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Sample records for cephalopoda

  1. 10. Cephalopoda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruizinga, P.

    1931-01-01

    In arranging a list of fossil Cephalopoda of the Malayan Archipelago it soon proved that the bulk were found on Timor. On some of the other islands viz. Rotti, the Sula islands, Taliabu and Mangoli, Buru, the Misol Archipelago and Sumatra a good deal have been found also. The oldest informations on

  2. The Marine Mollusca of Suriname (Dutch Guiana) Holocene and recent Part III. Gastropoda and Cephalopoda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1975-01-01

    CONTENTS 1. Introduction, systematic survey and page references....... 3 2. Gastropoda and Cephalopoda............. 8 3. List of corrections of and additions to Part II......... 89 4. References.................. 92 5. Plates ................... 100 1. INTRODUCTION, SYSTEMATIC SURVEY AND PAGE REFERE

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of Octopus conispadiceus (Sasaki, 1917) (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Xiaodong; Cheng, Rubin; Li, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Octopus conispadiceus (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae). The whole mitogenome of O. conispadiceus is 16,027 basepairs (bp) in length with a base composition of 41.4% A, 34.8% T, 16.1% C, 7.7% G and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a major non-coding region (MNR). The gene arrangements of O. conispadiceus showed remarkable similarity to that of O. vulgaris, Amphioctopus fangsiao, Cistopus chinensis and C. taiwanicus.

  4. A congenital malformation of the systemic heart complex in Sepia officinalis L. (Cephalopoda)

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    Schipp, R.; von Boletzky, S.; Jakobs, P.; Labourg, P. J.

    1998-03-01

    In semi-adult Sepia officinalis L. (Cephalopoda) from the Bay of Arcachon (France) a congenital malformation of the systemic heart is described by macro-and microscopical methods. It concerns an atypical doubling of the site of insertion at the cephalic aorta at the apical ventricle. Its comparison with the paired anlagen of the systemic heart complex in normal embryogenesis and the central circulatory system of Nautilus gives rise to interpret it as a form of atavism. The possible causal role of mutagenic antifoulings is discussed.

  5. Revision of the genus Lolliguncula Steenstrup, 1881 (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae off the Pacific Coast of South America

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    Franz Cardoso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the species from the genus LolligunculaSteentrup, 1881 (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae in Southeastern Pacific Ocean are reviewed. The presence of Lolliguncula (Lolliguncula panamensisBerry, 1911, Lolliguncula (Loliolopsis diomedeae Hoyle, 1911 and Lolliguncula (Lolliguncula argusBrakoniecki and Roper, 1985 are confirmed from Mexican waters to Perú and the species Lolliguncula (Lolliguncula arguscollected during a cruise of the R/V Anton Bruunfrom 1966 off the coast of South America is recorded for the first time in Peruvian waters. A key to identification of Pacific species is given. We report a diagnostic feature with taxonomic remarks of these species. Updated information on the distribution, biology, and fisheries of each species also is discussed.

  6. A multi-gene phylogeny of Cephalopoda supports convergent morphological evolution in association with multiple habitat shifts in the marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren Annie R; Pankey Molly S; Hochberg Frederick G; Oakley Todd H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The marine environment is comprised of numerous divergent organisms living under similar selective pressures, often resulting in the evolution of convergent structures such as the fusiform body shape of pelagic squids, fishes, and some marine mammals. However, little is known about the frequency of, and circumstances leading to, convergent evolution in the open ocean. Here, we present a comparative study of the molluscan class Cephalopoda, a marine group known to occupy ha...

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of the cryptic "lineage A" big-fin reef squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) in Indo-West Pacific.

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    Hsiao, Chung-Der; Shen, Kang-Ning; Ching, Tzu-Yun; Wang, Ya-Hsien; Ye, Jeng-Jia; Tsai, Shiou-Yi; Wu, Shan-Chun; Chen, Ching-Hung; Wang, Chia-Hui

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the cryptic "lineage A" big-fin reef squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) has been sequenced by the next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome consists of 16,605 bp, which includes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and 2 ribosomal RNAs genes. The overall base composition of "lineage A" S. lessoniana is 37.5% for A, 17.4% for C, 9.1% for G, and 35.9% for T and shows 87% identities to "lineage C" S. lessoniana. It is also noticed by its high T + A content (73.4%), two non-coding regions with TA tandem repeats. The complete mitogenome of the cryptic "lineage A" S. lessoniana provides essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogeography and evolutionary analysis for big-fin reef squid species complex. PMID:26016882

  8. 中国近海习见头足类DNA条形码及其分子系统进化%DNA Barcoding for Cephalopoda in classification and phylogeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹤; 林琳; 柳淑芳; 姜志强; 庄志猛

    2011-01-01

    应用DNA条形码通用引物扩增了11种中国近海习见头足类(Cephalopoda)共计97个个体的线粒体细胞色素C氧化酶亚基I(Cytochrome Coxidase I,COI)基因片段,与GenBank收录的19种95条头足类同源序列进行比对.结果表明,头足类COI基因存在碱基插人缺失现象,杜氏枪乌贼(Uroteuthis duvauceli)插人缺失位点数多达33个;碱基组成偏倚明显,A+T含量(66.70%)显著高子G+C(33.30%)含量.基于Kimura双参数模型计算,29个物种的种内平均遗传距离为0.0072,种间平均遗传距离(0.20-2 4)是种内遗传距离的28.11倍.针对剑尖枪乌贼(Loligo edulis,Uroteuthis edulis,Photololigo edulis)分类和命名的分歧,DNA条形码分类结果显示,该物种与枪乌贼属(Loligo)和尾枪乌贼属(Uroteuthis)的COI基因同源性较低,不支持将其划归到Lolig.或Uroteuthis.近爱尔斗蛸属(Pareledone)6个代表物种的种间遗传距离较小(0.0120-0.0385),对于此类变异程度较低的物种,DNA条形码仍可准确区分,但其种间遗传距离的阈值尚待深人探讨.系统发育树的聚类分析结果表明,COI基因在种、属水平的分类鉴定及其系统进化关系与传统方法所得结果一致性较高,分别为100%,91.67%;科、目水平的一致性略低,分别为80%和66.67%.可见,线粒体COI基因作为头足类DNA条形码在物种鉴定中适用性较高,亦适用于种属水平的系统进化分析,是形态学分类系统的必要补充和佐证.%The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I genes (CO I) were sequenced from 97 individuals out of 11 common species of Cephalopoda in China by using the universal barcoding primers. The 97 sequences were compared with the other 95 homologous sequences belonging to 19 species of Cephalopoda obtained from the GenBank. As a result, 23.33% of the Cephalopoda species' COI sequences included Insert-Deletion sites. The indels of COI sequences in Uroteuthis duvauceli counted up to 33. The COI sequences of

  9. A multi-gene phylogeny of Cephalopoda supports convergent morphological evolution in association with multiple habitat shifts in the marine environment

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    Lindgren Annie R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The marine environment is comprised of numerous divergent organisms living under similar selective pressures, often resulting in the evolution of convergent structures such as the fusiform body shape of pelagic squids, fishes, and some marine mammals. However, little is known about the frequency of, and circumstances leading to, convergent evolution in the open ocean. Here, we present a comparative study of the molluscan class Cephalopoda, a marine group known to occupy habitats from the intertidal to the deep sea. Several lineages bear features that may coincide with a benthic or pelagic existence, making this a valuable group for testing hypotheses of correlated evolution. To test for convergence and correlation, we generate the most taxonomically comprehensive multi-gene phylogeny of cephalopods to date. We then create a character matrix of habitat type and morphological characters, which we use to infer ancestral character states and test for correlation between habitat and morphology. Results Our study utilizes a taxonomically well-sampled phylogeny to show convergent evolution in all six morphological characters we analyzed. Three of these characters also correlate with habitat. The presence of an autogenic photophore (those relying upon autonomous enzymatic light reactions is correlated with a pelagic habitat, while the cornea and accessory nidamental gland correlate with a benthic lifestyle. Here, we present the first statistical tests for correlation between convergent traits and habitat in cephalopods to better understand the evolutionary history of characters that are adaptive in benthic or pelagic environments, respectively. Discussion Our study supports the hypothesis that habitat has influenced convergent evolution in the marine environment: benthic organisms tend to exhibit similar characteristics that confer protection from invasion by other benthic taxa, while pelagic organisms possess features that

  10. Paralarvae of the complex Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis-Dosidicus gigas (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) in the northern limit of the shallow oxygen minimum zone of the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean (April 2012)

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    Sánchez-Velasco, Laura; Ruvalcaba-Aroche, Erick D.; Beier, Emilio; Godínez, Victor M.; Barton, Eric D.; Díaz-Viloria, Noe; Pacheco, María. R.

    2016-03-01

    The three-dimensional distribution of the paralarvae of the complex Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis-Dosidicus gigas (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) was analyzed at the northern limit of the shallow oxygen minimum zone in the Eastern Tropical Pacific in April 2012. The upper limit of the oxygen minimum water (˜44 µmol/kg or 1 mL/L) rises from ˜100 m depth in the entrance of the Gulf of California to ˜20 m depth off Cabo Corrientes. Most of the paralarvae of this complex, dominated by D. gigas, were concentrated in the Gulf entrance, between the thermocline (˜20 to ˜50 m depth) and the sea surface, in the warmest (>19°C) oxygenated (>176 µmol/kg) layer. The highest abundance of paralarvae was detected in an anticyclonic eddy (˜120 km diameter and >500 m deep), which contained lower-salinity water (<35 g/kg), consistent with formation in the California Current. Lower paralarvae abundance was recorded further south off Cabo Corrientes, where hypoxic layers were elevated as water shoaled nearshore. Almost no paralarvae were found in the north of the study area beyond the strong salinity front (˜34.8-35.4 g/kg) that bounded the anticyclone. These results showed an affinity of the paralarvae for lower-salinity, oxygenated water, illustrated by the influence of the mesoscale anticyclonic eddy and the salinity front in their distribution. Based on this study, it can be concluded that the expansion of the depth range of hypoxic water observed in the Eastern Tropical Pacific may be increasing environmental stress on the paralarvae by vertically restricting their habitat, and so affecting their survival.

  11. Pulpos octopódidos (Cephalopoda, Octopodidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Re, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    Four species of the family Octopodidae were reported to occur along the Argentine coast Octopus tehuelchus, Eledone massyae, Enteroctopus megalocyathus and Robsonella fontaniana. The first two are distributed from Brazil to south of Rawson and San Jorge Gulf, respectively, in warm-temperate waters. E.megalocyathus and R.fontaniana are of Subantarctic origin, the first ranging from San Matias Gulf to Magellan Strait, the Beagle Channel and Malvinas Islands; R.fontaniana is distributed from San...

  12. An ethogram for Benthic Octopods (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Jennifer A; Alupay, Jean S

    2016-05-01

    The present paper constructs a general ethogram for the actions of the flexible body as well as the skin displays of octopuses in the family Octopodidae. The actions of 6 sets of structures (mantle-funnel, arms, sucker-stalk, skin-web, head, and mouth) combine to produce behavioral units that involve positioning of parts leading to postures such as the flamboyant, movements of parts of the animal with relation to itself including head bob and grooming, and movements of the whole animal by both jetting in the water and crawling along the substrate. Muscular actions result in 4 key changes in skin display: (a) chromatophore expansion, (b) chromatophore contraction resulting in appearance of reflective colors such as iridophores and leucophores, (c) erection of papillae on the skin, and (d) overall postures of arms and mantle controlled by actions of the octopus muscular hydrostat. They produce appearances, including excellent camouflage, moving passing cloud and iridescent blue rings, with only a few known species-specific male visual sexual displays. Commonalities across the family suggest that, despite having flexible muscular hydrostat movement systems producing several behavioral units, simplicity of production may underlie the complexity of movement and appearance. This systematic framework allows researchers to take the next step in modeling how such diversity can be a combination of just a few variables. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27078075

  13. Spermatophore implantation in Rossia moelleri Steenstrup, 1856 (Sepiolidae; Cephalopoda)

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    Hoving, H.J.T.; Nauwelaerts, S.; van Genne, B.; Stamhuis, E.J.; Zumholz, K.

    2009-01-01

    The small sepiolid cephalopod Rossia moelleri Steenstrup, 1856 transfers sperm by implantation of spermatangia into female tissue. Although this is a common sperm transfer and storage strategy in cephalopods, the mechanism behind implantation of spermatangia is poorly understood. In the lab, we arti

  14. La familia Ocythoidae (Cephalopoda: Octopoda en el Perú

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    Franz Cardoso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se revisa la familia Ocythoidae en base a la literatura y material peruano. La familia presenta sólo un género y una especie, Ocythoe tuberculata Rafinesque, 1814. Esta especie es epipelágica y posiblemente cosmopolita en aguas oceánicas cálidas (subtropicales de los Océanos Atlántico, Pacífico e índico y del Mar Mediterráneo. Se presenta información sobre la sistemática y biología de la especie.

  15. Rearing and growth of the Octopus Robsonella fontaniana (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) from planktonic hatchlings to benthic juveniles.

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    Uriarte, Iker; Hernández, Jorge; Dörner, Jessica; Paschke, Kurt; Farías, Ana; Crovetto, Enzo; Rosas, Carlos

    2010-04-01

    Globally, octopus larviculture is one of the challenges faced in the attempt to diversify aquaculture and achieve cephalopod farming. Currently, only juveniles of Octopus vulgaris, Octopus joubini, and Enteroctopus dofleini have been obtained at an experimental level. This is the first study to look at the characteristics of planktonic and benthic Robsonella fontaniana juveniles in an effort to analyze the morphometric changes occurring during their planktonic and benthic phases and to explore the feasibility of obtaining settlement under controlled conditions. The morphometric measurements varied exponentially over time and did not show different tendencies before and after settlement. Mantle growth in relation to total length fit a logarithmic regression, whereas arm length and eye diameter increased linearly with respect to total length throughout the entire paralarval and juvenile periods. This suggests that the size of the mantle decreases with age in proportion to the total octopus length, whereas the organs more directly involved in catching prey tend to increase in direct proportion to the total length. The present study shows that R. fontaniana can be reared from hatching through the final paralarval stage on a diet of Lithodes santolla (king crab) zoeae; after settlement, the juveniles can be reared on a diet of crab such as Petrolisthes.

  16. Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya (Mollusca: Cephalopoda).

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    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Colin-Flores, Rafael Francisco; Rosas, Carlos

    2009-02-01

    Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya is described in terms of histological, morphometric, oocytes growth, and somatic-oocyte relationship data obtained from octopus cultured at the UMDI-UNAM, in Sisal, Yucatan, Mexico. This study is the first publication on gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya. A total of 83 O. maya specimens were used; their sizes ranged from 6.5 to 76 mm of total length (TL), 4 to 28 mm of dorsal mantle length (DML), 2.5 to 20 mm of ventral mantle length (VML), and 0.0180 to 7.2940 g of fixed body weight (fBW). Animals were weighed and measured only after preservation. A loss of 10% of living weight was estimated for juvenile octopuses after formalin preservation. The relation of length to weight (VML, DML, TL/fBW) pooled for both sexes had a strong positive correlation (r), as shown by a potential power function that was quite close to 1. Compound images were produced from numerous microscopic fields. The histological examination revealed that, 4 months after hatching, male octopus (24.5 mm DML and 7.2940 g fBW) were in gonad stages 2 (maturing) to 3 (mature), with spermatogonia and spermatocytes in the tubule wall and abundant spermatids and spermatozoa in the central lumen of the seminiferous tubules, suggesting the occurrence of different phases of gonad development at different maturity stages. In contrast, females (22.5 mm DML and 4.8210 g fBW) at the same time since hatching were immature (stage 1), with many oogonia, few oocytes, and germinal epithelium. This suggests that males reach maturity earlier than females, indicating a probable onset of maturity for males at around 4 months of culture or 8 g of wet body weight. Our results indicate the possibility that the size-at-weight can be recognized early with a degree of certainty that allows the sexes to be separated for culture purposes; but more detailed studies on reproduction in relation to endocrinology and nutrition are needed.

