WorldWideScience

Sample records for ceo2 single buffer

  1. The influence of impurity on the critical thickness of the CeO2 buffer layer for coated conductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The lattice parameters, band structure, density of state and elastic constant of RE-doped CeO2 (RE=Sm, Gd, Dy), the buffer material for coated HTS conductors, are calculated using the plane-wave method with pseudopotentials based on the density functional theory (DFT) of first-principle. The rule and mechanism of the effect of rare earth impurity on the critical thickness of the CeO2 buffer layer are investigated. It is found that, in the range of the calculation, the changes of the lattice volume V and elastic constant E of CeO2 with the impurity are mainly determined by the increased electrons ne of the system. The relationship of the elastic constant E and increased electrons ne is established. It is indicated that the critical thickness of the CeO2 single buffer layer doped with Sm, Gd, and Dy may be enhanced by 22%, 43% and 33%, respectively.

  2. Biaxially aligned YSZ and CeO2 buffer layers on hastelloy prepared by magnetron IBAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The development of high-current, flexible superconducting YBCO tapes is based on a metal substrates overcoated with a biaxially aligned oxide buffer layer to serve as a template for the epitaxial growth of c-axis oriented Yba2Cu3O7 thin films. A secondary function of the buffer is to act as a diffusion barrier to metal species to prevent them from poisoning the superconducting film. Widely studied oxide buffer layers include yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) and cerium oxide (CeO2) produced by ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD). We have combined IBAD with magnetron sputtering to deposit biaxially aligned YSZ and CeO2 on Hastelloy C276 substrates held at room temperature. The ion beam is directed at 55deg to the normal of the film plane. In addition, we achieved room temperature epitaxial growth of CeO2 films on IBAD YSZ films by bias sputtering to form biaxially aligned CeO2/YSZ bilayers. The crystalline quality and inplane orientation of the films (200 nm thick) were investigated by x-ray diffraction techniques including ω and φ scans and pole figures. The IBAD YSZ and CeO2 films have a (111) pole in the ion beam direction with a full width at half maximum, FWHM = 24 - 30 deg; the CeO2/YSZ bilayer is similarly aligned with FWHM = 32 deg

  3. Effective thickness of CeO2 buffer layer for YBCO coated conductor by advanced TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YBCO films were fabricated on PLD-CeO2/IBAD-Gd2Zr2O7/Hastelloy substrates using the advanced TFA-MOD process. The effective thickness of the CeO2 buffer layer for obtaining high Ic was investigated in short samples of YBCO films. The CeO2 buffer layer was epitaxially grown on an IBAD-Gd2Zr2O7 template tape with 18 deg. of Δφ by a reel-to-reel PLD system. The in-plane grain alignment of PLD-CeO2 buffer layers rapidly improved with the thickness and saturated at a critical thickness of 0.8 μm. The size of CeO2 grains was about 1 μm at the saturated thickness of Δφ. YBCO films with the thickness of 1 μm were deposited by the TFA-MOD on the CeO2 buffer layer with different thickness films. Improvement of the CeO2 in-plane grain alignment resulted in increase of Ic. The Ic values of 250-290 A were obtained with the CeO2 layer thicker than 0.8 μm. The CeO2 thickness, at which the intensity ratio of the BaCeO3 was saturated, corresponded to the critical thickness. From the view points of achieving higher production rates and to obtain the CeO2 Δφ value of 5 deg. as well as considering the reaction between YBCO and CeO2, the optimum thickness of the CeO2 buffer layer on the IBAD-Gd2Zr2O7 with 18 deg. of Δφ was found to be at least 0.8 μm

  4. Experimental evidence for self-assembly of CeO2 particles in solution: Formation of single-crystalline porous CeO2 nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Hui Ru; Tan, Joyce Pei Ying; Boothroyd, Chris;

    2012-01-01

    Single-crystalline porous CeO2 nanocrystals, with sizes of ∼20 nm and pore diameters of 1-2 nm, were synthesized successfully using a hydrothermal method. Using electron tomography, we imaged the three-dimensional structure of the pores in the nanocrystals and found that the oriented aggregation of...... small CeO2 nanoparticles resulted in the growth of CeO2 nanocrystals with an irregular truncated octahedral shape and pores extending along the 〈110〉 directions. Oxygen vacancies were found on the crystal surfaces and internal walls of the pores by scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron...... energy-loss spectroscopy. The oxygen vacancies might play an important role in oxygen diffusion in the crystals and the catalytic activities of single-crystalline porous CeO 2 structures. © 2011 American Chemical Society....

  5. Preparation and Characterization of CeO2/YSZ/CeO2 Buffer Layers for YBCO Coated Conductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    CeO2 seed layer was deposited on rolling-assisted biaxially textured metal substrates by direct-current (DC) magnetron reactive sputtering. The effect of deposition temperature on epitaxial orientation of CeO2 thin films was examined. High quality CeO2 layers were achieved at deposition temperature from 750℃ to 850℃.Subsequently yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and CeO2 films were deposited to complete the buffer layer structure via the same process. The best samples exhibited a highly biaxial texture, as indicated by FWHM (full width half maximum) values in the range of 4°-5°, and 2°-4° for in-plane and out-of-plane orientations,respectively. Secondary ion mass spectrometer analysis confirmed the effective prevention of buffer layer against Ni and W metal interdiffusion. Atomic force microscope observations revealed a smooth, dense and crack-free surface morphology, which provided themselves as the good buffer structure to the YBa2Cu3O7-δ(YBCO) coated conductors.

  6. Chemical approach to the deposition of textured CeO2 buffer layers based on sol gel dip coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The widespread use of vacuum techniques for the development of coated conductors, in which buffer and superconducting (REBa2Cu3O7-δ) layers are deposited epitaxially on a substrate, is well established in the research environment. However, obtaining uninterrupted deposition at high speed, increasing flexibility in composition and in film thickness and attaining independence of geometric constraints are areas in which many vacuum techniques will need sustained development in order to answer industrial demands. This work describes the deposition of textured CeO2 buffer layers based on sol gel dip coating under atmospheric environment and from aqueous precursor materials. Research has been performed towards the deposition of CeO2-buffer layers using the amorphous citrate method on sapphire substrates and Ni-W foils. Coating is performed using the dip-coating technique, which allows extension to a continuous system. The withdrawal speed and the thermal treatment have been optimised in order to obtain highly oriented (001) layers exhibiting a smooth and crack-free morphology both on ceramic and metallic substrates. From the results it was concluded that sintering atmosphere and sintering temperature play a crucial role in the growth mechanism. This study describes the structural and morphological analysis of the thin layer with special attention to the difference between ceramic and metallic substrates. (orig.)

  7. Deposition of CeO 2/YSZ buffer layer on Hastelloy substrates for MOD process of YBa 2Cu 3O 7- x film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuji, Hiroshi; Honjo, Tetsuji; Nakamura, Yuichi; Izumi, Teruo; Takeshi, Araki; Hirabayashi, Izumi; Shiohara, Yuh; Iijima, Yasuhiro; Takeda, Kaoru

    2001-08-01

    Trifluoroacetate metalorganic deposition (TFA-MOD) process is expected as a low cost process for mass production of coated conductors because it is a non-vacuum process. In order to apply the technique to fabrication of coated conductors, suitable buffer layers have to be considered to achieve a high orientation of superconducting layer and prevention of the reaction with metal substrate. The combination of CeO 2 on IBAD-YSZ is considered as an effective buffer for TFA-MOD process expecting to satisfy a high acid resistivity and high crystal grain alignment. The CeO 2 buffer layer was deposited on IBAD-YSZ/Hastelloy substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. From XRD analysis, the CeO 2 buffer layer showed very good in-plane alignment on YSZ-IBAD buffer layer. In a holding time of 1 h, the suitable maximum heat treatment temperature was found to be from 750°C to 775°C for TFA-Y123 on metal substrate. The Jc- B property of Y123 on CeO 2/YSZ/Hastelloy shows the Jc values of 1.4 MA/cm 2 at 77.3 K, 0 T and more than 10 5 A/cm 2 at 77.3 K, 2 T. The high performance under high magnetic field was confirmed.

  8. Structural and electrical properties of SrTiO3 films grown on CeO2 buffered sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical properties of complex oxides like ferroelectric Perovskite are strongly connected with their composition, structure and structural imperfections. Lattice constants and thermal properties of substrate materials and deposited films are usually different. In the case of thin epitaxial films this difference can be used for engineering of properties of ferroelectric materials via mechanical strain due to changing of film thickness and preparation conditions. In the present work we report on results of measuring the strain of both in buffer CeO2 and STO films on r-cut sapphire. Ferroelectric films were deposited by PLD. Different types of strain lead to various structural modifications in films. The resulting type of distortion and defects are investigated by high-resolution X-ray analysis. Electrical properties of STO films of various thicknesses are measured using planar capacitors in a wide frequencies range. It is shown that in the thinner films the stress is compensated by misfit dislocations generated during growth and a deformation of the STO lattice. With increasing film thickness cracks develop in two crystalline directions, i.e. along the [1210] and, additionally, the [1010] directions of r-cut sapphire. The strained films show a strong modification of temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity.

  9. An all chemical solution deposition approach for the growth of highly textured CeO2 cap layers on La2Zr2O7-buffered long lengths of biaxially textured Ni-W substrates for YBCO-coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reel-to-reel, dip coating process has been developed to continuously deposit epitaxial La2Zr2O7 (LZO) and CeO2 on 5 m long cube-textured {100} (001)Ni tapes. Recent results for La2Zr2O7 and CeO2 buffer layers deposited on long lengths of Ni substrate for the realization of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO)-coated conductors are presented. The major achievement is the development of a new all chemical solution deposition (CSD) process leading to the formation of highly textured buffer layers at moderate annealing temperatures. Reproducible highly textured, dense and crack-free LZO buffer layers and CeO2 cap layers were obtained for annealing temperatures as low as 900 deg. C in a reducing atmosphere (Ar-5 at.%-H2). The thickness of the LZO buffer layers was determined to be (200 ± 10) nm per single coating; prepared cerium oxide layers showed a thickness of 60 nm ± 10 nm. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was used to grow YBCO films on these substrates. A Tc0 of T = 90.5 K and ΔTc = 1.4 K was obtained on PLD-YBCO/CSD-CeO2 /CSD-LZO/Ni-5 at.% W, which shows the outstanding features of this new buffer layer architecture processed by CSD. The large layer thickness combined with low annealing temperatures is the main advantage of this new process for low-cost buffer layer deposition on Ni-RABiTS (rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrates)

  10. Growth and Characterization of Doped CeO2 Buffers on Ni-W Substrates for Coated Conductors Using Metal Organic Deposition Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yao; ZHOU Lian; YU Zeming; LI Chengshan; LI Jinshan; JIN Lihu; LU Yafen

    2012-01-01

    CeO2 and Ce0 8Mo2O2-d films (M =Mn,Y,Gd,Sin,Nd and La) with (001) preferred orientation have been prepared on biaxially textured Ni-W substrates by metal organic decomposition (MOD) method.The factors influencing the formation of cracks on the surface of these CeO2 and doped CeO2 films on Ni-W substrates were explored by X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis,atomic force microscopy (AFM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).The results indicate that many factors,such as the change of the ionic radii of doping cations,the transformation of crystal structure and the formation of oxygen vacancies in lattices at high annealing temperature,may be related to the formation of cracks on the surface of these films.However,the crack formation shows no dependence on the crystal lattice mismatch degree of the films with Ni-W substrates.Moreover,the suppression of surface cracks is related to the change of intrinsic elasticity of CeO2 film with doping of cations with a larger radius.SEM and AFM investigations of Ce08Mo2O2-d(M =Y,Gd,Sm,Nd and La) films reveal the dense,smooth and crack-free microstructure,and their lattice parameters match well with that of YBCO,illuminating that they are potentially suitable to be as buffer layer,especially as cap layer in multi-layer architecture of buffer layer for coated conductors.

