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Sample records for cephalosporins

  1. Cephalosporin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Bala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gonorrhea, a disease of public health importance, not only leads to high incidence of acute infections and complications but also plays a major role in facilitating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV acquisition and transmission. One of the major public health needs for gonorrhea control is appropriate, effective treatment. However, treatment options for gonorrhea are diminishing as Neisseria gonorrhoeae have developed resistance to several antimicrobial drugs such as sulfonamides, penicillin, tetracyclines and quinolones. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR surveillance of N. gonorrhoeae helps establish and maintain the efficacy of standard treatment regimens. AMR surveillance should be continuous to reveal the emergence of new resistant strains, monitor the changing patterns of resistance, and be able to update treatment recommendations so as to assist in disease control. Current treatment guidelines recommend the use of single dose injectable or oral cephalosporins. The emergence and spread of cephalosporin resistant and multi drug resistant N. gonorrhoeae strains, represents a worrying trend that requires monitoring and investigation. Routine clinical laboratories need to be vigilant for the detection of such strains such that strategies for control and prevention could be reviewed and revised from time to time. It will be important to elucidate the genetic mechanisms responsible for decreased susceptibility and future resistance. There is also an urgent need for research of safe, alternative anti-gonococcal compounds that can be administered orally and have effective potency, allowing high therapeutic efficacy (greater than 95.0% cure rate.

  2. Evaluation of Eight Different Cephalosporins for Detection of Cephalosporin Resistance in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarestrup, F.M.; Hasman, H.; Veldman, K.T.; Mevius, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of eight different cephalosporins for detection of cephalosporin resistance mediated by extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC beta-lactamases in Salmonella and Escherichia coli. A total of 138 E. coli and 86 Salmonella isolates with known beta-

  3. [Antibiotic prophylaxis with cephalosporins in heart surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichart, B; Klinner, W; Adam, D

    1981-08-13

    60 minutes after i.v. injection tissue levels of 7 different cephalosporins were obtained using biological assay. The following concentrations were measured: cephalothn 1.4 micrograms/g; cepharin 4.7 micrograms/g; cephacetrile 11.2 micrograms/g; cephradine 15.4 micrograms/g; cefazedone 26.9 micrograms/g; cefamandole 40.3 micrograms/g, and finally cefoxitin 43 micrograms/g. The high tissue levels of cefamandole and cefoxitin are especially remarkable as i.v. doses of both antibiotics had been 50 mg/kg body weight ( doses of all other cephalosporins 100 mg/kg body weight). Except cephalothin, all cephalosporins tested were suitable for antibiotic prophylaxis in cardiac surgery.

  4. Cephalosporin MIC creep among gonococci: time for a pharmacodynamic rethink?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chisholm, S.A.; Mouton, J.W.; Lewis, D.A.; Nichols, T.; Ison, C.A.; Livermore, D.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gonorrhoea has been among the easiest infections to cure with antibiotics. Nevertheless, emerging resistance has driven repeated treatment shifts. Decreased cephalosporin susceptibility is now being reported. We examined cephalosporin MIC trends for Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the UK and un

  5. Evaluation of Eight Different Cephalosporins for Detection of Cephalosporin Resistance in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hasman, Henrik; Veldman, K

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of eight different cephalosporins for detection of cephalosporin resistance mediated by extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC beta-lactamases in Salmonella and Escherichia coli. A total of 138 E. coli and 86 Salmonella isolates with known beta......-resistant but cephalosporin-susceptible, 56 ESBL isolates and 19 isolates with plasmidic AmpC, as well as 10 ampC hyper-producing E. coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration distributions and zone inhibitions varied with the tested compound. Ampicillin-resistant isolates showed reduced susceptibility to the cephalosporins...... compared to ampicillin-susceptible isolates. Cefoperazone, cefquinome, and cefuroxime were not useful in detecting isolates with ESBL or plasmidic AmpC. The best substances for detection were cefotaxime, cefpodoxime, and ceftriaxone, whereas ceftazidime and ceftiofur were not as efficient. Ceftriaxone may...

  6. Third-generation cephalosporins: a critical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriere, S L; Flaherty, J F

    1984-01-01

    Six third-generation cephalosporins--cefotaxime, moxalactam, cefoperazone, ceftizoxime, ceftriaxone, and cefmenoxime--are reviewed; covered are chemistry and structure-activity relationships, mechanism of action, spectra of activity, pharmacokinetics, clinical utility, adverse effects, and cost effectiveness. The third-generation cephalosporins have a similar mechanism of action to that of other beta-lactam antibiotics. None of the agents is particularly active against certain gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; the drugs are effective against gonococci, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Several common gram-negative pathogens are susceptible to the third-generation cephalosporins, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Citrobacter diversus, Proteus, and Morganella. About 50% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates are susceptible. Only moxalactam has good activity against Bacteriodes fragilis. The pharmacokinetic profiles of the six agents reveal some important differences. The half-life of ceftriaxone allows once-daily dosing in many patients; the half-lives of ceftizoxime and cefoperazone permit dosing every 8-12 hours. Cefoperazone and ceftriaxone are highly protein bound, but the clinical relevance of this is unknown. Generally, the agents penetrate most body tissues and fluids well. Moxalactam and cefotaxime and possibly ceftriaxone effectively penetrate into the cerebrospinal fluid well. The third-generation cephalosporins have become the accepted drugs of choice for the treatment of adult gram-negative bacillary meningitis; as more experience is gained, they are likely to become the drugs of first choice for neonatal (with ampicillin) and childhood (except for moxalactam) meningitis. Serious infections of Enterobacteriaceae can be treated with these agents, thereby avoiding use of the aminoglycosides. Moxalactam is comparable with combination therapy in treating intra-abdominal infections. Adverse

  7. Cephalosporin Induced Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis and Subsequent Penicillin Drug Exanthem

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    Amanda Lam

    2008-01-01

    Discussion: This case demonstrates the complexity of drug hypersensitivity reactions. While it is accepted that IgE mediated penicillin allergy is a predisposition to cephalosporin allergy, this case displays an unusual correlation between drug hypersensitivity and drug class. There have been few studies that evaluate the cross reactivity with penicillin or other beta-lactams in subjects with primary hypersensitivity to cephalosporins. This clinical scenario emphasizes the need of more studies on cephalosporin allergy in particular as shown by this case of sequential non-IgE mediated cephalosporin induced TEN reaction pursuant by an IgE mediated penicillin allergy.

  8. Ceftobiprole: a new broad spectrum cephalosporin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Solh, Ali

    2009-07-01

    Ceftobiprole, formerly designated BAL9141/Ro 63-9141, is a pyrrolidinone-3-ylidene-methyl cephalosporin with demonstrated in vitro activity against MRSA, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ceftobiprole has a low potential for inducing chromosomal AmpC beta-lactamases but it is hydrolyzed by most extended spectrum beta-lactamases and metallo-beta-lactamases. Glomerular filtration is predominantly responsible for removal of the free drug from the systemic circulation. The efficacy of ceftobiprole in the treatment of complicated skin and ski-structure infections has been recently demonstrated in two Phase III randomized clinical trials involving 1600 patients. Two other Phase III clinical trials to assess ceftobiprole's efficacy in community-acquired pneumonia and nosocomial pneumonia have also concluded. While the drug met the noninferiority criteria for community-acquired pneumonia and nosocomial pneumonia involving non-ventilator associated pneumonia, ceftobiprole was less effective than the comparator in ventilator associated pneumonia subjects. Ceftobiprole was well tolerated with a safety profile consistent with the cephalosporin class of antibiotic. The most frequent drug-related adverse event was dysgeusia. Ceftobiprole is intended for use in the hospital for the treatment of infections that frequently involve beta-lactam-resistant Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms.

  9. Diagnosis and management of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Scott D; Salazar, Kimberly C

    2013-08-01

    Cephalosporins are one of the most commonly prescribed classes of antibiotics. Immediate IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions have been reported with use of a specific cephalosporin, as a cross-reaction between different cephalosporins or as a cross-reaction to other β-lactam antibiotics, namely, penicillin. Historically, frequent reports of anaphylaxis following administration of first- and second-generation cephalosporins to patients with a history of penicillin allergy led to the belief of a high degree of allergic cross-reactivity. More recent evidence reveals a significantly lower risk of cross-reactivity between penicillins and the newer-generation cephalosporins. The current thought is that a shared side chain, rather than the β-lactam ring structure, is the determining factor in immunologic cross-reactivity. Understanding the chemical structure of these agents has allowed us to identify the allergenic determinants for penicillin; however, the exact allergenic determinants of cephalosporins are less well understood. For this reason, standardized diagnostic skin testing is not available for cephalosporins as it is for penicillin. Nevertheless, skin testing to the cephalosporin in question, using a nonirritating concentration, provides additional information, which can further guide the work-up of a patient suspected of having an allergy to that drug. Together, the history and the skin test results can assist the allergist in the decision to recommend continued drug avoidance or to perform a graded challenge versus an induction of tolerance procedure.

  10. Role of cephalosporins in the era of Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Mark H; Chalmers, James D; Nord, Carl E; Freeman, Jane; Bouza, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Europe has increased markedly since 2000. Previous meta-analyses have suggested a strong association between cephalosporin use and CDI, and many national programmes on CDI control have focused on reducing cephalosporin usage. Despite reductions in cephalosporin use, however, rates of CDI have continued to rise. This review examines the potential association of CDI with cephalosporins, and considers other factors that influence CDI risk. EUCLID (the EUropean, multicentre, prospective biannual point prevalence study of CLostridium difficile Infection in hospitalized patients with Diarrhoea) reported an increase in the annual incidence of CDI from 6.6 to 7.3 cases per 10 000 patient bed-days from 2011-12 to 2012-13, respectively. While CDI incidence and cephalosporin usage varied widely across countries studied, there was no clear association between overall cephalosporin prescribing (or the use of any particular cephalosporin) and CDI incidence. Moreover, variations in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of cephalosporins of the same generation make categorization by generation insufficient for predicting impact on gut microbiota. A multitude of additional factors can affect the risk of CDI. Antibiotic choice is an important consideration; however, CDI risk is associated with a range of antibiotic classes. Prescription of multiple antibiotics and a long duration of treatment are key risk factors for CDI, and risk also differs across patient populations. We propose that all of these are factors that should be taken into account when selecting an antibiotic, rather than focusing on the exclusion of individual drug classes.

  11. Kounis syndrome secondary to intravenous cephalosporin administration

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    Sunkavalli Venkateswararao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kounis syndrome is a clinical condition due to hypersensitivity that culminates into acute coronary syndrome (ACS which can be fatal. A 36-year-old male with no conventional coronary risk factors presented elsewhere with a history of fever for 4 days, cough with expectoration, diarrhea and was treated with cephalosporin (Inj. Cefotaxime as an infusion along with analgesics. He experienced generalized itching 5 minutes after cefotaxime infusion followed by sweating, headache, chest pain with facial and periorbital swelling for which he was rushed to our hospital. On examination he was afebrile with a low blood pressure. Electrocardiogram taken at an outside hospital revealed incomplete right bundle branch block and ST depression V3–V5. Investigations showed increase in troponin T. He was managed with anti-histamines and standard protocol for treatment of ACS. Coronary angiogram revealed normal coronaries. The patient improved symptomatically with treatment and was discharged on an anti-platelet, nitrate and a statin.

  12. Crystallographic Studies of Cephalosporin Acylase from Pseudomonas sp. Strain 130

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Yi(丁怡); JIANG Weihong(姜卫红); ZHANG Shuping(张淑平); MAO Xiang(茅翔); Mark Bartlam; ZHAO Guoping(赵国平); RAO Zihe(饶子和)

    2003-01-01

    The cephalosporin acylases are a group of enzymes that hydrolyze cephalosporin C and/or glutaryl 7-aminocephalosporanic acid to produce 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.The cephalosporin acylase from Pseudomonas sp.strain 130 was crystallized in two different forms suitable for structural studies.A tetragonal crystal form diffracted to 0.24 nm belonged to the space group P41212.There was one αβ heterodimer per asymmetric unit.A second crystal form diffracted to 0.21 nm belonged to the space group P21.There was four αβ heterodimers per asymmetric unit.The tetragonal crystal structure of CA-130 was determined using the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction method and the P21 crystal structure was then determined using the molecular replacement method.

  13. Decontamination of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae during selective digestive tract decontamination in intensive care units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, E.A.; Smet, A.M. de; Kesecioglu, J.; Bonten, M.J.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Pickkers, P.; Sturm, P.D.; Voss, A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Prevalences of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are increasing globally, especially in intensive care units (ICUs). The effect of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) on the eradication of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from the intestinal tract is unknow

  14. Decontamination of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae during selective digestive tract decontamination in intensive care units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, Evelien A. N.; de Smet, Anne Marie G. A.; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Bonten, Marc J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Prevalences of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are increasing globally, especially in intensive care units (ICUs). The effect of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) on the eradication of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from the intestinal tract is unknown. We quanti

  15. Clathrate type complexation of cephalosporin antibiotics : function, design and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, Gerardus Johannes

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with selective complexation of the Ø-lactam antibiotics Cephalexin, Cephradine, Cefaclor and Cefadroxil. These life-saving antibiotics belong to the class of the cephalosporins and are already on the market for approximately 25 years. An important driving force behind innovations o

  16. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of New Cephalosporin Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Five new cephalosporin compounds were designed and synthesized, and the antibacterial activities were evaluated by the standard serial 2-fold agar dilution method in vitro.The results showed that the activities of the compounds Ⅰa and Ⅰb against ESBL E. coli and K.pneumoniae are comparable to those of Cefepime.

  17. Third generation cephalosporins in the parenteral to oral switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, D

    1994-01-01

    In the present economic climate, it is increasingly necessary to ensure the cost-effectiveness of all aspects of healthcare. The expenditure on medications in a hospital is largely determined by the workload and throughput, but efforts to rationalise the use of medications will result in benefits both in patient care and overall costs. The purpose of this report is to discuss the advantages of switching from parenteral to oral cephalosporin therapy after the initial stage of infection treatment, the potential of presently available oral cephalosporins for use in a parenteral-to-oral switch regimen, and the outcome of a parenteral-to-oral switch programme, which used parenteral cefotaxime and oral cefixime, implemented at Hillingdon Hospital.

  18. Recombinant Acremonium chrysogenum strains for the industrial production of cephalosporin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, B; Mellado, E; Fouces, R; Rodríguez, M; Barredo, J L

    1996-09-01

    Conventional strain improvement programs based on random mutagenesis and rational screening have meant valuable results to the antibiotic producing companies. The development of recombinant DNA techniques and their applications to the industrially-used cephalosporin-producing fungus Acremonium chrysogenum has provided a new tool, complementary to classical mutation, promoting the design of alternative biosynthetic pathways making it possible to obtain new antibiotics and to improve cephalosporin production. Yield increases have been achieved by increasing the dosage of the biosynthetic genes cefEF (deacetoxycephalosporin C expandase/hydroxylase) and cefG (deacetylcephalosporin C acetyltransferase) or enhancing the oxygen uptake by expressing a bacterial oxygen-binding heme protein (Vitreoscilla hemoglobin). New biosynthetic capacities such as the production of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) or penicillin G have been achieved through the expression of the foreign genes dao (D-amino acid oxidase) coupled with cephalosporin acylase or penDE(acyl-CoA:6-APA acyltransferase) respectively. Confined manipulation of the above-mentioned recombinant strains must be performed according to standing rules.

  19. Activity of Vancomycin, Teicoplanin and Cephalosporins against Penicillin-Susceptible and Penicillin-Intermediate Streptococcus Pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian G Loo

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report in vitro susceptibilities of penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-intermediate Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates to cephalosporins, vancomycin and teicoplanin.

  20. Cephalosporin Induced Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis and Subsequent Penicillin Drug Exanthem

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Lam; Inderpal Randhawa; William Klaustermeyer

    2008-01-01

    Background: Drug hypersensitivity is classically divided into IgE mediated and non-IgE mediated disease. We report a rare case of consequent IgE mediated and non-IgE mediated reactions within the beta lactam class of antibiotics. Case Summary: An 84-year-old man developed toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) due to ceftriaxone, a third generation cephalosporin, involving 72% of the body surface area. The patient recovered but within weeks subsequently developed an acute IgE mediated allergic r...

  1. Study of volatile compounds from the radiosterilization of solid cephalosporins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbarin, N.; Crucq, A.S.; Tilquin, B. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    1996-12-01

    The use of {gamma}-rays is a promising method to sterilize thermosensitive drugs. Although radiosterilization does not modify drugs activity, this mode of sterilization produces new radiolytic products. This study is devoted to the analysis of volatile compounds which may induce a modification of odour. The volatile compounds produced by radiolysis of cefotaxime, cefuroxime and ceftazidime, three cephalosporins, were analyzed by gas chromatography with a headspace sampling. They were detected and identified by mass and infrared spectrometry. An explanation of their origin is proposed. (Author).

  2. Antipneumococcal activity of ceftobiprole, a novel broad-spectrum cephalosporin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosowska, Klaudia; Hoellman, Dianne B; Lin, Gengrong; Clark, Catherine; Credito, Kim; McGhee, Pamela; Dewasse, Bonifacio; Bozdogan, Bülent; Shapiro, Stuart; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2005-05-01

    Ceftobiprole (previously known as BAL9141), an anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cephalosporin, was very highly active against a panel of 299 drug-susceptible and -resistant pneumococci, with MIC(50) and MIC(90) values (microg/ml) of 0.016 and 0.016 (penicillin susceptible), 0.06 and 0.5 (penicillin intermediate), and 0.5 and 1.0 (penicillin resistant). Ceftobiprole, imipenem, and ertapenem had lower MICs against all pneumococcal strains than amoxicillin, cefepime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, or cefdinir. Macrolide and penicillin G MICs generally varied in parallel, whereas fluoroquinolone MICs did not correlate with penicillin or macrolide susceptibility or resistance. All strains were susceptible to linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, daptomycin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin. Time-kill analyses showed that at 1x and 2x the MIC, ceftobiprole was bactericidal against 10/12 and 11/12 strains, respectively. Levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin were each bactericidal against 10 to 12 strains at 2x the MIC. Azithromycin and clarithromycin were slowly bactericidal, and telithromycin was bactericidal against only 5/12 strains at 2x the MIC. Linezolid was mainly bacteriostatic, whereas quinupristin-dalfopristin and daptomycin showed marked killing at early time periods. Prolonged serial passage in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of ceftobiprole failed to yield mutants with high MICs towards this cephalosporin, and single-passage selection showed very low frequencies of spontaneous mutants with breakthrough MICs towards ceftobiprole.

  3. Ceftobiprole: in-vivo profile of a bactericidal cephalosporin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, H F

    2006-04-01

    Resistance to antimicrobials is a significant and growing problem, limiting treatment options, especially for serious Gram-positive infections. Ceftobiprole is a novel broad-spectrum cephalosporin that is active in vitro against streptococci and staphylococci, including penicillin-resistant strains of pneumococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). It maintains the activity of extended-spectrum cephalosporins against Gram-negative bacteria, including Enterobacteriaceae. The in-vivo activity of ceftobiprole has been demonstrated in mouse sepsis and subcutaneous abscess models of infection. Its activity also has been examined in several discriminative models of infection that mimic specific diseases in humans and permit testing of antimicrobial activity under a variety of defined pharmacokinetic conditions. These include experimental pneumonia in mice, a tissue cage model of foreign body infection in rats, and endocarditis models in rats and rabbits. In these models, ceftobiprole exhibits activity equivalent or superior to that of comparators against MRSA, including vancomycin-intermediate strains. These models also confirm the in-vivo activity of ceftobiprole against Gram-negative bacteria that are susceptible in vitro. The results from animal models support the evaluation of the clinical efficacy of ceftobiprole in humans and also predict clinical efficacy in the empirical treatment of severe infections. The broad spectrum of activity may allow ceftobiprole to be used as monotherapy for serious hospital-acquired infections where combination therapy would otherwise be required.

  4. 77 FR 735 - New Animal Drugs; Cephalosporin Drugs; Extralabel Animal Drug Use; Order of Prohibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... antimicrobial drugs (not including cephapirin) in cattle, swine, chickens, and turkeys: (1) For disease... cephalosporin drugs in food-producing major animal species (cattle, swine, chickens, and turkeys) including: (1... setting, and cephalosporins contribute 14 percent of the total outpatient antibiotic prescriptions....

  5. Use of cephalosporins in patients with immediate penicillin hypersensitivity: cross-reactivity revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Q U

    2014-10-01

    A 10% cross-reactivity rate is commonly cited between penicillins and cephalosporins. However, this figure originated from studies in the 1960s and 1970s which included first-generation cephalosporins with similar side-chains to penicillins. Cephalosporins were frequently contaminated by trace amount of penicillins at that time. The side-chain hypothesis for beta-lactam hypersensitivity is supported by abundant scientific evidence. Newer generations of cephalosporins possess side-chains that are dissimilar to those of penicillins, leading to low cross-reactivity. In the assessment of cross-reactivity between penicillins and cephalosporins, one has to take into account the background beta-lactam hypersensitivity, which occurs in up to 10% of patients. Cross-reactivity based on skin testing or in-vitro test occurs in up to 50% and 69% of cases, respectively. Clinical reactivity and drug challenge test suggest an average cross-reactivity rate of only 4.3%. For third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, the rate is probably less than 1%. Recent international guidelines are in keeping with a low cross-reactivity rate. Despite that, the medical community in Hong Kong remains unnecessarily skeptical. Use of cephalosporins in patients with penicillin hypersensitivity begins with detailed history and physical examination. Clinicians can choose a cephalosporin with a different side-chain. Skin test for penicillin is not predictive of cephalosporin hypersensitivity, while cephalosporin skin test is not sensitive. Drug provocation test by experienced personnel remains the best way to exclude or confirm the diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity and to find a safe alternative for future use. A personalised approach to cross-reactivity is advocated.

  6. Study of Pseudomonas Aeroginosa resistance to Penicillines, Cephalosporins and Aminoglycosides

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    Maleknezhad P

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug therapy and prophylaxy in infectious diseases, from hygienic and economical point of view, are very important. Infections caused by pseudomonas aeroginosa were particularly severe, with high mortality rates. In the recent years pseudomonas aeroginosa continued to cause the most severe, life-thereating infections in burned patients, in spite of the introduction of a wide variety of antibiotics advised specifically for their anti pseudomonal activity. The aim of this study, in which many cases of ps.aeroginosa infections are assessed is to identify the drug resistance of this bacteria to penicillines, cephalosporins and aminoglycosides by antibiotic sensitivity test (disk ager diffusion. Results as percent of resistance to each antibiotic were 89% to carbenicillin, 55% to piperacillin, 89% to mezlocillin, 89.5% to ticarcillin+clavulonic acid, 85% to ceftriaxone, 95% to tobramycin, 5% of all isolates were not sensitive to any antibiotics.

  7. Biotic and abiotic degradation of four cephalosporin antibiotics in a lake surface water and sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Muxian; Wang, Lianhong; Ji, Rong

    2010-09-01

    Cephalosporins are widely used veterinary and human antibiotics, but their environmental fate and impacts are still unclear. We studied degradation of four cephalosporins (cefradine, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, and cefepime) from each generation in the surface water and sediment of Lake Xuanwu, China. The four cephalosporins degraded abiotically in the surface water in the dark with half-lives of 2.7-18.7d, which were almost the same as that in sterilized surface water. Under exposure to simulated sunlight, the half-lives of the cephalosporins decreased significantly to 2.2-5.0d, with the maximal decrease for ceftriaxone from 18.7d in the dark to 4.1d under the light exposure. Effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and nitrate on photodegradation of the cephalosporins were compound-specific. While DOM (5 mg L(-1)) stimulated the photodegradation of only cefradine (by 9%) and cefepime (by 34%), nitrate (10 microM) had effects only on cefepime (stimulation by 13%). Elimination rates of the cephalosporins in oxic sediment (half-lives of 0.8-3.1d) were higher than in anoxic sediment (half-lives of 1.1-4.1d), mainly attributed to biodegradation. The data indicate that abiotic hydrolysis (for cefradine, cefuroxime, and cefepime) and direct photolysis (for ceftriaxone) were the primary processes for elimination of the cephalosporins in the surface water of the lake, whereas biodegradation was responsible for the elimination of the cephalosporins in the sediment. Further studies are needed on chemical structure, toxicity, and persistence of transformation products of the cephalosporins in the environment.

  8. Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase producing Cephalosporin resistant Salmonella Typhi, reported from Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Tehmina; Lodhi, Munir; Ansari, Jawad Khaliq; Andleeb, Saadia; Ahmed, Mushtaq

    2016-08-01

    Typhoid is endemic in many parts of southeast Asia. Due to the resistance of the organism to first line of antibiotics (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole) as well as to fluoroquinolones, third generation cephalosporins have been in use for the empiric treatment of typhoid for years. However an increasing incidence of Salmonella Typhi is being reported sporadically from various regions. We report a case of typhoid due to Salmonella Typhi which was non-responsive to treatment with a cephalosporin, was found to be multidrug resistant and resistant to ciprofloxacin and third generation cephalosporin as well. The patient was finally treated successfully with intravenous administration of a carbapenem.

  9. Review of the Use of Cephalosporins in Children with Anaphylactic Reactions from Penicillins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir K Hameed

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It is a widely accepted practice that children with anaphylaxis from penicillins should avoid cephalosporins. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there is evidence in the literature to support this practice.

  10. Susceptibility to penicillin derivatives among third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae recovered on hospital admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischnik, Alexander; Baumert, Philipp; Hamprecht, Axel; Rohde, Anna; Peter, Silke; Feihl, Susanne; Knobloch, Johannes; Gölz, Hanna; Kola, Axel; Obermann, Birgit; Querbach, Christiane; Willmann, Matthias; Gebhardt, Friedemann; Tacconelli, Evelina; Gastmeier, Petra; Seifert, Harald; Kern, Winfried V

    2017-01-01

    As part of the multicenter Antibiotic Therapy Optimisation Study-the largest study on the prevalence of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae carriage upon hospital admission-minimum inhibitory concentration values were generated for ampicillin/sulbactam, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, mecillinam, mecillinam/clavulanic acid, and temocillin against third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species and Enterobacter species.

  11. Adverse events in patients taking cephalosporins versus placebo for any indication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCullough, Amanda; Scott, Anna M.; Macindoe, Christopher;

    2016-01-01

    This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: To quantify the incidence of any reported adverse event in patients taking cephalosporins compared with placebo for any indication.......This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: To quantify the incidence of any reported adverse event in patients taking cephalosporins compared with placebo for any indication....

  12. In Vitro selection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae mutants with elevated MIC values and increased resistance to cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven R; Grad, Yonatan; Ganakammal, Satishkumar Ranganathan; Burroughs, Mark; Frace, Mike; Lipsitch, Marc; Weil, Ryan; Trees, David

    2014-11-01

    Strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with mosaic penA genes bearing novel point mutations in penA have been isolated from ceftriaxone treatment failures. Such isolates exhibit significantly higher MIC values to third-generation cephalosporins. Here we report the in vitro isolation of two mutants with elevated MICs to cephalosporins. The first possesses a point mutation in the transpeptidase region of the mosaic penA gene, and the second contains an insertion mutation in pilQ.

  13. Antistaphylococcal activity of ceftobiprole, a new broad-spectrum cephalosporin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovich, Tatiana; Ednie, Lois M; Shapiro, Stuart; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2005-10-01

    Ceftobiprole (formerly BAL9141), the active component of the prodrug BAL5788 (ceftobiprole medocaril), is a novel cephalosporin with expanded activity against gram-positive bacteria. Among 152 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, including 5 vancomycin-intermediate and 2 vancomycin-resistant strains, MIC(50) and MIC(90) values for ceftobiprole were each 0.5 microg/ml against methicillin-susceptible strains and 2 mug/ml against methicillin-resistant strains. Against 151 coagulase-negative staphylococci (including 4 vancomycin-intermediate strains), MIC(50) and MIC(90) values were, respectively, 0.125 microg/ml and 1 microg/ml against methicillin-susceptible and 1 microg/ml and 2 microg/ml against methicillin-resistant strains. Teicoplanin was less active than vancomycin against coagulase-negative strains. Linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and daptomycin were active against all strains, whereas increased MICs for amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefazolin, minocycline, gentamicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, levofloxacin, rifampin, mupirocin, fusidic acid, and fosfomycin were sometimes observed. At 2x MIC, ceftobiprole was bactericidal against 11 of 12 test strains by 24 h. Prolonged serial passage in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of ceftobiprole failed to select for clones with MICs >4 times those of the parents; the maximum MIC achieved for ceftobiprole after 50 passages (in 1 of 10 strains) was 8 mug/ml. Single-passage selections showed very low frequencies of resistance to ceftobiprole irrespective of genotype or phenotype; the maximal ceftobiprole MIC of recovered clones was 8 mug/ml.

  14. Cephalosporin Induced Disulfiram-Like Reaction: A Retrospective Review of 78 Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shiyan; Cao, Yuxia; Zhang, Xiuwei; Jiao, Shichen; Qian, Songyi; Liu, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Concomitant ingestion of alcohol and cephalosporin may cause a disulfiram-like reaction; however its fatal outcomes are not commonly known. We retrospectively reviewed 78 patients who had cephalosporin induced disulfiram-like reaction (CIDLR). The patients who had a negative skin test to cephalosporin prior to intravenous antibiotics were included, and those who were allergic to either alcohol or antibiotics were excluded. The average age of 78 patients was 37.8±12.2 (21–60) years. Of the 78 patients, 93.58% of the patients were males, 70.51% of the patients consumed alcohol after use of antibiotics, and 29.49% patients consumed alcohol initially, followed by intravenous antibiotics; however, no significant difference of morbidity was observed in these two groups. All patients were administered antibiotics intravenously. Five of 78 patients (6.41%) developed severe CIDLR too urgently to be rescued successfully. In conclusion, it is important for clinicians to educate patients that no alcohol should be used if one is taking cephalosporin. Also, clinicians should keep in mind that cephalosporin should not be prescribed for any alcoholics. PMID:24670024

  15. Calculation of the molecular properties of five cephalosporins: cephradine, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefprozil and ceftobiprole

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    Elso Manuel Cruz Cruz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The side chains attached to the 7-amino cephalosporanic acid, the structural basis of cephalosporin, condition its molecular properties and cause differences in its pharmacological action. Molecular modeling contributes to further knowledge about this relationship. Objective: To calculate structural and electronic properties of five cephalosporins: cephradine, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefprozil and ceftobiprole. Methods: A theoretical study using quantum mechanics methods to model the structure and electronic properties of the cephalosporins listed above was conducted. Molecular geometries were optimized with semi-empirical calculations, according to the parameterized number three model. The molecular properties were calculated following the density functional theory. The densities of atomic charges and the frontier orbitals were analyzed. Comparisons were established to measure the effect of substituents on the properties of the beta-lactam ring. All calculations were run on personal computers belonging to the Medical Sciences University of Las Tunas, from November 2009 to March 2010. Results: The structural parameters of the beta-lactam ring do not change as a result of changes in the side chains. The ring has a marked tendency to planarity. The ceftobiprole is different from the rest of the cephalosporins in the spatial disposition of the side chain, which facilitates access to the carbonyl carbon. There are no significant variations in the charge densities, especially in the positive charge of this carbon. Conclusions: The structure and electronic properties of the beta-lactam ring have no significant changes among modeled cephalosporins. The three dimensional structure of ceftobiprole favors a higher reactivity.

  16. Porin involvement in cephalosporin and carbapenem resistance of Burkholderia pseudomallei.

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    Anuwat Aunkham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bps is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes frequently lethal melioidosis, with a particularly high prevalence in the north and northeast of Thailand. Bps is highly resistant to many antimicrobial agents and this resistance may result from the low drug permeability of outer membrane proteins, known as porins. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Microbiological assays showed that the clinical Bps strain was resistant to most antimicrobial agents and sensitive only to ceftazidime and meropenem. An E. coli strain defective in most porins, but expressing BpsOmp38, exhibited considerably lower antimicrobial susceptibility than the control strain. In addition, mutation of Tyr119, the most prominent pore-lining residue in BpsOmp38, markedly altered membrane permeability, substitution with Ala (mutant BpsOmp38Y119A enhanced uptake of the antimicrobial agents, while substitution with Phe (mutant BpsOmp38Y119F inhibited uptake. Channel recordings of BpsOmp38 reconstituted in a planar black lipid membrane (BLM suggested that the higher permeability of BpsOmp38Y119A was caused by widening of the pore interior through removal of the bulky side chain. In contrast, the lower permeability of BpsOmp38Y119F was caused by introduction of the hydrophobic side chain (Phe, increasing the 'greasiness' of the pore lumen. Significantly, liposome swelling assays showed no permeation through the BpsOmp38 channel by antimicrobial agents to which Bps is resistant (cefoxitin, cefepime, and doripenem. In contrast, high permeability to ceftazidime and meropenem was observed, these being agents to which Bps is sensitive. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results, from both in vivo and in vitro studies, demonstrate that membrane permeability associated with BpsOmp38 expression correlates well with the antimicrobial susceptibility of the virulent bacterium B. pseudomallei, especially to carbapenems and cephalosporins. In addition, substitution of the residue

  17. Detection of serum IgE antibody directed to aminothiazole using immobilized cephalosporins without protein conjugation

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    Akihito Yokoyama

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that allergic reactions may sometimes occur in patients under treatment with β-lactam antibiotics. For the detection of antidrug antibodies in vitro, conjugation with human serum albumin has been considered to be essential. In this study, we found that cefotiam, cefpirome, and ceftazidime could be immobilized without conjugation to carrier protein to construct a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA system. We describe a patient (26-year-old female nurse with contact urticaria induced by antibiotics. Using the serum of this patient, we successfully detected IgE antibody directed to the aminothiazolyl group of cephalosporins, which has not previously been reported. Results suggest that the simple ELISA using unconjugated antibiotics could be applicable to patients with allergy to some cephalosporins and the aminothiazole side chain of the cephalosporins could cause an IgE-mediated allergic reaction.

  18. New Fragmentation Pathways for Cephalosporins by Electrospray Ionization Quadrupole Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying-wu; GU Jing-kai; J. Paul Fawcett; ZHONG Da-fang; ZHOU Hui

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction Cephalosporins are antibiotics of β-lactam family. They have a broad spectrum of antibiotic activity due to their ability to inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis of different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Cephalosporins are used orally or parenterally to treat a wide variety of infections throughout the body and are often prescribed to fight penicillin resistant microorganisms. They also find a common use in prophylaxis for surgical procedures where infections in the operating area could pose a serious risk[1,2].

  19. Propenylamide and propenylsulfonamide cephalosporins as a novel class of anti-MRSA beta-lactams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, Jens; Vasilevich, Natalya I; Glushkov, Andrei I; Kellenberger, Laurenz; Shapiro, Stuart; Caspers, Patrick; Page, Malcolm G P; Danel, Franck

    2010-08-01

    Novel C(3) propenylamide and propenylsulfonamide cephalosporins have been synthesized and tested for their ability to inhibit the penicillin-binding protein 2' (PBP2') from Staphylococcus epidermidis and the growth of a panel of clinically relevant bacterial species, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The most potent compounds inhibited the growth of MRSA strains with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) as low as 1 microg/mL. The structure-activity relationship revealed the potential for further optimization of this new cephalosporin class.

  20. [PCR rationale for use of oral cephalosporins by oral surgery procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarev, V N; Chuvilkin, V I; Akhmedov, G D; Chuvilkina, E I; Gadzhiev, F N; Nikitin, I V

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the experience of PCR detection of DNA of pathogenic germs inducing odontogenic inflammation. Pus samples of 48 patients aged 18 to 68 years undergoing oral surgery because of apical periodontal lesions and pericoronitis. The results showed microorganisms associations revealed by PCR are sensitive to III generation cephalosporins. Effective oral regimen included 400 mg Ceftibuten once daily. The PCR results thus served as a rationale for use of oral cephalosporins by oral surgery procedures proved by clinical and immunological data in postoperative period.

  1. Dissemination of Cephalosporin Resistance Genes between Escherichia coli Strains from Farm Animals and Humans by Specific Plasmid Lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Been, Mark; Lanza, Val F.; de Toro, María; Scharringa, Jelle; Dohmen, Wietske; Du, Yu; Hu, Juan; Lei, Ying; Li, Ning; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Heederik, Dick J J; Fluit, Ad C.; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; de la Cruz, Fernando; van Schaik, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Third-generation cephalosporins are a class of β-lactam antibiotics that are often used for the treatment of human infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, especially Escherichia coli. Worryingly, the incidence of human infections caused by third-generation cephalosporin-resistant E. coli is inc

  2. Bacteriocins produced by L. fermentum and L .acidophilus can inhibit cephalosporin resistant E .coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Riaz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Reemerging infections occur due to resistant bacteria. Such infections create restrictions for clinicians and microbiologists in drug selection. Such problems demand new strategies for solution. Use of bacteriocins for this purpose may be fruitful. In the present research work, the inhibitory effects of bactericins on cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli are used as model system for the control of antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria. Cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli strain was isolated from pus by using conventional methodology. For bacteriocin production, Lactobacilli strains were selected by using selective media. Out of seventy two strains isolated from yogurt, fecal materials of human, chick, parrot and cat, only two strains (strain 45 and strain 52 were found to produce bacteriocins having antimicrobial potential against cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli. Biochemical characterization showed that strain 45 belonged to group of Lactobacillus fermentum and strain 52 to Lactobacillus acidophilus. Both strains showed maximum growth at 25°C and 35°C respectively. Suitable pH was 5.5 and 6.0 for Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus acidophilus respectively. Bacteriocins produced by both strains were found stable at 50, 75 and 100°C for 60min. Function of bacteriocin was also not disturbed due to change in pH. These findings suggest that bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus acidophilus can be used for the infection control of cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli.

  3. Compatibility and stability of ranitidine hydrochloride with six cephalosporins during simulated y-site administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, K; Kambara, M; Mizuno, M; Okuda, J; Gill, M A; Nishida, M

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine the visual compatibility and stability of ranitidine hydrochloride in admixtures during simulated Y-site administration with six individual cephalosporins: ceftizoxime sodium, cefuzonam sodium, cefoperazone sodium, cefmenoxime hydrochloride, moxalactam disodium and flomoxef sodium. Dilutions of ranitidine hydrochloride 1 mg (as the free base)/mL were prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Two milliliters of the ranitidine solution (1mg/mL) was mixed with 2mL of each cephalosporin (20 mg/ml) in 10 mL glass test tubes. Concentrations of each drug were determined by stability-indicationg high-performance liquid chromatographic assay methods following zero, one, two, and four hours after mixing. All six cephalosporins retained greater than 95% of their original concentrations for four hours in the admixture with ranitidine. Ranitidine retained greater than 95% of its original concentration for four hours in the admixture with four of the tested cephalosporins and apporximately 90% with moxalactam and flomoxef. Solutions containing ranitidine may be coadministered with solutions either ceftizoxime, cefuzonam, cefoperazone or cefmenoxime via Y-injection site over four hours. While the ranitidine concentration may be reduced to near 90% after four hours with moxalactam and flomoxef, the tested antibiotics were not affected in the presence of ranitidine over four hours.

  4. [Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in Enterobacter spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertona, E; Radice, M; Rodríguez, C H; Barberis, C; Vay, C; Famiglietti, A; Gutkind, G

    2005-01-01

    Enterobacter spp. are becoming increasingly frequent nosocomial pathogens with multiple resistance mechanism to beta-lactam antibiotics. We carried out the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of beta-lactamases in 27 Enterobacter spp. (25 Enterobacter cloacae y 2 Enterobacter aerogenes), as well as the ability of different extended spectrum-lactamase (ESBL) screening methods. Resistance to third generation cephalosporins was observed in 15/27 (63%) isolates. Twelve resistant isolates produced high level chromosomal encoded AmpC beta-lactamase; 6 of them were also producers of PER-2. Resistance to third generation cephalosporins in the remaining 3 isolates was due to the presence of ESBLs, PER-2 in 2 cases, and CTX-M-2 in the other. Only CTX-M-2 production was detected with all tested cephalosporins using difusion synergy tests, while cefepime improved ESBLs detection in 7/8 PER-2 producers, 4/8 in the inhibitor approximation test and 7/8 with double disk test using cefepime containing disk with and without clavulanic acid. Dilution method, including cephalosporins with and without the inhibitor detected 1/9 ESBLs producers.

  5. Decline in Decreased Cephalosporin Susceptibility and Increase in Azithromycin Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, I; Sawatzky, P; Liu, G; Allen, V; Lefebvre, B; Hoang, L; Drews, S; Horsman, G; Wylie, J; Haldane, D; Garceau, R; Ratnam, S; Wong, T; Archibald, C; Mulvey, M R

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance profiles were determined for Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated in Canada during 2010-2014. The proportion of isolates with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins declined significantly between 2011 and 2014, whereas azithromycin resistance increased significantly during that period. Continued surveillance of antimicrobial drug susceptibilities is imperative to inform treatment guidelines.

  6. The structural basis of cephalosporin formation in a mononuclear ferrous enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valegård, Karin; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anke C.; Dubus, Alain; Ranghino, Graziella; Öster, Linda M.; Hajdu, Janos; Andersson, Inger

    2004-01-01

    Deacetoxycephalosporin-C synthase (DAOCS) is a mononuclear ferrous enzyme that transforms penicillins into cephalosporins by inserting a carbon atom into the penicillin nucleus. In the first half-reaction, dioxygen and 2-oxoglutarate produce a reactive iron-oxygen species, succinate and CO2. The oxi

  7. Cephalosporin susceptibility among Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates--United States, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major cause of pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility, and it can facilitate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Emergence of gonococcal resistance to penicillin and tetracycline occurred during the 1970s and became widespread during the early 1980s. More recently, resistance to fluoroquinolones developed. Resistance was documented first in Asia, then emerged in the United States in Hawaii followed by other western states. It then became prevalent in all other regions of the United States. In Hawaii, fluoroquinolone resistance was first noted among heterosexuals; however, resistance in the United States initially became prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM) before generalizing to heterosexuals. This emergence of resistance led CDC, in 2007, to discontinue recommending any fluoroquinolone regimens for the treatment of gonorrhea. CDC now recommends dual therapy for gonorrhea with a cephalosporin (ceftriaxone 250 mg) plus either azithromycin or doxycycline. This report summarizes trends in cephalosporin susceptibility among N. gonorrhoeae isolates in the United States during 2000-2010 using data from the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP). During that period, the percentage of isolates with elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to cephalosporins (≥0.25 µg/mL for cefixime and ≥0.125 µg/mL for ceftriaxone) increased from 0.2% in 2000 to 1.4% in 2010 for cefixime and from 0.1% in 2000 to 0.3% in 2010 for ceftriaxone. Although cephalosporins remain an effective treatment for gonococcal infections, health-care providers should be vigilant for treatment failure and are requested to report its occurrence to state and local health departments. State and local public health departments should promote maintenance of laboratory capability to culture N. gonorrhoeae to allow testing of isolates for cephalosporin resistance. They also should develop enhanced surveillance and

  8. Voltammetric and theoretical studies of electrochemical behavior of cephalosporins at the mercury electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of the adsorption and electroreduction behavior of cefpodoxime proxetil, cefotaxime, desacetylcefotaxime, cefetamet, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, and cefuroxime axetile at the mercury electrode surface has been performed using Cyclic (CV, Differential Pulse (DPV, and Adsorptive Stripping Differential Pulse Voltammetry (AdSDPV. The Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR study of the seven cephalosporins adsorption at the mercury electrode has been based on the density functional theory DFT-B3LYP/6-31G (d,p calculations of molecular orbitals, partial charges and electron densities of analytes. The DFT-parameters and QSPR model explain well the process of adsorption of the examined cephalosporins. QSPR study defined that cefalosporins with lower charge of sulphur in the thiazine moiety, lower electron density on the nitrogen atom of the N-O bond, higher number of hydrogen bond accepting groups, and higher principal moment of inertia should express high adsorption on the mercury electrode. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172033

  9. Development of a capillary electrophoresis method for the simultaneous determination of cephalosporins

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    Hancu Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and simple capillary electrophoresis method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of six extensively used cephalosporin antibiotics (cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefalexin, cefuroxim, ceftazidim, ceftriaxon. The determination of cephalosporins was performed at a pH 6.8, using a 25 mM phospate - 25 mM borate mixed buffer, + 25 kV voltage at a temperature of 25 °C. We achieved a baseline separation in approximately 10 minutes. The separation resolution was increased by addition of an anionic surfactant, 50 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate, to the buffer solution. The proposed separation was evaluated on the basis of detection and quantification limits, effective electrophoretic mobility and relative standard deviation for migration times and peak areas.

  10. [Cefditoren pivoxil: A new oral cephalosporin for skin, soft tissue and respiratory tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martin, J; Romá, E; Salavert, M; Doménech, L; Poveda, J L

    2006-09-01

    Cefditoren pivoxil, a new-third generation cephalosporin antibiotic that has recently been granted approval in Spain, shows important activity over a large part of the pathogens causing skin, soft tissue and respiratory tract infections, including Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Cefditoren has also been shown to be stable against hydrolysis by many common beta-lactamases. Data from in vitro studies and clinical trials show this antibiotic as an oral formulation with an intrinsic activity against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae equivalent to that of other third-generation cephalosporins administered via parenteral, like cefotaxime or ceftriaxone, thereby placing its maximal benefits mainly in the treatment of ambulatory infections. This paper reviews the main characteristics of cefditoren pivoxil (spectrum of activity, chemical structure, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects and clinical efficacy) and attempts to find its place in current antibiotic therapeutics.

  11. Long-term outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae& third generation cephalosporin use in a neonatal intensive care unit in north India

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    Tuhina Banerjee

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The study indicates that empirical use of third generation cephalosporins may promote the emergence, persistence, and dissemination of resistant isolates in the hospital environment. Periodic review of antibiotic policy is necessary for rationalized use of antibiotics.

  12. Engineering the stereochemistry of cephalosporin for specific detection of pathogenic carbapenemase-expressing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haibin; Cheng, Yunfeng; Lee, Kyung Hyun; Luo, Robert F; Banaei, Niaz; Rao, Jianghong

    2014-07-28

    Reported herein is the design of fluorogenic probes specific for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and they were designed based on stereochemically modified cephalosporin having a 6,7-trans configuration. Through experiments using recombinant β-lactamase enzymes and live bacterial species, these probes demonstrate the potential for use in the specific detection of carbapenemases, including metallo-β-lactamases in active bacterial pathogens.

  13. Metabolic engineering of β-oxidation in Penicillium chrysogenum for improved semi-synthetic cephalosporin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Tânia; Gombert, Andreas K; Landes, Nils; Verhoeven, Maarten D; Kiel, Jan A K W; Krikken, Arjen M; Nijland, Jeroen G; Touw, Hesselien; Luttik, Marijke A H; van der Toorn, John C; Driessen, Arnold J M; Bovenberg, Roel A L; van den Berg, Marco A; van der Klei, Ida J; Pronk, Jack T; Daran, Jean-Marc

    2012-07-01

    Industrial production of semi-synthetic cephalosporins by Penicillium chrysogenum requires supplementation of the growth media with the side-chain precursor adipic acid. In glucose-limited chemostat cultures of P. chrysogenum, up to 88% of the consumed adipic acid was not recovered in cephalosporin-related products, but used as an additional carbon and energy source for growth. This low efficiency of side-chain precursor incorporation provides an economic incentive for studying and engineering the metabolism of adipic acid in P. chrysogenum. Chemostat-based transcriptome analysis in the presence and absence of adipic acid confirmed that adipic acid metabolism in this fungus occurs via β-oxidation. A set of 52 adipate-responsive genes included six putative genes for acyl-CoA oxidases and dehydrogenases, enzymes responsible for the first step of β-oxidation. Subcellular localization of the differentially expressed acyl-CoA oxidases and dehydrogenases revealed that the oxidases were exclusively targeted to peroxisomes, while the dehydrogenases were found either in peroxisomes or in mitochondria. Deletion of the genes encoding the peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase Pc20g01800 and the mitochondrial acyl-CoA dehydrogenase Pc20g07920 resulted in a 1.6- and 3.7-fold increase in the production of the semi-synthetic cephalosporin intermediate adipoyl-6-APA, respectively. The deletion strains also showed reduced adipate consumption compared to the reference strain, indicating that engineering of the first step of β-oxidation successfully redirected a larger fraction of adipic acid towards cephalosporin biosynthesis.

  14. Horizontal Transfer of Plasmid-Mediated Cephalosporin Resistance Genes in the Intestine of Houseflies (Musca domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Akira; Usui, Masaru; Okubo, Torahiko; Tamura, Yutaka

    2016-06-01

    Houseflies are a mechanical vector for various types of bacteria, including antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB). If the intestine of houseflies is a suitable site for the transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs), houseflies could also serve as a biological vector for ARB. To clarify whether cephalosporin resistance genes are transferred efficiently in the housefly intestine, we compared with conjugation experiments in vivo (in the intestine) and in vitro by using Escherichia coli with eight combinations of four donor and two recipient strains harboring plasmid-mediated cephalosporin resistance genes and chromosomal-encoded rifampicin resistance genes, respectively. In the in vivo conjugation experiment, houseflies ingested donor strains for 6 hr and then recipient strains for 3 hr, and 24 hr later, the houseflies were surface sterilized and analyzed. In vitro conjugation experiments were conducted using the broth-mating method. In 3/8 combinations, the in vitro transfer frequency (Transconjugants/Donor) was ≥1.3 × 10(-4); the in vivo transfer rates of cephalosporin resistance genes ranged from 2.0 × 10(-4) to 5.7 × 10(-5). Moreover, cephalosporin resistance genes were transferred to other species of enteric bacteria of houseflies such as Achromobacter sp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens. These results suggest that houseflies are not only a mechanical vector for ARB but also a biological vector for the occurrence of new ARB through the horizontal transfer of ARGs in their intestine.

  15. NEW CEPHALOSPORIN AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOR TREATMENT OF INFECTIONS BY METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Gerardon Batista

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The increased incidence of multiresistant microorganisms allied with the emergence of new mechanisms of bacterial resistance has ted treatment-related health care infections. Staphylococcus aureus has shown therapeutic limitations due to high prevalence of isolates resistant to methicillin (MRSA. The constant evolution of microorganisms in relation to antimicrobial susceptibility and rapid dissemintaion requires the introduction of new drugs in clinical practice to control infections caused by multiresistant microorganisms. In recent years, it has developed a limited number of new antimicrobial agents, among them are the 5th generation cephalosporins, ceftobiprole and ceftarolina, which have proven effective against MRSA isolates. The aim of this study was to review the literature about the characteristics and evolution of resistance in S. aureus, and about new antimicrobials used in clinical practice, featuring the main advantages and limitations of current treatment options. Methods: A literature review was performed in the MEDLINE and Scielo with papers published until the year 2014 survey was grouped according to the thematic focus following: cephalosporins, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, combined modality therapy. Results: This study included nine scientific papers published in national and international journals for review. The articles included in this review were selected according to the information that is desired to be obtained, as follows regarding the use of antimicrobials in new anti-MRSA therapy, the main features and the advantages and limitations of current alternatives vailable. Conclusion: It is concluded that cephalosporins 5th generation is a viable therapeutic option due to the satisfactory results reported in different studies to the treatment of infections, with each hospital, determine and adapt in their clinical practice, the use of new options treatment of MRSA infections

  16. Activity of Vancomycin, Teicoplanin and Cephalosporins against Penicillin-Susceptible and Penicillin-Intermediate Streptococcus Pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Loo, Vivian G.; Jocelyne Lavallée; Diane McAlear; Robson, Hugh G.

    1995-01-01

    Objective: To report in vitro susceptibilities of penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-intermediate Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates to cephalosporins, vancomycin and teicoplanin.Design: Minimal inhibitory concentrations (mic) were determined according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines for 17 penicillin-susceptible isolates (mic 0.06 mg/L or less) and 16 isolates showing intermediate susceptibility to penicillin (mic 0.12 to 1.0 mg/L).Setting: Tertiary care ...

  17. Phototransformation of cephalosporin antibiotics in an aqueous environment results in higher toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Huan; Lin, Angela Yu-Chen

    2012-11-20

    Photodegradation may be the most important elimination process for cephalosporin antibiotics in surface water. Cefazolin (CFZ) and cephapirin (CFP) underwent mainly direct photolysis (t(1/2) = 0.7, 3.9 h), while cephalexin (CFX) and cephradine (CFD) were mainly transformed by indirect photolysis, which during the process a bicarbonate-enhanced nitrate system contributed most to the loss rate of CFX, CFD, and cefotaxime (CTX) (t(1/2) = 4.5, 5.3, and 1.3 h, respectively). Laboratory data suggested that bicarbonate enhanced the phototransformation of CFD and CFX in natural water environments. When used together, NO(3)(-), HCO(3)(-), and DOM closely simulated the photolysis behavior in the Jingmei River and were the strongest determinants in the fate of cephalosporins. TOC and byproducts were investigated and identified. Direct photolysis led to decarboxylation of CFD, CFX, and CFP. Transformation only (no mineralization) of all cephalosporins was observed through direct photolysis; byproducts were found to be even less photolabile and more toxic (via the Microtox test). CFZ exhibited the strongest acute toxicity after just a few hours, which may be largely attributed to its 5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol moiety. Many pharmaceuticals were previously known to undergo direct sunlight photolysis and transformation in surface waters; however, the synergistic increase in toxicity caused by this cocktail (via pharmaceutical photobyproducts) cannot be ignored and warrants future research attention.

  18. Mode of action of the dual-action cephalosporin Ro 23-9424.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopapadakou, N H; Bertasso, A; Chan, K K; Chapman, J S; Cleeland, R; Cummings, L M; Dix, B A; Keith, D D

    1989-07-01

    Ro 23-9424 is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent composed of a cephalosporin and a quinolone moiety. Its biological properties were compared with those of its two components and structurally related cephalosporins and quinolones. Like ceftriaxone and cefotaxime but unlike its decomposition product, desacetyl cefotaxime, Ro 23-9424 bound at less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml to the essential penicillin-binding proteins 1b and 3 of Escherichia coli and 1, 2, and 3 of Staphylococcus aureus. In E. coli, Ro 23-9424 produced filaments exclusively and decreased cell growth; cefotaxime produced both filaments and lysis. Like its decomposition product fleroxacin but unlike quinolone esters, Ro 23-9424 also inhibited replicative DNA biosynthesis in E. coli. In an E. coli strain lacking OmpF, growth continued after addition of Ro 23-9424, decreased after addition of cefotaxime, and stopped immediately after addition of fleroxacin. The results, together with the chemical stability of Ro 23-9424 (half-life, approximately 3 h at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C), suggest that in E. coli the compound acts initially as a cephalosporin with intrinsic activity comparable to that of cefotaxime but with poorer penetration. Subsequent to the decomposition of Ro 23-9424 to fleroxacin and desacetyl cefotaxime, quinolone activity appears. The in vitro antibacterial activity reflects both mechanisms of action.

  19. Resistance to Third-Generation Cephalosporins and Other Antibiotics by Enterobacteriaceae in Western Nigeria

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    A. O. Okesola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The emergence and spread of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins are threatening to create species resistant to all currently available agents. The most common cause of bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics is the production of beta-lactamases and many of the 2nd and 3rd-generation penicillins and cephalosporins were specifically designed to resist the hydrolytic action of major ß-lactamases. However new ß-lactamases emerged against each of the new classes of ß-lactams that were introduced and caused resistance. This study was designed to determine the rate of resistance to 3rd-generation cephalosporins and other classes of antibiotics by the Enterobacteriaceae in this environment. Approach: One hundred bacteria isolates belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae identified from different clinical specimens between October and December 2007 using standard bacteriological methods. These were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing to third-generation cephalosporins and other classes of antibiotics which included quinolones and an aminoglycoside using the Kirby-Bauer method of disc diffusion test. Results: Out of the total number of Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the study period, only 54.8% of the klebsiella species isolated were sensitive to ceftazidime, 48.4% to ceftriaxone and 30.7% to cefotaxime. With Escherichia coli however, the susceptibility pattern to the 3rd-generation cephalosporins was better (65.6% were sensitive to ceftazidime, 62.5% to ceftriaxone and 71.9% to cefotaxime. In proteus species, the susceptibility pattern was generally poor to the three classes of antibiotics(50% were sensitive to ceftazidime and ceftriaxone, 0% to cefotaxime, 33.3% to ciprofloxacin, 50% to gentamycin and 0% to amoxycillin/clavulanate. Conclusion/Recommendations: The poor susceptibility to amoxicillin/clavulanate demonstrated by all the isolates in this

  20. In vitro susceptibility pattern of acinetobacter species to commonly used cephalosporins, quinolones, and aminoglycosides

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    Prashanth K

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Acinetobacter spp. is an emerging important nosocomial pathogen. Clinical isolates of this genus are often resistant to many antibiotics. The in vitro susceptibility of Acinetobacter isolates obtained from patients were tested for currently used antibiotics. In addition, the study aimed at biotyping of Acinetobacter baumannii. METHODS: A total of 66 isolates were phenotypically characterised through a large panel of 25 carbon assimilation tests and susceptibility through disc diffusion method with 10 antimicrobial agents were tested. MICs were determined only for second line broad-spectrum drugs such as cefotaxime, ceftazidime, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin using NCCLS guidelines. RESULTS: Multiple drug resistance (MDR was only witnessed in A. baumannii and not in other Acinetobacter species. Aminoglycosides such as amikacin, netilmicin were most active against the MDR isolates tested (60% susceptibility. Ceftazidime was more active than cefotaxime. MDR A. baumannii strains were susceptible only to amikacin, netilmicin and ceftadizime. Ciprofloxacin had poor activity irrespective of isolates belonging to different DNA groups tested (58% resistance overall, 79% among A. baumannii. Strains of Biotypes 6 and 19 of A. baumannii showed broader resistance than those of biotype 10 and others. CONCLUSIONS: Strains of A. baumannii from patients in our hospital, were generally more resistant to quinolones, -lactam antibiotics, first and second generation cephalosporins and partially resistant to third generation cephalosporins and aminoglycosides. The strains belonging to other DNA groups of Acinetobacter were comparatively less resistant than A.baumannii, except ciprofloxacin. This study suggests that, a combination therapy, using a third generation cephalosporin and amikacin, would be best choice for treating Acinetobacter infections.

  1. Use of Hypoprothrombinemia-Inducing Cephalosporins and the Risk of Hemorrhagic Events: A Nationwide Nested Case-Control Study.

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    Li-Ju Chen

    Full Text Available Existing data regarding the risk of hemorrhagic events associated with exposure to hypoprothrombinemia-inducing cephalosporins are limited by the small sample size. This population-based study aimed to examine the association between exposure to hypoprothrombinemia-inducing cephalosporins and hemorrhagic events using National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan.A nationwide nested case-control study.National Health Insurance Research database.We conducted a nested case-control study within a cohort of 6191 patients who received hypoprothrombinemia-inducing cephalosporins and other antibiotics for more than 48 hours. Multivariable conditional logistic regressions were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR and 95% confidence interval (CI for hemorrhagic events associated with exposure to hypoprothrombinemia-inducing cephalosporins (overall, cumulative dose measured as defined daily dose (DDD, and individual cephalosporins.Within the cohort, we identified 704 patients with hemorrhagic events and 2816 matched controls. Use of hypoprothrombinemia-inducing cephalosporins was associated with increased risk of hemorrhagic events (aOR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.42-2.06, which increased with higher cumulative doses (5 DDDs, aOR 1.89. The aOR for individual cephalosporin was 2.88 (95% CI, 2.08-4.00, 1.35 (1.09-1.67 and 4.57 (2.63-7.95 for cefmetazole, flomoxef, and cefoperazone, respectively. Other risk factors included use of anticoagulants (aOR 2.08 [95% CI, 1.64-2.63], liver failure (aOR 1.69 [1.30-2.18], poor nutritional status (aOR 1.41 [1.15-1.73], and history of hemorrhagic events (aOR 2.57 [1.94-3.41] 6 months prior to the index date.Use of hypoprothrombinemia-inducing cephalosporins increases risk of hemorrhagic events. Close watch for hemorrhagic events is recommended when prescribing these cephalosporins, especially in patients who are at higher risk.

