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Sample records for cephalometry

  1. Practical limitations of cone-beam computed tomography in 3D cephalometry%Practical limitations of cone-beam computed tomography in3D cephalometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janalt Damstra; Zacharias Fourie; Yijin Ren

    2011-01-01

    3D cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images offer a unique and new appreciation of the anatomical structures and underlying anomalies not possible with conventional radiographs.However,in almost all aspects of CBCT imaging,from utilization to application,inherent limitations and pitfalls exist.Importantly,these inherent limitations and pitfalls have practical implications which need to be addressed before the potential of this technology can be fully realized.The purpose of this review was to explore the current limitations and pitfalls associated with CBCT imaging to allow for better and more accurate understanding of the possibilities this imaging modality could offer,particularly pertaining to 3D cephalometry.

  2. Applicability of the Ricketts' posteroanterior cephalometry for sex determination using logistic regression analysis in Hispano American Peruvians

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    Ivan Perez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Ricketts' posteroanterior (PA cephalometry seems to be the most widely used and it has not been tested by multivariate statistics for sex determination.Objective: The objective was to determine the applicability of Ricketts' PA cephalometry for sex determination using the logistic regression analysis. Materials and Methods: The logistic models were estimated at distinct age cutoffs (all ages, 11 years, 13 years, and 15 years in a database from 1,296 Hispano American Peruvians between 5 years and 44 years of age. Results: The logistic models were composed by six cephalometric measurements; the accuracy achieved by resubstitution varied between 60% and 70% and all the variables, with one exception, exhibited a direct relationship with the probability of being classified as male; the nasal width exhibited an indirect relationship. Conclusion: The maxillary and facial widths were present in all models and may represent a sexual dimorphism indicator. The accuracy found was lower than the literature and the Ricketts' PA cephalometry may not be adequate for sex determination. The indirect relationship of the nasal width in models with data from patients of 12 years of age or less may be a trait related to age or a characteristic in the studied population, which could be better studied and confirmed.

  3. A simulator for maxillo-facial surgery integrating cephalometry and orthodontia

    CERN Document Server

    Bettega, G; Mollard, B; Boyer, A; Raphael, B; Lavallee, S

    2000-01-01

    Objectives : This paper presents a new simulator for maxillo-facial surgery, that gathers the dental and the maxillo-facial analyses together into a single computer-assisted procedure. The idea is first to propose a repositioning of the maxilla, via the introduction of a 3D cephalometry, applied to a 3D virtual model of the patient's skull. Then, orthodontic data are integrated into this model, thanks to optical measurements of teeth plaster casts. Materials and Methods : The feasibility of the maxillo-facial demonstrator was first evaluated on a dry skull. To simulate malformations (and thus to simulate a "real" patient), the skull was modified and manually cut by the surgeon, in order to generate a given maxillo-facial malformation (with asymmetries in the sagittal, frontal and axial planes). Results : The validation of our simulator consisted in evaluating its ability to propose a bone repositioning diagnosis that will put the skull as it was in its original configuration. A first qualitative validation is...

  4. A comparison between two lateral cephalometry techniques (standard and natural head position

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    Hedayati Z. Assistant Professor. Sang S. DMD

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Cephalometric findings are of high importance in making decision about orthodontic treatment plans and orthognathic surgeries. Natural head position (NHP is considered as a useful and exact radiographic technique."nAim: The aim of the present study was to compare two techniques, namely Standard and NHP, in lateral"ncephalometry."nMaterials and Methods: In this cross- sectional study, performed in Shiraz. 138 randomly selected students {70 males .and 68 females, age ranging from (13-15. were evaluated clinically and radiographically. None of them had a history of orthodontic treatment, head and face fracture or surgical operations. Lateral cephalograms were taken in both standard and natural head position techniques, for each student. For statistical analysis, l-lest for paired samples, was done."nResults: This study showed that in anterior-posterior dimension, among angles with significant differences in two techniques, those of standard one were more reliable, whereas in vertical dimension."nstatistical differences showed natural technique as more useful one."nConclusion: Due to the fact that natural cephalometry requires more patient cooperation, more time and a higher complex technique, it is not suggested, except when different clinical and cepholomeiric findings are observed.

  5. Algorithm for planning a double-jaw orthognathic surgery using a computer-aided surgical simulation (CASS) protocol. Part 2: three-dimensional cephalometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J J; Gateno, J; Teichgraeber, J F; Yuan, P; Li, J; Chen, K-C; Jajoo, A; Nicol, M; Alfi, D M

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cephalometry is not as simple as just adding a 'third' dimension to a traditional two-dimensional cephalometric analysis. There are more complex issues in 3D analysis. These include how reference frames are created, how size, position, orientation and shape are measured, and how symmetry is assessed. The main purpose of this article is to present the geometric principles of 3D cephalometry. In addition, the Gateno-Xia cephalometric analysis is presented; this is the first 3D cephalometric analysis to observe these principles.

  6. Validity of 2D lateral cephalometry in orthodontics: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Lateral cephalometric radiography is commonly used as a standard tool in orthodontic assessment and treatment planning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the available scientific literature and existing evidence for the validation of using lateral cephalometric imaging for orthodontic treatment planning. The secondary objective was to determine the accuracy and reliability of this technique. We did not attempt to evaluate the value of this radiographic technique for other purposes. A literature search was performed using specific keywords on electronic databases: Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science. Two reviewers selected relevant articles, corresponding to predetermined inclusion criteria. The electronic search was followed by a hand search of the reference lists of relevant papers. Two reviewers assessed the level of evidence of relevant publications as high, moderate or low. Based on this, the evidence grade for diagnostic efficacy was rated as strong, moderately strong, limited or insufficient. The initial search revealed 784 articles listed in MEDLINE (Ovid), 1,034 in Scopus and 264 articles in the Web of Science. Only 17 articles met the inclusion criteria and were selected for qualitative synthesis. Results showed seven studies on the role of cephalometry in orthodontic treatment planning, eight concerning cephalometric measurements and landmark identification and two on cephalometric analysis. It is surprising that, notwithstanding the 968 articles published in peer-reviewed journals, scientific evidence on the usefulness of this radiographic technique in orthodontics is still lacking, with contradictory results. More rigorous research on a larger study population should be performed to achieve full evidence on this topic. PMID:24325757

  7. Validity of 2D lateral cephalometry in orthodontics: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durão, Ana R; Pittayapat, Pisha; Rockenbach, Maria Ivete B; Olszewski, Raphael; Ng, Suk; Ferreira, Afonso P; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2013-09-20

    Lateral cephalometric radiography is commonly used as a standard tool in orthodontic assessment and treatment planning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the available scientific literature and existing evidence for the validation of using lateral cephalometric imaging for orthodontic treatment planning. The secondary objective was to determine the accuracy and reliability of this technique. We did not attempt to evaluate the value of this radiographic technique for other purposes. A literature search was performed using specific keywords on electronic databases: Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science. Two reviewers selected relevant articles, corresponding to predetermined inclusion criteria. The electronic search was followed by a hand search of the reference lists of relevant papers. Two reviewers assessed the level of evidence of relevant publications as high, moderate or low. Based on this, the evidence grade for diagnostic efficacy was rated as strong, moderately strong, limited or insufficient. The initial search revealed 784 articles listed in MEDLINE (Ovid), 1,034 in Scopus and 264 articles in the Web of Science. Only 17 articles met the inclusion criteria and were selected for qualitative synthesis. Results showed seven studies on the role of cephalometry in orthodontic treatment planning, eight concerning cephalometric measurements and landmark identification and two on cephalometric analysis. It is surprising that, notwithstanding the 968 articles published in peer-reviewed journals, scientific evidence on the usefulness of this radiographic technique in orthodontics is still lacking, with contradictory results. More rigorous research on a larger study population should be performed to achieve full evidence on this topic.

  8. Assessment of Soft Tissue Changes by Cephalometry and Two-Dimensional Photogrammetry in Bilateral Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy Cases

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    Jan Rustemeyer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We aimed to compare the standard methods of cephalometry and two-dimensional photogrammetry, to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of both methods.Material and Methods: Twenty-six patients (mean age 25.5, standard deviation (SD 5.2 years with Class II relationship and 23 patients with Class III relationship (mean age 26.4, SD 4.7 years who had undergone bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy were selected, with a median follow-up of 8 months between pre- and postsurgical evaluation. Pre- and postsurgical cephalograms and lateral photograms were traced and changes were recorded.Results: Pre- and postsurgical measurements of hard tissue angles and distances revealed higher correlations with cephalometrically performed soft tissue measurements of facial convexity (Class II: N-PG, r = - 0.50, P = 0.047; Class III: ANB, r = 0.73, P = 0.005; NaPg , r = 0.71, P = 0.007; and labiomental angle (Class II: SNB, r = 0.72, P = 0.002; ANB, r = - 0.72, P = 0.002; N-B, r = - 0.68, P = 0.004; ANS-Gn, r = 0.71, P = 0.002; Class III: ANS-Gn, r = 0.65, P = 0.043 compared with two-dimensional photogrammetry. However, two-dimensional photogrammetry revealed higher correlation between lower lip length and cephalometrically assessed angular hard tissue changes (Class II: SNB, r = 0.98, P = 0.007; N-B, r = 0.89, P = 0.037; N-Pg, r = 0.90, P = 0.033; Class III: SNB, r = - 0.54, P = 0.060; NAPg, r = - 0.65, P = 0.041; N-Pg, r = 0.58, P = 0.039.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that cephalometry and two-dimensional photogrammetry offer the possibility to complement one another.

  9. Radiographic cephalometry analysis of condylar position after bimaxillary osteotomy in patients with mandibular prognathism

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    Miković Nikola D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Postoperative condylar position is a substantial concern in surgical correction of mandibular prognathism. Orthognathic surgery may change condylar position and this is considered a contributing factor for early skeletal relapse and the induction of temporomandibular disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in condylar position, and to correlate angular skeletal measurements following bimaxillary surgery. Methods. On profile teleradiographs of 21 patients with mandibular angular and linear parametres, the changes in condylar position, were measured during preoperative orthodontic treatment and 6 months after the surgical treatment. Results. A statistically significant difference in values between the groups was found. The most distal point on the head of condyle point (DI moved backward for 1.38 mm (p = 0.02, and the point of center of collum mandibulae point (DC moved backward for 1.52 mm (p = 0.007. The amount of upward movement of the point DI was 1.62 mm (p = 0.04. Conclusion. In the patients with mandibular prognathism, the condyles tend to migrate upward and forward six months after bimaxillary surgery.

  10. A comparative study of linear measurements of facial skeleton using computed tomography and traditional cephalometry

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    Naveen Rayapudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radiographic imaging is an important adjunct in the assessment of skeletal and dental relationships for the orthodontic patient. Imaging is one of the most ubiquitous tools used by orthodontists to measure and record the size and form of craniofacial structures. Materials and Methods: The objectives of the study were to compare the measurements from human skulls and their images from cephalometric radiographs and computed tomography (CT scanograms in order to gauge the potential use of CT in routine clinical practice. Based on the specific criteria including stable occlusion and condyles fitting stably in glenoid fossa, 15 dry human skulls were selected. Lateral, posteroanterior cephalograms, and CT scout views were taken of each skull by standardized methods. Linear measurements were made on all three records. Intraclass correlation coefficients, Pearson′s correlation coefficient and regression constant were calculated to assess the records. Results: The linear measurements of the cephalometric record are greater than CT measurements on scout images. In vertical plane, the CT projections are more coinciding with the direct skull measurements. In sagittal and transverse planes, the cephalometric measurements were more correlating with the direct skull measurements. Conclusions: The cephalograms and CT scanograms differed in accuracy of linear measurements, because of variation in the location and size of an object, within the imaged 3D structure of both records.

  11. Effects of image enhancement on reliability of landmark identification in digital cephalometry

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    M Oshagh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although digital cephalometric radiography is gaining popularity in orthodontic practice, the most important source of error in its tracing is uncertainty in landmark identification. Therefore, efforts to improve accuracy in landmark identification were directed primarily toward the improvement in image quality. One of the more useful techniques of this process involves digital image enhancement which can increase overall visual quality of image, but this does not necessarily mean a better identification of landmarks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of digital image enhancements on reliability of landmark identification. Materials and Methods: Fifteen common landmarks including 10 skeletal and 5 soft tissues were selected on the cephalograms of 20 randomly selected patients, prepared in Natural Head Position (NHP. Two observers (orthodontists identified landmarks on the 20 original photostimulable phosphor (PSP digital cephalogram images and 20 enhanced digital images twice with an intervening time interval of at least 4 weeks. The x and y coordinates were further analyzed to evaluate the pattern of recording differences in horizontal and vertical directions. Reliability of landmarks identification was analyzed by paired t test. Results: There was a significant difference between original and enhanced digital images in terms of reliability of points Ar and N in vertical and horizontal dimensions, and enhanced images were significantly more reliable than original images. Identification of A point, Pogonion and Pronasal points, in vertical dimension of enhanced images was significantly more reliable than original ones. Reliability of Menton point identification in horizontal dimension was significantly more in enhanced images than original ones. Conclusion: Direct digital image enhancement by altering brightness and contrast can increase reliability of some landmark identification and this may lead to more accurate cephalometric analysis.

  12. Practical limitations of cone-beam computed tomography in 3D cephalometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damstra, Janalt; Fourie, Zacharias; Ren, Yijin

    2011-01-01

    3D cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images offer a unique and new appreciation of the anatomical structures and underlying anomalies not possible with conventional radiographs. However, in almost all aspects of CBCT imaging, from utilization to application, inherent limitations and pitfalls exis

  13. Correlation between nasopharyngoscopy and cephalometry in the diagnosis of hyperplasia of the pharyngeal tonsils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzel, Rodrigo Agne; Berwig, Luana Cristina; da Silva, Ana Maria Toniolo; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues; Serpa, Eliane Oliveira

    2012-04-01

    Introdução: A hiperplasia de tonsila faríngea é uma das principais causas da respiração oral. O diagnóstico preciso desta alteração é importante para o correto planejamento terapêutico. Em vista disso, estudos têm sido desenvolvidos a fim de fornecer subsídios quanto aos procedimentos que podem ser utilizados para o diagnóstico de obstrução faríngea.Objetivo: Verificar a correlação entre os exames de nasofibrofaringoscopia e cefalometria no diagnóstico de hiperplasia de tonsila faríngea.Método: Estudo transversal, clínico e experimental. Participaram deste estudo 55 crianças, 30 meninas e 25 meninos, com idades entre 7 e 11 anos. As crianças foram submetidas à avaliação nasofibrofaringoscópica e cefalométrica para a determinação do grau de obstrução da nasofaringe. Para verificar a correlação entre esses exames foi utilizado o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman ao nível de significância de 5%.Resultados: Na nasofibrofaringoscopia a maioria das crianças apresentou hiperplasia de tonsila faríngea graus 2 e 3, seguidas de grau 1. Na cefalometria a maior parte das crianças apresentou hiperplasia de tonsilas faríngeas grau 1, seguida de grau 2. Na correlação entre os exames, evidenciou-se correlação regular e positiva.Conclusão: A avaliação da hiperplasia de tonsilas faríngeas pode ser realizada pela nasofibrofaringoscopia e pela cefalometria, pois estes exames apresentam uma relação regular e positiva. No entanto, verificou-se que a cefalometria tende a subestimar o tamanho da tonsila faríngea em relação à nasofibrofaringoscopia.

