The gel-liquid crystal phase transitions of the pseudo-binary systems of cephalins DMPE and DHPE in excess water were studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The phase diagram of the pseudo-binary systems has been given. The experiments showed that the partial phase separation in gel phase might occur at least at the mole fractions of DHPE below 0.1. The analysis by the model of ideal solution showed that both the cephalins were non-ideally miscible both in the gel phases and in the liquid crystal phases. The analysis by the model of regular solution showed that all the non-ideality parameters in the gel phases were larger than those in the liquid crystal phases at the same temperature. All the non-ideality parameters were not constant, but rather dependent on temperature.
Marakulina, K. M.; Kramor, R. V.; Lukanina, Yu. K.; Plashchina, I. G.; Polyakov, A. V.; Fedorova, I. V.; Chukicheva, I. Yu.; Kutchin, A. V.; Shishkina, L. N.
The parameters of complexation between natural phospholipids (lecithin, sphingomyelin, and cephalin) with antioxidants of a new class, isobornylphenols (IBPs), were determined by UV and IR spectroscopy. The self-organization of phospholipids (PLs) was studied depending on the structure of IBPs by dynamic light scattering. The nature of phospholipids and the structure of IBPs was found to produce a substantial effect both on the degree of complexation and on the size of PL aggregates in a nonpolar solvent. Based on the obtained data it was concluded that the structure of biological membranes mainly depends on the complexation of IBP with sphingomyelin.
Li, Yuexian; Plesescu, Mihaela; Prakash, Shimoga R
L-MTP-PE (1), an immunomodulator and its metabolite MDP (4) were synthesized from labeled l-alanine and its protected derivative, respectively. The key intermediate product for the labeled L-MTP-PE synthesis, [(13) C3 ,D4 ]-alanyl-cephalin (2A), was synthesized from [(13) C3 ,D4 ]-l-alanine (3A) in three steps. The key intermediate product for labeled MDP synthesis, amine 11, was prepared from [(13) C3 ,(15) N]-Boc-l-alanine (5A) in two steps.
Baker, Z; Harrison, R W; Miller, B F
1. Lecithin, cephalin, and sphingomyelin prevent the inhibition of bacterial metabolism which is caused by synthetic anionic and cationic detergents. The phospholipids must be added either before or simultaneously with the detergent. Addition after the detergent is without effect. Bacteria still exhibit this phenomenon after they have been exposed to the phospholipid and thoroughly washed. 2. A similar action of the phospholipids has been demonstrated towards the bactericidal compounds isolated by Dubos and Hoogerheide from soil bacteria. There is very little effect with bactericidal mercury compounds. 3. The effect of lecithin against the bactericidal action of synthetic detergents was also determined. It was found that germicidal quantities of the detergents were not effective in the presence of the phospholipids.
Trento, F; Cattaneo, F; Pescador, R; Porta, R; Ferro, L
In an effort to reduce the risks of a possible iatrogenic transmission of bovine spongiform encephalitis (BSE) through the use of bovine-derived medicinal products, we patented in the USA in 1999 a polysaccharide from brown algae, endowed with interesting pharmacological activities: (a) concentration-dependent inhibition of thromboplastin or cephalin-kaolin-induced thrombin generation from platelets, (b) concentration-dependent inhibition of thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, (c) thrombin has hypotensive effect, which was blunted and zeroed by our fucansulfate in a dose-dependent way, (d) when aortae are stimulated with thrombin, they become stickier for polymorphonucleated leukocytes (PMNs); our fucansulfate decreased concentration-dependently, PMNs sticking to autologous rabbit aortae, (e) dose-dependent inhibition of thrombin-induced thrombosis. All the above data suggest that our fucansulfate could be a heparin substitute endowed with antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory activities, devoid or the problems caused to heparin by its animal origin, i.e., possible prion protein contamination.
Rocha, E; Paramo, J A; Bascones, C; Fisac, P R; Cuesta, B; Fernandez, J
A family with a new congenital dysprothrombinemia is presented. The propositus is a 21-yr-old man who presented simultaneously with hemartrosis of the left knee and an extensive hematoma following a minor trauma. Prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged. Prothrombin activity was very low when measured by biological assay using physiological activators (7% by one-stage method and 20% by two-stage method) or a Russel's viper venom-cephalin mixture (23%), Notechis scutatus scutatus venom (15%) and Echis carinatus venom (17%); in contrast, the level was found to be borderline to normal using Taipan viper venom (64%) and normal by both staphylocoagulase and immunologic methods. Family studies revealed consanguinity between the propositus' mother and father and both presented a 50% reduced prothrombin level when physiological activators or Echis carinatus viper venom were used. A line of identity between normal and abnormal prothrombin was observed on immunodiffusion. The migration of the abnormal prothrombin was less anodic and was not changed by the addition of calcium. The patient's serum showed 3 bands in the bidimensional immunoelectrophoresis system, whereas normal serum showed only 2 bands. The term prothrombin Segovia is proposed to define this new prothrombin abnormality.