  2. Chromatographic separation studies of penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems on transition-metal silicate modified silica layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dhruv K; Maheshwari, Gunjan

    2012-01-01

    The chromatographic behavior of penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems has been studied on the thin layers of transition-metal ion (viz. Ni(2+)/Zn(2+)/Cu(2+)/Co(2+)) silicate modified silica. Transition-metal silicate (3.92%) and silica (96.08%) were found to be optimum and resulted in spherical-compact spots and improved resolution of the analytes. The effect of various mobile phases was also investigated. The chromatograms were visualized as yellow spots by placing in an I(2)-chamber. The method has been found to be reproducible and convenient for routine analysis.

  3. First-line treatment with cephalosporins in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis provides poor antibiotic coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novovic, Srdan; Semb, Synne; Olsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a common infection in cirrhosis, associated with a high mortality. Third-generation cephalosporins are recommended as first-line treatment. The aim was to evaluate the epidemiology of microbiological ascitic fluid findings and antimicrobial...... resistance in Denmark. Material and Methods. All patients with cirrhosis and a positive ascitic fluid culture, at three university hospitals in the Copenhagen area during a 7-year period, were retrospectively evaluated. Patients with apparent secondary peritonitis were excluded from the study. Results. One...

  4. Infective endocarditis due to Enterobacter cloacae resistant to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Yusuke; Okugawa, Shu; Kimura, Satoshi; Makita, Eiko; Seo, Kazunori; Koga, Ichiro; Matsunaga, Naohisa; Kitazawa, Takatoshi; Ota, Yasuo

    2015-04-01

    We report the case of using a long-term combination of meropenem and amikacin to treat infective endocarditis caused by Enterobacter cloacae resistant to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. Multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacilli, such as the E. cloacae in our study, may become possible pathogens of infective endocarditis. Our experience with this case indicates that long-term use of a combination of β-lactam and aminoglycosides might represent a suitable management option for future infective endocarditis cases due to non-Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, Kingella spp. (HACEK group) Gram-negative bacilli such as ours.

  5. Involvement of the Eukaryote-Like Kinase-Phosphatase System and a Protein That Interacts with Penicillin-Binding Protein 5 in Emergence of Cephalosporin Resistance in Cephalosporin-Sensitive Class A Penicillin-Binding Protein Mutants in Enterococcus faecium

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    Charlene Desbonnet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic resistance of Enterococcus faecium to ceftriaxone and cefepime (here referred to as “cephalosporins” is reliant on the presence of class A penicillin-binding proteins (Pbps PbpF and PonA. Mutants lacking these Pbps exhibit cephalosporin susceptibility that is reversible by exposure to penicillin and by selection on cephalosporin-containing medium. We selected two cephalosporin-resistant mutants (Cro1 and Cro2 of class A Pbp-deficient E. faecium CV598. Genome analysis revealed changes in the serine-threonine kinase Stk in Cro1 and a truncation in the associated phosphatase StpA in Cro2 whose respective involvements in resistance were confirmed in separate complementation experiments. In an additional effort to identify proteins linked to cephalosporin resistance, we performed tandem affinity purification using Pbp5 as bait in penicillin-exposed E. faecium; these experiments yielded a protein designated Pbp5-associated protein (P5AP. Transcription of the P5AP gene was increased after exposure to penicillin in wild-type strains and in Cro2 and suppressed in Cro2 complemented with the wild-type stpA. Transformation of class A Pbp-deficient strains with the plasmid-carried P5AP gene conferred cephalosporin resistance. These data suggest that Pbp5-associated cephalosporin resistance in E. faecium devoid of typical class A Pbps is related to the presence of P5AP, whose expression is influenced by the activity of the serine-threonine phosphatase/kinase system.

  6. Characterization of CTX-M-140, a Variant of CTX-M-14 Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase with Decreased Cephalosporin Hydrolytic Activity, from Cephalosporin-Resistant Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guo-Bao; Jiang, Yi-Qi; Huang, Ying-Min; Qin, Yun; Feng, Lian-Qiang; Zhang, Xue-Fei; Li, Hong-Yu; Zhong, Lan-Lan; Zeng, Kun-Jiao; Patil, Sandip; Xing, Yong; Huang, Xi

    2016-10-01

    CTX-M-140, a novel CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), was identified in cephalosporin-resistant clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis CTX-M-140 contained an alanine-to-threonine substitution at position 109 compared to its putative progenitor, CTX-M-14. When it was expressed in an Escherichia coli isogenic background, CTX-M-140 conferred 4- to 32-fold lower MICs of cephalosporins than those with CTX-M-14, indicating that the phenotype was attributable to this single substitution. For four mutants of CTX-M-14 that were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (A109E, A109D, A109K, and A109R mutants), MICs of cephalosporins were similar to those for the E. coli host strain, which suggested that the alanine at position 109 was essential for cephalosporin hydrolysis. The kinetic properties of native CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-140 were consistent with the MICs for the E. coli clones. Compared with that of CTX-M-14, a lower hydrolytic activity against cephalosporins was observed for CTX-M-140. blaCTX-M-140 is located on the chromosome as determined by I-CeuI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (I-CeuI-PFGE) and Southern hybridization. The genetic environment surrounding blaCTX-M-140 is identical to the sequence found in different plasmids with blaCTX-M-9-group genes among the Enterobacteriaceae Genome sequencing and analysis showed that P. mirabilis strains with blaCTX-M-140 have a genome size of ∼4 Mbp, with a GC content of 38.7% and 23 putative antibiotic resistance genes. Our results indicate that alanine at position 109 is critical for the hydrolytic activity of CTX-M-14 against oxyimino-cephalosporins.

  7. THE EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF INVERT SUGAR ON THE PRODUCTION OF CEPHALOSPORIN C IN A FED-BATCH BIOREACTOR

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    A.S. Silva

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Cephalosporin C, a b -lactam antibiotic, is the starting molecule for industrial production of semi-synthetic cephalosporins. The bioprocess for its production is carried out in batch stirred and aerated tank reactors utilizing strains of the filamentous fungus Cephalosporium acremonium. In this work a comparison was made between the processes of production of cephalosporin C in a conventional batch bioreactor, with synthetic medium containing glucose and sucrose, and in a fed-batch reactor at several flowrates of supplementary medium containing invert sucrose. In general, the fed-batch process was shown to be more efficient than the conventional batch one, and the process in which the lowest supplementation flowrate was used presented an antibiotic production significantly higher than those obtained under the other conditions.

  8. Use of cephalosporins during pregnancy and in the presence of congenital abnormalities: a population-based, case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Our purpose was to study the human teratogenic potential of cephalosporin treatment during pregnancy. Study Design: Pair analysis of cases with congenital abnormalities and matched controls without congenital abnormalities was performed. The population-based data set of the Hungarian...... delivered of babies affected with Down syndrome (patient controls). Results: In the case group, 308 (1.35%) pregnant women were treated with cephalosporin. In the population and patient control groups, 440 (1.15%) and 16 (1.97%) pregnant women had similar treatments. The somewhat higher use...

  9. Analysis of Salmonella enterica with reduced susceptibility to the 3rd generation cephalosporin, ceftriaxone, isolated from US cattle during 2000-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past decade enteric bacteria in Europe, Africa and Asia have become increasingly resistant to cephalosporin antimicrobials. This is largely due to the spread of genes encoding extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes which can inactivate many cephalosporins. Recently these resistance me...

  10. Voluntary ban on cephalosporin use in Danish pig production has effectively reduced extended-spectrum cephalosporinase-producing Escherichia coli in slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To measure the effect of a voluntary ban on cephalosporin usage in the Danish pig production on the prevalence of extended-spectrum cephalosporinase (ESC)-producing Escherichia coli in pigs and pork.Methods Data on cephalosporin consumption were obtained from the VetStat database. For ...

  11. Evaluation of different glutaryl hydolysis of acylase mutants to improve the cephalosporin C in the absence of hydrogen peroxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez-Gallego, Fernando; Betancor, Lorena; Sio, Charles Frederik; Reis, Carlos R.; Jimenez, Pol Nadal; Guisan, Jose M.; Quax, Wim. J.; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    2-Oxoadipoyl-7-ACA is an intermediate in the conversion of cephalosporin C (CPC) to 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) when using a new route involving D-amino acid oxidase, catalase and glutaryl acylase. A key point in the reaction design is to avoid the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in the re

  12. Ultrasonic-Assisted Synthesis of Two t-Butoxycarbonylamino Cephalosporin Intermediates on SiO2

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    Feng Xue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we describe a facile and high efficient strategy for the synthesis of two forms of the 7β-t-butoxycarbonylamino-3-chloromethyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylates using ultrasonic irradiation. By SiO2 as weak Lewis acid catalyst, 4-methoxybenzyl 7β-t-butoxycarbonylamino-3-chloromethyl-3-cephem-carboxylate (Boc-ACLE and benzhydryl 7β-t-butoxycarbonylamino-3-chloromethyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylate (Boc-ACLH were successfully synthesized through the efficient protection of the N-t-butoxycarbonyl (N-Boc, and the reactions occurred at low temperature requiring short reaction times and exhibiting excellent isolated yields (96% and 96.2%, resp.. The advantages of this reaction route including the usage of economical reagents and mild reaction conditions and high isolated yield make the two significant t-butoxycarbonylamino cephalosporin intermediates possible in large-scale production.

  13. Determination of in vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to cephalosporins by radiometric and conventional methods

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    Heifets, L.B.; Iseman, M.D.; Cook, J.L.; Lindholm-Levy, P.J.; Drupa, I.

    1985-01-01

    Among eight cephalosporins and cephamycins tested in preliminary in vitro screening against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the most promising for further study was found to be ceforanide, followed by ceftizoxime, cephapirin, and cefotaxime. Moxalactam, cefoxitin, cefamandole, and cephalothin were found to be not active enough against M. tuberculosis to be considered for further in vitro studies. The antibacterial activity of various ceforanide concentrations was investigated by three methods: (i) the dynamics of radiometric readings (growth index) in 7H12 broth; (ii) the number of CFU in the same medium; and (iii) the proportion method on 7H11 agar plates. There was a good correlation among the results obtained with these methods. The MIC for most strains ranged from 6.0 to 25.0 micrograms/ml. The BACTEC radiometric method is a reliable, rapid, and convenient method for preliminary screening and determination of the level of antibacterial activity of drugs not commonly used against M. tuberculosis.

  14. Molecular Assay for Detection of Genetic Markers Associated with Decreased Susceptibility to Cephalosporins in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, S W; Martin, I; Demczuk, W; Bharat, A; Hoang, L; Wylie, J; Allen, V; Lefebvre, B; Tyrrell, G; Horsman, G; Haldane, D; Garceau, R; Wong, T; Mulvey, M R

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae continues to rise in Canada; however, antimicrobial resistance data are lacking for approximately 70% of gonorrhea infections that are diagnosed directly from clinical specimens by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). We developed a molecular assay for surveillance use to detect mutations in genes associated with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins that can be applied to both culture isolates and clinical samples. Real-time PCR assays were developed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ponA, mtrR, penA, porB, and one N. gonorrhoeae-specific marker (porA). We tested the real-time PCR assay with 252 gonococcal isolates, 50 nongonococcal isolates, 24 N. gonorrhoeae-negative NAAT specimens, and 34 N. gonorrhoeae-positive NAAT specimens. Twenty-four of the N. gonorrhoeae-positive NAAT specimens had matched culture isolates. Assay results were confirmed by comparison with whole-genome sequencing data. For 252 N. gonorrhoeae strains, the agreement between the DNA sequence and real-time PCR was 100% for porA, ponA, and penA, 99.6% for mtrR, and 95.2% for porB. The presence of ≥2 SNPs correlated with decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (sensitivities of >98%) and cefixime (sensitivities of >96%). Of 24 NAAT specimens with matched cultures, the agreement between the DNA sequence and real-time PCR was 100% for porB, 95.8% for ponA and mtrR, and 91.7% for penA. We demonstrated the utility of a real-time PCR assay for sensitive detection of known markers for the decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins in N. gonorrhoeae. Preliminary results with clinical NAAT specimens were also promising, as they correlated well with bacterial culture results.

  15. Inactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis l,d-transpeptidase LdtMt₁ by carbapenems and cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubée, Vincent; Triboulet, Sébastien; Mainardi, Jean-Luc; Ethève-Quelquejeu, Mélanie; Gutmann, Laurent; Marie, Arul; Dubost, Lionel; Hugonnet, Jean-Emmanuel; Arthur, Michel

    2012-08-01

    The structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis peptidoglycan is atypical since it contains a majority of 3→3 cross-links synthesized by l,d-transpeptidases that replace 4→3 cross-links formed by the d,d-transpeptidase activity of classical penicillin-binding proteins. Carbapenems inactivate these l,d-transpeptidases, and meropenem combined with clavulanic acid is bactericidal against extensively drug-resistant M. tuberculosis. Here, we used mass spectrometry and stopped-flow fluorimetry to investigate the kinetics and mechanisms of inactivation of the prototypic M. tuberculosis l,d-transpeptidase Ldt(Mt1) by carbapenems (meropenem, doripenem, imipenem, and ertapenem) and cephalosporins (cefotaxime, cephalothin, and ceftriaxone). Inactivation proceeded through noncovalent drug binding and acylation of the catalytic Cys of Ldt(Mt1), which was eventually followed by hydrolysis of the resulting acylenzyme. Meropenem rapidly inhibited Ldt(Mt1), with a binding rate constant of 0.08 μM(-1) min(-1). The enzyme was unable to recover from this initial binding step since the dissociation rate constant of the noncovalent complex was low (carbapenem side chains affected both the binding and acylation steps, ertapenem being the most efficient Ldt(Mt1) inactivator. Cephalosporins also formed covalent adducts with Ldt(Mt1), although the acylation reaction was 7- to 1,000-fold slower and led to elimination of one of the drug side chains. Comparison of kinetic constants for drug binding, acylation, and acylenzyme hydrolysis indicates that carbapenems and cephems can both be tailored to optimize peptidoglycan synthesis inhibition in M. tuberculosis.

  16. Selection of broad-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli in the feces of healthy dogs after administration of first-generation cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Ayako; Yossapol, Montira; Shibata, Sanae; Asai, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    Although antimicrobial products are essential for treating diseases caused by bacteria, antimicrobial treatment selects for antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of administration of first-generation cephalosporins on development of resistant Escherichia coli in dog feces. The proportions of cephalexin (LEX)-resistant E. coli in fecal samples of three healthy dogs treated i.v. with cefazolin before castration and then orally with LEX for 3 days post-operation (PO) were examined using DHL agar with or without LEX (50 µg/mL). LEX-resistant E. coli were found within 3 days PO, accounted for 100% of all identified E. coli 3-5 days PO in all dogs, and were predominantly found until 12 days PO. LEX-resistant E. coli isolates on DHL agar containing LEX were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotyping, β-lactamase typing and plasmid profiling. All isolates tested exhibited cefotaxime (CTX) resistance (CTX minimal inhibitory concentration ≥4 µg/mL). Seven PFGE profiles were classified into five groups and three β-lactamase combinations (blaCMY-4 -blaTEM-1 , blaTEM-1 -blaCTX-M-15 and blaTEM-1 -blaCTX-M-15 -blaCMY-4 ). All isolates exhibited identical PFGE profiles in all dogs on four days PO and subsequently showed divergent PFGE profiles. Our results indicate there are two selection periods for AMR bacteria resulting from the use of antimicrobials. Thus, continuing hygiene practices are necessary to prevent AMR bacteria transfer via dog feces after antimicrobial administration.

  17. Dissemination of cephalosporin resistance genes between Escherichia coli strains from farm animals and humans by specific plasmid lineages.

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    Mark de Been

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Third-generation cephalosporins are a class of β-lactam antibiotics that are often used for the treatment of human infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, especially Escherichia coli. Worryingly, the incidence of human infections caused by third-generation cephalosporin-resistant E. coli is increasing worldwide. Recent studies have suggested that these E. coli strains, and their antibiotic resistance genes, can spread from food-producing animals, via the food-chain, to humans. However, these studies used traditional typing methods, which may not have provided sufficient resolution to reliably assess the relatedness of these strains. We therefore used whole-genome sequencing (WGS to study the relatedness of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli from humans, chicken meat, poultry and pigs. One strain collection included pairs of human and poultry-associated strains that had previously been considered to be identical based on Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, plasmid typing and antibiotic resistance gene sequencing. The second collection included isolates from farmers and their pigs. WGS analysis revealed considerable heterogeneity between human and poultry-associated isolates. The most closely related pairs of strains from both sources carried 1263 Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs per Mbp core genome. In contrast, epidemiologically linked strains from humans and pigs differed by only 1.8 SNPs per Mbp core genome. WGS-based plasmid reconstructions revealed three distinct plasmid lineages (IncI1- and IncK-type that carried cephalosporin resistance genes of the Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL- and AmpC-types. The plasmid backbones within each lineage were virtually identical and were shared by genetically unrelated human and animal isolates. Plasmid reconstructions from short-read sequencing data were validated by long-read DNA sequencing for two strains. Our findings failed to demonstrate evidence for recent clonal transmission of

  18. Azithromycin resistance is coevolving with reduced susceptibility to cephalosporins in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Vanessa G; Seah, Christine; Martin, Irene; Melano, Roberto G

    2014-05-01

    Azithromycin (AZM) is routinely recommended as a component of dual therapy for gonorrhea in combination with third-generation cephalosporins (3GC). In this study, we examined the prevalence of AZM-resistant (AZM(r)) Neisseria gonorrhoeae from July 2010 to February 2013, assessed the rate of concurrent cephalosporin resistance under the current treatment recommendations, and analyzed the clonal distribution of AZM(r) isolates in Ontario, Canada. Nineteen AZM(r) clinical isolates (one per patient; MIC, ≥2 μg/ml) were included in the study. Susceptibility profiles of these isolates to 11 antibiotics, molecular typing, characterization of macrolide resistance mechanisms, and penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) patterns were determined for all the isolates. Two groups were defined based on AZM(r) level; group A isolates displayed high-level resistance (MIC, ≥2,048 μg/ml) due to mutations (A2143G) in the four copies of the 23S rRNA rrl gene, and group B isolates had moderate resistance to AZM (MICs, 2 to 8 μg/ml, C2599T mutation in the rrl gene), with a subgroup belonging to sequence type 3158 (ST3158) (n = 8), which also showed reduced susceptibility to 3GC (MICs, 0.12 to 0.25 μg/ml, PBP2 pattern XXXIV). This AZM(r) phenotype was not observed in previous provincial surveillance in 2008 (the ST3158 clone was found, with AZM MICs of 0.25 to 0.5 μg/ml associated with mtrR mutations). We hypothesized that the AZM mutant prevention concentration (MPC) in the ST3158 subpopulation we found in 2008 was higher than the MPC in wild-type isolates (AZM MIC, ≤0.031 μg/ml), increasing the chances of additional selection of AZM(r) mutations. Full AZM resistance is now emerging in this clone together with reduced susceptibility to 3GC, threatening the future efficacy of these antibiotics as therapeutic options for treatment of gonorrhea.

  19. The differential importance of mutations within AmpD in cephalosporin resistance of Enterobacter aerogenes and Enterobacter cloacae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babouee Flury, Baharak; Ellington, Matthew J; Hopkins, Katie L; Turton, Jane F; Doumith, Michel; Woodford, Neil

    2016-11-01

    Mechanisms leading to carbapenem and cephalosporin resistance were sought in Enterobacter aerogenes isolates that were highly resistant to carbapenems but had no known carbapenemase. Results were compared with recent work examining carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae. Eighteen carbapenem-resistant E. aerogenes were screened for known β-lactamase and carbapenemase genes, and novel carbapenemases were sought in whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data of the three most resistant isolates. For all isolates, ampC, ampR, ampD and the porin genes omp35 and omp36 were investigated by Sanger sequencing or from available WGS data. Expression of ampC and porin genes was measured in comparison with cephalosporin- and carbapenem-susceptible control strains by reverse transcriptase PCR, with porin translation also detected by SDS-PAGE. Loss of Omp35, primarily due to decreased transcription (up to 250×), was observed in ertapenem-resistant isolates (MICs ≥ 2 mg/L), whereas meropenem resistance (MICs ≥ 4 mg/L) was observed in those isolates also showing decreased or no production of Omp36. Loss of Omp36 was due to combinations of premature translation termination or reduced transcription. In contrast to E. cloacae, cephalosporin resistance in E. aerogenes was not associated with lesions in AmpD. High-level cefepime resistance (MIC = 32 mg/L) was caused by a novel modification in the H-10 helix of AmpC in one isolate. The differential importance of AmpD lesions in cephalosporin resistance in E. cloacae and E. aerogenes underlines the differences between these contrasting members of the Enterobacter genus. Porin loss resulted in high-level carbapenem resistance with gradual loss of Omp36, which led to high-level meropenem resistance.

  20. Emergence of integron borne PER-1 mediated extended spectrum cephalosporin resistance among nosocomial isolates of Gram-negative bacilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Prakash Maurya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Pseudomonas extended resistant (PER enzymes are rare type of extended-spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs that confer third generation cephalosporin resistance. These are often integron borne and laterally transmitted. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emergence of integron borne cephalosporin resistant PER-1 gene in diverse incompatibility (Inc group plasmids among Gram-negative bacteria. Methods: A total of 613 consecutive, non-duplicate, Gram-negative bacteria of Enterobacteriaceae family and non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from different clinical specimens during a period of 18 months. For amplification and detection of blaPER, multiplex PCR was done. For understanding the genetic environment of blaPER-1, integrase gene PCR and cassette PCR (59 be was performed. Gene transferability experiment was carried out and PCR based replicon typing was performed for incompatibility group typing of plasmids using 18 pairs of primers. An inhibitor based method was used for phenotypic detection of intrinsic resistance. Results: Multiplex PCR and sequencing confirmed that 45 isolates were harbouring blaPER-1. Both class 1 and class 2 integrons were observed among them. Integrase and cassette PCR (59 be PCR results confirmed that the resistant determinant was located within class 1 integron. Transformation and conjugation experiments revealed that PER-1 was laterally transferable and disseminated through diverse Inc plasmid type. Efflux pump mediated carbapenem resistance was observed in all isolates. All isolates belonged to heterogenous groups. Interpretation & conclusions: This study demonstrates the dissemination of cephalosporins resistant, integron borne blaPER-1 in hospital setting in this part of the country and emphasizes on the rational use of third generation cephalosporins to slow down the expansion of this rare type of ESBL gene.

  1. Incidence of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates that test susceptible to cephalosporins and aztreonam by the revised CLSI breakpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Carla S; Condon, Susan; Schwartz, Rebecca M; Ginocchio, Christine C

    2014-07-01

    The incidence of aztreonam and cephalosporin susceptibility, determined using the revised CLSI breakpoints, for extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates was evaluated. Our analysis showed that results for aztreonam and/or ≥1 cephalosporin were reported as susceptible or intermediate for 89.2% of ESBL-producing E coli isolates (569/638 isolates) and 67.7% of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates (155/229 isolates).

  2. Enhanced Enzymatic Synthesis of a Cephalosporin, Cefadroclor, in the Presence of Organic Co-solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun; Li, Sha; Pang, Xiao; Xu, Zheng; Li, Dengchao; Xu, Hong

    2016-11-05

    In this study, we investigated the enzymatic synthesis of a semi-synthetic cephalosporin, cefadroclor, from 7-aminodesacetoxymethyl-3-chlorocephalosporanic acid (7-ACCA) and p-OH-phenylglycine methyl ester (D-HPGM) using immobilized penicillin G acylase (IPA) in organic co-solvents. Ethylene glycol (EG) was employed as a component of the reaction mixture to improve the yield of cefadroclor. EG was found to increase the yield of cefadroclor by 15-45%. An investigation of altered reaction parameters including type and concentration of organic solvents, pH of reaction media, reaction temperature, molar ratio of substrates, enzyme loading, and IPA recycling was carried out in the buffer mixture. The best result was a 76.5% conversion of 7-ACCA, which was obtained from the reaction containing 20% EG (v/v), D-HPGM to 7-ACCA molar ratio of 4:1 and pH 6.2, catalyzed by 16 IU mL(-1) IPA at 20 °C for 10 h. Under the optimum conditions, no significant loss of IPA activity was found after seven repeated reaction cycles. In addition, cefadroclor exhibited strong inhibitory activity against yeast, Bacillus subtilis NX-2, and Escherichia coli and weaker activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cefadroclor is a potential antibiotic with activity against common pathogenic microorganisms.

  3. Ceftobiprole: a new cephalosporin for the treatment of skin and skin structure infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Patricia L; Deresinski, Stanley C

    2009-09-01

    Ceftobiprole is among the first of a new generation of cephalosporins with activity against aerobic Gram-negative bacilli, which extends to cefepime-sensitive Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and activity against Gram-positive organisms, which includes methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Ceftobiprole is currently undergoing evaluation by the US FDA for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections, with a decision pending further evaluation of study site monitoring. It is also being evaluated for the treatment of community-acquired and healthcare-associated pneumonia. Two Phase III multicenter trials have demonstrated noninferiority in complicated skin and skin structure infections when tested against vancomycin in primarily Gram-positive bacterial infections, and when tested against vancomycin plus ceftazidime in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial infections. It is well tolerated, with the most common side effects being nausea and dysgeusia. Ceftobiprole is likely to prove useful as an empiric as well as directed monotherapy in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections, in which both Gram-positive pathogens including methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Gram-negative pathogens including cefepime-sensitive P. aeruginosa may be involved.

  4. Plasmid Mediated Resistance to Cephalosporin and Adhesion Properties in E.Coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa Oufrid

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between biofilm formation, surface characteristics and the presence of plasmid conferring resistance to cephalosporin Methodology: The plasmid of resistance of Salmonella 3349 was purified and transferred by electroporation to the E. coli DH10B originally incompetent to form biofilm. The physico-chemical surface properties of the three bacteria (E. coli DH10B, Salmonella 3349 and its isogenic transformant 3519EC1 were estimated and compared by the Microbial Adhesion to Solvents test (MAST and angle contact measurement. Cellular densities of bacteria adhered to stainless supports were examined with a scanning electron microscope. Results: The physicochemical properties of bacterial cell surface demonstrated that E.coli DH10B strain was hydrophilic, electron donating and weakly electron accepting than Salmonella 3349 and its transformant 3519EC1 strains. Moreover, there was a weak correlation between the acid-base properties determined by the Microbial Adhesion to Solvents test and angle contact measurement. Analysis of microscopical images of bacterial adhesion indicated that E.coli 3519EC1 and Salmonella 3349 adhered to the stainless surface, whereas the E.coli DH10B does not adhere. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the presences of the plasmid of resistance modify the microbial surface properties and biofilm formation.

  5. Susceptibility to cephalosporins of bacteria causing intramammary infections in dairy cows with a high somatic cell count in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wente, N; Zoche-Golob, V; Behr, M; Krömker, V

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations of cephalosporins of the first (cefalonium and cefapirin) and fourth generation (cefquinome) against bacteria isolated from intramammary infections in dairy cows with elevated somatic cell counts in Germany. Additionally, possible regional differences of the minimal inhibitory concentrations within Germany should be evaluated. In total, 6936 quarter milk samples from cows with a somatic cell count >200,000cells/ml were taken in 43 herds. The concentrations of the first generation cephalosporins inhibiting at least 90% of the isolates of a pathogen (MIC90) were ≥64μg/ml against Gram-negative bacteria and enterococci whereas the respective MIC90 against the other Gram-positive bacteria were ≤4μg/ml. The MIC90 of cefquinome were ≥16μg/ml against Gram-negative bacteria, bacilli and enterococci, and ≤2μg/ml against the other Gram-positive bacteria. Only the minimal inhibitory concentrations against coagulase-negative staphylococci differed significantly between regions in parametric survival models with shared frailties for the herds. However, the minimal inhibitory concentrations of cefquinome against staphylococci were higher than the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the tested cephalosporins of the first generation. Therefore, cefquinome should not be the first choice to treat staphylococcal mastitis in dairy cows.

  6. Effect of Variants of Penicillin-Binding Protein 2 on Cephalosporin and Carbapenem Susceptibilities in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharat, Amrita; Demczuk, Walter; Martin, Irene; Mulvey, Michael R

    2015-08-01

    To characterize the relationship between penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2/penA) and susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) and carbapenem antibiotics, we compared 17 PBP2 variants in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Nonmosaic and mosaic variants of PBP2 caused decreased susceptibility to ESCs and, to a lesser extent, to carbapenems. An A501P substitution in mosaic XXXIV_A501P conferred decreased susceptibility to ESCs but restored carbapenem susceptibility to wild-type levels. These results could aid the molecular surveillance of antimicrobial resistance to these agents.

  7. Plasmid and Host Strain Characteristics of Escherichia coli Resistant to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins in the Norwegian Broiler Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Solveig Sølverød; Slettemeås, Jannice Schau; Berg, Einar Sverre; Norström, Madelaine; Sunde, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins have been detected in the Norwegian broiler production, despite the fact that antimicrobial agents are rarely used. The genetic mechanism responsible for cephalosporin resistance is mainly attributed to the presence of the blaCMY-2 gene encoding a plasmid-mediated AmpC-beta-lactamase (pAmpC). The aim of this study was to characterize and compare blaCMY-2 containing Escherichia coli isolated from the intestinal flora of broilers and retail chicken meat (fillets) to identify possible successful clones and/or resistance plasmids widespread in the Norwegian broiler production. Methods used included PCR based phylotyping, conjugation experiments, plasmid replicon typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multiple locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis and whole genome sequencing. The nucleotide sequence of an IncK plasmid carrying blaCMY-2 was determined. Intestinal isolates displayed a higher degree of genetic diversity than meat isolates. A cluster of genetically related isolates belonging to ST38, phylogroup D, carrying blaCMY-2 containing IncK plasmids was identified. Furthermore, genes encoding plasmid stability systems (relBE/stbDE and pndAC) were identified on the IncK plasmid. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of a subset of isolates confirmed a close genetic relationship within the two most prevalent STs. The IncK plasmids within these two STs also shared a high degree of similarity. Cephalosporin-resistant E. coli with the same genetic characteristics have been identified in the broiler production in other European countries, and the IncK plasmid characterized in this study showed close homology to a plasmid isolated from retail chicken meat in the Netherlands. The results indicate that both clonal expansion and horizontal transfer of blaCMY-2 containing plasmids contribute to dissemination of cephalosporin resistant E. coli in the broiler production. The presence of plasmid

  8. Increase in Resistance to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins in Salmonella Isolated from Retail Chicken Products in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella are one of the most important public health problems in developed countries. ESBL-producing Salmonella strains have been isolated from humans in Asian countries neighboring Japan, along with strains harboring the plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistance gene, ampC (pAmpC). However, only a few studies have investigated the prevalence of ESC-resistant Salmonella in chicken products in Japan, which are the main ve...

  9. Molecular characteristics of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from humans in the community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela H A M van Hoek

    Full Text Available To investigate the molecular characteristics of extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC-resistant Enterobacteriaceae collected during a cross-sectional study examining the prevalence and risk factors for faecal carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in humans living in areas with high or low broiler density.ESC-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were identified by combination disc-diffusion test. ESBL/AmpC/carbapenemase genes were analysed using PCR and sequencing. For E. coli, phylogenetic groups and MLST were determined. Plasmids were characterized by transformation and PCR-based replicon typing. Subtyping of plasmids was done by plasmid multilocus sequence typing.175 ESC-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were cultured from 165/1,033 individuals. The isolates were Escherichia coli(n=65, Citrobacter freundii (n=52, Enterobacter cloacae (n=38, Morganella morganii (n=5, Enterobacter aerogenes (n=4, Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=3, Hafnia alvei (n=2, Shigella spp. (n=2, Citrobacter amalonaticus (n=1, Escherichia hermannii (n=1, Kluyvera cryocrescens (n=1, and Pantoea agglomerans (n=1. The following ESBL genes were recovered in 55 isolates originating from 49 of 1,033 (4.7 % persons: blaCTX-M-1 (n=17, blaCTX-M-15 (n=16, blaCTX-M-14 (n=9, blaCTX-M-2 (n=3, blaCTX-M-3 (n=2, blaCTX-M-24 (n=2, blaCTX-M-27 (n=1, blaCTX-M-32 (n=1, blaSHV-12 (n=2, blaSHV-65 (n=1 and blaTEM-52 (n=1. Plasmidic AmpC (pAmpC genes were discovered in 6 out of 1,033 (0.6 % persons. One person carried two different E. coli isolates, one with blaCTX-M-1 and the other with blaCMY-2 and therefore the prevalence of persons carrying Enterobacteriaceae harboring ESBL and/or pAmpC genes was 5.2 %. In eight E. coli isolates the AmpC phenotype was caused by mutations in the AmpC promoter region. No carbapenemase genes were identified. A large variety of E. coli genotypes was found, ST131 and ST10 being most common.ESBL/pAmpC genes resembled those from patients in Dutch

  10. Ceftobiprole: first cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaillac, Céline; Rybak, Michael J

    2009-05-01

    Ceftobiprole medocaril is the first member of a new series of advanced cephalosporins with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The drug received an approvable letter from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in March 2008 and from Health Canada in June 2008 for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections including diabetic foot infections. Ceftobiprole exerts its antibacterial activity by inhibiting the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) involved in cell wall synthesis. It has an established stability against hydrolysis by many gram-positive beta-lactamases and a higher affinity for various PBPs (such as PBP2a of MRSA or PBP2x of Streptococcus pneumoniae), which leads to a wider spectrum of activity compared with older beta-lactams. Ceftobiprole activity does not cover extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and some other pathogens, including Enterococcus faecium or Acinetobacter baumanii. Generally well tolerated, with nausea and taste disturbance being the most common adverse events, ceftobiprole appeared noninferior to empiric therapy in several clinical trials. Ceftobiprole is available only for intravenous administration; recommended dosage regimens have not been approved by the FDA as of this writing. However, based on the Canadian package insert, expected dosage recommendations are 500 mg as a 1-hour intravenous infusion every 12 hours for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections caused by certain gram-positive pathogens, and 500 mg as a 2-hour infusion every 8 hours when susceptible gram-negative or both gram-positive and susceptible gram-negative pathogens are involved. Dosage adjustments are indicated for patients with moderate or severe renal impairment, and dosage recommendations are expected to be 500 or 250 mg, respectively, as a 2-hour infusion every 12 hours. Several precautions regarding hypersensitivity and drug incompatibility are

  11. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ceftobiprole, an anti-MRSA cephalosporin with broad-spectrum activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Bindu; Schmitt-Hoffmann, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Ceftobiprole, a beta-lactam, is the first of a new generation of broad-spectrum cephalosporins in late-stage development with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in addition to broad-spectrum bactericidal activity against other Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. The prodrug, ceftobiprole medocaril, is converted rapidly and almost completely to the active drug, ceftobiprole, upon infusion by type A esterases. In humans, ceftobiprole binds minimally (16%) to plasma proteins, and binding is independent of the drug and protein concentrations. Its steady-state volume of distribution (18.4 L) approximates the extracellular fluid volume in humans. Ceftobiprole undergoes minimal hepatic metabolism, and the primary metabolite is the beta-lactam ring-opened hydrolysis product (open-ring metabolite). Systemic exposure of the open-ring metabolite accounts for 4% of ceftobiprole exposure following single-dose administration; approximately 5% of the dose is excreted in the urine as the metabolite. Ceftobiprole does not significantly induce or inhibit relevant cytochrome P450 enzymes and is neither a substrate nor an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein. Ceftobiprole is rapidly eliminated, primarily unchanged, by renal excretion, with a terminal elimination half-life of 3 hours; the predominant mechanism responsible for elimination is glomerular filtration, with approximately 89% of the dose being excreted as the prodrug, active drug (ceftobiprole) and open-ring metabolite. The pharmacokinetics of ceftobiprole are linear following single and multiple infusions of 125-1000 mg. Steady-state drug concentrations are attained on the first day of dosing, with no appreciable accumulation when administered three times daily (every 8 hours) and twice daily (every 12 hours) in subjects with normal renal function. Low intersubject variability has been seen across studies. Ceftobiprole exposure is slightly higher (~15%) in females than in males; this difference

  12. Ceftobiprole: a review of a broad-spectrum and anti-MRSA cephalosporin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhanel, George G; Lam, Ashley; Schweizer, Frank; Thomson, Kristjan; Walkty, Andrew; Rubinstein, Ethan; Gin, Alfred S; Hoban, Daryl J; Noreddin, Ayman M; Karlowsky, James A

    2008-01-01

    Ceftobiprole, an investigational cephalosporin, is currently in phase III clinical development. Ceftobiprole is a broad-spectrum cephalosporin with demonstrated in vitro activity against Gram-positive cocci, including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and meticillin-resistant S. epidermidis, penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Gram-negative bacilli including AmpC-producing Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but excluding extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing strains. Like cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, and cefepime, ceftobiprole demonstrates limited activity against anaerobes such as Bacteroides fragilis and non-fragilis Bacteroides spp. In single-step and serial passage in vitro resistance development studies, ceftobiprole demonstrated a low propensity to select for resistant subpopulations. Ceftobiprole, like cefepime, is a weak inducer and a poor substrate for AmpC beta-lactamases.Ceftobiprole medocaril, the prodrug of ceftobiprole, is converted by plasma esterases to ceftobiprole in ceftobiprole observed at the end of a single 30-minute infusion were 35.5 mug/mL for a 500-mg dose and 59.6 mug/mL for a 750-mg dose. The volume of distribution of ceftobiprole is 0.26 L/kg ( approximately 18 L), protein binding is 16%, and its serum half-life is approximately 3.5 hours. Ceftobiprole is renally excreted ( approximately 70% in the active form) and systemic clearance correlates with creatinine clearance, meaning that dosage adjustment is required in patients with renal dysfunction. Ceftobiprole has a modest post-antibiotic effect (PAE) of approximately 0.5 hours for MRSA and a longer PAE of approximately 2 hours for penicillin-resistant pneumococci. Ceftobiprole, when administered intravenously at 500 mg once every 8 hours (2-hour infusion), has a >90% probability of achieving f T(>MIC) (free drug concentration exceeds the minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC]) for 40% and 60%, respectively, of the dosing

  13. The use of third and fourth generation cephalosporins affects the occurrence of extended-spectrum cephalosporinase-producing Escherichia coli in Danish pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalhoff Andersen, Vibe; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Vigre, Håkan;

    2015-01-01

    Extended-spectrum cephalosporinase resistance is currently the fastest emerging antimicrobial resistance problem worldwide; however, evidence documenting the effect of potential risk factors is limited. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of using third and fourth...... generation cephalosporins on the occurrence of extended-spectrum cephalosporinase-producing Escherichia coli (ESC-Ec) in Danish pig herds.Conventional, integrated, medium to large herds were selected based on information from the Danish Central Husbandry Register and two groups were formed based on the use...... of third and fourth generation cephalosporins within a specified period, namely, 20 herds with no cephalosporin use (non-exposed) and 19 herds with frequent use (exposed). Data on prescribed antimicrobials were obtained from the National database (VetStat). Management data were obtained through...

  14. Cidal activity of oral third-generation cephalosporins against Streptococcus pneumoniae in relation to cefotaxime intrinsic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafini, F; Aguilar, L; Alou, L; Giménez, M J; Sevillano, D; Torrico, M; González, N; Granizo, J J; Martín-Herrero, J E; Prieto, J

    2008-08-01

    This study explores the killing kinetics within 12 h of four oral third-generation cephalosporins against ten Streptococcus pneumoniae strains exhibiting cefotaxime minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) from 0.03 to 2 microg/ml. Killing curves were performed with concentrations achievable in serum after standard doses (0.015-4 microg/ml). Reductions of 90% were achieved with all compounds at serum-achievable concentrations for strains exhibiting cefotaxime MIC cefotaxime MIC > or = 1 microg/ml, only cefditoren reached a 90% reduction with concentrations of 0.5-1 microg/ml doses. At 4 microg/ml, cefditoren and cefotaxime reached 99.9% reduction in seven of the ten strains studied. At serum-achievable concentrations, cefdinir and cefixime were not bactericidal against strains exhibiting cefotaxime MIC > or = 0.25 microg/ml and > or = 0.5 microg/ml, respectively. Cefditoren showed the best killing kinetic profiles and this observation may be important when choosing an oral third-generation cephalosporin as initial or sequential therapy.

  15. [Increase in antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella from food to fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins--a review of data from ten years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenhagen, Bernd-Alois; Schroeter, Andreas; Szabo, Istvan; Dorn, Christina; Appel, Bernd; Helmuth, Reiner; Käsbohrer, Annemarie

    2014-01-01

    Animal derived food is a relevant source of human infections with Salmonella enterica. In this paper we analyse the presence of Salmonella in meat with respect to the observed serovars and their resistance to the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin and 3rd generation cephalosporins in the years 2003 to 2012. Data originated from 8176 isolates that were isolated from meat, characterized in the National Reference Laboratory for Salmonella and tested for antimicrobial resistance in the National Reference Laboratory for antimicrobial resistance in this time period. The analysis reveals substantial differences in resistance patterns between isolates from different types of meat and different serovars. Frequent serovars were mostly associated with one type of meat, suggesting an additional influence of specific characteristics of the serovars besides the effect of selection pressure excerted by antimicrobial treatments. Results show a clear increase in resistance to fluoroquinolones and 3rd generation cephalosporins that was most prominent in isolates from poultry meat. Although the number of human infections with Salmonella in Germany decreased sharply in recent years, results indicate a substantial exposure of consumers to Salmonella that are resistant to important antimicrobials via meat.

  16. Influence of penicillin/amoxicillin non-susceptibility on the activity of third-generation cephalosporins against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoll, A; Giménez, M J; Robledo, O; Aguilar, L; Tarragó, D; Granizo, J J; Martín-Herrero, J E

    2008-01-01

    To study the influence of penicillin/amoxicillin non-susceptibility on the activity of third-generation cephalosporins, 430 consecutive penicillin non-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae 2007 isolates received in the Spanish Reference Pneumococcal Laboratory were tested. For comparative purposes, 625 penicillin-susceptible 2007 isolates were also tested. Susceptibility was determined by agar dilution using Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 5% sheep blood. Penicillin-susceptible strains were susceptible to amoxicillin, cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, 99.8% to cefpodoxime and 99.5% to cefdinir, and were inhibited by 0.12 microg/ml of cefditoren and 4 microg/ml of cefixime. Penicillin-intermediate strains were susceptible to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, with Penicillin-resistant strains were resistant to cefdinir and cefpodoxime, with 74.8% and 94.1% susceptibility to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, respectively. Cefditoren MIC(50)/MIC(90) (0.5/1 microg/ml) were lower than cefotaxime and ceftriaxone. Among amoxicillin non-susceptible strains, susceptibility to cefdinir and cefpodoxime was penicillin/amoxicillin non-susceptibility, while parenteral third-generation cephalosporins exhibited higher intrinsic activity (MIC(90)=1 microg/ml for penicillin-resistant and 2 microg/ml for amoxicillin-resistant strains). Cefditoren exhibited one-dilution lower MIC(90) values for these strains, even against those of the most troublesome serotypes.

  17. Cephalosporin resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with special reference to the proposed trapping of antibiotics by beta-lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, D M; Williams, J D; Davy, K W

    1985-02-01

    Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to newer cephalosporins is often associated with stable derepression of synthesis of the chromosomal beta-lactamase. Similar resistance is developed by enzyme inducible (i.e. normal) strains in response to beta-lactamase inducers. By comparing the responses of otherwise isogenic P. aeruginosa beta-lactamase inducibility mutants to antipseudomonal cephalosporins alone or in combination with potent beta-lactamase inducers we confirmed that resistance to cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefoperazone, and ceftazidime and latamoxef was caused by beta-lactamase action. The low-level resistance to carbenicillin and cefsulodin which was exhibited by some fully beta-lactamase derepressed strains was not confirmed to be beta-lactamase determined and may have reflected concurrent target or permeability changes. The mechanism whereby the enzyme protected the cell against cefotaxime and ceftriaxone was also investigated. These agents are reportedly stable to the enzyme and some workers have suggested that resistance entails their being trapped rather than hydrolysed. However, the use of a novel model of cellular beta-lactamase function indicated that a hydrolytic resistance mechanism remained likely.

  18. [Recombinant cephalosporin-acid synthesase: optimisation of expression in E.coli cells, immobilisation and application for biocatalytic cefazolin synthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldarov, M A; Sklyarenko, A V; Dumina, M V; Medvedeva, N V; Jgoun, A A; Satarova, J E; Sidorenko, A I; Emperian, A S; Yarotsky, S V

    2015-01-01

    Cephalosporin acid synthetase (CASA) is responsible for specific to synthesis of cephalosporin-acids, its expression in Escherichia coli cells is accompanied by accumulation of unprocessed insoluble precursor. In order to optimize conditions of recombinant CASA production we have studied the effects of several parameters of strain cultivation, including growth media composition, temperature, and inoculation dose. Also plasmids for production of CASA variants with the signal sequence of Erwinia carotovora L-asparaginase (ansCASA) and "leaderless" CASA were created in search of more efficient expression constructs. Removal of the N-terminal secretion signal sequence reduced the production of functionally active CASA more than 10-fold and inhibited strain growth. Insertion of the L-asparaginase signal sequence increased the specific enzyme activity in the resultant recombinant strain. The ansCASA producing strain was used to develop the method of immobilization of the recombinant enzyme on an epoxy-activated macroporous acrylic support. The resultant biocatalyst performed effective synthesis of cefazolin from 3-[(5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-il)-thiomethyl]-7- aminocephalosporanic acid (MMTD-7-ACA) and methyl ester of 1(H)-tetrazolilacetic acid (МETzAA), under mild conditions a transformation level of MMTD-7-ACA to cefazolin of 95% is reached.

  19. Increased structural flexibility at the active site of a fluorophore-conjugated beta-lactamase distinctively impacts its binding toward diverse cephalosporin antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wai-Ting; Chan, Kwok-Chu; So, Pui-Kin; Yap, Hong-Kin; Chung, Wai-Hong; Leung, Yun-Chung; Wong, Kwok-Yin; Zhao, Yanxiang

    2011-09-09

    The Ω-loop at the active site of β-lactamases exerts significant impact on the kinetics and substrate profile of these enzymes by forming part of the substrate binding site and posing as steric hindrance toward bulky substrates. Mutating certain residues on the Ω-loop has been a general strategy for molecular evolution of β-lactamases to expand their hydrolytic activity toward extended-spectrum antibiotics through a mechanism believed to involve enhanced structural flexibility of the Ω-loop. Yet no structural information is available that demonstrates such flexibility or its relation to substrate profile and enzyme kinetics. Here we report an engineered β-lactamase that contains an environment-sensitive fluorophore conjugated near its active site to probe the structural dynamics of the Ω-loop and to detect the binding of diverse substrates. Our results show that this engineered β-lactamase has improved binding kinetics and positive fluorescence signal toward oxyimino-cephalosporins, but shows little such effect to non-oxyimino-cephalosporins. Structural studies reveal that the Ω-loop adopts a less stabilized structure, and readily undergoes conformational change to accommodate the binding of bulky oxyimino-cephalosporins while no such change is observed for non-oxyimino-cephalosporins. Mutational studies further confirm that this substrate-induced structural change is directly responsible for the positive fluorescence signal specific to oxyimino-cephalosporins. Our data provide mechanistic evidence to support the long-standing model that the evolutionary strategy of mutating the Ω-loop leads to increased structural flexibility of this region, which in turn facilitates the binding of extended spectrum β-lactam antibiotics. The oxyimino-cephalosporin-specific fluorescence profile of our engineered β-lactamase also demonstrates the possibility of designing substrate-selective biosensing systems.

  20. Norwegian patients and retail chicken meat share cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli and IncK/blaCMY-2 resistance plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, E. S.; Wester, A. L.; Ahrenfeldt, Johanne

    2017-01-01

    In 2012 and 2014 the Norwegian monitoring programme for antimicrobial resistance in the veterinary and food production sectors (NORM-VET) showed that 124 of a total of 406 samples (31%) of Norwegian retail chicken meat was contaminated with extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia co...... of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli from chicken meat to humans may occur, and may cause difficult to treat infections. Furthermore, these E. coli can be a source of AmpC resistance plasmids for opportunistic pathogens in the human microbiota....

  1. Ceftazidime-avibactam: a novel cephalosporin/β-lactamase inhibitor combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhanel, George G; Lawson, Christopher D; Adam, Heather; Schweizer, Frank; Zelenitsky, Sheryl; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R S; Denisuik, Andrew; Rubinstein, Ethan; Gin, Alfred S; Hoban, Daryl J; Lynch, Joseph P; Karlowsky, James A

    2013-02-01

    -lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacilli that are not inhibited by ceftazidime alone.Clinical trials to date have reported that ceftazidime-avibactam is as effective as standard carbapenem therapy in complicated intra-abdominal infection and complicated urinary tract infection, including infection caused by cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative isolates. The safety and tolerability of ceftazidime-avibactam has been reported in three phase I pharmacokinetic studies and two phase II clinical studies. Ceftazidime-avibactam appears to be well tolerated in healthy subjects and hospitalized patients, with few serious drug-related treatment-emergent adverse events reported to date.In conclusion, avibactam serves to broaden the spectrum of ceftazidime versus ß-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacilli. The exact roles for ceftazidime-avibactam will be defined by efficacy and safety data from further clinical trials. Potential future roles for ceftazidime-avibactam include the treatment of suspected or documented infections caused by resistant Gram-negative-bacilli producing extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL), Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) and/or AmpC ß-lactamases. In addition, ceftazidime-avibactam may be used in combination (with metronidazole) for suspected polymicrobial infections. Finally, the increased activity of ceftazidime-avibactam versus P. aeruginosa may be of clinical benefit in patients with suspected or documented P. aeruginosa infections.

  2. Burden of antimicrobial resistance in European hospitals : excess mortality and length of hospital stay associated with bloodstream infections due to Escherichia coli resistant to third-generation cephalosporins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kraker, M. E. A.; Wolkewitz, M.; Davey, P. G.; Koller, W.; Berger, J.; Nagler, J.; Icket, C.; Kalenic, S.; Horvatic, J.; Seifert, H.; Kaasch, A.; Paniara, O.; Argyropoulou, A.; Bompola, M.; Smyth, E.; Skally, M.; Raglio, A.; Dumpis, U.; Kelmere, A. Melbarde; Borg, M.; Xuereb, D.; Ghita, M. C.; Noble, M.; Kolman, J.; Grabljevec, S.; Turner, D.; Lansbury, L.; Grundmann, H.

    2011-01-01

    This study determined excess mortality and length of hospital stay (LOS) attributable to bloodstream infection (BSI) caused by third-generation-cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli in Europe. A prospective parallel matched cohort design was used. Cohort I consisted of patients with third-generat

  3. Prevalence of lactose fermenting coliforms resistant to third generation cephalosporins in cattle feedlot throughout a production cycle and molecular characterization of resistant isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Increases in incidence of human infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae resistant to 3rd generation cephalosporins (3GC) have become a public health concern. The 3GC ceftiofur is commonly used for the therapeutic treatment of feedlot cattle but the impact this practice has on public h...

  4. Trends in Expanded-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae among Dutch Clinical Isolates, from 2008 to 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Steen, Matthijs; Leenstra, Tjalling; Kluytmans, Jan A J W; van der Bij, Akke K

    2015-01-01

    We investigated time trends in extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from different patient settings in The Netherlands from 2008-2012. E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates from blood and urine samples of patients > = 18 years were selected from

  5. Increased expression levels of chromosomal AmpC β-lactamase in clinical Escherichia coli isolates and their effect on susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paltansing, Sunita; Kraakman, Margriet; van Boxtel, H.A.M.; Kors, Ivo; Wessels, Els; Goessens, Wil; Tommassen, J.P.M.; Bernards, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Forty-nine clinical Escherichia coli isolates, both extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) negative and ESBL positive, were studied to investigate whether increased AmpC expression is a mechanism involved in cefoxitin resistance and if this influences the third-generation cephalosporin activity. Nine

  6. Predictive Value of Prior Colonization and Antibiotic Use for Third-Generation Cephalosporin-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Bacteremia in Patients With Sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottier, Wouter C.; Bamberg, Yara R. P.; Dorigo-Zetsma, J. Wendelien; van der Linden, Paul D.; Ammerlaan, Heidi S. M.; Bonten, Marc J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. To prevent inappropriate empiric antibiotic treatment in patients with bacteremia caused by third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (3GC-R EB), Dutch guidelines recommend beta-lactam and aminoglycoside combination therapy or carbapenem monotherapy in patients wi

  7. Antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in south-west Germany, 2004 to 2015: increasing minimal inhibitory concentrations of tetracycline but no resistance to third-generation cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnath, Thomas; Mertes, Thomas; Ignatius, Ralf

    2016-09-01

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, particularly to third-generation cephalosporins, has been reported in many countries. We examined the susceptibility (determined by Etest and evaluated using the breakpoints of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) of 434 N. gonorrhoeae isolates collected from 107 female and 327 male patients in Stuttgart, south-west Germany, between 2004 and 2015. During the study period, high proportions of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (70.3%), tetracycline (48.4%; increasing from 27.5% in 2004/2005 to 57.7% in 2014/2015; p = 0.0002) and penicillin (25.6%). The proportion of isolates resistant to azithromycin was low (5.5%) but tended to increase (p = 0.08). No resistance and stable minimum inhibitory concentrations were found for cefixime, ceftriaxone, and spectinomycin. High-level resistance was found for ciprofloxacin (39.6%) and tetracycline (20.0%) but not for azithromycin; 16.3% of the isolates produced betalactamase. Thus, cephalosporins can still be used for the treatment of gonorrhoea in the study area. To avoid further increasing resistance to azithromycin, its usage should be limited to patients allergic to cephalosporins, or (in combination with cephalosporins) to patients for whom no susceptibility testing could be performed or those co-infected with chlamydiae.

  8. Comprehensive analysis of B-Lactam antibiotics including penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems in poultry muscle using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, B.J.A.; Gerritsen, H.W.; Wegh, R.S.; Lameris, S.L.; Sebille, van R.; Stolker, A.A.M.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive method for the quantitative residue analysis of trace levels of 22 ß-lactam antibiotics, including penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems, in poultry muscle by liquid chromatography in combination with tandem mass spectrometric detection is reported. The samples analyzed for ß-

  9. Enzymatic oxidation of cephalosporin C using whole cells of the yeast Triginopsis variabilis within a "cross-flow filter-reactor".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicenzi, J T; Hansen, G J

    1993-04-01

    An economical process for the enzymatic oxidation of cephalosporin C to glutaryl-7-ACA was developed at a pilot plant scale. The process utilized nonviable whole cells of the yeast Triginopsis variabilis containing high levels of D-amino acid oxidase. Prior to use, the whole cells were permeabilized with a 25% acetone/water solution which enhanced their apparent activity by 20- to 50-fold. After permeabilization, the whole cells were incubated at pH 11, which served to selectively deactivate catalase which was present in very large quantities. Deactivation of catalase was critical to achieving high reaction yields. The whole cells were utilized within a "cross-flow filter-reactor" which allowed easy and economical recycle of the cells for repeated use. The overall yield of glutaryl-7-ACA from cephalosporin C was 90-95%. The overall productivity of the yeast was 13 kg cephalosporin C oxidized per kilogram yeast (dry basis). The reaction was run at a concentration of 40 g cephalosporin CL-1 and the overall reactor productivity was 11 g glutaryl-7-ACA l-1 h-1. The process has been thoroughly demonstrated on a 35-l scale, and it should be directly scaleable to 10,000 l or more.

  10. Whole-genome phylogenomic heterogeneity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with decreased cephalosporin susceptibility collected in Canada between 1989 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demczuk, Walter; Lynch, Tarah; Martin, Irene; Van Domselaar, Gary; Graham, Morag; Bharat, Amrita; Allen, Vanessa; Hoang, Linda; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Tyrrell, Greg; Horsman, Greg; Haldane, David; Garceau, Richard; Wylie, John; Wong, Tom; Mulvey, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    A large-scale, whole-genome comparison of Canadian Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with high-level cephalosporin MICs was used to demonstrate a genomic epidemiology approach to investigate strain relatedness and dynamics. Although current typing methods have been very successful in tracing short-chain transmission of gonorrheal disease, investigating the temporal evolutionary relationships and geographical dissemination of highly clonal lineages requires enhanced resolution only available through whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Phylogenomic cluster analysis grouped 169 Canadian strains into 12 distinct clades. While some N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence types (NG-MAST) agreed with specific phylogenomic clades or subclades, other sequence types (ST) and closely related groups of ST were widely distributed among clades. Decreased susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC-DS) emerged among a group of diverse strains in Canada during the 1990s with a variety of nonmosaic penA alleles, followed in 2000/2001 with the penA mosaic X allele and then in 2007 with ST1407 strains with the penA mosaic XXXIV allele. Five genetically distinct ESC-DS lineages were associated with penA mosaic X, XXXV, and XXXIV alleles and nonmosaic XII and XIII alleles. ESC-DS with coresistance to azithromycin was observed in 5 strains with 23S rRNA C2599T or A2143G mutations. As the costs associated with WGS decline and analysis tools are streamlined, WGS can provide a more thorough understanding of strain dynamics, facilitate epidemiological studies to better resolve social networks, and improve surveillance to optimize treatment for gonorrheal infections.

  11. Population distribution of Beta-lactamase conferring resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in human clinical Enterobacteriaceae in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido M Voets

    Full Text Available There is a global increase in infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae with plasmid-borne β-lactamases that confer resistance to third-generation cephalosporins. The epidemiology of these bacteria is not well understood, and was, therefore, investigated in a selection of 636 clinical Enterobacteriaceae with a minimal inhibitory concentration >1 mg/L for ceftazidime/ceftriaxone from a national survey (75% E. coli, 11% E. cloacae, 11% K. pneumoniae, 2% K. oxytoca, 2% P. mirabilis. Isolates were investigated for extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs and ampC genes using microarray, PCR, gene sequencing and molecular straintyping (Diversilab and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST. ESBL genes were demonstrated in 512 isolates (81%; of which 446 (87% belonged to the CTX-M family. Among 314 randomly selected and sequenced isolates, bla(CTX-M-15 was most prevalent (n = 124, 39%, followed by bla(CTX-M-1 (n = 47, 15%, bla(CTX-M-14 (n = 15, 5%, bla(SHV-12 (n = 24, 8% and bla(TEM-52 (n = 13, 4%. Among 181 isolates with MIC ≥16 mg/L for cefoxitin plasmid encoded AmpCs were detected in 32 and 27 were of the CMY-2 group. Among 102 E. coli isolates with MIC ≥16 mg/L for cefoxitin ampC promoter mutations were identified in 29 (28%. Based on Diversilab genotyping of 608 isolates (similarity cut-off >98% discriminatory indices of bacteria with ESBL and/or ampC genes were 0.994, 0.985 and 0.994 for E. coli, K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae, respectively. Based on similarity cut-off >95% two large clusters of E. coli were apparent (of 43 and 30 isolates and 21 of 21 that were typed by belonged to ST131 of which 13 contained bla(CTX-M-15. Our findings demonstrate that bla(CTX-M-15 is the most prevalent ESBL and we report a larger than previously reported prevalence of ampC genes among Enterobacteriaceae responsible for resistance to third-generation cephalosporins.

  12. Study on the Interaction between Cephalosporin Drugs and Papain by Spectroscopic Method: Equivalence of Fluorescence Quenching and Enhancement Equation%Study on the Interaction between Cephalosporin Drugs and Papain by Spectroscopic Method: Equivalence of Fluorescence Quenching and Enhancement Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨曼曼; 席小莉; 杨频

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between two 4th generation of new cephalosporin drugs and papain was studied through spectroscopy method at different temperatures. Their dissociation constants were calculated by using theoretical formula of fluorescence quenching and fluorescence enhancement, respectively, and their corresponding thermodynamic functions, dipole-dipole non-radiative energy-transfer-efficiency and the action distances of acceptor-substrate etc. were calculated further. Analysis reveals that, the quenching on papain by cefpirome and cefepime is basically due to the dipole-dipole non-radiation energy-transfer and certain dynamic collision between donor and acceptor, the interaction between drug and papain is mainly hydrophobic which may provide useful information for pharmacological and metabolic study on papain. In this paper fluorescence quenching is regarded as negative fluorescence enhancement, and two kinds of theoretical formula of fluorescence quenching and fluorescence enhancement were used to calculate the experimental data of fluorescence quenching of a same batch, and very close results were obtained but with certain difference. The results not only display the equivalence of the two theoretical equations when treating acceptor-substrate action, but also show that the thermodynamic data based on the theoretical formula of fluorescence enhancement (4), which is deduced by us, are more reasonable. So we suggest that even in the process of studying the fluorescence quenching between receptor-substrate, using the theoretical formula of fluorescence enhancement (4) can get more reliable results.

