-01

    Amikacin was evaluated in vitro by agar dilution testing against 148 different clinical isolates of cephalothin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in parallel with cephalothin, cefoxitin, moxalactam, N-formimidoyl thienamycin, ceftriaxone, and cefmenoxime. Cefsulodin was also evaluated against 39 isolates of P. aeruginosa. More than 80% of all isolates tested were also gentamicin resistant, as determined by disk testing. Moxalactam and amikacin had comparable high activit...

  8. In vitro activity effects of combinations of cephalothin, dicloxacillin, imipenem, vancomycin and amikacin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solórzano-Santos Fortino

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background combinations of drugs has been proposed as an alternative for oxacillin-resistant staphylococci infections, however, limited information about in vitro combinations are available for multi-resistant strains. The objective of this study was to describe the interaction of beta-lactams in combination with vancomycin or amikacin against 26 oxacillin and amikacin-resistant nosocomial Staphylococcus spp. isolates. Methods activity of dicloxacillin plus amikacin, cephalothin plus amikacin, cephalothin plus vancomycin, imipenem plus vancomycin and vancomycin plus amikacin was evaluated by checkerboard synergy tests and the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FIC was calculated. Results: dicloxacillin plus amikacin, and cephalothin plus amikacin were synergistic or partially synergistic in 84.6% and 100% respectively. For nearly half of the isolates the mean concentrations of dicloxacillin, cephalothin and amikacin at which FIC indexes were calculated were achievable therapeutically. Vancomycin plus amikacin had synergistic effect only against two isolates, and partially synergistic in 38.6%. For the combinations vancomycin plus cephalothin and vancomycin plus imipenem the effect was additive in 76.9% and 80.7% respectively. Conclusion in this study the checkerboard analysis showed that amikacin in combination with cephalothin or dicloxacillin was synergistic against most of the resistant strains of S. aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Vancomycin in combination with a beta-lactam (cephalothin or imipenem showed additivity. An indifferent effect predominated for the combination vancomycin plus amikacin. Even though a synergistic effect is expected when using a beta-lactam plus amikacin combination, it is possible that the effect cannot be clinically achievable. Careful selection of antimicrobial combinations and initial MICs are mandatory for future evaluations.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of a tridentate Schiff base derived from cephalothin and sulfadiazine, and its transition metal complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacona, J. R.; Noriega, Natiana; Camus, Juan

    2015-02-01

    Metal(II) coordination compounds of a cephalothin Schiff base (H2L) derived from the condensation of cephalothin antibiotic with sulfadiazine were synthesized. The Schiff base ligand, mononuclear [ML(H2O)3] (M(II) = Mn, Co, Ni, Zn) complexes and magnetically diluted dinuclear copper(II) complex [CuL(H2O)3]2 were characterized by several techniques, including elemental and thermal analysis, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements, electronic, FT-IR, EPR and 1H NMR spectral studies. The cephalothin Schiff base ligand H2L behaves as a dianionic tridentate NOO chelating agent. The biological applications of complexes have been studied on two bacteria strains (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) by agar diffusion disc method.

  10. Synergistic effects of dicloxacillin or clavulanic acid in combination with penicillin G or cephalothin against Yersinia enterocolitica.

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez-Valera, M; Ruiz-Bravo, A; Ramos-Cormenzana, A.

    1986-01-01

    Cultures of Yersinia enterocolitica grown at 22 degrees C produced beta-lactamases, whereas cultures grown at 37 degrees C produced these enzymes much less effectively. Both dicloxacillin and clavulanic acid inhibited the beta-lactamase activity of bacterial crude extracts and potentiated the activity of penicillin G or cephalothin against 14 Y. enterocolitica strains. It appeared that the beta-lactamase activity present in Y. enterocolitica cells grown at 37 degrees C was great enough to pla...

  11. In vitro activity effects of combinations of cephalothin, dicloxacillin, imipenem, vancomycin and amikacin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. strains

    OpenAIRE

    Solórzano-Santos Fortino; Vilchis-Pérez Mariano; Leaños-Miranda Blanca E; Miranda-Novales Guadalupe

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background combinations of drugs has been proposed as an alternative for oxacillin-resistant staphylococci infections, however, limited information about in vitro combinations are available for multi-resistant strains. The objective of this study was to describe the interaction of beta-lactams in combination with vancomycin or amikacin against 26 oxacillin and amikacin-resistant nosocomial Staphylococcus spp. isolates. Methods activity of dicloxacillin plus amikacin, cephalothin plus...

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Alkaloid Fractions from Berberis microphylla G. Forst and Study of Synergism with Ampicillin and Cephalothin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreto Manosalva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Berberis microphylla is a native plant that grows in Patagonia and is commonly used by aboriginal ethnic groups in traditional medicine as an antiseptic for different diseases. The present study evaluated the antibacterial and synergistic activity of alkaloid extracts of B. microphylla leaves, stems and roots used either individually or in combination with antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The in vitro antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root alkaloid extracts had significant activity only against Gram-positive bacteria. Disc diffusion tests demonstrated that the root extract showed similar activity against B. cereus and S. epidermidis compared to commercial antibiotics, namely ampicillin and cephalothin, and pure berberine, the principal component of the alkaloid extracts, was found to be active only against S. aureus and S. epidermidis with similar activity to that of the root extract. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the alkaloid extracts ranged from 333 to 83 μg/mL, whereas minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs varied from 717 to 167 μg/mL. In addition, synergistic or indifferent effects between the alkaloid extracts and antibiotics against bacterial strains were confirmed.

  13. Deacylation Mechanism and Kinetics of Acyl-Enzyme Complex of Class C β-Lactamase and Cephalothin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ravi; Nair, Nisanth N

    2016-03-17

    Understanding the molecular details of antibiotic resistance by the bacterial enzymes β-lactamases is vital for the development of novel antibiotics and inhibitors. In this spirit, the detailed mechanism of deacylation of the acyl-enzyme complex formed by cephalothin and class C β-lactamase is investigated here using hybrid quantum-mechanical/molecular-mechanical molecular dynamics methods. The roles of various active-site residues and substrate in the deacylation reaction are elucidated. We identify the base that activates the hydrolyzing water molecule and the residue that protonates the catalytic serine (Ser64). Conformational changes in the active sites and proton transfers that potentiate the efficiency of the deacylation reaction are presented. We have also characterized the oxyanion holes and other H-bonding interactions that stabilize the reaction intermediates. Together with the kinetic and mechanistic details of the acylation reaction, we analyze the complete mechanism and the overall kinetics of the drug hydrolysis. Finally, the apparent rate-determining step in the drug hydrolysis is scrutinized. PMID:26918257

  14. Antibacterial Activity of Alkaloid Fractions from Berberis microphylla G. Forst and Study of Synergism with Ampicillin and Cephalothin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosalva, Loreto; Mutis, Ana; Urzúa, Alejandro; Fajardo, Victor; Quiroz, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Berberis microphylla is a native plant that grows in Patagonia and is commonly used by aboriginal ethnic groups in traditional medicine as an antiseptic for different diseases. The present study evaluated the antibacterial and synergistic activity of alkaloid extracts of B. microphylla leaves, stems and roots used either individually or in combination with antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The in vitro antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root alkaloid extracts had significant activity only against Gram-positive bacteria. Disc diffusion tests demonstrated that the root extract showed similar activity against B. cereus and S. epidermidis compared to commercial antibiotics, namely ampicillin and cephalothin, and pure berberine, the principal component of the alkaloid extracts, was found to be active only against S. aureus and S. epidermidis with similar activity to that of the root extract. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the alkaloid extracts ranged from 333 to 83 μg/mL, whereas minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) varied from 717 to 167 μg/mL. In addition, synergistic or indifferent effects between the alkaloid extracts and antibiotics against bacterial strains were confirmed. PMID:26760994

  15. In-vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of methicillin, isoxazolyl penicillins and cephalothin against coagulase-negative staphylococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarløv, J O; Rosdahl, V T; Mortensen, I;

    1988-01-01

    the isoxazolyl penicillins showed a high degree of uniformity. However more strains were resistant to cloxacillin and oxacillin than to dicloxacillin and flucloxacillin. Only a weak correlation was found between beta-lactamase production, and resistance to the six antibiotics. Methicillin was the most...

  16. Study on in vitro antibacterial effect of Berberine on ESBLs-producing K. Pneunmoniae Combing with Cephalothin%黄连素与头孢菌素联用对产ESBLs克雷伯菌的体外抗菌作用初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米伟; 张永海

    2009-01-01

    Object To explore antibacterial effect of Berberine on ESBLs-producing K. Pneunmoniae combing with Ceftazidime.Methods ESBLs-producing K. Pneunmoniae confirmation test was done using the method of slip; MIC of Berberine and Ceftazidime on ESBLs-producing K. Pneunmoniae was detected by agar dilution test and double dilution; Evaluation of synergistic antibacterial effect was used by broth chessboard method. Antimicrobial susceptibilities test was done using the methods of Kirby-Bauer according to the standards of CLSI. Results MIC90 of Ceftazidime on ESBLs-producing K. Pneunmoniae is 19.55μg·ml-1,and MIC90 of Berberine on ESBLs-producing K. Pneunmoniae is 35.67mg·ml-1;Activity of β-Lactamase of Berberine is significant lower than Berberine+Ceftazidime by bacterio-lipid compared with bacterio-broth(P<0.05);The diameter of antibacterial ring of Ceftazidime on ESBLs-producing K. Pneunmoniae is 12~23mm,while that of Berberine+Ceftazidime is 13~24.5mm,which there is significant difference using t-test(P<0.05);FIC index of Berberine+Ceftazidime is additive action by antimicrobial susceptibilities test of ESBLs-producing K. pneunmoniae. Conclusion Antibacterial effect of Berberine on ESBLs-producing K. Pneunmoniae combing with Ceftazidime is additive action by antimicrobial susceptibilities test; Berberine can inhibit activity of β-Lactamase of ESBLs-producing K. pneunmoniae combing with Ceftazidime.%目的 探讨黄连素与头孢他啶联用对产ESBLs克雷伯菌抑菌作用. 方法 采用纸片扩散法、琼脂稀释法和液体稀释法测定. 结果 头孢他啶对产ESBLs克雷伯菌MIC90为19.55μg·ml-1 ,黄连素对产ESBLs大肠埃希菌MIC90为35.67mg·ml-1 ;黄连素及黄连素+头孢他啶使β-内酰胺酶活性降低, P<0.05;单用头孢他啶与头孢他啶联合黄连素所测抑菌圈直径均数比较, P<0.05,有统计学意义;头孢他啶、黄连素联合药敏试验对产ESBLs克雷伯菌FIC指数为0.75、0.625、0.625. 结论 黄连素联合头孢他啶对产ESBLs克雷伯菌联合药敏结果 呈相加作用,可抑制产ESBLs克雷伯菌的β-内酰胺酶活性.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Europe and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Oliveira, A. P.; Watts, J. L.; Salmon, S. A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2000-01-01

    (123), Switzerland (69), United States (53), and Zimbabwe (6). The antimicrobial agents tested were penicillin, ampicillin, oxacillin, cephalothin, ceftiofur, amoxicillin + clavulanate, penicillin + novobiocin, enrofloxacin, premafloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, lincomycin, pirlimycin, neomycin...

  18. Comparative virulence genotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of environmental and clinical Salmonella enterica from Cochin, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvathi, A.; Vijayan, J.; Murali, G.; Chandran, P.

    . Newport revealed multiple drug resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, trimethorprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, cephalothin, and cephalexin. In comparison, S. Typhi were susceptible to all clinically relevant...

  19. Profiling of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid replicon types in β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Seung Won; Jung, Myunghwan; Shin, Min-Kyung; Yoo, Han Sang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 78 isolates of Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle farms were investigated for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and/or AmpC β-lactamase. In the disc diffusion test with ampicillin, amoxicillin, cephalothin, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefoxitin, 38.5% of the isolates showed resistance to all of ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cephalothin. The double disc synergy method revealed that none of the isolates produced ESBL or AmpC β-lactam...

  20. R-plasmic transfer from Serratia liquefaciens to Escherichia coli in vitro and in vivo in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice associated with human fecal flora.

    OpenAIRE

    Duval-Iflah, Y; Raibaud, P; Tancrede, C; Rousseau, M.

    1980-01-01

    It was shown that a strain of Serratia liquefaciens harbors a conjugative R-plasmid responsible for reistance to the following 14 antibiotics: ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, butirosin, neomycin, paramomycin, kanamycin, lividomycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, sulfonamide, and chloramphenicol, which belong to five families, the beta-lactamines, the aminoglycosides, the tetracyclines, the sulfonamides, and the phenicols. Resistance to th 14 antibiotics was cotra...

  1. Mechanism of resistance to some cephalosporins in Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Kono, M; Sasatsu, M; O'Hara, K; Shiomi, Y.; HAYASAKA, T.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanism of resistance to some cephalosporins in Staphylococcus aureus strains was investigated with high-pressure liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Drug inactivation by penicillinase was found to be the main mechanism of resistance to cefazolin, cephaloridine, and cephalothin in S. aureus.

  2. Speciation and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D J; Kaplan, R L; Landau, W; Trenholme, G M

    1982-08-01

    During a six month period, 191 isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci from blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid and heart valves were identified to species level and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Seventy-one percent of isolates were Staphylococcus epidermidis, 8% Staphylococcus warneri, 7% Staphylococcus hominis, 7% Staphylococcus haemolyticus, 4% Staphylococcus capitis, 2% Staphylococcus saprophyticus and 1% Staphylococcus cohnii. Approximately 4% of isolates were felt to be associated with infection. Overall, 18% of isolates were susceptible to penicillin G, 61% oxacillin, 98% cephalothin, 98% cefamandole, 72% cefotaxime, 95% cefsulodin, 76% gentamicin, 64% clindamycin and 98% rifampicin. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. Vancomycin, rifampicin, cephalothin and cefamandole showed excellent activity against oxacillin-resistant isolates. With one exception, speciation was not helpful in determining whether or not an isolate was associated with infection. PMID:7173185

  3. Anaerobic bacteria: evaluation of disc susceptibility to four cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, J; Pechère, J C

    1978-01-01

    The disc diffusion technique was evaluated with 178 strains of anaerobes and four cephalosporins (cephalothin, cefamandole, cefazolin and cefoxitin). Good correlation in results was found in comparison with the agar dilution technique (p less than 0.001) with the exception of cefamandole and cefazolin against anaerobic cocci (p greater than 0.05). Choosing a breakpoint of 8 microgram/ml for distinguishing susceptible and resistant strains, we determined corresponding incubation, the rate of error is less than 1% for false susceptible and less than 5% for false resistant. However, some strains of anaerobic cocci required a 48 hour incubation period for allowing visible growth. Moreover, a great deal (60.5%) of overlapping zone diameters made interpretation of disc diffusion test difficult among Bacteroides fragilis strains classed as susceptible, intermediate and resistant occuring with cefoxitin. The results have shown that the cephalothin disk will not accurately predict susceptibility of B. fragilis to cefoxitin. PMID:730395

  4. Plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (CMY-2) gene in Salmonella typhimurium isolated from diarrheic pigs in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ki-Eun; Lim, Seong-In; Choi, Hwan-Won; Lim, Suk-Kyung; Song, Jae-Young; An, Dong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Abstracts Background Salmonella resistant to third-generation cephalosporin has been isolated from an increasing number of animals worldwide. The purpose of this study was to examine ESBL (extended-spectrum β-lactamases)-producing and PABL (plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases)-producing Salmonella isolates from pigs in South Korea. Results Salmonella Typhimurium KVCC-BA1300259 was resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, cefoxithin, genta...

  5. Changing Trend of Empirical Antibiotic Regimen: Experience of Two Studies at Different Periods in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Marzban

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial sepsis is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity in neonates. It has been recognized a gradual change in spectrum of organisms responsible for neonatal sepsis. In this study we have evaluated changing trend of incidence and antibiotic susceptibility in neonatal late - onset sepsis (LOS in 2-periods. This study is based on results of blood culture in neonatal late-onset sepsis, in 2--periods study throughout 12 - years. Neonatal LOS was defined as clinical signs suggestive of infection with a positive blood culture (B/C after 72 hrs of birth. During first study (period: 1990-1992, the most common bacteremia in LOS was staphylococcus aureus (staph aureus (34%. Overall gram- negative bacteria (GNB were the predominant organism (66%. It was shown that 60% of GNB were resisted to gentamicin and 3% to amikacin, while in case of gram-positive bacteria (GPB; about 95% were resisted to ampicillin and 28% to cephalothin. In the second study (period: 2004-2007, the vast majority (56.6% of septic cases were caused by GNB. The most common cause of late- onset sepsis was klebsiela p. (31%. The GPB were resistant to cephalothin (90%. There has been a dramatic increase resistance to cephalothin and aminoglycosides and 3rd -generation cephalosporins. The combination of cephalothin plus amikacin in suspected LOS was no longer the effective therapeutic regimen in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Now, it seems the best choice for empiric antibiotic regimen in suspected LOS is the combination vancomycin plus amikacin. Constant surveillance is important to guide empirical antibiotic therapy and changes in trends.

  6. Detection of resistance due to inducible beta-lactamase in Enterobacter aerogenes and Enterobacter cloacae.

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, T W; Thomas, J. S

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-six of 36 strains of Enterobacter cloacae and E. aerogenes with inducible beta-lactamase developed resistance when cefoxitin (inducer) was added to cefuroxime disks. Constitutive beta-lactamase producers (n = 23) were all resistant to cefuroxime. Cefuroxime resistance correlated with the amount of induced or constitutive beta-lactamase. Cefuroxime was a better indicator of induced resistance than cefamandole, cefazolin, cephalothin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ticarcillin with or without ...

  7. Emergence of clinical isolates of Escherichia coli producing TEM-1 derivatives or an OXA-1 beta-lactamase conferring resistance to beta-lactamase inhibitors.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, X. Y.; Bordon, F; Sirot, D; Kitzis, M D; Gutmann, L

    1994-01-01

    Sixteen Escherichia coli clinical isolates which were resistant to ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate but susceptible to cephalothin were studied. Eight strains showed the presence of a beta-lactamase which comigrates with reference OXA-1 enzyme. The eight other strains produced different TEM-1 derivatives which had in common a higher Km for penicillins and a higher 50% inhibitory concentration for the beta-lactamase inhibitors. By oligotyping and sequencing of PCR products, it was shown ...

  8. AmpC β-Lactamases

    OpenAIRE

    Jacoby, George A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: AmpC β-lactamases are clinically important cephalosporinases encoded on the chromosomes of many of the Enterobacteriaceae and a few other organisms, where they mediate resistance to cephalothin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, most penicillins, and β-lactamase inhibitor-β-lactam combinations. In many bacteria, AmpC enzymes are inducible and can be expressed at high levels by mutation. Overexpression confers resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins including cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and ceft...

  9. In vitro evaluation of Ro 13-9904.

    OpenAIRE

    Hinkle, A M; Bodey, G P

    1980-01-01

    The in vitro activity of a new investigational cephalosporin, Ro 13-9904, was compared with those of four cephalosporins (cephalothin, cefamandole, cefoxitin, and moxalactam), five semisynthetic penicillins (mezlocillin, piperacillin, carbenicillin, ticarcillin, and azlocillin), and the aminoglycoside tobramycin. Ro 13-9904 inhibited 75% of all isolates of Enterobacteriaceae at a concentration of 6.25 micrograms/ml, including Enterobacter spp., Serratia marcescens, and indole-positive Proteus...

  10. Antibacterial activity of ceftriaxone (Ro 13-9904), a beta-lactamase-stable cephalosporin.

    OpenAIRE

    Neu, H C; Meropol, N J; Fu, K P

    1981-01-01

    The in vitro activity of ceftriaxone (Ro 13-9904), a parenteral cephalosporin, was compared with that of other beta-lactam antibiotics. the compound was less active against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis than was cephalothin or cefamandole, but it was comparable to cefoxitin, cefotaxime, and moxalactam in inhibiting most isolates of S. aureus at 3.1 microgram/ml. Ro 13-9904 inhibited Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae at concentrations below 0.25 microgr...

  11. In vitro activities of moxalactam and cefotaxime against aerobic gram-negative bacilli.

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen, J H; Crawford, S. A.; Alexander, G A

    1980-01-01

    The in vitro activities of two new beta-lactam antibiotics, moxalactam disodium (LY 127935) and cefotaxime (HR-756), were compared with cefoxitin, cefamandole, cefuroxime, cephalothin, and, in some instances, carbenicillin, gentamicin, and amikacin against aerobic gram-negative bacilli. Test isolates included normally cephalosporin-resistant members of the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp. and a variety of nonfermentative or oxidase-positive bacteria. Both moxalactam and cefotaxime demo...

  12. GR-20263: a new aminothiazolyl cephalosporin with high activity against Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae.

    OpenAIRE

    Verbist, L.; Verhaegen, J

    1980-01-01

    The in vitro activity of GR-20263, a new aminothiazolyl cephalosporin, was compared with the activities of other beta-lactam antibiotics by using 800 clinical bacterial isolates. GR-20263 was highly active (inhibition of 90% of the isolates between 0.03 and 1 microgram/ml) against the common Enterobacteriaceae and 5 to 20 times more active than cefuroxime, cefoxitin, and cephalothin. GR-20263 was three to six times less active than cefotaxime against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, S...

  13. Comparison of the activity of imipenem and beta-lactams combined with sulbactam and clavulanic acid in beta-lactamase-producing strains of Bacteroides fragilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, M A; Castillo, A M; Liébana, J; Marín, A; Alados, J C; Piédrola, G

    1991-01-01

    We compared the "in vitro" activity of imipenem with 14 beta-lactams, both alone and in combination with clavulanic acid, and sulbactam against 110 beta-lactamase-producing strains of Bacteroides fragilis. The following antibiotics were tested: amoxycillin, penicillin, mezlocillin, piperacillin, cephalothin, cephazolin, cefamandole, cefmetazole, cefonicid, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftizoxime, and ceftriaxone. In all cases, except those of cefoxitin and cefmetazole, these combinations showed a statistically significant increase in beta-lactam activity, which was, however, never higher than that of imipenem, the antibiotic which performed best against Bacteroides fragilis. PMID:1940333

  14. A case of wound infection caused by Shewanella algae in the south of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taherzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shewanella algae was isolated from the purulent discharge in the navel area of a young male with a history of swimming in the Persian Gulf. A routine laboratory diagnosis procedure, followed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, was used to avoid misidentification with other species of Shewanella. The bacterium was suscetible to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, nitrophorantion, amikacin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, gentamicin and co-trimoxazole but was resistant to amoxicillin, vancomycin, doxycycline, cephalexin, ampicillin, tetracycline, cephalothin and ceftizoxime. The patient successfully recovered after treatment with antibiotics.

  15. Salmonella serovars and antimicrobial resistance in strains isolated from wild animals in captivity in Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Hidalgo, Gabriela; López-Valenzuela, Martin; Juárez-Barranco, Felipe; Montiel-Vázquez, Edith; Valenzuela-Sánchez, Beatriz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella spp. strains from wild animals in captivity at the Culiacan Zoo and the Mazatlan Aquarium in Sinaloa, Mexico. We identified 17 different Salmonella enterica serovars at a prevalence of 19.90% (Culiacan Zoo) and 6.25% (Mazatlan Aquarium). Antibiotic sensitivity tests revealed that, of the 83 strains studied, 100% were multidrug resistant (MDR). The drugs against which the greatest resistance was observed were: penicillin, erythromycin, dicloxacillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, and chloramphenicol. We therefore conclude that MDR is common among Salmonella isolates originating from wild animals in captivity in Sinaloa. PMID:25282954

  16. Mechanism of Action of NB2001 and NB2030, Novel Antibacterial Agents Activated by β-Lactamases

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Geoffrey W.; Zhang, Qin; Castillo, Rosario; Doppalapudi, V. Ramana; Bueno, Analia R.; Lee, Jean Y.; Li, Qing; Sergeeva, Maria; Khambatta, Gody; Georgopapadakou, Nafsika H.

    2004-01-01

    Two potent antibacterial agents designed to undergo enzyme-catalyzed therapeutic activation were evaluated for their mechanisms of action. The compounds, NB2001 and NB2030, contain a cephalosporin with a thienyl (NB2001) or a tetrazole (NB2030) ring at the C-7 position and are linked to the antibacterial triclosan at the C-3 position. The compounds exploit β-lactamases to release triclosan through hydrolysis of the β-lactam ring. Like cephalothin, NB2001 and NB2030 were hydrolyzed by class A ...

  17. Enterobacter Asburiae Pneumonia with Cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seung Woo; Heo, Jeong Nam; Park, Choong Ki [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Enterobacter species have increasingly been identified as pathogens over the past several decades. These bacterial species have become more important because most are resistant to cephalothin and cefoxitin, and can produce extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamase. Enterobacter asburiae (E. asburiae) is a gram-negative rod of the family Enterobacteriaceae, named in 1986. Since then, there has been only one clinical report of E. asburiae pneumonia. We report a case of E. asburiae pneumonia with cavitation and compare it with the previous case.

