In arranging a list of fossil Cephalopoda of the Malayan Archipelago it soon proved that the bulk were found on Timor. On some of the other islands viz. Rotti, the Sula islands, Taliabu and Mangoli, Buru, the Misol Archipelago and Sumatra a good deal have been found also. The oldest informations on
Schipp, R.; von Boletzky, S.; Jakobs, P.; Labourg, P. J.
In semi-adult Sepia officinalis L. (Cephalopoda) from the Bay of Arcachon (France) a congenital malformation of the systemic heart is described by macro-and microscopical methods. It concerns an atypical doubling of the site of insertion at the cephalic aorta at the apical ventricle. Its comparison with the paired anlagen of the systemic heart complex in normal embryogenesis and the central circulatory system of Nautilus gives rise to interpret it as a form of atavism. The possible causal role of mutagenic antifoulings is discussed.
Full Text Available In the present paper the species from the genus LolligunculaSteentrup, 1881 (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae in Southeastern Pacific Ocean are reviewed. The presence of Lolliguncula (Lolliguncula panamensisBerry, 1911, Lolliguncula (Loliolopsis diomedeae Hoyle, 1911 and Lolliguncula (Lolliguncula argusBrakoniecki and Roper, 1985 are confirmed from Mexican waters to Perú and the species Lolliguncula (Lolliguncula arguscollected during a cruise of the R/V Anton Bruunfrom 1966 off the coast of South America is recorded for the first time in Peruvian waters. A key to identification of Pacific species is given. We report a diagnostic feature with taxonomic remarks of these species. Updated information on the distribution, biology, and fisheries of each species also is discussed.
Moroz, L L; Gillette, R
The distribution of putative nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-containing cells has been analysed using NADPH-d histochemistry in the CNS and peripheral tissues in more than 2D ecologically and systematically different molluscan genera representing 3 main classes of the phylum MOLLUSCA: Polyplacophora (Lepidopleurus, Lepidozona, Katharina), Gastropoda (Littorina, Lymnaea, Aplexa, Physa, Planorbarius, Planorbis, Helisoma, Biomphalaria, Helix, Limax, Cepaea, Bulla, Aplysia, Phyllaplysia, Philine, Pleurobranchea, Tritonia, Armina, Flabellina, Cadlina) and Cephalopoda (Octopus, Sepia, Rossia, Loligo). Several species were used for more detailed immunohistochemical, biochemical, biophysical and physiological studies to further assay of NOS activity and to analyse functional roles of nitric oxide (NO) in these animals. The main conclusions of our comparative analysis and literature survey can be summarised as following: (i) There is strong evidence for the presence of NO-dependent signalling pathways in different molluscan species. (ii) We hypothesise that a general tendency in the evolution of NADPH-d-reactive cells in Mollusca is a migration of nitrergic function from periphery to the CNS. Also, different isoforms of NOS appear to be present in any one species. (iii) One of the main functional targets of NO signalling is the feeding system. However, there are obvious differences between predators (many labelled central motoneurons) and herbivorous species (many labelled peripheral putative sensory cells) as well as between land/freshwater and marine animals. Nevertheless, in all species tested NO-activated feeding-like motor patterns in the buccal ganglia. Additional functional and cellular targets for NO in molluscs are also considered. We briefly review neuromodulatory mechanisms of NO action and we consider molluscs as useful model systems for investigations of the roles of NO. PMID:8853687
Lindgren Annie R; Pankey Molly S; Hochberg Frederick G; Oakley Todd H
Abstract Background The marine environment is comprised of numerous divergent organisms living under similar selective pressures, often resulting in the evolution of convergent structures such as the fusiform body shape of pelagic squids, fishes, and some marine mammals. However, little is known about the frequency of, and circumstances leading to, convergent evolution in the open ocean. Here, we present a comparative study of the molluscan class Cephalopoda, a marine group known to occupy ha...
Shen, Kang-Ning; Yen, Ta-Chi; Chen, Ching-Hung; Ye, Jeng-Jia; Hsiao, Chung-Der
In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the cryptic "lineage B" big-fin reef squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) has been sequenced by next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome consisting of 16,694 bp, includes 13 protein coding genes, 25 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs genes. The overall base composition of "lineage B" S. lessoniana is 36.7% for A, 18.9 % for C, 34.5 % for T and 9.8 % for G and show 90% identities to "lineage C" S. lessoniana. It is also exhibits high T + A content (71.2%), two non-coding regions with TA tandem repeats. The complete mitogenome of the cryptic "lineage B" S. lessoniana provides essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogeography and evolutionary analysis for big-fin reef squid species complex. PMID:25418625
Hsiao, Chung-Der; Shen, Kang-Ning; Ching, Tzu-Yun; Wang, Ya-Hsien; Ye, Jeng-Jia; Tsai, Shiou-Yi; Wu, Shan-Chun; Chen, Ching-Hung; Wang, Chia-Hui
In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the cryptic "lineage A" big-fin reef squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) has been sequenced by the next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome consists of 16,605 bp, which includes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and 2 ribosomal RNAs genes. The overall base composition of "lineage A" S. lessoniana is 37.5% for A, 17.4% for C, 9.1% for G, and 35.9% for T and shows 87% identities to "lineage C" S. lessoniana. It is also noticed by its high T + A content (73.4%), two non-coding regions with TA tandem repeats. The complete mitogenome of the cryptic "lineage A" S. lessoniana provides essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogeography and evolutionary analysis for big-fin reef squid species complex. PMID:26016882
Lindgren Annie R
Full Text Available Abstract Background The marine environment is comprised of numerous divergent organisms living under similar selective pressures, often resulting in the evolution of convergent structures such as the fusiform body shape of pelagic squids, fishes, and some marine mammals. However, little is known about the frequency of, and circumstances leading to, convergent evolution in the open ocean. Here, we present a comparative study of the molluscan class Cephalopoda, a marine group known to occupy habitats from the intertidal to the deep sea. Several lineages bear features that may coincide with a benthic or pelagic existence, making this a valuable group for testing hypotheses of correlated evolution. To test for convergence and correlation, we generate the most taxonomically comprehensive multi-gene phylogeny of cephalopods to date. We then create a character matrix of habitat type and morphological characters, which we use to infer ancestral character states and test for correlation between habitat and morphology. Results Our study utilizes a taxonomically well-sampled phylogeny to show convergent evolution in all six morphological characters we analyzed. Three of these characters also correlate with habitat. The presence of an autogenic photophore (those relying upon autonomous enzymatic light reactions is correlated with a pelagic habitat, while the cornea and accessory nidamental gland correlate with a benthic lifestyle. Here, we present the first statistical tests for correlation between convergent traits and habitat in cephalopods to better understand the evolutionary history of characters that are adaptive in benthic or pelagic environments, respectively. Discussion Our study supports the hypothesis that habitat has influenced convergent evolution in the marine environment: benthic organisms tend to exhibit similar characteristics that confer protection from invasion by other benthic taxa, while pelagic organisms possess features that
Paralarvae of the complex Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis-Dosidicus gigas (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) in the northern limit of the shallow oxygen minimum zone of the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean (April 2012)
Sánchez-Velasco, Laura; Ruvalcaba-Aroche, Erick D.; Beier, Emilio; Godínez, Victor M.; Barton, Eric D.; Díaz-Viloria, Noe; Pacheco, María. R.
The three-dimensional distribution of the paralarvae of the complex Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis-Dosidicus gigas (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) was analyzed at the northern limit of the shallow oxygen minimum zone in the Eastern Tropical Pacific in April 2012. The upper limit of the oxygen minimum water (˜44 µmol/kg or 1 mL/L) rises from ˜100 m depth in the entrance of the Gulf of California to ˜20 m depth off Cabo Corrientes. Most of the paralarvae of this complex, dominated by D. gigas, were concentrated in the Gulf entrance, between the thermocline (˜20 to ˜50 m depth) and the sea surface, in the warmest (>19°C) oxygenated (>176 µmol/kg) layer. The highest abundance of paralarvae was detected in an anticyclonic eddy (˜120 km diameter and >500 m deep), which contained lower-salinity water (<35 g/kg), consistent with formation in the California Current. Lower paralarvae abundance was recorded further south off Cabo Corrientes, where hypoxic layers were elevated as water shoaled nearshore. Almost no paralarvae were found in the north of the study area beyond the strong salinity front (˜34.8-35.4 g/kg) that bounded the anticyclone. These results showed an affinity of the paralarvae for lower-salinity, oxygenated water, illustrated by the influence of the mesoscale anticyclonic eddy and the salinity front in their distribution. Based on this study, it can be concluded that the expansion of the depth range of hypoxic water observed in the Eastern Tropical Pacific may be increasing environmental stress on the paralarvae by vertically restricting their habitat, and so affecting their survival.
Four species of the family Octopodidae were reported to occur along the Argentine coast Octopus tehuelchus, Eledone massyae, Enteroctopus megalocyathus and Robsonella fontaniana. The first two are distributed from Brazil to south of Rawson and San Jorge Gulf, respectively, in warm-temperate waters. E.megalocyathus and R.fontaniana are of Subantarctic origin, the first ranging from San Matias Gulf to Magellan Strait, the Beagle Channel and Malvinas Islands; R.fontaniana is distributed from San...
Mather, Jennifer A; Alupay, Jean S
The present paper constructs a general ethogram for the actions of the flexible body as well as the skin displays of octopuses in the family Octopodidae. The actions of 6 sets of structures (mantle-funnel, arms, sucker-stalk, skin-web, head, and mouth) combine to produce behavioral units that involve positioning of parts leading to postures such as the flamboyant, movements of parts of the animal with relation to itself including head bob and grooming, and movements of the whole animal by both jetting in the water and crawling along the substrate. Muscular actions result in 4 key changes in skin display: (a) chromatophore expansion, (b) chromatophore contraction resulting in appearance of reflective colors such as iridophores and leucophores, (c) erection of papillae on the skin, and (d) overall postures of arms and mantle controlled by actions of the octopus muscular hydrostat. They produce appearances, including excellent camouflage, moving passing cloud and iridescent blue rings, with only a few known species-specific male visual sexual displays. Commonalities across the family suggest that, despite having flexible muscular hydrostat movement systems producing several behavioral units, simplicity of production may underlie the complexity of movement and appearance. This systematic framework allows researchers to take the next step in modeling how such diversity can be a combination of just a few variables. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27078075
Brunetti, N.E.; Ivanovic, M.L.; Elena, B.
An update of the knowledge on the three most important ommastrephid species that inhabit the SW Atlantic: Illex argentinus, Martialia hyadesi and Ommastrephes bartramii, is presented. Up to the moment, only I.argentinus was intensively studied. Its distribution, population structure, reproduction, growth and paralarval development are analyzed, togheter with other aspects of its biology, such as feeding, predators and parasites. Also its utilization for human consmption is considered. Regardi...
Hoving, H.J.T.; Nauwelaerts, S.; van Genne, B.; Stamhuis, E.J.; Zumholz, K.
The small sepiolid cephalopod Rossia moelleri Steenstrup, 1856 transfers sperm by implantation of spermatangia into female tissue. Although this is a common sperm transfer and storage strategy in cephalopods, the mechanism behind implantation of spermatangia is poorly understood. In the lab, we arti
Gleadall, Ian G; Guerrero-Kommritz, Juergen; Hochberg, Frederick G; Laptikhovsky, Vladimir V
Three inkless octopodids are described from the continental shelf off southeastern South America. These octopuses are a non-commercial by-catch in the Falkland Islands fishery. Muusoctopus eureka (Robson, 1929) is one of two common inkless octopuses and is of medium size, with orange-pink skin and a distinctive pattern of irregular dark markings, interspersed with white spots visible only in living or freshly dead specimens. The second common inkless octopus is M. longibrachus akambei, a new subspecies of the Chilean species Muusoctopus longibrachus ( Ibáñez, Sepúlveda and Chong, 2006 ). It has slender arms and is much larger at full maturity than M. eureka. It is a plain orange color when alive, pinkish cream when preserved. Muusoctopus bizikovi, sp. nov., is a smaller, rarer species, colored wine-red whether alive or preserved, and has a vestigial ink duct between the digestive gland and the anus. Relations with other species are discussed. This group of octopuses has often been associated with the genus Benthoctopus Grimpe, 1921 , which is a junior synonym of Bathypolypus Grimpe (a genus of small species characterized by much shorter arms and males with a robust copulatory organ bearing transverse lamellae). It is argued that the misleading characterization of the so-called Benthoctopus group of species as "smooth skinned" is based upon the artefactual appearance of specimens fixed and preserved suboptimally following a detrimental freeze-thaw cycle of fisheries material previously frozen while at sea. PMID:20528161
Salcedo-Vargas, Mario Alejandro
The ultrastructure of the sucker surface is described and its systematic value for mastigoteuthid squids, which bear minute suckers, is considered. An introduction to sucker terms is given and a redefinition of these terms is attempted. Using scanning electron microscopic data, two genera and four subgenera of Mastigoteuthidae from the Northwest Pacific are distinguished. The presence of “cushions” in the sucker is discussed and considered as a character important for understanding adaptation...
Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Colin-Flores, Rafael Francisco; Rosas, Carlos
Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya is described in terms of histological, morphometric, oocytes growth, and somatic-oocyte relationship data obtained from octopus cultured at the UMDI-UNAM, in Sisal, Yucatan, Mexico. This study is the first publication on gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya. A total of 83 O. maya specimens were used; their sizes ranged from 6.5 to 76 mm of total length (TL), 4 to 28 mm of dorsal mantle length (DML), 2.5 to 20 mm of ventral mantle length (VML), and 0.0180 to 7.2940 g of fixed body weight (fBW). Animals were weighed and measured only after preservation. A loss of 10% of living weight was estimated for juvenile octopuses after formalin preservation. The relation of length to weight (VML, DML, TL/fBW) pooled for both sexes had a strong positive correlation (r), as shown by a potential power function that was quite close to 1. Compound images were produced from numerous microscopic fields. The histological examination revealed that, 4 months after hatching, male octopus (24.5 mm DML and 7.2940 g fBW) were in gonad stages 2 (maturing) to 3 (mature), with spermatogonia and spermatocytes in the tubule wall and abundant spermatids and spermatozoa in the central lumen of the seminiferous tubules, suggesting the occurrence of different phases of gonad development at different maturity stages. In contrast, females (22.5 mm DML and 4.8210 g fBW) at the same time since hatching were immature (stage 1), with many oogonia, few oocytes, and germinal epithelium. This suggests that males reach maturity earlier than females, indicating a probable onset of maturity for males at around 4 months of culture or 8 g of wet body weight. Our results indicate the possibility that the size-at-weight can be recognized early with a degree of certainty that allows the sexes to be separated for culture purposes; but more detailed studies on reproduction in relation to endocrinology and nutrition are needed. PMID:19218496
Nepita Villanueva, M R; Defeo, O
Growth of the octopus (Octopus maya) off Yucatan (Mexico) was estimated from a long-term study (seven years) by the length-based methods ELEFAN, PROJMAT and SLCA. Some 19,251 octopuses with a range of mantle length between 50 and 240 mm were sampled from commercial landings in 1983-1987, 1989 and 1992. The jackknife technique was applied to deal with uncertainty in growth estimates resulting from chance variations in sampling design. The growth index phi' was used for comparative purposes. Results differed markedly among methods: ELEFAN produced parameter estimates within the range reported in the literature, whereas PROJMAT and SLCA showed problems to converge in an optimum combination of parameters, and tended to underestimate them. Jackknife analysis revealed very low intraannual variability in phi' but high variability among years, especially when applying PROJMAT. No significant differences were found in precision parameters--percent error and coefficient of variation--among methods. Estimates of phi' derived by ELEFAN varied between 4.19 and 5.23 and agreed with those reported in the literature (between 4.25 and 4.91), whereas PROJMAT and SLCA estimates were significantly lower. We suggest the use of ELEFAN, together with jackknife, to estimate growth parameters of Octopus maya. PMID:11795175
Full Text Available The common octopus Octopus vulgarisCuvier, 1797 is the most fished cephalopod species along the Spanish coasts. Its catches are highly fluctuating due to the short life cycle of the species and to the annual variability of the recruitment pattern, strongly dependent on the environmental conditions affecting the eggs and paralarvae. This study examines the common octopus fishery, the catch composition, and the main features of the reproductive biology of this species in the Gulf of Alicante (Spanish Eastern coast, Western Mediterranean FAO division 37.1.1. The common octopus fishery was studied analysing the monthly landing and effort data by fishing gear from 1994 to 2005. Monthly samplings of the commercial O. vulgarislandings from trawlers and clay pots from January 2004 to December 2005 resulted in the measuring of 1833 specimens to enable analysis of the catch composition, and allowed the biological sampling of 1176 individuals to provide the reproductive parameters of the species in the study area. The length-weight relationship calculated for the species was BW = 0.51 * DML 2.87. The yearly sex ratios (males:females were 1:1 (trawl, 2004, 1:0.74 (trawl, 2005, and 1:0.88 (clay pots, 2005. The size (dorsal mantle length, DML at maturity of the species in the study area was 9.67 cm for males and 14.38 cm for females. The gonadosomatic index reached a peak between April and July for males and in July for females. The Fulton condition index was lower in both sexes between June and September, and for males in November-December, whereas for both sexes the values of the digestive gland index were at their maximum between June and December. The energy allocation between somatic and reproductive growth was investigated and the results suggested that the energy spent on reproduction mainly came from feeding, and not from energy stored in the mantle tissues or in the digestive gland
Aaron B Evans
Full Text Available The cranchiid Teuthowenia pellucida, like many deep-sea squid species, possesses large eyes that maximise light sensitivity in a nearly aphotic environment. To assess ontogenetic changes in the visual system, we conducted morphometric and histological analyses of the eyes using specimens from New Zealand collections. While the ratio between eye diameter and mantle length maintained a linear relationship throughout development, histological sections of the retina revealed that the outer photoreceptor layer became proportionally longer as the animal aged, coincident with a habitat shift into deeper, darker ocean strata. Other retinal layers maintained the same absolute thickness as was observed in paralarvae. Granules of the pigment ommin, normally located in the screening layer positioned at the base of the photoreceptors, were also observed at the outer end of the photoreceptor segments throughout the retina in young and mid-sized specimens. Early developmental stages of this species, dwelling in shallow waters, may therefore rely on migratory ommin to help shield photoreceptors from excess light and prevent over-stimulation. The oldest, deeper-dwelling specimens of T. pellucida examined had longer photoreceptors, and little or no migrated ommin was observed; we suggest therefore that short-term adaptive mechanisms for bright light conditions may be used primarily during epipelagic, early life stages in this species.
GUERRERO-FERREIRA, R. C.; Nishiguchi, M. K.
Luminescent bacteria in the family Vibrionaceae (Bacteria: γ-Proteobacteria) are commonly found in complex, bilobed light organs of sepiolid and loliginid squids. Although morphology of these organs in both families of squid is similar, the species of bacteria that inhabit each host has yet to be verified. We utilized sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA, luciferase α-subunit (luxA) and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapA) genes to determine phylogenetic relationships between 63 stra...
Boore, Jeffrey L.
Background: Mitochondria contain small genomes that arephysically separate from those of nuclei. Their comparison serves as amodel system for understanding the processes of genome evolution.Although complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported formore than 600 animals, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased towardvertebrates and arthropods, leaving much of the diversity yetuncharacterized. Results: The mitochondrial genome of a cephalopodmollusk, the Chambered Nautilus, is 16,258 nts in length and 59.5 percentA+T, both values that are typical of animal mitochondrial genomes. Itcontains the 37 genes that are typical for animal mtDNAs, with 15 on oneDNA strand and 22 on the other. The arrangement of these genes can bederived from that of the distantly related Katharina tunicata (Mollusca:Polyplacophora) by a switch in position of two large blocks of genes andtranspositions of four tRNA genes. There is strong skew in thedistribution of nucleotides between the two strands. There are an unusualnumber of non-coding regions and their function, if any, is not known;however, several of these demark abrupt shifts in nucleotide skew,suggesting that they may play roles in transcription and/or replication.One of the non-coding regions contains multiple repeats of a tRNA-likesequence. Some of the tRNA genes appear to overlap on the same strand,but this could be resolved if the polycistron were cleaved at thebeginning of the downstream gene, followed by polyadenylation of theproduct of the upstream gene to form a fully paired structure.Conclusions: Nautilus sp. mtDNA contains an expected gene content thathas experienced few rearrangements since the evolutionary split betweencephalopods and polyplacophorans. It contains an unusual number ofnon-coding regions, especially considering that these otherwise often aregenerated by the same processes that produce gene rearrangements. Thisappears to be yet another case where polyadenylation of mitochondrialtRNAs restores what would otherwise bean incompletestructure.
Christian M Ibáñez
Full Text Available ABSTRACT. The jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas is the most abundant cephalopod species in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, which supports the biggest cephalopod fishery in the world. Due to its growing economic importance, the population growth and distributional expansion of this squid is being increasingly studied. Nevertheless, some basic features of the biology of D. gigas are still unknown or have been poorly investigated. In this review we summarize the known information regarding the biology and ecology of this species in the southeastern Pacific Ocean; we focus on the Chilean region in order to propose hypotheses and research lines for a better understanding the life history of this organism. Available data on the size structure, reproduction and genetics of D. gigas allows us to propose hypotheses related to the squid's life history traits. Based on the current literature and publications of colleagues, we propose two hypotheses regarding the effect of spatial variation on the life history of D. gigas. Hypothesis 1: Squids mature at large sizes and spawn in oceanic waters with warm temperatures where paralarvae and juveniles develop. Immature squids migrate near shore to feed, grow and mature, and then return to the offshore sites to spawn. Hypothesis 2: Alternatively, juvenile D. gigas in the oceanic zone do not migrate to coastal waters and mature at small sizes compared to individuals living near the coast that mature at larger size and migrate to oceanic waters to spawn. We provide background information about the feeding behavior and parasitism of this species, suggesting that D. gigas is an important trophic link in the southeastern Pacific marine ecosystem. However, more studies on the feeding habits, reproduction and parasite load are needed not only to test hypotheses proposed in this study, but also to advance the overall knowledge of this species.
Christian M Ibáñez; Roger D Sepúlveda; Patricio Ulloa; Friedemann Keyl; M. CECILIA PARDO-GANDARILLAS
ABSTRACT. The jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas is the most abundant cephalopod species in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, which supports the biggest cephalopod fishery in the world. Due to its growing economic importance, the population growth and distributional expansion of this squid is being increasingly studied. Nevertheless, some basic features of the biology of D. gigas are still unknown or have been poorly investigated. In this review we summarize the known information regarding the biology...
Arkhipkin, Alexander I.; Bizikov, Vyacheslav A.; Fuchs, Dirk
The microstructure of the gladius cone was investigated in six species of nektonic squid: shallow-water Loligo gahi (Loliginidae), pelagic eurybathic Illex argentinus, Todarodes pacificus, Dosidicus gigas (Ommastrephidae), and deepwater Onykia ingens (Onychoteuthidae) and Gonatus antarcticus (Gonatidae) using state-of-the-art microscopy. Apart from L. gahi, all other species had septa-like layers in the gladius cone, which for the first time were investigated in detail and compared with those in extinct Cretaceous belemnites Hibolithes sp. and Pachyteuthis sp., and spirulid Cyrtobelus sp. It was found that the organic layers of the gladius cone in recent squid can be homologized with the organic components of the shell in fossil phragmocone-bearing coleoids. The septa-like layers in modern gladius cones therefore represent a vestigial phragmocone composed of organic septal rudiments of the ancestral phragmocone that has lost the siphuncle and gas-filled chambers. The well-developed rostrum in onychoteuthids and small rostrum of the gladius in ommastrephids and gonatids can be seen as homologous with the belemnoid rostrum, which may indicate a close phylogenetic relationship between belemnites and at least some squid. Possible evolutionary pathways of the reduction of the functional phragmocone in squid ancestors are discussed. Several features such as the loss of shell calcification, deep water speciation, and the structure of the equilibrium organ point to a deep-water origin of squids.
Salcedo-Vargas, Mario Alejandro
The ultrastructure of the sucker surface is described and its systematic value for mastigoteuthid squids, which bear minute suckers, is considered. An introduction to sucker terms is given and a redefinition of these terms is attempted. Using scanning electron microscopic data, two genera and four s
Hoving, H. J. T.; Laptikhovsky, V.; Piatkowski, U.; Onsoy, B.; Oensoy, B.
Small cephalopods of the genus Heteroteuthis are the most pelagic members in the family Sepiolidae. This study examines the reproductive biology of Heteroteuthis dispar (Ruppell, 1844), the first such study on any member of the genus, based on 46 specimens (27 females and 19 males) collected during
Hoving, H. J. T.; Lipinski, M. R.; Roeleveld, M. A. C.; Durholtz, M. D.
Lycoteuthis lorigera is an oceanic squid that is abundant in the Benguela system. Little is known about the biology of this squid except that it is eaten in large numbers by numerous oceanic predators and that males grow to larger size than females, which is unique for oegopsid squid. The aim of thi
Octopuses prey on molluscs by boring through their shell. Among the regular naticid borings, traces of cephalopod predation should be found soon on Dutch beaches. Bottom trawling has declined, and by the effects of global warming Octopus will find its way back to the North Sea where it lived before.
Sherrard, K M
The cuttlebone is a rigid buoyancy tank that imposes a depth limit on Sepia, the only living speciose cephalopod genus with a chambered shell. Sections of 59 cuttlebones from a geographically diverse sample of 11 species were examined using confocal microscopy. Sepia species that live at greater depths had thicker septa and less space between pillars than did shallow species. A plate theory analysis of cuttlebone strength based on these two measures predicted maximum capture depths accurately in most species. Thus cuttlebone morphology confers differing degrees of strength against implosion from hydrostatic pressure, which increases with increasing habitat depth. Greater strength may come at the cost of increased cuttlebone density, which impinges on the cuttlebone's buoyancy function. PMID:10897454
Gonzalez, M; E. BARCALA; J.L. PEREZ-GIL; M.N. CARRASCO; M. C. Garcia-Martinez
The common octopus Octopus vulgarisCuvier, 1797 is the most fished cephalopod species along the Spanish coasts. Its catches are highly fluctuating due to the short life cycle of the species and to the annual variability of the recruitment pattern, strongly dependent on the environmental conditions affecting the eggs and paralarvae. This study examines the common octopus fishery, the catch composition, and the main features of the reproductive biology of this species in the Gulf of Alicante (S...
YANG Jianmin; WANG Weijun; ZHENG Xiaodong; ZHOU Quanli; ZHANG Yu; SUN Guohua; LIU Xiangquan
Morphology of the spermatozoon of Octopus ocellatus was studied by light, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopes. Sperm are 600-700 μm long, with a large number of granules in diameter about 130 nm. Each spermatozoon is composed of a head, neck, and tail. The head is made up of an acrosomal complex anterior to the nucleus. The spiral acrosomal complex consists of an electron-lucent vesicle, lacuna, and an electron-dense acrosomal vesicle. Additionally, the spiral acrosomal vesicle has numerous equidistant striations, and is surrounded by many small granules (20 nm diameter). A long straight nucleus, which is electron-densed, has a deep posterior concavity, the nuclear vacuole. At the terminal end of the nucleus is a sleeve-like structure with a concave posterior nuclear fossa (PNF). The neck is short connecting the PNF. The basal body is located in the PNF and gives rise to the axoneme. This structure connects the head, neck, and tail. The tail is divided into a middle piece and a principal piece. The middle piece, having a 9+9+2 arrangement, is surrounded by a mitochondrial sheath and terminates by an electron-dense fibrous sheath. The principal piece is the longest part of the sperm with coarse fibers tapering posteriorly. The results of this study shall provide some useful information for artificial breeding of this species.