  13. Rapid detection of the mosaic structure of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae penA Gene, which is associated with decreased susceptibilities to oral cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Susumu; Ishiko, Hiroaki; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Deguchi, Takashi

    2008-05-01

    In Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the mosaic structure of the penA gene (encoding penicillin-binding protein 2 [PBP 2]), which is composed of fragments of the penA genes from Neisseria cinerea and Neisseria perflava, has been significantly associated with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins, particularly oral cephalosporins. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid assay for the detection of mosaic PBP 2 of N. gonorrhoeae by real-time PCR. This assay successfully detected the mosaic penA gene of N. gonorrhoeae, and its sensitivity was >or=10(1) copies/reaction. Six hundred twenty-one clinical strains were examined by this assay for the presence of mosaic PBP 2, which was detected in 85 (39.4%) of 216 strains from 2002, 69 (40.6%) of 170 strains from 2003, 71 (44.4%) of 160 strains from 2004, and 31 (41.3%) of 75 strains from 2005. The MICs of cephalosporins for strains with the mosaic PBP 2 detected by the assay were statistically higher than those for strains without the mosaic PBP 2. One hundred sixty-six (64.8%) of 256 strains with the mosaic PBP 2 exhibited cefixime MICs of >or=0.5 microg/ml. The emergence and spread of strains with mosaic PBP 2 could be a threat to the cefixime treatment of gonorrhea. This real-time PCR assay for the detection of mosaic PBP 2 of N. gonorrhoeae is thus useful in the prediction of decreased susceptibilities to oral cephalosporins.

  14. Early onset Morganella morganii sepsis in a newborn infant with emergence of cephalosporin resistance caused by depression of AMPC beta-lactamase production..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Ajay K; Kempley, Stephen T; Price, Elizabeth; Sharma, Bal K; Livermore, David M

    2006-04-01

    A preterm infant with early onset Morganella morganii sepsis was treated with cefotaxime and gentamicin after confirmation of antimicrobial susceptibility. The infant developed persistent ventriculitis caused by the emergence of a cefotaxime-resistant Morganella variant with derepression of its AmpC beta-lactamase. When choosing antibiotic therapy, the risk of development of resistance to cephalosporins should be considered in infections caused by M. morganii and other Gram-negative organisms with inducible AmpC beta-lactamases.

  15. ESBL Detection: Comparison of a Commercially Available Chromogenic Test for Third Generation Cephalosporine Resistance and Automated Susceptibility Testing in Enterobactericeae

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jade, Mohamed Ramadan; Parcina, Marijo; Schmithausen, Ricarda Maria; Stein, Christoph; Meilaender, Alina; Hoerauf, Achim; Molitor, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    Rapid detection and reporting of third generation cephalosporine resistance (3GC-R) and of extended spectrum betalactamases in Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) is a diagnostic and therapeutic priority to avoid inefficacy of the initial antibiotic regimen. In this study we evaluated a commercially available chromogenic screen for 3GC-R as a predictive and/or confirmatory test for ESBL and AmpC activity in clinical and veterinary Enterobacteriaceae isolates. The test was highly reliable in the prediction of cefotaxime and cefpodoxime resistance, but there was no correlation with ceftazidime and piperacillin/tazobactam minimal inhibitory concentrations. All human and porcine ESBL-E tested were detected with exception of one genetically positive but phenotypically negative isolate. By contrast, AmpC detection rates lay below 30%. Notably, exclusion of piperacillin/tazobactam resistant, 3GC susceptible K1+ Klebsiella isolates increased the sensitivity and specificity of the test for ESBL detection. Our data further imply that in regions with low prevalence of AmpC and K1 positive E. coli strains chromogenic testing for 3GC-R can substitute for more time consuming ESBL confirmative testing in E. coli isolates tested positive by Phoenix or VITEK2 ESBL screen. We, therefore, suggest a diagnostic algorithm that distinguishes 3GC-R screening from primary culture and species-dependent confirmatory ESBL testing by βLACTATM and discuss the implications of MIC distribution results on the choice of antibiotic regimen. PMID:27494134

  16. ESBL Detection: Comparison of a Commercially Available Chromogenic Test for Third Generation Cephalosporine Resistance and Automated Susceptibility Testing in Enterobactericeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jade, Mohamed Ramadan; Parcina, Marijo; Schmithausen, Ricarda Maria; Stein, Christoph; Meilaender, Alina; Hoerauf, Achim; Molitor, Ernst; Bekeredjian-Ding, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Rapid detection and reporting of third generation cephalosporine resistance (3GC-R) and of extended spectrum betalactamases in Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) is a diagnostic and therapeutic priority to avoid inefficacy of the initial antibiotic regimen. In this study we evaluated a commercially available chromogenic screen for 3GC-R as a predictive and/or confirmatory test for ESBL and AmpC activity in clinical and veterinary Enterobacteriaceae isolates. The test was highly reliable in the prediction of cefotaxime and cefpodoxime resistance, but there was no correlation with ceftazidime and piperacillin/tazobactam minimal inhibitory concentrations. All human and porcine ESBL-E tested were detected with exception of one genetically positive but phenotypically negative isolate. By contrast, AmpC detection rates lay below 30%. Notably, exclusion of piperacillin/tazobactam resistant, 3GC susceptible K1+ Klebsiella isolates increased the sensitivity and specificity of the test for ESBL detection. Our data further imply that in regions with low prevalence of AmpC and K1 positive E. coli strains chromogenic testing for 3GC-R can substitute for more time consuming ESBL confirmative testing in E. coli isolates tested positive by Phoenix or VITEK2 ESBL screen. We, therefore, suggest a diagnostic algorithm that distinguishes 3GC-R screening from primary culture and species-dependent confirmatory ESBL testing by βLACTATM and discuss the implications of MIC distribution results on the choice of antibiotic regimen.

  17. New valid spectrofluorimetric method for determination of selected cephalosporins in different pharmaceutical formulations using safranin as fluorophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derayea, Sayed M; Ahmed, Hytham M; Abdelmageed, Osama H; Haredy, Ahmed M

    2016-01-15

    A new validated spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for the determination of some cephalosporins namely; cefepime, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefpodoxime and cefexime. The method was based on the reaction of these drugs with safranin in slightly alkaline medium (pH 8.0), to form ion-association complexes. The fluorescent products were extracted into chloroform and their fluorescence intensities were measured at 544-565 nm after excitation at 518-524 nm. The reaction conditions influencing the product formation and stability were investigated and optimized. The relative fluorescence intensity was proportional to the drug concentration in the linear ranges of 0.15-1.35, 0.35-1.25, 0.35-1.25, 0.20-1.44 and 0.20-1.25 μg/mL for cefepime, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefpodoxime proxetil and cefexime, respectively. The detection limits were 40, 100, 100, 60 and 70 ng/mL, respectively. The performance of the developed method was evaluated in terms of Student's t-test and variance ratio F-test to find out the significance of proposed methods over the reference spectrophotometric method. Various pharmaceutical formulations were successfully analyzed using the proposed method and the results were in good agreement with those of the previously reported methods.

  18. Clonally related Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with decreased susceptibility to the extended-spectrum cephalosporin cefotaxime in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymans, Raymond; Bruisten, Sylvia M; Golparian, Daniel; Unemo, Magnus; de Vries, Henry J C; van Dam, Alje P

    2012-03-01

    From 2006 to 2008, Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates were identified with decreased susceptibility to the extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC) cefotaxime among visitors of the Amsterdam sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic, the Netherlands. Spread, clonality, and characteristics of 202 isolates were examined using antibiograms, conventional penA mosaic gene PCR, and N. gonorrhoeae multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (NG-MLVA). A strictly defined subset was further characterized by N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) and sequencing of ESC resistance determinants (penA, mtrR, and porB1b). Seventy-four N. gonorrhoeae isolates with a cefotaxime MIC of >0.125 μg/ml (group A), 54 with a cefotaxime MIC of 0.125 μg/ml (group B), and a control group of 74 with a cefotaxime MIC of cefotaxime susceptibility and ST1407 that was highly prevalent among visitors of the Amsterdam STI clinic. The rapid spread of this strain, which also has been identified in many other countries, might be facilitated by high-risk sexual behavior and should be monitored closely to identify potential treatment failure. Quality-assured surveillance of ESC susceptibility on the national and international levels and exploration of new drugs and/or strategies for treatment of gonorrhea are crucial.

  19. Extended spectrum cephalosporin resistance among clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae in West Norway during 2006-2013; a prospective surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylvaganam, Haima; Kolstad, Helge; Breistein, Rebecca Irene; Lind, Grete; Skutlaberg, Dag Harald

    2017-01-01

    Routine surveillance of resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins in Enterobacteriaceae and phenotypic identification of underlying mechanisms using a simple strategy was commenced in 2006 at our laboratory, serving West Norway. This report focuses on the results until 2013. The classical plasmid-mediated extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBLA ) among clinically relevant Escherichia coli isolates showed an increase from 0.6% to 4.3% during the surveillance period, while prevalence for other mechanisms remained stable, below 0.7%. ESBLA in Klebsiella pneumoniae had similar prevalence in 2006 (0.6%) and 2013 (4.4%), but in between it peaked to 3.9% in 2008 and to 9.3% in 2011. Within the other species, the numbers of clinically relevant isolates and isolates-producing ESBLA were much lower. An increasing resistance due to hyperproduction of AmpC enzymes was seen in Enterobacter and Citrobacter, with prevalence increasing from 18% and 12.2% in 2006 to 27.5% and 26.1% in 2013, respectively. Hyperproduction of KOXY enzyme in Klebsiella oxytoca remained below 9.5% and did not show an increasing trend. The overall increase in the proportions of isolates-producing ESBLA in E. coli/K. pneumoniae and hyperproduction of AmpC in Enterobacter/Citrobacter necessitates measures to hinder the spread of resistant bacteria and vigilant antibiotic stewardship.

  20. Risk factors and treatment outcomes of bloodstream infection caused by extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacter species in adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Kyungmin; Kang, Cheol-In; Kim, Jungok; Cho, Sun Young; Ha, Young Eun; Joo, Eun-Jeong; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Lee, Nam Yong; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2014-02-01

    Treatment of Enterobacter infection is complicated due to its intrinsic resistance to cephalosporins. Medical records of 192 adults with cancer who had Enterobacter bacteremia were analyzed retrospectively to evaluate the risk factors for and the treatment outcomes in extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Enterobacter bacteremia in adults with cancer. The main outcome measure was 30-day mortality. Of the 192 patients, 53 (27.6%) had bloodstream infections caused by ESC-resistant Enterobacter species. Recent use of a third-generation cephalosporin, older age, tumor progression at last evaluation, recent surgery, and nosocomial acquisition were associated with ESC-resistant Enterobacter bacteremia. The 30-day mortality rate was significantly higher in the resistant group. Multivariate analysis showed that respiratory tract infection, tumor progression, septic shock at presentation, Enterobacter aerogenes as the culprit pathogen, and diabetes mellitus were independent risk factors for mortality. ESC resistance was significantly associated with mortality in patients with E. aerogenes bacteremia, although not in the overall patient population.

  1. Effects of Disulfiram Like Reaction to Cephalosporin Dermal Test%双硫仑样反应对头孢类药物皮试的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费日杰

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Objective:To observe the inlfuence of drinking disulifram like reaction to cephalosporin dermal test. Methods:46 cases treated with conventional method for cephalosporin dermal test. Results: 46 cases ofcephalosporin skin test positive patients, both in the skin test before 1 days were drinking 50-500ml ranging fromhistory. Conclusion:the present clinical use of antibiotics, particularly cephalosporins, on the patients after drinkingto disable, avoid the occurrence of adverse drug reactions.%目的:观察饮酒后双硫仑样反应对头孢类药物皮试的影响。方法对46例患者采用常规行头孢类药物皮试的方法。结果46例头孢类皮试阳性患者,在皮试前1天内均有饮酒50-500ml不等的病史。结论目前临床上使用多种抗生素,特别是头孢类药物,对饮酒后的患者需禁用,避免药物副反应的发生。

  2. Metagenomic Analysis of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Dairy Cow Feces following Therapeutic Administration of Third Generation Cephalosporin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Chambers

    Full Text Available Although dairy manure is widely applied to land, it is relatively understudied compared to other livestock as a potential source of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs to the environment and ultimately to human pathogens. Ceftiofur, the most widely used antibiotic used in U.S. dairy cows, is a 3rd generation cephalosporin, a critically important class of antibiotics to human health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of typical ceftiofur antibiotic treatment on the prevalence of ARGs in the fecal microbiome of dairy cows using a metagenomics approach. β-lactam ARGs were found to be elevated in feces from Holstein cows administered ceftiofur (n = 3 relative to control cows (n = 3. However, total numbers of ARGs across all classes were not measurably affected by ceftiofur treatment, likely because of dominance of unaffected tetracycline ARGs in the metagenomics libraries. Functional analysis via MG-RAST further revealed that ceftiofur treatment resulted in increases in gene sequences associated with "phages, prophages, transposable elements, and plasmids", suggesting that this treatment also enriched the ability to horizontally transfer ARGs. Additional functional shifts were noted with ceftiofur treatment (e.g., increase in genes associated with stress, chemotaxis, and resistance to toxic compounds; decrease in genes associated with metabolism of aromatic compounds and cell division and cell cycle, along with measureable taxonomic shifts (increase in Bacterioidia and decrease in Actinobacteria. This study demonstrates that ceftiofur has a broad, measureable and immediate effect on the cow fecal metagenome. Given the importance of 3rd generation cephalospirins to human medicine, their continued use in dairy cattle should be carefully considered and waste treatment strategies to slow ARG dissemination from dairy cattle manure should be explored.

  3. Third generation cephalosporin use in a tertiary hospital in Port of Spain, Trinidad: need for an antibiotic policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemul Karen

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tertiary care hospitals are a potential source for development and spread of bacterial resistance being in the loop to receive outpatients and referrals from community nursing homes and hospitals. The liberal use of third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs in these hospitals has been associated with the emergence of extended-spectrum beta- lactamases (ESBLs presenting concerns for bacterial resistance in therapeutics. We studied the 3GC utilization in a tertiary care teaching hospital, in warded patients (medical, surgical, gynaecology, orthopedic prescribed these drugs. Methods Clinical data of patients (≥ 13 years admitted to the General Hospital, Port of Spain (POSGH from January to June 2000, and who had received 3GCs based on the Pharmacy records were studied. The Sanford Antibiotic Guide 2000, was used to determine appropriateness of therapy. The agency which procures drugs for the Ministry of Health supplied the cost of drugs. Results The prevalence rate of use of 3GCs was 9.5 per 1000 admissions and was higher in surgical and gynecological admissions (21/1000 compared with medical and orthopedic (8 /1000 services (p Conclusions There is extensive inappropriate 3GC utilization in tertiary care in Trinidad. We recommend hospital laboratories undertake continuous surveillance of antibiotic resistance patterns so that appropriate changes in prescribing guidelines can be developed and implemented. Though guidelines for rational antibiotic use were developed they have not been re-visited or encouraged, suggesting urgent antibiotic review of the hospital formulary and instituting an infection control team. Monitoring antibiotic use with microbiology laboratory support can promote rational drug utilization, cut costs, halt inappropriate 3GC prescribing, and delay the emergence of resistant organisms. An ongoing antibiotic peer audit is suggested.

  4. Clinical and Molecular Characterization of Community-Onset Urinary Tract Infections Due to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anesi, Judith A; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Nachamkin, Irving; Garrigan, Charles; Bilker, Warren B; Wheeler, Mary; Tolomeo, Pam; Han, Jennifer H

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate risk factors for and molecular characteristics of community-onset extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) Enterobacteriaceae (EB) urinary tract infections (UTIs) in a US health system. DESIGN Case-control study. PARTICIPANTS All patients presenting to the emergency department or outpatient practices with EB UTIs from December 21, 2010, through April 22, 2013, were included. Case patients had ESC-R EB UTIs. Control patients had ESC-susceptible EB UTIs and were matched 1:1 on study year. METHODS Risk factors for ESC-R EB UTI were assessed using multivariable conditional logistic regression. A subset of case isolates was evaluated for extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. RESULTS A total of 302 patients with community-onset EB UTI were included, of which 151 were cases. On multivariable analysis, risk factors for ESC-R EB UTI included trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use in the prior 6 months (odds ratio, 2.40 [95% CI, 1.22-4.70]; P=.01), older age (1.03 [1.01-1.04]; P<.001), diabetes (2.91 [1.32-6.41]; P=.008), and presentation to the emergency department ( 2.42 [1.31-4.46]; P=.005). The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases among 120 case isolates was 52% CTX-M, 29% TEM, 20% OXA, and 13% SHV. The prevalence of AmpC was 25%. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the CTX-M Escherichia coli isolates showed no distinct clusters. CONCLUSIONS Use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, older age, diabetes, and presentation to the emergency department were associated with community-onset ESC-R EB UTI. There was a high prevalence of CTX-M among our community isolates. Further studies are needed to determine strategies to limit emergence of these organisms in the community. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1433-1439.

  5. Empirical third-generation cephalosporin therapy for adults with community-onset Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia: Impact of revised CLSI breakpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chih-Chia; Lee, Chung-Hsun; Li, Ming-Chi; Hong, Ming-Yuan; Chi, Chih-Hsien; Lee, Ching-Chi

    2016-04-01

    Third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) [ceftriaxone (CRO) and cefotaxime (CTX)] have remarkable potency against Enterobacteriaceae and are commonly prescribed for the treatment of community-onset bacteraemia. However, clinical evidence supporting the updated interpretive criteria of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) is limited. Adults with community-onset monomicrobial Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia treated empirically with CRO or CTX were recruited. Clinical information was collected from medical records and CTX MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method. Eligible patients (n=409) were categorised into de-escalation (260; 63.6%), no switch (115; 28.1%) and escalation (34; 8.3%) groups according to the type of definitive antibiotics. Multivariate regression revealed five independent predictors of 28-day mortality: fatal co-morbidities based on McCabe classification [odds ratio (OR)=19.96; P<0.001]; high Pitt bacteraemia score (≥4) at bacteraemia onset (OR=13.91; P<0.001); bacteraemia because of pneumonia (OR=5.45; P=0.007); de-escalation after empirical therapy (OR=0.28; P=0.03); and isolates with a CTX MIC≤1mg/L (OR=0.17; P=0.02). Of note, isolates with a CTX MIC≤8mg/L (indicated as susceptible by previous CLSI breakpoints) were not associated with mortality. Furthermore, clinical failure and 28-day mortality rates had a tendency to increase with increasing CTX MIC (γ=1.00; P=0.01). Conclusively, focusing on patients with community-onset Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia receiving empirical 3GC therapy, the present study provides clinically critical evidence to validate the proposed reduction in the susceptibility breakpoint of CTX to MIC≤1mg/L.

  6. Multiresidue analysis of cephalosporin antibiotics in bovine milk based on molecularly imprinted polymer extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, A N; Urraca, J L; Chamorro, R; Orellana, G; Castellari, M; Moreno-Bondi, M C

    2016-11-25

    This work reports the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) selective to cephalosporin (CF) antibiotics, and their application as molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) sorbents for the determination of these antimicrobials in milk samples. Several functional monomers and cross-linkers have been screened to select the best combination that provides high selectivity for the simultaneous multiresidue extraction of cefthiofur (THIO), cefazolin (AZO), cefquinome (QUI), cephapirin (API), cephalexin (ALE) and cephalonium (ALO) from the samples. The novel MIPs were prepared by a non-covalent imprinting approach in the form of spherical microparticles using the synthetic surrogate molecule sodium 7-(2-biphenylylcarboxamido)-3-methyl-3-cepheme-4-carboxylate, N-3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl-N'-4-vinylphenyl urea (VPU) as functional monomer, and divinylbenzene (DVB) as crosslinking agent in a 1:2:20 molar ratio. The optimized MISPE method allowed the extraction of the target antimicrobials from raw cow milk samples using a selective washing with 5mL methanol/2-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer (0.1M, pH 7.5) (2:98, v/v) to remove the non-specifically retained compounds, followed by elution with 1mL of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in methanol (0.1:99.9, v/v). The extracts have been analysed by UHPLC-MS/MS and the analytical method has been validated according to EU guideline 2002/657/EC. The limits of quantification (S/N=10) were in the 1.7-12.5μgkg(-1) range, well below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) currently established for the quantified cephalosporins in milk samples. The developed MIP allows mutiresidual determination of the six cephalosporin antibiotics mentioned above, significantly broadening the application to food analysis of MISPE methods.

  7. Silica-based 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)-1,3-propanediol hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography stationary phase for separating cephalosporins and carbapenems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wei; Cheng, Lingping; Chai, Huihui; Guo, Ruiqiang; Liu, Renhua; Chu, Changhu; Palasota, John A; Cai, Xiaohui

    2015-08-01

    A silica-based stationary phase bearing both hydrophilic hydroxyl and amino groups was developed by covalently bonding a small molecular N,N-dimethylamino 1,3-propanediol moiety onto silica beads via copper(I)-catalyzed Huisgen azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC). This new stationary phase showed good HILIC characteristics and high column efficiency (the theoretical plate number is up to 37000 plates m(-1) in the case of inosine) in the separation of polar compounds, such as nucleosides and bases, organic acids, cephalosporins, and carbapenems.

  8. Dynamics of extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance in pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from diseased pigs in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbakhsh, Seyedehameneh; Smith, Matthew G; Kohan-Ghadr, Hamid-Reza; Letellier, Ann; Abraham, Sam; Trott, Darren J; Fairbrother, John Morris

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution with time of ceftiofur-resistant Escherichia coli clinical isolates from pigs in Québec, Canada, between 1997 and 2012 with respect to pathotypes, clones and antimicrobial resistance. Eighty-five ceftiofur-resistant E. coli isolates were obtained from the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) Reference Laboratory for Escherichia coli. The most prevalent pathovirotypes were enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC):F4 (40%), extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) (16.5%) and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC):F18 (8.2%). Susceptibility testing to 15 antimicrobial agents revealed a high prevalence of resistance to 13 antimicrobials, with all isolates being multidrug-resistant. blaCMY-2 (96.5%) was the most frequently detected β-lactamase gene, followed by blaTEM (49.4%) and blaCTX-M (3.5%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) applied to 45 representative E. coli isolates revealed that resistance to ceftiofur is spread both horizontally and clonally. In addition, the emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli isolates carrying blaCTX-M was observed in 2011 and 2012 in distinct clones. The most predominant plasmid incompatibility (Inc) groups were IncFIB, IncI1, IncA/C and IncFIC. Resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin and chloramphenicol as well as the frequency of blaTEM and IncA/C significantly decreased over the study period, whereas the frequency of IncI1 and multidrug resistance to seven antimicrobial categories significantly increased. These findings reveal that extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant porcine E. coli isolates in Québec belong to several different clones with diverse antimicrobial resistance patterns and plasmids. Furthermore, blaCMY-2 was the major β-lactamase gene in these isolates. From 2011, we report the emergence of blaCTX-M in distinct clones.

  9. Increase in resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins in Salmonella isolated from retail chicken products in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Tamie; Murakami, Koichi; Etoh, Yoshiki; Okamoto, Fuyuki; Yatsuyanagi, Jun; Sera, Nobuyuki; Furuta, Munenori; Onozuka, Daisuke; Oda, Takahiro; Asai, Tetsuo; Fujimoto, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella are one of the most important public health problems in developed countries. ESBL-producing Salmonella strains have been isolated from humans in Asian countries neighboring Japan, along with strains harboring the plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistance gene, ampC (pAmpC). However, only a few studies have investigated the prevalence of ESC-resistant Salmonella in chicken products in Japan, which are the main vehicle of Salmonella transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ESBL-producing, pAmpC-harboring, or carbapenem-resistant Salmonella in chicken products in Japan. In total, 355 out of 779 (45.6%) chicken product samples collected from 1996-2010 contained Salmonella, resulting in 378 distinct isolates. Of these isolates, 373 were tested for resistance to ESCs, cephamycins, or carbapenems. Isolates that showed resistance to one or more of these antimicrobials were then examined by PCR and DNA sequence analysis for the presence of the bla(CMY), bla(CTX-M), bla(TEM), and bla(SHV) resistance genes. Thirty-five resistant isolates were detected, including 26 isolates that contained pAmpC (bla(CMY-2)), and nine ESBL-producing isolates harboring bla(CTX-M) (n = 4, consisting of two bla(CTX-M-2) and two bla(CTX-M-15 genes)), bla(TEM) (n = 4, consisting of one bla(TEM-20) and three bla(TEM-52) genes), and bla(SHV) (n = 1, bla(SHV-12)). All pAmpC-harboring and ESBL-producing Salmonella isolates were obtained from samples collected after 2005, and the percentage of resistant isolates increased significantly from 0% in 2004 to 27.9% in 2010 (P for trend = 0.006). This increase was caused in part by an increase in the number of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis strains harboring an approximately 280-kb plasmid containing bla(CMY-2) in proximity to ISEcp1. The dissemination of ESC-resistant Salmonella containing plasmid-mediated bla(CMY-2) in

  10. Increase in resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins in Salmonella isolated from retail chicken products in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamie Noda

    Full Text Available Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-producing Salmonella are one of the most important public health problems in developed countries. ESBL-producing Salmonella strains have been isolated from humans in Asian countries neighboring Japan, along with strains harboring the plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC-resistance gene, ampC (pAmpC. However, only a few studies have investigated the prevalence of ESC-resistant Salmonella in chicken products in Japan, which are the main vehicle of Salmonella transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ESBL-producing, pAmpC-harboring, or carbapenem-resistant Salmonella in chicken products in Japan. In total, 355 out of 779 (45.6% chicken product samples collected from 1996-2010 contained Salmonella, resulting in 378 distinct isolates. Of these isolates, 373 were tested for resistance to ESCs, cephamycins, or carbapenems. Isolates that showed resistance to one or more of these antimicrobials were then examined by PCR and DNA sequence analysis for the presence of the bla(CMY, bla(CTX-M, bla(TEM, and bla(SHV resistance genes. Thirty-five resistant isolates were detected, including 26 isolates that contained pAmpC (bla(CMY-2, and nine ESBL-producing isolates harboring bla(CTX-M (n = 4, consisting of two bla(CTX-M-2 and two bla(CTX-M-15 genes, bla(TEM (n = 4, consisting of one bla(TEM-20 and three bla(TEM-52 genes, and bla(SHV (n = 1, bla(SHV-12. All pAmpC-harboring and ESBL-producing Salmonella isolates were obtained from samples collected after 2005, and the percentage of resistant isolates increased significantly from 0% in 2004 to 27.9% in 2010 (P for trend = 0.006. This increase was caused in part by an increase in the number of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis strains harboring an approximately 280-kb plasmid containing bla(CMY-2 in proximity to ISEcp1. The dissemination of ESC-resistant Salmonella containing plasmid-mediated bla(CMY-2 in chicken

  11. Development and validation of a reversed-phase column liquid chromatographic method for the determination of five cephalosporins in pharmaceutical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkady, Ehab F; Abbas, Samah S

    2011-01-01

    A new, simple, rapid, and precise RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the determination of five cephalosporins, namely, cefalexin, cefoperazone, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, and cefepime. The method has been applied successfully for simultaneous determination of cefalexin in a binary mixture with sodium benzoate in a suspension, and cefoperazone in a binary mixture with sulbactam in vials. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters microBondapak C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm id, 10 pm particle size) using the mobile phase monobasic potassium phosphate (50 mM, pH 4.6)-acetonitrile (80 + 20, v/v) with UV detection. A flow rate of 1 mL/min was applied. Linearity, accuracy, and precision were found to be acceptable over the concentration range of 30-300, 3-30, and 15-120 microg/mL for the studied cephalosporins, sodium benzoate, and sulbactam, respectively. The optimized method proved to be specific, robust, and accurate for QC of the cited drugs in their pharmaceutical preparations.

  12. Development and validation of an ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of 10 cephalosporins and desacetylcefapirin in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiao-Lin; Wu, Yin-Liang; Lv, Yan; Xu, Xiu-Qin; Zhao, Jian; Yang, Ting

    2013-07-15

    A simple, sensitive and reliable analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 10 cephalosporins and desacetylcefapirin in bovine milk by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Samples were directly purified through HLB cartridge after dilution with 50mM phosphate buffer solution (pH 8.5). Then the eluate was dried under nitrogen and the residue was redissolved in mobile phase. Samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS on an Acquity UPLC BEH Shield RP18 column with gradient elution. The samples were quantified using ceftiofur-D3 as internal standard. The proposed method was validated according to the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The CCα values were 111, 0.04, 140, 55, 55, 67, 23, 23, 68, 0.10 and 113μg/kg for cefalexin, cefradine, cefacetrile, cefazolin, cefoperazone, cefapirin, cefalonium, cefquinome, desacetylcefapirin, cefotaxime and ceftiofur, respectively. The mean recoveries, repeatability (expressed as coefficient of variation, CVr), and reproducibility (CVR) varied from 94.6% to 117.1%, from 5.6% to 13.6% (CVr), and from 5.9% to 27.9% (CVR), respectively. The method is demonstrated to be suitable for the determination of 10 cephalosporins and desacetylcefapirin in bovine milk. The total time required for the analysis of one sample, including sample preparation, was about 40min.

  13. Co-occurrence of ACSSuT and cephalosporin resistance phenotypes is mediated by int1-associated elements in nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica from human infections in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Maria Jorge; Palomo, Gonzalo; Hormeño, Lorena; Ugarte, María; Porrero, María Concepción; Herrera-León, Silvia; Vadillo, Santiago; Píriz, Segundo; Quesada, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    A screening of antimicrobial resistance and its genetic determinants has been performed on 300 Salmonella enterica isolates collected during 2004-2008 from human infections in Spain. Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis were the major serotypes, which were found with similar frequencies covering 80% of the bacterial collection. Salmonella Typhimurium isolates frequently shared low susceptibility to antimicrobials of the penta-resistance phenotype (ACSSuT) and/or cephalosporin resistance. The ACSSuT profile was found closely linked to int1-associated gene cassettes, with major elements carrying DNA fragments of 1.0 Kb (aadA2 gene) plus 1.2 Kb (blaPSE-1 gene) or 2.0 Kb (aadA1 and blaOXA-1 genes). Among these, ACSSuT and cephalosporin resistances were associated in Salmonella Typhimurium isolates expressing the blaOXA gene. β-lactamase activities were also detected from isolates carrying blaTEM, blaCMY, or blaSHV, although only the two last genes expressed extended-spectrum β-lactamases. The clonal analysis of S. enterica strains suggests that both horizontal and vertical transfer mechanisms are involved in the wide dissemination of their antimicrobial resistance.

  14. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Resistant to Fifth-Generation Cephalosporins Reveals Potential Non-mecA Mechanisms of Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander L Greninger

    Full Text Available Fifth-generation cephalosporins, ceftobiprole and ceftaroline, are promising drugs for treatment of bacterial infections from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. These antibiotics are able to bind native PBP2a, the penicillin-binding protein encoded by the mecA resistance determinant that mediates broad class resistance to nearly all other beta-lactam antibiotics, at clinically achievable concentrations. Mechanisms of resistance to ceftaroline based on mecA mutations have been previously described. Here we compare the genomes of 11 total parent-daughter strains of Staphylococcus aureus for which specific selection by serial passaging with ceftaroline or ceftobiprole was used to identify novel non-mecA mechanisms of resistance. All 5 ceftaroline-resistant strains, derived from 5 different parental strains, contained mutations directly upstream of the pbp4 gene (coding for the PBP4 protein, including four with the same thymidine insertion located 377 nucleotides upstream of the promoter site. In 4 of 5 independent ceftaroline-driven selections, we also isolated mutations to the same residue (Asn138 in PBP4. In addition, mutations in additional candidate genes such as ClpX endopeptidase, PP2C protein phosphatase and transcription terminator Rho, previously undescribed in the context of resistance to ceftaroline or ceftobiprole, were detected in multiple selections. These genomic findings suggest that non-mecA mechanisms, while yet to be encountered in the clinical setting, may also be important in mediating resistance to 5th-generation cephalosporins.

  15. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Resistant to Fifth-Generation Cephalosporins Reveals Potential Non-mecA Mechanisms of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Liana C.; Hamilton, Stephanie M.; Chambers, Henry F.; Chiu, Charles Y.

    2016-01-01

    Fifth-generation cephalosporins, ceftobiprole and ceftaroline, are promising drugs for treatment of bacterial infections from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). These antibiotics are able to bind native PBP2a, the penicillin-binding protein encoded by the mecA resistance determinant that mediates broad class resistance to nearly all other beta-lactam antibiotics, at clinically achievable concentrations. Mechanisms of resistance to ceftaroline based on mecA mutations have been previously described. Here we compare the genomes of 11 total parent-daughter strains of Staphylococcus aureus for which specific selection by serial passaging with ceftaroline or ceftobiprole was used to identify novel non-mecA mechanisms of resistance. All 5 ceftaroline-resistant strains, derived from 5 different parental strains, contained mutations directly upstream of the pbp4 gene (coding for the PBP4 protein), including four with the same thymidine insertion located 377 nucleotides upstream of the promoter site. In 4 of 5 independent ceftaroline-driven selections, we also isolated mutations to the same residue (Asn138) in PBP4. In addition, mutations in additional candidate genes such as ClpX endopeptidase, PP2C protein phosphatase and transcription terminator Rho, previously undescribed in the context of resistance to ceftaroline or ceftobiprole, were detected in multiple selections. These genomic findings suggest that non-mecA mechanisms, while yet to be encountered in the clinical setting, may also be important in mediating resistance to 5th-generation cephalosporins. PMID:26890675

  16. In vivo study on selection of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in the intestinal tract of pigs treated with extended-spectrum cephalosporins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Concalves Cavaco, Lina Maria; Aarestrup, Frank; Abatih Nji, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    In vivo study on selection of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in the intestinal tract of pigs treated with extended-spectrum cephalosporins   Cavaco, LM1,2, Aarestrup FM2, Abatih, E1, Guardabassi, L1 1- Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C; Denmark 2- National...... Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark; DK-1790 Copenhagen V, Denmark   B-lactams including penicillins and extended-spectrum cephalosporins such as ceftiofur and cefquinome are widely used in pig production. In this study, pig experiments were used to compare the in vivo effects of different...

  17. 头孢菌类抗生素不良反应分析%The analysis of the adverse reaction of cephalosporin antibiotics fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄渊芬

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the adverse reaction of cephalosporin antibiotics fungi.Methods:50 cases with adverse reactions of cephalosporin antibiotics fungi were selected from February 2008 to February 2014.We retrospectively analyzed gender,age,type of drug in patients with adverse reactions of cephalosporin antibiotics fungi.Results:2 cases occurred in urinary system(4%),and the main clinical manifestations is urethral edema,poor urine flow,hematuria;4 cases in nervous system(8%), mainly coma,dizziness,headache,irritability and so on;5 cases occured in the digestive system(10%),mainly for nausea,vomiting, abdominal distension,abdominal pain,diarrhea;30 cases occured in skin and its appendages(60%),mainly for the red spot, dermatitis,itching,swelling,rash;9 cases of systemic reaction(18%),the main manifestations were fever,chills,fatigue,malaise and so. There were 30 male (60%),20 female cases (40%),the ratio of male and female was 1.5:1.Age:6 cases under 20 years(12%),33 cases ranged from 20~50 years old(66%),11 cases above 50 years old(22%).12 cases applicated the first generation or second generation cephalosporin antibiotics fungi(24%),35 cases applicated the third generation cephalosporin antibiotics fungi(70%),3 cases applicated the fourth generation of cephalosporin antibiotics fungi(6%).37 cases with intravenous infusion(74%),10 cases taken medichine by oral(20%),3 cases by intramuscular injection(6%).Conclusion:Adverse reactions of cephalosporin antibiotics fungi is mainly for skin reactions,intravenous drip as the mainly method of administration.%目的:探讨头孢菌类抗生素不良反应。方法:2008年2月-2014年2月收治发生头孢菌类抗生素不良反应患者50例,对发生头孢菌类抗生素不良反应患者的性别、年龄、药物种类等方面进行回顾性分析。结果:发生于泌尿系统2例(4.0%),主要表现为尿道水肿、尿流不.、血尿等;发生在神经系统4例(8.0%),主要表现昏迷、头晕

  18. Improvement on operational process of cephalosporin intradermal allergy test%头孢菌素皮内过敏试验操作流程的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉肖; 陈艳; 清云; 方芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the application effect of operational process within improved cephalosporin intrader-mal allergy test ("skin test" for short). Methods 8756 patients with cephalosporin skin test at Department of Transfu-sion Room in Central Hospital of Jingzhou City (“our hospital”for short) from February 2011 to September 2012 were selected as control group, with Jiang Anli 2006 version of undergraduate nursing teaching materials of the editor of the New Basic Nursing Operation Process of cephalosporin skin test to do skin test. 9000 patients in our department during October 2012 to May 2014 in cephalosporin skin test were selected as observation group, the improved cephalosporin skin test procedures do skin test was applied. The improved process with nursing teaching material contrast, from skin test liquid preparation, skin test operation skin clean, skin test needle into the direction and angle, skin test injection quantity, skin test related health education, skin test result judgment time six aspects to improve, nurse training within the department and effective implementation. Cephalosporin skin test positive rate, rate of pain and skin test success rate of operation between two groups were observed. Results Skin test positive rate of control group was 9.9% (865/8756), pain rate of control was 19.6%(1720/8756), skin test operation success rate of control was 97.4% (8531/8756);skin test positive rate of observation group was 5.0% (446/9000), pain rate of observation group was 10.6% (953/9000), skin test operation success rate of observation group was 99.4% (8942/9000);there were highly statistical difference be-tween two groups (all P< 0.01). Nurses had completed skin test technology, fast accurate did skin test to reduce the patients pain and improved the success rate of skin test, skin test to determine accuracy and work efficiency, prevented the double sulfur reaction. Conclusion Cephalosporin skin test can improve the operation process and

  19. Emergence of clonally related multidrug resistant Haemophilus influenzae with penicillin-binding protein 3-mediated resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, Norway, 2006 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaare, D; Anthonisen, I L; Kahlmeter, G; Matuschek, E; Natås, O B; Steinbakk, M; Sundsfjord, A; Kristiansen, B E

    2014-12-11

    Resistance to cephalosporins in Haemophilus influenzae is usually caused by characteristic alterations in penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3), encoded by the ftsI gene. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins is associated with high-level PBP3-mediated resistance (high-rPBP3), defined by the second stage S385T substitution in addition to a first stage substitution (R517H or N526K). The third stage L389F substitution is present in some high-rPBP3 strains. High-rPBP3 H. influenzae are considered rare outside Japan and Korea. In this study, 30 high-rPBP3 isolates from Norway, collected between 2006 and 2013, were examined by serotyping, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), ftsI sequencing, detection of beta-lactamase genes and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination. MICs were interpreted according to clinical breakpoints from the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Respiratory isolates predominated (proportion: 24/30). The 30 isolates included one serotype f isolate, while the remaining 29 lacked polysaccharide capsule genes. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (cefixime, 29 isolates/30 isolates; cefepime, 28/30; cefotaxime, 26 /30; ceftaroline, 26/30; ceftriaxone, 14/30), beta-lactamase production (11/30) and co-resistance to non-beta-lactams (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 13/30; tetracycline, 4/30; chloramphenicol, 4/30; ciprofloxacin, 3/30) was frequent. The N526K substitution in PBP3 was present in 23 of 30 isolates; these included a blood isolate which represents the first invasive S385T + N526K isolate reported from Europe. The L389F substitution, present in 16 of 30 isolates, coincided with higher beta-lactam MICs. Non-susceptibility to meropenem was frequent in S385T + L389F + N526K isolates (8/12). All 11 beta-lactamase positive isolates were TEM-1. Five clonal groups of two to 10 isolates with identical MLST-ftsI allelic profiles were observed, including the first reported high-rPBP3

  20. Solid phase extraction using magnetic core mesoporous shell microspheres with C18-modified interior pore-walls for residue analysis of cephalosporins in milk by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodan; Yu, Yingjia; Zhao, Meiyan; Zhang, Haiying; Li, Yan; Duan, Gengli

    2014-05-01

    A fast and effective extraction method has been developed for measuring the residue of cephalosporins (cefalexin, cefazolin, cefoperazone) in milk by using magnetic core-mesoporous shell microspheres with C18-functionalized interior pore-walls (C18-Fe3O4@mSiO2) as adsorbent. With no need for any protein precipitation procedure, the cephalosporins were directly adsorbed onto the C18-Fe3O4@mSiO2 microspheres through hydrophobic interaction with C18-groups (Octadecyl functional groups) functionalized in the interior walls of mesopore channels while the abundant proteins in milk sample were excluded out of the channel due to the size exclusion effect. Thereafter, the cephalosporins-absorbed C18-Fe3O4@mSiO2 microspheres were rapidly isolated by placing a magnet, and followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis after eluted by methanol. Various parameters which could affect the extraction performance were optimised. The newly developed extraction method was successfully applied in determination of cephalosporin residues in milk samples, offering a valuable alternative to simplify and speed up the sample preparation step.

  1. Characterization of Extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli obtained from Danish pigs, pig farmers and their families from farms with high or no consumption of 3rd or 4th generation cephalosporins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Anette M.; Larsen, Jesper; Dalhoff Andersen, Vibe;

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To compare and characterize extended-spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli from pigsties, pig farmers and their families on farms with previous high or no use of third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins. Methods: Twenty farms with no third- or fourth-generation ceph...

  2. Spread of Extended Spectrum Cephalosporinase-Producing Escherichia coli Clones and Plasmids from Parent Animals to Broilers and to Broiler Meat in a Production Without Use of Cephalosporins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Jensen, Jacob Dyring; Hasman, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the occurrence of extended spectrum cephalosporinase (ESC)–producing Escherichia coli in a broiler production with no cephalosporin use and a low use of antimicrobials in general. Furthermore, it investigated whether the current consumption of aminopenicillins....... Isolates with blaCMY-2 were subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), phylotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Selected isolates were used as donors in filter-mating experiments, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and plasmid replicons were typed. Aminopenicillin use at the farm...... selects for ESC-producing E. coli and whether certain clones or plasmids spread from imported parent flocks to the meat. Materials and Methods: ESC-producing E. coli was isolated using MacConkey broth with 1 mg/L of ceftriaxone. ESC genes were identified using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing...

  3. Prevalence of broad-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates in food samples in Tunisia, and characterization of integrons and antimicrobial resistance mechanisms implicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Slama, Karim; Jouini, Ahlem; Ben Sallem, Rym; Somalo, Sergio; Sáenz, Yolanda; Estepa, Vanesa; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Torres, Carmen

    2010-02-28

    The presence of broad-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates and the implicated mechanisms of resistance were investigated in 79 food samples of animal origin obtained in different supermarkets and local butcheries in Tunisia. Ten of these samples (12.6%) harbored extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli isolates and 13 ESBL-positive isolates were recovered (one or two/sample), which exhibited nine different Pulsed-Field-Gel-Electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. ESBLs detected were the following: CTX-M-1 (10 strains), CTX-M-1+TEM-1b (2 strains) and CTX-M-1+TEM-20 (1 strain). The orf477 sequence was identified downstream of bla(CTX-M-1) gene in all 13 strains and ISEcp1 upstream in 9 strains. All ESBL-positive strains were included into phylogenetic group A or B1 (4 and 9 strains, respectively). Three of the 79 food samples (3.8%) contained broad-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant and ESBL-negative E. coli isolates with AmpC phenotype. One isolate per sample was studied, and they showed unrelated PFGE patterns. The CMY-2 type beta-lactamase was identified in one of these 3 strains and specific point mutations in the promoter/attenuator region of ampC gene (at positions -42, -18, -1 and +58) were detected in the remaining two strains. Twelve ESBL-positive and one ESBL-negative E. coli strains contained class 1 integrons with the following gene cassette arrangements: dfrA1+aadA (6 strains) and dfrA17+aadA5 (7 strains). E. coli strains from food samples could represent a reservoir of ESBL-encoding genes and integrons that could be transmitted to humans through the food chain.

  4. Characterization of a P1-like bacteriophage carrying CTX-M-27 in Salmonella spp. resistant to third generation cephalosporins isolated from pork in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling; Li, Wan; Jiang, Gui-Ze; Zhang, Wen-Hui; Ding, Huan-Zhong; Liu, Ya-Hong; Zeng, Zhen-Ling; Jiang, Hong-Xia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the epidemiology of third generation cephalosporin resistant Samonella isolates from pork of a slaughterhouse in China and the features of transferable elements carrying blaCTX-M genes. One hundred and twenty-six (7.3%) Salmonella isolates were identified; S. Derby and S. Rissen were the most two prevalent serotypes. Among these isolates 20 (15.8%) were resistant to third generation cephalosporins and nine of them carried blaCTX-M-27. S1-PFGE and replicon typing of blaCTX-M-27-carrying plasmids showed that seven were untypeable plasmids of about 104 Kb and two were IncP plasmids of about 300 Kb. Complete sequence analysis of one PBRT-untypeable plasmid showed it was a P1-like bateriophage, named SJ46, which contained a non-phage-associated region with several mobile elements, including Tn1721, ISEcp1B and IS903D. The other six 104 Kb PBRT-untypeable blaCTX-M-27-carrying plasmids also harboured the same phage-insertion region of SJ46 suggesting that they were the same P1-like bacteriophage. PFGE profiles of the parental strains revealed both potential vertical and horizontal spread of this P1-like blaCTX-M-27-containing element. Additionally, the representative gene of the P1 family bacteriophage, repL, was detected in 19.0% (24/126) of the isolates. This study indicated a potential role of P1-family bacteriophage in capture and spread of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens. PMID:28098241

  5. Ceftolozane/tazobactam: a novel cephalosporin/β-lactamase inhibitor combination with activity against multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhanel, George G; Chung, Phillip; Adam, Heather; Zelenitsky, Sheryl; Denisuik, Andrew; Schweizer, Frank; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R S; Rubinstein, Ethan; Gin, Alfred S; Walkty, Andrew; Hoban, Daryl J; Lynch, Joseph P; Karlowsky, James A

    2014-01-01

    Ceftolozane is a novel cephalosporin currently being developed with the β-lactamase inhibitor tazobactam for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs), complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs), and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (VABP). The chemical structure of ceftolozane is similar to that of ceftazidime, with the exception of a modified side-chain at the 3-position of the cephem nucleus, which confers potent antipseudomonal activity. As a β-lactam, its mechanism of action is the inhibition of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). Ceftolozane displays increased activity against Gram-negative bacilli, including those that harbor classical β-lactamases (e.g., TEM-1 and SHV-1), but, similar to other oxyimino-cephalosporins such as ceftazidime and ceftriaxone, it is compromised by extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and carbapenemases. The addition of tazobactam extends the activity of ceftolozane to include most ESBL producers as well as some anaerobic species. Ceftolozane is distinguished from other cephalosporins by its potent activity versus Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including various drug-resistant phenotypes such as carbapenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, and ceftazidime-resistant isolates, as well as those strains that are multidrug-resistant (MDR). Its antipseudomonal activity is attributed to its ability to evade the multitude of resistance mechanisms employed by P. aeruginosa, including efflux pumps, reduced uptake through porins and modification of PBPs. Ceftolozane demonstrates linear pharmacokinetics unaffected by the coadministration of tazobactam; specifically, it follows a two-compartmental model with linear elimination. Following single doses, ranging from 250 to 2,000 mg, over a 1-h intravenous infusion, ceftolozane displays a mean plasma half-life of 2.3 h (range 1.9-2.6 h), a steady-state volume of distribution that ranges from 13.1 to 17.6 L, and a mean clearance of 102.4 mL/min. It demonstrates low

  6. Adverse reaction analysis of cephalosporin antibiotics%头孢菌素类抗生素的不良反应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马星海

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析临床常用头孢菌素类抗生素的不良反应,为临床合理用药提供参考依据。方法收集本院2011年3月~2014年3月应用头孢菌素类抗生素药物出现不良反应的128例患者作为研究对象,分析头孢菌素类抗生素药物的应用情况和不良反应发生情况。结果<10岁的儿童(31.3%)和跃60岁的老人(37.5%)是头孢菌素类抗生素出现不良反应的易感人群;不良反应发生率最高的药物是头孢曲松钠,占21.9%,其次是头孢替安(14.1%)、头孢替唑钠(9.4%)、头孢硫脒(7.8%)、头孢呋辛钠(7.8%)、盐酸头孢吡肟(7.8%);静脉滴注给药途径的不良反应发生率最高,为53.9%,其次为口服(19.5%)、静脉推注(14.1%)、肌内注射(12.5%);主要累及的器官为皮肤(35.2%),其次是呼吸系统(20.3%)、循环系统(15.6%)、消化系统(14.1%)和神经系统(10.2%)。结论头孢菌素类抗生素的不良反应好发人群为儿童和老年人,静脉滴注给药途径的发生率最高,因此,临床用药时要充分考虑患者的体质和药物类型,降低不良反应发生率,提高临床合理用药。%Objective To analyze the adverse reactions of clinical commonly used cephalosporin antibiotics,to provide reference for clinical rational use of drugs. Methods 128 patients with adverse reactions caused by cephalosporin an-tibiotics in our hospital from March 2011 to March 2014 were selected as the study subjects.The usage of cephalosporin antibiotics and the occurrence of adverse reactions was analyzed. Results Children under 10 years old (31.3%) and old people over 60 years old (37.5%) was susceptible populations to the adverse reactions of cephalosporin antibiotics.The drug with the highest incidence of adverse reactions was ceftriaxone(21.9%),followed by cefotiam (14.1%),ceftezole sodi-um(9.4%),cefathiamidine(7.8%),cefuroxime sodium(7.8%) and cefepime dihydrochloride(7.8%).The incidence of adverse reactions was the

  7. Cephalosporin antibiotic adverse drug reactions occurred situation analysis%头孢菌素类抗生素药物不良反应发生情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨发生头孢菌素类抗生素药物不良反应的影响因素及临床表现。方法:分析总结发生头孢菌素类药物不良反应的影响因素。结果:影响头孢菌素类药物不良反应的因素:患者年龄等个体差异、药物配置浓度不合理、用药时间过长、输液速度过快。患者服药期间饮酒、情绪、饮食、环境因素等。结论:须遵循用药规则,加强监测药物不良反应,告知患者用药的注意事项,以此降低头孢菌素类抗生素药物不良反应的发生率。%Objective Explore happen cephalosporin class of antibiotics the influence factors of adverse drug reactions and clinical manifestation.Methods Analysis summary in cephalosporin drugs influence factors of adverse reactions.Results Factors, which affect the cephalosporin class drug adverse reactions, patients' age and individual differences, unreasonable drug concentrations, drug use time is too long, the infusion speed too fast. Patients with medication during drinking, emotion, diet, and environmental factors.Conclusions Drug must follow the rules, strengthen the monitoring of adverse drug reactions, informed patient medication precautions, reducing cephalosporin antibiotics, the incidence of adverse drug reactions.

  8. Ceftazidime/avibactam: a novel cephalosporin/nonbeta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and complicated intra-abdominal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidalgo JA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Jose A Hidalgo,1,2 Celeste M Vinluan,1–3 Nishaal Antony3 1UTEP/UT Austin Cooperative Pharmacy Program, College of Health Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, 2Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, El Paso, TX, USA Abstract: There has been greater interest in developing additional antimicrobial agents due to the increasing health care costs and resistance resulting from bacterial pathogens to currently available treatment options. Gram-negative organisms including Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are some of the most concerning threats due to their resistance mechanisms: extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase enzymes. Ceftazidime is a third-generation broad-spectrum cephalosporin with activity against P. aeruginosa and avibactam is a novel nonbeta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor. Avycaz®, the trade name for this new combination antibiotic, restores the activity of ceftazidime against some of the previously resistant pathogens. Avycaz was approved in 2015 for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis, and complicated intra-abdominal infections with the addition of metronidazole in patients with little to no other treatment options. This review article assesses the clinical trials and data that led to the approval of this antibiotic, in addition to its spectrum of activity and limitations. Keywords: ceftazidime/avibactam, Avycaz, complicated urinary tract infections, complicated intra-abdominal infections

  9. Comparison of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in Shigella between Europe-America and Asia-Africa from 1998 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, B; Zhou, M; Ke, X; Pan, S; Cao, Y; Huang, Y; Zhuang, L; Liu, G; Tong, M

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a systematic review to compare resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (TGCs) in Shigella strains between Europe-America and Asia-Africa from 1998 to 2012 based on a literature search of computerized databases. In Asia-Africa, the prevalence of resistance of total and different subtypes to ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and ceftazidime increased markedly, with a total prevalence of resistance up to 14·2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 3·9-29·4], 22·6% (95% CI 4·8-48·6) and 6·2% (95% CI 3·8-9·1) during 2010-2012, respectively. By contrast, resistance rates to these TGCs in Europe-America remained relatively low--less than 1·0% during the 15 years. A noticeable finding was that certain countries both in Europe-America and Asia-Africa, had a rapid rising trend in the prevalence of resistance of S. sonnei, which even outnumbered S. flexneri in some periods. Moreover, comparison between countries showed that currently the most serious problem concerning resistance to these TGCs appeared in Vietnam, especially for ceftriaxone, China, especially for cefotaxime and Iran, especially for ceftazidime. These data suggest that monitoring of the drug resistance of Shigella strains should be strengthened and that rational use of antibiotics is required.

  10. A novel broad-spectrum cephalosporin ceftobiprole%新型广谱头孢菌素类抗菌药物头孢吡普

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊礼玲; 游莉; 刘家健; 李栋宏

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance has become a significant problem over the past decade with marked increases in the incidence of MRSA, intermediate- and high level resistant Staphylococcus aureus, penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Ceftobiprole was the first of a new class of broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotics that had potent antibacterial activity towards methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA). This review detailed its mechanism of action, synthesis methods, antibacterial activities in vivo, pharmacokinetic profie and clinical trials.%随着耐甲氧西林金葡萄球菌、耐药金黄色葡萄球菌、耐青霉素肺炎链球菌和耐万古霉素肠球菌显著增加,细菌耐药性成为近年来一个重大难题.Ceftobiprole是第一个对耐甲氧西林金葡萄球菌(MRSA)和万古霉素耐药金黄色葡葡球菌(VRSA)有效的广谱头孢菌素类抗生素.现对其作用机制、合成路线、体外抗菌活性、药动学特性、临床试验等方面作一综述.

  11. Ceftobiprole: a novel cephalosporin with activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, April; Schmidt, Stephan; Rand, Kenneth H; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2009-07-01

    Ceftobiprole is a novel broad-spectrum cephalosporin with activity against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including several resistant species such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Ceftobiprole is administered intravenously as the prodrug ceftobiprole medocaril, which is almost immediately converted to the active form. It is currently under review by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and is approved in Canada under the trade name Zeftera. The pharmacokinetics of ceftobiprole are non-complex as it displays a two-compartment model, dose proportionality, linear plasma protein binding and negligible accumulation. The volume of distribution is approximately equal to the extracellular fluid volume and it is cleared primarily by glomerular filtration, resulting in a half-life of approximately 3-4h. Ceftobiprole displays a low plasma protein binding of approximately 22%. The efficacy of ceftobiprole was demonstrated in two pivotal studies in patients with complicated skin and skin-structure infections (cSSSIs) that compared ceftobiprole with vancomycin in Gram-positive infections in one study and ceftobiprole with vancomycin plus ceftazidime in Gram-positive and Gram-negative infections in the other. The clinical cure rates were similar for ceftobiprole vs. comparator treatments: 93.3% vs. 93.5% with vancomycin only and 90.5% vs. 90.2% with vancomycin plus ceftazidime. The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile supports the use of ceftobiprole to treat a wide range of cSSSIs.

  12. Achieving High Yield of Lactic Acid for Antimicrobial Characterization in Cephalosporin-Resistant Lactobacillus by the Co-Expression of the Phosphofructokinase and Glucokinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yahui; Li, Tiyuan; Li, Shiyu; Jiang, Zhenyou; Yang, Yan; Huang, Junli; Liu, Zhaobing; Sun, Hanxiao

    2016-06-28

    Lactobacilli are universally recognized as probiotics that are widely used in the adjuvant treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as vaginitis and enteritis. With the overuse of antibiotics in recent years, the lactobacilli in the human body are killed, which could disrupt the microecological balance in the human body and affect health adversely. In this work, cephalosporin-resistant Lactobacillus casei RL20 was obtained successfully from the feces of healthy volunteers, which possessed a stable genetic set. However, the shortage of lactic acid (72.0 g/l at 48 h) by fermentation did not meet the requirement for its use in medicine. To increase the production of lactic acid, the functional genes pfk and glk were introduced into the wild strain. A yield of 144.2 g/l lactic acid was obtained in the transgenic L. casei RL20-2 after fermentation for 48 h in 1 L of basic fermentation medium with an initial glucose concentration of 100 g/l and increasing antibacterial activity. These data suggested that L. casei RL20-2 that exhibited a high yield of lactic acid may be a potential probiotic to inhibit the spread of bacterial infectious diseases and may be used for vaginitis therapy.

  13. Research progress of the fifth generation cephalosporins%第五代头孢菌素类药物的药理学特点及临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋妍蕾; 邱伟杰; 邱凤玲; 聂凤云; 于新宽

    2016-01-01

    Objective To summary the pharmacological characteristics of the fifth generation cephalosporins and clinical application. Methods Two kinds of the fifth generation cephalosporins(cefotaximeLorraine,ceftobiprole)were already marketed were selected as the research objects. Pharmacology and clinical application of them including the phar-macodynamics,drug resistance and adverse reaction were analyzed. Results Compared with other cephalosporins,broader antibacterial spectrum and no serious adverse reactions of the fifth generation cephalosporins,especially on enzyme stability was good,low rate of resistance,the higher MRSA activity. At present,it is used for the infection of the skin and soft tis-sue infection as the clinical approved medication. Conclusions The fifth generation of cephalosporins has broad antibacte-rial spectrum,strong antibacterial effect on enzyme stability,good and high security and good application prospect.%目的:总结第五代头孢菌素类药物的药理学特点及临床应用。方法选取已经上市的两种第五代头孢菌素类药物(头孢洛林、头孢吡普)作为研究对象,对其药理学特点、药效学、耐药性与不良反应以及临床应用等方面进行综述。结果与其他头孢菌素类药物比较,第五代头孢菌素类药物的抗菌谱更广且无严重不良反应,特别是对酶的稳定性较好,耐药率低,对 MRSA 活性较高,目前作为皮肤感染、软组织感染等疾病的批准临床用药。结论第五代头孢菌素类药物具有抗菌谱广、抗菌效力强、对酶的稳定性良好及安全性高等优势,应用前景较好。

  14. 肾功能不全头孢菌素脑病16例临床分析%Clinical analysis of 16 cases of encephalopathy induced by cephalosporin in patients with renal inadequacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛痕; 常晓东; 杨有京; 张燕华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss the reasonable utilization of cephalosporin in renal failure patients to guide the anti-infective therapy for patients with renal inadequacy. Methods Neuropsychiatric symptoms caused by cephalosporin for patients with renal inadequacy and correlated clinical characteristics were retrospectively analyzed. Results The period between start of treatment and onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms was (4. 26 ± 1. 85) days (1 ~ 6 days). The clinical manifestation were staring spells, delirium, hallucination , lethargy, lisp, memory disorders, amyostasia and convulsion etc. The symptoms completely disappeared after withdrawal of cephalosporin and blood purification. Conclusions Cephalosporin used in conventional dose could cause adverse effect of nervous system in renal failure patients. Therefore, we should adjust the dosage of cephalosporin based on creatinine clearance rate, and discontinue the drugs once encephalopathy appears.%目的 总结肾功能不全头袍菌素脑病的诊治经验,指导肾功不全患者的抗感染治疗.方法 回顾性分析我科16例肾功能不全患者应用头孢类抗生素时引起的神经精神症状及相关临床资料.结果 使用头孢菌素到出现神经精神症状时间间隔(4.26±1.85)天(2-6天),临床表现为神志恍惚、谵妄、幻觉、嗜睡、口齿不清、记忆力障碍、肌肉震颤、抽搐等.所有患者停药并血液净化治疗后好转.结论 肾功能不全患者使用常规剂量的头孢菌素可造成神经毒性,因此应根据肌酐清除率调整剂量,一旦出现症状需立即停药.