  14. Radiographic cephalometry analysis of dimensions of condylar processus in persons with mandibular prognathism

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    Čutović Tatjana; Pavlović Jasna; Kozomara Ružica

    2008-01-01

    Introduction/Aim. There are numerous factors that influence the formation of condylar processus: the growth and development of cranial base, growth and development of the jaws and alveolar extensions, teething, the way of intercuspidation, the overlap of incisors, functions of masticatory muscles, etc. Considering the fact that the above-mentioned factors significantly differ in persons with different morphological set of the face, we set a hypothesis that dimensions of condylar processus and...

  15. Radiographic cephalometry analysis of dimensions of condylar processus in persons with mandibular prognathism

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    Čutović Tatjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Aim. There are numerous factors that influence the formation of condylar processus: the growth and development of cranial base, growth and development of the jaws and alveolar extensions, teething, the way of intercuspidation, the overlap of incisors, functions of masticatory muscles, etc. Considering the fact that the above-mentioned factors significantly differ in persons with different morphological set of the face, we set a hypothesis that dimensions of condylar processus and the mandibular ramus considerably differ in persons with mandibular prognathism compared to eugnatic persons. The aim of this study was to establish the differences in dimensions of condylar processus between the above-mentioned groups. Methods. Six parameters representing the dimensions of the condylar processus were measured on profile teleradiographs of 30 eugnatic persons and 30 paersons with mandibular prognathism: the height of condylar processus, the height of head of the mandible, width of the head, width of the neck, height of the ramus without the condylar processus and the overall height of the ramus. Results. A considerable difference in the values of the parameters was found, as well as the distribution toward the values of reference. It was found that the height of the condylar processus was significantly greater in persons with mandibular prognathism, whereas the width of the head of the mandible, the width of the neck and the height of the ramus without the condylar processus was considerably decreased within the same group. The height of the head of the mandible and the overall height of the ramus was not significantly changed. Conclusion. In persons with mandibular prognathism, morphological features of the condylar processus are changed. The condylar processus lengthens on account of shortening of the lower part of the ramus, and the mentioned lengthening is the most prominent in its condylar neck area which is also the centre of its most intense growth.

  16. Radiographic cephalometry assessment of the linear and angular parameters on cranial base in children with skeletal class III

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    Stojanović Zdenka M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In malocclusion of skeletal class III, mandible is located in front of maxilla in sagital plain, which is manifested by a lower value of the sagital inter-jaw angle than in skeletal class I, where the jaw sagital relation is normal. Apart from the deformities on mandible and/or maxilla, in skeletal class III deformities are also frequent on the cranial base. The aim of this research was to find the differences in the parameter values on the cranial base among the children with skeletal class III and the children with skeletal class I in the period of mixed dentition. Methods. After clinical examination and orthopan-tomography, profile radiography of the head was analyzed in 60 examinees, aged from 6−12 years. The examinees were divided into two groups: group 1 - the children with skeletal class III; group 2 - the children with skeletal class I. Both linear and angular parameters on the cranial base were measured, as well as the angles of maxillary and mandible prognatism and the angle of sagital inter-jaw relation. The level of difference in the parameter values between the groups was estimated and the degree of correlation of the main angle of the cranial base with the angles of sagital position of the jaws in each of the two groups was established. Results. A significant difference between the groups was found only in the average values of the angles of maxillary prognatism and sagital interjaw relation. In the group 1, the main angle of the cranial base was in a significant correlation with the angles of sagital positions of the jaws, while in the group 2, such significance was not found. Conclusion. There were no significant differences in the parameter values on the cranial base between the groups. There was a significant correlation of the main angle of the cranial base with the angles of sagital position of the jaws in the group 1 only. .

  17. 正常(牙合)儿童X线头影测量标准值研究%Normal values of cephalometry about children with normal occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区运运; 兰泽栋; 孙新华

    2004-01-01

    目的:建立正常(牙合)儿童X线头影测量正常值标准,研究其颅颌面发育特征,将有利于错(牙合)合的诊断分析.方法:选择104例正常(牙合)样本,男42例,女62例,年龄在12~16岁之间,对样本做X线头影测量分析,得出其正常值.对其颌面部做性别上的特征性分析.结果:得出Coben分析法,四边形分析法,Ricketts分析法的正常值.结论:虽然男女颅颌面结构发育特征很相近,但仍存在一定差异,而在大小方面男女存在明显的差异.了解正常(牙合)人群的颅颌面发育特征,将有助于临床诊断及矫治计划的制定.

  18. PRELIMARY STUDY OF COMPUTERIZED AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION OF LANDMARKS IN X-RAY CEPHALOMETRY%X线头影标志点的计算机自动识别初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏明贵; 周正炎; 丁国伟; 王国世; 郭其一; 杨杰

    2000-01-01

    目的旨在研究用于X线头影测量分析的各标志点的计算机自动识别与定位方法,建立计算机自动定点的X线头影测量分析系统(CACAS).方法应用现代计算机图像处理与模式识别的相关技术,其中包括中值滤波、直方图均衡、基于小波变换的多尺度分析、Canny边缘检测、基于知识的边缘跟踪及可变模板匹配技术等,改善X线头影图像质量,提取软硬组织边缘轮廓,自动定位识别标志点.结果 CACAS系统成功实现了17个标志点的自动识别与定位及面下1/3轮廓描迹.结论本研究建立CACAS系统所运用的技术方法是有效可靠的.

  19. Relação entre cefalometria e análise facial na determinação do tipo de face Relation between cephalometry and facial analysis on the facial type determination

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    Rossana Ribeiro Ramires

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: correlacionar os achados cefalométricos com os da análise facial realizada por meio de fotografias para classificar o tipo facial, segundo o sexo. MÉTODOS: participaram 105 adultos leucodermas, 34 (32,4% homens e 71 (67,6% mulheres, com idades entre 20 e 40 anos, de uma clínica particular de ortodontia de Belo Horizonte/MG. Os achados da análise cefalométrica para determinação do tipo facial a partir do índice VERT de Ricketts foram comparados com a classificação da face realizada por meio da análise facial clínica baseada na observação de duas fotografias. Para essa análise, participaram três fonoaudiólogos especialistas em motricidade orofacial. RESULTADOS: não houve correspondência satisfatória ao se comparar as duas formas de classificação do tipo facial apresentadas neste estudo. A maioria dos indivíduos masculinos dolicofaciais foi classificada como face média a partir da análise facial, ou seja, quatro entre sete sujeitos (57,14%. Os 11 mesofaciais foram identificados como face média (N=5; 45,45% ou curta (N=4; 36,36% e os 16 braquifaciais como face média (N=9; 56,25% ou curta (N=7; 43,75%. No sexo feminino, observou-se que 11 entre 20, ou seja, 55% dos indivíduos dolicofaciais foram apontados como face média. Dos 26 sujeitos mesofaciais, 16 (61,53% também foram classificados como face média. Com relação aos 25 braquifaciais, 12 (48% foram identificados como face curta e 11 (44%, como média. CONCLUSÃO: a classificação do tipo de face apenas a partir da análise facial realizada por meio de fotografias não foi considerada confiável, se utilizada isoladamente, quando comparada à classificação obtida a partir da análise cefalométrica.PURPOSE: to correlate the cephalometrical findings with the ones from facial analysis performed by means of photographs to classify facial type, according to the gender. METHODS: 105 leukoderm adults took part, 34 male (32.4% and 71 female (67.6% with ages between 20 and 40 years old, in a private orthodontic clinic in Belo Horizonte, MG - Brazil. The cephalometrics analysis findings for determining facial type from the Ricketts VERT index were compared with the facial classification performed by means of clinical facial analysis based on observation of two photographs. For this analysis, three Speech and Language Pathologists specialized in orofacial myology were involved. RESULTS: there was no satisfactory correspondence when comparing the two forms of facial type classification presented in this study. Most of the dolichofacial males were classified as medium face by means of facial analysis, meaning four among seven subjects (57.14%. The eleven mesofacial subjects were identified as medium face (N=5; 45.45% or short (N=4; 36.36% and the 16 braquifacial subjects as medium face (N=9; 56.25% or short (N=7; 43.75%. With females, it was observed that 11 among 20, meaning 55% of the dolichofacial individuals were appointed as medium face. Among the 26 mesofacial subjects, 16 (61.53% were also classified as medium face. Regarding the 25 braquifacial subjects, 12 (48% were identified as short face and 11 (44%, as medium. CONCLUSION: facial type classification based only on facial analysis performed by means of photographs was not considered trustworthy, if used independently, when compared with cephalometrics analysis findings.

  20. Comparative analysis of the morphology of chin X-ray cephalometry of Cantonese male and female with normal occlusion%广东地区正常男女颏部形态X线头影测量对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈良娇; 陈燕玲; 施婉娓; 胡昀; 张颖婕; 兰泽栋

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the chin morphology of Cantonese with normal occlusion, and to establish the cepha⁃lometric database of the chin morphology for providing reference data for clinical orthodontic treatment and surgical treat⁃ment of Chin. Methods The lateral cephalometrics radiographs of 44 untreated samples (20 men, 24 women) were taken in natural head position, centric oclusion and lip relaxed position. The chin characteristic variables were measured by Winceph 7.0 software three times by one orthodontists. Mean and standard deviations of measurements were determined for each gender. The t⁃test was used to compare the values between males and females. Results The obtained data were statistically analyzed and compared between male and female. There are sex difference in M⁃Me to MP/B⁃Me to MP and B′to Li⁃Pog′(mm). There is no sex difference in Chin curvature. Conclusion The normative data for the Southern Chi⁃nese should be uesd as a guide for diagnosis and treatment of chin deformities. The maxillofacial surgeon and orthodontist should consider the sex difference. Gender differences must be taken into consideration during orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning for the individual patient.%目的:研究广东地区正常人群颏部形态特征,建立颏部形态的X线头影测量数据库,为临床正畸治疗和颏部整形治疗提供数据参考。方法筛选广东地区正常样本44名(男性20名,女性24名),在自然头位、正中位及唇放松状态下拍摄头颅侧位片。应用Winceph 7.0头影测量软件进行定点测量反映颏部形态的角度测量指标、反映颏部硬组织的线距测量项目指标以及反映颏部软组织的线距测量项目等,并对男、女性别的数据进行统计分析。结果广东地区正常人群颏部形态的X线头影测量数据显示颏倾斜度、颏角均具有性别差异。男性的颏倾斜度和颏角均小于女性,差异具有统计学意义(P0.05)。颏部硬组织的线距测量指标均没有性别差异,差异没有统计学意义(P>0.05)。颏唇沟深度男女性别具有差异,男性的颏唇沟深度大于女性(P<0.05)。结论广东地区正常人群颏部形态特征的头影测量数据显示部分指标具有性别差异,在临床正畸治疗和面部整形治疗中应充分考虑颏部形态特征和性别差异。

  1. Cephalometric approach to the occlusal vertical dimension reestablishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielak, João César; Gulin Neto, David; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Deliberador, Tatiana Miranda; Giovanini, Allan Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) refers to the length of the face as determined by the amount of separation of the jaws. Its determination is important for the manufacture of restorations. However, defining the correct occlusal vertical dimension for edentulous patients is one of the most important steps for function and esthetics rehabilitation. Cephalometry is a standardized method of assessing dental and facial proportions and their interrelation. Additionally, cephalometric analysis of the facial vertical dimension can establish an individual pattern for each patient. This analysis should become a permanent part of each patient's record. Hence, this study presented a case report with the use of cephalometry as an auxiliary tool in the rehabilitation of OVD. Clinical relevance showed that cephalometric analysis can be an accurate and convenient instrument to treatment planning and prognostic of oral rehabilitation. The reader should understand the clinical implications of using cephalometry as a tool in the rehabilitation of OVD.

  2. Cephalometric Approach to the Occlusal Vertical Dimension Reestablishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João César Zielak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The occlusal vertical dimension (OVD refers to the length of the face as determined by the amount of separation of the jaws. Its determination is important for the manufacture of restorations. However, defining the correct occlusal vertical dimension for edentulous patients is one of the most important steps for function and esthetics rehabilitation. Cephalometry is a standardized method of assessing dental and facial proportions and their interrelation. Additionally, cephalometric analysis of the facial vertical dimension can establish an individual pattern for each patient. This analysis should become a permanent part of each patient’s record. Hence, this study presented a case report with the use of cephalometry as an auxiliary tool in the rehabilitation of OVD. Clinical relevance showed that cephalometric analysis can be an accurate and convenient instrument to treatment planning and prognostic of oral rehabilitation. The reader should understand the clinical implications of using cephalometry as a tool in the rehabilitation of OVD.

  3. The influence of cephalometrics on orthodontic treatment planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, P.G.; Habets, L.L.M.H.; Aartman, I.H.A.; Zentner, A.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Since its introduction, cephalometrics, i.e. cephalometric radiography and analysis, has been used for orthodontic treatment planning. However, the effectiveness of this diagnostic method remains questionable. A randomized crossover study was designed to assess the infl uence of cephalometri

  4. Cephalometric Approach to the Occlusal Vertical Dimension Reestablishment

    OpenAIRE

    João César Zielak; David Gulin Neto; Leonardo Fernandes da Cunha; Tatiana Miranda Deliberador; Allan Fernando Giovanini

    2014-01-01

    The occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) refers to the length of the face as determined by the amount of separation of the jaws. Its determination is important for the manufacture of restorations. However, defining the correct occlusal vertical dimension for edentulous patients is one of the most important steps for function and esthetics rehabilitation. Cephalometry is a standardized method of assessing dental and facial proportions and their interrelation. Additionally, cephalometric analysis ...

  5. Correlation of Shape and Size of Sella Turcica With the Type of Facial Skeletal Class in an Iranian Group

    OpenAIRE

    Valizadeh; Shahbeig; Mohseni,; MR Azimi; Bakhshandeh

    2015-01-01

    Background In orthodontic science, diagnosis of facial skeletal type (class I, II, and III) is essential to make the correct treatment plan that is usually expensive and complicated. Sometimes results from analysis of lateral cephalometry radiographies are not enough to discriminate facial skeletal types. In this situation, knowledge about the relationship between the shape and size of the sella turcica and the type of facial skeletal class can help to make a more definitive deci...

  6. 锥形束CT三维影像在口腔正畸头影测量中的数据构建和应用%The data reconstruction and application of cone-beam CT three-dimensional impacts in orthodontic cephalometric measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海苗; 陈栋; 潘杰; 陈骊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate methods of three -dimensional images data reconstruction and application in orthodontic cephalometry based on cone-beam CT. Methods Cone-beam CT images data are stored and transmissed by IP SAN.and construction of threee -dimensional impacts and cephalometry are achieved through using Invivo 5.0 software. Results It is feasible to store and transmiss cone-beam CT images data by using IP SAN.Which combined with Invivo 5.0 software can realize three-dimensional data reconstructing and be used for orthodontic application. Conclusion IP SAN is a kind of mature and relatively cheap cone-beam CT technology.and Invivo 5.0 software in orthodontic cephalometry has better clinical value and application prospect.%目的:探索锥形束CT三维影像数据的构建方法及在正畸科头影测量方面的应用价值.方法:通 过IP SAN技术实现锥形束CT图像数据的存储和传输,并利用Invivo 5.0软件实现影像的三维构建和头影测量.结果:IP SAN技术用于锥形 束CT图像数据的存储和传输具有可行性,结合Invivo 5.0软件可以实现影像数据的三维构建并用于正畸科临床.结论:IP SAN技术是一种成熟可靠和相对价廉的锥形束CT影像存储和传输技术,Invivo 5.0软件在正畸科头影测量方面具有较好的临 床价值和应用前景.