Boore Jeffrey L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondria contain small genomes that are physically separate from those of nuclei. Their comparison serves as a model system for understanding the processes of genome evolution. Although complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported for more than 600 animals, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased toward vertebrates and arthropods, leaving much of the diversity yet uncharacterized. Results The mitochondrial genome of the bellybutton nautilus, Nautilus macromphalus, a cephalopod mollusk, is 16,258 nts in length and 59.5% A+T, both values that are typical of animal mitochondrial genomes. It contains the 37 genes that are almost universally found in animal mtDNAs, with 15 on one DNA strand and 22 on the other. The arrangement of these genes can be derived from that of the distantly related Katharina tunicata (Mollusca: Polyplacophora by a switch in position of two large blocks of genes and transpositions of four tRNA genes. There is strong skew in the distribution of nucleotides between the two strands, and analysis of this yields insight into modes of transcription and replication. There is an unusual number of non-coding regions and their function, if any, is not known; however, several of these demark abrupt shifts in nucleotide skew, and there are several identical sequence elements at these junctions, suggesting that they may play roles in transcription and/or replication. One of the non-coding regions contains multiple repeats of a tRNA-like sequence. Some of the tRNA genes appear to overlap on the same strand, but this could be resolved if the polycistron were cleaved at the beginning of the downstream gene, followed by polyadenylation of the product of the upstream gene to form a fully paired structure. Conclusion Nautilus macromphalus mtDNA contains an expected gene content that has experienced few rearrangements since the evolutionary split between cephalopods and polyplacophorans. It contains an unusual number of non-coding regions, especially considering that these otherwise often are generated by the same processes that produce gene rearrangements. The skew in nucleotide composition between the two strands is strong and associated with the direction of transcription in various parts of the genomes, but a comparison with K. tunicata implies that mutational bias during replication also plays a role. This appears to be yet another case where polyadenylation of mitochondrial tRNAs restores what would otherwise be an incomplete structure.
Rodrigo Silvestre Martins
Full Text Available A carcass of a giant squid Architeuthis sp. was found afloat off Southern Brazil (28°05'S, 45°35'W on 29 August 1999. The specimen was a mature female of 116 cm mantle length and had arms incomplete and tentacles missing. The specimen was morphologically similar to those previously described for the Southwest Atlantic, but a few peculiarities were found on the shape of the fins, head and the cross-section and length of ventral arms. Spermatophores were found embedded within the skin of the left ventral arm, at around 60 cm from the mouth, and could be traced to the core of the arm, radiating nearly four centimeters from the point of entry. This was the third record of Architeuthis in Brazilian waters and the eighth in Southwest Atlantic when the specimen was found.
Huffard, Christine L
Speeds and variation in body form during crawling, bipedal walking, swimming and jetting by the shallow-water octopus Abdopus aculeatus were compared to explore possible interactions between defense behaviors and biomechanics of these multi-limbed organisms. General body postures and patterns were more complex and varied during the slow mode of crawling than during fast escape maneuvers such as swimming and jetting. These results may reflect a trade-off between predator deception and speed, or simply a need to reduce drag during jet-propelled locomotion. Octopuses swam faster when dorsoventrally compressed, a form that may generate lift, than when swimming in the head-raised posture. Bipedal locomotion proceeded as fast as swimming and can be considered a form of fast escape (secondary defense) that also incorporates elements of crypsis and polyphenism (primary defenses). Body postures during walking suggested the use of both static and dynamic stability. Absolute speed was not correlated with body mass in any mode. Based on these findings the implications for defense behaviors such as escape from predation, aggression, and 'flatfish mimicry' performed by A. aculeatus and other octopuses are discussed. PMID:16985187
Au cours des deux derniers siècles, plusieurs tentatives ont été faites pour subdiviser le genre Sepia ou pour classer les différentes espèces dans des catégories super-spécifiques ou super-génériques. C. von Linné (1758) avait classé tous les Céphalopodes en trois genres: Argonauta, Nautilus et Sep
Full Text Available Our previous electron microscope study showed that chondrocytes from cephalopod cartilage possess a highly developed cytoskeleton and numerous cytoplasmic processes that ramify extensively through the tissue. We have now carried out a light microscope immunocytochemical study of chondrocytes from the orbital cartilage of Sepia officinalis to obtain indications as to the nature of the cytoskeletal components. We found clear positivity to antibodies against mammalian tubulin, vimentin, GFAP, and actin, but not keratin. The simultaneous presence of several cytoskeletal components is consistent with the hypothesis that cephalopod chondrocytes have the characteristics of both chondrocytes and osteocytes of vertebrates, which endow the tissue as a whole with some of the properties of vertebrate bone. We confirm, therefore, the presence in molluscs of the ubiquitous cytoskeletal proteins of metazoan cells that have remained highly conserved throughout phylogenetic evolution.
Quetglas, Antoni; Ordines, Francesc; González, María; Franco, Ignacio
The life cycle of the deep-sea octopus Pteroctopus tetracirrhus was studied from monthly samples obtained throughout the year in different areas of the western Mediterranean (mainly around the Balearic Islands and along the coast of the Iberian Peninsula). A total of 373 individuals (205 females, 168 males) were analyzed; females ranged from 4.5 to 14.0 cm mantle length (ML) and males from 4.5 to 11.5 cm ML. There were few small-sized octopuses (<7 cm ML) in the samples, which might indicate that these individuals inhabit rocky grounds that are not accessible to trawlers or waters deeper than the maximum depth sampled (800 m). The species occurred more frequently around the Balearic Islands than along the Iberian Peninsula as they appeared in 20% and 7%, respectively, of the hauls in these areas. The octopus inhabits the lower continental shelf and upper slope in both areas, primarily between 200 and 500 m depth. Modal lengths were followed from autumn, when recruits were caught by trawlers, to summer, when reproduction took place. Females grew from 8 to 10 cm ML from winter to spring, but this modal size did not increase further in summer; males grew from 7 to 9 cm ML from winter to spring. The total disappearance of large individuals after summer suggests a life cycle lasting a single year. The evolution of the monthly mean sizes showed that the growth was best described by log-linear functions in both sexes. The length at first maturity was clearly higher in females (12 cm ML) than in males (8 cm ML). A total of 30 different prey items, belonging to four major taxonomic groups (crustaceans, osteichthyes, cephalopods and gastropods), were identified in the stomach contents. The diet of the octopus was based on crustaceans and teleosts, which accounted for 75% and 23% of the prey items, respectively. Cephalopods and gastropods were accessory prey as they only represented 1.6% and 0.7%, respectively, of the total. The octopus showed a marked preference for the benthic fish Symphurus nigrescens and the endobenthic crustacean Alpheus glaber. The bathymetric distribution of P. tetracirrhus coincides with those of these two main prey, which suggests that the distribution of the octopus might be strongly linked to its trophic resources.
Checa, Antonio G.; Cartwright, Julyan H. E.; Sánchez-Almazo, Isabel; Andrade, José P.; Ruiz-Raya, Francisco
Cuttlebone, the sophisticated buoyancy device of cuttlefish, is made of extensive superposed chambers that have a complex internal arrangement of calcified pillars and organic membranes. It has not been clear how this structure is assembled. We find that the membranes result from a myriad of minor membranes initially filling the whole chamber, made of nanofibres evenly oriented within each membrane and slightly rotated with respect to those of adjacent membranes, producing a helical arrangement. We propose that the organism secretes a chitin-protein complex, which self-organizes layer-by-layer as a cholesteric liquid crystal, whereas the pillars are made by viscous fingering. The liquid crystallization mechanism permits us to homologize the elements of the cuttlebone with those of other coleoids and with the nacreous septa and the shells of nautiloids. These results challenge our view of this ultra-light natural material possessing desirable mechanical, structural and biological properties, suggesting that two self-organizing physical principles suffice to understand its formation.
Uchikawa, Kazuhisa; Bower, John R.; Yasuko SATO; Sakurai, Yasunori
The stomach contents of the minimal armhook squid (Berryteuthis anonychus) were examined for 338 specimens captured in the northeast Pacific during May 1999. The specimens were collected at seven stations between 145−165°W and 39−49°N and ranged in mantle length from 10.3 to 102.2 mm. Their diet comprised seven major prey groups (copepods, chaetognaths, amphipods, euphausiids, ostracods, unidentified fish, and unidentified gelatinous prey) and was dominated by copepods and chaetognaths. Co...
Hábitos alimentarios de Dosidicus gigas (D' Orbigny, 1835) (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea) frente a la costa centro-sur de Chile Feeding habits of Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835) (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea) in the central-south coast off Chile
PATRICIO ULLOA; MARTA FUENTEALBA; VÍCTOR RUIZ
Se estudiaron los hábitos alimentarios del calamar rojo Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835) frente a la costa de Chile centro-sur, durante el invierno del año 2005. Se examinaron un total de 52 estómagos, en todos los cuales había contenido alimentario. Los ejemplares provenían de pescas efectuadas por la flota arrastrera industrial que opera entre 36°39' S y 38°55'S sobre la merluza común Merluccius gayi (Guichenot 1848) y a una profundidad media de 290 m sobre la plataforma continental. Para ...
Hábitos alimentarios de Dosidicus gigas (D' Orbigny, 1835 (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea frente a la costa centro-sur de Chile Feeding habits of Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835 (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea in the central-south coast off Chile
Full Text Available Se estudiaron los hábitos alimentarios del calamar rojo Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835 frente a la costa de Chile centro-sur, durante el invierno del año 2005. Se examinaron un total de 52 estómagos, en todos los cuales había contenido alimentario. Los ejemplares provenían de pescas efectuadas por la flota arrastrera industrial que opera entre 36°39' S y 38°55'S sobre la merluza común Merluccius gayi (Guichenot 1848 y a una profundidad media de 290 m sobre la plataforma continental. Para la descripción del espectro trófico, alimento principal y el establecimiento de las eventuales diferencias sexuales u ontogenéticas en la frecuencia de aparición de los ítemes presa, se utilizaron los métodos numérico, gravimétrico, de frecuencia de ocurrencia, índice de importancia relativa (IIR e índice de similitud porcentual (ISP. No se observaron diferencias sexuales ni ontogenéticas en la frecuencia de aparición de los ítemes presa. Los resultados muestran que D. gigas es un depredador oportunista, principalmente ictiófago, y secundariamente malacófago (incluye el canibalismo y carcinófago. Se discuten los eventuales motivos e implicancias de tal conductaA study on the feeding habits of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835 was carried out during the winter season 2005, in waters of the Chilean central and southern Pacific. A total of 52 jumbo squid stomachs from the fishing of the continental slope were collected and examined, in the Eighth and Ninth regions, between 36°40' S and 38°55'S, at an average depth of 290 m. To determine the trophic spectrum, the feeding preferences and the importance of the sex and ontogenetic condition in the diet, the numeric, gravimetric, frequency of occurrence methods, and the index of relative importance and dietary similarity were utilized. The frequency of the prey did not vary with relation to the sex and ontogenetic conditions, and was besides a hight trophic similarity in such analysis. The results showed that the diet of D. gigas consist predominatly of fishes and secondly of Mollusca (to include the cannibalism and crustacean; suggesting that D. gigas is an oportunistic predator of third trophic level. We discuss the reasons and implications of such behavior
Interacciones macho-hembra del pulpo rojo patagónico Enteroctopus megalocyathus (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae durante el comportamiento de apareamiento Male-female interactions of Patagonian red octopus Enteroctopus megalocyathus (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae during mating behavior
Full Text Available Se evalúa, en condiciones de laboratorio, el comportamiento de apareamiento de ocho parejas de Enteroctopus megalocyathus mediante videograbaciones durante 24 h. El comportamiento precopulatorio (CP se caracterizó por presentar tres eventos (natación, exhibición y contacto y el comportamiento copulatorio (CC se caracterizó por mostrar un solo evento (cópula. Del tiempo total de interacción de las parejas, el 34,4% correspondió al CP y el 65,6% correspondió al CC. Entre los tiempos de machos y hembras no hubo diferencias significativas por evento. Al compararse todos los eventos entre sí en relación al tiempo de duración, se presentó el siguiente orden: cópula > contacto > exhibición > natación. Se observó una tendencia a periodos de apareamiento más largos donde el peso de la hembra fue superior al macho, sugiriendo que el peso de la hembra es un factor determinante en la duración de los encuentros de apareamiento.The mating behavior of eight couples of Enteroctopus megalocyathus was evaluated under laboratory conditions by videotaping for 24 h. The precopulatory behavior (CP was characterized by three patterns (swimming, exhibition and contact and copulatory behavior (CC was characterized by display of a single pattern (copulation. Of the total interaction time between octopuses, 34.4% corresponds to CP and 65.6% corresponds to CC. Between times of males and females were not significantly different by pattern. In all events, compared to each other for the duration, presented the following order: copulation > contact > exhibition > swimming. There was a trend towards longer periods of mating where the female weight was higher than the male, suggesting that female weight is a determining factor in the duration of mating encounters.
