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Sample records for cephalothin

  1. Compound list: cephalothin [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cephalothin CLT 00141 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/cephalothi...n.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/cephalothi...n.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATES...T/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/cephalothin.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archi...ve/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Single/cephalothin.Rat.in_vivo.Kidney.Single.zi

  2. Pharmocokinetics of cephalothin and cephalexin in selected avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, M.; Locke, D.; Neal, L.A.; Carpenter, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    Plasma concentrations and the biological half-lives of cephalothin and cephalexin in avian species of a variety of body sizes and metabolic rates were studied. The species chosen were eastern bobwhite quail (Colinus v virginianus), pigeons (Columba livia), hybrid rosybill ducks (Netta sp), greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida), and emus (Dromiceius novaehollandiae). In the 1st phase of the study, cephalothin sodium was given IM in a dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight. Plasma concentrations reached peak (av 18 micrograms/ml) at 0.5 hour and were measurable 2.5 to 5.5 hours after drug administration. The biological half-life of cephalothin was 16 to 54 minutes; the half-life varied directly with increased species body weight, with the exception of the ducks studied. In the 2nd phase, cephalexin monohydrate was given orally in doses of 25, 35, and 50 mg/kg of body weight. Plasma concentrations reached peak (av 20 micrograms/ml) at 0.5 to 1 hour and were measurable 2.5 to 5.5 hours after drug administration. The biological half-life of cephalexin was 36 to 126 minutes. In the 3rd phase, differences in plasma concentrations and the half-lives of cephalexin between fed quail and fasted quail were insignificant. Dosage regimens for cephalothin of 100 mg/kg 4 times a day and for cephalexin of 35 to 50 mg/kg 4 times a day would be expected to establish and maintain therapeutic plasma concentrations in large birds (pigeons, cranes, and emus). These same doses, administered every 2 to 3 hours, would be expected to establish and maintain therapeutic plasma concentrations in smaller birds (quail, ducks).

  3. Increased incidence of postoperative infections during prophylaxis with cephalothin compared to doxycycline in intestinal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, Gunnar; Nilsen, Roy M; Svensen, Rune;

    2009-01-01

    controls. The registration included time periods when the regimen was changed from doxycycline to cephalothin and back again. RESULTS: The SSI in the colorectal department increased from 19% to 30% (p=0.002) when doxycycline was substituted with cephalothin and decreased to 17% when we changed back...... to doxycycline (p=0.005). In the gynaecology department the surgical site infection rate did not increase significantly. Subgroup analysis showed major changes in infections in rectal resections from 20% to 35% (p=0.02) and back to 12% (p=0.003). CONCLUSION: Doxycycline combined with metronidazole...

  4. In vitro activity effects of combinations of cephalothin, dicloxacillin, imipenem, vancomycin and amikacin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solórzano-Santos Fortino

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background combinations of drugs has been proposed as an alternative for oxacillin-resistant staphylococci infections, however, limited information about in vitro combinations are available for multi-resistant strains. The objective of this study was to describe the interaction of beta-lactams in combination with vancomycin or amikacin against 26 oxacillin and amikacin-resistant nosocomial Staphylococcus spp. isolates. Methods activity of dicloxacillin plus amikacin, cephalothin plus amikacin, cephalothin plus vancomycin, imipenem plus vancomycin and vancomycin plus amikacin was evaluated by checkerboard synergy tests and the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FIC was calculated. Results: dicloxacillin plus amikacin, and cephalothin plus amikacin were synergistic or partially synergistic in 84.6% and 100% respectively. For nearly half of the isolates the mean concentrations of dicloxacillin, cephalothin and amikacin at which FIC indexes were calculated were achievable therapeutically. Vancomycin plus amikacin had synergistic effect only against two isolates, and partially synergistic in 38.6%. For the combinations vancomycin plus cephalothin and vancomycin plus imipenem the effect was additive in 76.9% and 80.7% respectively. Conclusion in this study the checkerboard analysis showed that amikacin in combination with cephalothin or dicloxacillin was synergistic against most of the resistant strains of S. aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Vancomycin in combination with a beta-lactam (cephalothin or imipenem showed additivity. An indifferent effect predominated for the combination vancomycin plus amikacin. Even though a synergistic effect is expected when using a beta-lactam plus amikacin combination, it is possible that the effect cannot be clinically achievable. Careful selection of antimicrobial combinations and initial MICs are mandatory for future evaluations.

  5. Synergistic effects of dicloxacillin or clavulanic acid in combination with penicillin G or cephalothin against Yersinia enterocolitica.

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez-Valera, M; Ruiz-Bravo, A; Ramos-Cormenzana, A.

    1986-01-01

    Cultures of Yersinia enterocolitica grown at 22 degrees C produced beta-lactamases, whereas cultures grown at 37 degrees C produced these enzymes much less effectively. Both dicloxacillin and clavulanic acid inhibited the beta-lactamase activity of bacterial crude extracts and potentiated the activity of penicillin G or cephalothin against 14 Y. enterocolitica strains. It appeared that the beta-lactamase activity present in Y. enterocolitica cells grown at 37 degrees C was great enough to pla...

  6. In vitro activity effects of combinations of cephalothin, dicloxacillin, imipenem, vancomycin and amikacin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. strains

    OpenAIRE

    Solórzano-Santos Fortino; Vilchis-Pérez Mariano; Leaños-Miranda Blanca E; Miranda-Novales Guadalupe

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background combinations of drugs has been proposed as an alternative for oxacillin-resistant staphylococci infections, however, limited information about in vitro combinations are available for multi-resistant strains. The objective of this study was to describe the interaction of beta-lactams in combination with vancomycin or amikacin against 26 oxacillin and amikacin-resistant nosocomial Staphylococcus spp. isolates. Methods activity of dicloxacillin plus amikacin, cephalothin plus...

  7. Narrow-Spectrum Cephalosporin Susceptibility Testing of Escherichia coli with the BD Phoenix Automated System: Questionable Utility of Cephalothin as a Predictor of Cephalexin Susceptibility▿

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Sean X.; Parisian, Fern; Yau, Yvonne; Fuller, Jeffrey D.; Poutanen, Susan M.; Richardson, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    The resistance of Escherichia coli to cephalothin was found to be overestimated when the Phoenix automated susceptibility system was used to determine resistance compared to reference broth microdilution, a finding that jeopardized the use of cephalexin for first-line treatment of urinary tract infections in children. In addition, using broth microdilution, we studied the accuracy of either cephalothin or cefazolin in predicting cephalexin susceptibility. In contrast to the recommendation of ...

  8. Antibacterial Activity of Alkaloid Fractions from Berberis microphylla G. Forst and Study of Synergism with Ampicillin and Cephalothin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreto Manosalva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Berberis microphylla is a native plant that grows in Patagonia and is commonly used by aboriginal ethnic groups in traditional medicine as an antiseptic for different diseases. The present study evaluated the antibacterial and synergistic activity of alkaloid extracts of B. microphylla leaves, stems and roots used either individually or in combination with antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The in vitro antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root alkaloid extracts had significant activity only against Gram-positive bacteria. Disc diffusion tests demonstrated that the root extract showed similar activity against B. cereus and S. epidermidis compared to commercial antibiotics, namely ampicillin and cephalothin, and pure berberine, the principal component of the alkaloid extracts, was found to be active only against S. aureus and S. epidermidis with similar activity to that of the root extract. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the alkaloid extracts ranged from 333 to 83 μg/mL, whereas minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs varied from 717 to 167 μg/mL. In addition, synergistic or indifferent effects between the alkaloid extracts and antibiotics against bacterial strains were confirmed.

  9. Deacylation Mechanism and Kinetics of Acyl-Enzyme Complex of Class C β-Lactamase and Cephalothin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ravi; Nair, Nisanth N

    2016-03-17

    Understanding the molecular details of antibiotic resistance by the bacterial enzymes β-lactamases is vital for the development of novel antibiotics and inhibitors. In this spirit, the detailed mechanism of deacylation of the acyl-enzyme complex formed by cephalothin and class C β-lactamase is investigated here using hybrid quantum-mechanical/molecular-mechanical molecular dynamics methods. The roles of various active-site residues and substrate in the deacylation reaction are elucidated. We identify the base that activates the hydrolyzing water molecule and the residue that protonates the catalytic serine (Ser64). Conformational changes in the active sites and proton transfers that potentiate the efficiency of the deacylation reaction are presented. We have also characterized the oxyanion holes and other H-bonding interactions that stabilize the reaction intermediates. Together with the kinetic and mechanistic details of the acylation reaction, we analyze the complete mechanism and the overall kinetics of the drug hydrolysis. Finally, the apparent rate-determining step in the drug hydrolysis is scrutinized. PMID:26918257

  10. Antibacterial Activity of Alkaloid Fractions from Berberis microphylla G. Forst and Study of Synergism with Ampicillin and Cephalothin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosalva, Loreto; Mutis, Ana; Urzúa, Alejandro; Fajardo, Victor; Quiroz, Andrés

    2016-01-11

    Berberis microphylla is a native plant that grows in Patagonia and is commonly used by aboriginal ethnic groups in traditional medicine as an antiseptic for different diseases. The present study evaluated the antibacterial and synergistic activity of alkaloid extracts of B. microphylla leaves, stems and roots used either individually or in combination with antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The in vitro antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root alkaloid extracts had significant activity only against Gram-positive bacteria. Disc diffusion tests demonstrated that the root extract showed similar activity against B. cereus and S. epidermidis compared to commercial antibiotics, namely ampicillin and cephalothin, and pure berberine, the principal component of the alkaloid extracts, was found to be active only against S. aureus and S. epidermidis with similar activity to that of the root extract. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the alkaloid extracts ranged from 333 to 83 μg/mL, whereas minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) varied from 717 to 167 μg/mL. In addition, synergistic or indifferent effects between the alkaloid extracts and antibiotics against bacterial strains were confirmed.

  11. Antibacterial Activity of Alkaloid Fractions from Berberis microphylla G. Forst and Study of Synergism with Ampicillin and Cephalothin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosalva, Loreto; Mutis, Ana; Urzúa, Alejandro; Fajardo, Victor; Quiroz, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Berberis microphylla is a native plant that grows in Patagonia and is commonly used by aboriginal ethnic groups in traditional medicine as an antiseptic for different diseases. The present study evaluated the antibacterial and synergistic activity of alkaloid extracts of B. microphylla leaves, stems and roots used either individually or in combination with antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The in vitro antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root alkaloid extracts had significant activity only against Gram-positive bacteria. Disc diffusion tests demonstrated that the root extract showed similar activity against B. cereus and S. epidermidis compared to commercial antibiotics, namely ampicillin and cephalothin, and pure berberine, the principal component of the alkaloid extracts, was found to be active only against S. aureus and S. epidermidis with similar activity to that of the root extract. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the alkaloid extracts ranged from 333 to 83 μg/mL, whereas minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) varied from 717 to 167 μg/mL. In addition, synergistic or indifferent effects between the alkaloid extracts and antibiotics against bacterial strains were confirmed. PMID:26760994

  12. In-vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of methicillin, isoxazolyl penicillins and cephalothin against coagulase-negative staphylococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarløv, J O; Rosdahl, V T; Mortensen, I;

    1988-01-01

    the isoxazolyl penicillins showed a high degree of uniformity. However more strains were resistant to cloxacillin and oxacillin than to dicloxacillin and flucloxacillin. Only a weak correlation was found between beta-lactamase production, and resistance to the six antibiotics. Methicillin was the most...

  13. Study on in vitro antibacterial effect of Berberine on ESBLs-producing K. Pneunmoniae Combing with Cephalothin%黄连素与头孢菌素联用对产ESBLs克雷伯菌的体外抗菌作用初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米伟; 张永海

    2009-01-01

    Object To explore antibacterial effect of Berberine on ESBLs-producing K. Pneunmoniae combing with Ceftazidime.Methods ESBLs-producing K. Pneunmoniae confirmation test was done using the method of slip; MIC of Berberine and Ceftazidime on ESBLs-producing K. Pneunmoniae was detected by agar dilution test and double dilution; Evaluation of synergistic antibacterial effect was used by broth chessboard method. Antimicrobial susceptibilities test was done using the methods of Kirby-Bauer according to the standards of CLSI. Results MIC90 of Ceftazidime on ESBLs-producing K. Pneunmoniae is 19.55μg·ml-1,and MIC90 of Berberine on ESBLs-producing K. Pneunmoniae is 35.67mg·ml-1;Activity of β-Lactamase of Berberine is significant lower than Berberine+Ceftazidime by bacterio-lipid compared with bacterio-broth(P<0.05);The diameter of antibacterial ring of Ceftazidime on ESBLs-producing K. Pneunmoniae is 12~23mm,while that of Berberine+Ceftazidime is 13~24.5mm,which there is significant difference using t-test(P<0.05);FIC index of Berberine+Ceftazidime is additive action by antimicrobial susceptibilities test of ESBLs-producing K. pneunmoniae. Conclusion Antibacterial effect of Berberine on ESBLs-producing K. Pneunmoniae combing with Ceftazidime is additive action by antimicrobial susceptibilities test; Berberine can inhibit activity of β-Lactamase of ESBLs-producing K. pneunmoniae combing with Ceftazidime.%目的 探讨黄连素与头孢他啶联用对产ESBLs克雷伯菌抑菌作用. 方法 采用纸片扩散法、琼脂稀释法和液体稀释法测定. 结果 头孢他啶对产ESBLs克雷伯菌MIC90为19.55μg·ml-1 ,黄连素对产ESBLs大肠埃希菌MIC90为35.67mg·ml-1 ;黄连素及黄连素+头孢他啶使β-内酰胺酶活性降低, P<0.05;单用头孢他啶与头孢他啶联合黄连素所测抑菌圈直径均数比较, P<0.05,有统计学意义;头孢他啶、黄连素联合药敏试验对产ESBLs克雷伯菌FIC指数为0.75、0.625、0.625. 结论 黄连素联合头孢他啶对产ESBLs克雷伯菌联合药敏结果 呈相加作用,可抑制产ESBLs克雷伯菌的β-内酰胺酶活性.

  14. Profiling of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid replicon types in β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Seung Won; Jung, Myunghwan; Shin, Min-Kyung; Yoo, Han Sang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 78 isolates of Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle farms were investigated for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and/or AmpC β-lactamase. In the disc diffusion test with ampicillin, amoxicillin, cephalothin, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefoxitin, 38.5% of the isolates showed resistance to all of ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cephalothin. The double disc synergy method revealed that none of the isolates produced ESBL or AmpC β-lactam...

  15. Mechanism of resistance to some cephalosporins in Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Kono, M; Sasatsu, M; O'Hara, K; Shiomi, Y.; HAYASAKA, T.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanism of resistance to some cephalosporins in Staphylococcus aureus strains was investigated with high-pressure liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Drug inactivation by penicillinase was found to be the main mechanism of resistance to cefazolin, cephaloridine, and cephalothin in S. aureus.

  16. Emergence of clinical isolates of Escherichia coli producing TEM-1 derivatives or an OXA-1 beta-lactamase conferring resistance to beta-lactamase inhibitors.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, X. Y.; Bordon, F; Sirot, D; Kitzis, M D; Gutmann, L

    1994-01-01

    Sixteen Escherichia coli clinical isolates which were resistant to ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate but susceptible to cephalothin were studied. Eight strains showed the presence of a beta-lactamase which comigrates with reference OXA-1 enzyme. The eight other strains produced different TEM-1 derivatives which had in common a higher Km for penicillins and a higher 50% inhibitory concentration for the beta-lactamase inhibitors. By oligotyping and sequencing of PCR products, it was shown ...

  17. Changing Trend of Empirical Antibiotic Regimen: Experience of Two Studies at Different Periods in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Marzban

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial sepsis is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity in neonates. It has been recognized a gradual change in spectrum of organisms responsible for neonatal sepsis. In this study we have evaluated changing trend of incidence and antibiotic susceptibility in neonatal late - onset sepsis (LOS in 2-periods. This study is based on results of blood culture in neonatal late-onset sepsis, in 2--periods study throughout 12 - years. Neonatal LOS was defined as clinical signs suggestive of infection with a positive blood culture (B/C after 72 hrs of birth. During first study (period: 1990-1992, the most common bacteremia in LOS was staphylococcus aureus (staph aureus (34%. Overall gram- negative bacteria (GNB were the predominant organism (66%. It was shown that 60% of GNB were resisted to gentamicin and 3% to amikacin, while in case of gram-positive bacteria (GPB; about 95% were resisted to ampicillin and 28% to cephalothin. In the second study (period: 2004-2007, the vast majority (56.6% of septic cases were caused by GNB. The most common cause of late- onset sepsis was klebsiela p. (31%. The GPB were resistant to cephalothin (90%. There has been a dramatic increase resistance to cephalothin and aminoglycosides and 3rd -generation cephalosporins. The combination of cephalothin plus amikacin in suspected LOS was no longer the effective therapeutic regimen in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Now, it seems the best choice for empiric antibiotic regimen in suspected LOS is the combination vancomycin plus amikacin. Constant surveillance is important to guide empirical antibiotic therapy and changes in trends.

  18. Changing Trend of Empirical Antibiotic Regimen: Experience of Two Studies at Different Periods in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Marzban

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBacterial sepsis is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity in neonates. It has been recognized a gradual change in spectrum of organisms responsible for neonatal sepsis. In this study we have evaluated changing trend of incidence and antibiotic susceptibility in neonatal late - onset sepsis (LOS in 2-periods. This study is based on results of blood culture in neonatal late-onset sepsis, in 2--periods study throughout 12 - years. Neonatal LOS was defined as clinical signs suggestive of infection with a positive blood culture (B/C after 72 hrs of birth. During first study (period: 1990-1992, the most common bacteremia in LOS was staphylococcus aureus (staph aureus (34%. Overall gram- negative bacteria (GNB were the predominant organism (66%. It was shown that 60% of GNB were resisted to gentamicin and 3% to amikacin, while in case of gram-positive bacteria (GPB; about 95% were resisted to ampicillin and 28% to cephalothin. In the second study (period: 2004-2007, the vast majority (56.6% of septic cases were caused by GNB. The most common cause of late- onset sepsis was klebsiela p. (31%. The GPB were resistant to cephalothin (90%. There has been a dramatic increase resistance to cephalothin and aminoglycosides and 3rd -generation cephalosporins. The combination of cephalothin plus amikacin in suspected LOS was no longer the effective therapeutic regimen in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Now, it seems the best choice for empiric antibiotic regimen in suspected LOS is the combination vancomycin plus amikacin. Constant surveillance is important to guide empirical antibiotic therapy and changes in trends.

  19. Plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (CMY-2) gene in Salmonella typhimurium isolated from diarrheic pigs in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ki-Eun; Lim, Seong-In; Choi, Hwan-Won; Lim, Suk-Kyung; Song, Jae-Young; An, Dong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Abstracts Background Salmonella resistant to third-generation cephalosporin has been isolated from an increasing number of animals worldwide. The purpose of this study was to examine ESBL (extended-spectrum β-lactamases)-producing and PABL (plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases)-producing Salmonella isolates from pigs in South Korea. Results Salmonella Typhimurium KVCC-BA1300259 was resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, cefoxithin, genta...

  20. Effect of clavulanic acid on the activities of ten beta-lactam agents against members of the Bacteroides fragilis group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, F; Auger, F; Lacroix, J M

    1984-01-01

    Clavulanic acid reduced the MICs of amoxicillin, carbencillin , cefamandole, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftizoxime, cephalothin, and penicillin G, but not of cefoxitin or moxalactam, against 77 isolates of the Bacteroides fragilis group, all rapidly beta-lactamase positive by the nitrocefin slide test. It had no effect on the susceptibilities of eight Bacteroides distasonis strains that were slowly beta-lactamase positive (18 h of incubation). PMID:6732233

  1. Effect of clavulanic acid on susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, C L; Lariviere, L A; Lauzer, J C; Turgeon, F F

    1987-01-01

    The effect of clavulanic acid on the susceptibility of 32 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam agents was studied. Almost all strains tested became susceptible to amoxicillin and ticarcillin with 1 microgram of clavulanic acid per ml. This compound had little or no effect on susceptibility to penicillin G, cephalothin, cefamandole, and cefoxitin. Clavulanic acid had a marginal effect on cefotaxime and moxalactam susceptibility. PMID:3619428

  2. Effect of clavulanic acid on susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam antibiotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudreau, C L; Lariviere, L A; Lauzer, J C; Turgeon, F F

    1987-01-01

    The effect of clavulanic acid on the susceptibility of 32 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam agents was studied. Almost all strains tested became susceptible to amoxicillin and ticarcillin with 1 microgram of clavulanic acid per ml. This compound had little or no effect on susceptibility to penicillin G, cephalothin, cefamandole, and cefoxitin. Clavulanic acid had a marginal effect on cefotaxime and moxalactam susceptibility.

  3. Enterobacter Asburiae Pneumonia with Cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seung Woo; Heo, Jeong Nam; Park, Choong Ki [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Enterobacter species have increasingly been identified as pathogens over the past several decades. These bacterial species have become more important because most are resistant to cephalothin and cefoxitin, and can produce extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamase. Enterobacter asburiae (E. asburiae) is a gram-negative rod of the family Enterobacteriaceae, named in 1986. Since then, there has been only one clinical report of E. asburiae pneumonia. We report a case of E. asburiae pneumonia with cavitation and compare it with the previous case.

  4. A case of wound infection caused by Shewanella algae in the south of Iran

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    M. Taherzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shewanella algae was isolated from the purulent discharge in the navel area of a young male with a history of swimming in the Persian Gulf. A routine laboratory diagnosis procedure, followed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, was used to avoid misidentification with other species of Shewanella. The bacterium was suscetible to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, nitrophorantion, amikacin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, gentamicin and co-trimoxazole but was resistant to amoxicillin, vancomycin, doxycycline, cephalexin, ampicillin, tetracycline, cephalothin and ceftizoxime. The patient successfully recovered after treatment with antibiotics.

  5. Salmonella serovars and antimicrobial resistance in strains isolated from wild animals in captivity in Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Hidalgo, Gabriela; López-Valenzuela, Martin; Juárez-Barranco, Felipe; Montiel-Vázquez, Edith; Valenzuela-Sánchez, Beatriz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella spp. strains from wild animals in captivity at the Culiacan Zoo and the Mazatlan Aquarium in Sinaloa, Mexico. We identified 17 different Salmonella enterica serovars at a prevalence of 19.90% (Culiacan Zoo) and 6.25% (Mazatlan Aquarium). Antibiotic sensitivity tests revealed that, of the 83 strains studied, 100% were multidrug resistant (MDR). The drugs against which the greatest resistance was observed were: penicillin, erythromycin, dicloxacillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, and chloramphenicol. We therefore conclude that MDR is common among Salmonella isolates originating from wild animals in captivity in Sinaloa. PMID:25282954

  6. Prevalence, antibiotic resistance and RAPD typing of Campylobacter species isolated from ducks, their rearing and processing environments in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzitey, Frederick; Rusul, Gulam; Huda, Nurul; Cogan, Tristan; Corry, Janet

    2012-03-15

    We report for the first time on the prevalence, antibiotic resistance and RAPD types of Campylobacter species in ducks and duck related environmental samples in Malaysia. Samples were examined by enrichment in Bolton Broth followed by plating onto modified Charcoal Cefoperazone Deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) and/or plating directly onto mCCDA. A total of 643 samples were screened, and the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in samples from different sources ranged from 0% to 85%. The method of isolation had a significant (P<0.05) effect on the isolation rate. One hundred and sixteen Campylobacter isolates, comprising of 94 Campylobacter jejuni, 19 Campylobacter coli and three Campylobacter lari, were examined for their sensitivity to 13 antibiotics. Majority of the C. jejuni isolates were resistant to cephalothin (99%), tetracycline (96%), suphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (96%), and very few were resistant to gentamicin (5%), chloramphenicol (7%) and erythromycin (1%). All C. coli isolates were resistant to cephalothin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin and tetracycline but susceptible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin and gentamicin. The three C. lari isolates were resistant to all the antibiotics tested except chloramphenicol and gentamicin (1/3 and 2/3 susceptible, respectively). Genetic diversity of Campylobacter isolates were determined using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). C. jejuni and C. coli isolates belong to fifty-eight and twelve RAPD types, respectively.

  7. Effect of various antibiotics on modulation of intestinal microbiota and bile acid profile in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youcai; Limaye, Pallavi B; Renaud, Helen J; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2014-06-01

    Antibiotic treatments have been used to modulate intestinal bacteria and investigate the role of intestinal bacteria on bile acid (BA) homeostasis. However, knowledge on which intestinal bacteria and bile acids are modified by antibiotics is limited. In the present study, mice were administered various antibiotics, 47 of the most abundant bacterial species in intestine, as well as individual BAs in plasma, liver, and intestine were quantified. Compared to the two antibiotic combinations (vancomycin+imipenem and cephalothin+neomycin), the three single antibiotics (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and aztreonam) have less effect on intestinal bacterial profiles, and thus on host BA profiles and mRNA expression of genes that are important for BA homeostasis. The two antibiotic combinations decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in intestine, as well as most secondary BAs in serum, liver and intestine. Additionally, the two antibiotic combinations significantly increased mRNA of the hepatic BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2) and canalicular BA efflux transporters (Bsep and Mrp2), but decreased mRNA of the hepatic BA synthetic enzyme Cyp8b1, suggesting an elevated enterohepatic circulation of BAs. Interestingly, the two antibiotic combinations tended to have opposite effect on the mRNAs of most intestinal genes, which tended to be inhibited by vancomycin+imipenem but stimulated by cephalothin+neomycin. To conclude, the present study clearly shows that various antibiotics have distinct effects on modulating intestinal bacteria and host BA metabolism.