Barre, J; Pfister, G; Potron, G; Droulle, C; Baudrillard, J C; Barbier, P; Kher, A
A series of 80 patients operated for total hip prosthesis under epidural anesthesia was randomly allocated to treatment with Kabi 2165 (n = 40): 2,500 U anti-Xa preoperatively and evening of operation and 2,500 U anti-Xa morning and evening daily up to the 9th or 10th day postoperatively, or standard heparin (n = 40): 3,750 U preoperatively and then 8 hourly, at a dose adjusted with thrombin time and cephalin + activator time, daily up to the 9th or 10th day. Phlebography was performed routinely on the 9th or 10th day. Venous thrombosis occurred in 7 patients (17.5%) in the Kabi 2165 group, including two high, potentially emboligenic, localizations (5%), and in 4 patients (10%) in the standard heparin group, including 2 potentially emboligenic clots (5%). The difference is not statistically significant (total number: p = 0.5; potentially emboligenic: p = 0.33). Pulmonary embolism did not occur. Overall tolerance, evaluated from hemoglobin and hematocrit values, intra- and post-operative bleeding and operation wound hematoma and at injection site was comparable in the two groups.
Avaliação do desempenho dos reagentes do tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada utilizados para detectar o anticoagulante lúpico Assessment of the performance of reagents of activated partial thromboplastin time used to detect the lupus anticoagulant
female patients through APTT tests, Kaolin clotting time; dilute activated partial thromboplastin time (dAPTT and dilute Russell's viper venom time. Three commercial cephalins were assessed through APTT and dAPTT tests. The confidence interval (95% was used in the comparison among studied reagents. RESULTS: The three assessed reagents presented good accordance and the used methods answered well to the lupus anticoagulant research. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The three assessed commercial cephalins can be used in laboratorial routine for the lupus anticoagulant research.
El-Saied, H M; Morsi, M K; Amer, M M
The physical and chemical constants of cocoa shell fat (a by-product resulted during the production of cocoa butter at chocolate factories) were almost identical with those of cocoa butter obtained from the same cocoa beans except for their high acid value. Shell fat contained more amount of phospholipid content (as cephalin) than cocoa butter. The lipid classes were almost the same in cocoa butter and shell fat, however, the latter contained an unidentified constituent which was not found in cocoa butter. The fatty acids were determined quantitatively by GLC, and the results showed that the predominant acids in cocoa butter were palmitic, and oleic. Less amounts of capric, myristic, palmitoleic and linoleic were found in cocoa butter, whereas more amounts of these acids were found in shell fat. Cocoa butter gave higher values of stearic and myristic acids than those of shell fat. Seventeen compounds were detected by GLC in the unsaponifiable matter of both cocoa butter and shell fat from which eight were identified as C30 hydrocarbon, C32 hydrocarbon, squalene, alpha-tocopherol, cholesterol, campsterol, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol in the two samples. The sterols were determined quantitatively, and it was found that the predominant sterol in cocoa butter and shell fat was B-sitosterol. Cocoa butter contained higher values of stigmasterol than that of shell fat, which contained increasing values of campsterol, low values of cholesterol were found in both samples. Stability of cocoa butter and shell fat towards oxidative rancidity at 100 degrees C was the same (10.5 hrs).