  11. TEM investigation of irradiation damage in single crystal CeO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to understand the evolution of radiation damage in oxide nuclear fuel, 150-1000 keV Kr ions were implanted into single crystal CeO2, as a simulation of fluorite ceramic UO2, while in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations were carried out. Two characteristic defect structures were investigated: dislocation/dislocation loops and nano-size gas bubbles. The growth behavior of defect clusters induced by 1 MeV Kr ions up to doses of 5 x 1015 ions/cm2 were followed at 600 deg. C and 800 deg. C. TEM micrographs clearly show the development of defect structures: nucleation of dislocation loops, transformation to extended dislocation lines, and the formation of tangled dislocation networks. The difference in dislocation growth rates at 600 deg. C and 800 deg. C revealed the important role which Ce-vacancies play in the loop formation process. Bubble formation, studied through 150 keV Kr implantations at room temperature and 600 deg. C, might be influenced by either the mobility of metal-vacancies correlated with at threshold temperature or the limitation of gas solubility as a function of temperature.

  12. Angular properties of pure and Ca-substituted YBa2Cu3O7-δ superconducting thin films grown on SrTiO3 and CeO2 buffered Al2O3 substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work transport properties of superconducting 10 at.% Ca-substituted YBCO thin films grown on (1 0 0)-SrTiO3 single crystal substrate (STO) and superconducting pure and 10 at.% Ca-substituted YBCO thin films grown on CeO2 buffered Al2O3 substrates (CAO) have been analyzed as a function of the temperature, applied magnetic field and angle between magnetic field direction and the direction normal to the film surfaces. Particularly, the angular analysis provides an easy way to discriminate between isotropic point defects and correlated pinning sites. Despite the intragrain pinning mechanisms remained unaffected by Ca substitution, a detrimental effect on grain boundary properties clearly emerged for 10 at.% Ca concentration. This effect is enhanced in sample grown on CeO2 buffered sapphire where a more disturbed grain boundary is expected resulting in an enhancement of the correlated pinning, already observed in pure YBCO films grown on CAO, and in a reduction of the intrinsic pinning efficiency

  13. Influence of the Ion-to-Atom Ratio on the Structure of CeO2 Buffer Layer by Ion Beam Assisted E-Beam Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Su; Jo, Sung Jin; Kim, Woo Jin; Koo, Won Hoe; Baik, Hong Koo; Lee, Se Jong

    2005-09-01

    Using ion-beam assisted e-beam evaporation with the ion beam directed at 55° to the normal of the film plane, (200) oriented CeO2 films with biaxial texture were deposited on Hastelloy C276 substrates at room temperature. The crystalline quality and in-plane orientation of films was investigated by X-ray diffraction 2θ-scan and Φ-scan, atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was shown that the in-plane and out-of-plane textures of the CeO2 films were controlled by the deposition parameters. The orientation of the films was studied as a function of ion-to-atom ratio and film thickness. The ion-to-atom ratio was varied by independently adjusting the deposition rate and the ion current density. Under optimum condition, (200) textured CeO2 films have been successfully grown on Hastelloy C276.

  14. Chemical solution deposition (CSD) of CeO2 and La2Zr2O7 buffer layers on cube textured NiW substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results of crack free layers of CeO2 and La2Zr2O7 deposited by means of CSD on cube textured Ni-4 at.% W substrates. EBSD-data show histograms with very good inplane- and out-of-plane textures and were used to simulate the critical current density in the YBCO layer. The surface roughness, a sensitive feature for good deposition results, was analyzed with a profilometer. In the CSD process we applied, the 2, 4-pentanedionates of the metal cations in glacial acetic acid and methanol served as starting substances

  15. Improved textured La2Zr2O7 buffer layers on bi-axially textured Ni–W substrates using CeO2 seed layers for YBa2Cu3O7−x coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La2Zr2O7 (LZO) buffer layers were deposited on bi-axially textured Ni–W substrates with CeO2 seed layer by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering for the large-scale application of YBa2Cu3O7−x (YBCO) coated conductors. The microstructure and surface morphology of LZO buffer layers were studied by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The influences of substrate temperature and oxygen partial pressure on the microstructure and surface morphology of LZO buffer layers were discussed. It was found that epitaxial LZO films were preferentially c-axis oriented without microcracks, with no degradation of crystallographic texture and with high surface crystallinity. Crack-free and strong c-axis aligned LZO films with no random orientation were obtained at relatively low substrate temperatures of 600–800 °C and in flowing 40 Pa gas mixtures of Ar–O2 with an effective oxygen partial pressure of 0.1–20 Pa. In addition, LZO films grown in low oxygen partial pressure have a smoother surface than films in higher oxygen partial pressure. Then, we fabricated YBCO coated conductors on the high-quality LZO buffer layers by pulsed laser deposition. The critical current density Jc = 2.25 MA/cm2 and critical current Ic = 180 A/cm of 0.8-μm-thick YBCO film at 77 K, self field were obtained. The magnetic field and angular dependences of critical current per width were discussed. Highly textured LZO films grown on CeO2 seed layer were suitable as a buffer layer for the growth of YBCO coated conductors with high currents. - Highlights: • La2Zr2O7 (LZO) films were firstly fabricated by magnetron sputtering. • We firstly used the buffer architecture LZO/CeO2 (seed). • We firstly fabricated YBa2Cu3O7+x films directly on LZO films

  16. Faceting of (001) CeO2 Films: The Road to High Quality TFA-YBa2Cu3O7 Multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CeO2 films are technologically important as a buffer layer for the integration of superconducting YBa2Cu3O7 films on biaxially textured Ni substrates. The growth of YBa2Cu3O7 layers on the CeO2 cap layers by the trifluoroacetate (TFA) route remains a critical issue. To improve the accommodation of YBa2Cu3O7 on CeO2, surface conditioning or CeO2 is required. In this work we have applied ex-situ post-processes at different atmospheres to the CeO2 layers deposited on YSZ single crystals using rf sputtering. XPS analysis showed that post-annealing CeO2 layer in Ar/H2/H2O catalyses in an unexpected way the growth of (001)- terraces. We also report on the growth conditions of YBa2Cu3O7-TFA on CeO2 buffered YSZ single crystal grown by chemical solution deposition and we compare them with those leading to optimized YBa2Cu3O7-TFA films on LaAlO3 single crystals. Critical currents up to 1.6 MA/cm2 at 77 K have been demonstrated in 300 nm thick YBa2Cu3O7 layers on CeO2/YSZ system. The optimized processing conditions have then been applied to grow YBa2Cu3O7-TFA films on Ni substrates having vacuum deposited cap layers of CeO2

  17. Template electrosynthesis of CeO2 nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanotube arrays of CeO2 were produced in a single step by potentiostatic electrochemical deposition from a non-aqueous electrolyte, using anodic alumina membrane templates. The CeO2 nanotubes showed a polycrystalline structure, and they were assembled in the membrane nanochannels. The nanotubes had somewhat uniform diameters, with an average external value of about 210 nm, and a maximum length of about 60 μm; the latter parameter was controlled by the electrodeposition time. Each single nanotube was found to consist of crystalline grains having a size of about 3 nm. Raman analysis shows that these CeO2 nanotubes are suitable for catalytic applications

  18. Pulsed electron deposition (PED) of single buffer layer for 'low-cost' YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The challenge for the commercialization of YBCO Coated Conductors (CC) is the development of a low cost manufacturing process to allow for a cheap, fast and continuous deposition of superconducting coatings with high electrical performance. We are currently investigating 2 ways to reduce the CC production costs: i) reducing the complexity of the CC architecture, by growing a single buffer layer based on doped CeO2, and ii) utilizing a new reel-to-reel apparatus for long length CC processing, equipped with a cheap and reliable deposition system (PED, Pulsed Electron Deposition). In this work we report on the successful continuous deposition of very thick (up to 700 nm) doped-CeO2 single buffer layers on biaxially textured Ni-5at%W substrates by PED. XRD patterns display complete orientation and very good texture quality of our samples (FWHM out-of-plane values of ∼ 6 deg.), over 20 cm length. Optical and electron microscopy show a dense and crack-free film surface and dielectric strength measurement confirms excellent insulating properties. Preliminary results indicate that the simplified single buffer layer structure could be a reliable solution for the reduction of HTS CC production costs

  19. Investigation of CeO2 Buffer Layer Effects on the Voltage Response of YBCO Transition Edge Bolometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohajeri, Roya; Nazifi, Rana; Wulff, Anders Christian;

    2016-01-01

    The effect on the thermal parameters of superconducting transition edge bolometers produced on a single crystalline SrTiO3 (STO) substrate with and without a CeO2 buffer layer was investigated. Metal organic deposition was used to deposit the 20 nm CeO2 buffer layer, while RF magnetron sputtering...... made by fitting the thermal parameters in the model with and without an additional CeO2 layer were found to be in agreement with the experimental observations....