  7. Obstructive sleep apnea treatment with dental appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimão, R; De Gouveia, M M; Pestana, M C; Lopes, S R; Papaiz, E G; Papaiz, L F

    1994-12-01

    The case of a 40-year-old male patient with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is reported, with emphasis on treatment with a dental appliance. This therapeutic approach, which has been focused on recent research, has as its objective, the posturing of the mandibule and, consequently, the tongue more anteriorly, thus in turn leading to an increase in the posterior oropharyngeal airway space (PAS). Cephalometry contributed determining in this case whereby enlargement limits were observed in the PAS with mandibular displacement. Clinical and polysomnographic controls showed subjective reduction of the excessive daytime sleepiness and objective decrease in apneas intensity to normal limits. Eight months follow-up evidenced the steady improvement.

  8. Craniofacial Morphology and Growth Comparisons in Children With Robin Sequence, Isolated Cleft Palate, and Unilateral Complete Cleft Lip and Palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, N. V.; Kreiborg, S.; Darvann, Tron Andre

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Comparison of early craniofacial morphology and growth in children with nonsyndromic Robin Sequence (RS), isolated cleft palate (ICP), and unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCCLP). Subjects: One hundred eight children with cleft: 7 with RS, 53 with ICP, and 48 with UCCLP were...... included in the study. The children were drawn from the group of all Danish children with cleft born 1976 through 1981. Method: Three-projection infant cephalometry. Results: The craniofacial morphology in the RS, ICP, and UCCLP groups had some common characteristics: a wide maxilla with decreased length...

  9. Importance of cephalographs in diagnosis of patients with sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimma Vijaya Laxmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is considered to be a potentially life threatening disorder, which is characterized by repeated collapse of the upper airway during sleep with cessation of breathing. The cephalometric method despite being a static, two-dimensional evaluation of dynamic three-dimensional structures of the head and neck is useful in diagnosing patients with OSA, as they have shown that significant differences exist between asymptomatic controls and patients with OSA. Aims and Objectives: This study is designed to compare and validate the craniofacial morphology in patients with OSA using lateral cephalometry in both upright and supine position. Materials and Methods: Sixty subjects participated in the study of which 30 were patients with OSA diagnosed by questionnaire and 30 were healthy control group with age range of 25–45 years. Results: The study group demonstrated an increased ANB, mandibular plane angles (GoGn-SN, lower anterior facial height which are statistically significant with a significant P < 0.05. Significant decrease in posterior airway space, increased soft palate length, tongue length, and thickness suggesting reduced airway space in supine posture. Conclusion: Evaluation of craniofacial morphology in OSA patients using lateral cephalometry helps in recognizing the morphological changes induced by altered sleep pattern and for appropriate treatment planning.

  10. Three-dimensional architectural and structural analysis--a transition in concept and design from Delaire's cephalometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S-H; Kil, T-J; Park, K-R; Kim, B C; Kim, J-G; Piao, Z; Corre, P

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to present a systematic sequence for three-dimensional (3D) measurement and cephalometry, provide the norm data for computed tomography-based 3D architectural and structural cephalometric analysis, and validate the 3D data through comparison with Delaire's two-dimensional (2D) lateral cephalometric data for the same Korean adults. 2D and 3D cephalometric analyses were performed for 27 healthy subjects and the measurements of both analyses were then individually and comparatively analyzed. Essential diagnostic tools for 3D cephalometry with modified definitions of the points, planes, and measurements were set up based on a review of the conceptual differences between two and three dimensions. Some 2D and 3D analysis results were similar, though significant differences were found with regard to craniofacial angle (C1-F1), incisal axis angles, cranial base length (C2), and cranial height (C3). The discrepancy in C2 and C3 appeared to be directly related to the magnification of 2D cephalometric images. Considering measurement discrepancies between 2D and 3D Delaire's analyses due to differences in concept and design, 3D architectural and structural analysis needs to be conducted based on norms and a sound 3D basis for the sake of its accurate application and widespread adoption.

  11. An Innovative Approach to Evaluate the Morphological Patterns of Soft Palate in Oral Submucous Fibrosis Patients: A Digital Cephalometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayesha Thabusum, Dharmavaram; Bhavana, Sujana Mulk

    2016-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic insidious disease affecting mucosa and submucosa of oral cavity and soft palate. The present study aimed to evaluate the morphology of soft palate in normal individuals and OSMF patients using lateral cephalometry and to compare and correlate these variants of soft palate with different stages of OSMF. 100 subjects were included in the study, who were divided into two groups. Group I included 50 subjects with clinical diagnosis of OSMF and Group II included 50 normal subjects (control group). Using digital lateral cephalometry, velar length and width were measured and soft palatal patterns were categorized based on You et al.'s classification. Leaf and rat-tail patterns of soft palate were predominant in control group, whereas butt and crook shaped variants were more in study group. Anteroposterior (A-P) length of soft palate was significantly greater in stage I OSMF, while superoinferior (S-I) width was greater in stage III OSMF. Interestingly, a negative correlation was observed in staging of OSMF and A-P dimensions. As the staging of OSMF advances, the A-P length of soft palate decreases, but S-I width increases. PMID:27034975

  12. Craniofacial differences according to AHI scores of children with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome: cephalometric study in 39 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezdemir, Hueseyin; Mahmutyaziciglu, Kamran; Davsancimath, Halit; Guendogdu, Sadi [Department of Radiology, Medical School, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Kozlu, 67600, Zonguldak (Turkey); Altin, Remzi; Kart, Levent [Department of Pulmonology, Medical School, Zonguldak Karaelmas University (Turkey); Soeguet, Ayhan; Tomac, Nazan [Department of Paediatrics, Medical School, Zonguldak Karaelmas University (Turkey); Cinar, Fikret; Uzun, Lokman [Department of Otolaryngology, Medical School, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, (Turkey)

    2004-05-01

    Cephalometry is useful as a screening test for anatomical abnormalities in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). To evaluate comprehensively the cephalo metric features of children with OSAS, with or without adenotonsillar hypertrophy, and to elucidate the relationship between cephalometric variables and apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) severity. The study population consisted of 39 children, aged 4-12 years, with OSAS. Cephalometry was analysed using 11 measurements of the bony structures, their relationships and the size of the airways. Additionally, adenoid and tonsillar hypertrophy were graded. Cranial base angles (BaSN and BaSPNS) were found to correlate with increasing levels of AHI scores (P<0.001). Protrusion of the maxilla (SNA) and mandible (SNB) did not correlate with AHI scores (P>0.05). The length of the mandibular plane (GnGo) and the minimal posterior airway space (MPAS) were inversely correlated with AHI scores (P<0.001). There was positive correlation between MPAS and GnGo (r=0.740, P<0.001), and negative correlation between MPAS and gonial angle (ArGoGn) (r=-0.541, P<0.001). There was significant correlation between cephalometric data and adenotonsillar hypertrophy concerning BaSN, BaSPNS, ArGoGn, GnGoH, BaN-GnGo, MPAS, GnGO and MPH. (orig.)

  13. Upper airway imaging in sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirrier, Anne-Lise; Fanielle, Julien; Bruwier, Annick; Chakar, Bassam; Poirrier, Robert

    2014-06-01

    Our understanding of sleep-disordered breathing has evolved considerably over the past three decades, and clinical techniques of evaluation have progressed tremendously. Myriad imaging techniques are now available for the physician to approach the dynamic features resulting in turbulent airflow, upper airway narrowing or collapse at different levels. Controversy exists in the choice of investigations, probably because the best evaluation should be a combination of different techniques. Physical, radiographic, endoscopic and acoustic evaluations could be integrated to understand the degree and the levels of airway reduction and/or obstruction in a given patient. This review focuses on cost-effective and easily implemented techniques in daily practice, allowing quality assessment of the dynamic anatomy of sleep-disordered breathing: cephalometry, (sleep-)endoscopy and acoustic reflectometry of the upper airway.

  14. Molar Dua Sulung Sebagai Salah Satu Pencetus Maloklusi Ditinjau Secara Radiografis (Laporan Kasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimawati Muljono

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pengetahuan mengenai kehilangan dini gigi molar-2 sulung sebagai penyebab miringnya gigi molar-1 tetap dan berkurangnya ruangan tempat erupsi gigi kaninus dan premolar, sudah lama diketahui. Dari penelusuran pustaka ternyata masih banyak faktor yang efeknya sama dan penyebabnya gigi molar-2 sulung yang kurang disadari dan belum mendapat perhatian sepenuhnya. Faktor-faktor tersebut adalah : anatomis, karies, ankilose, dan iatrogenik, yang efek lanjutnya bahkan dapat sampai menimbulkan maloklusi. Makalah ini akan mengemukakan suatu kasus, sehubungan dengan keadaan gigi molar-2 sulung yang dapat menjadi salah satu faktor penyebab maloklusi ditinjau secara radiografis dengan foto panoramik dan cephalometri. Ramalan maloklusi gigi geligi tetap dapat dilihat dari proyeksi gambar pergeseran gigi-gigi, kontak oklusi bidang terminal permukaan distal mahkota gigi molar-2 sulung, hubungan kontak gigi molar-1 tetap di foto pasien.

  15. Physical anthropology and the dental and medical specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogman, W M

    1976-11-01

    The rise of two sub-specialties in Physical Antrhopology traces back to the Anatomy Departments of Schools of Medicine in Germany and France during the nineteenth century. The study of human diversity in bones and bodies was largely by medically-trained anatomists. There developed Medical Antropology and Dental Anthropology, employing osteometry and craniometry on the skeleton, somatometry and cephalometry on the living body. As a result cross-sectional studies gave way to longitudinal studies and X-ray techniques were added to purely mensurational procedures. In Medical Anthropology the specialties most directly concerned are pediatrics, plastic surgery, endocrinology, and orthopaedics. In Dental Anthropology the specialties most directly concerned are pedodontics, orthodontics, oral surgery, and prosthodontics. The contributions of Physical Anthropology to each is discussed.

  16. Hubungan Postur Kepala dengan Tumbuh Kembang Mandibula pada Penderita Obstruksi Saluran Napas Atas dengan Kebiasaan Buruk Napas Mulut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erliera Erliera

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the correlations between head posture and mandible growth in Deuteromalayid OURT (obstruction of the upper respiratory tract patients with mouth breathing habit. Material & Methods: The study used cross sectional design for 64 subjects including 32 OURT patients with mouth breathing habit and 32 normal subjects, all 12 to 15 years old. Lateral cephalometry radiograph was taken for head posture measurements and mandibular growth (ramus height, mandibular length, and mandibular rotation measurements. Results: The fraction of subjects with kifosis head posture in OURT with mouth breathing habit (34.4% was larger than that in normal subjects (28.1%. There is no correlation between head posture and OURT with mouth breathing habit, but there is a correlation between OURT with mouth breathing habit and mandibular rotation. Conclusion: Patients with OURT and mouth breathing habit show more vertical growth of mandible than normal subjects.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v15i1.78

  17. Radiographic temporomandibular joint abnormality in adults with micrognathia and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larheim, T.A.; Haanaes, H.R.; Dale, K. (Oslo Univ. (Norway))

    1981-01-01

    Radiographic findings of the upper and lower jaw bone of 20 adult patients with micrognathia, bird face, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis are reported. In all patients a symmetrically underdeveloped mandible with the chin posteriorly positioned was found at cephalometry. Arthritic lesion of the temporomandibular joint, mostly symmetric, with limitation of movement and secondary arthrosis, was observed in all patients. Complete absence of the mandibular head was frequent (75%). The fossa was generally flat, probably due to growth disturbance of the tubercle. Abnormal anterior position of the mandibular head occurred in almost half of the patients. The degree of mandibular growth disturbance seemed to be correlated to the severity of the arthritis, indicating the arthritis to be a causal mechanism of micrognathia.

  18. Natural head position: key position for radiographic and photographic analysis and research of craniofacial complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Gautam, Sanjay N; Prabhat, KC; Kumar, Shailendra

    2012-01-01

    The Frankfort horizontal is a useful compromise for studying skulls but not for orienting the natural head position (NHP) in the living because it is normally distributed around a true extracranial horizontal. Nonetheless, orthodontists dealing with living subjects, rather than inert crania, have used this Frankfort horizontal faithfully in cephalometry. Because the cant or inclination of all intracranial reference lines is subjected to biologic variation, they are unsuitable for meaningful cephalometric analysis. Registration of head posture in its natural position has the advantage that an extracranial vertical or a horizontal perpendicular to that vertical can be used as reference line for cephalometric analysis. Purpose of this paper is to provide an updated review of various methods to reproduce and record the NHP. PMID:25756032

  19. Developing a standardized cephalometric vocabulary: choices and possible strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Randall F; Edgar, Heather; Tatlock, Charles; Kroth, Philip J

    2008-09-01

    The science of cephalometry has been invaluable for guiding orthodontic diagnosis, treatment planning, and outcomes tracking. Though software packages easily calculate most cephalometric measurements, the ability to exchange cephalometric data between software packages is poorly developed. Hindering this effort is the lack of an agreed-upon standard for electronic exchange of cephalometric measurements. Unlike more technological issues, the problem of creating such a standard is one of formalizing decisions already established through historical precedent. Solving this problem will require education, cooperation, and consensus in order to reap the potential improvements to patient care, dental education, and research. The first step in overcoming these remaining issues is awareness. This article reviews those factors that place cephalometric measurements in an excellent position for standardization, outlines those decisions that must be made in order to realize the goal of electronic exchange of cephalometric information, and describes some of the options for these decisions as well as some advantages and disadvantages of each.

  20. Maxillofacial Developmental and Occlusion Disorders in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Torres Molina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a highly prevalent disease that affects approximately 2% of children and is considered a complex entity due to its somatic and cognitive impact. Occlusion and mouth, skull and facial alterations associated with this syndrome are a matter of concern both for specialists in maxillofacial surgery and orthodontists, who are playing an important role in the diagnosis and final treatment of this disease. Guilleminault scoring system allows to evaluate the severity of the anomalies of the facial skeleton and the dental occlusion in these patients, by relying on the physical examination and the cephalometry. Early diagnosis and appropriate therapy reverse maxillofacial developmental disorders in most of the cases.

  1. Obstructive sleep apnea treatment with dental appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Reimão

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The case of a 40-year-old male patient with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is reported, with emphasis on treatment with a dental appliance. This therapeutic approach, which has been focused on recent research, has as its objective, the posturing of the mandibule and, consequently, the tongue more anteriorly, thus in turn leading to an increase in the posterior oropharyngeal airway space (PAS. Cephalometry contributed determining in this case whereby enlargement limits were observed in the PAS with mandibular displacement. Clinical and polysomnographic controls showed subjective reduction of the excessive daytime sleepiness and objective decrease in apneas intensity to normal limits. Eight months follow-up evidenced the steady improvement.