  8. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria causing otitis externa in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamankhan Malayeri, Hamed; Jamshidi, Shahram; Zahraei Salehi, Taghi

    2010-06-01

    Bacterial agents are considered important pathogens causing external otitis in dogs. It is essential to carry out bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test in the case of otitis externa, particularly for chronic or recurring cases. Sterile swab samples were obtained from terminal part of vertical ear canals of 74 dogs with otitis externa for cytology, bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test. Cytologic smears were stained using Gram and Giemsa staining methods. Aerobic bacterial culture performed on blood agar and MacConkey agar. Among total number of 92 isolated bacteria, 68 were Staphylococcus intermedius. Other isolated bacteria included: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella canis, and six other species of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Antimicrobial susceptibility test were performed for all isolated bacteria using 14 antibiotics. Based on the results of this study, all isolated Staphylococcus spp. were sensitive to amikacin, enrofloxacin, and rifampin, and had low resistance to gentamicin, cephalothin and ceftriaxone. More than half of gram-positive isolates were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin. Generally, all isolated gram-negative bacteria, were sensitive to amikacin and enrofloxacin, and had low resistance to ceftriaxone and gentamicin. They were highly resistant to penicillin, eythromycin, and cephalothin. Regarding the results of this study, in cases of uncomplicated otitis externa, it is possible to select antimicrobial drugs merely based on cytology, but it is recommended to perform bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test. However, in complicated or refractory cases, antimicrobials should be selected based on bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test.

  9. Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria Involved in Urinary Infections in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional and Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Wellington Francisco; Miguel, Camila Botelho; Nogueira, Ana Paula Oliveira; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos; Paulino, Tony De Paiva; Soares, Siomar De Castro; De Resende, Elisabete Aparecida Mantovani Rodrigues; Lazo-Chica, Javier Emilio; Araújo, Marcelo Costa; Oliveira, Carlo José

    2016-01-01

    Empirical and prolonged antimicrobial treatment of urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli is associated with the emergence of bacterial resistance, and not all countries have strict policies against the indiscriminate use of drugs in order to prevent resistance. This cross-sectional and retrospective study (2010–2015) aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and resistance of patient-derived E. coli to different drugs broadly used to treat urinary infections in Brazil: ampicillin + sulbactam, cephalothin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and nitrofurantoin. We obtained 1654 E. coli samples from ambulatory patients with disease symptoms of the urinary tract from a Brazilian public hospital. While all antibiotics were effective in killing E. coli to a large degree, nitrofurantoin was the most effective, with fewer samples exhibiting antibiotic resistance. We assessed the costs of generic and brand name versions of each antibiotic. Nitrofurantoin, the most effective antibiotic, was the cheapest, followed by the fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin), ampicillin + sulbactam and, lastly, cephalothin. Finally, assessment of antibiotic resistance to fluoroquinolones over the study period and extrapolation of the data led to the conclusion that these antibiotics could no longer be effective against E. coli-based urinary infections in approximately 20 years if their indiscriminate use in empirical treatment continues. PMID:27649224

  10. Prevalence and characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from conventional and organic vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sara; Woo, Gun-Jo

    2014-10-01

    To compare the characteristics and to identify the epidemiological relationships of Escherichia coli isolated from organic and conventional vegetables, the antimicrobial resistance and genetic properties of E. coli were investigated from 2010 to 2011. E. coli was isolated from 1 of 111 (0.9%) organic vegetables and from 20 of 225 (8.9%) conventional vegetables. The majority of strains were isolated from the surrounding farming environment (n=27/150 vs. 49/97 in organic vs. conventional samples). The majority of the vegetable strains were isolated from the surrounding farming environments. E. coli isolated from organic vegetables showed very low antimicrobial resistance rates except for cephalothin, ranging from 0% to 17.9%, while the resistance rates to cephalothin (71%) were extremely high in both groups. E. coli isolates expressed various resistance genes, which most commonly included blaTEM, tet(A), strA, strB, and qnrS. However, none of the isolates harbored tet(D), tet(E), tet(K), tet(L), tet(M), or qnrA. The transferability of tet gene, tet(A), and tet(B) was identified in tetracycline-resistant E. coli, and the genetic relationship was confirmed in a few cases from different sources. With regard to the lower antimicrobial resistance found in organic produce, this production mode seems able to considerably reduce the selection of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria on vegetables. PMID:25140978

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of clinical Escherichia coli isolates from dogs and cats in the United States: January 2008 through January 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thungrat, Kamoltip; Price, Stuart B; Carpenter, D Mark; Boothe, Dawn Merton

    2015-09-30

    Escherichia coli is among the most common bacterial pathogens in dogs and cats. The lack of a national monitoring program limits evidence-based empirical antimicrobial choices in the United States. This study describes antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for presumed clinical E. coli isolates from dogs (n=2392) or cats (n=780) collected from six geographic regions in the United States between May 2008 and January 2013. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined for 17 drugs representing 6 drug classes. Urinary tract isolates were most common (71%). Population MIC distributions were generally bimodal with the second mode above the resistant breakpoint for all drugs except gentamicin, amikacin, and meropenem. The MIC90 exceeded the susceptible breakpoint for ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalothin (surrogate drug for cephalexin), and doxycycline but was below the susceptible breakpoint for all others. None of isolates was susceptible or resistant to all drug tested; 46% were resistant to 1 or 2 antimicrobial categories, and 52% to more than three categories. The resistance percentages were as follows: doxycycline (100%), cephalothin (98%)>ampicillin (48%)>amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (40%)>ticarcillin-clavulanic acid (18%)>cefpodoxime (13%), cefotaxime (12%), cefoxitin (11%), cefazolin (11%), enrofloxacin (10%), chloramphenicol (9.6%)>ciprofloxacin (9.2%), ceftazidime (8.7%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (7.9%), gentamicin (7.9%)>meropenem (1.5%), amikacin (0.7%) (Pcephalexin, ampicillin, or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Based on susceptibility patterns, trimethoprim-sulfonamides may be the preferred empirical oral treatment. PMID:26165272

  12. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from canine chronic otitis externa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva N.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Swab samples obtained from 96 dogs with chronic otitis externa were cultured for the isolation of Staphylococcus species. Of 57 staphylococcal strains, 41 (72% were coagulase-negative (CNS. The identification of staphylococci strains was made by standard procedures for the routine identification of staphylococci in clinical practice. S. sciuri was the most frequent species isolated (22.8% from chronic otitis externa in dogs followed by S. intermedius (12.3%, S. auricularis (10.5% and S. aureus (8.8%. Three (5.2% CNS strains could not be identified. Bacterial isolates were susceptible to enrofloxacin, gentamicin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol and neomycin. Resistance was most common to penicillin G, oxacillin and ampicillin.

  13. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and risk factors for thermophilic Campylobacter infections in symptomatic and asymptomatic humans in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komba, E. V. G.; Mdegela, R. H.; Msoffe, P. L. M.;

    2015-01-01

    testing employed the disc diffusion method. A small proportion of the test isolates was also subjected to agar dilution method. Risk factors for human illness were determined in an unmatched case-control study. Thermophilic Campylobacter were isolated from 11.4% of the screened individuals (n = 1195). The...... sulphate and lowest for ciprofloxacin (22.1%). The rates of resistance for other antibiotics (azithromycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, cephalothin, gentamycin, nalidixic acid, ampicillin, amoxycillin, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol) ranged from 44.1% to 89%. Comparison between disc diffusion and agar...... dilution methods indicated a good correlation, and the tests were in agreement to each other (κ ≥ 0.75). Human illness was found to be associated with young age and consumption of chicken meat and pre-prepared salad. Our data indicate the presence of antibiotic-resistant thermophilic Campylobacter in...

  14. Antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. isolates from raw beef and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustacková, A; Nápravníková, E; Schlegelová, J

    2004-01-01

    E. faecalis (67%) and E. faecium (13.7%) were most frequently isolated among enterococci that contaminate cooled and frozen processed meat, follow-up heat-treated meat products and unheated fermented dry salami. Most isolates of both species were resistant to cephalothin (95 and 83 %) and clindamycin (77 and 67%, respectively). Furthermore, E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates were resistant to erythromycin (44 and 72%), tetracycline (34.5 and 17.4%), and streptomycin (13.3 and 4.3%, respectively). Only a few of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, chloramphenicol, and vancomycin while all isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, penicillin, and teicoplanin. During the production of heat-treated meat products, numbers of resistant isolates increased in spite of the decreasing enterococcal contamination of the samples. An opposite situation was found in the production of fermented dry salami. PMID:15530006

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Europe and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Oliveira, A. P.; Watts, J. L.; Salmon, S. A.;

    2000-01-01

    (123), Switzerland (69), United States (53), and Zimbabwe (6). The antimicrobial agents tested were penicillin, ampicillin, oxacillin, cephalothin, ceftiofur, amoxicillin + clavulanate, penicillin + novobiocin, enrofloxacin, premafloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, lincomycin, pirlimycin, neomycin......, lincomycin + neomycin, and sulfamethazine. The MIC90 for these antimicrobial agents for all strains were 0.5, 1.0, 1.0, 0.5, 1.0, less than or equal to 0.06, 0.125, 0.125, less than or equal to 0.0078, 0.5, 1.0, 16.0, 1.0, 2.0, 0.5, and 4.0 mu g/ml, respectively. Overall, only small variations between...

  16. DRESS syndrome in ophthalmic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Jacqueline Martins de; Nascimento, Heloisa; Belfort, Rubens

    2016-01-01

    Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a rare and potentially fatal adverse drug reaction associated with skin rash, fever, eosinophilia, and multiple organ injury. A number of pharmacological agents are known to cause DRESS syndrome such as allopurinol, anticonvulsants, vancomycin, trimethoprime-sulfamethoxazole, and pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine. Here, we describe two patients who developed DRESS syndrome during ocular treatment. The first case was being treated for late postoperative endophthalmitis with topical antibiotics, intravenous cephalothin, meropenem, and intravitreal injection of vancomycin and ceftazidime before symptoms developed. We were unable to identify the causal drug owing to the large number of medications concurrently administered. The second case presented with DRESS syndrome symptoms during ocular toxoplasmosis treatment. In this case, a clearer association with pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine was observed. As a result of the regular prescription of pharmacological agents associated with DRESS syndrome, ophthalmologists should be aware of the potentially serious complications of DRESS syndrome. PMID:27463633

  17. A rapid method for the determination of microbial susceptibility using the firefly luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellend, H.; Tuttle, S. A.; Barza, M.; Weinstein, L.; Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W.

    1975-01-01

    Luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was optimized for pure bacteria in broth in order to evaluate if changes in bacterial ATP content could be used as a rapid measure of antibiotic effect on microorganisms. Broth cultures of log phase bacteria were incubated at 310 K (37 C) for 2.5 hours at antimicrobial concentrations which resulted in the best discrimination between sensitive and resistant strains. Eighty-seven strains of 11 bacterial species were studied for their susceptibility to 12 commonly used antimicrobial agents: ampicillin, Penicillin G, nafcillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, colistin, and chloramplenicol. The major advantage of the ATP system over existing methods of rapid microbial susceptibility testing is that the assay can be made specific for bacterial ATP.

  18. STUDIES ON ANTIBIOTICS AND HEAVY METAL RESISTANCE PROFILING OF ESCHERICHIA COLI FROM DRINKING WATER AND CLINICAL SPECIMENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Kawane

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial resistance to antibiotics and heavy metals is an increasing problem in today’s society. Antibiotics resistances in the clinical isolates were high as compare to E.coli from drinking water. The drinking water and clinical E.coli showed more or less equal resistance to antibiotic: metronidazole, penicillin, clindamycin, cephoxithin and heavy metals; copper, mercury and lead, except cadmium metal ions. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR indices in the clinical isolates were high as compare to MAR indices of drinking water. E.coli isolates showed higher MAR indices to cephalothin, cephoxithin, clindamycin, metronidazole, penicillin and vancomycin indicated its human origin in drinking water. No significant variation in heavy metal tolerance (HMT was recorded from both types of isolated. Thus MAR indices were much more reliable indicator to differentiate origin of E.coli.

  19. Analysis of 12 beta-lactam antibiotics in human plasma by HPLC with ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhinney, Brett C; Wallis, Steven C; Hillister, Tara; Roberts, Jason A; Lipman, Jeffrey; Ungerer, Jacobus P J

    2010-07-15

    A simple and economical high performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for routine analysis of 12 Penicillin, Cephalosporin and Carbapenem antibiotics in 200 microL of human plasma. Antibiotics determined were Ceftazidime, Meropenem, Ceftriaxone, Ampicillin, Cefazolin, Ertapenem, Cephalothin, Benzylpenicillin, Flucloxacillin, Dicloxacillin, Piperacillin and Ticarcillin. There was a common sample preparation approach involving precipitation of proteins with acetonitrile and removal of lipid-soluble components by a chloroform wash. Separations were performed on a Waters X-bridge C18 column with, depending on analytes, one of three acetonitrile-phosphate buffer mobile phases. Detection was by UV at 210, 260 and 304 nm. Validation has demonstrated the method to be linear, accurate and precise. The method has been used in a pathology laboratory for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of beta-lactams in critically ill patients. PMID:20561826

  20. 一例犬子宫蓄脓的实验室诊断与治疗%Diagnosis in Lab and Treatment of One Case of Canine Pyometra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李基棕; 文明; 马喆; 杨通灵; 王开功; 周碧君

    2011-01-01

    Canine pyometra is a disease which caused by pus product in uterine cavity and abnormal endometrium secondary infection by pathogens.Genital dirty, breeding, postnatal infection or stillbirth, dystocia midwifery infection can cause disease.One case of dog, therapia in animal hospital of Guizhou University, confirmed the disease of pyometra with clinical examination and laboratory examination, surgery was taken and successful; isolation and identification of pathogen and drug sensitivity tests.The results showed that the pathogen was Escherichia, and the highest sensitive drug were Cephalothin, Cephalothin,Kanamycin, Gentamycin.These investigations provided an important reference data for diagnosis, prevention and early drug choices for this disease.%犬子宫蓄脓是异常的子宫内膜继发病原微生物感染引起的子宫腔内积有脓液的疾病.外阴部不洁、配种、产后感染或死胎、难产助产感染等均可引起该病.笔者通过对贵州大学动物医院收治的一例病犬进行临床检查和实验室检查,确诊为子宫蓄脓后采取手术疗法治疗并取得成功;对子宫内容物进行病原菌分离鉴定、药敏试验,病原学分析显示,此犬子宫内病原菌为大肠杆菌,且该菌株对先锋霉素、头孢噻吩、卡那霉素和庆大霉素等药物敏感.本试验为犬子宫蓄脓诊治,预防及前期的药物选择提供临床指导.

  1. Effect of various antibiotics on modulation of intestinal microbiota and bile acid profile in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Youcai; Limaye, Pallavi B.; Renaud, Helen J.; Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: curtisklaassenphd@gmail.com

    2014-06-01

    Antibiotic treatments have been used to modulate intestinal bacteria and investigate the role of intestinal bacteria on bile acid (BA) homeostasis. However, knowledge on which intestinal bacteria and bile acids are modified by antibiotics is limited. In the present study, mice were administered various antibiotics, 47 of the most abundant bacterial species in intestine, as well as individual BAs in plasma, liver, and intestine were quantified. Compared to the two antibiotic combinations (vancomycin + imipenem and cephalothin + neomycin), the three single antibiotics (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and aztreonam) have less effect on intestinal bacterial profiles, and thus on host BA profiles and mRNA expression of genes that are important for BA homeostasis. The two antibiotic combinations decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in intestine, as well as most secondary BAs in serum, liver and intestine. Additionally, the two antibiotic combinations significantly increased mRNA of the hepatic BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2) and canalicular BA efflux transporters (Bsep and Mrp2), but decreased mRNA of the hepatic BA synthetic enzyme Cyp8b1, suggesting an elevated enterohepatic circulation of BAs. Interestingly, the two antibiotic combinations tended to have opposite effect on the mRNAs of most intestinal genes, which tended to be inhibited by vancomycin + imipenem but stimulated by cephalothin + neomycin. To conclude, the present study clearly shows that various antibiotics have distinct effects on modulating intestinal bacteria and host BA metabolism. - Highlights: • Various antibiotics have different effects on intestinal bacteria. • Antibiotics alter bile acid composition in mouse liver and intestine. • Antibiotics influence genes involved in bile acid homeostasis. • Clostridia appear to be important for secondary bile acid formation.

  2. Hygienic sanitary conditions of sun dried meat marketed in Cruz das Almas, Bahia and detection of strains with antimicrobial resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Suely Evangelista-Barreto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the microbiological, physical and chemical qualities of sun dried meat marketed in Cruz das Almas, Bahia, as well as trace the resistance profile of the isolated strains against different commercial pharmacos. There were collected and analysed 36 samples of sun dried meat, acquired in 12 different establishment (supermarkets, mini-markets, butchers and a municipal market, and quantified mesophilic aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Staphylococcus coagulase positive, E. coli and presence of Salmonella spp., as well as specific content humidity, water activity (Aw and chloride. In 83% of the establishments, mesophilic bacteria counted > 105 CFU.g-1 and 58% coliforms at 35º C > 105 NMP.g- 1 and coliforms at 45ºC > 103 NMP.g-1. Escherichia coli was isolated in 75% of the establishments. Staphylococcus spp. ranged from 4.8 x 104 to 9.0 x 108 UFC.g-1, not being isolated Staphylococcus coagulase positive. Salmonella was found in 25% of the establishments. The humidity in the sun dried meat samples ranged from 52.37% to 74.69%, the Aw from 0.87 to 0.95 and the chloride from 3.16% to 5.98%. Salmonella was 100% resistant to tetracycline, acid nalidixic, cephalothin and erythromycin, with intermediate resistance to ampicillin and gentamicin. Escherichia coli was resistant to erythromycin (100%, ampicillin (68.7%, cephalothin (71.4%, tetracycline (64.2%, nalidixic acid (35.7% and gentamicin (12.5%. Multiresistant strains of E. coli were observed in 87.5% of the isolates, and it happened that in 28.6% of the resistance it was mediated by plasmids. Multidrug resistance profile was observed in all Salmonella, with a strain showing plasmid resistance. The marketing of sun dried meat in Cruz das Almas presents hygienic and sanitary failures due to it’s high microbial loads. This fact undermines the safety and product lifetime, and may also pose risk to public health since it markets strains with antimicrobial.

  3. Microbiological efficacy of lomefloxacin and other drug's regarding microorganisms isolated from the human conjunctiva Atividade biocida da lomefloxacina em relação aos microorganismos isolados de conjuntiva humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Hofling-Lima

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate and compare the in vitro susceptibility of human conjunctival bacterial isolates to various antimicrobial agents, including lomefloxacin, other fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin, aminoglycosides (gentamicin, tobramycin, and amicacin, and cephalosporin (cephalothin. Methods: Antibiotic susceptibility tests conducted over a period of 27 months with 613 bacterial isolates from the conjunctiva were retrospectively analyzed. Results: In relation to the total number of positive isolates, the fluoroquinolones showed greater in vitro effectiveness than the other analyzed antibiotics. All bacterial isolates showed significantly higher susceptibility to ciprofloxacin than to lomefloxacin. Conclusion: The fluoroquinolones are not only equally effective against all conjunctival bacterial isolates, but they also show superior antimicrobial activity in comparison to aminoglycosides and cephalothin. These results suggest that fluoroquinolones, such as lomefloxacin, can be beneficially prescribed for conjunctival infections and also as prophylaxis in ocular surgery.Objetivo: Avaliar e comparar a atividade biocida in vitro de bactérias isoladas da conjuntiva humana à lomefloxacina, a outras fluorquinolonas (ciprofloxacina, norfloxacina e ofloxacina, aos aminoglicosídeos (gentamicina, tobramicina e amicacina e à cefalosporina (cefalotina. Métodos: Foram analisados retrospectivamente os resultados dos antibio-gramas realizados no período de 27 meses com 613 bactérias isoladas da conjuntiva. Resultados: A eficácia in vitro das quinolonas de acordo com o total dos isolamentos positivos foi superior em relação aos outros antibióticos avaliados. A suscetibilidade do total de bactérias à ciprofloxacina foi significantemente mais alta quando comparada à lomefloxacina. Conclusão: Os resultados praticamente equivalentes da suscetibilidade de bactérias isoladas da conjuntiva a fluorquinolonas, associado

  4. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia species isolates in ducks and geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Hossein; Radmehr, Behrad; Ismail, Salmah

    2014-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp. isolated from duck and goose intestinal contents. A total of 471 samples, including 291 duck and 180 goose intestinal contents, were purchased from wet markets between November 2008 and July 2010. Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp. were isolated from 58 (12.3%), 107 (22.7%), and 80 (17%) of the samples, respectively. It was concluded that Listeria ivanovii, Salmonella Thompson, and Yersinia enterocolitica were the predominant serovars among Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp., respectively. Moreover, resistance to tetracycline was common in Listeria (48.3%) and Salmonella spp. (63.6%), whereas 51.3% of the Yersinia spp. isolates were resistant to cephalothin. Therefore, continued surveillance of the prevalence of the pathogens and also of emerging antibiotic resistance is needed to render possible the recognition of foods that may represent risks and also ensure the effective treatment of listeriosis, salmonellosis, and yersiniosis.

  5. Prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella spp. isolated from commercial layer farms in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Min Chan; Jeong, So Jeong; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Jeong, Ok-Mi; Kang, Min-Su; Lee, Young Ju

    2015-07-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most prevalent foodborne illnesses. The outbreak of this disease is often associated with eggs. In this study, the prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella was surveyed in layer farms in Korea. In addition, the risk factors affecting the prevalence of Salmonella in these farms were also assessed. Of the 32 farms and 67 flocks examined, 19 farms (59.3%) and 34 flocks (50.7%) were observed to be positive for Salmonella contamination. Salmonella was detected in the surrounding environment such as feces (41.8%), dust (40.3%), egg shells (17.2%), as well as the internal egg contents (5.2%). The incidence of Salmonella positives were tended to increase when the flock size is larger (P = 0.021). Differences in the provinces also affected Salmonella prevalence (P Salmonella serovars in the flocks were Salmonella Bareilly (41.2%), Salmonella Mbandaka (32.4%), and Salmonella Rissen (17.6%). Twenty of the flocks revealed multi-serovar contamination, with the isolation of 2 to 4 serovars. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that 93 out of 101 isolates were susceptible to the 17 tested antimicrobial agents. The remaining isolates displayed resistance to ampicillin (4.0%), nalidixic acid (3.0%), tetracycline (1.0%), cephalothin (1.0%), and gentamicin (1.0%). As human salmonellosis has been repeatedly correlated to the consumption of poultry products worldwide, continuous studies are required to effectively minimize the Salmonella contamination in layer farms and egg products.

  6. mecA gene transferrability and antibiogram of zoonotic Staphylococcus intermedius from animals, staff and the environment in animal hospitals in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Jung-Ho; Hwang, Sun Young; Kim, So Hyun; Koo, Hye Cheong; Shin, Sook; Lim, Suk-Kyung; Park, Yong Ho

    2010-02-01

    Staphylococcus intermedius is a common cause of otitis externa, pyoderma and wound infections in companion animals. Although S. intermedius infections are rare in humans, it is zoonotic, with several case reports describing fatal human infections. Presently, we sought to isolate S. intermedius strains from various sources at animal hospitals nationwide in Korea, examine their antibiotic susceptibilities, and determine the possibility of horizontal transmission between animals and humans. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to compare the mecA gene in S. intermedius strains from humans, animals and the environment in animal hospitals. A total of 119 S. intermedius strains were isolated from 529 samples. Using the disk-diffusion method over 90% of the isolates were susceptible to cephalothin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, vancomycin, imipenem, nitroflurantoin and amikacin, whereas 97.5% and 98.3% of the isolates were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin, respectively. Among the 39 S. intermedius strains harbouring mecA, similar PFGE patterns were observed between seven isolates from an animal, two isolates from veterinary staff and the environment in one animal hospital, and single isolates from an animal and a veterinarian at another hospital. This result suggests the possibility of horizontal transmission of S. intermedius containing mecA between humans, animals and the environment in animal hospitals and also emphasizes on the importance of S. intermedius with mecA as a possible emerging threat to public health.

