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Sample records for cephalometry

  1. Cephalometry in orthodontic practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cephalometry is applied in orthodontic practice to: - obtain information on the growth of the skull - assist diagnosis of the relationship between the jaws and abnormalities in dentition - evaluate the results of treatment. The course of the diagnostic procedure with the aid of the Ricketts analysis and evaluation of the treatment results using five superimpositions is demonstrated by means of two examples. (Auth.)

  2. A reflection on radiographic cephalometry: the evaluation of sagittal discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duterloo, Herman S

    2014-09-01

    A critical review is presented of the basic properties and applications of cephalometry as a clinical tool with a focus on the evaluation of sagittal discrepancy. Diagnostic cephalometric assessments are subjective and not based on evidence. To assess individual skeletal and/or facial soft tissue form subjectively, selected norms are used. Norms have been developed for various ethnical groups to improve clinical applicability, but subjectivity remains. That subjectivity precludes application of a modern review system, making the present review a personal account. The cephalometric evaluation of sagittal discrepancy finds its historic origin in the Angle classification. Recent publications try to improve accuracy in classifying sagittal discrepancy. It remains unclear in what sense such efforts influence treatment decisions and/or treatment effect. Almost all selected landmarks are located on or dependent upon periosteal/endosteal bone image contours. Their homology is based on circumstantial reasoning and stability over time, which is implicitly assumed. However, implant growth studies and histological investigations show most landmarks to be unstable, as they are involved in displacement and bone remodelling. These landmarks are therefore heterologous when used for individual evaluation of change over time. Notwithstanding the above-indicated limitations, diagnostic cephalometric assessments are clinically useful and help to develop perceptions of balance and harmony and communication between colleagues and patients. There is no evidence-based method to prefer one particular diagnostic method. Landmark location accuracy and geometric issues do not play a decisive role. The subjective characteristic of diagnostic evaluations limits their power to size/shape comparisons. Structural superimposition is the valid biologically evidence-based method to provide advanced insight in individual growth and/or treatment changes and their variations. PMID:24521748

  3. A simulator for maxillo-facial surgery integrating cephalometry and orthodontia

    OpenAIRE

    Bettega, Georges,; Payan, Yohan; Mollard, Benoit; Boyer, Anthony; Raphaël, Bernard; Lavallee, Stéphane

    2006-01-01

    Objectives : This paper presents a new simulator for maxillo-facial surgery, that gathers the dental and the maxillo-facial analyses together into a single computer-assisted procedure. The idea is first to propose a repositioning of the maxilla, via the introduction of a 3D cephalometry, applied to a 3D virtual model of the patient's skull. Then, orthodontic data are integrated into this model, thanks to optical measurements of teeth plaster casts. Materials and Methods : The feasibility of t...

  4. Applicability of the Ricketts’ posteroanterior cephalometry for sex determination using logistic regression analysis in Hispano American Peruvians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Ivan; Chavez, Allison K.; Ponce, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Ricketts' posteroanterior (PA) cephalometry seems to be the most widely used and it has not been tested by multivariate statistics for sex determination. Objective: The objective was to determine the applicability of Ricketts' PA cephalometry for sex determination using the logistic regression analysis. Materials and Methods: The logistic models were estimated at distinct age cutoffs (all ages, 11 years, 13 years, and 15 years) in a database from 1,296 Hispano American Peruvians between 5 years and 44 years of age. Results: The logistic models were composed by six cephalometric measurements; the accuracy achieved by resubstitution varied between 60% and 70% and all the variables, with one exception, exhibited a direct relationship with the probability of being classified as male; the nasal width exhibited an indirect relationship. Conclusion: The maxillary and facial widths were present in all models and may represent a sexual dimorphism indicator. The accuracy found was lower than the literature and the Ricketts' PA cephalometry may not be adequate for sex determination. The indirect relationship of the nasal width in models with data from patients of 12 years of age or less may be a trait related to age or a characteristic in the studied population, which could be better studied and confirmed. PMID:27555732

  5. A simulator for maxillo-facial surgery integrating cephalometry and orthodontia

    CERN Document Server

    Bettega, G; Mollard, B; Boyer, A; Raphael, B; Lavallee, S

    2000-01-01

    Objectives : This paper presents a new simulator for maxillo-facial surgery, that gathers the dental and the maxillo-facial analyses together into a single computer-assisted procedure. The idea is first to propose a repositioning of the maxilla, via the introduction of a 3D cephalometry, applied to a 3D virtual model of the patient's skull. Then, orthodontic data are integrated into this model, thanks to optical measurements of teeth plaster casts. Materials and Methods : The feasibility of the maxillo-facial demonstrator was first evaluated on a dry skull. To simulate malformations (and thus to simulate a "real" patient), the skull was modified and manually cut by the surgeon, in order to generate a given maxillo-facial malformation (with asymmetries in the sagittal, frontal and axial planes). Results : The validation of our simulator consisted in evaluating its ability to propose a bone repositioning diagnosis that will put the skull as it was in its original configuration. A first qualitative validation is...

  6. A comparison between two lateral cephalometry techniques (standard and natural head position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayati Z. Assistant Professor. Sang S. DMD

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Cephalometric findings are of high importance in making decision about orthodontic treatment plans and orthognathic surgeries. Natural head position (NHP is considered as a useful and exact radiographic technique."nAim: The aim of the present study was to compare two techniques, namely Standard and NHP, in lateral"ncephalometry."nMaterials and Methods: In this cross- sectional study, performed in Shiraz. 138 randomly selected students {70 males .and 68 females, age ranging from (13-15. were evaluated clinically and radiographically. None of them had a history of orthodontic treatment, head and face fracture or surgical operations. Lateral cephalograms were taken in both standard and natural head position techniques, for each student. For statistical analysis, l-lest for paired samples, was done."nResults: This study showed that in anterior-posterior dimension, among angles with significant differences in two techniques, those of standard one were more reliable, whereas in vertical dimension."nstatistical differences showed natural technique as more useful one."nConclusion: Due to the fact that natural cephalometry requires more patient cooperation, more time and a higher complex technique, it is not suggested, except when different clinical and cepholomeiric findings are observed.

  7. The status of cephalometry in the prediction of non-CPAP treatment outcome in obstructive sleep apnea patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denolf, Petra L; Vanderveken, Olivier M; Marklund, Marie E; Braem, Marc J

    2016-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is the most common sleep disordered breathing disorder (SDB) in adults and is characterized by a recurrent partial or complete collapse of the upper airway during sleep. This can be caused by many factors, sometimes interacting, such as skeletal malformations, soft tissue crowding, respiratory instability and the various effects of aging, obesity and gender that dictate craniofacial and upper airway anatomy. Research has demonstrated that the majority of patients exhibit at least one anatomical component such as retrognathia or a narrow posterior airway space that predisposes to the development of OSAS. Within the predisposing elements for OSAS many seem to point to anatomical characteristics. A standardized and relatively simple radiologic technique to evaluate anatomical craniofacial relationships is cephalometry. This has been used already for a long time in orthodontics, but is now gradually being introduced in OSAS treatment to envisage optimal treatment selection as well as to predict treatment outcomes. The purpose of the present review is to evaluate the contribution of cephalometry in the prediction of outcomes from OSAS treatments that depend on the upper airway morphology in their mechanisms of action such as oral appliances that advance the mandible as well as various surgical methods. In addition, an overview of imaging modalities and methods that currently are being used in cephalometric analysis in OSAS patients is provided. The findings indicate that isolated cephalometric parameters cannot be used to reliably predict treatment outcomes from mandibular advancement devices and surgical methods for OSAS. Extreme or outlying values of cephalometric parameters may rather be used as contra-indicators or 'red flags' instead of predictors. PMID:26452001

  8. Assessment of Soft Tissue Changes by Cephalometry and Two-Dimensional Photogrammetry in Bilateral Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rustemeyer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We aimed to compare the standard methods of cephalometry and two-dimensional photogrammetry, to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of both methods.Material and Methods: Twenty-six patients (mean age 25.5, standard deviation (SD 5.2 years with Class II relationship and 23 patients with Class III relationship (mean age 26.4, SD 4.7 years who had undergone bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy were selected, with a median follow-up of 8 months between pre- and postsurgical evaluation. Pre- and postsurgical cephalograms and lateral photograms were traced and changes were recorded.Results: Pre- and postsurgical measurements of hard tissue angles and distances revealed higher correlations with cephalometrically performed soft tissue measurements of facial convexity (Class II: N-PG, r = - 0.50, P = 0.047; Class III: ANB, r = 0.73, P = 0.005; NaPg , r = 0.71, P = 0.007; and labiomental angle (Class II: SNB, r = 0.72, P = 0.002; ANB, r = - 0.72, P = 0.002; N-B, r = - 0.68, P = 0.004; ANS-Gn, r = 0.71, P = 0.002; Class III: ANS-Gn, r = 0.65, P = 0.043 compared with two-dimensional photogrammetry. However, two-dimensional photogrammetry revealed higher correlation between lower lip length and cephalometrically assessed angular hard tissue changes (Class II: SNB, r = 0.98, P = 0.007; N-B, r = 0.89, P = 0.037; N-Pg, r = 0.90, P = 0.033; Class III: SNB, r = - 0.54, P = 0.060; NAPg, r = - 0.65, P = 0.041; N-Pg, r = 0.58, P = 0.039.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that cephalometry and two-dimensional photogrammetry offer the possibility to complement one another.