  2. Early Craniofacial Morphology and Growth in Children With Nonsyndromic Robin Sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, N. V.; Kreiborg, S.; Darvann, Tron Andre

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Craniofacial morphology and growth comparisons in children with untreated nonsyndromic Robin Sequence (RS) and a control group with unilateral incomplete cleft lip (UICL) in which the lip was surgically closed at 2 months of age. Material: The 52 children (7 RS and 45 UICL) included...... in the study were drawn from a group representing all Danish cleft children born 1976 through 1981. The ages of the children were 2 and 22 months at the time of examination 1 and 2, respectively. Method: The method of investigation was three-projection cephalometry. Craniofacial morphology was analyzed...... markedly increased posterior maxillary width, increased width of the nasal cavity, short maxilla with reduced posterior height, short mandible, bimaxillary retrognathia, and severe reduction in size of the pharyngeal airway. The amount of facial growth was similar in the two groups; however, a tendency...

  3. A novel approach for craniofacial symmetry evaluation: Using the midsagittal Reference line drawn from “Crista Gali” with NHP technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Ordobazari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Please cite this article as: Ordobazari M, Naqavi Al-Hosseini AA, Zafarmand H. A novel approach for craniofacial symmetry evaluation: Using the midsagittal Reference line drawn from “Crista Gali” with NHP technique. Novel Biomed 2013;1(2:48-53.Background and objective: The purpose of this study was the determination of midsagittal reference line (MSL for craniofacial asymmetry assessment by drawing a line from Crista gali parallel to the true vertical line in PA cephalometry, using Natural Head Position (NHP technique.Method and Materials: 60 Iranian subjects within the age range of 9-13 years old were selected for this prospective study. Patients referred for orthodontic treatment and ghad no supernumerary or missing teeth, no skeletal anomaly, or any history of orthodontic and jaw surgery with normal occlusion. Posteroanterior cephalometric radiographs (PA Ceph were taken of all subjects with NHP technique. The midsagittal line was also traced parallel to the hanging chain from Crista gali. True horizontal line (THL and true vertical line (TVL were also traced from Crista gali (Cg. Using Cartesian system based upon Cg point (0~0, the craniofacial symmetry was assessed with linear, angular and proportional measurements in PA cephalogam, related to TVL and THL lines, for 10 bilateral (R&L anatomical landmarks. The mean differences of the above measurements in left and right sides were analyzed by T- test.Results: The proportional ratios for all left and right measurements were not statistically significant. This was true for both vertical and horizontal distances. The significant level for MSL drawn from Cg as referred to ANS (0±0.255 and Me points (0.007±0.527 was 0.002 and 0.004, respectively.Conclusion: In posteroanterior cephalometry radiographs taken with NHP method, the MSL drawn from Crista gali is reproducible and reliable up to 96% of the times for facial symmetry diagnosis.

  4. 腭裂修复术后软腭形态多样性的研究%Morphological diversity of the soft palate in individuals after palatoplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗弋; 王敤; 王虎

    2015-01-01

    Objective   The objective of this study is to investigate, using the lateral cephalometry, the morphological diversity of the soft palate in individuals after palatoplasty including patients with velopharyngeal incompetence(VPI) and those with velopharyngeal competence(VPC). This study also sheds light on the therapy for cleft palate. Methods As ample comprising 113 in dividuals after palatoplasty was observed in this study. The morphology of the soft palate was observed using lateral cephalometry. Differences in the distribution of morphological types between postoperative VPI and VPC patients were analyzed. Moreover, distribution of morphological types on the basis of age group and gender among the postoperative VPI individuals were also observed. Results  The morphology of the soft palate was classified into six types. Significant differences in the distribution of morphological types between postoperative VPI and VPC patients were observed. Among the postoperative VPC individuals, the proportion between male and female is significantly different. However, no significant difference was found in the distribution of morphological types among age groups. Conclusion  After palatoplasty, the soft palate exhibited various radiographic appearances as revealed by lateral cephalometry. The classification system and the statistical finding spresented in this report are beneficial to the research on velopharyngeal closure in individuals with cleft palate.%目的:   通过X线头颅侧位片研究腭裂修复术后腭咽闭合不全(VPI)患者及腭裂修复

  5. Effects of detachment and repositioning of the medial pterygoid muscle on the growth of the maxilla and mandible of young rats Efeitos do descolamento e do reposicionamento do músculo pterigoideo medial no crescimento da maxila e da mandíbula em ratos jovens

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    Danielli Zamora Cruz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze the effects of detachment and repositioning of the medial pterygoid muscle on the growth of the maxilla and mandible of young rats through cephalometry. METHODS: Thirty one-month-old Wistar rats were used, distributed into three groups: experimental, sham-operated and control. In the experimental group, unilateral detachment and repositioning of the medial pterygoid muscle was performed. The sham-operated group only underwent surgical access, and the control group did not undergo any procedure. The animals were sacrificed at the age of three months. Their soft tissues were removed and the mandible was disarticulated. Radiographs of the skull in axial projection and the hemimandibles in lateral projection were obtained, and cephalometry was performed. The values obtained were subjected to statistical analyses among the groups and between the sides in each group. RESULTS: There were significant differences in the length of the mandible relative to the angular process in the experimental group and in the height of the mandibular body in the sham-operated group. CONCLUSION: The experimental detachment and repositioning of the medial pterygoid muscle during the growth period in rats affected the growth of the angle region, resulting in asymmetry of the mandible.OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do descolamento e reposicionamento do músculo pterigoideo medial no crescimento da maxila e mandíbula em ratos jovens por meio de cefalometria. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 30 ratos Wistar com um mês de idade, distribuídos em três grupos: experimental, controle-operado e controle. No grupo experimental, o descolamento unilateral e reposicionamento do músculo pterigoideo medial foi realizado. O grupo controle-operado foi submetido somente ao acesso cirúrgico e para o grupo controle nenhum procedimento foi realizado. Os animais foram sacrificados aos três meses de idade. Os tecidos moles foram removidos e a mandíbula foi desarticulada

  6. 3D Surgical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  7. Evaluation of craniofacial asymmetry based on cone-beam CT image%应用锥束计算机体层摄影术评价颅颌面的不对称

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓芸; 许天民

    2013-01-01

    Cone-beam CT ( CBCT) was developed for the three-dimensional (3D) imaging of the max-illofacial area and has become popular in dentistry, orthodontics, and maxillofacial surgery. The advantages of CBCT include less radiation exposure (than conventional CT) , less artifacts, and submillimeter spatial resolution. CBCT has been shown to produce accurate 3D images of the craniofacial region and a 1 -to-1 image-to-reality ratio, which has greatly reduced errors of frontal cephalometry and improved our a-bility to diagnose asymmetry. Several new analyses to diagnose asymmetries on 3D images described in recent literature were reviewed, including 3D linear and angular measurements, mirror-image analysis ( superimposition of the mirror image of the anatomically correct part of the anatomy over the deformity) , 3D cephalometric analysis based on constructing an individual coordinate system for each facial unit or element (local coordinate systems) to differentiate them from the world coordinate system ( whole head orientation) , and method of application of asymmetry indices.

  8. MORPHO‐FUNCTIONAL RE‐ESTABLISHMENT OF CRANIO‐FACIAL GROWTH DISORDERS IN PITUITARY DWARFISM BY RHGH THERAPY

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    Adriana BĂLAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the cranio‐facial growth disorders in a series of patients suffering from pituitary dwarfism, as a result of the therapy with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH. Included in the study were 15 children diagnosed with pituitary dwarfism in the Endocrinology Clinics of the ”Sf. Spiridon” Hospital of Iasi, subjected to a treatment with rhGH for 2 years. After the application of the therapy, the parameters of general physical development were followed and the dental ortho‐ pantomography and profile cephalometry were analyzed. The results obtained confirm a general physical growth of about 1.3 cm/month in the first year of treatment, followed by values around 1.1 cm/month in the second year. Cranio‐facial development was improved by the increase of both mandibular vertical branch and facial height. At the level of the dental arches, one could observe improved sagital and transversal relations at molar level, as well as a regulating tendency of dental eruption. The therapy with rhGH is thus influent at cranio‐facial level, favourizing the development of maxillaries, regulation of dental eruption and the aesthetic aspects.

  9. Cephalometric Investigation of First Cervical Vertebrae Morphology and Hyoid Position in Young Adults with Different Sagittal Skeletal Patterns

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    Seher Gündüz Arslan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this retrospective study was to examine hyoid bone position and C1 (atlas morphology in males and females and analyze these parameters with respect to different sagittal skeletal patterns via cephalometry, with the goal of identifying cephalometric norms. Lateral cephalometric radiographs from 120 individuals (average age: 21.1 ± 2.9 years were classified according to their ANB angle (Class I, II, or III and used to assess 14 parameters. Class I and II patients showed significant differences in Hy-NSL, Hy-PD, Hy-CVT, Lum, and a-p measurements. These parameters were consistently larger in males than in females. Intergroup comparisons among males showed significant differences in the SNA, ANB, Hy-CVT, X, and Z measurements. The hyoid was positioned more inferiorly and anteriorly and was more prominent in males than in females in all groups. Among participants exhibiting a Class I skeletal pattern, C1 was also larger in the anterior-posterior direction in males than in females. In the sagittal plane, the hyoid was positioned similarly in males with either Class I or III skeletal patterns but was positioned posteriorly in males with a Class II skeletal pattern. In addition, the vertical position of C1 varied with sagittal skeletal pattern in males.

  10. Evaluation of morphologic changes of mandibular symphysis after chin cup therapy in skeletally Cl III patients

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    Hosseinzadeh Nik T.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Chin cup is an orthopedic appliance for treating growing skeletally Cl III patients. The amount of chin forward movement in addition to morphologic changes in bony structure, determines the final profile of treated patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of morphologic changes of symphysis after chin cup therapy in skeletally Cl III patients.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, twenty eight cephalometries before and after chin cup therapy of 14 skeletally Cl III patients were analyzed. Landmarks introduced by Ricketts were determined to evaluate the symphysis and describe its relation to mandible. َAlso four additional measurements regarding the symphysis individually were evaluated and analyzed. Data were analyzed by paired t and pearson tests with P<0.05 as the level of significance.Results: The results showed that the height of symphysis increased after treatment (P=0.02, but its depth decreased (P=0.04. The sysmphysis turned down and back.Conclusion: These findings suggest that in Cl III malocclusions with a prognathic mandible, chin cup therapy creates changes in the horizontal dimension of symphysis morphology, which improves the Cl III profile. If the patient isn't a vertical grower, vertical changes of symphysis would be desirable. In addition, changes in the vertical dimension of the mandible (body and ramus could be observed as a backward and downward rotation.

  11. Hubungan Antara Nilai Indeks Pertumbuhan Vertikal Wajah dan Kejadian Otitis Media Kronik pada Subras Deutero Melayu Dewasa

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    Henny Widyastuti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vertical growth index (VERT describes craniofacial growth. This value affects the eustachian tube growth. Differences in craniofacial morphology correlates with eustachian tube anatomy function and tensor veli palatini muscles that play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic otitis media (COM. This study aimed to determine the effect of vertical growth index (VERT and cephalometry on COM incident. The design was case-control with subjects from the outpatient clinic of otolaryngology head and neck surgery, Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital during the period of September to November 2013. Subjects were divided into two groups: COM group and control group. Cephalometric measurements were performed and the mean values difference of both groups were calculated using t test or Mann-Whitney test. The mean index VERT was then calculated for each groups and relationship between risk factors and effects were analyzed using Odds Ratio. Four of 7 subjects in the COM group have a short round face/brachifacial type with greater facial depth angle (t=3.408, p=0.005 with smaller mandibular plane angle are (t = - 4.055, p=0.002. Subjects with VERT index > +0.5 (brachyfacial type have eight times higher risk to be COM (OR: 8; 95% CI: 0.41 to 309.1. In conclusion, the VERT index has an association with COM incident in adult Deutero Malays.

  12. Contribution of FGFR1 Variants to Craniofacial Variations in East Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Tomita, Daisuke; Nakawaki, Takatoshi; Kim, Yong-Il; Hikita, Yu; Haga, Shugo; Takahashi, Masahiro; Nadim, Mohamed A.; Kawaguchi, Akira; Isa, Mutsumi; El-Kenany, Walid H.; El-Kadi, Abbadi A.; Park, Soo-Byung; Ishida, Hajime; Maki, Koutaro; Kimura, Ryosuke

    2017-01-01

    FGFR1 plays an important role in the development of the nervous system as well as the regulation of the skeletal development and bone homeostasis. Mutations in FGFR1 genes affect skull development, specifically suture and synchondrosis, resulting in craniosynostosis and facial abnormalities. We examined subjects with normal skull morphology for genetic polymorphisms that might be associated with normal craniofacial variations. Genomic DNA was obtained from 216 Japanese and 227 Korean subjects. Four FGFR1 SNPs, namely, rs881301, rs6996321, rs4647905, and rs13317, were genotyped. These SNPs were tested for association with craniofacial measurements obtained from lateral and posteroanterior cephalometries, in which principle component analysis was performed to compress the data of the craniofacial measurements. We observed that SNPs rs13317 and rs6996321 were correlated with the overall head size and midfacial development, indicating that FGFR1 SNPs played crucial roles in the normal variation of human craniofacial morphology. Subjects with the derived alleles of SNPs rs13317 and rs6996321 had a small face and a facial pattern associated with a retruded midface and relatively wide-set eyes. These facial features were similar to but were milder than those of individuals with Pfeiffer syndrome, which is caused by a dysfunctional mutation in FGFR1. PMID:28129408

  13. Upper airway outcomes following midface distraction osteogenesis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, B A; Brace, M; Hong, P

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to systematically review the airway outcomes following distraction osteogenesis of midface with the goal of (1) deriving clinically oriented insights and (2) identifying gaps in knowledge to stimulate future research. Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched and studies were included if subjects of any age had midface retrusion/hypoplasia and underwent midface distraction osteogenesis. Outcome measures of interest were any respiratory or airway associated measures, and reports of adverse events. A total of 368 abstracts were generated from the literature searches; 16 studies met the criteria for data extraction and analysis. All 16 studies were observational. Generally, midface distraction osteogenesis was reported to improve respiratory status and was well tolerated. Specifically, favorable outcomes in cephalometry (9 studies), polysomnography (9 studies), and decannulation rates (8 studies) were reported. In conclusion, upper airway status was improved in most patients who underwent midface distraction osteogenesis, yet long-term results and consistent objective measures are lacking. Studies reviewed were retrospective case series and details regarding patients who did not improve were deficient. A standardized prospective multicenter cohort trial with long-term patient follow up is required.