  7. Detection of AmpC β lactamases in gram-negative bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjan Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amp C β-lactamases are clinically important cephalosporinases encoded on the chromosomes of many Enterobacteriaceae and a few other organisms, where they mediate resistance to cephalothin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, most penicillins, and β-lactamase inhibitor/β-lactam combinations. The increase in antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacteria is a notable example of how bacteria can procure, maintain and express new genetic information that can confer resistance to one or several antibiotics. Detection of organisms producing these enzymes can be difficult, because their presence does not always produce a resistant phenotype on conventional disc diffusion or automated susceptibility testing methods. These enzymes are often associated with potentially fatal laboratory reports of false susceptibility to β-lactams phenotypically. With the world-wide increase in the occurrence, types and rate of dissemination of these enzymes, their early detection is critical. AmpC β-lactamases show tremendous variation in geographic distribution. Thus, their accurate detection and characterization are important from epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and infection control point of view. This document describes the methods for detection for AmpC β-lactamases, which can be adopted by routine diagnostic laboratories.

  8. Antibiotic Resistance of Probiotic Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Marketed Foods and Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG LIU; ZHUO-YANG ZHANG; KE DONG; JIAN-PING YUAN; XIAO-KUI GUO

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify the antimicrobial resistance of commercial lactic acid bacteria present in microbial foods and drug additives by analyzing their isolated strains used for fermentation and probioties. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility of 41 screened isolates was tested with disc diffusion and E-test methods after species-level identification. Resistant strains were selected and examined for the presence of resistance genes by PCR. Results Distribution of resistance was found in different species. All isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cephalothin, and imipenem. In addition, isolates resistant to vancomycin, rifampicin, streptomycin, bacitracin, and erythromycin were detected, although the incidence of resistance to these antibiotics was relatively low. In contrast, most strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin, amikacin, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, and gentamycin. The genes msrC, vanX, and dfrA were detected in strains of Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactococcus lactis. Conclusion Antibiotic resistance is present in different species of probiotic strains, which poses a threat to food safety. Evaluation of the safety of lactic acid bacteria for human consumption should be guided by established criteria, guidelines and regulations.

  9. Degradation kinetics and mechanism of β-lactam antibiotics by the activation of H2O2 and Na2S2O8 under UV-254nm irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuexiang; Mezyk, Stephen P; Michael, Irene; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2014-08-30

    The extensive production and usage of antibiotics have led to an increasing occurrence of antibiotic residuals in various aquatic compartments, presenting a significant threat to both ecosystem and human health. This study investigated the degradation of selected β-lactam antibiotics (penicillins: ampicillin, penicillin V, and piperacillin; cephalosporin: cephalothin) by UV-254nm activated H2O2 and S2O8(2-) photochemical processes. The UV irradiation alone resulted in various degrees of direct photolysis of the antibiotics; while the addition of the oxidants improved significantly the removal efficiency. The steady-state radical concentrations were estimated, revealing a non-negligible contribution of hydroxyl radicals in the UV/S2O8(2-) system. Mineralization of the β-lactams could be achieved at high UV fluence, with a slow formation of SO4(2-) and a much lower elimination of total organic carbon (TOC). The transformation mechanisms were also investigated showing the main reaction pathways of hydroxylation (+16Da) at the aromatic ring and/or the sulfur atom, hydrolysis (+18Da) at the β-lactam ring and decarboxylation (-44Da) for the three penicillins. Oxidation of amine group was also observed for ampicillin. This study suggests that UV/H2O2 and UV/S2O8(2-) advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are capable of degrading β-lactam antibiotics decreasing consequently the antibiotic activity of treated waters.

  10. Prevalence, serovars, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolated from blue land crabs (Cardisoma guanhumi) in Grenada, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Ross; Hariharan, Harry; Matthew, Vanessa; Chappell, Sam; Davies, Rob; Parker, Regina; Sharma, Andravindra

    2013-07-01

    Samples of intestine and hepatopancreas from 65 blue land crabs (Cardisoma guanhumi), a crustacean commonly consumed as a food item in Grenada, were collected from six geographic sites in Grenada and tested for Salmonella by enrichment and selective culture. The individual animal prevalence of Salmonella based on isolation was 17% (11 of 65), and all infected crabs were from three of the six sampled locations. Isolates were identified by serotyping as Salmonella enterica serovars Saintpaul (n = 6), Montevideo (n = 4), and Newport (n = 1). The intestines of all 11 infected crabs were positive for Salmonella, but only 7 of 11 hepatopancreas samples were positive for Salmonella, and these isolates were the same serovar as isolated from the matching intestine. These three Salmonella serovars are known to cause human illness in many countries, and in the Caribbean Salmonella Saintpaul has been frequently isolated from humans. In a disc diffusion assay, all isolates were susceptible to all 11 drugs tested: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, neomycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. To our knowledge, this report is the first concerning isolation and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Salmonella serotypes from the blue land crab.

  11. Prevalence of Pharyngeal Pneumococcal Carriers and Succeptibility Patterns among Children of Day Care Centers in Yazd District,Iran

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    M Mohammad - Zadeh

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most important causes of pneumonia, meningitis and septicemia. Decades after successful treatment of this infection with penicillin, frequency of penicillin resistance is reportedly on the rise throughout the world. This cross sectional study was designed in Yazd to determine the prevalence of pneumococcal pharyngeal carriers and its succeptibility pattern in children of day care centers. Method & materials : Two hundred children were selected randomly from 10 day care centers and pharyngeal swabs were collected and cultured in February, 2002. Results :51% of our study sample were boys and 49% were girls. Their age range was between 7 and 65 months. Prevalence of pharyngeal carriers was 37.5%. The rate of resistance detected was as follows: 50% to penicillin, 62.5% to erythromycin and TMP,SMX, 30.6% to tetracycline, 15.3 % to cephalothin, 5.6% to ceftizoxime and 4.2% to ciprofloxacin. Conclusion: We conclude that penicillin is not the drug of choice in invasive pneumococcal infections in Yazd and a third gereration cephalosporin should be used instead as the first line of treatment while awaiting the culture and sensitivity results.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated in newly-hatched chickens and effect of amoxicillin treatment during their growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Belenguer, Ana; Doménech, Eva; Villagrá, Arantxa; Fenollar, Alejandro; Ferrús, Maria Antonia

    2016-08-01

    The use of antimicrobials in food animals is the major determinant for the propagation of resistant bacteria in the animal reservoir. However, other factors may also play a part, and in particular vertical spread between the generations has been suggested to be an important transmission pathway. The objective of this paper was to determine the resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolated from newly-hatched chickens as well as to study the antibiotic pressure effect when amoxicillin was administered during their growing period. With this aim, meconium from 22 one-day-old Ross chickens was analysed. In addition, during their growth period, amoxicillin treatments at days 7, 21 and 35 were carried out. Results showed a high number of E. coli-resistant strains were isolated from the treated one-day-old chickens, and were the highest for β-lactams group, followed by quinolone and tetracyclines. After treatment with amoxicillin, the highest percentage of resistances were detected for this antibiotic compared to the others analysed, with significant differences in resistance percentages between control and treated broilers detected in relation to ampicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin, kanamycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Differences in resistances to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid between control and treated animals were not observed and there was lack of resistance for amikacin and ceftriaxone. These results suggest the possibility of vertical transmission of resistant strains to newly-hatched chicks from parent flocks, and seem to indicate that the treatment with amoxicillin increased the resistance of E. coli to other antibiotics. PMID:27035748

  13. Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from the Uteri Horn, Mouth, and Rectum of Bitches Suffering from Pyometra: Virulence Factors, Antimicrobial Susceptibilities, and Clonal Relationships among Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinho, Juliana M A; de Souza, Andressa; Schocken-Iturrino, Ruben P; Beraldo, Lívia G; Borges, Clarissa A; Avila, Fernando A; Marin, José M

    2014-01-01

    Pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch, and Escherichia coli is the major pathogen associated with this disease. In this study, 70 E. coli isolates from the uteri horn, mouth, and rectum of bitches suffering from the disease and 43 E. coli isolates from the rectum of clinically healthy bitches were examined for the presence of uropathogenic virulence genes and susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. DNA profiles of isolates from uteri horn and mouth in bitches with pyometra were compared by REP, ERIC, and BOX-PCR. Virulence gene frequencies detected in isolates from canine pyometra were as follows: 95.7% fim, 27.1% iss, 25.7% hly, 18.5% iuc, and 17.1% usp. Predominant resistance was determined for cephalothin, ampicillin, and nalidixic acid among the isolates from all sites examined. Multidrug resistance was found on ∼ 50% pyometra isolates. Using the genotypic methods some isolates from uteri, pus, and saliva of the same bitch proved to have identical DNA profiles which is a reason for concern due to the close relationship between household pets and humans. PMID:24734047

  14. Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from the Uteri Horn, Mouth, and Rectum of Bitches Suffering from Pyometra: Virulence Factors, Antimicrobial Susceptibilities, and Clonal Relationships among Strains

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    Juliana M. A. Agostinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch, and Escherichia coli is the major pathogen associated with this disease. In this study, 70 E. coli isolates from the uteri horn, mouth, and rectum of bitches suffering from the disease and 43 E. coli isolates from the rectum of clinically healthy bitches were examined for the presence of uropathogenic virulence genes and susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. DNA profiles of isolates from uteri horn and mouth in bitches with pyometra were compared by REP, ERIC, and BOX-PCR. Virulence gene frequencies detected in isolates from canine pyometra were as follows: 95.7% fim, 27.1% iss, 25.7% hly, 18.5% iuc, and 17.1% usp. Predominant resistance was determined for cephalothin, ampicillin, and nalidixic acid among the isolates from all sites examined. Multidrug resistance was found on ∼50% pyometra isolates. Using the genotypic methods some isolates from uteri, pus, and saliva of the same bitch proved to have identical DNA profiles which is a reason for concern due to the close relationship between household pets and humans.

  15. Multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria on fluted pumpkin leaves, a herb of therapeutic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbeneghu, Oluwatoyin A; Abdu, Abdulrasheed B

    2014-06-01

    Fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) is a minimally-processed green leafy vegetable traditionally used for its antianaemic properties in the form of leaf juice without a heating or inactivation step before consumption. The aim of the study was to assess the presence of surface microbiota on T. occidentalis leaves and also to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated organisms. Bacterial contaminants on 50 samples of T. occidentalis leaves were isolated and characterized using standard biochemical methods and the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated organisms was determined using the antibiotic disc diffusion assay. The results obtained show that the leaves of T. occidentalis is contaminated with organisms which included Enterobacter agglomerans (25.9%), Proteus vulgaris (24.9%), Klebsiella spp. (2.6%), and Serratia liquefaciens (2.1%). Other bacterial isolates recovered in order of frequency included: Staphylococcus spp. (33.7%), Bacillus spp. (8.3%), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (2.6%). Of the 193 bacterial isolates from the leaves of T. occidentalis samples tested for antimicrobial resistance, all (100%) were found to be resistant to ampicillin, cloxacillin, augmentin, erythromycin, and tetracycline while 96% of the isolates were resistant to cephalothin. Resistance to trimethoprim (93%) and gentamicin (83%) was also observed. Approximately, 22% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin; however, only 11 (5.8%) were resistant to ofloxacin. Thus, uncooked T. occidentalis is a potential source of highly-resistant epiphytic bacteria which could be opportunistic pathogens in consumers. PMID:25076655

  16. Ecological aspects of the antimicrobial resistence in bacteria of importance to humn infections

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    Meirelles-Pereira Frederico de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the intimate relationship of humans with coastal lagoons (used for recreation, tourism, water supply, etc., the discharge of domestic effluents may lead to the establishment of routes of dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms, including microorganisms carrying genes for resistance to antimicrobials, through the surrounding human communities. The objective of the present investigation was to relate the presence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria to the environmental characteristics of three coastal lagoons, comparing the results with those from hospital sewage. Of the lagoons evaluated, two (Geribá and Imboassica receive domestic sewage discharge, and the other (Cabiúnas is still in a natural state. We isolated in a culture medium containing 32 ¼ µg/ml of Cephalothin, fecal coliforms (E. coli, non-fecal coliforms (Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, and Citrobacter, non-glucose-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli, and Aeromonas sp. In cultures from the hospital drain we found strains showing numerous markers for resistance to most of the 11 antimicrobials tested. On the other hand, in cultures from Cabiúnas and Imboassica lagoons, we found strains showing resistance only to antibiotics frequently observed in non-selective situations (considered as "common" markers. The capacity for dilution in the ecosystem, and salinity appeared related with the occurrence of multi-resistant bacterial strains. The intensity of recent fecal contamination was not shown to be associated with the numbers and types of markers found.

  17. [Distribution and removal of anaerobic antibiotic resistant bacteria during mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Juan; Wang, Yuan-Yue; Wei Yuan, Song

    2014-10-01

    Sewage sludge is one of the major sources that releasing antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistant genes (ARG) into the environment since it contains large amount of ARB, but there is little information about the fate of the anaerobic ARB in the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. Therefore, the distribution, removal and seasonal changes of tetracycline and β-lactam antibiotics resistant bacteria in the mesophilic egg-shaped digesters of a municipal wastewater treatment plant were investigated for one year in this study. Results showed that there were higher amounts of ARB and higher resistance rate of β-lactam antibiotics than that of tetracycline antibiotics in the sewage sludge. All ARB could be significantly reduced during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion process by 1.48-1.64 log unit (P < 0.05). Notably, the ampicillin and cephalothin resistance rates were significantly increased after anaerobic digestion by 12.0% and 14.3%, respectively (P < 0.05). The distribution of ARB in the sewage sludge had seasonal change characteristics. Except for chlorotetracycline resistant bacteria, there were more ARB in the sewage sludge in cold season than in warm season (P < 0.05). PMID:25693388

  18. Peritonitis during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, J; Rogers, W A; Taylor, H M; Everett, E D; Prowant, B F; Fruto, L V; Nolph, K D

    1980-01-01

    We initiated a therapeutic program of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for patients with chronic renal failure. Our program resulted in many episodes of peritonitis arising from contamination due to the technical aspects of the procedure. Microbiologic evaluation showed that 73% of 97 episodes were culture positive, with gram-positive organisms causing most of the cases, especially early in dialysis. Gram-negative rods tended to occur later. Gram stains of dialysate effluent resulted in a disappointingly low yield of only 9% positivity. Cell counts were a dependable indicator of the presence of peritoneal inflammation and also of therapeutic success. Most patients responded well to intraperitoneal cephalothin, 125 mg/L for 10 to 14 d. The occurrence of peritonitis resulted in 0.93 years of hospitalization during the total of 15.45 patient-years on dialysis, which essentially negated the financial advantages of this method of treatment of chronic renal failure. For this to be a successful mode of therapy, advances in the prevention of peritonitis must be made. PMID:6985785

  19. Screening of probiotic lactic acid bacteria from Thai fermented foods for human.

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    Kantachote, D.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Total of 327 strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from 179 samples of various Thai fermented foods. The strains were investigated for their probiotic properties based on stability in bile salt (0.15% and high acidity (pH 2, 3 and 4. Moreover, utilization of protein or fat or starch, growth in the absence of vitamin B12 and growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions with no significant difference were also considered. According to the above criteria, 67 strains were selected for antibiotics sensitivity test. The selected strains were susceptible to following antibiotics: ampicillin, cephalothin, cefoperazone, tetracycline andchloramphenicol; however the strains were resistant to vancomycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, norfloxacin and polymyxin B. Using agar spot method, only 5 strains were able to inhibit 13 strains of manifest by a bacteria indicator as clear zone greater than 10 mm. A further investigation using co-culture technique showed inhibition of the tested organisms was between 80 and 100 percent. The strains grew under media of MRS and SPY2 (no materials from animal over 36 hours with no significant difference. The strains were investigated for survival in condition of high acidity within 3 hours. It was found that at pH 4 almost 100% were maintained but at pH 2 and 3 the survival reduced approximately 1 log cycle. The strain LA71 which showed the highest survival was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum.

  20. Recycling Antibiotics into GUMBOS: A New Combination Strategy to Combat Multi-Drug-Resistant Bacteria

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    Marsha R. Cole

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of multi-drug-resistant bacteria, coupled with the lack of new antibiotics in development, is fast evolving into a global crisis. New strategies utilizing existing antibacterial agents are urgently needed. We propose one such strategy in which four outmoded β-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin and oxacillin and a well-known antiseptic (chlorhexidine di-acetate were fashioned into a group of uniform materials based on organic salts (GUMBOS as an alternative to conventional combination drug dosing strategies. The antibacterial activity of precursor ions (e.g., chlorhexidine diacetate and β-lactam antibiotics, GUMBOS and their unreacted mixtures were studied with 25 clinical isolates with varying antibiotic resistance using a micro-broth dilution method. Acute cytotoxicity and therapeutic indices were determined using fibroblasts, endothelial and cervical cell lines. Intestinal permeability was predicted using a parallel artificial membrane permeability assay. GUMBOS formed from ineffective β-lactam antibiotics and cytotoxic chlorhexidine diacetate exhibited unique pharmacological properties and profound antibacterial activity at lower concentrations than the unreacted mixture of precursor ions at equivalent stoichiometry. Reduced cytotoxicity to invasive cell types commonly found in superficial and chronic wounds was also observed using GUMBOS. GUMBOS show promise as an alternative combination drug strategy for treating wound infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria.

  1. Characterization of bacterial pathogens in rural and urban irrigation water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijuka, Matthew; Charimba, George; Hugo, Celia J; Buys, Elna M

    2015-03-01

    The study aimed to compare the bacteriological quality of an urban and rural irrigation water source. Bacterial counts, characterization, identification and diversity of aerobic bacteria were determined. Escherichia coli isolated from both sites was subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing, virulence gene (Stx1/Stx2 and eae) determination and (GTG)5 Rep-PCR fingerprinting. Low mean monthly counts for aerobic spore formers, anaerobic spore formers and Staphylococcus aureus were noted although occasional spikes were observed. The most prevalent bacterial species at both sites were Bacillus spp., E. coli and Enterobacter spp. In addition, E. coli and Bacillus spp. were most prevalent in winter and summer respectively. Resistance to at least one antibiotic was 84% (rural) and 83% (urban). Highest resistance at both sites was to cephalothin and ampicillin. Prevalence of E. coli possessing at least one virulence gene (Stx1/Stx2 and eae) was 15% (rural) and 42% (urban). All (rural) and 80% (urban) of E. coli possessing virulence genes showed antibiotic resistance. Complete genetic relatedness (100%) was shown by 47% of rural and 67% of urban E. coli isolates. Results from this study show that surface irrigation water sources regardless of geographical location and surrounding land-use practices can be reservoirs of similar bacterial pathogens.

  2. Acinetobacter johnsonii and Acinetobacter lwoffii - the emerging fish pathogens

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    Kozińska Alicja

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterise Acinetobacter sp. isolated from fish. Eight isolates obtained from diseased rainbow trout and common carp cultured in Poland were analysed. The isolates were identified using API 20 NE system as Acinetobacter sp. Afterwards, they were identified by sequencing 16S rDNA gene fragment. The bacteria were identified as A. johnsonii (two isolates, A. lwoffii (two isolates, A. junii/johnsonii (one isolate, A. calcoaceticus (one isolate, and Acinetobacter sp. (two isolates. The drug resistance of isolates was examined. The majority of the isolates were resistant to ampicilin, amoxicillin, and cephalothin and all demonstrated sensitivity to fluoroquinolones, except of one isolate. Two isolates were selected for the experimental infection of trout and carp to confirm their pathogenicity. Experimentally infected fish showed disease symptoms similar to those observed in fish naturally infected with these bacteria. This is the first report concerning pathogenicity of A. johnsonii for rainbow trout and A. lwoffii for common carp. These bacteria were regarded as emerging opportunistic pathogens of fish farmed in Poland. Acinetobacter strains are commonly known as microorganisms transmitting the antibiotic resistance genes. Therefore, they might have a great impact on the resistance transfer in aquaculture.

  3. Recycling antibiotics into GUMBOS: a new combination strategy to combat multi-drug-resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Marsha R; Hobden, Jeffery A; Warner, Isiah M

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of multi-drug-resistant bacteria, coupled with the lack of new antibiotics in development, is fast evolving into a global crisis. New strategies utilizing existing antibacterial agents are urgently needed. We propose one such strategy in which four outmoded β-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin and oxacillin) and a well-known antiseptic (chlorhexidine di-acetate) were fashioned into a group of uniform materials based on organic salts (GUMBOS) as an alternative to conventional combination drug dosing strategies. The antibacterial activity of precursor ions (e.g., chlorhexidine diacetate and β-lactam antibiotics), GUMBOS and their unreacted mixtures were studied with 25 clinical isolates with varying antibiotic resistance using a micro-broth dilution method. Acute cytotoxicity and therapeutic indices were determined using fibroblasts, endothelial and cervical cell lines. Intestinal permeability was predicted using a parallel artificial membrane permeability assay. GUMBOS formed from ineffective β-lactam antibiotics and cytotoxic chlorhexidine diacetate exhibited unique pharmacological properties and profound antibacterial activity at lower concentrations than the unreacted mixture of precursor ions at equivalent stoichiometry. Reduced cytotoxicity to invasive cell types commonly found in superficial and chronic wounds was also observed using GUMBOS. GUMBOS show promise as an alternative combination drug strategy for treating wound infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria.

  4. Prevalence and distribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in finfish from Cochin (south India

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    Ammanamveetil A.M. Hatha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Finfish samples obtained from four retail outlets in Cochin between June 2009 and June 2010 were investigated for the occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A total of 182 samples were collected and suspect isolates were identified using standard biochemical tests and were further confirmed by a species-specific tlh gene. V. parahaemolyticus was detected in 45.1% of samples, with demersal fish being more affected than pelagic species. The bacterium was isolated more frequently from the skin and gills of pelagic fish, while the intestine yielded greater numbers of V. parahaemolyticus in demersal fish. The highest incidence of antibiotic resistance was recorded against ampicillin and streptomycin, followed by carbenicillin, cefpodoxime, cephalothin, colistin and amoxycillin; the lowest was against nalidixic acid, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin. Multiple drug resistance was prevalent among isolates. Although only a fraction of strains are pathogenic for humans, the time-temperature abuse in markets provides ample scope for these strains to multiply to dangerous levels. The multidrug resistant nature of the strains adds to the gravity of the problem. High V. parahaemolyticus incidence rates in market finfish samples from areas in and around Cochin clearly indicates that control measures should be adopted to reduce post-harvest contamination in seafood and time-temperature abuse in markets to diminish the risk of V. parahaemolyticus infection associated with seafood destined for human consumption.

  5. Screening for Salmonella in backyard chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Johanna; Gole, Vaibhav; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2015-06-15

    Salmonellosis is a significant zoonotic disease which has a considerable economic impact on the egg layer industry. There is limited information about the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in backyard chickens, and the associated virulence of any serovars identified. Hundred and fifteen pooled samples from 30 backyard flocks in South Australia were screened. Four flocks tested positive for Salmonella spp. The overall Salmonella isolation rate in the current study was 10.4%. The estimated prevalence at individual bird level was 0.02% (95% CI 0.025-0.975). The serovars isolated were Salmonella Agona, Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) and Salmonella Bovismorbificans. All Salmonella isolates tested positive for the prgH, orfL and spiC genes. The Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) had the most antibiotic resistance, being resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin and having intermediate resistance to florphenicol. All of the Salmonella Agona had intermediate resistance to the ampicillin, while the Salmonella Bovismorbificans were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. With the increased interest of keeping backyard chickens, the current study highlights the zoonotic risk from Salmonella spp. associated with home flocks.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance of non-typhoidal Salmonella isolates from egg layer flocks and egg shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Vivek V; Gole, Vaibhav C; McWhorter, Andrea R; Abraham, Sam; Chousalkar, Kapil K

    2015-06-16

    This study was conducted to examine the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Salmonella spp. isolated from commercial caged layer flocks in New South Wales and South Australia. All Salmonella isolates (n=145) were subjected to phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of AMR and carriage of integrons. The majority of Salmonella isolates (91.72%) were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested in this study. Limited resistance was observed to amoxicillin and ampicillin (5.51%), tetracycline (4.13%), cephalothin (2.06%) and trimethoprim (0.68%). None of the isolates were resistant to cefotaxime, ceftiofur, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, neomycin or streptomycin. A low frequency of Salmonella isolates (4.83%) harboured antimicrobial resistance genes and a class 1 integron. The most commonly detected AMR genes among the Salmonella isolates were blaTEM (2.07%), tet A (1.38%) and dhfrV (0.69%). Overall, Salmonella enterica isolates exhibited a low frequency of AMR and represent a minimal public health risk associated with the emergence of multidrug resistant Salmonella spp. from the Australian layer industry.