  9. Reeb Graph for Automatic 3D Cephalometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mestiri Makram

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present a method of three-dimensional computed tomographic (3D-CT cephalometrics and its use to study cranio/maxilla-facial malformations. We propose a system for automatic localization of cephalometric landmarks using reeb graphs. Volumetric images of a patient were reconstructed into 3D mesh. The proposed method is carried out in three steps: we begin by applying 3d mesh skull simplification, this mesh was reconstructed from a head volumetric medical image, and then we extract a reeb graph. Reeb graph mesh extraction represents a skeleton composed in a number of nodes and arcs. We are interested in the node position; we noted that some reeb nodes could be considered as cephalometric landmarks under specific conditions. The third step is to identify these nodes automatically by using elastic mesh registration using “thin plate” transformation and clustering. Preliminary results show a landmarks recognition rate of more than 90%, very close to the manually provided landmarks positions made by a medical stuff.

  10. [Three-dimensional cephalometry: applications in clinical practice and research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Jacques; Oueiss, Arlette; Marchal-Sixou, Christine; Braga, José; Treil, Jacques

    2008-03-01

    A 3D cephalometric analysis method from scanner acquisition has been developed thanks to a long collaboration between Dr Treil and the Department of Orthodontics in Toulouse III University. It allows a perfect knowledge of maxillo-facial architecture using fourteen landmarks related to the neuromatricial axis of facial growth. These landmarks can be identified without ambiguity. The marking of each tooth relative to dental arches (gravity centre coordinates and torque and tipping of each tooth), and the location of arches relative to maxillo-facial frame are given by the analysis. Description and reconstruction of dental and maxillo-facial anatomy are possible with three levels: maxillo-facial frame, maxillar and mandibular bases and dentoalveolar level. The method not only gives more precise information than conventional cephalometrics in anteroposterior and vertical directions, but it allows transversal analysis and asymmetry measurement. Applications are numerous in research as well as in clinical medicine: analyses of cases border line surgery, surgical set-up, facial asymmetry, analysis of dentoalveolar compensations, definition of therapeutic aims, occlusal analysis and set-up, study of evolution in anthropology-primatology, study of growth etc. This method of description using a pattern of landmarks is perfectly adapted to the last developments of modern research techniques: morphometric geometry with Procustes superimpositions, EDMA, TPS, FEM. PMID:18364213

  11. Effects of image enhancement on reliability of landmark identification in digital cephalometry

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    M Oshagh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although digital cephalometric radiography is gaining popularity in orthodontic practice, the most important source of error in its tracing is uncertainty in landmark identification. Therefore, efforts to improve accuracy in landmark identification were directed primarily toward the improvement in image quality. One of the more useful techniques of this process involves digital image enhancement which can increase overall visual quality of image, but this does not necessarily mean a better identification of landmarks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of digital image enhancements on reliability of landmark identification. Materials and Methods: Fifteen common landmarks including 10 skeletal and 5 soft tissues were selected on the cephalograms of 20 randomly selected patients, prepared in Natural Head Position (NHP. Two observers (orthodontists identified landmarks on the 20 original photostimulable phosphor (PSP digital cephalogram images and 20 enhanced digital images twice with an intervening time interval of at least 4 weeks. The x and y coordinates were further analyzed to evaluate the pattern of recording differences in horizontal and vertical directions. Reliability of landmarks identification was analyzed by paired t test. Results: There was a significant difference between original and enhanced digital images in terms of reliability of points Ar and N in vertical and horizontal dimensions, and enhanced images were significantly more reliable than original images. Identification of A point, Pogonion and Pronasal points, in vertical dimension of enhanced images was significantly more reliable than original ones. Reliability of Menton point identification in horizontal dimension was significantly more in enhanced images than original ones. Conclusion: Direct digital image enhancement by altering brightness and contrast can increase reliability of some landmark identification and this may lead to more accurate cephalometric analysis.

  12. Radiographic cephalometry assessment of the linear and angular parameters on cranial base in children with skeletal class III

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    Stojanović Zdenka M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In malocclusion of skeletal class III, mandible is located in front of maxilla in sagital plain, which is manifested by a lower value of the sagital inter-jaw angle than in skeletal class I, where the jaw sagital relation is normal. Apart from the deformities on mandible and/or maxilla, in skeletal class III deformities are also frequent on the cranial base. The aim of this research was to find the differences in the parameter values on the cranial base among the children with skeletal class III and the children with skeletal class I in the period of mixed dentition. Methods. After clinical examination and orthopan-tomography, profile radiography of the head was analyzed in 60 examinees, aged from 6−12 years. The examinees were divided into two groups: group 1 - the children with skeletal class III; group 2 - the children with skeletal class I. Both linear and angular parameters on the cranial base were measured, as well as the angles of maxillary and mandible prognatism and the angle of sagital inter-jaw relation. The level of difference in the parameter values between the groups was estimated and the degree of correlation of the main angle of the cranial base with the angles of sagital position of the jaws in each of the two groups was established. Results. A significant difference between the groups was found only in the average values of the angles of maxillary prognatism and sagital interjaw relation. In the group 1, the main angle of the cranial base was in a significant correlation with the angles of sagital positions of the jaws, while in the group 2, such significance was not found. Conclusion. There were no significant differences in the parameter values on the cranial base between the groups. There was a significant correlation of the main angle of the cranial base with the angles of sagital position of the jaws in the group 1 only. .

  13. 上腔静脉X线投影测量与患者相关因素的探讨%Studying and analyzing the relationship between X-ray cephalometry of superior vena cava and patient-related factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿才正; 陈姬雅; 王建铭

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between the variables (age, sex, height, weight) and the lower segment of superior vena cava on the posteroanterior thorax radiograph, and to improve the in-vitro measurements accuracy of beside PICC. Methods The data of 100 cases adults physical examination were collected in Tai-Zhou hospital. We measnred the distance between the middle of the lower segment of superior vena cava to the inner side of the right clavicle, observed the front rib units which was projected the middle of the lower segment of superior vena cava, and then analyzed the correlation between the data (distance between vertical segment, the front rib units) and the variable (age, sex, height, weight) with IBM SPSS Statistics vl9 software. Results The front rib units planes was no significant correlation with sex. age, height and weight ( r =0. 196~0. 130, P =0. 051~0. 936). The distance between vertical segment was obvious correlation with body height and sex ( r =0. 197, -0. 339, P =0. 049,0. 001) and no significant correlation with age and body weight( r =0. 052, -0. 066, F =0. 604, 0. 512). Conclusion The projection of the lower segment of superior vena cava has the individual differences, which is affected by many factors besides age, sex, height and weight. Thus, it is difficult to improve the in-vitro measurements accuracy of beside PICC by analyzing the age. sex, height and weight of the patient.%目的 探讨成人上腔静脉下段后前位胸片投影是否与性别、年龄、身高、体重相关,以期提高床旁PICC体外测量的准确性.方法 成人体检资料100份,在后前位胸片上测量上腔静脉下段中点至右锁骨内端下缘距离(即横L体外测量法垂直段距离,以下简称“垂直段距离”),上腔静脉下段中点所在前肋肋单元平面,各数据会同性别、年龄、身高、体重,利用IBM SPSS Statistics v19统计软件作Pearson相关分析.结果 上腔静脉下段中点所在前肋肋单元平面与性别、年龄、身高、体重无显著相关(r=-0.196~0.130,P=0.051~0,936);垂直段距离与身高、性别显著相关(r=0.197、-0.339,P=0.049、0.001),与年龄及体重无关(r=0.052、-0.066,P=0.604、0.512).结论 成人上腔静脉下段投影存在个体差异,相关因素复杂,难以通过性别、年龄、身高、体重来提高床旁PICC体外测量的准确性.