  14. Computer-Designed Splints for Surgical Transfer of 3D Orthognathic Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinser, Max; Zoeller, Joachim

    2015-10-01

    Advances in computers and imaging have permitted the adoption of three-dimensional (3D) planning protocols in orthognathic surgery, which may allow a paradigm shift when the computer-assisted planning can be transferred properly. The purpose of this investigation was to introduce an innovative clinical protocol using computer-aided designed and computer-aided manufactured (CAD/CAM) surgical splints for surgical transfer of 3D orthognathic planning compared with the classic technique using arbitrary occlusal splints. The clinical protocols consisted of computed tomography (CT) or cone-beam CT (CBCT) maxillofacial imaging, bone segmentation, 3D diagnosis, computer-assisted surgical treatment planning, and CAD/CAM surgical splints (group A) and manufacture of arbitrary occlusal splints (group B) for intraoperative surgical planning transfer. The observed patients underwent bimaxillary osteotomies and, if necessary, an additional genioplasty. Both techniques were evaluated by applying 13 hard tissue parameters to compare the 3D orthognathic planning (T0) with the postoperative result (T1) using 3D cephalometry. The CAD/CAM splints showed significant better precision for the maxilla (ΔT orthognathic planning, which is more precise compared with the conventional arbitrary occlusal splints.

  15. Cephalometric methods of prediction in orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokitha, Olga-Elpis; Topouzelis, Nikolaos

    2011-09-01

    Over the past decade the growing number of adult patients seeking for orthodontic treatment made orthognathic surgery popular. Surgical and orthodontic techniques have developed to the point where combined orthodontic and surgical treatment is now feasible to manage dentofacial deformity problems very satisfactorily. The prediction of orthognathic treatment outcome is an important part of orthognathic planning and the process of patient' inform consent. The predicted results must be presented to the patients prior to treatment in order to assess the treatment's feasibility, optimize case management and increase patient understanding and acceptance of the recommended treatment. Cephalometrics is a routine part of the diagnosis and treatment planning process and also allows the clinician to evaluate changes following orthognathic surgery. Traditionally cephalometry has been employed manually; nowadays computerized cephalometric systems are very popular. Cephalometric prediction in orthognathic surgery can be done manually or by computers, using several currently available software programs, alone or in combination with video images. Both manual and computerized cephalometric prediction methods are two-dimensional and cannot fully describe three-dimensional phenomena. Today, three-dimensional prediction methods are available, such as three-dimensional computerized tomography (3DCT), 3D magnetic resonance imaging (3DMRI) and surface scan/cone-beam CT. The aim of this article is to present and discuss the different methods of cephalometric prediction of the orthognathic surgery outcome.

  16. Morphological changes of the facial skeleton in Class II/1 patients treated with orthodontic functional appliances

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    Dana Festila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate, using lateral cephalometry, the skeletal changes in maxillary bones induced through functional jaw orthopedic therapy. 30 patients with class II division 1 malocclusion and average age of 10.4 years were included in the study. Material and Methods: Cephalometric data were analyzed with the following methods: Burstone, McNamara, Rickets, Tweed and Wits and treatment changes were evaluated overlapping the lateral cephalograms on cranial base with sella registered. Results: The results showed reduced over-jet in average with 2.46 mm, mandibular advancement with a mean value of 2.72 mm and increasing of the total mandibular length with a mean value of 4.17 mm. Although we found an inhibiting in the anterior development of the maxilla with an average of 1.57 degree, the decrease of the anterior-posterior discrepancy was due especially to the mandible. Conclusions: It can be concluded that functional appliances were effective in correcting class II malocclusion. Changes of the position and mandible′s length determined improved facial profile but did not correct it completely because of the chin that moved not only anterior but also downward, as a result of vertical ramus growth.

  17. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy as a risk factor of dentofacial abnormality in Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Kyu; Rhee, Chae Seo; Yun, Pil-Young; Kim, Jeong-Whun

    2015-11-01

    No studies for the role of adenotonsillar hypertrophy in development of dentofacial abnormalities have been performed in Asian pediatric population. Thus, we aimed to investigate the relationship between adenotonsillar hypertrophy and dentofacial abnormalities in Korean children. The present study included consecutive children who visited a pediatric clinic for sleep-disordered breathing due to habitual mouth breathing, snoring or sleep apnea. Their palatine tonsils and adenoids were graded by oropharyngeal endoscopy and lateral cephalometry. Anterior open bite, posterior crossbite, and Angle's class malocclusions were evaluated for dentofacial abnormality. The receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was used to identify age cutoffs to predict dentofacial abnormality. A total of 1,083 children were included. The presence of adenotonsillar hypertrophy was significantly correlated with the prevalence of dentofacial abnormality [adjusted odds ratio = 4.587, 95% CI (2.747-7.658)] after adjusting age, sex, body mass index, allergy, and Korean version of obstructive sleep apnea-18 score. The cutoff age associated with dentofacial abnormality was 5.5 years (sensitivity = 75.5%, specificity = 67%) in the children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy and 6.5 years (sensitivity = 70.6%, specificity = 57%) in those without adenotonsillar hypertrophy. In conclusion, adenotonsillar hypertrophy may be a risk factor for dentofacial abnormalities in Korean children and early surgical intervention could be considered with regards to dentofacial abnormality.

  18. Relevance of anterior mandibular body ostectomy in mandibular prognathism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Pankaj; Singh, Virender; Anand, S. C.; Bansal, Sumidha

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We tried to find out the relevance of anterior mandibular body ostectomy in deformities of the mandible specially prognathism, which is primarily limited to anterior part only. Patients and Methods: Ten patients with skeletal deformity along with malocclusion, which was limited to anterior body of mandible were selected. Selected patients had proper molar interdigitation (even if class 3) and in general had anterior crossbite (except one). All patients had crossed their growth spurts and had no hormonal influence on facial deformity. Specific protocol, including cephelometric analysis cephalometry for orthognathic surgery, prediction tracing and model surgeries were devised. Pre and post-surgical orthodontics and body ostectomy were performed in all patients along with 18-month post-op follow-up. Results: There was significant reduction in prognathism and horizontal dysplasia in all ten patients. Anterior crossbite as well as axis of incisiors over mandibular plane was corrected in all patients due to decrease in length of mandibular body. All patients showed decreased facial height and better lip competence with intact posterior occlusion and no (negligible or transient) sensory loss. Conclusions: Our study could confirm that people whose deformity is limited to the anterior part of mandible with reasonable occlusion posteriorly can get satisfactory cosmetic and functional results through body ostectomy alone rather than going for surgical procedure in the ramal area, which is liable to cause sensory and occlusal disturbances. PMID:24163554

  19. Computer-assisted orthognathic surgery: waferless maxillary positioning, versatility, and accuracy of an image-guided visualisation display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinser, Max J; Mischkowski, Robert A; Dreiseidler, Timo; Thamm, Oliver C; Rothamel, Daniel; Zöller, Joachim E

    2013-12-01

    There may well be a shift towards 3-dimensional orthognathic surgery when virtual surgical planning can be applied clinically. We present a computer-assisted protocol that uses surgical navigation supplemented by an interactive image-guided visualisation display (IGVD) to transfer virtual maxillary planning precisely. The aim of this study was to analyse its accuracy and versatility in vivo. The protocol consists of maxillofacial imaging, diagnosis, planning of virtual treatment, and intraoperative surgical transfer using an IGV display. The advantage of the interactive IGV display is that the virtually planned maxilla and its real position can be completely superimposed during operation through a video graphics array (VGA) camera, thereby augmenting the surgeon's 3-dimensional perception. Sixteen adult class III patients were treated with by bimaxillary osteotomy. Seven hard tissue variables were chosen to compare (ΔT1-T0) the virtual maxillary planning (T0) with the postoperative result (T1) using 3-dimensional cephalometry. Clinically acceptable precision for the surgical planning transfer of the maxilla (orthognathic planning.

  20. EVALUATION OF ANB ANGLE IN DETERMINATION OF A-P POSITION OF MAXILLA AND MANDIBLE

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    SH ALAVI

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The ANB angle has been recognized as a skeletal sagittal discrepancy indicator and has become the most commonly used measurement since that time. It seems this angle is affected by several factors other than the anteroposterior position of maxilla and mandible.
    Methods. Tracing on lateral cephalometry films was done for 110 untreated cases with class I, II, III malocclusions. regression analysis was used to describe the proportion of the distorting factors caused by usual changes in the cranial and facial skeleton.
    Results. ANB mean differences between malocclusion groups was significant. Regression analysis between ANB, SN/MP and SNA angles in all groups was significant. The highest coefficient of determination was found in class I sample and the lowest was found in class II sample.
    Discussion. The results revealed that another factors can influence of ANB angle. These factors are rotation of SN plane, the length of the SN and rotation of jaws. Thus the use of normal range for ANB angle in determination of sagittal position of maxilla and mandible is incorrect and it must substitute with accurate parameters.

  1. [Imaging of oto-mandibular dysplasias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, P; Leboucq, N; Bigorre, M

    2001-10-01

    The modern imaging opened a possibility of precise exploration of otomandibular dysplasias. The techniques of browsing by IRM and CT Scan and the software of image processing which is associated with these techniques (three-dimensional, superposition and removing of the anatomical structures) allow to carry out a true anatomical dissection of the whole of these malformative syndromes. The study of the skeletal anomalies gains by specifying the disorders of development of the various mandibular segments: temporomandibular joint, ramus and horizontal branch and also, all cranio-maxillar structures: orbital rim, cranial basis. Study of masticatory muscles shows an important damage correlated with skeletal troubles and performs a grading of morphological and functional gravity. This analytical study emphasizes some malformative axis: malar axis in cases of mandibulofacial dystosis, temporomandibular axis in hemifacial microsomia. Modern imaging can appreciate, by development of three-dimensional cephalometry, growth anomalies and quantification of post therapeutical results. At last usefulness of imaging appears in therapeutic modelisation and in the field of Computer-Aided Planning of surgical techniques of osteotomies and overall maxillaries distractions.

  2. Evaluation of Correlation between Some Intra and Extra Cranial Horizontal Cephalometric Parameters

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    K Asadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intra-cranial references plans used in cephalometry analysis are not considered as stable points and therefore their validity is low; however they are widely used. The purpose of conducting this study is to investigate correlation rate of a number of horizontal parameters of extra-cranial with common Horizontal analyses. Methods: In this descriptive and periodic study, lateral cephalometric radiography in NHP position for 46 patients (24 women and 22 men in range of 22- 28 years old was prepared; all graphs were prepared by a person using the same device; then after tracing, correlation coefficient was achieved between TH/AB and TH-wist, wylie, wits, TH-wits McNamara, Schwartz, APP-BPP, and Downs. Results: The highest rate of correlation was observed between TH-wits linear parameters and angular parameters of AB/TH (r=0.975 which was statistically significant. ANB parameter had low correlation with Wylie analysis (r=+0.365 that was definitely significant. ANB angular parameters with other horizontal dimension parameters showed the highest correlation with Downs analysis (r=-0.870 and linear parameter APP-BPP (r=+0.730 which were statistically significant too. Conclusions: In this study the highest correlation coefficient was shown between TH/AB and TH-wits, ANB and Downs, Downs and wits, ANB and APP-BPP respectively.

  3. The effects of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) on modified Le Fort I osteotomy healing in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschueren, D S; Gassner, R; Mitchell, R; Mooney, M P

    2005-09-01

    Osteogenesis following surgery depends on the osteoblasts at the wound site. Fibrous nonunions may be the result of differential and rapid migration of fibroblasts compared to osteoblasts into the wound. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis through the use of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) in a rabbit model. Bilateral, Le Fort I osteotomies (n=20) were produced in the maxillae of 10 New Zealand White rabbits. The segments were advanced 6mm and rigidly fixed using microplates and screws. One side was covered with a resorbable collagen membrane or left uncovered. Rabbits were followed for four weeks with radiographs and the maxillae were harvested for histology. Cephalometry revealed that membrane-covered defects had significantly (Ptissue than uncovered defects. Histomorphometry revealed that membrane covered defects had significantly (P<0.05) reduced defect areas (by approximately 20%) compared to uncovered defects. While findings suggest that GTR can facilitate osseous wound healing in Le Fort I osteotomies, results also caution against relying exclusively on two-dimensional radiography to assess bony wound healing in lieu of three-dimensional imaging and evaluations.

  4. Medidas faciais antropométricas de adultos segundo tipo facial e sexo Adult facial anthropometric measurements according to facial type and gender

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    Rossana Ribeiro Ramires

    2011-04-01

    from the cephalometric analysis were compared for determining facial type with seven direct anthropometric measurements: anterior face height- nasion to menton; distance bizygomatique- zygion left to right; lower face height- subnasale to menton; middle face height- nasion to stomion; chin height- supramenton to menton; inferior face height- stomion to menton; and posterior face height- condylion to gonion. RESULTS: for male, the facial types classified by means of cephalometry had significant statistical differences for the average values of the anthropometric measurements: anterior face height, lower face height, middle face height and inferior face height. For female, significant statistical differences were found in the following measurements: anterior face height, lower face height, middle face height, inferior face height and posterior face height. CONCLUSION: there was sexual dimorphism for all collected anthropometric measurements. The male showed higher average values when compared with the female. The facial types classified by means of cephalometry showed significant statistical differences in four anthropometric measurements, for male and five for female.

  5. 完全性唇腭裂婴儿期手术对上颌骨发育的影响%The effect of early cleft palate repair on maxillary growth in infantile complete cleft lip and palate children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵瑞红

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To obsewe the effect of infantile cleft palate repair on maxillary growth in children with complete cleft lip and palate. Methods: 18 children with complete cleft lip and palate were divided into two groups according to whether cleft palate repair was performed or not in infancy. In the one-stage repair group, 10 children received cleft lip and palate repair in infancy, the mean age was (10.15±0.76) years in follow-up. In the cleft lip repair group (10 patients),cleft lip repair was performed without cleft palate surgery in infancy, the mean age of this group was (10.25±0.75) years in follow-up. 20 cases of noncleft children (ages lO) were normal control group. The X-ray cephalometry and dentognathic models of three groups were obtained and compared. Results: The data analysis of cephalometry and dental cast showed that the difference between the two groups had no obvious significance (P>0.05); but compared with the normal group, the cleft lip and palate patients all had the growth inhibition (P<0.05). Conclusion: The cleft palate repair is not the reason of the difference existing;. Earlier cleft palate operation is favorable to functional recovery for infants.%目的:观察婴儿早期行唇腭裂手术对完全性唇腭裂患儿上颌骨发育的近期影响.方法:18例完全性唇腭裂患儿在婴儿期接受唇腭裂手术作为唇腭裂修复组,随访时平均年龄(10.15±0.76)岁;10例未行唇腭裂手术的单纯唇裂患儿为单纯唇腭裂组,随访时平均年龄(10.25±0.75)岁;另20例正常的10岁龄学童作为正常对照组.三组分别取头颅侧位片与上牙颌模型,进行测量分析.结果:两组唇腭裂患儿之间的上颌骨发育无明显差异(P>0.05),与正常对照组比较,均有生长抑制(P<0.05).结论:早期对完全性唇腭裂患儿行唇裂修复术对上颌骨发育的影响不大,还可以使患者获得正常的语言功能.