Arreguín-Sánchez, F; Solís-Ramírez, M J; González de la Rosa, M E
The octopus (Octopus maya) is one of the most important fish resources in the Mexican Gulf of Mexico with a mean annual yield of 9000 ton, and a reasonable number of jobs created; O. maya represents 80% of the total octopus catch, followed by Octopus vulgaris. There are two artisanal fleets based on Octopus maya and a middle-size fleet that covers both species. Catch-at-length structured data from the artisanal fleets, for the 1994 season (August 1st to December 15th) were used to analyze the O. maya population dynamics and stock and to estimate the current level of exploitation. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters were: L infinity = 252 mm, mantle length; K = 1.4 year-1; oscillation parameters C = 1.0, WP = 0.6; and tz = 0.842 years. A rough estimate of natural mortality was M = 2.2, total mortality from catch curve Z = 8.77, and exploitation rate F/Z = 0.75. This last value suggests an intensive exploitation, even when yield per recruit analysis indicates both fleets may increase the minimum legal size on about 10% to increase yields. The length-based VPA also shows that the stock is being exploited under its maximum acceptable biological limit. These apparently contradictory results are explained by biological and behavioral characteristics of this species. Because most females die after reproduction, a new gross estimation of natural mortality was computed as M = 3.3. The new estimate of exploitation rate was F/Z = 0.57. This new value coincides with results from the length-VPA and the Thompson and Bell methods, the former suggesting that a reduction of 20% in fishing mortality may provide larger yields. This fishery resource is fully exploited and current management measures must be revised to sustain and probably optimize yields. PMID:11354940
Full Text Available The early Palaeozoic order Ascocerida is a group of morphologically unique and rare cephalopods known from the Ordovician and Silurian rocks of Avalonia, Baltica, Laurentia and Perunica. The limited Estonian record of Silurian ascocerids is complemented with a specimen from the Pähkla locality (Island of Saaremaa; Paadla Regional Stage, Ludlow Series representing the stratigraphically oldest known occurrence of ascocerids in the Silurian of Estonia. The strata that were formerly exposed in Pähkla are likely correlated to the Hemse Group of the Island of Gotland (Sweden having a remarkable record of ascocerids. The appearance of Silurian ascocerids in Estonia is confined to a time interval when the group had the highest species diversity and the widest geographic dispersion, reaching also outside Baltica for the first time.
Markaida, U.; Quiñonez Velazquez, Casimiro; Nishizaki S., O.
This study describes the age and growth of large specimens of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas that supported the fishery in the Gulf of California in 1995-1997. Statoliths of 299 females (10.8-87.5 cm mantle length, ML) and 147 males (17-73.9 cm ML) were read. Assuming a daily rhythm of statolith deposition the smallest female (10.8 cm ML) was 84 days old and the largest (87.5 cm ML) 386 days old. The oldest females were 14-15 months old. The smallest male (17 cm ML) was 135 days old and the ...
LIN Xiangzhi; ZHENG Xiaodong; XIAO Shu; WANG Rucai
To clarify cuttlefish phylogeny, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and partial 16S rRNA gene are sequenced for 13 cephalopod species. Phylogenetic trees are constructed, with the neighbor-joining method.Coleoids are divided into two main lineages, Decabrachia and Octobrachia. The monophyly of the order Sepioidea,which includes the families Sepiidae, Sepiolidae and Idiosepiidae, is not supported. From the two families of Sepioidea examined, the Sepiolidae are polyphyletic and are excluded from the order. On the basis of 16S rRNA and amino acid of COI gene sequences data, the two genera (Sepiella and Sepia) from the Sepiidae can be distinguished, but do not have a visible boundary using COI gene sequences. The reason is explained. This suggests that the 16S rDNA of cephalopods is a precious tool to analyze taxonomic relationships at the genus level, and COI gene is fitter at a higher taxonomic level (i.e., family).
Nagasawa, K.; Moravec, František
Roč. 36, č. 2 (2002), s. 883-891. ISSN 0022-2933 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/00/0267 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : nematodes * parasites * squid s Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.589, year: 2002
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to enhance the knowledge of the feeding habits of the juvenile component of the population of Southern elephant seals [Mirounga leonina (Linnaeus, 1758] from Isla 25 de Mayo, South Shetland Islands, age class whose diet information is scarce. A total of 60 individuals were stomach lavaged in the spring - summer seasons of three consecutive years (2003, 2004 and 2005 of which 53.3 % (n = 32 presented food remnants. The Antarctic glacial squid Psychroteuthis glacialis Thiele, 1921 was the dominant prey taxon in terms of frequency of occurrence (68.7%, numerical abundance (60.1% and biomass (51.5%, contributing 84.1% to the total relative importance index. Other squid prey species of importance were Slosarczykovia circumantartica Lipinski, 2001 in terms of occurrence (37.5% and numerical abundance (14% and Moroteuthis knipovitchi Filippova, 1972 in terms of biomass (16%. All identified cephalopod prey taxa are distributed south of the Antarctic Polar Front, except for the squid Martialia hyadesi Rochebrune & Mabille, 1889 which has a circumpolar distribution associated to the Polar Frontal Zone. No significant differences in the sizes of P. glacialis preyed upon by elephant seals were found between sexes and years. However, significant interannual differences were found in the taxonomical composition of their diet. This would be associated with temporal changes in food availability at the foraging areas of seals, which in turn may have been influenced by changes in oceanographic conditions as a result of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO phenomenon that occurred during part of the study period. Furthermore, a differential response of males and females to this temporal variation was observed, with the former being also associated to a predation on octopods. This would suggest a sexual segregation in foraging habits of this species from the early stages of its life cycle.
Full Text Available Loliginid squids of the Sepioteuthis lessoniana complex are widely spread in the Indo-Pacific Ocean, where they constitute a commercially important resource for neritic fisheries. Sepioteuthis lessoniana is the only Lessepsian squid migrant till now, recorded for the first time in the Mediterranean in 2002 along the Turkish Levantine coasts. Two maturing males, with mantle lengths 193 mm and 244 mm, have been recently caught near the coasts of Rhodes Island (SE Aegean, extending the species distribution northward, into Hellenic waters. Their identity was confirmed by comparison of the main body, beak characteristics and morphometric measurements with those available in the literature for this species. Suspected expansion of the Lessepsian loliginid into the Aegean Sea, due to the gradual warming of the sea, is discussed.
Full Text Available The neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii is found circumglobally in subtropical, temperate waters and sustains important fisheries in the North Pacific, but it is rarely encountered in the Mediterranean Sea. During the last decade, and particularly since 2004, the frequency of its presence in the Aegean Sea and nearby regions has increased, raising a question about a change in the species distribution and abundance in this area. In this study, we reviewed the literature on O. bartramii findings in the Mediterranean Sea and present new data describing body and beak morphometry, diet and the maturity of specimens recently collected from the easternmost basins. According to data from the entire Mediterranean Sea, collected individuals reached 66 cm in mantle length (ML, wherein only females were larger than 32 cm in ML. An isometric growth in body weight (BW was shown, whereas the lower beak rostral length (LRL was allometrically positive in relation to the ML. Occasional catches by jigs during experimental cruises provided most of the individuals recorded in the period from 1982-1992. In contrast, the most recent records are primarily comprised of mature females collected on or near the shore in the eastern basin and of predominantly smaller individuals from the western basin caught by professional jigging fisheries. The distribution of the specimen recorded from the Aegean Sea indicates an association between the species distribution and the circulation of the warm Levantine Intermediate Water. The more frequent observations of moribund spawning females at the periphery of the Cretan Sea are indicative of a spawning ground at this area. The suspected recent increase of O. bartramii abundance in both the northeastern and northwestern basins might be due to the warming of upper sea layers, which has been observed since the mid-1980s and is considered to be the main factor driving the northward expansion of the warm-water species’ range within the Mediterranean Sea.
Lee, P.G.; Lu, L.J.W.; Salazar, J.J.; Holoubek, V. (Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States))
Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) injected intramuscularly into the base of the arms of cuttlefish was released continuously from the injection site and removed from the organism. Only a portion of the compound accumulated in the body. Twenty-four hr after its injection, 75% of B[a]P applied in olive oil was removed from the cuttlefish, and 1.2% was found in the body outside the head, in site of injection. If the carcinogen was dissolved in dimethylformamide, the removal of B[a]P was slower, so that only 18% of the injected B[a]P was removed from the organism and 0.36% accumulated in the body outside the head 24 hr after injection. The high level of B[a]P in gills and hemolymph 4 hr after injection and the kinetics of the decrease of its concentration with time indicate that these two organs could be involved in the excretion of B[a]P from the body. The B[a]P/DNA adducts characteristic for vertebrates could not be demonstrated in gills, skin, brain, hepatopancreas, and lymphocytes of the cuttlefish 24 hr after injection. The dose of the carcinogene injected into the cuttlefish was 2-4 times higher than the dose resulting in the formation of a high level of B[a]P/DNA adducts in vertebrates. A different metabolism of B[a]P in the tissue of cephalopods, compared to vertebrates, could be less favorable to the process leading to malignant transformation and could explain the absence from the literature of reports of tumors in cephalopods. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.
Yang, J M; Sun, G H; Zheng, X D; Ren, L H; Wang, W J; Li, G R; Sun, B C
Octopus minor (Sasaki, 1920) is an economically important cephalopod that is found in the northern coastal waters of China. In this study, we investigated genetic differentiation in fishery populations using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). A total of 150 individuals were collected from five locations: Dalian (DL), Yan-tai (YT), Qingdao (QD), Lianyungang (LY), and Zhoushan (ZS), and 243 reproducible bands were amplified using five AFLP primer combinations. The percentage of polymorphic bands ranged from 53.33 to 76.08%. Nei's genetic identity ranged from 0.9139 to 0.9713, and the genetic distance ranged from 0.0291 to 0.0900. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean, based on the genetic distance. The DL and YT populations originated from one clade, while the QD, LY, and ZS populations originated from another. The results indicate that the O. minor stock consisted of two genetic populations with an overall significantly analogous FST value (0.1088, P < 0.05). Most of the variance was within populations. These findings will be important for more sustainable octopus fisheries, so that this marine resource can be conserved for its long-term utilization. PMID:26634529
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Full Text Available De mayo de 1995 a abril de 1996, se realizaron al azar muestreos mensuales de 25 ejemplares de Octopus mimus de los desembarques del puerto de Matarani, Arequipa (16° 59'40"S y 72° 06'13"W. Son animales gonocóricos, presentan dimorfismo sexual, y los machos tienen el brazo ectocotilizado o copulador. La proporción de sexos fue de 2,1:1,0 a favor de los machos; se determinaron ocho estadios de desarrollo de los ovocitos, durante la ovogénesis. De acuerdo a su comportamiento reproductivo, se estableció la siguiente escala de madurez gonadal: a indiferenciado, b inmaduro, c inicio de maduración, d en desarrollo, e maduros, fl cópula, g postcópula, autofecundación y evacuación, h postevacuación. Las hembras maduras se encontraron preferentemente, en la primavera y verano; los machos maduros a fines de la primavera y en el verano; la cópula se realizó preferentemente durante el verano; la autofecundación y evacuación de los huevos, se evidenciaron en agosto (50%, octubre 50%, noviembre (71,4%, diciembre (33% y enero (33%. La primera madurez en los machos se encontró a los 9,5 cm y en las hembras a los 12,5 cm de la longitud dorsal del cuerpo. Se observó algunas hembras con ovocitos maduros en lisis y con inicio de ovogénesis avanzada de un nuevo ciclo, que evidencia que no todas las hembras mueren después de cuidar los huevos hasta el final de la eclosión.
Marco Vega Petkovic
Full Text Available Los cefalópodos, constituyen importantes modelos biomédicos orientados a vertebrados, con potencial farmacológico. Estos animales poseen una glándula de tinta, que produce un líquido marrón o negro (tinta, con una elevada concentración de melanina, a la cual se le han atribuido propiedades antibacterianas. Con esta información, se busca determinar el efecto protector de la melanina de Octopus mimus, mediante la extracción y purificación de la tinta y posterior evaluación de su actividad antimicrobiana frente a dos cepas (Staphylococcus aureus y Escherichia coli. Los resultados indican una actividad antimicrobiana moderada, en comparación con el antibiótico comercial (ampicilina 0,05 mg mL-1, y una concentración inhibitoria mínima diferencial entre ambas cepas bacterianas.
Cuccu, Danila; Mereu, Marco; Agus, Blondine; Cau, Angelo; Culurgioni, Jacopo; Sabatini, Andrea; Jereb, Patrizia
Coleoid cephalopods go through a single breeding period in their life cycle, i.e., they are semelparous, although a great flexibility has been observed in their reproductive strategies, which range from simultaneous terminal spawning over a short period at the end of the animal's life to continuous spawning over a long period of the animal's life. So far, the information available on deep-sea species reproductive strategies is still poor and most of our knowledge about squid reproduction relates to females. In particular, not much is known on what strategy male squids have evolved to store sperm into spermatophores and adapt to semelparity. In this study an investigation of male reproductive strategy of the deep-sea umbrella squid Histioteuthis bonnellii (Férussac, 1835) is presented. The reproductive system was examined in 119 males caught in the Sardinian waters (Central Western Mediterranean) and is described for the first time. Results indicate that this species produces and stores spermatophores over a considerable period of time. The total number of spermatophores found in the reproductive system ranged between 12 and 3097 and the size of spermatophores stored by a single individual varied greatly, up to over 300%. Spermatophore length (SpL) gradually decreased towards the distal end of the reproductive system, so that spermatophores found in the proximal part of Needham's Sac were larger than those found in the terminal organ. Body size and SpL of spermatophores from the proximal part of Needham's Sac were positively correlated. Both indices of the sperm mass and of the ejaculatory apparatus decreased with the increase of SpL, while the cement body index increased, indicating that larger spermatophores contain less sperm and are equipped with larger cement bodies. Up to 64 spermatangia were found, exclusively in the terminal organ. The large size range of mature males (ML: 60.0-198.0 mm; TW: 113.50-2409.00 g) and the variation in spermatophore number and size indicate that in H. bonnellii males the allocation and storage of sperm start early in the individual life and extends in time, while animals continue to grow and produce spermatophores presumably more successful in attaching to female tissues. This pattern enlarges the time window available for reproduction and likely maximizes the percentage of mating success as the animals grow older and chances of mating events become comparatively lower, due to the basic low density of specimens in the deep-sea environment. Both aspects are potentially indicative of adaptation to the deep sea.