  15. Twenty Autopsy Cases of Anaphylactic Shock Induced by Cephalosporins%头孢类药物致过敏性休克死亡20例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜中波; 朱宇; 覃虹; 官大威; 吴旭; 李如波; 高卫民; 毛瑞明; 朱宝利

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the characteristics of autopsy cases of anaphylactic shock induced by cephalosporins and provide the evidences in forensic medicine. Methods Twenty cases of anaphylactic shock induced by cephalosporins were collected from April 2005 to August 2009 in judicial expertise center of China Medical University, and the characteristics of the cases were analyzed retrospectively. Results The age of decedents ranged from 40 to 60 years. Ninety percent of cases were from local medical centers and private clinics. The symptoms of the shock appeared 30s-150min after the administration of the drug,and death occurred 10min-210min after the appearance of the shock symptoms. In all cases, various degrees of eosinophil infiltration were observed in trachea and the lungs. Serum IgE detected by ELISA method was normal value in 14 cases. Conclusion In fatal anaphylactic cases, little specific findings are detected during postmortem and microscope examination. For this reason, the determination of cause of death in these cases requires comprehensive analysis combined with clinic information and excludes other diseases leading to the sudden death.%目的 探讨头孢类药物所致过敏性休克死亡案件的病理学特点,为法医学鉴定提供依据.方法 对中国医科大学法医司法鉴定中心2005年4月-2009年8月受理的20头孢类药物致过敏性休克死亡鉴定案件进行回顾性分析.结果 死者年龄主要集中在40~60岁,90%的案例发生在基层医疗机构.用药后至休克症状出现在30s~150min,休克症状出现至死亡在10~210min.显微镜检见所有案例气管、肺组织中存在不同程度的嗜酸性粒细胞浸润.ELISA法检测结果显示14例血液IgE值在临床参考值正常范围以内.结论 在头孢类药物致过敏性休克死亡案例中,尸体检验和显微镜观察较少发现特异性的改变,因此,此类案例的死亡原因推断需要在排除其他致死性疾病的基础上结合临床过程综合分析.

  16. Abundance and phenotypic diversity of Escherichia coli isolates with diminished susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins in faeces from healthy food animals after slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Miguel A; Teshager, Tirushet; Porrero, M A Concepción; García, María; Escudero, Esther; Torres, Carmen; Domínguez, Lucas

    2007-03-10

    Antimicrobial resistance (AR) is an increasing phenomenon but its quantitative estimation remains controversial. The classical resistance percentage approach is not well suited to detect either emergence or low levels resistance. One option is to shift the focus from strains to hosts. This approach is applied to test for phenotypic diversity associated with diminished susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (DSESC) in faecal Escherichia coli from healthy food animals in Spain. We performed E. coli enumeration in faecal samples of broilers (82 pooled samples) and pigs (80 pooled samples) at the slaughterhouse level, using Coli-ID plates alone and supplemented with cefotaxime at two levels (1 and 8 microg/ml). Antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates was tested by the agar diffusion method. Clustering was carried out using these numerical values and Ward and UPGMA methods. When using plates supplemented with 1 microg/ml of cefotaxime for DSESC E. coli detection, 93% (76/82) of broiler pooled samples and 36% (29/80) pig pooled samples tested positive. When using 8 microg/ml of cefotaxime, 67% (55/82) of broilers and 13% (10/80) of pigs were positive. Nevertheless, the relative abundance of this phenotype was low in both animal species (range 0-4.3%). Irrespective of the clustering method (Ward or UPGMA), a noticeable phenotypic diversity was detected, especially from the plates containing 1 microg/ml of cefotaxime. We concluded that: (a) E. coli with phenotype DSESC are common in broilers and pigs but are less frequent in pigs, and (b) the host approach is the most appropriate method for antimicrobial resistance assessment when null or very low levels of antimicrobial resistant bacteria are expected.

  17. Management of cephalosporin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae%淋球菌对头孢菌素耐药的治疗应对措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鑫; 苏晓红; 蒋娟

    2016-01-01

    Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae,and substantially harms human health and socioeconomic development.Due to inappropriate treatment and the presence of drug resistance genes in patients,antibiotic resistance has emerged in Neisseria gonorrhoeae,such as resistance to penicillin,tetracycline,ciprofloxacin,or other antibiotics.Currently,extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) are the first-line treatment of gonococcal infection.With the wide use of ESCs,the sensitivity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to ESCs has been decreasing gradually,and there have been reports on cases of treatment failure in clinical practice.In order to control gonorrhea and deal with drug resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae,combined therapy,alternative therapy and new drugs have been developed in clinic.%淋病是淋球菌感染引起的性传播疾病之一,对人类健康及社会经济发展均有较大的危害.近年来,由于治疗不当、患者有耐药基因等多种原因,淋球菌逐渐对青霉素、四环素、环丙沙星等抗菌药出现耐药.目前头孢菌素为治疗淋球菌感染的一线药物,随着头孢菌素的广泛应用,淋球菌对其敏感性逐渐降低,出现临床治疗淋病失败的病例.为了进一步控制淋病,应对淋球菌耐药现象,临床已出现联合治疗、替代疗法、新药研发等方案,以期为控制对头孢菌素耐药的淋病治疗提供应对策略.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of ceftobiprole, a novel anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cephalosporin, tested against contemporary pathogens: results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (2005-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsche, Thomas R; Sader, Helio S; Jones, Ronald N

    2008-05-01

    Ceftobiprole is a 1st-in-class anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) extended-spectrum cephalosporin currently in clinical trials for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) and nosocomial pneumonia. This agent is also active against other prominent Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, making it an attractive candidate for broad-spectrum therapy. We evaluated the in vitro potency of ceftobiprole tested against the most commonly occurring bacterial pathogens as part of a global surveillance study for the years 2005 to 2006 (>60 medical centers in North America, Latin America, and Europe). All isolates (40 675) were susceptibility tested using reference broth microdilution methods. Ceftobiprole inhibited 100% and >99% of tested S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci at Ceftobiprole was also broadly active against Streptococcus pneumoniae, beta-hemolytic and viridans group streptococci, inhibiting >98% of isolates at ceftobiprole was generally inactive against Enterococcus faecium, the majority of Enterococcus faecalis strains (95.7%) were inhibited at ceftobiprole and ceftazidime), ceftobiprole and cefepime were superior to ceftazidime against Enterobacter spp. and Citrobacter spp. Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ceftobiprole was equal in potency to ceftazidime (MIC50, 2 microg/mL) and 2-fold more potent than cefepime. None of these agents inhibited >45% of Acinetobacter spp. at 8 mug/mL. Ceftobiprole is a new anti-MRSA beta-lactam with recognized activity against the most commonly occurring Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa, similar to that of extended-spectrum cephems. These characteristics warrant continued evaluation of the agent as empiric therapy for cSSSIs, and in pneumonia, especially in those institutions/regions where MRSA and P. aeruginosa may be prevalent.

  19. Identification of amino acids conferring high-level resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins in the penA gene from Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain H041.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberg, Joshua; Unemo, Magnus; Ohnishi, Makoto; Davies, Christopher; Nicholas, Robert A

    2013-07-01

    The recent identification of a high-level-ceftriaxone-resistant (MIC = 2 to 4 μg/ml) isolate of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from Japan (H041) portends the loss of ceftriaxone as an effective treatment for gonococcal infections. This is of grave concern because ceftriaxone is the last remaining option for first-line empirical antimicrobial monotherapy. The penA gene from H041 (penA41) is a mosaic penA allele similar to mosaic alleles conferring intermediate-level cephalosporin resistance (Ceph(i)) worldwide but has 13 additional mutations compared to the mosaic penA gene from the previously studied Ceph(i) strain 35/02 (penA35). When transformed into the wild-type strain FA19, the penA41 allele confers 300- and 570-fold increases in the MICs for ceftriaxone and cefixime, respectively. In order to understand the mechanisms involved in high-level ceftriaxone resistance and to improve surveillance and epidemiology during the potential emergence of ceftriaxone resistance, we sought to identify the minimum number of amino acid alterations above those in penA35 that confer high-level resistance to ceftriaxone. Using restriction fragment exchange and site-directed mutagenesis, we identified three mutations, A311V, T316P, and T483S, that, when incorporated into the mosaic penA35 allele, confer essentially all of the increased resistance of penA41. A311V and T316P are close to the active-site nucleophile Ser310 that forms the acyl-enzyme complex, while Thr483 is predicted to interact with the carboxylate of the β-lactam antibiotic. These three mutations have thus far been described only for penA41, but dissemination of these mutations in other mosaic alleles would spell the end of ceftriaxone as an effective treatment for gonococcal infections.

  20. Analysis of pharmacological characteristics and clinical application of cephalosporins antibiotics%头孢菌素类抗生素的药理特性及临床应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康庆

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo analyze pharmacological characteristics and clinical application of cephalosporins antibiotics.MethodsClinical data of 110 patients with antibiotics-related adverse reactions were retrospectively analyzed. Observation was made on adverse reactions and involved regions by cephalosporins antibiotics.ResultsThere were 45 cases with adverse reactions by cephalosporins antibiotics among 110 patients, accounting for 40.9%. Main involved regions included digestive system, nervous system, skin and appendages of skin.ConclusionCephalosporins antibiotics-induced adverse reactions mainly involve digestive system, nervous system, skin and appendages of skin. Therefore, understanding pharmacological characteristics and closely observing clinical symptom and vital signs can reduce incidence of adverse reactions and improve curative effects for patients.%目的:探索分析头孢菌素类抗生素的药理特性及临床应用。方法回顾性分析110例抗生素相关不良反应患者的临床资料,观察本组患者中由于头孢菌素类抗生素的应用而出现的不良反应的发生情况、累及部位等。结果110例患者中由于应用头孢菌素类抗生素出现不良反应者45例,占总体的40.9%,累及的部位主要包括消化系统、神经系统、皮肤、皮肤附件等。结论应用头孢菌素类抗生素后,患者出现的不良反应主要涉及消化系统、神经系统、皮肤、皮肤附件等部位,因此在临床用药时,需要掌握药理特性,严密观察患者的临床症状和体征情况,以降低不良反应发生率,提高患者的治疗效果。

  1. Analysis of a Case of Consciousness Disturbance and Coagulation Disorders Induced by Cephalosporins%1例头孢菌素类抗生素致意识障碍与凝血障碍病例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡健敏; 蓝宇频

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feature of consciousness disturbance and coagulation disorders caused by cephalosporins. METHODS: A case of pulmonary infection patient who received the treatment of cephalosporin suffering from consciousness disturbance and coagulation was introduced. Causes, prevention and therapeutic scheme of consciousness disturbance and coagulation disorders caused by cephalosporins were interpreted from the perspective of clinical pharmacists based on relevant literatures. RESULTS: Cephalosporin is more prone to induce adverse drug reaction in the elderly patients with renal insufficiency. So, timely intervention given by the clinical pharmacists could reduce the drug-induced damage at utmost during application. CONCLUSION: Clinical pharmacists should fully use their available knowledge and specialized skills, and actively participate in clinical drug therapy to make sure the safety and efficacy of drug therapy.%目的:探讨头孢菌素导致意识障碍以及凝血障碍的特点.方法:通过介绍1例肺部感染患者在应用头孢菌素类药物治疗过程中先后发生意识障碍以及凝血障碍的病例,结合相关资料从临床药师的角度阐明头孢菌素导致意识障碍及凝血障碍的成因及预防、治疗措施.结果:头孢菌素应用于老年肾功能不全患者时更易引发不良反应,故在临床应用中临床药师的及时干预能够最大程度地减少药源性伤害.结论:临床药师应利用所掌握的药学知识,充分发挥自己的业务专长,积极参与到临床治疗中,确保药物治疗安全有效.

  2. High Prevalence of β-lactamase and Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Genes in Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Escherichia coli from Dogs in Shaanxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Haixia; Li, Yinqian; Hao, Caiju

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and molecular characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL), plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (pAmpC) and carbapenemases as well as plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistant (PMQR) among extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) Escherichia coli from dogs in Shaanxi province in China. Methods: A total of 40 ESC-R Escherichia coli selected from 165 Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) isolated from dogs were screened and characterized for the genes encoding for the ESBLs, pAmpC, carbapenemases and PMQR genes by PCR and sequencing. Phylogenetic groups, virulence gene profiles and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used to investigate the genetic background of the ESC-R E. coli isolates. Results: Among 40 ESC-R E. coli, the predominant β-lactamase gene was blaCTX−Ms (n = 35), and followed by blaTEM−1 (n = 31), blaSHV−12 (n = 14), blaOXA−48 (n = 8), blaTEM−30 (n = 4), blaCMY−2 (n = 3) and blaDHA−1 (n = 2). The most common specific blaCTX−M gene subtype was blaCTX−M−15 (n = 31), and followed by blaCTX−M−123 (n = 14), blaCTX−M−1 (n = 10), blaCTX−M−14 (n = 10) and blaCTX−M−9 (n = 7). PMQR genes were detected in 32 (80%) isolates, and the predominant PMQR gene was aac(6′)-Ib-cr (n = 26), followed by qnrS (n = 12), qnrD (n = 9), qnrB (n = 8), qepA (n = 4), and all PMQR genes were detected in co-existence with β-lactamase genes. traT (n = 34) and fimH (n = 32) were the most prevalent virulence genes, and virulence genes fimH, iutA, fyuA, malX, iha, and sat were more prevalent in phylogenetic group B2. The 40 ESC-R isolates analyzed were assigned to 22 sequence types (STs), and the clonal lineages ST131 (n = 10) and ST10 (n = 9) were the predominant STs. Conclusion: High prevalence of β-lantamases and PMQR genes were detected among ESC-R E. coli from companion animals. This is also the first description of the co-existence of six

  3. High Prevalence of β-lactamase and Plasmid-mediated Quinolone Resistance Genes in Extended-spectrum Cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli from Dogs in Shaanxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiang Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and molecular characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL, plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (pAmpC and carbapenemases as well as plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistant (PMQR among extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R Escherichia coli from dogs in Shaanxi province in China.Methods: A total of 40 ESC-R Escherichia coli selected from 165 Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC isolated from dogs were screened and characterized for the genes encoding for the ESBLs, pAmpC, carbapenemases and PMQR genes by PCR and sequencing. Phylogenetic groups, virulence gene profiles and multilocus sequence typing (MLST were used to investigate the genetic background of the ESC-R E. coli isolates. Results: Among 40 ESC-R E. coli, the predominant β-lactamase gene was blaCTX-Ms (n=35, and followed by blaTEM-1 (n=31, blaSHV-12 (n=14, blaOXA-48 (n=8, blaTEM-30 (n=4, blaCMY-2 (n=3 and blaDHA-1 (n=2. The most common specific blaCTX-M gene subtype was blaCTX-M-15 (n=31, and followed by blaCTX-M-123 (n=14, blaCTX-M-1 (n=10, blaCTX-M-14 (n=10 and blaCTX-M-9 (n=7. PMQR genes were detected in 32 (80% isolates, and the predominant PMQR gene was aac(6'-Ib-cr (n=26, followed by qnrS (n=12, qnrD (n=9, qnrB (n=8, qepA (n=4, and all PMQR genes were detected in co-existence with β-lactamase genes. traT (n=34 and fimH (n=32 were the most prevalent virulence genes, and virulence genes fimH, iutA, fyuA, malX, iha and sat were more prevalent in phylogenetic group B2. The 40 ESC-R isolates analyzed were assigned to 22 sequence types (STs, and the clonal lineages ST131 (n=10 and ST10 (n=9 were the predominant STs. Conclusion: High prevalence of β-lantamases and PMQR genes were detected among ESC-R E. coli from companion animals. This is also the first description of the co-existence of six β-lantamase genes and five PMQR genes in one E. coli isolate. Moreover, ten ST131 clones harboring CTX

  4. Activities of ceftobiprole and other cephalosporins against extracellular and intracellular (THP-1 macrophages and keratinocytes) forms of methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Sandrine; Glupczynski, Youri; Duval, Valérie; Joris, Bernard; Tulkens, Paul M; Van Bambeke, Françoise

    2009-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic intracellular organism. Although they poorly accumulate in eukaryotic cells, beta-lactams show activity against intracellular methicillin (methicillin)-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) if the exposure times and the drug concentrations are sufficient. Intraphagocytic methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains are susceptible to penicillins and carbapenems because the acidic pH favors the acylation of PBP 2a by these beta-lactams through pH-induced conformational changes. The intracellular activity (THP-1 macrophages and keratinocytes) of ceftobiprole, which shows almost similar in vitro activities against MRSA and MSSA in broth, was examined against a panel of hospital-acquired and community-acquired MRSA strains (MICs, 0.5 to 2.0 mg/liter at pH 7.4 and 0.25 to 1.0 mg/liter at pH 5.5) and was compared with its activity against MSSA isolates. The key pharmacological descriptors {relative maximal efficacy (E(max)), relative potency (the concentration causing a reduction of the inoculum halfway between E(0) and E(max) [EC(50)]), and static concentration (C(s))} were measured. All strains showed sigmoidal dose-responses, with E(max) being about a 1 log(10) CFU decrease from the postphagocytosis inoculum, and EC(50) and C(s) being 0.2 to 0.3x and 0.6 to 0.9x the MIC, respectively. Ceftobiprole effectively competed with Bocillin FL (a fluorescent derivative of penicillin V) for binding to PBP 2a at both pH 5.5 and pH 7.4. In contrast, cephalexin, cefuroxime, cefoxitin, or ceftriaxone (i) were less potent in PBP 2a competitive binding assays, (ii) showed only partial restoration of the activity against MRSA in broth at acidic pH, and (iii) were collectively less effective against MRSA in THP-1 macrophages and were ineffective in keratinocytes. The improved activity of ceftobiprole toward intracellular MRSA compared with the activities of conventional cephalosporins can be explained, at least in part, by its greater ability to bind

  5. Extensive amplification of GI-VII-6, a multidrug resistance genomic island of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, increases resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins

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    Ken-ichi eLee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available GI-VII-6 is a chromosomally integrated multidrug resistance genomic island harbored by a specific clone of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium. It contains a gene encoding CMY-2 β-lactamase (blaCMY-2, and therefore contributes to extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance. To elucidate the significance of GI-VII-6 on adaptive evolution, spontaneous mutants of S. Typhimurium strain L-3553 were selected on plates containing cefotaxime (CTX. The concentrations of CTX were higher than its minimum inhibition concentration to the parent strain. The mutants appeared on the plates containing 12.5 and 25 μg/ml CTX at a frequency of 10−6 and 10−8, respectively. No colonies were observed at higher CTX concentrations. The copy number of blaCMY-2 increased up to 85 per genome in the mutants, while the parent strain contains one copy of that in the chromosome. This elevation was accompanied by increased amount of transcription. The blaCMY-2 copy number in the mutants drastically decreased in the absence of antibiotic selection pressure. Southern hybridization analysis and short-read mapping indicated that the entire 125 kb GI-VII-6 or parts of it were tandemly amplified. GI-VII-6 amplification occurred at its original position, although it also transposed to other locations in the genome in some mutants, including an endogenous plasmid in some of the mutants, leading to the amplification of GI-VII-6 at different loci. Insertion sequences were observed at the junction of the amplified regions in the mutants, suggesting their significant roles in the transposition and amplification. Plasmid copy number in the selected mutants was 1.4 to 4.4 times higher than that of the parent strain. These data suggest that transposition and amplification of the blaCMY-2-containing region, along with the copy number variation of the plasmid, contributed to the extensive amplification of blaCMY-2 and increased resistance to CTX.

  6. 热分析法研究头孢菌素类药物的热稳定性和贮存期%Thermal analysis study for prediction of cephalosporin stability and shelf time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张名楠; 王镇江; 周雪晴

    2011-01-01

    Thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG) technique were applied to study the thermal stabilities and predict the shelf-time of cephalosporin in atmosphere. The kinetic parameters,activation energy E was determined by Coats- Redfern, the estimation of thermal stabilities and the forecast of shelf-time of cephalosporin was given by comparing the activation energy £. The results indicated that thermal analysis is a quick, scientifical and economical method to study the thermal stabilities of drugs and to predict the shelf-time of drugs.%采用热重法和微分热重法研究药物头孢菌素类在空气流中的热稳定性和贮存期.采用Coats-Redfern法获取动力学参数,根据热分析实验数据,计算头孢菌素类热分解反应活化能E,通过活化能的比较,判断头孢菌类药物的热稳定性和预测其贮存期.结果表明,用热分析方法可以快速、科学、经济地预测药物的稳定性和贮存期.

  7. Cephalosporins inhibit human metallo β-lactamase fold DNA repair nucleases SNM1A and SNM1B/apollo† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: General experimental procedures and supplementary figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cc00529b Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sook Y.; Brem, Jürgen; Pettinati, Ilaria; Claridge, Timothy D. W.; Gileadi, Opher

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) are involved in resistance to β-lactam antibiotics including cephalosporins. Human SNM1A and SNM1B are MBL superfamily exonucleases that play a key role in the repair of DNA interstrand cross-links, which are induced by antitumour chemotherapeutics, and are therefore targets for cancer chemosensitization. We report that cephalosporins are competitive inhibitors of SNM1A and SNM1B exonuclease activity; both the intact β-lactam and their hydrolysed products are active. This discovery provides a lead for the development of potent and selective SNM1A and SNM1B inhibitors. PMID:27121860

  8. 头孢菌素类药物联合其他药物所致不良反应的临床分析%Clinical analysis of adverse reactions induced by cephalosporins drugs combined with other drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高芹凤

    2015-01-01

    Objective To clinically research adverse reactions induced by cephalosporins drugs combined with other drugs.Methods There were 140 patients with adverse reactions induced by cephalosporins drugs combined with other drugs as observation group, and another 60 patients received no cephalosporins drugs combined with other drugs for treatment as control group. Manifestations of adverse reactions were comparatively analyzed.Results The observation group had proportion of adverse reactions in nervous system as 23.57%, proportion of reinfection as 16.43%, proportion of adverse reactions in digestive system as 19.29%, proportion of renal function damage as 13.57%, proportion of allergy as 15.00%, and proportion of other adverse reactions as 12.14%. The observation group had higher incidences of adverse reactions than the control group, and the difference between the two groups had statistical significance (P<0.05).Conclusion It is necessary for good prevention work being applied in drug administration for patients, in order to reduce adverse reactions and to fully show drug effect.%目的对使用头孢菌素类药物联合其他药物进行治疗后出现不良反应的现象进行临床研究.方法 140例使用头孢菌素类药物联合其他药物进行治疗后出现不良反应的患者作为观察组, 再选取未使用头孢菌素类药物联合其他药物进行治疗的60例患者作为对照组, 比较分析出现不良反应的表现.结果观察组患者出现精神系统不良反应的比例为23.57%, 出现再次被传染的比例为16.43%, 出现消化系统不良反应的比例为19.29%, 出现对肾功能的伤害的比例为13.57%, 出现过敏现象的比例为15.00%, 出现其他的不良反应情形的比例为12.14%, 观察组患者的不良反应发生率高于对照组, 组间治疗效果比较, 差异具有统计学意义 (P<0.05).结论患者在进行药物使用时, 必须做好防范工作, 减少不良反应出现的情形, 使药物的效果发挥的更彻底.

  9. Prevalence of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli in a farrowing farm: ST1121 clone harboring IncHI2 plasmid contributes to the dissemination of blaCMY-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui eDeng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During a regular monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in a farrowing farm in Southern China, 117 Escherichia coli isolates were obtained from sows and piglets. Compared with the isolates from piglets, the isolates from sows exhibited higher resistance rates to the tested cephalosporins. Correspondingly, the total detection rate of the blaCMY-2/blaCTX-M genes in the sow isolates (34.2% was also significantly higher than that of the piglet isolates (13.6% (p<0.05. The blaCMY-2 gene had a relatively high prevalence (11.1% in the E. coli isolates. MLST and PFGE analysis revealed the clonal spread of ST1121 E. coli in most (7/13 of the blaCMY-2-positive isolates. An indistinguishable IncHI2 plasmid harboring blaCMY-2 was also identified in each of the seven ST1121 E. coli isolates. Complete sequence analysis of this IncHI2 plasmid (pEC5207 revealed that pEC5207 may have originated through recombination of an IncHI2 plasmid with a blaCMY-2-carrying IncA/C plasmid like pCFSAN007427_01. In addtion to blaCMY-2, pEC5207 also carried other resistance determinants for aminoglycosides (aacA7, sulfonamides (sul1, as well as heavy metals ions, such as Cu and Ag. The susceptibility testing showed that the pEC5207 can mediate both antibiotic and heavy metal resistance. This highlights the role of pEC5207 in co-selection of blaCMY-2-positive isolates under the selective pressure of heavy metals, cephalosporins and other antimicrobials. In conclusion, clonal spread of an ST1121 type E. coli strain harboring an IncHI2 plasmid contributed to the dissemination of blaCMY-2 in a farrowing farm in Southern China. We also have determined the first complete sequence analysis of a blaCMY-2-carrying IncHI2 plasmid.

  10. Multiresidue LC-MS/MS analysis of cephalosporins and quinolones in milk following ultrasound-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersive extraction combined with the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorgou, Eftichia; Myridakis, Antonis; Stephanou, Euripides G; Samanidou, Victoria

    2013-06-01

    A sensitive and selective confirmatory method for milk-residue analysis of ten quinolones and eight cephalosporins by LC-MS/MS has been developed herein. For the chromatographic separation of target analytes, a Perfectsil ODS-2 (250 × 4 mm, 5 μm) analytical column was used and gradient elution was applied, using a mobile phase of 0.1% w/w TFA in water and 0.1% w/w TFA in ACN. Ultrasound-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion procedure was applied for the extraction and clean-up procedure of antimicrobials agents from milk matrix using a mixture of Bond Elut Plexa sorbent and QuEChERS. The method was validated meeting the European Legislation determining selectivity, linearity response, trueness, precision (repeatability and between-day reproducibility), decision limit, detection capability, and ruggedness following the Youden approach. Recoveries of all antibiotics ranged from 81.7 to 117.9%, while RSD values were lower than 13.7%. Limits of quantification for all examined compounds ranged from 2.4 to 15.0 μg/kg, substantially lower than the maximum residue limits established by the European Union (30-100 μg/kg).

  11. 上海地区119家医院2009-2011年头孢菌素类药利用分析%Analysis of the Utilization of Cephalosporin Antibacterial Drugs in 119 Hospitals from Shanghai Area during 2009-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石卫峰; 归成; 李晓宇; 刘皋林

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utilization and tendency of cephalosporin antibacterial drugs in hospitals from Shanghai area. METHODS: The utilization of cephalosporins in 119 hospitals of Shanghai area during 2009 - 2011 was analyzed statistically in respect of main categories, consumption sum, DDDs and DDC, etc. RESULTS: The consumption sum of cephalosporins reached a peak in 2010 and decreased obviously in 2011. The consumption sum of oral cephalosporins showed a small increase and that of injections showed a downward trend. Over the 3 years, cefaclor, cefixime and cefdinir ranked the top 3 in the list of consumption sum; and cefuroxime axetil, cefaclor and cefixime ranked the top 3 in the list of DDDs; cefotiam, cefuroxime and cefoxi-tin occupied the top 3 in the list of consumption sum and DDDs of injections. CONCLUSIONS: The management of clinical application of cephalosporin antibacterial drugs should continue to be strengthened so as to ensure effective, safe and economical use of drugs in the clinic.%目的:评价上海地区医院头孢菌素类药的应用现状和趋势.方法:对2009-2011年上海地区119家医院头孢菌素类药的主要品种、销售金额、用药频度(DDDs)、日均费用(DDC)等进行统计、分析.结果:该地区医院头孢菌素类药的销售金额在2010年达到高峰,2011年出现明显下降;口服剂的销售金额呈现小幅增长,注射剂的销售金额有下降趋势;3年来,头孢克洛、头孢克肟和头孢地尼的销售金额在口服剂中排名前3位,头孢呋辛酯、头孢克洛和头孢克肟的DDDs排名前3位,头孢替安、头孢呋辛和头孢西丁在注射剂中占销售金额和DDDs排名的前3位.结论:应继续加强头孢菌素类的临床应用管理,以确保临床用药的有效、安全和经济.

  12. Impact of the administration of a third-generation cephalosporin (3GC) to one-day-old chicks on the persistence of 3GC-resistant Escherichia coli in intestinal flora: An in vivo experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Sandrine; Jouy, Eric; Touzain, Fabrice; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Larvor, Emeline; de Boisseson, Claire; Amelot, Michel; Keita, Alassane; Kempf, Isabelle

    2016-03-15

    The aim of the experiment was to evaluate under controlled conditions the impact on the excretion of 3GC-resistant Escherichia coli of the injection of one-day-old chicks with ceftiofur, a third-generation cephalosporin (3GC). Three isolators containing specific-pathogen-free chicks were used. In the first one, 20 birds were injected with ceftiofur then ten of them were orally inoculated with a weak inoculum of a 3GC-resistant E. coli field isolate containing an IncI1/ST3 plasmid encoding a blaCTX-M-1 beta-lactamase. The other chicks were kept as contact birds. None of the 20 birds in the second isolator were injected with ceftiofur, but ten of them were similarly inoculated with the 3GC-resistant strain and the others kept as contact birds. A third isolator contained ten non-injected, non-inoculated chicks. Fecal samples were collected regularly over one month and the E. coli isolated on non-supplemented media were characterized by antimicrobial agar dilution, detection of selected resistance genes and determination of phylogenetic group by PCR. The titers of 3GC-resistant E. coli in individual fecal samples were evaluated by culturing on 3GC-supplemented media. Results showed that the inoculated strain rapidly and abundantly colonized the inoculated and contact birds. The ceftiofur injection resulted in significantly higher percentages of 3GC-resistant E. coli isolates among the analyzed E. coli. No transfer of the 3GC-encoding plasmid to other isolates could be evidenced. In conclusion, these results highlight the dramatic capacity of 3GC-resistant E. coli to colonize and persist in chicks, and the selecting pressure imposed by the off-label use of ceftiofur.

  13. Third generation cephalosporin resistant Enterobacteriaceae and multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria causing bacteremia in febrile neutropenia adult cancer patients in Lebanon, broad spectrum antibiotics use as a major risk factor, and correlation with poor prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima eMoghnieh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteremia remains a major cause of life-threatening complications in patients receiving anticancer chemotherapy. The spectrum and susceptibility profiles of causative microorganisms differ with time and place. Data from Lebanon are scarce. We aim at evaluating the epidemiology of bacteremia in cancer patients in a university hospital in Lebanon, emphasizing antibiotic resistance and risk factors of multi-drug resistant organism (MDRO-associated bacteremia.This is a retrospective study of 75 episodes of bacteremia occurring in febrile neutropenic patients admitted to the hematology-oncology unit at Makassed General Hospital, Lebanon, from October 2009-January 2012.It corresponds to epidemiological data on bacteremia episodes in febrile neutropenic cancer patients including antimicrobial resistance and identification of risk factors associated with third generation cephalosporin resistance (3GCR and MDRO-associated bacteremia. Out of 75 bacteremias, 42.7% were gram-positive (GP, and 57.3% were gram-negative (GN. GP bacteremias were mostly due to methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (28% of total bacteremias and 66% of GP bacteremias. Among the GN bacteremias, Escherichia coli (22.7% of total, 39.5% of GN organisms and Klebsiellapneumoniae(13.3% of total, 23.3% of GN organisms were the most important causative agents. GN bacteremia due to 3GC sensitive (3GCS bacteria represented 28% of total bacteremias, while 29% were due to 3GCR bacteria and 9% were due to carbapenem-resistant organisms. There was a significant correlation between bacteremia with MDRO and subsequent intubation, sepsis and mortality. Among potential risk factors, only broad spectrum antibiotic intake >4 days before bacteremia was found to be statistically significant for acquisition of 3GCR bacteria. Using carbapenems or piperacillin/ tazobactam>4 days before bacteremia was significantly associated with the emergence of MDRO (p value<0.05.

  14. Impact of revised CLSI breakpoints for susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems among Enterobacteriaceae isolates in the Asia-Pacific region: results from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART), 2002-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Chen, Yao-Shen; Toh, Han-Siong; Lee, Yu-Lin; Liu, Yuag-Meng; Ho, Cheng-Mao; Lu, Po-Liang; Liu, Chun-Eng; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Wang, Jen-Hsien; Tang, Hung-Jen; Yu, Kwok-Woon; Liu, Yung-Ching; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Xu, Yingchun; Ni, Yuxing; Ko, Wen-Chien; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the rates of susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems among Enterobacteriaceae isolates that had been obtained from patients with intraabdominal infections in the Asia-Pacific region as part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART). Susceptibility profiles obtained using 2009 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints were compared with those obtained using the 2011 CLSI breakpoints. From 2002 to 2010, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae together accounted for more than 60% of the 13714 Enterobacteriaceae isolates analyzed during the study period. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers comprised 28.2% of E. coli isolates and 22.1% of K. pneumoniae isolates in the Asia-Pacific region, with China (55.6% and 33.7%, respectively) and Thailand (43.1% and 40.7%, respectively) having the highest proportions of ESBL producers. Based on the 2011 CLSI criteria, 77.2% of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 40.4% of ESBL-producing E. coli, and 25.2% of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime. Carbapenems showed in vitro activity against >90% of Enterobacteriaceae isolates in all participating countries, except for ertapenem in South Korea (susceptibility rate 82.2%). Marked differences (>5%) in susceptibility of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates to carbapenems were noted between the profiles obtained using the 2009 CLSI criteria and those using the 2011 CLSI criteria. Continuous monitoring of antimicrobial resistance is necessary in the Asia-Pacific region.

  15. [Tigecycline: CMI 50/90 towards 1766 Gram-negative bacilli (3rd generation cephalosporins resistant enterobacteriaceae), Acinetobacter baumannii and Bacteroides fragilis group, University Hospital - Montpellier, 2008-2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froment Gomis, P; Jean-Pierre, H; Rousseau-Didelot, M-N; Compan, B; Michon, A-L; Godreuil, S

    2013-12-01

    Tigecycline is a new glycylcyclin with a wide spectre including multi-resistant bacteria. Our laboratory tests in routine the in vitro activity of the TGC towards clinically significant isolates of 3rd generation cephalosporins resistant enterobacteriaceae (EC3R), Acinetobacter baumannii and Bacteroides fragilis group (BFG). The objective of this study is to describe the in vitro activity of TGC against these strains isolated between 2008 and 2011 in the university hospital of Montpellier. In this study period, 1070 isolates EC3R including 541 extended spectrum β-lactamase-producers (ESBL) strains, 47 isolates of A. baumannii including 40 multi-resistant isolates and 645 isolates of BFG were tested. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using the E-test method. TGC was active against 86.2% of EC3R with a MIC 90 less or equal to 1mg/L (Escherichia coli being the most sensitive species). A. baumannii and BFG were also inhibited at low concentrations of TGC with a MIC 90 less or equal to 2mg/L respectively for 47% and 84.2% of the isolates. Our study confirms the activity of TGC against the EC3R including ESBL-producers strains. The relevance of the therapeutic use of TGC on the BFG isolates with a MIC greater than 2mg/L should be better documented. Often prescribed in therapeutic impasse, the proper use of TGC would require: clarifying the threshold of sensitivity for some species (i.e., A. baumannii, Bacteroides fragilis group); a better understanding of correlation between in vitro and in vivo activity.

  16. 应用头孢菌素后饮酒致双硫仑样反应30例临床分析%After Application of Cephalosporin-induced Disulfiram-like Alcohol Reactions of 30 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超群; 黄洋峰

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨应用头孢菌素后饮酒致双硫仑样反应的发病机制及治疗方法,以引起临床医师的注意,避免其发生。方法观察30例病例的临床表现、治疗及转归,对双硫仑样反应的发病机制、防治措施进行探讨。结果24例轻、中度患者给予对症处理后症状缓解,6例重度患者,静注纳洛酮2~4 mg,地塞米松5~10 mg,症状均于3~4 h 内缓解。结论临床医师只要对双硫仑样反应有足够的认识和重视,加强预防,诊治正确,预后良好。%Objective To investigate the cephalosporin after alcohol-induced disulfiram-like reaction in the pathogenesis and treatment, to attract the attention of clinicians that, to avoid its occurrence. Methods Observed 30 cases of clinical manifestations, treatment and prognosis of disulfiram-like reaction in the pathogenesis, prevention and control measures were discussed. Results 24 cases of patients with mild to moderate for the symptomatic relief of symptoms after treatment, six cases of severe disease, intravenous naloxone 2-4 mg dexamethasone 5-10 mg, symptoms were 3-4 h mitigation. Conclusion Clinical doctors as long as on the double sulfur hebron sample reaction have enough knowledge and value, strengthening prevention, correct diagnosis and treatment, prognosis is good.

  17. Extended-spectrum cephalosporins and the inoculum effect in tests with CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli: potential clinical implications of the revised CLSI interpretive criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Cheol-In; Cha, Min Kyeong; Kim, So Hyun; Wi, Yu Mi; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Lee, Nam Yong; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2014-05-01

    Based on the new recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), the revised cephalosporin breakpoints may result in many CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli being reported as susceptible to ceftazidime. We determined the activity of ceftazidime and other parenteral β-lactam agents in standard- and high-inoculum minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests against CTX-M-producing E. coli isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using a broth microdilution MIC method with inocula that differed 100-fold in density. An inoculum effect was defined as an eight-fold or greater increase in MIC on testing with the higher inoculum. When the revised CLSI ceftazidime breakpoint of 4 μg/mL was applied, 34 (34.3%) of the 99 CTX-M-producers tested were susceptible. More specifically, for 42 CTX-M-14-producing E. coli isolates, 32 (76.2%) were susceptible at 4 μg/mL. Cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime and piperacillin/tazobactam were found to be associated with inoculum effects in 100% of the evaluable tests for extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli isolates. The MIC(50) (MIC required to inhibit 50% of isolates) of ceftazidime was 16 μg/mL in the standard-inoculum tests and >512 μg/mL in the high-inoculum tests. In the high-inoculum tests including isolates encoding CTX-M-14, ceftazidime was dramatically affected, with susceptibility decreasing from 82.1% of isolates inhibited at 4 μg/mL in the standard-inoculum tests to 0% at high inoculum. Although further studies may demonstrate that ceftazidime has a role in the treatment of infections caused by these organisms, we suggest that until more data become available, clinicians should be cautious about treating serious CTX-M-producing E. coli infections with ceftazidime or cefepime.

  18. 基于易错PCR的头孢菌素C酰化酶的定向进化%Directed Evolution of Cephalosporin C Acylase Activity by Error-prone PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖秋; 郑林冲; 谢丽萍; 朱宝泉; 胡又佳

    2013-01-01

    以前期工作中获得的一个可以直接转化头孢菌素C (CPC)为7-氨基头孢烷酸(7-ACA)的CPC酰化酶为基础,采用易错PCR,引入不同浓度的Mg2+和Mn2+,所得易错PCR产物经克隆、转化后进行初筛,共筛选了400株转化子,其中有35株酶活力得到提高.采用金属螯合亲和色谱法分离得到纯酶后再进行复筛,其中一株酶活力显著提高,转化率提高约35%.测序结果显示,该CPC酰化酶突变蛋白的编码序列中有两个碱基发生突变,使得第122位的丙氨酸被替换为缬氨酸.在最适条件下,该酶催化CPC生成7-ACA的转化率为95%.%In previous study, we obtained a cephalosporin C (CPC) acylase which could transform CPC to 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA). Error-prone PCR was used to evolve this enzyme by adding different concentration of Mg2+and Mn2+. The PCR product was cloned and transformed into E. coli.. More than 400 mutants were screened and 35 mutants showed increased activity. These improved mutants were purified by metal chelate affinity chromatography. After the secondary screening, one mutant showed significant elevated activity compared to the control and CPC conversion rate was enhanced approximately by 35%. The sequencing result showed that there were two point mutations in the mutate protein. The 122-alanine was substituted by valine. Further transformation research was conducted under the optimal conditions and the CPC conversion rate could reach 95 %.

  19. Report of 45 disurfiram—reaction induced by cephalosporin and ethanol%头孢类抗生素与乙醇致双硫伦样反应45例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱发祥; 黄先明; 韦益

    2013-01-01

    Objective To arouse clinical attention by discussing cephalosporin antibiotic and ethanol induced disurfiram-reaction. Methods 45 cases with disurfiram-reaction were analyzed. Results The disurfiram-reaction was related to taking medicine and drinking liquor. The clinical exhibition of disurfiram-reaction included dizziness, frowsty bosom, facial rubefaction, nausea and vomiting. The serious patients were breath hard, sense of impending doom and low blood pressure. The patients were cured one day after the clinical therapy. Conclusion Disulfiram is a kind of drug which can treat chronic alcoholism and alcoholic psychosis. The drug restains acetaldehyde deoxidizing enzyme, so it don't effect organism itself. Slight disurfiram-reaction also can generate after taking drug and drinking liquor less. We should avoid the touch of ethanol around the clinical therapy on the use of cephaloporins.%目的 探讨头孢类抗生素与乙醇致双硫伦样反应的表现特征与预防措施.方法 对45例患者经急诊抢救均在30~150分钟内缓解,并于发生双硫伦样反应的45例病例资料进行回顾性分析、比较.结果 45例患者经积极抢救与治疗,均在1天内达到临床治愈.结论 双硫伦是一种治疗慢性乙醇中毒、乙醇中毒性精神病的药品.双硫伦本身对机体不产生作用,头孢类抗生素侧链结构中含有甲硫四氮,与双硫伦结构相似,服用该药或头孢类抗生素后饮酒,可抑制乙醛代谢,进而产生与双硫伦相似反应.医师在用头孢类抗菌素治疗过程中一定要特别医嘱,避免饮酒和乙醇制剂.

  20. PHARMACOKINETIC STUDY OF CEFPIROME: FOURTH GENERATION CEPHALOSPORIN

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    Momin M. A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies on oral kinetics ( B lood and tissues after single therapeutic dose of cefpirome (20mg/kg oral in rats of either sex and on some biochemical parameters, tissue residue, and spermatozoa motility in male rats after cefpirome administration (20mg/kg oral bid 7days were undertaken so that generated data could be extrapolated to humans. For kinetic studies, 24 Wister rats of either sex, 3 months of age, (180 – 210 gm were used (Groups I – IV; n=6. Blood samples collected from each animal of Group I - IV at 0 h to serve as predrug control. All the groups (I - IV received cefpirome 20 mg /kg once orally as a single dose. At the end of 1, 4, 12, and 24 hour post oral administration, Groups I, II, III, and IV were utilized for kinetic studies. Blood samples were collected from each animal and vital organs namely brain, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, and heart, were studied for drug analysis and determination of weight. For biochemical parameters, tissue residue and spermatozoa motility, 12male rats were randomly divided into Groups A and B (n=6. Group B received cefpirome (20mg/kg orally bid 7 days while Group A served as control. Biochemical parameters [Blood glucose, protein, Aspartate transaminase (AST, Alanine transaminase (ALT, and hemoglobin] were measured at 0 and 7 th day while sperm co unt ( T otal, live and dead and mean organ weight ( S tudy and control group and tissue residue of drug were evaluated at the end of treatment. Absorption of cefpirome was observed at 2h and reached a maximum at 4h and persisted in blood till 24h. Eliminatio n half - life in lung was highest followed by heart, liver, kidney, and spleen while t ½, k in plasma was very low suggesting more affinity of cefpirome for tissues than blood. Blood glucose, protein, AST, and ALT activities were not significantly altered but the hemoglobin level and total and live sperm count decreased significantly in the study group compared to the control group. Residual level of cefpirome was highest in liver followed by kidney and other study organs. Therefore, the drug should be used in human beings judiciously.

  1. Association of Novel Nonsynonymous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in ampD with Cephalosporin Resistance and Phylogenetic Variations in ampC, ampR, ompF, and ompC in Enterobacter cloacae Isolates That Are Highly Resistant to Carbapenems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Matthew J.; Hopkins, Katie L.; Turton, Jane F.; Doumith, Michel; Loy, Richard; Staves, Peter; Hinic, Vladimira; Frei, Reno; Woodford, Neil

    2016-01-01

    In Enterobacter cloacae, the genetic lesions associated with derepression of the AmpC β-lactamase include diverse single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and/or indels in the ampD and ampR genes and SNPs in ampC, while diverse SNPs in the promoter region or SNPs/indels within the coding sequence of outer membrane proteins have been described to alter porin production leading to carbapenem resistance. We sought to define the underlying mechanisms conferring cephalosporin and carbapenem resistance in a collection of E. cloacae isolates with unusually high carbapenem resistance and no known carbapenemase and, in contrast to many previous studies, considered the SNPs we detected in relation to the multilocus sequence type (MLST)-based phylogeny of our collection. Whole-genome sequencing was applied on the most resistant isolates to seek novel carbapenemases, expression of ampC was measured by reverse transcriptase PCR, and porin translation was detected by SDS-PAGE. SNPs occurring in ampC, ampR, ompF, and ompC genes (and their promoter regions) were mostly phylogenetic variations, relating to the isolates' sequence types, whereas nonsynonymous SNPs in ampD were associated with derepression of AmpC and cephalosporin resistance. The additional loss of porins resulted in high-level carbapenem resistance, underlining the clinical importance of chromosomal mutations among carbapenem-resistant E. cloacae. PMID:26856839

  2. Resistance mechanism of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Shigella sonnei in Beijing and Hangzhou%北京与杭州地区耐三代头孢菌素的宋内志贺菌的耐药机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍春梅; 张传领; 崔恩博; 侯晓峰; 陈素明; 张鞠玲; 王欢; 曲芬

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study resistance mechanisms of third generation cephalosporins - resistant Shigella sonnei, and provide the basis for the clinical treatment of diarrheal diseases. Methods: A total of 272 strains of shigella sonnei were collected, which were isolated from diarrhea patients of Xiaoshan Hospital and the 302nd Hospital. The drug resistance of 10 types of antibiotics were tested using the Kirby - Bauer agar diffusion method, and the resistance genes were amplified by PCR. Results: Forty - three Shigella sonnei strains were ESBLs positive in Beijing area, accounting for 20.3% (43/212), mainly carrying CTX - M1 group and CTX - M9 group(62.8%, 27/43); while 32 Shigella sonnei strains were ESBLs positive in Hangzhou area, accounting for 53.3% (32/60), mainly car-rying CTX - M9 group(81.3%, 26/32) and CTX - M1 group(12.5%, 4/32). CTX - M2 group, CTX - M8 group, SHV, OXA and PER genes were not found in both areas. Conclusion: CTX - M gene is dominant in third -generation cephalosporin - resistant Shigella sonnei in Beijing and Hangzhou, the prevalent subtypes were CTX - M - 14 and CTX - M - 15like. In addition, the Shigella sonnei carrying CTX - M - 79 and CTX - M - 65 in Hangzhou were detected and reported for the first time in the world.%目的:研究耐三代头孢菌素的宋内志贺菌耐药机制,为感染性腹泻的正确治疗提供依据.方法:分别收集解放军302医院和杭州某医院腹泻患者大便培养分离的宋内志贺菌272例,采用K-B法检测10种抗生素的药物耐药性,进一步用PCR方法扩增耐药基因.结果:北京地区ESBLs阳性的菌43例,占20.3% (43/212);杭州地区ESBLs阳性的菌32例,占53.3%(32/60).北京地区以携带CTX-M1群和CTX-M9群居多,占62.8% (27/43);杭州地区携带CTX-M9群占81.3% (26/32)、CTX-M1群占12.5%(4/32).两地区均未检出CTX-M2、CTX-M8、SHV、OXA、PER基因.结论:北京与杭州地区耐三代头孢菌素宋内志贺菌以携带CTX-M基因

  3. 头孢菌素联用阿奇霉素序贯治疗小儿支气管肺炎的成本效果分析%Cephalosporin with Azithromycin Sequential Therapy in the treatment of children bronchial pneumonia Cost effectiveness analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张黎明

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨头孢唑肟联用阿奇霉素序贯疗法治疗小儿支气管肺炎的疗效和成本效果分析。方法采用药物经济学的成本一效果分析法对68例小儿支气管肺炎患者用头孢菌素联用阿奇霉素序贯疗法治疗小儿支气管肺炎方案进行前瞻性分析评价。结果两种方案的平均成本分别为 I 组1020.17元,II 组2085.09元。效果分别为 I 组91.42%,II 组93.9%。结论头孢唑肟联用阿奇霉素序贯疗法方案安全、有效、经济,值得临床推广。%Objective To explore the efficacy and cost of ceftizoxime analysis combined with the effect of Azithromycin Sequential Therapy in the treatment of children with bronchial pneumonia. Method Using pharmacoeconomic cost effect analysis prospective evaluation of 68 cases of bronchial pneumonia in children were treated with cephalosporin with Azithromycin Sequential Therapy in the treatment of children with bronchial pneumonia scheme method. Results The average cost of two schemes of I group was 1020.17 yuan, 2085.09 yuan in II group. Effect of I group was 91.42%, II group 93.9%. Conclusion Ceftizoxime combined with Azithromycin Sequential therapy plan is safe, effective, economic, is worth the clinical promotion.

  4. CARACTERIZACIÓN MOLECULAR DE AISLAMIENTOS DE ENTEROBACTER CLOACAE MULTIRRESISTENTES, PRODUCTORES â-LACTAMASAS PROVENIENTES DE PACIENTES DE UN HOSPITAL DE TERCER NIVEL DE BOGOTÁ Molecular characterizacion of multi-cephalosporin resistan Enterobacter cloacae isolates from a third level hospital in Bogota-Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibonne Aydee García Romero

    2005-07-01

    -PCR (ERIC; REP y BOX agrupó la población estudiada en siete clones: seis constituidos por un solo aislamiento y el clon predominante E1/B1/R1 agrupó 14 aislamientos causantes de infección en diez pacientes. Conclusión. Se identificó un clon de Enterobacter cloacae multirresistente, endémico en una institución de tercer nivel en Bogotá, causante de infección nosocomial y quirúrgica en particular.Background. Enterobacter species were normal in gastrointestinal tract, but nowadays, its biology has changed and there are nosocomial agents with antibiotics resistance. Objective. To make an epidemiological and molecular characterization of 20 isolates of Enterobacter cloacae with third generation cephalosporin resistance, from a hospital of third level in Bogotá-Colombia. Material and methods. Isolates were identified with Microscan and VITEK, Enterobacter asbureae was utilized as an inter-specie control. Resistance was confirmed by agar diffusion and by BLEE techniques. Isoelectric points were determined by ultrasound lyses and genotypication by Versalovic´s system for gram negative bacteria. Results. The isolates collected over the course of a year caused 15 cases of intra-hospital infection and two colonisations. All isolates presented resistance to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, aztreonam and ciprofloxacin, 95% to amikacin, gentamicin and chloramphenicol, 75% to trimethoprim/ sulphamethoxazole, 20% to cefepime and all were sensitive to imipenem. Two isolates were confirmed as extended spectre â-Iactamase (ESBL producers by microbiologic al combined disktechnique; two â-Iactamases having 5.4 and 8.2 isoelectric points (pI were presented by isoelectric focusing. Between 2 and 4 â-Iactamases having 5.4, 6.0, 7.0, 8.2 and >8.2 pl were detected in the 18 isolates which were not inhibited by clavulanic acid. Third-generation cephalosporin-resistance was attributed to AmpC hyper-production; pl values suggested simultaneous SHV and TEM â lactamase production

  5. New spectrophotometric method for determination of cephalosporins in pharmaceutical formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazalia M. Ali Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    The detection limits were 0.12, 0.168, and 0.0465 μg/mL for cefi, ceph, and cefo, respectively, with a linear regression correlation coefficient of 0.9993, 0.9993, and 0.9994 and recovery in range from 96.5–102.3, 96.04–102.22, and 97.09–99.3 for cefi, ceph, and cefo, respectively. Effects of pH, temperature, reaction time, and NQS concentration on the determination of cefi, ceph, and cefo, have been examined. This method is simple and can be applied for the determination of cefi, ceph, and cefo in pharmaceutical formulations in quality control laboratories.

  6. Nephrotoxicity of cefepime: A new cephalosporin antibiotic in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mossad Gamaleddin Ahmed Elsayed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the nephrotoxic effect and biochemical alterations induced by cefepime in rats. Materials and Methods: Cefepime was administered intramuscularly at doses of 45, 90 and 180 mg/kg b.wt. once daily for 5 consecutive days. The serum and urine samples were used for quantitative determination of urea, creatinine, glucose, total protein, calcium, sodium and potassium. The histopathological examination of kidney tissues was performed 1, 4 and 8 days after the last dose of cefepime administration. Results: Cefepime induced a significant increase in the total amount of urine per day, urea and creatinine concentration in the serum and urine and significant decrease in their clearance. Cefepime also caused a significant gluocosuria and proteinuria and significant decrease in their serum concentrations. The effect of cefepime on serum and urine concentrations of calcium, sodium and potassium were also determined. Cefepime injection in the three tested doses caused renal tubular, glomerular and vascular changes. The severity of these changes was dose dependent. In conclusion, these results suggest a possible contribution of cefepime in the nephrotoxicity and biochemical alterations, especially at high doses. Therefore, the renal functions should be monitored during the cefepime therapy.

  7. Production of 7-ADCA,GCLE and Cephalosporin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN ZuoWu; MA Zhuang; LU KuanKe; LI LianTao; LIU ShuJing; WANG WenZhong

    2001-01-01

    @@ The production of 7-aminodeacetoxy cephalosporanic acid (7-ADCA),4′-nitrobenzyl-3-bromomethyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylate(GCLE) and their analo-gues from penicillin G. K. is an important national project for the new drug development. In this project 7-ADCA is produced by oxidation, ring expansion and enzyme splitting reaction of penicillin G,K(Scheme 1).

  8. Economic analysis of oral cephalosporins in the Indian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini V. Karve

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: This study shows a wide price variation of the same drugs manufactured by different companies. The manufacturing companies must aim to reduce the price variation while maintaining the quality and therapeutic efficacy in order to benefit patients and practitioners. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(9.000: 4143-4149

  9. Antianaerobe activity of ceftobiprole, a new broad-spectrum cephalosporin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ednie, Lois; Shapiro, Stuart; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2007-05-01

    Agar dilution testing of 463 anaerobes showed most Gram-positive beta-lactamase-negative strains (other than some Clostridium difficile and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius), as well as both beta-lactamase-positive and beta-lactamase-negative strains of Fusobacterium nucleatum, to have ceftobiprole MIC values of Ceftobiprole was less active against beta-lactamase-positive Gram-negative bacilli, especially the members of the Bacteroides fragilis group. Like ceftobiprole, piperacillin was active mainly against beta-lactamase-negative strains, though MIC values for piperacillin were often 1 to 2 dilutions higher than for ceftobiprole. Carbapenems had MIC values < or =4 microg/L against all except some C. difficile and 2 strains of B. fragilis. All strains were susceptible to metronidazole, and all bacteria, except C. difficile and a single Bacteroides distasonis strain, were susceptible to chloramphenicol. Clindamycin resistance was seen in most anaerobe groups, whereas high moxifloxacin MICs were found mainly among the B. fragilis and Prevotella groups, and a few C. difficile and F. nucleatum strains.

  10. Production of 7-ADCA,GCLE and Cephalosporin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN; ZuoWu

    2001-01-01

    The production of 7-aminodeacetoxy cephalosporanic acid (7-ADCA),4′-nitrobenzyl-3-bromomethyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylate(GCLE) and their analo-gues from penicillin G. K. is an important national project for the new drug development. In this project 7-ADCA is produced by oxidation, ring expansion and enzyme splitting reaction of penicillin G,K(Scheme 1).……

  11. Analysis on sensitivity of Neisseria gonorrhoea to cephalosporin antibiotics and multi-antigen sequence typing%淋病奈瑟球菌对头孢菌素类药物的敏感性及多抗原序列分型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝银苑; 吴兴中; 覃晓琳; 黄进梅; 薛耀华; 曾维英; 欧江丽; 唐三梅; 方铭恒

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the molecular types of clinical isolated Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) in Guangzhou, and to analyze the sensitivity to the cephalosporin antibiotics. Methods A total of 121 NG strains isolated from Guangzhou Skin Disease Prevention and Control Center were included in this study. The agar dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) to ceftriaxone and cefixime. DNA was extracted for NG multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). Results The drug-resistance analysis showed that none of the strains appeared to be resistant to ceftriaxone and cefixime. However, the low sensitivity rates were 13.2%(16/121) and 2.5%(3/121), respectively. A total of 82 genotypes were identified among the 121 isolates. The most prevalent genotype was ST1768 (n=6) in NG strains isolated, followed by ST2083 (n=4), ST5062 (n=4), ST10229 (n=4), ST1766 (n=3), ST1866 (n=3), and ST10339 (n=3). There were 12 genotypes containing 2 NG strains, and 63 genotypes [76.8%(63/121) ] containing only one NG strain. Among the 13 NG strains with low sensitivity to ceftriaxone , there were 2 strains of ST10339 and 2 strains of ST10242 , and the rest were single genotype. Conclusions The 121 NG strains have relatively high sensitivity to ceftriaxone and cefixime. The genotypes of these NG-MAST strains are high diversity.%目的 了解广州市临床分离淋病奈瑟球菌 (NG) 的分子型别及其对头孢菌素类抗生素的敏感性. 方法 收集广东省皮肤性病防治中心临床分离的121株NG,用琼脂稀释法测定菌株对头孢曲松和头孢克肟的最小抑菌浓度(MIC),并进行NG多抗原测序分型(NG-MAST). 结果 未发现NG对头孢曲松和头孢克肟耐药的菌株,但它们的低敏率分别达到13.2%(16/121)和2.5%(3/121). 121株NG共有82个型别,其中ST1768共6株,ST2083、ST5062和ST10229各4株,ST1766、ST1866和ST10339各3株, 有12个ST族群包含2株菌株,其余63 个型别仅含1 株菌株,占76.8%(63/121).