  14. Relação entre cefalometria e análise facial na determinação do tipo de face Relation between cephalometry and facial analysis on the facial type determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Ribeiro Ramires

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: correlacionar os achados cefalométricos com os da análise facial realizada por meio de fotografias para classificar o tipo facial, segundo o sexo. MÉTODOS: participaram 105 adultos leucodermas, 34 (32,4% homens e 71 (67,6% mulheres, com idades entre 20 e 40 anos, de uma clínica particular de ortodontia de Belo Horizonte/MG. Os achados da análise cefalométrica para determinação do tipo facial a partir do índice VERT de Ricketts foram comparados com a classificação da face realizada por meio da análise facial clínica baseada na observação de duas fotografias. Para essa análise, participaram três fonoaudiólogos especialistas em motricidade orofacial. RESULTADOS: não houve correspondência satisfatória ao se comparar as duas formas de classificação do tipo facial apresentadas neste estudo. A maioria dos indivíduos masculinos dolicofaciais foi classificada como face média a partir da análise facial, ou seja, quatro entre sete sujeitos (57,14%. Os 11 mesofaciais foram identificados como face média (N=5; 45,45% ou curta (N=4; 36,36% e os 16 braquifaciais como face média (N=9; 56,25% ou curta (N=7; 43,75%. No sexo feminino, observou-se que 11 entre 20, ou seja, 55% dos indivíduos dolicofaciais foram apontados como face média. Dos 26 sujeitos mesofaciais, 16 (61,53% também foram classificados como face média. Com relação aos 25 braquifaciais, 12 (48% foram identificados como face curta e 11 (44%, como média. CONCLUSÃO: a classificação do tipo de face apenas a partir da análise facial realizada por meio de fotografias não foi considerada confiável, se utilizada isoladamente, quando comparada à classificação obtida a partir da análise cefalométrica.PURPOSE: to correlate the cephalometrical findings with the ones from facial analysis performed by means of photographs to classify facial type, according to the gender. METHODS: 105 leukoderm adults took part, 34 male (32.4% and 71 female (67.6% with ages between 20 and 40 years old, in a private orthodontic clinic in Belo Horizonte, MG - Brazil. The cephalometrics analysis findings for determining facial type from the Ricketts VERT index were compared with the facial classification performed by means of clinical facial analysis based on observation of two photographs. For this analysis, three Speech and Language Pathologists specialized in orofacial myology were involved. RESULTS: there was no satisfactory correspondence when comparing the two forms of facial type classification presented in this study. Most of the dolichofacial males were classified as medium face by means of facial analysis, meaning four among seven subjects (57.14%. The eleven mesofacial subjects were identified as medium face (N=5; 45.45% or short (N=4; 36.36% and the 16 braquifacial subjects as medium face (N=9; 56.25% or short (N=7; 43.75%. With females, it was observed that 11 among 20, meaning 55% of the dolichofacial individuals were appointed as medium face. Among the 26 mesofacial subjects, 16 (61.53% were also classified as medium face. Regarding the 25 braquifacial subjects, 12 (48% were identified as short face and 11 (44%, as medium. CONCLUSION: facial type classification based only on facial analysis performed by means of photographs was not considered trustworthy, if used independently, when compared with cephalometrics analysis findings.

  15. Mummy of the "Elder Lady" in the tomb of Amenhotep II: Egyptian museum catalog number 61070.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J E; Wente, E F; Cox, C F; Nawaway, I E; Kowalski, C J; Storey, A T; Russell, W R; Ponitz, P V; Walker, G F

    1978-06-01

    An unidentified female mummy found in a cache of great kings and queens in 1898 in the Valley of the Kings was examined from the viewpoint of Egyptology, x-ray cephalometry, biostatistics, and biochemistry. The result was the identification of Queen Tiye, of the Eighteenth Dynasty, wife of Amenhotep III and mother of Akhenaton. PMID:349693

  16. Determination of cephalic index and shape of head in adult female students in Birjand city during 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Sydeh Fateme Hosseini; Reza Mastery Farahani; Mohsen Norozian; Nozhat Shakeri; Mohammad Mehdi Hasanzadeh Tahery

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Cephalometery, as one of the most significant section of anthropometry examines the facial and cephalic indeces. Since the measurements are affected by geographical factors, gender, age, and race, the obtained results are based on the community under study. Regarding lack of investigations on cephalometry in Birjand, the present study aimed at determining cephalic indexes and standard classification of neurocranium in 15-17 year old female students in the city in 2013. ...

  17. Cephalic And Prosopic Indices: Comparison In One-Day Newborn Boys In Zahedan

    OpenAIRE

    "Heidari Z; Mahmoodzadeh sagheb; Mohammadi M; Noori Moogehi S M H; Arab A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Cephalometry is one of the important branches of anthropometry that has wide uses in identification, forensic medicine, plastic surgery, orthodontics, archeology and determining the origins of races. This research was investigated to determine the head and face phenotypes among one-day newborn boys in two aborigines of Sistani and Baluchi who were resident in Zahedan. Materials and Methods: The investigation is based on cross-sectional analytical descriptions of 420 newborn aborig...

  18. Tooth loss and obstructive sleep apnoea

    OpenAIRE

    Gai Valerio; Pera Paolo; Erovigni Francesco; Graziano Alessandra; Arienti Andrea; Brussino Luisa; Cicolin Alessandro; Bucca Caterina; Mutani Roberto; Preti Giulio; Rolla Giovanni; Carossa Stefano

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Complete tooth loss (edentulism) produces anatomical changes that may impair upper airway size and function. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether edentulism favours the occurrence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Methods Polysomnography was performed in 48 edentulous subjects on two consecutive nights, one slept with and the other without dentures. Upper airway size was assessed by cephalometry and by recording forced mid-inspiratory airflow rate (FIF50). Exhale...

  19. Computer aided planning for orthognatic surgery

    CERN Document Server

    Chabanas, M; Payan, Y; Boutault, F; Chabanas, Matthieu; Marecaux, Christophe; Payan, Yohan; Boutault, Franck

    2002-01-01

    A computer aided maxillofacial sequence is presented, applied to orthognatic surgery. It consists of 5 main stages: data acquisition and integration, surgical planning, surgical simulation, and per operative assistance. The planning and simulation steps are then addressed in a way that is clinically relevant. First concepts toward a 3D cephalometry are presented for a morphological analysis, surgical planning, and bone and soft tissue simulation. The aesthetic surgical outcomes of bone repositioning are studied with a biomechanical Finite Element soft tissue model.

  20. Radiological equipment 'Planmeca' used in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equipment 'Planmeca Pro Max 3D' for volumetric imaging with cone beam examine the patients under computerized tomography considering the rate 0.2-1.0 mm, digital orthopantomography, 3D cephalometry. 3D tomography image facilitates an accurate view of oral structures. It was adopted quickly, and became the basic equipment for all applications in dentistry. The Cone Beam Volumetric Tomography (CBVT), Planmeca Pro Max 3D model give the opportunity to obtain great radiological information very important for the dentist decision. (author)

  1. DETERMINATION OF ANATOMICAL TYPE OF HEAD AND FACE IN CHILDREN UNDER 6 YEARS IN AHWAZ

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Safikhani; N. Afzali H. Bordbar

    2007-01-01

    Cephalometry is an important branch of anthropology in which the dimensions of head and face can be determined. These dimensions are used to show indexes for studying brain growth and formation of all types of head and face. Indexes are vary from 65 to 95 for head and 65 to105 for face, which are used to determine 4 international anatomic types of head and 5 international anatomic types of face. The present study was carried out to determine all types of head and face among subjects aged less...

  2. Importance of cephalographs in diagnosis of patients with sleep apnea

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    Nimma Vijaya Laxmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is considered to be a potentially life threatening disorder, which is characterized by repeated collapse of the upper airway during sleep with cessation of breathing. The cephalometric method despite being a static, two-dimensional evaluation of dynamic three-dimensional structures of the head and neck is useful in diagnosing patients with OSA, as they have shown that significant differences exist between asymptomatic controls and patients with OSA. Aims and Objectives: This study is designed to compare and validate the craniofacial morphology in patients with OSA using lateral cephalometry in both upright and supine position. Materials and Methods: Sixty subjects participated in the study of which 30 were patients with OSA diagnosed by questionnaire and 30 were healthy control group with age range of 25–45 years. Results: The study group demonstrated an increased ANB, mandibular plane angles (GoGn-SN, lower anterior facial height which are statistically significant with a significant P < 0.05. Significant decrease in posterior airway space, increased soft palate length, tongue length, and thickness suggesting reduced airway space in supine posture. Conclusion: Evaluation of craniofacial morphology in OSA patients using lateral cephalometry helps in recognizing the morphological changes induced by altered sleep pattern and for appropriate treatment planning.

  3. Anthropometric study of cephalometric indices among Idoma and Igede ethnic groups of Benue State, Nigeria

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    Obaje S.G

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anthropometric variables are important biometric characteristics that varies with age, sex, and tribe. Aim: Following the paucity of research in cephalometry as subdivisions of biological and forensic anthropology, this study was undertaken due to lack of adequate cephalometry among Nigerians. Methods: Four hundred and twenty five subjects were used for the study of which 158 were Igede and 267 were Idoma with mean age of 22.6, 0.45 and 23.0 0.47 year respectively. The anthropometric variables measured were head length, head width, bizygomatic distance, upper facial length, lower facial length, total facial length, nose width and skull height from which the cephalometric indices were calculated. Result: The result showed that there were statistically significant differences (P<0.05 in some of the measured variables between the Igede and Idoma tribes of Benue State as head length, head width. The result also showed a positive correlation between the head width and bizygomatic distance and other anthropometric variables which could be used to predict cephalic indices among the Igede and Idoma ethnic groups of Benue State, Nigeria. These results showed that the dominant head form among the Idoma and Igede Ethnic groups were mexocephalic respectively. Facial indices showed dominant hypereuriprosopic face. Conclusion: The present study could be used in forensic anthropology, establishing ancestral relationship and reconstructive surgeries of the face, head and neck of the two ethnic groups of Idoma and Igede of Benue State in north-central of Nigeria.