Ochoa Báez, Rosa Isabel
El calamar gigante del Golfo California es un recurso potencial de gran importancia para México. Como base para estudiar el ciclo de madurez gonadal, se describe el sistema reproductor de ejemplares colectados durante 1980. En las hembras existe un ovario, un par de glándulas nidamentales y un par de glándulas nidamentales accesorias; en su histología presenta ovocitos de diversos estadios de maduración con células foliculares en cordones. La maduración avanzada coincide con la presencia de p...
Ibáñez, Christian M.; Arancibia, Hugo; Cubillos, Luis A.
The diet of jumbo squid ( Dosidicus gigas) off southern-central Chile is described to examine potential biases in the determination of their main prey. Specimens were collected from catches using different fishing gear (jigging, trawl and purse-seine), from July 2003 to January 2004, and from December 2005 to October 2006. The stomach contents were analyzed in terms of frequency of occurrence, number, and weight of prey items and the diet composition was analyzed using Detrended Correspondence Analysis. In the industrial purse-seine fleet for jack mackerel ( Trachurus murphyi), the dominant prey of D. gigas was T. murphyi. In the industrial mid-trawl fishery for Patagonian grenadier ( Macruronus magellanicus), the dominant species in the diet of D. gigas was M. magellanicus. Similarly, Chilean hake ( Merluccius gayi) was the main prey in the diet of D. gigas obtained in the industrial trawl fishery for Chilean hake; and, in both artisanal fisheries (purse-seine for small pelagics and jigging), small pelagic fish and D. gigas were the main prey in the stomach contents of D. gigas. Cannibalism in D. gigas varied between different fleets and probably is related to stress behavior during fishing. The Detrended Correspondence Analysis ordination showed that the main prey in the diet of D. gigas is associated with the target species of the respective fishery. Consequently, biases are associated with fishing gear, leading to an overestimate in the occurrence of the target species in the diet. We recommend analyzing samples from jigging taken at the same time and place where the trawl and purse-seine fleets are operating to avoid this problem, and the application of new tools like stable isotope, heavy metal, and fatty acid signature analyses.
Hendrickx, Michel E.; Urbano, Brian; Zamorano, Pablo
Abstract The oegopsid squids Abraliopsis and Pterygioteuthis are abundant and diverse genera with taxonomic and distributional problems. Identification and distribution of species in the Mexican Pacific has been somewhat controversial. Here are provided a large series of new records for Abraliopsis affinis, Abraliopsis falco, Pterygioteuthis gemmata, Pterygioteuthis giardi and Pterygioteuthis hoylei from the Gulf of California and off the SW coast of Mexico. All five species were collected in the central or the southern Gulf of California, or in both. Abraliopsis affinis was found in seven samples with a total of 48 specimens, from 21°59' to 24°53'12"N. Abraliopsis falco was much less represented in the samples (14 specimens) but it was found in 10 localities, four of which correspond to the central-southern Gulf of California (north to 27°44'53"N) and six to SW Mexico (south to 16°49'18"N). In the case of Pterygioteuthis gemmata, only two records (three specimens) were obtained, both in the SW Gulf of California, while Pterygioteuthis giardi (nine specimens) records were all from the central Gulf of California (27°44'53” to 25°39'59"N). In the case of Pterygioteuthis hoylei (nine specimens), material was obtained in six localities, also in a restricted latitudinal range (24°23'48” to 25°56'56"N). PMID:26798236
Full Text Available The cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus 1758 represents one of the most important coastal fishery resources of the Mediterranean Sea. For Italy, 45% of cuttlefish landings (2,328 t originates from coastal regions of the northern Adriatic Sea: Veneto, Marche, Emilia Romagna and Friuli Venezia Giulia. In terms of economic value this species represents about 8% (~€ 16.5 million of the production from this basin. From May 2004 to October 2005, cuttlefish were purchased from commercial landings of the Grado fishery fleet. At least 30 specimens were randomly taken each month from each fishing method employed for this species: bottom trawl (cod end mesh size 40 mm, rapido trawl, trammel net (mesh size of inner panel 30 mm and cuttlefish specific trap. The main biological aspects, such as size, sex ratio, reproductive stage and diet in relation to both the season and type of fishing gear were analyzed. 1,495 specimens, ranging from 3.5 to 18.0 cm mantle length, were analyzed. In relation to the observed size and reproductive stage of individuals caught, trammel nets and cuttlefish traps both appeared to target sexually mature individuals, whilst trawling gear were not selective for either recruits or spawners. In total 34 prey taxa were found in the stomachs of S. officinalis: crabs and bony fish species were the most important prey, although the latter appeared mostly in the largest specimens. Finally the fullness index revealed that cuttlefish caught by trawling were more suitable for diet analysis than those caught by static gear. In this way the contribution of the present paper was to give new insights on the biological parameters of this species in relation to the main fishing gears employed in the northern Adriatic Sea.
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Vega, Marco A.; Rocha, Francisco; Osorio, Cecilia
A total of 241 statoliths were analyzed: 141 belonging to Loligo gahi from the Northern Perú (70 left statoliths and 71 right statoliths) corresponding to 34 males and 47 females, and 100 from the Falkland Islands (50 left statoliths and 50 right statoliths) corresponding to 35 males and 23 females. Total length (TL), dome length (DL) and face length (FL) were measured, determining in each specimen the mantle dorsal length (ML) and sex. The measures became quotients of ML, and were compared u...
Morfometría comparada de los estatolitos del calamar Loligo gahi d'Orbigny, 1835 (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae del norte de Perú e islas Falkland Compared morphometry of squid statoliths Loligo gahi d'Orbigny, 1835 (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae of northern Perú and Falkland islands
Marco A. Vega
Full Text Available Se analizó un total de 241 estatolitos: 141 pertenecientes a Loligo gahi del norte del Perú (70 estatolitos izquierdos y 71 derechos correspondientes a 34 machos y 47 hembras, y 100 de las islas Falkland (50 estatolitos izquierdos y 50 derechos correspondientes a 35 machos y 23 hembras. En cada estatolito se midió longitud total (LT, longitud del domo (LD y longitud del rostro (LR, determinándose en cada ejemplar la longitud dorsal del manto (LM y sexo. Las medidas se transformaron como cocientes de LM, comparándose mediante análisis discriminante. No se observaron diferencias significativas entre los estatolitos izquierdo y derecho en ambos sexos y en ambas áreas, por lo que se compararon sólo los del lado derecho. Se hallaron diferencias significativas entre machos y hembras del norte de Perú así como entre ambos sexos de las islas Falkland. También se hallaron diferencias significativas para individuos del mismo sexo entre ambas zonas. Se discute la significación de las diferencias encontradas entre los estatolitos de L. gahi del Perú e islas FalklandA total of 241 statoliths were analyzed: 141 belonging to Loligo gahi from the Northern Perú (70 left statoliths and 71 right statoliths corresponding to 34 males and 47 females, and 100 from the Falkland Islands (50 left statoliths and 50 right statoliths corresponding to 35 males and 23 females. Total length (TL, dome length (DL and face length (FL were measured, determining in each specimen the mantle dorsal length (ML and sex. The measures became quotients of ML, and were compared using discriminant analysis. Significant differences between the left statolith and the rigth statolith were not observed in either sex, reason why those of the right hand side were compared. Significant differences between males and females from the North of Perú were found as well as between both sexes from those of the Falkland Islands. There were also significant differences for individuals of the same sex between both zones. The meaning of the differences found between L. gahi statoliths from Perú and Falkland Islands are being discussed
Morfometría comparada de los estatolitos del calamar Loligo gahi d'Orbigny, 1835 (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) del norte de Perú e islas Falkland Compared morphometry of squid statoliths Loligo gahi d'Orbigny, 1835 (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) of northern Perú and Falkland islands
Vega, Marco A.; Francisco J. Rocha; Cecilia Osorio
Se analizó un total de 241 estatolitos: 141 pertenecientes a Loligo gahi del norte del Perú (70 estatolitos izquierdos y 71 derechos) correspondientes a 34 machos y 47 hembras, y 100 de las islas Falkland (50 estatolitos izquierdos y 50 derechos) correspondientes a 35 machos y 23 hembras. En cada estatolito se midió longitud total (LT), longitud del domo (LD) y longitud del rostro (LR), determinándose en cada ejemplar la longitud dorsal del manto (LM) y sexo. Las medidas se transformaron como...
Uso del microhábitat por el protozoo parásito Aggregata patagonica Sardella, Ré & Timi, 2000 (Apicomplexa: Aggregatidae en su hospedador definitivo, el pulpo Enteroctopus megalocyathus (Gould, 1852 (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae en el sur de Chile Microhabitat use by the protozoan parasite Aggregata patagonica Sardella, Ré & Timi, 2000 (Apicomplexa: Aggregatidae in his definitive host Enteroctopus megalocyathus (Gould, 1852 (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae in southern Chile
CHRISTIAN M. IBÁÑEZ
Full Text Available Los protozoos de la familia Aggregatidae requieren de dos hospedadores para completar su ciclo biológico: un crustáceo y un cefalópodo. En este estudio se busca evidenciar si existe un uso diferencial de microhábitats de las infrapoblaciones de Aggregata patagonica entre dos zonas del tracto digestivo de su hospedador definitivo, el pulpo Enteroctopus megalocyathus. Para ello, se examinaron 40 ejemplares de Ancud y 37 de Quellón, provenientes de las capturas artesanales de la Isla de Chiloé. El tamaño y la densidad de los ooquistes se cuantificaron en el ciego y el intestino del hospedador. Además, se efectuaron observaciones histológicas para determinar cuantitativamente la ocurrencia de los distintos estados de desarrollo del parásito. En Ancud el 80 % de los pulpos estaban parasitados en el ciego y el intestino, mientras que en Quellón era el 100 %. Se determinaron cuatro estados de desarrollo (microgametos, cigotos, esporoquistes inmaduros y maduros. Los ooquistes de A. patagonica fueron más pequeños y abundantes en el ciego, pero la cobertura fue mayor en el intestino. Además, la densidad y cobertura aumenta en pocos meses entre una muestra y otra. Al parecer, A. patagonica no usaría a los dos microhábitats como lugares de preferencia para pasar los diferentes estados de desarrollo, sino más bien, y según las condiciones del microhábitat, en el intestino crecerían más los ooquistes pero en menos cantidad, ocupando una mayor superficie del microhábitat, contrario a lo que ocurre en el ciego. Por esto se sugiere que A. patagonica hace un uso diferencial del microhábitat, mediante dos estrategias distintas de historia de vidaThe protozoan parasites of the family Aggregatidae, require two hosts to complete their life cycle, a crustacean and a cephalopod. This research looks for evidence of differential microhabitat use of Aggregata patagonica infrapopulations between two zones of the digestive tract of his definitive host, the octopus Enteroctopus megalocyathus. Forty specimens from Ancud and 37 from Quellón coming from artisanal catch from Chiloé Island in southern Chile were examined. The size and density of the oocysts were quantified in the caecum and intestine of the host. Histological preparations were carried out to determine quantitatively the occurrence of the different development stages of the parasite. In Ancud, 80 % of octopuses were parasited in the caecum and intestine, while in Quellón 100 % had oocyst. Four development stages (microgametes, zygotes, immature and mature sporocysts were recognized. The oocysts of Aggregata patagonica were smaller and more abundant in the caecum, but their coverage was higher in the intestine. Moreover, density and coverage increased in few months between samples. Apparently, Aggregata patagonica does not use the two microhabitats as preferential places to pass the different developmental stages, but rather, and according to the conditions of the microhabitat, the oocysts would grow more in the intestine albeit in small number, occupying a higher surface of the microhabitat, contrary to what happens in the caecum. This suggests that A. patagonica may have two distinct life history strategies
Neuheimer, Anna; Hartvig, Martin; Heuschele, Jan;
is observed along with variability in physical and biological forcing factors in space and time. We compiled adult and offspring size for 407 pelagic marine species covering more than 17 orders of magnitude in body mass including Cephalopoda, Cnidaria, Crustaceans, Ctenophora, Elasmobranchii, Mammalia...... history strategies and possible group-specific responses to changing environmental conditions (e.g., production and distribution)....
Experimental study of enriched froen diet on digestive enzymes and growth of jnvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L.(Mollusca Cephalopoda),[刊，英]/PerrinA,Le Bihan E,Koueta N,//Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology,—2004,311(16)—267∽285.
U članku se analizira nazive Mollusca (Cephalopoda, Gastropoda i Lamellibranchiata) iz Vitezovićeva Lexicona s međe sedamnaestoga na osamnaesto stoljeće, i to s referencijalnog, s onomastičkog i, koliko je moguće, s etimološkog gledišta.
There are few data available on the radioactive contamination of marine mollusca, especially cephalopoda. Therefore, in this paper, data obtained on the radioactive contamination of cephalopoda were compared with those on pelecypoda and gastropoda. The uptake and elimination experiments were carried out by means of radioisotope tracer methods, and the concentration factors of 137Cs due to radioactive fallout were estimated. The contamination of cephalopoda was also compared with those of other marine organisms in terms of concentration factor. The activity ratios in the organs or tissues of octopus were in the range of 3.5 and 12.8 on the 14th day after the beginning of exposure and those of squid were in the range of 8.8 and 10.9 on the 6th day after the commencement of the experiment. The biological half time was 90 days for octopus from the observation over 75 days, while it was 31 days for clam from the results of 75 days' experiment. The concentration factors of 137Cs due to radioactive fallout were in the range of 3 and 23 for cephalopoda, 7 and 28 for pelecypoda and 24 and 30 for gastropoda, respectively. It was concluded that no difference in the concentration factors was clearly observable among the classes of mollusca, but the values were substantially similar to those of crustaceans and slightly lower than those of marine fish. (auth.)