  7. Bone marrow transplantation in miniature swine: I. Autologous and SLA matched allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a successful bone marrow transplant protocol in MHC-inbred miniature swine (MS). Three groups of MS were studied: irradiation controls, autologous bone marrow transplants and SLA matched bone marrow allografts. One day prior to irradiation, all animals underwent Hickman catheter placement via the external jugular vein. Bone marrow was harvested by direct mechanical removal of marrow from four long bones in Groups 2 and 3 one day prior to irradiation. All animals received 900 rads of midline body radiation from a Cobalt-60 source, were treated 1 g of cephalothin IV bid from day 1 to 14, 20 mg of genetamicin IV bid, from day 4 through 14 and 250 to 350 ml of fresh, irradiated whole blood from blood group identical donors on days 7, 11 and 14. Bone marrow was filtered, washed, stored overnight at 4 C and reinfused one to six hr after irradiation. Engraftment was defined by return of the peripheral WBC to 1000/mm3. All six animals in Group 1 died of aplasia between days 7 and 12. Marrow engrafted in eight of 12 animals in Group 2 and 7 of 10 animals in Group 3. This model provides a means to study the biological characteristics of bone marrow transplantation in immunologically well characterized large animals and should prove useful as a model for bone marrow transplants in man

  8. Screening for Salmonella in backyard chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Johanna; Gole, Vaibhav; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2015-06-15

    Salmonellosis is a significant zoonotic disease which has a considerable economic impact on the egg layer industry. There is limited information about the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in backyard chickens, and the associated virulence of any serovars identified. Hundred and fifteen pooled samples from 30 backyard flocks in South Australia were screened. Four flocks tested positive for Salmonella spp. The overall Salmonella isolation rate in the current study was 10.4%. The estimated prevalence at individual bird level was 0.02% (95% CI 0.025-0.975). The serovars isolated were Salmonella Agona, Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) and Salmonella Bovismorbificans. All Salmonella isolates tested positive for the prgH, orfL and spiC genes. The Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) had the most antibiotic resistance, being resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin and having intermediate resistance to florphenicol. All of the Salmonella Agona had intermediate resistance to the ampicillin, while the Salmonella Bovismorbificans were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. With the increased interest of keeping backyard chickens, the current study highlights the zoonotic risk from Salmonella spp. associated with home flocks. PMID:25899620

  9. Isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from raw milk in Kermanshah, Iran.

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    Pantea Mohammadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diarrhoeal diseases are great problem throughout the world and are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC is a major cause of gastroenteritis that may be complicated by hemorrhagic colitis (HC or the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS, which is the main cause of acute renal failure in children. Food-borne outbreaks associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli have been well documented worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC strains in raw milk samples.Raw milk samples collected from various cow farms in Kermanshah, Iran during June - September 2009 were investigated for STEC using PCR targeting stx1 and stx2 and then eaeA.Of 206 samples, 36 (17.47% were contaminated with STEC. STEC isolates harbored 56.41% and 43.59% stx 2 and stx 1 gene respectively. In antibiotic resistance test, all strains were sensitive to ceftazidime, cefepime, gentamicin, imipenem and ciprofloxacin. 23.08% of isolates were resistat to tetracycline, and 38.5% of them showed intermediate sensitvity to cephalothin.The high presence of STEC in raw milk confirms the important role of raw milk as putative vehicle of infection to human. Moreover, this study suggests that the development of antibiotic resistant STEC must be a major concern in Iran and more studies are needed to identify the prevalence of STEC in other food samples.

  10. Genetic heterogeneity of Escherichia coli isolated from pasteurized milk in State of Paraná, Brazil

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    Karine Oltramari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Food contamination caused by enteric pathogens is a major cause of diarrheal disease worldwide, resulting in high morbidity and mortality and significant economic losses. Bacteria are important agents of foodborne diseases, particularly diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. The present study assessed the genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of E. coli isolates from pasteurized milk processed in 21 dairies in northwestern State of Parana, Brazil. The 95 E. coli isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing according to the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and assessed genotypically by Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ERIC-PCR. The highest rate of resistance was observed for cephalothin (55.78%. ERIC-PCR revealed high genetic diversity, clustering the 95 bacterial isolates into 90 different genotypic patterns. These results showed a heterogeneous population of E. coli in milk samples produced in the northwestern region of Paraná and the need for good manufacturing practices throughout the processing of pasteurized milk to reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses.

  11. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae: occurrence, risk factors for fecal carriage and strain traits in the Swiss slaughter cattle population younger than 2 years sampled at abattoir level.

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    Martin Reist

    Full Text Available During the past decade extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae have become a matter of great concern in human and veterinary medicine. In this cross-sectional study fecal swabs of a geographically representative number of Swiss cattle at slaughterhouse level were sampled i to determine the occurrence of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae in the Swiss slaughter cattle population younger than 2 years, and ii to assess risk factors for shedding ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae. In total, 48 (8.4%; 95% C.I. 6.3-11.1% independent ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae were detected among the 571 tested animals. Species identification revealed 46 E. coli strains, one Enterobacter cloacae and one Citrobacter youngae. In view of beta-lactam antibiotics, all 48 isolates were resistant to ampicillin, cephalothin and cefpodoxime. Forty-five (93.8% isolates were resistant cefuroxime; one (2.1% isolate to cefoxitin, 28 (58.3% isolates to cefotaxime, 2 (4.2% isolates to ceftazidime, and 2 (4.2% isolates to cefepime. Risk factors for shedding ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae were (i age (OR 0.19 and 0.12 in age category 181 d to 1 y and 1 y to 2 y compared to ≤180 d, (ii primary production type, meaning dairy compared to beef on farm of origin (OR 5.95, and (iii more than 1 compared to less than 1 animal movement per d per 100 animals on farm of origin (OR 2.37.

  12. Isolation and identification of Nocardia asteroids complex isolated from thigh abscess in a patient with Behçet\\\\\\'s syndrome: the first report from Iran

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    Seyyed Saeed Eshraghi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nocardia species are Gram-positive, partially acid fast, non-motile, catalase positive, aerobic and saprophytic actinomycetes found all around the world. They invade the human body from the environment via trauma and respiratory tract and cause cutaneous, pulmonary and systemic diseases. They are able to grow in various media.The organisms opportunistically infect both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. Behcet's disease is an autoimmune disease and immunocompromised patient which may suitable host for Nocardia bacterium. The present study is the first case report of isolation of Nocardia from the thigh abscess in a patient with behcet’s disease from Iran.Case Presentation: A 39-year-old man with Behcet’s disease in August 2011 was admitted to Shariati hospital Tehran, with swelling and pain in the left flank and left thigh. Microscopic identification from direct microbiological slide of thigh abscess discharge demonstrated number of lymphocytes, neutrophils and macrophages foamy and white blood cells together with filamentous bacteria. Further microbiological characterization using phenotypic and antibiogram tests with disk diffusion method, demonstrated that the isolated bacterium is Nocardia asteroides complex. The bacteria were sensitive to ampicillin, vancomycin, ceftriaxone, amikacin and cotrimoxazole but it was resistant to clindamycin, erythromycin, penicillin G, cephalothin and gentamicin. The patient was treated with cotrimoxazole.Conclusion: Because of the high incidence and high mortality of Nocardia infection in immunocompromised cases, rapid detection and timely treatment for these patients is necessary.

  13. Antimicrobial Resistant Pattern of Escherichia Coli Strains Isolated from Pediatric Patients in Jordan

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    Mohammad Alshara

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial resistant pattern of Escherichia coli (E. coli strains isolated from clinical specimens of Jordanian pediatric patients during the period from January to December 2008. A total of 444 E. coli strains were isolated from clinical specimens and tested for their susceptibility to different antimicrobial drugs. Overall, high resistance rate was observed for ampicillin (84%, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (74.3%, cotrimoxazole (71%, nalidixic acid (47.3%, cephalothin (41%. Lower resistance rates were observed for amikacin (0% followed by Cefotaxime (11%, Ceftriaxone (11.7%, ciprofloxacin (14.5%, Norfloxacin (16.5%, gentamicin (17.3% cephalexin (20.9%, Ceftazidime (22.5%, cefixime (29.6%, and cefaclor (32.8%. Ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cotrimoxazole were found to be ineffective at in vitro inhibition of the E. coli of pediatric origin. Amikacin was highly effective for E. coli with susceptibility rate of 100%. The majority of E. coli strains were susceptible to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones.

  14. In vitro interaction of certain antimicrobial agents in combination with plant extracts against some pathogenic bacterial strains

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    Kalpna Rakholiya; Sumitra Chanda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro interaction between methanolic extracts of Terminalia catappa (T. catappa) (Combretaceae) and Carica papaya (C. papaya) (caricaceae) leaves and certain known antimicrobial drugs like penicillin G (P), ampicillin (AMP), amoxyclav (AMC), cephalothin (CEP), polymyxin B (PB), rifampicin (RIF), amikacin (AK), nilidixic acid (NA), gentamicin (GEN), chloramphenicol (C), ofloxacin (OF) against five Gram positive and five Gram negative bacteria. Methods: Evaluation of synergy interaction between plant extracts and antimicrobial agents was carried out using disc diffusion method. Results: The results of this study showed that there is an increased activity in case of combination of methanolic plant extracts and test antimicrobial agents. The more potent result was that the synergism between methanolic extract of C. papaya and antibiotics showed highest and strong synergistic effect against tested bacterial strains;though methanolic extract of C. papaya alone was not showing any antibacterial activity. Conclusions: These results indicate that combination between plant extract and the antibiotics could be useful in fighting emerging drug-resistance microorganisms.

  15. In vitro interaction of certain antimicrobial agents in combination with plant extracts against some pathogenic bacterial strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kalpna Rakholiya; Sumitra Chanda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro interaction between methanolic extracts of Terminalia catappa (Combretaceae) (T. catappa) and Carica papaya (caricaceae) (C. papaya) leaves and certain known antimicrobial drugs like penicillin G (P), ampicillin (AMP), amoxyclav (AMC), cephalothin (CEP), polymyxin B (PB), rifampicin (RIF), amikacin (AK), nilidixic acid (NA), gentamicin (GEN), chloramphenicol (C), ofloxacin (OF) against five Gram positive and five Gram negative bacteria.Methods:Evaluation of synergy interaction between plant extracts and antimicrobial agents was carried out using disc diffusion method. Results: The results of this study showed that there is an increased activity in case of combination of methanolic plant extracts and test antimicrobial agents. The more potent result was that the synergism between methanolic extract of C. papaya and antibiotics showed highest and strong synergistic effect against tested bacterial strains;though methanolic extract of C. papaya alone was not showing any antibacterial activity.Conclusions:These results indicate that combination between plant extract and the antibiotics could be useful in fighting emerging drug-resistance microorganisms.

  16. A novel family VIII carboxylesterase hydrolysing third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jeong Ho; Lee, Hyun Sook; Lee, Jung Hun; Koo, Bon-Sung; Lee, Chang-Muk; Lee, Sang Hee; Kang, Sung Gyun; Lee, Jung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    A metagenomic library was constructed from a soil sample of spindle tree-rhizosphere. From this library, one clone with esterase activity was selected. The sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame (EstSTR1) encoded protein of 390 amino acids. EstSTR1 is a family VIII carboxylesterase and retains the S-X-X-K motif conserved in both family VIII carboxylesterases and class C β-lactamases. The estSTR1 gene was overexpressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein was purified by purified by metal chelating affinity chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography. EstSTR1 hydrolysed p-nitrophenyl esters, exhibited the highest activity toward p-nitrophenyl butyrate. Furthermore, EstSTR1 could hydrolyse third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins (cefotaxime and cefepime) as well as first-generation cephalosporin (cephalothin). Site-directed mutagenesis studies revealed that a catalytic residue, Ser71, of EstSTR1 plays an essential role in hydrolysing both antibiotics and p-nitrophenyl esters. We demonstrate that a metagenome-derived carboxylesterase displays β-lactam-hydrolysing activities toward third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. PMID:27186489

  17. Safety assessment of Bifidobacterium longum J DM301 based on complete genome sequences

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    Yan-Xia Wei; Zhuo-Yang Zhang; Chang Liu; Xiao-Kui Guo; Pradeep K Malakar

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess the safety of Bifidobacterium longum (B.longum) JDM301 based on complete genome sequences. METHODS: The complete genome sequences of JDM301 were determined using the GS 20 system. Putative virulence factors, putative antibiotic resistance genes and genes encoding enzymes responsible for harmful metabolites were identified by blast with virulence factors database, antibiotic resistance genes database and genes associated with harmful metabolites in previous reports. Minimum inhibitory concentration of 16 common antimicrobial agents was evaluated by E-test. RESULTS: JDM301 was shown to contain 36 genes associated with antibiotic resistance, 5 enzymes related to harmful metabolites and 162 nonspecific virulence factors mainly associated with transcriptional regulation, adhesion, sugar and amino acid transport. B. longum JDM301 was intrinsically resistant tocipro ciprofloxacin,amikacin, gentamicin and streptomycin and susceptible to vancomycin, amoxicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, rifampicin, imipenemandtrimethoprim and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazol. JDM301.JDM301 was moderately resistant to bacitracin, while an earlier study showed that bifidobacteria were susceptible to this antibiotic. A tetracycline resistance gene with the risk of transfer was found in JDM301, which needs to be experimentally validated. CONCLUSION: The safety assessment of JDM301 using information derived from complete bacterial genome will contribute to a wider and deeper insight into the safety of probiotic bacteria.

  18. Epidemic tvpe and antibiotic resistance of cholera strains isolated%霍乱疫情分离株流行菌型及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少玲; 吴捷; 刁保卫; 崔志刚; 王衍德; 朱建华; 黄昌和; 马焱

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the epidemic type and antibiotic resistance of cholere strains isolated and to provide basis for clinical treatment and prevention of cholera. Methods Six samples from an outbreak of cholera epidemic were collected in Hainan province in June 2008 and analyzed by serotyping and phage-biotyping. The cholera toxin gene was detected with PCR according to the " Manual for the Prevention and Control of Cholera" (version 5). Pulsed field gel electro-phoresis( PFGE) was used for subtyping of the isolates. The antibiotic susceptibility test of the 6 strains to 17 kinds of antibacterial was determined with improved K-B method recommended by WHO. Results The 6 strains were confirmed as Vibrio cholerae El Tor biotype, with 5 strains of 01 group of Vibrio cholerae El Tor serotype Inaba lc and 1 strains was Vibrio cholerae Ogawa( lc). The cholera toxin gene was identified in all 6 strains. The mapping of the strains were belonged to two pattern by PFGE and the similarity was 100 %. The 6 strains were all resistant to streptomycin,sulphamethoxazole/trim-ethoprim, sulphafurazole, and polymyxin B. High drug susceptibility of the samples was found to 9 kinds of antibiotics such as norfloxacin.cefotaxime and cephalothin(53% ,9/17). Conclusion The bacterium type of Vibrio cholerae causing the epidemic outbreak of cholera was Ol group of Vibrio cholerae El Tor serotype Inaba lc. Norfloxacin.cefotaxime and cepha-lothin could be the choice of clinical treatment for the cases and carriers of Vibrio cholerae in Hainan province. But streptomycin, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim,sulphafurazole,and polymyxin B could not be used.%目的 了解霍乱疫情分离株的流行菌型及其耐药性,为霍乱疫情的快速有效控制和临床治疗提供科学依据.方法 对2008年6月海南省某地霍乱疫情采集的6株霍乱弧菌分离株进行血清学分型、噬菌体-生物分型、霍乱毒素基因检测、脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFGE)分子分型

  19. Concentração mínima inibitória de dez antimicrobianos para amostras de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de infecção intramamária bovina Minimum inhibitory concentrations for ten antimicrobial agents against Staphylococcus aureus from bovine intramammary infection

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    M.A.V.P. Brito

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a concentração mínima inibitória (CMI de ampicilina, cefalotina, eritromicina, gentamicina, neomicina, norfloxacina, oxacilina, penicilina G, tetraciclina e tilosina para 112 amostras de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de infecções intramamárias bovina, em 33 rebanhos leiteiros da Zona da Mata do Estado de Minas Gerais. Foram isoladas 24 amostras de infecção clínica, 66 de subclínica e 22 de infecção crônica. As amostras de infecção crônica foram isoladas repetidas vezes dos mesmos quartos mamários de nove vacas de um rebanho, no período de 13 meses. A CMI foi realizada em ágar Mueller Hinton, com concentrações entre 0,015 e 128µgml-1 de cada antimicrobiano. As amostras da American Type Culture Collection (ATCC recomendadas para controle de qualidade, S. aureus ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, foram incluídas em cada teste. Cem por cento das amostras foram susceptíveis à cefalotina, eritromicina, gentamicina, norfloxacina e oxacilina, 91% à tetraciclina (CMI50: 0,5µgml-1 e à tilosina (CMI50: 2,0µgml-1, 65% à ampicilina (CMI50: 0,125µgml-1 e à penicilina G (CMI50: 0,06µgml-1. Todas foram susceptíveis à neomicina (CMI50: 0,5µgml-1 exceto uma amostra que apresentou um padrão intermediário. O nível de resistência para ampicilina e penicilina foi maior nas amostras isoladas de casos clínicos e nas de infecção subclínica com escores positivos no CMT (P ou = 0,125µgml-1 para penicilina foram positivas para produção de beta-lactamase.The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC for ampicillin, cephalothin, erythromycin, gentamicin, neomycin, norfloxacin, oxacillin, penicillin G, tetracycline and tylosin against 112 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine intramammary infections were determined. The strains were originated from 33 dairy herds located in the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais State. Twenty-four strains were isolated from clinical

  20. Possible connections between the antibiotic-related plasmids of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains and the antibiotic resistance%益生乳杆菌质粒抗生素抗性基因与其耐药性的相关性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩俊华; 李珊珊; 裴家伟; 陈大欢; 张柏林

    2013-01-01

    采用K-B药敏纸片法检测了5株具有潜在益生乳杆菌的耐药性,通过质粒消除,分析了菌株质粒与耐药性之间的联系,应用PCR确定了质粒决定的耐药基因.5株乳杆菌对万古霉素、多粘菌素B以及链霉素等7种抗生素普遍表现出抗性,但主要对四环素敏感.采用SDS与SDS-高温两种方法消除戊糖乳杆菌CH8的质粒后,菌株CH8表现出头孢噻吩和氯霉素敏感性.设计β-内酰胺类抗性基因blr、ECP-1569和nps-1以及氯霉素抗性基因cmlA、cat和cmlA1的引物进行PCR,与目的产物测序比对表明,戊糖乳杆菌CH8的质粒上含有β-内酰胺类抗性基因blr,该基因与其头孢噻吩抗性有关.该研究为探讨乳酸菌的抗药基因转移性提供了前期基础,有助于益生乳杆菌安全性评价体系的建立与完善.%The tolerances of 5 potentially probiotic lactobacilli strains to antibiotics were investigated with K-B paper-diffusion method.The antibiotic-related resistance genes obtained from PCR were sequenced.Five lactobacilli strains showed their susceptibility to tetracycline,but tolerated to 7 antibiotics including bacitracin,polymyxin B,kanamycin,and nalidixic acid.All of five strains,Lactobacillus pentosus CH8 was used as case for further study.After both SDS and SDS-heating methods were chosen to remove the plasmids from strain CH8 cells,this strain showed its susceptibility to cephalothin and chloromycetin.Analysis of the PCR products,targeted from the primers of β-Iactam resistance-related genes including blr,ECP-1569 and nps-1 as well as chloromycetin resistance-related genes including cmlA,cat and cmlA 1,indicated that the plasmid of L.pentosus CH8 contained the blr gene that caused this bacteria to tolerate cephalothin.The elimination of plasmids by SDS or SDS-heating confirmed that there might be the potential relationship between the plasmid's presence of these strains and their antibiotic resistances.The detection of the plasmid

  1. Analysis on the distribution and drug susceptibility for Staphylococcus in clinical samples of hospital%医院临床标本中葡萄球菌的分布及药敏分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱道; 吴锻; 陈龙培

    2012-01-01

    injured secretion, prostate liquid and cavity pus liquid in order. Susceptibility tests showed that staphylococcus was most sensitive to genta-mycin, cephalothin I and amikacin, with the susceptibility rate up to 90%. Conclusion The most disease causes of the staphylococcus symptom are the surface staphylococcus, indicating that the surface staphylococcus play neglect-able role in blood infection. The surface staphylococcus and corrosive staphylococcus play important roles in the urinary infection. The surface staphylococcus and corrosive staphylococcus are both most susceptible to gentamycin, cephalothin I and amikacin.

  2. Contamination Status and Resistance Surveillance of Listeria Monocytogenes in Food in Mianyang City in 2010%2010年绵阳市食品中单增李斯特菌的污染状况及耐药性监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周良君; 陈果; 江智辉; 王学军

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To know the contamination status and drug resistance of Iisteria monocytogenes (LM) in food in Mianyang city, provide the scientific evidence for prevention and control of food-bome disease caused by Listeria monocytogenes.[Methods]The method of CB 4789.30 -2010 was adopted to isolate LM, API-LISTERIA biochemical identification strips were applied to identify LM, and drug sensitivity test was conducted by K-B method.[Results]Among 144 food samples, 11 strains of LM were detected, and the total detection rate was 9.7%. The raw aquatic products, raw poultry, raw meat and bean products were polluted by LM, which the detection rate was 33.3% , 26.7% , 6.1% and 6.7% respectively. All of 11 LM strains were sensitive to ampicil-lin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, compound sinomin, sulfapyrimidine, gentamicin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, cephalothin and chloramghenicol. No strain was sensitive to cefatriaxone and cephalothin.[Conclusion]Some food was polluted by LM in Mianyang city, contamination status of raw aquatic products was the most serious, followed by raw poultry, and there was a potential risk of food-borne diseases of LM. The drug resistance of LM is low, and it is sensitive to several antibiotics. In order to ensure the food safety and humans health, it is necessary to pay attention to the contamination status of food-bome LM and strengthen the resistance surveillance.%目的 了解绵阳市食品中单增李斯特菌的污染及耐药状况,为预防控制该菌引起的食源性疾病提供科学依据.方法 菌株分离采用GB 4789.30 - 2010方法,菌株鉴定采用API LISTERIA生化鉴定条,菌株药敏试验采用K-B法.结果 114份食品中共检出11株单增李斯特菌,总检出率为9.7%,生食水产品、生禽肉、生畜肉和豆制品4种食品受到该菌的污染,检出率分别为33.3%、26.7%、6.7%、6.7%.分离的11株菌株氨苄西林、阿莫西林/克拉维酸、复方新诺明、磺胺嘧啶、庆大霉素、阿米卡星、

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Listeria monocytogenes human strains isolated from 1970 to 2008 in Brazil

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    Cristhiane Moura Falavina dos Reis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a foodborne illness that affects mainly pregnant women, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. The primary treatment is a combination of ampicillin with an aminoglycoside, in addition to a second-choice drug represented by chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracycline and rifampicin. The aim of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of strains isolated from human sources in the last four decades. METHODS: Sixty-eight strains were selected from the culture collection of the Laboratory of Bacterial Zoonoses/LABZOO/FIOCRUZ isolated in different regions of Brazil from 1970 to 2008 and primarily isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and blood culture. Susceptibility tests to antimicrobials drugs were evaluated using the criteria established by Soussy using the Kirby-Bauer method and E-Test strips were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. RESULTS: Among the strains tested, serovar L4b (60.3% was the most prevalent, followed by serovar 1/2a (20.6%, 1/2b (13.2% and the more uncommon serovars 1/2c, 3b and 4ab (5.9%. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, cephalothin, erythromycin, gentamicin, teicoplanin and vancomycin. Only one strain (1.5% showed resistance to rifampin, and two (3% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. MICs with values up to 2μg/ml reinforce the need for microbiological surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated low prevalence of strains resistant to the antimicrobial drugs indicated in the treatment of human listeriosis. Monitoring antimicrobial resistance profile is still very important to determine adequate treatment, especially in immunocompromised patients.

  4. Phenotypical characteristics of group B streptococcus in parturients

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    Jose Antonio Simoes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Colonization by Group B Streptococcus (GBS is highly prevalent among pregnant women, with prevalence rates ranging between 4% and 30%. The infection may be transmitted vertically and may result in serious neonatal consequences. In the period from November 2003 to May 2004, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 316 parturients at the Jundiaí Teaching Hospital to establish the prevalence of genital GBS colonization, to identify the factors associated with colonization and the characteristic phenotypes of these streptococci. Samples from rectal and vaginal areas were collected for selective culture in Todd-Hewitt broth. Susceptibility to 7 antimicrobial agents was tested using the antibiotic diffusion disk technique, and the isolated strains were classified using specific antisera. The prevalence of GBS colonization was 14.6%. No strain was resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin or nitrofurantoin. The majority of strains were sensitive to cephalothin. Greatest resistance was to gentamicin (76.1%, followed by clindamycin (17.4%. The most frequent serotype was Ib (23.9%, followed by serotypes II and Ia (19.6% and 17.4%, respectively. There was no correlation between serotype and greater antimicrobial resistance. In conclusion, the prevalence of GBS in parturients was high and penicillin continues to be the drug of choice for intrapartum prophylaxis. The most frequent serotype (Ib found in this study differs from those found in the majority of studies carried out in other countries, revealing the need to identify prevalent serotypes in each region so that specific vaccines can be designed.