  17. The ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of Octopus ocellatus Gray, 1849 (Cephalopoda: Octopoda)

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    Yang, Jianmin; Wang, Weijun; Zheng, Xiaodong; Zhou, Quanli; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Guohua; Liu, Xiangquan

    2011-01-01

    Morphology of the spermatozoon of Octopus ocellatus was studied by light, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopes. Sperm are 600-700 μm long, with a large number of granules in diameter about 130 nm. Each spermatozoon is composed of a head, neck, and tail. The head is made up of an acrosomal complex anterior to the nucleus. The spiral acrosomal complex consists of an electron-lucent vesicle, lacuna, and an electron-dense acrosomal vesicle. Additionally, the spiral acrosomal vesicle has numerous equidistant striations, and is surrounded by many small granules (20 nm diameter). A long straight nucleus, which is electron-densed, has a deep posterior concavity, the nuclear vacuole. At the terminal end of the nucleus is a sleeve-like structure with a concave posterior nuclear fossa (PNF). The neck is short connecting the PNF. The basal body is located in the PNF and gives rise to the axoneme. This structure connects the head, neck, and tail. The tail is divided into a middle piece and a principal piece. The middle piece, having a 9+9+2 arrangement, is surrounded by a mitochondrial sheath and terminates by an electron-dense fibrous sheath. The principal piece is the longest part of the sperm with coarse fibers tapering posteriorly. The results of this study shall provide some useful information for artificial breeding of this species.

  18. Recognizing cephalopod boreholes in shells and the northward spread of Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 (Cephalopoda, Octopodoidea)

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    Hiemstra, Auke-Florian

    2015-01-01

    Octopuses prey on molluscs by boring through their shell. Among the regular naticid borings, traces of cephalopod predation should be found soon on Dutch beaches. Bottom trawling has declined, and by the effects of global warming Octopus will find its way back to the North Sea where it lived before.

  19. Life history of the bathyal octopus Pteroctopus tetracirrhus (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) in the Mediterranean Sea

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    Quetglas, Antoni; Ordines, Francesc; González, María; Franco, Ignacio

    2009-08-01

    The life cycle of the deep-sea octopus Pteroctopus tetracirrhus was studied from monthly samples obtained throughout the year in different areas of the western Mediterranean (mainly around the Balearic Islands and along the coast of the Iberian Peninsula). A total of 373 individuals (205 females, 168 males) were analyzed; females ranged from 4.5 to 14.0 cm mantle length (ML) and males from 4.5 to 11.5 cm ML. There were few small-sized octopuses (octopus inhabits the lower continental shelf and upper slope in both areas, primarily between 200 and 500 m depth. Modal lengths were followed from autumn, when recruits were caught by trawlers, to summer, when reproduction took place. Females grew from 8 to 10 cm ML from winter to spring, but this modal size did not increase further in summer; males grew from 7 to 9 cm ML from winter to spring. The total disappearance of large individuals after summer suggests a life cycle lasting a single year. The evolution of the monthly mean sizes showed that the growth was best described by log-linear functions in both sexes. The length at first maturity was clearly higher in females (12 cm ML) than in males (8 cm ML). A total of 30 different prey items, belonging to four major taxonomic groups (crustaceans, osteichthyes, cephalopods and gastropods), were identified in the stomach contents. The diet of the octopus was based on crustaceans and teleosts, which accounted for 75% and 23% of the prey items, respectively. Cephalopods and gastropods were accessory prey as they only represented 1.6% and 0.7%, respectively, of the total. The octopus showed a marked preference for the benthic fish Symphurus nigrescens and the endobenthic crustacean Alpheus glaber. The bathymetric distribution of P. tetracirrhus coincides with those of these two main prey, which suggests that the distribution of the octopus might be strongly linked to its trophic resources.

  20. Fisheries and reproductive biology of Octopus vulgaris (Mollusca: Cephalopoda in the Gulf of Alicante (Northwestern Mediterranean

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    M. GONZALEZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The common octopus Octopus vulgarisCuvier, 1797 is the most fished cephalopod species along the Spanish coasts. Its catches are highly fluctuating due to the short life cycle of the species and to the annual variability of the recruitment pattern, strongly dependent on the environmental conditions affecting the eggs and paralarvae. This study examines the common octopus fishery, the catch composition, and the main features of the reproductive biology of this species in the Gulf of Alicante (Spanish Eastern coast, Western Mediterranean FAO division 37.1.1. The common octopus fishery was studied analysing the monthly landing and effort data by fishing gear from 1994 to 2005. Monthly samplings of the commercial O. vulgarislandings from trawlers and clay pots from January 2004 to December 2005 resulted in the measuring of 1833 specimens to enable analysis of the catch composition, and allowed the biological sampling of 1176 individuals to provide the reproductive parameters of the species in the study area. The length-weight relationship calculated for the species was BW = 0.51 * DML 2.87. The yearly sex ratios (males:females were 1:1 (trawl, 2004, 1:0.74 (trawl, 2005, and 1:0.88 (clay pots, 2005. The size (dorsal mantle length, DML at maturity of the species in the study area was 9.67 cm for males and 14.38 cm for females. The gonadosomatic index reached a peak between April and July for males and in July for females. The Fulton condition index was lower in both sexes between June and September, and for males in November-December, whereas for both sexes the values of the digestive gland index were at their maximum between June and December. The energy allocation between somatic and reproductive growth was investigated and the results suggested that the energy spent on reproduction mainly came from feeding, and not from energy stored in the mantle tissues or in the digestive gland

  1. First record of depth octopus Muusoctopus longibrachus (Cephalopoda: Octopoda for Peruvian sea

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    Franz Cardoso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The octopus deep-sea Muusoctopus longibrachus (Ibañez et al. 2006 is recorded for the first time in the Peruvian sea. Two male specimens were caught at 852 – 875 m depth between 05°08'S and 09°18'S. This species was known only from Chile, in the present study extends its distribution north to Peru.

  2. Ethological studies of the Veined Octopus Amphioctopus marinates (Taki (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae in captivity, Kerala, India

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    V. Sreeja

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Five Veined Octopus Amphioctopus marginatus (Taki, collected from Vizhinjam Bay in the Thiruvananthapuram District of Kerala, India were kept in aquariums to study their behaviour in captivity. Primary and secondary defence mechanisms studied included crypsis, hiding and escape behaviour. Deimatic behaviour was used by captive animals when camouflage failed and they were threatened. Crawling behaviour to escape from the aquarium was observed in all specimens. Stilt walking and bi-pedal locomotion were also observed. As a defence behaviour, A. marginatus used aquarium rocks to protect the soft underside of their bodies. A. marginatus demonstrated tool use of coconut shells to make protective shelters, carrying the shells for future use. A female specimen also selected a coconut shell for egg laying and performed parental care by continuously cleaning and aerating her eggs with her arms and by squirting jets of water over the eggs.

  3. Retinal Development and Ommin Pigment in the Cranchiid Squid Teuthowenia pellucida (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida.

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    Aaron B Evans

    Full Text Available The cranchiid Teuthowenia pellucida, like many deep-sea squid species, possesses large eyes that maximise light sensitivity in a nearly aphotic environment. To assess ontogenetic changes in the visual system, we conducted morphometric and histological analyses of the eyes using specimens from New Zealand collections. While the ratio between eye diameter and mantle length maintained a linear relationship throughout development, histological sections of the retina revealed that the outer photoreceptor layer became proportionally longer as the animal aged, coincident with a habitat shift into deeper, darker ocean strata. Other retinal layers maintained the same absolute thickness as was observed in paralarvae. Granules of the pigment ommin, normally located in the screening layer positioned at the base of the photoreceptors, were also observed at the outer end of the photoreceptor segments throughout the retina in young and mid-sized specimens. Early developmental stages of this species, dwelling in shallow waters, may therefore rely on migratory ommin to help shield photoreceptors from excess light and prevent over-stimulation. The oldest, deeper-dwelling specimens of T. pellucida examined had longer photoreceptors, and little or no migrated ommin was observed; we suggest therefore that short-term adaptive mechanisms for bright light conditions may be used primarily during epipelagic, early life stages in this species.

  4. The Complete Sequence of the Mitochondrial Genome of the Chamberednautilus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-12-01

    Background: Mitochondria contain small genomes that arephysically separate from those of nuclei. Their comparison serves as amodel system for understanding the processes of genome evolution.Although complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported formore than 600 animals, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased towardvertebrates and arthropods, leaving much of the diversity yetuncharacterized. Results: The mitochondrial genome of a cephalopodmollusk, the Chambered Nautilus, is 16,258 nts in length and 59.5 percentA+T, both values that are typical of animal mitochondrial genomes. Itcontains the 37 genes that are typical for animal mtDNAs, with 15 on oneDNA strand and 22 on the other. The arrangement of these genes can bederived from that of the distantly related Katharina tunicata (Mollusca:Polyplacophora) by a switch in position of two large blocks of genes andtranspositions of four tRNA genes. There is strong skew in thedistribution of nucleotides between the two strands. There are an unusualnumber of non-coding regions and their function, if any, is not known;however, several of these demark abrupt shifts in nucleotide skew,suggesting that they may play roles in transcription and/or replication.One of the non-coding regions contains multiple repeats of a tRNA-likesequence. Some of the tRNA genes appear to overlap on the same strand,but this could be resolved if the polycistron were cleaved at thebeginning of the downstream gene, followed by polyadenylation of theproduct of the upstream gene to form a fully paired structure.Conclusions: Nautilus sp. mtDNA contains an expected gene content thathas experienced few rearrangements since the evolutionary split betweencephalopods and polyplacophorans. It contains an unusual number ofnon-coding regions, especially considering that these otherwise often aregenerated by the same processes that produce gene rearrangements. Thisappears to be yet another case where polyadenylation of mitochondrialtRNAs restores what would otherwise bean incompletestructure.

  5. Cuttlebone morphology limits habitat depth in eleven species of Sepia (Cephalopoda: Sepiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrard, K M

    2000-06-01

    The cuttlebone is a rigid buoyancy tank that imposes a depth limit on Sepia, the only living speciose cephalopod genus with a chambered shell. Sections of 59 cuttlebones from a geographically diverse sample of 11 species were examined using confocal microscopy. Sepia species that live at greater depths had thicker septa and less space between pillars than did shallow species. A plate theory analysis of cuttlebone strength based on these two measures predicted maximum capture depths accurately in most species. Thus cuttlebone morphology confers differing degrees of strength against implosion from hydrostatic pressure, which increases with increasing habitat depth. Greater strength may come at the cost of increased cuttlebone density, which impinges on the cuttlebone's buoyancy function. PMID:10897454

  6. Fisheries and reproductive biology of Octopus vulgaris (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) in the Gulf of Alicante (Northwestern Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, M; E. BARCALA; J.L. PEREZ-GIL; M.N. CARRASCO; M. C. Garcia-Martinez

    2012-01-01

    The common octopus Octopus vulgarisCuvier, 1797 is the most fished cephalopod species along the Spanish coasts. Its catches are highly fluctuating due to the short life cycle of the species and to the annual variability of the recruitment pattern, strongly dependent on the environmental conditions affecting the eggs and paralarvae. This study examines the common octopus fishery, the catch composition, and the main features of the reproductive biology of this species in the Gulf of Alicante (S...

  7. Observaciones sobre la biología de Octopus mimus (Cephalopoda: Octopoda en la costa peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Cardoso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analizan un total de 1339 ejemplares de Octopus mimus Gould, 1852, procedentes de muestreos mensuales realizados en las localidades de Ilo durante el año 1993, Pucusana durante 1997 y en el Callao durante 1998. La relación talla-peso de los ejemplares de Ilo y Callao mostraron un crecimiento alométrico para ambos sexos. Las hembras alcanzan la talla de desove a los 14,3 cm de longitud del manto. Esta talla fue utilizada para estimar un peso mínimo de captura de 1 Kg. La dieta es variable y consiste de crustáceos, moluscos, peces y equinodermos. Las capturas fueron 6 veces más altas durante El Niño 1997-1998 que El Niño 1982-1983. La presente información es comparada y discutida con los datos de Chile.

  8. Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya (Mollusca: Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Colin-Flores, Rafael Francisco; Rosas, Carlos

    2009-02-01

    Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya is described in terms of histological, morphometric, oocytes growth, and somatic-oocyte relationship data obtained from octopus cultured at the UMDI-UNAM, in Sisal, Yucatan, Mexico. This study is the first publication on gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya. A total of 83 O. maya specimens were used; their sizes ranged from 6.5 to 76 mm of total length (TL), 4 to 28 mm of dorsal mantle length (DML), 2.5 to 20 mm of ventral mantle length (VML), and 0.0180 to 7.2940 g of fixed body weight (fBW). Animals were weighed and measured only after preservation. A loss of 10% of living weight was estimated for juvenile octopuses after formalin preservation. The relation of length to weight (VML, DML, TL/fBW) pooled for both sexes had a strong positive correlation (r), as shown by a potential power function that was quite close to 1. Compound images were produced from numerous microscopic fields. The histological examination revealed that, 4 months after hatching, male octopus (24.5 mm DML and 7.2940 g fBW) were in gonad stages 2 (maturing) to 3 (mature), with spermatogonia and spermatocytes in the tubule wall and abundant spermatids and spermatozoa in the central lumen of the seminiferous tubules, suggesting the occurrence of different phases of gonad development at different maturity stages. In contrast, females (22.5 mm DML and 4.8210 g fBW) at the same time since hatching were immature (stage 1), with many oogonia, few oocytes, and germinal epithelium. This suggests that males reach maturity earlier than females, indicating a probable onset of maturity for males at around 4 months of culture or 8 g of wet body weight. Our results indicate the possibility that the size-at-weight can be recognized early with a degree of certainty that allows the sexes to be separated for culture purposes; but more detailed studies on reproduction in relation to endocrinology and nutrition are needed. PMID:19218496

  9. [Growth of Octopus maya (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) of the Yucatan coast, Mexico: a long-term analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepita Villanueva, M R; Defeo, O

    2001-03-01

    Growth of the octopus (Octopus maya) off Yucatan (Mexico) was estimated from a long-term study (seven years) by the length-based methods ELEFAN, PROJMAT and SLCA. Some 19,251 octopuses with a range of mantle length between 50 and 240 mm were sampled from commercial landings in 1983-1987, 1989 and 1992. The jackknife technique was applied to deal with uncertainty in growth estimates resulting from chance variations in sampling design. The growth index phi' was used for comparative purposes. Results differed markedly among methods: ELEFAN produced parameter estimates within the range reported in the literature, whereas PROJMAT and SLCA showed problems to converge in an optimum combination of parameters, and tended to underestimate them. Jackknife analysis revealed very low intraannual variability in phi' but high variability among years, especially when applying PROJMAT. No significant differences were found in precision parameters--percent error and coefficient of variation--among methods. Estimates of phi' derived by ELEFAN varied between 4.19 and 5.23 and agreed with those reported in the literature (between 4.25 and 4.91), whereas PROJMAT and SLCA estimates were significantly lower. We suggest the use of ELEFAN, together with jackknife, to estimate growth parameters of Octopus maya. PMID:11795175

  10. Systematic value of the ultrastructure of the sucker surface in the squid family Mastigoteuthidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salcedo-Vargas, Mario Alejandro

    1995-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the sucker surface is described and its systematic value for mastigoteuthid squids, which bear minute suckers, is considered. An introduction to sucker terms is given and a redefinition of these terms is attempted. Using scanning electron microscopic data, two genera and four s

  11. Reproduction in Heteroteuthis dispar (Ruppell, 1844) (Mollusca : Cephalopoda): a sepiolid reproductive adaptation to an oceanic lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, H. J. T.; Laptikhovsky, V.; Piatkowski, U.; Onsoy, B.; Oensoy, B.