  6. Premaxillary Repositioning in the Severe Form of Bilateral Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyung S; Han, Woo Yeon; Jeong, Woo Shik; Oh, Tae Suk; Kwon, Sun Man; Choi, Jong Woo

    2016-09-01

    Severe forms of bilateral cleft lip and palate remain a challenging issue. Although nasoalveolar molding dramatically improves overall treatment success, the position of the premaxilla often remains dislocated. The authors attempted to relocate the malpositioned premaxilla into the correct position to obtain the correct three-dimensional (3D) maxillary arch structure and growth. Eight patients with severe bilateral cleft lip and palate were treated with premaxillary osteotomy for premaxilla repositioning. The position of the premaxilla was measured directly using cephalometry. Two raters including orthodontists evaluated the 3D (anteroposterior, transverse, and sagittal) outcomes. Regarding the long-term effects of premaxillary repositioning on midfacial growth, 3D computed tomography scan data were used, including the measurement of the SNA, SNB, and ANB angles according to the time period (T0: preoperative; T1: immediate postoperative; T2: long-term postoperative). All bilateral cleft lips and palates were satisfactorily repaired without any complications, including any premaxillary vascular compromise, nonunion, and occlusal instability. The average visual analog scale scores (0-5) of the anteroposterior, vertical, and transverse dimensions were 3.9, 3.7, and 3.2, respectively. Regarding the effect of premaxillary repositioning on midfacial hypoplasia, the change in the ANB between T1 and T2 was not significant, implying that premaxillary repositioning did not affect the long-term harmony between the maxilla and mandible (ANB of T2-T1: P = 0.1016) based on interim growth data at the time of follow-up and study completion. Premaxillary repositioning effectively corrected the malpositioned premaxilla and repaired the accompanying wide alveolar cleft, achieving successful restoration of maxillary arch coordination. In addition, premaxillary osteotomy after 8 years of age does not seem to cause significant maxillary retrusion.

  7. Craniocervical Posture in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

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    Piccin, Chaiane Facco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA is characterized by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep. Objective The objective of this study is to verify the craniofacial characteristics and craniocervical posture of OSA and healthy subjects, determining possible relationships with the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI. Methods This case-control study evaluated 21 subjects with OSA, who comprised the OSA group (OSAG, and 21 healthy subjects, who constituted the control group (CG. Cephalometry analyzed head posture measurements, craniofacial measurements, and air space. Head posture was also assessed by means of photogrammetry. Results The groups were homogeneous regarding gender (12 men and 9 women in each group, age (OSAG = 41.86 ± 11.26 years; GC = 41.19 ± 11.20 years, and body mass index (OSAG = 25.65 ± 2.46 kg/m2; CG = 24.72 ± 3.01 kg/m2. We found significant differences between the groups, with lower average pharyngeal space and greater distance between the hyoid bone and the mandibular plane in OSAG, when compared with CG. A positive correlation was found between higher head hyperextension and head anteriorization, with greater severity of OSA as assessed by AHI. Conclusion OSAG subjects showed changes in craniofacial morphology, with lower average pharyngeal space and greater distance from the hyoid bone to the mandibular plane, as compared with healthy subjects. Moreover, in OSA subjects, the greater the severity of OSA, the greater the head hyperextension and anteriorization.

  8. Clinical study of improved Activator on the treatment of Angle class Ⅱ malocclusion in mixed dentition%改良式肌激动器治疗替牙期安氏Ⅱ类错(牙合)的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩敏; 王春玲; 高晓丽; 曲竹丽; 呼明燕; 刘铃; 王海任

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the treatment effects of improved activator on patients with Angle Class Ⅱ malocclusion in mixed dentition. Methods According to criteria of the study, six patients with Angle Class Ⅱ malocclusion in mixed dentition were selected and treated with improved Activator. Cephalometrie analysis was performed before and after treatment. Results 1 ) Angle ANB was improved; 2 ) After treatment, overjet and molar relationship was improved; 3 ) Ten wearing hours was needed for treatment everyday; 4)The treatment duration was (5.3 ± 1.4) months. Conclusions Improved Activator could be used for both Angle Class Ⅱ Division 1 malocclusion and Division 2 malocclusion.%目的 观察替牙期安氏Ⅱ类错牙合畸形患者戴用改良式肌激动器后的临床效果.方法 选择符合纳入标准的6名替牙期安氏Ⅱ类错牙 合患者为研究对象,运用改良式肌激动器进行矫治,对患者治疗前后的X线头颅侧位片进行测量、分析和比较.结果 治疗后,患者ANB角均达到正常范围,前牙覆牙 合、覆盖正常,磨牙和尖牙达中性关系;患者戴用肌激动器的时间为平均每天10 h;总疗程平均为(5.3±1.4)个月.结论 改良式肌激动器能够矫治安氏Ⅱ类1分类、2分类错牙合畸形.

  9. Korelasi indeks morfologi wajah dengan sudut interinsisal dan tinggi wajah secara sefalometri (Cephalometric correlation of facial morphology index with interincisal angle and facial height

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    Pricillia Priska Sianita K

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In a disaster or criminal case, comprehensive information is needed for identification process of each victim. Especially for some cases that only leave skull without any information that could help the identification process, including face reconstruction that will be needed. One way of identifications is specific face characteristic, race, some head-neck measurements, such as facial morphology index, interincisal angle and facial height. Purpose: The aim of study was to determine the correlation of facial morphology index with interincisal angle and facial height through cephalometric measurement. Methods: The samples were cephalogram of 31 subjects (Deutro-Malayid race who met the inclusive criteria. Cephalometric analysis were done to all samples and followed by Pearson Correlation statistical test. Results: The correlation was found between facial morphology index and facial height, but no correlation between facial morphology index and interincisal angle. Conclusion: The study showed that the cephalometric measurement of facial morphology index and facial height could be used as the additional information for identification process.Latar belakang: Dalam bencana alam atau kasus kriminal informasi yang komprehensif diperlukan untuk proses identifikasi masing korban. Khususnya pada beberapa kasus yang hanya meninggalkan tengkorak tanpa informasi yang dapat membantu proses identifikasi, termasuk rekonstruksi wajah yang akan dibutuhkan. Salah satu cara identifikasi karakteristik wajah tertentu, ras, beberapa pengukuran kepala leher, seperti indeks morfologi wajah, sudut interincisal dan tinggi wajah. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan meneliti korelasi indeks morfologi wajah dengan sudut interincisal dan tinggi wajah melalui pengukuran sefalometrik. Metode: Sampel penelitian adalah cephalogram dari 31 subyek ras Deutro - Malayid ras yang memenuhi kriteria inklusif. Analisis cephalometri dilakukan pada semua sampel dan dilanjutkan

  10. 3D analysis of condylar remodelling and skeletal relapse following bilateral sagittal split advancement osteotomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Tong; Schreurs, Ruud; van Loon, Bram; de Koning, Martien; Bergé, Stefaan; Hoppenreijs, Theo; Maal, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    A major concern in mandibular advancement surgery using bilateral sagittal split osteotomies (BSSO) is potential postoperative relapse. Although the role of postoperative changes in condylar morphology on skeletal relapse was reported in previous studies, no study so far has objectified the precise changes of the condylar volume. The aim of the present study was to quantify the postoperative volume changes of condyles and its role on skeletal stability following BSSO mandibular advancement surgery. A total of 56 patients with mandibular hypoplasia who underwent BSSO advancement surgery were prospectively enrolled into the study. A cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan was acquired preoperatively, at 1 week postoperatively and at 1 year postoperatively. After the segmentation of the facial skeleton and condyles, three-dimensional cephalometry and condylar volume analysis were performed. The mean mandibular advancement was 4.6 mm, and the mean postoperative relapse was 0.71 mm. Of 112 condyles, 55% showed a postoperative decrease in condylar volume, with a mean reduction of 105 mm(3) (6.1% of the original condylar volume). The magnitude of condylar remodelling (CR) was significantly correlated with skeletal relapse (p = 0.003). Patients with a CR greater than 17% of the original condylar volume exhibited relapse as seen in progressive condylar resorption. Female patients with a high mandibular angle who exhibited postoperative CR were particularly at risk for postoperative relapse. Gender, preoperative condylar volume, and downward displacement of pogonion at surgery were prognostic factors for CR (r(2) = 21%). It could be concluded that the condylar volume can be applied as a useful 3D radiographic parameter for the diagnosis and follow-up of postoperative skeletal relapse and progressive condylar resorption.

  11. Cephalic And Prosopic Indices: Comparison In One-Day Newborn Boys In Zahedan

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    Heidari Z

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cephalometry is one of the important branches of anthropometry that has wide uses in identification, forensic medicine, plastic surgery, orthodontics, archeology and determining the origins of races. This research was investigated to determine the head and face phenotypes among one-day newborn boys in two aborigines of Sistani and Baluchi who were resident in Zahedan. Materials and Methods: The investigation is based on cross-sectional analytical descriptions of 420 newborn aborigine boys (216 Sistani & 204 Baluchi, who were clinically healthy, in Quds hospital in summer 1381, in Zahedan. In this study cephalic and prosopic indices were determined by classical cephalometric. Results: The mean and the standard deviations of cephalic index were 83.67±4.80 and 83.64±4.77 and prosopic index 86.79±5.87 and 86.53±6.76 for Sistani and Baluchi subjects respectively. Based on the cephalic index, the dominant head types in sistani group were hyperbrachycephalic (37% and brachycephalic (37%. In Blachui group, the hyperbrachycephalic (37.3% and brachycephalic (35.3% type were the dominant one. Furthermore, according to the prosopic index. The dominant face type among sistanis was euryprosopic type (42.6%. In Baluchi group, the dominant face type was also euryprosopic (39.2%. Conclusion: This research showed no statistically significant differences in terms of head and face type indices between two aborigines of Zahedan. Based on this cross-sectional study, it seems that there is similarities between the aforementioned groups

  12. A clinical observation on interocclusal labial arch appliance treatment of functional crossbite of transitional dentition%颌间唇弓式活动矫正器治疗替牙期反牙合的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    目的介绍一种临床上行之有效的治疗替牙期功能性反牙合的矫治方法。方法选择25例替牙期反牙合的患者。男18例,女7例,平均年龄10.5岁。均为替牙期功能性反牙合,X线头影测量显示部分病例为轻度下颌前突。结果平均疗程为1个月,SNB、ANB、LI-MP经统计学处理有显著性差异。结论颌间唇弓式矫治器治疗儿童早期功能性反牙合效果肯定。与其他矫治器比较,具有结构简单,疗程短的优点。%Objective To introduce an effective clinical appliance for functional crossbite of transitional dentition.Methods Twenty-Five cases of functional crossbite of transtional dentition,18 male cases and 7 female cases.The average age was 10.5 years.X-ray cephalometry showed some cases with light mandibular prognathism.Results Average course of treatment is one month,SNB,ANB and LI-MP showed significant statistical differences.Conclusion Interocclusal labial arch appliance is an effective method for treatment of children's functional crossbite in early stage.It has simpler structure and shorter course of treatment comparing with other appliance.

  13. Novel information theory based method for superimposition of lateral head radiographs and cone beam computed tomography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, W; Nyssen, E; Bottenberg, P; de Groen, P; Vande Vannet, B

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to introduce a novel alignment criterion, focus mutual information (FMI), for the superimposition of lateral cephalometric radiographs and three dimensional (3D) cone beam computed images as well as the assessment of the alignment characteristics of the new method and comparison of the novel methodology with the region of interest (ROI) approach. Methods Implementation of a FMI criterion-based methodology that only requires the approximate indication of stable structures in one single image. The robustness of the method was first addressed in a phantom experiment comparing the new technique with a ROI approach. Two consecutive cephalometric radiographs were then obtained, one before and one after functional twin block application. These images were then superimposed using alignment by FMI where the following were focused on, in several ways: (1) cranial base and acoustic meatus, (2) palatal plane and (3) mandibular symphysis. The superimposed images were subtracted and coloured. The applicability to cone beam CT (CBCT) is illustrated by the alignment of CBCT images acquired before and after craniofacial surgery. Results The phantom experiment clearly shows superior alignment when compared to the ROI approach (Wilcoxon n = 17, Z = −3.290, and P = 0.001), and robustness with respect to the choice of parameters (one-sample t-test n = 50, t = −12.355, and P = 0.000). The treatment effects are revealed clearly in the subtraction image of well-aligned cephalometric radiographs. The colouring scheme of the subtraction image emphasises the areas of change and visualizes the remodelling of the soft tissue. Conclusions FMI allows for cephalometry without tracing, it avoids the error inherent to the use of landmarks and the interaction of the practitioner is kept to a minimum. The robustness to focal distribution variations limits the influence of possible examiner inaccuracy. PMID:20395459

  14. Frontal soft tissue analysis using a 3 dimensional camera following two-jaw rotational orthognathic surgery in skeletal class III patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong Woo; Lee, Jang Yeol; Oh, Tae-Suk; Kwon, Soon Man; Yang, Sung Joon; Koh, Kyung Suk

    2014-04-01

    Although two dimensional cephalometry is the standard method for analyzing the results of orthognathic surgery, it has potential limits in frontal soft tissue analysis. We have utilized a 3 dimensional camera to examine changes in soft tissue landmarks in patients with skeletal class III dentofacial deformity who underwent two-jaw rotational setback surgery. We assessed 25 consecutive Asian patients (mean age, 22 years; range, 17-32 years) with skeletal class III dentofacial deformities who underwent two-jaw rotational surgery without maxillary advancement. Using a 3D camera, we analyzed changes in facial proportions, including vertical and horizontal dimensions, facial surface areas, nose profile, lip contour, and soft tissue cheek convexity, as well as landmarks related to facial symmetry. The average mandibular setback was 10.7 mm (range: 5-17 mm). The average SNA changed from 77.4° to 77.8°, the average SNB from 89.2° to 81.1°, and the average occlusal plane from 8.7° to 11.4°. The mid third vertical dimension changed from 58.8 mm to 57.8 mm (p = 0.059), and the lower third vertical dimension changed from 70.4 mm to 68.2 mm (p = 0.0006). The average bigonial width decreased from 113.5 mm to 109.2 mm (p = 0.0028), the alar width increased from 34.7 mm to 36.1 mm (p-value = 0.0002), and lip length was unchanged. Mean mid and lower facial surface areas decreased significantly, from 171.8 cm(2) to 166.2 cm(2) (p = 0.026) and from 71.23 cm(2) to 61.9 cm(2) (p analysis for orthognathic surgery, and enabled quantitative analysis of changes in frontal soft tissue landmarks and facial proportions that were not possible with conventional 2D cephalometric analysis.

  15. Maxillofacial Developmental and Occlusion Disorders in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Alteraciones del desarrollo maxilofacial y de la oclusión en el niño con síndrome de apnea obstructiva del sueño

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    Alexander Torres Molina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a highly prevalent disease that affects approximately 2% of children and is considered a complex entity due to its somatic and cognitive impact. Occlusion and mouth, skull and facial alterations associated with this syndrome are a matter of concern both for specialists in maxillofacial surgery and orthodontists, who are playing an important role in the diagnosis and final treatment of this disease. Guilleminault scoring system allows to evaluate the severity of the anomalies of the facial skeleton and the dental occlusion in these patients, by relying on the physical examination and the cephalometry. Early diagnosis and appropriate therapy reverse maxillofacial developmental disorders in most of the cases.El síndrome de apnea obstructiva del sueño constituye una enfermedad de alta prevalencia, que afecta aproximadamente al 2 % de la población infantil, se considera una compleja entidad por su repercusión somática y cognoscitiva. Las alteraciones bucocraneofaciales y de la oclusión asociadas a este síndrome constituyen un tema de preocupación tanto para los especialistas en cirugía maxilofacial como para los ortodoncistas, los cuales han comenzado a jugar un papel importante en el diagnóstico y tratamiento definitivo de esta enfermedad. El sistema de puntuación de Guilleminault permite evaluar la severidad de las anomalías del esqueleto facial y de la oclusión dentaria en estos pacientes, al apoyarse en el examen físico y la cefalometría. El diagnóstico precoz y la terapéutica adecuada revierten las alteraciones del desarrollo maxilofacial en la mayoría de los casos.