  18. Identification of Antibiotics used in Clinical Surgery and Orthopedic Unit from Midsized Hospital in Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Lima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed to identify the pattern of antimicrobial use in a unit and orthopedic surgical clinic of a medium-sized hospital in Mato Grosso. The study based in analysis of 500 medical charts and filling out forms previously prepared from Regional Hospital of Sorriso, between March and April 2012, after approval of the project by CEP Julio Muller University Hospital (Protocol No. 219/2011. It was observed that 69% (345 of the sample were male, with ages ranging between 18 and 112 years. In all the charts can observe the prescription of antibiotics, the most prescribed the cephalothin 49.2% (297, Amikacin 12.27% (74 5.3% Gentamicin (32, Ciprofloxacin 4.31 % (26 and Clindamycin 3.31% (20. Among the 500 records analyzed only 9 (1.8% underwent antimicrobial prophylaxis and 491 (98.2 did not receive prophylaxis. Among the antimicrobials used in surgical prophylaxis met the cephalothin, used in 77.8% of cases and Clindamycin in 22.2% of cases, these drugs of second choice within the parameters of the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA. The rational use of antibiotics reduce any risk of emergence of resistant microbial strains and still be profitable in terms pharmacoeconomicsKeywords: Antimicrobial; Surgical Clinic, Nursing; Antibiotic.

  19. Prevalence and characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from conventional and organic vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sara; Woo, Gun-Jo

    2014-10-01

    To compare the characteristics and to identify the epidemiological relationships of Escherichia coli isolated from organic and conventional vegetables, the antimicrobial resistance and genetic properties of E. coli were investigated from 2010 to 2011. E. coli was isolated from 1 of 111 (0.9%) organic vegetables and from 20 of 225 (8.9%) conventional vegetables. The majority of strains were isolated from the surrounding farming environment (n=27/150 vs. 49/97 in organic vs. conventional samples). The majority of the vegetable strains were isolated from the surrounding farming environments. E. coli isolated from organic vegetables showed very low antimicrobial resistance rates except for cephalothin, ranging from 0% to 17.9%, while the resistance rates to cephalothin (71%) were extremely high in both groups. E. coli isolates expressed various resistance genes, which most commonly included blaTEM, tet(A), strA, strB, and qnrS. However, none of the isolates harbored tet(D), tet(E), tet(K), tet(L), tet(M), or qnrA. The transferability of tet gene, tet(A), and tet(B) was identified in tetracycline-resistant E. coli, and the genetic relationship was confirmed in a few cases from different sources. With regard to the lower antimicrobial resistance found in organic produce, this production mode seems able to considerably reduce the selection of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria on vegetables. PMID:25140978

  20. Health risks associated with the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in greywater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Moretton

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The removal and disposal of waste from domestic activities is a major health problem in densely populated urban areas. In many areas of Greater Buenos Aires, greywater is disposed in open ditches and risk potential of this has not been adequately quantified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and its resistance profile present in raw greywater obtained from a channel located in the area of Ingeniero Budge Buenos Aires Province. Thus, the prevalence of heterotrophic bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics and vancomycin-resistant enterococci in greywater, their typing, and resistance to other antibiotics were determined. The prevalence of resistant bacteria was determined by the agar dilution method. Of all the antibiotics tested, the highest prevalence of resistant heterotrophic bacteria was detected with cephalothin (19% and ampicillin (8%. With regard to Gram-negative bacteria, the highest prevalence of resistance was given by coliforms ampicillin (34% and cephalothin (17%. A total of 38% of enterococci with low level resistance to vancomycin was detected. The multiresistant isolates were identified as Escherichia coli, Alcaligenes faecalis y Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. These results indicate that greywater can be considered as a reservoir of bacteria resistant to antibiotics, thus increasing their health risk.

  1. Antibiotic susceptibility profile of Aeromonas spp. isolates from food in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Mohammad Bashir; Maqbool, Ahmed; Bari, Abdul; Krovacek, Karel

    2009-01-01

    A total of 57 Aeromonas isolates from food samples such as fresh and frozen chicken, game birds, pasteurized milk, baby food, bakery products, fruit and vegetables, fish, and water from Abu Dahbi, UAE were investigated for antibiotic susceptibility profile. Most strains were resistant to penicillins (ticarcillin, mezlocillin, oxacillin, piperacillin), sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and macrolides (erythromycin, vancomycin, clindamycin) but sensitive to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, aminoglycosides (amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin), cephalosporins (cefuroxime, ceftrioxone, cefazolin, cephalexin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime), quinolone (ciprofloxacin), colistin sulphate and SXT (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). On the other hand, many antibiotics showed excellent inhibitory activity (>75% strains were sensitive to them) against all the strains tested. These include cefuroxime, ceftrioxone, ciprofloxacin, colistin, amikacin, gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, cefotaxime and tobramycin. In conclusion, the results show a detailed pattern of sensitivity of the various Aeromonas spp. isolates to a variety of antibiotics and provide useful information in the context of selective isolation and phenotypic identification of the aeromonads from food. PMID:19382665

  2. DRESS syndrome in ophthalmic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Jacqueline Martins de; Nascimento, Heloisa; Belfort, Rubens

    2016-01-01

    Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a rare and potentially fatal adverse drug reaction associated with skin rash, fever, eosinophilia, and multiple organ injury. A number of pharmacological agents are known to cause DRESS syndrome such as allopurinol, anticonvulsants, vancomycin, trimethoprime-sulfamethoxazole, and pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine. Here, we describe two patients who developed DRESS syndrome during ocular treatment. The first case was being treated for late postoperative endophthalmitis with topical antibiotics, intravenous cephalothin, meropenem, and intravitreal injection of vancomycin and ceftazidime before symptoms developed. We were unable to identify the causal drug owing to the large number of medications concurrently administered. The second case presented with DRESS syndrome symptoms during ocular toxoplasmosis treatment. In this case, a clearer association with pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine was observed. As a result of the regular prescription of pharmacological agents associated with DRESS syndrome, ophthalmologists should be aware of the potentially serious complications of DRESS syndrome. PMID:27463633

  3. Protective effect of topical antibiotics in breast augmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Philip; Jørgensen, Signe; Kristiansen, Thomas B;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate that antibacterial lavage and/or use of topical antibiotics may reduce infection in breast implant surgery and perhaps also reduce occurrence of capsular contracture. A retrospective analysis was performed to evaluate this effect. METHODS: The study...... participants included all women (n = 436) who underwent breast augmentation during two different time periods: 2000 to 2002 (n = 218) and 2005 to 2007 (n = 218). During the first period (2000 to 2002), cephalothin (Keflin), was added to the saline/epinephrine solution, which was used to irrigate the implant.......8 percent) exceeded substantially the frequency among the 2000 to 2002 cohort (6.7 percent; p = 0.044), as did the frequency of seroma (7.6 percent versus 2.9 percent, respectively; p = 0.036). There was no significant difference in development of capsular contraction between the two groups (8.1 percent...

  4. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from canine chronic otitis externa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva N.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Swab samples obtained from 96 dogs with chronic otitis externa were cultured for the isolation of Staphylococcus species. Of 57 staphylococcal strains, 41 (72% were coagulase-negative (CNS. The identification of staphylococci strains was made by standard procedures for the routine identification of staphylococci in clinical practice. S. sciuri was the most frequent species isolated (22.8% from chronic otitis externa in dogs followed by S. intermedius (12.3%, S. auricularis (10.5% and S. aureus (8.8%. Three (5.2% CNS strains could not be identified. Bacterial isolates were susceptible to enrofloxacin, gentamicin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol and neomycin. Resistance was most common to penicillin G, oxacillin and ampicillin.

  5. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and risk factors for thermophilic Campylobacter infections in symptomatic and asymptomatic humans in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komba, E. V. G.; Mdegela, R. H.; Msoffe, P. L. M.;

    2015-01-01

    testing employed the disc diffusion method. A small proportion of the test isolates was also subjected to agar dilution method. Risk factors for human illness were determined in an unmatched case-control study. Thermophilic Campylobacter were isolated from 11.4% of the screened individuals (n = 1195). The...... sulphate and lowest for ciprofloxacin (22.1%). The rates of resistance for other antibiotics (azithromycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, cephalothin, gentamycin, nalidixic acid, ampicillin, amoxycillin, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol) ranged from 44.1% to 89%. Comparison between disc diffusion and agar...... dilution methods indicated a good correlation, and the tests were in agreement to each other (κ ≥ 0.75). Human illness was found to be associated with young age and consumption of chicken meat and pre-prepared salad. Our data indicate the presence of antibiotic-resistant thermophilic Campylobacter in...

  6. Antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. isolates from raw beef and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustacková, A; Nápravníková, E; Schlegelová, J

    2004-01-01

    E. faecalis (67%) and E. faecium (13.7%) were most frequently isolated among enterococci that contaminate cooled and frozen processed meat, follow-up heat-treated meat products and unheated fermented dry salami. Most isolates of both species were resistant to cephalothin (95 and 83 %) and clindamycin (77 and 67%, respectively). Furthermore, E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates were resistant to erythromycin (44 and 72%), tetracycline (34.5 and 17.4%), and streptomycin (13.3 and 4.3%, respectively). Only a few of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, chloramphenicol, and vancomycin while all isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, penicillin, and teicoplanin. During the production of heat-treated meat products, numbers of resistant isolates increased in spite of the decreasing enterococcal contamination of the samples. An opposite situation was found in the production of fermented dry salami. PMID:15530006

  7. A rapid method for the determination of microbial susceptibility using the firefly luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellend, H.; Tuttle, S. A.; Barza, M.; Weinstein, L.; Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W.

    1975-01-01

    Luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was optimized for pure bacteria in broth in order to evaluate if changes in bacterial ATP content could be used as a rapid measure of antibiotic effect on microorganisms. Broth cultures of log phase bacteria were incubated at 310 K (37 C) for 2.5 hours at antimicrobial concentrations which resulted in the best discrimination between sensitive and resistant strains. Eighty-seven strains of 11 bacterial species were studied for their susceptibility to 12 commonly used antimicrobial agents: ampicillin, Penicillin G, nafcillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, colistin, and chloramplenicol. The major advantage of the ATP system over existing methods of rapid microbial susceptibility testing is that the assay can be made specific for bacterial ATP.

  8. Analysis of 12 beta-lactam antibiotics in human plasma by HPLC with ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhinney, Brett C; Wallis, Steven C; Hillister, Tara; Roberts, Jason A; Lipman, Jeffrey; Ungerer, Jacobus P J

    2010-07-15

    A simple and economical high performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for routine analysis of 12 Penicillin, Cephalosporin and Carbapenem antibiotics in 200 microL of human plasma. Antibiotics determined were Ceftazidime, Meropenem, Ceftriaxone, Ampicillin, Cefazolin, Ertapenem, Cephalothin, Benzylpenicillin, Flucloxacillin, Dicloxacillin, Piperacillin and Ticarcillin. There was a common sample preparation approach involving precipitation of proteins with acetonitrile and removal of lipid-soluble components by a chloroform wash. Separations were performed on a Waters X-bridge C18 column with, depending on analytes, one of three acetonitrile-phosphate buffer mobile phases. Detection was by UV at 210, 260 and 304 nm. Validation has demonstrated the method to be linear, accurate and precise. The method has been used in a pathology laboratory for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of beta-lactams in critically ill patients. PMID:20561826

  9. Isolation of Salmonella typhimurium from dead blue and gold macaws (Ara ararauna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigo, Germán B; Origlia, Javier; Gornatti, Daniel; Piscopo, Miguel; Salve, Angela; Caffer, María I; Pichel, Mariana; Binsztein, Norma; Leotta, Gerardo A

    2009-03-01

    Two blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna) chicks died of fatal salmonellosis in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. The birds were histopathologically and microbiologically examined. Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium was isolated from the liver, spleen, heart, lung, kidney, and intestine of both birds. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, enrofloxacin, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, fosfomycin, tetracycline, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The XbaI-PFGE profile of the Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from the two animals, which shared the same cage, was identical and showed a unique pattern compared with 301 isolates included in the PulseNet national database of Salmonella pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. This is the first report that describes fatal cases of salmonellosis from blue and gold macaws. PMID:19432017

  10. Effect of various antibiotics on modulation of intestinal microbiota and bile acid profile in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibiotic treatments have been used to modulate intestinal bacteria and investigate the role of intestinal bacteria on bile acid (BA) homeostasis. However, knowledge on which intestinal bacteria and bile acids are modified by antibiotics is limited. In the present study, mice were administered various antibiotics, 47 of the most abundant bacterial species in intestine, as well as individual BAs in plasma, liver, and intestine were quantified. Compared to the two antibiotic combinations (vancomycin + imipenem and cephalothin + neomycin), the three single antibiotics (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and aztreonam) have less effect on intestinal bacterial profiles, and thus on host BA profiles and mRNA expression of genes that are important for BA homeostasis. The two antibiotic combinations decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in intestine, as well as most secondary BAs in serum, liver and intestine. Additionally, the two antibiotic combinations significantly increased mRNA of the hepatic BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2) and canalicular BA efflux transporters (Bsep and Mrp2), but decreased mRNA of the hepatic BA synthetic enzyme Cyp8b1, suggesting an elevated enterohepatic circulation of BAs. Interestingly, the two antibiotic combinations tended to have opposite effect on the mRNAs of most intestinal genes, which tended to be inhibited by vancomycin + imipenem but stimulated by cephalothin + neomycin. To conclude, the present study clearly shows that various antibiotics have distinct effects on modulating intestinal bacteria and host BA metabolism. - Highlights: • Various antibiotics have different effects on intestinal bacteria. • Antibiotics alter bile acid composition in mouse liver and intestine. • Antibiotics influence genes involved in bile acid homeostasis. • Clostridia appear to be important for secondary bile acid formation

  11. Effect of various antibiotics on modulation of intestinal microbiota and bile acid profile in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Youcai; Limaye, Pallavi B.; Renaud, Helen J.; Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: curtisklaassenphd@gmail.com

    2014-06-01

    Antibiotic treatments have been used to modulate intestinal bacteria and investigate the role of intestinal bacteria on bile acid (BA) homeostasis. However, knowledge on which intestinal bacteria and bile acids are modified by antibiotics is limited. In the present study, mice were administered various antibiotics, 47 of the most abundant bacterial species in intestine, as well as individual BAs in plasma, liver, and intestine were quantified. Compared to the two antibiotic combinations (vancomycin + imipenem and cephalothin + neomycin), the three single antibiotics (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and aztreonam) have less effect on intestinal bacterial profiles, and thus on host BA profiles and mRNA expression of genes that are important for BA homeostasis. The two antibiotic combinations decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in intestine, as well as most secondary BAs in serum, liver and intestine. Additionally, the two antibiotic combinations significantly increased mRNA of the hepatic BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2) and canalicular BA efflux transporters (Bsep and Mrp2), but decreased mRNA of the hepatic BA synthetic enzyme Cyp8b1, suggesting an elevated enterohepatic circulation of BAs. Interestingly, the two antibiotic combinations tended to have opposite effect on the mRNAs of most intestinal genes, which tended to be inhibited by vancomycin + imipenem but stimulated by cephalothin + neomycin. To conclude, the present study clearly shows that various antibiotics have distinct effects on modulating intestinal bacteria and host BA metabolism. - Highlights: • Various antibiotics have different effects on intestinal bacteria. • Antibiotics alter bile acid composition in mouse liver and intestine. • Antibiotics influence genes involved in bile acid homeostasis. • Clostridia appear to be important for secondary bile acid formation.

  12. Induction of leafy galls in Acacia mearnsii De Wild seedlings infected by Rhodococcus fascians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Quoirin

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Plantlets of blackwattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild were inoculated with the bacterium Rhodococcus fascians and cultured in vitro. Leafy galls appeared at the cotyledonary nodes in 75% of the infected plants. The galls were separated from the plants and cultured on a medium containing three-quarters-strength MS salts (Murashige and Skoog, 1962, MS vitamins, 2% sucrose and an antibiotic (cephalothin, supplemented with or without 0.2% activated charcoal. Histological studies conducted from the sixth to the twenty-second day after plant infection revealed the presence of newly formed meristematic centers, first in the axillary region, then on the petioles and lamina of the leaflets around the apical meristem. Approximately 37% of the galls developed one shoot with both concentrations of cephalothin.Plantas recém germinadas de acácia negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild. foram inoculadas com a bactéria Rhodococcus fascians e cultivadas in vitro. Galhas cobertas por folhas apareceram na altura do nó cotiledonar em 75% das plantas infectadas. As galhas foram separadas das plantas e cultivadas num meio de cultura contendo os sais do meio MS (Murashige e Skoog, 1962 reduzidos a 3/4, as vitaminas do mesmo meio, 2% de sacarose e um antibiótico (cefalotina, adicionado ou não de 0,2% de carvão ativo. Estudos histológicos realizados entre o sexto e o vigésimo segundo dia depois da inoculação, revelaram a presença de centros meristemáticos novos, primeiro nas regiões axilares, em seguida nos pecíolos e limbos dos folíolos ao redor do meristema apical. Aproximadamente 37% das galhas desenvolveram um broto na presença de cefalotina.

  13. 一例犬子宫蓄脓的实验室诊断与治疗%Diagnosis in Lab and Treatment of One Case of Canine Pyometra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李基棕; 文明; 马喆; 杨通灵; 王开功; 周碧君

    2011-01-01

    Canine pyometra is a disease which caused by pus product in uterine cavity and abnormal endometrium secondary infection by pathogens.Genital dirty, breeding, postnatal infection or stillbirth, dystocia midwifery infection can cause disease.One case of dog, therapia in animal hospital of Guizhou University, confirmed the disease of pyometra with clinical examination and laboratory examination, surgery was taken and successful; isolation and identification of pathogen and drug sensitivity tests.The results showed that the pathogen was Escherichia, and the highest sensitive drug were Cephalothin, Cephalothin,Kanamycin, Gentamycin.These investigations provided an important reference data for diagnosis, prevention and early drug choices for this disease.%犬子宫蓄脓是异常的子宫内膜继发病原微生物感染引起的子宫腔内积有脓液的疾病.外阴部不洁、配种、产后感染或死胎、难产助产感染等均可引起该病.笔者通过对贵州大学动物医院收治的一例病犬进行临床检查和实验室检查,确诊为子宫蓄脓后采取手术疗法治疗并取得成功;对子宫内容物进行病原菌分离鉴定、药敏试验,病原学分析显示,此犬子宫内病原菌为大肠杆菌,且该菌株对先锋霉素、头孢噻吩、卡那霉素和庆大霉素等药物敏感.本试验为犬子宫蓄脓诊治,预防及前期的药物选择提供临床指导.

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of clinical Escherichia coli isolates from dogs and cats in the United States: January 2008 through January 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thungrat, Kamoltip; Price, Stuart B; Carpenter, D Mark; Boothe, Dawn Merton

    2015-09-30

    Escherichia coli is among the most common bacterial pathogens in dogs and cats. The lack of a national monitoring program limits evidence-based empirical antimicrobial choices in the United States. This study describes antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for presumed clinical E. coli isolates from dogs (n=2392) or cats (n=780) collected from six geographic regions in the United States between May 2008 and January 2013. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined for 17 drugs representing 6 drug classes. Urinary tract isolates were most common (71%). Population MIC distributions were generally bimodal with the second mode above the resistant breakpoint for all drugs except gentamicin, amikacin, and meropenem. The MIC90 exceeded the susceptible breakpoint for ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalothin (surrogate drug for cephalexin), and doxycycline but was below the susceptible breakpoint for all others. None of isolates was susceptible or resistant to all drug tested; 46% were resistant to 1 or 2 antimicrobial categories, and 52% to more than three categories. The resistance percentages were as follows: doxycycline (100%), cephalothin (98%)>ampicillin (48%)>amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (40%)>ticarcillin-clavulanic acid (18%)>cefpodoxime (13%), cefotaxime (12%), cefoxitin (11%), cefazolin (11%), enrofloxacin (10%), chloramphenicol (9.6%)>ciprofloxacin (9.2%), ceftazidime (8.7%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (7.9%), gentamicin (7.9%)>meropenem (1.5%), amikacin (0.7%) (P<0.05). Resistance to ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was greatest in the South-Central region (P<0.05). E. coli resistance may preclude empirical treatment with doxycycline, cephalexin, ampicillin, or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Based on susceptibility patterns, trimethoprim-sulfonamides may be the preferred empirical oral treatment. PMID:26165272

  15. Presence of mecA-positive multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis in bovine milk samples in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Fernanda Fernandes; Mendonça, Letícia Caldas; Reis, Daniele Ribeiro de Lima; Guimarães, Alessandro de Sá; Lange, Carla Christine; Ribeiro, João Batista; Machado, Marco Antonio; Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva

    2016-02-01

    Bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus are one of the major pathogens causing bovine mastitis. In recent decades, resistance of this genus to oxacillin (methicillin) has been a matter of concern due to the possibility of reducing the effectiveness of mastitis treatments and the transfer of resistance determinants to other bacteria. Oxacillin resistance was studied in 170 staphylococci from bovine milk samples, including 79 Staphylococcus aureus and 91 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). The susceptibility profile of 10 antimicrobial agents used in veterinary practice was determined by the Etest method. In addition to the Etest, the phenotypic characterization of oxacillin resistance was tested using the cefoxitin disk diffusion test. All isolates were screened by PCR to detect the mecA gene in 2 different regions of the gene. The isolates with an oxacillin minimum inhibitory concentration ≥0.5 µg/mL or resistant to cefoxitin were identified by sequencing a 536-bp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. This group of isolates was also evaluated for the presence of blaZ and mecC genes. Molecular analysis of the mecA gene was carried out by typing of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). The relatedness of the mecA-positive isolates was evaluated by macrorestriction of chromosomal DNA followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. With the exception of penicillin and oxacillin, 86% of the isolates showed susceptibility to cephalothin, gentamicin, erythromycin, sulfonamide, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible to oxacillin, whereas 47% (n=43) of the CNS isolates were resistant. The CNS isolates showed a higher resistance to cephalothin, erythromycin, tetracycline, and gentamicin in comparison with S. aureus. The mecA gene was only detected in 10 CNS isolates, identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis, and classified into 3 pulsotypes (A, B, and C) and 4 subtypes (A1, B1, B2, and B3). Among the isolates with

  16. Hygienic sanitary conditions of sun dried meat marketed in Cruz das Almas, Bahia and detection of strains with antimicrobial resistance

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    Norma Suely Evangelista-Barreto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the microbiological, physical and chemical qualities of sun dried meat marketed in Cruz das Almas, Bahia, as well as trace the resistance profile of the isolated strains against different commercial pharmacos. There were collected and analysed 36 samples of sun dried meat, acquired in 12 different establishment (supermarkets, mini-markets, butchers and a municipal market, and quantified mesophilic aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Staphylococcus coagulase positive, E. coli and presence of Salmonella spp., as well as specific content humidity, water activity (Aw and chloride. In 83% of the establishments, mesophilic bacteria counted > 105 CFU.g-1 and 58% coliforms at 35º C > 105 NMP.g- 1 and coliforms at 45ºC > 103 NMP.g-1. Escherichia coli was isolated in 75% of the establishments. Staphylococcus spp. ranged from 4.8 x 104 to 9.0 x 108 UFC.g-1, not being isolated Staphylococcus coagulase positive. Salmonella was found in 25% of the establishments. The humidity in the sun dried meat samples ranged from 52.37% to 74.69%, the Aw from 0.87 to 0.95 and the chloride from 3.16% to 5.98%. Salmonella was 100% resistant to tetracycline, acid nalidixic, cephalothin and erythromycin, with intermediate resistance to ampicillin and gentamicin. Escherichia coli was resistant to erythromycin (100%, ampicillin (68.7%, cephalothin (71.4%, tetracycline (64.2%, nalidixic acid (35.7% and gentamicin (12.5%. Multiresistant strains of E. coli were observed in 87.5% of the isolates, and it happened that in 28.6% of the resistance it was mediated by plasmids. Multidrug resistance profile was observed in all Salmonella, with a strain showing plasmid resistance. The marketing of sun dried meat in Cruz das Almas presents hygienic and sanitary failures due to it’s high microbial loads. This fact undermines the safety and product lifetime, and may also pose risk to public health since it markets strains with antimicrobial.

