The discovery of Cephalonomia stephanoderis BETREM, a new parasite of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei FERR. (syn. Stephanoderes hampei Ferr.), seemed to open new prospects for
Full Text Available The importance of age and feeding on the performance of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae, a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera, Curculionidae was investigated in the laboratory. Groups of female parasitoids were subject to the following treatments: a group fed during one, five and ten days after emergence of adults with coffee borer larvae; another group fed only with honey solution during five days after emergence; and as a control, a third group was kept without food for five days. At the end of each treatment, survivorship, parasitoid activity (walking and flying capacity in an arena, search capacity for finding coffee borer-infested berries, host feeding and oviposition (on immature hosts, were assessed. Unfed females showed a significant decrease in survivorship compared to individuals that were fed. The type of meal (insects or honey did not significantly influence parasitoid activity, search and oviposition capacities. Females fed with honey solution significantly consumed less immature coffee borers. Younger females (one day old walked and flew out of the arena significantly faster than older ones (5 and 10 days old. Implications of these results are discussed on the performance of C. stephanoderis as a biological control agent of the coffee berry borer.
Eliopoulos, P A; Kapranas, A; Givropoulou, E G; Hardy, I C W
The parasitoid wasp Cephalonomia tarsalis (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) is commonly present in stored product facilities. While beneficial, it does not provide a high degree of biological pest control against its host, the saw-toothed beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae). A candidate explanation for poor host population suppression is that adult females interfere with each other's foraging and reproductive behavior. We used simple laboratory microcosms to evaluate such mutual interference in terms of its overall effects on offspring production. We varied the density of the hosts and also the spatial structure of the environment, via the extent of population sub-division and the provision of different substrates. Production of C. tarsalis offspring was positively influenced by host density and by the isolation of females. With incomplete sub-division within microcosms offspring production was, in contrast, low and even zero. The provision of corrugated paper as a substrate enhanced offspring production and partially mitigated the effects of mutual interference. We recommend simple improvements to mass rearing practice and identify promising areas for further behavioral and chemical studies towards a better understanding of the mechanisms of mutual interference.
Segura, H R; Barrera, J F; Morales, H; Nazar, A
Small farmers' perceptions of coffee Coffea arabica L. herbivores and their natural enemies, how those perceptions relate to field infestation levels, and pest management practices being implemented by members from two organic and nonorganic coffee grower organizations in the Soconusco region, southeastern Mexico, were analyzed through an interview survey, diagnostic workshops, and field sampling. The terms pest, disease, and damage were commonly used as synonyms. The major phytophagous species, as perceived by the interviewees, were Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and to a lesser extent the fungi Corticium koleroga Cooke (Höhnel) and Hemileia vastatrix Berkeley & Broome. Among the nonorganic farmers, other nonpest-related constraints were regarded as more important. Awareness of the existence of natural enemies was low, despite more organic farmers have used the ectoparasitoid bethylid Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem against H. hampei. Labor supplied by household members was most frequent for pest control; only organic farmers exchanged labor for this purpose. The levels of infestation by H. hampei, Leucoptera coffeella Guérin-Méneville, and C. koleroga were lower within the organic coffee stands. However, a low effectiveness for pest control was commonly perceived, probably due to a feeling, among the organic farmers, of a low impact of their pest management extension service, whereas a lack of motivation was prevalent among the nonorganic farmers, shown by a concern with their low coffee yields and the emigration of youth. The importance of understanding farmers' perceptions and knowledge of pests and their natural enemies and the need for participatory pest management approaches, are discussed.
Collatz, Jana; Tolasch, Till; Steidle, Johannes L M
The parasitic wasp, Cephalonomia tarsalis (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), parasitizes larvae of the sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae), and is used for biological control of this worldwide pest of stored grain. To study the hypothesis that C. tarsalis not only mates at its natal patch but also uses olfactory cues to find mating partners elsewhere, we investigated semiochemical use by male C. tarsalis. Olfactometer experiments revealed that male C. tarsalis are arrested by odors emanating from the cocoons of conspecifics, from young unmated females, and from feces of the host. Dodecanal, which was identified from extracts of filter paper contaminated by young females, had an arresting effect on males but not on females and was, therefore, considered as a sex pheromone. These findings indicate that C. tarsalis is a species with partial local mate competition. Males mate with females: 1) at the emergence site following location of females by sex pheromones from their cocoons, and 2) after dispersal from the natal patch following location of females directly by dodecanal and indirectly by unidentified sexual kairomones from host feces.
Cephalonomia stephanoderis and Prorops nasuta are two of the three parasitoids of African origin that have been introduced to coffee producing areas of the Americas as biological control agents of the coffee berry borer (CBB; Hypothenemus hampei). Both bethylid parasitoids have become established in...
Hötling, Susann; Haberlag, Birte; Tamm, Matthias; Collatz, Jana; Mack, Patrick; Steidle, Johannes L M; Vences, Miguel; Schulz, Stefan
Macrolide lactones, the so called cucujolides derived from unsaturated fatty acids, are aggregation pheromones of cucujid grain beetles. Thirty years ago, Oehlschlarger et al. showed that (3Z,6Z)-dodeca-3,6-dien-11-olide (4) and the respective 12-olide (7) attract the sawtoothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis, whereas (5Z,8Z,13R)-tetradeca-5,8-dien-13-olide (5) increases the response synergistically. The frass of this beetle is attractive for its parasitoid Cephalonomia tarsalis, which potentially can be used for pest control. A GC/MS analysis of attractive frass showed the presence of 5, together with an unknown isomer. Cucujolide V was tentatively identified also in the femoral glands, pheromone-releasing structures, of the Madagascan mantelline frog Spinomantis aglavei. Therefore, a new route to synthesize doubly unsaturated macrolides allowing the flexible attachment of the side chain was developed. A straightforward method to obtain Z configured macrolides involves ring-closing alkyne metathesis (RCAM) followed by Lindlar-catalyzed hydrogenation. This methodology was extended to homoconjugated diene macrolides by using RCAM after introduction of one Z configured double bond in the precursor by Wittig reaction. A tungsten benzylidyne complex was used as the catalyst in the RCAM reaction, which afforded the products in high yield at room temperature. With the synthetic material at hand, the unknown isomer was identified as the new natural product (5Z,8Z,12R)-tetradeca-5,8-dien-12-olide, cucujolide X (8). Furthermore, the route also allowed the synthesis of cucujolide V in good yield. The natural products were identified by the synthesis of enantiomerically pure or enriched material and gas chromatography on chiral phases. The new macrolide (R)-8 proved to be biologically active, attracting female O. surinamensis, but no males. The synthetic material allowed the identification of (R)-5 in both the beetle and the frog. © 2014 WILEY