    2008-01-01

    Small cephalopods of the genus Heteroteuthis are the most pelagic members in the family Sepiolidae. This study examines the reproductive biology of Heteroteuthis dispar (Ruppell, 1844), the first such study on any member of the genus, based on 46 specimens (27 females and 19 males) collected during

  12. Growth and mating of southern African Lycoteuthis lorigera (Steenstrup, 1875) (Cephalopoda; Lycoteuthidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, H. J. T.; Lipinski, M. R.; Roeleveld, M. A. C.; Durholtz, M. D.

    2007-01-01

    Lycoteuthis lorigera is an oceanic squid that is abundant in the Benguela system. Little is known about the biology of this squid except that it is eaten in large numbers by numerous oceanic predators and that males grow to larger size than females, which is unique for oegopsid squid. The aim of thi

  13. Locomotion by Abdopus aculeatus (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae): walking the line between primary and secondary defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffard, Christine L

    2006-10-01

    Speeds and variation in body form during crawling, bipedal walking, swimming and jetting by the shallow-water octopus Abdopus aculeatus were compared to explore possible interactions between defense behaviors and biomechanics of these multi-limbed organisms. General body postures and patterns were more complex and varied during the slow mode of crawling than during fast escape maneuvers such as swimming and jetting. These results may reflect a trade-off between predator deception and speed, or simply a need to reduce drag during jet-propelled locomotion. Octopuses swam faster when dorsoventrally compressed, a form that may generate lift, than when swimming in the head-raised posture. Bipedal locomotion proceeded as fast as swimming and can be considered a form of fast escape (secondary defense) that also incorporates elements of crypsis and polyphenism (primary defenses). Body postures during walking suggested the use of both static and dynamic stability. Absolute speed was not correlated with body mass in any mode. Based on these findings the implications for defense behaviors such as escape from predation, aggression, and 'flatfish mimicry' performed by A. aculeatus and other octopuses are discussed. PMID:16985187

  14. The biology and ecology of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (Cephalopoda in Chilean waters: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M Ibáñez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. The jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas is the most abundant cephalopod species in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, which supports the biggest cephalopod fishery in the world. Due to its growing economic importance, the population growth and distributional expansion of this squid is being increasingly studied. Nevertheless, some basic features of the biology of D. gigas are still unknown or have been poorly investigated. In this review we summarize the known information regarding the biology and ecology of this species in the southeastern Pacific Ocean; we focus on the Chilean region in order to propose hypotheses and research lines for a better understanding the life history of this organism. Available data on the size structure, reproduction and genetics of D. gigas allows us to propose hypotheses related to the squid's life history traits. Based on the current literature and publications of colleagues, we propose two hypotheses regarding the effect of spatial variation on the life history of D. gigas. Hypothesis 1: Squids mature at large sizes and spawn in oceanic waters with warm temperatures where paralarvae and juveniles develop. Immature squids migrate near shore to feed, grow and mature, and then return to the offshore sites to spawn. Hypothesis 2: Alternatively, juvenile D. gigas in the oceanic zone do not migrate to coastal waters and mature at small sizes compared to individuals living near the coast that mature at larger size and migrate to oceanic waters to spawn. We provide background information about the feeding behavior and parasitism of this species, suggesting that D. gigas is an important trophic link in the southeastern Pacific marine ecosystem. However, more studies on the feeding habits, reproduction and parasite load are needed not only to test hypotheses proposed in this study, but also to advance the overall knowledge of this species.

  15. The biology and ecology of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (Cephalopoda) in Chilean waters: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Christian M Ibáñez; Roger D Sepúlveda; Patricio Ulloa; Friedemann Keyl; M. CECILIA PARDO-GANDARILLAS

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT. The jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas is the most abundant cephalopod species in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, which supports the biggest cephalopod fishery in the world. Due to its growing economic importance, the population growth and distributional expansion of this squid is being increasingly studied. Nevertheless, some basic features of the biology of D. gigas are still unknown or have been poorly investigated. In this review we summarize the known information regarding the biology...

  16. Vestigial phragmocone in the gladius points to a deepwater origin of squid (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipkin, Alexander I.; Bizikov, Vyacheslav A.; Fuchs, Dirk

    2012-03-01

    The microstructure of the gladius cone was investigated in six species of nektonic squid: shallow-water Loligo gahi (Loliginidae), pelagic eurybathic Illex argentinus, Todarodes pacificus, Dosidicus gigas (Ommastrephidae), and deepwater Onykia ingens (Onychoteuthidae) and Gonatus antarcticus (Gonatidae) using state-of-the-art microscopy. Apart from L. gahi, all other species had septa-like layers in the gladius cone, which for the first time were investigated in detail and compared with those in extinct Cretaceous belemnites Hibolithes sp. and Pachyteuthis sp., and spirulid Cyrtobelus sp. It was found that the organic layers of the gladius cone in recent squid can be homologized with the organic components of the shell in fossil phragmocone-bearing coleoids. The septa-like layers in modern gladius cones therefore represent a vestigial phragmocone composed of organic septal rudiments of the ancestral phragmocone that has lost the siphuncle and gas-filled chambers. The well-developed rostrum in onychoteuthids and small rostrum of the gladius in ommastrephids and gonatids can be seen as homologous with the belemnoid rostrum, which may indicate a close phylogenetic relationship between belemnites and at least some squid. Possible evolutionary pathways of the reduction of the functional phragmocone in squid ancestors are discussed. Several features such as the loss of shell calcification, deep water speciation, and the structure of the equilibrium organ point to a deep-water origin of squids.

  17. Types of Recent Cephalopoda in the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeleveld, M.A.C.; Goud, J.; Gleadall, I.C.

    2003-01-01

    A list is given of five name-bearing taxa in the collection of the National Museum of Natural History in Leiden. There is also a brief discussion of purported type material and a summary of new information updating the types list of Sweeney & Roper, 1998.

  18. BIOCHEMICAL GENETIC STUDIES ON CUTTLEFISH SEPIELLA MAINDRONI (CEPHALOPODA: SEPIIDAE)- ACTIVE LOCI SCREENING OF ISOZYME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Screening of 46 putative enzyme-coding loci and 4 different kinds of tissues of Sepiella maindroni de Rochebrone, 1884 for enzymatic activities using starch gel electrophoretic technique proved that the 21 enzymes such as AAT, AK, ALP, AP, CK, DIA, ES, FBP, G3PDH, GPI, GRS,IDH, LDH, MDH, MEP, MPI, NP, PGDH, PGM, SOD and XO* , were active to Sepiella maindroni after being stained. The tissue exhibiting stable and clear bands was also determined. Among tissues tested, mantle muscle tissue was the best for electrophoretic survey of isozymes. Buccal bulb muscle, eye and liver were fairly good for some special enzymes, such as DIA, ES, MPI, NP, etc.

  19. Diet of the minimal armhook squid (Berryteuthis anonychus) (Cephalopoda: Gonatidae) in the northeast Pacific during spring

    OpenAIRE

    Uchikawa, Kazuhisa; Bower, John R.; Yasuko SATO; Sakurai, Yasunori

    2004-01-01

    The stomach contents of the minimal armhook squid (Berryteuthis anonychus) were examined for 338 specimens captured in the northeast Pacific during May 1999. The specimens were collected at seven stations between 145−165°W and 39−49°N and ranged in mantle length from 10.3 to 102.2 mm. Their diet comprised seven major prey groups (copepods, chaetognaths, amphipods, euphausiids, ostracods, unidentified fish, and unidentified gelatinous prey) and was dominated by copepods and chaetognaths. Co...

  20. Redescription of Dicyemennea nouveli (Phylum: Dicyemida) from Enteroctopus dofleini (Mollusca: Cephalopoda: Octopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Hidetaka

    2008-10-01

    A species of dicyemid mesozoan is redescribed from the giant Pacific octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini (Wülker, 1910), collected off Iwase in Toyama Bay, Honshu, Japan. Dicyemennea nouveli McConnaughey, 1959, is a large species that reaches about 12,000 microm in length. This species lives in folds of the renal appendages. The vermiform stages are characterized as having 30-41 peripheral cells, a conical calotte, and an axial cell that extends to the middle of the metapolar cells. An anterior abortive axial cell is present in vermiform embryos. Full-grown vermiform embryos have as many as 4 agametes. Infusoriform embryos consist of 39 cells; 2 nuclei are present in each urn cell and the refringent bodies are solid. PMID:18576827

  1. Phylogenetic relationships among major species of japanese coleoid cephalopods (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) using three mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takumiya, Mikio; Kobayashi, Mari; Tsuneki, Kazuhiko; Furuya, Hidetaka

    2005-02-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among 36 species of major coleoid cephalopods from Japanese waters were studied using partial sequences of three mitochondrial genes, 16S rDNA, 12S rDNA, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. Octopoda and Decapoda were monophylic groups. Within Sepioidea, Sepiadariidae and Sepiolidae were not closely related to Sepiidae, but rather related to Teuthoidea. Sepiidae with a distinct calcareous shell formed a single cluster. Myopsida was closely related to Oegopsida. Within Octopoda, Opisthoteuthis depressa and Argonauta argo diverged earlier than Octopodiidae. The common octopuses in Japanese waters were separated into three clusters. The first cluster occupied a basal position, and includes large-sized octopuses, such as Enteroctopus dofleini and Octopus (Paroctopus) conispadiceus from the continental shelf and upper slope. The second cluster consisted of long-armed octopuses, such as O. ornatus, O. minor, and O. sasakii. The third cluster contained small- to medium-sized octopus, such as Amphioctopus fangsiao, A. areolatus, O. cyaneus, and O. vulgaris, in which several species possess ocelli on the web. The second cluster formed the sister group to the third cluster. PMID:15738635

  2. Rearing and growth of the Octopus Robsonella fontaniana (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) from planktonic hatchlings to benthic juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriarte, Iker; Hernández, Jorge; Dörner, Jessica; Paschke, Kurt; Farías, Ana; Crovetto, Enzo; Rosas, Carlos

    2010-04-01

    Globally, octopus larviculture is one of the challenges faced in the attempt to diversify aquaculture and achieve cephalopod farming. Currently, only juveniles of Octopus vulgaris, Octopus joubini, and Enteroctopus dofleini have been obtained at an experimental level. This is the first study to look at the characteristics of planktonic and benthic Robsonella fontaniana juveniles in an effort to analyze the morphometric changes occurring during their planktonic and benthic phases and to explore the feasibility of obtaining settlement under controlled conditions. The morphometric measurements varied exponentially over time and did not show different tendencies before and after settlement. Mantle growth in relation to total length fit a logarithmic regression, whereas arm length and eye diameter increased linearly with respect to total length throughout the entire paralarval and juvenile periods. This suggests that the size of the mantle decreases with age in proportion to the total octopus length, whereas the organs more directly involved in catching prey tend to increase in direct proportion to the total length. The present study shows that R. fontaniana can be reared from hatching through the final paralarval stage on a diet of Lithodes santolla (king crab) zoeae; after settlement, the juveniles can be reared on a diet of crab such as Petrolisthes. PMID:20413796

  3. Considérations sur la systématique des Sepiidae (Cephalopoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, W.

    1964-01-01

    Au cours des deux derniers siècles, plusieurs tentatives ont été faites pour subdiviser le genre Sepia ou pour classer les différentes espèces dans des catégories super-spécifiques ou super-génériques. C. von Linné (1758) avait classé tous les Céphalopodes en trois genres: Argonauta, Nautilus et Sep

  4. The cytoskeleton of chondrocytes of Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda: an immunocytochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Leone

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Our previous electron microscope study showed that chondrocytes from cephalopod cartilage possess a highly developed cytoskeleton and numerous cytoplasmic processes that ramify extensively through the tissue. We have now carried out a light microscope immunocytochemical study of chondrocytes from the orbital cartilage of Sepia officinalis to obtain indications as to the nature of the cytoskeletal components. We found clear positivity to antibodies against mammalian tubulin, vimentin, GFAP, and actin, but not keratin. The simultaneous presence of several cytoskeletal components is consistent with the hypothesis that cephalopod chondrocytes have the characteristics of both chondrocytes and osteocytes of vertebrates, which endow the tissue as a whole with some of the properties of vertebrate bone. We confirm, therefore, the presence in molluscs of the ubiquitous cytoskeletal proteins of metazoan cells that have remained highly conserved throughout phylogenetic evolution.

  5. Systematic value of the ultrastructure of the sucker surface in the squid family Mastigoteuthidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Salcedo-Vargas, Mario Alejandro

    1995-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the sucker surface is described and its systematic value for mastigoteuthid squids, which bear minute suckers, is considered. An introduction to sucker terms is given and a redefinition of these terms is attempted. Using scanning electron microscopic data, two genera and four subgenera of Mastigoteuthidae from the Northwest Pacific are distinguished. The presence of “cushions” in the sucker is discussed and considered as a character important for understanding adaptation...

  6. Isozymes Analysis of the Golden Cuttlefish Sepia esculenta (Cephalopoda:Sepiidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xiaodong; ZHAO Jianmin; XIAO Shu; WANG Rucai; WANG Shidang; ZHOU Weiwu

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-nine isozymes in four tissues (mantle muscle, buccal bulb muscle, eye and liver) of Sepia esculenta were screened for enzymatic analysis using starch gel electrophoretic technique. Eighteen enzymes (G3PDH, LDH, MDH, MEP,IDHP, PGDH, GRS, NP, AAT, CK, AK, EST, ALP, ACP, FBP, MPI, GPI and PGM)show strong activities and good convergence in zymogram. They are proved to be suitable genetic markers in Sepia esculenta. Among the tissues used, mantle muscle is the best for electrophoretic analysis of isozymes. Eye and liver are fairly good for some special enzymes, such as LDH, EST, MPI, etc. Twenty-six loci are detected. The proportion of polymorphic loci is 0.115 in the Qingdao sample and 0.153 in the Rizhao sample (P<0.99). The mean values of the observed and expected heterozygosity per locus of Qingdao sample are 0.016 and 0.017, while those of the Rizhao sample are 0.023 and 0.025 respectively.

  7. Interacciones macho-hembra del pulpo rojo patagónico Enteroctopus megalocyathus (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae durante el comportamiento de apareamiento Male-female interactions of Patagonian red octopus Enteroctopus megalocyathus (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae during mating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranferi Gutiérrez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evalúa, en condiciones de laboratorio, el comportamiento de apareamiento de ocho parejas de Enteroctopus megalocyathus mediante videograbaciones durante 24 h. El comportamiento precopulatorio (CP se caracterizó por presentar tres eventos (natación, exhibición y contacto y el comportamiento copulatorio (CC se caracterizó por mostrar un solo evento (cópula. Del tiempo total de interacción de las parejas, el 34,4% correspondió al CP y el 65,6% correspondió al CC. Entre los tiempos de machos y hembras no hubo diferencias significativas por evento. Al compararse todos los eventos entre sí en relación al tiempo de duración, se presentó el siguiente orden: cópula > contacto > exhibición > natación. Se observó una tendencia a periodos de apareamiento más largos donde el peso de la hembra fue superior al macho, sugiriendo que el peso de la hembra es un factor determinante en la duración de los encuentros de apareamiento.The mating behavior of eight couples of Enteroctopus megalocyathus was evaluated under laboratory conditions by videotaping for 24 h. The precopulatory behavior (CP was characterized by three patterns (swimming, exhibition and contact and copulatory behavior (CC was characterized by display of a single pattern (copulation. Of the total interaction time between octopuses, 34.4% corresponds to CP and 65.6% corresponds to CC. Between times of males and females were not significantly different by pattern. In all events, compared to each other for the duration, presented the following order: copulation > contact > exhibition > swimming. There was a trend towards longer periods of mating where the female weight was higher than the male, suggesting that female weight is a determining factor in the duration of mating encounters.