  17. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in enteric Escherichia coli from domestic pets and assessment of associated risk markers using a generalized linear mixed model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite-Martins, Liliana R; Mahú, Maria I M; Costa, Ana L; Mendes, Angelo; Lopes, Elisabete; Mendonça, Denisa M V; Niza-Ribeiro, João J R; de Matos, Augusto J F; da Costa, Paulo Martins

    2014-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing global public health problem, which is caused by the use of antimicrobials in both human and animal medical practice. The objectives of the present cross-sectional study were as follows: (1) to determine the prevalence of resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from the feces of pets from the Porto region of Portugal against 19 antimicrobial agents and (2) to assess the individual, clinical and environmental characteristics associated with each pet as risk markers for the AMR of the E. coli isolates. From September 2009 to May 2012, rectal swabs were collected from pets selected using a systematic random procedure from the ordinary population of animals attending the Veterinary Hospital of Porto University. A total of 78 dogs and 22 cats were sampled with the objective of isolating E. coli. The animals' owners, who allowed the collection of fecal samples from their pets, answered a questionnaire to collect information about the markers that could influence the AMR of the enteric E. coli. Chromocult tryptone bile X-glucuronide agar was used for E. coli isolation, and the disk diffusion method was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility. The data were analyzed using a multilevel, univariable and multivariable generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). Several (49.7%) of the 396 isolates obtained in this study were multidrug-resistant. The E. coli isolates exhibited resistance to the antimicrobial agent's ampicillin (51.3%), cephalothin (46.7%), tetracycline (45.2%) and streptomycin (43.4%). Previous quinolone treatment was the main risk marker for the presence of AMR for 12 (ampicillin, cephalothin, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, tetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and aztreonam) of the 15 antimicrobials assessed. Coprophagic habits were also positively associated with an increased risk of AMR for six drugs, ampicillin, amoxicillin

  18. Irrigation of the abdominal cavity in the treatment of experimentally induced microbial peritonitis: Efficacy of ozonated saline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozmen, V.; Thomas, W.O.; Healy, J.T.; Fish, J.M.; Chambers, R.; Tacchi, E.; Nichols, R.L.; Flint, L.M.; Ferrara, J.J. (Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States))

    1993-05-01

    Ozone is an oxidizing agent possessing potent in vitro microbicidal capacity. This study was designed to address the extent to which irrigation of the contaminated abdominal cavity using a saline solution primed with ozone is effective in reducing morbidity and mortality. Gelatin capsules containing different quantities of a premixed slurry of filtered human fecal material were implanted in the peritoneal cavities of a preliminary series of rats. Three inocula concentrations were selected for later experiments, based upon their ability to produce morbid consequences: (1) high (100% 1-day mortality), (2) medium (70% 3-day mortality, 100% abscess rate in survivors), and (3) low (100% 10-day survival, 100% abscess rate). Fecal and abscess bacteriology were similar in all rats. The peritoneal cavities of 240 rats then underwent fecal-capsule implantation (three groups of 80 rats/inoculum concentration). At celiotomy 4 hours later, equal numbers of rats from each group were randomly assigned to one of four protocols: (1) no irrigation, (2) normal saline irrigation, (3) saline-cephalothin irrigation, and (4) ozonated saline irrigation. Each treatment lasted 5 minutes, using 100 ml of irrigation fluid. Mortality was significantly reduced when, in lieu of no irrigation, any of the irrigation solutions were used. Additionally, ozonated saline statistically proved the most effective irrigating solution for reducing abscess formation in survivors.

  19. High occurrence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Salmonella in broiler carcasses from poultry slaughterhouses in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Jung, Hae-In; Kuk, Min; Kim, Young-Ji; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2015-03-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant foodborne Salmonella has become a major public health problem. Consumption of undercooked poultry contaminated with Salmonella can induce food poisoning in humans. In this study, we investigated the occurrence and antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella spp. isolated from 120 chicken carcasses produced in 6 poultry slaughterhouses in South Korea. A total of 11 samples (9.2%) were found contaminated with Salmonella: 5 isolates were serotyped as Salmonella Bellevue strain (slaughterhouse C) and 6 isolates were serotyped as Salmonella Enteritidis strain (slaughterhouse E). Salmonella Bellevue isolates were resistant to five antibiotics (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole), while Salmonella Enteritidis isolates were resistant to nine antibiotics (ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefazolin, cephalothin, amikacin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, and tetracycline). All cephalosporin-resistant Salmonella Enteritidis isolates exhibited the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype and carried the gene encoding CTX-M-15, the most prevalent ESBL enzyme worldwide. Based on molecular subtyping performed using the automated rep-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system (DiversiLab), the isolates showing ≥ 95 similarity in their rep-PCR banding patterns were classified into 5 pulsotypes. Given that cephalosporins are the drugs of choice for invasive Salmonella infections, the high incidence of ESBL-producing strains in chicken should emphasize the necessity of regular monitoring of the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant ESBL-positive Salmonella strains in poultry meat. PMID:25692653

  20. Multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria on fluted pumpkin leaves, a herb of therapeutic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbeneghu, Oluwatoyin A; Abdu, Abdulrasheed B

    2014-06-01

    Fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) is a minimally-processed green leafy vegetable traditionally used for its antianaemic properties in the form of leaf juice without a heating or inactivation step before consumption. The aim of the study was to assess the presence of surface microbiota on T. occidentalis leaves and also to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated organisms. Bacterial contaminants on 50 samples of T. occidentalis leaves were isolated and characterized using standard biochemical methods and the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated organisms was determined using the antibiotic disc diffusion assay. The results obtained show that the leaves of T. occidentalis is contaminated with organisms which included Enterobacter agglomerans (25.9%), Proteus vulgaris (24.9%), Klebsiella spp. (2.6%), and Serratia liquefaciens (2.1%). Other bacterial isolates recovered in order of frequency included: Staphylococcus spp. (33.7%), Bacillus spp. (8.3%), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (2.6%). Of the 193 bacterial isolates from the leaves of T. occidentalis samples tested for antimicrobial resistance, all (100%) were found to be resistant to ampicillin, cloxacillin, augmentin, erythromycin, and tetracycline while 96% of the isolates were resistant to cephalothin. Resistance to trimethoprim (93%) and gentamicin (83%) was also observed. Approximately, 22% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin; however, only 11 (5.8%) were resistant to ofloxacin. Thus, uncooked T. occidentalis is a potential source of highly-resistant epiphytic bacteria which could be opportunistic pathogens in consumers. PMID:25076655

  1. Bone marrow transplantation in miniature swine: I. Autologous and SLA matched allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a successful bone marrow transplant protocol in MHC-inbred miniature swine (MS). Three groups of MS were studied: irradiation controls, autologous bone marrow transplants and SLA matched bone marrow allografts. One day prior to irradiation, all animals underwent Hickman catheter placement via the external jugular vein. Bone marrow was harvested by direct mechanical removal of marrow from four long bones in Groups 2 and 3 one day prior to irradiation. All animals received 900 rads of midline body radiation from a Cobalt-60 source, were treated 1 g of cephalothin IV bid from day 1 to 14, 20 mg of genetamicin IV bid, from day 4 through 14 and 250 to 350 ml of fresh, irradiated whole blood from blood group identical donors on days 7, 11 and 14. Bone marrow was filtered, washed, stored overnight at 4 C and reinfused one to six hr after irradiation. Engraftment was defined by return of the peripheral WBC to 1000/mm3. All six animals in Group 1 died of aplasia between days 7 and 12. Marrow engrafted in eight of 12 animals in Group 2 and 7 of 10 animals in Group 3. This model provides a means to study the biological characteristics of bone marrow transplantation in immunologically well characterized large animals and should prove useful as a model for bone marrow transplants in man

  2. Screening for Salmonella in backyard chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Johanna; Gole, Vaibhav; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2015-06-15

    Salmonellosis is a significant zoonotic disease which has a considerable economic impact on the egg layer industry. There is limited information about the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in backyard chickens, and the associated virulence of any serovars identified. Hundred and fifteen pooled samples from 30 backyard flocks in South Australia were screened. Four flocks tested positive for Salmonella spp. The overall Salmonella isolation rate in the current study was 10.4%. The estimated prevalence at individual bird level was 0.02% (95% CI 0.025-0.975). The serovars isolated were Salmonella Agona, Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) and Salmonella Bovismorbificans. All Salmonella isolates tested positive for the prgH, orfL and spiC genes. The Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) had the most antibiotic resistance, being resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin and having intermediate resistance to florphenicol. All of the Salmonella Agona had intermediate resistance to the ampicillin, while the Salmonella Bovismorbificans were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. With the increased interest of keeping backyard chickens, the current study highlights the zoonotic risk from Salmonella spp. associated with home flocks. PMID:25899620

  3. Detection of AmpC β lactamases in gram-negative bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjan Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amp C β-lactamases are clinically important cephalosporinases encoded on the chromosomes of many Enterobacteriaceae and a few other organisms, where they mediate resistance to cephalothin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, most penicillins, and β-lactamase inhibitor/β-lactam combinations. The increase in antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacteria is a notable example of how bacteria can procure, maintain and express new genetic information that can confer resistance to one or several antibiotics. Detection of organisms producing these enzymes can be difficult, because their presence does not always produce a resistant phenotype on conventional disc diffusion or automated susceptibility testing methods. These enzymes are often associated with potentially fatal laboratory reports of false susceptibility to β-lactams phenotypically. With the world-wide increase in the occurrence, types and rate of dissemination of these enzymes, their early detection is critical. AmpC β-lactamases show tremendous variation in geographic distribution. Thus, their accurate detection and characterization are important from epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and infection control point of view. This document describes the methods for detection for AmpC β-lactamases, which can be adopted by routine diagnostic laboratories.

  4. Genetic heterogeneity of Escherichia coli isolated from pasteurized milk in State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Oltramari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Food contamination caused by enteric pathogens is a major cause of diarrheal disease worldwide, resulting in high morbidity and mortality and significant economic losses. Bacteria are important agents of foodborne diseases, particularly diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. The present study assessed the genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of E. coli isolates from pasteurized milk processed in 21 dairies in northwestern State of Parana, Brazil. The 95 E. coli isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing according to the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and assessed genotypically by Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ERIC-PCR. The highest rate of resistance was observed for cephalothin (55.78%. ERIC-PCR revealed high genetic diversity, clustering the 95 bacterial isolates into 90 different genotypic patterns. These results showed a heterogeneous population of E. coli in milk samples produced in the northwestern region of Paraná and the need for good manufacturing practices throughout the processing of pasteurized milk to reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses.

  5. Characterization of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in rendered animal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofacre, C L; White, D G; Maurer, J J; Morales, C; Lobsinger, C; Hudson, C

    2001-01-01

    Antibiotics are used in food animal production to treat diseases and also to improve performance. Antibiotics are not used on all farms, and antibiotic resistance is occasionally found on farms that do not use antibiotics. Rendered animal protein products are often included in poultry feeds and could potentially serve as a source of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One hundred sixty-five rendered animal protein products from cattle, poultry, and fish were aseptically collected from poultry feed mills. Fifty-five percent of the poultry meal samples had detectable levels of gram-negative bacteria ranging from 40 to 10,440 colony-forming units/g of sample. Poultry meal and meat and bone meal had the greatest number of samples with bacteria resistant to five or more antibiotics. A high percentage of feed samples (85%) contained bacteria resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, clavulanic acid, or cephalothin, whereas few samples contained bacteria resistant to ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Citrobacter freundii, and Enterobacter cloacae were the most commonly isolated antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Isolation for Salmonella was also performed, with 14% of the meat and bone meal samples containing Salmonella sp. Only one of the meat and bone meal isolates, Salmonella livingstone, was resistant to five or more antibiotics. Many of the antibiotic-resistant bacteria contained integrons, genetic elements that mediate multiple drug resistance. PMID:11785899

  6. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae: occurrence, risk factors for fecal carriage and strain traits in the Swiss slaughter cattle population younger than 2 years sampled at abattoir level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Reist

    Full Text Available During the past decade extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae have become a matter of great concern in human and veterinary medicine. In this cross-sectional study fecal swabs of a geographically representative number of Swiss cattle at slaughterhouse level were sampled i to determine the occurrence of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae in the Swiss slaughter cattle population younger than 2 years, and ii to assess risk factors for shedding ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae. In total, 48 (8.4%; 95% C.I. 6.3-11.1% independent ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae were detected among the 571 tested animals. Species identification revealed 46 E. coli strains, one Enterobacter cloacae and one Citrobacter youngae. In view of beta-lactam antibiotics, all 48 isolates were resistant to ampicillin, cephalothin and cefpodoxime. Forty-five (93.8% isolates were resistant cefuroxime; one (2.1% isolate to cefoxitin, 28 (58.3% isolates to cefotaxime, 2 (4.2% isolates to ceftazidime, and 2 (4.2% isolates to cefepime. Risk factors for shedding ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae were (i age (OR 0.19 and 0.12 in age category 181 d to 1 y and 1 y to 2 y compared to ≤180 d, (ii primary production type, meaning dairy compared to beef on farm of origin (OR 5.95, and (iii more than 1 compared to less than 1 animal movement per d per 100 animals on farm of origin (OR 2.37.

  7. In vitro interaction of certain antimicrobial agents in combination with plant extracts against some pathogenic bacterial strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kalpna Rakholiya; Sumitra Chanda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro interaction between methanolic extracts of Terminalia catappa (Combretaceae) (T. catappa) and Carica papaya (caricaceae) (C. papaya) leaves and certain known antimicrobial drugs like penicillin G (P), ampicillin (AMP), amoxyclav (AMC), cephalothin (CEP), polymyxin B (PB), rifampicin (RIF), amikacin (AK), nilidixic acid (NA), gentamicin (GEN), chloramphenicol (C), ofloxacin (OF) against five Gram positive and five Gram negative bacteria.Methods:Evaluation of synergy interaction between plant extracts and antimicrobial agents was carried out using disc diffusion method. Results: The results of this study showed that there is an increased activity in case of combination of methanolic plant extracts and test antimicrobial agents. The more potent result was that the synergism between methanolic extract of C. papaya and antibiotics showed highest and strong synergistic effect against tested bacterial strains;though methanolic extract of C. papaya alone was not showing any antibacterial activity.Conclusions:These results indicate that combination between plant extract and the antibiotics could be useful in fighting emerging drug-resistance microorganisms.

  8. In vitro interaction of certain antimicrobial agents in combination with plant extracts against some pathogenic bacterial strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kalpna Rakholiya; Sumitra Chanda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro interaction between methanolic extracts of Terminalia catappa (T. catappa) (Combretaceae) and Carica papaya (C. papaya) (caricaceae) leaves and certain known antimicrobial drugs like penicillin G (P), ampicillin (AMP), amoxyclav (AMC), cephalothin (CEP), polymyxin B (PB), rifampicin (RIF), amikacin (AK), nilidixic acid (NA), gentamicin (GEN), chloramphenicol (C), ofloxacin (OF) against five Gram positive and five Gram negative bacteria. Methods: Evaluation of synergy interaction between plant extracts and antimicrobial agents was carried out using disc diffusion method. Results: The results of this study showed that there is an increased activity in case of combination of methanolic plant extracts and test antimicrobial agents. The more potent result was that the synergism between methanolic extract of C. papaya and antibiotics showed highest and strong synergistic effect against tested bacterial strains;though methanolic extract of C. papaya alone was not showing any antibacterial activity. Conclusions: These results indicate that combination between plant extract and the antibiotics could be useful in fighting emerging drug-resistance microorganisms.

  9. Uterine Microbiology and Antimicrobial Susceptibility in Isolated Bacteria from Mares with Fertility Problems

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    Magnusson U

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Uterine microbiology and antimicrobial susceptibility was investigated in 239 mares with fertility problems in a prospective study in Sweden. Uterine swab samples were collected with double guarded swabs and transported overnight before being cultured. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC was determined for a panel of antimicrobials. From 152 of the 239 mares at least one bacterial species was isolated, most frequently E. coli (104 isolates, β-haemolytic streptococci (31 and fungi (16. β-haemolytic streptococci were more frequently (p E. coli (p β-haemolytic streptococcal isolates some resistance was noted for 4 of 11 tested antibiotics, however, all isolates were susceptible to the widely used penicillin G. Among E. coli isolates enrofloxacin was the only of the 10 tested antibiotics for which no resistance was noted. Resistance was most commonly noted to cephalothin (39% of the isolates, streptomycin (22%, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (15% and ampicillin (11%. In conclusion, we show that both E. coli and β-haemolytic streptococci are frequently associated with fertility problems in mares and that antimicrobial resistance is a common feature of E. coli but also recognised for β-haemolytic streptococcal uterine isolates.

  10. Antimicrobial Resistant Pattern of Escherichia Coli Strains Isolated from Pediatric Patients in Jordan

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    Mohammad Alshara

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial resistant pattern of Escherichia coli (E. coli strains isolated from clinical specimens of Jordanian pediatric patients during the period from January to December 2008. A total of 444 E. coli strains were isolated from clinical specimens and tested for their susceptibility to different antimicrobial drugs. Overall, high resistance rate was observed for ampicillin (84%, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (74.3%, cotrimoxazole (71%, nalidixic acid (47.3%, cephalothin (41%. Lower resistance rates were observed for amikacin (0% followed by Cefotaxime (11%, Ceftriaxone (11.7%, ciprofloxacin (14.5%, Norfloxacin (16.5%, gentamicin (17.3% cephalexin (20.9%, Ceftazidime (22.5%, cefixime (29.6%, and cefaclor (32.8%. Ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cotrimoxazole were found to be ineffective at in vitro inhibition of the E. coli of pediatric origin. Amikacin was highly effective for E. coli with susceptibility rate of 100%. The majority of E. coli strains were susceptible to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones.

  11. Antibiotic Resistance of Probiotic Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Marketed Foods and Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG LIU; ZHUO-YANG ZHANG; KE DONG; JIAN-PING YUAN; XIAO-KUI GUO

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify the antimicrobial resistance of commercial lactic acid bacteria present in microbial foods and drug additives by analyzing their isolated strains used for fermentation and probioties. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility of 41 screened isolates was tested with disc diffusion and E-test methods after species-level identification. Resistant strains were selected and examined for the presence of resistance genes by PCR. Results Distribution of resistance was found in different species. All isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cephalothin, and imipenem. In addition, isolates resistant to vancomycin, rifampicin, streptomycin, bacitracin, and erythromycin were detected, although the incidence of resistance to these antibiotics was relatively low. In contrast, most strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin, amikacin, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, and gentamycin. The genes msrC, vanX, and dfrA were detected in strains of Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactococcus lactis. Conclusion Antibiotic resistance is present in different species of probiotic strains, which poses a threat to food safety. Evaluation of the safety of lactic acid bacteria for human consumption should be guided by established criteria, guidelines and regulations.

  12. Screening of probiotic lactic acid bacteria from Thai fermented foods for human.

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    Kantachote, D.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Total of 327 strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from 179 samples of various Thai fermented foods. The strains were investigated for their probiotic properties based on stability in bile salt (0.15% and high acidity (pH 2, 3 and 4. Moreover, utilization of protein or fat or starch, growth in the absence of vitamin B12 and growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions with no significant difference were also considered. According to the above criteria, 67 strains were selected for antibiotics sensitivity test. The selected strains were susceptible to following antibiotics: ampicillin, cephalothin, cefoperazone, tetracycline andchloramphenicol; however the strains were resistant to vancomycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, norfloxacin and polymyxin B. Using agar spot method, only 5 strains were able to inhibit 13 strains of manifest by a bacteria indicator as clear zone greater than 10 mm. A further investigation using co-culture technique showed inhibition of the tested organisms was between 80 and 100 percent. The strains grew under media of MRS and SPY2 (no materials from animal over 36 hours with no significant difference. The strains were investigated for survival in condition of high acidity within 3 hours. It was found that at pH 4 almost 100% were maintained but at pH 2 and 3 the survival reduced approximately 1 log cycle. The strain LA71 which showed the highest survival was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum.

  13. Prevalence and distribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in finfish from Cochin (south India

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    Ammanamveetil A.M. Hatha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Finfish samples obtained from four retail outlets in Cochin between June 2009 and June 2010 were investigated for the occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A total of 182 samples were collected and suspect isolates were identified using standard biochemical tests and were further confirmed by a species-specific tlh gene. V. parahaemolyticus was detected in 45.1% of samples, with demersal fish being more affected than pelagic species. The bacterium was isolated more frequently from the skin and gills of pelagic fish, while the intestine yielded greater numbers of V. parahaemolyticus in demersal fish. The highest incidence of antibiotic resistance was recorded against ampicillin and streptomycin, followed by carbenicillin, cefpodoxime, cephalothin, colistin and amoxycillin; the lowest was against nalidixic acid, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin. Multiple drug resistance was prevalent among isolates. Although only a fraction of strains are pathogenic for humans, the time-temperature abuse in markets provides ample scope for these strains to multiply to dangerous levels. The multidrug resistant nature of the strains adds to the gravity of the problem. High V. parahaemolyticus incidence rates in market finfish samples from areas in and around Cochin clearly indicates that control measures should be adopted to reduce post-harvest contamination in seafood and time-temperature abuse in markets to diminish the risk of V. parahaemolyticus infection associated with seafood destined for human consumption.

  14. [Distribution and removal of anaerobic antibiotic resistant bacteria during mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Juan; Wang, Yuan-Yue; Wei Yuan, Song

    2014-10-01

    Sewage sludge is one of the major sources that releasing antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistant genes (ARG) into the environment since it contains large amount of ARB, but there is little information about the fate of the anaerobic ARB in the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. Therefore, the distribution, removal and seasonal changes of tetracycline and β-lactam antibiotics resistant bacteria in the mesophilic egg-shaped digesters of a municipal wastewater treatment plant were investigated for one year in this study. Results showed that there were higher amounts of ARB and higher resistance rate of β-lactam antibiotics than that of tetracycline antibiotics in the sewage sludge. All ARB could be significantly reduced during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion process by 1.48-1.64 log unit (P < 0.05). Notably, the ampicillin and cephalothin resistance rates were significantly increased after anaerobic digestion by 12.0% and 14.3%, respectively (P < 0.05). The distribution of ARB in the sewage sludge had seasonal change characteristics. Except for chlorotetracycline resistant bacteria, there were more ARB in the sewage sludge in cold season than in warm season (P < 0.05). PMID:25693388

  15. Antimicrobial activity of cefmetazole (CS-1170) and recommendations for susceptibility testing by disk diffusion, dilution, and anaerobic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R N; Barry, A L; Fuchs, P C; Thornsberry, C

    1986-12-01

    Cefmetazole, formerly CS-1170, was found to have antimicrobial activity slightly superior to that of cefoxitin but a clinically usable antimicrobial spectrum that should be considered identical to that of cefoxitin. Disk diffusion and dilution test methods with cefmetazole correlated highly (r, greater than or equal to 0.95) with cefoxitin results. The recommended 30-micrograms cefmetazole disk interpretive breakpoints for susceptibility and resistance were greater than or equal to 18 mm (MIC, less than or equal to 8.0 micrograms/ml) and less than or equal to 14 mm (MIC, greater than or equal to 32 micrograms/ml), respectively. Cefmetazole and cefoxitin should be considered to be in the same antimicrobial spectrum class, requiring separate testing for other cephalosporins such as cephalothin, cefamandole, cefuroxime, and cefotetan. Recommended interpretive criteria performed well for fastidious organisms (Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Branhamella catarrhalis) and for broth microdilution tests with anaerobes. Cefmetazole and cefoxitin broth disk elution tests for anaerobic bacteria produced higher rates of false susceptibility results. PMID:3097064

  16. Antibiogram, Adhesive Characteristics, and Incidence of Class 1 Integron in Aeromonas Species Isolated from Two South African Rivers

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    Isoken H. Igbinosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas species are well distributed in freshwater environments, and their natural susceptibility to antimicrobials renders them interesting candidates for the survey of antimicrobial resistance in freshwater milieu. Water samples were collected from Kat and Tyume rivers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa, and a total of 45 isolates identified as Aeromonas species were recovered from the two rivers. All Aeromonas isolates were resistant to oxacillin, penicillin, clindamycin, cephalothin, vancomycin, and rifamycin, while appreciable susceptibilities (89.3 : 94.1%, 82.1 : 94.1%, 85.7 : 88.2%, and 92.9 : 88.2% were observed against ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, and gentamicin from Kat and Tyume rivers, respectively. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR indices ranged from 0.016 to 0.044 for the two rivers. Class 1 integron was detected in about 20% of the isolates, and all the isolates except one showed ability to produce biofilm in vitro as weak producers (53.33%, moderate producers (15.56%, and strong producers (28.9%. This investigation provides a baseline data on antibiotic resistance as well as the adhesive characteristics of Aeromonas isolates from Tyume and Kat rivers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa.