  5. 一株大凉疣螈肠道弗氏柠檬酸杆菌的分离及其药敏试验%Isolation and Susceptibility Test of an Intestinal Citrobacter freundii from Tylototriton taliangensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓓; 邹立扣; 罗燕

    2011-01-01

    首次从大凉疣螈(Tylototritoa taliangemsis)肠道分离获得弗氏柠稼酸杆菌(Citrobacter freundii),利用分子生物学方法对其16S rDNA进行了扩增测序,并与GenBank中已有的有关序列进行比较,进行了系统发育分析.测序结果表明,16S rDNA与GenBank中序列同源率在98%~99%,分离的菌株与GU126681(C.freundii MRB0903)处于同一分支中;序列同源性及系统发育树表明,此菌为弗氏柠檬酸杆菌;药敏试验表明.弗氏柠檬酸杆菌对氨苄西林及头孢噻吩中介,对其余药物均敏感.%A Citrobacter freundii was isolated from the intestinal tact of Tylototriton taliangensis ,and its 16S rDNA was amplified and sequenced by the molecular biology method,and then the 16S rDNA was compared with other sequences in Genbank to conduct a phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that the 16S rDNA sequence of Citrobacter freundii showed 98% -99% homogeny with those in the GenBank.and belonged to the same branch with GU126681 (C.freundii MRB0903). As shown by the sequence homology and phylogenetic tree,the bacterium was C. Freun-dii,which was medium sensitive to ampicillin and cephalothin,and sensitive to other biotics.

  6. Evaluation of Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate medium to discriminate antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli

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    Jensen Lars

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening and enumeration of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli directly from samples is needed to identify emerging resistant clones and obtain quantitative data for risk assessment. Aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 3M™ Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate (SEC plate supplemented with antimicrobials to discriminate antimicrobial-resistant and non-resistant E. coli. Method A range of E. coli isolates were tested by agar dilution method comparing the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC for eight antimicrobials obtained by Mueller-Hinton II agar, MacConkey agar and SEC plates. Kappa statistics was used to assess the levels of agreement when classifying strains as resistant, intermediate or susceptible. Results SEC plate showed that 74% of all strains agreed within ± 1 log2 dilution when comparing MICs with Mueller-Hinton II media. High agreement levels were found for gentamicin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and cefotaxime, resulting in a kappa value of 0.9 and 100% agreement within ± 1 log2 dilution. Significant variances were observed for oxytetracycline and sulphamethoxazole. Further tests showed that the observed discrepancy in classification of susceptibility to oxytetracycline by the two media could be overcome when a plate-dependent breakpoint of 64 mg/L was used for SEC plates. For sulphamethoxazole, SEC plates provided unacceptably high MICs. Conclusion SEC plates showed good agreement with Mueller-Hinton II agar in MIC studies and can be used to screen and discriminate resistant E. coli for ampicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime and gentamicin using CLSI standardized breakpoints, but not for sulphamethoxazole. SEC plates can also be used to discriminate oxytetracycline-resistant E. coli if a plate-dependent breakpoint value of 64 mg/L is used.

  7. PREVALENCE OF DRUG RESISTANCE AND VIRULENCE FEATURES IN Salmonella spp. ISOLATED FROM FOODS ASSOCIATED OR NOT WITH SALMONELLOSIS IN BRAZIL

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    Ruth Estela Gravato Rowlands

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is the most common etiological agent of cases and outbreaks of foodborne diarrheal illnesses. The emergence and spread of Salmonella spp., which has become multi-drug resistant and potentially more pathogenic, have increased the concern with this pathogen. In this study, 237 Salmonella spp., associated or not with foodborne salmonellosis in Brazil, belonging mainly to serotype Enteritidis, were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of the virulence genes spvC, invA, sefA and pefA. Of the isolates, 46.8% were sensitive to all antimicrobials and 51.9% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent was observed in 10.5% of the strains. The highest rates of resistance were observed for streptomycin (35.9% and nalidixic acid (16.9%. No strain was resistant to cefoxitin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, amikacin, ciprofloxacin and imipenem. The invA gene was detected in all strains. Genes spvC and pefA were found in 48.1% and 44.3% of strains, respectively. The gene sefA was detected in 31.6% of the strains and only among S. Enteritidis. Resistance and virulence determinants were detected in Salmonella strains belonging to several serotypes. The high rates of antibiotic-resistance in strains isolated from poultry products demonstrate the potential risk associated with the consumption of these products and the need to ensure good food hygiene practices from farm to table to reduce the spread of pathogens relevant to public health.

  8. Prevalence of drug resistance and virulence features in Salmonella spp. isolated from foods associated or not with salmonellosis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Ikuno, Alice A; Barbosa, Maria Luisa; Jakabi, Miyoko; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella is the most common etiological agent of cases and outbreaks of foodborne diarrheal illnesses. The emergence and spread of Salmonella spp., which has become multi-drug resistant and potentially more pathogenic, have increased the concern with this pathogen. In this study, 237 Salmonella spp., associated or not with foodborne salmonellosis in Brazil, belonging mainly to serotype Enteritidis, were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of the virulence genes spvC, invA, sefA and pefA. Of the isolates, 46.8% were sensitive to all antimicrobials and 51.9% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent was observed in 10.5% of the strains. The highest rates of resistance were observed for streptomycin (35.9%) and nalidixic acid (16.9%). No strain was resistant to cefoxitin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, amikacin, ciprofloxacin and imipenem. The invA gene was detected in all strains. Genes spvC and pefA were found in 48.1% and 44.3% of strains, respectively. The gene sefA was detected in 31.6% of the strains and only among S. Enteritidis. Resistance and virulence determinants were detected in Salmonella strains belonging to several serotypes. The high rates of antibiotic-resistance in strains isolated from poultry products demonstrate the potential risk associated with the consumption of these products and the need to ensure good food hygiene practices from farm to table to reduce the spread of pathogens relevant to public health.

  9. Cockroaches (periplaneta americana and blattella germanica: reservoirs of multi drug resistant (MDR bacteria in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State

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    E.P. Udoinyang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriological examination of external surfaces and internal guts of Periplaneta americana and Blattela germanica were carried out using standard method and antibiotics susceptibility profiles of the isolates were determined using disc diffusion methods. Of the 317 bacteria isolated from the external surfaces and internal guts of P. americana, 275 (86.8% were Gram-negative bacilli, while 42 (13.2% were Gram-positive bacteria. Of the 204 bacterial isolates from B. germanica, 175 (85.8% were Gram negative, while 29 (14.2% were Gram positive bacteria. The bacteria isolated were Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Morganella morganii, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae and Providencia spp. Among the Gram positive bacteria, only 75.8% S. aureus and 76.5% B. cereus were sensitive to Streptomycin and Gentamycin, while their resistance profiles to antibiotics in decreasing order were as follows: Chloramphenicol (41.7%, Amoxicillin (40.3%, Streptomycin (36.1%, Tetracycline (36.0%, Erythromycin (35.5%, Gentamicin (34.0%, Penicillin (34.6%, Cephalothin (27.8%, Sulfamethoxazole (23.4%, Ciprofloxacin (18.4% and Levofloxacin (17.7%. Less than 50% of E. cloacae and Providencia spp were resistant to Streptomycin, while ˂ 40% of P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa were resistant to Chloramphenicol. Of the 353 (67.8% multi drug resistant bacteria, 121 (23.2% were resistant to 3 antibiotics, 232 (65.7% were resistant to 4-10 antibiotics. The antibiotic resistant Salmonella spp. and P. mirabilis had Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR indexes ranging from 0.27 to 0.82. These findings suggest cockroaches in Uyo as potential vectors of medically important multiple drug-resistant bacteria.

  10. Biochemical and molecular characterization of three new variants of AmpC beta-lactamases from Morganella morganii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Pablo; Galleni, Moreno; Ayala, Juan A; Gutkind, Gabriel

    2006-03-01

    Morganella morganii produces an inducible, chromosomally encoded AmpC beta-lactamase. We describe in this study three new variants of AmpC within this species with apparent pIs of 6.6 (M19 from M. morganii strain PP19), 7.4 (M29 from M. morganii strain PP29), and 7.8 (M37 from M. morganii strain PP37). After gene sequencing, deduced amino acid sequences displayed one to six substitutions when compared to the available Morganella AmpC sequences. An AmpR-encoding gene was also found upstream of ampC, including the LysR regulators' helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain and the putative T-N11-A-protected region in the ampR-ampC intercistronic sequence. All three AmpC variants were purified from in vitro-generated derepressed mutants and showed overall similar kinetic parameters. None of the observed amino acid changes, occurring at the surface of the protein, appear to have a major influence in their catalytic properties. Morganella AmpCs exhibit the highest catalytic efficiencies (k(cat)/K(m)) on classical penicillins, cefoxitin, narrow-spectrum cephalosporins, and cefotaxime. Cefotaxime was more effectively hydrolyzed than other oxyimino-cephalosporins, whereas cefepime was 3 log-fold less efficiently hydrolyzed than other cephalosporins such as cephalothin. Several differences with other AmpC beta-lactamases were found. Ampicillin was more efficiently hydrolyzed than benzylpenicillin. High k(cat)/K(m) values were observed for oxacillin and piperacillin, which are usually poor substrates for AmpC. A fairly efficient hydrolysis of imipenem was detected as well. Aztreonam, carbenicillin, and tazobactam were effective transient inactivators of these variants.

  11. Seawater is a reservoir of multi-resistant Escherichia coli, including strains hosting plasmid-mediated quinolones resistance and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases genes

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    Marta S. Alves

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine antibiotic resistance (AR dissemination in coastal water, considering the contribution of different sources of faecal contamination. Samples were collected in Berlenga, an uninhabited island classified as Natural Reserve and visited by tourists for aquatic recreational activities. To achieve our aim, AR in Escherichia coli isolates from coastal water was compared to AR in isolates from two sources of faecal contamination: human-derived sewage and seagull faeces. Isolation of E. coli was done on Chromocult agar. Based on genetic typing 414 strains were established. Distribution of E. coli phylogenetic groups was similar among isolates of all sources. Resistances to streptomycin, tetracycline, cephalothin and amoxicillin were the most frequent. Higher rates of AR were found among seawater and faeces isolates, except for last-line antibiotics used in human medicine. Multi-resistance rates in isolates from sewage and seagull faeces (29% and 32% were lower than in isolates from seawater (39%. Seawater AR profiles were similar to those from seagull faeces and differed significantly from sewage AR profiles. Nucleotide sequences matching resistance genes blaTEM, sul1, sul2, tet(A and tet(B, were present in isolates of all sources. Genes conferring resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins were detected in seawater (blaCTX-M-1 and blaSHV-12 and seagull faeces (blaCMY-2. Plasmid-mediated determinants of resistance to quinolones were found: qnrS1 in all sources and qnrB19 in seawater and seagull faeces. Our results show that seawater is a relevant reservoir of AR and that seagulls are an efficient vehicle to spread human-associated bacteria and resistance genes. The E. coli resistome recaptured from Berlenga coastal water was mainly modulated by seagulls-derived faecal pollution. The repertoire of resistance genes covers antibiotics critically important for humans, a potential risk for human health.

  12. Health care associated infections, antibiotic resistance and clinical outcome: A surveillance study from Sanandaj, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Jafar; Poorabbas, Bahman; Miri, Neda; Mardaneh, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To study the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of gram-negative healthcare associated bacterial infections at two tertiary hospitals in the Sanandaj city, Kurdistan Province, Iran. METHODS: From January 2012 to December 2012, all positive cultures from potentially sterile body fluids were gathered. They sent to professor Alborzi clinical microbiology center in Shiraz for further analysis and susceptibility testing. The antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the Kirby-Bauer method (disk diffusion technique). The Results were interpreted according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines against a series of antimicrobials. World Health Organization definitions for Healthcare associated infections were followed. RESULTS: Seven hundred and thirty-two positive cultures were reported from both hospitals. Seventy-nine isolates/patients fulfilled the study criteria for health-care associated gram-negative infections. The most frequent bacterial cultures were from the pediatric wards (52%). Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens) (38%) Escherichia coli (E. coli) (19%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) (19%), Acinetobacter baumannii (6%), Enterobacter species (6%), Serratia odorifera (4%) and Pseudomonas species (5%) were the most frequently isolated organisms. The susceptibility pattern of common isolates i.e., S. marcescens, E. coli and K. pneumoniae for commonly used antibiotics were as follows: Ampicillin 3.3%, 6.7%, 20%; gentamicin 73.3%, 73.3%, 46.7%; ceftazidim 80%, 73.3%, 33.3%; cefepim 80%, 86.7%, 46.7%; piperacillin/tazobactam 90%, 66.7%, 86.7%; ciprofloxacin 100%, 73.3%, 86.7%; imipenem 100%, 100%, 100%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The most effective antibiotics against gram-negative healthcare associated infections are imipenem followed by ciprofloxacin. The resistance rate is high against ampicillin and cephalothin. The high mortality rate (46.1%) associated with S. marcescens is alarming. PMID:26989670

  13. In vitro effect of josamycin in strains of Rhodococcus equi isolated from pulmonar infections in foals / Efeito in vitro da josamicina em cepas de rhodocaccus equi isoladas de afecções pulmonares em potros

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    Jaime Galvão Dias Júnior

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Antmicrobial susceptibility test was performed in thirty-one samples of Rhodococcus equi isolated from iung infections in foals. Among the antimicrobial tosted, erythromycin (100,0 %, rifampin (96.3%. neomycin (93,6 %Josamycin (90,4% and gentamicin (90,4 %presented the highest sensitivity against R- equi- The most-common occurrence of resistance was observed from cephalexim (100,0 %}, lincomycin (100,0 %, cephalothin (96,3 %. oxacillin (96,8 %, penicillin G (96,8 %, amoxicillin (90,3 % and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (83,8 %. The highest susceptibility of the R. equi to josamycin, suggest the drug as alternative for therapy of R. equi infections in foals.Procedeu-se o teste de sensibilidade microbiana in vitro pelo teste de difusão com discos em 31 cepas de Rhodococcus equi. isoladas de afecções pulmonares cm potros. frente a 20 antimicrobianos. Os maioires índices de sensibilidade de R. equi foram constatados para entromicina (100,0 %, níampicina (96.8 %}t ncomicina (93. 6 %. josamicina (90.4% e gentamicina (90A %. Os maiores índices de resistência do agente foram verificados para cefalexina (100,0%, lincomicina (100.0%, cefalotina (96.8 %, oxacilino (96,8 %}, penicilina G (96,3 %, amoxicilina (90.3 % e sulfametoxazol/trimetoprim (83,8 %. A alta sensibilidade das cepas de R. equi para a josamicina, sugere a possibilidade de utilização da droga como alternativa no tratamento da rodococose em potros.

  14. Activity of disinfectants and biofilm production of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

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    Maria da C.A. Sá

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To verify the occurrence of caseous lymphadenitis in sheep and goats on farms of Pernambuco, Brazil, and in animals slaughtered in two Brazilian cities (Petrolina/PE and Juazeiro/BA, and to characterize the susceptibility profile of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis to disinfectants and antimicrobials, and its relationship with biofilm production were the objectives of this study. 398 samples were tested for sensitivity to antimicrobial drugs, disinfectants, and biofilm production. Among the 108 samples collected on the properties, 75% were positive for C. pseudotuberculosis. Slaughterhouse samples indicated an occurrence of caseous lymphadenitis in 15.66% and 6.31% for animals slaughtered in Petrolina and Juazeiro respectively. With respect to antimicrobials, the sensitivity obtained was 100% for florfenicol and tetracycline; 99.25% for enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and lincomycin; 98.99% for cephalothin; 98.74% for norfloxacin and sulfazotrim; 97.74% for gentamicin; 94.22% for ampicillin; 91.71% for amoxicillin; 91.21% for penicillin G; 89.19% for neomycin and 0% for novobiocin. In analyzes with disinfectants, the efficiency for chlorhexidine was 100%, 97.20% for quaternary ammonium, 87.40% for chlorine and 84.40% for iodine. 75% of the isolates were weak or non-biofilm producers. For the consolidated biofilm, found that iodine decreased biofilm formation in 13 isolates and quaternary ammonia in 11 isolates. The reduction of the biofilm formation was observed for iodine and quaternary ammonium in consolidated biofilm formation in 33% and 28% of the isolates, respectively. The results of this study highlight the importance of establishing measures to prevent and control the disease.

  15. 肺心病患者急性加重期救治与护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任淑侠

    2014-01-01

    acute exacerbation of chronic cor pulmonale patients need to take comprehensive measures to the clinical treatment and nursing process ,control of respiratory tract infection as soon as possible ,is the essential to solve the problem .Gram positive bacillus is pathogenic bacteria ,penicillin ,cephalothin ,erythro-mycin is first selection of antibiotics ,according to the different drug test results of each patient ,the choice of antibiotics .In the process of governance to keep re-spiratory tract unobstructed ,reasonable oxygen therapy ,ensure that improve the cardiopulmonary function .Want close observation and careful nursing ,nursing staff for each patients individual differences ,adopt relative nursing measures to improve the successful rate .%慢性肺心病患者急性加重期需要采取综合性措施的临床救治与护理过程,尽快控制呼吸道感染,是解决问题的根本所在。革兰氏阳性杆菌是致病菌,青霉素、先锋霉素、红霉素为首选抗生素,根据每个患者不同的药物试验结果,选择抗生素。治理过程中要保持呼吸道通.,合理的氧疗,确保改善心肺功能。护理人员要严密观察和精心护理,针对每例病人的个体差异,采纳相对的护理措施,提高救治成功率。

  16. Purification and biochemical characterization of the VIM-1 metallo-beta-lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, N; Caravelli, B; Docquier, J D; Galleni, M; Frère, J M; Amicosante, G; Rossolini, G M

    2000-11-01

    VIM-1 is a new group 3 metallo-beta-lactamase recently detected in carbapenem-resistant nosocomial isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the Mediterranean area. In this work, VIM-1 was purified from an Escherichia coli strain carrying the cloned bla(VIM-1) gene by means of an anion-exchange chromatography step followed by a gel permeation chromatography step. The purified enzyme exhibited a molecular mass of 26 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and an acidic pI of 5.1 in analytical isoelectric focusing. Amino-terminal sequencing showed that mature VIM-1 results from the removal of a 26-amino-acid signal peptide from the precursor. VIM-1 hydrolyzes a broad array of beta-lactam compounds, including penicillins, narrow- to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, carbapenems, and mechanism-based serine-beta-lactamase inactivators. Only monobactams escape hydrolysis. The highest catalytic constant/K(m) ratios (>10(6) M(-1). s(-1)) were observed with carbenicillin, azlocillin, some cephalosporins (cephaloridine, cephalothin, cefuroxime, cefepime, and cefpirome), imipenem, and biapenem. Kinetic parameters showed remarkable variability with different beta-lactams and also within the various penam, cephem, and carbapenem compounds, resulting in no clear preference of the enzyme for any of these beta-lactam subfamilies. Significant differences were observed with some substrates between the kinetic parameters of VIM-1 and those of other metallo-beta-lactamases. Inactivation assays carried out with various chelating agents (EDTA, 1,10-o-phenanthroline, and pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid) indicated that formation of a ternary enzyme-metal-chelator complex precedes metal removal from the zinc center of the protein and revealed notable differences in the inactivation parameters of VIM-1 with different agents. PMID:11036013

  17. Risk factors associated with the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis

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    Daniele C. Beuron

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate herd management practices and mastitis treatment procedures as risk factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial resistance. For this study, 13 herds were selected to participate in the study to evaluate the association between their management practices and mastitis treatment procedures and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 1069 composite milk samples were collected aseptically from the selected cows in four different periods over two years. The samples were used for microbiological culturing of S. aureus isolates and evaluation of their antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 756 samples (70.7% were culture-positive, and S. aureus comprised 27.77% (n=210 of the isolates. The S. aureus isolates were tested using the disk-diffusion susceptibility assay with the following antimicrobials: ampicillin 10mg; clindamycin 2μg; penicillin 1mg; ceftiofur 30μg; gentamicin 10mg; sulfa-trimethoprim 25μg; enrofloxacin 5μg; sulfonamide 300μg; tetracycline 30μg; oxacillin 1mg; cephalothin 30μg and erythromycin 5μg. The variables that were significantly associated with S. aureus resistance were as follows: the treatment of clinical mastitis for ampicillin (OR=2.18, dry cow treatment for enrofloxacin (OR=2.11 and not sending milk samples for microbiological culture and susceptibility tests, for ampicillin (OR=2.57 and penicillin (OR=4.69. In conclusion, the identification of risk factors for S. aureus resistance against various mastitis antimicrobials is an important information that may help in practical recommendations for prudent use of antimicrobial in milk production.

  18. Frequency of Pseudomonas aeruginosa serotypes in burn wound infections and their resistance to antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estahbanati, Hamid Karimi; Kashani, Parnian Pour; Ghanaatpisheh, Fahimeh

    2002-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa plays a prominent role as an etiological agent involved in serious infections in burned patients. In this study P. aeruginosa infections were analyzed at the Motahari Burn Center in Tehran (from 22 December 1998 to April 1999) to estimate their frequency, antibiotic susceptibility and serotypes. One hundred and eighty-four positive cultures and 205 bacterial strains were isolated among swabs or biopsy specimens during the study period. Pseudomonas was found to be the most common (57%) followed by Acinetobacter (17%), Escherichia coli (12%), Staphylococcus aureus (8%) and other organisms (6%). The frequency of P. aeruginosa resistance to gentamicin, ceftizoxime, carbenicillin, cephalothin and ceftazidime was over 90%. The antibiotics to which P. aeruginosa was most sensitive were amikacin and tetracyclin. The "O" serotypes isolated from the 117 Pseudomona aeroginosa isolates were serotypes O:2, O:5, O:6, O:8, O:11, O:12 and O:16. The most common serotype was O:6 (20/17%) followed by O:11 (18/15%) and O:5 (14/12%). The serotype most resistant was O:16 (8%) and the most sensitive was O:8 (2%). Since treatment of infection with available antibiotics according to the results attained proved to be difficult, prevention of infection in the burned patients is considered as an appropriate means of conquering overcoming infection problems. The sum of frequencies of serotypes O:6, O:11, O:5 and O:16 was more than 60%, therefore vaccination of burn patients with polyvalent antiserum to these serotypes could possibly produce immunity in more than half of the burned patients. PMID:12052372

  19. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Bovine Subclinical Mastitis in Turkey

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    Beytullah Kenar*, Yahya Kuyucuoğlu and Esra Şeker

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 572 California Mastitis Test (CMT positive milk samples were collected from 423 lactating cows on 18 private farms in the Middle Western Anatolia. Coagulase–negative staphylococci colonies and CNS species identification was performed based on conventional biochemical techniques and using the API Staph test. Slime production was detected by Congo Red Agar (CRA method. The antibiotic susceptibility was determined according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines (NCCLS. A total of 67 (11.7% coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS were isolated from CMT positive milk samples. In total, 11 CNS species: S. epidermidis (n=18, S. simulans (n=14, S. warneri (n=10, S. hominis (n=5, S. chromogenes (n=4, S. caprae (n=4, S. xylosus (n=3, S. haemolyticus (n=3, S. hyicus (n=3, S. cohnii (n=2, and S. capitis (n=1 were identified. The most commonly identified CNS species were Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.8% and Staphylococcus simulans (20.8% followed by Staphylococcus warneri (14.9%. Out of 67 CNS isolates, slime production was found in 37 (55.2% CNS strains. CNS isolates were the most resistance to trimethoprim+sulphamethoxazole (76.2%, erythromycin (73.2%, oxacillin and ampicillin (70.2% followed by penicillin (58.3%, gentamicin (53.8%, tetracycline (52.3%, vancomycin (51.8%, ciprofloxacin (26.9%, cefoxitim (23.9%, and cephalothin (13.5%. These results indicate that CNS species are resistant at high rates to the beta-lactam antibiotics which are intensively used in the prevention and treatment of mastitis without any antibiotic susceptibility test in the Middle Western of Turkey.