  8. Hábitos alimentarios de Dosidicus gigas (D' Orbigny, 1835) (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea) frente a la costa centro-sur de Chile Feeding habits of Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835) (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea) in the central-south coast off Chile

    OpenAIRE

    PATRICIO ULLOA; MARTA FUENTEALBA; VÍCTOR RUIZ

    2006-01-01

    Se estudiaron los hábitos alimentarios del calamar rojo Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835) frente a la costa de Chile centro-sur, durante el invierno del año 2005. Se examinaron un total de 52 estómagos, en todos los cuales había contenido alimentario. Los ejemplares provenían de pescas efectuadas por la flota arrastrera industrial que opera entre 36°39' S y 38°55'S sobre la merluza común Merluccius gayi (Guichenot 1848) y a una profundidad media de 290 m sobre la plataforma continental. Para ...

  9. Hábitos alimentarios de Dosidicus gigas (D' Orbigny, 1835 (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea frente a la costa centro-sur de Chile Feeding habits of Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835 (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea in the central-south coast off Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO ULLOA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los hábitos alimentarios del calamar rojo Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835 frente a la costa de Chile centro-sur, durante el invierno del año 2005. Se examinaron un total de 52 estómagos, en todos los cuales había contenido alimentario. Los ejemplares provenían de pescas efectuadas por la flota arrastrera industrial que opera entre 36°39' S y 38°55'S sobre la merluza común Merluccius gayi (Guichenot 1848 y a una profundidad media de 290 m sobre la plataforma continental. Para la descripción del espectro trófico, alimento principal y el establecimiento de las eventuales diferencias sexuales u ontogenéticas en la frecuencia de aparición de los ítemes presa, se utilizaron los métodos numérico, gravimétrico, de frecuencia de ocurrencia, índice de importancia relativa (IIR e índice de similitud porcentual (ISP. No se observaron diferencias sexuales ni ontogenéticas en la frecuencia de aparición de los ítemes presa. Los resultados muestran que D. gigas es un depredador oportunista, principalmente ictiófago, y secundariamente malacófago (incluye el canibalismo y carcinófago. Se discuten los eventuales motivos e implicancias de tal conductaA study on the feeding habits of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835 was carried out during the winter season 2005, in waters of the Chilean central and southern Pacific. A total of 52 jumbo squid stomachs from the fishing of the continental slope were collected and examined, in the Eighth and Ninth regions, between 36°40' S and 38°55'S, at an average depth of 290 m. To determine the trophic spectrum, the feeding preferences and the importance of the sex and ontogenetic condition in the diet, the numeric, gravimetric, frequency of occurrence methods, and the index of relative importance and dietary similarity were utilized. The frequency of the prey did not vary with relation to the sex and ontogenetic conditions, and was besides a hight trophic similarity in such analysis. The results showed that the diet of D. gigas consist predominatly of fishes and secondly of Mollusca (to include the cannibalism and crustacean; suggesting that D. gigas is an oportunistic predator of third trophic level. We discuss the reasons and implications of such behavior

  10. Genetic structure of Octopus vulgaris (Cephalopoda, Octopodidae) in the central Mediterranean Sea inferred from the mitochondrial COIII gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadhlaoui-Zid, Karima; Knittweis, Leyla; Aurelle, Didier; Nafkha, Chaala; Ezzeddine, Soufia; Fiorentino, Fabio; Ghmati, Hisham; Ceriola, Luca; Jarboui, Othman; Maltagliati, Ferruccio

    2012-01-01

    The polymorphism of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase III was studied in the Mediterranean octopus, Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797. A total of 202 specimens from seven sampling sites were analysed with the aim of elucidating patterns of genetic structure in the central Mediterranean Sea and to give an insight into the phylogeny of the Octopus genus. Phylogenetic analyses showed that individuals from the central Mediterranean belong to the O. vulgaris species whose limits should nevertheless be clarified. Concerning genetic structure, two high-frequency haplotypes were present in all locations. The overall genetic divergence (Φ(ST)=0.05, P<0.05) indicated a significant genetic structuring in the study area and an AMOVA highlighted a significant break between western and eastern Mediterranean basins (Φ(CT)=0.094, P<0.05). Possible explanations for the observed patterns of genetic structuring are discussed with reference to their relevance for fisheries management.

  11. Analysis of beak morphometry of the horned octopus Eledone cirrhosa (Cephalopoda: Octopoda in the Thracian Sea (NE Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. LEFKADITOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cephalopod beaks are chitinous structures situated in the buccal mass lying at the base of their arms. Because they are among the few hard structures of cephalopods with high resistance to erosion during digestive process in predator stomachs, the study of the beak morphometry is of major importance for the species taxonomy, as well as, for the size estimation of the cephalopods consumed. In this study new information is provided on the dimensions and pigmentation process of the upper and lower beak of the horned octopus Eledone cirrhosa derived from 67 female and 47 male specimens caught by trawl in the Thracian Sea (NE Mediterranean. The growth of both beaks was allometric in relation to the mantle length and body weight. According to the results of covariance analysis, no difference was found in growth pattern of beaks between sexes. Four degrees of pigmentation were identified in both upper and lower beaks, the darkening process starting in females at a smaller size.

  12. Genetic differentiation of Octopus minor (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) off the northern coast of China as revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J M; Sun, G H; Zheng, X D; Ren, L H; Wang, W J; Li, G R; Sun, B C

    2015-12-02

    Octopus minor (Sasaki, 1920) is an economically important cephalopod that is found in the northern coastal waters of China. In this study, we investigated genetic differentiation in fishery populations using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). A total of 150 individuals were collected from five locations: Dalian (DL), Yan-tai (YT), Qingdao (QD), Lianyungang (LY), and Zhoushan (ZS), and 243 reproducible bands were amplified using five AFLP primer combinations. The percentage of polymorphic bands ranged from 53.33 to 76.08%. Nei's genetic identity ranged from 0.9139 to 0.9713, and the genetic distance ranged from 0.0291 to 0.0900. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean, based on the genetic distance. The DL and YT populations originated from one clade, while the QD, LY, and ZS populations originated from another. The results indicate that the O. minor stock consisted of two genetic populations with an overall significantly analogous FST value (0.1088, P octopus fisheries, so that this marine resource can be conserved for its long-term utilization.

  13. Molecular characterization of a KIF3B-like kinesin gene in the testis of Octopus tankahkeei (Cephalopoda, Octopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Ran; Zhu, Jun-Quan; Tan, Fu-Qing; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2012-05-01

    KIF3B is known for maintaining and assembling cilia and flagellum. To date, the function of KIF3B and its relationship with KIF3A during spermiogenesis in the cephalopod Octopus tankahkeei remains unknown. In the present study, we characterized a gene encoding a homologue of rat KIF3B in the O. tankahkeei testis and examined its temporal and spatial expression pattern during spermiogenesis. The cDNA of KIF3B was obtained with degenerate and RACE PCR and the distribution pattern of ot-kif3b were observed with RT-PCR. The morphological development during spermiogenesis was illustrated by histological and transmission electron microscopy and mRNA expression of ot-kif3b was observed by in situ hybridization. The 2,365 nucleotides cDNA consisted of a 102 bp 5' untranslated region (UTR), a 2,208 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 736 amino acids, and a 55 bp 3' UTR. Multiple alignments revealed that the putative Ot-KIF3B shared 68, 68, 69, 68, and 67% identity with that of Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Gallus gallus, Danio rerio, and Xenopus laevis, respectively, along with high identities with Ot-KIF3A in fundamental structures. Ot-kif3b transcripts appeared gradually in early spermatids, increased in intermediate spermatids and maximized in drastically remodeled and final spermatids. The kif3b gene is identified and its expression pattern is demonstrated for the first time in O. tankahkeei. Compared to ot-kif3a reported by our laboratory before, our data suggested that the putative heterodimeric motor proteins Ot-KIF3A/B may be involved in intraspermatic transport and might contribute to structural changes during spermiogenesis.

  14. A new species of pouched octopus, Cistopus Gray, 1849 (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) from the southwest coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeja, Vijayamma; Norman, Mark D; Kumar, Appukuttannair Biju

    2015-12-16

    Octopuses of the genus Cistopus Gray, 1849 are commercially valuable catches in the cephalopod fisheries of India. The primary and unique diagnostic character of this genus is the possession of eight small mucous pouches embedded in the oral faces of the webs between the bases of each arm. Historically only a single species of Cistopus, C. indicus, had been reported from Indian waters. In reviewing the octopod fauna off the Kerala coast, we have detected three species of Cistopus, of which one is described here as a new species. Cistopus platinoidus sp. nov. is distinct from Cistopus species described to date (C. indicus, C. taiwanicus and C. chinensis) on the basis of sucker counts, the number and position of enlarged suckers in males, and presence/absence of a calamus. Our studies of catch composition of Kerala octopod fisheries indicate a higher diversity of target species than previously suspected, including a number of undescribed species. Taxonomic resolution and collation of biological and distributional data are required for effective monitoring and management of these valuable fisheries.

  15. Ethological studies of the Veined Octopus Amphioctopus marinates (Taki) (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) in captivity, Kerala, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeja, V.; A. Bijukumar

    2013-01-01

    Five Veined Octopus Amphioctopus marginatus (Taki), collected from Vizhinjam Bay in the Thiruvananthapuram District of Kerala, India were kept in aquariums to study their behaviour in captivity. Primary and secondary defence mechanisms studied included crypsis, hiding and escape behaviour. Deimatic behaviour was used by captive animals when camouflage failed and they were threatened. Crawling behaviour to escape from the aquarium was observed in all specimens. Stilt walking and bi-pedal l...

  16. A new species of pouched octopus, Cistopus Gray, 1849 (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) from the southwest coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeja, Vijayamma; Norman, Mark D; Kumar, Appukuttannair Biju

    2015-01-01

    Octopuses of the genus Cistopus Gray, 1849 are commercially valuable catches in the cephalopod fisheries of India. The primary and unique diagnostic character of this genus is the possession of eight small mucous pouches embedded in the oral faces of the webs between the bases of each arm. Historically only a single species of Cistopus, C. indicus, had been reported from Indian waters. In reviewing the octopod fauna off the Kerala coast, we have detected three species of Cistopus, of which one is described here as a new species. Cistopus platinoidus sp. nov. is distinct from Cistopus species described to date (C. indicus, C. taiwanicus and C. chinensis) on the basis of sucker counts, the number and position of enlarged suckers in males, and presence/absence of a calamus. Our studies of catch composition of Kerala octopod fisheries indicate a higher diversity of target species than previously suspected, including a number of undescribed species. Taxonomic resolution and collation of biological and distributional data are required for effective monitoring and management of these valuable fisheries. PMID:26701522

  17. El desarrollo temprano del calamar patagónico Loligo gahi D’Orbigny,1835 en aguas peruanas (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Cardoso

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo temprano del calamar patagónico, Loligo gahi D’Orbigny, 1835 fue estudiado en el campo y en el laboratorio. Las puestas colectadas en la Isla San Lorenzo, Perú, fueron transferidas al laboratorio, e incubadas en un sistema cerrado de agua marina. Las cápsulas midieron de 88 a 169 mm de longitud y cada cápsula contenía entre 56 y 114 huevos fertilizados. Los huevos midieron de 1,7 a 2,1 mm de longitud y la longitud del manto de los individuos eclosionados varió de 1,9 a 2,8 mm. El desarrollo de las paralarvas se logró a los 20 días, a una temperatura promedio de 19 ºC. El patrón de desarrollo embrionario es similar al observado en otras especies de Loligo. Las paralarvas sobrevivieron 45 días con una dieta de zooplancton (copepódos, micidáceos y larvas de poliquetos.

  18. The oldest ascocerid cephalopod from the Silurian of Estonia and notes on the biogeography of the order Ascocerida (class Cephalopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Aubrechtova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The early Palaeozoic order Ascocerida is a group of morphologically unique and rare cephalopods known from the Ordovician and Silurian rocks of Avalonia, Baltica, Laurentia and Perunica. The limited Estonian record of Silurian ascocerids is complemented with a specimen from the Pähkla locality (Island of Saaremaa; Paadla Regional Stage, Ludlow Series representing the stratigraphically oldest known occurrence of ascocerids in the Silurian of Estonia. The strata that were formerly exposed in Pähkla are likely correlated to the Hemse Group of the Island of Gotland (Sweden having a remarkable record of ascocerids. The appearance of Silurian ascocerids in Estonia is confined to a time interval when the group had the highest species diversity and the widest geographic dispersion, reaching also outside Baltica for the first time.

  19. Phylogeny of the cuttlefishes (Mollusca:Cephalopoda) based on mitochondrial COI and 16S rRNA gene sequence data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xiangzhi; ZHENG Xiaodong; XIAO Shu; WANG Rucai

    2004-01-01

    To clarify cuttlefish phylogeny, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and partial 16S rRNA gene are sequenced for 13 cephalopod species. Phylogenetic trees are constructed, with the neighbor-joining method.Coleoids are divided into two main lineages, Decabrachia and Octobrachia. The monophyly of the order Sepioidea,which includes the families Sepiidae, Sepiolidae and Idiosepiidae, is not supported. From the two families of Sepioidea examined, the Sepiolidae are polyphyletic and are excluded from the order. On the basis of 16S rRNA and amino acid of COI gene sequences data, the two genera (Sepiella and Sepia) from the Sepiidae can be distinguished, but do not have a visible boundary using COI gene sequences. The reason is explained. This suggests that the 16S rDNA of cephalopods is a precious tool to analyze taxonomic relationships at the genus level, and COI gene is fitter at a higher taxonomic level (i.e., family).

  20. Reproductive system and the spermatophoric reaction of the mesopelagic squid Octopoteuthis sicula (Ruppell 1844) (Cephalopoda : Octopoteuthidae) from southern African waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, H. J. T.; Lipinski, M. R.; Videler, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    Reproductive features of the poorly known oceanic squid Octopoteuthis sicula are described and quantified to gain insight into the reproductive biology of the species. The data are based on 39 complete and partial specimens from southern African waters, collected between 1975 and 2005. The specimens

  1. Cephalopoda as prey of juvenile Southern elephant seals at Isla 25 de Mayo/King George, South Shetland Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Burdman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to enhance the knowledge of the feeding habits of the juvenile component of the population of Southern elephant seals [Mirounga leonina (Linnaeus, 1758] from Isla 25 de Mayo, South Shetland Islands, age class whose diet information is scarce. A total of 60 individuals were stomach lavaged in the spring - summer seasons of three consecutive years (2003, 2004 and 2005 of which 53.3 % (n = 32 presented food remnants. The Antarctic glacial squid Psychroteuthis glacialis Thiele, 1921 was the dominant prey taxon in terms of frequency of occurrence (68.7%, numerical abundance (60.1% and biomass (51.5%, contributing 84.1% to the total relative importance index. Other squid prey species of importance were Slosarczykovia circumantartica Lipinski, 2001 in terms of occurrence (37.5% and numerical abundance (14% and Moroteuthis knipovitchi Filippova, 1972 in terms of biomass (16%. All identified cephalopod prey taxa are distributed south of the Antarctic Polar Front, except for the squid Martialia hyadesi Rochebrune & Mabille, 1889 which has a circumpolar distribution associated to the Polar Frontal Zone. No significant differences in the sizes of P. glacialis preyed upon by elephant seals were found between sexes and years. However, significant interannual differences were found in the taxonomical composition of their diet. This would be associated with temporal changes in food availability at the foraging areas of seals, which in turn may have been influenced by changes in oceanographic conditions as a result of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO phenomenon that occurred during part of the study period. Furthermore, a differential response of males and females to this temporal variation was observed, with the former being also associated to a predation on octopods. This would suggest a sexual segregation in foraging habits of this species from the early stages of its life cycle.