  17. Antibiotic resistance of Vibrio harveyi isolated from seawater in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang-Ho; Kim, YongGyeong; Oh, Soo Ji; Mok, Jong-Soo; Cho, Myung-Hwan; So, Jae-Seong

    2014-09-15

    Vibrio harveyi is an opportunistic human pathogen that may cause gastroenteritis, severe necrotizing soft-tissue infections, and primary septicemia, with a potentially high rate of lethality. In this study, we isolated and characterized V. harveyi from seawater collected from the West Sea in Korea, including sites located near shellfish farms. For the initial isolation of putative V. harveyi, isolates were incubated on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose agar plates for 24h, followed by selection of greenish colonies. Gram-negative and oxidase-positive colonies were subsequently confirmed by biochemical assays and the API 20E kit test system. Species-specific 16S rRNA and hemolysin genes were used to design V. harveyi-specific PCR primers. From 840 seawater samples, a total of 2 strains of V. harveyi were isolated from shellfish farm seawater. The two isolates were subjected to profiling against 16 antibiotics and found to be resistant to cephalothin, vancomycin, ampicillin, cefepime, cefotetan, and streptomycin. PMID:25066453

  18. A novel family VIII carboxylesterase hydrolysing third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jeong Ho; Lee, Hyun Sook; Lee, Jung Hun; Koo, Bon-Sung; Lee, Chang-Muk; Lee, Sang Hee; Kang, Sung Gyun; Lee, Jung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    A metagenomic library was constructed from a soil sample of spindle tree-rhizosphere. From this library, one clone with esterase activity was selected. The sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame (EstSTR1) encoded protein of 390 amino acids. EstSTR1 is a family VIII carboxylesterase and retains the S-X-X-K motif conserved in both family VIII carboxylesterases and class C β-lactamases. The estSTR1 gene was overexpressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein was purified by purified by metal chelating affinity chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography. EstSTR1 hydrolysed p-nitrophenyl esters, exhibited the highest activity toward p-nitrophenyl butyrate. Furthermore, EstSTR1 could hydrolyse third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins (cefotaxime and cefepime) as well as first-generation cephalosporin (cephalothin). Site-directed mutagenesis studies revealed that a catalytic residue, Ser71, of EstSTR1 plays an essential role in hydrolysing both antibiotics and p-nitrophenyl esters. We demonstrate that a metagenome-derived carboxylesterase displays β-lactam-hydrolysing activities toward third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. PMID:27186489

  19. Molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheal cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to identify and classify Iranian isolates of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) on the basis of presence of virulence genes and to determine antibiotic susceptibility of isolated strains. The current cross-sectional study was conducted in 2005 at the Pasteur Institute, Tehran, Iran. One hundred and ninety-three diarrheagenic E. coli isolated from diarrheal patients in different regions of Iran were included in current study. Virulence factors genees for diarrheagenic E. coli were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Of the 193 diarrheagenic E. coli detected by PCR, 86(44.5%) were Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), 74 (38.4%) enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), 19 (9.8%) enteroaggregative E. coli and 14 (7.3%) enterotoxigenic E. coli isolates. Susceptibility to 12 clinically important antimicrobial agents was determined for 193 strains of diarrhheagenic E. coli. A high incidence of resistance to tetracycline (63%), ampicillin (62%), streptomycin (56%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (44.5%), trimetoprim/sulphamethoxazole (39.5%) and cephalothin (37%) was observed. The STEC and EPEC strains with high resistance to tetracycline and ampicillin but highly susceptible to quinolones are among the most important causative agent of diarrhea in Iran. This study suggests that antimicrobial resistance is wide spread among E. coli strains colonizing Iranian patients. Guidelines for appropriate use of antibiotics in developing countries require updating. (author)

  20. Clinical and microbiologic aspects of serious infections caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuazon, C U; Miller, H

    1983-01-01

    10 patients with serious infections caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis (8 cases of endocarditis in non-prosthetic valves, 1 was complicated by osteomyelitis, 1 case of osteomyelitis, and 1 case of septicemia) are described. Clinical and microbiologic features were evaluated including antibiotic sensitivity and synergy studies, phage typing and biotyping. Endocarditis tended to affect the elderly population and the clinical manifestations were quite similar to those caused by Streptococcus viridans. Both patients with osteomyelitis had involvement of the cervical spine with excellent response to antibiotic therapy. The only patient with septicemia acquired via hyperalimentation had delayed clearance of the bacteremia but ultimately responded to intravenous antibiotics. Rifampicin was the most effective of all antibiotics tested. All isolates were sensitive to penicillinase-resistant penicillins and cephalosporins and over half were sensitive to penicillin. Full synergistic activity was demonstrated with cephalothin and nafcillin in combination with rifampicin, and rifampicin-vancomycin was partially synergistic against the majority of the strains. Five of 8 available isolates were non-phage typeable and no definite pattern was established for various types of infections. Four of the 8 isolates were classified as biotype SIIa, 2 biotype SIIc and 2 biotype SVh. PMID:6361977

  1. Molecular characterization and occurrence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase resistance genes among Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis from Thailand, Bulgaria and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Archambault, Marie; Petrov, P.; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Asseva, G.; Bangtrakulnonth, A.; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2006-01-01

    confirmed the PFGE-type and was able to further subdivide the strains. Seventeen of these 20 isolates contained also bla(TEM), of which nine representatives were sequenced to bla(TEM-1B), or bla(TEM-1H). One isolate contained bla(CTX-M-15), bla(SHV-2), and bla(TEM-1H), with the bla(CTX-M-15), and bla(TEM-1H...... antimicrobial agents tested, whereas 41 were resistant to three or more antimicrobials. Most resistance was observed among the isolates from Bulgaria. Of the 25 isolates from Bulgaria, 20 displayed resistance to ampicillin and the cephalosporins ceftiofur and cephalothin. All 20 isolates tested negative for bla......(CMY-1), bla(CMY-2), and bla(ACC), but positive for bla(SHV), of which five were sequenced to bla(SHV-2). Plasmid profiling and hybridization revealed that the bla(SHV) gene was located on plasmids of approximately 70 kb. Five plasmid profiles were found among these 20 isolates. The plasmid profiling...

  2. Recycling Antibiotics into GUMBOS: A New Combination Strategy to Combat Multi-Drug-Resistant Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha R. Cole

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of multi-drug-resistant bacteria, coupled with the lack of new antibiotics in development, is fast evolving into a global crisis. New strategies utilizing existing antibacterial agents are urgently needed. We propose one such strategy in which four outmoded β-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin and oxacillin and a well-known antiseptic (chlorhexidine di-acetate were fashioned into a group of uniform materials based on organic salts (GUMBOS as an alternative to conventional combination drug dosing strategies. The antibacterial activity of precursor ions (e.g., chlorhexidine diacetate and β-lactam antibiotics, GUMBOS and their unreacted mixtures were studied with 25 clinical isolates with varying antibiotic resistance using a micro-broth dilution method. Acute cytotoxicity and therapeutic indices were determined using fibroblasts, endothelial and cervical cell lines. Intestinal permeability was predicted using a parallel artificial membrane permeability assay. GUMBOS formed from ineffective β-lactam antibiotics and cytotoxic chlorhexidine diacetate exhibited unique pharmacological properties and profound antibacterial activity at lower concentrations than the unreacted mixture of precursor ions at equivalent stoichiometry. Reduced cytotoxicity to invasive cell types commonly found in superficial and chronic wounds was also observed using GUMBOS. GUMBOS show promise as an alternative combination drug strategy for treating wound infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria.

  3. Molecular Study of Salmonella enteritidis in Poultry Samples by PCR, Plasmid Curing, Antibiotic Resistance and Protein Pattern Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Mirmomeni

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study two control isolates of Salmonella enteritidis, RTCC1623 and RTCC1624, were obtained from the institute of Razi (Karaj-Iran and 14 strains were isolated from poultry samples in Kermanshah province of Iran, according to a standard protocol. These isolates were confirmed by PCR amplification of SefA gene fragments. Results showed that, 6 isolates of 14 isolates of Salmonella which their biochemical tests were positive contain 511 bp amplified fragments of the SefA gene. In other purpose, to correlating the presence of plasmids with antibiotic resistance and protein pattern, plasmid DNA was isolated before and after plasmid curing by using the alkaline lysis method. Strains of S. enteritidis contain seven different plasmid profiles (P1-P7 which were characterized by antibiotic resistance and protein pattern. Our observed showed, there was a high molecular weight plasmid with Rf 0.17 in all strains and the frequency of other plasmids was low. The plasmid with Rf about 0.2 is responsible for resistance to Cephalothin and the isolates that lost it were susceptible to this antibiotic. All strains, 100%, were resistant to ampicillin before and after curing of strains. According to present findings, PCR is a rapid and sensitive method for typing of S. enteritidis and plasmid profiling; antibiotic resistance and protein pattern are suitable methods for subtyping of S. enteritidis isolates. No direct correlation was found between plasmid contents, antibiotic resistance patterns and protein profiles of local S. enteritidis isolates.

  4. Prevalence of Pharyngeal Pneumococcal Carriers and Succeptibility Patterns among Children of Day Care Centers in Yazd District,Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammad - Zadeh

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most important causes of pneumonia, meningitis and septicemia. Decades after successful treatment of this infection with penicillin, frequency of penicillin resistance is reportedly on the rise throughout the world. This cross sectional study was designed in Yazd to determine the prevalence of pneumococcal pharyngeal carriers and its succeptibility pattern in children of day care centers. Method & materials : Two hundred children were selected randomly from 10 day care centers and pharyngeal swabs were collected and cultured in February, 2002. Results :51% of our study sample were boys and 49% were girls. Their age range was between 7 and 65 months. Prevalence of pharyngeal carriers was 37.5%. The rate of resistance detected was as follows: 50% to penicillin, 62.5% to erythromycin and TMP,SMX, 30.6% to tetracycline, 15.3 % to cephalothin, 5.6% to ceftizoxime and 4.2% to ciprofloxacin. Conclusion: We conclude that penicillin is not the drug of choice in invasive pneumococcal infections in Yazd and a third gereration cephalosporin should be used instead as the first line of treatment while awaiting the culture and sensitivity results.

  5. Safety assessment of Bifidobacterium longum J DM301 based on complete genome sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Xia Wei; Zhuo-Yang Zhang; Chang Liu; Xiao-Kui Guo; Pradeep K Malakar

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess the safety of Bifidobacterium longum (B.longum) JDM301 based on complete genome sequences. METHODS: The complete genome sequences of JDM301 were determined using the GS 20 system. Putative virulence factors, putative antibiotic resistance genes and genes encoding enzymes responsible for harmful metabolites were identified by blast with virulence factors database, antibiotic resistance genes database and genes associated with harmful metabolites in previous reports. Minimum inhibitory concentration of 16 common antimicrobial agents was evaluated by E-test. RESULTS: JDM301 was shown to contain 36 genes associated with antibiotic resistance, 5 enzymes related to harmful metabolites and 162 nonspecific virulence factors mainly associated with transcriptional regulation, adhesion, sugar and amino acid transport. B. longum JDM301 was intrinsically resistant tocipro ciprofloxacin,amikacin, gentamicin and streptomycin and susceptible to vancomycin, amoxicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, rifampicin, imipenemandtrimethoprim and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazol. JDM301.JDM301 was moderately resistant to bacitracin, while an earlier study showed that bifidobacteria were susceptible to this antibiotic. A tetracycline resistance gene with the risk of transfer was found in JDM301, which needs to be experimentally validated. CONCLUSION: The safety assessment of JDM301 using information derived from complete bacterial genome will contribute to a wider and deeper insight into the safety of probiotic bacteria.

  6. Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from the Uteri Horn, Mouth, and Rectum of Bitches Suffering from Pyometra: Virulence Factors, Antimicrobial Susceptibilities, and Clonal Relationships among Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinho, Juliana M A; de Souza, Andressa; Schocken-Iturrino, Ruben P; Beraldo, Lívia G; Borges, Clarissa A; Avila, Fernando A; Marin, José M

    2014-01-01

    Pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch, and Escherichia coli is the major pathogen associated with this disease. In this study, 70 E. coli isolates from the uteri horn, mouth, and rectum of bitches suffering from the disease and 43 E. coli isolates from the rectum of clinically healthy bitches were examined for the presence of uropathogenic virulence genes and susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. DNA profiles of isolates from uteri horn and mouth in bitches with pyometra were compared by REP, ERIC, and BOX-PCR. Virulence gene frequencies detected in isolates from canine pyometra were as follows: 95.7% fim, 27.1% iss, 25.7% hly, 18.5% iuc, and 17.1% usp. Predominant resistance was determined for cephalothin, ampicillin, and nalidixic acid among the isolates from all sites examined. Multidrug resistance was found on ∼ 50% pyometra isolates. Using the genotypic methods some isolates from uteri, pus, and saliva of the same bitch proved to have identical DNA profiles which is a reason for concern due to the close relationship between household pets and humans. PMID:24734047

  7. Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from the Uteri Horn, Mouth, and Rectum of Bitches Suffering from Pyometra: Virulence Factors, Antimicrobial Susceptibilities, and Clonal Relationships among Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana M. A. Agostinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch, and Escherichia coli is the major pathogen associated with this disease. In this study, 70 E. coli isolates from the uteri horn, mouth, and rectum of bitches suffering from the disease and 43 E. coli isolates from the rectum of clinically healthy bitches were examined for the presence of uropathogenic virulence genes and susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. DNA profiles of isolates from uteri horn and mouth in bitches with pyometra were compared by REP, ERIC, and BOX-PCR. Virulence gene frequencies detected in isolates from canine pyometra were as follows: 95.7% fim, 27.1% iss, 25.7% hly, 18.5% iuc, and 17.1% usp. Predominant resistance was determined for cephalothin, ampicillin, and nalidixic acid among the isolates from all sites examined. Multidrug resistance was found on ∼50% pyometra isolates. Using the genotypic methods some isolates from uteri, pus, and saliva of the same bitch proved to have identical DNA profiles which is a reason for concern due to the close relationship between household pets and humans.

  8. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococci on a farm: staff can harbour MRS when animals do not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, G de V; Maluta, R P; de Ávila, F A

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this work was to establish the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococci (MRS) in the animals and staff of a teaching and research farm. Samples of dairy cattle (36), beef cattle (26), sheep (19), horses (21), pigs (23), goats (23) and humans (13) were collected and screened for the presence of MRS. The detection of mecA gene was performed by PCR to determine the resistance of the samples to methicillin. Antimicrobial-resistance testing to penicillin, meropenem, ceftriaxone, cephalothin, oxacillin, levofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, clindamycin, erytromycin, linezolid, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, tetracycline, doxycycline and vancomycin was performed on the mecA+ isolates. From the 161 samples, four methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci (MRCoNS) were isolated from human beings (31%), whereas none was isolated from animals (0%). No methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were isolated. All of the MRCoNS isolates from this work presented different antimicrobial resistance patterns. MRCoNS may be present in humans associated with animals while not present in the animals. Selective pressure outside of the farm and a lack of MRCoNS transmission between humans and animals may be responsible for this lack of correlation. PMID:21824366

  9. Assessment of a self-designed protocol on patients with adverse reactions to beta-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J; Guerra, F; Moreno, C; Miguel, R; Daza, J C; Sánchez Guijo, P

    1992-01-01

    Suspected adverse reactions to beta-lactam antibiotics are the most frequent reason for consultation in relation WMH drug allergy. Because of their therapeutical usefulness and wide use, we developed a protocol for confirmation or exclusion of this type of allergy. The proposed protocol is based on clinical, causal and laboratory criteria that are used to assign scores from 0 to 9 points. Patients with scores between 0 and 3 are considered to be highly prone to beta-lactam antibiotic allergy and are given an alternative therapy that is selected by applying skin provocation tests (SPT). Those with a score of 9 points are excluded. Finally, those with scores between 4 and 8 are subjected to skin tests with 5 antigens (penicillin G, ampicillin, cephalothin, Penkit PPL and Penkit MDM); if they give negative results they are subsequently subjected to oral provocation with beta-lactam antibiotics. In this work we report the results obtained from 150 patients analysed for 28 variables altogether. The results allowed us to rule out adverse reactions in 94 patients. Only 9 individuals yielded positive skin tests, and only one gave a positive oral provocation (bronchospasm, 6 hours after subjection to the test). The usefulness of the proposed protocol, the profitability of the test applied and the mechanisms involved are assessed. PMID:1292326

  10. Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated in newly-hatched chickens and effect of amoxicillin treatment during their growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Belenguer, Ana; Doménech, Eva; Villagrá, Arantxa; Fenollar, Alejandro; Ferrús, Maria Antonia

    2016-08-01

    The use of antimicrobials in food animals is the major determinant for the propagation of resistant bacteria in the animal reservoir. However, other factors may also play a part, and in particular vertical spread between the generations has been suggested to be an important transmission pathway. The objective of this paper was to determine the resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolated from newly-hatched chickens as well as to study the antibiotic pressure effect when amoxicillin was administered during their growing period. With this aim, meconium from 22 one-day-old Ross chickens was analysed. In addition, during their growth period, amoxicillin treatments at days 7, 21 and 35 were carried out. Results showed a high number of E. coli-resistant strains were isolated from the treated one-day-old chickens, and were the highest for β-lactams group, followed by quinolone and tetracyclines. After treatment with amoxicillin, the highest percentage of resistances were detected for this antibiotic compared to the others analysed, with significant differences in resistance percentages between control and treated broilers detected in relation to ampicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin, kanamycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Differences in resistances to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid between control and treated animals were not observed and there was lack of resistance for amikacin and ceftriaxone. These results suggest the possibility of vertical transmission of resistant strains to newly-hatched chicks from parent flocks, and seem to indicate that the treatment with amoxicillin increased the resistance of E. coli to other antibiotics. PMID:27035748

  11. Acinetobacter johnsonii and Acinetobacter lwoffii - the emerging fish pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozińska Alicja

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterise Acinetobacter sp. isolated from fish. Eight isolates obtained from diseased rainbow trout and common carp cultured in Poland were analysed. The isolates were identified using API 20 NE system as Acinetobacter sp. Afterwards, they were identified by sequencing 16S rDNA gene fragment. The bacteria were identified as A. johnsonii (two isolates, A. lwoffii (two isolates, A. junii/johnsonii (one isolate, A. calcoaceticus (one isolate, and Acinetobacter sp. (two isolates. The drug resistance of isolates was examined. The majority of the isolates were resistant to ampicilin, amoxicillin, and cephalothin and all demonstrated sensitivity to fluoroquinolones, except of one isolate. Two isolates were selected for the experimental infection of trout and carp to confirm their pathogenicity. Experimentally infected fish showed disease symptoms similar to those observed in fish naturally infected with these bacteria. This is the first report concerning pathogenicity of A. johnsonii for rainbow trout and A. lwoffii for common carp. These bacteria were regarded as emerging opportunistic pathogens of fish farmed in Poland. Acinetobacter strains are commonly known as microorganisms transmitting the antibiotic resistance genes. Therefore, they might have a great impact on the resistance transfer in aquaculture.

  12. Ecological aspects of the antimicrobial resistence in bacteria of importance to humn infections

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    Meirelles-Pereira Frederico de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the intimate relationship of humans with coastal lagoons (used for recreation, tourism, water supply, etc., the discharge of domestic effluents may lead to the establishment of routes of dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms, including microorganisms carrying genes for resistance to antimicrobials, through the surrounding human communities. The objective of the present investigation was to relate the presence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria to the environmental characteristics of three coastal lagoons, comparing the results with those from hospital sewage. Of the lagoons evaluated, two (Geribá and Imboassica receive domestic sewage discharge, and the other (Cabiúnas is still in a natural state. We isolated in a culture medium containing 32 ¼ µg/ml of Cephalothin, fecal coliforms (E. coli, non-fecal coliforms (Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, and Citrobacter, non-glucose-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli, and Aeromonas sp. In cultures from the hospital drain we found strains showing numerous markers for resistance to most of the 11 antimicrobials tested. On the other hand, in cultures from Cabiúnas and Imboassica lagoons, we found strains showing resistance only to antibiotics frequently observed in non-selective situations (considered as "common" markers. The capacity for dilution in the ecosystem, and salinity appeared related with the occurrence of multi-resistant bacterial strains. The intensity of recent fecal contamination was not shown to be associated with the numbers and types of markers found.

  13. Analysis on the distribution and drug susceptibility for Staphylococcus in clinical samples of hospital%医院临床标本中葡萄球菌的分布及药敏分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱道; 吴锻; 陈龙培

    2012-01-01

    injured secretion, prostate liquid and cavity pus liquid in order. Susceptibility tests showed that staphylococcus was most sensitive to genta-mycin, cephalothin I and amikacin, with the susceptibility rate up to 90%. Conclusion The most disease causes of the staphylococcus symptom are the surface staphylococcus, indicating that the surface staphylococcus play neglect-able role in blood infection. The surface staphylococcus and corrosive staphylococcus play important roles in the urinary infection. The surface staphylococcus and corrosive staphylococcus are both most susceptible to gentamycin, cephalothin I and amikacin.

  14. Possible connections between the antibiotic-related plasmids of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains and the antibiotic resistance%益生乳杆菌质粒抗生素抗性基因与其耐药性的相关性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩俊华; 李珊珊; 裴家伟; 陈大欢; 张柏林

    2013-01-01

    采用K-B药敏纸片法检测了5株具有潜在益生乳杆菌的耐药性,通过质粒消除,分析了菌株质粒与耐药性之间的联系,应用PCR确定了质粒决定的耐药基因.5株乳杆菌对万古霉素、多粘菌素B以及链霉素等7种抗生素普遍表现出抗性,但主要对四环素敏感.采用SDS与SDS-高温两种方法消除戊糖乳杆菌CH8的质粒后,菌株CH8表现出头孢噻吩和氯霉素敏感性.设计β-内酰胺类抗性基因blr、ECP-1569和nps-1以及氯霉素抗性基因cmlA、cat和cmlA1的引物进行PCR,与目的产物测序比对表明,戊糖乳杆菌CH8的质粒上含有β-内酰胺类抗性基因blr,该基因与其头孢噻吩抗性有关.该研究为探讨乳酸菌的抗药基因转移性提供了前期基础,有助于益生乳杆菌安全性评价体系的建立与完善.%The tolerances of 5 potentially probiotic lactobacilli strains to antibiotics were investigated with K-B paper-diffusion method.The antibiotic-related resistance genes obtained from PCR were sequenced.Five lactobacilli strains showed their susceptibility to tetracycline,but tolerated to 7 antibiotics including bacitracin,polymyxin B,kanamycin,and nalidixic acid.All of five strains,Lactobacillus pentosus CH8 was used as case for further study.After both SDS and SDS-heating methods were chosen to remove the plasmids from strain CH8 cells,this strain showed its susceptibility to cephalothin and chloromycetin.Analysis of the PCR products,targeted from the primers of β-Iactam resistance-related genes including blr,ECP-1569 and nps-1 as well as chloromycetin resistance-related genes including cmlA,cat and cmlA 1,indicated that the plasmid of L.pentosus CH8 contained the blr gene that caused this bacteria to tolerate cephalothin.The elimination of plasmids by SDS or SDS-heating confirmed that there might be the potential relationship between the plasmid's presence of these strains and their antibiotic resistances.The detection of the plasmid

  15. Epidemic tvpe and antibiotic resistance of cholera strains isolated%霍乱疫情分离株流行菌型及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少玲; 吴捷; 刁保卫; 崔志刚; 王衍德; 朱建华; 黄昌和; 马焱

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the epidemic type and antibiotic resistance of cholere strains isolated and to provide basis for clinical treatment and prevention of cholera. Methods Six samples from an outbreak of cholera epidemic were collected in Hainan province in June 2008 and analyzed by serotyping and phage-biotyping. The cholera toxin gene was detected with PCR according to the " Manual for the Prevention and Control of Cholera" (version 5). Pulsed field gel electro-phoresis( PFGE) was used for subtyping of the isolates. The antibiotic susceptibility test of the 6 strains to 17 kinds of antibacterial was determined with improved K-B method recommended by WHO. Results The 6 strains were confirmed as Vibrio cholerae El Tor biotype, with 5 strains of 01 group of Vibrio cholerae El Tor serotype Inaba lc and 1 strains was Vibrio cholerae Ogawa( lc). The cholera toxin gene was identified in all 6 strains. The mapping of the strains were belonged to two pattern by PFGE and the similarity was 100 %. The 6 strains were all resistant to streptomycin,sulphamethoxazole/trim-ethoprim, sulphafurazole, and polymyxin B. High drug susceptibility of the samples was found to 9 kinds of antibiotics such as norfloxacin.cefotaxime and cephalothin(53% ,9/17). Conclusion The bacterium type of Vibrio cholerae causing the epidemic outbreak of cholera was Ol group of Vibrio cholerae El Tor serotype Inaba lc. Norfloxacin.cefotaxime and cepha-lothin could be the choice of clinical treatment for the cases and carriers of Vibrio cholerae in Hainan province. But streptomycin, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim,sulphafurazole,and polymyxin B could not be used.%目的 了解霍乱疫情分离株的流行菌型及其耐药性,为霍乱疫情的快速有效控制和临床治疗提供科学依据.方法 对2008年6月海南省某地霍乱疫情采集的6株霍乱弧菌分离株进行血清学分型、噬菌体-生物分型、霍乱毒素基因检测、脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFGE)分子分型

  16. Concentração mínima inibitória de dez antimicrobianos para amostras de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de infecção intramamária bovina Minimum inhibitory concentrations for ten antimicrobial agents against Staphylococcus aureus from bovine intramammary infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.V.P. Brito