  20. Isolation and identification of Staphylococcus aureus from milk and milk products and their drug resistance patterns in Anand, Gujarat

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    M. N. Brahmbhatt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was carried out with aim to isolate Staphylococcus aureus from milk and milk products (pedha and curd and determine antibiogram pattern of S. aureus isolates. Materials and Methods: During 9 months duration of study a total of 160 milk and milk product samples (pedha and curd were collected from different places in and around Anand city such as milk collection centre of Co-operative milk dairies, cattle farms, individual household, milk vendors and sweet shops. The samples were collected under aseptic precautions and were enriched in Peptone Water (PW followed by direct plating on selective media viz. Baird-Parker Agar. The presumptive S. aureus isolates were identified by biochemical tests. Antibiogram pattern of S. aureus to antimicrobial agents were evaluated by disk diffusion method. Results: Analysis of result revealed that out of total 160 samples of milk (100 and milk products i.e. curd (30 and pedha (30 resulted in the isolation of 10 isolates (6.25 % of S. aureus. In the present study S. aureus isolates were found variably resistant to the antibiotics tested. The S. aureus isolates showed highest sensitivity towards cephalothin (100.00 %, co-trimoxazole (100.00 %, cephalexin (100.00 % and methicillin (100.00 % followed by gentamicin (90.00 %, ciprofloxacin (80.00 %, oxacillin (70.00 %, streptomycin (60.00 % and ampicillin (60.00 %. The pattern clearly indicated that the overall high percent of S. aureus isolates were resistant to Penicillin-G (100.00 % followed by ampicillin (40.00 %, oxytetracycline and oxacillin (20.00 % and streptomycin and gentamicin (10.00 % Conclusions: Results clearly suggested a possibility of potential public health threat of S. aureus resulting from contamination of milk and milk products with pathogenic bacteria is mainly due to unhygienic processing, handling and unhygienic environment. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 10-13

  1. Antibiotic Resistance of Urinary Tract Infection of Children Under 14 Years Admitted To The Pediatric Clinic of Imam Sajjad Hospital, 2012

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    F Asadi Manesh F

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Urinary tract infection is the most common childhood infections after upper respiratory tract infection. Early diagnosis, proper treatment and appropriate patient follow-up can lead to a significant reduction in symptoms. The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance of urinary tract infection in children under 14 years admitted to the pediatric clinic of Imam Sajjad (AS Yasooj. Methods: Methods: In this cross-sectional study antibiotic sensitivity of 145 positive urine cultures were evaluated by disc diffusion method. Urine specimens were collected by suprapubic aspiration and catheterization urethral in children without urinary incontinence and Mid Stream Clean-Catch method. Data were analyzed by chi square test. Results: Among the patients were studied, 60.68% female and 39.31% were male. The most common cause of urinary tract infections in children, Escherichia coli (72.41%, followed by Klebsiella (34/10.34%. Antibiotic resistance patterns including ampicillin (85.51%, amoxicillin (/83.44%, cephalexin (69.65%, cephalothin (62.06%, cotrimoxazole (37.61%, nalidixic acid (44.82%, cefixime (24.37%, nitrofurantoin (36.55%, gentamicin (35.17%, ceftriaxone (28.27%, ciprofloxacin (26.89%, amikacin (25.51%, and cefotaxime (24.82% were respectively. Conclusion: Conclusion: Antibiotic resistance in urinary tract infections of children in Yasuj in 2012 was higher than previous years except for amikacin, But it was a remarkable increase in ciprofloxacin and co-trimoxazole. The use of nitrofurantoin, cefotaxime, third generation cephalosporins and aminoglycosides is recommended for empirical treatment.

  2. OXA-18, a class D clavulanic acid-inhibited extended-spectrum beta-lactamase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippon, L N; Naas, T; Bouthors, A T; Barakett, V; Nordmann, P

    1997-01-01

    Clinical isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa Mus showed resistance both to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and to aztreonam. We detected a typical double-disk synergy image when ceftazidime or aztreonam was placed next to a clavulanic acid disk on an agar plate. This resistance phenotype suggested the presence of an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. Isoelectric focusing revealed that this strain produced three beta-lactamases, of pI 5.5, 7.4, and 8.2. A 2.6-kb Sau3A fragment encoding the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase of pI 5.5 was cloned from P. aeruginosa Mus genomic DNA. This enzyme, named OXA-18, had a relative molecular mass of 30.6 kDa. OXA-18 has a broad substrate profile, hydrolyzing amoxicillin, ticarcillin, cephalothin, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and aztreonam, but not imipenem or cephamycins. Its activity was totally inhibited by clavulanic acid at 2 microg/ml. Hydrolysis constants of OXA-18 (Vmax, Km) confirmed the MIC results. Cloxacillin and oxacillin hydrolysis was noticeable with the partially purified OXA-18. The blaOXA-18 gene encodes a 275-amino-acid protein which has weak identity with all class D beta-lactamases except OXA-9 and OXA-12 (45 and 42% amino acid identity, respectively). OXA-18 is likely to be chromosomally encoded since no plasmid was found in the strain and because attempts to transfer the resistance marker failed. OXA-18 is peculiar since it is a class D beta-lactamase which confers high resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and seems to have unique hydrolytic properties among non-class A enzymes. PMID:9333046

  3. Conjunctival cytological examination,bacteriological culture,and antimicrobial resistance profiles of healthy Mediterranean buffaloes(Bubalus bubalis) from Southern Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara; Lamagna; Maria; Pia; Pasolini; Sandra; Nizza; Karina; Mallardo; Maurizio; Formicola; Alessandro; Costagliola; Gerardo; Fatone; Filomena; Fiorito; Orlando; Paciello; Luisa; De; Martino

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess normal conjunctival cytological and bacteriological/fungal flora features in the Mediterranean buffalo(Bubalus bubalis).Methods: Swabs were taken from the inferior conjunctival sac of both eyes of 57 healthy female buffaloes aged 24–36 months, with no evidence of ocular disease, farmed in Campania region(Southern Italy), for microbiological analysis. Conjunctival eye specimens of both eyes were subsequently obtained by a cyto-brush, for cytological analysis.The antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates was also determined using the diskdiffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar plates.Results: Cytological examination of conjunctival swab specimens(114 eyes) revealed epithelial cells(basal, intermediate, columnar and super ficial) in all samples, whereas neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells were present in 70%, 10% and 2% of samples,respectively. Microorganisms, for a total of 261 aerobic bacteria and 6 fungi, were isolated from 112/114 conjunctival samples [98.25%; 95% con fidence interval(CI): 93.18–99.70]. Only two conjunctival swabs did not yield bacteria and/or fungi(2/114, 1.75%;95% CI: 0.30–6.82). Gram-positive aerobes were most commonly cultured(181/261,69.35%; 95% CI: 63.31–74.81), with Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus lentus predominating. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated as Gram-negative bacteria(80/261, 30.65%; 95% CI: 25.19–36.69). The antimicrobial resistance patterns of the isolated bacteria showed amoxycillin/clavulanic acid and cephalothin as the least sensitive antibiotics for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.Conclusions: These results provided first information on normal conjunctival ocular micro flora and cytological features in Mediterranean buffalo.

  4. Conjunctival cytological examination, bacteriological culture, and antimicrobial resistance proifles of healthy Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Southern Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara Lamagna; Luisa De Martino; Maria Pia Pasolini; Sandra Nizza; Karina Mallardo; Maurizio Formicola; Alessandro Costagliola; Gerardo Fatone; Filomena Fiorito; Orlando Paciello

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To assess normal conjunctival cytological and bacteriological/fungal flora features in the Mediterranean buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Methods:Swabs were taken from the inferior conjunctival sac of both eyes of 57 healthy female buffaloes aged 24-36 months, with no evidence of ocular disease, farmed in Campania region (Southern Italy), for microbiological analysis. Conjunctival eye specimens of both eyes were subsequently obtained by a cyto-brush, for cytological analysis. The antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates was also determined using the disk-diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar plates. Results: Cytological examination of conjunctival swab specimens (114 eyes) revealed epithelial cells (basal, intermediate, columnar and superficial) in all samples, whereas neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells were present in 70%, 10%and 2%of samples, respectively. Microorganisms, for a total of 261 aerobic bacteria and 6 fungi, were isolated from 112/114 conjunctival samples (98.25%;95%confidence interval (CI):93.18–99.70). Only two conjunctival swabs did not yield bacteria and/or fungi (2/114, 1.75%;95% CI:0.30–6.82). Gram-positive aerobes were most commonly cultured (181/261, 69.35%;95%CI: 63.31–74.81), with Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus lentus predominating. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated as Gram-negative bacteria (80/261, 30.65%;95%CI:25.19–36.69). The antimicrobial resistance patterns of the isolated bacteria showed amoxycillin/clavulanic acid and cephalothin as the least sensitive antibiotics for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusions: These results provided first information on normal conjunctival ocular microflora and cytological features in Mediterranean buffalo.

  5. Prevalence of multi-drug resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Potohar region of Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ihsan Ali; Zara Rafaque; Safia Ahmed; Sajid Malik; Javid Iqbal Dasti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To scrutinize patterns of multi-drug-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains and particularly of fluoroquinolone-resistance this is an alternative choice for the treatment of urinary tract infections. Methods: Bacterial samples (n = 250) were collected from out-patients from August 2012 to August 2014 Islamabad. Antibiotic susceptibility profiling and determination of mini-mum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations were performed according to the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, 2012). Genes, qnrA, qnrB and qnrS were identified by DNA amplification and sequencing. Results: The highest percentage of UPEC isolates were resistant to co-trimoxazole (82%) followed by cephalothin (80%), 2nd Gen, 3rd Gen and 4th Gen cephalosporins, respectively. Resistance against gentamicin, amikacin remained 29% and 4%. For other drugs including nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, carbapenem and beta-lactam inhibitors remained below 10%. Altogether, 59% of the isolates were resistant to at least three antibiotics including one fluoroquinolone. Overall, MICs for ciprofloxacin remained (MIC≥256 mg/mL) and for levofloxacin (MIC≥16 mg/mL and 32 mg/mL). No significant differences were observed regarding MIC values of extended spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL) and non-ESBL producers. For qnrS and qnrB positive isolates MICs remained above 32 mg/mL. Prevalence of UPEC was significantly higher among females and 40% of the isolates were ESBL producers. Conclusions: Higher percentages of ESBL producing UPEC were associated with uri-nary tract infections. Moreover, the majority of these isolates were multi-drug resistant and fluoroquinolone-resistant.

  6. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of 5 novel CTX-M enzymes carried by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun CHENG; Ying YE; Ying-ying WANG; Hui LI; Xu LI; Jia-bin LI

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to study the phenotypic and molecular characterization of 5 novel CTX-M-β-lactamases carried by 5 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates and 3 Escherichia coli isolates collected from 4 hospitals in Hefei, China. Methods: The purified PCR products were ligated with pGEM-Teasy vectors, expressed, and sequenced. The complete genes of the CTX-M-β-lactamases were ligated with the pHSG398 vector to express prokaryotic recombi-nant proteins. Plasmids were extracted by rapid alkaline lysis protocol, and the PCR method was performed to determine whether the prokaryotic expression was successful or not. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested and the phenotypes of transformants were determined according to criteria recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The kinetic parameters of enzymes were confirmed. The isoelectric points (pI) were determined by isoelectric focusing assay. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and plasmid profiling were performed. Results: The PCR products had 1101 nucleotides and were determined as CTX-M-46, CTX-M-47, CTX-M-48, CTX-M-49, and CTX-M-50. All strains were resistant to cefotaxime, but most of them were susceptible or intermediate to ceftazidime. The phenotypes of novel enzymes were determined as extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). Penicillin G, cephalothin, cefuroxime, and cefotaxime were determined to good substrates, whereas ceftazidime hydrolysis was not detected. The pI of the 5 novel CTX-M-βlactamases were 8.0. CTX-M-derivatives could be the multiplex genesis in our area. Conclusion: This is the first report of these 5 novel plasmid-mediated CTX-M ESBL produced from China in the world. Mo-lecular typing reveals notably different origin in genes encoding different CTX-M variants of 8 strains.

  7. Conjunctival endogenous microbiota in patients submitted to cataract surgery Microbiota endógena conjuntival em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de catarata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete I. Locatelli

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial isolation, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out in ocular material collected with swab and polimethylmethacrylate (PMMA or silicone intraocular lenses (IOL from forty six patients submitted to cataract surgery. Seventy six isolates and seven different microorganisms were identified. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS were the predominant microorganisms isolated from swabs (71.4% of cases, PMMA lenses (81.3% and silicon lenses (77.8%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates revealed high resistance to penicillin G followed by tetracycline, chloramphenicol and aminoglicosides. However, these isolates displayed great susceptibility to vancomycin, cephalothin and ofloxacin. Except for penicillin G, Staphylococcus aureus was very sensitive to the antimicrobial agents including oxacillin. Among Gram-negatives, Proteus mirabilis was prevalent and presented high resistance to tetracycline and chloramphenicol. Enterococcus isolates were vancomycin sensitive.A partir de material ocular coletado de 46 pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de catarata foram realizados isolamento, identificação e teste de susceptibilidade de microrganismos frente a antimicrobianos, utilizando-se suabes e lentes intraoculares (LIO. Foram obtidos 76 isolados e identificados 7 tipos de microrganismos. Estafilococos coagulase-negativos (CNS foram os microrganismos mais freqüentemente detectados de suabes (71,4% dos casos, lentes de PMMA (81,3% e lentes de silicone (77,8%. Isolados de CNS apresentaram elevada resistência à penicilina G, seguida por tetraciclina, cloranfenicol e aminoglicosídeos. No entanto, estes isolados mostraram grande sensibilidade à vancomicina, cefalotina e ofloxacina. Com exceção da penicilina G, os isolados de Staphylococcus aureus foram bastante sensíveis aos agentes antimicrobianos, incluindo a oxacilina. Entre as gram-negativas, Proteus mirabilis foi a bactéria mais freqüente e também se mostrou

  8. 牛屠宰厂来源的单增李斯特菌的耐药性研究%Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes from Beef Cattle Processing Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯晓慧; 张琳; 朱立贤

    2015-01-01

    [ Objective]Listeria monocytogenes isolates from beef cattle processing plants were examined for antibiotic resist-ance.[Methods]Antimicrobial susceptibility to 16 kinds of antibiotics of 55 Listeria monocytogenes were determined by Kirby-Bauer method,respectively. [ Results]The 55 strains of Listeria monocytogenes were sensitive to penicillin G,norfloxacin, cotrimoxazole etc. Among the 55 Listeria monocytogenes isolates,1. 82% were resistant to cephalothin,followed by resistant to polymyxin B(25. 45%),cefotaxime(36. 36%),enoxacin(38. 18%). 44 strains were resistant to more than 3 kinds of anti-biotic,among them 27 strains were resistant to 3 kinds of antibiotic(49. 09%),17 strains were resistant to 4 kinds of antibiotic (30. 90%).[ Conclusion]Listeria monocytogenes isolates were resistant to 4 antibiotics. Listeria monocytogenes appeared multidrug resistance in different degree. So the contamination and drug resistance of Listeria monocytogenes should be moni-tored to ensure food safety and human health in the future.%了解牛屠宰厂来源的单增李斯特菌的耐药性情况.采用牛屠宰厂来源的的55株单增李斯特菌为研究对象,采用Kirby-Bauer法检测对16种抗生素的耐药情况.所检55株单增李斯特菌株对青霉素G、诺氟沙星、复方新诺明等不耐药,对头孢噻吩、多粘菌素B、头孢噻肟、依诺沙星的耐药率分别为1.82%、25.45%、36.36%、38.18%,耐3种以上抗生素的有44株,其中耐3种抗生素的27株(49.09%),耐4种抗生素的17株(30.90%).单增李斯特菌对4种抗生素存在耐药情况,并且存在不同程度的多重耐药情况的菌株,今后应加强对单增李斯特菌的污染情况和耐药性检测,以保证食品安全和人类健康.

  9. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes from Beef Cattle Processing Plants%牛屠宰厂来源的单增李斯特菌的耐药性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯晓慧; 张琳; 朱立贤

    2015-01-01

    了解牛屠宰厂来源的单增李斯特菌的耐药性情况.采用牛屠宰厂来源的的55株单增李斯特菌为研究对象,采用Kirby-Bauer法检测对16种抗生素的耐药情况.所检55株单增李斯特菌株对青霉素G、诺氟沙星、复方新诺明等不耐药,对头孢噻吩、多粘菌素B、头孢噻肟、依诺沙星的耐药率分别为1.82%、25.45%、36.36%、38.18%,耐3种以上抗生素的有44株,其中耐3种抗生素的27株(49.09%),耐4种抗生素的17株(30.90%).单增李斯特菌对4种抗生素存在耐药情况,并且存在不同程度的多重耐药情况的菌株,今后应加强对单增李斯特菌的污染情况和耐药性检测,以保证食品安全和人类健康.%[ Objective]Listeria monocytogenes isolates from beef cattle processing plants were examined for antibiotic resist-ance.[Methods]Antimicrobial susceptibility to 16 kinds of antibiotics of 55 Listeria monocytogenes were determined by Kirby-Bauer method,respectively. [ Results]The 55 strains of Listeria monocytogenes were sensitive to penicillin G,norfloxacin, cotrimoxazole etc. Among the 55 Listeria monocytogenes isolates,1. 82% were resistant to cephalothin,followed by resistant to polymyxin B(25. 45%),cefotaxime(36. 36%),enoxacin(38. 18%). 44 strains were resistant to more than 3 kinds of anti-biotic,among them 27 strains were resistant to 3 kinds of antibiotic(49. 09%),17 strains were resistant to 4 kinds of antibiotic (30. 90%).[ Conclusion]Listeria monocytogenes isolates were resistant to 4 antibiotics. Listeria monocytogenes appeared multidrug resistance in different degree. So the contamination and drug resistance of Listeria monocytogenes should be moni-tored to ensure food safety and human health in the future.

  10. A Designed Experiments Approach to Optimizing MALDI-TOF MS Spectrum Processing Parameters Enhances Detection of Antibiotic Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Christian; Grothendick, Beau; Zhang, Lin; Borror, Connie M; Barbano, Duane; Cornelius, Angela J; Gilpin, Brent J; Fagerquist, Clifton K; Zaragoza, William J; Jay-Russell, Michele T; Lastovica, Albert J; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Sandrin, Todd R

    2016-01-01

    MALDI-TOF MS has been utilized as a reliable and rapid tool for microbial fingerprinting at the genus and species levels. Recently, there has been keen interest in using MALDI-TOF MS beyond the genus and species levels to rapidly identify antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria. The purpose of this study was to enhance strain level resolution for Campylobacter jejuni through the optimization of spectrum processing parameters using a series of designed experiments. A collection of 172 strains of C. jejuni were collected from Luxembourg, New Zealand, North America, and South Africa, consisting of four groups of antibiotic resistant isolates. The groups included: (1) 65 strains resistant to cefoperazone (2) 26 resistant to cefoperazone and beta-lactams (3) 5 strains resistant to cefoperazone, beta-lactams, and tetracycline, and (4) 76 strains resistant to cefoperazone, teicoplanin, amphotericin, B and cephalothin. Initially, a model set of 16 strains (three biological replicates and three technical replicates per isolate, yielding a total of 144 spectra) of C. jejuni was subjected to each designed experiment to enhance detection of antibiotic resistance. The most optimal parameters were applied to the larger collection of 172 isolates (two biological replicates and three technical replicates per isolate, yielding a total of 1,031 spectra). We observed an increase in antibiotic resistance detection whenever either a curve based similarity coefficient (Pearson or ranked Pearson) was applied rather than a peak based (Dice) and/or the optimized preprocessing parameters were applied. Increases in antimicrobial resistance detection were scored using the jackknife maximum similarity technique following cluster analysis. From the first four groups of antibiotic resistant isolates, the optimized preprocessing parameters increased detection respective to the aforementioned groups by: (1) 5% (2) 9% (3) 10%, and (4) 2%. An additional second categorization was created from the

  11. Antibiotic susceptibility profiling and virulence potential ofCampylobacter jejuni isolates from different sources in Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fariha Masood Siddiqui; Muhammad Akram; Nighat Noureen; Zobia Noreen; Habib Bokhari

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine antibiotic resistance patterns and virulence potential ofCampylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) isolates from clinical human diarrheal infections, cattle and healthy broilers. Methods:Antibiotic sensitivity patterns ofC. jejuni isolates were determined by Kirby Bauer Disc Diffusion assay. These isolates were then subjected to virulence profiling for the detection ofmapA (membrane-associated protein),cadF (fibronectin binding protein),wlaN (beta-1,3-galactosyltransferase) andneuAB (sialic acid biosynthesis gene). FurtherC. jejuni isolates were grouped by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiling.Results: A total of 436 samples from poultry (n=88), cattle (n=216) and humans (n=132) from different locations were collected. Results revealed percentage ofC. jejuni isolates were 35.2% (31/88), 25.0% (54/216) and 11.3% (15/132) among poultry, cattle and clinical human samples respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility results showed that similar resistance patterns to cephalothin was ie. 87.0%, 87.1% and 89%among humans, poultry and cattle respectively, followed by sulfamethoxazole+trimethoprim 40.0%, 38.7% and 31.0% in humans, poultry and cattle and Ampicillin 40%, 32% and 20% in humans, poultry and cattle respectively. Beta-lactamase activity was detected in 40.00% humans, 20.37% cattle and 32.25% in poultryC. jejuni isolates. CadF andmapA were present in all poultry, cattle and humanC. jejuni isolates,wlaN was not detected in any isolate andneuAB was found in 9/31 (36%) poultry isolates. RAPD profiling results suggested high diversity ofC. jejuni isolates.Conclusions:Detection of multidrug resistantC. jejuni strains from poultry and cattle is alarming as they can be potential hazard to humans. Moreover, predominant association of virulence factors,cadF andmapA (100 % each) inC. jejuni isolates from all sources andneuAB (36%) with poultry isolates suggest the potential source of transmission of diverse types ofC. jejuni to humans.

  12. A Designed Experiments Approach to Optimizing MALDI-TOF MS Spectrum Processing Parameters Enhances Detection of Antibiotic Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian ePenny

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available MALDI-TOF MS has been utilized as a reliable and rapid tool for microbial fingerprinting at the genus and species levels. Recently, there has been keen interest in using MALDI-TOF MS beyond the genus and species levels to rapidly identify antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria. The purpose of this study was to enhance strain level resolution for Campylobacter jejuni through the optimization of spectrum processing parameters using a series of designed experiments. A collection of 172 strains of C. jejuni were collected from Luxembourg, New Zealand, North America, and South Africa, consisting of four groups of antibiotic resistant isolates. The groups included: 1 65 strains resistant to cefoperazone 2 26 resistant to cefoperazone and beta-lactams 3 5 strains resistant to cefoperazone, beta-lactams, and tetracycline, and 4 76 strains resistant to cefoperazone, teicoplanin, amphotericin B and cephalothin. Initially, a model set of 16 strains (three biological replicates and three technical replicates per isolate, yielding a total of 144 spectra of C. jejuni was subjected to each designed experiment to enhance detection of antibiotic resistance. The most optimal parameters were applied to the larger collection of 172 isolates (two biological replicates and three technical replicates per isolate, yielding a total of 1,031 spectra. We observed an increase in antibiotic resistance detection whenever either a curve based similarity coefficient (Pearson or ranked Pearson was applied rather than a peak based (Dice and/or the optimized preprocessing parameters were applied. Increases in antimicrobial resistance detection were scored using the jackknife maximum similarity technique following cluster analysis. From the first four groups of antibiotic resistant isolates, the optimized preprocessing parameters increased detection respective to the aforementioned groups by: 1 five percent 2 nine percent 3 ten percent, and 4 two percent. An additional second

  13. Occurrence of toxigenic Escherichia coli in raw milk cheese in Brazil Ocorrência de Escherichia coli toxigênica em queijo-de-minas frescal no Brasil

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    B.R. Paneto

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of toxigenic Escherichia coli in raw milk cheese was surveyed in Middle Western Brazil. Fifty samples of cheese from different supermarkets were analyzed for E.coli. The isolates were serotyped and screened for the presence of verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. The susceptibility to thirteen antimicrobial agents was evaluated by the disk diffusion method. E.coli were recovered from 48 (96.0% of the samples. The serogroups identified were O125 (6.0%, O111 (4.0%, O55 (2.0% and O119 (2.0%. Three (6.0% and 1(2.0% of the E.coli isolates were VTEC and ETEC, respectively. Most frequent resistance was observed to the following antimicrobials: cephalothin (60.0%, nalidixic acid (40.0%, doxycyclin (33.0%, tetracycline (31.0% and ampicillin (29.0%.Pesquisou-se a ocorrência de Escherichia coli toxigênica, em queijo produzido com leite não pasteurizado, na Região Centro Oeste do Brazil. Foram utilizados 50 queijos adquiridos em diferentes supermercados. As amostras isoladas foram classificadas por sorogrupo, avaliadas em relação à sensibilidade para 13 agentes antimicrobianos e submetidas à reação em cadeia da polimerase para a presença de genes característicos de E. coli verotoxigênica (VTEC e enterotoxigênica (ETEC. E. coli foi recuperada em 48(96,0% dos queijos. Foram identificados os sorogrupos O125 (6,0%, O111 (4,0%, O55 (2,0% e O119 (2,0%. Três (6,0% amostras de E. coli foram classificadas como VTEC e uma (2,0% como ETEC. Os maiores índices de resistência foram verificados para: cefalotina (60,0%, ácido nalidíxico (40,0%, doxiciclina (33,0%, tetraciclina (31,0% e ampicilina (29,0%.

  14. 中国市售酸奶乳酸菌的耐药性分析%Analysis on the antimicrobial resistance of lactic acid bacteria isolated from the yogurt sold in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凡琴; 刘书亮; 李娟; 黄婷婷

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from yogurt, and to provide references for evaluating the safety of LAB and screening safe strains. Methods The sensitivity of 43 LAB strains, including 14 strains of Streptococcus thermophilus, 12 strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, 9 strains of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and 8 strains of Bifidobacterium, to 22 antibiotics were tested by agar plate dilution method. Results All 43 LAB strains were resistant to trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, danofloxacin and polymyxin E. Their resistances to kanamycin, tetracycline, clindamycin, doxycycline and cephalothin were varied. The sensitivity to other antibiotics were sensitive or moderate. All isolates were multidrug-resistant. Conclusion The antimicrobial resistance of tested LAB strains was comparatively serious, and continuously monitoring their antimicrobial resistance and evaluating their safety should be strengthened%目的 了解中国市售酸奶中常用乳酸茵菌种的耐药性.方法 采用琼脂平板稀释法,对14株嗜热链球菌、12株嗜酸乳杆菌、9株保加利亚乳杆菌、8株双歧杆菌共计43株乳酸茵进行了22种抗生素的药敏性检测.结果 43株乳酸菌对甲氧苄啶、萘啶酮酸、环丙沙星、诺氟沙星、达氟沙星及多粘菌素E均耐药;对卡那霉素、四环素、克林霉素多西环素及头孢噻吩表现出不同程度的耐受性;对其他抗生素敏感或中度敏感.多重耐药乳酸菌检出率100.0%.结论 市售酸奶中乳酸茵的耐药性已较为严重,应加强其耐药性连续监测及安全评价.