  2. Population dynamics and stock assessment for Octopus maya (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) fishery in the Campeche Bank, Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreguín-Sánchez, F; Solís-Ramírez, M J; González de la Rosa, M E

    2000-01-01

    The octopus (Octopus maya) is one of the most important fish resources in the Mexican Gulf of Mexico with a mean annual yield of 9000 ton, and a reasonable number of jobs created; O. maya represents 80% of the total octopus catch, followed by Octopus vulgaris. There are two artisanal fleets based on Octopus maya and a middle-size fleet that covers both species. Catch-at-length structured data from the artisanal fleets, for the 1994 season (August 1st to December 15th) were used to analyze the O. maya population dynamics and stock and to estimate the current level of exploitation. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters were: L infinity = 252 mm, mantle length; K = 1.4 year-1; oscillation parameters C = 1.0, WP = 0.6; and tz = 0.842 years. A rough estimate of natural mortality was M = 2.2, total mortality from catch curve Z = 8.77, and exploitation rate F/Z = 0.75. This last value suggests an intensive exploitation, even when yield per recruit analysis indicates both fleets may increase the minimum legal size on about 10% to increase yields. The length-based VPA also shows that the stock is being exploited under its maximum acceptable biological limit. These apparently contradictory results are explained by biological and behavioral characteristics of this species. Because most females die after reproduction, a new gross estimation of natural mortality was computed as M = 3.3. The new estimate of exploitation rate was F/Z = 0.57. This new value coincides with results from the length-VPA and the Thompson and Bell methods, the former suggesting that a reduction of 20% in fishing mortality may provide larger yields. This fishery resource is fully exploited and current management measures must be revised to sustain and probably optimize yields. PMID:11354940

  3. Age, growth and maturation of jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) from the Gulf of California, México

    OpenAIRE

    Markaida, U.; Quiñonez Velazquez, Casimiro; Nishizaki S., O.

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the age and growth of large specimens of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas that supported the fishery in the Gulf of California in 1995-1997. Statoliths of 299 females (10.8-87.5 cm mantle length, ML) and 147 males (17-73.9 cm ML) were read. Assuming a daily rhythm of statolith deposition the smallest female (10.8 cm ML) was 84 days old and the largest (87.5 cm ML) 386 days old. The oldest females were 14-15 months old. The smallest male (17 cm ML) was 135 days old and the ...

  4. Absence of formation of benzo[a]pyrene/DNA adducts in the cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis, Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, P.G.; Lu, L.J.W.; Salazar, J.J.; Holoubek, V. (Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) injected intramuscularly into the base of the arms of cuttlefish was released continuously from the injection site and removed from the organism. Only a portion of the compound accumulated in the body. Twenty-four hr after its injection, 75% of B[a]P applied in olive oil was removed from the cuttlefish, and 1.2% was found in the body outside the head, in site of injection. If the carcinogen was dissolved in dimethylformamide, the removal of B[a]P was slower, so that only 18% of the injected B[a]P was removed from the organism and 0.36% accumulated in the body outside the head 24 hr after injection. The high level of B[a]P in gills and hemolymph 4 hr after injection and the kinetics of the decrease of its concentration with time indicate that these two organs could be involved in the excretion of B[a]P from the body. The B[a]P/DNA adducts characteristic for vertebrates could not be demonstrated in gills, skin, brain, hepatopancreas, and lymphocytes of the cuttlefish 24 hr after injection. The dose of the carcinogene injected into the cuttlefish was 2-4 times higher than the dose resulting in the formation of a high level of B[a]P/DNA adducts in vertebrates. A different metabolism of B[a]P in the tissue of cephalopods, compared to vertebrates, could be less favorable to the process leading to malignant transformation and could explain the absence from the literature of reports of tumors in cephalopods. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Recent findings of Ommastrephes bartramii (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae in the eastern Mediterranean and the implication on its range expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. LEFKADITOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii is found circumglobally in subtropical, temperate waters and sustains important fisheries in the North Pacific, but it is rarely encountered in the Mediterranean Sea. During the last decade, and particularly since 2004, the frequency of its presence in the Aegean Sea and nearby regions has increased, raising a question about a change in the species distribution and abundance in this area. In this study, we reviewed the literature on O. bartramii findings in the Mediterranean Sea and present new data describing body and beak morphometry, diet and the maturity of specimens recently collected from the easternmost basins. According to data from the entire Mediterranean Sea, collected individuals reached 66 cm in mantle length (ML, wherein only females were larger than 32 cm in ML. An isometric growth in body weight (BW was shown, whereas the lower beak rostral length (LRL was allometrically positive in relation to the ML. Occasional catches by jigs during experimental cruises provided most of the individuals recorded in the period from 1982-1992. In contrast, the most recent records are primarily comprised of mature females collected on or near the shore in the eastern basin and of predominantly smaller individuals from the western basin caught by professional jigging fisheries. The distribution of the specimen recorded from the Aegean Sea indicates an association between the species distribution and the circulation of the warm Levantine Intermediate Water. The more frequent observations of moribund spawning females at the periphery of the Cretan Sea are indicative of a spawning ground at this area. The suspected recent increase of O. bartramii abundance in both the northeastern and northwestern basins might be due to the warming of upper sea layers, which has been observed since the mid-1980s and is considered to be the main factor driving the northward expansion of the warm-water species’ range within the Mediterranean Sea.

  6. Biología reproductiva del pulpo Octupus mimus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda de la región de Matarani, Arequipa, Perú

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    Victor Ishiyama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available De mayo de 1995 a abril de 1996, se realizaron al azar muestreos mensuales de 25 ejemplares de Octopus mimus de los desembarques del puerto de Matarani, Arequipa (16° 59'40"S y 72° 06'13"W. Son animales gonocóricos, presentan dimorfismo sexual, y los machos tienen el brazo ectocotilizado o copulador. La proporción de sexos fue de 2,1:1,0 a favor de los machos; se determinaron ocho estadios de desarrollo de los ovocitos, durante la ovogénesis. De acuerdo a su comportamiento reproductivo, se estableció la siguiente escala de madurez gonadal: a indiferenciado, b inmaduro, c inicio de maduración, d en desarrollo, e maduros, fl cópula, g postcópula, autofecundación y evacuación, h postevacuación. Las hembras maduras se encontraron preferentemente, en la primavera y verano; los machos maduros a fines de la primavera y en el verano; la cópula se realizó preferentemente durante el verano; la autofecundación y evacuación de los huevos, se evidenciaron en agosto (50%, octubre 50%, noviembre (71,4%, diciembre (33% y enero (33%. La primera madurez en los machos se encontró a los 9,5 cm y en las hembras a los 12,5 cm de la longitud dorsal del cuerpo. Se observó algunas hembras con ovocitos maduros en lisis y con inicio de ovogénesis avanzada de un nuevo ciclo, que evidencia que no todas las hembras mueren después de cuidar los huevos hasta el final de la eclosión.

  7. Determinación de la actividad antimicrobiana de la melanina purificada, a partir de la tinta de Octopus mimus Gould, 1852(Cephalopoda: Octopodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Vega Petkovic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Los cefalópodos, constituyen importantes modelos biomédicos orientados a vertebrados, con potencial farmacológico. Estos animales poseen una glándula de tinta, que produce un líquido marrón o negro (tinta, con una elevada concentración de melanina, a la cual se le han atribuido propiedades antibacterianas. Con esta información, se busca determinar el efecto protector de la melanina de Octopus mimus, mediante la extracción y purificación de la tinta y posterior evaluación de su actividad antimicrobiana frente a dos cepas (Staphylococcus aureus y Escherichia coli. Los resultados indican una actividad antimicrobiana moderada, en comparación con el antibiótico comercial (ampicilina 0,05 mg mL-1, y una concentración inhibitoria mínima diferencial entre ambas cepas bacterianas.

  8. Distribution of pelagic squids Abraliopsis Joubin, 1896 (Enoploteuthidae) and Pterygioteuthis P. Fischer, 1896 (Pyroteuthidae) (Cephalopoda, Decapodiformes, Oegopsida) in the Mexican Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, Michel E.; Urbano, Brian; Zamorano, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The oegopsid squids Abraliopsis and Pterygioteuthis are abundant and diverse genera with taxonomic and distributional problems. Identification and distribution of species in the Mexican Pacific has been somewhat controversial. Here are provided a large series of new records for Abraliopsis affinis, Abraliopsis falco, Pterygioteuthis gemmata, Pterygioteuthis giardi and Pterygioteuthis hoylei from the Gulf of California and off the SW coast of Mexico. All five species were collected in the central or the southern Gulf of California, or in both. Abraliopsis affinis was found in seven samples with a total of 48 specimens, from 21°59' to 24°53'12"N. Abraliopsis falco was much less represented in the samples (14 specimens) but it was found in 10 localities, four of which correspond to the central-southern Gulf of California (north to 27°44'53"N) and six to SW Mexico (south to 16°49'18"N). In the case of Pterygioteuthis gemmata, only two records (three specimens) were obtained, both in the SW Gulf of California, while Pterygioteuthis giardi (nine specimens) records were all from the central Gulf of California (27°44'53” to 25°39'59"N). In the case of Pterygioteuthis hoylei (nine specimens), material was obtained in six localities, also in a restricted latitudinal range (24°23'48” to 25°56'56"N). PMID:26798236

  9. DISTRIBUTION OF SQUID PARALARVAE, LOLIGO OPALESCENS (CEPHALOPODA: MYOPSIDA), IN THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA BIGHT IN THE THREE YEARS FOLLOWING THE 1997 EL NINO. (R825381)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  10. Estudio preliminar del sistema reproductor del Calamar Gigante del Golfo de Baja California Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1935) Mollusca: Cephalopoda

    OpenAIRE

    Ochoa Báez, Rosa Isabel

    1980-01-01

    El calamar gigante del Golfo California es un recurso potencial de gran importancia para México. Como base para estudiar el ciclo de madurez gonadal, se describe el sistema reproductor de ejemplares colectados durante 1980. En las hembras existe un ovario, un par de glándulas nidamentales y un par de glándulas nidamentales accesorias; en su histología presenta ovocitos de diversos estadios de maduración con células foliculares en cordones. La maduración avanzada coincide con la presencia de p...

  11. Biases in determining the diet of jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (D' Orbigny 1835) (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) off southern-central Chile (34°S-40°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Christian M.; Arancibia, Hugo; Cubillos, Luis A.

    2008-12-01

    The diet of jumbo squid ( Dosidicus gigas) off southern-central Chile is described to examine potential biases in the determination of their main prey. Specimens were collected from catches using different fishing gear (jigging, trawl and purse-seine), from July 2003 to January 2004, and from December 2005 to October 2006. The stomach contents were analyzed in terms of frequency of occurrence, number, and weight of prey items and the diet composition was analyzed using Detrended Correspondence Analysis. In the industrial purse-seine fleet for jack mackerel ( Trachurus murphyi), the dominant prey of D. gigas was T. murphyi. In the industrial mid-trawl fishery for Patagonian grenadier ( Macruronus magellanicus), the dominant species in the diet of D. gigas was M. magellanicus. Similarly, Chilean hake ( Merluccius gayi) was the main prey in the diet of D. gigas obtained in the industrial trawl fishery for Chilean hake; and, in both artisanal fisheries (purse-seine for small pelagics and jigging), small pelagic fish and D. gigas were the main prey in the stomach contents of D. gigas. Cannibalism in D. gigas varied between different fleets and probably is related to stress behavior during fishing. The Detrended Correspondence Analysis ordination showed that the main prey in the diet of D. gigas is associated with the target species of the respective fishery. Consequently, biases are associated with fishing gear, leading to an overestimate in the occurrence of the target species in the diet. We recommend analyzing samples from jigging taken at the same time and place where the trawl and purse-seine fleets are operating to avoid this problem, and the application of new tools like stable isotope, heavy metal, and fatty acid signature analyses.

  12. New insights on the biological parameters of the exploited cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L. (Mollusca: Cephalopoda in the northern Adriatic Sea in relation to the main fishing gears employed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. BETTOSO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus 1758 represents one of the most important coastal fishery resources of the Mediterranean Sea. For Italy, 45% of cuttlefish landings (2,328 t originates from coastal regions of the northern Adriatic Sea: Veneto, Marche, Emilia Romagna and Friuli Venezia Giulia. In terms of economic value this species represents about 8% (~€ 16.5 million of the production from this basin. From May 2004 to October 2005, cuttlefish were purchased from commercial landings of the Grado fishery fleet. At least 30 specimens were randomly taken each month from each fishing method employed for this species: bottom trawl (cod end mesh size 40 mm, rapido trawl, trammel net (mesh size of inner panel 30 mm and cuttlefish specific trap. The main biological aspects, such as size, sex ratio, reproductive stage and diet in relation to both the season and type of fishing gear were analyzed. 1,495 specimens, ranging from 3.5 to 18.0 cm mantle length, were analyzed. In relation to the observed size and reproductive stage of individuals caught, trammel nets and cuttlefish traps both appeared to target sexually mature individuals, whilst trawling gear were not selective for either recruits or spawners. In total 34 prey taxa were found in the stomachs of S. officinalis: crabs and bony fish species were the most important prey, although the latter appeared mostly in the largest specimens. Finally the fullness index revealed that cuttlefish caught by trawling were more suitable for diet analysis than those caught by static gear. In this way the contribution of the present paper was to give new insights on the biological parameters of this species in relation to the main fishing gears employed in the northern Adriatic Sea.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of Scutopus ventrolineatus (Mollusca: Chaetodermomorpha) supports the Aculifera hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Osca, David; Irisarri, Iker; Todt, Christiane; Grande, Cristina; Zardoya, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Background With more than 100000 living species, mollusks are the second most diverse metazoan phylum. The current taxonomic classification of mollusks recognizes eight classes (Neomeniomorpha, Chaetodermomorpha, Polyplacophora, Monoplacophora, Cephalopoda, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, and Scaphopoda) that exhibit very distinct body plans. In the past, phylogenetic relationships among mollusk classes have been contentious due to the lack of indisputable morphological synapomorphies. Fortunately, rec...

  14. 近期外文文献题录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻萍; 严而清

    2004-01-01

    Experimental study of enriched froen diet on digestive enzymes and growth of jnvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L.(Mollusca Cephalopoda),[刊,英]/PerrinA,Le Bihan E,Koueta N,//Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology,—2004,311(16)—267∽285.

  15. A Novel Rhodopsin Gene from Octopus vulgaris for Optobioelectronics Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zhgun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The unique photochromic retinal protein from rhabdomeric octopus membranes – octopus rhodopsin (OctR has emerged as promising material for biomolecular photonic applications due to its unique properties and advantages. Here we report isolation of the novel full length octR gene from retina cDNA of Octopus vulgaris eyes and its sequence comparison with rhodopsins of other cephalopods and vertebrates. The isolated gene can be used to develop various expression systems for production of recombinant OctR for structural studies and novel optobioelectronic applications. The alignment of amino acid (a.a. sequence with different opsins revealed similarity to cephalopoda rhodopsins (Rho and to human melanopsin from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. The alingment of OctR a.a. sequence with mammalian and cephalopoda Rho with known 3D structures revealed promising substitutions V2C and W292C for developing stable and functionally active recombinant OctR after heterologous expression.