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a concentração mínima inibitória (CMI de ampicilina, cefalotina, eritromicina, gentamicina, neomicina, norfloxacina, oxacilina, penicilina G, tetraciclina e tilosina para 112 amostras de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de infecções intramamárias bovina, em 33 rebanhos leiteiros da Zona da Mata do Estado de Minas Gerais. Foram isoladas 24 amostras de infecção clínica, 66 de subclínica e 22 de infecção crônica. As amostras de infecção crônica foram isoladas repetidas vezes dos mesmos quartos mamários de nove vacas de um rebanho, no período de 13 meses. A CMI foi realizada em ágar Mueller Hinton, com concentrações entre 0,015 e 128µgml-1 de cada antimicrobiano. As amostras da American Type Culture Collection (ATCC recomendadas para controle de qualidade, S. aureus ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, foram incluídas em cada teste. Cem por cento das amostras foram susceptíveis à cefalotina, eritromicina, gentamicina, norfloxacina e oxacilina, 91% à tetraciclina (CMI50: 0,5µgml-1 e à tilosina (CMI50: 2,0µgml-1, 65% à ampicilina (CMI50: 0,125µgml-1 e à penicilina G (CMI50: 0,06µgml-1. Todas foram susceptíveis à neomicina (CMI50: 0,5µgml-1 exceto uma amostra que apresentou um padrão intermediário. O nível de resistência para ampicilina e penicilina foi maior nas amostras isoladas de casos clínicos e nas de infecção subclínica com escores positivos no CMT (P ou = 0,125µgml-1 para penicilina foram positivas para produção de beta-lactamase.The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC for ampicillin, cephalothin, erythromycin, gentamicin, neomycin, norfloxacin, oxacillin, penicillin G, tetracycline and tylosin against 112 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine intramammary infections were determined. The strains were originated from 33 dairy herds located in the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais State. Twenty-four strains were isolated from clinical

  17. Isolation and identification of Staphylococcus aureus from milk and milk products and their drug resistance patterns in Anand, Gujarat

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    M. N. Brahmbhatt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was carried out with aim to isolate Staphylococcus aureus from milk and milk products (pedha and curd and determine antibiogram pattern of S. aureus isolates. Materials and Methods: During 9 months duration of study a total of 160 milk and milk product samples (pedha and curd were collected from different places in and around Anand city such as milk collection centre of Co-operative milk dairies, cattle farms, individual household, milk vendors and sweet shops. The samples were collected under aseptic precautions and were enriched in Peptone Water (PW followed by direct plating on selective media viz. Baird-Parker Agar. The presumptive S. aureus isolates were identified by biochemical tests. Antibiogram pattern of S. aureus to antimicrobial agents were evaluated by disk diffusion method. Results: Analysis of result revealed that out of total 160 samples of milk (100 and milk products i.e. curd (30 and pedha (30 resulted in the isolation of 10 isolates (6.25 % of S. aureus. In the present study S. aureus isolates were found variably resistant to the antibiotics tested. The S. aureus isolates showed highest sensitivity towards cephalothin (100.00 %, co-trimoxazole (100.00 %, cephalexin (100.00 % and methicillin (100.00 % followed by gentamicin (90.00 %, ciprofloxacin (80.00 %, oxacillin (70.00 %, streptomycin (60.00 % and ampicillin (60.00 %. The pattern clearly indicated that the overall high percent of S. aureus isolates were resistant to Penicillin-G (100.00 % followed by ampicillin (40.00 %, oxytetracycline and oxacillin (20.00 % and streptomycin and gentamicin (10.00 % Conclusions: Results clearly suggested a possibility of potential public health threat of S. aureus resulting from contamination of milk and milk products with pathogenic bacteria is mainly due to unhygienic processing, handling and unhygienic environment. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 10-13

  18. Epidemiological characterization of resistance and PCR typing of Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei strains isolated from bacillary dysentery cases in Southeast Brazil

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    M.P.A. Penatti

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Shigella spp are Gram-negative, anaerobic facultative, non-motile, and non-sporulated bacilli of the Enterobacteriaceae family responsible for "Shigellosis" or bacillary dysentery, an important cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. However, despite this, there are very few epidemiological studies about this bacterium in Brazil. We studied the antibiotic resistance profiles and the clonal structure of 60 Shigella strains (30 S. flexneri and 30 S. sonnei isolated from shigellosis cases in different cities within the metropolitan area of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. We used the following well-characterized molecular techniques: enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus, repetitive extragenic palindromic, and double-repetitive element-polymerase chain reaction to characterize the bacteria. Also, the antibiotic resistance of the strains was determined by the diffusion disk method. Many strains of S. flexneri and S. sonnei were found to be multi-resistant. S. flexneri strains were resistant to ampicillin in 83.3% of cases, chloramphenicol in 70.0%, streptomycin in 86.7%, sulfamethoxazole in 80.0%, and tetracycline in 80.0%, while a smaller number of strains were resistant to cephalothin (3.3% and sulfazotrim (10.0%. S. sonnei strains were mainly resistant to sulfamethoxazole (100.0% and tetracycline (96.7% and, to a lesser extent, to ampicillin (6.7% and streptomycin (26.7%. Polymerase chain reaction-based typing supported the existence of specific clones responsible for the shigellosis cases in the different cities and there was evidence of transmission between cities. This clonal structure would probably be the result of selection for virulence and resistance phenotypes. These data indicate that the human sanitary conditions of the cities investigated should be improved.

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Listeria monocytogenes human strains isolated from 1970 to 2008 in Brazil

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    Cristhiane Moura Falavina dos Reis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a foodborne illness that affects mainly pregnant women, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. The primary treatment is a combination of ampicillin with an aminoglycoside, in addition to a second-choice drug represented by chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracycline and rifampicin. The aim of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of strains isolated from human sources in the last four decades. METHODS: Sixty-eight strains were selected from the culture collection of the Laboratory of Bacterial Zoonoses/LABZOO/FIOCRUZ isolated in different regions of Brazil from 1970 to 2008 and primarily isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and blood culture. Susceptibility tests to antimicrobials drugs were evaluated using the criteria established by Soussy using the Kirby-Bauer method and E-Test strips were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. RESULTS: Among the strains tested, serovar L4b (60.3% was the most prevalent, followed by serovar 1/2a (20.6%, 1/2b (13.2% and the more uncommon serovars 1/2c, 3b and 4ab (5.9%. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, cephalothin, erythromycin, gentamicin, teicoplanin and vancomycin. Only one strain (1.5% showed resistance to rifampin, and two (3% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. MICs with values up to 2μg/ml reinforce the need for microbiological surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated low prevalence of strains resistant to the antimicrobial drugs indicated in the treatment of human listeriosis. Monitoring antimicrobial resistance profile is still very important to determine adequate treatment, especially in immunocompromised patients.

  20. Conjunctival cytological examination,bacteriological culture,and antimicrobial resistance profiles of healthy Mediterranean buffaloes(Bubalus bubalis) from Southern Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara; Lamagna; Maria; Pia; Pasolini; Sandra; Nizza; Karina; Mallardo; Maurizio; Formicola; Alessandro; Costagliola; Gerardo; Fatone; Filomena; Fiorito; Orlando; Paciello; Luisa; De; Martino

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess normal conjunctival cytological and bacteriological/fungal flora features in the Mediterranean buffalo(Bubalus bubalis).Methods: Swabs were taken from the inferior conjunctival sac of both eyes of 57 healthy female buffaloes aged 24–36 months, with no evidence of ocular disease, farmed in Campania region(Southern Italy), for microbiological analysis. Conjunctival eye specimens of both eyes were subsequently obtained by a cyto-brush, for cytological analysis.The antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates was also determined using the diskdiffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar plates.Results: Cytological examination of conjunctival swab specimens(114 eyes) revealed epithelial cells(basal, intermediate, columnar and super ficial) in all samples, whereas neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells were present in 70%, 10% and 2% of samples,respectively. Microorganisms, for a total of 261 aerobic bacteria and 6 fungi, were isolated from 112/114 conjunctival samples [98.25%; 95% con fidence interval(CI): 93.18–99.70]. Only two conjunctival swabs did not yield bacteria and/or fungi(2/114, 1.75%;95% CI: 0.30–6.82). Gram-positive aerobes were most commonly cultured(181/261,69.35%; 95% CI: 63.31–74.81), with Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus lentus predominating. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated as Gram-negative bacteria(80/261, 30.65%; 95% CI: 25.19–36.69). The antimicrobial resistance patterns of the isolated bacteria showed amoxycillin/clavulanic acid and cephalothin as the least sensitive antibiotics for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.Conclusions: These results provided first information on normal conjunctival ocular micro flora and cytological features in Mediterranean buffalo.

  1. Purification and biochemical characterization of the VIM-1 metallo-beta-lactamase.

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    Franceschini, N; Caravelli, B; Docquier, J D; Galleni, M; Frère, J M; Amicosante, G; Rossolini, G M

    2000-11-01

    VIM-1 is a new group 3 metallo-beta-lactamase recently detected in carbapenem-resistant nosocomial isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the Mediterranean area. In this work, VIM-1 was purified from an Escherichia coli strain carrying the cloned bla(VIM-1) gene by means of an anion-exchange chromatography step followed by a gel permeation chromatography step. The purified enzyme exhibited a molecular mass of 26 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and an acidic pI of 5.1 in analytical isoelectric focusing. Amino-terminal sequencing showed that mature VIM-1 results from the removal of a 26-amino-acid signal peptide from the precursor. VIM-1 hydrolyzes a broad array of beta-lactam compounds, including penicillins, narrow- to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, carbapenems, and mechanism-based serine-beta-lactamase inactivators. Only monobactams escape hydrolysis. The highest catalytic constant/K(m) ratios (>10(6) M(-1). s(-1)) were observed with carbenicillin, azlocillin, some cephalosporins (cephaloridine, cephalothin, cefuroxime, cefepime, and cefpirome), imipenem, and biapenem. Kinetic parameters showed remarkable variability with different beta-lactams and also within the various penam, cephem, and carbapenem compounds, resulting in no clear preference of the enzyme for any of these beta-lactam subfamilies. Significant differences were observed with some substrates between the kinetic parameters of VIM-1 and those of other metallo-beta-lactamases. Inactivation assays carried out with various chelating agents (EDTA, 1,10-o-phenanthroline, and pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid) indicated that formation of a ternary enzyme-metal-chelator complex precedes metal removal from the zinc center of the protein and revealed notable differences in the inactivation parameters of VIM-1 with different agents. PMID:11036013

  2. Frequency of Pseudomonas aeruginosa serotypes in burn wound infections and their resistance to antibiotics.

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    Estahbanati, Hamid Karimi; Kashani, Parnian Pour; Ghanaatpisheh, Fahimeh

    2002-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa plays a prominent role as an etiological agent involved in serious infections in burned patients. In this study P. aeruginosa infections were analyzed at the Motahari Burn Center in Tehran (from 22 December 1998 to April 1999) to estimate their frequency, antibiotic susceptibility and serotypes. One hundred and eighty-four positive cultures and 205 bacterial strains were isolated among swabs or biopsy specimens during the study period. Pseudomonas was found to be the most common (57%) followed by Acinetobacter (17%), Escherichia coli (12%), Staphylococcus aureus (8%) and other organisms (6%). The frequency of P. aeruginosa resistance to gentamicin, ceftizoxime, carbenicillin, cephalothin and ceftazidime was over 90%. The antibiotics to which P. aeruginosa was most sensitive were amikacin and tetracyclin. The "O" serotypes isolated from the 117 Pseudomona aeroginosa isolates were serotypes O:2, O:5, O:6, O:8, O:11, O:12 and O:16. The most common serotype was O:6 (20/17%) followed by O:11 (18/15%) and O:5 (14/12%). The serotype most resistant was O:16 (8%) and the most sensitive was O:8 (2%). Since treatment of infection with available antibiotics according to the results attained proved to be difficult, prevention of infection in the burned patients is considered as an appropriate means of conquering overcoming infection problems. The sum of frequencies of serotypes O:6, O:11, O:5 and O:16 was more than 60%, therefore vaccination of burn patients with polyvalent antiserum to these serotypes could possibly produce immunity in more than half of the burned patients. PMID:12052372

  3. Phenotypical characteristics of group B streptococcus in parturients

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    Jose Antonio Simoes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Colonization by Group B Streptococcus (GBS is highly prevalent among pregnant women, with prevalence rates ranging between 4% and 30%. The infection may be transmitted vertically and may result in serious neonatal consequences. In the period from November 2003 to May 2004, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 316 parturients at the Jundiaí Teaching Hospital to establish the prevalence of genital GBS colonization, to identify the factors associated with colonization and the characteristic phenotypes of these streptococci. Samples from rectal and vaginal areas were collected for selective culture in Todd-Hewitt broth. Susceptibility to 7 antimicrobial agents was tested using the antibiotic diffusion disk technique, and the isolated strains were classified using specific antisera. The prevalence of GBS colonization was 14.6%. No strain was resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin or nitrofurantoin. The majority of strains were sensitive to cephalothin. Greatest resistance was to gentamicin (76.1%, followed by clindamycin (17.4%. The most frequent serotype was Ib (23.9%, followed by serotypes II and Ia (19.6% and 17.4%, respectively. There was no correlation between serotype and greater antimicrobial resistance. In conclusion, the prevalence of GBS in parturients was high and penicillin continues to be the drug of choice for intrapartum prophylaxis. The most frequent serotype (Ib found in this study differs from those found in the majority of studies carried out in other countries, revealing the need to identify prevalent serotypes in each region so that specific vaccines can be designed.

  4. Evaluation of Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate medium to discriminate antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli

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    Jensen Lars

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening and enumeration of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli directly from samples is needed to identify emerging resistant clones and obtain quantitative data for risk assessment. Aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 3M™ Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate (SEC plate supplemented with antimicrobials to discriminate antimicrobial-resistant and non-resistant E. coli. Method A range of E. coli isolates were tested by agar dilution method comparing the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC for eight antimicrobials obtained by Mueller-Hinton II agar, MacConkey agar and SEC plates. Kappa statistics was used to assess the levels of agreement when classifying strains as resistant, intermediate or susceptible. Results SEC plate showed that 74% of all strains agreed within ± 1 log2 dilution when comparing MICs with Mueller-Hinton II media. High agreement levels were found for gentamicin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and cefotaxime, resulting in a kappa value of 0.9 and 100% agreement within ± 1 log2 dilution. Significant variances were observed for oxytetracycline and sulphamethoxazole. Further tests showed that the observed discrepancy in classification of susceptibility to oxytetracycline by the two media could be overcome when a plate-dependent breakpoint of 64 mg/L was used for SEC plates. For sulphamethoxazole, SEC plates provided unacceptably high MICs. Conclusion SEC plates showed good agreement with Mueller-Hinton II agar in MIC studies and can be used to screen and discriminate resistant E. coli for ampicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime and gentamicin using CLSI standardized breakpoints, but not for sulphamethoxazole. SEC plates can also be used to discriminate oxytetracycline-resistant E. coli if a plate-dependent breakpoint value of 64 mg/L is used.

  5. Prevalence of multi-drug resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Potohar region of Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ihsan Ali; Zara Rafaque; Safia Ahmed; Sajid Malik; Javid Iqbal Dasti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To scrutinize patterns of multi-drug-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains and particularly of fluoroquinolone-resistance this is an alternative choice for the treatment of urinary tract infections. Methods: Bacterial samples (n = 250) were collected from out-patients from August 2012 to August 2014 Islamabad. Antibiotic susceptibility profiling and determination of mini-mum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations were performed according to the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, 2012). Genes, qnrA, qnrB and qnrS were identified by DNA amplification and sequencing. Results: The highest percentage of UPEC isolates were resistant to co-trimoxazole (82%) followed by cephalothin (80%), 2nd Gen, 3rd Gen and 4th Gen cephalosporins, respectively. Resistance against gentamicin, amikacin remained 29% and 4%. For other drugs including nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, carbapenem and beta-lactam inhibitors remained below 10%. Altogether, 59% of the isolates were resistant to at least three antibiotics including one fluoroquinolone. Overall, MICs for ciprofloxacin remained (MIC≥256 mg/mL) and for levofloxacin (MIC≥16 mg/mL and 32 mg/mL). No significant differences were observed regarding MIC values of extended spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL) and non-ESBL producers. For qnrS and qnrB positive isolates MICs remained above 32 mg/mL. Prevalence of UPEC was significantly higher among females and 40% of the isolates were ESBL producers. Conclusions: Higher percentages of ESBL producing UPEC were associated with uri-nary tract infections. Moreover, the majority of these isolates were multi-drug resistant and fluoroquinolone-resistant.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance and genetic characterization of fluoroquinolone resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from canine infections.

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    Rubin, J; Walker, R D; Blickenstaff, K; Bodeis-Jones, S; Zhao, S

    2008-09-18

    Infections with antimicrobial-resistant bacteria are a great challenge in both human and veterinary medicine. The purpose of this study was to determine antimicrobial susceptibility of 106 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from dogs with otitis and pyoderma from 2003 to 2006 in the United States. Three antimicrobial panels, including 6 classes and 32 antimicrobial agents, were used. A wide range of susceptibility patterns were noted with some isolates being resistant to between 8 and 28 (mean 16) of the antimicrobials tested. Among the beta-lactams, all isolates were resistant to ampicillin, cefoxitin, cefpodoxime, cephalothin and cefazolin followed by amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (99%), ceftiofur (97%), ceftriaxone (39%), cefotaxime (26%), and cefotaxime/clavulanic acid (20%), whereas less than 7% of isolates were resistant to ceftazidime/clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, piperacillin/tazobactam or cefepime. Two isolates were resistant to the carbapenems. Among the quinolones and fluoroquinolones, the most isolates were resistant to naladixic acid (96%), followed by orbifloxacin (52%), difloxacin (43%), enrofloxacin (31%), marbofloxacin (27%), gatifloxacin (23%), levofloxacin (21%), and ciprofloxacin (16%). Among the aminoglycosides, the most resistance was seen to kanamycin (90%), followed by streptomycin (69%), gentamicin (7%), and amikacin (3%). Of the remaining antimicrobials 100% of the isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol followed by tetracycline (98%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (57%), and sulfisoxazole (51%). Point mutations were present in gyrA, gyrB, parC, and/or parE genes among 34 of the 102 naladixic acid-resistant isolates. Two isolates contained class 1 integrons carrying aadA gene conferring streptomycin and spectinomycin resistance. The findings suggest that many antimicrobial agents commonly used in companion animals may not constitute appropriate therapy for canine pseudomonas infections. PMID:18395369

  7. In vitro effect of josamycin in strains of Rhodococcus equi isolated from pulmonar infections in foals / Efeito in vitro da josamicina em cepas de rhodocaccus equi isoladas de afecções pulmonares em potros

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    Jaime Galvão Dias Júnior

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Antmicrobial susceptibility test was performed in thirty-one samples of Rhodococcus equi isolated from iung infections in foals. Among the antimicrobial tosted, erythromycin (100,0 %, rifampin (96.3%. neomycin (93,6 %Josamycin (90,4% and gentamicin (90,4 %presented the highest sensitivity against R- equi- The most-common occurrence of resistance was observed from cephalexim (100,0 %}, lincomycin (100,0 %, cephalothin (96,3 %. oxacillin (96,8 %, penicillin G (96,8 %, amoxicillin (90,3 % and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (83,8 %. The highest susceptibility of the R. equi to josamycin, suggest the drug as alternative for therapy of R. equi infections in foals.Procedeu-se o teste de sensibilidade microbiana in vitro pelo teste de difusão com discos em 31 cepas de Rhodococcus equi. isoladas de afecções pulmonares cm potros. frente a 20 antimicrobianos. Os maioires índices de sensibilidade de R. equi foram constatados para entromicina (100,0 %, níampicina (96.8 %}t ncomicina (93. 6 %. josamicina (90.4% e gentamicina (90A %. Os maiores índices de resistência do agente foram verificados para cefalexina (100,0%, lincomicina (100.0%, cefalotina (96.8 %, oxacilino (96,8 %}, penicilina G (96,3 %, amoxicilina (90.3 % e sulfametoxazol/trimetoprim (83,8 %. A alta sensibilidade das cepas de R. equi para a josamicina, sugere a possibilidade de utilização da droga como alternativa no tratamento da rodococose em potros.

  8. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Bovine Subclinical Mastitis in Turkey

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    Beytullah Kenar*, Yahya Kuyucuoğlu and Esra Şeker

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 572 California Mastitis Test (CMT positive milk samples were collected from 423 lactating cows on 18 private farms in the Middle Western Anatolia. Coagulase–negative staphylococci colonies and CNS species identification was performed based on conventional biochemical techniques and using the API Staph test. Slime production was detected by Congo Red Agar (CRA method. The antibiotic susceptibility was determined according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines (NCCLS. A total of 67 (11.7% coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS were isolated from CMT positive milk samples. In total, 11 CNS species: S. epidermidis (n=18, S. simulans (n=14, S. warneri (n=10, S. hominis (n=5, S. chromogenes (n=4, S. caprae (n=4, S. xylosus (n=3, S. haemolyticus (n=3, S. hyicus (n=3, S. cohnii (n=2, and S. capitis (n=1 were identified. The most commonly identified CNS species were Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.8% and Staphylococcus simulans (20.8% followed by Staphylococcus warneri (14.9%. Out of 67 CNS isolates, slime production was found in 37 (55.2% CNS strains. CNS isolates were the most resistance to trimethoprim+sulphamethoxazole (76.2%, erythromycin (73.2%, oxacillin and ampicillin (70.2% followed by penicillin (58.3%, gentamicin (53.8%, tetracycline (52.3%, vancomycin (51.8%, ciprofloxacin (26.9%, cefoxitim (23.9%, and cephalothin (13.5%. These results indicate that CNS species are resistant at high rates to the beta-lactam antibiotics which are intensively used in the prevention and treatment of mastitis without any antibiotic susceptibility test in the Middle Western of Turkey.

  9. Conjunctival endogenous microbiota in patients submitted to cataract surgery Microbiota endógena conjuntival em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de catarata

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    Claudete I. Locatelli

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial isolation, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out in ocular material collected with swab and polimethylmethacrylate (PMMA or silicone intraocular lenses (IOL from forty six patients submitted to cataract surgery. Seventy six isolates and seven different microorganisms were identified. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS were the predominant microorganisms isolated from swabs (71.4% of cases, PMMA lenses (81.3% and silicon lenses (77.8%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates revealed high resistance to penicillin G followed by tetracycline, chloramphenicol and aminoglicosides. However, these isolates displayed great susceptibility to vancomycin, cephalothin and ofloxacin. Except for penicillin G, Staphylococcus aureus was very sensitive to the antimicrobial agents including oxacillin. Among Gram-negatives, Proteus mirabilis was prevalent and presented high resistance to tetracycline and chloramphenicol. Enterococcus isolates were vancomycin sensitive.A partir de material ocular coletado de 46 pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de catarata foram realizados isolamento, identificação e teste de susceptibilidade de microrganismos frente a antimicrobianos, utilizando-se suabes e lentes intraoculares (LIO. Foram obtidos 76 isolados e identificados 7 tipos de microrganismos. Estafilococos coagulase-negativos (CNS foram os microrganismos mais freqüentemente detectados de suabes (71,4% dos casos, lentes de PMMA (81,3% e lentes de silicone (77,8%. Isolados de CNS apresentaram elevada resistência à penicilina G, seguida por tetraciclina, cloranfenicol e aminoglicosídeos. No entanto, estes isolados mostraram grande sensibilidade à vancomicina, cefalotina e ofloxacina. Com exceção da penicilina G, os isolados de Staphylococcus aureus foram bastante sensíveis aos agentes antimicrobianos, incluindo a oxacilina. Entre as gram-negativas, Proteus mirabilis foi a bactéria mais freqüente e também se mostrou

  10. Cockroaches (periplaneta americana and blattella germanica: reservoirs of multi drug resistant (MDR bacteria in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State

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    E.P. Udoinyang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriological examination of external surfaces and internal guts of Periplaneta americana and Blattela germanica were carried out using standard method and antibiotics susceptibility profiles of the isolates were determined using disc diffusion methods. Of the 317 bacteria isolated from the external surfaces and internal guts of P. americana, 275 (86.8% were Gram-negative bacilli, while 42 (13.2% were Gram-positive bacteria. Of the 204 bacterial isolates from B. germanica, 175 (85.8% were Gram negative, while 29 (14.2% were Gram positive bacteria. The bacteria isolated were Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Morganella morganii, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae and Providencia spp. Among the Gram positive bacteria, only 75.8% S. aureus and 76.5% B. cereus were sensitive to Streptomycin and Gentamycin, while their resistance profiles to antibiotics in decreasing order were as follows: Chloramphenicol (41.7%, Amoxicillin (40.3%, Streptomycin (36.1%, Tetracycline (36.0%, Erythromycin (35.5%, Gentamicin (34.0%, Penicillin (34.6%, Cephalothin (27.8%, Sulfamethoxazole (23.4%, Ciprofloxacin (18.4% and Levofloxacin (17.7%. Less than 50% of E. cloacae and Providencia spp were resistant to Streptomycin, while ˂ 40% of P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa were resistant to Chloramphenicol. Of the 353 (67.8% multi drug resistant bacteria, 121 (23.2% were resistant to 3 antibiotics, 232 (65.7% were resistant to 4-10 antibiotics. The antibiotic resistant Salmonella spp. and P. mirabilis had Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR indexes ranging from 0.27 to 0.82. These findings suggest cockroaches in Uyo as potential vectors of medically important multiple drug-resistant bacteria.