  4. Craniofacial differences according to AHI scores of children with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome: cephalometric study in 39 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezdemir, Hueseyin; Mahmutyaziciglu, Kamran; Davsancimath, Halit; Guendogdu, Sadi [Department of Radiology, Medical School, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Kozlu, 67600, Zonguldak (Turkey); Altin, Remzi; Kart, Levent [Department of Pulmonology, Medical School, Zonguldak Karaelmas University (Turkey); Soeguet, Ayhan; Tomac, Nazan [Department of Paediatrics, Medical School, Zonguldak Karaelmas University (Turkey); Cinar, Fikret; Uzun, Lokman [Department of Otolaryngology, Medical School, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, (Turkey)

    2004-05-01

    Cephalometry is useful as a screening test for anatomical abnormalities in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). To evaluate comprehensively the cephalo metric features of children with OSAS, with or without adenotonsillar hypertrophy, and to elucidate the relationship between cephalometric variables and apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) severity. The study population consisted of 39 children, aged 4-12 years, with OSAS. Cephalometry was analysed using 11 measurements of the bony structures, their relationships and the size of the airways. Additionally, adenoid and tonsillar hypertrophy were graded. Cranial base angles (BaSN and BaSPNS) were found to correlate with increasing levels of AHI scores (P<0.001). Protrusion of the maxilla (SNA) and mandible (SNB) did not correlate with AHI scores (P>0.05). The length of the mandibular plane (GnGo) and the minimal posterior airway space (MPAS) were inversely correlated with AHI scores (P<0.001). There was positive correlation between MPAS and GnGo (r=0.740, P<0.001), and negative correlation between MPAS and gonial angle (ArGoGn) (r=-0.541, P<0.001). There was significant correlation between cephalometric data and adenotonsillar hypertrophy concerning BaSN, BaSPNS, ArGoGn, GnGoH, BaN-GnGo, MPAS, GnGO and MPH. (orig.)

  5. Radiographic temporomandibular joint abnormality in adults with micrognathia and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographic findings of the upper and lower jaw bone of 20 adult patients with micrognathia, bird face, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis are reported. In all patients a symmetrically underdeveloped mandible with the chin posteriorly positioned was found at cephalometry. Arthritic lesion of the temporomandibular joint, mostly symmetric, with limitation of movement and secondary arthrosis, was observed in all patients. Complete absence of the mandibular head was frequent (75%). The fossa was generally flat, probably due to growth disturbance of the tubercle. Abnormal anterior position of the mandibular head occurred in almost half of the patients. The degree of mandibular growth disturbance seemed to be correlated to the severity of the arthritis, indicating the arthritis to be a causal mechanism of micrognathia. (Auth.)

  6. Three-dimensional x-ray stereometry from paired coplanar images: a progress report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Moffitt, F H; Curry, S

    1983-10-01

    More than fifty years ago, Broadbent reported the development of a three-dimensional cephalometric method which complexed information from pairs of x-ray images oriented in two planes at right angles to each other. Empirical problems have prevented the routine clinical use of this "biplanar" method, notwithstanding its obvious conceptual brilliance. The present article reports on recent work toward the development of an alternative method of three-dimensional cephalometry in which the two images of each x-ray pair are positioned in the same plane rather than being at right angles to each other. It is believed that this "coplanar" method avoids many of the technical problems that have limited the use of the Broadbent method. PMID:6578681

  7. Cervical vertebrae, cranial base, and mandibular retrognathia in human triploid fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Nolting, Dorrit; Engel, Ulla;

    2009-01-01

    On profile radiographs of adults, an association between fusions of cervical vertebrae, deviations in the cranial base and mandibular retrognathia has been documented radiographically. An elaboration of this association on a histological level is needed. In human triploid fetuses severe mandibular...... retrognathia and deviations in the cranial base have previously been described radiographically (without cephalometry) and cervical column fusions radiographically as well as histologically. Therefore, triploid fetuses were chosen to elucidate the cranial base cephalomterically and histologically. In the...... uppermost vertebra in the body axis. As the notochord connects the cervical column and the cranial base in early prenatal life, molecular signaling from the notochord may in future studies support the notochord as the developmental link between abnormal development in the spine and the cranial base....

  8. Radiographic temporomandibular joint abnormality in adults with micrognathia and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larheim, T.A.; Haanaes, H.R.; Dale, K. (Oslo Univ. (Norway))

    1981-01-01

    Radiographic findings of the upper and lower jaw bone of 20 adult patients with micrognathia, bird face, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis are reported. In all patients a symmetrically underdeveloped mandible with the chin posteriorly positioned was found at cephalometry. Arthritic lesion of the temporomandibular joint, mostly symmetric, with limitation of movement and secondary arthrosis, was observed in all patients. Complete absence of the mandibular head was frequent (75%). The fossa was generally flat, probably due to growth disturbance of the tubercle. Abnormal anterior position of the mandibular head occurred in almost half of the patients. The degree of mandibular growth disturbance seemed to be correlated to the severity of the arthritis, indicating the arthritis to be a causal mechanism of micrognathia.

  9. Cephalometric radiography and computed tomography in infants undergoing craniofacial surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craniofacial growth after surgery in children is not completely understood. We have therefore formed a programme for pre- and postoperative studies with both roentgencephalometric- and computed tomographic investigations. This regiment results in overlapping information. Thus, an assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods was made and exemplified in four patients. In our experience both cephalometry and CT are essential for the diagnosis, surgical planning and follow-up of surgically treated children with craniofacial anomalies. To minimize the radiation doses and the diagnostic procedures which in these cases often includes general anesthesia, patients with isolated, asymmetrical conditions such as plagiocephaly, might be followed with CT only, since roentgencephalometry can not add much information. (Authors)

  10. Maxillofacial Developmental and Occlusion Disorders in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Torres Molina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a highly prevalent disease that affects approximately 2% of children and is considered a complex entity due to its somatic and cognitive impact. Occlusion and mouth, skull and facial alterations associated with this syndrome are a matter of concern both for specialists in maxillofacial surgery and orthodontists, who are playing an important role in the diagnosis and final treatment of this disease. Guilleminault scoring system allows to evaluate the severity of the anomalies of the facial skeleton and the dental occlusion in these patients, by relying on the physical examination and the cephalometry. Early diagnosis and appropriate therapy reverse maxillofacial developmental disorders in most of the cases.

  11. Tooth loss and obstructive sleep apnoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai Valerio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete tooth loss (edentulism produces anatomical changes that may impair upper airway size and function. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether edentulism favours the occurrence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA. Methods Polysomnography was performed in 48 edentulous subjects on two consecutive nights, one slept with and the other without dentures. Upper airway size was assessed by cephalometry and by recording forced mid-inspiratory airflow rate (FIF50. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO and oral NO (oNO, were measured as markers of airway and oropharyngeal inflammation. Results The apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI without dentures was significantly higher than with dentures (17·4 ± 3·6 versus 11·0 ± 2·3. p = 0·002, and was inversely related to FIF50 (p = 0·017 and directly related to eNO (p = 0·042. Sleeping with dentures, 23 subjects (48% had an AHI over 5, consistent with OSA, but sleeping without dentures the number of subjects with abnormal AHI rose to 34 (71%. At cephalometry, removing dentures produced a significant decrease in retropharyngeal space (from 1·522 ± 0·33 cm to 1·27 ± 0·42 cm, p = 0·006. Both morning eNO and oNO were higher after the night slept without dentures (eNO 46·1 ± 8·2 ppb versus 33·7 ± 6·3 ppb, p = 0·035, oNO 84·6 ± 13·7 ppb versus 59·2 ± 17·4 ppb, p = 0·001. Conclusion These findings suggest that complete tooth loss favours upper airway obstruction during sleep. This untoward effect seems to be due to decrease in retropharyngeal space and is associated with increased oral and exhaled NO concentration.

  12. MORPHO‐FUNCTIONAL RE‐ESTABLISHMENT OF CRANIO‐FACIAL GROWTH DISORDERS IN PITUITARY DWARFISM BY RHGH THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana BĂLAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the cranio‐facial growth disorders in a series of patients suffering from pituitary dwarfism, as a result of the therapy with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH. Included in the study were 15 children diagnosed with pituitary dwarfism in the Endocrinology Clinics of the ”Sf. Spiridon” Hospital of Iasi, subjected to a treatment with rhGH for 2 years. After the application of the therapy, the parameters of general physical development were followed and the dental ortho‐ pantomography and profile cephalometry were analyzed. The results obtained confirm a general physical growth of about 1.3 cm/month in the first year of treatment, followed by values around 1.1 cm/month in the second year. Cranio‐facial development was improved by the increase of both mandibular vertical branch and facial height. At the level of the dental arches, one could observe improved sagital and transversal relations at molar level, as well as a regulating tendency of dental eruption. The therapy with rhGH is thus influent at cranio‐facial level, favourizing the development of maxillaries, regulation of dental eruption and the aesthetic aspects.