  16. The diet and feeding ecology of Conger conger (L. 1758) in the deep waters of the Eastern Ionian Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasopoulou, A.; CH. MYTILINEOU; E. LEFKADITOU; Kavadas, S.; P. BEKAS; Smith, C. J.; K.N. PAPADOPOULOU; G. CHRISTIDES

    2013-01-01

    The diet of the European conger eel Conger conger was investigated for the first time in the Eastern Mediterranean. Fish dominated the European conger eel diet in the deep waters of E. Ionian Sea. All other prey taxa were identified as accidental preys. However, intestine analysis showed that Natantia, Brachyura and Cephalopoda might have a more important contribution in the diet of the species. C. conger exhibited a benthopelagic feeding behavior as it preyed upon both demersal and mesopelag...

  17. 伊吹島岩礁性魚類の食性

    OpenAIRE

    松尾, 健司; 宮川, 昌志; 神田, 優; 山岡, 耕作

    1997-01-01

    Food habits of 232 individuals belonging to 16 families, 21 genera, 26 species of the Pisces, 2 families, 2 genera, 2 species of the Cephalopoda and 1 family, 1 genus, 1 species of the Brachyura were investigated to study on the feeding relationships between the released artificially−bred juveniles of the red−spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaara and other fishes inhabiting the rocky reef of Ibukijima Island. Young of E. akaara was fed by scorpion fish; Sebastiscus marmoratus, jack; Trachurus j...

  18. Adaptation of the Mitochondrial Genome in Cephalopods: Enhancing Proton Translocation Channels and the Subunit Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Almeida; Emanuel Maldonado; Vitor Vasconcelos; Agostinho Antunes

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial protein-coding genes (mt genes) encode subunits forming complexes of crucial cellular pathways, including those involved in the vital process of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Despite the vital role of the mitochondrial genome (mt genome) in the survival of organisms, little is known with respect to its adaptive implications within marine invertebrates. The molluscan Class Cephalopoda is represented by a marine group of species known to occupy contrasting environments rangi...

  19. Enlightenment of old ideas from new investigations: more questions regarding the evolution of bacteriogenic light organs in squids

    OpenAIRE

    Nishiguchi, M. K.; Lopez, J. E.; Boletzky, S. v.

    2004-01-01

    Bioluminescence is widespread among many different types of marine organisms. Metazoans contain two types of luminescence production, bacteriogenic (symbiotic with bacteria) or autogenic, via the production of a luminous secretion or the intrinsic properties of luminous cells. Several species in two families of squids, the Loliginidae and the Sepiolidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) harbor bacteriogenic light organs that are found central in the mantle cavity. These light organs are exceptional in ...

  20. Cephalopod research and EU Directive 2010/63/EU: requirements, impacts and ethical review

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, J. A.; Andrews, P. L. R.; Hawkins, P; Louhimies, S.; De Ponte, G.; Dickel, L.

    2013-01-01

    For the first time, European Union legislation on animal research and testing has extended its scope to include invertebrate species the Class Cephalopoda. EU Directive 2010/63/EU, which was due to be implemented in Member States 1 January 2013, covers all "live cephalopods" used in scientific procedures that are likely to cause the animals adverse effects such as "pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm".This paper examines practical implications of the new EU law for cephalopod research. ...

  1. РЕПРОДУКТИВНАЯ СИСТЕМА САМЦОВ ГОЛОВОНОГИХ МОЛЛЮСКОВ CEPHALOPODA. III. СПЕРМАТОФОРЫ

    OpenAIRE

    Сабиров, Рушан

    2010-01-01

    В статье представлен обзор литературных и собственных данных по строению, эйякуляции, систематическому значению сперматофоров головоногих моллюсков. Проведено сравнение номенклатур названий частей сперматофоров. Все типы агрегатов спермы, формируемых цефалоподами, распределены по трем группам: сперматоцейгмы, простые и сложные сперматофоры. Эволюция сперматофорного оплодотворения у головоногих протекала как в форме арогенеза от простых агрегатов спермы до сложно устроенных сперматофоров, так ...

  2. РЕПРОДУКТИВНАЯ СИСТЕМА САМЦОВ ГОЛОВОНОГИХ МОЛЛЮСКОВ CEPHALOPODA. II. СПЕРМАТОФОРНЫЙ КОМПЛЕКС ОРГАНОВ

    OpenAIRE

    Сабиров, Рушан

    2009-01-01

    В статье дан аналитический обзор литературных и собственных данных по закладке и развитию половых органов самцов головоногих в онтогенезе, строению семенника и сперматофорного комплекса органов, формированию сперматофоров. Общий план строения репродуктивной системы самцов в разных группах цефалопод различается. Эволюция комплекса акцессорных желез головоногих моллюсков, очевидно, шла в направлении удлинения дистальной части на фоне дифференцировки всех отделов в связи с усложнением строения о...

  3. Adult and offspring size in the ocean over 17 orders of magnitude follows two life history strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuheimer, A B; Hartvig, M; Heuschele, J; Hylander, S; Kiørboe, T; Olsson, K H; Sainmont, J; Andersen, K H

    2015-12-01

    Explaining variability in offspring vs. adult size among groups is a necessary step to determine the evolutionary and environmental constraints shaping variability in life history strategies. This is of particular interest for life in the ocean where a diversity of offspring development strategies is observed along with variability in physical and biological forcing factors in space and time. We compiled adult and offspring size for 407 pelagic marine species covering more than 17 orders of magnitude in body mass including Cephalopoda, Cnidaria, Crustaceans, Ctenophora, Elasmobranchii, Mammalia, Sagittoidea, and Teleost. We find marine life following one of two distinct strategies, with offspring size being either proportional to adult size (e.g., Crustaceans, Elasmobranchii, and Mammalia) or invariant with adult size (e.g., Cephalopoda, Cnidaria, Sagittoidea, Teleosts, and possibly Ctenophora). We discuss where these two strategies occur and how these patterns (along with the relative size of the offspring) may be shaped by physical and biological constraints in the organism's environment. This adaptive environment along with the evolutionary history of the different groups shape observed life history strategies and possible group-specific responses to changing environmental conditions (e.g., production and distribution). PMID:26909435

  4. The diet and feeding ecology of Conger conger (L. 1758 in the deep waters of the Eastern Ionian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ANASTASOPOULOU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The diet of the European conger eel Conger conger was investigated for the first time in the Eastern Mediterranean. Fish dominated the European conger eel diet in the deep waters of E. Ionian Sea. All other prey taxa were identified as accidental preys. However, intestine analysis showed that Natantia, Brachyura and Cephalopoda might have a more important contribution in the diet of the species. C. conger exhibited a benthopelagic feeding behavior as it preyed upon both demersal and mesopelagic taxa. The high vacuity index and the low stomach and intestine fullness indicated that the feeding intensity of the species in the deep waters of Eastern Ionian Sea was quite low. C. conger feeding strategy was characterised by specialisation in various resource items. A between-phenotype contribution to niche width was observed for some prey categories. European Conger eel feeding specialisation seemed to be an adaptation to a food-scarce environment, as typified in deep-water habitats

  5. Radioimmunoassay of dermorphin-like peptides in mammalian and non-mammalian tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, L; Melchiorri, P; Erspamer, G F; Erspamer, V

    1981-01-01

    A selective RIA for D-Ala2-Dermorphin (Der), a natural peptide extracted from amphibian skin, has been developed using an antibody raised in rabbits against Der which has been coupled to BSA through its phenolic hydroxyl groups of tyrosine residues with 2,4-Dichloro-6-methoxy-1,3,5-triazine. The cross-reactivity of this antibody with dermorphin analogs, C- and N-terminal fragments of dermorphin molecule, some opioid and gastrointestinal peptides was tested. Der-like immunoreactivity has been identified in tissue extracts of rats, frog and cephalopoda. Der-like peptides were purified by passing methanol extracts of the tissues through a Sephadex G25 column (16 x 100 cm) eluted with 0.1 M acetic acid at 4 degrees C. Der-like immunoreactivity from neural tissue of Dosidicus gigas, Eledone moscata, and rat brain showed a good agreement with an authentic sample of synthetic dermorphin. PMID:6979743

  6. 其他

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970729 延绳钓捕捞造成的海鸟死亡问题的国际协定=International agreement onproblem 0f sea-bird deaths caused by long-line fishing[刊,英]//ASFA1..—1996,26(11).—314~315 (杨吝)970730 西班牙商业性捕捞头足类(软体动物门,头足纲)中的寄生虫:最新的综述=Parasites in commercially-exploited cepha-lopods(Mollusca,Cephalopoda)in Spain:anupdated perspective[刊,英]/Pascual S,gestal C//Aquac..—1996,142(1/2).—1~48

  7. Comparative molecular analysis of evolutionarily distant glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Sardina pilchardus and Octopus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baibai, Tarik; Oukhattar, Laila; Mountassif, Driss; Assobhei, Omar; Serrano, Aurelio; Soukri, Abdelaziz

    2010-12-01

    The NAD(+)-dependent cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, EC 1.2.1.12), which is recognized as a key to central carbon metabolism in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis and as an important allozymic polymorphic biomarker, was purified from muscles of two marine species: the skeletal muscle of Sardina pilchardus Walbaum (Teleost, Clupeida) and the incompressible arm muscle of Octopus vulgaris (Mollusca, Cephalopoda). Comparative biochemical studies have revealed that they differ in their subunit molecular masses and in pI values. Partial cDNA sequences corresponding to an internal region of the GapC genes from Sardina and Octopus were obtained by polymerase chain reaction using degenerate primers designed from highly conserved protein motifs. Alignments of the deduced amino acid sequences were used to establish the 3D structures of the active site of two enzymes as well as the phylogenetic relationships of the sardine and octopus enzymes. These two enzymes are the first two GAPDHs characterized so far from teleost fish and cephalopod, respectively. Interestingly, phylogenetic analyses indicated that the sardina GAPDH is in a cluster with the archetypical enzymes from other vertebrates, while the octopus GAPDH comes together with other molluscan sequences in a distant basal assembly closer to bacterial and fungal orthologs, thus suggesting their different evolutionary scenarios.

  8. Soft robotic arm inspired by the octopus: I. From biological functions to artificial requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margheri, L; Laschi, C; Mazzolai, B

    2012-06-01

    Octopuses are molluscs that belong to the group Cephalopoda. They lack joints and rigid links, and as a result, their arms possess virtually limitless freedom of movement. These flexible appendages exhibit peculiar biomechanical features such as stiffness control, compliance, and high flexibility and dexterity. Studying the capabilities of the octopus arm is a complex task that presents a challenge for both biologists and roboticists, the latter of whom draw inspiration from the octopus in designing novel technologies within soft robotics. With this idea in mind, in this study, we used new, purposively developed methods of analysing the octopus arm in vivo to create new biologically inspired design concepts. Our measurements showed that the octopus arm can elongate by 70% in tandem with a 23% diameter reduction and exhibits an average pulling force of 40 N. The arm also exhibited a 20% mean shortening at a rate of 17.1 mm s(-1) and a longitudinal stiffening rate as high as 2 N (mm s)(-1). Using histology and ultrasounds, we investigated the functional morphology of the internal tissues, including the sinusoidal arrangement of the nerve cord and the local insertion points of the longitudinal and transverse muscle fibres. The resulting information was used to create novel design principles and specifications that can in turn be used in developing a new soft robotic arm.

  9. Complete sequences of the highly rearranged molluscan mitochondrial genomes of the scaphopod graptacme eborea and the bivalve mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.; Medina, Monica; Rosenberg, Lewis A.

    2004-01-31

    We have determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the scaphopod mollusk Graptacme eborea (Conrad, 1846) (14,492 nts) and completed the sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the bivalve mollusk Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 (16,740 nts). (The name Graptacme eborea is a revision of the species formerly known as Dentalium eboreum.) G. eborea mtDNA contains the 37 genes that are typically found and has the genes divided about evenly between the two strands, but M. edulis contains an extra trnM and is missing atp8, and has all genes on the same strand. Each has a highly rearranged gene order relative to each other and to all other studied mtDNAs. G. eborea mtDNA has almost no strand skew, but the coding strand of M. edulis mtDNA is very rich in G and T. This is reflected in differential codon usage patterns and even in amino acid compositions. G. eborea mtDNA has fewer non-coding nucleotides than any other mtDNA studied to date, with the largest non-coding region being only 24 nt long. Phylogenetic analysis using 2,420 aligned amino acid positions of concatenated proteins weakly supports an association of the scaphopod with gastropods to the exclusion of Bivalvia, Cephalopoda, and Polyplacophora, but is generally unable to convincingly resolve the relationships among major groups of the Lophotrochozoa, in contrast to the good resolution seen for several other major metazoan groups.

  10. [Marine life envenomations: example in New Caledonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rual, F

    1999-01-01

    Marine life in the waters of New Caledonia is extraordinarily rich. However some of the animals inhabiting this wonderland are dangerous including a number of venomous species. A retrospective study conducted at the Territorial Hospital in Noumea for the three-year period between 1995 and 1998 showed that nearly 200 people/year were victims of envenomation by marine animals. Findings also indicated that the incidence of envenomation was rising as the practice of marine activities by the local population and tourists increased. Venomous species can be classified into 4 categories according to the mechanism of envenomation, i.e., biting animals such as sea snakes, cephalopoda, and eels; stinging animals including not only fish such as scorpion fish (Pterois, stonefish), sting-rays, saltwater catfish, surgeon fish, and flatfish but also cones and crown of thorns (Acanthaster planci); animals with contact venoms such as cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, sea anemones, and men-of-war), glaucus, sea cucumbers (holothurioidae), and sponges; and animals with more than one envenomation apparatus such as sea urchins and sea worms which can bite and sting. Study focused on the characteristics of each species including biology, envenomation apparatus, and chemical composition and action of the venom; pharmacological and clinical aspects of envenomation; and management and prevention of accidents.

  11. The positive effects of typhoons on the fish CPUE in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Tang, Danling; Chen, Guobao; Li, Yongzhen; Huang, Zirong; Wang, Sufen

    2014-08-01

    Due to the logistical difficulties associated with fish data sampling after typhoons, short-term effects of typhoons on fishery in the South China Sea (SCS) have not been well-understood. The present study is to evaluate the impacts on the fish catch per unit effort (CPUE) owing to the three typhoons Chanthu, Vicente, and Kai-tak in the northwestern SCS, using long-term fish catch data and satellite data. The results show that the CPUE of total catch and some sorted catches have been changing because of the typhoons. On total catch, firstly, the CPUE has increased approximately 0.32 kg h-1 kw-1, 0.20 kg h-1 kw-1, and 0.25 kg h-1 kw-1 during the three typhoon periods. Then, the CPUEs decreased to the pre-typhoon level in about three weeks. Thirdly, among the three typhoons, the slow-moving Chanthu has caused a larger increase in CPUE. The typhoons impact was two-pronged, depending on fish species. One is the positive effects on meso-demersal fishes, cephalopoda and pelagic fishes. The other is the increase in CPUE of low trophic level carnivorous fishes after the three typhoons. This research provided the first evidence of CPUE increase after typhoons in the open sea.