Full Text Available The unique photochromic retinal protein from rhabdomeric octopus membranes – octopus rhodopsin (OctR has emerged as promising material for biomolecular photonic applications due to its unique properties and advantages. Here we report isolation of the novel full length octR gene from retina cDNA of Octopus vulgaris eyes and its sequence comparison with rhodopsins of other cephalopods and vertebrates. The isolated gene can be used to develop various expression systems for production of recombinant OctR for structural studies and novel optobioelectronic applications. The alignment of amino acid (a.a. sequence with different opsins revealed similarity to cephalopoda rhodopsins (Rho and to human melanopsin from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. The alingment of OctR a.a. sequence with mammalian and cephalopoda Rho with known 3D structures revealed promising substitutions V2C and W292C for developing stable and functionally active recombinant OctR after heterologous expression.
A large amounts of samples in marine Cephalopoda and Tridacna were sampled in north west pacific ocean, near Japan. The samples were separated into organs or parts for determination of Co-60 concentration. A peculiar accumulation of Co-60 by the branchial heart of Octopus was also recognized in field condition, but it had become apparent that branchial heart of squid had not same ability. Liver of Cephalopoda had the ability to highly accumulate the Co-60 and specific activity of squid was one order highter than Octopus. The concentration of Cobalt-60 in visceral muss kidney of Tridacna maxima lineally increased with increasing shell length but that in other soft parts was kept constant. After examination of the other papers it was assumed that Co-60 highly accumulated in these organs was transfered by the food chain. (author)
Nishiguchi, M. K.; Lopez, J. E.; Boletzky, S. v.
Bioluminescence is widespread among many different types of marine organisms. Metazoans contain two types of luminescence production, bacteriogenic (symbiotic with bacteria) or autogenic, via the production of a luminous secretion or the intrinsic properties of luminous cells. Several species in two families of squids, the Loliginidae and the Sepiolidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) harbor bacteriogenic light organs that are found central in the mantle cavity. These light organs are exceptional in ...
松尾, 健司; 宮川, 昌志; 神田, 優; 山岡, 耕作
Food habits of 232 individuals belonging to 16 families, 21 genera, 26 species of the Pisces, 2 families, 2 genera, 2 species of the Cephalopoda and 1 family, 1 genus, 1 species of the Brachyura were investigated to study on the feeding relationships between the released artificially−bred juveniles of the red−spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaara and other fishes inhabiting the rocky reef of Ibukijima Island. Young of E. akaara was fed by scorpion fish; Sebastiscus marmoratus, jack; Trachurus j...
Daniela Almeida; Emanuel Maldonado; Vitor Vasconcelos; Agostinho Antunes
Mitochondrial protein-coding genes (mt genes) encode subunits forming complexes of crucial cellular pathways, including those involved in the vital process of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Despite the vital role of the mitochondrial genome (mt genome) in the survival of organisms, little is known with respect to its adaptive implications within marine invertebrates. The molluscan Class Cephalopoda is represented by a marine group of species known to occupy contrasting environments rangi...
Smith, J. A.; Andrews, P. L. R.; Hawkins, P; Louhimies, S.; De Ponte, G.; Dickel, L.
For the first time, European Union legislation on animal research and testing has extended its scope to include invertebrate species the Class Cephalopoda. EU Directive 2010/63/EU, which was due to be implemented in Member States 1 January 2013, covers all "live cephalopods" used in scientific procedures that are likely to cause the animals adverse effects such as "pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm".This paper examines practical implications of the new EU law for cephalopod research. ...
Anastasopoulou, A.; CH. MYTILINEOU; E. LEFKADITOU; Kavadas, S.; P. BEKAS; Smith, C. J.; K.N. PAPADOPOULOU; G. CHRISTIDES
The diet of the European conger eel Conger conger was investigated for the first time in the Eastern Mediterranean. Fish dominated the European conger eel diet in the deep waters of E. Ionian Sea. All other prey taxa were identified as accidental preys. However, intestine analysis showed that Natantia, Brachyura and Cephalopoda might have a more important contribution in the diet of the species. C. conger exhibited a benthopelagic feeding behavior as it preyed upon both demersal and mesopelag...
В статье представлен обзор литературных и собственных данных по строению, эйякуляции, систематическому значению сперматофоров головоногих моллюсков. Проведено сравнение номенклатур названий частей сперматофоров. Все типы агрегатов спермы, формируемых цефалоподами, распределены по трем группам: сперматоцейгмы, простые и сложные сперматофоры. Эволюция сперматофорного оплодотворения у головоногих протекала как в форме арогенеза от простых агрегатов спермы до сложно устроенных сперматофоров, так ...
В статье дан аналитический обзор литературных и собственных данных по закладке и развитию половых органов самцов головоногих в онтогенезе, строению семенника и сперматофорного комплекса органов, формированию сперматофоров. Общий план строения репродуктивной системы самцов в разных группах цефалопод различается. Эволюция комплекса акцессорных желез головоногих моллюсков, очевидно, шла в направлении удлинения дистальной части на фоне дифференцировки всех отделов в связи с усложнением строения о...
Neuheimer, A B; Hartvig, M; Heuschele, J; Hylander, S; Kiørboe, T; Olsson, K H; Sainmont, J; Andersen, K H
Explaining variability in offspring vs. adult size among groups is a necessary step to determine the evolutionary and environmental constraints shaping variability in life history strategies. This is of particular interest for life in the ocean where a diversity of offspring development strategies is observed along with variability in physical and biological forcing factors in space and time. We compiled adult and offspring size for 407 pelagic marine species covering more than 17 orders of magnitude in body mass including Cephalopoda, Cnidaria, Crustaceans, Ctenophora, Elasmobranchii, Mammalia, Sagittoidea, and Teleost. We find marine life following one of two distinct strategies, with offspring size being either proportional to adult size (e.g., Crustaceans, Elasmobranchii, and Mammalia) or invariant with adult size (e.g., Cephalopoda, Cnidaria, Sagittoidea, Teleosts, and possibly Ctenophora). We discuss where these two strategies occur and how these patterns (along with the relative size of the offspring) may be shaped by physical and biological constraints in the organism's environment. This adaptive environment along with the evolutionary history of the different groups shape observed life history strategies and possible group-specific responses to changing environmental conditions (e.g., production and distribution). PMID:26909435
Sumner-Rooney, Lauren H; Schrödl, Michael; Lodde-Bensch, Eva; Lindberg, David R; Heß, Martin; Brennan, Gerard P; Sigwart, Julia D
The position of scaphopods in molluscan phylogeny remains singularly contentious, with several sister relationships supported by morphological and phylogenomic data: Scaphopoda + Bivalvia (Diasoma), Scaphopoda + Cephalopoda (Variopoda), and Scaphopoda + Gastropoda. Nervous system architecture has contributed significant insights to reconstructing phylogeny in the Mollusca and other invertebrate groups, but a modern neurophylogenetic approach has not been applied to molluscs, hampered by a lack of clearly defined homologous characters that can be unequivocally compared across the radical body plan disparity among the living clades. We present the first three-dimensional reconstruction of the anterior nervous system of a scaphopod, Rhabdus rectius, using histological tomography. We also describe a new putative sensory organ, a paired and pigmented sensory mantle slit. This structure is restricted to our study species and not a general feature of scaphopods, but it forms an integral part of the description of the nervous system in R. rectius. It also highlights the potential utility of neuro-anatomical characters for multiple levels of phylogenetic inference beyond this study. This potential has not previously been exploited for the thorny problem of molluscan phylogeny. The neuroanatomy of scaphopods demonstrates a highly derived architecture that shares a number of key characters with the cephalopod nervous system, and supports a Scaphopoda + Cephalopoda grouping. PMID:26487042
After mollusca were bred in 60Co-labeled sea water or were given 60Co-labeled feed for certain hours, their tissues including the liver were removed as experimental samples. 60Co metabolism was observed by the Sephadex gel filtration profile. A gel chromatogram of the liver in gastropoda showed a marked peak of 60Co on the high-molecular side. Although the peak was observed on both high- and low-molecular sides in pelecypoda, it was more marked on the high-molecular side than on the low-molecular side. In cephalopoda, the peak pattern was similar to that in the other mollusca, but the proportion of low-molecular components was comparatively large. The gel filtration profile of 60Co in various tissues of cephalopoda revealed the incorporation of 60Co into the high-molecular components in blood, three peaks in the kidneys, and the incorporation of 60Co into the low-molecular components in the branchial heart. The metabolism of 60Co was dependent upon the chemical form of Co in gastropoda, and organic 60Co was specifically observed in the high-molecular components. (Namekawa, K.)
Negri, L; Melchiorri, P; Erspamer, G F; Erspamer, V
A selective RIA for D-Ala2-Dermorphin (Der), a natural peptide extracted from amphibian skin, has been developed using an antibody raised in rabbits against Der which has been coupled to BSA through its phenolic hydroxyl groups of tyrosine residues with 2,4-Dichloro-6-methoxy-1,3,5-triazine. The cross-reactivity of this antibody with dermorphin analogs, C- and N-terminal fragments of dermorphin molecule, some opioid and gastrointestinal peptides was tested. Der-like immunoreactivity has been identified in tissue extracts of rats, frog and cephalopoda. Der-like peptides were purified by passing methanol extracts of the tissues through a Sephadex G25 column (16 x 100 cm) eluted with 0.1 M acetic acid at 4 degrees C. Der-like immunoreactivity from neural tissue of Dosidicus gigas, Eledone moscata, and rat brain showed a good agreement with an authentic sample of synthetic dermorphin. PMID:6979743
Shellfish such as squid and octopus, class Cephalopoda, has high commercial value in restaurants and for export. As, Se and Zn concentrations were determined in 117 octopus acquired in different points of the distribution chain in 4 coastal cities of Sao Paulo state (Guaruja, Santos, Sao Vicente and Praia Grande)-Brazil. The methodology for elemental determination was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The element concentration in the octopus samples (wet weight) range from: 0.184 to 35.4 mg kg-1 for As, 0.203 to 2.26 mg kg-1 for Se and 4.73 to 37.4 mg kg-1 for Zn. Arsenic and Se levels were above the limit for fish established by Brazilian legislation, while Zn concentrations were in accordance with literature values. (author)
Full Text Available The diet of the European conger eel Conger conger was investigated for the first time in the Eastern Mediterranean. Fish dominated the European conger eel diet in the deep waters of E. Ionian Sea. All other prey taxa were identified as accidental preys. However, intestine analysis showed that Natantia, Brachyura and Cephalopoda might have a more important contribution in the diet of the species. C. conger exhibited a benthopelagic feeding behavior as it preyed upon both demersal and mesopelagic taxa. The high vacuity index and the low stomach and intestine fullness indicated that the feeding intensity of the species in the deep waters of Eastern Ionian Sea was quite low. C. conger feeding strategy was characterised by specialisation in various resource items. A between-phenotype contribution to niche width was observed for some prey categories. European Conger eel feeding specialisation seemed to be an adaptation to a food-scarce environment, as typified in deep-water habitats
Odd Aksel Bergstad
Full Text Available Halosauropsis macrochir ranked amongst the most abundant and widespread demersal fishes on the mid-Atlantic Ridge of the North Atlantic (Iceland-Azores with greatest abundance at 1700-3500 m. All sizes, ranging from 10-76 cm total length, occurred in the area without any apparent spatial pattern or depth trend. Using otolith sections displaying growth increments assumed to represent annuli, the age range recorded was 2-36 years, but most individuals were <20 years. Length and weight at age data were used to fit growth models. No differences between sexes in length and weight at age were observed. The majority of samples had a surplus of males. Diet analysis showed that H. macrochir feeds on Crustacea, Teleostei, Polychaeta, and Cephalopoda, but few prey could be identified to lower taxonomical levels. The mid-Atlantic Ridge constitutes a major portion of the North Atlantic living space of the abyssal halosaur where it completes its full life cycle, primarily as an actively foraging euryophagous micronekton/epibenthos and infauna feeder, becoming a partial piscivore with increasing size.
Yu, Jie; Tang, Danling; Chen, Guobao; Li, Yongzhen; Huang, Zirong; Wang, Sufen
Due to the logistical difficulties associated with fish data sampling after typhoons, short-term effects of typhoons on fishery in the South China Sea (SCS) have not been well-understood. The present study is to evaluate the impacts on the fish catch per unit effort (CPUE) owing to the three typhoons Chanthu, Vicente, and Kai-tak in the northwestern SCS, using long-term fish catch data and satellite data. The results show that the CPUE of total catch and some sorted catches have been changing because of the typhoons. On total catch, firstly, the CPUE has increased approximately 0.32 kg h-1 kw-1, 0.20 kg h-1 kw-1, and 0.25 kg h-1 kw-1 during the three typhoon periods. Then, the CPUEs decreased to the pre-typhoon level in about three weeks. Thirdly, among the three typhoons, the slow-moving Chanthu has caused a larger increase in CPUE. The typhoons impact was two-pronged, depending on fish species. One is the positive effects on meso-demersal fishes, cephalopoda and pelagic fishes. The other is the increase in CPUE of low trophic level carnivorous fishes after the three typhoons. This research provided the first evidence of CPUE increase after typhoons in the open sea.