  13. A Radiographic Study of the Mandibular Asymmetry in Temporomandibular Disorder Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purse of this study was to observe the relationship between mandibular asymmetry and Temporomandibular Disorders by means of the cephalometry using the posteroanterior cephalogram and the submentovertex cephalogram which were taken in 35 Temporomandibular Disorder patients and 35 normal persons ranged from 20S to 30S. The results were as follows: 1. The angulation which was formed by the median line with the ANS-Menton line (MAP) was greater in patients group and there was statistically significant difference. 2. The angulation which was formed to the median line with the Menton-Odontoid process tip line (MES), the difference of the distances from the center of the posterior surface of the both condyles to the most anterior point of the chin (DD), the difference of the distances from the center of the both condyles to the horizontal reference line (DE), the difference of the angulations which were formed by the both condyles axes with the horizontal reference line (DCE), the difference of the lengths of the both condyles (CL) and the difference of the widths of the both condyles (DW) were greater in patients group and there were statistically significant differences. 3. There was reversed correlation between MAP and the difference of the distances from the bilateral points of the lateral margin of the both zygomaticofrontal sutures to the points at the lateral inferior margin of the both antegonial protuberances in mandible (DH). 4. There was reversed correlation between MES and DD, DE, DCE. 5. There was correlation between MAP and MES.

  14. A Radiographic Study of the Mandibular Asymmetry in Temporomandibular Disorder Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sung Uk; You Dong Soo [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-08-15

    The purse of this study was to observe the relationship between mandibular asymmetry and Temporomandibular Disorders by means of the cephalometry using the posteroanterior cephalogram and the submentovertex cephalogram which were taken in 35 Temporomandibular Disorder patients and 35 normal persons ranged from 20S to 30S. The results were as follows: 1. The angulation which was formed by the median line with the ANS-Menton line (MAP) was greater in patients group and there was statistically significant difference. 2. The angulation which was formed to the median line with the Menton-Odontoid process tip line (MES), the difference of the distances from the center of the posterior surface of the both condyles to the most anterior point of the chin (DD), the difference of the distances from the center of the both condyles to the horizontal reference line (DE), the difference of the angulations which were formed by the both condyles axes with the horizontal reference line (DCE), the difference of the lengths of the both condyles (CL) and the difference of the widths of the both condyles (DW) were greater in patients group and there were statistically significant differences. 3. There was reversed correlation between MAP and the difference of the distances from the bilateral points of the lateral margin of the both zygomaticofrontal sutures to the points at the lateral inferior margin of the both antegonial protuberances in mandible (DH). 4. There was reversed correlation between MES and DD, DE, DCE. 5. There was correlation between MAP and MES.

  15. Evaluation of morphologic changes of mandibular symphysis after chin cup therapy in skeletally Cl III patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinzadeh Nik T.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Chin cup is an orthopedic appliance for treating growing skeletally Cl III patients. The amount of chin forward movement in addition to morphologic changes in bony structure, determines the final profile of treated patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of morphologic changes of symphysis after chin cup therapy in skeletally Cl III patients.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, twenty eight cephalometries before and after chin cup therapy of 14 skeletally Cl III patients were analyzed. Landmarks introduced by Ricketts were determined to evaluate the symphysis and describe its relation to mandible. َAlso four additional measurements regarding the symphysis individually were evaluated and analyzed. Data were analyzed by paired t and pearson tests with P<0.05 as the level of significance.Results: The results showed that the height of symphysis increased after treatment (P=0.02, but its depth decreased (P=0.04. The sysmphysis turned down and back.Conclusion: These findings suggest that in Cl III malocclusions with a prognathic mandible, chin cup therapy creates changes in the horizontal dimension of symphysis morphology, which improves the Cl III profile. If the patient isn't a vertical grower, vertical changes of symphysis would be desirable. In addition, changes in the vertical dimension of the mandible (body and ramus could be observed as a backward and downward rotation.

  16. Comparison of the dentofacial patterns for native Greek and American-Caucasian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, E; Sassouni, V

    1989-03-01

    The study of the craniofacial relations and variations in man has long been used to differentiate various racial groups in physical anthropology. Morphologic features of different races and ethnic groups are not randomly distributed but appear in geographic clusters. Richardson wonders whether there is only one race, comprising ethnic groups separated by cultural, climatic, and geographic boundaries, causing subtle changes in facial morphology. Since the introduction of roentgenographic cephalometry in orthodontics, several methods of analysis have been developed for clinical diagnosis and treatment planning. Also, these methods have been used to establish the cephalometric norms of different ethnic groups: American Negro, Australian aborigine, American Mexican, Norwegian, Indian, Japanese, Swedish, and Iranian. Sassouni, Ricketts, and others have concluded that norms differ between Caucasians and other ethnic and racial groups. Ethnic differences in facial traits do exist. Awareness of the normal dentofacial pattern of each ethnic group will undoubtedly ensure better success of treatment to establish optimal facial harmony. These conclusions prompted the present investigation, which compares Greek and American-Caucasian dentofacial patterns of adolescents, and provides information on the facial characteristics of Greek adolescents. To date, no similar study has been made. PMID:2923103

  17. Hubungan Antara Nilai Indeks Pertumbuhan Vertikal Wajah dan Kejadian Otitis Media Kronik pada Subras Deutero Melayu Dewasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Widyastuti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vertical growth index (VERT describes craniofacial growth. This value affects the eustachian tube growth. Differences in craniofacial morphology correlates with eustachian tube anatomy function and tensor veli palatini muscles that play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic otitis media (COM. This study aimed to determine the effect of vertical growth index (VERT and cephalometry on COM incident. The design was case-control with subjects from the outpatient clinic of otolaryngology head and neck surgery, Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital during the period of September to November 2013. Subjects were divided into two groups: COM group and control group. Cephalometric measurements were performed and the mean values difference of both groups were calculated using t test or Mann-Whitney test. The mean index VERT was then calculated for each groups and relationship between risk factors and effects were analyzed using Odds Ratio. Four of 7 subjects in the COM group have a short round face/brachifacial type with greater facial depth angle (t=3.408, p=0.005 with smaller mandibular plane angle are (t = - 4.055, p=0.002. Subjects with VERT index > +0.5 (brachyfacial type have eight times higher risk to be COM (OR: 8; 95% CI: 0.41 to 309.1. In conclusion, the VERT index has an association with COM incident in adult Deutero Malays.

  18. The effect of anabolic steroids on mandibular growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Alexander; Pancherz, Hans

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of nandrolone (Deca-Durabolin, AKZO Nobel, Cambridge, United Kingdom) on mandibular growth in juvenile and adult rats with radiographic cephalometry and immunoradiology. Juvenile (n = 16) and adult (n = 16) inbred female Wistar-Kyoto rats were compared. Each group was divided into 2 subgroups with 8 experimental (E) and 8 control (C) animals in each subgroup. Lateral headfilms taken before and after the 70-day study period were analyzed. Body weight and blood serum IGF-I levels were monitored weekly. The results showed marked mandibular growth changes in both the juvenile and the adult E rats. Body weight increase was larger in the E than in the C animals. The IGF-I blood serum levels were similar in the juvenile E and C rats but higher in the adult E animals than in the adult C animals. It was found that the anabolic steroid (Deca-Durabolin) had a significant effect on mandibular growth in both juvenile and adult rats. PMID:12695771

  19. DETERMINATION OF ANATOMICAL TYPE OF HEAD AND FACE IN CHILDREN UNDER 6 YEARS IN AHWAZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Safikhani

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Cephalometry is an important branch of anthropology in which the dimensions of head and face can be determined. These dimensions are used to show indexes for studying brain growth and formation of all types of head and face. Indexes are vary from 65 to 95 for head and 65 to105 for face, which are used to determine 4 international anatomic types of head and 5 international anatomic types of face. The present study was carried out to determine all types of head and face among subjects aged less than 6 years. A total of 267(145 male and 131 female children were enrolled in this study. Convenience sampling was collected from kindergarten and preschool children. The subjects categorized to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 months and 11 groups of 12-72 months. Appropriate equipments were used for measuring height and width of the head and face. The results of this study indicated that brachycephalic (38% was the most common anatomical type of head, euryprosopic (38.6% and hyperleptoprosopic type (4.5% for face.