  12. 2010年CLSI头孢菌素折点改变对产ESBLs奇异变形杆菌药物敏感性结果评估和分析%Evaluation and analysis of the suscepbility interpretation on ESBL-producing Proteus mirabilis according to the changes of cephalosporin breakpoints in CLSI 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶胜来; 熊自忠

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influences of susceptibility interpretation and distribution of extended-spectrum (3-lactamases (ESBLs) producers in Proteus mirabilis according to CLSI 2009 (S19) and 2010 (S20) breakpoints of ceftazi-dime (CAZ) , cefotaxime (CTX) and cefazolin (CFZ). Method ESBLs producers were confirmed by the CLSI phenotypic confirmatory test in 33 clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis and antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates were tested by agar dilution method. Antibacterial susceptibility of ESBLs-positive and ESBLs-negative isolates and the distribution of ESBLs producers of the resistant isolates were analyzed according to the breakpoints of S19 and S20. Result ESBLs producers were detected in 18.2% (6/33) of Proteus mirabilis. In ESBLs positive isolates, the resistence rate of CAZ, CTX and CFZ increased from 50. 0% , 50. 0% and 66. 7% under S19 to 66. 7% , 100. 0% and 100. 0% under S20, respectively. The susceptibility rates decreased from 33. 3% , 50. 0% and 0. 0% under S19 to 16. 7% , 0. 0% and 0. 0% under S20, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the S19 and S20 cephalosporin breakpoints in the distribution of ESBLs producers. Conclusion If use the new CTX and CFZ S20 breakpoints, the concordance of antibacterial susceptibility results and ESBL phenotype will increase greatly. It is no longer necessary to be confirmed by CLSI phenotype confirmatory test. As to CAZ, further evaluation and research is required.%目的 评估2009年CLSI M100-S19及2010年CLSI M100-S20文件中头孢他啶(CAZ)、头孢噻肟(CTX)和头孢唑啉(CFZ)最低抑菌浓度新旧折点变化对产ESBLs奇异变形杆菌药物敏感性试验结果的影响.方法 对临床分离33株奇异变形杆菌进行产ESBLs菌株的确证试验,琼脂稀释法检测最低抑菌浓度(MIC),根据药物敏感性结果分别对产ESBLs奇异变形杆菌和非产ESBLs奇异变形杆菌在S19和S20新旧折点下CAZ、CTX和CFZ三种药物

  13. CLSI头孢菌素新、旧药敏折点对产ESBLs菌药物敏感性结果评估%Evaluation and Analysis of Drug Sensitivity of ESBLs Producing Strains According to the New and Old Cephalosporin Breakpoints in CISI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秋兰; 候慧丽; 范德平; 沈钰萍

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨CLSI头孢菌素新、旧药敏折点对超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)菌药物敏感性及菌株分布的影响并了解耐药基因.方法 收集本院临床分离的300株菌,纸片扩散法测定菌株对头孢他啶(CAZ)、头孢噻肟(CTX)的敏感性,CLSI表型确证试验确定产ESBLs菌株,根据药物敏感性结果对产ESBLs菌和非产ESBLs菌在S19和S20新旧折点下CAZ、CTX的敏感性以及ESBLs阳性菌株分布率进行分析,并采用聚合酶链式反应(PCR)检测分析耐药基因.结果 本组菌株中产ESBLs菌株61株,包括大肠埃希菌32株和肺炎克雷伯菌26株、产酸克雷伯菌1株、奇异变形杆菌2株;旧折点下CAZ、CTX耐药率分别为39.3%、50.8%,新折点下耐药率分别为68.9%、98.4%;旧折点下分别有34.8%、44.3%的产ESBLs菌株分布在CAZ、CTX耐药菌株中,新折点下则升高至46.0%、59.4%;产ESBLs菌株以TEM型耐药基因为主.结论 根据CLSI新折点S20判读对CAZ、CTX的耐药率较S19有所增高,并且药敏结果与产ESBLs菌株具有高度一致性,且产ESBLs菌株以TEM型耐药基因为主.%Objective To explore the influence of the new and old cephalosporin breakpoints in Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) on the drug sensitivity and strain distribution of extended spectrum β - lactamases (ESBLs) producing strains and to investigate their resistance genes. Methods Totally, 300 cases of strains from clinical isolates in Nanxiang Hospital of Jiading District, Shanghai, were collected. The sensitivity of the strains to ceftazidime (CAZ) and cefotaxime (CTX) was detected by disk diffusion method. The ESBLs producing strains were determined by CLSI phenotypic confirmatory test. The sensitivity of ESBLs - positive and ESBLs - negative isolates to CAZ and CTX and the distribution of ESBLs producers in the resistant isolates were analyzed according to the new and old breakpoints (S20 and S19). The resistance genes were detected by

  14. Evaluation of the susceptibility interpretation on Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis in China by agar dilution method according to the changes of cephalosporin breakpoints in CLSI 2010%2010年CLSI三代头孢菌素折点改变对我国大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌及奇异变形杆菌药物敏感性结果解释的评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文静; 季萍; 刘蓬蓬; 张利侠; 胡云建; 刘勇; 叶惠芬; 孙自镛; 段琼; 倪语星; 俞云松; 杨启文; 朱莲娜; 徐英春; 王辉; 谢秀丽; 王瑶; 赵旺盛; 何林; 王晶

    2010-01-01

    increased from 30. 3%,43. 2% under S19 (32 μg/ml) to42.0%, 56. 0% under S20 (16 μg/ml). The susceptibility rates slightly decreased from 58. 1%, 44. 1% under S19 (8 μg/ml) to 44. 7%, 28.0% under S20 (4 μg/ml). Second,as to the ESBL negative Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus mirabilis, all the susceptibility rates of ceftazidime, cefotaxime and ceftriaxone were between 99. 2%-100. 0%, the resistant rate were between 0%-0. 4%. Third, the S20 MIC breakpoints had a good correspondence with the ESBL phenotype.Fourth, according to the recurrent analysis of MIC testing and disk dilution method, r value was 0. 67,0. 79, 0. 77 for ceftazidime, cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, respectively, and all P value were under 0. 01. The intermethod rates of S19 and S20 were both acceptable. Conclusions If the cefotaxime and ceftriaxone S20 new breakpoints were used, the concordance of antibacterial susceptibility results and ESBL phenotype would increase greatly. The clinician could select proper antibiotics according to the antibacterial susceptibility results and clinical symptoms. It is no longer necessary to edit results for cephalosporins, aztreonam, or penicillins from susceptible to resistant. However, until laboratories implement the new interpretive criteria,ESBL testing should be performed as described in Supplemental Table 2A-S1. The relationship between the new breakpoints of ceftazidime and clinical outcomes need to be further evaluated.

  15. The complex clinical picture of beta-lactam hypersensitivity: penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems, and clavams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Maria J; Blanca, Miguel

    2010-07-01

    Beta-lactam antibiotics are the drugs most frequently involved in drug hypersensitivity reactions that are mediated by specific immunologic mechanisms. In addition to benzylpenicillin, several chemical structures belonging to 5 major subgroups can induce reactions. The most relevant structure is that of the amoxicillin molecule. Reactions belong to the 4 major mechanisms described by Coombs and Gell, whereby type IV reactions have recently been further subclassified. The most frequent reactions are type I, which are IgE mediated, and type IV, which are nonimmediate and T-cell dependent. IgE-specific antibodies may recognize the benzylpenicilloyl structure or another part of the molecule, such as the side chain, as antigenic determinants. Depending on specific recognition, subjects can be either cross-reactors or selective responders. A variety of entities exist in T-cell reactions, ranging from mild exanthema to life-threatening, severe reactions, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis. Diagnostic tests for IgE-mediated reactions can be done in vivo by testing skin with different penicillin determinants or in vitro by quantitating specific IgE antibodies. For nonimmediate reactions, there are also in vitro and in vivo tests, with variable degrees of sensitivity and specificity. The natural history of IgE-mediated reactions indicates that the count of specific IgE antibodies decreases over time and that results of diagnostic tests can become negative.

  16. Community fecal carriage of broad-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli in Tunisian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferjani, Sana; Saidani, Mabrouka; Hamzaoui, Zeineb; Alonso, Carla Andrea; Torres, Carmen; Maamar, Elaa; Slim, Amine Faouzi; Boutiba, Ben Boubaker Ilhem

    2017-02-01

    The spread of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) and plasmid mediated AmpC β-lactamases (pAmpC) was evaluated in Escherichia coli strains collected from the intestinal microbiota of healthy children in Tunisia. The carriage rate of CTX(R)E. coli was 6.6% (7 of 105 samples) and one strain/sample was further characterized (7 isolates). These isolates harbored blaCTX-M-1 (n = 4), blaCTX-M-15 (n = 2), and blaCMY-2 gene (n = 1), which were usually located on FIB replicon type and carried class 1 integrons. The acc(6')-Ib-cr variant was identified in one isolate that harbored blaCTX-M-15. CTX(R)E. coli isolates were genetically unrelated and belonged to B1 (n = 3/ST155/ST398/ST58), D (n = 2/ST117/ST493), B2 (n = 1/ST127), and A (n = 1/ST746) phylogroups. Strain virulence scores varied from 3 to 12, and frequently harbored the pathogenicity island PAI IV536. The intestinal tract of healthy children constitute an important reservoir of ESBL producing E. coli. Thus, improvement of hygiene measures mainly in the school environment and rational use of antibiotics would be of great help in preventing selection and diffusion of resistant strains from intestinal microbiota.

  17. Mesoporous silica coatings for cephalosporin active release at the bone-implant interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rădulescu, Dragoş [Bucharest University Hospital, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, 169 Splaiul Independentei, 050098 Bucharest (Romania); Voicu, Georgeta; Oprea, Alexandra Elena; Andronescu, Ecaterina [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 1–7 Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Grumezescu, Valentina [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 1–7 Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma & Radiation Physics, PO Box MG-36, Măgurele, Bucharest (Romania); Holban, Alina Maria [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 1–7 Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, 1-3 Portocalelor Lane, Bucharest (Romania); Research Institute of the University of Bucharest, Bd. Mihail Kogălniceanu 36-46, 050107 Bucharest (Romania); Vasile, Bogdan Stefan; Surdu, Adrian Vasile [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 1–7 Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai, E-mail: grumezescu@yahoo.com [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 1–7 Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); and others

    2016-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silica/Zinforo thin coatings by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation. • Anti-adherent coating on medical surfaces against E. coli. • Thin coatings show a great biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo. - Abstract: In this study, we investigated the potential of MAPLE-deposited coatings mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) to release Zinforo (ceftarolinum fosmil) in biologically active form. The MSNs were prepared by using a classic procedure with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as sacrificial template and tetraethylorthosilicate as the monomer. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses revealed network-forming granules with diameters under 100 nm and an average pore diameter of 2.33 nm. The deposited films were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD and IR. Microbiological analyses performed on ceftaroline-loaded films demonstrated that the antibiotic was released in an active form, decreasing the microbial adherence rate and colonization of the surface. Moreover, the in vitro and in vivo assays proved the excellent biodistribution and biocompatibility of the prepared systems. Our results suggest that the obtained bioactive coatings possess a significant potential for the design of drug delivery systems and antibacterial medical-use surfaces, with great applications in bone implantology.

  18. Mesoporous silica coatings for cephalosporin active release at the bone-implant interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rădulescu, Dragoş; Voicu, Georgeta; Oprea, Alexandra Elena; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Grumezescu, Valentina; Holban, Alina Maria; Vasile, Bogdan Stefan; Surdu, Adrian Vasile; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Socol, Gabriel; Mogoantă, Laurenţiu; Mogoşanu, George Dan; Balaure, Paul Cătălin; Rădulescu, Radu; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the potential of MAPLE-deposited coatings mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) to release Zinforo (ceftarolinum fosmil) in biologically active form. The MSNs were prepared by using a classic procedure with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as sacrificial template and tetraethylorthosilicate as the monomer. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses revealed network-forming granules with diameters under 100 nm and an average pore diameter of 2.33 nm. The deposited films were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD and IR. Microbiological analyses performed on ceftaroline-loaded films demonstrated that the antibiotic was released in an active form, decreasing the microbial adherence rate and colonization of the surface. Moreover, the in vitro and in vivo assays proved the excellent biodistribution and biocompatibility of the prepared systems. Our results suggest that the obtained bioactive coatings possess a significant potential for the design of drug delivery systems and antibacterial medical-use surfaces, with great applications in bone implantology.

  19. Characteristics of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vo, An T. T.; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Fluit, Ad C.; Gaastra, Wim

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to contribute to the knowledge on extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL:s), AmpC beta-lactamases and integrons in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from horses, which is still limited. The susceptibility of 1581 clinical isolates from animals to ceftiofur was tested. Mos

  20. Characterization of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli from bloodstream infections in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank; Olsen, Stefan S; Heltberg, Ole

    2014-01-01

    featured AmpC mutations only (without a coexpressed ESBL enzyme) and 2 isolates were producing CMY-22. The majority (82%) of the ESBL-producing isolates in our study were CTX-M-15 producers and primarily belonged to phylogroup B2 (54.4%) or D (23.5%). Further, one of the two CMY-22-producing isolates...... belonged to B2, whereas only few of the other AmpCs isolates belonged to B2 and D. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that both clonal and nonclonal spread of 3GC-R Ec occurred. ST131 was detected in 50% of ESBL-producing isolates. The remaining ESBL-producing isolates belonged to 17 other sequence......, overexpression of AmpC, and to a lesser extent to plasmid-mediated AmpC. The worldwide disseminated CTX-M-15-ST131 was strongly represented in this collection of Danish, bacteriaemic E. coli isolates....

  1. Activities of ceftobiprole, a novel broad-spectrum cephalosporin, against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovich, Tatiana; Clark, Catherine; Ednie, Lois; Lin, Gengrong; Smith, Kathy; Shapiro, Stuart; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2006-06-01

    Ceftobiprole, a broad-spectrum pyrrolidinone-3-ylidenemethyl cephem currently in phase III clinical trials, had MICs between 0.008 microg/ml and 8.0 microg/ml for 321 clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and between Ceftobiprole MIC(50) and MIC(90) values for H. influenzae were 0.06 microg/ml and 0.25 microg/ml for beta-lactamase-positive strains (n = 262), 0.03 microg/ml and 0.25 microg/ml for beta-lactamase-negative strains (n = 40), and 0.5 microg/ml and 2.0 microg/ml for beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant strains (n = 19), respectively. Ceftobiprole MIC(50) and MIC(90) values for beta-lactamase-positive M. catarrhalis strains (n = 40) were 0.12 microg/ml and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively, whereas the ceftobiprole MIC range for beta-lactamase-negative M. catarrhalis strains (n = 9) was ceftobiprole, whereas amoxicillin-clavulanate MICs usually were higher than those of ceftobiprole. Azithromycin and telithromycin had unimodal MIC distributions against H. influenzae, with MIC(90) values of azithromycin and telithromycin of 2 microg/ml and 4 microg/ml, respectively. Except for selected quinolone-nonsusceptible H. influenzae strains, moxifloxacin proved highly active, with MIC(90) values of 0.12 microg/ml. Time-kill analyses showed that ceftobiprole, ceftriaxone, cefpodoxime, amoxicillin-clavulanate, azithromycin, telithromycin, and moxifloxacin were bactericidal at 2x MIC by 24 h against all 10 H. influenzae strains surveyed. Only modest increases in MICs were found for H. influenzae or M. catarrhalis clones after 50 serial passages in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of ceftobiprole, and single-passage selection showed that the selection frequency of H. influenzae or M. catarrhalis clones with elevated ceftobiprole MICs is quite low.

  2. Study on intradermal test of cephalosporins%头孢菌素皮试的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林振礼

    2004-01-01

    目的:研究头孢菌素的皮试问题,为临床医师提供药学服务.方法:调查汕头市及汕头市中心医院头孢菌素的皮试方法,并查阅资料,对头孢菌素引起的过敏性休克及死亡进行统计,并对过敏反应的机制进行探讨.结果:提出头孢菌素的皮试方法及判断标准,供临床参考.结论:头孢菌素的皮试能确保其使用的安全性.

  3. The effect of cephalosporin usage on the occurrence of ESCs producing E. coli in pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalhoff Andersen, Vibe; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Agersø, Yvonne

    in 19 pig herds which have had five to fourteen prescriptions of ceph. and 20 pig herds without prescribed ceph. in a previous 12 month period. The 39 herds were all integrated and represent typical Danish pig farms. The occurrence of ESCs producing E. coli in the herds were tested in a total of 9...... pooled samples per herd. A pig herd was considered positive if one or more of the nine samples contained ESCs producing E. coli. Initially, the association between usages of ceph. and occurrence of ESCs producing E. coli in the pig herds was analyzed using logistic regression, and the effect was adjusted...... of ESCs producing E. coli was estimated as risk ratio(RR). The results showed that consumption of ceph. increased the risk of occurrence of ESCs producing E. coli significantly with a RR of 5 (95% CI: 2-11). This demonstrates that ceph. usage significant affect the occurrence of ESCs resistance...

  4. High prevalence of gut microbiota colonization with broad-spectrum cephalosporin resistant Enterobacteriaceae in a Tunisian intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaa Maamar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare-associated infections due to cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE have become a major public health threat, especially in intensive care units (ICUs. Often acquired nosocomially, CRE can be introduced initially by patients at admission. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and genetic characteristics of CRE-intestinal carriage in ICU patients, to evaluate the rate of acquisition of these organisms during hospitalization, and to explore some of the associated risk factors for both carriage and acquisition.Between December 2014 and February 2015, the 63 patients admitted in the ICU of Charles Nicolle hospital were screened for rectal CRE colonization at admission and once weekly thereafter to identify acquisition. CRE fecal carriage rate was 20.63% (13/63 at admission and the acquisition rate was 42.85% (15/35. Overall, 35 CRE isolates were collected from 28 patients (25 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 7 Escherichia coli and 3 Enterobacter cloacae strains. Seven patients were simultaneously colonized with 2 CRE isolates. CTX-M-15 was detected in most of the CRE isolates (30/35, 88.23%.Three strains co-produced CMY-4 and 22 strains were carbapenem-resistant and co-produced a carbapenemase OXA-48 (n=13 or NDM-1 (n=6. All isolates were multidrug resistant. Molecular typing of K. pneumoniae strains, revealed 8 Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE patterns and 4 sequence types (ST ST101, ST147, ST429 and ST336. However, E. coli isolates were genetically unrelated and belonged to A (n=2, B1 (n=2 and B2 (n=3 phylogenetic groups and to ST131 (2 strains, ST572 (2 strains, ST615 (one strain and ST617 (one strain. Five colonized patients were infected by CRE (4 with the same strain identified from their rectal swab and 1 with a different strain. Whether imported or acquired during the stay in the ICU, colonization by CRE is a major risk factor for the occurrence of serious nosocomial infections. Their systematic screening in fecal carriage is mandatory to prevent the spread of these multidrug resistant bacteria.

  5. Potentiality of yeast Candida sp. SMN04 for degradation of cefdinir, a cephalosporin antibiotic: kinetics, enzyme analysis and biodegradation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, A; Das, Devlina; Das, Nilanjana

    2015-01-01

    A new yeast strain isolated from the pharmaceutical wastewater was capable of utilizing cefdinir as a sole carbon source for their growth in mineral medium. The yeast was identified and named as Candida sp. SMN04 based on morphology and 18S-ITS-D1/D2/D3 rRNA sequence analysis. The interaction between factors pH (3.0-9.0), inoculum dosage (1-7%), time (1-11 day) and cefdinir concentration (50-450 mg/L) was studied using a Box-Behnken design. The factors were studied as a result of their effect on cell dry weight (R1; g/L), extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) assay (R2; mm), P450 activity (R3; U/mL) and degradation (R4; %). Maximum values of R1, R2, R3 and R4 were obtained at central values of all the parameters. The isolated yeast strain efficiently degraded 84% of 250 mg L⁻¹ of cefdinir within 6 days with a half-life of 2.97 days and degradation rate constant of 0.2335 per day. Pseudo-first-order model efficiently described the process. Among the various enzymes tested, the order of activity at the end of Day 4 was noted to be: cytochrome P450 (1.76 ± 0.03) > NADPH reductase (1.51 ± 0.20) > manganese peroxidase and amylase (0.66 ± 0.15; 0.66 ± 0.70). Intermediates were successfully characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The opening of the β-lactam ring involving ESBL activity was considered as one of the major steps in the cefdinir degradation process. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy analysis showed the absence of spectral vibrations between 1766 and 1519 cm⁻¹ confirming the complete removal of lactam ring during cefdinir degradation. The results of the present study are promising for the use of isolated yeast Candida sp. SMN04 as a potential bioremediation agent.

  6. Determination of the dissociation constants of the cephalosporins cefepime and cefpirome using UV spectrometry and pH potentiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evagelou, Vassilis; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, Anna; Koupparis, Michael

    2003-04-10

    UV spectrometry and pH potentiometry were used for the determination and direct characterization of the dissociation constants of cefepime (Cef) and cefpirome. The absorbance/pH profiles at two analytical wavelengths and different conditions were assessed and found to conform to those of diprotic acids. The titration curves indicated a triprotic acid profile with two overlapping dissociation constants. The comparison of the results of both techniques permitted the direct attribution of the three dissociation constants to the carboxylic group at position 4 of the Delta-3 cephem nucleus, the aminothiazole group and the amide group at position 7 of the Delta-3 cephem nucleus. Stability studies of Cef in alkaline solutions were also performed in order to evaluate the accuracy of the measurements carried out for the determination of the third pK(a) value. The experimental pK(a) values were compared to the corresponding predicted values derived by PALLAS/PKALC and Advanced Chemical Development (ACD) software packages.

  7. Enterobacteriaceae rsistant to third-generation cephalosporins and quinolones in fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, K.T.; Kant, A.; Dierikx, C.M.; Essen-Zandbergen, van A.; Wit, B.; Mevius, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    Since multidrug resistant bacteria are frequently reported from Southeast Asia, our study focused on the occurrence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fresh imported herbs from Thailand, Vietnam and Malaysia. Samples were collected from fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia in which

  8. Phylogenetic groups and cephalosporin resistance genes of Escherichia coli from diseased food-producing animals in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozawa Manao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A total of 318 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from different food-producing animals affected with colibacillosis between 2001 and 2006 were subjected to phylogenetic analysis: 72 bovine isolates, 89 poultry isolates and 157 porcine isolates. Overall, the phylogenetic group A was predominant in isolates from cattle (36/72, 50% and pigs (101/157, 64.3% whereas groups A (44/89, 49.4% and D (40/89, 44.9% were predominant in isolates from poultry. In addition, group B2 was not found among diseased food-producing animals except for a poultry isolate. Thus, the phylogenetic group distribution of E. coli from diseased animals was different by animal species. Among the 318 isolates, cefazolin resistance (minimum inhibitory concentrations: ≥32 μg/ml was found in six bovine isolates, 29 poultry isolates and three porcine isolates. Of them, 11 isolates (nine from poultry and two from cattle produced extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL. The two bovine isolates produced blaCTX-M-2, while the nine poultry isolates produced blaCTX-M-25 (4, blaSHV-2 (3, blaCTX-M-15 (1 and blaCTX-M-2 (1. Thus, our results showed that several types of ESBL were identified and three types of β-lactamase (SHV-2, CTX-M-25 and CTX-M-15 were observed for the first time in E. coli from diseased animals in Japan.

  9. Phylogenetic groups and cephalosporin resistance genes of Escherichia coli from diseased food-producing animals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tetsuo; Masani, Kaori; Sato, Chizuru; Hiki, Mototaka; Usui, Masaru; Baba, Kotaro; Ozawa, Manao; Harada, Kazuki; Aoki, Hiroshi; Sawada, Takuo

    2011-10-12

    A total of 318 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from different food-producing animals affected with colibacillosis between 2001 and 2006 were subjected to phylogenetic analysis: 72 bovine isolates, 89 poultry isolates and 157 porcine isolates. Overall, the phylogenetic group A was predominant in isolates from cattle (36/72, 50%) and pigs (101/157, 64.3%) whereas groups A (44/89, 49.4%) and D (40/89, 44.9%) were predominant in isolates from poultry. In addition, group B2 was not found among diseased food-producing animals except for a poultry isolate. Thus, the phylogenetic group distribution of E. coli from diseased animals was different by animal species. Among the 318 isolates, cefazolin resistance (minimum inhibitory concentrations: ≥32 μg/ml) was found in six bovine isolates, 29 poultry isolates and three porcine isolates. Of them, 11 isolates (nine from poultry and two from cattle) produced extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). The two bovine isolates produced bla(CTX-M-2), while the nine poultry isolates produced bla(CTX-M-25) (4), bla(SHV-2) (3), bla(CTX-M-15) (1) and bla(CTX-M-2) (1). Thus, our results showed that several types of ESBL were identified and three types of β-lactamase (SHV-2, CTX-M-25 and CTX-M-15) were observed for the first time in E. coli from diseased animals in Japan.

  10. Recovery of Cephalosporin Resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella from Pork, Beef and Chicken Marketed in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Forward

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial use in farm animals is a potentially important contributor to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Resistant Salmonella may lead to serious human infections and resistant Escherichia coli may transfer plasmid-encoded resistance genes to other pathogens.

  11. Radiosterilization of Fluoroquinolones and Cephalosporins: Assessment of Radiation Damage on Antibiotics by Changes in Optical Property and Colorimetric Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A most common problem encountered in radiosterilization of solid drugs is discoloration or yellowing. By pharmacopoeia method, discoloration can be assessed by measuring absorbance of solutions of irradiated solid samples at 450 nm. We propose to evaluate discoloration of solid samples directly by recording their diffuse reflectance spectra. Further, the reflectance spectrum is used to compute various color parameters: CIE XYZ tristimulus value, CIE Lab, \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\...

  12. Prevalence and Characterization of Cephalosporin Resistance in Nonpathogenic Escherichia coli from Food-Producing Animals Slaughtered in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasyl, Dariusz; Hasman, Henrik; Cavaco, Lina

    2012-01-01

    identified CTX-M-1 gene in 13 ESBL strains, 5 of which possessed also TEM-1b. One strain harbored SHV-12 gene. CMY-2 was found in all of 20 tested ampC-type cephalosporinase-positive strains either alone (n = 14) or in combination with mutations in ampC promoter region (n = 6). CTX-M-1 and CMY-2 genes were...

  13. Cerebrospinal fluid bactericidal activity against cephalosporin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in children with meningitis treated with high-dosage cefotaxime.

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    We determined cefotaxime and desacetyl-cefotaxime concentrations in children with bacterial meningitis receiving high-dose cefotaxime (300 mg/kg of body weight/day) and concomitant dexamethasone therapy. The median peak cerebrospinal fluid cefotaxime and desacetyl-cefotaxime concentrations were 4.7 and 8.1 microg/ml, respectively. In vitro bactericidal activity (>99.9% killing in 6 h) was found in 17 (94%), 13 (72%), and 8 (44%) of 18 cerebrospinal fluid specimens against cefotaxime-susceptib...

  14. Longitudinal metagenomic profiling of bovine milk to assess the impact of intramammary treatment using a third-generation cephalosporin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganda, Erika K.; Bisinotto, Rafael S.; Lima, Svetlana F.; Kronauer, Kristina; Decter, Dean H.; Oikonomou, Georgios; Schukken, Ynte H.; Bicalho, Rodrigo C.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial usage in food animals has a direct impact on human health, and approximately 80% of the antibiotics prescribed in the dairy industry are used to treat bovine mastitis. Here we provide a longitudinal description of the changes in the microbiome of milk that are associated with mastitis

  15. Clostridium difficile bacteremia and meningitis as a complication of prolonged cephalosporin therapy in a case of staphylococcal pyogenic arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abhrajit Ganguly; Saibal Das; Jayanta Kumar Dey; Somnath Mondal

    2012-01-01

    With increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis, several extra-intestinal manifestations of the organism have been unmasked which include-bacteremia, brain abscess, pericarditis etc. We report a rare and interesting case of C. difficile bacteremia and subsequent meningitis in a 10 year old child. The child was immune competent, which further raises the question about the virulent possibilities of the organism and its implications in the near future. The condition resulted from a prolonged treatment with intravenous (I.V.) cefotaxime for staphylococcal pyogenic arthritis. The child recovered from the septic arthritis but on the 7th day post-admission developed features of bacteremia. The child was later treated with intravenous metronidazole and vancomycin and he was discharged on the 21st day post-admission. No recurrence of symptoms was noted.

  16. Clostridium difficile bacteremia and meningitis as a complication of prolonged cephalosporin therapy in a case of staphylococcal pyogenic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhrajit Ganguly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis, several extra-intestinal manifestations of the organism have been unmasked which include-bacteremia, brain abscess, pericarditis etc. We report a rare and interesting case of C. difficile bacteremia and subsequent meningitis in a 10 year old child. The child was immune competent, which further raises the question about the virulent possibilities of the organism and its implications in the near future. The condition resulted from a prolonged treatment with intravenous (I.V. cefotaxime for staphylococcal pyogenic arthritis. The child recovered from the septic arthritis but on the 7th day post-admission developed features of bacteremia. The child was later treated with intravenous metronidazole and vancomycin and he was discharged on the 21st day post-admission. No recurrence of symptoms was noted.

  17. Expression of the transporter encoded by the cefT gene of Acremonium chrysogenum increases cephalosporin production in Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, Jeroen G.; Kovalchuk, Andriy; van den Berg, Marco A.; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2008-01-01

    By introduction of the cefEF genes of Acremonium chrysogenum and the cmcH gene of Streptomyces clavuligerus, Penicillium chrysogenum can be reprogrammed to form adipoyl-7-amino-3-carbamoyloxymethyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid (ad7-ACCCA), a carbamoylated derivate of adipoyl-7-aminodeacetoxy-cephalosp

  18. Biocompatible cephalosporin-hydroxyapatite-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-coatings fabricated by MAPLE technique for the prevention of bone implant associated infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rădulescu, Dragoş [Bucharest University Hospital, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Bucharest (Romania); Grumezescu, Valentina [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma & Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Andronescu, Ecaterina [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Holban, Alina Maria [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Microbiology Immunology Department, Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, 1–3 Portocalelor Lane, Sector 5, 77206 Bucharest (Romania); Research Institute of the University of Bucharest –ICUB, 91-95 Splaiul Independentei, 050095 Bucharest (Romania); Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai, E-mail: grumezescu@yahoo.com [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Socol, Gabriel [Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma & Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Oprea, Alexandra Elena [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Rădulescu, Marius [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 1–7 Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); and others

    2016-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • HAp/PLGA thin coatings by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation. • Anti-adherent coating on medical surfaces against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa colonization. • Coatings with potential applications in implant osseointegration. - Abstract: In this study we aimed to obtain functionalized thin films based on hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (HAp/PLGA) containing ceftriaxone/cefuroxime antibiotics (ATBs) deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. The prepared thin films were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and infra red (IR) analysis. HAp/PLGA/ATBs thin films sustained the growth of human osteoblasts, proving their good biocompatibility. The microscopic evaluation and the culture-based quantitative assay of the E. coli biofilm development showed that the thin films inhibited the initial step of microbial attachment as well as the subsequent colonization and biofilm development on the respective surfaces. This study demonstrates that MAPLE technique could represent an appealing technique for the fabrication of antibiotics-containing polymeric implant coatings. The bioevaluation results recommend this type of surfaces for the prevention of bone implant microbial contamination and for the enhanced stimulation of the implant osseointegration process.

  19. Beta-lactamase characterization in Escherichia coli isolates with diminished susceptibility or resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins recovered from sick animals in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Teshager, Tirushet; Zarazaga, Myriam; Sáenz, Yolanda; Porrero, Concepción; Dominguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    A total of 1439 Escherichia coli isolates from sick animals were received from the Spanish Network of Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (VAV) from 1997 to 2001. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed and diminished susceptibility to cefotaxime and ceftazidime was identified in 2.5% and 2.8% of the isolates, respectively. Beta-lactamase characterization was carried out in the group of 20 E. coli isolates with both characteristics. The MIC ranges of different beta-lactams showed by these 20 isolates were as follows (in microg/ml): ampicillin (64-->256), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (4-64), ticarcillin (8-->128), cefazolin (32-->256), cefoxitin (4-->128), cefotaxime (1-64), ceftazidime (2-->64), ceftriaxone (0.5-64), imipenem (32). TEM, SHV, CMY, and FOX beta-lactamase genes were analyzed by PCR and sequencing. The beta-lactamase genes detected were the following ones (number of isolates): bla(TEM-1b) (3), bla(TEM-1a) (1), bla(TEM-30f) (2), bla(TEM-1b) + bla(CMY-2) (2), and bla(SHV-12) (1). Sequences of the promoter and/or attenuator region of the chromosomal ampC gene were studied in all the 20 isolates. Mutations at position -42 or -32 were detected in 16 isolates and these mutations were associated with the presence of a TEM type beta-lactamase in 6 isolates. Besides, a high variety of plasmidic beta-lactamases was detected including TEM-30 and CMY-2. To our knowledge, this is the first time that TEM-30 beta-lactamase has been detected in E. coli isolates of animal origin.

  20. An update on progress in investigational broad-spectrum cephalosporins%在研广谱头孢菌素类抗生素的新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔玉彬; 蒋晓磊; 曹胜华

    2010-01-01

    目前头孢菌素类药物的研究热点在于寻找对耐药革兰阳性致病菌敏感,尤其是对耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)敏感的头孢菌素类化合物及对高活性化合物进行结构修饰,改善其药学性质.本文先就2008年上市的抗MRSA广谱新药ceftobiprole进行介绍,再将近十余年研发中的广谱头孢菌素类抗生素的新进展做一简要综述,其中ceftaroline和FR264205(CXA-101)是较有前景的候选药物,ceftaroline新药上市申请(NDA)有望于2010年获准.

  1. 新型头孢菌素类抗生素ceftobiprole%A first-in-class anti-MRSA broad-spectrum cephalosporin: Ceftobiprole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡芸; 王睿

    2006-01-01

    抗生素滥用导致的多重耐药菌株的出现,限制了临床常规抗生素的使用范围,使严重的院内感染难以得到控制.Ceftobiprole是最新研制出的惟一对耐甲氧西林金葡菌有效的头孢菌素类抗生素.现对其研发现况、作用机制、体内外抗菌活性以及临床应用等方面做一综述.

  2. 新头孢菌素头孢吡普的研究进展%Research progress of ceftobiprole: a novel cephalosporin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘和兰; 李健哲; 周至品

    2013-01-01

    头孢吡普是第五代头孢菌素,对包括耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌在内的革兰阳性菌以及铜绿假单胞菌在内的革兰阴性菌均具有良好的抗菌活性.2008年在加拿大和瑞士上市,被批准用于复杂性皮肤及皮肤结构感染,包括糖尿病足感染的治疗.本文从头孢吡普的化学结构、作用机制和临床疗效等方面对其作一综述.

  3. Biocompatible cephalosporin-hydroxyapatite-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-coatings fabricated by MAPLE technique for the prevention of bone implant associated infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rădulescu, Dragoş; Grumezescu, Valentina; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Holban, Alina Maria; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Socol, Gabriel; Oprea, Alexandra Elena; Rădulescu, Marius; Surdu, Adrian; Trusca, Roxana; Rădulescu, Radu; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Stan, Miruna S.; Constanda, Sabrina; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2016-06-01

    In this study we aimed to obtain functionalized thin films based on hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (HAp/PLGA) containing ceftriaxone/cefuroxime antibiotics (ATBs) deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. The prepared thin films were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and infra red (IR) analysis. HAp/PLGA/ATBs thin films sustained the growth of human osteoblasts, proving their good biocompatibility. The microscopic evaluation and the culture-based quantitative assay of the E. coli biofilm development showed that the thin films inhibited the initial step of microbial attachment as well as the subsequent colonization and biofilm development on the respective surfaces. This study demonstrates that MAPLE technique could represent an appealing technique for the fabrication of antibiotics-containing polymeric implant coatings. The bioevaluation results recommend this type of surfaces for the prevention of bone implant microbial contamination and for the enhanced stimulation of the implant osseointegration process.

  4. Modulation of the Microenvironment Surrounding the Active Site of Penicillin G Acylase Immobilized on Acrylic Carriers Improves the Enzymatic Synthesis of Cephalosporins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bonomi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic properties of penicillin G acylase (PGA from Escherichia coli in kinetically controlled synthesis of β-lactam antibiotics are negatively affected upon immobilization on hydrophobic acrylic carriers. Two strategies have been here pursued to improve the synthetic performance of PGA immobilized on epoxy-activated acrylic carriers. First, an aldehyde-based spacer was inserted on the carrier surface by glutaraldehyde activation (immobilization yield = 50%. The resulting 3-fold higher synthesis/hydrolysis ratio (vs/vh1 = 9.7 ± 0.7 and 10.9 ± 0.7 for Eupergit® C and Sepabeads® EC-EP, respectively with respect to the unmodified support (vs/vh1 = 3.3 ± 0.4 was ascribed to a facilitated diffusion of substrates and products as a result of the increased distance between the enzyme and the carrier surface. A second series of catalysts was prepared by direct immobilization of PGA on epoxy-activated acrylic carriers (Eupergit® C, followed by quenching of oxiranes not involved in the binding with the protein with different nucleophiles (amino acids, amines, amino alcohols, thiols and amino thiols. In most cases, this derivatization increased the synthesis/hydrolysis ratio with respect to the non derivatized carrier. Particularly, post-immobilization treatment with cysteine resulted in about 2.5-fold higher vs/vh1 compared to the untreated biocatalyst, although the immobilization yield decreased from 70% (untreated Eupergit® C to 20%. Glutaraldehyde- and cysteine-treated Eupergit® C catalyzed the synthesis of cefazolin in 88% (±0.9 and 87% (±1.6 conversion, respectively, whereas untreated Eupergit® C afforded this antibiotic in 79% (±1.2 conversion.

  5. Prevalence of extended-spectrum cephalosporinase (ESC)-producing Escherichia coli in Danish slaughter pigs and retail meat identified by selective enrichment and association with cephalosporin usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Pedersen, Karl;

    2012-01-01

    with ceftriaxone (1 mg/L). ESC genotypes were detected using PCR, microtube array and sequencing. The MIC of cefotaxime was determined for 150 E. coli from the pigs and 606 E. coli from meat isolated without selective enrichment. RESULTS: Eleven percent (86/786) of slaughter pigs contained ESC E. coli...

  6. Randomized noninferiority field trial comparing 2 first-generation cephalosporin products at dry off in quarters receiving an internal teat sealant in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, P A; Rota, N; Locatelli, C; Colombo, L; Pollera, C; Giacinti, G; Bronzo, V; Casula, A; Arpinelli, A; Brossette, V; Facchi, M; Patelli, A; Ruggeri, A; Barberio, A; Potenza, G; Nydam, D V; Moroni, P

    2016-08-01

    The study objective was to compare 2 commercial dry cow mastitis products at the quarter level, with concurrent internal teat sealant application, evaluating the cure risk difference, odds of a cure, odds of a new intramammary infection (NIMI) during the dry period, and risk for a clinical mastitis (CM) case between calving and 60d in milk (DIM). A total of 590 cows (2,360 quarters) from 8 commercial dairy herds in Italy were enrolled and randomized to 1 of the 2 treatments at dry off: Cefovet A (CF; 250mg of cephazoline; Merial Italia SpA, Milan, Italy), and Cepravin (CP; 250mg of cephalonium dehydrate MSD Animal Health Srl, Segrate, Italy). Quarter milk samples were collected before dry cow therapy treatment at dry off, 2 to 9 DIM, and 10 to 17 DIM. Quarter milk samples from CM cases were collected during the first 60 DIM. Noninferiority analysis was used to evaluate the effect of treatment on the risk difference of a bacteriological cure during the dry period, the primary outcome. The odds of cure, developing a NIMI during the dry period, and the risk of a CM event within 60 DIM were evaluated with multivariable logistic regression and hazard analysis, respectively. The overall crude quarter-level prevalence of NIMI at dry off was 15.3%. The most common pathogen isolated from milk samples at dry-off was coagulase-negative staphylococci. Noninferiority analysis showed no effect of treatment on the risk difference for a cure between dry off and both postpartum samples, difference was 0.013. The least squares means from the multivariable model evaluating the odds of cure was 94% for CF and 95%for CP. We observed no effect of treatment on the odds for the presence of a NIMI at 2 to 9 DIM (least squares means: CF=0.09 and CP=0.07), nor did we note a difference in risk of experiencing a CM event between calving and 60 DIM (hazard ratio=0.8). In conclusion, no difference was observed between the 2 products evaluated when assessing the aforementioned outcomes in quarters also receiving an internal teat sealant.

  7. Drug: D00906 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e: J01DB01 Semisynthetic cephalosporin: narrow spectrum cephalosporin penicillin binding proteins inhibitor ...S J01DB First-generation cephalosporins J01DB01 Cefalexin D00906 Cephalexin (USP)

  8. Drug: D07655 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07655 Drug Cefteram (INN); CFTM C16H17N9O5S2 479.0794 479.4935 D07655.gif Antibiotic, cephalosporin... Semisynthetic cephalosporin: broad spectrum cephalosporin penicillin binding proteins inhi

  9. Drug: D07640 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3H2O 507.073 507.4954 D07640.gif Antibiotic, cephalosporin Therapeutic category: 6132 ATC code: J01DD08 Semisynthetic cephalosporin...: broad spectrum cephalosporin penicillin binding proteins inhibitor ko00550 Peptido...FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01 ANTIBACTERIALS FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DD Third-generation cephalosporin

  10. Drug: D07647 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 655 D07647.gif Antibiotic, cephalosporin Same as: C06885 ATC code: J01DD01 Semisynthetic cephalosporin: broad spectrum cephalosporin...TAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DD Third-generation cephalosporins J01DD01 Cefotaxime D07647 Cefotaxime (INN) USP drug

  11. Drug: D07635 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 96.045 396.438 D07635.gif Antibiotoc, cephalosporin, cephalosporinase-sensitive Same as: C07761 ATC code: J01DB03 Semisynthetic cepha...losporin: narrow spectrum cephalosporin penicillin binding proteins inhibitor ko005...ALS FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DB First-generation cephalosporins J01DB03 Cef

  12. Drug: D07644 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07644 Drug Cefonicid (INN); Monocef (TN) C18H18N6O8S3 542.0348 542.5659 D07644.gif Antibiotic, cephalospori...n Same as: C06882 ATC code: J01DC06 Semisynthetic cephalosporin: intermediate spectrum cephalosporin...E J01 ANTIBACTERIALS FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DC Second-generation cephalosporin

  13. 头孢菌素类与青霉素类抗生素交叉过敏反应的临床观察%Clinical investigation of the cross-hypersensitive reaction between cephalosporins and penicillins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲; 张芳; 曹敬花; 高艳华; 冯义美

    2003-01-01

    目的观察头孢菌素类与青霉素类的交叉过敏反应.方法选择注射使用头孢唑啉、头孢拉定、头孢哌酮、头孢曲松、头孢噻肟等5种头孢菌素类药物的住院病人4672例,记录其药物及食物过敏史和过敏反应发生情况.结果在总用药人群中过敏反应84例(1.80%),各药物及性别和各年龄组过敏发生率无显著差异.青霉素过敏史阳性、其它物质过敏史阳性和无过敏史者分别为316例、161例和4195例,头孢菌素类用药后过敏反应例数分别为44例(13.92%)、8例(4.97%)和32例(0.76%),三组人群头孢菌素类过敏发生率差异极其显著,P<0.01.结论头孢菌素类与青霉素之间存在共同过敏和交叉过敏现象,交叉过敏反应发生率约8%.

  14. Complementary MEKC and HPLC analysis for the related substances of cephalosporin%MEKC与HPLC测定头孢菌素有关物质的互补性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍; 李娅萍; 邸欣; 胡昌勤

    2011-01-01

    Objective :To explore the principle complementarity of the MEKC and HPLC and the method in order to estimate the effectiveness of the HPLC system. Method :We analyze the degradative impurities produced by the cefodizime sodium and cefminox sodium and compare the procession in HPLC and MEKC. Result : We find that there is complementarity in the results of cefodizime sodium and cefminox sodium by the MEKC and HPLC. But we can isolate the impurities easily by the MEKC and the LOD is higher than by the HPLC. When the amount of impurities by the MEKC and HPLC is same,we think that HPLC is suitable to be applied. Conclusion : MEKC is a new means which can evaluate the effectiveness of the HPLC.%目的:探索利用胶束毛细管电泳(MEKC)与高效液相色谱法(HPLC)分析原理的互补性,评价HPLC系统有效性的方法.方法:利用加速降解实验,比较HPLC和MEKC分析头孢地嗪钠和头孢米诺钠降解杂质的能力.结果:头孢地嗪钠和头孢米诺钠的MEKC和HPLC结果具有互补性.MEKC具有较强的杂质分离能力,但其检测限(LOD)较高.实际应用中,借助于加速实验,将MEKC分离出的杂质峰数目与HPLC分离出的含量大于MEKC LOD的杂质峰数目进行比较,当两者基本相对时,可以认为HPLC方法具有较满意的分离能力.结论:MEKC为评价HPLC方法的有效性提供了新的手段.

  15. The Stability of Cephalosporin Antibiotics for Injection in Common Infusion Fluids%注射用头孢菌素类抗生素与常用注射液的配伍稳定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李直; 徐玉婷; 宋艳霞; 张娇娇; 马晓黎; 李波

    2016-01-01

    目的对注射用头孢菌素菌素类抗生素与常用的注射液配伍稳定性进行综述.方法查阅2005年至今发表的注射用头孢菌素菌素类抗生素配伍稳定性实验文献并进行分析研究.结果注射用头孢菌素菌素类抗生素一般与0.9%氯化钠注射液、5%葡萄糖注射液和葡萄糖氯化钠注射液配伍稳定性较好.结论头孢菌素菌素类抗生素的配伍稳定性实验限度标准应从严,并对试验方法提出建议.

  16. The research on Cephalosporins miner sodium for injection asepsis check to eliminate antibacterial property%头孢米诺钠无菌检查消除抑菌性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪珊; 岳志萍

    2010-01-01

    目的:依据中国药典2010年版无菌检查法的相关规定,通过一系列试验,建立头孢米诺钠无菌检查法.方法:用规定的各种试验菌,并采用β-内酰胺酶消除抑菌性进行试验.结果:头孢米诺钠采用薄膜过滤法进行无菌检查,对大肠埃希菌有较强的抑菌活性.结论:头孢米诺钠无菌检查需加入β-内酰胺酶来消除抑菌活性,以保证其无菌检查的准确性.

  17. The research on Cephalosporins XiDing sodium for injection asepsis check eliminate antibacterial property%头孢西丁钠无菌检查消除抑菌性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹晓平; 张东霞

    2011-01-01

    目的:依据中国药典2010年版无菌检查法的相关规定,通过一系列试验,建立头孢西丁钠无菌检查法.方法:用规定各种试验菌,同时使用β-内酰胺酶进行试验.结果:头孢西丁钠采用薄膜过滤法进行无菌检查,对大肠埃希茼有较强的抑菌活性.结论:头孢西丁钠无菌检查需加入β-内酰胺酶来消除抑菌活性,以保证其无菌检查的准确性.

  18. The research on Cephalosporins XiDing sodium for injection asepsis check eliminate antibacterial property%头孢西丁钠无菌检查消除抑菌性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹晓平; 张东霞

    2011-01-01

    目的:依据中国药典2010年版无菌检查法的相关规定,通过一系列试验,建立头孢西丁钠无菌检查法.方法:用规定各种试验菌,同时使用β-内酰胺酶进行试验.结果:头孢西丁钠采用薄膜过滤法进行无菌检查,对大肠埃希菌有较强的抑菌活性.结论:头孢西丁钠无菌检查需加入β-内酰胺酶来消除抑菌活性,以保证其无菌检查的准确性.

  19. 临床分离产头孢菌素酶阴沟肠杆菌的耐药性研究%Study on the resistance of cephalosporin β-lactamase-producing Enterobacter cloacae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余娴; 凌保东; 周岐新; 雷军; 谢勇恩

    2005-01-01

    目的:研究我院产头孢菌素酶(AmpC酶)阴沟肠杆菌的检出率、耐药情况及ampC基因型.方法:收集临床分离的耐药阴沟肠杆菌15株;三维试验检测AmpC酶;NCCLS方法检测超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs);琼脂二倍稀释法测定MIC值;PCR扩增检测ampC基因及序列测定.结果:15株菌中8株菌(53.3%)产AmpC酶,3株菌(20.0%)产ESBLs.产AmpC酶的菌株除对亚胺培南全敏感外,对其它抗菌药不同程度耐药.5株菌的ampC基因与阴沟肠杆菌ECLC074的ampC基因100%同源,3株菌与之99%同源,2株菌的AmpC酶发生了1个氨基酸残基的改变.结论:产AmpC酶是阴沟肠杆菌对β-内酰胺类抗生素耐药的主要机制之一.阴沟肠杆菌ECLC074 ampC基因是我院主要的阴沟肠杆菌ampC基因型.产AmpC酶的阴沟肠杆菌常呈多重耐药,亚胺培南是治疗此类菌所致感染的最有效药物.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Treatment of Pediatric Bronchial Pneumonia with Three Kinds of Cephalosporins%三种头孢类药物治疗小儿支气管肺炎的成本-效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦梦春

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cefuroxime sodium,ceftizoxime sodium and, ceftriaxone sodium in respect to the treatment of pediatric bronchial pneumonia,so as to provide optimal clin-ical treatment protocol.Methods:Collect 152 discharged patients with pediatric bronchial pneumonia in de-partment of pediatrics in some hospital ,divide them into group A,B and C,Treat them with cefuroxime sodi-um ,ceftizoxime sodium ceftriaxone sodium respectively,make retrospective evaluation and analysis on the three treatment methods based on CEA.Results:There was no obvious difference between the three treatment protocols (P >0.05),the overall effective rate of the three groups was 94.44%,93.48%,96.15%respectively and cost-effectiveness was 34.40,35.35,32.72 respectively.Conclusion:it is the optimal protocol to treat ped-iatric bronchial pneumonia with ,ceftriaxone sodium.%目的::评价头孢呋辛钠、头孢唑肟钠、头孢曲松钠治疗小儿支气管肺炎的成本-效果,为临床提供最佳治疗方案。方法:收集某院儿科支气管肺炎患儿出院病历152份,分为 A、B、C3组,分别给予头孢呋辛钠(A)、头孢唑肟钠(B)、头孢曲松钠(C)治疗,运用药物经济学成本-效果分析方法对3种治疗方案的成本-效果进行回顾性评价分析。结果:3种治疗方案无显著性差异(P >0.05),总有效率分别为94.44%、93.48%、96.15%,成本-效果比分别为34.40、35.35、32.72。结论:头孢曲松钠(C 组)为治疗小儿支气管肺炎的较佳方案。

  1. 头孢菌素对儿童维生素K状况的影响及对策%Quantitative analysis on the PIVKA-Ⅱconcentration of plasma in children treated with the cephalosporin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周金平; 刘利祥; 戴玉良; 苗桂杰; 张会丰

    2007-01-01

    [目的]通过血浆凝血酶原前体蛋白(PIVKA-Ⅱ)的测定,探讨第三代头孢菌素对儿童维生素K营养状况的影响.通过维生素K1预防性治疗,改善抗生素引起的维生素K缺乏状态.[方法]选择2005年10~12月间38例第三代头孢类抗生素治疗住院患儿,分为A组24例(抗生素治疗组)及B组14例(抗生素治疗+维生素K1干预).ELISA法测定血浆中PIVKA-Ⅱ.PIVKA-Ⅱ≥2μg/L为阳性(正常参考值<2μg/L).[结果]A组治疗前8例PIVKA-Ⅱ≥2μg/L,阳性率为33.33%,抗生素治疗后20例PIVKA-Ⅱ阳性,阳性率为83.33%(χ2=12.343,P=0.001).B组治疗前PIVKA-Ⅱ>2μg/L者8例,阳性率为57.14%,使用维生素K1后全部转阴.[结论]第三代头孢菌素的应用引起小儿维生素K缺乏.抗生素治疗期间给予维生素K110 mg预防性治疗可改善维生素K缺乏状态.

  2. 头孢菌素致双硫仑样反应40例临床分析%Clinical Analysis to 40 Disulfiram-like Reactions Caused by Cephalosporin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温宇英; 丁乾; 韩继媛

    2004-01-01

    目的:引起临床医师对头孢菌素导致双硫仑样反应的重视.方法:对协和医院2003年1~6月期间由于使用头孢菌素导致的双硫仑样反应40例进行回顾性分析.结果:①双硫仑样反应可出现于各性别、年龄及原发病的患者.②导致双硫仑样反应的药物见于头孢唑啉、头孢哌酮、头孢哌酮加舒巴坦、拉氧头孢等.③症状有颜面潮红、胸闷、头痛、心悸、恶心呕吐、气促、烦躁、低血压、心绞痛、呼吸困难等.④接触含乙醇制品的途径除饮用各种酒类外还见于反复乙醇皮肤消毒及服用藿香正气水等含乙醇制剂.⑤双硫仑样反应出现于使用头孢菌素的过程中及疗程结束后72 h内.⑥双硫仑样反应出现于饮酒后10~40 min.⑦一般于30 min~12 h内缓解.结论:医护人员应对双硫仑样反应给与足够的重视,尤其是老年人和心血管疾病患者.

  3. 60 CASES OF CEPHALOSPORIN-INDUCED DISULFIRAM-LIKE REACTION ANALYSIS OF THE CLINICAL%60例头孢菌素致双硫仑样反应临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艳

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨头孢菌素致双硫仑样反应的临床表现、治疗及预防要点.方法 对60例头孢菌素致双硫仑样反应患者的临床表现及治疗进行回顾性分析.结果 60例患者经积极的抢救治疗及完善的护理,均恢复良好,无1例死亡.结论 应用头孢菌素类药物后饮酒或使用含乙醇的药物、食品时可发生双硫仑样反应,应对患者进行相关知识的健康教育,不断提高患者健康的安全用药行为,防止不良反应的发生.

  4. 头孢类抗生素与乙醇致双硫伦样反应35例报道%Report to 35 Cephalosporin and Ethanol to Disulfiram-Like Reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭填英

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨头孢类抗生素与乙醇致双硫伦样反应的常见性,应引起临床的重视.方法 对本院2年来发生双硫伦样反应的35例病例资料进行回顾性分析、比较.结果 ①用药前后及饮酒前后对发生双硫伦样反应的关联.②临床表现有头昏、胸闷、颜面发红,重者呼吸闲难,有血压下降.③经对症、支持处理,治疗1天治愈出院.结论 双硫伦是一种治疗慢性乙醇中毒的药物,它本身对机体小产生作用,是由于该药抑制乙醛脱氧酶,服用该约后饮酒量即使较少,也会产生轻微的双硫伦样症状.头孢类抗生索引起双硫伦样反应的机制.用头孢类抗菌素治疗过程中一定要特别医嘱,避免饮酒和乙醇制剂.

  5. Clinical analysis of disulfiram reaction after administration of cephalosporins%使用头孢菌素后发生双硫仑样反应临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱芬; 郝敬旺; 项林海

    2016-01-01

    目的 分析使用头孢菌素后患者发生双硫仑样反应的临床表现,探讨有效治疗方法及预防要点.方法 回顾性分析2013年1月至2013年10月我院38例应用头孢菌素发生双硫仑样反应患者的临床资料,对患者临床表现进行记录和分析.结果 38例患者在使用头孢菌素后,出现不同程度的双硫仑样反应,症状较轻者表现出面色潮红、心悸、头晕、胸闷、四肢乏力,症状严重患者出现全身皮肤发红、嗜睡、呼吸困难、出汗、心绞痛,均对其进行积极的抢救治疗,并辅助以完善的护理,患者恢复良好,未出现死亡病例.结论 在使用头孢菌素类药物期间,饮酒、使用含乙醇类药物、饮食不当都会引发双硫仑样反应,医护人员需要对双硫仑样反应给予足够重视,对患者进行相关知识的健康教育,防止患者出现双硫仑样反应,提高患者安全用药意识.

  6. 头孢菌素类药物致双硫醒样反应45例临床研究%Clinical study on 45 disulfiram-like reactions caused by cephalosporin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永明; 唐世琪; 胡春梅; 徐丽娟

    2006-01-01

    目的 探讨应用头孢类药物时饮酒所致双硫醒样反应与急性酒精中毒的临床差异.方法 比较头孢类药物致双硫醒反应与急性酒精中毒两组患者的临床表现、颜面充血程度、血酒精浓度、平均动脉压、心率的变化. 结果 (1)两组患者临床表现有明显差异.(2)在酒后30~120 min,单纯急性酒精中毒组血酒精浓度明显高于双硫醒样反应组(P<0.01),但后者面部充血程度明显重于前者(P<0.05)、心率加快也明显高于前者(P<0.05),两组的平均动脉压变化无明显差异. 结论 使用头孢类药物时饮酒所致双硫醒样反应与头孢类药物有关,与饮酒的量无相关性.

  7. Application Study of XAD-1600 Resin on the Recovery of Cephalosporin C%XAD-1600树脂在头孢菌素C提取过程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康辉; 于洁茹; 马文婵

    2008-01-01

    介绍了XAD-1600树脂在头孢菌素C的分离提纯过程中的分离性能以及在相同的实验条件下,与XAD-16树脂对比在分离提纯头孢菌素C过程中的性能差异、收率情况,并提供了树脂新的再生方法.