  12. Transfer of 60Co from midwater squid to sperm whales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperm whales are notable squid-eaters. They feed mainly on medium to large-sized cephalopods at midwater levels and defecate near the surface. This suggests the existence of an upward transport of 60Co by sperm whales from the mesopelagic zone (150-1,200m). To elucidate this squid-whale route for this artificial radionuclide, 60Co content was determined in squid and in predator whales captured by commercial whaling. In the Cephalopoda livers 60Co levels of 30-500 mBq kg-1 wet were found and in the viscera of Odontoceti (toothed whales) 15-40 mBq kg-1 wet. About 0.3% of 60Co ingested was estimated to be retained in a 23-year-old male sperm whale. In the livers of Bryde's whales, 60Co levels of 40-80 mBq kg-1 wet were detected, but not in euphausiids and sardines, their possible prey. The level of Co in sperm whales was nearly the same as in Bryde's whales. Specific radioactivity 60Co/59Co in mBq μg-1 was several times higher in sperm whale (1.1-1.6) than in cephalopods (0.19-0.77). Eating prey with a high content of 60Co in the 1960's may have contributed to the present body burden in sperm whales with a long-life span. However, the origin of 60Co in Bryde's whales is unknown. (author)

  13. Famennium-Anthozoa aus Marokko. 1. Czarnockia Różkowska, 1969 (Rugosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Weyer

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aus Cephalopoda-Kalken der mittleren/oberen Clymenia-Stufe (Niveau mit Gonioclymenia des Tafilalt im Anti-Atlas ist Czarnockia maroccana n. sp. beschrieben. Die Kollektion von 7 Polyparen zeigt eine erhebliche innerartliche Variabilität, die nur mit ausführlichen Schliffserien aller subtabularen und calicularen Regionen erfassbar wird. Das seltene, bisher allein aus der Wocklumeria-Stufe des Heiligkreuz-Gebirges in Polen bekannte Petraiidae-Genus – Endglied einer phylogenetischen Reihe Neaxon → Petraia → Famennelasma → Czarnockia – ist erstmals in einem weitern Verbreitungsareal nachgewiesen, dürfte aber kosmopolitisch in der Psychrosphäre (Cyathaxonia-Fazies des Ober-Famennium anzutreffen sein. Famennian Anthozoa from Morocco. 1. Czarnockia Różkowska, 1969 (Rugosa The new species Czarnockia maroccana is described from cephalopod limestones of the middle/upper Clymenia genozone (level with Gonioclymenia in the Tafilalt district of the Anti Atlas region. The small collection of seven syntypes demonstrates a surprising intraspecific variation visible only after intensive serial sectioning of all subtabular and calicular parts of the skeleton. This is the first record of the rare genus from a second area outside the type occurrence in the Wocklumeria genozone of the Polish Holy Cross Mountains. As a member of the phyletic line Neaxon → Petraia → Famennelasma → Czarnockia, the taxon should be found cosmopolitically in the psychrospheric Cyathaxonia facies of Upper Famennian times. doi:10.1002/mmng.20020050106

  14. Distribution, population biology, and trophic ecology of the deepwater demersal fish Halosauropsis macrochir (Pisces: Halosauridae on the mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odd Aksel Bergstad

    Full Text Available Halosauropsis macrochir ranked amongst the most abundant and widespread demersal fishes on the mid-Atlantic Ridge of the North Atlantic (Iceland-Azores with greatest abundance at 1700-3500 m. All sizes, ranging from 10-76 cm total length, occurred in the area without any apparent spatial pattern or depth trend. Using otolith sections displaying growth increments assumed to represent annuli, the age range recorded was 2-36 years, but most individuals were <20 years. Length and weight at age data were used to fit growth models. No differences between sexes in length and weight at age were observed. The majority of samples had a surplus of males. Diet analysis showed that H. macrochir feeds on Crustacea, Teleostei, Polychaeta, and Cephalopoda, but few prey could be identified to lower taxonomical levels. The mid-Atlantic Ridge constitutes a major portion of the North Atlantic living space of the abyssal halosaur where it completes its full life cycle, primarily as an actively foraging euryophagous micronekton/epibenthos and infauna feeder, becoming a partial piscivore with increasing size.

  15. [Marine life envenomations: example in New Caledonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rual, F

    1999-01-01

    Marine life in the waters of New Caledonia is extraordinarily rich. However some of the animals inhabiting this wonderland are dangerous including a number of venomous species. A retrospective study conducted at the Territorial Hospital in Noumea for the three-year period between 1995 and 1998 showed that nearly 200 people/year were victims of envenomation by marine animals. Findings also indicated that the incidence of envenomation was rising as the practice of marine activities by the local population and tourists increased. Venomous species can be classified into 4 categories according to the mechanism of envenomation, i.e., biting animals such as sea snakes, cephalopoda, and eels; stinging animals including not only fish such as scorpion fish (Pterois, stonefish), sting-rays, saltwater catfish, surgeon fish, and flatfish but also cones and crown of thorns (Acanthaster planci); animals with contact venoms such as cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, sea anemones, and men-of-war), glaucus, sea cucumbers (holothurioidae), and sponges; and animals with more than one envenomation apparatus such as sea urchins and sea worms which can bite and sting. Study focused on the characteristics of each species including biology, envenomation apparatus, and chemical composition and action of the venom; pharmacological and clinical aspects of envenomation; and management and prevention of accidents. PMID:10701210

  16. Phylogenic study of Octopodinae in the China Seas based on CO Ⅱ partial sequences%基于COⅡ基因序列的中国近海12种蛸亚科动物的分子系统进化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔文涛; 刘立芹; 李红梅; 吕振明; 吴常文

    2013-01-01

    Partial sequences of mitochondrial CO Ⅱ gene in 12 octopus species in 2 genus of Octopodinae,were amplified and sequenced to investigate the phylogenesis of Octopodinae in China coastal waters.Multiple biological softwares were employed to analyze the sequence variations and nucleotide composition.Genetic distances were calculated by Kimura-2-parameter method and phylogenetic trees were constructed by both NJ and UPGMA method with more cephalopoda sequences available in GenBank.Results showed that CO Ⅱ genes of octopus were rich in A and T nucleotide bases,as most other mitochondrial genes represent.The sequences showed an obvious anti-G bias.The most variable sites among species lay in the last site of codon of the coding region,leading to less amino acid variation.Genetic distances calculated between species were 0.000 0~0.232 3,and most of them were between 0.140 0 and 0.200 0.The constructed phylogenetic tree suggested that the 12 Octopus species were from two groups:long-arm group represented by Octopus vulgaris and short-arm group represented by O.aegina,which again supported the non-monophyletic of Octopus genus.The Octopus genus can be divided into two or more distant genus according to this study.The taxonomic position of some Octopodinae species was also discussed,and the potential application of CO Ⅱ gene in cephalopoda classification and phyletic evolution was suggested.The results of this study may help understanding the taxonomy and phyletic evolution of Octopodinae species in China coastal waters and contribute to better exploitation and farming of these precious species.%为探讨我国近海蛸亚科(Octopodinae)动物的系统进化关系,本研究通过PCR扩增得到了东海区蛸亚科2属12种蛸类的线粒体COⅡ基因部分序列.纯化后测序,利用多个生物软件对序列变异和碱基组成进行分析.Kimura双参数法计算遗传距离,并结合GenBank上相关头足类同源序列构建NJ、UPGMA系统树.结果表

  17. 海南岛上岸渔获调查与分析%Survey and analysis of landings on Hainan Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童玉和; 麦日利; 陈积明; 李向民

    2012-01-01

    上岸渔获调查是调查渔业资源的主要方法之一.通过2010年9月至2011年8月监测海南岛主要渔港渔情,统计分析渔获上岸量、渔获组成和作业类型,评估南海渔业资源开发现状并提出建议.结果表明,1)低值幼鱼渔获比例超过40%,经济渔获蓝圆鲹(Decapterus maruadsi)、带鱼(Trichiurus haumela)、马鲛(Scombermorus)、眼镜鱼(Mene maculata)、金线鱼(Nemipterus)和头足类(Cephalopoda)的总和不足25%;2)蓝圆鲹和带鱼是海南岛上岸渔获的优势种;3)拖网是海南岛近海渔获量最高的作业类型;4)海南岛近海底层渔业资源已严重衰退,远海中上层渔业资源具有巨大开发潜力.建议禁止海南岛近海拖网生产,允许南海休渔期间灯光围网和灯光罩网生产,通过增加远海作业船只的柴油补贴等途径扶持灯光围网和灯光罩网生产,构建“养护近海渔业、开发远海渔业”的新捕捞格局.%Landing survey is one of the main methods for fishery resources survey. According to the landing survey data collected in Hainan Island from April 2010 to August 2011 , we conducted a statistical analysis for the total landing catch, species composition and gear type to evaluate the current status of exploitation of marine fishery resources in the South China Sea and to provide advices for fisheries management. The result shows that in Hainan Island: 1) The percentage of juvenile fish is over 40% , but the sum of percentage of commercial species including Decapterus maruadsi, Trichiurus haumela, Scombermorus, Mene macidata, Nemipterus and Cephalopoda is less than 25% ; 2) D. maruadsi and T. haumela are the dominant species in landing catch; 3) Bottom-trawl is the dominant fishing gear; 4) The fishery resources in offshore waters are overexploited, while pelagic fishery resources in high sea has great developmental potential. It is suggested that trawling be banned in the offshore waters of Hainan Island, but light purse seine

  18. Variability of cadmium accumulation in cephalopods (Octopus vulgaris, Sepia officinalis, Loligo vulgaris and Todarodes sagittatus collected in Sardinia in 2008-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Piras

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cephalopods are known to accumulate cadmium and play an important role in its biomagnification. They are an essential link in marine trophic chain and represent an important case in studies on cadmium transfer to man through the food chain. Since cadmium concentration widely varies in different tissues of the cephalopods – mainly accumulating in the hepatopancreas – evisceration represents a recommended preliminary step to reduce cadmium intake in view of cephalopods consumption; yet, the residual concentration in the edible part may still be a risk for public health. This study is intended to assess cadmium levels variability in the muscles of Cephalopoda, considering the different feeding habitats and marine trophic webs. In compliance with EU regulation, a survey on cadmium and other heavy metal levels in various sea food, including cephalopods, was conducted by the Istituto Zooprofilattico of Sardinia in co-operation with local health authorities. During a five-year survey (2008- 2012, 90 samples were collected from the following species: commons octopus (Octopus vulgaris, cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis, European squid (Loligo vulgaris, and flying squid (Todarodes sagittatus, located in different coastal areas and representatives of either benthic or nektonic habitats. Determination of cadmium levels was carried out according to Regulations (EC No. 882/2004, No. 1881/2006 and No. 333/2007. Analysis of the edible portion (muscle of fresh homogenised samples was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The results showed a highly skewed distribution of data. No statistically significant differences were observed among four distributions of the natural logs of cadmium levels in the species considered.

  19. Globacrochordiceras gen. nov. (Acrochordiceratidae, late Early Triassic and its significance for stress-induced evolutionary jumps in ammonoid lineages (cephalopods

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    C. Monnet

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Globacrochordiceras transpacificum gen. et sp. nov. is an ammonoid (Ammonoidea, Cephalopoda with a shell characterized by plicate ribbing (rounded and undulating ribs strengthening on the venter without interruption, increasing involution through ontogeny, overhanging and deep umbilical wall, absence of tuberculation, subtriangular whorl section, globose adult shape with a closed umbilicus followed by an abrupt egressive coiling, and a subammonitic adult suture line. This new taxon occurs in Nevada (USA and in Guangxi (South China. It has its typical occurrence within the Neopopanoceras haugi Zone of late Spathian age (Early Triassic. The plicate ribbing, suture line and general shell shape are diagnostic of the family Acrochordiceratidae. The large adult size, high degree of involution and subammonitic suture line of Globacrochordiceras markedly contrast with the next younger genus of the family (Paracrochordiceras of early Anisian age, Middle Triassic, which is evolute and displays a ceratitic suture shape. Shell coiling and suture line of Globacrochordiceras are closer to that of the youngest member of the family: Acrochordiceras carolinae (late middle Anisian. The latter is the end-member of a long-term morphological evolutionary trend of the family during the early and middle Anisian. This trend composed of classical increases in adult size (Cope's rule, shell involution and suture indentation, lasted ca. four Myr. The sudden morphological evolutionary jump between Globacrochordiceras and Paracrochordiceras at the Spathian/Anisian (Early/Middle Triassic boundary may correspond to a generalized morphological reset of long-term trends, a process that differs from classic paedomorphic transformations. A dramatic global sea level change and carbon isotope positive excursion at the Early/Middle Triassic boundary both indicate stressful environmental changes that may have triggered this evolutionary jump. doi:10.1002/mmng.201300010

  20. 川西德格—巴塘一带的晚三叠世地层%The Upper Triassic strata in Dege-Batang area, western Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李廷栋; 郑宁; 丁伟翠; 刘勇; 郑洪伟; 王军

    2012-01-01

    In western Sichuan Province, a low-grade metamorphic volcanic-sedimentary rock series has been discovered in Dege-Batang area on the bank of the Jinsha River. This rock series contains abundant fossils, including fossils of bivalvia, brachia, cephalopoda and Hexacoralla. Due to its complex structure, scientists have been holding diverse opinions on the tectonic forming conditions and stratification of this rock series. According to a study of paleontologic fossils in this rock series and a comparison between this rock scries and rocks of the adjacent areas, the authors agree with most scholars' opinions and define its stratigraphic period as Late-Triassic. The rock series is divided into 3 formations, namely Damadong Formation, Qugasi Formation and Tumugou Formation, in which the Damadong Formation is a stratigraphic unit newly defined by the authors.%四川西部金沙江畔德格—巴塘一带出露一套低级变质的火山-沉积岩系,含有丰富的双壳类、腕足类、头足类,特别是六射珊瑚等化石.由于构造复杂,过去对这套地层形成时期的构造环境和地层分层曾有不同认识.根据所含古生物化石和同邻区对比,将这套地层的时代划归晚三叠世,并自老而新划分为3个组:打马洞组、曲嘎寺组与图姆沟组.其中打马洞组为新建立的地层单位.

  1. Comparative population assessments of Nautilus sp. in the Philippines, Australia, Fiji, and American Samoa using baited remote underwater video systems.

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    Gregory J Barord

    Full Text Available The extant species of Nautilus and Allonautilus (Cephalopoda inhabit fore-reef slope environments across a large geographic area of the tropical western Pacific and eastern Indian Oceans. While many aspects of their biology and behavior are now well-documented, uncertainties concerning their current populations and ecological role in the deeper, fore-reef slope environments remain. Given the historical to current day presence of nautilus fisheries at various locales across the Pacific and Indian Oceans, a comparative assessment of the current state of nautilus populations is critical to determine whether conservation measures are warranted. We used baited remote underwater video systems (BRUVS to make quantitative photographic records as a means of estimating population abundance of Nautilus sp. at sites in the Philippine Islands, American Samoa, Fiji, and along an approximately 125 km transect on the fore reef slope of the Great Barrier Reef from east of Cairns to east of Lizard Island, Australia. Each site was selected based on its geography, historical abundance, and the presence (Philippines or absence (other sites of Nautilus fisheries The results from these observations indicate that there are significantly fewer nautiluses observable with this method in the Philippine Islands site. While there may be multiple possibilities for this difference, the most parsimonious is that the Philippine Islands population has been reduced due to fishing. When compared to historical trap records from the same site the data suggest there have been far more nautiluses at this site in the past. The BRUVS proved to be a valuable tool to measure Nautilus abundance in the deep sea (300-400 m while reducing our overall footprint on the environment.

  2. The early radiation of stem group molluscs against the environmental background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubanov, A. P.