  20. Methods to quantify soft-tissue based facial growth and treatment outcomes in children: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Brons

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Technological advancements have led craniofacial researchers and clinicians into the era of three-dimensional digital imaging for quantitative evaluation of craniofacial growth and treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To give an overview of soft-tissue based methods for quantitative longitudinal assessment of facial dimensions in children until six years of age and to assess the reliability of these methods in studies with good methodological quality. DATA SOURCE: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus and CINAHL were searched. A hand search was performed to check for additional relevant studies. STUDY SELECTION: Primary publications on facial growth and treatment outcomes in children younger than six years of age were included. DATA EXTRACTION: Independent data extraction by two observers. A quality assessment instrument was used to determine the methodological quality. Methods, used in studies with good methodological quality, were assessed for reliability expressed as the magnitude of the measurement error and the correlation coefficient between repeated measurements. RESULTS: In total, 47 studies were included describing 4 methods: 2D x-ray cephalometry; 2D photography; anthropometry; 3D imaging techniques (surface laser scanning, stereophotogrammetry and cone beam computed tomography. In general the measurement error was below 1 mm and 1° and correlation coefficients range from 0.65 to 1.0. CONCLUSION: Various methods have shown to be reliable. However, at present stereophotogrammetry seems to be the best 3D method for quantitative longitudinal assessment of facial dimensions in children until six years of age due to its millisecond fast image capture, archival capabilities, high resolution and no exposure to ionizing radiation.

  1. Collimator with compensated filtration: clinical adaptation for recommendation 4f of the EU about the radiation protection in oral dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent recommendations by the European Union (2004) for performing lateral cranial cephalometry (LCC) state that collimation should be maximized so that only those tissues necessary are irradiated when performing clinical diagnoses, although the fact that many manufacturers do not incorporate these elements in their equipment design has been recognised (recommendations 4f). Aim: the manufacture and utilization of a collimator with a pre-patient compensating filter for LLC which may be used in most extraoraldental radiology units, as well as determining the reduction in the dose of radiation absorbed by more sensitive tissues exposed to said clinical exploration. Making use of mannequins, phantom and craniums, we constructed a collimator with a compensating filter and established the necessary technical, dosimetric and quality specifications for its clinical use. Subsequently, we studied 16 patients referred for cephalometric study, determining the radiation dose (TLDs) in both the patients (crystalline lens, frontal lobe, parotid/submaxillary/thyroid glands and brain) and in the radiographic film, as well as in different parts of the collimator/filter. Al presented we are aiming for its clinical use by carrying out LCC in another 16 patients referred of orthodontic treatment but with the pre-a patient introduction of the tested collimator with the compensating filter as a substitute for the usual technique. The collimation reduced the field or radiation by some 40% and with that, so too the radiated tissues. The compensating filter reduced the dose in tissues by some 34.2. Our collimator has allowed the radiological image to be obtained with only one third the usual radiation dose. The dose reaching the film shies only between 17% less than in the usual technique and didn't alter its diagnostic capacity. A reduction of 61,6% of the dose administered to the patient is achieved by incorporating the collimator and filter to most radiological equipment without the need

  2. The Relationship Between Cervical Column Curvature and Sagittal Position of the Jaws: Using a New Method for Evaluating Curvature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Hosseinzadeh Nik

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: For determining the cervical column curvature, the curve fitting method is the most precise method, but using this method in clinic seems to be difficult if not possible. In this study, we used a modification of cervical column inclination angle that has been already mentionedObjectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the posture and curvature of the cervical column introducing a modified constructed angle in order to evaluate the cervical column curvature in a relax position in relation to the jaws sagittal position.Patients and Methods: The lateral cephalometries of patients with no anomaly were taken in the natural head position. The mean age of the patients was 13.49 years including 56 female and 44 male. Steiner and Wits analysis was used to evaluate the sagittal position of the jaws. Modified constructed CVT/HOR and OPT/HOR angles were used to evaluate the cervical column posture and curvature. Patients were classified into three groups according to the angle’s classification.Results: The results showed a significant positive correlation between modified constructed angles and sagittal jaw relationships (P < 0.05. Besides, in class II patients, there was a significant correlation between OPT/HOR and parameters ANB and Wits (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively. Age could not affect the curvature and posture of the cervical column.Conclusions: According to the result of this study using modified constructed angles may be a simple method for evaluation of the relation between cervical column curvature and sagittal position of the jaws. There is significant correlation between cervical column posture angles and parameters ANB and Wits in Cl. II patients.

  3. Cephalic And Prosopic Indices: Comparison In One-Day Newborn Boys In Zahedan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidari Z

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cephalometry is one of the important branches of anthropometry that has wide uses in identification, forensic medicine, plastic surgery, orthodontics, archeology and determining the origins of races. This research was investigated to determine the head and face phenotypes among one-day newborn boys in two aborigines of Sistani and Baluchi who were resident in Zahedan. Materials and Methods: The investigation is based on cross-sectional analytical descriptions of 420 newborn aborigine boys (216 Sistani & 204 Baluchi, who were clinically healthy, in Quds hospital in summer 1381, in Zahedan. In this study cephalic and prosopic indices were determined by classical cephalometric. Results: The mean and the standard deviations of cephalic index were 83.67±4.80 and 83.64±4.77 and prosopic index 86.79±5.87 and 86.53±6.76 for Sistani and Baluchi subjects respectively. Based on the cephalic index, the dominant head types in sistani group were hyperbrachycephalic (37% and brachycephalic (37%. In Blachui group, the hyperbrachycephalic (37.3% and brachycephalic (35.3% type were the dominant one. Furthermore, according to the prosopic index. The dominant face type among sistanis was euryprosopic type (42.6%. In Baluchi group, the dominant face type was also euryprosopic (39.2%. Conclusion: This research showed no statistically significant differences in terms of head and face type indices between two aborigines of Zahedan. Based on this cross-sectional study, it seems that there is similarities between the aforementioned groups

  4. Korelasi indeks morfologi wajah dengan sudut interinsisal dan tinggi wajah secara sefalometri (Cephalometric correlation of facial morphology index with interincisal angle and facial height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pricillia Priska Sianita K

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In a disaster or criminal case, comprehensive information is needed for identification process of each victim. Especially for some cases that only leave skull without any information that could help the identification process, including face reconstruction that will be needed. One way of identifications is specific face characteristic, race, some head-neck measurements, such as facial morphology index, interincisal angle and facial height. Purpose: The aim of study was to determine the correlation of facial morphology index with interincisal angle and facial height through cephalometric measurement. Methods: The samples were cephalogram of 31 subjects (Deutro-Malayid race who met the inclusive criteria. Cephalometric analysis were done to all samples and followed by Pearson Correlation statistical test. Results: The correlation was found between facial morphology index and facial height, but no correlation between facial morphology index and interincisal angle. Conclusion: The study showed that the cephalometric measurement of facial morphology index and facial height could be used as the additional information for identification process.Latar belakang: Dalam bencana alam atau kasus kriminal informasi yang komprehensif diperlukan untuk proses identifikasi masing korban. Khususnya pada beberapa kasus yang hanya meninggalkan tengkorak tanpa informasi yang dapat membantu proses identifikasi, termasuk rekonstruksi wajah yang akan dibutuhkan. Salah satu cara identifikasi karakteristik wajah tertentu, ras, beberapa pengukuran kepala leher, seperti indeks morfologi wajah, sudut interincisal dan tinggi wajah. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan meneliti korelasi indeks morfologi wajah dengan sudut interincisal dan tinggi wajah melalui pengukuran sefalometrik. Metode: Sampel penelitian adalah cephalogram dari 31 subyek ras Deutro - Malayid ras yang memenuhi kriteria inklusif. Analisis cephalometri dilakukan pada semua sampel dan dilanjutkan

  5. Collimator with compensated filtration: clinical adaptation for recommendation 4f of the EU about the radiation protection in oral dental radiology; Colimador con filtracion compensada: adaptacion clinica para alcanzar la recomendacion 4F de la Union Europea sobre proteccion radiologica al paciente en radiologia odontologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, M.; Garcia-Vera, C.; Bravo, C. La; Morant, J. J.; Armedo, D. Y.; Canteras, M.