  20. Transport properties of pure and doped CeO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oxides that crystallize in the fluorite structure are noted for their ability to accommodate a high degree of disorder on the oxygen sublattice. Cerium oxide is a semiconductor and ionically- conductor oxide with important electrical and chemical applications as a solid oxide fuel cell electrolyte, a catalyst for gas phase oxidation and reduction reactions, and as an oxygen buffer in the automotive 3-way catalyst. Polycrystalline samples of different grain size were prepared by uniaxial hot pressing and their sintering behavior was investigated, at various temperatures and pressures. The cerium dioxide has been prepared by this way and characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (SEM). Measurements of electronic conductivity have confirmed that electron transport in CeO2-x proceeds via a small polaron process. The electrical properties of CeO2-UO2 solid solutions are examined as a function of temperature (600 deg. C - 1400 deg. C), oxygen partial pressure (10 - 22 - 1 atm), and Ce/U ratio (CeO2- 1.65% UO2, CeO2- 5% UO2). The PO2 values were controlled by mixing Ar-O2 and CO2-H2 or Ar-H2, gases in appropriate proportions. Electrical conductivity data obtained for U-doped CeO2 solid solution were shown to be in good agreement with predictions and thereby enable derivation of a number of key parameters, including those controlling generation of oxygen Frenkel defects, doubly ionized vacancies and electrons by reduction, and electron mobilities. (authors)

  1. Visible light induced degradation of methylene blue using CeO2/V2O5 and CeO2/CuO catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, the nanocatalysts CeO2, V2O5, CuO, CeO2/V2O5 and CeO2/CuO were synthesized by thermal decomposition method. This method is simple, fast and cost effective compared with other preparation methods. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by different techniques. The XRD and XPS results confirmed the structure and the oxidization states of the nanocomposite materials. DRS results suggested that the prepared CeO2/V2O5 and CeO2/CuO nanocomposites can generate more electrons and holes under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic activities of prepared catalysts were evaluated using the degradation of aqueous methylene blue solution as a model compound under visible light irradiation. In addition, the nanocomposite (CeO2/V2O5 and CeO2/CuO) materials were employed to degrade the textile effluent under visible light condition. - Highlights: • The catalysts were synthesized via a facile thermal decomposition method which was simple, fast and feasible method. • Degradation of methylene blue and real effluent were carried out under visible light. • The photocatalytic activity of nanocomposite materials is higher than that of single phase material

  2. Growth and Photoluminescence of Epitaxial CeO2 Film on Si (111) Substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Fei; ZHANG Jian-Hui; QIN Fu-Guang; YAO Zhen-Yu; LIU Zhi-Kai; WANG Zhan-Guo; LIN Lan-Ying

    2001-01-01

    A CeO2 film with a thickness of about 80nm was deposited by a mass-analysed low-energy dual ion beam deposition technique on an Si(111) substrate. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction and x-ray diffraction measurements showed that the film is a single crystal. The tetravalent state of Ce in the film was confirmed by xray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, indicating that stoichiometric CeO2 was formed. Violet/blue light emission (379.5 nm) was observed at room temperature, which may be tentatively explained by charge transitions from the 4f band to the valence band of CeO2.

  3. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of high-k CeO2/La2O3 stacked dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a detailed study on the chemical composition and bond structures of CeO2/La2O3 stacked gate dielectrics based on x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements at different depths. The chemical bonding structures in the interfacial layers were revealed by Gaussian decompositions of Ce 3d, La 3d, Si 2s, and O 1s photoemission spectra at different depths. We found that La atoms can diffuse into the CeO2 layer and a cerium-lanthanum complex oxide was formed in between the CeO2 and La2O3 films. Ce3+ and Ce4+ states always coexist in the as-deposited CeO2 film. Quantitative analyses were also conducted. The amount of CeO2 phase decreases by about 8% as approaching the CeO2/La2O3 interface. In addition, as compared with the single layer La2O3 sample, the CeO2/La2O3 stack exhibits a larger extent of silicon oxidation at the La2O3/Si interface. For the CeO2/La2O3 gate stack, the out-diffused lanthanum atoms can promote the reduction of CeO2 which produce more atomic oxygen. This result confirms the significant improvement of electrical properties of CeO2/La2O3 gated devices as the excess oxygen would help to reduce the oxygen vacancies in the film and would suppress the formation of interfacial La-silicide also

  4. The mechanism of the nano-CeO2 films deposition by electrochemistry method as coated conductor buffer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Crack-free CeO2 film thicker than 200 nm was prepared on NiW substrate by ED method. • Different electrochemical processes as hydroxide/metal mechanisms were identified. • The CeO2 precursor films deposited by ED method were in nano-scales. - Abstract: Comparing with conventional physical vapor deposition methods, electrochemistry deposition technique shows a crack suppression effect by which the thickness of CeO2 films on Ni–5 at.%W substrate can reach a high value up to 200 nm without any cracks, make it a potential single buffer layer for coated conductor. In the present work, the processes of CeO2 film deposited by electrochemistry method are detailed investigated. A hydroxide reactive mechanism and an oxide reactive mechanism are distinguished for dimethyl sulfoxide and aqueous solution, respectively. Before heat treatment to achieve the required bi-axial texture performance of buffer layers, the precursor CeO2 films are identified in nanometer scales. The crack suppression for electrochemistry deposited CeO2 films is believed to be attributed to the nano-effects of the precursors

  5. Facile hydrothermal synthesis of CeO2 nanopebbles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Sabari Arul; D Mangalaraj; Jeong In Han

    2015-09-01

    Cerium oxide (CeO2) nanopebbles have been synthesized using a facile hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy analyses confirm the presence of CeO2 nanopebbles. XRD shows the formation of cubic fluorite CeO2 and the average particle size estimated from the Scherrer formula was found to be 6.69 nm. X-ray absorption spectrum of CeO2 nanopebbles exhibits two main sharp white lines at 880 and 898 eV due to the spin orbital splitting of 4 and 5. Optical absorption for the synthesized CeO2 nanopebbles exhibited a blue shift (g = 3.35 eV) with respect to the bulk CeO2 (g = 3.19 eV), indicating the existence of quantum confinement effects.

  6. Convenient synthesis of CeO2 nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and facile route was used in the fabrication of CeO2 nanotubes within anodic alumina membrane. A piece of membrane was first immersed into Ce(NO3)3 aqueous solution under ambient conditions. After dried at 50 deg. C and thermally calcined at 150 deg. C and 550 deg. C, CeO2 nanotubes can be easily synthesized. The characterization with electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction indicated that CeO2 nanotubes were composed of tiny well-crystalline CeO2 nanoparticles

  7. Structural, morphological, Raman, optical, magnetic, and antibacterial characteristics of CeO2 nanostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fazal Abbas; Javed Iqbal; Tariq Jan; Noor Badshah; Qaisar Mansoor; Muhammad Ismail

    2016-01-01

    In this study, CeO2nanostructures were synthesized by a soft chemical method. A hydrothermal treatment was observed to lead to an interesting morphological transformation of the nanoparticles into homogeneous microspheres composed of nanosheets with an average thickness of 40 nm. Structural analysis revealed the formation of a single-phase cubic fluorite structure of CeO2for both samples. A Raman spectroscopic study confirmed the XRD results and furthermore indicated the presence of a large number of oxygen vacancies in the nanosheets. These oxygen vacancies led to room-temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) of the CeO2 nanosheets with enhanced magnetic characteristics. Amazingly, the nanosheets exhibited substantially greater antibacterial activity than the nanoparticles. This greater antibacte-rial activity was attributed to greater exposure of high-surface-energy polar surfaces and to the presence of oxygen vacancies.

  8. Structural, morphological, Raman, optical, magnetic, and antibacterial characteristics of CeO2 nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Fazal; Iqbal, Javed; Jan, Tariq; Badshah, Noor; Mansoor, Qaisar; Ismail, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, CeO2 nanostructures were synthesized by a soft chemical method. A hydrothermal treatment was observed to lead to an interesting morphological transformation of the nanoparticles into homogeneous microspheres composed of nanosheets with an average thickness of 40 nm. Structural analysis revealed the formation of a single-phase cubic fluorite structure of CeO2 for both samples. A Raman spectroscopic study confirmed the XRD results and furthermore indicated the presence of a large number of oxygen vacancies in the nanosheets. These oxygen vacancies led to room-temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) of the CeO2 nanosheets with enhanced magnetic characteristics. Amazingly, the nanosheets exhibited substantially greater antibacterial activity than the nanoparticles. This greater antibacterial activity was attributed to greater exposure of high-surface-energy polar surfaces and to the presence of oxygen vacancies.

  9. Signature of room temperature ferromagnetism in Mn doped CeO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report structural and magnetic properties of Mn doped CeO2 nanoparticles using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission transmission electron microscopy (FE-TEM) and dc magnetization measurements. XRD results infer that all the samples have single phase nature and lattice parameters decrease with Mn doping. The particle size calculated using XRD and TEM analysis was found to decrease with Mn doping. Field cooled magnetization measurement shows that the transition temperature is above room temperature. Magnetic hysteresis loop studies indicate that undoped and Mn doped CeO2 nanoparticles show weak ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature.

  10. Non-Stoichiometry of UO2-CeO2: The System UO2-CeO2-CeO1.5 at 900 to 1200°C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation covers the substoichiometric fluorite (UO2-CeO2) phase, that is, the behaviour of the system U1-yCe1-yO2+x. Though UO2 and CeO2 are completely miscible, and in the CeO2-CeO1-5 system the fluorite phase extends to CeO1.72 , the UO2-CeO2-CeO1.5 system is characterized by a large two-phase region, where two fluorite- type structures, one CeO2-rich, the other UO2-rich, coexist. Only in the UO2-rich corner of the ternary system is a noticeable single-phase region present. This is in contrast to the CeO2-UO2-UO267 system where a large single-phase region exists. The oxygen activity as a function of composition x was measured in U1-yCe1-yO2+x (y = 0.15 and 0.35) at 900°C, using H2/H2O and metal/metal oxide equilibria. In all cases the oxygen activity increases extremely rapidly with decreasing x; the behaviour of the system resembles that of dilute solutions of UO2+X in ThO2. Both systems can be explained by assuming defect complexes: a vacancy bound to two Ce3+, an interstitial oxygen bound to two U5+. (author)

  11. Facile synthesis of ferromagnetic Ni doped CeO2 nanoparticles with enhanced anticancer activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Fazal; Jan, Tariq; Iqbal, Javed; Ahmad, Ishaq; Naqvi, M. Sajjad H.; Malik, Maaza

    2015-12-01

    NixCe1-xO2 (where x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07) nanoparticles were synthesized by soft chemical method and were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). XRD and Raman results indicated the formation of single phase cubic fluorite structure for the synthesized nanoparticles. Ni dopant induced excessive structural changes such as decrease in crystallite size as well as lattice constants and enhancement in oxygen vacancies in CeO2 crystal structure. These structural variations significantly influenced the optical and magnetic properties of CeO2 nanoparticles. The synthesized NixCe1-xO2 nanoparticles exhibited room temperature ferromagnetic behavior. Ni doping induced effects on the cytotoxicity of CeO2 nanoparticles were examined against HEK-293 healthy cell line and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cancer cell line. The prepared NixCe1-xO2 nanoparticles demonstrated differential cytotoxicity. Furthermore, anticancer activity of CeO2 nanoparticles observed to be significantly enhanced with Ni doping which was found to be strongly correlated with the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The prepared ferromagnetic NixCe1-xO2 nanoparticles with differential cytotoxic nature may be potential for future targeted cancer therapy.