Sperm whales are notable squid-eaters. They feed mainly on medium to large-sized cephalopods at midwater levels and defecate near the surface. This suggests the existence of an upward transport of 60Co by sperm whales from the mesopelagic zone (150-1,200m). To elucidate this squid-whale route for this artificial radionuclide, 60Co content was determined in squid and in predator whales captured by commercial whaling. In the Cephalopoda livers 60Co levels of 30-500 mBq kg-1 wet were found and in the viscera of Odontoceti (toothed whales) 15-40 mBq kg-1 wet. About 0.3% of 60Co ingested was estimated to be retained in a 23-year-old male sperm whale. In the livers of Bryde's whales, 60Co levels of 40-80 mBq kg-1 wet were detected, but not in euphausiids and sardines, their possible prey. The level of Co in sperm whales was nearly the same as in Bryde's whales. Specific radioactivity 60Co/59Co in mBq μg-1 was several times higher in sperm whale (1.1-1.6) than in cephalopods (0.19-0.77). Eating prey with a high content of 60Co in the 1960's may have contributed to the present body burden in sperm whales with a long-life span. However, the origin of 60Co in Bryde's whales is unknown. (author)
Sutton, Mark D; Briggs, Derek E G; Siveter, David J; Siveter, Derek J; Sigwart, Julia D
The Mollusca is one of the most diverse, important and well-studied invertebrate phyla; however, relationships among major molluscan taxa have long been a subject of controversy. In particular, the position of the shell-less vermiform Aplacophora and its relationship to the better-known Polyplacophora (chitons) have been problematic: Aplacophora has been treated as a paraphyletic or monophyletic group at the base of the Mollusca, proximate to other derived clades such as Cephalopoda, or as sister group to the Polyplacophora, forming the clade Aculifera. Resolution of this debate is required to allow the evolutionary origins of Mollusca to be reconstructed with confidence. Recent fossil finds support the Aculifera hypothesis, demonstrating that the Palaeozoic-era palaeoloricate 'chitons' included taxa combining certain polyplacophoran and aplacophoran characteristics. However, fossils combining an unambiguously aplacophoran-like body with chiton-like valves have remained elusive. Here we describe such a fossil, Kulindroplax perissokomos gen. et sp. nov., from the Herefordshire Lagerstätte (about 425 million years bp), a Silurian deposit preserving a marine biota in unusual three-dimensional detail. The specimen is reconstructed three-dimensionally through physical-optical tomography. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that this and many other palaeoloricate chitons are crown-group aplacophorans. PMID:23038472
Boore, Jeffrey L; Medina, Monica; Rosenberg, Lewis A
We have determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the scaphopod mollusk Graptacme eborea (14,492 nts) and completed the sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the bivalve mollusk Mytilus edulis (16,740 nts). (The name Graptacme eborea is a revision of the species formerly known as Dentalium eboreum.) G. eborea mtDNA contains the 37 genes that are typically found and has the genes divided about evenly between the two strands, but M. edulis contains an extra trnM and is missing atp8, and it has all genes on the same strand. Each has a highly rearranged gene order relative to each other and to all other studied mtDNAs. G. eborea mtDNA has almost no strand skew, but the coding strand of M. edulis mtDNA is very rich in G and T. This is reflected in differential codon usage patterns and even in amino acid compositions. G. eborea mtDNA has fewer noncoding nucleotides than any other mtDNA studied to date, with the largest noncoding region only 24 nt long. Phylogenetic analysis using 2,420 aligned amino acid positions of concatenated proteins weakly supports an association of the scaphopod with gastropods to the exclusion of Bivalvia, Cephalopoda, and Polyplacophora, but it is generally unable to convincingly resolve the relationships among major groups of the Lophotrochozoa, in contrast to the good resolution seen for several other major metazoan groups. PMID:15014161
Boore, Jeffrey L.; Medina, Monica; Rosenberg, Lewis A.
We have determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the scaphopod mollusk Graptacme eborea (Conrad, 1846) (14,492 nts) and completed the sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the bivalve mollusk Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 (16,740 nts). (The name Graptacme eborea is a revision of the species formerly known as Dentalium eboreum.) G. eborea mtDNA contains the 37 genes that are typically found and has the genes divided about evenly between the two strands, but M. edulis contains an extra trnM and is missing atp8, and has all genes on the same strand. Each has a highly rearranged gene order relative to each other and to all other studied mtDNAs. G. eborea mtDNA has almost no strand skew, but the coding strand of M. edulis mtDNA is very rich in G and T. This is reflected in differential codon usage patterns and even in amino acid compositions. G. eborea mtDNA has fewer non-coding nucleotides than any other mtDNA studied to date, with the largest non-coding region being only 24 nt long. Phylogenetic analysis using 2,420 aligned amino acid positions of concatenated proteins weakly supports an association of the scaphopod with gastropods to the exclusion of Bivalvia, Cephalopoda, and Polyplacophora, but is generally unable to convincingly resolve the relationships among major groups of the Lophotrochozoa, in contrast to the good resolution seen for several other major metazoan groups.
Luiz Ricardo L. Simone
Full Text Available This study deals with detailed morphology and anatomy of 4 species of Scaphopoda and 5 species of protobranch Bivalvia. Both classes are traditionally grouped in the taxon Diasoma, which has been questioned by different methodologies, such as molecular and developmental. This study is developed under a phylogenetic methodology with the main concern in performing it in an intelligible and testable methodology. The analyzed Scaphopoda species came from the Brazilian coast and belong to the family Dentaliidae [(1 Coccodentalium carduus; (2 Paradentalium disparile] and Gadiliidae; [(3 Polyschides noronhensis, n. sp. from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago; (4 Gadila braziliensis]. These species represent the main branches of the class Scaphopoda. From protobranch bivalves, representatives of the families Solemyidae [(5 Solemya occidentalis, from Florida; S. notialis, n. sp. from S.E. Brazil], Nuculanidae [(6 Propeleda carpentieri from Florida], and Nuculidae [(7 Ennucula puelcha, from south Brazil] are included. These species represent the main branches of the basal Bivalvia. The descriptions on the anatomy of S. occidentalis and of P. carpentieri are published elsewhere. The remaining are included here, for which a complete taxonomical treatment is performed. Beyond these species, representatives of other taxa are operationally included as part of the ingroup (indices are then shared with them, as a procedure to test the morphological monophyly of Diasoma. These taxa are: two lamellibranch bivalves [(8 Barbatia - Arcidae; (9 Serratina - Tellinidae; both published elsewhere;, and Propilidium (10 Patellogastropoda, and (11 Nautilus, basal Cephalopoda, based on basal taxa. The effective outgroups are (12 Neopilina (Monoplacophora and (13 Hanleya (Polyplacophora. The phylogenetic analysis based on morphology revealed that the taxon Diasoma is supported by 14 synapomorphies, and is separated from Cyrtosoma (Gastropoda + Cephalopoda. Although they are not
Marine life in the waters of New Caledonia is extraordinarily rich. However some of the animals inhabiting this wonderland are dangerous including a number of venomous species. A retrospective study conducted at the Territorial Hospital in Noumea for the three-year period between 1995 and 1998 showed that nearly 200 people/year were victims of envenomation by marine animals. Findings also indicated that the incidence of envenomation was rising as the practice of marine activities by the local population and tourists increased. Venomous species can be classified into 4 categories according to the mechanism of envenomation, i.e., biting animals such as sea snakes, cephalopoda, and eels; stinging animals including not only fish such as scorpion fish (Pterois, stonefish), sting-rays, saltwater catfish, surgeon fish, and flatfish but also cones and crown of thorns (Acanthaster planci); animals with contact venoms such as cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, sea anemones, and men-of-war), glaucus, sea cucumbers (holothurioidae), and sponges; and animals with more than one envenomation apparatus such as sea urchins and sea worms which can bite and sting. Study focused on the characteristics of each species including biology, envenomation apparatus, and chemical composition and action of the venom; pharmacological and clinical aspects of envenomation; and management and prevention of accidents. PMID:10701210
童玉和; 麦日利; 陈积明; 李向民
上岸渔获调查是调查渔业资源的主要方法之一.通过2010年9月至2011年8月监测海南岛主要渔港渔情,统计分析渔获上岸量、渔获组成和作业类型,评估南海渔业资源开发现状并提出建议.结果表明,1)低值幼鱼渔获比例超过40％,经济渔获蓝圆鲹(Decapterus maruadsi)、带鱼(Trichiurus haumela)、马鲛(Scombermorus)、眼镜鱼(Mene maculata)、金线鱼(Nemipterus)和头足类(Cephalopoda)的总和不足25％;2)蓝圆鲹和带鱼是海南岛上岸渔获的优势种;3)拖网是海南岛近海渔获量最高的作业类型;4)海南岛近海底层渔业资源已严重衰退,远海中上层渔业资源具有巨大开发潜力.建议禁止海南岛近海拖网生产,允许南海休渔期间灯光围网和灯光罩网生产,通过增加远海作业船只的柴油补贴等途径扶持灯光围网和灯光罩网生产,构建“养护近海渔业、开发远海渔业”的新捕捞格局.%Landing survey is one of the main methods for fishery resources survey. According to the landing survey data collected in Hainan Island from April 2010 to August 2011 , we conducted a statistical analysis for the total landing catch, species composition and gear type to evaluate the current status of exploitation of marine fishery resources in the South China Sea and to provide advices for fisheries management. The result shows that in Hainan Island: 1) The percentage of juvenile fish is over 40% , but the sum of percentage of commercial species including Decapterus maruadsi, Trichiurus haumela, Scombermorus, Mene macidata, Nemipterus and Cephalopoda is less than 25% ; 2) D. maruadsi and T. haumela are the dominant species in landing catch; 3) Bottom-trawl is the dominant fishing gear; 4) The fishery resources in offshore waters are overexploited, while pelagic fishery resources in high sea has great developmental potential. It is suggested that trawling be banned in the offshore waters of Hainan Island, but light purse seine
Gregory J Barord
Full Text Available The extant species of Nautilus and Allonautilus (Cephalopoda inhabit fore-reef slope environments across a large geographic area of the tropical western Pacific and eastern Indian Oceans. While many aspects of their biology and behavior are now well-documented, uncertainties concerning their current populations and ecological role in the deeper, fore-reef slope environments remain. Given the historical to current day presence of nautilus fisheries at various locales across the Pacific and Indian Oceans, a comparative assessment of the current state of nautilus populations is critical to determine whether conservation measures are warranted. We used baited remote underwater video systems (BRUVS to make quantitative photographic records as a means of estimating population abundance of Nautilus sp. at sites in the Philippine Islands, American Samoa, Fiji, and along an approximately 125 km transect on the fore reef slope of the Great Barrier Reef from east of Cairns to east of Lizard Island, Australia. Each site was selected based on its geography, historical abundance, and the presence (Philippines or absence (other sites of Nautilus fisheries The results from these observations indicate that there are significantly fewer nautiluses observable with this method in the Philippine Islands site. While there may be multiple possibilities for this difference, the most parsimonious is that the Philippine Islands population has been reduced due to fishing. When compared to historical trap records from the same site the data suggest there have been far more nautiluses at this site in the past. The BRUVS proved to be a valuable tool to measure Nautilus abundance in the deep sea (300-400 m while reducing our overall footprint on the environment.
Passamaneck, Yale J; Schander, Christoffer; Halanych, Kenneth M
The Mollusca represent one of the most morphologically diverse animal phyla, prompting a variety of hypotheses on relationships between the major lineages within the phylum based upon morphological, developmental, and paleontological data. Analyses of small-ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequence have provided limited resolution of higher-level relationships within the Mollusca. Recent analyses suggest large-subunit (LSU) rRNA gene sequences are useful in resolving deep-level metazoan relationships, particularly when combined with SSU sequence. To this end, LSU (approximately 3.5 kb in length) and SSU (approximately 2 kb) sequences were collected for 33 taxa representing the major lineages within the Mollusca to improve resolution of intraphyletic relationships. Although the LSU and combined LSU+SSU datasets appear to hold potential for resolving branching order within the recognized molluscan classes, low bootstrap support was found for relationships between the major lineages within the Mollusca. LSU+SSU sequences also showed significant levels of rate heterogeneity between molluscan lineages. The Polyplacophora, Gastropoda, and Cephalopoda were each recovered as monophyletic clades with the LSU+SSU dataset. While the Bivalvia were not recovered as monophyletic clade in analyses of the SSU, LSU, or LSU+SSU, the Shimodaira-Hasegawa test showed that likelihood scores for these results did not differ significantly from topologies where the Bivalvia were monophyletic. Analyses of LSU sequences strongly contradict the widely accepted Diasoma hypotheses that bivalves and scaphopods are closely related to one another. The data are consistent with recent morphological and SSU analyses suggesting scaphopods are more closely related to gastropods and cephalopods than to bivalves. The dataset also presents the first published DNA sequences from a neomeniomorph aplacophoran, a group considered critical to our understanding of the origin and early radiation of the Mollusca
Smith, Stephen A; Wilson, Nerida G; Goetz, Freya E; Feehery, Caitlin; Andrade, Sónia C S; Rouse, Greg W; Giribet, Gonzalo; Dunn, Casey W
Molluscs (snails, octopuses, clams and their relatives) have a great disparity of body plans and, among the animals, only arthropods surpass them in species number. This diversity has made Mollusca one of the best-studied groups of animals, yet their evolutionary relationships remain poorly resolved. Open questions have important implications for the origin of Mollusca and for morphological evolution within the group. These questions include whether the shell-less, vermiform aplacophoran molluscs diverged before the origin of the shelled molluscs (Conchifera) or lost their shells secondarily. Monoplacophorans were not included in molecular studies until recently, when it was proposed that they constitute a clade named Serialia together with Polyplacophora (chitons), reflecting the serial repetition of body organs in both groups. Attempts to understand the early evolution of molluscs become even more complex when considering the large diversity of Cambrian fossils. These can have multiple dorsal shell plates and sclerites or can be shell-less but with a typical molluscan radula and serially repeated gills. To better resolve the relationships among molluscs, we generated transcriptome data for 15 species that, in combination with existing data, represent for the first time all major molluscan groups. We analysed multiple data sets containing up to 216,402 sites and 1,185 gene regions using multiple models and methods. Our results support the clade Aculifera, containing the three molluscan groups with spicules but without true shells, and they support the monophyly of Conchifera. Monoplacophora is not the sister group to other Conchifera but to Cephalopoda. Strong support is found for a clade that comprises Scaphopoda (tusk shells), Gastropoda and Bivalvia, with most analyses placing Scaphopoda and Gastropoda as sister groups. This well-resolved tree will constitute a framework for further studies of mollusc evolution, development and anatomy. PMID:22031330
Full Text Available Cephalopods are known to accumulate cadmium and play an important role in its biomagnification. They are an essential link in marine trophic chain and represent an important case in studies on cadmium transfer to man through the food chain. Since cadmium concentration widely varies in different tissues of the cephalopods – mainly accumulating in the hepatopancreas – evisceration represents a recommended preliminary step to reduce cadmium intake in view of cephalopods consumption; yet, the residual concentration in the edible part may still be a risk for public health. This study is intended to assess cadmium levels variability in the muscles of Cephalopoda, considering the different feeding habitats and marine trophic webs. In compliance with EU regulation, a survey on cadmium and other heavy metal levels in various sea food, including cephalopods, was conducted by the Istituto Zooprofilattico of Sardinia in co-operation with local health authorities. During a five-year survey (2008- 2012, 90 samples were collected from the following species: commons octopus (Octopus vulgaris, cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis, European squid (Loligo vulgaris, and flying squid (Todarodes sagittatus, located in different coastal areas and representatives of either benthic or nektonic habitats. Determination of cadmium levels was carried out according to Regulations (EC No. 882/2004, No. 1881/2006 and No. 333/2007. Analysis of the edible portion (muscle of fresh homogenised samples was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The results showed a highly skewed distribution of data. No statistically significant differences were observed among four distributions of the natural logs of cadmium levels in the species considered.