  8. Multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae with reduced cefotaxime susceptibility is increasingly common in men who have sex with men, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, H.J.C.; van der Helm, J.J.; Schim van der Loeff, M.F.; van Dam, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing problem in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) treatment. Presently, third-generation parenteral cephalosporins, like ceftriaxone and cefotaxime, are the first option. Resistance to oral, but not to parenteral, third-generation cephalosporins has been reported previo

  9. Drug: D07658 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07658 Drug Ceftizoxime (INN); CZX C13H13N5O5S2 383.0358 383.4028 D07658.gif Antibiotic, cephalosporin... Same as: C06890 ATC code: J01DD07 Semisynthetic cephalosporin: broad spectrum cephalosporin...TIBACTERIALS FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DD Third-generation cephalosporins J0

  10. Drug: D08109 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08109 Drug Latamoxef (INN); LMOX C20H20N6O9S 520.1012 520.4726 D08109.gif Antibiotic, cephalosporin... Same as: C07231 ATC code: J01DD06 Semisynthetic cephalosporin: broad spectrum cephalosporin...IALS FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DD Third-generation cephalosporins J01DD06 La

  11. Drug: D07642 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07642 Drug Cefminox (INN); CMNX C16H21N7O7S3 519.0665 519.5756 D07642.gif Antibiotic, cephalosporin... ATC code: J01DC12 Semisynthetic cephalosporin: broad spectrum cephalosporin penicillin bin... SYSTEMIC USE J01 ANTIBACTERIALS FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DC Second-generation cephalosporin

  12. Drug: D07639 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07639 Drug Cefditoren (INN); CDTR C19H20N6O5S3 508.0657 508.5943 D07639.gif Antibiotic, cephalosporin... ATC code: J01DD16 Semisynthetic cephalosporin: broad spectrum cephalosporin penicillin b...MIC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DD Third-generation cephalosporins J01DD16 Cefditoren D0763

  13. Drug: D07656 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07656 Drug Ceftezole (INN); CTZ C13H12N8O4S3 440.0144 440.4806 D07656.gif Antibiotic, cephalosporin... ATC code: J01DB12 Semisynthetic cephalosporin: narrow spectrum cephalosporin penicillin bi...IC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DB First-generation cephalosporins J01DB12 Ceftezole D07656

  14. Drug: D07654 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 22N6O7S2 546.0991 546.5761 D07654.gif Antibiotic, cephalosporin Same as: C06889 ATC code: J01DD02 Semisynthetic cephalosporin...: broad spectrum cephalosporin penicillin binding proteins inhibitor ko00550 Peptidoglycan ...USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DD Third-generation cephalosporins J01DD02 Ceftazidime D07654 C

  15. Drug: D02299 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ial [systemic] Same as: C06880 ATC code: J01DB04 Semisynthetic cephalosporin: narrow spectrum cephalosporin ...INFECTIVES FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01 ANTIBACTERIALS FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DB First-generation cephalos...porins J01DB04 Cefazolin D02299 Cefazolin (USP) USP drug classification [BR:br08302

  16. Drug: D01629 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . HCl 547.0962 548.0327 D01629.gif Antibacterial [veterinary] Same as: C13089 ATC code: J01DD10 Semisynthetic cephalosporin...: broad spectrum cephalosporin penicillin binding proteins inhibitor ko00550 Peptidoglycan bi... OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DD Third-generation cephalosporins J01DD10 Cefetamet D01629 Cefetamet p

  17. Drug: D00922 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibacterial Same as: C08117 ATC code: J01DD14 Semisynthetic cephalosporin: broad spectrum cephalosporin pen...S FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01 ANTIBACTERIALS FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DD Third-generation cephalosporin

  18. Drug: D00258 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6 D00258.gif Antibacterial Same as: C06881 Therapeutic category: 6132 ATC code: J01DD08 Semisynthetic cephalosporin...01 ANTIBACTERIALS FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DD Third-generation cephalosporin...: broad spectrum cephalosporin penicillin binding proteins inhibitor ko00550 Peptidoglycan biosynthes

  19. Drug: D03424 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tibacterial [veterinary] ATC code: J01DD10 Semisynthetic cephalosporin: broad spectrum cephalosporin penicil...SYSTEMIC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DD Third-generation cephalosporins J01DD10 Cefetamet D

  20. Drug: D07646 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07646 Drug Cefoselis (INN); CFSL C19H22N8O6S2 522.1104 522.558 D07646.gif Antibiotic, cephalosporin... Same as: C11210 Semisynthetic cephalosporin: broad spectrum cephalosporin penicillin bindi

  1. Drug: D02376 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bacterial Same as: C08111 ATC code: J01DE01 Semisynthetic cephalosporin: broad spectrum cephalosporin penici... SYSTEMIC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DE Fourth-generation cephalosporins J01DE01 Cefepime

  2. Drug: D00257 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 57.gif Antibacterial Same as: C06878 ATC code: J01DB05 Semisynthetic cephalosporin: narrow spectrum cephalosporin...MIC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DB First-generation cephalosporins J01DB05 Cefadroxil D0025

  3. Drug: D07651 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 256 D07651.gif Antibiotic, cephalosporin Same as: C06888 ATC code: J01DC10 Semisynthetic cephalosporin: intermediate spectrum cephalo...CTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DC Second-generation cephalosporins J01DC10 Cefprozil D07651 Cefprozil (INN) USP drug...sporin penicillin binding proteins inhibitor ko00550 Peptidoglycan biosynthesis map

  4. Drug: D01517 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . Na 461.9963 462.4624 D01517.gif Antibiotic, cephalosporin ATC code: J01DB12 Semisynthetic cephalosporin: narrow spectrum cephalospo...SYSTEMIC USE J01 ANTIBACTERIALS FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DB First-generation cephalosporin...rin penicillin binding proteins inhibitor ko00550 Peptidoglycan biosynthesis Anatom

  5. Drug: D02711 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8O2 538.1304 538.5971 D02711.gif Antibacterial ATC code: J01DB07 Semisynthetic cephalosporin: narrow spectrum cephalosporin...J01 ANTIBACTERIALS FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DB First-generation cephalosporin

  6. Drug: D01528 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01528.gif Antibacterial Same as: C12979 ATC code: J01DB11 Semisynthetic cephalosporin: narrow spectrum cephalosporin...TIBACTERIALS FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DB First-generation cephalosporins J0

  7. Drug: D00907 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available : J01DB03 Semisynthetic cephalosporin: narrow spectrum cephalosporin penicillin binding proteins inhibitor k...R BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DB First-generation cephalosporins J01DB03 Cefalotin D00907 Cefalotin sodium...H15N2O6S2. Na 418.0269 418.4199 D00907.gif Antibacterial Same as: C08100 Therapeutic category: 6132 ATC code

  8. Drug: D07649 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available orin Same as: C11199 ATC code: J01DE02 Semisynthetic cephalosporin: broad spectrum cephalosporin...1 ANTIBACTERIALS FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DE Fourth-generation cephalosporin...D07649 Drug Cefpirome (INN); CPR; Cefir (TN) C22H22N6O5S2 514.1093 514.5773 D07649.gif Antibiotic, cephalosp

  9. Drug: D07641 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07641 Drug Cefmenoxime (INN); CMX C16H17N9O5S3 511.0515 511.5585 D07641.gif Antibiotic, cephalosporin... ATC code: J01DD05 Semisynthetic cephalosporin penicillin binding proteins inhibitor ko00...IALS FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DD Third-generation cephalosporins J01DD05 Ce

  10. Drug: D07638 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available losporinase-resistant ATC code: J01DD17 Semisynthetic cephalosporin: broad spectrum cephalosporin...01 ANTIBACTERIALS FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DD Third-generation cephalosporin...D07638 Drug Cefcapene (INN); CFPN C17H19N5O6S2 453.0777 453.4927 D07638.gif Antibiotic, cephalospolin, cepha

  11. Drug: D00264 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16H19N3O4S 349.1096 349.4048 D00264.gif Antibacterial Same as: C06897 ATC code: J01DB09 Semisynthetic cephalosporin...: narrow spectrum cephalosporin penicillin binding proteins inhibitor ko00550 Peptidoglycan biosynthe...BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DB First-generation cephalosporins J01DB09 Cefradine D00264 Cefradine (JAN/INN

  12. Prophylactic Antibiotic Management of Surgical Patients Noted as "Allergic" to Penicillin at Two Academic Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard H; Jacques, Paul St; Wanderer, Jonathan P; Bombulie, Mark R; Agarwalla, Niraj

    2016-05-01

    We studied prophylactic antibiotics administered at 2 academic medical centers during a 6-year period where a cephalosporin was indicated but an "allergy" to penicillin was noted. Another drug (typically vancomycin or clindamycin) was substituted approximately 80% of the time; this occurred frequently even when symptoms unrelated to acute hypersensitivity were listed. In >50% of cases, the reaction was either omitted or vague (e.g., simply "rash"). Given the estimated 1% cross-reactivity between penicillins and cephalosporins with similar R1 side chains, many of these patients could have received either the prescribed cephalosporin or another cephalosporin with a different R1 side chain.

  13. CARACTERIZACIÓN MOLECULAR DE AISLAMIENTOS DE ENTEROBACTER CLOACAE MULTIRRESISTENTES, PRODUCTORES â-LACTAMASAS PROVENIENTES DE PACIENTES DE UN HOSPITAL DE TERCER NIVEL DE BOGOTÁ Molecular characterizacion of multi-cephalosporin resistan Enterobacter cloacae isolates from a third level hospital in Bogota-Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Ibonne Aydee García Romero; Emilia María Valenzuela de Silva; Carlos Humberto Saavedra; Aura Lucía Leal Castro; Javier Eslava Schmalbac; José Ramón Mantilla Anaya

    2005-01-01

    Antecedentes. Las enterobacterias, antaño flora normal del tracto gastrointestinal, han cambiado su biología y emergido como agentes patógenos nosocomiales que se tornan resistentes los antibióticos conocidos. Objetivo. Realizar la caracterización epidemiológico-molecular de 20 aislamientos de Enterobacter cloacae resistentes a cefalosporinas de tercera generación; provenientes de un hospital de tercer nivel de Bogotá-Colombia. Material y métodos. Los aislamientos fueron identificados mediant...

  14. Influence of different types of infusion set on infusion speed of cephalosporin antibiotics and on the occurrence of phlebitis of patients%不同类型输液器对头孢类抗生素输注速度及静脉炎发生情况的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲜于云艳; 刘平; 朱翠红

    2009-01-01

    [目的]探讨不同类型输液器对头孢类抗生素所致静脉炎的影响以及滴速达标情况.[方法]120例病人随机分为4组,均以30 gtt/min的滴速静脉输注头孢类抗生素,A组采用5.0 μm孔径的精密输液器,B组采用3.0 μm孔径的精密输液器,C组采用1.2 μm孔径的精密输液器,D组采用15.0 μm孔径的普通输液器.观察4组输液滴速达标情况和静脉炎的发生率.[结果]4组输液滴速均达标,应用1.2 μm孔径和3.0 μm孔径的输液器输液时未发生静脉炎.[结论]采用3.0 μm和1.2 μm孔径的精密输液器均可以减少静脉炎的发生.

  15. Neuroinfections due to Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streharova, A; Babjakova, A; Moravcikova, A; Harnicarova, A; Holeckova, K; Lesnakova, A; Sladeckova, V; Seckova, S; Kisac, P; Beno, P

    2007-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is not a rare pathogen causing meningitis, mainly in small children and in close contacts to livestock. The pathogen is naturally resistant to cephalosporins and some glycopeptides as well, therefore despite of syndromologic diagnosis of meningitis and initial therapy with 3rd generation cephalosporins according to the guidelines therapeutic failures with clinical consequences may occur.

  16. Drug: D07645 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07645 Drug Cefoperazone (INN); CPZ; Cefobid (TN); Peracef [veterinary] (TN) C25H27...E J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DD Third-generation cephalosporins J01DD12 Cefoperazone D07645 Cefopera...s inhibitor Penicillin binding proteins inhibitor Cephems - Cephalosporins Cefoperazone [ATC:J01DD12] D07645 Cefopera

  17. GCLE's Bright Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Huifang; Lei Guangyu

    2007-01-01

    @@ GCLE(7-phenylacetamide-3-chloromethyl-3-cepham-4-carboxylic acid p-methoxybenzyl ester) as an important intermediate of cephalosporin antibiotics is not new in China. GCLE,7-ADCA (7-aminodeacetoxyl) and 7-ACA (7-aminocephalosporanic acid) are called three major cephalosporin antibiotic intermediates.

  18. Antimicrobial Resistance Among Uropathogens That Cause Childhood Community-acquired Urinary Tract Infections in Central Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubov, Renata; van den Akker, Machiel; Machamad, Kaba; Hochberg, Amit; Nadir, Erez; Klein, Adi

    2017-01-01

    In this retrospective study 829 positive urine cultures were analyzed. Escherichia coli bacterium was the leading uropathogen (86%). Almost 60% were resistant to ampicillin and first generation cephalosporins, and about 30% of them resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Almost none of them were resistant to second and third generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, ciprofloxacin or nitrofurantoin.

  19. Drug: D07629 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available S 339.0525 339.3238 D07629.gif Antibiotic, chephalosporin ATC code: J01DB10 Semisynthetic cephalosporin: narrow spectrum cephalospori...STEMIC USE J01 ANTIBACTERIALS FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DB First-generation cephalosporin

  20. Assessment of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approaches for the analysis of ceftiofur metabolites in poultry muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, B.J.A.; Stolker, A.A.M.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    The use of cephalosporin antibiotics in veterinary practice is likely to play an important role in the development of ß-lactam-resistant bacteria. To detect off-label cephalosporin antibiotic usage, an analytical method is needed that, besides the native compound, also detects their active metabolit

  1. Drug: D07653 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07653 Drug Cefsulodin (INN); CFS C22H20N4O8S2 532.0723 532.5462 D07653.gif Antibiotic, cephalosporin... Same as: C11253 ATC code: J01DD03 Semisynthetic cephalosporin: broad spectrum cephalosporin...losporins J01DD03 Cefsulodin D07653 Cefsulodin (INN) Antiinfectives [BR:br08307] An...NTIINFECTIVES FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01 ANTIBACTERIALS FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DD Third-generation cepha

  2. Drug: D01262 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available C13H12N3O6S. Na 361.0345 361.3056 D01262.gif Antibacterial Same as: C12691 ATC code: J01DB10 Semisynthetic cephalosporin...: narrow spectrum cephalosporin penicillin binding proteins inhibitor ko00550 Peptidoglycan bios...INFECTIVES FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01 ANTIBACTERIALS FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DB First-generation cephalos...porins J01DB10 Cefacetrile D01262 Cefacetrile sodium (JAN); Cephacetrile sodium (US

  3. nalC、mexZ调控基因及oprD基因突变导致头孢菌素敏感型铜绿假单胞菌对碳青霉烯类中低度耐药%Mutations of oprD and regulatory genes nalC and mexZ led to moderate or low resistance to carbapenems in cephalosporin-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾章锐; 景翠源; 李宝林; 郭婧澜; 向成玉; 刘靳波

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨本地区出现的头孢菌素敏感型铜绿假单胞菌对碳青霉烯类药物中低度耐药的原因.方法 收集对头孢他啶和头孢吡肟敏感、对碳青霉烯类药物中低度耐药的铜绿假单胞菌临床分离株,十二烷基磺酸钠-聚丙酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)观察铜绿假单胞菌相对分子量(Mr)为46 000的外膜蛋白OprD的改变.实时荧光定量RT-PCR分析细菌外排系统基因mexA、mexC、mexE和mexX表达情况.PCR扩增oprD基因和外排系统表达调控基因(mexZ、mexR、nalC、nalD和nfxB)并进行测序分析.结果 30株分离菌有26株细菌外膜蛋白在Mr 46 000处有缺失或者减少;根据外膜蛋白表型选择30株细菌中的10株进行基因测序,发现碱基缺失和插入导致移码突变以及碱基的置换导致蛋白质合成的改变.外排系统基因以mexA和mexX速度表达为主,同对伴有少量mexC基因的过度表达.mexA的调控基因主要发生nalC Tyr23→His(TAC→ CAC)和mexRVal 26→Glu (GTG→GAG),mexX的调控基因mexZ发生Pro136→Ala(CCA→GCA)的突变.结论 该表型铜绿假单胞菌存在由oprD基因置换、缺失以及插入导致的外膜蛋白减少或缺失,nalC、mexZ调控基因突变引起外排系统mexAB-OprM和mexXY-OprM表达增加,可能是共同引起头孢菌素敏感型铜绿假单胞菌对碳青酶烯类药物中低度耐药的重要原因.

  4. Influence of change of cephalosporin breakpoints on susceptibility interpretation on Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and distribution of ESBLs-producing bacteria%头孢菌素折点变化对大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌药物敏感性及产超广谱β内酰胺酶菌株分布的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秋兰; 侯惠丽; 范德平

    2013-01-01

    目的:评估美国临床与实验室标准化协会(CLSI)M 100-S20(S20)文件中,有关头孢噻肟(CTX)、头孢曲松(CRO)、头孢他啶(CAZ)和头孢唑肟(ZOX)折点变化,对本地区大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌体外药物敏感性及产超广谱β内酰胺酶(ESBLs)菌株分布的影响.方法:采用纸片扩散法,对2010年至2011年间分离到的306株大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌,进行CTX、CRO、CAZ和ZOX的体外药物敏感性试验,用WHONET 5.4软件根据CLSI这2种折点标准(S19、S20)进行判读,CLSI表型确证试验确认产ESBLs菌株.结果:在S19下,大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌对CTX的耐药率分别是66.3%、43.8%;在S20下,大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌对CTX的耐药率分别是68.1%、45.5%,CRO与CTX相似.但在S19下,大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌对CAZ的耐药率分别为31.4%、22.3%;而在S20下,大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌对CAZ的耐药率分别上升至43.2%、34.7%,ZOX与CAZ相似.大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌中,产ESBLs菌的阳性率分别是62.7%和40.5%.产ESBLs的大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌对CTX的耐药率分别由S19折点下的93.1%、91.8%上升为新折点下的98.3%、98.0%,敏感率则由S19折点下4.3%、4.1%下降至新折点下的0.0%、0.0%.CRO的结果和CTX近似,新折点与ESBLs表型分布具有良好的对应关系,而CAZ的耐药率分别由S19折点下的33.6%、40.8%上升为新折点下的44.0%、57.1%,敏感率则由S19折点下56.0% 、42.9%下降至新折点下的41.4%、26.5%,ZOX结果与CAZ相似,新旧折点标准下药敏结果分布率的差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:应用新折点,CTX和CRO药敏结果与ESBLs表型检测结果具有高度一致性,临床医师可根据药敏结果选择用药;对于ZOX和CAZ,虽然新折点提高了大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌的耐药表型与产ESBLs检出率的一致性,但与临床治疗结局的相关性还有待进一步评估.

  5. Spontaneous adult Gram-negative bacillary meningitis in Soweto, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Teckie

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: A disproportionate burden of GNB meningitis fell on the HIV-infected, among whom absent or low CSF white cells was common. Management was complicated by high rates of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins.

  6. 76 FR 14023 - Determination that ROCEPHIN (Ceftriaxone Sodium) Injection, 250 Milligrams, 500 Milligrams, 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...., Bldg. 51, rm. 6368, Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002, 301- 796-3522. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In 1984... sodium) is a semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic for intravenous or intramuscular administration...

  7. Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immune hemolytic anemia secondary to drugs; Anemia - immune hemolytic - secondary to drugs ... Drugs that can cause this type of hemolytic anemia include: Cephalosporins (a class of antibiotics), most common ...

  8. Antimicrobial resistance of ESBLand AmpC-producing Escherichia coli isolated from meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasiński Bernard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 25 Escherichia coli strains isolated from beef, pork, and poultry meat, and producing extendedspectrum β-lactamases (ESBL (18 strains or AmpC- cephalosporinases (7 strains were tested for antimicrobial resistance using the minimum inhibitory concentration method with 16 antimicrobial agents. All examined strains were resistant to ampicillin and the first-generation cephalosporins. Variable resistance to the third-generation cephalosporins (40%-100% among ESBLproducing strains and 0-72% among AmpC-producing strains was noted. Less than 30% of examined strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin. All isolates were susceptible to the fourth-generation cephalosporins, cephalosporins connected with inhibitors of β-lactamases, carbapenems, and gentamycin

  9. Drug: D07657 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07657 Drug Ceftiofur (INN); Naxcel [veterinary] (TN) C19H17N5O7S3 523.029 523.5626... D07657.gif Antibiotic [veterinary] Cephalosporins penicillin binding proteins inhibitor ko00550 Peptidoglyc

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Haemophilus parainfluenzae by a kinetic killing-curve method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemsek, J G; Martin, R R; Greenberg, S B; Gentry, L O

    1980-03-01

    A kinetic killing-curve method, designed to mimic several aspects of clinical therapy in endocarditis, was used to test 10 strains of Haemophilus parainfluenzae against 28 antibiotic regimens. In an effort to simulate changing in vivo levels of antibiotic in serum, concentrations of three penicillins, three cephalosporins, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol were sequentially adjusted over a 12-hr period. Against six beta-lactamase-negative strains, gentamicin in combination with penicillin or cephalosporin invariably resulted in an additive or synergistic effect. Chloramphenicol and a penicillin or cephalosporin usually displayed an indifferent effect, but chloramphenicol was often antagonistic when combined with gentamicin. With four beta-lactamase-positive strains, variable responses were noted to penicillin-aminoglycoside combinations; cephalosporin-aminoglycoside combinations were usually synergistic. This dynamic approach to killing-curve studies may be more appropriate than a static system for in vitro examination of the effect of antimicrobial combinations against selected organisms.

  11. Unexpected death due to cefuroxime-induced disulfiram-like reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongmei; Zhang, Ji; Ren, Liang; Liu, Qian; Zhu, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Cefuoxime, a second-generation cephalosporin, is used in the treatment of Gram-positive infections. Here, we report a case cefuroxime-induced disulfiram-like reaction which led to sudden death of the patient. PMID:24014919

  12. Cefixime

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefixime will not work for colds, ... infection may not be completely treated and the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics.

  13. Bacteriology profile of febrile infectious complications after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Hao Huang

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Our study demonstrated an overall postbiopsy febrile complicating infection rate of 1.39%. E. coli was the most common pathogen. Fluoroquinolones or second generation cephalosporins are suggested as the initial choice in patients with postbiopsy fever.

  14. Unexpected death due to cefuroxime-induced disulfiram-like reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cefuoxime, a second-generation cephalosporin, is used in the treatment of Gram-positive infections. Here, we report a case cefuroxime-induced disulfiram-like reaction which led to sudden death of the patient.

  15. Choosing the right combination therapy in severe community-acquired pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Waterer, Grant W.; Rello, Jordi

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that combination antibiotic therapy is preferable to monotherapy for severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). In this issue Mortensen and colleagues present retrospective data suggesting that combination therapy with a cephalosporin and a fluoroquinolone is inferior to combination therapy with a cephalosporin and a macrolide. Several mechanisms exist by which quinolones could be inferior to macrolides in combination therapy, so if these findings are confirmed b...

  16. Drug: D08885 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08885 Drug Ceftobiprole (USAN/INN) C20H22N8O6S2 534.1104 534.5687 D08885.gif Broad... spectrum antibiotic Cephalosporin antibiotic See Ceftobiprole medocaril [DR:D08886] penicillin-binding prot...or Cephems - Cephalosporins Ceftobiprole D08885 Ceftobiprole (USAN/INN) CAS: 209467-52-7 PubChem: 96025568 L

  17. Synthesis and Preliminary Antimicrobial Activities of New Arylideneamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-(thio/dithio-acetamido Cephalosporanic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakir Mahmood Alwan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New derivatives of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid 1–8 were synthesized by acylation of the 7-amino group of the cephem nucleus with various arylidinimino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-thio(or dithio-acetic acid intermediates 3a–d and 5a–d, respectively, so the acyl side chains of these new cephalosporins contained a sulfide or disulfide bond. This unique combination of a Schiff base with the sulfide or disulfide bonds in the acyl side chain afforded new cephalosporins of reasonable potencies, some of which were found to possess moderate activities against the tested microorganisms. Their chemical structures were characterized by ¹H-NMR, IR spectroscopy and elemental microanalysis. Preliminary in vitro antimicrobial activities of the prepared cephalosporins were investigated using a panel of selected microorganisms. Results indicated that the newly synthesized cephalosporins containing disulfide bonds (compounds 5–8 exhibited better activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The cephalosporins cross-linked by a sulfide bond (compounds 1–4 showed a slight change in antimicrobial activities when compared with that of the reference cephalosporin (cephalexin.

  18. Using steric hindrance to design new inhibitors of class C beta-lactamases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trehan, Indi; Morandi, F.; Blaszczak, L.C.; Shoichet, Brian K. (NWU)

    2010-03-08

    {beta}-lactamases confer resistance to {beta}-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins. However, {beta}-lactams that form an acyl-intermediate with the enzyme but subsequently are hindered from forming a catalytically competent conformation seem to be inhibitors of {beta}-lactamases. This inhibition may be imparted by specific groups on the ubiquitous R1 side chain of {beta}-lactams, such as the 2-amino-4-thiazolyl methoxyimino (ATMO) group common among third-generation cephalosporins. Using steric hindrance of deacylation as a design guide, penicillin and carbacephem substrates were converted into effective {beta}-lactamase inhibitors and antiresistance antibiotics. To investigate the structural bases of inhibition, the crystal structures of the acyl-adducts of the penicillin substrate amoxicillin and the new analogous inhibitor ATMO-penicillin were determined. ATMO-penicillin binds in a catalytically incompetent conformation resembling that adopted by third-generation cephalosporins, demonstrating the transferability of such sterically hindered groups in inhibitor design.

  19. Verified clinical failure with cefotaxime 1g for treatment of gonorrhoea in the Netherlands: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Alje P; van Ogtrop, Marc L; Golparian, Daniel; Mehrtens, Jan; de Vries, Henry J C; Unemo, Magnus

    2014-11-01

    We describe the first case of treatment failure of gonorrhoea with a third generation cephalosporin, cefotaxime 1g intramuscularly, in the Netherlands. The case was from a high-frequency transmitting population (men having sex with men) and was caused by the internationally spreading multidrug-resistant gonococcal NG-MAST ST1407 clone. The patient was clinically cured after treatment with ceftriaxone 500 mg intramuscularly and this is the only third generation cephalosporin that should be used for first-line empiric treatment of gonorrhoea. Increased awareness of failures with third generation cephalosporins, enhanced monitoring and appropriate verification of treatment failures including more frequent test-of-cures, and strict adherence to regularly updated treatment guidelines are essential globally.

  20. Structures of ceftazidime and its transition-state analogue in complex with AmpC beta-lactamase: Implications for resistance mutations and inhibitor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, R.A.; Caselli, E.; Focia, P.J.; Prati, F.; Shoichet, B.K.

    2010-03-08

    Third-generation cephalosporins are widely used {beta}-lactam antibiotics that resist hydrolysis by {beta}-lactamases. Recently, mutant {beta}-lactamases that rapidly inactivate these drugs have emerged. To investigate why third-generation cephalosporins are relatively stable to wild-type class C {beta}-lactamases and how mutant enzymes might overcome this, the structures of the class C {beta}-lactamase AmpC in complex with the third-generation cephalosporin ceftazidime and with a transition-state analogue of ceftazidime were determined by X-ray crystallography to 2.0 and 2.3 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Comparison of the acyl-enzyme structures of ceftazidime and loracarbef, a {beta}-lactam substrate, reveals that the conformation of ceftazidime in the active site differs from that of substrates. Comparison of the structures of the acyl-enzyme intermediate and the transition-state analogue suggests that ceftazidime blocks formation of the tetrahedral transition state, explaining why it is an inhibitor of AmpC. Ceftazidime cannot adopt a conformation competent for catalysis due to steric clashes that would occur with conserved residues Val211 and Tyr221. The X-ray crystal structure of the mutant {beta}-lactamase GC1, which has improved activity against third-generation cephalosporins, suggests that a tandem tripeptide insertion in the {Omega} loop, which contains Val211, has caused a shift of this residue and also of Tyr221 that would allow ceftazidime and other third-generation cephalosporins to adopt a more catalytically competent conformation. These structural differences may explain the extended spectrum activity of GC1 against this class of cephalosporins. In addition, the complexed structure of the transition-state analogue inhibitor (K{sub i} 20 nM) with AmpC reveals potential opportunities for further inhibitor design.

  1. A randomised comparison of meropenem with cefotaxime or ceftriaxone for the treatment of bacterial meningitis in adults. Meropenem Meningitis Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzhard, E; Williams, K J; Vukmirovits, G; Chmelik, V; Pfausler, B; Featherstone, A

    1995-07-01

    Third-generation cephalosporins are presently the agents of choice for the empirical antimicrobial therapy of bacterial meningitis. However, a number of factors associated with these agents, namely the development of resistance by pneumococci, limited activity against some Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp., and the possible adverse effects of their bacteriolytic mode of action, indicate that newer classes of antimicrobial agents be evaluated for the treatment of bacterial meningitis. Meropenem is a carbapenem antibiotic which is highly active against the major bacterial pathogens causing meningitis, and penetrates well into the cerebrospinal fluid. Two prospective randomised studies in 56 adult bacterial meningitis patients have compared meropenem 40 mg/kg 8-hourly, up to a maximum of 6 g/day (n = 28) with cephalosporin treatment, i.e. cefotaxime (n = 17) or ceftriaxone (n = 11). Patients were assessed by neurological examination, Glasgow Coma Score and Herson-Todd score. Clinical cure was observed in all 23 evaluable patients treated with meropenem (100%) and with 17 of the 22 evaluable cephalosporin-treated patients (77%). All pre-treatment isolates were eradicated except one isolate of Staphylococcus aureus in a cefotaxime-treated patient. Neurological sequelae were noted in three meropenem and four cephalosporin-treated patients. No patients in either treatment group experienced seizures after the start of therapy. This was despite the fact that a patient in each group had experienced seizures before therapy, several had underlying CNS disorders, and that doses of 6 g/day of meropenem were given. Hearing impairment was recorded in 11 meropenem and nine cephalosporin treated patients. Three patients in the meropenem group and one in the cephalosporin group died during treatment for reasons unrelated to study therapy. Overall, the results of this study indicate that meropenem is an effective and well-tolerated antibiotic for the treatment of bacterial

  2. Characterization of an IncA/C Multidrug Resistance Plasmid in Vibrio alginolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lianwei; Li, Ruichao; Lin, Dachuan; Zhou, Yuanjie; Fu, Aisi; Ding, Qiong; Chan, Edward Wai Chi; Yao, Wen; Chen, Sheng

    2016-05-01

    Cephalosporin-resistant Vibrio alginolyticus was first isolated from food products, with β-lactamases encoded by blaPER-1, blaVEB-1, and blaCMY-2 being the major mechanisms mediating their cephalosporin resistance. The complete sequence of a multidrug resistance plasmid, pVAS3-1, harboring the blaCMY-2 and qnrVC4 genes was decoded in this study. Its backbone exhibited genetic homology to known IncA/C plasmids recoverable from members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, suggesting its possible origin in Enterobacteriaceae.

  3. Tris-EDTA no teste de sensibilidade antimicrobiana in vitro em amostras de Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka E.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by standard diffusion disk test and a modified method, by the addition Tris-EDTA, was evaluated. Increase in sensitivity of agent using modified method was observed mainly in aminoglycosides (amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, quinolones (ofloxacin and norfloxacin and cephalosporins (cefoperazone and ceftazidime groups. by standard diffusion disk test and a modified method, by the addition Tris-EDTA, was evaluated. Increase in sensitivity of agent using modified method was observed mainly in aminoglycosides (amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, quinolones (ofloxacin and norfloxacin and cephalosporins (cefoperazone and ceftazidime groups.

  4. Drug: D01863 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01863 Drug Cefodizime sodium (JP16); CDZM; Kenicef (TN); Neucef (TN) C20H18N6O7S4....ting mainly on gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria 6132 Cephem antibioitics D01863 Cefodizime sodium (J...d-generation cephalosporins J01DD09 Cefodizime D01863 Cefodizime sodium (JP16) Antiinfectives [BR:br08307] A...tor Cephems - Cephalosporins Cefodizime [ATC:J01DD09] D01863 Cefodizime sodium (JP16) CAS: 86329-79-5 PubChe

  5. Drug: D07643 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07643 Drug Cefodizime (INN); CDZM C20H20N6O7S4 584.0276 584.6688 D07643.gif Antibi...tion cephalosporins J01DD09 Cefodizime D07643 Cefodizime (INN) Antiinfectives [BR:br08307] Antibacterials Ce...ll wall biosynthesis inhibitor Penicillin binding proteins inhibitor Cephems - Cephalosporins Cefod...izime [ATC:J01DD09] D07643 Cefodizime (INN) CAS: 69739-16-8 PubChem: 51091947 LigandBox: D

  6. Drug: D00918 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00918 Drug Cefoperazone sodium (JP16/USP); CPZ; Cefobid (TN) C25H26N9O8S2. Na 667....mainly on gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria 6132 Cephem antibioitics D00918 Cefoperazone sodium (JP16...rd-generation cephalosporins J01DD12 Cefoperazone D00918 Cefoperazone sodium (JP16/USP) Antiinfectives [BR:b...ns inhibitor Cephems - Cephalosporins Cefoperazone [ATC:J01DD12] D00918 Cefoperazone sodium (JP16/USP) CAS:

  7. Drug: D02121 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02121 Drug Ceftibuten hydrate (JP16); CETB; Cedax (TN); Seftem (TN) C15H14N4O6S2. ...2H2O 446.0566 446.4554 D02121.gif Antibacterial Therapeutic category: 6129 ATC code: J01DD14 Semisynthetic c...m-negative bacteria 6129 Others D02121 Ceftibuten hydrate (JP16) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) class...YSTEMIC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DD Third-generation cephalosporins J01DD14 Ceftibuten D02121... Ceftibuten hydrate (JP16) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antibacterials Beta-lactam, Cephalosporins Ceftibuten D02121

  8. Drug: D08886 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08886 Drug Ceftobiprole medocaril (USAN) C26H25N8O11S2. Na 712.0982 712.6435 D0888... BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DI Other cephalosporins and penems J01DI01 Ceftobiprole medocaril D08886 Ceftobiprole...llin binding proteins inhibitor Cephems - Cephalosporins Ceftobiprole medocaril [ATC:J01DI01] D08886 Cefto...biprole medocaril (USAN) CAS: 252188-71-9 PubChem: 96025569 LigandBox: D08886 ATOM

  9. Drug: D07650 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available osporin, cephalosporinase-resistant Same as: C08114 ATC code: J01DD13 Semisynthetic cephalosporin...: broad spectrum cephalosporin penicillin binding proteins inhibitor ko00550 Peptidoglycan bio...IINFECTIVES FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01 ANTIBACTERIALS FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DD Third-generation cephalo...D07650 Drug Cefpodoxime (INN); CPDX; Epoxim (TN) C15H17N5O6S2 427.062 427.4554 D07650.gif Antibiotic, cephal...sporins J01DD13 Cefpodoxime D07650 Cefpodoxime (INN) USP drug classification [BR:br

  10. Drug: D07648 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rin ATC code: J01DC07 Semisynthetic cephalosporin: intermediate spectrum cephalosporin...D07648 Drug Cefotiam (INN); CTM; Aspil (TN) C18H23N9O4S3 525.1035 525.6281 D07648.gif Antibiotic, cephalospo...halosporins J01DC07 Cefotiam D07648 Cefotiam (INN) Antiinfectives [BR:br08307] Anti...ANTIINFECTIVES FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01 ANTIBACTERIALS FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DC Second-generation cep

  11. Cephamycins, a New Family of β-Lactam Antibiotics I. Production by Actinomycetes, Including Streptomyces lactamdurans sp. n1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapley, E. O.; Jackson, M.; Hernandez, S.; Zimmerman, S. B.; Currie, S. A.; Mochales, S.; Mata, J. M.; Woodruff, H. B.; Hendlin, D.

    1972-01-01

    A number of actinomycetes isolated from soil were found to produce one or more members of a new family of antibiotics, the cephamycins, which are structurally related to cephalosporin C. The cephamycins were produced in submerged fermentation in a wide variety of media by one or more of eight different species of Streptomyces, including a newly described species, S. lactamdurans. These antibiotics exhibit antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria which includes many that are resistant to the cephalosporins and penicillins. PMID:4790552

  12. Pseudolithiasis after recent use of ceftriaxone : an unexpected diagnosis in a child with abdominal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Martels, Julius Z. H.; Van de Meeberg, Evelien K.; Holman, Mirjam; Ligtenberg, Jack J. M.; ter Maaten, Jan C.

    2013-01-01

    Ceftriaxone is a widely prescribed third-generation broad spectrum cephalosporin, often used for treatment of severe bacterial infections in children. It is known that ceftriaxone can cause sonographic biliary abnormalities in children. However, in only a minority of these cases, it will be accompan

  13. Training Supplement Winter 2010 Journal of Special Operations Medicine. A Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Contraindications: o SERIOUS AND OCCASIONALLY FATAL HYPERSENSITIVITY (ANAPHYLACTIC) REACTIONS CAN OCCUR IN INDIVIDUALS WITH A HISTORY OF PENICILLIN ...IV / IM three times a day Contraindications: o Hypersensitivity to ertapenem o Penicillin allergy with documented severe reaction to PCN Winter...alternate class of medications (Cephalosporins/ Penicillins , Tetracyclines, Quinolones, Macrolides). Unless specifically noted, the drug dosages

  14. Beta-lactam hypersensitivity and cross-reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terico, Adrienne T; Gallagher, Jason C

    2014-12-01

    Penicillin is the most frequently reported cause of drug allergy, and cross-reactivity of penicillins with other beta-lactam antibiotics is an area of debate. This review evaluates the available data on immunoglobulin E-mediated penicillin hypersensitivity and cross-reactivity with cephalosporin, carbapenem, and monobactam antibiotics. A MEDLINE search was conducted from 1950 to October 2013, and selected references from review articles were also evaluated. There is a wide variety in reported incidences of cross-reactivity between penicillins and cephalosporins or carbapenems, with early retrospective studies suggesting up to 41.7% and 47.4% cross-reactivity, respectively. Conversely, the use of monobactam antibiotics is frequently employed in the case of a penicillin allergy, as prescribers believe that there is no cross-reactivity between the 2 drug classes. More recent prospective studies suggest that the rates of cross-reactivity with cephalosporins and carbapenems are penicillin and cephalosporin side chains may play a role in cross-reactivity between these classes. Cross-reactivity with monobactams is essentially negligible; however, there are some clinical data to support an interaction between ceftazidime and aztreonam, due to the similarity of their side chains. The data reviewed suggest that avoidance of other beta-lactams in patients with type 1 hypersensitivity to penicillins should be reconsidered.

  15. Effects of in-feed chlortetracycline prophylaxis of beef cattle on animal health and antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns have been raised that in-feed chlortetracycline (CTC) may increase antimicrobial resistance (AMR), specifically tetracycline-resistant (TETr) Escherichia coli, and third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCr) E. coli. We evaluated the impact of a 5-day in-feed CTC prophylaxis on animal h...

  16. Acinetobacter Species Infections among Navy and Marine Corps Beneficiaries: 2014 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-20

    prescnbed tnmethoprim/sulfamethaxazole, consistent w1th 2012 observat ions For multidrug-resistant cases in 2014, DON providers most commonly prescribed...select penicillins , cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides. Possible XDR (PXDR) isolates were those organisms non-susceptible to

  17. Biochemical Characterization of SFC-1, a class A carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Fátima; Sarmento, Ana Cristina; Henriques, Isabel; Samyn, Bart; van Beeumen, Jozef; Domingues, Pedro; Domingues, Maria Rosário; Saavedra, Maria José; Correia, António

    2007-12-01

    The carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase SFC-1 from Serratia fonticola UTAD54 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. The enzyme exhibited an apparent molecular mass of 30.5 kDa, determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. SFC-1 hydrolyzes penicillins, cephalosporins, aztreonam, and carbapenems and is inhibited by clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and tazobactam.

  18. Biochemical Characterization of SFC-1, a Class A Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing β-Lactamase▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Fátima; Sarmento, Ana Cristina; Henriques, Isabel; Samyn, Bart; van Beeumen, Jozef; Domingues, Pedro; Domingues, Maria Rosário; Saavedra, Maria José; Correia, António

    2007-01-01

    The carbapenem-hydrolyzing β-lactamase SFC-1 from Serratia fonticola UTAD54 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. The enzyme exhibited an apparent molecular mass of 30.5 kDa, determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. SFC-1 hydrolyzes penicillins, cephalosporins, aztreonam, and carbapenems and is inhibited by clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and tazobactam. PMID:17875998

  19. 76 FR 20357 - Determination That KEFLEX (Cephalexin) Capsule, Equivalent to 333 Milligrams Base, Was Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 51, Rm. 6368, Silver...-mg strength was approved on May 12, 2006. KEFLEX is a cephalosporin antibiotic indicated for the... previous instances (see 72 FR 9763, March 5, 2007; 61 FR 25497, May 21, 1996), the Agency has...

  20. Production of functionally active Penicillium chrysogenum isopenicillin N synthase in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gidijala, Loknath; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Klaassen, Paul; van der Klei, Ida J.; Veenhuis, Marten; Kiel, Jan A. K. W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: beta-Lactams like penicillin and cephalosporin are among the oldest known antibiotics used against bacterial infections. Industrially, penicillin is produced by the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. Our goal is to introduce the entire penicillin biosynthesis pathway into the me

  1. Production of functionally active Penicillium chrysogenum isopenicillin N synthase in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gidijala, L.; Bovenberg, R.A.L.; Klaassen, P.; Van der Klei, I.J.; Veenhuis, M.; Kiel, J.A.K.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: β-Lactams like penicillin and cephalosporin are among the oldes known antibiotics used against bacterial infections. Industrially, penicillin is produced by the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. Our goal is to introduce the entire penicillin biosynthesis pathway into the methyl

  2. Antibiotic prescribing policy and Clostridium difficile diarrhoea.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, K A

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Broad-spectrum antibiotics, particularly intravenous cephalosporins, are associated with Clostridium difficile diarrhoea. Diarrhoea due to C. difficile is a growing problem in hospitals, especially among elderly patients. AIM: To establish whether changing an antibiotic policy with the aim of reducing the use of injectable cephalosporins leads to a reduction in the incidence of C. difficile diarrhoea in elderly patients. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. METHODS: A group of patients who were subject to the new antibiotic policy from the period following July 2000, were compared with patients who were admitted prior to July 2000 and were not subject to the new policy. Infections, antibiotic prescriptions and mortality rates were determined from case notes, and C. difficle diarrhoea rates from microbiological data. RESULTS: Intravenous cephalosporin use fell from 210 to 28 defined daily doses (p < 0.001) following the change in antibiotic policy, with a corresponding increase in piperacillin-tazobactam (p < 0.001) and moxifloxacin (p < 0.001) use. The new policy led to a significant reduction in C. difficile diarrhoea cases. The relative risk of developing C. difficile infection with the old policy compared to the new policy was 3.24 (95%CI 1.07-9.84, p = 0.03). DISCUSSION: The antibiotic policy was successfully introduced into an elderly care service. It reduced both intravenous cephalosporin use and C. difficile diarrhoea.

  3. On the natural and laboratory evolution of an antibiotic resistance gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, M.L.M.

    2008-01-01

    TEM-1 ß-lactamase is one of the most notorious antibiotic resistance enzymes around. It exists at high frequencies in antibiotic-resistant bacteria around the world and confers resistance to ß-lactam antibiotics, including penicillins (e.g. ampicillin) and cephalosporins. The enzyme displays a remar

  4. Natural evolution of TEM-1 ß-lactamase: experimental reconstruction and clinical relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, M.L.M.; Visser, de J.A.G.M.; Barlow, M.

    2010-01-01

    TEM-1 ß-lactamase is one of the most well-known antibiotic resistance determinants around. It confers resistance to penicillins and early cephalosporins and has shown an astonishing functional plasticity in response to the introduction of novel drugs derived from these antibiotics. Since its discove

  5. Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Pediatric Emergency Department in Newfoundland and Labrador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Peebles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: First-generation cephalosporins and antistaphylococcal penicillins are typically the first choice for treating skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI, but are not effective for infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. It is currently unclear what percentage of SSTIs is caused by community-associated MRSA in different regions in Canada.

  6. Broad-spectrum β-lactamase in Enterobacteriaceae: detection, prevalence, and source tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voets, G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Enterobacteriaceae can cause a wide variety of infections ranging from gastrointestinal syndromes to urinary tract infections. These infections have significant mortality rates. Many classes of antibiotics are used to treat these infections. In particular, third-generation cephalosporins are used as

  7. Resistance Patterns of Typhoid Fever in Children: A Longitudinal Community-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vala, Snehal; Shah, Urvesh; Ahmad, Syed Amir; Scolnik, Dennis; Glatstein, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella typhi and S. paratyphi are important causes of bacteremia in children, especially those from the developing world. There is a lack of standardized treatment protocols for such patients in the literature, and there are also reports of therapeutic failure related to resistance to commonly used antibiotics. We analyzed the epidemiological, clinical, and antimicrobiological sensitivity patterns of disease in patients diagnosed with blood culture-positive typhoid fever over a 6-month period in a tertiary-care pediatric hospital in western India. Data were retrospectively analyzed for all patients with Salmonella isolates on blood culture between January 1 and June 30, 2011 at the Synergy Neonatal and Pediatric Hospital. Susceptibility of isolates to antimicrobials and minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined. Demographic data, symptoms and signs, basic laboratory results, treatment courses, and clinical outcomes were collected from clinical charts. All of the 61 isolates of S. typhi were sensitive to cefepime (fourth-generation cephalosporin), 96% to third-generation cephalosporins, and 95% to quinolones. There was intermediate sensitivity to ampicillin (92%) and chloramphenicol (80%). Notably, azithromycin resistance was observed in 63% of isolates. All patients ultimately made full recoveries. There is an urgent need for large scale, community-based clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness of different antibiotics in enteric fever. Our antimicrobial susceptibility data suggest that quinolones and third-generation cephalosporins should be used as first-line antimicrobials in enteric fever. Although fourth-generation cephalosporins are useful, we feel their use should be restricted to complicated or resistant cases.

  8. Clostridium difficile causing acute renal failure: Case presentation and review

    OpenAIRE

    Arrich, Jasmin; Sodeck, Gottfried H.; Sengölge, Gürkan; Konnaris, Christoforos; Müllner, Marcus; Anton N Laggner; Domanovits, Hans

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Clostridium difficile infection is primarily a nosocomial infection but asymptomatic carriers of Clostridium difficile can be found in up to 5% of the general population. Ampicillin, cephalosporins and clindamycin are the antibiotics that are most frequently associated with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea or colitis. Little is known about acute renal failure as a consequence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.

  9. Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Salmonella Isolates from Infections in Humans in Henan Province, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, S.L.; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Xie, Z.Q.;

    2009-01-01

    ) or bla(CTX-M15). With the possible exception of the quinolones and cephalosporins, the 1987-1993 S. enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates were almost as resistant as the recent isolates. PFGE typing of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium showed that the most common cluster predominated over time. Two other...

  10. QSAR Classification Model for Antibacterial Compounds and Its Use in Virtual Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    fidaxomicin (macrolides); telavancin (glycopep- tides); gemifloxacin ( quinolones ); linezolid (oxazolidinones); dapromycin (lipopeptides); and retapamulin...such as cephalosporin, penicillin, carbapenem, monobactem, and oxacephem. After the β-lactams, quinolones , sulfonamides, and macrolides constitute the...respectively. On other hand, the most druglike are sulfonamides and quinolones , each showing Lipinski violation counts of only 0.1 and 0.3, respectively

  11. Evaluating antibiotic stewardship programs in patients with bacteremia using administrative data: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boel, Jonas Bredtoft; Søgaard, Mette; Andreasen, Viggo;

    2015-01-01

    treatment. We categorized 2,008 adult patients diagnosed with bacteremia between 2010 and 2012 according to whether they received cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones (old regimen) or not (new regimen). We used administrative data to extract individual level data on mortality, readmission, and appropriateness...

  12. Audouin's gull, a potential vehicle of an extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Salmonella Agona

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antilles, Noelia; Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Joensen, Katrine Grimstrup;

    2015-01-01

    The genome of a multidrug-resistant Salmonella Agona isolated from Larus audouinii (Audouin's gull) in Spain was examined. The isolate showed high levels of resistance to different antimicrobials, including third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, which is a public health concern...

  13. Equilibrium position, kinetics, and reactor concepts for the adipyl-7-ADCA-hydrolysis process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Wiel, van de S.; Kroon, P.J.; Vroom, de E.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Tramper, J.

    2000-01-01

    One of the building blocks of cephalosporin antibiotics is 7-amino-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid (7-ADCA). It is currently produced from penicillin G using an elaborate chemical ring-expansion step followed by an enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis. However, 7-ADCA-like components can also be produced by di

  14. Udviling i anvendelse af antibiotika i dansk fødevareproduktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær

    2011-01-01

    of 2010 was likely due to the announcement of the "yellow card" regulation. From July 2010, a voluntary two years stop of cephalosporins use in pigs was realized, due to increasing occurrence of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) resistance in animal and meat isolates; highest levels of ESBL...

  15. MLST reveals potentially high-risk international clones of Enterobacter cloacae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izdebski, R.; Baraniak, A.; Herda, M.; Fiett, J.; Bonten, M. J M; Carmeli, Y.; Goossens, H.; Hryniewicz, W.; Brun-buisson, C.; Gniadkowski, M.; Grabowska, A.; Nikonorow, E.; Derde, L. P G; Dautzenberg, M. J.; Adler, A.; Kazma, M.; Navon-venezia, S.; Malhotra-kumar, S.; Lammens, C.; Dumpis, U.; Giamarellou, H.; Muzlovic, I.; Nardi, G.; Petrikkos, G. L.; Stammet, P.; Salomon, J.; Lawrence, C.; Legrand, P.; Rossini, A.; Salvia, A.; Samso, J. Vidal; Fierro, J.; Paul, M.; Lerman, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To perform the first multinational Enterobacter cloacae clonality study, using the MLST scheme newly developed in Japan. Methods: The analysis included 195 rectal carriage E. cloacae isolates resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs), collected from patients in 12 hospital uni

  16. Drug: D02005 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ion [BR:br08303] J ANTIINFECTIVES FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01 ANTIBACTERIALS FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTA...M ANTIBACTERIALS J01DD Third-generation cephalosporins J01DD03 Cefsulodin D02005 Cefsulodin sodium (JP16/USA

  17. Drug: D01904 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DD Third-generation cephalosporins J01DD11 Cefpiramide D01904 Cefpiramide sodium (JP16/...tion [BR:br08303] J ANTIINFECTIVES FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01 ANTIBACTERIALS FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACT

  18. Drug: D07659 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ion [BR:br08303] J ANTIINFECTIVES FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01 ANTIBACTERIALS FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTA...M ANTIBACTERIALS J01DD Third-generation cephalosporins J01DD04 Ceftriaxone D07659 Ceftriaxone (INN) USP drug

  19. CTX-M-1 β-lactamase expression in Escherichia coli is dependent on cefotaxime concentration, growth phase and gene location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thea S. B.; Overgaard, Martin; Nielsen, Søren S.;

    2015-01-01

    blaCTX-M-1 mRNA expression and CTX-M-1 protein levels were dependent on cefotaxime concentration, growth phase and gene location. These results provide insight into the expression of cephalosporin resistance in CTX-M-1-producing E. coli, improving our understanding of the relationship between ant...... antimicrobial therapy and the expression of resistance mechanisms....

  20. A randomised controlled trial of prophylaxis of post-abortal infection: ceftriaxone versus placebo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriques, C U; Wilken-Jensen, C; Thorsen, P;

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of post-operative infection after first trimester abortion in women treated with a long-acting cephalosporin (ceftriaxone) compared with low risk patients receiving no treatment and with high risk patients receiving our standard treatment of ampicillin/piva...

  1. Detection of CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 β-Lactamases in Escherichia coli Fecal-Sample Isolates from Healthy Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Zarazaga, Myriam; Porrero, Concepción; Sáenz, Yolanda; García, María; Dominguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    Genes encoding the CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 β-lactamases were detected in three of five Escherichia coli isolates from fecal samples from healthy chickens which showed resistance or diminished susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. A −42 mutation at the promoter region of the ampC gene was detected in the other two isolates.

  2. Detection of CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 β-Lactamases in Escherichia coli Fecal-Sample Isolates from Healthy Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Zarazaga, Myriam; Porrero, Concepción; Sáenz, Yolanda; García, María; Dominguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    Genes encoding the CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 β-lactamases were detected in three of five Escherichia coli isolates from fecal samples from healthy chickens which showed resistance or diminished susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. A −42 mutation at the promoter region of the ampC gene was detected in the other two isolates. PMID:12760899

  3. Detection of CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli fecal-sample isolates from healthy chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Zarazaga, Myriam; Porrero, Concepción; Sáenz, Yolanda; García, María; Dominguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen

    2003-06-01

    Genes encoding the CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 beta-lactamases were detected in three of five Escherichia coli isolates from fecal samples from healthy chickens which showed resistance or diminished susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. A -42 mutation at the promoter region of the ampC gene was detected in the other two isolates.

  4. Antimicrobial Resistance in Indicator Escherichia coli Isolates from Free-Ranging Livestock and Sympatric Wild Ungulates in a Natural Environment (Northeastern Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro-Gonzalez, N.; Porrero, M.C.; Mentaberre, G.; Serrano, E.; Mateos, A; Domínguez, L.; Lavín, S

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance was assessed in indicator Escherichia coli isolates from free-ranging livestock and sympatric wild boar (Sus scrofa) and Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) in a National Game Reserve in northeastern Spain. The frequency of antimicrobial resistance was low (0% to 7.9%). However, resistance to an extended-spectrum cephalosporin and fluoroquinolones was detected.

  5. Antimicrobial resistance in indicator Escherichia coli isolates from free-ranging livestock and sympatric wild ungulates in a natural environment (Northeastern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, N; Porrero, M C; Mentaberre, G; Serrano, E; Mateos, A; Domínguez, L; Lavín, S

    2013-10-01

    Antimicrobial resistance was assessed in indicator Escherichia coli isolates from free-ranging livestock and sympatric wild boar (Sus scrofa) and Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) in a National Game Reserve in northeastern Spain. The frequency of antimicrobial resistance was low (0% to 7.9%). However, resistance to an extended-spectrum cephalosporin and fluoroquinolones was detected.

  6. Antibiotikavalg ved purulent meningitis uden bakteriologisk diagnose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, H B

    1989-01-01

    A case of meningitis in a 16 month old boy caused by Hemophilus influenzae resistant to ampicillin is presented. The question is raised whether a third generation cephalosporin such as cefotaxime should be the drug of choice in the treatment of bacterial meningitis with unknown etiology...

  7. Utility of the VITEK 2 Advanced Expert System for Identification of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Production in Enterobacter spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Schwaber, Mitchell J.; Navon-Venezia, Shiri; Chmelnitsky, Inna; Leavitt, Azita; Schwartz, David; Carmeli, Yehuda

    2006-01-01

    Forty clinical isolates of Enterobacter spp. were identified as extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers by disk diffusion. The VITEK 2 Advanced Expert System (AES) identified the ESBL phenotype in only 25 isolates (62.5%), and erroneously reported cephalosporin susceptibility in 11 isolates (28%). Refinements in the AES are required in order to improve ESBL detection in Enterobacter.

  8. Prevalence and molecular characterization of clinical isolates of Escherichia coli expressing an AmpC phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rikke Lind; Nielsen, Jesper Boye; Friis-Møller, Alice

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish the prevalence of the AmpC beta-lactamase phenotype in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and characterize the genetic resistance mechanisms causing the observed phenotype. METHODS: Clinical E. coli (n = 74) with reduced susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporin...

  9. Diverse modulation of spa transcription by cell wall active antibiotics in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Nørby; Roggenbuck, Michael; Haaber, Jakob Krause

    2012-01-01

    , expression of all three genes were repressed by aminoglycosides and induced by fluoroquinolones and penicillins. In contrast, the beta-lactam sub-group cephalosporins enhanced expression of RNAIII and hla but diversely affected expression of spa. The compounds cefalotin, cefamandole, cefoxitin, ceftazidime...

  10. 常用抗生素在输注液体中稳定性的分析%The Analysis of Stability of the Common Antibiotics in Infusion fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英; 李雪山; 孙冰妹; 刘友山

    1999-01-01

    This paper had analyzed the stability of common ant ibiotics in (penicillins cephalosporins macrolides and vancomycin) infusion flui d.We had reached the conclusion in decomposition,titer,compatibility and pH of v arious antibiotics in infusion water.

  11. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacterial pathogens in the intensive care unit of Fatmawati Hospital, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksum Radji

    2011-02-01

    Conclusions: Most bacteria isolated from ICU of Fatmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia were resistant to the third generation of cephalosporins, and quinolone antibiotics. Regular surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility patterns is very important for setting orders to guide the clinician in choosing empirical or directed therapy of infected patients.

  12. Effects of reducing beta-lactam antibiotic pressure on intestinal colonization of antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Nijssen (Saskia); A.C. Fluit (Ad); D.A.M.C. van de Vijver (David); J. Top (Janetta); R.J.L. Willems (Rob); M.J.M. Bonten (Marc)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: We determined the effects of two antibiotic policies (predominance of either β-lactam antibiotics or fluroquinolones) on acquisition with third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and fluoroquinolone-resistant CRE (FCRE) in two ICUs, with monitoring of

  13. In vitro activities of ceftobiprole combined with amikacin or levofloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa: evidence of a synergistic effect using time?kill methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Kresken, Michael; Körber-Irrgang, Barbara; Läuffer, Jörg; Decker-Burgard, Sabine; Davies, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Ceftobiprole is an investigational intravenous broad-spectrum cephalosporin with in vitro activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a frequent nosocomial pathogen, increasingly associated with complicated skin and skin-structure infections. Combination antimicrobial therapy is recommended as empirical therapy for serious infections where P. ae...

  14. Ceftriaxone-associated nephrolithiasis and biliary pseudolithiasis in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prince, Jeffrey S. [Department of Radiology, UCSD Medical Center, 200 West Arbor Dr., Mail Code 8756, San Diego, CA 92103-8756 (United States); Senac, Melvin O. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital and Health Center, 3020 Children' s Way, San Diego, CA 92123-4282 (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Ceftriaxone is a widely used third-generation cephalosporin. It is generally very safe, but complications of biliary pseudolithiasis and, rarely, nephrolithiasis have been reported in children. These complications generally resolve spontaneously with cessation of the ceftriaxone therapy; however, they may symptomatically mimic more serious clinical problems, such as cholecystitis. We report a case of both ceftriaxone-induced biliary pseudolithiasis and nephrolithiasis. (orig.)

  15. Characterization of genetic determinants of extended-spectrum cephalosporinases (ESCs) in Escherichia coli isolates from Danish and imported poultry meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholz, Rikke; Jørgensen, Mikael Skaanning; Hansen, Lars H.

    2009-01-01

    Sir, The predominant cause of resistance towards cephalosporins in Escherichia coli is production of plasmid-encoded extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC-type ß-lactamases, also referred to as extended-spectrum cephalosporinases (ESCs). Most studies have focused on description of ESCs ...

  16. Prevalence and risk factors for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase or AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in organic dairy herds in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santman-Berends, I M G A; Gonggrijp, M A; Hage, J J; Heuvelink, A E; Velthuis, A; Lam, T J G M; van Schaik, G

    2016-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase and AmpC-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL/AmpC) are an emerging problem and are hypothesized to be associated with antimicrobial use (AMU), and more specifically with the use of third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. Whether ESBL/AmpC also occur in organic dairy h

  17. Public Health Risks of Enterobacterial Isolates Producing Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases or AmpC β-Lactamases in Food and Food-Producing Animals: An EU Perspective of Epidemiology, Analytical Methods, Risk Factors, and Control Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebana, Ernesto; Carattoli, Alessandra; Coque, Teresa M.

    2013-01-01

    The blaESBL and blaAmpC genes are spread by plasmid-mediated integrons, insertion sequences, and transposons, some of which are homologous in food animals and humans. Cephalosporin usage in animal production is an important risk factor; restricting such use would be an effective control option....

  18. Quinolone resistance and ESBL/AmpC’s in commensal Escherichia coli in veal calves : prevalence and molecular characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the prevalence and molecular characteristics of resistance to (fluoro)quinolones and Extended Spectrum Cephalosporins (ESC) in veal calves were described using Escherichia coli as an indicator organism. Ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid were used as indicator antimicrobials for quinolo

  19. A Phase 3 Randomized Double-Blind Comparison of Ceftobiprole Medocaril Versus Ceftazidime Plus Linezolid for the Treatment of Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awad, Samir S.; Rodriguez, Alejandro H.; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Marjanek, Zsuszanna; Pareigis, Alex J.; Reis, Gilmar; Scheeren, Thomas W. L.; Sanchez, Alejandro S.; Zhou, Xin; Saulay, Mikal; Engelhardt, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Background:  Ceftobiprole, the active moiety of ceftobiprole medocaril, is a novel broad-spectrum cephalosporin, with bactericidal activity against a wide range of gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains) and penicillin-and ceftriaxone-resista

  20. Ceftobiprole medocaril in the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, Thomas W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Ceftobiprole medocaril is a fifth-generation cephalosporin approved in Europe as single-agent therapy for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), excluding ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). It is rapidly converted to the active metabolite ceftobiprole following intravenous administration. Ceftobipro

  1. Exposure to ceftobiprole is associated with microbiological eradication and clinical cure in patients with nosocomial pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, A.E.; Punt, N.; Mouton, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The percentage of the dosing interval that the non-protein-bound plasma concentration is above the MIC (%fT>MIC) for cephalosporins has been shown to correlate with microbiological outcomes in preclinical studies. However, clinical data are scarce. Using data from a randomized double-blind phase

  2. Efficacy of ceftobiprole in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welte, T.; Scheeren, Thomas; Rodriguez, Alejandro H.; Demange, A.; Engelhardt, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Ceftobiprole medocaril is a novel cephalosporin approved in Europe for the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) excluding ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Ceftobiprole exhibits broad bactericidal activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, including meth

  3. Clinical cure and mortality outcomes with ceftobiprole medocaril versus ceftazidime plus linezolid in patients with early versus late-onset hospital-acquired pneumonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, Thomas; Welte, T.; Capellier, G.; Saulay, Mikal; Engelhardt, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Ceftobiprole, the active moiety of the prodrug ceftobiprole medocaril, is a novel cephalosporin for intravenous use, approved in certain European countries for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) excluding ventilator-associated pneumo

  4. Prevalence of bla CTX M extended spectrum beta lactamase gene in enterobacteriaceae from critical care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Indra Priyadharsini

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Early detection of CTX M producing Enterobacteriaceae by continuous surveillance and thereby reducing their spread and restricted use of third generation Cephalosporins (3GC antibiotics could be the possible routes to prevent the emergence and spread of CTX M ESBL producing organisms.

  5. Conformational Flexibility of the C Terminus with Implications for Substrate Binding and Catalysis Revealed in a New Crystal Form of Deacetoxycephalosporin C Synthase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Öster, Linda M.; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anke C.; Valegård, Karin; MacKenzie Hose, Alasdair; Dubus, Alain; Hajdu, Janos; Andersson, Inger

    2004-01-01

    Deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase (DAOCS) from Streptomyces clavuligerus catalyses the oxidative ring expansion of the penicillin nucleus into the nucleus of cephalosporins. The reaction requires dioxygen and 2-oxoglutarate as co-substrates to create a reactive iron–oxygen intermediate from a ferrou

  6. Providencia stuartii Isolates from Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomou, Olga; Liakopoulos, Apostolos; Phee, Lynette M.; Betts, Jonathan; Mevius, Dik; Wareham, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Providencia stuartii has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen. We describe an outbreak due to a multidrug-resistant strain over a 4-month period in a critical care unit in Athens. Molecular typing revealed each of the isolates to be clonally related with coresistance to cephalosporins, car

  7. Drug Utilization Study on Antimicrobial Use in Urinary Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil S Gidamudi

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The DDD/1000inhabitant/day of ceftriaxone was the highest (12.9. Third generation cephalosporins were used as first line drug in most cases. This group should be reserved for complicated UTIs. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(3.000: 216-221

  8. Recurrent peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis caused by Microbacterium resistens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallois, Emmanuelle; Lamy, Thomas; Fines-Guyon, Marguerite; Lobbedez, Thierry; Cattoir, Vincent

    2014-05-01

    We report a case of a recurrent peritonitis due to Microbacterium resistens in a 71-year-old male patient undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Importantly, this Gram-positive rod was intrinsically resistant to cephalosporins and vancomycin, classically used in PD-related peritonitis treatment. His infection resolved after several weeks of appropriate therapy (amoxicillin plus gentamicin) and PD catheter removal.