  12. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF SINGLE-BUFFERED ROUTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Ximing; Qu Jing; Wang Binqiang; Wu Jiangxing

    2007-01-01

    A Single-Buffered (SB) router is a router where only one stage of shared buffering is sand-wiched between two interconnects in comparison of a Combined Input and Output Queued (CIOQ)router where a central switch fabric is sandwiched between two stages of buffering. The notion of SB routers was firstly proposed by the High-Performance Networking Group (HPNG) of Stanford University, along with two promising designs of SB routers: one of which was Parallel Shared Memory (PSM) router and the other was Distributed Shared Memory (DSM) router. Admittedly, the work of HPNG deserved full credit, but all results presented by them appeared to relay on a Centralized Memory Management Algorithm (CMMA) which was essentially impractical because of the high processing and communication complexity. This paper attempts to make a scalable high-speed SB router completely practical by introducing a fully distributed architecture for managing the shared memory of SB routers. The resulting SB router is called as a Virtual Output and Input Queued (VOIQ) router. Furthermore, the scheme of VOIQ routers can not only eliminate the need for the CMMA scheduler, thus allowing a fully distributed implementation with low processing and communication complexity, but also provide QoS guarantees and efficiently support variable-length packets in this paper. In particular, the results of performance testing and the hardware implementation of our VOIQ-based router (NDSC(R) SR1880-TTM series) are illustrated at the end of this paper. The proposal of this paper is the first distributed scheme of how to design and implement SB routers publicized till now.

  13. Three-Dimensional Structure of CeO2 Nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Joyce Pei Ying; Tan, Hui Ru; Boothroyd, Chris;

    2011-01-01

    Visualization of three-dimensional (3D) structures of materials at the nanometer scale can shed important information on the performance of their applications and provide insight into the growth mechanism of shape-controlled nanomaterials. In this paper, the 3D structures and growth pathway of CeO2...... samples synthesized under different conditions. The homogeneous growth environment in solution with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) molecules led to the formation of regular octahedral CeO2 nanocrystals with small {001} facet truncations. When the PVP surfactant was removed, the aggregation of regular...... truncated octahedral CeO2 particles through a lattice matched interface generated irregular compressed truncated octahedral CeO2 nanoparticles. The formation of this irregular shape is attributed to the lower surface diffusion and slow incorporation of atoms on surfaces by step attachment of the fused...

  14. CeO2 nanoparticles for high performance supercapacitor electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerium Oxide plays a vital role in rising technologies for energy-related applications. In this study, CeO2 nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by microwave irradiation method and its capacitance performance is further investigated. Prepared nanoparticles were analysed by X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that CeO2 Nanoparticles in cubic phase and the grain size was calculated to be 15 nm using Debye-Scherrer formula. The FTIR spectrum of the CeO2 exhibits the stretching vibration of Ce-O at about 601 cm-1. The SEM analysis shows the irregular spherical morphology with some of the particles agglomerated. Electrochemical characterization of the sample was performed using a standard three electrode cell configuration. Cyclic Voltammogram (CV) and galvanostatic (GV) charge-discharge measurements demonstrated that the CeO2 electrode exhibited superior capacitive properties in 1 M Na2SO4 aqueous solution within the potential range -0.2V to 1.5V The discharge curves are linear in the total range of potential with constant slopes at a constant current of 0.9 A/g showing perfect capacitive behavior. These findings can open up new opportunities for CeO2 nanoparticles in constructing the high-performance electrochemical supercapacitors as well as other energy storage devices. (author)

  15. Mn3O4-CeO2 nano-catalysts: Synthesis, characterization and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anushree, Sharma, C.; Kumar, S.

    2016-05-01

    Nano-sized Mn3O4-CeO2 catalysts were synthesized by a cost effective co-precipitation method, and were studied as a heterogeneous catalyst for wet air oxidation of paper industry wastewater at mild operating conditions of 90 °C and 1 atm. The structural, micro-structural and textural properties of synthesized catalysts were studied through various characterization techniques, i.e. XRD, TEM, N2-sorption and EDS. The catalytic activity of Mn3O4-CeO2 was interestingly found to be higher than the corresponding single-metal oxides, and the Ce50Mn50 nano-catalyst with small crystallite size (4.5 nm), high specific surface area (75 m2g-1) and high porosity (0.24 ccg-1) was found to be most efficient with 69% color, 60% COD, 59% TOC, 48% AOX removal.

  16. Reel-to-reel continuous simultaneous double-sided deposition of highly textured CeO2 templates for YBa2Cu3O7-δ coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reel-to-reel system which allows simultaneous two-sided deposition of epitaxial CeO2 buffer layers on long length biaxially textured Ni-5 at.%W tape with direct current (dc) reactive magnetron sputtering is described. Deposition is accomplished through two opposite symmetrical sputtering guns with a radiation heater. Meter-long double-sided epitaxial CeO2 buffer layers have been produced for the first time on textured metal substrates in a run using a reel-to-reel process with a speed of about 1.2 m h-1. The CeO2 films were characterized by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The samples exhibited good epitaxial growth with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate surface for both sides. Full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of the out-of-plane and in-plane orientation for both sides were 3.20 and 3.10, 5.30 and 5.10, respectively. AFM observations revealed a smooth, dense and crack-free surface morphology. In addition, x-ray scans have been performed as a function of length to determine the crystallographic consistency of the epitaxial CeO2 over the length. Subsequently anyttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) barrier and CeO2 cap layers were deposited to complete the CeO2/YSZ/CeO2 structure via the same process. Epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films grown by dc sputtering on the short prototype CeO2/YSZ/CeO2/NiW conductors yielded self-field critical current densities (Jc) as high as 1.3 MA cm-2 at 77 K. An Ic value of 113 A cm-1 was obtained for double-sided YBCO coated conductors

  17. Variation of power generation at different buffer types and conductivities in single chamber microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Joo-Youn

    2010-01-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are operated with solutions containing various chemical species required for the growth of electrochemically active microorganisms including nutrients and vitamins, substrates, and chemical buffers. Many different buffers are used in laboratory media, but the effects of these buffers and their inherent electrolyte conductivities have not been examined relative to current generation in MFCs. We investigated the effect of several common buffers (phosphate, MES, HEPES, and PIPES) on power production in single chambered MFCs compared to a non-buffered control. At the same concentrations the buffers produced different solution conductivities which resulted in different ohmic resistances and power densities. Increasing the solution conductivities to the same values using NaCl produced comparable power densities for all buffers. Very large increases in conductivity resulted in a rapid voltage drop at high current densities. Our results suggest that solution conductivity at a specific pH for each buffer is more important in MFC studies than the buffer itself given relatively constant pH conditions. Based on our analysis of internal resistance and a set neutral pH, phosphate and PIPES are the most useful buffers of those examined here because pH was maintained close to the pKa of the buffer, maximizing the ability of the buffer to contribute to increase current generation at high power densities. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Electrochemical and structural analysis of the RE3+:CeO2 nanopowders from combustion synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Rare earth elements doped ceria were synthesized by citrate nitrate auto-combustion method. • XRD revealed that they crystallize as single-phase cubic fluorite structure. • PL, FTIR and RAMAN studies were carried to analyze the existence of functional groups. • The morphology of the nanoparticles and compacts were analyzed by SEM and HRTEM. • Cyclic voltammetry (CV) for RE3+:CeO2 were measured and compared. - Abstract: The reported article deals with the synthesis and characterization of rare earth ions doped ceria (RE3+:CeO2) nanopowders from citrate nitrate auto-combustion route. The crystalline nature and lattice planes of the nanocrystalline RE3+:CeO2 powders were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED) profile fit. The excited state absorption (ESA) and energy transfer up-conversion (ETU) were studied by photoluminescence (PL) measurement. The spectroscopic properties of the powders were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. The surface morphology, average size, distribution and orientation of the lattice planes of the nanoparticles were studied by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The size of RE3+:CeO2 nanoparticles were found to be in the range from 15 to 30 nm which has good agreement with the HRTEM results. The changes in current density with increasing sweep scan potential of the doped ceria powders were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) analysis. The specific capacitance range of the rare earths doped ceria of Er:CeO2, Pr:CeO2, Yr:CeO2 and Nd:CeO2 were calculated as (12.9–86.5), (20–72.4), (80–375) and (0.92–4.22) respectively

  19. Ceo2 Based Catalysts for the Treatment of Propylene in Motorcycle’s Exhaust Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Thi Mai Pham

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the catalytic activities of several single metallic oxides were studied for the treatment of propylene, a component in motorcycles’ exhaust gases, under oxygen deficient conditions. Amongst them, CeO2 is one of the materials that exhibit the highest activity for the oxidation of C3H6. Therefore, several mixtures of CeO2 with other oxides (SnO2, ZrO2, Co3O4 were tested to investigate the changes in catalytic activity (both propylene conversion and CO2 selectivity. Ce0.9Zr0.1O2, Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 solid solutions and the mixtures of CeO2 and Co3O4 was shown to exhibit the highest propylene conversion and CO2 selectivity. They also exhibited good activities when tested under oxygen sufficient and excess conditions and with the presence of co-existing gases (CO, H2O.

  20. Investigation on the magnetic behaviour of CeO2 nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles have been extensively studied owing to their potential in the fields of polishing powders, catalysts, gas sensors and electrode materials for solid oxide fuel cells. Numerous techniques have been proposed to synthesize nano-sized CeO2 particles with promising control of properties. Among them, due to the simple process, easy scale-up and low cost, the precipitation technique attracts more attention. In recent years, magnetic study on bulk and nanocrystalline CeO2 is gaining more interest in order to have a profound understanding of its magnetic origin. In this paper, we report the investigation of structural, optical and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline CeO2 synthesized by co-precipitation method. Phase analysis of the samples was done using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) technique, which confirms the single phase formation of cubic CeO2. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images clearly illustrate the nanocrystalline nature (∼ 20 nm) and a uniform particle size distribution. The band gap, calculated using UV-Vis reflectance spectroscopy, was found to be 3.4 eV which is slightly greater than that of its bulk counterpart. Magnetization data was recorded using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) with a maximum applied field of ± 7 kOe. M-H curve of CeO2 nanoparticles presents a clear diamagnetic behaviour at room temperature in contrary to the earlier studies; the reason for which is discussed in detail based on the significant role of oxygen vacancies. (author)

  1. Kinetics of a single trapped ion in an ultracold buffer gas

    OpenAIRE

    Zipkes, Christoph; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Sias, Carlo; Köhl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The immersion of a single ion confined by a radiofrequency trap in an ultracold atomic gas extends the concept of buffer gas cooling to a new temperature regime. The steady state energy distribution of the ion is determined by its kinetics in the radiofrequency field rather than the temperature of the buffer gas. Moreover, the finite size of the ultracold gas facilitates the observation of back-action of the ion onto the buffer gas. We numerically investigate the system's properties depending...