  16. Collimator with compensated filtration: clinical adaptation for recommendation 4f of the EU about the radiation protection in oral dental radiology; Colimador con filtracion compensada: adaptacion clinica para alcanzar la recomendacion 4F de la Union Europea sobre proteccion radiologica al paciente en radiologia odontologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, M.; Garcia-Vera, C.; Bravo, C. La; Morant, J. J.; Armedo, D. Y.; Canteras, M.

    2006-07-01

    Recent recommendations by the European Union (2004) for performing lateral cranial cephalometry (LCC) state that collimation should be maximized so that only those tissues necessary are irradiated when performing clinical diagnoses, although the fact that many manufacturers do not incorporate these elements in their equipment design has been recognised (recommendations 4f). Aim: the manufacture and utilization of a collimator with a pre-patient compensating filter for LLC which may be used in most extraoraldental radiology units, as well as determining the reduction in the dose of radiation absorbed by more sensitive tissues exposed to said clinical exploration. Making use of mannequins, phantom and craniums, we constructed a collimator with a compensating filter and established the necessary technical, dosimetric and quality specifications for its clinical use. Subsequently, we studied 16 patients referred for cephalometric study, determining the radiation dose (TLDs) in both the patients (crystalline lens, frontal lobe, parotid/submaxillary/thyroid glands and brain) and in the radiographic film, as well as in different parts of the collimator/filter. Al presented we are aiming for its clinical use by carrying out LCC in another 16 patients referred of orthodontic treatment but with the pre-a patient introduction of the tested collimator with the compensating filter as a substitute for the usual technique. The collimation reduced the field or radiation by some 40% and with that, so too the radiated tissues. The compensating filter reduced the dose in tissues by some 34.2. Our collimator has allowed the radiological image to be obtained with only one third the usual radiation dose. The dose reaching the film shies only between 17% less than in the usual technique and didn't alter its diagnostic capacity. A reduction of 61,6% of the dose administered to the patient is achieved by incorporating the collimator and filter to most radiological equipment without the

  17. Assessment of the dentoskeletal changes following the use of twin-block functional appliance and inclined anterior bite plan in the patients with class II malocclusion div 1 in 11-14 years old

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    Allahyar Geramy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Cl II malocclusion is one of the most common abnormalities in human societies and using a simple, affordable and accessible treatment that can be provided by general practitioners or specialists, to prevent future malocclusion complications is vital. Cl II malocclusion treatment using functional appliances such as twin block and anterior inclined bite plan have less cost, side effects and complications compared to fixed orthodontic or orthosurgery. Until now, the dentoskeletal changes resulting from the application of twin block and anterior inclined bite plan in patients with Class II malocclusion has not been evaluated. The objective of the present study was to assess the dentoskeletal changes following the use of twin-block functional appliance and inclined anterior bite plan in the patients with class II malocclusion div 1 during mixed dentition. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective cohort trial, 60 patients with the definitive diagnosis of Class II div. 1 malocclusion having ANB>2 and FMA angel between 20 and 30 and without any previous treatment or syndrome who were treated with twin-block or inclined anterior bite plan appliance were selected and their lateral cephalometries were traced before and after treatment. Selected distance and angular landmarks were measured on the cephalograms with the good reliability (ICC=0.953 and the changes occurred in the landmarks were statistically analyzed using Student t test. Results: Due to the increased mandibular growth, most of the landmarks experienced significant changes following the treatment with twin-block and inclined bite plan (P0.05, however, SNA (P=0.04, overjet (P=0.007 and wits appraisal (P=0.004 changed differently after using the appliances. Conclusion: Despite with most similarities of both twin-block and anterior inclined bite plan to correct class II div. 1 malocclusion, Due to the advantages of anterior inclined bite plan such as less size, good

  18. Measuring Palatal Height in Normal Occlusion and Malocclusions

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    M. Zarringhalam

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Due to the appearance of palatal height difference in orthodontic patients we decided to carry out this study.Purpose: The purpose of this research was to determine palatal height in persons with normal occlusion and different malocclusions (class I, II Div I and III and comp aring them with each other.Materials and Methods : In this cross sectional research, 240 subjects were selected. Sixty cases (30 girls and 30 boys with normal occlusion within 16-18 years old were selected inrandom cluster sampling from high schools in Mashhad. Examination technique was direct observation, lateral cephalometric radiography, impression and preparing study model for measuring. For every kind of malocclusion 60 young patients, 30 females and 30 males,within the range of 16-20 years old attended orthodontic treatment in private dental offices or Orthodontics Department of Mashhad Dental School .The examination technique was indirect observation, using lateral cephalometry selected of 5395 lateral cephalograms andrelated study models for measuring. Mean, min imum and maximum and height of the palate was initially determined and then normal occlusion was compared with every kind of malocclusion using SPSS statistical software. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA andt-test (independent groups, and also Duncan test were used for comparison.Results: The ANOVA test showed that there were no statistically significant differences between females in normal occlusion and different malocclusions (P=0.486. In boys the palatal height was significantly higher in class III males than class II and class Imalocclusions and the height of palate for normal boys is significantly higher than class I malocclusion (P<0.05. Comparison of other groups was not significantly different.In each group height of palate was significantly lower in females than males (P<0.001.Conclusion: From this research we concluded that palatal height is different in females and males

  19. Tongue Volume Influences Lowest Oxygen Saturation but Not Apnea-Hypopnea Index in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

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    Sang Hyeon Ahn

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify correlations between sleep apnea severity and tongue volume or posterior airway space measured via three-dimensional reconstruction of volumetric computerized tomography (CT images in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA for use in predicting OSA severity and in surgical treatment. We also assessed associations between tongue volume and Mallampati score.Snoring/OSA male patients (n = 64 who underwent polysomnography, cephalometry, and CT scans were enrolled in this retrospective study. OSA was diagnosed when the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI was greater than 5 (mild 5-14; moderate 15-29; severe>30. The patients were also categorized into the normal-mild group (n = 22 and the moderate-severe group (n = 42. Using volumetric CT images with the three-dimensional reconstruction technique, the volume of the tongue, posterior airway space volume, and intra-mandibular space were measured. The volumes, polysomnographic parameters, and physical examination findings were compared, and independent factors that are related to OSA were analysed.No associations between tongue volume or posterior airway space and the AHI were observed. However, multivariate linear analyses showed that tongue volume had significantly negative association with lowest O2 saturation (r = 0.365, p = 0.027. High BMI was related to an increase in tongue volume. Modified Mallampati scores showed borderline significant positive correlations with absolute tongue volume (r = 0.251, p = 0.046 and standardized tongue volume (absolute tongue volume / intramandibular area; r = 0.266, p = 0.034. Between the normal-mild and moderate-severe groups, absolute tongue volumes were not different, although the standardized tongue volume in the moderate-severe group was significantly higher.Absolute tongue volume showed stronger associations with lowest O2 saturation during sleep than with the severity of AHI. We also found that high BMI was a relevant factor for

  20. Twin Force矫治器治疗骨性Ⅲ类错(牙合)的头影测量研究%Cephalometric Analysis of Twin Force Appliance in Treatment of Skeletal class Ⅲ Malocclusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月兰; 袁建桥; 闫利辉; 刘林嶓

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effect of the apply of Twin Force Appliance in the early permanent dentition with mild skeletal Class III malocclusion by cephalometric analysis. Method: Apply the trans Twin Force appliance to treat 12 cases of mild skeletal Class III malocclusion of early permanent dentition, and compare the results of X-ray cephalometry before and after treatment. Results.- After an average period of 8. 2 months, the pa-tienfs facial profile is improved obviously: the crossbite of the front teeth is corrected, the molar relationship is Class 1, the both SNA and ANB increase 3°, and Ptm- A increases 5mm, while the SNB and NPog-FH don't change significantly. Conclusion: The trans Twin Force Appliance can promote the development of maxillary, and correct the deformity rapidly and effectively of mild skeletal Class III Malocclusion in early permanent dentition. And it is less dependent on the patients'cooperation. Moreover, patients feel comfortable and easy to accept when wearing the Twin Force Appliance.%目的:将Twin Force矫治器用于矫治恒牙早期轻度骨性安氏Ⅲ类错(牙合)的矫洽,并用X线头影测量评价其临床应用效果.方法:应用反式Twin Force矫治器治疗12例恒牙早期轻度骨性安氏Ⅲ类错(牙合),比较治疗前后的X线头影测量结果.结果:经平均8.2个月的治疗,患者的面部轮廓明显改善,前牙的反(牙合)得以矫治,磨牙关系为Ⅰ类,SNA和ANB均增加30,Ptm-A增加2.05 mm,而SNB和NPog- FH没有明显变化.结论:反式Twin Force矫治器能够促进上颌发育,迅速有效矫治恒牙早期轻度骨性安氏Ⅲ类错(牙合)畸形,且患者戴用舒适,易于配合,对患者配合的依赖性较小.

  1. Correlation of Shape and Size of Sella Turcica With the Type of Facial Skeletal Class in an Iranian Group

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    Valizadeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In orthodontic science, diagnosis of facial skeletal type (class I, II, and III is essential to make the correct treatment plan that is usually expensive and complicated. Sometimes results from analysis of lateral cephalometry radiographies are not enough to discriminate facial skeletal types. In this situation, knowledge about the relationship between the shape and size of the sella turcica and the type of facial skeletal class can help to make a more definitive decision for treatment plan. Objectives The present study was designed to investigate this relationship in patients referred to a dental school in Iran. Patients and Methods In this descriptive-analytical study, cephalometric radiographies of 90 candidates for orthodontic treatment (44 females and 46 males with an age range of 14 - 26 years and equal distribution in terms of class I, class II, and class III facial skeletal classification were selected. The shape, length, diameter, and depth of the sella turcica were determined on the radiographs. Linear dimensions were assessed by one-way analysis of variance while the correlation between the dimensions and age was investigated using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results Sella turcica had normal morphology in 24.4% of the patients while irregularity (notching in the posterior part of the dorsum sella was observed in 15.6%, double contour of sellar floor in 5.6%, sella turcica bridge in 23.3%, oblique anterior wall in 20% and pyramidal shape of the dorsum sella in 11.1% of the subjects. In total, 46.7% of class I patients had a normal shape of sella turcica, 23.3% of class II patients had an oblique anterior wall and a pyramidal shape of the dorsum sella, and 43.3% of class III individuals had sella turcica bridge (the greatest values. Sella turcica length was significantly greater in class III patients compared to class II and class I (P < 0.0001. However, depth and diameter of sella turcica were similar in class I

  2. Analysis of clinical results of micro - screw implant anchorage in treatment of orthodontics%微螺钉种植体支抗在口腔正畸中的临床效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋勇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effects of micro - screw implant anchorage in treatment of orthodontics. Methods Diagnostic criteria for selecting hospital 50 cases of the wrong jaw deformity patients, randomized into study group and control group, each 25 patients. Study group received treatment micro - screw implant anchorage and the control group with non - implant anchorage is strong anchorage extraoral bow treatment, the whole story are two groups were taken in the treatment of lateral head positioning, analyzed the X - ray cephalometry and compared group methods in orthodontic anchorage in the clinical effect. Results By comparison, the study group total effective rate was 96% , efficacy was significantly better than the control group, 64% , (P < 0. 05) ; Study group the incidence of complications such as root resorption was 30% higher than the 21% (P < 0. 05), study group underwent micro - screw implant anchorage treatment, and convex on the angle from the central incisor as Ul/SN(on the central incisor - SN angle) , L1/MP(lower central incisor - MP plane angle) , U1 - L1 (on - under the central incisor angle) , NLA( nasolabial angle) , UIE - OTV (the upper incisors to the PTV margin vertical distance) , LIA - PTV ( PTV lower incisor tip to the vertical distance) , U6 - PTV ( maxillary first molar buccal tip vertical distance between PTV) and X - ray cephalometry reduction targets significantly more than the control group, the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0. 05). Conclusions Micro - screw implant anchorage in orthodontics in a significant effect, but either have a certain rate of occurrence of root resorption, its effect was significantly better than non - orthodontic implant anchorage, worthy of clinical use.%目的 探讨微螺钉种植体支抗在口腔正畸中的临床效果.方法 按诊断标准选取宿迁市人民医院50例错颌畸形患者,按就诊顺序随机分为研究组和对照组,各25例.其中研究组给予微

  3. An analysis of 1018 cases of ultrasonography

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    Kim, Chu Wan; Suh, Jeong Soo; Lee, Kwan Seh; Kim, Ki Hwan; Im, Chung Gie; Chang, Kee Hyun; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung; Choo, Dong Woon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    1, transplanted kidney 1. 9. In 8 cases of polycystic disease of kidney, 1 case combined with liver involvement, other 1 case with liver, pancreas, splenic involvement. 10. Ob. and Gyn. fields 122; 1) 57 in Gyn. field -- normal 4, massive ascites 4, overian cyst 21, overian teratodermoid 7, uterine myoma 7, H-mole 6, cervix and rectal cancer follow-up 6, PID with abscess 2. 2) 65 in Ob. field -- normal scan 3, detection of early pregnancy 27, fetal cephalometry and presentation 16, placental localization 11, with normal 6, placenta previa 5, fetal death 5, multiple pregnancy 2. fetal anomaly (anencephaly) 1. 11. Eyeballs and orbit; of 14 cases, 7 cases of retinal detachment, vitreous opacity due to hemorrhage or exudation with clinical contribution in all cases. Exact localization and extent of disease could be done in 2 cases of choroidal melanoma. 12. We could have great diagnostic advantage in various aspects by ultrasonography, and if we use it as a complementary study with other diagnostic methods, we could expect better results under the previous experiences.