  9. Biosynthesis of active pharmaceuticals : β-lactam biosynthesis in filamentous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, M.A.; Gidijala, L.; Kiel, J.A.K.W.; Bovenberg, R.A.L.; van der Klei, I.J.

    2010-01-01

    beta-lactam antibiotics (e.g. penicillins, cephalosporins) are of major clinical importance and contribute to over 40% of the total antibiotic market. These compounds are produced as secondary metabolites by certain actinomycetes and filamentous fungi (e.g. Penicillium, Aspergillus and Acremonium sp

  10. Association of the use of bacterial cell wall synthesis Inhibitor drugs in early childhood with the Developmental Defects of Enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Amna; Alam Ansari, Munawar; Owais Ismail, Muhammad; Memon, Zahida

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Our objective of the study was to determine the association between frequent use of Penicillins and Cephalosporins with developmental defects of enamel in pediatric age group. Methods: This is a cross sectional study, conducted at Ziauddin University. A total of 367 children, having the history of either Penicillin or Cephalosporin exposure were included. The parents of children were asked to complete a questionnaire related to disease and drug history. Dental examination was carried out to assess the hypomineralization in tooth enamel based on modified Developmental Defects of Enamel (DDE) index. Results: Out of 367 children, 124 (34%) were males and females were 243(66%). In the study group 22.6% (n= 83) of children were found to be hypomineralized. The maximum type of teeth defects were diffused opacities that was 12.0% (n=44). The statistically significant association (p-value hypomineralization for most teeth. Children who were exposed to either Penicillins or Cephalosporin in early childhood showed significant (p-value hypomineralized enamel. Conclusion: This study concludes that frequent use of antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins has positive association with enamel hypomineralization in developing tooth structure. PMID:24772150

  11. Functional characterization of the oxaloacetase encoding gene and elimination of oxalate formation in the β-lactam producer Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daran, J.M.; Pronk, J.T.; Driessen, A.J.M.; Nijland, J.G.; Lamboo, F.; Puig-Martinez, M.; Veiga, T.; Gombert, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum is widely used as an industrial antibiotic producer, in particular in the synthesis of ß-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins. In industrial processes, oxalic acid formation leads to reduced product yields. Moreover, precipitation of calcium oxalate compl

  12. [Cross allergy between penicillins and other beta lactam antibiotics--the risk is much less than previously thought].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tängden, Thomas; Furebring, Mia; Löwdin, Elisabeth; Werner, Sonja

    2015-02-03

    Severe IgE-mediated allergic reactions to penicillins are rare but might be fatal. Because some studies demonstrated a high risk of cross-sensitivity to cephalosporins and carbapenems it has been recommended to avoid these antibiotics in patients with suspected hypersensitivity to penicillins. However, recent studies and analyses conclude that the risk of cross-reactivity was overestimated in the earlier studies and that it is in fact very low for parenteral cephalosporins and perhaps even negligible for carbapenems. The new knowledge has implications for the choice of therapy for bacterial infections in patients with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity, because alternative antibiotic regimens are often inferior to beta-lactam antibiotics. The aim of the present review is to present existing knowledge on cross-sensitivity between beta-lactams, as well as to discuss the management of patients with suspected allergic reactions to these antibiotics.

  13. Transformation of cefazolin during chlorination process: products, mechanism and genotoxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liping; Wei, Dongbin; Wei, Guohua; Du, Yuguo

    2013-11-15

    Large quantities of cephalosporins have entered into aquatic environment in recent years, posing potential adverse effect to human health and ecological safety. In this study, cefazolin, one of widely used cephalosporins, was targeted to explore its transformation behaviors in chlorination disinfection process. With the help of ultra high performance liquid chromatography and high resolution mass spectroscopy, one chlorinated product and four oxidation products were detected in cefazolin chlorination system. The corresponding transformation pathways of cefazolin were proposed. Two kinds of reactions occurred in chlorination system, one was oxidation of thioether-sulfur to sulfoxide and di-sulfoxide, and the other was base-catalyzed electrophilic substitution of alpha-H of amide by chlorine atom. The pH value determined the occurrence of reaction types, and increasing chlorine dose promoted transformation of cefazolin. More importantly, genotoxicity in SOS/umu assay had an elevation after chlorination, which might be attributed to the formation of chlorinated product and sulfoxide during chlorination process.

  14. Improving known classes of antibiotics: an optimistic approach for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Karen

    2012-10-01

    New antibiotic agents are desperately needed to treat the multidrug-resistant pathogens that continue to emerge at alarming rates. Many of the agents that have entered full clinical development since 1995 have been members of previously accepted classes of antibiotics. Among these are a new aminoglycoside (plazomicin), anti-MRSA cephalosporins (ceftobiprole and ceftaroline), a monocyclic β-lactam (BAL30072), the β-lactamase inhibitor combination of tazobactam with the anti-pseudomonal cephalosporin ceftolozane, β-lactam combinations with new non-β-lactam inhibitors (MK-7655 with imipenem, and avibactam with ceftazidime and ceftaroline), new macrolides (cethromycin and solithromycin), oxazolidinones (tedizolid phosphate and radezolid), and quinolones (delafloxacin, nemonoxacin and JNJ-Q2). Resistance and safety issues have been circumvented by some of these new agents that have well-established mechanisms of action and defined pathways leading toward regulatory approval.

  15. Antibiotic resistance pattern in uropathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta V

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Uropathogenic strains from inpatient and outpatient departments were studied from April 1997 to March 1999 for their susceptibility profiles. The various isolates were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumanii and Enterococcus faecalis. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of these isolates revealed that for outpatients, first generation cephalosporins, nitrofurantoin, norfloxacin/ciprofloxacin were effective for treatment of urinary tract infection but for inpatients, parenteral therapy with newer aminoglycosides and third generation cephalosporins need to be advocated as the organisms for nosocomial UTI exhibit a high degree of drug resistance. Trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole combination was not found to be effective for the treatment of urinary tract infections as all the uropathogens from inpatients and outpatients showed high degree of resistance to co-trimoxazole. Culture and sensitivity of the isolates from urine samples should be done as a routine before advocating the therapy.

  16. Study of bacteria isolated from the foot pad of Spheniscus magellanicus with and without bumblefoot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Osório

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The bumblefoot or pododermatitis is among the diseases with the highest morbidity in Magellanic penguins, sometimes evolving to septicemia and death. Therefore, this study aimed to relate the main species involved in the disorder, as well as the in vitro susceptibility profile of the microorganisms against routine antimicrobial usage in Veterinary Medicine. During two years in vivo material was harvested from 200 footpads (n=100 animals for microbiological analysis and in vitro susceptibility tests against the Antibiotic enrofloxacin, streptomycin, penicillin and cephalosporin. Bacteria have been identified both as part of permanent and transient microbiota, also being associated to 100% of the pododermatitis cases. The most prevalent genus were Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium. The antibiograms of all the isolated bacteria resulted in greater susceptibility of the strains facing cephalosporin, followed by enrofloxacin, streptomycin and penicillin.

  17. Occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from diagnostic samples from dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Pedersen, Kristina; Jensen, Helene;

    2007-01-01

    Stat, a national database for reporting antimicrobial prescriptions. Results: The majority of the antimicrobials prescribed for dogs were broad-spectrum compounds, and extended-spectrum penicillins, cephalosporins and sulphonamides 1 trimethoprim together accounted for 81% of the total amount used for companion...... animals. Resistance to cephalosporins and amoxicillin with clavulanic acid was very low for all bacterial species examined, except for P. aeruginosa, and resistance to sulphonamides and trimethoprim was low for most species. Among the S. intermedius isolates, 60.2% were resistant to penicillin, 30.......2% to fusidic acid and 27.9% to macrolides. Among E. coli isolates, the highest level of resistance was recorded for ampicillin, sulphonamides, trimethoprim, tetracyclines and streptomycin. Certain differences in resistance patterns between isolates from different sites or organs were noticed for E. coli, S...

  18. Ceftobiprole for the treatment of pneumonia: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapikou, Adamantia; Cillóniz, Catia; Torres, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Ceftobiprole, a new broad spectrum, parenteral cephalosporin, exhibits potent in vitro activity against a number of Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Gram-negative pathogens associated with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Ceftobiprole has demonstrated noninferiority in two large-scale pivotal studies comparing it to ceftriaxone with or without linezolid in CAP, with clinical cure rates 86.6% versus 87.4%, or ceftazidime in HAP, with clinical cure rates of 77% versus 76%, respectively. However, ceftobiprole was inferior in the subgroup of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Ceftobiprole has so far demonstrated a good safety profile in preliminary studies, with similar tolerability to comparators. The most commonly observed adverse events of ceftobiprole included headache and gastrointestinal upset. It is the first cephalosporin monotherapy approved in the EU for the treatment of both CAP and HAP (excluding ventilator-associated pneumonia).

  19. Progress on the Synthesis of Ceftobiprole%头孢吡普的合成进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓康; 吴沙沙; 张勇

    2012-01-01

    头孢吡普为广谱头孢菌素类抗生素,其抗菌谱包括耐甲氧西林金葡菌(MRSA)和耐万古霉素金葡球菌(VR-SA)等,应用前景广阔,属于"第五代"头孢菌素类抗生素。介绍了其合成方法。%Ceftobiprole is a broad spectrum cephalosporine antibiotic with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA), and has an extremely extensive application prospect in the market, so it has been considered as a mumber of the fifth-generation cephalosporine antibiotic.To introduce its synthetic routes.

  20. EFFECTIVENESS OF MRSA DETECTION METHODS IN THE LABORATORY PRACTICE – A BRIEF REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neli M. Ermenlieva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are bacteria, responsible for severe and hard-to-manage infections in human. They are resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics – penicillins (methicillin, dicloxacillin, nafcillin, and oxacillin, cephalosporins and carbapenems, but can also be resistant to the new-generation MRSA-active cephalosporins (such as ceftaroline or other groups of antibiotics, including aminoglycosides, macrolides, clindamycin, amphenicols, quinolones and tetracyclines. MRSA bacteria are pandemic and are often isolated in medical practice and nosocomial infections. The MRSA detection is a challenge to any clinical microbiology laboratory and demands implementation of strict protocols for active screening. While more expensive molecular techniques have the potential of offering highly sensitive and rapid results, the cultural methods require longer time but can achieve a comparable sensitivity for lower price.

  1. World Health Organization Ranking of Antimicrobials According to Their Importance in Human Medicine: A Critical Step for Developing Risk Management Strategies to Control Antimicrobial Resistance From Food Animal Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignon, Peter C; Conly, John M; Andremont, Antoine; McEwen, Scott A; Aidara-Kane, Awa

    2016-10-15

    Antimicrobial use in food animals selects for antimicrobial resistance in bacteria, which can spread to people. Reducing use of antimicrobials-particularly those deemed to be critically important for human medicine-in food production animals continues to be an important step for preserving the benefits of these antimicrobials for people. The World Health Organization ranking of antimicrobials according to their relative importance in human medicine was recently updated. Antimicrobials considered the highest priority among the critically important antimicrobials were quinolones, third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, macrolides and ketolides, and glycopeptides. The updated ranking allows stakeholders in the agriculture sector and regulatory agencies to focus risk management efforts on drugs used in food animals that are the most important to human medicine. In particular, the current large-scale use of fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and third-generation cephalosporins and any potential use of glycopeptides and carbapenems need to be addressed urgently.

  2. A drug interaction study of ceftriaxone and frusemide in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, A; Eichler, H G; Gasic, S

    1986-05-01

    Ceftriaxone, a recently developed cephalosporin significantly reduced the diuretic activity of frusemide in rats. For this reason and because an interaction of unknown mechanism is well established between frusemide and some cephalosporins, we studied the interference of ceftriaxone with the diuretic effect of frusemide in healthy volunteers. Twelve subjects received frusemide (40 mg p.o.) or placebo in combination with ceftriaxone (2 g i.v.) or saline on 4 different days (cross-over, randomized, single-blind study). Urine was collected in small portions during 24 hours after medication and analyzed for volume, osmolality, Na+, K+, Cl- and creatinine concentration. Ceftriaxone had neither an effect on basal urinary output and electrolyte excretion nor on the specific diuretic action of frusemide.

  3. Risk assessment of antimicrobial usage in Danish pig production on the human exposure to antimicrobial resistant bacteria from pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struve, Tina

    to antimicrobials are influenced by the use of antimicrobial agents, and the prudence of antimicrobial use have been emphasized since the Swann report in 1969 recommended that antibiotics used in human medicine should not be used as growth promoters in food-producing animals. In 2007, the World Health Organisation......During the last decades, bacteria with resistance to all commonly used antimicrobial agents have been detected, thereby posing a major threat to public health. In worst case, infections with resistant bacteria can lead to treatment failure and death of humans. The evolution of bacteria resistant...... (WHO) pronounced a list of the antimicrobial classes critically important for the treatment of infectious diseases in humans. On this list occurred among others the third and fourth generation cephalosporins. Cephalosporins have been used increasingly worldwide throughout the recent years to treat...

  4. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance among Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from Aleppo, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak; Al Najjar, Mona; Mahfoud, Maysa

    2012-10-01

    This study describes and analyzes Acinetobacter baumannii antibiotic susceptibly profile in Aleppo, Syria, thus providing vital information for guiding treatment of A baumannii infections. Two hundred sixty nonrepetitive A baumannii isolates were studied over 3.5 years. Resistance rates are at the higher end of globally reported levels. Newer cephalosporins and β-lactamase-resistant agents are becoming practically ineffective. Better activity is limited to carbapenems and colistin, which elicited the highest susceptibility levels.

  5. Serum sickness-like illness associated with ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, T G

    1990-05-01

    Serum sickness is a systemic hypersensitivity reaction initially reported in children receiving horse serum. Drugs such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and sulfonamides are now noted to be the most common etiologic agents of serum sickness-like reactions. This case report describes a serum sickness-like reaction temporally related to ciprofloxacin, a previously unreported adverse effect of this drug or any of the other quinolones.

  6. Journal of Special Operation Medicine: A Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals. Training Supplement, Winter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A HISTORY OF PENICILLIN HYPERSENSITIVITY o Do not use in patients with a history of liver failure Winter 2010 Training Supplement Drug List B83...18 yrs K-9 Dose o 250 mg IV / IM three times a day Contraindications: o Hypersensitivity to ertapenem o Penicillin allergy with documented...one class of medications, use alternate class of medications (Cephalosporins/ Penicillins , Tetracyclines, Quinolones, Macrolides). Unless

  7. Chromosome-Encoded Extended-Spectrum Class A β-Lactamase MIN-1 from Minibacterium massiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Bercot, Béatrice; Nordmann, Patrice; Drancourt, Michel; Poirel , Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Minibacterium massiliensis strain CIP107820 is a recently discovered waterborne Gram-negative rod isolated from hospital water samples. It harbors a chromosomally located gene encoding an Ambler class A extended-spectrum β-lactamase termed MIN-1, sharing 56%, 54%, and 51% amino acid identities with β-lactamases LUT-1, KPC-2, and CTX-M-2, respectively. β-Lactamase MIN-1 hydrolyzes penicillins, narrow-spectrum cephalosporins, cefotaxime, and, less efficiently, cefepime, while ceftazidime and ca...

  8. Evidence of household transfer of ESBL-/pAmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae between humans and dogs – a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Oskar Ljungquist; Ditte Ljungquist; Mattias Myrenås; Cecilia Rydén; Maria Finn; Björn Bengtsson

    2016-01-01

    Background: Extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (ESCRE) are an increasing healthcare problem in both human and veterinary medicine. The spread of ESCRE is complex with multiple reservoirs and different transmission routes. The aim of this study was to investigate if ESCRE carriage in dogs is more prevalent in households with a known human carrier, compared to households where humans are known to be negative for ESCRE. Identical ESCRE strains in humans and dogs of the ...

  9. Antimicrobial activity of beta-lactams against multiresistant micro-organisms from the family Enterobacteriaceae, and genus Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebla, A; González, I; Vallín, C

    1994-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of twenty beta-lactams was determined against multiresistant micro-organisms from the Enterobacteriaceae family (450) and the genus Pseudomonas (90). The antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed by the disk diffusion method. The most effective antibiotics were cephalosporins of the second and third generation, and non-classical beta-lactams (imipenem and moxalactam). A pronounced resistance was found to carbenicillin, ampicillin, cephalotin and cefazolin. These resistance patterns corresponded to a high consumption of these antibiotics.

  10. A rare case of enteric and systemic Yersinia enterocolitica infection in a chronic, not iron-overloaded dialysis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Intra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We present herein a case of bacterial gastroenteritis due to Yersinia enterocolitica, occurred in a young woman undergoing haemodialysis with a previous history positive for prolonged (20 years immunosuppressive therapy for glomerulonephritis before and for kidney transplant later. The patient’s outcome was favourable after a third-generation cephalosporin treatment without complications. The possible pathophysiological association between patient clinical condition and Yersinia bacteraemia is discussed, along with the review of literature.

  11. Production of functionally active Penicillium chrysogenum isopenicillin N synthase in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha

    OpenAIRE

    Veenhuis Marten; van der Klei Ida J; Klaassen Paul; Bovenberg Roel AL; Gidijala Loknath; Kiel Jan AKW

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background β-Lactams like penicillin and cephalosporin are among the oldest known antibiotics used against bacterial infections. Industrially, penicillin is produced by the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. Our goal is to introduce the entire penicillin biosynthesis pathway into the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha. Yeast species have the advantage of being versatile, easy to handle and cultivate, and possess superior fermentation properties relative to filamentous...

  12. Penicillinase-producing plasmid types in Neisseria gonorrhoeae clinical isolates from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, David; Trembizki, Ella; Buckley, Cameron; Freeman, Kevin; Lawrence, Andrew; Limnios, Athena; Pearson, Julie; Smith, Helen; Stevens, Kerrie; Lahra, Monica M

    2014-12-01

    Penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) carrying the blaTEM-135 gene is of particular concern, as it is considered a stepping stone toward resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Here, we sought to characterize plasmid types and the occurrence of the blaTEM-135 gene for N. gonorrhoeae clinical isolates from Australia. We found that blaTEM-135 was prevalent in Australian PPNG and was detected on all three major plasmid types.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of a Human-Invasive Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strain of the Emerging Sequence Type 213 Harboring a Multidrug Resistance IncA/C Plasmid and a blaCMY-2-Carrying IncF Plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudia; Calva, Edmundo; Calva, Juan J; Wiesner, Magdalena; Fernández-Mora, Marcos; Puente, José L; Vinuesa, Pablo

    2015-11-12

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 33676 was isolated in Mexico City, Mexico, from a patient with a systemic infection, and its complete genome sequence was determined using PacBio single-molecule real-time technology. Strain 33676 harbors an IncF plasmid carrying the extended-spectrum cephalosporin gene blaCMY-2 and a multidrug resistance IncA/C plasmid.

  14. Antibiotic resistance in the environment, with particular reference to MRSA

    OpenAIRE

    Gaze, William H.; O'Neill, Colette; Wellington, E. M. H.; Hawkey, P M

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of β-lactam antibiotics (penicillins and cephalosporins) in the 1940s and 1950s probably represents the most dramatic event in the battle against infection in human medicine. Even before widespread global use of penicillin, resistance was already recorded. E. coli producing a penicillinase was reported in Nature in 1940 (Abraham, 1940) and soon after a similar penicillinase was discovered in Staphylococcus aureus (Kirby, 1944). The appearance of these genes, so quickly after ...

  15. [Initial antibiotic therapy in maternal-fetal infections which include ampicillin even in countries where listeriosis is an incidental disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukadida, J; Taher, N Bel Hadj; Seket, B; Monastiri, K; Salem, N; Snoussi, N

    2002-06-01

    Neonatal listeriosis is an exceptional disease in Northern Africa. Hence, protocols for maternal-fetal infection treatment include only a third generation cephalosporin and an aminoside. This protocol does not take into account the possibility of Listeria monocytogenes infection. We report a fatal case of neonatal listeriosis in Tunisia. The use of first antibiotics in maternal-foetal infection must be reconsidered when lacking sufficient bacteriological data and include systematically ampicillin in presumptive antibiotic protocols.

  16. Stability of Ranitidine Hydrochloride with Cefazolin Sodium, Cefbuperazone Sodium, Cefoxitin Sodium and Cephalothin Sodium during Simulated Y-Site Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, K; Miyamoto, Y; Kurata, N; Nakane, S; Gill, M A; Nishida, M

    2000-01-01

    The compatibility and stability of ranitidine hydrochloride when comixed with four cephalosporins (cefazolin sodium, cefoxitin sodium, cephalothin sodium and cefbuperazone sodium) during simulated Y-site injection were studied. The mixtures were prepared by mixing equal volumes (2 mL) of ranitidine hydrochloride (1mg/mL) and each tested cephalosporin (20 mg/mL) in a 10 mL glass test tube. All study mixtures were prepared in triplicate and stored at room temperature under normal fluorescent room lighting. The physical appearaance and pH of each mixture were recorded; the chemical stability of each drug was immediatedly determined by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography from samples stored for up to four hours after mixing. Stability was defined as the retention of more than 90% of the initial concentration of each drug. Visual inspection revealed no color or clarity change and the pH changes were less than 0.2 pH units in the tested mixtures for cefazolin and cefoxitin: however, there were significant pH changes for cefbuperazone and cephalothin after four hours of storage. Ranitidine retained greater than 90% of its original concentration within the tested period in the mixture with 20 mg/mL of each tested cephalosporin, except for cephalothin (86.6% of control). In the presence of 10 mg/mL cephalothin, however, ranitidine retained greater than 90% for four hours. Meanwhile, all four cephalosporins retained greater than 90% of their original concentrations for up to four hours in the mixture with ranitidine. From the results obtained, it is clear that ranitidine solution may be coadministered with a solution of either cefazolin, cefoxitin or cefbuperazone during Y-site administration for up to four hours after mxining. On the other hand, since ranitidine with cephalothin (20 mg/mL) fell below 90%, the amount of cephalothin should not exceed 10 mg/mL when coadminstered with ranitidine solution.

  17. KPC with ESBL: A multistarrer tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyendu Banerjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most dangerous carbapenemase is Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase or KPC, possessing the ability to hydrolyze the Carbapenems, and other beta-lactams as well like Penecillins, Cephalosporins, and aztreonam. Many members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and few other non-fermenters contain the gene blaKPC, which codes for the enzyme KPC, and hence this is transferrable. Although the reports of KPC producers are scanty from India, it is still a dark cloud on the horizon, with the ability to overcast the sky. Our main aim was to identify KPC producing isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae in our Tertiary care Medical Institution. Materials and Methods: Over a 3 months period, we collected 54 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae from different samples. We performed sensitivity against a variety of antibiotics including 3 Carbapenems , 3 extended spectrum Cephalosporins, and co-amoxyclav, both by disc diffusion and E-test against Ertapenem. Results: Out of 54 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, 38 (70.37% showed resistance towards Ertapenem. Among these 38 isolates, 8 (14.81% were found to be KPC producers. They were ESBL producers also. Conclusions: Ertapenem resistance is the most sensitive phenotypic marker for detecting KPC. Also, KPC shows resistance to the extended spectrum Cephalosporins. We found 38 isolates showing reduced susceptibility to Ertapenem (by MIC - thus raising the chance of harbouring the enzyme. Truly, 8 among were confirmed as KPC and ESBL producers. All the microbiology laboratories should routinely search for KPC producers, using Ertapenem as a marker followed by confirmation with the three extended spectrum Cephalosporins.

  18. Evaluation of Four Commercially Available Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Phenotypic Confirmation Tests

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production in members of the Enterobacteriaceae can confer resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, aztreonam, and penicillin. As such, the accurate detection of ESBL producers is essential for the appropriate selection of antibiotic therapy. Twenty previously characterized isolates and 49 clinical isolates suspected of ESBL production were tested by four ESBL phenotypic confirmatory methods for accuracy and ease of use. The four ESBL phenotypic ...

  19. Detection of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase producing Escherichia coli (ESBL E.coli) from chicken meat in Niigata Prefecture, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are the enzymes which degrade oxyimino-cephalosporins such as cefotaxime and ceftazidime, and make the antibiotics ineffective. In the past decade, drug resistance derived from Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL E. coli) has been increasing dramatically worldwide. The ESBLs genes are located on plasmids that can be easily transferred between and within bacterial species. It is indicated the linkage of ESBL E. coli from the...

  20. A preliminary report on the susceptibility to aminoglycosides of Escherichia coli isolated from the community-acquired urinary tract infections in adults in south-east Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Fidecka-Skwarzynska Magdalena; Juda Marek; Maziarczyk Lucyna; Malm Anna

    2015-01-01

    World-wide, urinary tract infections (UTIs) are an important clinical problem. In such, the most frequently isolated uropathogen is Escherichia coli. In the treatment of uncomplicated UTIs, e.g. cystitis, the widely used antibiotics are nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, fosfomycin trometamol or ciprofloxacin, while the treatment of pyelonephritis requires the usage of antibiotics with a broader spectrum of activity, such as cephalosporins of the 3rd and 4th generation, aminoglyco...

  1. Occurrence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from hospitalized patients in Curitiba, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Keite da Silva Nogueira; Ilma Hiroko Higuti; Agnaldo José do Nascimento; Larissa Bail Terasawa; Simone Oliveira; Adriana Pereira Matos; Helena Aguilar Peres Homem de Mello de Souza; Laura Lúcia Cogo; Libera Maria Dalla Costa

    2006-01-01

    Production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) by enterobacteria is an important resistance mechanism against antimicrobial beta-lactamics. We tested 498 bacterial strains isolated from two tertiary-care teaching hospitals for ESBL production, using screening breakpoints for aztreonam and third generation cephalosporins, according to CLSI recommendations. Among these isolates, 155 were positive for the ESBL screening test, and 121 (78%) were confirmed by the clavulanic acid combinatio...

  2. Mecanismes de resistència als [beta]-lactàmics en enterobacteris, 1994-1996

    OpenAIRE

    Sabaté i Pina, Montse

    2002-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada All clinically relevant Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated between 1994 and 1996 without inducible chromosomal b-lactamase, that showed decreased susceptibility to broad-spectrum cephalosporins and/or aztreonam, were selected. The mechanism implicated in the decreased susceptibility was determined by analytical isoelectric focusing, PCR and/or sequenciation. The results obtained showed that the most frequent mechanism i...

  3. Continuous cultivations of a Penicillium chrysogenum strain expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus: Kinetics of adipoyl-7-aminodeacetoxycephalosporanic acid and byproduct formations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robin, Jarno Jacky Christian; Bruheim, P.; Nielsen, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    is characteristic for cephalosporins. The byproduct may be formed via isopenicillin N by as-yet unknown mechanisms, but involving expandase. It is likely that the unknown compound (UC) is deacetoxycephalosporin C (DAOC). Investigation of the instability of the various beta-lactams produced showed higher instability...... productivity of total beta-lactams was compared with that of the penicillin-G-producing host strain, and it was found to be lower at dilution rates of...

  4. Cefotaxime stability during in vitro microbiological testing.

    OpenAIRE

    Marchbanks, C R; Yost, R L; White, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    Cefotaxime is a broad-spectrum cephalosporin which is metabolized or degraded to less active or inactive metabolites by serum esterases, elevated temperatures, or a pH outside of its stability range. Cefotaxime instability during in vitro microbiological susceptibility tests may lead to an underestimation of the antibacterial activity of the compound. Cefotaxime and desacetylcefotaxime solutions were studied under MIC and serum inhibitory titer testing conditions. Cefotaxime concentrations, a...

  5. Rapid Detection of the Mosaic Structure of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae penA Gene, Which Is Associated with Decreased Susceptibilities to Oral Cephalosporins▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Susumu; Ishiko, Hiroaki; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Deguchi, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    In Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the mosaic structure of the penA gene (encoding penicillin-binding protein 2 [PBP 2]), which is composed of fragments of the penA genes from Neisseria cinerea and Neisseria perflava, has been significantly associated with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins, particularly oral cephalosporins. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid assay for the detection of mosaic PBP 2 of N. gonorrhoeae by real-time PCR. This assay successfully detected the mosaic penA gene of N. gonorrhoeae, and its sensitivity was ≥101 copies/reaction. Six hundred twenty-one clinical strains were examined by this assay for the presence of mosaic PBP 2, which was detected in 85 (39.4%) of 216 strains from 2002, 69 (40.6%) of 170 strains from 2003, 71 (44.4%) of 160 strains from 2004, and 31 (41.3%) of 75 strains from 2005. The MICs of cephalosporins for strains with the mosaic PBP 2 detected by the assay were statistically higher than those for strains without the mosaic PBP 2. One hundred sixty-six (64.8%) of 256 strains with the mosaic PBP 2 exhibited cefixime MICs of ≥0.5 μg/ml. The emergence and spread of strains with mosaic PBP 2 could be a threat to the cefixime treatment of gonorrhea. This real-time PCR assay for the detection of mosaic PBP 2 of N. gonorrhoeae is thus useful in the prediction of decreased susceptibilities to oral cephalosporins. PMID:18367575

  6. The perils of medical tourism: NDM-1-positive Escherichia coli causing febrile neutropenia in a medical tourist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, H L E; Poon, L M; Chan, S G; Teo, J W P

    2011-04-01

    NDM-1 is a new metallo-beta-lactamase that readily hydrolyses carbapenems, penicillins and cephalosporins. Its rising incidence has been reported in many countries around the world, with many cases linked to a possible origin from the Indian subcontinent. Due to the lack of effective antibiotic regimes to treat these infections, the increased prevalence of NDM-1 is alarming. We describe a case of NDM-1 infection in an immunocompromised foreign patient, and discuss its implications.

  7. [Clinical analysis of 410 cases of drug eruption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Bao-han

    2003-02-01

    An clinical analysis was conducted among a cohort of 410 patients drug eruption with treated in our department from January 1995 to December 2001. We found that the common drugs likely to lead to anaphylactic reactions included cephalosporins, ampicillin types, antipyretic analgesic types, rabies vaccine, sulfonamides, tetracyclines types, etc. The drug eruption mostly presents diverse clinical features resembling the rashes as seen in cases of scarlet fever, measles, urtica, or mucosal edema or ulceration.

  8. Detection of AmpC Beta-lactamases among Escherichia coli isolates at a tertiary care hospital in Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    Smitha O. Bagali; Peerapur, B V

    2013-01-01

    Background & objective: AmpC β-lactamases are clinically significant because they may confer resistance to a wide variety of β-lactam drugs, including α-methoxy-β-lactams, such as cefoxitin, narrow-, expanded- and broad-spectrum cephalosporins, β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations and aztreonam. Although reported with increasing frequency the true occurrence in different organisms remains unknown. The present study was conducted to determine the occurrence of AmpC β-lactamases among th...

  9. AmpC β-lactamases in nosocomial isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae from India

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Varsha; Kumarasamy, Karthikeyan; Gulati, Neelam; Garg, Ritu; Krishnan, Padma; Chander, Jagdish

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: AmpC β-lactamases are clinically significant since these confer resistance to cephalosporins in the oxyimino group, 7-α methoxycephalosporins and are not affected by available β-lactamase inhibitors. In this study we looked for both extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamases in Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates. Methods: One hundred consecutive, non-duplicate clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae collected over a period of one year (June 2008 - Jun...

  10. Early detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamase from blood culture positive for an Enterobacteriaceae using βLACTA test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Prod'hom

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial pellets from Enterobacteriaceae positive blood cultures prepared using ammonium chloride were tested for rapid detection of β-lactamase using the commercial βLACTA test and read after 30 minutes. During 7 months, 137 bacterial pellets were tested prospectively. βLACTA test exhibited a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 100% for the detection of third-generation cephalosporin resistance. False negative tests were mainly observed with hyperproduced chromosomal or plasmid-borne AmpC.

  11. AmpC beta lactamases among Gram negative clinical isolates from a tertiary hospital, South India

    OpenAIRE

    Parveen R. Mohamudha; Harish, B.N.; Parija, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    AmpC β-lactamases are cephalosporinases that hydrolyze cephamycins as well as other extended-spectrum cephalosporins and are poorly inhibited by clavulanic acid. Although reported with increasing frequency, the true rate of occurrence of AmpC β-lactamases in different organisms, including members of Enterobacteriaceae, remains unknown. The present study was designed to determine the occurrence of AmpC enzyme-harbouring Gram-negative clinical isolates in a tertiary care hospital in P...

  12. Drug: D03432 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03432 Drug Cefuzonam (INN) C16H15N7O5S4 513.0017 513.5942 D03432.gif Antibacterial...in binding proteins inhibitor Cephems - Cephalosporins Cefuzonam D03432 Cefuzonam... (INN) CAS: 82219-78-1 PubChem: 17397572 LigandBox: D03432 NIKKAJI: J22.041H ATOM 32 1 N1y N 34.8713 -19.309

  13. Ceftobiprole for the treatment of pneumonia: a European perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Adamantia Liapikou,1 Catia Cillóniz,2 Antonio Torres216th Respiratory Department, Sotiria Chest Diseases Hospital, Athens, Greece; 2Pulmonology Department, Clinic Institute of Thorax (ICT), Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Spain Insitut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Ceftobiprole, a new broad spectrum, parenteral cephalosporin, exhibits potent in vitro activity against a number of Gram-positive pathogens, inclu...

  14. Results of a Double-Blind, Randomized Trial of Ceftobiprole Treatment of Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections Caused by Gram-Positive Bacteria▿

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Ceftobiprole is the first broad-spectrum cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to be assessed in late-stage clinical trials. As a pivotal step in the clinical development of ceftobiprole, a multicenter, global, randomized, double-blind trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of ceftobiprole to that of vancomycin in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) caused by gram-positive bacteria. The primary objective w...

  15. Evaluation of Ceftobiprole in a Rabbit Model of Aortic Valve Endocarditis Due to Methicillin-Resistant and Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Ceftobiprole is a novel broad-spectrum cephalosporin that binds with high affinity to PBP 2a, the methicillin-resistance determinant of staphylococci, and is active against methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Ceftobiprole was compared to vancomycin in a rabbit model of methicillin-resistant S. aureus aortic valve endocarditis. Ceftobiprole and vancomycin were equally effective against endocarditis caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain 76, whereas ceftobipro...

  16. MRSA: treating people with infection

    OpenAIRE

    Nathwani, Dilip; Davey, Peter Garnet; Marwick, Charis Ann

    2010-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has a gene that makes it resistant to methicillin as well as other beta-lactam antibiotics including flucloxacillin, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. MRSA can be part of the normal body flora (colonisation), especially in the nose, but it can cause infection, especially in people with prolonged hospital admissions, with underlying disease, or after antibiotic use.About 20% of S aureus in blood cultures in England, Wales, and Northern Irela...

  17. Clostridium difficile infections in patients with severe burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    parenteral vancomycin, aminoglycosides, peni - cillin derivatives (non-cephalosporin beta-lactams), and a final group to include all others. PPI use was...attributable mortality in the BICU, it is likely that this is due to the small sample size of our population and that our study is simply underpowered as...evidenced by the prevalence of both of these in the larger sized general ICU sample. Study results are similarly limited by the significant population

  18. Examination pf Potential Anti-Tumor Activity of N-Thiolated B-Lactam Antibiotics in Nude Mice Bearing Human Breast Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    end labeling; NK cells, natural killer cells; MTT, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide. carbapenems ...lactams that possess antibacterial properties, including the penams, penems, carbapenems , cephalosporins, and clavulanic acids (10). A novel class of...bicyclic beta-lactams were found to also possess antibacterial properties, such as penams, carbapenems and clavulanic acids (figure 1A). The

  19. The management of skin and skin structure infections in children, adolescents and adults: a review of empiric antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S E

    1998-09-01

    This article reviews the diagnosis and management of mild-to-moderate skin and skin structure infections in children, adolescents and adults in a general practice setting. Therapies reviewed are those in current use: penicillins; beta-lactamase stable penicillins, including flucloxacillin, oxacillin, and amoxicillin-clavulanate; oral quinolones; macrolides; and oral cephalosporins. Consideration is given to duration of therapy, side-effect profile and compliance.

  20. Inhibition of Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin-binding protein 2x and Actinomadura R39 DD-peptidase activities by ceftaroline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervosen, Astrid; Zapun, André; Frère, Jean-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Although the rate of acylation of a penicillin-resistant form of Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin-binding protein 2x (PBP2x) by ceftaroline is 80-fold lower than that of its penicillin-sensitive counterpart, it remains sufficiently high (k(2)/K = 12,600 M(-1) s(-1)) to explain the sensitivity of the penicillin-resistant strain to this new cephalosporin. Surprisingly, the Actinomadura R39 DD-peptidase is not very sensitive to ceftaroline.

  1. Late-onset neonatal sepsis in Arab states in the Gulf region: two-year prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majeda S. Hammoud

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: LOS poses a major burden in this area, which could be due to the increasing care of premature babies. Gram-negative organisms, particularly Klebsiella spp, are having an increasing role in LOS in this region, with high levels of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins. NICUs in the area should create a platform through which to share experience in reducing neonatal sepsis and contribute to a common antibiotic stewardship program.

  2. Successful Treatment of Uncomplicated Gonococcal Urethritis in HIV-Infected Patients with Single-Dose Oral Cefpodoxime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Psevdos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroquinolones are no longer recommended for the treatment of gonococcal infections in the United States. Cephalosporins – ceftriaxone and cefixime – are the treatment of choice, as suggested by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (USA. There are limited data on the efficacy of cefpodoxime for the treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal infections. Two cases of HIV-infected homosexual men who were successfully treated with cefpodoxime for urethritis caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae are described in the present study.

  3. Serratia marcescens: an unusual pathogen associated with snakebite cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Parimala; Narasimhamurthy, Gokul Bindiganavile; Ashokan, Bhaskaran; Madappa, Beena Prasavangada

    2013-02-15

    This study reports a case of Serratia marcescens cellulitis following a snakebite in a 50-year-old woman. The bite was on the dorsum of the right hand with symptoms of envenomation. She developed swelling and cellulitis with tissue necrosis. Wound debridement was performed.  Pus and tissue biopsy cultures yielded Serratia marcescens sensitive to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems. The patient responded to anti-snake venom (ASV) therapy, ciprofloxacin, local wound management and recovered uneventfully.

  4. Fractional Maximal Effect Method for In Vitro Synergy between Amoxicillin and Ceftriaxone and between Vancomycin and Ceftriaxone against Enterococcus faecalis and Penicillin-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Desbiolles, Norbert; Piroth, Lionel; Lequeu, Catherine; Neuwirth, Catherine; Portier, Henri; Chavanet, Pascal

    2001-01-01

    In the present study we assessed the use of a new in vitro testing method and graphical representation of the results to investigate the potential effectiveness of combinations of amoxicillin (AMZ) plus ceftriaxone (CRO) and of CRO plus vancomycin (VAN) against strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae highly resistant to penicillin and cephalosporins (PRP strains). We used the fractional maximal effect (FME) method of time-kill curves to calculate adequate concentrations of the drugs to be tested ...

  5. Extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Yaounde, Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Gangoue Pieboji, Joseph; Bedenic, B.; Koulla-Shiro, S.; Randegger, C.; Adiogo, D.; Ngassam, P.; Ndumbe, P; Hachler, H.

    2005-01-01

    Organisms producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have been reported in many countries, but there is no information on the prevalence of ESBL-producing members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in Cameroon. A total of 259 Enterobacteriaceae strains were isolated between 1995 and 1998 from patients at the Yaounde Central Hospital in Cameroon. Enterobacterial isolates resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporin and monobactam were screened for ESBL production by the double-disk (DD)...

  6. Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Yaounde, Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Gangoué-Piéboji, Joseph; Bedenic, Branka; Koulla-Shiro, Sinata; Randegger, Corinne; Adiogo, Dieudonné; Ngassam, Pierre; Ndumbe, Peter; Hächler, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    Organisms producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have been reported in many countries, but there is no information on the prevalence of ESBL-producing members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in Cameroon. A total of 259 Enterobacteriaceae strains were isolated between 1995 and 1998 from patients at the Yaounde Central Hospital in Cameroon. Enterobacterial isolates resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporin and monobactam were screened for ESBL production by the double-disk (DD) sy...

  7. In Vitro Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Yersinia pestis Determined by Broth Microdilution following CLSI Methods

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In vitro susceptibilities to 45 antibiotics were determined for 30 genetically and geographically diverse strains of Yersinia pestis by the broth microdilution method at two temperatures, 28°C and 35°C, following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methods. The Y. pestis strains demonstrated susceptibility to aminoglycosides, quinolones, tetracyclines, β-lactams, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. Only a 1-well shift was observed for the majority of antibiotics between the two te...

  8. Associated factors and outcomes for OXA-232 Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections in a tertiary care centre in Mexico City: A case-control-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-González, Pedro; Ortiz-Brizuela, Edgar; Cervera-Hernandez, Miguel Enrique; Bobadilla-Del Valle, Miriam; Martínez-Gamboa, Areli; Sifuentes-Osornio, José; Ponce-de-Leon, Alfredo

    2016-10-01

    We describe the outcomes and factors associated with OXA-232 producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections. A case-control-control study was performed; each case of infection by a carbapenem-resistant/OXA-232 (OXA-232-cases, n=27) was matched by isolation site, species, and date, with 2 cases of infection by carbapenem-susceptible/third-generation cephalosporin-susceptible (TGCS-controls, n=54) and 2 cases by carbapenem-susceptible/ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-controls, n=54); 66% were urinary tract and 18.5% intra-abdominal infections. In the multivariable analysis with ESBL-controls, previous use β-lactam/β-lactamase antibiotics (OR 6.2; 95% CI 1.6-23.8) and, third-generation cephalosporins (OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.05-0.8) were associated with OXA-232 infection; with TGSC-controls previous use of β-lactam/β-lactamase antibiotics (OR 3.7; 95% 1.1-12.0) was associated. Among the OXA-232-cases, 29% received imipenem/cilastatin or meropenem, 11.1% ceftriaxone, 22.2% a carbapenem-based combination and 33.3% other antimicrobials as treatment. Previous β-lactam/β-lactamase antibiotics are associated with OXA-232 infections, and some may be treated with other active carbapenems or, in the absence of ESBL, third-generation cephalosporins.

  9. Detection and characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (TEM-52)-producing Salmonella serotype Infantis from broilers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahada, Francis; Chuma, Takehisa; Dahshan, Hesham; Akiba, Masato; Sueyoshi, Masuo; Okamoto, Karoku

    2010-05-01

    During 2004 and 2006, multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Infantis (Salmonella Infantis) isolates (n = 120) were recovered from broiler cecal samples collected from a meat-processing plant, and the isolates were examined. The study was conducted to detect and characterize extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella Infantis isolates recovered from broiler chickens and determine the mechanisms of transfer of the resistance traits. Extended-spectrum cephalosporins-resistant Salmonella Infantis isolates producing ESBL TEM-52 were detected. The mutant bla(TEM-52) gene and the wild-type bla(TEM-1) gene that mediated resistance to ampicillin (an extended-spectrum penicillin) and cephalothin (a narrow-spectrum cephalosporin) were located on approximately 50-kb conjugative plasmids among beta-lactam-resistant (n = 29) isolates. The bla(TEM) genes did not cotransfer with aadA1, sul1 (both associated with class 1 integrons), tetA, and dfrA5, signifying a chromosomal location of these non-beta-lactam resistance-encoding genes. This is the first report describing TEM-52-producing S. enterica from food-producing animals in Japan. An emergence of TEM-type ESBL is an important concern to public health because this readily transferable resistance mechanism threatens the value of the third-generation cephalosporins and may reduce the clinical utility of this class of antibiotics against pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria.

  10. ENTEROBACTERIACAE, PRODUCING ESBLS AND METALLO-β-LACTAMASE NDM-1, ISOLATED IN HOSPITALS OF BALTIC REGION COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Egorova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. We studied the prevalence of K. pneumoniae and E. coli resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems, isolated from patients of eight hospitals in St-Petersburg from January to May, 2012. Prevalence of cephalosporin resistant isolates varied in different hospitals: E. coli – from 7,8 to 50%, K. pneumoniae – from 25,4 to 88,4%. Isolates produced extended spectrum beta-lactamases СТХ-М, mainly СТХ-М-1, also СТХ-М-2 and СТХ-М-9. Twenty two carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae strains (also resistant to other antimicrobials were isolated in three hospitals. MALDI-TOF MS showed that carbapenem resistance was caused by carbapenemase. Carbapenemases of all isolates belonged to metallo-β-lactamases according to results of the ROSCO Diagnostica tests. The gene coding production of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (blaNDM-1 were detected in all strains. Our data confirmed that the main cephalosporin resistance mechanism of E. coli и K. pneumoniae in Baltic region (including Russia, St-Petersburg is CTX-M-1 production. For the first time in Russia K. pneumoniae strains  producing metallo-β-lactamases NDM-1 were isolated in several hospitals of St-Petersburg.

  11. Rationality Antibiotic Use at One of Public Hospital in Bandung 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mally G. Sholih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The inappropriate antibiotic use was caused by using of high relatively the antibiotic so that have caused global threat and health problems especially antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study is to determine quantity and pattern of patient antibiotic use at one of hospital in Bandung. The study method was utilized descriptively and was obtained retrospectively. The antibiotic use data on 2010 was obtained from pharmacy department recapitulation on January–December 2010. Data was taking on January–December 2011 at one of type B hospital in Bandung. The data was processed and classified. The antibiotic use data has processed using ATC/DDD method and DU 90 % segment. The result showed that antibiotic use on 2010 was 95719,01 DDD. There were 5 groups of antibiotic class in DU90% segment (penicillin, cephalosporin, quinolone, macrolide, and sulphonamide. The antibiotics use pattern in the first quarter in DU 90% segment werepenicillin, cephalosporin, quinolone, and macrolide. There were 5 groups within second and third quarter in DU90% were penicillin, cephalosporin, quinolone, macrolide and sulphonamide. It can be concluded that the antibiotic use in first to third quarter have decreased percentage and number antibiotic groups in DU90% segment.

  12. Effect of inoculum size on the antibiotic susceptibilities of β-lactamase positive isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vraneš

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that bacteria producing β-lactamases in general show marked inoculum effect in susceptibility testing. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of inoculum size on the susceptibility of β-lactamase positive strains of M. catarrhalis to oral β-lactam and non β-lactam antibiotics. MICs of antibiotics were determined by a twofold microdilution technique with two different inoculum sizes were tested: 5x 105 CFU/ml -standard inoculum and 5 x107 CFU/ml -high inoculum. The highest increase (4-fold was observed with penicillins alone (amoxycillin and ampicillin or combined with inhibitor and ceftibuten, followed by older cephalosporins, erithromycine and chloramphenicol ( 2-fold. Tetracycline did not show a significant increase in MIC when a higher inoculum size was applied. In spite of the increase in MIC with high inoculum all strains were still susceptible to amoxycillin combined with clavulanate. MICs of cephalosporins were also below the resistance breakpoint for most of the strains at the higher inoculum. Based on that, we can conclude that therapeutic implications of the inoculum effect were not significant.These data suggest that high inocula should be used to determine MICs of ampicillin and amoxycillin for M. catarrhalis but that this precaution is unnecessary with the cephalosporins tested or with amoxycillin/clavulanate

  13. Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis Induced by Cefepime: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F.F. Botelho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP is a rare cutaneous rash characterized by widespread sterile nonfollicular pustules. Cefepime is a fourth generation cephalosporin, used to treat severe infections. A 67-year-old man was admitted with acute gastroenterocolitis. On the seventh day, the patient developed a nosocomial pneumonia and cefepime was initiated. On the fourth day of cephalosporin treatment, he presented with a maculopapular, pruritic eruption affecting the face, neck, abdomen and limbs. One day later he developed disseminated pustular lesions and his temperature was 37°C. Laboratory analysis evidenced leukocytosis and skin biopsy showed subcorneal pustule, edema in the papillary dermis, perivascular inflammatory infiltrate consisting of neutrophils, leukocytoclasia and red cell extravasation in the epidermis. Cefepime was suspended and within 4 days the non-follicular pustules cleared following a desquamation. AGEP is a disease attributed to a variety of causes, but in 90% of the cases it is due to an adverse drug reaction. Antibiotics are implicated in 80% of these cases, mostly penicillins and macrolides. There are few cases associated with cephalosporins. It is very important to consider AGEP in cases of acute pustular rashes and drugs should be investigated as causative agents.

  14. PATTERN OF ANTIMICROBIAL USE FOR URINARY TRACT INFECTION DURING PREGNANCY IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haldia Priyanka, Sharma Taruna, Nautiyal Ruchira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI may be classified as lower (cystitis and asymptomatic bacteriuria or upper urinary tract infections (pyelonephritis. The recommended antibiotics for use in pregnancy for management of ASB include amoxicillin, oral cephalosporins and nitrofurantoin; and for the treatment of lower UTI during pregnancy include penicillins, oral cephalosporins. Data from the antibiotic usage study in UTI during pregnancy will help in establishing a proper antibiotic utilisation guideline and promotes rational prescribing of medicines. Aim: To study the antimicrobial prescription practices for urinary tract infection during pregnancy. Materials & Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology and Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences (HIMS, Dehradun, over a period of 12 months. This was an observational cross sectional study done in 45 pregnant women with or without symptoms of UTI. Results: 29.4% of the pregnant women with symptomatic UTI were culture positive while all were culture positive who had asymptomatic UTI. Cephalosporins were most frequently prescribed followed by nitrofurantoin. Conclusion: Urine culture should be performed as a screening and diagnostic tool for UTI during pregnancy. Various classes of antimicrobials were being prescribed for UTI during pregnancy.

  15. Ceftobiprole for the treatment of pneumonia: a European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liapikou A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adamantia Liapikou,1 Catia Cillóniz,2 Antonio Torres216th Respiratory Department, Sotiria Chest Diseases Hospital, Athens, Greece; 2Pulmonology Department, Clinic Institute of Thorax (ICT, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Spain Insitut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Ceftobiprole, a new broad spectrum, parenteral cephalosporin, exhibits potent in vitro activity against a number of Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Gram-negative pathogens associated with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. Ceftobiprole has demonstrated noninferiority in two large-scale pivotal studies comparing it to ceftriaxone with or without linezolid in CAP, with clinical cure rates 86.6% versus 87.4%, or ceftazidime in HAP, with clinical cure rates of 77% versus 76%, respectively. However, ceftobiprole was inferior in the subgroup of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Ceftobiprole has so far demonstrated a good safety profile in preliminary studies, with similar tolerability to comparators. The most commonly observed adverse events of ceftobiprole included headache and gastrointestinal upset. It is the first cephalosporin monotherapy approved in the EU for the treatment of both CAP and HAP (excluding ventilator-associated pneumonia.Keywords: antibiotic resistance, methicillin-resistant staphylococci, community-acquired pneumonia, hospital-acquired pneumonia, cephalosporins

  16. Clinical evaluation of the role of ceftaroline in the management of community acquired bacterial pneumonia

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    Maselli DJ

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Diego J Maselli1, Juan F Fernandez1, Christine Y Whong2, Kelly Echevarria1,3, Anoop M Nambiar1,3, Antonio Anzueto1,3, Marcos I Restrepo1,3,41University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas, 2Memorial Hermann – Texas Medical Center, Houston, TX, 3South Texas Veterans Health Care System Audie l Murphy Division, San Antonio, TX, 4Veterans Evidence Research Dissemination and Implementation Center (VERDICT, San Antonio, TX, USAAbstract: Ceftaroline fosamil (ceftaroline was recently approved for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP and complicated skin infections. This newly developed cephalosporin possesses a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Most importantly, ceftaroline demonstrates potent in vitro antimicrobial activity against multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. In two Phase III, double-blinded, randomized, prospective trials (FOCUS 1 and FOCUS 2, ceftaroline was shown to be non-inferior to ceftriaxone for the treatment of CAP in hospitalized patients. Ceftaroline exhibits low resistance rates and a safety profile similar to that of other cephalosporins. In this review, we will evaluate the pharmacological characteristics, safety, antimicrobial properties, and efficacy of ceftaroline and its applications in the treatment of CAP.Keywords: s. pneumoniae, s. aureus, cephalosporins, pneumonia, ceftaroline, community acquired pneumonia

  17. Penicillin-binding protein 3 of Streptococcus pneumoniae and its application in screening of β-lactams in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Zhanhui; Wen, Kai; Liang, Xiao; Shen, Jianzhong

    2013-11-15

    The soluble form of penicillin-binding protein 3 (sPBP3(∗)) from Streptococcus pneumoniae was expressed in Escherichia coli as a six-histidine fusion protein. The protein was purified and used to develop a microplate assay in direct competitive format for the detection of penicillins and cephalosporins in milk. The assay was based on competitive inhibition of the binding of horseradish peroxidase-labeled ampicillin (HRP-Amp) to the sPBP3(∗) by free β-lactam antibiotics in milk. Under optimized conditions, most of the β-lactam antibiotics (11 penicillins and 16 cephalosporins) could be detected at concentrations corresponding to the maximum residue limits (MRLs) set by the European Union. Analysis of spiked milk samples showed that acceptable recoveries ranged from 74.06 to 106.31% in skimmed milk and from 63.97 to 107.26% in whole milk, with coefficients of variation (CVs) less than 16%. With the high sensitivity and wide-range affinities to penicillins and cephalosporins, the developed assay based on sPBP3(∗) exhibited the potential to be a screening assay for fast detection of β-lactam antibiotics in milk.

  18. Emergence of multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant and untreatable gonorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unemo, Magnus; Nicholas, Robert A

    2012-12-01

    The new superbug Neisseria gonorrhoeae has retained resistance to antimicrobials previously recommended for first-line treatment and has now demonstrated its capacity to develop resistance to the extended-spectrum cephalosporin, ceftriaxone, the last remaining option for first-line empiric treatment of gonorrhea. An era of untreatable gonorrhea may be approaching, which represents an exceedingly serious public health problem. Herein, we review the evolution, origin and spread of antimicrobial resistance and resistance determinants (with a focus on extended-spectrum cephalosporins) in N. gonorrhoeae, detail the current situation regarding verified treatment failures with extended-spectrum cephalosporins and future treatment options, and highlight essential actions to meet the large public health challenge that arises with the possible emergence of untreatable gonorrhea. Essential actions include: implementing action/response plans globally and nationally; enhancing surveillance of gonococcal antimicrobial resistance, treatment failures and antimicrobial use/misuse; and improving prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of gonorrhea. Novel treatment strategies, antimicrobials (or other compounds) and, ideally, a vaccine must be developed.

  19. An evaluation of the bacteriolytic and biochemical properties of ceftiolene (42980RP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, R; Gutmann, L; Kitzis, M D; Acar, J F

    1984-12-01

    Ceftiolene (42980RP) is a new cephalosporin with a broad antibacterial spectrum similar to cefotaxime or ceftriaxone. The characteristics of ceftiolene have been tested in a variety of assays involving various biochemical aspects of the mode of action of beta-lactam antibiotics. The affinities of ceftiolene for penicillin-binding proteins were very comparable with those of ceftriaxone and cefotaxime for Escherichia coli, and generally greater than those of latamoxef (moxalactam) for the higher molecular weight PBPs of E. coli. Enterobacter cloacae. Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The affinity of ceftiolene for PBP1 of Staphylococcus aureus was greater than those of cefotaxime or latamoxef, but comparable with these antibiotics for PBP3. The bacteriolytic activity of ceftiolene at defined concentrations against Gram-negative organisms was similar to that of ceftriaxone, and significantly better than that of the other third-generation cephalosporins tested. Introduction of plasmid-encoded beta-lactamases into E. coli reduced the wide variation in bacteriolytic effect of the different cephalosporins, and a significant inoculum effect was observed for the bacteriolysis. Chloramphenicol was less antagonistic against ceftiolene- or ceftriaxone-induced lysis than was observed for cefotaxime or latamoxef. Growth of Staph. aureus at low concentrations of ceftiolene caused the bacteria to become more sensitive to lysis by lysostaphin than organisms grown with cefotaxime or latamoxef under the same conditions. These observations confirm the necessity to use techniques other than routine MIC determinations to distinguish between antibiotics which would otherwise appear very similar.

  20. Distribution of strain type and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolates causing meningitis in a large urban setting in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Hillary; Barberino, Maria Goreth; Moreira, Edson Duarte; Riley, Lee; Reis, Joice N

    2014-05-01

    The clinical management of meningitis caused by Escherichia coli is greatly complicated when the organism becomes resistant to broad-spectrum antibiotics. We sought to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibilities, sequence types (ST), and presence of known drug resistance genes of E. coli isolates that caused meningitis between 1996 and 2011 in Salvador, Brazil. We then compared these findings to those for E. coli isolates from community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI) that occurred during the same time period and in the same city. We found that 19% of E. coli isolates from cases of meningitis and less than 1% of isolates from UTI were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins. The sequence types of E. coli isolates from cases of meningitis included ST131, ST69, ST405, and ST62, which were also found among isolates from UTI. Additionally, among the E. coli isolates that were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, we found genes that encode the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases CTX-M-2, CTX-M-14, and CTX-M-15. These observations demonstrate that compared to E. coli strains isolated from cases of community-acquired UTI, those isolated from cases of meningitis are more resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, even though the same sequence types are shared between the two forms of extraintestinal infections.

  1. Functional characterization of the oxaloacetase encoding gene and elimination of oxalate formation in the β-lactam producer Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombert, A K; Veiga, T; Puig-Martinez, M; Lamboo, F; Nijland, J G; Driessen, A J M; Pronk, J T; Daran, J M

    2011-08-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum is widely used as an industrial antibiotic producer, in particular in the synthesis of ß-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins. In industrial processes, oxalic acid formation leads to reduced product yields. Moreover, precipitation of calcium oxalate complicates product recovery. We observed oxalate production in glucose-limited chemostat cultures of P. chrysogenum grown with or without addition of adipic acid, side-chain of the cephalosporin precursor adipoyl-6-aminopenicillinic acid (ad-6-APA). Oxalate accounted for up to 5% of the consumed carbon source. In filamentous fungi, oxaloacetate hydrolase (OAH; EC3.7.1.1) is generally responsible for oxalate production. The P. chrysogenum genome harbours four orthologs of the A. niger oahA gene. Chemostat-based transcriptome analyses revealed a significant correlation between extracellular oxalate titers and expression level of the genes Pc18g05100 and Pc22g24830. To assess their possible involvement in oxalate production, both genes were cloned in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yeast that does not produce oxalate. Only the expression of Pc22g24830 led to production of oxalic acid in S. cerevisiae. Subsequent deletion of Pc22g28430 in P. chrysogenum led to complete elimination of oxalate production, whilst improving yields of the cephalosporin precursor ad-6-APA.

  2. Process models for production of beta-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellgardt, K H

    1998-01-01

    Great progress has been made in the modelling of biotechnical processes using filamentous microorganisms. This paper deals with cultivations of Penicillium chrysogenum for the production of Penicillin and of Acremonium chrysogenum for the production of Cephalosporin C. The properties of the processes and the existing models are reviewed. Models are presented for both processes that consider aspects which are important for industrial cultivation. The process model for Penicillin production is based on a detailed morphological description of growth of hyphal filaments and pellets. The model allows for simulation of the production process including the preculture and considering the inhomogenous pellet population. It opens new possibilities for understanding the complex kinetics of the process and improvement of its control. The structured segregated model for Cephalosporin C production considers soy oil as second carbon source besides sugar. The application of the model for dynamic optimization of feeding strategies by Iterative Dynamic Programming is demonstrated. As an alternative approach, modelling of the Cephalosporin production by an artificial neural network is discussed.