  2. Effects of doping CeO2/TiO2 on structure and properties of silicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Doping CeO2 results in depolymerization and narrowed Qn distribution. • Co-doping CeO2 and TiO2 favors enhanced network and broader Qn distribution. • Cerium acts as modifier and titanium as intermediate in glass network structure. • Adding CeO2/TiO2 results in decreased optical band gap. • Doping-induced structural modifications affect mechanical properties. - Abstract: In order to elucidate the effects of doping CeO2/TiO2 on the structure and physical properties of silicate glass, glasses with composition 72SiO2–3Al2O3–10Na2O–10K2O–5CaO doped with varied ratios of CeO2/TiO2 were synthesized by melt-quenching method and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared and Raman spectrometry, UV–Visible spectrophotometry and micro-indentations. X-ray diffraction conforms the amorphous state of doped glasses. The spectroscopic analysis reveals that doping CeO2 alone results in depolymerization of glass network and narrowed distribution of Qn (Si–O tetrahedral with n bridging oxygen atoms), while doping TiO2 singly or combined with CeO2 favors the enhanced polymerization of network and regains a broader Qn distribution relative to doping CeO2 alone. It is proposed that doped cerium and titanium in glass exists in multivalent state and the former in presence of trivalent state preferentially acts as modifier inducing network depolymerization, whilst the latter in form of tetrahedral tends to interconnect network units as intermediate. Doped cerium in trivalent state contributes mainly to the red-shift of absorption edge while titanium suppresses such change of absorption band. Either adding cerium alone or co-doping with titanium will result in decreased optical band gap due to the structural modifications. The relatively loosened structure due to depolymerization induced by cerium is responsible for the decline in hardness and E-modulus but rising in fracture toughness, whereas network compactness by virtue of interconnectivity of

  3. Mg Doping Induced Effects on Structural, Optical, and Electrical Properties as Well as Cytotoxicity of CeO2 Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Javed; Jan, Tariq; Awan, M. S.; Naqvi, Sajjad Haider; Badshah, Noor; ullah, Asmat; Abbas, Fazzal

    2016-04-01

    Here, Mg x Ce1- x O2 (where x = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, and 0.05) nanostructures have been successfully synthesized by using a simple, easy, and cost-effective soft chemical method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns substantiate the single-phase formation of a CeO2 cubic fluorite structure for all samples. Infrared spectroscopy results depict the presence of peaks only related to Ce-O bonding, which confirms the XRD results. It has been observed via ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy that Mg doping has tuned the optical band gap of CeO2 significantly. The electrical conductivity of CeO2 nanostructures has been found to increase with Mg doping, which is attributed to enhancement in carrier concentration due to the different valance states of dopant and host ions. Selective cytotoxic behavior of Mg x Ce1- x O2 nanostructures has been determined for neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cancerous and HEK-293 healthy cells. Both doped and undoped CeO2 nanostructures have been found to be toxic for cancer cells and safe toward healthy cells. This selective toxic behavior of the synthesized nanostructures has been assigned to the different levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in different types of cells. This makes the synthesized nanostructures a potential option for cancer therapy in the near future.

  4. Optical properties of CeO2 thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Debnath; M R Islam; M S R Khan

    2007-08-01

    Cerium oxide (CeO2) thin films have been prepared by electron beam evaporation technique onto glass substrate at a pressure of about 6 × 10-6 Torr. The thickness of CeO2 films ranges from 140–180 nm. The optical properties of cerium oxide films are studied in the wavelength range of 200–850 nm. The film is highly transparent in the visible region. It is also observed that the film has low reflectance in the ultra-violet region. The optical band gap of the film is determined and is found to decrease with the increase of film thickness. The values of absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient, refractive index, dielectric constant, phase angle and loss angle have been calculated from the optical measurements. The X-ray diffraction of the film showed that the film is crystalline in nature. The crystallite size of CeO2 films have been evaluated and found to be small. The experimental -values of the film agreed closely with the standard values.

  5. Rose Bengal sensitized bilayered photoanode of nano-crystalline TiO2-CeO2 for dye-sensitized solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyed, Suhail A. A. R.; Beedri, Niyamat I.; Kadam, Vishal S.; Pathan, Habib M.

    2016-08-01

    The present work deals with the study of TiO2-CeO2 bilayered photoanode with low-cost Rose Bengal (RB) dye as sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cell application. The recombination reactions are reduced in bilayered TiO2-CeO2 photoanode as compared to the single-layered CeO2 photoanode. Once the electrons get transferred from lowest unoccupied molecular orbital level of RB dye to the conduction band (CB) of TiO2, then the possibilities of recombination of electrons with oxidized dye molecules or oxidized redox couple are reduced. This is because the CB position of CeO2 is higher than that of TiO2, which blocks the path of electrons. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis shows negative shift in frequency for bilayered TiO2-CeO2 photoanode as compared to CeO2 photoanode. Hence, in bilayered photoanode lifetime of electrons is more than in single-layered photoanode, confirming reduction in recombination reactions. The X-ray diffraction patterns confirm both anatase TiO2 and CeO2 with crystalline size using Scherrer formula as 24 and 10 nm, respectively. The scanning electron microscopy images of photoanode show the porous structure useful for dye adsorption. The presence of Ti and Ce is confirmed by electron diffraction studies. The band gap values for TiO2 and CeO2 were calculated as 3.20 and 3.11 eV, respectively, using diffused reflectance spectroscopy. The bilayered TiO2-CeO2 photoanode showed open-circuit voltage ( V OC) ~500 mV and short-circuit photocurrent density ( J SC) ~0.29 mA/cm2 with fill factor (FF) ~62.17 %. There is increase in V OC and J SC values by 66.67 and 38.10 %, respectively, compared to RB-sensitized CeO2 photoanode.

  6. Simulation study on single event burnout in linear doping buffer layer engineered power VDMOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunpeng, Jia; Hongyuan, Su; Rui, Jin; Dongqing, Hu; Yu, Wu

    2016-02-01

    The addition of a buffer layer can improve the device's secondary breakdown voltage, thus, improving the single event burnout (SEB) threshold voltage. In this paper, an N type linear doping buffer layer is proposed. According to quasi-stationary avalanche simulation and heavy ion beam simulation, the results show that an optimized linear doping buffer layer is critical. As SEB is induced by heavy ions impacting, the electric field of an optimized linear doping buffer device is much lower than that with an optimized constant doping buffer layer at a given buffer layer thickness and the same biasing voltages. Secondary breakdown voltage and the parasitic bipolar turn-on current are much higher than those with the optimized constant doping buffer layer. So the linear buffer layer is more advantageous to improving the device's SEB performance. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61176071), the Doctoral Fund of Ministry of Education of China (No. 20111103120016), and the Science and Technology Program of State Grid Corporation of China (No. SGRI-WD-71-13-006).

  7. The Effect of CeO2 Antireflection Layer on the Optical Properties of Thermochromic VO2 Film for Smart Window System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun; Shin, Dongmin; Bae, Sung-Hwan; Ko, Kyeong-Eun; Chang, Se-Hong; Park, Chan

    2013-11-01

    CeO2-VO2 bilayer structure was fabricated to investigate the effect of depositing CeO2 film on the optical properties of VO2 film for smart window application. CeO2 was employed as an antireflection (AR) layer material of VO2 film because of its advantages which include high transparency in the visible-near infrared range and high refractive index. All the films were deposited on soda-lime glass substrate by pulsed laser deposition method. Optical calculations were carried out using transfer-matrix method for the purpose of designing CeO2-VO2 bilayer structure with enhanced integrated luminous transmittance (T lum) and switching efficiency (ΔT sol). The optical constants of VO2 and CeO2 films needed for the optical calculation were measured by spectroscopic ellipsometer. The curve of T lum the shape of which depends on the thickness of CeO2 layer, was calculated in each VO2 sample, which showed two maxima. The samples were divided into two groups; one for the highest enhancement of T lum and the other for balanced enhancement between T lum and ΔT sol. The sample with the structure of ~60 nm CeO2 AR layer on 39-nm thick VO2 film showed large increase of T lum (~27%) with ΔT sol of ~5%, which is the largest increase in T lum reported so far. Two samples in the other group showed the balanced enhancement in T lum (~57, ~50%) and ΔT sol (~9, ~10.5%). The effect of CeO2 AR layer on the optical properties of VO2 film was confirmed with the optical calculation and the experimental results. CeO2-VO2 bilayer structure showed notable improvement of optical properties compared to the single VO2 film, indicating that CeO2 layer can be effectively used as the antireflection layer while working as a protective layer that can prevent the oxidation of VO2 layer as well.

  8. Comparator circuits with local ramp buffering for a column-parallel single slope ADC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milkov, Mihail M.

    2016-04-26

    A comparator circuit suitable for use in a column-parallel single-slope analog-to-digital converter comprises a comparator, an input voltage sampling switch, a sampling capacitor arranged to store a voltage which varies with an input voltage when the sampling switch is closed, and a local ramp buffer arranged to buffer a global voltage ramp applied at an input. The comparator circuit is arranged such that its output toggles when the buffered global voltage ramp exceeds the stored voltage. Both DC- and AC-coupled comparator embodiments are disclosed.

  9. Ab initio thermodynamic evaluation of Pd atom interaction with CeO(2) surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayernick, Adam D; Janik, Michael J

    2009-08-28

    Palladium supported on ceria is an effective catalytic material for three-way automotive catalysis, catalytic combustion, and solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes. The morphology, oxidation state, and particle size of Pd on ceria affect catalytic activity and are a function of experimental conditions. This work utilizes ab initio thermodynamics using density functional theory (DFT) (DFT+U) methods to evaluate the stability of Pd atoms, PdO(x) species, and small Pd particles in varying configurations on CeO(2) (111), (110), and (100) single crystal surfaces. Over specific oxygen partial pressure and temperature ranges, palladium incorporation to form a mixed surface oxide is thermodynamically favorable versus other single Pd atom states on each ceria surface. For example, Pd atoms may incorporate into Ce fluorite lattice positions in a Pd(4+) oxidation state on the CeO(2) (111) surface. The ceria support shifts the transition between formal Pd oxidation states (Pd(0), Pd(2+), Pd(4+)) relative to bulk palladium and stabilizes certain oxidized palladium species on each surface. We show that temperature, oxygen pressure, and cell potential in a SOFC can influence the stable states of palladium supported on ceria surfaces, providing insight into structural stability during catalytic operation. PMID:19725615

  10. Investigating the mechanism of ferromagnetic exchange interaction in non-doped CeO2 with regard to defects and electronic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Hydrogenation induces ferromagnetism in paramagnetic CeO2 matrix. ► “Switch” action of ferromagnetism between hydrogenation and re-heating in CeO2. ► Ferromagnetism shows close relation with oxygen vacancies in magnetic dielectrics. ► The F+ centers play key role in ferromagnetism in CeO2. - Abstract: We report a systematic structural, electronic, and magnetic investigation on occurrence of ferromagnetism and its “switch” action in non-doped bulk ceria (CeO2). The magnetization measurements establish that the pristine CeO2 having a paramagnetic ground state can be driven to a ferromagnetic state at room temperature, when hydrogenated at 600 °C. The observed H-induced ferromagnetism is closely related to the oxygen vacancies and the Ce valence state. X-ray photoemission results depict that Ce ions reduce from 4+ to 3+ state along with creation of oxygen vacancies during the ferromagnetic transition. A parallel variation of carrier concentration, revealed by resistance measurements, seems to be a secondary effect of the oxygen vacancies creation. The F+ centers, i.e. the electrons in singly occupied oxygen vacancies, seem to play the key role in establishing the ferromagnetism in CeO2, in the framework of bound magnetic polaron model. The exchange mechanism shows a “switch” action such that one could remove the oxygen vacancies through re-heating the H2-treated CeO2 and the ferromagnetism is subsequently vanished.