  11. Epidemiological characterization of resistance and PCR typing of Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei strains isolated from bacillary dysentery cases in Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penatti, M P A; Hollanda, L M; Nakazato, G; Campos, T A; Lancellotti, M; Angellini, M; Brocchi, M; Rocha, M M M; Dias da Silveira, W

    2007-02-01

    Shigella spp are Gram-negative, anaerobic facultative, non-motile, and non-sporulated bacilli of the Enterobacteriaceae family responsible for "Shigellosis" or bacillary dysentery, an important cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. However, despite this, there are very few epidemiological studies about this bacterium in Brazil. We studied the antibiotic resistance profiles and the clonal structure of 60 Shigella strains (30 S. flexneri and 30 S. sonnei) isolated from shigellosis cases in different cities within the metropolitan area of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. We used the following well-characterized molecular techniques: enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus, repetitive extragenic palindromic, and double-repetitive element-polymerase chain reaction to characterize the bacteria. Also, the antibiotic resistance of the strains was determined by the diffusion disk method. Many strains of S. flexneri and S. sonnei were found to be multi-resistant. S. flexneri strains were resistant to ampicillin in 83.3% of cases, chloramphenicol in 70.0%, streptomycin in 86.7%, sulfamethoxazole in 80.0%, and tetracycline in 80.0%, while a smaller number of strains were resistant to cephalothin (3.3%) and sulfazotrim (10.0%). S. sonnei strains were mainly resistant to sulfamethoxazole (100.0%) and tetracycline (96.7%) and, to a lesser extent, to ampicillin (6.7%) and streptomycin (26.7%). Polymerase chain reaction-based typing supported the existence of specific clones responsible for the shigellosis cases in the different cities and there was evidence of transmission between cities. This clonal structure would probably be the result of selection for virulence and resistance phenotypes. These data indicate that the human sanitary conditions of the cities investigated should be improved. PMID:17273662

  12. Prevalence of the genital tract bacterial infections after vaginal reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, Reza; Danesh, Azar; Kabiri, Najmeh; Setorki, Mahbubeh; Doudi, Monir

    2014-09-01

    Due to frequent childbirth, heavy lifting and the structure of the lives of rural women in Shahrekord region, Iran, cystocele and rectocele are of the main medical problems of the women in this area and for its correction, vaginal reconstructive surgery is needed which causes infection. The purpose of this study was to identify the bacteria causing infection after vaginal reconstructive surgery and performing antibiogram to help these patients for faster recovery. Patients enrolled this study were 92 who had undergone previous vaginal reconstructive surgery and now had infection. After examination, the group of patients taking antibiotics (n = 26) were excluded and the remaining 66 completed the study questionnaire. A gynecologist performed sampling; related tests (aerobic and anaerobic culture using an anaerobic culture gas pack jar and type A which provides absolute anaerobic conditions) were performed; antimicrobial susceptibility testing using Disk Diffusion Method was carried out; and the results were recorded. All the positive samples were polymicrobial. Gardnerella vaginalis in 20 cases (31%), peptostreptococci and anaerobic cocci in 9 cases (13.6%), staphylococcus aureus in 8 cases (9.1%), bacteroides and fusobacterium in 7 cases (10.6%), streptococcus group B in 4 cases (6%), yeast cells in 11 cases (16.6%) and Trichomonas vaginalis in wet mount of 4 (6%) existed. Anaerobic bacteria showed 85% sensitivity to clindamycin, 82% to chloramphenicol, 85% sensitivity to ceftizoxime and 45% to penicillin. Facultative anaerobic bacteria showed a sensitivity rate of 90% to ceftizoxime, chloramphenicol and cephalothin. According to our findings, the rate of vaginal bacterial infection in women with vaginal reconstructive surgery has increased; from which, infections with anaerobic bacteria origins have increased dramatically. We recommend antibiotic prophylaxis prior to genital reconstructive surgeries. PMID:26031026

  13. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of 5 novel CTX-M enzymes carried by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun CHENG; Ying YE; Ying-ying WANG; Hui LI; Xu LI; Jia-bin LI

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to study the phenotypic and molecular characterization of 5 novel CTX-M-β-lactamases carried by 5 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates and 3 Escherichia coli isolates collected from 4 hospitals in Hefei, China. Methods: The purified PCR products were ligated with pGEM-Teasy vectors, expressed, and sequenced. The complete genes of the CTX-M-β-lactamases were ligated with the pHSG398 vector to express prokaryotic recombi-nant proteins. Plasmids were extracted by rapid alkaline lysis protocol, and the PCR method was performed to determine whether the prokaryotic expression was successful or not. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested and the phenotypes of transformants were determined according to criteria recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The kinetic parameters of enzymes were confirmed. The isoelectric points (pI) were determined by isoelectric focusing assay. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and plasmid profiling were performed. Results: The PCR products had 1101 nucleotides and were determined as CTX-M-46, CTX-M-47, CTX-M-48, CTX-M-49, and CTX-M-50. All strains were resistant to cefotaxime, but most of them were susceptible or intermediate to ceftazidime. The phenotypes of novel enzymes were determined as extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). Penicillin G, cephalothin, cefuroxime, and cefotaxime were determined to good substrates, whereas ceftazidime hydrolysis was not detected. The pI of the 5 novel CTX-M-βlactamases were 8.0. CTX-M-derivatives could be the multiplex genesis in our area. Conclusion: This is the first report of these 5 novel plasmid-mediated CTX-M ESBL produced from China in the world. Mo-lecular typing reveals notably different origin in genes encoding different CTX-M variants of 8 strains.

  14. The Resistance of E.coli in Child Patients in Bingöl Region

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    İlhan Geçit

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, it has been aimed to put forward the resistance of the antibiotic in urinary infections caused by E.coli. Material and Method: The samples of the urine culture sent from 1412 patients who referred to Bingol State Hospital with the suspicion of urinary tract infection between 2007-2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Those who have recently used the antibiotic were excluded from the study. Results: Of the urine cultures sent from 1412 patients with the suspicion of urinary tract infection, there was reproduction in 113 (8%. E.coli was proliferated in 78 patients (69% detected the reproduction in their urine culture. The gender distribution of the patients proliferated E.coli in their urine culture was respectively 13 male (17% and 65 girls (83%. The age range of the children detected the urinary tract infection acquired from the community was under 7 years 39%. The resistance rates of antibiotic for E.coli were found to be 71% for ampicillin, 53% for amoksilin-clavulanate, 51% for co-trimaksazol, 48% for cephalothin, 37% for cefuroxime, 30% for ciprofloxacin, 25% for cefepime, % 21 for norfloxacin, 21% for gentamicin, 6% for sulbactam-seforazom, 2% for amikacin, and 0% for imipenem and meropenem. Discussion: The resistance rates occurring against the antibiotics are getting more and more important because there has been a longer life expectancy in the age group of the children. For this reason, potential uropathogens and antibiotic sensitivities in children should be considered in the treatment by following closely.

  15. Detection of the frequency, antimicrobial susceptibility, and genotypic discrimination of Aeromonas strains isolated from municipally treated tap water samples by cultivation and AP-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emekdas, Gurol; Aslan, Gonul; Tezcan, Seda; Serin, Mehmet Sami; Yildiz, Cilem; Ozturhan, Hakan; Durmaz, Riza

    2006-04-01

    The frequency, antibiotic susceptibility, and genotypic discrimination of Aeromonas strains isolated from municipally treated drinking tap water distribution systems were investigated in this study. We have analyzed 148 tap water samples collected from 8 different locations by bacterial cultivation and arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR). Gram negative, hemolytic, oxidase (+) and catalase (+) bacterial colonies were applied to the study. Identification of bacterial colonies was done by conventional biochemical method and API ID 20E panel (BioMerieux-France). Molecular epidemiological discrimination of the isolates was done by AP-PCR. Aeromonas spp. was detected in 6 of 148 (4%) tap water samples from 8 different locations. Five isolates were identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and one isolate was identified as Vibrio fluvialis by conventional biochemical method. These data were also confirmed by API 20E panel. One of 6 isolates was resistant to gentamicin, 2 of 6 isolates were resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, 4 of 6 isolates were resistant to ampicillin and ampicillin-sulbactam and all of 6 isolates were resistant to cephalothin. All isolates were found to be susceptible to amikacin, aztreonam, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin. All 6 strains of Aeromonas were discriminated by AP-PCR and were determined that all isolates were from different genotypic sources. Although the frequency of the isolates was under the standard limits, the results indicate that hemolytic A. hydrophila are present in municipally treated tap water samples in Mersin City. While all strains were genotypically distinct, all of them were resistant to first generation beta lactam antibiotics tested in this study. PMID:16427154

  16. Comparison of ELISA and PCR vis-à-vis cultural methods for detecting Aeromonas spp. in foods of animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, S; Agarwal, R K; Bist, B

    2006-02-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the best method of the most commonly used methods for detection of aeromonads in foods of animal origin. With this objective an OMP based indirect plate ELISA and a duplex-PCR using primers targeting aerolysin gene and 16S rRNA gene and yielding amplicons of 252 bp and 599 bp, respectively, were standardized. The standardized protocols and the conventional cultural method were then compared for their respective sensitivities and specificities for detecting aeromonads from chicken and milk samples. Both the standardized assays were found to be highly specific for Aeromonas. The efficiency of the standardized indirect-ELISA and duplex-PCR protocols was assessed by artificial inoculation studies with varying concentrations of Aeromonas cells inoculated in chicken and milk samples followed by enrichment in Alkaline Peptone Water supplemented with 10 mg/ml cephalothin (APW-C) for 12 h. The results revealed that indirect-ELISA was able to detect a minimum of 10(3) cells/ml or g of Aeromonas cells in spiked milk and chicken samples, respectively. Whereas, duplex-PCR and cultural method were able to detect as low as 1 cell/ml or g of Aeromonas cells in spiked milk and chicken samples. The developed assays were also tested for their efficiency to detect Aeromonas spp. in naturally contaminated milk and chicken samples. Out of a total 50 milk samples screened for presence of Aeromonas by the three methods viz., indirect-ELISA, duplex-PCR and cultural method only 1 (2%) turned out to be positive showing positive results by all three methods. Similarly, 50 samples of chicken were tested by all three methods. Three samples (6%) turned out to be positive and here again by all the three methods. PMID:16216375

  17. Prevalence, characterization, and antimicrobial resistance of Yersinia species and Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from raw milk in farm bulk tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Hossein; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Radmehr, Behrad; Ismail, Salmah

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and to characterize and determine the antibiotic resistance of Yersinia spp. isolates from raw milk. From September 2008 to August 2010, 446 raw milk samples were obtained from farm bulk milk tanks in Varamin, Iran. Yersinia spp. were detected in 29 (6.5%) samples, out of which 23 (79.3%), 5 (17.2%), and 1 (3.4%) were isolated from cow, sheep, and goat raw milk, respectively. The most common species isolated was Yersinia enterocolitica (65.5%), followed by Yersinia frederiksenii (31%), and Yersinia kristensenii (3.4%). Of the 19 Y. enterocolitica isolates, 14 (73.7%) were grouped into bioserotype 1A/O:9, 4 (21.1%) belonged to bioserotype 1B:O8, 1 (5.3%) belonged to bioserotype 4/O:3, and 1 isolate (biotype 1A) was not typable. All the isolates of biotypes 1B and 4harbored both the ystA and ail genes. However, all the isolates of biotype 1A were only positive for the ystB gene. The tested Yersinia spp. showed the highest percentages of resistance to tetracycline (48.3%), followed by ciprofloxacin and cephalothin (each 17.2%), ampicillin (13.8%), streptomycin (6.9%), and amoxicillin and nalidixic acid (each 3.4%). All of the tested isolates demonstrated significant sensitivity to gentamicin and chloramphenicol. Recovery of potentially pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from raw milk indicates high risks of yersiniosis associated with consumption of raw milk. PMID:25497824

  18. Antibiotic Resistance of Urinary Tract Infection of Children Under 14 Years Admitted To The Pediatric Clinic of Imam Sajjad Hospital, 2012

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    F Asadi Manesh F

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Urinary tract infection is the most common childhood infections after upper respiratory tract infection. Early diagnosis, proper treatment and appropriate patient follow-up can lead to a significant reduction in symptoms. The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance of urinary tract infection in children under 14 years admitted to the pediatric clinic of Imam Sajjad (AS Yasooj. Methods: Methods: In this cross-sectional study antibiotic sensitivity of 145 positive urine cultures were evaluated by disc diffusion method. Urine specimens were collected by suprapubic aspiration and catheterization urethral in children without urinary incontinence and Mid Stream Clean-Catch method. Data were analyzed by chi square test. Results: Among the patients were studied, 60.68% female and 39.31% were male. The most common cause of urinary tract infections in children, Escherichia coli (72.41%, followed by Klebsiella (34/10.34%. Antibiotic resistance patterns including ampicillin (85.51%, amoxicillin (/83.44%, cephalexin (69.65%, cephalothin (62.06%, cotrimoxazole (37.61%, nalidixic acid (44.82%, cefixime (24.37%, nitrofurantoin (36.55%, gentamicin (35.17%, ceftriaxone (28.27%, ciprofloxacin (26.89%, amikacin (25.51%, and cefotaxime (24.82% were respectively. Conclusion: Conclusion: Antibiotic resistance in urinary tract infections of children in Yasuj in 2012 was higher than previous years except for amikacin, But it was a remarkable increase in ciprofloxacin and co-trimoxazole. The use of nitrofurantoin, cefotaxime, third generation cephalosporins and aminoglycosides is recommended for empirical treatment.

  19. High Frequency of Class 1 Integrons in Escherichia coli Isolated From Patients With Urinary Tract Infections in Yasuj, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoramrooz, Seyed Sajjad; Sharifi, Asghar; Yazdanpanah, Mahboubeh; Malek Hosseini, Seyed Ali Asghar; Emaneini, Mohammad; Gharibpour, Farzaneh; Parhizgari, Najmeh; Mirzaii, Mehdi; Zoladl, Mohammad; Khosravani, Seyed Abdolmajid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most urinary tract infections (UTI) are caused by Escherichia coli. Integrons have an important role in distributing antibiotic resistance genes among bacteria. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of class 1, 2 and 3 integrons and their association with antibiotic resistance in E. coli isolated from patient with UTI in Yasuj, Iran. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study a total of 200 E. coli were collected from 1820 patients diagnosed with UTI that had been referred to two clinical laboratories between February 2013 and November 2014 in Yasuj city, southwest of Iran. Susceptibility of isolates to 11 different antibiotics was determined by the disk agar diffusion method. multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for detection of class 1, 2 and 3 integrons. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software (version 16) and the chi-square test. A P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The highest rate of resistance was observed toward cephalothin (99%) and amoxicillin (76%) while only two (1%) isolates showed resistance to imipenem. Overall, 79% of isolates were multi drug resistant (MDR). Class 1 and 2 integrons were detected in 104 (52%) and 5 (2.5%) isolates respectively, while none of the isolates were positive for class 3 integrons. A significant association was observed between the presence of integrons and resistance to co-trimoxazole, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, ceftazidime and tetracycline (P < 0.05). Conclusions: High MDR isolates of E. coli were observed in this study. The significant association between class 1 integrons and resistance to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin, ceftazidime and tetracycline showed that class 1 integrons have an important role in resistance to these antibiotics in this region. PMID:26889395

  20. Health care associated infections, antibiotic resistance and clinical outcome: A surveillance study from Sanandaj, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Jafar; Poorabbas, Bahman; Miri, Neda; Mardaneh, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To study the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of gram-negative healthcare associated bacterial infections at two tertiary hospitals in the Sanandaj city, Kurdistan Province, Iran. METHODS: From January 2012 to December 2012, all positive cultures from potentially sterile body fluids were gathered. They sent to professor Alborzi clinical microbiology center in Shiraz for further analysis and susceptibility testing. The antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the Kirby-Bauer method (disk diffusion technique). The Results were interpreted according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines against a series of antimicrobials. World Health Organization definitions for Healthcare associated infections were followed. RESULTS: Seven hundred and thirty-two positive cultures were reported from both hospitals. Seventy-nine isolates/patients fulfilled the study criteria for health-care associated gram-negative infections. The most frequent bacterial cultures were from the pediatric wards (52%). Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens) (38%) Escherichia coli (E. coli) (19%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) (19%), Acinetobacter baumannii (6%), Enterobacter species (6%), Serratia odorifera (4%) and Pseudomonas species (5%) were the most frequently isolated organisms. The susceptibility pattern of common isolates i.e., S. marcescens, E. coli and K. pneumoniae for commonly used antibiotics were as follows: Ampicillin 3.3%, 6.7%, 20%; gentamicin 73.3%, 73.3%, 46.7%; ceftazidim 80%, 73.3%, 33.3%; cefepim 80%, 86.7%, 46.7%; piperacillin/tazobactam 90%, 66.7%, 86.7%; ciprofloxacin 100%, 73.3%, 86.7%; imipenem 100%, 100%, 100%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The most effective antibiotics against gram-negative healthcare associated infections are imipenem followed by ciprofloxacin. The resistance rate is high against ampicillin and cephalothin. The high mortality rate (46.1%) associated with S. marcescens is alarming. PMID:26989670

  1. Activity of disinfectants and biofilm production of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

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    Maria da C.A. Sá

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To verify the occurrence of caseous lymphadenitis in sheep and goats on farms of Pernambuco, Brazil, and in animals slaughtered in two Brazilian cities (Petrolina/PE and Juazeiro/BA, and to characterize the susceptibility profile of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis to disinfectants and antimicrobials, and its relationship with biofilm production were the objectives of this study. 398 samples were tested for sensitivity to antimicrobial drugs, disinfectants, and biofilm production. Among the 108 samples collected on the properties, 75% were positive for C. pseudotuberculosis. Slaughterhouse samples indicated an occurrence of caseous lymphadenitis in 15.66% and 6.31% for animals slaughtered in Petrolina and Juazeiro respectively. With respect to antimicrobials, the sensitivity obtained was 100% for florfenicol and tetracycline; 99.25% for enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and lincomycin; 98.99% for cephalothin; 98.74% for norfloxacin and sulfazotrim; 97.74% for gentamicin; 94.22% for ampicillin; 91.71% for amoxicillin; 91.21% for penicillin G; 89.19% for neomycin and 0% for novobiocin. In analyzes with disinfectants, the efficiency for chlorhexidine was 100%, 97.20% for quaternary ammonium, 87.40% for chlorine and 84.40% for iodine. 75% of the isolates were weak or non-biofilm producers. For the consolidated biofilm, found that iodine decreased biofilm formation in 13 isolates and quaternary ammonia in 11 isolates. The reduction of the biofilm formation was observed for iodine and quaternary ammonium in consolidated biofilm formation in 33% and 28% of the isolates, respectively. The results of this study highlight the importance of establishing measures to prevent and control the disease.

  2. Prevalence, Antimicrobial Resistance and Risk Factors for Thermophilic Campylobacter Infections in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Humans in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komba, E V G; Mdegela, R H; Msoffe, P L M; Nielsen, L N; Ingmer, H

    2015-11-01

    The genus Campylobacter comprises members known to be a leading cause of foodborne gastrointestinal illness worldwide. A study was conducted to determine the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in humans in Morogoro, Eastern Tanzania. Isolation of Campylobacter from stool specimens adopted the Cape Town protocol. Campylobacter isolates were preliminarily identified by conventional phenotypic tests and subsequently confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and polymerase chain reaction. Antimicrobial resistance testing employed the disc diffusion method. A small proportion of the test isolates was also subjected to agar dilution method. Risk factors for human illness were determined in an unmatched case-control study. Thermophilic Campylobacter were isolated from 11.4% of the screened individuals (n = 1195). The agreement between PCR and MALDI-TOF was perfect (κ = 1.0). Symptomatics and young individuals were infected with higher numbers than asymptomatic and adults, respectively. The majority (84.6%) of the isolates were C. jejuni and the remaining were C. coli. Isolates had highest resistance (95.6%) for colistin sulphate and lowest for ciprofloxacin (22.1%). The rates of resistance for other antibiotics (azithromycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, cephalothin, gentamycin, nalidixic acid, ampicillin, amoxycillin, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol) ranged from 44.1% to 89%. Comparison between disc diffusion and agar dilution methods indicated a good correlation, and the tests were in agreement to each other (κ ≥ 0.75). Human illness was found to be associated with young age and consumption of chicken meat and pre-prepared salad. Our data indicate the presence of antibiotic-resistant thermophilic Campylobacter in humans in the study area. There is a need for routine investigation of the presence of the organisms in gastroenteritis aetiology, including determination of their antibiotic

  3. Risk factors associated with the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis

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    Daniele C. Beuron

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate herd management practices and mastitis treatment procedures as risk factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial resistance. For this study, 13 herds were selected to participate in the study to evaluate the association between their management practices and mastitis treatment procedures and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 1069 composite milk samples were collected aseptically from the selected cows in four different periods over two years. The samples were used for microbiological culturing of S. aureus isolates and evaluation of their antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 756 samples (70.7% were culture-positive, and S. aureus comprised 27.77% (n=210 of the isolates. The S. aureus isolates were tested using the disk-diffusion susceptibility assay with the following antimicrobials: ampicillin 10mg; clindamycin 2μg; penicillin 1mg; ceftiofur 30μg; gentamicin 10mg; sulfa-trimethoprim 25μg; enrofloxacin 5μg; sulfonamide 300μg; tetracycline 30μg; oxacillin 1mg; cephalothin 30μg and erythromycin 5μg. The variables that were significantly associated with S. aureus resistance were as follows: the treatment of clinical mastitis for ampicillin (OR=2.18, dry cow treatment for enrofloxacin (OR=2.11 and not sending milk samples for microbiological culture and susceptibility tests, for ampicillin (OR=2.57 and penicillin (OR=4.69. In conclusion, the identification of risk factors for S. aureus resistance against various mastitis antimicrobials is an important information that may help in practical recommendations for prudent use of antimicrobial in milk production.

  4. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Proteus mirabilis isolates from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuki; Niina, Ayaka; Shimizu, Takae; Mukai, Yujiro; Kuwajima, Ken; Miyamoto, Tadashi; Kataoka, Yasushi

    2014-11-01

    Large-scale monitoring of resistance to 14 antimicrobial agents was performed using 103 Proteus mirabilis strains isolated from dogs in Japan. Resistant strains were analysed to identify their resistance mechanisms. Rates of resistance to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, kanamycin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, cephalothin, gentamicin, cefoxitin and cefotaxime were 20.4, 15.5, 12.6, 10.7, 9.7, 8.7, 5.8, 2.9, 2.9, 1.9 and 1.9%, respectively. No resistance to ceftazidime, aztreonam or imipenem was found. Class 1 and 2 integrases were detected in 2.9 and 11.7% of isolates, respectively. Class 1 integrons contained aadB or aadB-catB-like-blaOXA10-aadA1, whereas those of class 2 contained sat-aadA1, dhfr1-sat-aadA1 or none of the anticipated resistance genes. Of five distinct plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance (PMQR) genes, only qnrD gene was detected in 1.9% of isolates. Quinolone-resistance determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA and parC from 13 enrofloxacin-intermediate and -resistant isolates were sequenced. Seven strains had double mutations and three had single mutations. Three of nine ampicillin-resistant isolates harboured AmpC-type β-lactamases (i.e. blaCMY-2, blaCMY-4 and blaDHA-1). These results suggest that canine Proteus mirabilis deserves continued surveillance as an important reservoir of antimicrobial resistance determinants. This is the first report, to our knowledge, describing integrons, PMQRs and QRDR mutations in Proteus mirabilis isolates from companion animals. PMID:25187600

  5. Seawater is a reservoir of multi-resistant Escherichia coli, including strains hosting plasmid-mediated quinolones resistance and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases genes

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    IsabelHenriques

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine antibiotic resistance (AR dissemination in coastal water, considering the contribution of different sources of faecal contamination. Samples were collected in Berlenga, an uninhabited island classified as Natural Reserve and visited by tourists for aquatic recreational activities. To achieve our aim, AR in Escherichia coli isolates from coastal water was compared to AR in isolates from two sources of faecal contamination: human-derived sewage and seagull faeces. Isolation of E. coli was done on Chromocult agar. Based on genetic typing 414 strains were established. Distribution of E. coli phylogenetic groups was similar among isolates of all sources. Resistances to streptomycin, tetracycline, cephalothin and amoxicillin were the most frequent. Higher rates of AR were found among seawater and faeces isolates, except for last-line antibiotics used in human medicine. Multi-resistance rates in isolates from sewage and seagull faeces (29% and 32% were lower than in isolates from seawater (39%. Seawater AR profiles were similar to those from seagull faeces and differed significantly from sewage AR profiles. Nucleotide sequences matching resistance genes blaTEM, sul1, sul2, tet(A and tet(B, were present in isolates of all sources. Genes conferring resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins were detected in seawater (blaCTX-M-1 and blaSHV-12 and seagull faeces (blaCMY-2. Plasmid-mediated determinants of resistance to quinolones were found: qnrS1 in all sources and qnrB19 in seawater and seagull faeces. Our results show that seawater is a relevant reservoir of AR and that seagulls are an efficient vehicle to spread human-associated bacteria and resistance genes. The E. coli resistome recaptured from Berlenga coastal water was mainly modulated by seagulls-derived faecal pollution. The repertoire of resistance genes covers antibiotics critically important for humans, a potential risk for human health.