    2006-07-01

    Recent recommendations by the European Union (2004) for performing lateral cranial cephalometry (LCC) state that collimation should be maximized so that only those tissues necessary are irradiated when performing clinical diagnoses, although the fact that many manufacturers do not incorporate these elements in their equipment design has been recognised (recommendations 4f). Aim: the manufacture and utilization of a collimator with a pre-patient compensating filter for LLC which may be used in most extraoraldental radiology units, as well as determining the reduction in the dose of radiation absorbed by more sensitive tissues exposed to said clinical exploration. Making use of mannequins, phantom and craniums, we constructed a collimator with a compensating filter and established the necessary technical, dosimetric and quality specifications for its clinical use. Subsequently, we studied 16 patients referred for cephalometric study, determining the radiation dose (TLDs) in both the patients (crystalline lens, frontal lobe, parotid/submaxillary/thyroid glands and brain) and in the radiographic film, as well as in different parts of the collimator/filter. Al presented we are aiming for its clinical use by carrying out LCC in another 16 patients referred of orthodontic treatment but with the pre-a patient introduction of the tested collimator with the compensating filter as a substitute for the usual technique. The collimation reduced the field or radiation by some 40% and with that, so too the radiated tissues. The compensating filter reduced the dose in tissues by some 34.2. Our collimator has allowed the radiological image to be obtained with only one third the usual radiation dose. The dose reaching the film shies only between 17% less than in the usual technique and didn't alter its diagnostic capacity. A reduction of 61,6% of the dose administered to the patient is achieved by incorporating the collimator and filter to most radiological equipment without the

  6. Craniocervical Posture in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccin, Chaiane Facco; Pozzebon, Daniela; Scapini, Fabricio; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is characterized by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep. Objective  The objective of this study is to verify the craniofacial characteristics and craniocervical posture of OSA and healthy subjects, determining possible relationships with the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI). Methods  This case-control study evaluated 21 subjects with OSA, who comprised the OSA group (OSAG), and 21 healthy subjects, who constituted the control group (CG). Cephalometry analyzed head posture measurements, craniofacial measurements, and air space. Head posture was also assessed by means of photogrammetry. Results  The groups were homogeneous regarding gender (12 men and 9 women in each group), age (OSAG = 41.86 ± 11.26 years; GC = 41.19 ± 11.20 years), and body mass index (OSAG = 25.65 ± 2.46 kg/m2; CG = 24.72 ± 3.01 kg/m2). We found significant differences between the groups, with lower average pharyngeal space and greater distance between the hyoid bone and the mandibular plane in OSAG, when compared with CG. A positive correlation was found between higher head hyperextension and head anteriorization, with greater severity of OSA as assessed by AHI. Conclusion  OSAG subjects showed changes in craniofacial morphology, with lower average pharyngeal space and greater distance from the hyoid bone to the mandibular plane, as compared with healthy subjects. Moreover, in OSA subjects, the greater the severity of OSA, the greater the head hyperextension and anteriorization. PMID:27413397

  7. The Effect of Ethnic Factor on Cephalic Index in 17-20 Years Old Females of North of Iran Efecto del Factor Étnico en el Índice Cefálico en Mujeres entre 17 y 20 Años de Edad del Norte de Irán

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    Mohammad Jafar Golalipour

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Cephalic index and head shape are affected by geographical, gender, age, racial and ethnic factors. This study was carried out to determine cephalic index and head shape in 17-20 years old female in Gorgan, North of Iran. This descriptive and cross sectional study is undertaken on 410 normal 17-20 years old female (Turkman group: n=203, Fars group: n=207. The study was done by classic cephalometry in Gorgan ­ North of Iran. Means and SD of cephalic index was 85 ± 4.5 and 82.8 ± 3.6 in native Fars and Turkman groups, respectively. Dominant and rare type of head shape in native Fars group were hyperbrachycephalic (53.6% and dolichocephalic (15%, and in Turkman group were brachycephalic (58.1% and dolichocephalic (0.05%, respectively. With noticing of our results and other studies in the world, we can conclude that the role of ethnic factor on head dimensionsEl índice cefálico y forma de la cabeza son afectados por factores geográficos, género, edad, raza y grupos étnicos. Este estudio determina el índice cefálico y la forma de la cabeza en mujeres entre 17 y 20 años de edad en Gorgan, Norte de Irán. El estudio fue realizado en 410 mujeres normales de17 a 20 años de edad (grupo Turco n=203, grupo Fars n=207 del Norte de Irán, a través de cefalometría clásica. La media y DS del índice cefálico fue 85 ± 4.5 y 82.8 ± 3.6 en nativos de los grupos Fars y Turcos, respectivamente. Tipos dominantes y raros de la forma de la cabeza en el grupo Fars fueron hiperbraquicefálico (53.6% y dolicocefálico (15%, y en el grupo Turco fueron braquicefálico (58.1% y dolicocefálico (0.05%, respectivamente. Estos resultados y el de otros estudios realizados en el mundo, permiten concluir la influencia que tienen los factores étnicos en las dimensiones de la cabeza

  8. Assessment of the dentoskeletal changes following the use of twin-block functional appliance and inclined anterior bite plan in the patients with class II malocclusion div 1 in 11-14 years old

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    Allahyar Geramy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Cl II malocclusion is one of the most common abnormalities in human societies and using a simple, affordable and accessible treatment that can be provided by general practitioners or specialists, to prevent future malocclusion complications is vital. Cl II malocclusion treatment using functional appliances such as twin block and anterior inclined bite plan have less cost, side effects and complications compared to fixed orthodontic or orthosurgery. Until now, the dentoskeletal changes resulting from the application of twin block and anterior inclined bite plan in patients with Class II malocclusion has not been evaluated. The objective of the present study was to assess the dentoskeletal changes following the use of twin-block functional appliance and inclined anterior bite plan in the patients with class II malocclusion div 1 during mixed dentition. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective cohort trial, 60 patients with the definitive diagnosis of Class II div. 1 malocclusion having ANB>2 and FMA angel between 20 and 30 and without any previous treatment or syndrome who were treated with twin-block or inclined anterior bite plan appliance were selected and their lateral cephalometries were traced before and after treatment. Selected distance and angular landmarks were measured on the cephalograms with the good reliability (ICC=0.953 and the changes occurred in the landmarks were statistically analyzed using Student t test. Results: Due to the increased mandibular growth, most of the landmarks experienced significant changes following the treatment with twin-block and inclined bite plan (P0.05, however, SNA (P=0.04, overjet (P=0.007 and wits appraisal (P=0.004 changed differently after using the appliances. Conclusion: Despite with most similarities of both twin-block and anterior inclined bite plan to correct class II div. 1 malocclusion, Due to the advantages of anterior inclined bite plan such as less size, good

  9. Avaliação cefalométrica da posição do osso hióide em crianças respiradoras bucais Cephalometric assessment of the hyoid bone position in oral breathing children

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    Maria Julia Pereira Coelho Ferraz

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: em função das relações anatomofuncionais do osso hióide com o complexo craniofacial, realizou-se avaliação cefalométrica da posição do osso hióide em relação ao padrão respiratório. A amostra consistiu de 53 crianças, gênero feminino, com idades médias de 10 anos, sendo 28 respiradoras nasais e 25, bucais. As medidas cefalométricas horizontais, verticais e angulares foram utilizadas com a finalidade de determinar a posição do osso hióide. Estabeleceu-se uma comparação entre os grupos por meio do teste "t" de student, bem como correlação de Pearson entre as variáveis. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que não ocorreram diferenças estatísticas significativas para a posição mandibular e posição do osso hióide e o tipo do padrão respiratório. No Triângulo Hióideo, o coeficiente de correlação de 0,40 foi significativo entre AA-ENP (distância entre vértebra atlas e espinha nasal posterior e C3-H (distância entre a terceira vértebra cervical e osso hióide demonstrando uma relação positiva entre os limites ósseos do espaço aéreo superior e inferior. Para as medidas cranianas sugeriu-se uma relação entre a posição do osso hióide com a morfologia mandibular. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados permitiram concluir que o osso hióide mantém uma posição estável, provavelmente, para garantir as proporções corretas das vias aéreas e não depende do padrão respiratório predominante.MATERIAL AND METHODS: because of its anatomical and functional relationship with the craniofacial complex, we assessed the cephalometry of the hyoid bone position in relation to the respiratory pattern of these 53 female children, with average age of 10 years; 28 of them are nasal breathers and 25 are oral breathers. Horizontal, vertical and angular cephalometric measures were used in order to determine the hyoid bone location. The Student "t" and the Pearson correlation tests were used in order to compare the groups

  10. An analysis of 1018 cases of ultrasonography

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    1, transplanted kidney 1. 9. In 8 cases of polycystic disease of kidney, 1 case combined with liver involvement, other 1 case with liver, pancreas, splenic involvement. 10. Ob. and Gyn. fields 122; 1) 57 in Gyn. field -- normal 4, massive ascites 4, overian cyst 21, overian teratodermoid 7, uterine myoma 7, H-mole 6, cervix and rectal cancer follow-up 6, PID with abscess 2. 2) 65 in Ob. field -- normal scan 3, detection of early pregnancy 27, fetal cephalometry and presentation 16, placental localization 11, with normal 6, placenta previa 5, fetal death 5, multiple pregnancy 2. fetal anomaly (anencephaly) 1. 11. Eyeballs and orbit; of 14 cases, 7 cases of retinal detachment, vitreous opacity due to hemorrhage or exudation with clinical contribution in all cases. Exact localization and extent of disease could be done in 2 cases of choroidal melanoma. 12. We could have great diagnostic advantage in various aspects by ultrasonography, and if we use it as a complementary study with other diagnostic methods, we could expect better results under the previous experiences.