Pila, E A; Sullivan, J T; Wu, X Z; Fang, J; Rudko, S P; Gordy, M A; Hanington, P C
Haematopoiesis is a process that is responsible for generating sufficient numbers of blood cells in the circulation and in tissues. It is central to maintenance of homeostasis within an animal, and is critical for defense against infection. While haematopoiesis is common to all animals possessing a circulatory system, the specific mechanisms and ultimate products of haematopoietic events vary greatly. Our understanding of this process in non-vertebrate organisms is primarily derived from those species that serve as developmental and immunological models, with sparse investigations having been carried out in other organisms spanning the metazoa. As research into the regulation of immune and blood cell development advances, we have begun to gain insight into haematopoietic events in a wider array of animals, including the molluscs. What began in the early 1900's as observational studies on the morphological characteristics of circulating immune cells has now advanced to mechanistic investigations of the cytokines, growth factors, receptors, signalling pathways, and patterns of gene expression that regulate molluscan haemocyte development. Emerging is a picture of an incredible diversity of developmental processes and outcomes that parallels the biological diversity observed within the different classes of the phylum Mollusca. However, our understanding of haematopoiesis in molluscs stems primarily from the three most-studied classes, the Gastropoda, Cephalopoda and Bivalvia. While these represent perhaps the molluscs of greatest economic and medical importance, the fact that our information is limited to only 3 of the 9 extant classes in the phylum highlights the need for further investigation in this area. In this review, we summarize the existing literature that defines haematopoiesis and its products in gastropods, cephalopods and bivalves. PMID:26592965
Full Text Available Globacrochordiceras transpacificum gen. et sp. nov. is an ammonoid (Ammonoidea, Cephalopoda with a shell characterized by plicate ribbing (rounded and undulating ribs strengthening on the venter without interruption, increasing involution through ontogeny, overhanging and deep umbilical wall, absence of tuberculation, subtriangular whorl section, globose adult shape with a closed umbilicus followed by an abrupt egressive coiling, and a subammonitic adult suture line. This new taxon occurs in Nevada (USA and in Guangxi (South China. It has its typical occurrence within the Neopopanoceras haugi Zone of late Spathian age (Early Triassic. The plicate ribbing, suture line and general shell shape are diagnostic of the family Acrochordiceratidae. The large adult size, high degree of involution and subammonitic suture line of Globacrochordiceras markedly contrast with the next younger genus of the family (Paracrochordiceras of early Anisian age, Middle Triassic, which is evolute and displays a ceratitic suture shape. Shell coiling and suture line of Globacrochordiceras are closer to that of the youngest member of the family: Acrochordiceras carolinae (late middle Anisian. The latter is the end-member of a long-term morphological evolutionary trend of the family during the early and middle Anisian. This trend composed of classical increases in adult size (Cope's rule, shell involution and suture indentation, lasted ca. four Myr. The sudden morphological evolutionary jump between Globacrochordiceras and Paracrochordiceras at the Spathian/Anisian (Early/Middle Triassic boundary may correspond to a generalized morphological reset of long-term trends, a process that differs from classic paedomorphic transformations. A dramatic global sea level change and carbon isotope positive excursion at the Early/Middle Triassic boundary both indicate stressful environmental changes that may have triggered this evolutionary jump. doi:10.1002/mmng.201300010
Gubanov, A. P.
The first helcionelloid molluscs appeared in the late Nemakit-Daldynian and were forerunners of the sudden molluscan diversification of the Cambrian explosion. The diversification of Mollusca is coincided with global changes in lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere coincident with the rearrangement of the Late Proterozoic supercontinent Rodinia, a distinct shift in oceanic water geochemistry, and a sudden abundance of shelled multicellular organisms. Some of these changes have left indicators in the morphology and chemical properties of molluscan shells that allow reconstruction of global settings which are essential for understanding early molluscan evolution. A combination of tectonic and climatic cyclic changes is resulted in a major global transgression at the beginning of the Cambrian and the formation of extensive shallow water habitats within which the first molluscs expanded. Diversification into new ecological niches has been recognised in two evolutionary-adaptive lineages. The lineage from Oelandiella to Watsonella shows adaptation to a soft substrate and infaunal mode of life. In contrast, the Oelandiella-Helcionella lineage was an adaptation to a harder substrate. Appearance of large helcionelloids with associated archaeocyathan reefs in the middle Tommotian may suggest evolution of a browsing carnivorous habit capable of supporting a considerably larger body. Despite of a few such examples, most helcionelloids remained a small size until the Early Ordovician. Early Cambrian helcionelloids show considerable morphological diversity providing a fertile ground for speculation about early molluscan evolution. While almost the all molluscan classes are known from the Cambro-Ordovician transition, the relationship of these, including Tergomya, Gastropoda, Cephalopoda, and Rostroconchia to helcionelloids remains highly problematic. Analysis of morphological variation and evolutionary trends within the earliest molluscs may support derivation of
Bucklin, Ann; Ortman, Brian D.; Jennings, Robert M.; Nigro, Lisa M.; Sweetman, Christopher J.; Copley, Nancy J.; Sutton, Tracey; Wiebe, Peter H.
Species diversity of the metazoan holozooplankton assemblage of the Sargasso Sea, Northwest Atlantic Ocean, was examined through coordinated morphological taxonomic identification of species and DNA sequencing of a ˜650 base-pair region of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) as a DNA barcode (i.e., short sequence for species recognition and discrimination). Zooplankton collections were made from the surface to 5,000 meters during April, 2006 on the R/V R.H. Brown. Samples were examined by a ship-board team of morphological taxonomists; DNA barcoding was carried out in both ship-board and land-based DNA sequencing laboratories. DNA barcodes were determined for a total of 297 individuals of 175 holozooplankton species in four phyla, including: Cnidaria (Hydromedusae, 4 species; Siphonophora, 47); Arthropoda (Amphipoda, 10; Copepoda, 34; Decapoda, 9; Euphausiacea, 10; Mysidacea, 1; Ostracoda, 27); and Mollusca (Cephalopoda, 8; Heteropoda, 6; Pteropoda, 15); and Chaetognatha (4). Thirty species of fish (Teleostei) were also barcoded. For all seven zooplankton groups for which sufficient data were available, Kimura-2-Parameter genetic distances were significantly lower between individuals of the same species (mean=0.0114; S.D. 0.0117) than between individuals of different species within the same group (mean=0.3166; S.D. 0.0378). This difference, known as the barcode gap, ensures that mtCOI sequences are reliable characters for species identification for the oceanic holozooplankton assemblage. In addition, DNA barcodes allow recognition of new or undescribed species, reveal cryptic species within known taxa, and inform phylogeographic and population genetic studies of geographic variation. The growing database of "gold standard" DNA barcodes serves as a Rosetta Stone for marine zooplankton, providing the key for decoding species diversity by linking species names, morphology, and DNA sequence variation. In light of the pivotal position of zooplankton in ocean
Dajin Island sea area is one of habitats of Indo - Pacific humpback dolphin. Concentrations of heavy metals in sea water, sediments and organisms (fish, Crustacea and cephalopoda) at the habitat were analyzed. The results showed that the sea organisms have obvious enrichment to the heavy metals in coastal waters, high concentrations of heavy metals in the liver of Indo - Pacific humpback dolphin is accumulated grade by grade in food chain. The environment quality of the habitat is evaluated. It is indicated that the water quality in this habitat is between the first and the second rank, sediment quality is the first rank, and the heavy metals in three kinds of organisms are all lower than the standard. It also indicated that the marine area hasn't been polluted by heavy metals. The environmental quality in this water area is fit to Indo - Pacific humpback dolphins' living. Heavy metals level at the Dajin Island waters is in the low value section of the Pearl River estuarine zoon, it may be an important reason of Indo - Pacific humpback dolphins selecting this area as their habitat.%分别对中华白海豚栖息地的海水、表层沉积物和生物(鱼类、甲壳类和软体类动物)体中的重金属含量进行测定与污染评价.结果表明,海洋生物对海水和沉积物中重金属有较强的富集能力,中华白海豚其肝脏中高浓度的重金属含量是通过食物链(网)而逐级积累的.栖息地中海水质量介于海水I类与II类水质之间,表层沉积物质量符合I类标准,3类不同类群生物的体内重金属含量也均低于海洋环境质量生物污染评价标准,表明本海域尚未受到重金属污染,环境质量基本符合中华白海豚的生存要求,大襟岛海域的重金属水平落在整个珠江口海区的低值区,这可能是中华白海豚选择大襟岛海域作为栖息地的一个重要原因.
Lukeneder, Alexander; Harzhauser, Mathias; Müllegger, Stefan; Piller, Werner E.
Stable isotope ( δ18O and δ13C) ratios were measured in successive aragonitic shell sequences of ammonoids (class Cephalopoda) to determine whether their depth distributions changed within ontogeny and whether stable isotope values differ in various morphological groups (e.g. Leiostraca vs. Trachyostraca). We concentrate mainly on δ18O for temperature results and added δ13C data to obtain information on the ontogenetic history, for which full spiral measurements were undertaken for the first time. To obtain valid stable isotope data from ammonoid shells, we measured ontogenetic sequences (full shell) within different genera. Data sets from the Jurassic ( Cadoceras) and Cretaceous ( Hypacanthoplites, Nowakites) were chosen due to the pure primary aragonitic shell preservation. The study was designed to extract better information on the habitat and life cycle of fossil cephalopods (e.g. ammonoids) in comparison with recent cephalopods (e.g. Nautilus, Spirula, Sepia) possessing equivalent or comparable hard parts. The data from three genera suggest different modes of life in at least two morphological groups. We detected and established two main groups with different ontogenetic strategies based on the δ18O data. The wcw-type (warm-cool-warm type) of Cadoceras resembles strategies in Nautilus and Sepia, which migrate from shallow into deeper environments and back in ontogeny ( wc-type, warm-cool-type), and the cw-type (cool-warm type) of Hypacanthoplites resembling the first two migration phases of Spirula ( cwc-type), which migrates from deeper into shallower and back again into deeper habitats. The main (three) phases revealed by both δ18O and δ13C data sets most probably reflect diet changes in juvenile to mid-aged individuals, followed by a habitat change for spawning adults. In Cadoceras the temperatures range from 21.2 °C for juveniles down to 12.1 °C for mid-aged individuals and back up 16.9 °C in adults. The cw- type strategy of Hypacanthoplites
颜云榕; 张武科; 卢伙胜; 王学锋; 赖金养
The data obtained from monthly sampling in the main fishing ports of the Beibu Gulf from October 2008 to September 2009 and the data obtained from the fishery-dependent trawl survey in February 2010, in the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea were using stable isotope analysis and stomach contents analysis to study the prey category, trophic position and ontogenetic feeding habit shifts of Trichiurus lepturus. The results showed that small pelagic fish, Decapterus maruadsi, Sardinella jussieu, Stolephorus heteroloba, benthic Bregmaceros rarisquamosus, and cephalopoda, Loligo chinensis, were relatively important in the diet of T. lepturus, with the weight percentages of 26.19%, 10.21%, 9.94%, 7.20% and 6.07%, respectively, whereas the other prey species were presence in lower percentages. The δ13C signatures went from relatively low （depleted） values for pelagic species to high values for benthic species. As expected, D. maruadsi displayed the lowest value （-17.830‰） while benthic Leiognathus lineolatus displayed the highest value （-14.925‰）. The absence of a significant linear correlation between the preanal length and δ13C leads to the conclusion that T. lepturus are feeding from all the water layers during the majority part of their biological life cycle. Both the average trophic level and its annual mean value were calculated by prey weight percentages and δ15N were 3.7. The trophic level of T. lepturus varied not significantly with the preanal length, despite the fact that T. margarites and T. minor increased notably in the same sea area. Two samples of dehydration were undertaken prior to the analytical determination of stable isotope ratios were tested and the results showed that vacuum freeze-drying and drying with oven at constant temperature had significant variance in δ15N but not in δ13C. Undoubtedly, SIA will play an import role in evaluating the fish feeding habits and trophic positions. At the same time, the following three key points