  6. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes from Beef Cattle Processing Plants%牛屠宰厂来源的单增李斯特菌的耐药性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯晓慧; 张琳; 朱立贤

    2015-01-01

    了解牛屠宰厂来源的单增李斯特菌的耐药性情况.采用牛屠宰厂来源的的55株单增李斯特菌为研究对象,采用Kirby-Bauer法检测对16种抗生素的耐药情况.所检55株单增李斯特菌株对青霉素G、诺氟沙星、复方新诺明等不耐药,对头孢噻吩、多粘菌素B、头孢噻肟、依诺沙星的耐药率分别为1.82%、25.45%、36.36%、38.18%,耐3种以上抗生素的有44株,其中耐3种抗生素的27株(49.09%),耐4种抗生素的17株(30.90%).单增李斯特菌对4种抗生素存在耐药情况,并且存在不同程度的多重耐药情况的菌株,今后应加强对单增李斯特菌的污染情况和耐药性检测,以保证食品安全和人类健康.%[ Objective]Listeria monocytogenes isolates from beef cattle processing plants were examined for antibiotic resist-ance.[Methods]Antimicrobial susceptibility to 16 kinds of antibiotics of 55 Listeria monocytogenes were determined by Kirby-Bauer method,respectively. [ Results]The 55 strains of Listeria monocytogenes were sensitive to penicillin G,norfloxacin, cotrimoxazole etc. Among the 55 Listeria monocytogenes isolates,1. 82% were resistant to cephalothin,followed by resistant to polymyxin B(25. 45%),cefotaxime(36. 36%),enoxacin(38. 18%). 44 strains were resistant to more than 3 kinds of anti-biotic,among them 27 strains were resistant to 3 kinds of antibiotic(49. 09%),17 strains were resistant to 4 kinds of antibiotic (30. 90%).[ Conclusion]Listeria monocytogenes isolates were resistant to 4 antibiotics. Listeria monocytogenes appeared multidrug resistance in different degree. So the contamination and drug resistance of Listeria monocytogenes should be moni-tored to ensure food safety and human health in the future.

  7. Degradation kinetics and mechanism of β-lactam antibiotics by the activation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} under UV-254 nm irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xuexiang [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Nireas-International Water Research Centre, School of Engineering, University of Cyprus, PO Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Mezyk, Stephen P. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California State University Long Beach, 1250 Bellflower Blvd., Long Beach, CA 90840 (United States); Michael, Irene; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Nireas-International Water Research Centre, School of Engineering, University of Cyprus, PO Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Dionysiou, Dionysios D., E-mail: dionysios.d.dionysiou@uc.edu [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Nireas-International Water Research Centre, School of Engineering, University of Cyprus, PO Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Removal efficiency was comparable at different UV fluence rates but same fluence. • Reducing pH to 3 or 2 did not inhibit the removal of nitrobenzene by UV/S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−}. • 1.84 × 10{sup −14} M [HO{sup •} ]{sub ss} and 3.10 × 10{sup −13} M [SO{sub 4}{sup •} {sup −}]{sub ss} in UV/S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} were estimated. • HO{sup •} reacted faster with the β-lactams than SO{sub 4}{sup •} {sup −} but sharing similar byproducts. • Transformation pathways included hydroxylation, hydrolysis and decarboxylation. - Abstract: The extensive production and usage of antibiotics have led to an increasing occurrence of antibiotic residuals in various aquatic compartments, presenting a significant threat to both ecosystem and human health. This study investigated the degradation of selected β-lactam antibiotics (penicillins: ampicillin, penicillin V, and piperacillin; cephalosporin: cephalothin) by UV-254 nm activated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} photochemical processes. The UV irradiation alone resulted in various degrees of direct photolysis of the antibiotics; while the addition of the oxidants improved significantly the removal efficiency. The steady-state radical concentrations were estimated, revealing a non-negligible contribution of hydroxyl radicals in the UV/S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} system. Mineralization of the β-lactams could be achieved at high UV fluence, with a slow formation of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and a much lower elimination of total organic carbon (TOC). The transformation mechanisms were also investigated showing the main reaction pathways of hydroxylation (+16 Da) at the aromatic ring and/or the sulfur atom, hydrolysis (+18 Da) at the β-lactam ring and decarboxylation (–44 Da) for the three penicillins. Oxidation of amine group was also observed for ampicillin. This study suggests that UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and UV/S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} advanced

  8. Occurrence of toxigenic Escherichia coli in raw milk cheese in Brazil Ocorrência de Escherichia coli toxigênica em queijo-de-minas frescal no Brasil

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    B.R. Paneto

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of toxigenic Escherichia coli in raw milk cheese was surveyed in Middle Western Brazil. Fifty samples of cheese from different supermarkets were analyzed for E.coli. The isolates were serotyped and screened for the presence of verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. The susceptibility to thirteen antimicrobial agents was evaluated by the disk diffusion method. E.coli were recovered from 48 (96.0% of the samples. The serogroups identified were O125 (6.0%, O111 (4.0%, O55 (2.0% and O119 (2.0%. Three (6.0% and 1(2.0% of the E.coli isolates were VTEC and ETEC, respectively. Most frequent resistance was observed to the following antimicrobials: cephalothin (60.0%, nalidixic acid (40.0%, doxycyclin (33.0%, tetracycline (31.0% and ampicillin (29.0%.Pesquisou-se a ocorrência de Escherichia coli toxigênica, em queijo produzido com leite não pasteurizado, na Região Centro Oeste do Brazil. Foram utilizados 50 queijos adquiridos em diferentes supermercados. As amostras isoladas foram classificadas por sorogrupo, avaliadas em relação à sensibilidade para 13 agentes antimicrobianos e submetidas à reação em cadeia da polimerase para a presença de genes característicos de E. coli verotoxigênica (VTEC e enterotoxigênica (ETEC. E. coli foi recuperada em 48(96,0% dos queijos. Foram identificados os sorogrupos O125 (6,0%, O111 (4,0%, O55 (2,0% e O119 (2,0%. Três (6,0% amostras de E. coli foram classificadas como VTEC e uma (2,0% como ETEC. Os maiores índices de resistência foram verificados para: cefalotina (60,0%, ácido nalidíxico (40,0%, doxiciclina (33,0%, tetraciclina (31,0% e ampicilina (29,0%.

  9. Commensal Pseudomonas Species Isolated from Wastewater and Freshwater Milieus in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, as Reservoir of Antibiotic Resistant Determinants

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    Anthony I. Okoh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas species are opportunistic pathogens with implications in a wide range of diseases including cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anaemia. Because of their status as multidrug resistant (MDR and extremely drug resistant (XDR bacteria Pseudomonas species represent a threat to public health. Prevalence, antibiogram and associated antibiotic resistant genes of Pseudomonas species isolated from freshwater and mixed liquor environments in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were assessed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR based technique was used to identify the isolates and screen for antibiotic resistant genes. The result shows occurrence of Pseudomonas spp. in freshwater and mixed liquor as follows: 71.42% and 37.5% (P. putida, 14.28% and 31.25% (P. flourescens, 7.14% and 6.25% (P. aeruginosa and 7.14% and 25% for other Pseudomonas species respectively. Disk diffusion antibiogram of the Pseudomonas isolates from the two locations showed 100% resistance to penicillin, oxacillin, clindamycin, rifampicin and 100% susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin with varied percentage resistances to cephalothin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, and ampicillin. The blaTEM antibiotic resistant gene was detected in 12.5% of P. putida, 57.14% of P. fluorescens, 100% P. aeruginosa and 40% in other Pseudomonas species. Similarly, Integrons conserved segment were detected in 12.5% of P. putida, 57.14% of P. fluorescens, 100% of P. aeruginosa and 40% of other Pseudomonas species. The presence of blaTEM gene and integrons conserved segment in some of the isolates is worrisome and suggest Pseudomonas species as important reservoirs of multidrug resistance genes in the Eastern Cape Province environment.

  10. Etiología y sensibilidad bacteriana en infección urinaria en niños. Hospital Infantil Club Noel y Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris de Castaño

    2009-11-01

    , cefadroxil, cephalexin, cephradine, trimethoprim-sulfa, ampicillin–sulbactam, cephalothin and cefazolin. Conclusions: E. coli is the main cause of UTI in the pediatric population of Cali. Usual recommended antibiotic and antibacterial for UTI empiric therapy are cephalexin, trimethoprim-sulfa, ampicillin, and amoxicillin. In accordance with the results in the present study resistance of bacteria to these medicaments was high. Antibiotics and antibacterials with better sensitivity were: cefuroxime, cefproxil, cefixime and nalidixic acid which the authors recommend for empiric oral therapy while the urine culture is in process and final results arrive. In spite of norfloxocin good sensitivity, its use should be reserved for especial cases where resistance to other antibiotics is found. If there is an indication for intravenous treatment, ceftriaxone or amikacin are recommended.

  11. Detection, Virulence Gene Assessment and Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of O157 Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Tabriz, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhi, Mohammad Taghi; Ostadgavahi, Ali Toloue; Ghotaslou, Reza; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Pirzadeh, Tahereh; Sorayaei Sowmesarayi, Vida; Memar, Mohammad Yousef

    2015-01-01

    Background: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a food-borne pathogen and infection with this organism causes illnesses such as bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Objectives: Considering the lack of any information about the prevalence rate and the antibiotic resistance pattern of O157:H7 serotype in Tabriz, finding answers to the above mentioned subjects was among the goals of this study. Materials and Methods: Two hundred E. coli strains from diarrheal or non-diarrheal stools of outpatients and hospitalized cases in Tabriz Imam Reza hospital were isolated between September and December 2014 using MacConkey agar and standard biochemical tests and then cultured on sorbitol MacConkey agar. The sorbitol-negative isolates were confirmed as the O157 serotype using O157 antisera. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used for the detection of stx-1, stx-2, eae, and mdh genes and the antibiotic resistance pattern of these isolates was determined using Kirby-Bauer method and clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI) standards. Results: Of the isolates 11 (5.5%) were sorbitol-negative, which were later analyzed by multiplex PCR and the results revealed that 2 (18.18%) isolates contained the stx-1 gene, 10 (90.91%) contained the stx-2 gene, and 5 (45.45%) contained the eae gene. The stx-2 and eae genes were the most commonly encountered virulence factors. All or most of the isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime (100%), gentamicin (100%), ciprofloxacin (100%), nalidixic acid (90.9%), trimetoprim sulfamethoxazole (90.9%), chloramphenicol (90.9%), ampicillin (81.8%), and cephalothin (72.7%). On the contrary, moderate susceptibility of the isolates to doxycycline (54.5%) was observed. Conclusions: Due to the low frequency of STEC O157 and the high susceptibility rates of the isolates to the tested antibiotics in this study, STEC O157 has not become a major problem in Tabriz yet, but comprehensive

  12. Novel Helicobacter species isolated from rhesus monkeys with chronic idiopathic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J G; Handt, L; Xu, S; Shen, Z; Dewhirst, F E; Paster, B J; Dangler, C A; Lodge, K; Motzel, S; Klein, H

    2001-05-01

    Chronic, idiopathic diffuse colitis is a well recognised clinical and pathological entity in captive rhesus monkeys. Six rhesus monkeys were diagnosed with clinically debilitating, chronic diarrhoea. Histologically, colonic tissues were characterised as chronic, moderate to severe colitis and typhlitis, with diffuse mononuclear inflammation of lamina propria, reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and multifocal micro-abscesses. Colonic tissues were cultured for Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp.; all results were negative. Samples were negative for Clostridium difficile A and B toxins, and special stains of colonic tissue for acid-fast bacteria were also negative. The six diarrhoeic monkeys tested gave negative results for serum IgG antibodies to herpes B virus, STLV, SRV and SIV. Colonic tissue from the six diarrhoeic and two clinically normal monkeys with histologically confirmed colitis from the same colony were also subjected to micro-aerobic culture. Micro-aerobic cultures from all eight monkeys incubated at 37 degrees C and 42 degrees C revealed pinpoint or spreading colonies on antibiotic-containing media. Bacteria were identified as gram-negative, oxidase positive and urease negative. Of the nine strains characterised biochemically, two separate biotypes (corresponding to different species by 16S rRNA analysis) were identified. One biotype (type 1), from non-diarrhoeic monkeys and the second biotype (type 2) from diarrhoeic animals with subclinical chronic colonic inflammation, differed by catalase activity, ability to reduce nitrate to nitrite and sensitivity to cephalothin. Complete 16S rRNA analysis of five of the nine strains characterised biochemically indicated that the organisms isolated were two novel Helicobacter spp. By electron microscopy, these novel helicobacters had spiral morphology with bipolar sheathed flagella. This is the first report describing the isolation of novel Helicobacter spp. from inflamed colons of rhesus monkeys. Studies are needed to

  13. Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Yersinia Species Isolated From Chicken and Beef Meat

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    Aghamohammad

    2015-11-01

    isolation ratio of Y. enterocolitica and other species is higher in colder regions. Most of the isolates were resistant to first generation cephalosporins (cephalothin. The most active antimicrobial agents were choloramphenicol, aminoglycozide and sulfunamdes. Regarding to the high sensitivity of Yersinia spp. to gentamicin and chloramphenicol, these antibiotics would be the choice for the treatment of Yersinia infections.

  14. Post irradiation effect on some antiphagocytic substances produced by pathogenic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some clinical isolated microorganiams can produce antiphagocytic virulence substance. In this study 43 bacterial strains were isolated from cervix of 50 patients. Escheruchia coli was the most common species isolated (39.53%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (23.26), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11.63%), Proteus mirabilis (9.30%), Klebsiella oxytoca (4.65%), Staphylococcus warneri (4.65%), Klebsiella group 47 (2.33%), Morganella morganii (2.33%) and Staphylococcus hominis (2.33%) four yeast fungal organisms were isolated in this study Candida albicans was the only Candida species isolated representing 8.51% of total number of pathogenic bacteria and yeast fungi isolated. Radiotherapy of these cancer patients had many effects on the microbial cells. The tested isolates were exposed to in-vivo multiple fractionated doses 10-50Gy and in-vitro single equivalent dose 7.04-20Gy. The isolated strains were tested for antimicrbial agent susceptibility using 18 different antibiotics for bacterial isolates and anystatin for Candida albicans. The effect of bacterial and yeast fungal virulence factors on neutrophil phagocytosis and antimicrobial activity was examined. Disk susceptibility testing suggested that, the isolated producer strains which were positive for extracellular proteinase enzyme and/or for slime production that correlate with infectivity were resistant to erythromycin, streptomycin, neomycin, kanamycin, tetracycline, cephalothin and sulphamethoxazol/trimethoprim and rarely susceptible to amoxicillin /clavulanic acid and cefotaxime. In contrast, many non-producer strains were susceptible to most of the tested antibiotics with marked variability among species. In case of Candida albicans all the tested strains were susceptible to the tested antimycotic agent used before and after in-vitro irradiation at a dose level of 20gy. It was found that slime substance and/or proteinase enzyme reduced the phagocytic activity of the leukocytes against the producer bacterial

  15. Degradation kinetics and mechanism of β-lactam antibiotics by the activation of H2O2 and Na2S2O8 under UV-254 nm irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Removal efficiency was comparable at different UV fluence rates but same fluence. • Reducing pH to 3 or 2 did not inhibit the removal of nitrobenzene by UV/S2O82−. • 1.84 × 10−14 M [HO• ]ss and 3.10 × 10−13 M [SO4• −]ss in UV/S2O82− were estimated. • HO• reacted faster with the β-lactams than SO4• − but sharing similar byproducts. • Transformation pathways included hydroxylation, hydrolysis and decarboxylation. - Abstract: The extensive production and usage of antibiotics have led to an increasing occurrence of antibiotic residuals in various aquatic compartments, presenting a significant threat to both ecosystem and human health. This study investigated the degradation of selected β-lactam antibiotics (penicillins: ampicillin, penicillin V, and piperacillin; cephalosporin: cephalothin) by UV-254 nm activated H2O2 and S2O82− photochemical processes. The UV irradiation alone resulted in various degrees of direct photolysis of the antibiotics; while the addition of the oxidants improved significantly the removal efficiency. The steady-state radical concentrations were estimated, revealing a non-negligible contribution of hydroxyl radicals in the UV/S2O82− system. Mineralization of the β-lactams could be achieved at high UV fluence, with a slow formation of SO42− and a much lower elimination of total organic carbon (TOC). The transformation mechanisms were also investigated showing the main reaction pathways of hydroxylation (+16 Da) at the aromatic ring and/or the sulfur atom, hydrolysis (+18 Da) at the β-lactam ring and decarboxylation (–44 Da) for the three penicillins. Oxidation of amine group was also observed for ampicillin. This study suggests that UV/H2O2 and UV/S2O82− advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are capable of degrading β-lactam antibiotics decreasing consequently the antibiotic activity of treated waters

  16. Antibiotic Resistance in Animal and Environmental Samples Associated with Small-Scale Poultry Farming in Northwestern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braykov, Nikolay P; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Grossman, Marissa; Zhang, Lixin; Vasco, Karla; Cevallos, William; Muñoz, Diana; Acevedo, Andrés; Moser, Kara A; Marrs, Carl F; Foxman, Betsy; Trostle, James; Trueba, Gabriel; Levy, Karen

    2016-01-01

    The effects of animal agriculture on the spread of antibiotic resistance (AR) are cross-cutting and thus require a multidisciplinary perspective. Here we use ecological, epidemiological, and ethnographic methods to examine populations of Escherichia coli circulating in the production poultry farming environment versus the domestic environment in rural Ecuador, where small-scale poultry production employing nontherapeutic antibiotics is increasingly common. We sampled 262 "production birds" (commercially raised broiler chickens and laying hens) and 455 "household birds" (raised for domestic use) and household and coop environmental samples from 17 villages between 2010 and 2013. We analyzed data on zones of inhibition from Kirby-Bauer tests, rather than established clinical breakpoints for AR, to distinguish between populations of organisms. We saw significantly higher levels of AR in bacteria from production versus household birds; resistance to either amoxicillin-clavulanate, cephalothin, cefotaxime, and gentamicin was found in 52.8% of production bird isolates and 16% of household ones. A strain jointly resistant to the 4 drugs was exclusive to a subset of isolates from production birds (7.6%) and coop surfaces (6.5%) and was associated with a particular purchase site. The prevalence of AR in production birds declined with bird age (P Farming status did not impact AR in domestic environments at the household or village level. Our results suggest that AR associated with small-scale poultry farming is present in the immediate production environment and likely originates from sources outside the study area. These outside sources might be a better place to target control efforts than local management practices. IMPORTANCE In developing countries, small-scale poultry farming employing antibiotics as growth promoters is being advanced as an inexpensive source of protein and income. Here, we present the results of a large ecoepidemiological study examining patterns of

  17. Antibiotic susceptibility profiling and virulence potential ofCampylobacter jejuni isolates from different sources in Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fariha Masood Siddiqui; Muhammad Akram; Nighat Noureen; Zobia Noreen; Habib Bokhari

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine antibiotic resistance patterns and virulence potential ofCampylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) isolates from clinical human diarrheal infections, cattle and healthy broilers. Methods:Antibiotic sensitivity patterns ofC. jejuni isolates were determined by Kirby Bauer Disc Diffusion assay. These isolates were then subjected to virulence profiling for the detection ofmapA (membrane-associated protein),cadF (fibronectin binding protein),wlaN (beta-1,3-galactosyltransferase) andneuAB (sialic acid biosynthesis gene). FurtherC. jejuni isolates were grouped by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiling.Results: A total of 436 samples from poultry (n=88), cattle (n=216) and humans (n=132) from different locations were collected. Results revealed percentage ofC. jejuni isolates were 35.2% (31/88), 25.0% (54/216) and 11.3% (15/132) among poultry, cattle and clinical human samples respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility results showed that similar resistance patterns to cephalothin was ie. 87.0%, 87.1% and 89%among humans, poultry and cattle respectively, followed by sulfamethoxazole+trimethoprim 40.0%, 38.7% and 31.0% in humans, poultry and cattle and Ampicillin 40%, 32% and 20% in humans, poultry and cattle respectively. Beta-lactamase activity was detected in 40.00% humans, 20.37% cattle and 32.25% in poultryC. jejuni isolates. CadF andmapA were present in all poultry, cattle and humanC. jejuni isolates,wlaN was not detected in any isolate andneuAB was found in 9/31 (36%) poultry isolates. RAPD profiling results suggested high diversity ofC. jejuni isolates.Conclusions:Detection of multidrug resistantC. jejuni strains from poultry and cattle is alarming as they can be potential hazard to humans. Moreover, predominant association of virulence factors,cadF andmapA (100 % each) inC. jejuni isolates from all sources andneuAB (36%) with poultry isolates suggest the potential source of transmission of diverse types ofC. jejuni to humans.

  18. First identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius strains among coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from dogs with otitis externa in Trinidad, West Indies

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    Francis Dziva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Otitis externa is a common inflammatory ear disease in dogs caused by a variety of pathogens, and coagulase-positive staphylococci are frequently isolated from such infections. Objective: To identify antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and methicillin-resistant strains among coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from otitis externa in dogs. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed over 2 years on 114 client-owned dogs presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a primary complaint of ear infections. Swabs were obtained from both ears and cultured for staphylococci which were subsequently confirmed as coagulase-positive using rabbit plasma. Antimicrobial susceptibility assays were assessed on all isolates followed by subsequent genetic analysis for species identification and detection of the mecA gene. Results: Sixty-five coagulase-positive staphylococci were isolated from 114 client-owned dogs. The isolates exhibited resistance against neomycin (58.5%, streptomycin (49.2%, penicillin (49.2%, polymyxin B (44.6%, tetracycline (36.9%, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (33.8%, kanamycin (33.8%, doxycycline (32.3%, norfloxacin (23.1%, amoxicillin/clavulanate (20%, ciprofloxacin (20%, enrofloxacin (18.5%, gentamicin (16.9%, and cephalothin (9.2%. Forty (61.5% of the isolates were resistant to at least three or more antimicrobials and 10 were sensitive to all. Using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay based on species-specific regions of the thermonuclease (nuc gene, 38/65 (58.5% isolates were classified as Staphylococcus aureus, 23/65 (35.4% as S. pseudintermedius, 2/65 (3.1% as S. intermedius, and 2/65 (3.1% as S. schleiferi. Analysis for the mecA gene revealed two positive isolates of S. pseudintermedius which were oxacillin-resistant, representing a first report of such organisms in the Caribbean. Conclusion: Despite the relatively high prevalence of multidrug-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci in

  19. Prevalence of antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus from raw milk samples collected from the local vendors in the region of Tirupathi, India

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    Sudhanthirakodi Sudhanthiramani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was carried out with the aim to identify the suitability of the milk for consumer use with special reference to Staphylococcus aureus from milk samples collected from various local vendors and determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of those positive isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 110 milk samples were collected from the local milk vendors in and around Tirupathi region of India. All the samples were enriched with buffered peptone water in 9:1 ratio and the then inoculated on baird parker agar medium with added 2% egg yolk tellurite emulsion as selective medium for S.aureus and confirmed with mannitol salt agar, Gram’s staining and biochemical tests. The typical cultural characters with coagulase-positive samples were taken as positive samples the positive samples were tested for antibiotic susceptibility with 10 different antibiotics by employing disc diffusion method. Results: Prevalence of coagulase-positive S. aureus was 39.09% (43/110 from the milk samples. The antibiotic susceptibility test of positive isolates showed high resistant toward penicillin G 37/43 (86.04% and ampicillin 32/43 (74.42%, and also showed resistant to methicillin 6/43 (13.95%, cephalothin 6/43 (13.95%, tetracycline 6/43 (13.95%, ciprofloxacin 4/43 (9.30%, enrofloxacin 3/43 (6.97%, cefoxitin 2/43 (4.65%, gentamicin 2/43 (4.65%, and co-trimoxazole 2/43 (4.65%. Many individual isolates showed resistant against two or more antibiotics in our study. Conclusion: The above study results show that the milk samples collected from local vendor having S. aureus, which can induce disease condition as well as antibiotic resistant to the humans particularly young children and old age peoples by means of consumption of raw milk and its products. This is the public health issue, which needs to be solved by educating the local vendors regarding health problems related to unhygienic milk supply and make the awareness among the consumers about this

  20. 卵形鲳鲹感染无乳链球菌与海豚链球菌的研究%Pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae and S. iniae in diseased ovate pompano Trachinotus ovatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婷; 梁万文; 陈明; 李莉萍; 王瑞; 张彬; 甘西; 罗洪林; 陈福艳; 蔡小辉; 杨传萍

    2014-01-01

    according to 16S rRNA genes also showed that strains TSG002 and TSG004 are classified into S. agalactiae and S. iniae group, respectively. Both strains were found to be highly sensitive to nine drugs, including ceftriaxone, enrofloxacin, ofloxacin, amoxicillin and cephalothin. It is concluded that ovate pompano can be infected by S. aga-lactiae and S. iniae, which were firstly and simultaneously found in one diseased ovate pompano.