  3. First detection of AmpC β-lactamase bla(CMY-2) on a conjugative IncA/C plasmid in a Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolate of food origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruichao; Lin, Dachuan; Chen, Kaichao; Wong, Marcus Ho Yin; Chen, Sheng

    2015-07-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important causative agent of gastroenteritis, with the consumption of contaminated seafood being the major transmission route. Resistance to penicillin is common among V. parahaemolyticus strains, whereas cephalosporin resistance remains rare. In an attempt to assess the current prevalence and characteristics of antibiotic resistance of this pathogen in common food samples, a total of 54 (17% of the total samples) V. parahaemolyticus strains were isolated from 318 meat and seafood samples purchased from supermarkets and wet markets in Shenzhen, China, in 2013. These isolates exhibited high-level resistance to ampicillin, yet they were mostly susceptible to other antimicrobials, except for two that were resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. The β-lactamase gene blaPER-1 was detectable in one strain, V. parahaemolyticus V43, which was resistant to both third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. Compared to other blaPER-1-positive V. parahaemolyticus strains reported in our previous studies, strain V43 was found to harbor an ∼200-kb conjugative plasmid carrying genes that were different from the antimicrobial resistance genes reported from the previous studies. The β-lactamase gene blaCMY-2 was detectable for the first time in another V. parahaemolyticus isolate, V4, which was resistant to third-generation cephalosporins. This blaCMY-2 gene was shown to be located in an ∼150-kb IncA/C-type conjugative plasmid with a genetic structure consisting of traB-traV-traA-ISEcp1-blaCMY-2-blc-sugE-encR-orf1-orf2-orf3-orf4-dsbC-traC, which is identical to that of other IncA/C conjugative plasmids in Enterobacteriaceae, albeit with a different size. These findings indicate that the transmission of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamase genes via conjugative plasmids can mediate the development of extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance in V. parahaemolyticus, thereby posing a potential threat to public health.

  4. Antibiotic therapy for acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis in women. Take resistance into account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection of the renal parenchyma, common in women. The bacterium responsible is usually Escherichia coli. Empirical antibiotic therapy should be initiated promptly to prevent serious complications. As of 2014, which empirical antibiotic regimen should be offered to non-pregnant adult women with acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis, while awaiting the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing? We reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. Certain oral fluoroquinolones were effective in a few clinical trials in the 2000s and 2010s: ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, an isomer of ofloxacin. Symptoms resolved within 5 to 7 days in about 96% of the women. In France, in 2011, about 10% of E. coli isolated in community laboratories from outpatients with urinary tract infections were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Resistance is mainly a problem in patients treated with a quinolone during the preceding months and in recently hospitalised patients. In hospital laboratories, the fluoroquinolone resistance rate was about 18% in 2012 in France, and even higher in some other European countries. The main harms of fluoroquinolones are neuropsychiatric disorders, photosensitivity, tendon disorders, arrhythmia and cardiac conduction disorders, and Clostridium difficile infection. Injectable "third-generation" cephalosporins, such as ceftriaxone, are often effective against enterobacteria, in particular E. coli, and have good kidney penetration. The prevalence of E. coli resistance to third-generation cephalosporins is rising rapidly in France, particularly in hospitals: 1% in 2005 versus 10% in 2012. The main harms of cephalosporins are hypersensitivity reactions and C. difficile infection. Monotherapy with an aminoglycoside is an alternative that has not been evaluated in this clinical situation. Due to the serious irreversible adverse effects of aminoglycosides (nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity), they

  5. BACTERIAL PROFILE, ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY AND RESISTANCE OF LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS IN UPPER EGYPT

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    Gamal Agmy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI account for a considerable proportion of morbidity and antibiotic use. We aimed to identify the causative bacteria, antibiotic sensitivity and resistance of hospitalized adult patients due to LRTI in Upper Egypt. METHODS: A multicentre prospective study was performed at 3 University Hospitals for 3 years. Samples included sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL for staining and culture, and serum for serology. Samples were cultured on 3 bacteriological media (Nutrient, Chocolate ,MacConkey's agars.Colonies were identified via MicroScan WalkAway-96. Pneumoslide IgM kit was used for detection of atypical pathogens via indirect immunofluorescent assay. RESULTS: The predominant isolates in 360 patients with CAP were S.pneumoniae (36%, C. pneumoniae (18%, and M. pneumoniae (12%. A higher sensitivity was recorded for moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, macrolides, and cefepime. A higher of resistance was recorded for doxycycline, cephalosporins, and β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitors. The predominant isolates in 318 patients with HAP were, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; MRSA (23%, K. pneumoniae (14%, and polymicrobial in 12%. A higher sensitivity was recorded for vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, and moxifloxacin. Very high resistance was recorded for β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitors and cephalosporins. The predominant organisms in 376 patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (AECOPD were H. influnzae (30%, S. pneumoniae (25%, and M. catarrhalis(18%. A higher sensitivity was recorded for moxifloxacin, macrolides and cefepime. A higher rate of resistance was recorded for aminoglycosides and cephalosporins CONCLUSIONS: The most predominant bacteria for CAP in Upper Egypt are S. pneumoniae and atypical organisms, while that for HAP are MRSA and Gram negative bacteria. For acute exacerbation of COPD,H.influnzae was the commonest organism. Respiratory quinolones

  6. Reduced Susceptibility to Extended-Spectrum β-Lactams in Vibrio cholerae Isolated in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Daniela; Alam, Munirul; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.

    2016-01-01

    β-lactams are antibiotic molecules able to inhibit cell wall biosynthesis. Among other mechanisms, resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is mostly associated with production of β-lactamase enzymes able to bind and hydrolyze the β-lactam ring. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases extend this ability also to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, as well as to carbapenems and monobactams. Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of epidemic cholera and a public health burden for developing countries like Bangladesh. Although appropriate oral or intravenous rehydration is the therapy of choice for cholera, severe infections and V. cholerae-associated septicemia are treated with antimicrobial drugs, including doxycycline, erythromycin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and/or third-generation cephalosporins. In the years after the introduction of antibiotics in clinical practice, V. cholerae developed resistance to commonly used drugs worldwide mostly through gene acquisition via horizontal gene transfer. Reduced susceptibility of V. cholerae to third-generation cephalosporins has been occasionally documented. However, carbapenemase-producing V. cholerae has been reported at higher rates than resistance to extended-spectrum β-lactams, mainly associated with blaNDM-1 emergence and successful plasmid dissemination. Recent findings suggest limited β-lactam resistance is present in V. cholerae O1 isolates collected during ecological and epidemiological surveillance in Bangladesh. However, a trend to intermediate-susceptibility insurgence was observed. Horizontal gene transfer of β-lactam resistance from enteric pathogens to environmental microorganisms should not be underrated, given the ability of V. cholerae to acquire new genetic information.

  7. Structure of ADC-68, a novel carbapenem-hydrolyzing class C extended-spectrum β-lactamase isolated from Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jeong Ho; Hong, Myoung Ki; Lee, Jung Hun; Lee, Jae Jin; Park, Kwang Seung; Karim, Asad Mustafa; Jo, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Ji Hwan; Ko, Kwan Soo; Kang, Lin Woo; Lee, Sang Hee

    2014-11-01

    Outbreaks of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections have become more frequent worldwide owing to the emergence of several different classes of β-lactamases. In this study, the molecular, biochemical and structural characteristics of an Acinetobacter-derived cephalosporinase (ADC)-type class C β-lactamase, ADC-68, isolated from the carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii D015 were investigated. The blaADC-68 gene which encodes ADC-68 was confirmed to exist on the chromosome via Southern blot analysis and draft genome sequencing. The catalytic kinetics of β-lactams and their MICs (minimum inhibitory concentrations) for A. baumannii D015 and purified ADC-68 (a carbapenemase obtained from this strain) were assessed: the strain was resistant to penicillins, narrow-spectrum and extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and carbapenems, which were hydrolyzed by ADC-68. The crystal structure of ADC-68 was determined at a resolution of 1.8 Å. The structure of ADC-68 was compared with that of ADC-1 (a non-carbapenemase); differences were found in the central part of the Ω-loop and the C-loop constituting the edge of the R1 and R2 subsites and are close to the catalytic serine residue Ser66. The ADC-68 C-loop was stabilized in the open conformation of the upper R2 subsite and could better accommodate carbapenems with larger R2 side chains. Furthermore, a wide-open conformation of the R2-loop allowed ADC-68 to bind to and hydrolyze extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Therefore, ADC-68 had enhanced catalytic efficiency against these clinically important β-lactams (extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems). ADC-68 is the first reported enzyme among the chromosomal class C β-lactamases to possess class C extended-spectrum β-lactamase and carbapenemase activities.

  8. Spectrum and potency of ceftaroline against leading pathogens causing community-acquired respiratory tract and skin and soft tissue infections in Latin America, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Flamm

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ceftaroline, the active metabolite of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, is a cephalosporin with in vitro bactericidal activity against Gram-positive organisms, including methicillinsusceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus, β-haemolytic and viridans group streptococci, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as common Gram-negative organisms. In this study a total of 986 isolates collected in 2010 from patients in 15 medical centers in five Latin American countries from the Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation Program were identified as community-acquired respiratory tract or skin and soft tissue infection pathogens. Ceftaroline was the most potent agent tested against S. pneumoniae with a MIC90 value (0.12 µg/mL that was eight-fold lower than ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, and linezolid. Its spectrum of coverage (100.0% susceptible was similar to tigecycline, linezolid, levofloxacin and vancomycin. Against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis, ceftaroline was the most active agent tested. The activity of ceftaroline against S. aureus (including MRSA was similar to that of vancomycin and tetracycline (MIC90,1 µg/mL and linezolid (MIC90,2 Jg/mL. The 1-haemolytic streptococci exhibited 100.0% susceptibility to ceftaroline. Ceftaroline activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Enterobacter spp. was similar to that of ceftriaxone and ceftazidime. These parenteral cephalosporin agents have potent activity against non-extended-spectrum These parenteral cephalosporin agents have potent activity against non-extended-spectrum-lactamase-phenotype strains, but are not active against extended-spectrum β-lactamase-phenotype strains. These results confirm the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against pathogens common in communityacquired respiratory tract and skin and soft tissue infection in Latin America, and suggest that ceftaroline fosamil could be an important therapeutic option for these infections.

  9. QUINOLONE- AND ETA-LACTAM- RESISTANCE IN Escherichia coli FROM DANISH AND ITALIAN BROILER FLOCKS

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    M. Trevisani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of quinolone- and -lactam-resistant E. coli was investigated among healthy broiler flocks in Denmark and Italy. In Denmark, sock samples were collected from 10 parent flocks and 10 offspring flocks, according to the procedure currently used for the surveillance of Salmonella in the EU. Samples were enriched in McConkey broth and streaked on McConkey agar plates added with nalidixic acid (32 g/ml, ciprofloxacin (2 g/ml, ampicillin (32 g/ml, cefotaxime (2 g/ml or ceftiofur (8 g/ml. The -glucuronidase test was performed for verification of presumptive E. coli. The same methods were used to analyse sock samples collected from 6 Italian broiler flocks. PCR with primers for the CTX-M-type extended-spectrum -lactamases (ESBLs was performed on cephalosporin-resistant isolates. While resistance to ampicillin and nalidixic acid was widespread in both countries, resistance to ciprofloxacin and cephalosporins was more common among Italian flocks. In Denmark, ciprofloxacin resistance was only detected in 1 parent flock without any history of quinolone usage and none of the flocks was positive for cephalosporin-resistant E. coli. In Italy, resistance to ciprofloxacin was detected in all flocks and resistance to ceftiofur and cefotaxime were detected in 5 flocks. Primers specific for the CTX-M-type ESBLs generated PCR amplicons from isolates from 3 of these flocks. In industrialized countries, the poultry production system is highly standardized, and therefore comparable. However, the use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials is particularly limited in Danish poultry production. Accordingly, the results of this study could reflect the different policies in antimicrobial usage between the two countries.

  10. Surveillance of nosocomial infections in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Jakarta, 1999-2002

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    Djoko Widodo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infection are one of the main problem in hospital which are associated with significant morbidity, mortality and increased economic cost. Surveillance should be attempted regularly to obtain local data of incidence of nosocomial infections, types of infection, pathogen and resistance pattern. We reported the results of nosocomial surveillance in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Jakarta, in year 1999 to 2002. The data were obtained from surveillance, conducted by Nosocomial Infection Control Committee. Surveillance were performed to patient in risk of nosocomial infections such as underwent surgical procedure, urinary catheter, peripheral or central venous catheter, ventilator and other invasive procedure. Criteria for nosocomial infection which were used, based on technical guidelines of nosocomial infection in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, year 1999; which referred to CDC definition of nosocomial infections. Incidence rate of nosocomial infections in year 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002 were 1.1, 0.9, 0.6 and 0.4 % respectively. Type of nosocomial infection include catheter related, surgical wound, urinary tract and respiratory tract infections, ranged between 0 to 5.6 %. Gram negative bacteria consist of Pseudomonas sp, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis were the most common nosocomial pathogen. Gram positive bacteria consist of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus anhemolyticus. Trend of increasing incidence of Gram positive nosocomial infection also showed in our surveillance. Mostly Gram negative bacteria had been resistant to penicillin, co amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and 3rd generation cephalosporin, but still sensitive to 4th generation cephalosporin and aminoglycoside. The Gram positive bacteria were still sensitive to penicillin, co amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, 4th generation cephalosporin and aminoglycoside. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 107

  11. Reduced Susceptibility to Extended-Spectrum β-Lactams in Vibrio cholerae Isolated in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Daniela; Alam, Munirul; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R

    2016-01-01

    β-lactams are antibiotic molecules able to inhibit cell wall biosynthesis. Among other mechanisms, resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is mostly associated with production of β-lactamase enzymes able to bind and hydrolyze the β-lactam ring. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases extend this ability also to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, as well as to carbapenems and monobactams. Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of epidemic cholera and a public health burden for developing countries like Bangladesh. Although appropriate oral or intravenous rehydration is the therapy of choice for cholera, severe infections and V. cholerae-associated septicemia are treated with antimicrobial drugs, including doxycycline, erythromycin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and/or third-generation cephalosporins. In the years after the introduction of antibiotics in clinical practice, V. cholerae developed resistance to commonly used drugs worldwide mostly through gene acquisition via horizontal gene transfer. Reduced susceptibility of V. cholerae to third-generation cephalosporins has been occasionally documented. However, carbapenemase-producing V. cholerae has been reported at higher rates than resistance to extended-spectrum β-lactams, mainly associated with blaNDM-1 emergence and successful plasmid dissemination. Recent findings suggest limited β-lactam resistance is present in V. cholerae O1 isolates collected during ecological and epidemiological surveillance in Bangladesh. However, a trend to intermediate-susceptibility insurgence was observed. Horizontal gene transfer of β-lactam resistance from enteric pathogens to environmental microorganisms should not be underrated, given the ability of V. cholerae to acquire new genetic information.

  12. STUDY OF URINARY ISOLATES WITH REFERENCE TO EXTENDE D SPECTRUM BETA LACTAMASES DETECTION AND ANTIBIOGRAM

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    Abhijit

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Extended spectrum beta lactamases continue to be ma jor problem in clinical setups world over, conferring resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins and are associated with significant morbidity and morta lity. Urinary tract infections (UTIs are one of the most common infectious diseases encountered in the clinical practice. Extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs production in gram negative bacteria, have emerged as a major problem in hospitalized as well as community based pat ients. ESBLs producing bacteria may not be detected by routine disc diffusion susceptibility test, leading to inappropriate use of antibiotics and treatment failure. The objective of this study was to determine the resistance patterns of the micro-organisms isolated from cases of UTI and to detect ESBLs production in gram negative bacteria. METHODS: Urinary isolates from symptomatic UTI cases (both i n patients and out patients attending the, Kesarsal Me dical College and Hospital Ahmadabad were identified by conventional methods. Antimicrob ial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method gram negative i solates resistant to third generation cephalosporins were tested for ESBL production by two methods. RESULTS: Number of urinary isolates from patients with symptomatic UTI was 350 o ver a study period of one year. E.coli was the predominant isolate (57.7% both in IPD and OPD patients. A total of 171 gram negative isolates resistant to third generation cephalosporins were tested for ESBL production by two methods- Modified Double Disc Synergy Test (CLSI P henotypic Confirmatory Test (PCT. ESBL production was seen in 36 (21.05% isolates. Maximum ESBL production was seen in K. pneumoniae (22.41% isolates followed by E.coli (13.26%. CONCLUSION: This study showed E.coli to be the predominant urinary pathogen isolate d from UTI cases. Overall incidence of ESBL producing microorganisms was 21.05%.

  13. High-throughput screening for novel inhibitors of Neisseria gonorrhoeae penicillin-binding protein 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Fedarovich

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae strains exhibiting decreased susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins and the recent isolation of two distinct strains with high-level resistance to cefixime or ceftriaxone heralds the possible demise of β-lactam antibiotics as effective treatments for gonorrhea. To identify new compounds that inhibit penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs, which are proven targets for β-lactam antibiotics, we developed a high-throughput assay that uses fluorescence polarization (FP to distinguish the fluorescent penicillin, Bocillin-FL, in free or PBP-bound form. This assay was used to screen a 50,000 compound library for potential inhibitors of N. gonorrhoeae PBP 2, and 32 compounds were identified that exhibited >50% inhibition of Bocillin-FL binding to PBP 2. These included a cephalosporin that provided validation of the assay. After elimination of compounds that failed to exhibit concentration-dependent inhibition, the antimicrobial activity of the remaining 24 was tested. Of these, 7 showed antimicrobial activity against susceptible and penicillin- or cephalosporin-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae. In molecular docking simulations using the crystal structure of PBP 2, two of these inhibitors docked into the active site of the enzyme and each mediate interactions with the active site serine nucleophile. This study demonstrates the validity of a FP-based assay to find novel inhibitors of PBPs and paves the way for more comprehensive high-throughput screening against highly resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae. It also provides a set of lead compounds for optimization of anti-gonococcal agents.

  14. Biochemical and molecular characterization of three new variants of AmpC beta-lactamases from Morganella morganii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Pablo; Galleni, Moreno; Ayala, Juan A; Gutkind, Gabriel

    2006-03-01

    Morganella morganii produces an inducible, chromosomally encoded AmpC beta-lactamase. We describe in this study three new variants of AmpC within this species with apparent pIs of 6.6 (M19 from M. morganii strain PP19), 7.4 (M29 from M. morganii strain PP29), and 7.8 (M37 from M. morganii strain PP37). After gene sequencing, deduced amino acid sequences displayed one to six substitutions when compared to the available Morganella AmpC sequences. An AmpR-encoding gene was also found upstream of ampC, including the LysR regulators' helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain and the putative T-N11-A-protected region in the ampR-ampC intercistronic sequence. All three AmpC variants were purified from in vitro-generated derepressed mutants and showed overall similar kinetic parameters. None of the observed amino acid changes, occurring at the surface of the protein, appear to have a major influence in their catalytic properties. Morganella AmpCs exhibit the highest catalytic efficiencies (k(cat)/K(m)) on classical penicillins, cefoxitin, narrow-spectrum cephalosporins, and cefotaxime. Cefotaxime was more effectively hydrolyzed than other oxyimino-cephalosporins, whereas cefepime was 3 log-fold less efficiently hydrolyzed than other cephalosporins such as cephalothin. Several differences with other AmpC beta-lactamases were found. Ampicillin was more efficiently hydrolyzed than benzylpenicillin. High k(cat)/K(m) values were observed for oxacillin and piperacillin, which are usually poor substrates for AmpC. A fairly efficient hydrolysis of imipenem was detected as well. Aztreonam, carbenicillin, and tazobactam were effective transient inactivators of these variants.

  15. Reduced susceptibility to extended-spectrum β-lactams in V. cholerae isolated in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ceccarelli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available β-lactams are antibiotic molecules able to inhibit cell wall biosynthesis. Among other mechanisms, resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is mostly associated with production of β-lactamase enzymes able to bind and hydrolyze the β-lactam ring. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases extend this ability also to 3rd- and 4th generation cephalosporins as well as to carbapenems and monobactams. V. cholerae is the causative agent of epidemic cholera and a public health burden for developing countries like Bangladesh. Although appropriate oral or intravenous rehydration is the therapy of choice for cholera, severe infections and V. cholerae associated septicemia are treated with antimicrobial drugs including doxycycline, erythromycin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin and/or third-generation cephalosporins. In the years after introduction of antibiotics in clinical practice, V. cholerae developed resistance to commonly used drugs worldwide mostly through gene acquisition via horizontal gene transfer. Reduced susceptibility of V. cholerae to third-generation cephalosporins has been occasionally documented. However, carbapenemase-producing V. cholerae has been reported at higher rates than resistance to extended spectrum β-lactams, mainly associated with blaNDM-1 emergence and successful plasmid dissemination. Recent findings suggest limited β-lactam resistance is present in V. cholerae O1 isolates collected during ecological and epidemiological surveillance in Bangladesh. However a trend to intermediate-susceptibility insurgence was observed. Horizontal gene transfer of β-lactam resistance from enteric pathogens to environmental microorganisms should not be underrated, given the ability of V. cholerae to acquire new genetic information.

  16. Affinity of ceftaroline and other beta-lactams for penicillin-binding proteins from Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosowska-Shick, K; McGhee, P L; Appelbaum, P C

    2010-05-01

    We compared the affinities of ceftaroline for all penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) with those of ceftriaxone and cefotaxime in 6 Staphylococcus aureus and 7 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates with various resistance phenotypes. Ceftaroline MICs were pneumoniae. Ceftaroline affinities for penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae strains were in the order PBP2X and -3 > PBP1A, -1B, and -2A > PBP2B, and ceftaroline had >or=4-fold higher 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) (0.1 to 4 microg/ml) for PBP2X, -2A, -2B, and -3 than those for the other cephalosporins tested. Among 3 penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae strains, ceftaroline had a high affinity for PBP2X (IC(50), 0.1 to 1 microg/ml), a primary target for cephalosporin PBP binding activity, and high affinities for PBP2B (IC(50), 0.5 to 4 microg/ml) and PBP1A (IC(50), 0.125 to 0.25 microg/ml) as well, both of which are also known as major targets for PBP binding activity of cephalosporins. Ceftaroline PBP affinities in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strains were greater than or equal to those of the 3 other beta-lactams tested. Ceftaroline bound to PBP2a in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (IC(50), 0.01 to 1 microg/ml) with up to 256-fold-higher affinity than those of other agents. Ceftaroline demonstrated very good PBP affinity against all S. aureus and S. pneumoniae strains tested, including resistant isolates.

  17. Profiling of β-lactam selectivity for penicillin-binding proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae D39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaoglu, Ozden; Tsui, Ho-Ching T; Winkler, Malcolm E; Carlson, Erin E

    2015-01-01

    Selective fluorescent β-lactam chemical probes enable the visualization of the transpeptidase activity of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) at different stages of bacterial cell division. To facilitate the development of new fluorescent probes for PBP imaging, we evaluated 20 commercially available β-lactams for selective PBP inhibition in an unencapsulated derivative of the D39 strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Live cells were treated with β-lactam antibiotics at different concentrations and subsequently incubated with Bocillin FL (Boc-FL; fluorescent penicillin) to saturate uninhibited PBPs. Fluorophore-labeled PBPs were visualized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and fluorescence scanning. Among 20 compounds tested, carbapenems (doripenem and meropenem) were coselective for PBP1a, PBP2x, and PBP3, while six of the nine penicillin compounds were coselective for PBP2x and PBP3. In contrast, the seven cephalosporin compounds tested display variability in their PBP-binding profiles. Three cephalosporin compounds (cefoxitin, cephalexin, and cefsulodin) and the monobactam aztreonam exhibited selectivity for PBP3, while only cefuroxime (a cephalosporin) was selective for PBP2x. Treatment of S. pneumoniae cultures with a sublethal concentration of cefuroxime that inhibited 60% of PBP2x activity and less than 20% of the activity of other PBPs resulted in formation of elongated cells. In contrast, treatment of S. pneumoniae cultures with concentrations of aztreonam and cefoxitin that inhibited up to 70% of PBP3 activity and less than 30% of other PBPs resulted in no discernible morphological changes. Additionally, correlation of the MIC and IC50s for each PBP, with the exception of faropenem, amdinocillin (mecillinam), and 6-APA, suggests that pneumococcal growth inhibition is primarily due to the inhibition of PBP2x.

  18. Antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria, antibiotics, and mercury in surface waters of Oakland County, Michigan, 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Duris, Joseph W.; Crowley, Suzanne L.; Hardigan, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Water samples collected from 20 stream sites in Oakland and Macomb Counties, Mich., were analyzed to learn more about the occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and the co-occurrence of antibiotics and mercury in area streams. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations exceeded the Michigan recreational water-quality standard of 300 E. coli colony forming units (CFU) per 100 milliliters of water in 19 of 35 stream-water samples collected in Oakland County. A gene commonly associated with enterococci from humans was detected in samples from Paint Creek at Rochester and Evans Ditch at Southfield, indicating that human fecal waste is a possible source of fecal contamination at these sites. E. coli resistant to the cephalosporin antibiotics (cefoxitin and/ or ceftriaxone) were found at all sites on at least one occasion. The highest percentages of E. coli isolates resistant to cefoxitin and ceftriaxone were 71 percent (Clinton River at Auburn Hills) and 19 percent (Sashabaw Creek near Drayton Plains), respectively. Cephalosporin-resistant E. coli was detected more frequently in samples from intensively urbanized or industrialized areas than in samples from less urbanized areas. VRE were not detected in any sample collected in this study. Multiple antibiotics (azithromycin, erythromycin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim) were detected in water samples from the Clinton River at Auburn Hills, and tylosin (an antibiotic used in veterinary medicine and livestock production that belongs to the macrolide group, along with erythromycin) was detected in one water sample from Paint Creek at Rochester. Concentrations of total mercury were as high as 19.8 nanograms per liter (Evans Ditch at Southfield). There was no relation among percentage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and measured concentrations of antibiotics or mercury in the water. Genetic elements capable of exchanging multiple antibiotic

  19. Rising trend of antimicrobial resistance among Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and the emergence of N. gonorrhoeae isolate with decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Bharara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gonorrhoea is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STI in developing countries and is a global health problem. Aims: To analyze the trend of antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates over the years, in a tertiary care hospital of North India. Settings and Design: The study population comprised males with urethritis and females with endocervicitis attending STI clinic of our hospital. Materials and Methods: In our STI laboratory, all gonococcal isolates are subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disc diffusion method as per CLSI guidelines. β-lactamase production is determined by chromogenic cephalosporin test. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC for ceftriaxone is determined by E-test. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were expressed as percentages. The differences in percentages were tested for statistical significance by using χ2 test and P values were determined. Results: The percentage of penicillinase producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG increased from 8% in 1995-96 to 20% in 2004-05 and 88% in 2011-2013. Quinolone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae (QRNG showed a significant increase from 12% in 1995-96 to 98.3% in 2004-05, while 84% isolates were found to be QRNG by 2011-2013. In January 2013 we detected our first gonococcal isolate with decreased susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins; Ceftriaxone, Cefixime and Cefpodoxime (MIC for ceftriaxone = 0.19 μg/ml. Conclusions: The results of our study highlighted an alarming increase in the percentage of PPNG and QRNG strains over the years. Emergence of N. gonorrhoeae isolates with decreased susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins is a cause of concern and thus emphasises the importance of antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

  20. Impact of changes in CLSI and EUCAST breakpoints for susceptibility in bloodstream infections due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Baño, J; Picón, E; Navarro, M D; López-Cerero, L; Pascual, A

    2012-09-01

    The impact of recent changes in and discrepancies between the breakpoints for cephalosporins and other antimicrobials, as determined by CLSI and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST), was analysed in patients with bloodstream infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli in Spain, was analysed. We studied a cohort of 191 episodes of bloodstream infection caused by ESBL-producing E. coli in 13 Spanish hospitals; the susceptibility of isolates to different antimicrobials was investigated by microdilution and interpreted according to recommendations established in 2009 and 2010 by CLSI, and in 2011 by EUCAST. Overall, 58.6% and 14.7% of isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime, and 35.1% and 14.7% to cefepime using the CLSI-2010 and EUCAST-2009/2011 recommendations, respectively (all isolates would have been considered resistant using the previous guidelines). Discrepancies between the CLSI-2010 and the EUCAST-2011 recommendations were statistically significant for other antimicrobials only in the case of amikacin (98.4% versus 75.9% of susceptible isolates; p <0.01). The results varied depending on the ESBL produced. No significant differences were found in the percentage of patients classified as receiving appropriate therapy, following the different recommendations. Four out of 11 patients treated with active cephalosporins according to CLSI-2010 guidelines died (all had severe sepsis or shock); these cases would have been considered resistant according to EUCAST-2011. In conclusion, by using current breakpoints, extended-spectrum cephalosporins would be regarded as active agents for treating a significant proportion of patients with bloodstream infections caused by ESBL-producing E. coli.

  1. [Kingella kingae infections in the pediatric age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero Reigada, M Carmen; Silveira, Laura Fernández; Policarpo, Sergio Negre; Pérez Tamarit, M Amparo; Martín, Ana Ortí; Durántez, María Santos

    2011-03-01

    Kingella kingae infections have aroused great interest in the last few years because of the increasing number of identified cases. Although considered an emerging pathogen, the increase in diagnosis of these infections can probably be explained by better knowledge of the bacteria, improved microbiological diagnostic techniques and greater awareness among clinicians. K. kingae is an aerobic cocobacillus with high tropism for osteoarticular tissue, endocardium, and vascular space. This pathogen mainly produces osteomyelitis, endocarditis, septic arthritis and bacteriemias. First choice antibiotics are penicillins and cephalosporins. This article reviews the literature on this microorganism.

  2. Empiric antibiotic therapy for acute osteoarticular infections with suspected methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or Kingella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saphyakhajon, Phisit; Joshi, Avni Y; Huskins, W Charles; Henry, Nancy K; Boyce, Thomas G

    2008-08-01

    The bacterial agents causing bone and joint infections have been changing. Currently, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Kingella kingae are emerging pathogens. For treatment of MRSA infections, clindamycin, vancomycin, and linezolid are commonly prescribed antibiotics. Kingella are sensitive to most penicillins and cephalosporins. Because MRSA osteoarticular infections tend to be severe, longer periods of antibiotic treatment with more frequent monitoring of inflammatory markers are sometimes required to obtain a complete cure with no residual complications. To assist management, we have included a clinical decision tree with antibiotic treatment protocols.

  3. The facts about penicillin allergy: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib Bhattacharya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypersensitivity reactions are the major problem in the use of penicillins. True penicillin allergy is rare with the estimated frequency of anaphylaxis at 1-5 per 10 000 cases of penicillin therapy. Hypersensitivity is however, its most important adverse reaction resulting in nausea, vomiting, pruritus, urticaria, wheezing, laryngeal oedema and ultimately, cardiovascular collapse. Identification of patients who erroneously carry β-lactam allergy leads to improved utilization of antibiotics and slows the spread of multiple drug-resistant bacteria. Cross-reactivity between penicillin and second and third generation cephalosporin is low and may be lower than the cross-reactivity between penicillin and unrelated antibiotics.

  4. THE FACTS ABOUT PENICILLIN ALLERGY: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib Bhattacharya

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypersensitivity reactions are the major problem in the use of penicillins. Truepenicillin allergy is rare with the estimated frequency of anaphylaxis at 1-5 per 10 000cases of penicillin therapy. Hypersensitivity is however, its most important adversereaction resulting in nausea, vomiting, pruritus, urticaria, wheezing, laryngeal oedemaand ultimately, cardiovascular collapse. Identification of patients who erroneously carryß-lactam allergy leads to improved utilization of antibiotics and slows the spread ofmultiple drug-resistant bacteria. Cross-reactivity between penicillin and second and thirdgeneration cephalosporin is low and may be lower than the cross-reactivity betweenpenicillin and unrelated antibiotics.

  5. The Class Antibiotic Cross Allergic Reaction Correlation Studies of 120 Cases of Patients Who Use Beta-lactamase-producing%120例患者使用β-内酰胺类抗生素交叉过敏反应相关性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁; 欧阳爱军; 王鹏

    2012-01-01

      目的通过对各类β-内酰胺类药物相互交叉过敏反应相关性研究,找寻各类β-内酰胺类药物相互交叉过敏反应比率。为临床合理选择β-内酰胺类药物提供理论依据。方法通过对在2011年3月至5月期间住院的有β-内酰胺类抗生素过敏患者进行调查,对结果进行回顾性统计分析。结果青霉素与头孢类抗生素发生交叉过敏的的概率较低;头孢类抗生素与其他β-内酰胺类药物相互交叉过敏反应的概率相对较高。结论对于有青霉素过敏的患者且头孢皮试阴性的患者,使用头孢类抗生素是安全的。%  Objective Though the correlation studies of all kinds of beta beta-lactamase-producing drugs overlapping allergic reaction, to find all kinds of beta beta-lactamase-producing drugs overlapping allergic reaction ratio. For clinical rational choice beta beta-lactamase-producing provide theoretical basis of drugs. Methods Based on the march in 2011 to five months in the hospital there are beta beta-lactamase-producing class antibiotic allergy patients to survey, statistics and analysis results. Results With cephalosporin antibiotic penicillin allergies to the probability of happened cross low; Cephalosporin antibiotic and other beta beta-lactamase-producing drugs overlapping the probability of an allergic reaction are relatively high. Conclusion Patients with penicillin allergies and skin test negatie patient cephalosporins, use cephalosporin antibiotic is safe.

  6. Magnetic separation of antibiotics by electrochemical magnetic seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihara, I; Toyoda, K [Department of Agricultural Engineering and Socio Economics, Kobe University, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Beneragama, N; Umetsu, K [Department of Animal Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: ihara@port.kobe-u.ac.jp

    2009-03-01

    Magnetic separation of several classes of antibiotics was investigated using electrochemical magnetic seeding. Electrocoagulation with a sacrificial anode followed by addition of magnetite particles was applied for the magnetic seeding of antibiotics. With electrochemical magnetic seeding using an iron anode, tetracycline antibiotics (oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline and tetracycline) and cephalosporin antibiotic (cefdinir) were rapidly removed from synthetic wastewater by magnetic separation using a neodymium magnet. Iron and aluminium anodes were suitable for magnetic seeding of the antibiotics. The results indicated that the ability of antibiotics to form strong complex with iron and aluminium allowed the higher removal by magnetic separation. This method would be appropriate for rapid treatment of antibiotics in wastewater.

  7. Purification and properties of inducible penicillin beta-lactamase isolated from Pseudomonas maltophilia.

    OpenAIRE

    Saino, Y; Kobayashi, F; Inoue, M.; Mitsuhashi, S

    1982-01-01

    Two types of beta-lactamase were found in the cell-free extract from Pseudomonas maltophilia GN12873. One was an inducible penicillin beta-lactamase, and the other was an inducible cephalosporin beta-lactamase. The purified penicillin beta-lactamase gave a single protein band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric point was 6.9, and the approximate molecular weight was 118,000 by gel filtration and 26,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, suggesting...

  8. A comparative study of capillary zone electrophoresis and pH-potentiometry for determination of dissociation constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrasi, Melinda; Buglyo, Peter; Zekany, Laszlo; Gaspar, Attila

    2007-09-03

    Acidity constants of six cephalosporin antibiotics, cefalexin, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefotaxim, cefoperazon and cefoxitin are determined using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and pH-potentiometric titrations. Since CZE is a separation method, it is not necessary for the samples to be of high purity and known concentration because only mobilities are measured. The effect on determination of dissociation constants of different matrices (serum, 0.9% NaCl, fermentation matrix) was examined. The advantages of CZE can be utilized in those fields where potentiometry has limitations (sample quantity, solubility, purity, simultaneous determinations), although pK(a) values that are close to each other can be determined by potentiometry with more accuracy.

  9. Localized pseudomembranous colitis in the cecum and ascending colon mimicking acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyung, Ju Won; Shin, Dong Gue

    2013-05-27

    A 61-year-old male was admitted to our hospital due to right lower abdominal pain and watery diarrhea for 3 d. Beginning 3 wk before he arrived in our hospital, he took 3(rd)-generation cephalosporin (cefixime) for 2 wk due to chronic left ear otitis media. Colonoscopic examination revealed yellowish patches of ulcerations and swelling covered with thick serosanguineous exudate in the cecum and ascending colon. After 7 d of oral metronidazole treatment, his symptoms completely disappeared. We report a case of localized pseudomembranous colitis in the cecum and ascending colon mimicking acute appendicitis associated with cefixime.

  10. Optimum management of Citrobacter koseri infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveci, Aydin; Coban, Ahmet Yilmaz

    2014-09-01

    Low virulent Citrobacter koseri can cause life threatening infections. Neonates and other immunocompromised patients are particularly susceptible to infection from C. koseri. Any infection due to C. koseri mandates antimicrobial therapy based on the sensitivity of the pathogen microorganism. Various types of antibiotics, including aminoglycosides carbapenems, cephalosporins, chloramphenicol and quinolones, are used for the treatment of C. koseri infections. The rational choice of antimicrobial therapy for Citrobacter infections is a challenge for clinicians because there is a sustained increase in antibacterial resistance. We reviewed antimicrobial agents used for C. koseri infections in this review.

  11. Occurrence of integrons and antimicrobial resistance genes among Salmonella enterica from Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peirano, G.; Agersø, Yvonne; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2006-01-01

    . The genetic location of class 1 integrons was determined in 25 isolates by hybridization and plasmid transfer experiments. Results: Fifty-five of the isolates were positive for class I integrons. Integron-positive isolates represented 17 different serovars and were mainly from human (n = 28) and animal (n...... resistance was primarily mediated by sul2 and sul3, tetracycline resistance by tet(B) and tet(A), chloramphenicol resistance by catA1, streptomycin resistance by strA and ampicillin resistance by bla(TEM). bla(CTX) and bla(CMY-2) were found in cephalosporin-resistant isolates. Mating and hybridization...

  12. Neonatal Meningitis by Multidrug Resistant Elizabethkingia meningosepticum Identified by 16S Ribosomal RNA Gene Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Shailaja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and microbiological profile of 9 neonates with meningitis by Elizabethkingia meningosepticum identified by 16S ribosomal gene sequencing was studied. All the clinical isolates were resistant to cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, β-lactam combinations, carbapenems and only one isolate was susceptible to ciprofloxacin. All the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. Six of nine neonates died even after using vancomycin, based on susceptibility results. E. meningosepticum meningitis in neonates results in high mortality rate. Though the organism is susceptible to vancomycin in vitro, its efficacy in vivo is questionable and it is difficult to determine the most appropriate antibiotic for treating E. meningosepticum meningitis in neonates.

  13. Vigilants Factor of Childhood Urinary Tract Infections and Antibiotic Resistance in One Tourism Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Aydemir

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Nowadays, it has become quite difficult to set on empiric treatment of the urinary tract infections (UTI due to the levels of antibiotic resistance showing local differences. In our study, we aimed to find out what the antibiotic resistance, the region factors of UTI and we also wanted to observe wheather this resistance shows differences betwen diffirent age groups. METHOD: In this study we made inquiry of six questions with patient parents about region factors effects of UTI. Two hundred children who applied to pediatrics policlinic of Ahu Hetman Hospital with urinary system complaints or diagnosed to have (UTI while hospitalizing and with positive urinary culture results were included in the study. There were no known chronic disorders or no frequent recurrence of UTI history in the patients. The subjects were divided into three groups as 1 under 1 year old; 2 between 1-6 years old; 3 over 6 years old. Then the frequency of the pathogens was examined in terms of the resistance levels occurring against the antibiotics. RESULTS: The range of age the patients was between 1 and 192 months. The reproducing pathogens were Escherichiacoli 86% (n=172, Klebsiella pneumoniae 8% (n=16, Proteus mirabilis 4% (n=8 and Enterococcus spp 2% (n=4 respectively. While there was high resistance to amoxycilline (75.8%, ureidopenicillines (%46.4, 1st generation cephalosporin, (48.4% and cotrimaksazole (43.1%; there was low resistance to imipenem (1.7%, amicasin (5.6% and 3rd generation cephalosporins (14.7%. According to thes age groups, in Group 1 (¡U12 months the most effective agents were netilmicine (13%, gentamicine (13% and ceftriakson (17%; in addition to these, we can add cefuroxim-axetil (22.7% in Group 2 (12-72 months and nitrofrantoin (11% in Group 3. Under 1 year old groups didn't include this inquiry about UTL in tourism region. We made this study with a hundred seventy pation's parents ( upper of one year children than we observed some of

  14. [Clinical studies with cefmenoxime in the field of pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takimoto, M; Yoshioka, H; Maruyama, S; Sanae, N; Nagamatsu, I

    1982-10-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of cefmenoxime (CMX), a new cephalosporin antibiotic for injection in the field of pediatrics. Thirty-one cases, including 2 cases with sepsis, 18 cases with respiratory tract infections and 7 cases with urinary tract infections, were given CMX at daily doses of 30 mg/kg to 125 mg/kg divided into 3 or 4 for 3 days to 13 days. Clinical responses were excellent in 16 cases, good in 9 cases and poor in 6 cases, the satisfactory response being 80.6%. No side effects and no abnormal laboratory findings relating to the drug were observed.

  15. A multidisciplinary intervention to reduce infections of ESBL- and AmpC-producing, gram-negative bacteria at a University Hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Inge Jenny Dahl; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup

    2014-01-01

    In response to a considerable increase in the infections caused by ESBL/AmpC-producing Klebsiella pneumonia in 2008, a multidisciplinary intervention, with a main focus on antimicrobial stewardship, was carried out at one university hospital. Four other hospitals were used as controls. Stringent...... guidelines for antimicrobial treatment and prophylaxis were disseminated throughout the intervention hospital; cephalosporins were restricted for prophylaxis use only, fluoroquinolones for empiric use in septic shock only, and carbapenems were selected for penicillin-allergic patients, infections due to ESBL...... led to a sustained change in antimicrobial consumption, and the incidence of patients infected with ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae decreased significantly (pPseudomonas...

  16. Ceftriaxone-induced toxic hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erdal Peker; Eren Cagan; Murat Dogan

    2009-01-01

    Toxic hepatitis or drug-induced liver injury encompasses a spectrum of clinical disease ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to acute liver failure. The advantages of a long half-life, wide spectrum, high tissue penetration rate, and a good safety profile,make ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin,a frequent choice in the treatment of childhood infections. Previous studies have reported a few cases of high aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, along with three cases ofhepatitis caused by ceftriaxone. Here, we report a case of drug-induced toxic hepatitis in a patient who was treated with ceftriaxone for acute tonsillitis.

  17. Selective and non-extractive spectrophotometric determination of cefdinir in formulations based on donor-acceptor complex formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita K. Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cefdinir has broad spectrum of activity and high prescription rates, hence its counterfeiting seems imminent. We have proposed a simple, fast, selective and non-extractive spectrophotometric method for the content assay of cefdinir in formulations. The method is based on complexation of cefdinir and Fe under reducing condition in a buffered medium (pH 11 to form a magenta colored donor-acceptor complex (λ max = 550 nm; apparent molar absorptivity = 3720 L mol-1 cm-1. No other cephalosporins, penicillins and common excipients interfere under the test conditions. The Beer's law is followed in the concentration range 8-160 µg mL-1.

  18. Prevalence of plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and spread of the ST131 clone among extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli in Japan.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, a total of 1327 clinical Escherichia coli isolates from five hospitals in the Kyoto and Shiga regions of Japan were analysed by PCR. The prevalences of plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (pAmpC)-producers, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producers and co-producers of pAmpC and ESBL were 1.7%, 9.7% and 0.3%, respectively. Less than one-half of the pAmpC-producers were reported to be resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, cephamycins and β-lactam/β-lactam inhibitors using th...

  19. Characterization of blaTEM-52-carrying plasmids of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Salmonella enterica isolates from chicken meat with a common supplier in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yuko; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Makoto; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    The acquisition of resistance to cephalosporins among Salmonella spp. is a major public health concern. This study identified clonal plasmids carrying bla(TEM-52) from 10 Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis and Manhattan isolates from retail chicken meats that originated from a common supplier in Japan. Whole-genome analyses of the representative plasmids, including pYM4, revealed that they are 38 kb in size and that pYM4 is identical to pDKX1 from beef in Denmark, suggesting a global dissemination of resistance mediated by the plasmids.

  20. IMPORTANCE OF HETEROCYCLIC CHEMISTRY: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragi Arora et a;l

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Heterocyclic compounds are of very much interest in our daily life. Heterocyclic compounds have one or more hetero atoms in their structure. They may be cyclic or non cyclic in nature. Heterocyclic compunds have a wide range of application. They are predominantly used as pharmaceuticals, as agrochemicals and as veterinary products. They also find applications as sanitizers, developers, antioxidants, as corrosion inhibitors, as copolymers, dye stuff. They are used as vehicles in the synthesis of other organic compunds. Some of the natural products e.g. antibiotics such as penicillin’s, cephalosporin; alkaloids such as vinblastine, morphine, reserpine etc. have heterocyclic moiety.

  1. Drug: D08772 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08772 Mixture, Drug Sulbactam sodium - cefoperazone sodium mixt; Sulperazon (TN) S...ulbactam sodium [DR:D02223], Cefoperazone sodium [DR:D00918] Therapeutic category: 6139 7290 ATC code: J01DD...Others D08772 Sulbactam sodium - cefoperazone sodium mixt 7 Agents not mainly for therapeutic purpose 72 Int...racorporeal diagnostic agents 729 Miscellaneous 7290 Miscellaneous D08772 Sulbactam sodium - cefoperazone so... Third-generation cephalosporins J01DD62 Cefoperazone, combinations D08772 Sulbactam sodium - cefoperazone sodium mixt PubChem: 96025455 ...

  2. Drug: D03428 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03428 Drug Cefpiramide (USP/INN); CPM C25H24N8O7S2 612.1209 612.6375 D03428.gif An...halosporins J01DD11 Cefpiramide D03428 Cefpiramide (USP/INN) Antiinfectives [BR:br08307] Antibacterials Cell... wall biosynthesis inhibitor Penicillin binding proteins inhibitor Cephems - Cephalosporins Cefpiramide... [ATC:J01DD11] D03428 Cefpiramide (USP/INN) CAS: 70797-11-4 PubChem: 17397568 DrugBank...MIC USE J01 ANTIBACTERIALS FOR SYSTEMIC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DD Third-generation cep

  3. Forekomst af resistente bakterier og forbrug af antibiotika til hunde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Pedersen, Kristina; Jensen, Helene;

    2007-01-01

    ), Pasteurella multocida (n=25), Bordetella bronchiseptica (n=14), Proteus spp. (n=29), og E. coli (n=449). I undersøgelsen anvendtes data fra VetStat databasen. Størstedelen af de antibiotika, der bruges til hunde er bredspektrede. Penicilliner med udvidet spektrum, cephalosporiner samt sulphonamider...... penicillin, 30,2% overfor fucidin og 27,9% overfor macrolider. E. coli isolaterne var mest resistente overfor ampicillin, sulphonamider, trimethoprim, tetracykliner og streptomycin, og anhæmolytiske isolater var oftere resistente overfor tetracykliner, trimethoprim og chloramphenikol end hæmolytiske isolater...

  4. High Mortality from Blood Stream Infection in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Is Due to Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seboxa, Teshale; Amogne, Wondwossen; Abebe, Workeabeba; Tsegaye, Tewodros; Azazh, Aklilu; Hailu, Workagegnehu; Fufa, Kebede; Grude, Nils; Henriksen, Thor-Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Background Managing blood stream infection in Africa is hampered by lack of bacteriological support needed for antimicrobial stewardship, and background data needed for empirical treatment. A combined pro- and retrospective approach was used to overcome thresholds in clinical research in Africa. Methods Outcome and characteristics including age, HIV infection, pancytopenia and bacteriological results were studied in 292 adult patients with two or more SIRS criteria using univariate and confirming multivariate logistic regression models. Expected randomly distributed resistance covariation was compared with observed co-resistance among gram-negative enteric bacteria in 92 paediatric blood culture isolates that had been harvested in the same hospital during the same period of time. Results Mortality was fivefold increased among patients with positive blood culture results [50.0% vs. 9.8%; OR 11.24 (4.38–25.88), p < 0.0001], and for this group of patients mortality was significantly associated with antimicrobial resistance [OR 23.28 (3.3–164.4), p = 0.002]. All 11 patients with Enterobacteriaceae resistant to 3rd. generation cephalosporins died. Eighty-nine patients had pancytopenia grade 3–4. Among patients with negative blood culture results, mortality was significantly associated with pancytopenia [OR 3.12 (1.32–7.39), p = 0.01]. HIV positivity was not associated with increased mortality. Antimicrobial resistance that concerned gram-negative enteric bacteria, regardless of species, was characterized by co-resistance between third generation cephalosporins, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and co-trimoxazole. Conclusion Mortality was strongly associated with growth of bacteria resistant to empirical treatment, and these patients were dead or dying when bacteriological reports arrived. Because of co-resistance, alternative efficient antibiotics would not have been available in Ethiopia for 8/11 Enterobacteriaceae-infected patients with isolates resistant to third

  5. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to Listeria monocytogenes: importance of enrichment culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Saroj; Connor, Martin; Donaldson, Shona; Austin, Hannah; Foster, Adele

    2010-09-01

    A case of Listeria monocytogenes induced spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is reported in a patient with primary biliary cirrhosis. It is an indolent illness and may not show a neutrophil reaction in peritoneal fluid. Enrichment broth was required to isolate L monocytogenes in the patient. This is not routinely used in the UK and therefore isolates may be missed. L monocytogenes remains sensitive to ampicillin, penicillin and gentamicin, but is resistant to cephalosporin antibiotics. The rising incidence of listeriosis in the population suggests that the incidence of SBP from L monocytogenes is likely to increase.

  6. Stability of clavulanic acid under variable pH, ionic strength and temperature conditions : a new kinetic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Valéria Carvalho; Pereira, Jorge F. B.; Haga, Raquel Brandão; Rangel-Yagui, Carlota de Oliveira; J.A. Teixeira; Converti, Attilio; Pessoa Júnior, Adalberto

    2009-01-01

    Clavulanic acid (CA) is a β-lactam antibiotic that alone exhibits only weak antibacterial activity, but is a potent inhibitor of β-lactamases enzymes. For this reason it is used as a therapeutic in conjunction with penicillins and cephalosporins. However, it is a well-known fact that it is unstable not only during its production phase, but also during downstream processing. Therefore, the main objective of this study was the evaluation of CA long-term stability under different conditions of p...

  7. Detection of AmpC Beta-Lactamase in Escherichia coli: Comparison of Three Phenotypic Confirmation Assays and Genetic Analysis▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Peter-Getzlaff, S; Polsfuss, S; Poledica, M.; Hombach, M.; Giger, J.; Böttger, E C; Zbinden, R.; Bloemberg, G. V.

    2011-01-01

    Two mechanisms account for AmpC activity in Escherichia coli, namely, mutations in the ampC promoter and attenuator regions resulting in ampC overexpression and acquisition of plasmid-carried ampC genes. In this study, we analyzed 51 clinical E. coli isolates with reduced susceptibility to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, piperacillin-tazobactam, or extended-spectrum cephalosporins for the presence of AmpC production. Three phenotypic AmpC confirmation assays (cefoxitin-cloxacillin disk diffusion...

  8. Evaluation of ceftobiprole in a rabbit model of aortic valve endocarditis due to methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Henry F

    2005-03-01

    Ceftobiprole is a novel broad-spectrum cephalosporin that binds with high affinity to PBP 2a, the methicillin-resistance determinant of staphylococci, and is active against methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Ceftobiprole was compared to vancomycin in a rabbit model of methicillin-resistant S. aureus aortic valve endocarditis. Ceftobiprole and vancomycin were equally effective against endocarditis caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain 76, whereas ceftobiprole was more effective than vancomycin against the vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus strain HIP5836. The activity of ceftobiprole against drug-resistant strains of S. aureus warrants its further clinical development.

  9. Interaction of ceftobiprole with the low-affinity PBP 5 of Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Xavier; Amoroso, Ana; Coyette, Jacques; Joris, Bernard

    2010-02-01

    Ceftobiprole is a new cephalosporin that exhibits a high level of affinity for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus PBP 2a. It was reported that ceftobiprole did not interact with a mutated form of the low-affinity protein Enterococcus faecium PBP 5 (PBP 5fm) that, when overexpressed, confers a beta-lactam resistance phenotype to the bacterium. Our results show that ceftobiprole binds to unmutated PBP 5fm to form a stable acyl-enzyme and that ceftobiprole is able to efficiently kill a penicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strain that produces this protein.

  10. Cerebral Abscess Potentially of Odontogenic Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marouene Ben Hadj Hassine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontogenic origins are rarely implicated in the formation of brain abscesses. The relative paucity of this kind of infection and the difficulty in matching the causative microorganisms of a brain abscess to an odontogenic source can explain the late management of patients. We herein describe a case of a 46-year-old man with a cerebellar abscess that was probably due to an odontogenic infection. The diagnosis supported by imaging and microscopic identification, mini craniectomy for abscess drainage followed by eradication of all potential dental infectious foci, and an antibiotic regimen based on cephalosporins, metronidazole, and vancomycine contributed to a successful outcome.

  11. Drug-resistance mechanisms and prevalence of Enterobacter cloacae resistant to multi-antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 顾怡明; 俞云松; 周志慧; 杜小玲

    2004-01-01

    @@The main drug-resistance mechanism of gram-negative bacteria is producing β-lactamases. Two kinds of enzymes cause drug resistance by hydrolyzing oxyimino-cephalosporins and aztreonam: one is chromosomally encoded AmpC β-lactamases, the other is plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). Enterobacter cloacae can produce both of them, so that these strains are seriously resistance to many antibiotics. In order to study the main drug-resistant mechanism in Enterobacter cloacae, PCR and nucleotide sequencing were performed on 58 multidrug resistant strains.

  12. Investigation of β-lactam antibacterial drugs, β-lactamases, and penicillin-binding proteins with fluorescence polarization and anisotropy: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Adam B.

    2016-06-01

    This review covers the uses of fluorescence polarization and anisotropy for the investigation of bacterial penicillin binding proteins (PBPs), which are the targets of β-lactam antibacterial drugs (penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams), and of the β-lactamase enzymes that destroy these drugs and help to render bacterial pathogens resistant to them. Fluorescence polarization and anisotropy-based methods for quantitation of β-lactam drugs are also reviewed. A particular emphasis is on methods for quantitative measurement of the interactions of β-lactams and other inhibitors with PBPs and β-lactamases.

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on cefotaxime in the solid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zegota, H.; Koprowski, M.; Zegota, A. [Technical Univ., Lodz (Poland). Inst. of Applied Radiation Chemistry

    1995-02-01

    The effect of {gamma}-irradiation on cefotaxime, a member of the third generation of cephalosporins, has been investigated by using different spectroscopic, chromatographic and microbiological analytical methods. Cefotaxime sodium salt was irradiated in dry state in the range of sterilization doses from 5.85 to 46.8 kGy. According to the results obtained, the degree of cefotaxime alterations was lower than 1%, even for the higher radiation dose used. Trace amounts of antibiotic radiolysis products have been found by HPLC. The microbiological assay carried out using E. coli test strain reveal that the activity of irradiated cefotaxime did not decrease. (author).

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on cefotaxime in the solid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żegota, Henryk; Koprowski, Marek; Zegota, Alicja

    1995-02-01

    The effect of γ-irradiation on cefotaxime, a member of the third generation of cephalosporins, has been investigated by using different spectroscopic, chromatographic and microbiological analytical methods. Cefotaxime sodium salt was irradiated in dry state in the range of sterilization doses from 5.85 to 46.8 kGy. According to the results obtained, the degree of cefotaxime alteration was lower than 1%, even for the higher radiation dose used. Trace amounts of antibiotic radiolysis products have been found by HPLC. The microbiological assay carried out using E. coli test strain reveal that the activity of irradiated cefotaxime did not decrease.

  15. TEM-72, a new extended-spectrum beta-lactamase detected in Proteus mirabilis and Morganella morganii in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perilli, M; Segatore, B; de Massis, M R; Riccio, M L; Bianchi, C; Zollo, A; Rossolini, G M; Amicosante, G

    2000-09-01

    A new natural TEM-2 derivative, named TEM-72, was identified in a Proteus mirabilis strain and in a Morganella morganii strain isolated in Italy in 1999. Compared to TEM-1, TEM-72 contains the following amino acid substitutions: Q39K, M182T, G238S, and E240K. Kinetic analysis showed that TEM-72 exhibits an extended-spectrum activity, including activity against oxyimino-cephalosporins and aztreonam. Expression of bla(TEM-72) in Escherichia coli was capable of decreasing the host susceptibility to the above drugs.

  16. Efficacy of ceftaroline fosamil against penicillin-sensitive and -resistant streptococcus pneumoniae in an experimental rabbit meningitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottagnoud, P; Cottagnoud, M; Acosta, F; Stucki, A

    2013-10-01

    Ceftaroline is a new cephalosporin with bactericidal activity against resistant Gram-positive organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as common Gram-negative organisms. This study tested the prodrug, ceftaroline fosamil, against a penicillin-sensitive and a penicillin-resistant strain of S. pneumoniae in an experimental rabbit meningitis model. The penetration of ceftaroline into inflamed meninges was approximately 14%. Ceftaroline fosamil was slightly superior to ceftriaxone against the penicillin-sensitive strain and significantly superior to the combination of ceftriaxone and vancomycin against the penicillin-resistant strain.

  17. Pneumocephalus as a complication of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, P; Vishad, V; Pappachan, Joseph M; Laly, D C; Jayaprakash, R; Ranjith, V T

    2008-03-01

    Pneumocephalus implies air inside the cranial vault, which usually results from cranio-facial trauma. Occasionally, meningitis caused by gas-forming organisms can result in pneumocephalus. Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis can, on rare occasions, cause pneumocephalus as a complication. The drug of choice for K. pneumoniae meningitis is a third-generation cephalosporin, and resistance to these drugs is unusual. We report a case of multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae meningitis resulting from chronic suppurative otitis media, which was later complicated by pneumocephalus. The patient was successfully managed with meropenam and amikacin, the only antibiotics to which these bacilli showed no resistance.

  18. Antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli high-risk clones and an IncFII(k) mosaic plasmid hosting Tn1 (blaTEM-4) in isolates from 1990 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Irene; Novais, Ângela; Lira, Felipe; Valverde, Aránzazu; Curião, Tânia; Martínez, José Luis; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael; Coque, Teresa M

    2015-05-01

    We describe the genetic background of bla(TEM-4) and the complete sequence of pRYC11::bla(TEM-4), a mosaic plasmid that is highly similar to pKpQIL-like variants, predominant among TEM-4 producers in a Spanish hospital (1990 to 2004), which belong to Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli high-risk clones responsible for the current spread of different antibiotic resistance genes. Predominant populations of plasmids and host adapted clonal lineages seem to have greatly contributed to the spread of resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins.

  19. TEM-72, a New Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Detected in Proteus mirabilis and Morganella morganii in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perilli, Mariagrazia; Segatore, Bernardetta; Rosaria De Massis, Maria; Riccio, Maria Letizia; Bianchi, Ciro; Zollo, Alessandro; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Amicosante, Gianfranco

    2000-01-01

    A new natural TEM-2 derivative, named TEM-72, was identified in a Proteus mirabilis strain and in a Morganella morganii strain isolated in Italy in 1999. Compared to TEM-1, TEM-72 contains the following amino acid substitutions: Q39K, M182T, G238S, and E240K. Kinetic analysis showed that TEM-72 exhibits an extended-spectrum activity, including activity against oxyimino-cephalosporins and aztreonam. Expression of blaTEM-72 in Escherichia coli was capable of decreasing the host susceptibility to the above drugs. PMID:10952610

  20. High Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase, Plasmid-Mediated AmpC, and Carbapenemase Genes in Pet Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffert, Salome N.; Carattoli, Alessandra; Tinguely, Regula; Lupo, Agnese; Perreten, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the pet food contained in 30 packages as a potential origin of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative organisms and β-lactamase genes (bla). Live bacteria were not detected by selective culture. However, PCR investigations on food DNA extracts indicated that samples harbored the blaCTX-M-15 (53.3%), blaCMY-4 (20%), and blaVEB-4-like (6.7%) genes. Particularly worrisome was the presence of blaOXA-48-like carbapenemases (13.3%). The original pet food ingredients and/or the production processes were highly contaminated with bacteria carrying clinically relevant acquired bla genes. PMID:25092703