Kandangath Raghavan Anilakumar
Full Text Available Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. seeds have been grown in tropical regions throughout the world since prehistoric times. Sesame seed, a rich source of protein, is one of the first crops processed for oil production. Its non-culinary application includes its use as an ingredient in soap, cosmetics, lubricants and medicines. Sesame seeds also contain two unique substances: sesamin and sesamolin known to have a cholesterol lowering effect in humans and to prevent high blood pressure. Both of these were also reported to increase the hepatic mitochondrial and the peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation rate in experimental animals. Cephalin, a phospholipid from sesame seed has been reported to possess hemostatic activity. The oil has wide medical and pharmaceutical applications. It is mildly laxative, emollient and demulcent. The seeds and fresh leaves may be used as a poultice. Th e antibacterial activity of seeds against Staphylococcus and Streptococcus as well as common skin fungi, such as athlete’s foot fungus has also been well recognized. The oil is also known to maintain high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL and lower low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL. Refined sesame oil is rich with antioxidant components like lignans allowing for greater shelf-life of foods plus improving their flavor and taste. In addition to its use as an antioxidant, sesame oil contains a large amount of linoleate in triglyceride form that selectively inhibit malignant melanoma growth. Off -late, the work has also been oriented towards the production of biodiesel from sesame seed oil as a viable alternative to the diesel fuel. The ethno-botanical and medicinal uses of this commercially important, nutritionally rich oilseed need to be explored for better utilization.
Tovey, Frank I
Geographically the prevalence of duodenal ulceration is related to the staple foods in the diet in regions of developing countries where the diet is stable. It is higher in regions where the diet is based on milled rice, refined wheat or maize, yams, cassava, sweet potato, or green bananas, and is lower in regions where the staple diet is based on unrefined wheat or maize, soya, certain millets or certain pulses. Experiments on rat gastric and duodenal ulcer models showed that it was the lipid fraction in staple foods from low prevalence areas that was protective against both gastric and duodenal ulceration, including ulceration due to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). It also promoted ulcer healing. The lipid from the pulse, Dolichos biflorus, horse gram which was highly protective was used to identify the fractions with protective activity in the lipid. The protective activity lay in the phospholipid, sterol and sterol ester fractions. In the phospholipid fraction phosphatidyl choline (lethicin) and phosphatidyl ethanolamine (cephalin) were predominant. In the sterol fraction the sub-fractions showing protective activity contained β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and an unidentified isomer of β-sitosterol. The evidence from animal models shows that certain dietary phospholipids and phytosterols have a protective action against gastroduodenal ulceration, both singly and in combination. This supports the protective role of staple diets in areas of low duodenal ulcer prevalence and may prove to be of importance in the prevention and treatment of duodenal ulceration and management of recurrent ulcers. A combination of phospholipids and phytosterols could also play an important role in protection against ulceration due to NSAIDs.
Poaia [Psychotria ipecacuanha (Brot. Stoves]: aspectos da memória cultural dos poaieiros de Cáceres - Mato Grosso, Brasil Ipecac [Psychotria ipecacuanha (Brot. Stoves]: aspects of cultural memory of "poaieiros" in Cáceres - Mato Grosso, Brazil
Full Text Available O Brasil está entre os principais exportadores de poaia [Psychotria ipecacuanha (Brot. Stoves] seguido do Panamá e Costa Rica. A poaia brasileira apresenta alto valor farmacológico das raízes devido aos teores de emetina e cefalina. Este trabalho teve como objetivo descrever como as famílias de poaieiros mantém a memória cultural sobre a Psychotria ipecacuanha (Brot. Stoves. As informações foram coletadas no município de Cáceres, Mato Grosso, através de entrevista estruturada e observação participante com 20 homens e 10 mulheres, de faixa etária de 45 a 86 anos. Foram citadas as formas de utilização na alimentação para animais, inseticida, carrapaticida, emético, contra diarréias, para alívio de dor de cabeça, contra malária, bronquite e dor no estômago. A raiz é a parte mais usada e a forma de preparo é tintura ou misturada ao fumo, ao vinho ou à cachaça. Poucos entrevistados passaram aos filhos o conhecimento sobre a P. ipecacuanha. A memória cultural sobre a P. ipecacuanha deve-se a vivência, extração e comercialização da planta, e por ouvir as conversas dos pais com amigos. A perda de conhecimento associado a poaia é causada pelo êxodo rural, destruição do habitat com o desmatamento e ocupação agrícola. A extinção da espécie na região contribui para a erosão cultural.Brazil is among the leading exporters of ipecac [Psychotria ipecacuanha (Brot. Stoves], followed by Panama and Costa Rica. The roots of Brazilian ipecac have high pharmacological value due to their levels of emetine and cephalin. This study aimed to describe how families of "poaieiros" maintain the cultural memory of Psychotria ipecacuanha (Brot. Stoves. Information was collected in the city of Cáceres, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, through structured interviews and participating observation involving 20 men and 10 women aged from 45 to 86 years. The cited forms of use were in animal nutrition, as insecticide, acaricide, emetic