  11. Origin of enhanced photocatalytic activity of F-doped CeO2 nanocubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Hui; Huang, Gui-Fang; Liu, Jin-Hua; Zhou, Bing-Xin; Pan, Anlian; Huang, Wei-Qing; Huang, Guo-Fang

    2016-05-01

    CeO2 nanoparticles are synthesized using a low-temperature solution combustion method and subsequent heat treatment in air. It is found that F-doping leads to smaller particle size and the formation of CeO2 nanocubes with higher percentage of reactive facets exposed. The band gap is estimated to be 3.16 eV and 2.88 eV, for pure CeO2 and fluorine doped CeO2 (F-doped CeO2) nanocubes, respectively. The synthesized F-doped CeO2 nanocubes exhibit much higher photocatalytic activities than commercial TiO2 and spherical CeO2 for the degradation of MB dye under UV and visible light irradiation. The apparent reaction rate constant k of MB decomposition over the optimized F-doped CeO2 nanocubes is 9.5 times higher than that of pure CeO2 and 2.2 times higher than that of commercial TiO2. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of F-doped CeO2 nanocubes originates from the fact that F-doping induces the small size, the highly reactive facets exposed, the intense absorption in the UV-vis range and the narrowing of the band gap. This research provides some new insights for the synthesis of the doping of the foreign atoms into photocatalyst with controlled morphology and enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  12. Application of nanostructured Ca doped CeO2 for ultraviolet filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium doped CeO2 nanoparticles with doping concentrations between 0 and 50 mol% were synthesized by a co-precipitation method for ultraviolet filtration application. Below 20 mol% doping concentration, the samples were single-phase. From 30 mol%, CaCO3 appears as a secondary phase. The calculated CeO2 mean crystallite size was 9.3 nm for the pure and 5.7 nm for the 50 mol% Ca-doped sample. Between 250 and 330 nm, the absorbance increased for the 10, 30, and 40 mol% Ca-doped samples compared to the pure one. The band-gap was found to be 3.20 eV for the undoped, and between 3.36 and 3.51 eV for the doped samples. The blue shifts are attributed to the quantum confinement effect. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the Ce3+ atomic concentration in the pure sample was higher than that of the 20 mol% Ca-doped sample.

  13. DETERMINATION OF BUFFER SIZE IN SINGLE AND MULTI ROW FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS THROUGH SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Ravela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the determination of buffer size for machines in single and multi row Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS for the best layout obtained by genetic algorithm (GA throughsimulation. To maximize the operating performance of FMS, many parameters must be considered, including the part types, sequencing, cost of transport between workstations, distance between machinesand buffer sizes. Of the various critical factors, following three are considered for analysis: (1 minimizing the buffer size (2 minimizing the blocking and (3 maximizing the machine utilization.Simulation enables more efficient planning of the whole FMS, easy modifications before implementation on the real system. The software package FLEXSIM is used to develop the simulation model. A model ofa optimum layout FMS obtained by GA that may contain a number of machines, input and output buffers, capturing part types flow quantities, part routes, from the database and AGV’s used as a meansof transport, is built by FLEXSIM software. Analysis is done on the model to determine the optimum buffer size for the machines. Thus by performing simulation on the model optimum buffer size in theindividual rows are established.

  14. Controllable preparation of CeO2 nanostructure materials and their catalytic activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Wenjuan; Guo Hongjuan; Liu Chang; Wang Xiaonan

    2012-01-01

    Well-crystalline CeO2 nanostructures with the morphology ofnanorods and nanocubes were synthesized by a template-free hydrothermal method.X-ray diffraction (XRD),transmission electron microscopy (TEM),Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements were employed to characterize the synthesized materials.The reducibility and catalytic activity of nanostructured CeO2 were examined by hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR) and CO oxidation.The results showed that CeO2 nanorods could be converted into CeO2 nanocubes with the increasing of the reaction time and the hydrothermal temperature,CeO2 nanorods became longer gradually with the increasing of the concentrations of NaOH.H2-TPR characterization demonstrated that the intense low-temperature reduction peak in the CeO2 nanorods indicated the amount of hydrogen consumed is larger than CeO2 nanocubes.Meantime the CeO2 nanorods enhanced catalytic activity for CO oxidation,the total conversion temperature was 340 ℃.The reasons were that CeO2 nanorods have much smaller crystalline sizes and higher surface areas than CeO2 nanocubes.

  15. A new single buffer layer for YBCO coated conductors prepared by chemical solution deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Guo [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologiesof Materials (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Pu Minghua [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologiesof Materials (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Du Xiaohua [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologiesof Materials (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhang Yanbing [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologiesof Materials (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhou Huaming [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologiesof Materials (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhao Yong [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologiesof Materials (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)]. E-mail: yzhao@home.swjtu.edu.cn

    2007-02-01

    A new single buffer layer YBiO{sub 3} has been proposed for YBCO coated conductors. Highly c-axis oriented YBiO{sub 3} buffer layer has been deposited on single crystal LaAlO{sub 3} by a low-cost chemical solution deposition method in a temperature range as low as 730-800 C in air. A very dense, smooth, pinhole-free morphology has been observed for YBiO{sub 3} buffer layer. Dense, homogeneous and epitaxially grown YBCO film has been obtained with its onset critical temperature 90 K and J {sub c} (77 K, 0 T) = 3.1 MA/cm{sup 2}. The addition of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which melts at around 817 C, has been argued to be responsible for the densification as well as low-process temperature of YBiO{sub 3} buffer layer. These results offer an alternative to prepare desirable buffer layer(s) for YBCO coated conductors via a cost-effective and easily scalable route.0.

  16. A new single buffer layer for YBCO coated conductors prepared by chemical solution deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new single buffer layer YBiO3 has been proposed for YBCO coated conductors. Highly c-axis oriented YBiO3 buffer layer has been deposited on single crystal LaAlO3 by a low-cost chemical solution deposition method in a temperature range as low as 730-800 C in air. A very dense, smooth, pinhole-free morphology has been observed for YBiO3 buffer layer. Dense, homogeneous and epitaxially grown YBCO film has been obtained with its onset critical temperature 90 K and J c (77 K, 0 T) = 3.1 MA/cm2. The addition of Bi2O3, which melts at around 817 C, has been argued to be responsible for the densification as well as low-process temperature of YBiO3 buffer layer. These results offer an alternative to prepare desirable buffer layer(s) for YBCO coated conductors via a cost-effective and easily scalable route

  17. Collective magnetic response of CeO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coey, Michael; Ackland, Karl; Venkatesan, Munuswamy; Sen, Siddhartha

    2016-07-01

    The magnetism of nanoparticles and thin films of wide-bandgap oxides that include no magnetic cations is an unsolved puzzle. Progress has been hampered by both the irreproducibility of much of the experimental data, and the lack of any generally accepted theoretical explanation. The characteristic signature is a virtually anhysteretic, temperature-independent magnetization curve that saturates in an applied field that is several orders of magnitude greater than the magnetization. It would seem as if a tiny volume fraction, temperature-independent magnetization curve and its doping and dispersion dependence, based on a length scale of 300 nm that corresponds to the wavelength of a maximum in the ultraviolet absorption spectrum of the magnetic CeO2 nanoparticles. The coherent domains occupy roughly 10% of the sample volume.

  18. Novel nanostructured CeO2 as efficient catalyst for energy and environmental applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sumanta Kumar Meher; G Ranga Rao

    2014-03-01

    We report here versatile methods to engineer the microstructure and understand the fundamental physicochemical properties of CeO2 to improve its catalytic viability for practical applications. In this context, different morphologies of CeO2 are synthesized using tailored homogeneous precipitation methods and characterized by XRD, BET, SEM and TPR methods. The shuttle-shaped CeO2 prepared under hydrothermal condition shows higher surface area and low-temperature reducibility. The 0.5 wt% Pt-impregnated shuttle-shaped CeO2 shows lower-temperature CO oxidation behaviour as compared to its bulk-like CeO2 (with 0.5 wt% Pt) counterpart, synthesized by conventional-reflux method. Further, nanorod morphology of CeO2 prepared with Cl−as counter ion shows lower-temperature oxidation of soot as compared to the mesoflower morphology of CeO2, prepared with NO$^{−}_{3}$ as counter ion in the reaction medium. Further, linear sweep voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and CO-stripping voltammetry studies are performed to evaluate the promoting activity of CeO2 to Pt/C for ethanol electro-oxidation reaction in acidic media. Results show that CeO2 provides active triple-phase-interfacial sites for suitable adsorption of OH species which effectively oxidize the COads on Pt/C. The results presented here are significant in the context of understanding the physicochemical fine prints of CeO2 and CeO2 based hetero-nanocomposites for their suitability to important catalytic and energy-related applications.

  19. Photocatalytic degradation mechanisms of CeO2/Tb2O3 nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CeO2/Tb2O3 nanotubes have been synthesized using the surfactant free co-precipitation method. • HRTEM images, XPS spectra, and EDAX profiles showed that the as-synthesized samples were CeO2/Tb2O3 nanotubes. • Photocatalytic activity of the synthesized catalysts was evaluated by degrading Methylene blue under visible light irradiation. • Estimated rate constants for the CeO2 nanoparticles and the CeO2/Tb2O3 nanotubes were 0.0134 and 0.0317 min−1, respectively. • Photodegradation efficiency of CeO2/Tb2O3 nanotubes was 93% after 75 min. - Abstract: CeO2/Tb2O3 nanotubes (NTs) have been synthesized using the surfactant free co-precipitation method. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images, X-ray spectroscopy (XPS) spectra, and energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) profiles showed that the as-synthesized samples were CeO2/Tb2O3 NTs. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized catalysts was evaluated by degrading Methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. The fitting of the absorbance maximum as a function of time showed that the photodegradation of the MB followed pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. The estimated rate constants for the CeO2 NPs and the CeO2/Tb2O3 NTs were found to be 0.0134 and 0.0317 min−1, respectively. The photodegradation efficiency of CeO2/Tb2O3 nanotubes was 93% after 75 min, which was found to be higher than those of CeO2 NPs (66%)

  20. Effect of CeO2 coupling on the structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of ZnO nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherly, E. D.; Vijaya, J. Judith; Kennedy, L. John

    2015-11-01

    This research work presents the microwave assisted combustion synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic applications of ZnO-CeO2 coupled nano metal oxide. ZnO, CeO2 and the coupled oxides ZnCe, Zn2Ce and ZnCe2 with ZnO and CeO2 in the molar ratio 1:1, 2:1 and 1:2 respectively were fabricated by microwave assisted metal nitrate-urea solution combustion synthesis, without using any organic solvent or surfactant. As-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and photoluminescence spectroscopy(PL). The experiments of photocatalytic activity indicate that Zn2Ce nanoparticles exhibit excellent photocatalytic performance in the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). 95% of 2,4-DCP molecules were decomposed by Zn2Ce in 240 min. The better photocatalytic degradation ability of Zn2Ce compared to ZnCe, ZnCe2 or single component ZnO and CeO2 nanoparticles is attributed to the improved separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs.