  1. Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance in Klebsiella spp. Isolates from Companion Animals in Japan: Clonal Dissemination of Multidrug-Resistant Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuki; Shimizu, Takae; Mukai, Yujiro; Kuwajima, Ken; Sato, Tomomi; Usui, Masaru; Tamura, Yutaka; Kimura, Yui; Miyamoto, Tadashi; Tsuyuki, Yuzo; Ohki, Asami; Kataoka, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Klebsiella spp., including resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) and fluoroquinolones, is of great concern in both human and veterinary medicine. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in a total of 103 Klebsiella spp. isolates, consisting of Klebsiella pneumoniae complex (KP, n = 89) and K. oxytoca (KO, n = 14) from clinical specimens of dogs and cats in Japan. Furthermore, we characterized the resistance mechanisms, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (PABL), and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR); and assessed genetic relatedness of ESC-resistant Klebsiella spp. strains by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing demonstrated that resistance rates to ampicillin, cephalothin, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, cefotaxime, gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and cefmetazole were 98.1, 37.9, 37.9, 35.9, 35.0, 34.0, 31.1, 30.1, 28.2, 14.6, and 6.8%, respectively. Phenotypic testing detected ESBLs and/or AmpC β-lactamases in 31 of 89 (34.8%) KP isolates, but not in KO isolates. Resistances to 5 of the 12 antimicrobials tested, as well as the three PMQRs [qnrB, qnrS, and aac(6′)-Ib-cr], were detected significantly more frequently in ESBL-producing KP, than in non-ESBL-producing KP and KO. The most frequent ESBL was CTX-M-15 (n = 13), followed by CTX-M-14 (n = 7), CTX-M-55 (n = 6), SHV-2 (n = 5), CTX-M-2 (n = 2), and CTX-M-3 (n = 2). Based on the rpoB phylogeny, all ESBL-producing strains were identified as K. pneumoniae, except for one CTX-M-14-producing strain, which was identified as K. quasipneumoniae. All of AmpC β-lactamase positive isolates (n = 6) harbored DHA-1, one of the PABLs. Based on MLST and PFGE analysis, ST15 KP clones producing CTX-M-2, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-55, and

  2. Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance in Klebsiella spp. Isolates from Companion Animals in Japan: Clonal Dissemination of Multidrug-Resistant Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuki; Shimizu, Takae; Mukai, Yujiro; Kuwajima, Ken; Sato, Tomomi; Usui, Masaru; Tamura, Yutaka; Kimura, Yui; Miyamoto, Tadashi; Tsuyuki, Yuzo; Ohki, Asami; Kataoka, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Klebsiella spp., including resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) and fluoroquinolones, is of great concern in both human and veterinary medicine. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in a total of 103 Klebsiella spp. isolates, consisting of Klebsiella pneumoniae complex (KP, n = 89) and K. oxytoca (KO, n = 14) from clinical specimens of dogs and cats in Japan. Furthermore, we characterized the resistance mechanisms, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (PABL), and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR); and assessed genetic relatedness of ESC-resistant Klebsiella spp. strains by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing demonstrated that resistance rates to ampicillin, cephalothin, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, cefotaxime, gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and cefmetazole were 98.1, 37.9, 37.9, 35.9, 35.0, 34.0, 31.1, 30.1, 28.2, 14.6, and 6.8%, respectively. Phenotypic testing detected ESBLs and/or AmpC β-lactamases in 31 of 89 (34.8%) KP isolates, but not in KO isolates. Resistances to 5 of the 12 antimicrobials tested, as well as the three PMQRs [qnrB, qnrS, and aac(6')-Ib-cr], were detected significantly more frequently in ESBL-producing KP, than in non-ESBL-producing KP and KO. The most frequent ESBL was CTX-M-15 (n = 13), followed by CTX-M-14 (n = 7), CTX-M-55 (n = 6), SHV-2 (n = 5), CTX-M-2 (n = 2), and CTX-M-3 (n = 2). Based on the rpoB phylogeny, all ESBL-producing strains were identified as K. pneumoniae, except for one CTX-M-14-producing strain, which was identified as K. quasipneumoniae. All of AmpC β-lactamase positive isolates (n = 6) harbored DHA-1, one of the PABLs. Based on MLST and PFGE analysis, ST15 KP clones producing CTX-M-2, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-55, and

  3. Analysis of detection result and drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in cooked meat products of hotels%酒店酱卤类熟肉制品中金黄色葡萄球菌检测结果及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓红; 孙明华; 徐佩华

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解酱卤类熟肉制品中金黄色葡萄球菌污染状况及耐药情况,为预防食源性疾病及指导临床合理用药提供科学依据.方法:按照国家规定的标准检验方法GB/T4789.10-2008进行检验,药敏试验采用K-B法,依据NCCIS(美国临床实验室标准委员会)规定判断结果.结果:从115份样品中检出18株金黄色葡萄球菌,检出率为8.68%,经抽查50%的酒店酱卤类熟肉制品卫生质量不合格.17种抗生素中以青霉素、氨苄西林的耐药性最高为88.89%,未检出有耐甲氧西林和耐万古霉素的菌株,对头孢唑啉、头孢吡肟、头孢噻吩、万古霉素、庆大霉素、呋喃妥因、克林霉素、头孢西丁完全敏感.结论:酱卤类熟肉制品中金黄色葡萄球菌污染较重,不同的加工制作方式与金黄色葡萄球菌污染存在一定关系.建议加强餐饮业卫生管理,消除食物中毒隐患,做好日常耐药性监测工作,关注耐甲氧西林和耐万古霉素菌株的出现.%Objective:To find out the contamination and resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in cooked meat products, and to provide the scientific basis for prevention of foodborne diseases and clinical reasonable medication. Methods: Samples were examined according to GB/T4789.10 - 2008. The drug sensitivity test used the K - B law, and judgments of results were based on NCCLS. Results:A total of 18 out of 115 samples were positive,the positive rate of Staphylococcus aureus was 8.68%, Half of the hotels failed to meet the hygiene quality standard. Drug sensitivity test showed penicillin and ampicillin resistance rates were 88.89% in 17 kinds of antibiotics. None of the strains was MRSA or VRE,and all of them were sensitive to cefazolin,cefepime,cephalothin, vancomycin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, clindamycin and cefoxitin. Conclusion: Contamination of Staphylococcus aureus was serious in cooked meat products of hotels, there were certain relationships between different

  4. Volume replacement with hydroxyethyl starch or Ringer lactate solution in hemorrhagic gastroenteritis dogs with parvovirusReposição volêmica com hidroxietilamido ou solução de ringer lactato em cães com gastroenterite hemorrágica por parvovírus

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    Eduardo Ghiggi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Parvovirus is an infectious viral disease, highly contagious, affecting dogs causing acute enteritis. Dehydration is a minor problem and acute evolution, which is the main focus of treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate two treatments volume replacement in dogs with confirmed diagnosis of parvovirus infection by antigen detection in stool by ELISA. A total of 15 dogs, mixed, male and female, aged from 3 to 6 months, these four they had died during treatment and 11 were included in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (HES, n=6 and Group Ringer Lactate (RL, n=5, which received fluid resuscitation with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 and Ringer’s solution lactate, respectively, based on calculations of fluid deficit. All animals received intravenously: cephalothin, metronidazole, ranitidine and metoclopramide. During hospitalization, every 12 hours were evaluated arterial blood gas, electrolyte dosing and clinical examination (heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, capillary refill time, vomiting, appetite, dehydration, weight gain, hematochezia, melena, hematemesis and presence abdominal pain and 24 hours each blood count was performed. In group RL was increase in the values of PaO2 and decreases in hemoglobin, hematocrit, phosphorus and magnesium, and group HES, a decrease in the percentage of dehydration, hemoglobin, phosphorus and potassium. There were no differences in other parameters between the groups. Both treatments were effective in fluid replacement of patients, no difference in any variable analyzed. A parvovirose é uma doença infecciosa viral, altamente contagiosa, que acomete cães causando enterite aguda. A desidratação é um problema secundário e de evolução aguda, sendo este o foco principal do tratamento. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar dois tratamentos de reposição volêmica em cães com diagnóstico confirmado de parvovirose por detec

  5. 海氏迪茨菌株中VapA/VapB基因质粒子的表达及临床药敏试验结果分析%Dietzia maris bacterial susceptibility analysis identified by VapA/VapB genotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周翔; 梁剑平; 冉茂胜; 陆锡宏; 李雪虎; 王曙阳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the virulence and antigenic structure of strains of Dietzia maris samples collected from Yellow. River precipitate by using VapA/VapB genotype, and to define Dietzia maris's biological characters in clinical samples and to analyze its drug hypersensitivity experimental results. Methods Dietzia maris molecular characteristics and Kirby-Bauer method for susceptibility testing were isolated by using 16S rRNA and the Rhodococcusequi ATCC133701p+ as the standard evaluation. Results The similarity between Dietzia marts and Rhodococcusequi was 80%. Dietzia maris's resistance rate to vancomycin, rifampiciri, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone was 0, and the rate to sulfamethoxazole oxazole and penicillin G was 100%. Its resistance rates towards erythromycin, ceftazidime, amikacin and cephalothin were 7.3%, 11.5%, 23.7% and 32.7% respectively. And its resistance rates towards cefazolin, oxacillin and ampicillin were between 65.5% and 91.8%. Conclusion The similarity between Dietz maris and Rhodococcusequi is 80%. Dietz marts is the pathogenic bacteria of some animals, such as horses, pigs and castles. It is also a peculiar pathogenic bacterium of human being. It can cause respiratory infection, urinary tract infection and septicemia. The antibiotics should be used reasonably according to the results of drug sensitivity test in clinic so as to prevent the drug resistance of Dietz maris.%目的 探讨海氏迪茨菌株中VapA/VapB基因质粒子的表达及临床药物敏感性.方法 利用16SrRNA技术,采用马红球菌株ATCC133701p+为应变标准,评价海氏迪茨菌株分子性状,纸片扩散法进行药敏试验.结果 海氏迪茨菌株与马红球菌株的相似度为80%,对万古霉素、利福平、环丙沙星、氧氟沙星、氯霉素、头孢三嗪的耐药率为0,对复方磺胺甲噁唑、青霉素G的耐药率为100%,红霉素耐药率为7.3%,头孢他定耐药率为11.5%,阿米卡星耐药率为23.7

  6. Virulence factors of Escherichia coli isolated from diarrheic calves Fatores de virulência de Escherichia coli isolada de bezerros com diarréia

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    E.C. Rigobelo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available One hundred seventy-three Escherichia coli strains isolated from calves from northwestern São Paulo State, having diarrhea were examined for the production of thermolabile (LT and thermostable (ST enterotoxins and for the presence of virulence factors associated with bovine colibacillosis. Eighty-five (49.1% of the E.coli strains produced toxins; 53 isolates were detected as producing STa toxin, and 9 also produced LT toxin. By PCR, 23 isolates were shown to harbor only the LT-II gene. Nine (5.2% isolates harbored Shiga toxin genes: four carried the stx2 gene, four the stx1 gene and one carried both. Three of the isolates showing stx1 also carried the eae gene. Among the E. coli isolates examined for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobial agents, resistance to cephalothin (46.1%, was most commonly observed, followed by resistances to tetracycline (45.7%, trimethoprim-sulfadiazine (43.3% and ampicilin (41.0%. All isolates showed resistance to at least two antimicrobial agents; multidrug resistance was quite frequently encountered. Results showed that bovine E. coli produces some toxins and virulence factors, some of which may be involved in human disease. The isolates showed a high level of resistance to antimicrobial agents constituting a public health concern.Cento e setenta e três cepas de Escherichia coli isoladas de bezerros com diarréia provenientes da região noroeste do estado de São Paulo foram examinadas para a produção de enterotoxinas termolábil (LT e termoestável (ST, e examinadas quanto à presença de fatores de virulência associados a colibacilose bovina. Oitenta e cinco (49,1% das cepas de E. coli produziram toxinas, 53 cepas foram detectadas como produtoras de toxina STa, e nove dessas cepas também produziam toxina LT. Foram identificadas pela reação em cadeia de polimerase 23 cepas portadoras do gene LT-II. Nove (5,2% das cepas apresentavam os genes de toxina Shiga: quatro o gene stx 2, quatro o gene stx 1 e uma cepa

  7. Staphylococcus aureus: incidência e resistência antimicrobiana em abscessos cutâneos de origem comunitária Staphylococcus aureus: etiology and susceptibility profile to antimicrobial agents of skin and subcutaneous cell tissue abscesses from community infections

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    Martin Zavadinack Netto

    2002-03-01

    profilaxia ou tratamento de infecções por S.aureus, mesmo aqueles de origem comunitária.An analysis of Staphylococcus aureus (Monera, an etiological agent of community infections, is provided. Staphylococcus aureus causes the formation of skin and subcutaneous cell tissue abscesses. Susceptibility profile to antimicrobials used in prophylaxis or therapy of these cutaneous infections will be given. One hundred and seven samples of secretions were collected from January 1996 through July 1997 at the emergency sector of University Hospital of the State University of Maringá, Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil, from infected patients with skin and subcutaneous cell tissue abscesses. Microbiological evaluation was carried out according to Bayle and susceptibility to antimicrobial was evaluated in vitro through the technique of diffusion in agar according to Kirby. Sixteen antimicrobials used in prophylaxis or therapy of skin and subcutaneous cell tissue infections were evaluated. From the one hundred and seven clinical samples collected from patients complaining of infections with skin and subcutaneous cell tissue abscesses, 71 (66.35% were positive to S.aureus and 36 (33,65% were either positive for other microorganisms, or tested negative. In the evaluation of susceptibility to S.aureus a higher sensitivity to vancomycin (100%, teicoplanin (100%, amikacin (100%, cefoxitin (100%, cephalothin (98.53%, lincomycin (98.53%, gentamicin (98.53%, oxacillin (96,4%, norfloxacin (95.77% and sulfazotrin (95.77% was found when compared to penicillin G (08.45%, ampicillin (08.45%, kanamycin (81,69%, erythromycin (88.41%, tetracycline (90.14 and chloramphenicol (94,36%. Results show that S.aureus is the most frequently isolated microorganism from community infections with skin and subcutaneous tissue abscesses. The susceptibility profile evidences high resistance to penicillins, which restricts the use of these antimicrobials as an alternative in the prophylaxis or treatment of S

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Aeromonas strains isolated from various aquatic animals in Guangdong Province%广东省水产动物源气单胞菌对抗菌药物的耐药分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雅丽; 邓玉婷; 姜兰; 谭爱萍; 薛慧娟; 王伟利; 罗理; 赵飞

    2013-01-01

    为了解广东地区水产动物源气单胞菌的耐药情况,采用K-B纸片法测定了112株1995-2012年来源于不同种类患病水产动物的气单胞菌对20种抗菌药的耐药性,数据用WHONET 5.6耐药监测软件分析.结果显示,气单胞菌对氨苄西林和头孢噻吩的耐药率分别高达85.7%和79.5%,其次对利福平、阿莫西林/克拉维酸、链霉素、萘啶酸、磺胺类、头孢西丁、四环素和磺胺甲基异恶唑/甲氧苄啶的耐药率分别达57.1%、51.8%、49.1%、44.6%、31.2%、28.6%、28.6%和21.4%;对氟喹诺酮类(氧氟沙星、诺氟沙星、环丙沙星)、头孢噻肟、头孢曲松、亚胺培南、阿米卡星、呋喃妥因、氯霉素和多西环素相对敏感.比较不同来源气单胞菌的耐药情况,结果显示爬行、两栖动物和观赏鱼来源的分离菌株对氟喹诺酮类、头孢类等药物的耐药率比养殖鱼、虾类的高;气单胞菌对常用抗菌药呈现不同程度的耐药,不同来源的气单胞菌的耐药率亦不尽相同.水产动物源气单胞菌存在多重耐药菌株应引起重视,今后在气单胞菌疾病防治方面要慎重用药,并且有必要开展水产动物源的细菌耐药性监测,以指导水产养殖合理用药.%112 Aeromonas strains were isolated from various aquatic animals at different time in Guangdong province. Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method was used to detect the resistance of 112 strains against 20 commonly used antimicrobial agents. Resistance rates were analyzed by WHONET 5. 6 software. The overall resistance rates were highest for ampicillin (85. 7%) and cephalothin (79. 5%) followed by rifampicin (57.1% ) ,amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (51. 8% ) .streptomycin (49. 1% ) ,sulfonamides (31. 2% ) ,cefoxitin (28. 6% ) , tetracycline (28.6%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (21.4%). Aeromonas isolates were suseptible to most of antimicrobial agents and a low incidence ( < 10% ) of resistance to imipenem (0

  9. Prevalência de colonização por Streptococcus agalactiae em gestantes atendidas em maternidade do Ceará, no Brasil, correlacionando com os resultados perinatais Prevalence of the colonization by Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women from a maternity in Ceará, Brazil, correlating with perinatal outcomes

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    José Juvenal Linhares

    2011-12-01

    , embora também notou-se grande taxa de resistência aos antibióticos mais utilizados no tratamento. São necessários novos estudos no Brasil, com grupos geograficamente semelhantes, para a validação desses resultados.PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae, a Group B streptococcus, in pregnant women, and their possible risk factors, as well as the impact of perinatal colonization and antimicrobial susceptibility. METHODS: We evaluated 213 pregnant women from 20 weeks of gestation, regardless of risk factors, attending a tertiary teaching hospital. The technique used was a single sterile swab to collect secretions from the vaginal and perianal regions. The newly obtained samples were stored in Stuart transport medium and taken to the laboratory, where they were inoculated in Todd-Hewitt selective medium supplemented with Gentamicin (8 ug/mL and nalidixic acid (15 ug/mL, with subsequent cultivation on blood agar plates. The materials were tested with Gram, catalase with hydrogen peroxide and CAMP (Christie, Atkins, Munch-Petersen, and results were serologically confirmed with the Streptococcal Grouping Kit, Oxoid®. The positive samples were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. We also assessed socioeconomic, reproductive, clinical, and obstetric variables, and newborn care. Statistical analysis was performed with Epi-Info 6.04. RESULTS: The prevalence of colonization obtained by field tests was 9.8% by CAMP test, but only 4.2% by serology. The only protective factor was white skin color (p=0.01, 0.45>OR>0.94, 95%CI. There was no difference in prevalence of Group B streptococcus regarding other reproductive and obstetric variables. Infection occurred in only one of the newborns from colonized mothers; although it was revealed infection with Pseudomonas spp. High resistance to ampicillin (4/9, cephalothin (4/9, penicillin (4/9, erythromycin (3/9, clindamycin (7/9, and cloramphenicol (1/9 was detected. CONCLUSIONS: The infection rate was lower

  10. Investigation of Drug and Disinfectants Resistance of Pig Source E.coli O157 ∶ H7%猪源大肠杆菌0157:H7耐药表型和消毒剂抗性调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 杨威; 曾芸; 谢宇舟; 冯世文; 彭昊; 陈泽祥; (榻)雄标; 胡帅; 马春霞; 谢永平

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the information of drug resistance phenotypes and disinfectants resistance of pig source E. Coli O157: H7 isolated from Guangxi,the drug sensitive and disinfectants resistance were assayed. Meanwhile, 3 aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance genes,αPh(3)-Iia ,aadA and ααdB were amplified by PCR. The results of drug sensitive to 27 antibiotics showed that 5 strains were sensitive to Florfenicol,Ceftriaxone,Cefoxitin and Cefotaxime. The rate of drug resistance to Rox-ithromycin,Polymyxin B,Rifampin,Lincomycin, Amoxycilin, Ampicilin and Cephalothin were 100%. The rate of drug resistance to other antibiotics,such as Trobicin,Streptomycin,Cefradine were between 20% and 60%. Among of 5 strains, 1 strain, 1 strain and 3 strains were resistances to 23,11 and 9 antibiotics,respectively. The results of PCR confirmed that genome of 5 strains contained aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance genes. Antibiotic resistance genes had a certain correlation with drug resistance phenotypes. The results of disinfectants resistance showed that 5 strains were resistance to Povidone Iodine solution, Bromogeramine solution,Glutaraldehyde solution,double quaternary ammonium salt-iodine disinfection liquid and compound of peracetic acid,except dischloroisocyanuric acid sodium chloride powder. Our results will provide information to prevention and control of E. Coli O157 : H7 in Guangxi.%为了调查广西猪源大肠杆菌O157∶H7分离株的耐药表型和消毒剂抗性情况,本研究测定5株猪源大肠杆菌O157∶H7广西分离株的药物敏感性和消毒剂抗性,并应用PCR对5株细菌的耐氨基糖苷类抗生素基因:氨基糖苷磷酸转移酶基因aph(3) -Iia、乙酰转移酶基因aadA和aadB进行扩增.27种抗菌药物的敏感结果表明,5株菌株只对氟苯尼考、头孢曲松、头孢西丁和头孢噻肟敏感;对罗红霉素、多黏菌素B、利福平、林可霉素、阿莫西林、氨苄西林和头孢噻吩的耐药率为100%;对壮观

  11. Establishment and research on Staphylococcus-infected-corneal C57BL/6 mouse model%C57BL/6小鼠葡萄球菌性角膜感染模型的建立及相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春; 袁志云; 杨菲菲; 管怀进; 邵义祥

    2010-01-01

    days.Corneal opacity mutant mice in the F1 generation were selected to backcross with C57BL/6 mice.The bacteria were isolated from the eyeballs of the mutants and cultivated,purified and identified.Drug sensitivity assay was carried out to screen for effective antibiotics for clinic medical care.Results The staphylococcus-infected corneal mouse model(B6-Co) was established successfully,and the Staphylococcus sciuri strain was separated and purified,and then the sensitive antibiotics were distinguished from resistant ones.The sensitive drugs for Staphylococcus sciuri included azithromycin,clindamycin,chloramphenicol,gentamicin,rifampicin,tetracycline,amikacin,sulfamethoxazole compound sinomin,minocycline,levofloxacin,cephalothin,cefotaxime,and furazolidone;whereas this Staphylococcal strain was resistant to cefoxitin,penicillin,ampicillin,novobiocin.Nitrofurantoin showed an intermediate sensitivity.Conclusion The C57BL/6 mouse model is a spontaneous-derived animal model that is infected by coagulase-negative staphylococci,among which the most abundant strain is Staphylococcus sciuri.

  12. Etiologia e perfil de sensibilidade de bactérias isoladas de ovelhas com mastite na região nordeste do estado do Pará Etiology and antimicrobial susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from sheep with mastitis in northeastern Pará, Brazil

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    Natália da Silva e Silva

    2010-12-01

    isolated were Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negative (26.9%; Staphylococcus aureus (15.,4%; Streptococcus spp. (7.69%; Escherichia coli (7.69% and Citrobacter freundii (11.5%. Were observed associations of Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negative nonhemolytic and Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negative hemolytic (3.85%. The most efficient antibiotics for the Gram positive agents were penicile/novobiocine (100%, cefalotine (100% and florfenicol (100% and for the Citrobacter freundii were ampicilina (100% and florfenicol (100%. In relation to Escherichia coli, 66.7% of isolates to ampicillin, cephalothin, florfenicol and tetracycline were resistant. Mastitis is present in sheep in the State of Pará, and it's necessary to estimate, in future studies, the economic losses caused by this disease. The CMT show satisfactory results and can be recommended as a screening test for diagnosing individual cases of subclinical mastitis in sheep, once had a good relationship with the microbiological examination. In the antibiogram where most of the isolated agents appear sensitive to different antibiotics tested, the antibiotics with the best efficiency were florfenicol and cefoxitin.

  13. 齐口裂腹鱼无乳链球菌的分离鉴定及其感染的病理损伤%Isolation, identification and pathogenicity of Streptococcus agalactiae from Schizothorax prenanti

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    余泽辉; 张佳; 耿毅; 邓梦玲; 汪开毓; 黄小丽; 陈德芳; 王均

    2014-01-01

    In 2012-2013, a serious infectious disease characterized by exophthalmia, hemorrhage, and neurological symptoms emerged in Schizothorax prenanti farms in Sichuan Province. A Gram-positive, chain-forming coccus was found in liver and kidney smears. Two strains of Gram-positive, chain-forming cocci were isolated from the diseased fish. The colonies had a smooth-surface and were white, circular, regular and pin-head sized after incubation at 28℃for 48 h on brain heart infusion (BHI). Artificial infection proved that the isolates were the pathogen of the disease. It was primarily identified to be Streptococcus agalactiae according to morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Furthermore, a 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis by BLAST in GenBank indicated that the two isolates showed high levels of similarity to S. agalactiae (more than 96.5%). A phylogenetic tree was constructed comparing the 16S rDNA sequences of both isolates (GenBank accession number KF773744 and KF761304) to other related bacterial species in the GenBank database. In the phylogenetic tree the two isolates and other S. agalactiae strains constituted a branch. In addition, the two isolates were positive in a specific PCR detection of S. agalactiae based on the cfb gene. Based on the phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, and specific PCR detection, both isolates were identified as S. agalactiae. The sensitivity results showed that both strains were sensitive to doxycycline, amoxicillin, cephalothin V, ofloxacin and levofloxacin, but showed some difference in sensitivity to neomycin and amikacin. Histopathologically, the S. agalactiae infection could cause serious pathological changes in multi-organs and tissues, especially in liver, kidney and brain. The main pathologic lesions were degeneration, necrosis and infiltration of the inflammation cells. Electron microscopical examination found that bacteria could invade hepatocytes, renal cells and