  15. First identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius strains among coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from dogs with otitis externa in Trinidad, West Indies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Dziva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Otitis externa is a common inflammatory ear disease in dogs caused by a variety of pathogens, and coagulase-positive staphylococci are frequently isolated from such infections. Objective: To identify antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and methicillin-resistant strains among coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from otitis externa in dogs. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed over 2 years on 114 client-owned dogs presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a primary complaint of ear infections. Swabs were obtained from both ears and cultured for staphylococci which were subsequently confirmed as coagulase-positive using rabbit plasma. Antimicrobial susceptibility assays were assessed on all isolates followed by subsequent genetic analysis for species identification and detection of the mecA gene. Results: Sixty-five coagulase-positive staphylococci were isolated from 114 client-owned dogs. The isolates exhibited resistance against neomycin (58.5%, streptomycin (49.2%, penicillin (49.2%, polymyxin B (44.6%, tetracycline (36.9%, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (33.8%, kanamycin (33.8%, doxycycline (32.3%, norfloxacin (23.1%, amoxicillin/clavulanate (20%, ciprofloxacin (20%, enrofloxacin (18.5%, gentamicin (16.9%, and cephalothin (9.2%. Forty (61.5% of the isolates were resistant to at least three or more antimicrobials and 10 were sensitive to all. Using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay based on species-specific regions of the thermonuclease (nuc gene, 38/65 (58.5% isolates were classified as Staphylococcus aureus, 23/65 (35.4% as S. pseudintermedius, 2/65 (3.1% as S. intermedius, and 2/65 (3.1% as S. schleiferi. Analysis for the mecA gene revealed two positive isolates of S. pseudintermedius which were oxacillin-resistant, representing a first report of such organisms in the Caribbean. Conclusion: Despite the relatively high prevalence of multidrug-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci in

  16. Antibiotic Resistance in Animal and Environmental Samples Associated with Small-Scale Poultry Farming in Northwestern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braykov, Nikolay P; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Grossman, Marissa; Zhang, Lixin; Vasco, Karla; Cevallos, William; Muñoz, Diana; Acevedo, Andrés; Moser, Kara A; Marrs, Carl F; Foxman, Betsy; Trostle, James; Trueba, Gabriel; Levy, Karen

    2016-01-01

    The effects of animal agriculture on the spread of antibiotic resistance (AR) are cross-cutting and thus require a multidisciplinary perspective. Here we use ecological, epidemiological, and ethnographic methods to examine populations of Escherichia coli circulating in the production poultry farming environment versus the domestic environment in rural Ecuador, where small-scale poultry production employing nontherapeutic antibiotics is increasingly common. We sampled 262 "production birds" (commercially raised broiler chickens and laying hens) and 455 "household birds" (raised for domestic use) and household and coop environmental samples from 17 villages between 2010 and 2013. We analyzed data on zones of inhibition from Kirby-Bauer tests, rather than established clinical breakpoints for AR, to distinguish between populations of organisms. We saw significantly higher levels of AR in bacteria from production versus household birds; resistance to either amoxicillin-clavulanate, cephalothin, cefotaxime, and gentamicin was found in 52.8% of production bird isolates and 16% of household ones. A strain jointly resistant to the 4 drugs was exclusive to a subset of isolates from production birds (7.6%) and coop surfaces (6.5%) and was associated with a particular purchase site. The prevalence of AR in production birds declined with bird age (P impact AR in domestic environments at the household or village level. Our results suggest that AR associated with small-scale poultry farming is present in the immediate production environment and likely originates from sources outside the study area. These outside sources might be a better place to target control efforts than local management practices. IMPORTANCE In developing countries, small-scale poultry farming employing antibiotics as growth promoters is being advanced as an inexpensive source of protein and income. Here, we present the results of a large ecoepidemiological study examining patterns of antibiotic resistance

  17. Commensal Pseudomonas Species Isolated from Wastewater and Freshwater Milieus in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, as Reservoir of Antibiotic Resistant Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony I. Okoh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas species are opportunistic pathogens with implications in a wide range of diseases including cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anaemia. Because of their status as multidrug resistant (MDR and extremely drug resistant (XDR bacteria Pseudomonas species represent a threat to public health. Prevalence, antibiogram and associated antibiotic resistant genes of Pseudomonas species isolated from freshwater and mixed liquor environments in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were assessed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR based technique was used to identify the isolates and screen for antibiotic resistant genes. The result shows occurrence of Pseudomonas spp. in freshwater and mixed liquor as follows: 71.42% and 37.5% (P. putida, 14.28% and 31.25% (P. flourescens, 7.14% and 6.25% (P. aeruginosa and 7.14% and 25% for other Pseudomonas species respectively. Disk diffusion antibiogram of the Pseudomonas isolates from the two locations showed 100% resistance to penicillin, oxacillin, clindamycin, rifampicin and 100% susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin with varied percentage resistances to cephalothin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, and ampicillin. The blaTEM antibiotic resistant gene was detected in 12.5% of P. putida, 57.14% of P. fluorescens, 100% P. aeruginosa and 40% in other Pseudomonas species. Similarly, Integrons conserved segment were detected in 12.5% of P. putida, 57.14% of P. fluorescens, 100% of P. aeruginosa and 40% of other Pseudomonas species. The presence of blaTEM gene and integrons conserved segment in some of the isolates is worrisome and suggest Pseudomonas species as important reservoirs of multidrug resistance genes in the Eastern Cape Province environment.

  18. Degradation kinetics and mechanism of β-lactam antibiotics by the activation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} under UV-254 nm irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xuexiang [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Nireas-International Water Research Centre, School of Engineering, University of Cyprus, PO Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Mezyk, Stephen P. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California State University Long Beach, 1250 Bellflower Blvd., Long Beach, CA 90840 (United States); Michael, Irene; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Nireas-International Water Research Centre, School of Engineering, University of Cyprus, PO Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Dionysiou, Dionysios D., E-mail: dionysios.d.dionysiou@uc.edu [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Nireas-International Water Research Centre, School of Engineering, University of Cyprus, PO Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Removal efficiency was comparable at different UV fluence rates but same fluence. • Reducing pH to 3 or 2 did not inhibit the removal of nitrobenzene by UV/S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−}. • 1.84 × 10{sup −14} M [HO{sup •} ]{sub ss} and 3.10 × 10{sup −13} M [SO{sub 4}{sup •} {sup −}]{sub ss} in UV/S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} were estimated. • HO{sup •} reacted faster with the β-lactams than SO{sub 4}{sup •} {sup −} but sharing similar byproducts. • Transformation pathways included hydroxylation, hydrolysis and decarboxylation. - Abstract: The extensive production and usage of antibiotics have led to an increasing occurrence of antibiotic residuals in various aquatic compartments, presenting a significant threat to both ecosystem and human health. This study investigated the degradation of selected β-lactam antibiotics (penicillins: ampicillin, penicillin V, and piperacillin; cephalosporin: cephalothin) by UV-254 nm activated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} photochemical processes. The UV irradiation alone resulted in various degrees of direct photolysis of the antibiotics; while the addition of the oxidants improved significantly the removal efficiency. The steady-state radical concentrations were estimated, revealing a non-negligible contribution of hydroxyl radicals in the UV/S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} system. Mineralization of the β-lactams could be achieved at high UV fluence, with a slow formation of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and a much lower elimination of total organic carbon (TOC). The transformation mechanisms were also investigated showing the main reaction pathways of hydroxylation (+16 Da) at the aromatic ring and/or the sulfur atom, hydrolysis (+18 Da) at the β-lactam ring and decarboxylation (–44 Da) for the three penicillins. Oxidation of amine group was also observed for ampicillin. This study suggests that UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and UV/S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} advanced

  19. 卵形鲳鲹感染无乳链球菌与海豚链球菌的研究%Pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae and S. iniae in diseased ovate pompano Trachinotus ovatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婷; 梁万文; 陈明; 李莉萍; 王瑞; 张彬; 甘西; 罗洪林; 陈福艳; 蔡小辉; 杨传萍

    2014-01-01

    according to 16S rRNA genes also showed that strains TSG002 and TSG004 are classified into S. agalactiae and S. iniae group, respectively. Both strains were found to be highly sensitive to nine drugs, including ceftriaxone, enrofloxacin, ofloxacin, amoxicillin and cephalothin. It is concluded that ovate pompano can be infected by S. aga-lactiae and S. iniae, which were firstly and simultaneously found in one diseased ovate pompano.

  20. Detection and Analysis of L-type Bacteria in Patients with Diarrhea%腹泻患者中细菌L型的检测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱林英; 苏靖华; 潘丽峰; 傅慧琴; 黄红

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To study the necessity of L-type bacteria detection in pathogen retrieval of patients with diarrhea, and its drug resistance. [ Methods ] The pathogen retrieval was performed by conventional methods in diarrhea samples from monitoring point, meanwhile, the L-type bacteria detection was conducted by hypertonic culture method. L-type bacteria were reverted, and L-type bacteria and reversion bacteria were detected by the drug sensitivity test. [ Results] The positive rate of pathogen bacteria and L-type bacteria was 9.22% and 1.83% respectively. 37 strains of L-type bacteria all revert to reversion bacteria. L-type bacteria are mainly sensitive to Norfloxacin ( 78.38% ) and Cefotaxime ( 72.97% ), and are resistant to Ampicillin ( 83.78% ) and Tetracycline (70.27%). The reversion bacteria are mainly sensitive to Norfloxacin (64.86%) and compound Sulfamethoxazole (62. 16% ) ,and are resistant to Rifampicin (94.59%) and Cephalothin (83.78%). The sensitivity differential rate of drug varieties is 100%.[ Conclusion ] L-type bacteria exist in diarrhea patients, the distribution of pathogen bacteria and L-type bacteria is different, the drug sensitivity of L-type bacteria and reversion bacteria is different, all of which provide the basis of medication for the clinic.%目的 探索细菌L型检测在腹泻患者病原检索中的必要性,耐药性.方法 对监测点腹泻样品用常规方法作病原检索同时用高渗培养方法进行细菌L型检测,对L型菌回复返祖,分别对L型菌和返祖菌作药敏试验.结果 病原菌阳性率9.22%,细菌L型阳性率1.83%,37株L型菌全部回复成返祖菌.L型菌主要对诺氟沙星(78.38%),头孢噻肟(72.97%)敏感,对氨苄西林(83.78%),四环素(70.27%)耐药;返祖菌主要对诺氟沙星(64.86%),复方新诺明(62.16%)敏感,对利福平(94.59%),头孢噻吩(83.78%)耐药.药物种类敏感性差异率100%.结论 腹泻患者中存在L型菌,病原菌与L型菌菌谱不一

  1. Virulence factors of Escherichia coli isolated from diarrheic calves Fatores de virulência de Escherichia coli isolada de bezerros com diarréia

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    E.C. Rigobelo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available One hundred seventy-three Escherichia coli strains isolated from calves from northwestern São Paulo State, having diarrhea were examined for the production of thermolabile (LT and thermostable (ST enterotoxins and for the presence of virulence factors associated with bovine colibacillosis. Eighty-five (49.1% of the E.coli strains produced toxins; 53 isolates were detected as producing STa toxin, and 9 also produced LT toxin. By PCR, 23 isolates were shown to harbor only the LT-II gene. Nine (5.2% isolates harbored Shiga toxin genes: four carried the stx2 gene, four the stx1 gene and one carried both. Three of the isolates showing stx1 also carried the eae gene. Among the E. coli isolates examined for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobial agents, resistance to cephalothin (46.1%, was most commonly observed, followed by resistances to tetracycline (45.7%, trimethoprim-sulfadiazine (43.3% and ampicilin (41.0%. All isolates showed resistance to at least two antimicrobial agents; multidrug resistance was quite frequently encountered. Results showed that bovine E. coli produces some toxins and virulence factors, some of which may be involved in human disease. The isolates showed a high level of resistance to antimicrobial agents constituting a public health concern.Cento e setenta e três cepas de Escherichia coli isoladas de bezerros com diarréia provenientes da região noroeste do estado de São Paulo foram examinadas para a produção de enterotoxinas termolábil (LT e termoestável (ST, e examinadas quanto à presença de fatores de virulência associados a colibacilose bovina. Oitenta e cinco (49,1% das cepas de E. coli produziram toxinas, 53 cepas foram detectadas como produtoras de toxina STa, e nove dessas cepas também produziam toxina LT. Foram identificadas pela reação em cadeia de polimerase 23 cepas portadoras do gene LT-II. Nove (5,2% das cepas apresentavam os genes de toxina Shiga: quatro o gene stx 2, quatro o gene stx 1 e uma cepa

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Listeria monocytogenes human strains isolated from 1970 to 2008 in Brazil Susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de cepas humanas de Listeria monocytogenes isoladas no período de 1970 a 2008 no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhiane Moura Falavina dos Reis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a foodborne illness that affects mainly pregnant women, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. The primary treatment is a combination of ampicillin with an aminoglycoside, in addition to a second-choice drug represented by chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracycline and rifampicin. The aim of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of strains isolated from human sources in the last four decades. METHODS: Sixty-eight strains were selected from the culture collection of the Laboratory of Bacterial Zoonoses/LABZOO/FIOCRUZ isolated in different regions of Brazil from 1970 to 2008 and primarily isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and blood culture. Susceptibility tests to antimicrobials drugs were evaluated using the criteria established by Soussy using the Kirby-Bauer method and E-Test strips were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. RESULTS: Among the strains tested, serovar L4b (60.3% was the most prevalent, followed by serovar 1/2a (20.6%, 1/2b (13.2% and the more uncommon serovars 1/2c, 3b and 4ab (5.9%. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, cephalothin, erythromycin, gentamicin, teicoplanin and vancomycin. Only one strain (1.5% showed resistance to rifampin, and two (3% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. MICs with values up to 2μg/ml reinforce the need for microbiological surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated low prevalence of strains resistant to the antimicrobial drugs indicated in the treatment of human listeriosis. Monitoring antimicrobial resistance profile is still very important to determine adequate treatment, especially in immunocompromised patients.INTRODUÇÃO: Listeria monocytogenes é o agente etiológico da listeriose, doença de origem alimentar que acomete principalmente grávidas, pacientes imunodeprimidos e idosos. O tratamento primário é a associação de

  3. Detection, seroprevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in pig tonsils in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonardi, S; Bruini, I; D'Incau, M; Van Damme, I; Carniel, E; Brémont, S; Cavallini, P; Tagliabue, S; Brindani, F

    2016-10-17

    Yersiniosis is the third most common reported zoonoses in Europe, with Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis responsible for 98.66% and 0.94% of the confirmed human cases in 2013. From June 2013 to October 2014, 201 pigs at slaughter belonging to 67 batches were tested for Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in tonsils. Diaphragm muscle samples were tested for antibodies against Yersinia by a commercially available ELISA test. Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 was detected in 55/201 pig tonsils (27.4%; 95% CI 23.1-37.1). The positive pigs came from 38/67 batches (56.7%) and were reared in 36/61 farms (59.0%). There was no statistical difference between farrow-to-finish and finishing farms. The mean count of Y. enterocolitica was 3.56±0.85log10CFU/g with a minimum of 2.0log10CFU/g and a maximum of 4.78log10CFU/g. Y. pseudotuberculosis was isolated from 4/201 pig tonsils (2.0%; 95% CI 0.0-4.5). Three isolates belonged to serotype O:3 and one to serotype O:1. The positive pigs belonged to 4/67 batches (6.0%) and came from finishing farms only. Y. pseudotuberculosis could be enumerated in one sample only (4.27log10CFU/g). The ELISA test demonstrated that 56.1% of the meat juice samples were positive for Yersinia antibodies. Serological positivity was found in 67.9% (36/53) of the Y. enterocolitica- and 75.0% (3/4) of the Y. pseudotuberculosis positive pigs. A significant association was found between serological results and the presence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsils (OR=1.97, p=0.044). All the Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, gentamicin, ceftazidime, ertapenem and meropenem, 94.5% to cefotaxime, 89.1% to kanamycin and 78.2% to tetracycline. The highest resistance rates were observed for ampicillin (100%), sulphonamides (98.2%) and streptomycin (78.2%). Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were sensitive to all the antimicrobials tested, i.e. amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, azithromycin, cephalothin, cefoxitin

  4. Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance in Klebsiella spp. Isolates from Companion Animals in Japan: Clonal Dissemination of Multidrug-Resistant Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuki; Shimizu, Takae; Mukai, Yujiro; Kuwajima, Ken; Sato, Tomomi; Usui, Masaru; Tamura, Yutaka; Kimura, Yui; Miyamoto, Tadashi; Tsuyuki, Yuzo; Ohki, Asami; Kataoka, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Klebsiella spp., including resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) and fluoroquinolones, is of great concern in both human and veterinary medicine. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in a total of 103 Klebsiella spp. isolates, consisting of Klebsiella pneumoniae complex (KP, n = 89) and K. oxytoca (KO, n = 14) from clinical specimens of dogs and cats in Japan. Furthermore, we characterized the resistance mechanisms, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (PABL), and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR); and assessed genetic relatedness of ESC-resistant Klebsiella spp. strains by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing demonstrated that resistance rates to ampicillin, cephalothin, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, cefotaxime, gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and cefmetazole were 98.1, 37.9, 37.9, 35.9, 35.0, 34.0, 31.1, 30.1, 28.2, 14.6, and 6.8%, respectively. Phenotypic testing detected ESBLs and/or AmpC β-lactamases in 31 of 89 (34.8%) KP isolates, but not in KO isolates. Resistances to 5 of the 12 antimicrobials tested, as well as the three PMQRs [qnrB, qnrS, and aac(6′)-Ib-cr], were detected significantly more frequently in ESBL-producing KP, than in non-ESBL-producing KP and KO. The most frequent ESBL was CTX-M-15 (n = 13), followed by CTX-M-14 (n = 7), CTX-M-55 (n = 6), SHV-2 (n = 5), CTX-M-2 (n = 2), and CTX-M-3 (n = 2). Based on the rpoB phylogeny, all ESBL-producing strains were identified as K. pneumoniae, except for one CTX-M-14-producing strain, which was identified as K. quasipneumoniae. All of AmpC β-lactamase positive isolates (n = 6) harbored DHA-1, one of the PABLs. Based on MLST and PFGE analysis, ST15 KP clones producing CTX-M-2, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-55, and

  5. Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance in Klebsiella spp. Isolates from Companion Animals in Japan: Clonal Dissemination of Multidrug-Resistant Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuki; Shimizu, Takae; Mukai, Yujiro; Kuwajima, Ken; Sato, Tomomi; Usui, Masaru; Tamura, Yutaka; Kimura, Yui; Miyamoto, Tadashi; Tsuyuki, Yuzo; Ohki, Asami; Kataoka, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Klebsiella spp., including resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) and fluoroquinolones, is of great concern in both human and veterinary medicine. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in a total of 103 Klebsiella spp. isolates, consisting of Klebsiella pneumoniae complex (KP, n = 89) and K. oxytoca (KO, n = 14) from clinical specimens of dogs and cats in Japan. Furthermore, we characterized the resistance mechanisms, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (PABL), and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR); and assessed genetic relatedness of ESC-resistant Klebsiella spp. strains by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing demonstrated that resistance rates to ampicillin, cephalothin, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, cefotaxime, gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and cefmetazole were 98.1, 37.9, 37.9, 35.9, 35.0, 34.0, 31.1, 30.1, 28.2, 14.6, and 6.8%, respectively. Phenotypic testing detected ESBLs and/or AmpC β-lactamases in 31 of 89 (34.8%) KP isolates, but not in KO isolates. Resistances to 5 of the 12 antimicrobials tested, as well as the three PMQRs [qnrB, qnrS, and aac(6')-Ib-cr], were detected significantly more frequently in ESBL-producing KP, than in non-ESBL-producing KP and KO. The most frequent ESBL was CTX-M-15 (n = 13), followed by CTX-M-14 (n = 7), CTX-M-55 (n = 6), SHV-2 (n = 5), CTX-M-2 (n = 2), and CTX-M-3 (n = 2). Based on the rpoB phylogeny, all ESBL-producing strains were identified as K. pneumoniae, except for one CTX-M-14-producing strain, which was identified as K. quasipneumoniae. All of AmpC β-lactamase positive isolates (n = 6) harbored DHA-1, one of the PABLs. Based on MLST and PFGE analysis, ST15 KP clones producing CTX-M-2, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-55, and

  6. Analysis of detection result and drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in cooked meat products of hotels%酒店酱卤类熟肉制品中金黄色葡萄球菌检测结果及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓红; 孙明华; 徐佩华

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解酱卤类熟肉制品中金黄色葡萄球菌污染状况及耐药情况,为预防食源性疾病及指导临床合理用药提供科学依据.方法:按照国家规定的标准检验方法GB/T4789.10-2008进行检验,药敏试验采用K-B法,依据NCCIS(美国临床实验室标准委员会)规定判断结果.结果:从115份样品中检出18株金黄色葡萄球菌,检出率为8.68%,经抽查50%的酒店酱卤类熟肉制品卫生质量不合格.17种抗生素中以青霉素、氨苄西林的耐药性最高为88.89%,未检出有耐甲氧西林和耐万古霉素的菌株,对头孢唑啉、头孢吡肟、头孢噻吩、万古霉素、庆大霉素、呋喃妥因、克林霉素、头孢西丁完全敏感.结论:酱卤类熟肉制品中金黄色葡萄球菌污染较重,不同的加工制作方式与金黄色葡萄球菌污染存在一定关系.建议加强餐饮业卫生管理,消除食物中毒隐患,做好日常耐药性监测工作,关注耐甲氧西林和耐万古霉素菌株的出现.%Objective:To find out the contamination and resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in cooked meat products, and to provide the scientific basis for prevention of foodborne diseases and clinical reasonable medication. Methods: Samples were examined according to GB/T4789.10 - 2008. The drug sensitivity test used the K - B law, and judgments of results were based on NCCLS. Results:A total of 18 out of 115 samples were positive,the positive rate of Staphylococcus aureus was 8.68%, Half of the hotels failed to meet the hygiene quality standard. Drug sensitivity test showed penicillin and ampicillin resistance rates were 88.89% in 17 kinds of antibiotics. None of the strains was MRSA or VRE,and all of them were sensitive to cefazolin,cefepime,cephalothin, vancomycin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, clindamycin and cefoxitin. Conclusion: Contamination of Staphylococcus aureus was serious in cooked meat products of hotels, there were certain relationships between different

  7. Volume replacement with hydroxyethyl starch or Ringer lactate solution in hemorrhagic gastroenteritis dogs with parvovirusReposição volêmica com hidroxietilamido ou solução de ringer lactato em cães com gastroenterite hemorrágica por parvovírus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ghiggi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Parvovirus is an infectious viral disease, highly contagious, affecting dogs causing acute enteritis. Dehydration is a minor problem and acute evolution, which is the main focus of treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate two treatments volume replacement in dogs with confirmed diagnosis of parvovirus infection by antigen detection in stool by ELISA. A total of 15 dogs, mixed, male and female, aged from 3 to 6 months, these four they had died during treatment and 11 were included in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (HES, n=6 and Group Ringer Lactate (RL, n=5, which received fluid resuscitation with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 and Ringer’s solution lactate, respectively, based on calculations of fluid deficit. All animals received intravenously: cephalothin, metronidazole, ranitidine and metoclopramide. During hospitalization, every 12 hours were evaluated arterial blood gas, electrolyte dosing and clinical examination (heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, capillary refill time, vomiting, appetite, dehydration, weight gain, hematochezia, melena, hematemesis and presence abdominal pain and 24 hours each blood count was performed. In group RL was increase in the values of PaO2 and decreases in hemoglobin, hematocrit, phosphorus and magnesium, and group HES, a decrease in the percentage of dehydration, hemoglobin, phosphorus and potassium. There were no differences in other parameters between the groups. Both treatments were effective in fluid replacement of patients, no difference in any variable analyzed. A parvovirose é uma doença infecciosa viral, altamente contagiosa, que acomete cães causando enterite aguda. A desidratação é um problema secundário e de evolução aguda, sendo este o foco principal do tratamento. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar dois tratamentos de reposição volêmica em cães com diagnóstico confirmado de parvovirose por detec

  8. 临床分离2230株革兰阴性杆菌种类分布及耐药性分析%Analysis of distribution and drug resistance of 2362 strains of gram negative bacillus isolated from clinics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蕊萍