  1. Kinetics of a single trapped ion in an ultracold buffer gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The immersion of a single ion confined by a radiofrequency (RF) trap in an ultracold atomic gas extends the concept of buffer gas cooling to a new temperature regime. The steady-state energy distribution of the ion is determined by its kinetics in the RF field rather than the temperature of the buffer gas. Moreover, the finite size of the ultracold gas facilitates the observation of back-action of the ion onto the buffer gas. We numerically investigate the system's properties depending on atom-ion mass ratio, trap geometry, differential cross-section and non-uniform neutral atom density distribution. Experimental results are well reproduced by our model considering only elastic collisions. We identify excess micromotion to set the typical scale for the ion energy statistics and explore the applicability of the mobility collision cross-section to the ultracold regime.

  2. Preparation and characterizations of platinum electrocatalysts supported on thermally treated CeO2–C composite support for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CeO2–C composite support was prepared by a sol-gel approach with an average particle size of 2.5 nm. • The crystallinity of ceria was tuned by thermal treatment from 400 °C to 600 °C. • Well correlated Pt–ceria interaction was found for the Pt electrocatalysts in PEMFCs. - Abstract: A sol–gel approach was used to synthesize highly dispersed carbon-supported ceria composite support (CeO2–C) having an average particle size of 2.5 nm with sodium citrate as a ligand. The CeO2–C composite was then heated in N2 atmosphere at different temperatures to induce crystallinity variation. Pt electrocatalysts were prepared by the conventional ethylene glycol method using the thermally treated composite support (CeO2–C-T) and then characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Electrochemical evaluations of Pt/CeO2–C-T catalytic activity were performed for methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. An optimized heating temperature was found at 550 °C for CeO2–C, and Pt/CeO2–C-550 demonstrated the highest mass activity of 0.71 A mg−1 for methanol oxidation (∼100% that of Pt/C-JM from Johnson Matthey) and 17 mV more positive shift of the half-wave potential for oxygen reduction relative to that of Pt/C–JM. The maximum power density of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with Pt/CeO2–C-550 cathode catalyst in a H2/air polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell was 678 mW cm−2, which was 7% higher than that of MEA prepared with Pt/C–JM under identical operating conditions. Heating CeO2–C at 550 °C induced increased crystallinity without sacrificing particle agglomeration, which was beneficial for Pt dispersion (reduced particle size). Meanwhile catalytic activity was further enhanced because of Pt–metal oxide interactions and the known oxygen buffer capability of CeO2

  3. Anomalous compressive behavior in CeO2 nanocubes under high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, M. Y.; Fang, Y. Z.; Wang, H.;

    2008-01-01

    is found to be 10 GPa for 4.7 nm and 16 GPa for 5.6 nm CeO2 nanocubes. The particle size dependence of the threshold pressure for the hardening of CeO2 nanoparticles is quite unusual. First-principles electronic calculations show that the increased bulk modulus of the nanocrystal is due...

  4. Preparation and performance of CeO2 hollow spheres and nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wenwen; CHEN Donghui

    2016-01-01

    CeO2 hollow spheres were synthesized by polystryrene sphere (PS) templates and CeO2 nanoparticles were prepared by a facile method. The as-obtained products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The results showed that the structure of the obtained CeO2 hollow spheres was hollow microsphere with a diameter of 380 nm and the average particle size of CeO2 nanoparticles was about 1700 nm. The two samples' Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area was 67.1 and 37.2 m2/g. The CeO2 hollow spheres had a better performance than nanoparticles at UV-shielding because of higher surface area and the structure of hollow sphere.

  5. Electrochemical determination of dopamine based on electrospun CeO2/Au composite nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electrochemical method for the detection of dopamine based on a glass carbon electrode modified with electrospun CeO2/Au composite nanofibers was investigated in this article. The CeO2/Au composite nanofibers were prepared by the electrospinning technique and then annealed in air. The CeO2/Au composite nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) showed that the electrospun CeO2/Au composite nanofibers modified carbon glass electrode exhibited an excellent electrocatalytic response to the dopamine (DA). The detection limit (S/N = 3) was as low as 0.056 μM and the sensitivity could reach 127 μA mM−1 cm−2. All these demonstrated that the electrospun CeO2/Au composite nanofibers were good electrocatalyst for the oxidation of dopamine

  6. Synthesis of Mn-doped CeO2 nanorods and their application as humidity sensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C H Hu; C H Xia; F Wang; M Zhou; P F Yin; X Y Han

    2011-08-01

    Mn-doped CeO2 nanorods have been prepared from CeO2 particles through a facile compositehydroxide-mediated (CHM) approach. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The analysis from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that the manganese doped in CeO2 exists as Mn4+. The responses to humidity for static and dynamic testing proved dopingMn into CeO2 can improve the humidity sensitivity. For the sample with Mn% about 1.22, the resistance changes from 375.3 to 2.7M as the relative humidity (RH) increases from 25 to 90%, indicating promising applications of the Mn-doped CeO2 nanorods in environmental monitoring.

  7. Far-infrared spectroscopic study of CeO2 nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the far-infrared reflectivity spectra of 5 nm-sized pure and copper-doped Ce1−xCuxO2−y (x = 0; 0.01 and 0.10) nanocrystals measured at room temperature in the 50–650 cm−1 spectral range. Reflectivity spectra were analyzed using the factorized form of the dielectric function, which includes the phonon and the free carriers contribution. Four oscillators with TO energies of approximately 135, 280, 370, and 490 cm−1 were included in the fitting procedure. These oscillators represent local maxima of the CeO2 phonon density of states, which is also calculated using the density functional theory. The lowest energy oscillator represents TA(L)/TA(X) phonon states, which become infrared-active Eu modes at the L and X points of the Brillouin zone (BZ). The second oscillator originates from TO(Γ) phonon states. The oscillator at ∼400 cm−1 originates from Raman mode phonon states, which at the L point of BZ also becomes infrared-active Eu mode. The last oscillator describes phonons with dominantly LO(Γ) infrared mode character. The appearance of phonon density of states related oscillators, instead of single F2uinfrared-active mode in the far-infrared reflectivity spectra, is a consequence of the nanosized dimension of the CeO2 particles. The best fit spectra are obtained using the generalized Bruggeman model for inhomogeneous media, which takes into account the nanocrystal volume fraction and the pore shape

  8. Dynamics of a single trapped ion immersed in a buffer gas

    CERN Document Server

    Höltkemeier, Bastian; López-Carrera, Henry; Weidemüller, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive theoretical framework for describing the dynamics of a single trapped ion interacting with a neutral buffer gas, thus extending our previous studies on buffer-gas cooling of ions beyond the critical mass ratio [B. H\\"oltkemeier et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 233003 (2016)]. By transforming the collisional processes into a frame, where the ion's micromotion is assigned to the buffer gas atoms, our model allows one to investigate the influence of non-homogeneous buffer gas configurations as well as higher multipole orders of the radio-frequency trap in great detail. Depending on the neutral-to-ion mass ratio, three regimes of sympathetic cooling are identified which are characterized by the form of the ion's energy distribution in equilibrium. We provide analytic expressions and numerical simulations of the ion's energy distribution, spatial profile and cooling rates for these different regimes. Based on these findings, a method for actively decreasing the ion's energy by reducing the ...

  9. Bio diesel synthesis from pongamia pinnata oil over modified CeO2 catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the use of CeO2, ZrO2, Mg O and CeO2-ZrO2, CeO2-Mg O, CeO2-ZrO2-Mg O mixed oxides as solid base catalysts for the transesterification of Pongamia pinnata oil with methanol to produce bio diesel. SO42-/CeO2 and SO42-/CeO2-ZrO2 were also prepared and used as solid acid catalysts for esterification of Pongamia pinnata oil (P-oil) to reduce the % of free fatty acid (FFA) in P-oil. The oxide catalysts were prepared by an incipient wetness impregnation method and characterized by techniques such as NH3-Tpd for surface acidity, CO2-Tpd for surface basicity and powder X-ray diffraction for crystallinity. The effect of nature of the catalyst, methanol to P-oil molar ratio and reaction time in esterification as well as in transesterification was investigated. The catalytic materials were reactive d and reused for five reaction cycles and the results showed that the ceria based catalysts have reasonably good reusability both in esterification and transesterification reaction. The test results also revealed that the CeO2-ZrO2 modified with Mg O could have potential for use in the large scale bio diesel production. (Author)

  10. Effects of Surfactants on the Performance of CeO2 Humidity Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjie Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanosized CeO2 powders were synthesized via hydrothermal method with different types of surfactants (polyethylene glycol (PEG, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were utilized to characterize the phase structures and morphologies of the products. The sample with CTAB as surfactant (CeO2-C has the largest specific surface area and the smallest particle size among these three samples. The humidity sensor fabricated by CeO2-C shows higher performance than those used CeO2-P and CeO2-S. The impedance of the CeO2-C sensor decreases by about five orders of magnitude with relative humidity (RH changing from 15.7 to 95%. The response and recovery time are 7 and 7 s, respectively. These results indicate that the performance of CeO2 humidity sensors can be improved effectively by the addition of cationic surfactant.

  11. Photocatalytic and antibacterial properties of phytosynthesized CeO2 NPs using Moringa oleifera peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra, T V; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana

    2016-08-01

    Biosynthetic methods are alternative approaches which are much safer than the normal techniques (physical and chemical) used for the methods for synthesis of metal nanoparticles. The benefits are sample as it is economic and environment friendly. Herein present investigation, we have reported a microwave mediated eco-friendly synthetic approach for preparing cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles. Here, we used Moringa oleifera peel as the stabilizing and reducing agent towards synthesize of Ce2O NPs via microwave irradiation. The NPs were further characterized using UV-Vis, FT-IR, XRD and HR-TEM techniques. The FTIR analysis confirmed the phytochemical involvement in NPs stabilization. The crystallinity of CeO2 nanoparticles are well demonstrated through X-ray Diffraction and HR-TEM. The TEM images reveal the spherical shape of the CeO2 NPs having an average size of 45nm. Additionally, these CeO2 NPs were used successfully as a catalyst in the degradation of the dye, crystal violet. Also the antibacterial activity of the synthesized CeO2 NPs was evaluated using Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive bacteria) and Escherichia coli (Gram negative bacteria). CeO2 NPs showed better activity on E. coli than S. aureus. We have demonstrated an eco-friendly preparation of CeO2 nanoparticles, a good photocatalyst and having better antibacterial properties. PMID:27236047

  12. Role of vacancies, light elements and rare-earth metals doping in CeO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H.; Hussain, T.; Ahuja, R.; Kang, T. W.; Luo, W.