  4. 成人骨性Ⅲ类不同垂直骨面型软组织侧貌特征比较%Comparison of characteristics among facial soft tissue profile in adult skeleton class Ⅲ vertical facial skeletal types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟; 丁寅; 叶艳艳; 惠雯婷; 黄曼

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究成人骨性Ⅲ类不同垂直骨面型软组织侧貌特征的差异,为临床诊断和治疗提供参考.方法 选择未治疗的成年骨性Ⅲ类男性患者60例,根据下颌平面角(SN-MP)分为高、中、低角3组,每组各20例,进行X线头颅侧位片的头影测量,进行单因素方差分析,比较各组间的差异性.结果 在成人骨性Ⅲ类不同垂直骨面型间,有10项指标具有统计学差异(P<0.05),且差异主要存在于高角组.与低角和均角组相比,高角组面下1/3的比例明显增大(Gl' - Sn/Sn-Me'、Sn-sto/sto-Me',P<0.01),面型凹陷程度加重(Gl'SnPog'、FH-N'Pog',P<0.05),上唇相对后缩(CotgSnLs、Sn-H line,P<0.01),下唇前突(Li-H line、Li-NsPog',P<0.05),颏唇沟变浅(Sm-H line、LiB'Pog',P<0.01).结论 成人骨性Ⅲ类患者不同垂直骨面型侧貌特征不同,在临床中要注意骨面型垂直向的差异,制定出更加合理的治疗方案.%Objective To study the differences of the facial soft tissue profile characteristics in adult skeleton class Ⅲ vertical facial skeletal types. Methods Sixty males patients with skeleton class Ⅲ malocclusion were selected. They were divided into three groups:low angle,medium angle,and high angle group based on their SN - MP angle with 20 ones in each group. The cephalometry was carried out by X ray skull lateral projection. One - factor analysis of variance was carried out, and the differences were compared among the groups. Results There were significant differences in 10 indexes among the adult skeleton class Ⅲ vertical facial skeletal types ( P<0. 05 ). And the main differences existed in the high angle group. The proportion of anterior lower 1/3 face in the high angle increased significantly compared with that in the low angle and the medium angle group( Gl'- Sn/Sn - Me', Sn - sto/sto - Me', P< 0.01 );its degree of the facial profile introcession increased significantly( Gl'SnPog', FH - NPog', P <0. 05 );the upper lip

  5. 拔除四个第二双尖牙正畸治疗牙移动规律及临床美学审视%Teeth movement following orthodontic treatment with four second premolar removal and its impact on facial esthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白丁; 陈坤; 周佳卉; 曹礼

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究拔除四个第二双尖牙矫治轻度双颌前突病例后,上、下颌前牙及磨牙向拔牙间隙各自的牙移动量以及移动类型.方法 收集于四川大学华西口腔医院正畸科使用HX直丝弓矫治器,因轻度双颌前突求治而拔除四个第二双尖牙病例26例,在头颅侧位片上,以治疗后(牙合)平面、腭平面和下颌平面为参考平面,测量矫治前后上、下颌切牙和磨牙向拔牙间隙移动量和移动类型.结果 上颌拔牙间隙由前牙后移占(50.4±11.5)%,磨牙前移占(49.6±11.5)%;下颌拔牙间隙由前牙后移占(46.2±10.7)%,磨牙前移占(53.8±10.7)%;上中切牙移动的旋转中心位于上中切牙根尖点根方-4.28~11.96 mm的范围内(5.00±5.27 mm),下中切牙移动的旋转中心位于下中切牙根尖点根方0.85~25.25 mm的范围内(14.16±9.27 mm);磨牙均为整体近中移动.结论 拔除四个第二双尖牙矫治轻度双颌前突,能较好地维持前牙的唇舌向倾斜度和前后向位置,并能较好地保持面部美观、微笑丰满度和后牙直立度,达到良好的美观效果.%Objective To investigate the movement distance and moving pattern of incisors and molars after orthodontic treatment with four second premolar removal in the slight dental protrusion patients.Methods 26 patients treated in Dept.of Orthondontics,Hua Xi Dental Hospital were recruited into this studdy .The moving distance and pattern of incisors and first molars were measured relative to the post-treatment occlusal plane, palatal plane and mandibular plane on the X-ray cephalometries.Results In the upper arch,the anterior segnemt took up 50.4±11.5% of the extraction space,while in the lower arch it was 46.2±10.7%.the rotation center of the upper central incisor located at -4.28~11.96 mm apical to the apex point,while the lower central incisors located 0.85~25.25 mm apical to the apex.All the molars were moved bodily.Conclusions The slight bimaxillary dental

  6. 三段弓技术与微种植支抗技术压低和内收上切牙效果的对比研究%Comparison of the Simultaneous Intrusion and Retraction Effect on the Maxillary Incisors between Three Pieces Arch Wire Technique and Miniscrew Anchorage.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭; 张栋梁; 王锐

    2011-01-01

    目的:对比两种不同技术-三段弓技术与微螺钉支抗滑动技术,在正畸治疗过程中产生的牙齿以及骨骼的效应差异.方法:对三段弓技术组的18例患者以及微螺钉支抗组的19例患者均进行切牙的内收和压低,分析测量所有患者的头颅定位侧位片以评估两种技术的差异.在水平和垂直方向上对两组患者上颌第一磨牙的移位和相对骨骼改变进行分析.同时在根尖周X光片上对牙根吸收进行测量.结果:U1-SN(P<0.05),覆盖、覆、PP-U1、U1水平移动(P<0.01),UL-U1(P<0.05),在三段弓组和微螺钉支抗组均有明显减小.然而,在三段弓组,U6角度(P<0.01),MP-SN、PP-U6(P<0.05)和U6水平移动(P<0.05),与微螺钉组相比均有显著增加.两组的治疗周期及牙根吸收率无显著性差异.结论:采用反Spee曲线弓丝的微螺钉支抗滑动技术,被证明是有效地的内收并压低上颌前牙的口内支抗增强装置.与三段弓技术相比,微螺钉技术在水平(前后向)或垂直方向均未见支抗丧失.%Objective: To compare the dental and skeletal effect of two ditferent techniques, three-piece arch wire technique and miniscrew anchorage sliding mechanics. Methods: Lateral cephalometrie radiographs from 18 patients in the three-piece arch wire group and 19 patients in the minserew anchorage group were analyzed for incisor retraction and intrusion. The upper 1st molar displacement and the relative skeletal changes were analyzed in the horizontal and vertical directions in both groups. Root resorption was also measured on periapical radiographs. Results:Significant reduction of U1-SN(P<0.05) ,overjet, overbite, PP-U1(P<0.01), U1 horizontal(P<0. 01), UL -U1 (P<0.05) were observed in both groups, the three-piece arch wire group and miniscrew anchorage group.However, there were significant increases in U6 angle (P < 0. 01 ), MP - SN, PP - U6 (P < 0. 05), and U6Horizontal(P<0.05) in the three-piece arch wire group

  7. Avaliação cefalométrica das alterações verticais e ântero-posteriores em pacientes Classe II esquelética, tratados com aparelho extrabucal de tração cervical ou combinada Cephalometric evaluation of anteroposterior and vertical changes in skeletal Class II patients treated with cervical or combined traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márlio Vinícius de Oliveira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar cefalometricamente as alterações ântero-posteriores e verticais em pacientes Classe II esquelética (ANB > 5°, tratados com aparelho extrabucal cervical (grupo 1 associado a aparelho fixo do tipo Edgewise ou tratados com aparelho extrabucal de tração combinada (grupo 2 associado ao mesmo. METODOLOGIA: a amostra consistiu-se de 60 radiografias cefalométricas laterais obtidas nas fases pré-tratamento e pós-tratamento de 30 indivíduos leucodermas, sendo 13 do gênero masculino e 17 do feminino. A idade média dos 15 pacientes do grupo 1, no pré-tratamento, era de 10 anos e 7 meses, e no pós-tratamento era de 13 anos e 9 meses. Os 15 pacientes do grupo 2 apresentavam idade média, no pré-tratamento, de 11 anos e 5 meses e no pós-tratamento a idade média era de 14 anos e 9 meses. As medidas cefalométricas iniciais e finais foram analisadas e comparadas pelo teste t de Student. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: não houve alteração significante no padrão de crescimento facial durante o tratamento em nenhum dos grupos avaliados. Nos pacientes do grupo 2, que possuíam tendência de crescimento vertical (GoGn-SN> 36°, o aparelho extrabucal de tração combinada, mesmo não provocando efeito extrusivo sobre os molares superiores, não foi capaz de diminuir o ângulo do plano mandibular. A maxila apresentou uma restrição no seu deslocamento anterior e verticalmente manteve-se estável. A mandíbula expressou seu crescimento e deslocou-se anteriormente, porém manteve sua inclinação inalterada. A relação maxilomandibular apresentou uma melhora significante com redução sensível do ANB.AIM: To evaluate the antero-posterior and vertical changes in patients with skeletal Class II malocclusions (ANB > 5º by means of the cephalometry. The patients had been treated with either cervical traction device (Group 1 or combined traction device (Group 2 both in association with a Edgewise-type device. METHODS: The sample consisted

  8. Avaliação cefalométrica da posição do osso hióide em crianças respiradoras bucais Cephalometric assessment of the hyoid bone position in oral breathing children

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    Maria Julia Pereira Coelho Ferraz

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: em função das relações anatomofuncionais do osso hióide com o complexo craniofacial, realizou-se avaliação cefalométrica da posição do osso hióide em relação ao padrão respiratório. A amostra consistiu de 53 crianças, gênero feminino, com idades médias de 10 anos, sendo 28 respiradoras nasais e 25, bucais. As medidas cefalométricas horizontais, verticais e angulares foram utilizadas com a finalidade de determinar a posição do osso hióide. Estabeleceu-se uma comparação entre os grupos por meio do teste "t" de student, bem como correlação de Pearson entre as variáveis. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que não ocorreram diferenças estatísticas significativas para a posição mandibular e posição do osso hióide e o tipo do padrão respiratório. No Triângulo Hióideo, o coeficiente de correlação de 0,40 foi significativo entre AA-ENP (distância entre vértebra atlas e espinha nasal posterior e C3-H (distância entre a terceira vértebra cervical e osso hióide demonstrando uma relação positiva entre os limites ósseos do espaço aéreo superior e inferior. Para as medidas cranianas sugeriu-se uma relação entre a posição do osso hióide com a morfologia mandibular. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados permitiram concluir que o osso hióide mantém uma posição estável, provavelmente, para garantir as proporções corretas das vias aéreas e não depende do padrão respiratório predominante.MATERIAL AND METHODS: because of its anatomical and functional relationship with the craniofacial complex, we assessed the cephalometry of the hyoid bone position in relation to the respiratory pattern of these 53 female children, with average age of 10 years; 28 of them are nasal breathers and 25 are oral breathers. Horizontal, vertical and angular cephalometric measures were used in order to determine the hyoid bone location. The Student "t" and the Pearson correlation tests were used in order to compare the groups

  9. Efeitos dos fios de nivelamento de níquel-titânio e de aço inoxidável na posição dos incisivos inferiores Effects of nickel-titanium and stainless steel leveling wires on the position of mandibular incisors

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    Ricardo Moresca

    2011-10-01

    : The sample comprised 36 white Brazilians subjects, male and female, mean age of 15 years and 5 months, with Angle Class I and II malocclusion, arranged in two groups. In Group 1 (n=17, the leveling phase was performed with sequence 1, using three archwires (NiTi heat activated 0.016" and 0.019"x0.025" and stainless steel 0.019"x0.025". In Group 2 (n=19, sequence 2 was tested, in which only stainless steel archwires were used (0.014", 0.016", 0.018", 0.020" and 0.019"x0.025" with passive torque in lower incisors. The data were collected using the computerized cephalometry and were compared by Student's t test at significance level of 5%. RESULTS: In Group 1, lower incisors tipped lingually and only the crown presented a lingual movement that was statistically significant (1.6mm. In Group 2, the lower incisors remained unchanged. There was no vertical change in either groups. CONCLUSIONS: Sequence 2 showed better control of the lower incisors and no changes in their position were observed whereas sequence 1 allowed torque expression of brackets prescription with lingual tip of these teeth. Treatment time was shorter using sequence 1. Both biomechanical variations studied showed advantages and disadvantages that should be known and evaluated by the orthodontist during case planning.

  10. CLINICAL APPLICATION OF MICRO -SCREW IMPLANT ANCHORAGE IN TREATMENT OF ANGLE'S CLASS II DIVISION 1 MALOCCLUSION WITH DEEP OVERBURDEN JAWS%微螺钉种植体支抗在 Angle 氏 II 类1分类深覆颌深覆盖牙颌畸形治疗中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金望

    2015-01-01

    research group wastreated with a self -tap-ping micro-screw implant as ananchorage .The control group was treated with Nance bow , transpalatal arch or in combination with face bow as strong anchorage .The total treatment time , line spacing and the angle differences be-tween the U1/SN of X-ray cephalometry before and after treatment were compared in two groups .Results ①The-self-tapping micro-screw implant kept stability without looseness .Thesoft tissue surrounding dental implants had no swellings or infections .Patients had no obvious discomfort .②The average periods of treatmentin the research group and the control group treatment were 20 months and 26 months, respectively.③The soft -tissue profilein the re-search group was improved significantly , with 4.26 mm and 4.54 mmof the adductions ofthe upper and lower lips rel-ative to aesthetic plane respectively .The angle of U1/SN was reduced 10.2°.Theadductionsof the upper and lower lipsin the control group relative to aesthetic plane were 2.88 mm and 3.01 mm respectively and there werestatistically significantdifferencesin two groups .There were no remarkableanteroposterior and verticalmovement after correction of maxillary first molars(p>0.05)but the anteroposterior incisor movement in the research group .The movements were statistically significant differences(p<0.01).Conclusion Compared with the traditional anchorage technique , mi-cro-screw implant anchorage can better control teeth movement and shorten the treatment time .

  11. O efeito da alteração da posição natural da cabeça (PNC sobre as medidas cefalométricas The effect of the alteration the natural head position (NHP on the cephalometric measurements

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    Paulo Eduardo Negreiros

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estudar as alterações das grandezas cefalométricas utilizadas em cefalometria, quando a posição natural da cabeça (PNC modifica-se durante a tomada da telerradiografia, sua influência no diagnóstico ortodôntico, sua precisão e reprodutibilidade em tomadas radiográficas sucessivas. Analisou-se 180 telerradiografias, tomadas em norma lateral, de 30 pacientes do gênero feminino com idade média de 21,3 anos obtidas em duas séries de tomadas radiográficas com intervalo de 15 dias entre as séries. Registrou-se em cada série a PNC, a PNC acrescida de 5 graus e a PNC com flexão de 5 graus de cada paciente. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que as grandezas lineares S-N, ENA-ENP, Co-Gn, Go-Gn, e as angulares SNA, ANB, PP.GoGn, 1.PP, IMPA, 1.1, SN.VER e HF.VER não apresentaram alterações estatisticamente significantes entre as posições estudadas e entre as séries de tomadas radiográficas, mas as de SNB, SN.GoGn, FMA, SN.PP, Ângulo Z e Co-Go apresentaram alterações estatisticamente significantes. Concluiu-se que as medidas angulares e lineares avaliadas não apresentaram alterações significantes quando a PNC modificou-se dentro da faixa de variação angular estudada, o que não conduziu a diagnósticos ou interpretações duvidosas. Devido à baixa variação das angulações dos ângulos SN.VER e HF.VER demonstrou-se que a utilização da Unidade Orientadora de Posicionamento, apresentada neste trabalho, permite a reprodutibilidade da posição natural da cabeça com grande confiabilidade dentro de uma faixa de variação da PNC em + 5º.This work aimed to study the alterations of angular and linear cephalometrics measurements used in cephalometry, when the natural head position (NHP is modified during the taking of cephalometric radiography, its influence in the orthodontic diagnosis, and the reliability and reproducibility of NHP for successive radiographs. One hundred and eighty cephalometrics