    2003-04-01

    The first helcionelloid molluscs appeared in the late Nemakit-Daldynian and were forerunners of the sudden molluscan diversification of the Cambrian explosion. The diversification of Mollusca is coincided with global changes in lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere coincident with the rearrangement of the Late Proterozoic supercontinent Rodinia, a distinct shift in oceanic water geochemistry, and a sudden abundance of shelled multicellular organisms. Some of these changes have left indicators in the morphology and chemical properties of molluscan shells that allow reconstruction of global settings which are essential for understanding early molluscan evolution. A combination of tectonic and climatic cyclic changes is resulted in a major global transgression at the beginning of the Cambrian and the formation of extensive shallow water habitats within which the first molluscs expanded. Diversification into new ecological niches has been recognised in two evolutionary-adaptive lineages. The lineage from Oelandiella to Watsonella shows adaptation to a soft substrate and infaunal mode of life. In contrast, the Oelandiella-Helcionella lineage was an adaptation to a harder substrate. Appearance of large helcionelloids with associated archaeocyathan reefs in the middle Tommotian may suggest evolution of a browsing carnivorous habit capable of supporting a considerably larger body. Despite of a few such examples, most helcionelloids remained a small size until the Early Ordovician. Early Cambrian helcionelloids show considerable morphological diversity providing a fertile ground for speculation about early molluscan evolution. While almost the all molluscan classes are known from the Cambro-Ordovician transition, the relationship of these, including Tergomya, Gastropoda, Cephalopoda, and Rostroconchia to helcionelloids remains highly problematic. Analysis of morphological variation and evolutionary trends within the earliest molluscs may support derivation of

  3. Investigation on Shellfish Species Living in the Intertidal Zone to Subtidal Zone of Fenjiezhou Island of Hainan%海南分界洲岛潮间带至潮下带底栖贝类调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白丽蓉; 赵志英; 刘庆明; 崔婧

    2016-01-01

    Based on the investigation on shel fish resources from the intertidal zone to subtidal zone of Fenjiezhou Island, Hainan during 2012-2014, the quantity, species, ecological distribution and floristic characters of shel fish from the intertidal zone to subtidal zone of Fenjiezhou Island were analyzed. The results showed that a total of 137 shel fish species were found in Fenjiezhou Island, and they belonged to 4 classes [Polyplacophora (1 species), Gastropoda (94 species), Bivalvia (40 species), Cephalopoda (2 species)], 13 orders and 44 families. Among the families, Cypraeidae included 11 species, Muricacea included 9 species, Veneracea included 9 species, Conidae included 8 species, Strombidae included 6 species, Cymati dae included 6 species, and the other families al included less than 5 species. Accord-ing to the characteristics of the components, most of the species belonged to the tropical or subtropical region, and they had a close relationship with coral reef. Ac-cording to the floristic characters, the shel fish in Fenjiezhou Island belonged to the Indonesia-Malayan Subregion of Indo-West Pacific Region.%在2012~2014年期间,对海南分界洲岛潮间带至潮下带的贝类资源进行了调查,分析了该海域贝类种类与数量、生态分布、区系性质。结果表明,在分界洲岛共采集到贝类137种,隶属于4纲13目44科,其中多板纲1种,腹足纲94种,双壳纲40种,头足纲2种。各科的组成中,宝贝科11种,骨螺科9种,帘蛤科9种,芋螺科8种,凤螺科6种,嵌线螺科6种,其他各科的种类均小于5种。按种的性质而论,分界洲岛贝类大多数属于和珊瑚礁有密切关系的热带种或亚热带种,其区系性质属于印度-西太平洋的印尼-马来亚区。

  4. A “Rosetta Stone” for metazoan zooplankton: DNA barcode analysis of species diversity of the Sargasso Sea (Northwest Atlantic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucklin, Ann; Ortman, Brian D.; Jennings, Robert M.; Nigro, Lisa M.; Sweetman, Christopher J.; Copley, Nancy J.; Sutton, Tracey; Wiebe, Peter H.

    2010-12-01

    Species diversity of the metazoan holozooplankton assemblage of the Sargasso Sea, Northwest Atlantic Ocean, was examined through coordinated morphological taxonomic identification of species and DNA sequencing of a ˜650 base-pair region of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) as a DNA barcode (i.e., short sequence for species recognition and discrimination). Zooplankton collections were made from the surface to 5,000 meters during April, 2006 on the R/V R.H. Brown. Samples were examined by a ship-board team of morphological taxonomists; DNA barcoding was carried out in both ship-board and land-based DNA sequencing laboratories. DNA barcodes were determined for a total of 297 individuals of 175 holozooplankton species in four phyla, including: Cnidaria (Hydromedusae, 4 species; Siphonophora, 47); Arthropoda (Amphipoda, 10; Copepoda, 34; Decapoda, 9; Euphausiacea, 10; Mysidacea, 1; Ostracoda, 27); and Mollusca (Cephalopoda, 8; Heteropoda, 6; Pteropoda, 15); and Chaetognatha (4). Thirty species of fish (Teleostei) were also barcoded. For all seven zooplankton groups for which sufficient data were available, Kimura-2-Parameter genetic distances were significantly lower between individuals of the same species (mean=0.0114; S.D. 0.0117) than between individuals of different species within the same group (mean=0.3166; S.D. 0.0378). This difference, known as the barcode gap, ensures that mtCOI sequences are reliable characters for species identification for the oceanic holozooplankton assemblage. In addition, DNA barcodes allow recognition of new or undescribed species, reveal cryptic species within known taxa, and inform phylogeographic and population genetic studies of geographic variation. The growing database of "gold standard" DNA barcodes serves as a Rosetta Stone for marine zooplankton, providing the key for decoding species diversity by linking species names, morphology, and DNA sequence variation. In light of the pivotal position of zooplankton in ocean

  5. 大襟岛海域中华白海豚栖息地重金属含量测定与评价%CONTENTS AND EVALUATION OF HEAVY METALS AT THE HABITAT OF INDO -PACIFIC HUMPBACK DOLPHIN FROM DAJIN ISLAND SEA AREA IN SOUTH CHINA SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁慧; 方展强

    2011-01-01

    Dajin Island sea area is one of habitats of Indo - Pacific humpback dolphin. Concentrations of heavy metals in sea water, sediments and organisms (fish, Crustacea and cephalopoda) at the habitat were analyzed. The results showed that the sea organisms have obvious enrichment to the heavy metals in coastal waters, high concentrations of heavy metals in the liver of Indo - Pacific humpback dolphin is accumulated grade by grade in food chain. The environment quality of the habitat is evaluated. It is indicated that the water quality in this habitat is between the first and the second rank, sediment quality is the first rank, and the heavy metals in three kinds of organisms are all lower than the standard. It also indicated that the marine area hasn't been polluted by heavy metals. The environmental quality in this water area is fit to Indo - Pacific humpback dolphins' living. Heavy metals level at the Dajin Island waters is in the low value section of the Pearl River estuarine zoon, it may be an important reason of Indo - Pacific humpback dolphins selecting this area as their habitat.%分别对中华白海豚栖息地的海水、表层沉积物和生物(鱼类、甲壳类和软体类动物)体中的重金属含量进行测定与污染评价.结果表明,海洋生物对海水和沉积物中重金属有较强的富集能力,中华白海豚其肝脏中高浓度的重金属含量是通过食物链(网)而逐级积累的.栖息地中海水质量介于海水I类与II类水质之间,表层沉积物质量符合I类标准,3类不同类群生物的体内重金属含量也均低于海洋环境质量生物污染评价标准,表明本海域尚未受到重金属污染,环境质量基本符合中华白海豚的生存要求,大襟岛海域的重金属水平落在整个珠江口海区的低值区,这可能是中华白海豚选择大襟岛海域作为栖息地的一个重要原因.

  6. Comparative morphology among representatives of main taxa of Scaphopoda and basal protobranch Bivalvia (Mollusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with detailed morphology and anatomy of 4 species of Scaphopoda and 5 species of protobranch Bivalvia. Both classes are traditionally grouped in the taxon Diasoma, which has been questioned by different methodologies, such as molecular and developmental. This study is developed under a phylogenetic methodology with the main concern in performing it in an intelligible and testable methodology. The analyzed Scaphopoda species came from the Brazilian coast and belong to the family Dentaliidae [(1 Coccodentalium carduus; (2 Paradentalium disparile] and Gadiliidae; [(3 Polyschides noronhensis, n. sp. from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago; (4 Gadila braziliensis]. These species represent the main branches of the class Scaphopoda. From protobranch bivalves, representatives of the families Solemyidae [(5 Solemya occidentalis, from Florida; S. notialis, n. sp. from S.E. Brazil], Nuculanidae [(6 Propeleda carpentieri from Florida], and Nuculidae [(7 Ennucula puelcha, from south Brazil] are included. These species represent the main branches of the basal Bivalvia. The descriptions on the anatomy of S. occidentalis and of P. carpentieri are published elsewhere. The remaining are included here, for which a complete taxonomical treatment is performed. Beyond these species, representatives of other taxa are operationally included as part of the ingroup (indices are then shared with them, as a procedure to test the morphological monophyly of Diasoma. These taxa are: two lamellibranch bivalves [(8 Barbatia - Arcidae; (9 Serratina - Tellinidae; both published elsewhere;, and Propilidium (10 Patellogastropoda, and (11 Nautilus, basal Cephalopoda, based on basal taxa. The effective outgroups are (12 Neopilina (Monoplacophora and (13 Hanleya (Polyplacophora. The phylogenetic analysis based on morphology revealed that the taxon Diasoma is supported by 14 synapomorphies, and is separated from Cyrtosoma (Gastropoda + Cephalopoda. Although they are not

  7. Ontogeny and habitat change in Mesozoic cephalopods revealed by stable isotopes ( δ18O, δ13C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukeneder, Alexander; Harzhauser, Mathias; Müllegger, Stefan; Piller, Werner E.

    2010-07-01

    Stable isotope ( δ18O and δ13C) ratios were measured in successive aragonitic shell sequences of ammonoids (class Cephalopoda) to determine whether their depth distributions changed within ontogeny and whether stable isotope values differ in various morphological groups (e.g. Leiostraca vs. Trachyostraca). We concentrate mainly on δ18O for temperature results and added δ13C data to obtain information on the ontogenetic history, for which full spiral measurements were undertaken for the first time. To obtain valid stable isotope data from ammonoid shells, we measured ontogenetic sequences (full shell) within different genera. Data sets from the Jurassic ( Cadoceras) and Cretaceous ( Hypacanthoplites, Nowakites) were chosen due to the pure primary aragonitic shell preservation. The study was designed to extract better information on the habitat and life cycle of fossil cephalopods (e.g. ammonoids) in comparison with recent cephalopods (e.g. Nautilus, Spirula, Sepia) possessing equivalent or comparable hard parts. The data from three genera suggest different modes of life in at least two morphological groups. We detected and established two main groups with different ontogenetic strategies based on the δ18O data. The wcw-type (warm-cool-warm type) of Cadoceras resembles strategies in Nautilus and Sepia, which migrate from shallow into deeper environments and back in ontogeny ( wc-type, warm-cool-type), and the cw-type (cool-warm type) of Hypacanthoplites resembling the first two migration phases of Spirula ( cwc-type), which migrates from deeper into shallower and back again into deeper habitats. The main (three) phases revealed by both δ18O and δ13C data sets most probably reflect diet changes in juvenile to mid-aged individuals, followed by a habitat change for spawning adults. In Cadoceras the temperatures range from 21.2 °C for juveniles down to 12.1 °C for mid-aged individuals and back up 16.9 °C in adults. The cw- type strategy of Hypacanthoplites

  8. The Fluorescent Staining of Mollusks Haemocytes with Thioflavin T%贝类血细胞硫代黄素T荧光染色方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宜艳; 宋晓娜; 付静芸; 孙虎山

    2011-01-01

    Thioflavin (TFT) , a benzothiazole fluorescent dye, is able to selectively stain amyloid structures and is mainly used to detect amyloidosis using fluorescence microscopy. In this study, the circulating hemocytes of four species of mollusks, Chlamys farreri ( Bivalvia) , Mactra chinensis ( Bivalvia) , Natica janthostomoides (Gastropoda) and Octopus variabilis (Cephalopoda), were observed in order to develop the fluorescence staining method of mollusks haemocytes with TFT. Under fluorescence microscope, haemocytes of four mollusks showed yellow-green fluorescence after treatment with 0. 1% TFT. The outlines of the cells were clear; the nuclei and granules in the cytoplasm were clearly distinguishable. The haemocytes of all four mollusks could be divided into two types, granulocytes and agranulocytes, based on whether cytoplasmic granules could be observed. In scallop, clam and octopus, the agranulocytes could be subdivided into hyalinocytes and haemoblasts, while the granulocytes could be subdivided into small granulocytes and large granulocytes according to the size of granules in the cytoplasm. The fluorescence staining method of mollusks haemocytes with TFT is easy to operate, and the samples can be observed for a long time after staining because the fluorescence is not easy to bleach. This study is the first to use TFT in the morphological characterization and classification of mollusks haemocytes, and suggests that TFT fluorescence staining is a good method for the observation and classification of mollusks haemocytes.%硫代黄素T( thioflavin T,TFT)是一种用于组织学的苯并噻唑荧光染料,因其对淀粉样蛋白有高亲和性而主要被用于淀粉样病变的荧光显微检测.本研究分别以软体动物门双壳纲的栉孔扇贝(Chlamys farreri)和中国蛤蜊(Mactra chinensis)、腹足纲的拟紫口玉螺(Natica janthostomoides)及头足纲的短蛸(Octopus variabilis)4种软体动物为实验材料,对贝类血细胞

  9. USING STABLE ISOTOPES TO ANALYZE FEEDING HABITS AND TROPHIC POSITION OF HAIRTAIL (TRICHIURUS LEPTURUS) FROM THE BEIBU GULF, SOUTH CHINA SEA%应用碳、氮稳定同位素研究北部湾带鱼(Trichiurus lepturus)食性及营养级

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜云榕; 张武科; 卢伙胜; 王学锋; 赖金养

    2012-01-01

    The data obtained from monthly sampling in the main fishing ports of the Beibu Gulf from October 2008 to September 2009 and the data obtained from the fishery-dependent trawl survey in February 2010, in the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea were using stable isotope analysis and stomach contents analysis to study the prey category, trophic position and ontogenetic feeding habit shifts of Trichiurus lepturus. The results showed that small pelagic fish, Decapterus maruadsi, Sardinella jussieu, Stolephorus heteroloba, benthic Bregmaceros rarisquamosus, and cephalopoda, Loligo chinensis, were relatively important in the diet of T. lepturus, with the weight percentages of 26.19%, 10.21%, 9.94%, 7.20% and 6.07%, respectively, whereas the other prey species were presence in lower percentages. The δ13C signatures went from relatively low (depleted) values for pelagic species to high values for benthic species. As expected, D. maruadsi displayed the lowest value (-17.830‰) while benthic Leiognathus lineolatus displayed the highest value (-14.925‰). The absence of a significant linear correlation between the preanal length and δ13C leads to the conclusion that T. lepturus are feeding from all the water layers during the majority part of their biological life cycle. Both the average trophic level and its annual mean value were calculated by prey weight percentages and δ15N were 3.7. The trophic level of T. lepturus varied not significantly with the preanal length, despite the fact that T. margarites and T. minor increased notably in the same sea area. Two samples of dehydration were undertaken prior to the analytical determination of stable isotope ratios were tested and the results showed that vacuum freeze-drying and drying with oven at constant temperature had significant variance in δ15N but not in δ13C. Undoubtedly, SIA will play an import role in evaluating the fish feeding habits and trophic positions. At the same time, the following three key points