  11. An analysis of 1018 cases of ultrasonography

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    Kim, Chu Wan; Suh, Jeong Soo; Lee, Kwan Seh; Kim, Ki Hwan; Im, Chung Gie; Chang, Kee Hyun; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung; Choo, Dong Woon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    1, transplanted kidney 1. 9. In 8 cases of polycystic disease of kidney, 1 case combined with liver involvement, other 1 case with liver, pancreas, splenic involvement. 10. Ob. and Gyn. fields 122; 1) 57 in Gyn. field -- normal 4, massive ascites 4, overian cyst 21, overian teratodermoid 7, uterine myoma 7, H-mole 6, cervix and rectal cancer follow-up 6, PID with abscess 2. 2) 65 in Ob. field -- normal scan 3, detection of early pregnancy 27, fetal cephalometry and presentation 16, placental localization 11, with normal 6, placenta previa 5, fetal death 5, multiple pregnancy 2. fetal anomaly (anencephaly) 1. 11. Eyeballs and orbit; of 14 cases, 7 cases of retinal detachment, vitreous opacity due to hemorrhage or exudation with clinical contribution in all cases. Exact localization and extent of disease could be done in 2 cases of choroidal melanoma. 12. We could have great diagnostic advantage in various aspects by ultrasonography, and if we use it as a complementary study with other diagnostic methods, we could expect better results under the previous experiences.

  12. Avaliação cefalométrica das alterações verticais e ântero-posteriores em pacientes Classe II esquelética, tratados com aparelho extrabucal de tração cervical ou combinada Cephalometric evaluation of anteroposterior and vertical changes in skeletal Class II patients treated with cervical or combined traction

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    Márlio Vinícius de Oliveira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar cefalometricamente as alterações ântero-posteriores e verticais em pacientes Classe II esquelética (ANB > 5°, tratados com aparelho extrabucal cervical (grupo 1 associado a aparelho fixo do tipo Edgewise ou tratados com aparelho extrabucal de tração combinada (grupo 2 associado ao mesmo. METODOLOGIA: a amostra consistiu-se de 60 radiografias cefalométricas laterais obtidas nas fases pré-tratamento e pós-tratamento de 30 indivíduos leucodermas, sendo 13 do gênero masculino e 17 do feminino. A idade média dos 15 pacientes do grupo 1, no pré-tratamento, era de 10 anos e 7 meses, e no pós-tratamento era de 13 anos e 9 meses. Os 15 pacientes do grupo 2 apresentavam idade média, no pré-tratamento, de 11 anos e 5 meses e no pós-tratamento a idade média era de 14 anos e 9 meses. As medidas cefalométricas iniciais e finais foram analisadas e comparadas pelo teste t de Student. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: não houve alteração significante no padrão de crescimento facial durante o tratamento em nenhum dos grupos avaliados. Nos pacientes do grupo 2, que possuíam tendência de crescimento vertical (GoGn-SN> 36°, o aparelho extrabucal de tração combinada, mesmo não provocando efeito extrusivo sobre os molares superiores, não foi capaz de diminuir o ângulo do plano mandibular. A maxila apresentou uma restrição no seu deslocamento anterior e verticalmente manteve-se estável. A mandíbula expressou seu crescimento e deslocou-se anteriormente, porém manteve sua inclinação inalterada. A relação maxilomandibular apresentou uma melhora significante com redução sensível do ANB.AIM: To evaluate the antero-posterior and vertical changes in patients with skeletal Class II malocclusions (ANB > 5º by means of the cephalometry. The patients had been treated with either cervical traction device (Group 1 or combined traction device (Group 2 both in association with a Edgewise-type device. METHODS: The sample consisted

  13. O efeito da alteração da posição natural da cabeça (PNC sobre as medidas cefalométricas The effect of the alteration the natural head position (NHP on the cephalometric measurements

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    Paulo Eduardo Negreiros

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estudar as alterações das grandezas cefalométricas utilizadas em cefalometria, quando a posição natural da cabeça (PNC modifica-se durante a tomada da telerradiografia, sua influência no diagnóstico ortodôntico, sua precisão e reprodutibilidade em tomadas radiográficas sucessivas. Analisou-se 180 telerradiografias, tomadas em norma lateral, de 30 pacientes do gênero feminino com idade média de 21,3 anos obtidas em duas séries de tomadas radiográficas com intervalo de 15 dias entre as séries. Registrou-se em cada série a PNC, a PNC acrescida de 5 graus e a PNC com flexão de 5 graus de cada paciente. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que as grandezas lineares S-N, ENA-ENP, Co-Gn, Go-Gn, e as angulares SNA, ANB, PP.GoGn, 1.PP, IMPA, 1.1, SN.VER e HF.VER não apresentaram alterações estatisticamente significantes entre as posições estudadas e entre as séries de tomadas radiográficas, mas as de SNB, SN.GoGn, FMA, SN.PP, Ângulo Z e Co-Go apresentaram alterações estatisticamente significantes. Concluiu-se que as medidas angulares e lineares avaliadas não apresentaram alterações significantes quando a PNC modificou-se dentro da faixa de variação angular estudada, o que não conduziu a diagnósticos ou interpretações duvidosas. Devido à baixa variação das angulações dos ângulos SN.VER e HF.VER demonstrou-se que a utilização da Unidade Orientadora de Posicionamento, apresentada neste trabalho, permite a reprodutibilidade da posição natural da cabeça com grande confiabilidade dentro de uma faixa de variação da PNC em + 5º.This work aimed to study the alterations of angular and linear cephalometrics measurements used in cephalometry, when the natural head position (NHP is modified during the taking of cephalometric radiography, its influence in the orthodontic diagnosis, and the reliability and reproducibility of NHP for successive radiographs. One hundred and eighty cephalometrics

  14. Mandibular distraction osteogenesis for improving respiratory function in patients with micrognathia complicated by obstructive sleep apnea syndrome%下颌骨牵引成骨术矫治小颌畸形伴阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停综合征患者改善呼吸功能的作用

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    吴国平; 滕利; 孙晓梅; Andrew A.Heggie; Anthony D.Holmes

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome(OSAS) in patients with serious micrognathia affects the respiratory function and can be life-threatening. Conventional surgical therapies are often highly risky and unsuitable in patients with the craniomaxillofacial skeleton still in development.OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of mandibular distraction osteogenesis in treatment of OSAS in patients with congenital micrognathia and the effect of the surgery on the patients' respiratory functions.DESIGN: A self-controlled study.SETTING: Plastic Surgery Hospital of Peking Union Medical College and Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery Unit of Royal Children's Hospital of Melbourne, Australia.PARTICIPANTS: Eight consecutive patients with congenital micrognathia who developed OSAS were hospitalized from October 2001 to July 2004 at the Center of Craniomaxillofacial Surgery, Plastic Surgery Hospital of Peking Union Medical College and Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery Unit of Royal Children's Hospital of Melbourne, Australia. This group included 5 male and 3 female patients aged 4 months to 17 years.METHODS: The 8 patients underwent mandibular distraction osteogenesis,and altogether 16 distractors were placed through extraoral or intraoral incisions for bilateral distraction. The distraction device proceeded at the rate of 1 to 1.5 mm per day and consolidated for 4 to 12 weeks. The follow-up lasted for 2 to 18 months. Each patient was evaluated pre-and postoperatively with cephalometry or polysomnography (PSG).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The distraction distance, posterior airway space, and improvement of the respiratory function of the patients were recorded.RESULTS: Osteotomy and distraction procedures were smooth in all the patients who had good ontogenesis. The average distraction distance was 19.12 mm(ranging from 15 to 25 mm) . The posterior airway space was increased from a mean of 4.5 mm preoperatively to 11 mm after the surgery. Seven patients had normal respiration and sleep

  15. Obstrüktif uyku apneli ve horlayan erişkin erkek hastaların dentofasiyal özelliklerinin değerlendirilmesi

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    Ahmet Altay Sahin

    2011-09-01

    adult male patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS.

    Materials and Methods: Cephalograms of 80 male patients (60 OSAS, 20 snoring were evaluated. Subjects were grouped as, Group 1: snoring (AHI<5; Group 2: mild OSA (5£ AHI<15;  Group 3: moderate OSA (15£ AHI<30 ; Group 4: severe OSA (AHI ³30. Measurements were made to evaluate hyoid bone position, tongue base and soft palate, craniocervical extension and the airway width. Statistical significance was determined with one-way ANOVA and Duncan test for variables showing normal distribution. Kruskal Wallis test and Mann Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction were used to evaluate the variables that were not normally distibuted.

    Results: No significant differences were found in hyoid bone position, soft palate position, craniocervical extension and the airway width (p>0.05. PNS-V (mm, was significantly different between severe OSA group and the other groups (p<0.05. The other measurements on tongue base showed no difference between groups (p>0.05.

    Conclusions: In this study population, the tongue base was more inferiorly positioned in the severe OSA group whereas the other craniofacial variables showed no difference between groups.

    Key words: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, snoring, cephalometry, craniofacial.