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究某医院临床分离的革兰阴性杆菌种类分布及耐药性,为临床合理使用抗菌药物提供依据。方法采用细菌分离鉴定技术和药敏试验方法,对某医院患者送检病原学标本进行检测与分析。结果从该医院患者送检的5622份病原学标本中共分离出革兰阴性杆菌2230株,检出率为39.67%。排名前5位的有肺炎克雷伯菌、大肠埃希菌、铜绿假单胞菌、鲍曼不动杆菌和阴沟肠杆菌构成比依次为18.30%、14.62%、13.00%、6.55%和4.89%。临床分离的肺炎克雷伯菌、大肠埃希菌、铜绿假单胞菌和阴沟杆菌对阿莫西林的耐药率达到90%以上;鲍曼不动杆菌和铜绿假单胞对头孢噻吩的耐药率达到100%。结论该医院临床分离革兰阴性杆菌中主要优势菌耐药严重,应加强病原学标本检测,关注细菌耐药性变化趋势,指导临床合理选择抗菌药物。%Objective To study the species distribution and drug resistance of clinical isolates of gram negative bacillus in a hospital ,so as to provide the basis for clinical rational use of antibiotics .Methods The isolation and identification of bacteria and drug sensitivity test methods were used to detect and analyze the submission of pathogen of pathologic speci -mens from patients in a hospital .Results From 5 622 strains of pathogenic specimens isolated from this hospital patients 2 230 strains of gram negative bacilli were detected with the detection rate of 39.67%.The constituent ratios of Klebsiella pneumoniae,Escherichia coli,Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterobacter cloacae were 18.30%, 14.62%,13.00%,6.55%and 4.89%respectively,which were the top five ranking .The drug resistant rates of Klebsiella pneumoniae,Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Amoxicillin were more than 90%,and the drug resistant rates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterobacter cloacae to Cephalothin were

  9. Isolation,Identification and Drug Susceptibility Test of Salmonella and Shigella from the Intestine of Carp(Cyprinus carpio)%鲤鱼肠道中沙门氏菌、志贺氏菌分离鉴定及药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡秀彩; 胡宏晓; 吕爱军

    2011-01-01

    从江苏省某市菜市场采集商品规格(体重0.5~0.6kg)的鲤鱼(Cyprinus carpio),利用SS选择培养基分离纯化获得107株肠道细菌,对其中2个典型菌株(编号CS-1、CS-2)进行细菌形态学观察、生化试验及药敏试验等研究.结果表明,CS-1、CS-2菌株均为革兰氏阴性小杆菌,均能利用葡萄糖产气,MR试验阳性、氧化酶和VP试验阴性;其中CS-1菌株吲哚产生阴性,硫化氢、半固体试验阳性;CS-2菌株则相反,初步鉴定CS-1为沙门氏菌,CS-2为志贺氏菌.药敏试验结果显示,CS-1、CS-2两菌株对先锋必素、先锋霉素Ⅳ、头孢孟多、头孢噻吩、呋喃妥因、氧哌嗪青霉素等药物高度敏感;对氯沽霉素、洁霉素、灭滴灵、利福平、红霉素等药物不敏感.该研究对水产品食品安全检疫及鱼类疾病防治等具有重要参考价值.%In this study, SS agar was used for selective isolation of bacteria from the intestine of carp (Cyprinus carpio) (body weight 0.5 to 0.6 kg) sold in the open-air market of Jiangsu province. One hundred and seven strains of bacteria were gained, of which two typical strains were named CS-1 and CS-2, respectively. The results of the physiobiochemical characteristics and the antimicrobial susceptibility assay showed that they were all Gram staining negative and small rod-shaped bacteria, and produce acids and gas by using glucose, MR test were positive, oxidase and VP test were negative. The motility test and H2 S were positive, and indole was negative for CS-1 strain, while CS-2 strain were reversed. Preliminary identification of the strains of bacteria, CS-1 and CS-2 belong to Salmonellas and Shigella species, respectively. Further drug sensitivity test results revealed that two strains were highly sensitive to cefoperazone, cephalexin Ⅳ, cefamandole, cephalothin, nitrofurantoin and piperacillin, but they were resistant to clindamycin, lincomycin, metronidazole, rifampin, erythromycin. This study may provide

  10. 海氏迪茨菌株中VapA/VapB基因质粒子的表达及临床药敏试验结果分析%Dietzia maris bacterial susceptibility analysis identified by VapA/VapB genotype

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    周翔; 梁剑平; 冉茂胜; 陆锡宏; 李雪虎; 王曙阳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the virulence and antigenic structure of strains of Dietzia maris samples collected from Yellow. River precipitate by using VapA/VapB genotype, and to define Dietzia maris's biological characters in clinical samples and to analyze its drug hypersensitivity experimental results. Methods Dietzia maris molecular characteristics and Kirby-Bauer method for susceptibility testing were isolated by using 16S rRNA and the Rhodococcusequi ATCC133701p+ as the standard evaluation. Results The similarity between Dietzia marts and Rhodococcusequi was 80%. Dietzia maris's resistance rate to vancomycin, rifampiciri, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone was 0, and the rate to sulfamethoxazole oxazole and penicillin G was 100%. Its resistance rates towards erythromycin, ceftazidime, amikacin and cephalothin were 7.3%, 11.5%, 23.7% and 32.7% respectively. And its resistance rates towards cefazolin, oxacillin and ampicillin were between 65.5% and 91.8%. Conclusion The similarity between Dietz maris and Rhodococcusequi is 80%. Dietz marts is the pathogenic bacteria of some animals, such as horses, pigs and castles. It is also a peculiar pathogenic bacterium of human being. It can cause respiratory infection, urinary tract infection and septicemia. The antibiotics should be used reasonably according to the results of drug sensitivity test in clinic so as to prevent the drug resistance of Dietz maris.%目的 探讨海氏迪茨菌株中VapA/VapB基因质粒子的表达及临床药物敏感性.方法 利用16SrRNA技术,采用马红球菌株ATCC133701p+为应变标准,评价海氏迪茨菌株分子性状,纸片扩散法进行药敏试验.结果 海氏迪茨菌株与马红球菌株的相似度为80%,对万古霉素、利福平、环丙沙星、氧氟沙星、氯霉素、头孢三嗪的耐药率为0,对复方磺胺甲噁唑、青霉素G的耐药率为100%,红霉素耐药率为7.3%,头孢他定耐药率为11.5%,阿米卡星耐药率为23.7

  11. Prevalência de colonização por Streptococcus agalactiae em gestantes atendidas em maternidade do Ceará, no Brasil, correlacionando com os resultados perinatais Prevalence of the colonization by Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women from a maternity in Ceará, Brazil, correlating with perinatal outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juvenal Linhares

    2011-12-01

    , embora também notou-se grande taxa de resistência aos antibióticos mais utilizados no tratamento. São necessários novos estudos no Brasil, com grupos geograficamente semelhantes, para a validação desses resultados.PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae, a Group B streptococcus, in pregnant women, and their possible risk factors, as well as the impact of perinatal colonization and antimicrobial susceptibility. METHODS: We evaluated 213 pregnant women from 20 weeks of gestation, regardless of risk factors, attending a tertiary teaching hospital. The technique used was a single sterile swab to collect secretions from the vaginal and perianal regions. The newly obtained samples were stored in Stuart transport medium and taken to the laboratory, where they were inoculated in Todd-Hewitt selective medium supplemented with Gentamicin (8 ug/mL and nalidixic acid (15 ug/mL, with subsequent cultivation on blood agar plates. The materials were tested with Gram, catalase with hydrogen peroxide and CAMP (Christie, Atkins, Munch-Petersen, and results were serologically confirmed with the Streptococcal Grouping Kit, Oxoid®. The positive samples were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. We also assessed socioeconomic, reproductive, clinical, and obstetric variables, and newborn care. Statistical analysis was performed with Epi-Info 6.04. RESULTS: The prevalence of colonization obtained by field tests was 9.8% by CAMP test, but only 4.2% by serology. The only protective factor was white skin color (p=0.01, 0.45>OR>0.94, 95%CI. There was no difference in prevalence of Group B streptococcus regarding other reproductive and obstetric variables. Infection occurred in only one of the newborns from colonized mothers; although it was revealed infection with Pseudomonas spp. High resistance to ampicillin (4/9, cephalothin (4/9, penicillin (4/9, erythromycin (3/9, clindamycin (7/9, and cloramphenicol (1/9 was detected. CONCLUSIONS: The infection rate was lower

  12. Improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for VgDGAT1a gene based on shoot tip culture of cotton%农杆菌介导的VgDGAT1a基因棉花茎尖转化体系优化研究

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    王安可; 何秋伶; 潘晶晶; 孙英超; 祝水金; 陈进红

    2013-01-01

    5‐day‐old in vitro germinated seedlings and the shoot tips were cut in lengthwise to decrease the damage of meristematic cells . The strain EHA 105 was grown overnight on a shaker at 200 r/min and at 28 ℃ until the A600 value of bacterial concentration reached 0 .6 0 .9 . The suspension cells were centrifuged at 5 000 r/min for 10 min and the pellets were resuspended in an equivalent volume of liquid co‐cultivation medium [ MSB +200 μmol/L acetosyringone ( AS) ] . The treated explants were immediately immersed into prepared A grobacterium suspension containing pCAMBIA1301 , a binary vector carrying the V gDGA T1a gene , for 40 60 minutes . The tips were blotted dry on sterile filter paper and transferred into the co‐cultivation solid medium at 28 ℃ in dark . After co‐cultivation for 1 day , shoot tips were transferred into root induction medium containing MSB , 1 g/L activated charcoal , 400 mg/L cephalothin (Cef) and solidified with 0 .2% ( W/V ) phytagel , then grew in a growth chamber with stringent light , temperature and humidity control . In the following 3 4 weeks , 5‐leaf‐plants were transferred to plastic pots containing soil matrixes ( 1∶1 of turf and vermiculite) . Besides the optimized genetic transformation protocol of cotton shoot tip as stated above , it is found that 50 mg/L hygromycin ( Hyg) could accurately distinguish the resistant plants . In addition , reduplicated selections improved accuracy . In conclusion , this study describes an optimized transformation protocol for shoot tip of Zhongmiansuo 49 with an A . tume f aciens strain EHA105 harboring DGA T1 gene , and proves that it is an efficient and economical method to obtain transgenic plants based on the results of different and important parameters influencing the transformation efficiency .%  为了将斑鸠菊( Vernonia galamensis)二酰甘油酰基转移酶基因( V gDGA T1a)导入棉花,创制转基因高油棉花种质,优化建立农杆菌介导

  13. Pathogenic characterization of Shigella isolated from Ningxia%宁夏志贺菌病原学特征分析

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    郭邦成; 刘翔; 郝琼; 闫立群; 谢明英; 景怀琦; 王鑫; 梁俊容

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the distribution and drug susceptibility of Shigella bacteria in Ningxia, and provide the basis for prevention and control of bacillary dysentery through homology analysis of molecular epidemiology. Biochemistry of API20E system was used to identify strains, and the bacteria categories were tested by slide agglutination with a serum. The sensitivity of strain to 10 commonly used antibiotics was detected with Kirby-Bauer assay, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used for molecular typing. The results were analysed by BioNumerics V4. 0 and UPGMA method. Among the 176 Shigella, there were 64 Shigella sonnet (36. 36%) and 112 Shigella flexneri (63. 64%) which containing 52 Shigella flexneri 2b (29. 55%). Results showed that drugs with higher resistance rate were ampicillin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline and rifampin, following by amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole. The most sensitive drugs were ciprofloxa-cin (CIP) , cefotaxime and cephalothin; the test also showed that Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnet had slight difference in resistance spectrum to 10 antibiotics. The 112 Shigella flexneri were divided into 36 banding patterns, in which JZXN11. NX06, JZXN11. NX07, JZXN11. NX021, JZXN11 and NX0025, accounting for 57. 14%, were the main outbreak types in Ningxia. The 64 Shigella sonnet were divided into 21 banding patterns, in which J16X01. NX0011 and J16X01. NX0012 were the 2 epidemic banding patterns, accounting for 31. 25% and 15. 63% respectively. It indicates that in Ningxia, the most popular Shigella bacteria is Shigella flexneri, and F2b is the dominant serotype. The detection rate of F4c and Shigella sonnet have decreased significantly. The drug resistance rate of Shigella to ampicillin (AMP), tetracycline (Te) and amoxicillin (AML) are the highest, and the situation of multi-drug resistance is serious. The PFGE have type presented a diverse epidemicpattern. The advantaged bands are less popular

  14. Investigation of Drug and Disinfectants Resistance of Pig Source E.coli O157 ∶ H7%猪源大肠杆菌0157:H7耐药表型和消毒剂抗性调查

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    李军; 杨威; 曾芸; 谢宇舟; 冯世文; 彭昊; 陈泽祥; (榻)雄标; 胡帅; 马春霞; 谢永平

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the information of drug resistance phenotypes and disinfectants resistance of pig source E. Coli O157: H7 isolated from Guangxi,the drug sensitive and disinfectants resistance were assayed. Meanwhile, 3 aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance genes,αPh(3)-Iia ,aadA and ααdB were amplified by PCR. The results of drug sensitive to 27 antibiotics showed that 5 strains were sensitive to Florfenicol,Ceftriaxone,Cefoxitin and Cefotaxime. The rate of drug resistance to Rox-ithromycin,Polymyxin B,Rifampin,Lincomycin, Amoxycilin, Ampicilin and Cephalothin were 100%. The rate of drug resistance to other antibiotics,such as Trobicin,Streptomycin,Cefradine were between 20% and 60%. Among of 5 strains, 1 strain, 1 strain and 3 strains were resistances to 23,11 and 9 antibiotics,respectively. The results of PCR confirmed that genome of 5 strains contained aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance genes. Antibiotic resistance genes had a certain correlation with drug resistance phenotypes. The results of disinfectants resistance showed that 5 strains were resistance to Povidone Iodine solution, Bromogeramine solution,Glutaraldehyde solution,double quaternary ammonium salt-iodine disinfection liquid and compound of peracetic acid,except dischloroisocyanuric acid sodium chloride powder. Our results will provide information to prevention and control of E. Coli O157 : H7 in Guangxi.%为了调查广西猪源大肠杆菌O157∶H7分离株的耐药表型和消毒剂抗性情况,本研究测定5株猪源大肠杆菌O157∶H7广西分离株的药物敏感性和消毒剂抗性,并应用PCR对5株细菌的耐氨基糖苷类抗生素基因:氨基糖苷磷酸转移酶基因aph(3) -Iia、乙酰转移酶基因aadA和aadB进行扩增.27种抗菌药物的敏感结果表明,5株菌株只对氟苯尼考、头孢曲松、头孢西丁和头孢噻肟敏感;对罗红霉素、多黏菌素B、利福平、林可霉素、阿莫西林、氨苄西林和头孢噻吩的耐药率为100%;对壮观

  15. Etiologia e perfil de sensibilidade de bactérias isoladas de ovelhas com mastite na região nordeste do estado do Pará Etiology and antimicrobial susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from sheep with mastitis in northeastern Pará, Brazil

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    Natália da Silva e Silva

    2010-12-01

    isolated were Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negative (26.9%; Staphylococcus aureus (15.,4%; Streptococcus spp. (7.69%; Escherichia coli (7.69% and Citrobacter freundii (11.5%. Were observed associations of Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negative nonhemolytic and Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negative hemolytic (3.85%. The most efficient antibiotics for the Gram positive agents were penicile/novobiocine (100%, cefalotine (100% and florfenicol (100% and for the Citrobacter freundii were ampicilina (100% and florfenicol (100%. In relation to Escherichia coli, 66.7% of isolates to ampicillin, cephalothin, florfenicol and tetracycline were resistant. Mastitis is present in sheep in the State of Pará, and it's necessary to estimate, in future studies, the economic losses caused by this disease. The CMT show satisfactory results and can be recommended as a screening test for diagnosing individual cases of subclinical mastitis in sheep, once had a good relationship with the microbiological examination. In the antibiogram where most of the isolated agents appear sensitive to different antibiotics tested, the antibiotics with the best efficiency were florfenicol and cefoxitin.

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Aeromonas strains isolated from various aquatic animals in Guangdong Province%广东省水产动物源气单胞菌对抗菌药物的耐药分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雅丽; 邓玉婷; 姜兰; 谭爱萍; 薛慧娟; 王伟利; 罗理; 赵飞

    2013-01-01

    为了解广东地区水产动物源气单胞菌的耐药情况,采用K-B纸片法测定了112株1995-2012年来源于不同种类患病水产动物的气单胞菌对20种抗菌药的耐药性,数据用WHONET 5.6耐药监测软件分析.结果显示,气单胞菌对氨苄西林和头孢噻吩的耐药率分别高达85.7%和79.5%,其次对利福平、阿莫西林/克拉维酸、链霉素、萘啶酸、磺胺类、头孢西丁、四环素和磺胺甲基异恶唑/甲氧苄啶的耐药率分别达57.1%、51.8%、49.1%、44.6%、31.2%、28.6%、28.6%和21.4%;对氟喹诺酮类(氧氟沙星、诺氟沙星、环丙沙星)、头孢噻肟、头孢曲松、亚胺培南、阿米卡星、呋喃妥因、氯霉素和多西环素相对敏感.比较不同来源气单胞菌的耐药情况,结果显示爬行、两栖动物和观赏鱼来源的分离菌株对氟喹诺酮类、头孢类等药物的耐药率比养殖鱼、虾类的高;气单胞菌对常用抗菌药呈现不同程度的耐药,不同来源的气单胞菌的耐药率亦不尽相同.水产动物源气单胞菌存在多重耐药菌株应引起重视,今后在气单胞菌疾病防治方面要慎重用药,并且有必要开展水产动物源的细菌耐药性监测,以指导水产养殖合理用药.%112 Aeromonas strains were isolated from various aquatic animals at different time in Guangdong province. Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method was used to detect the resistance of 112 strains against 20 commonly used antimicrobial agents. Resistance rates were analyzed by WHONET 5. 6 software. The overall resistance rates were highest for ampicillin (85. 7%) and cephalothin (79. 5%) followed by rifampicin (57.1% ) ,amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (51. 8% ) .streptomycin (49. 1% ) ,sulfonamides (31. 2% ) ,cefoxitin (28. 6% ) , tetracycline (28.6%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (21.4%). Aeromonas isolates were suseptible to most of antimicrobial agents and a low incidence ( < 10% ) of resistance to imipenem (0

  17. Drug resistance and resistant mechanisms of Pasteurella aerogenes from knee joint fluid%膝关节液中产气巴斯德菌的耐药性及耐药机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅海燕; 明德松; 朱焱; 谢尊金

    2012-01-01

    amocillin/clavulanate, cefoxitin, and cephalothin, cefotaxime, cefepime, imipenem, meropenem, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, polymyxin, fluoroquinolon and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole;During the detection of the variety of BLs, 6mm for aztreonam was detected but was drug-resistant, while there were no synergy or antagonism between ceftazidime/clavulanate, ampicillin/sulbactam. Meanwhile, 10 mm ceftazidime was detected as well as 14 mm ceftazidime/clavulanate,14mm cefotaxime, 16mm cefotaxime/clavulanate and 28mm cefoxitin were all susceptible. CONCLUSION The clinical isolate of P. Aerogenes from joint fluid of a patient with knee osteoarthritis is just resistant to some of β-lactams, thus the drug resistance is low, and the resistant mechanism of P. Aerogenes is the production of BLs,being speculated to produce ESBLs by phenotype of drug resistant and ceftazidime-clavulanate synergy test.

  18. Establishment and research on Staphylococcus-infected-corneal C57BL/6 mouse model%C57BL/6小鼠葡萄球菌性角膜感染模型的建立及相关研究

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    刘春; 袁志云; 杨菲菲; 管怀进; 邵义祥

    2010-01-01

    days.Corneal opacity mutant mice in the F1 generation were selected to backcross with C57BL/6 mice.The bacteria were isolated from the eyeballs of the mutants and cultivated,purified and identified.Drug sensitivity assay was carried out to screen for effective antibiotics for clinic medical care.Results The staphylococcus-infected corneal mouse model(B6-Co) was established successfully,and the Staphylococcus sciuri strain was separated and purified,and then the sensitive antibiotics were distinguished from resistant ones.The sensitive drugs for Staphylococcus sciuri included azithromycin,clindamycin,chloramphenicol,gentamicin,rifampicin,tetracycline,amikacin,sulfamethoxazole compound sinomin,minocycline,levofloxacin,cephalothin,cefotaxime,and furazolidone;whereas this Staphylococcal strain was resistant to cefoxitin,penicillin,ampicillin,novobiocin.Nitrofurantoin showed an intermediate sensitivity.Conclusion The C57BL/6 mouse model is a spontaneous-derived animal model that is infected by coagulase-negative staphylococci,among which the most abundant strain is Staphylococcus sciuri.

  19. 665株鲍曼不动杆菌耐药性变化与用药频度相关性分析%Correlation between drug resistance and drug comsuption in 665 strains ofAcinetobacter Baumannii

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    金浩; 仇凡; 孙明忠

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter Baumannii to this drug, Piperacillin/tazobactam (r=0.98,P<0.01), Gentamicin (r=0.87,P<0.01), Czidime (r=0.75,P<0.05), Cefoxitin (r=-0.74,P<0.05). Cefoperazone/sulbactam usage was also negatively correlated with aminoglycoside use frequency (r=-0.84,P<0.05), the drug resistance rate of Amikacin was positively correlated with the frequency of Cephalothin drug usage (r=0.98,P<0.01).Conclusion: hTe drug resistance to common antibiotics by Bauman is more serious, and there is a certain correlation between the use of antibacterial drugs and the rate of bacterial resistance.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus: incidência e resistência antimicrobiana em abscessos cutâneos de origem comunitária Staphylococcus aureus: etiology and susceptibility profile to antimicrobial agents of skin and subcutaneous cell tissue abscesses from community infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zavadinack Netto

    2002-03-01

    profilaxia ou tratamento de infecções por S.aureus, mesmo aqueles de origem comunitária.An analysis of Staphylococcus aureus (Monera, an etiological agent of community infections, is provided. Staphylococcus aureus causes the formation of skin and subcutaneous cell tissue abscesses. Susceptibility profile to antimicrobials used in prophylaxis or therapy of these cutaneous infections will be given. One hundred and seven samples of secretions were collected from January 1996 through July 1997 at the emergency sector of University Hospital of the State University of Maringá, Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil, from infected patients with skin and subcutaneous cell tissue abscesses. Microbiological evaluation was carried out according to Bayle and susceptibility to antimicrobial was evaluated in vitro through the technique of diffusion in agar according to Kirby. Sixteen antimicrobials used in prophylaxis or therapy of skin and subcutaneous cell tissue infections were evaluated. From the one hundred and seven clinical samples collected from patients complaining of infections with skin and subcutaneous cell tissue abscesses, 71 (66.35% were positive to S.aureus and 36 (33,65% were either positive for other microorganisms, or tested negative. In the evaluation of susceptibility to S.aureus a higher sensitivity to vancomycin (100%, teicoplanin (100%, amikacin (100%, cefoxitin (100%, cephalothin (98.53%, lincomycin (98.53%, gentamicin (98.53%, oxacillin (96,4%, norfloxacin (95.77% and sulfazotrin (95.77% was found when compared to penicillin G (08.45%, ampicillin (08.45%, kanamycin (81,69%, erythromycin (88.41%, tetracycline (90.14 and chloramphenicol (94,36%. Results show that S.aureus is the most frequently isolated microorganism from community infections with skin and subcutaneous tissue abscesses. The susceptibility profile evidences high resistance to penicillins, which restricts the use of these antimicrobials as an alternative in the prophylaxis or treatment of S

  1. 齐口裂腹鱼无乳链球菌的分离鉴定及其感染的病理损伤%Isolation, identification and pathogenicity of Streptococcus agalactiae from Schizothorax prenanti

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    余泽辉; 张佳; 耿毅; 邓梦玲; 汪开毓; 黄小丽; 陈德芳; 王均

    2014-01-01

    In 2012-2013, a serious infectious disease characterized by exophthalmia, hemorrhage, and neurological symptoms emerged in Schizothorax prenanti farms in Sichuan Province. A Gram-positive, chain-forming coccus was found in liver and kidney smears. Two strains of Gram-positive, chain-forming cocci were isolated from the diseased fish. The colonies had a smooth-surface and were white, circular, regular and pin-head sized after incubation at 28℃for 48 h on brain heart infusion (BHI). Artificial infection proved that the isolates were the pathogen of the disease. It was primarily identified to be Streptococcus agalactiae according to morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Furthermore, a 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis by BLAST in GenBank indicated that the two isolates showed high levels of similarity to S. agalactiae (more than 96.5%). A phylogenetic tree was constructed comparing the 16S rDNA sequences of both isolates (GenBank accession number KF773744 and KF761304) to other related bacterial species in the GenBank database. In the phylogenetic tree the two isolates and other S. agalactiae strains constituted a branch. In addition, the two isolates were positive in a specific PCR detection of S. agalactiae based on the cfb gene. Based on the phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, and specific PCR detection, both isolates were identified as S. agalactiae. The sensitivity results showed that both strains were sensitive to doxycycline, amoxicillin, cephalothin V, ofloxacin and levofloxacin, but showed some difference in sensitivity to neomycin and amikacin. Histopathologically, the S. agalactiae infection could cause serious pathological changes in multi-organs and tissues, especially in liver, kidney and brain. The main pathologic lesions were degeneration, necrosis and infiltration of the inflammation cells. Electron microscopical examination found that bacteria could invade hepatocytes, renal cells and