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic properties and electronic structures of pure, doped and defective cerium oxide (CeO2) have been studied theoretically by means of ab initio calculations based on the density function theory (DFT) with the hybrid HF/DFT technique named PBE0. Carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), sulphur (S), lanthanum (La) and praseodymium (Pr) doped in CeO2 and CeO2 containing oxygen vacancies (Ov) were considered. Our spin-polarized calculations show that C, N, Pr dopants and Ov defects magnetize the non-magnetic CeO2 in different degree. The optical band gap related to photocatalysis for pure CeO2, corresponding to the ultraviolet region, is reduced obviously by C, N, S, Pr impurities and oxygen vacancies, shifting to the visible region and even further to the infrared range. Especially, N-, S- and Pr-doped CeO2 could be used to photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen production. As the concentration of Ov increasing up to 5%, the CeO2 exhibits a half-metallic properties. PMID:27554285

  13. Violet/blue photoluminescence from CeO2 thin film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    CeO2 thin film was fabricated by dual ion beam epitaxial technique. The violet/blue PL at room temperature and lower temperature was observed from the CeO2 thin film. After the analysis of crystal structure and valence in the compound was carried out by the XRD and XPS technique, it was inferred that the origin of CeO2 PL was due to the electrons transition from Ce4f band to O2p band and the defect level to O2p band. And these defects levels were located in the range of 1 eV around Ce4f band.

  14. Oxygen storage and catalytic NO removal promoted by CeO2-containing mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CeO2-ZrO2 mixed oxides show improved redox properties as compared to CeO2 which makes them important innovative materials for three-way catalysts. The origin of this effect and the structural/redox correlation are discussed. The influence of the improved redox capacities on the reduction of NO by CO catalyzed by Rh/CeO2-ZrO2 catalysts is reported and evidence for an active role of the CeO2-ZrO2 support in NO activation is presented. (orig.)

  15. Self-template hydrothermal synthesis of CeO2 hollow nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CeO2 hollow nanospheres were synthesized by a low-cost and environmentally benign one-pot hydrothermal route. Templates, surfactants, or other auxiliaries were not used in the route. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurements were used to characterize the products. The average diameter of hollow spheres, with shells of approximately 30 nm, was about 300 nm. The formation of these hollow spheres involved a transformation from Ce(OH)CO3 solid spheres to CeO2 hollow nanospheres. The CeO2 hollow nanospheres exhibited a higher catalytic activity on CO oxidation than CeO2 nano-octahedrons.

  16. Room-temperature synthesis and characterization of porous CeO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CeO2 thin films with hexagonal-shaped pores were successfully prepared by a facile electrodeposition at room temperature combined with an etching process. By using electrodeposited ZnO nanorods as a soft template, the morphology, and microstructure of the CeO2 could be controlled. TEM observation indicated that as-prepared CeO2 film is composed of nanocrystals with average size of several nanometers, while XPS analysis showed the coexistence of Ce3+ and Ce4+ in the film. The photoluminescence properties of CeO2 films were measured, which showed much higher sensitivity compared to bare substrate. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Fruit juice extract mediated synthesis of CeO2 nanoparticles for antibacterial and photocatalytic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy Yadav, L. S.; Manjunath, K.; Archana, B.; Madhu, C.; Raja Naika, H.; Nagabhushana, H.; Kavitha, C.; Nagaraju, G.

    2016-05-01

    Ceria ( CeO2 is a technologically important rare-earth material because of its unique properties and various engineering/biological applications. In the present work, cerium oxide nanoparticles have been prepared by a simple solution combustion method using watermelon juice as a novel combustible fuel. The structure and morphology of the synthesized CeO2 nanoparticles were analyzed using various analytical tools such as PXRD, FTIR, Raman, UV-Visible and SEM. PXRD pattern confirms that the prepared material is composed of cubic-phase cerium oxide nanoparticles. Photocatalytic degradation of Methylene blue dye using CeO2 nanoparticles shows 98% of degradation in UV irradiations. Furthermore the antibacterial properties of CeO2 nanoparticles were investigated by their bacterial activity against two bacterial strains using the agar well diffusion method.

  18. Design and characterization of nanoknife with buffering beam for in situ single-cell cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel nanoknife with a buffering beam is proposed for single-cell cutting. The nanoknife was fabricated from a commercial atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever by focused-ion-beam (FIB) etching technique. The material identification of the nanoknife was determined using the energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS) method. It demonstrated that the gallium ion pollution of the nanoknife can be ignored during the etching processes. The buffering beam was used to measure the cutting force based on its deformation. The spring constant of the beam was calibrated based on a referenced cantilever by using a nanomanipulation approach. The tip of the nanoknife was designed with a small edge angle 5 deg. to reduce the compression to the cell during the cutting procedure. For comparison, two other nanoknives with different edge angles, i.e. 25 deg. and 45 deg., were also prepared. An in situ single-cell cutting experiment was performed using these three nanoknives inside an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The cutting force and the sample slice angle for each nanoknife were evaluated. It showed the compression to the cell can be reduced when using the nanoknife with a small edge angle 5 deg. Consequently, the nanoknife was capable for in situ single-cell cutting tasks.

  19. A finite-buffer queue with a single vacation policy: An analytical study with evolutionary positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniak Marcin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, application of an evolutionary strategy to positioning a GI/M/1/N-type finite-buffer queueing system with exhaustive service and a single vacation policy is presented. The examined object is modeled by a conditional joint transform of the first busy period, the first idle time and the number of packets completely served during the first busy period. A mathematical model is defined recursively by means of input distributions. In the paper, an analytical study and numerical experiments are presented. A cost optimization problem is solved using an evolutionary strategy for a class of queueing systems described by exponential and Erlang distributions.

  20. MODIFICATION OF CeO2 AND ITS EFFECT ON THE HEAT-RESISTANCE OF SILICONE RUBBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teng-fei Gan; Bao-qing Shentu; Zhi-xue Weng

    2008-01-01

    By means of the wet chemical surface modification, the surface of CeO2 was modified by vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS). Infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the structure of the modified CeO2 and the result showed that VTMS has been attached onto the surface of CeO2. Effect of VTMS concentration on the active index of the modified CeO2 was also studied, and the result indicated that the active index of the modified CeO2 increases with the increase of VTMS concentration and the optimal concentration of VTMS is 10 wt%. The effect of the modified CeO2 on the tear strength of silicone rubber before and after aging was studied and it was found that in comparison with the unmodified CeO2 the addition of the modified CeO2 results in the significant increase of the tear strength before ageing due to the increase of the crosslinking density of silicone rubber under the experimental conditions. The tear strength of silicone rubber filled with the modified CeO2 after ageing is higher than that with the unmodified CeO2, indicating that the modification of CeO2 can improve the heat-resistance of silicone rubber.

  1. Toxicity of CeO2 nanoparticles - the effect of nanoparticle properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Yu Hang; Yung, Mana M N; Ng, Alan M C; Ma, Angel P Y; Wong, Stella W Y; Chan, Charis M N; Ng, Yip Hang; Djurišić, Aleksandra B; Guo, Muyao; Wong, Mabel Ting; Leung, Frederick C C; Chan, Wai Kin; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Lee, Hung Kay

    2015-04-01

    Conflicting reports on the toxicity of CeO2 nanomaterials have been published in recent years, with some studies finding CeO2 nanoparticles to be toxic, while others found it to have protective effects against oxidative stress. To investigate the possible reasons for this, we have performed a comprehensive study on the physical and chemical properties of nanosized CeO2 from three different suppliers as well as CeO2 synthesized by us, and tested their toxicity. For toxicity tests, we have studied the effects of CeO2 nanoparticles on a Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli in the dark, under ambient and UV illuminations. We have also performed toxicity tests on the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum under ambient and UV illuminations. We found that the CeO2 nanoparticle samples exhibited significantly different toxicity, which could likely be attributed to the differences in interactions with cells, and possibly to differences in nanoparticle compositions. Our results also suggest that toxicity tests on bacteria may not be suitable for predicting the ecotoxicity of nanomaterials. The relationship between the toxicity and physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles is explicitly discussed in the light of the current results. PMID:25768267

  2. Corrosion Resistance of an electrodeposited Zinc Coating Containing CeO2 Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jian-ping; LUO Xin-yi; CHEN Su-jing; WANG Xian-you

    2004-01-01

    A Zinc coating containing CeO2 nanoparticles has been deposited by electrodeposition in a zinc plating bath.The content of CeO2 in the coating is 0.22 mass%. The results of weight loss experiments and electrochemistry tests show that corrosion resistance of the Zinc coating containing CeO2 nanoparticles is remarkably improved in contrast to the pure zinc coating in 0.5 M MgSO4 solution. The effects of CeO2 microparticles on the corrosion resistance of the zinc coating have been studied, the results show that CeO2 microparticles have no effect on the corrosion resistance of the zinc coating. SEM and XRD experiments suggest that the presence of CeO2 nanoparticles in the coating causes the modification of the surface morphology and preferential orientation of the crystal planes; therefore, the reason for the enhancement of corrosion resistance is mainly related to improvement of the structure of the coating.

  3. Influence of CeO2 nanoparticles on growth and physiology of sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Linlin; Liang, Wei-zhen; Kinsey, Erin; Rauh, Bradley; Kresovich, Stephen; Darnault, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are commonly used as polishing agents for industry and fuel additives to decrease the particulate matter emissions. CeO2 NPs may be encountered in the soil and water environment through their life cycle or accidental releases, and have potential phytotoxicity effects. Therefore, it is critical to assess the potential effects of CeO2 NPs in soil on plant growth and physiology. The objective of this research is to determine the physiological responses of three sorghums (Grassl, BtX623 and Rio) to the effect of CeO2 nanoparticles in potting soil environment. Sorghums were germinated and grown in potting soil in the greenhouse for three weeks cultivation with treatments of 0, 100, 500, 1000 mg CeO2 NPs per kg soil. Plant parameters, such as length, weight, and biomass of root and leaves were measured in each treatment with 12 replications. After three weeks germination, the sorghum plants were dig out and the roots were examined and scanned by the Silverfast SE Plus scanner to compare and analyze their dimensions and shapes. To further study the growth and physiological changes in plants due to the presence of CeO2 NPs in soil, one selected type of sorghum (Grassl) was grown under the four different CeO2 NPs concentration treatments for six months until plant maturity, and was also cut and harvested three times to study CeO2 NPs effect on plant re-growth. At the end of each growing period, above ground vegetative tissues were air-dried, grounded to 2mm particle size and compositional traits were estimated by using near-infrared spectroscopy. The influence of nanoparticles was observed on some of the plant traits. Preliminary results showed the influence of CeO2 NPs on the roots growth, as Grassl and Btx623 in 100 mgkg‑1 treatment grew significantly faster than other concentrations; however no significant difference between control and 100 mgkg‑1 treatment in Rio. CeO2 NPs concentration of 100 mgkg‑1 had no impact on sorghum growth, compared to the control treatment. Results of the six months growth and repetitive cutting experiments indicated that the different treatments, including the presence and/or concentrations of the nanoparticles, impacted some of the compositional traits of sorghum.

  4. Structural, morphological and electrical properties of spray deposited nano-crystalline CeO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Nanocrystalline, uniform, dense, and adherent cerium oxide (CeO2) thin films have been successfully deposited by a simple and cost effective spray pyrolysis technique. CeO2 films were deposited at low substrate and annealing temperatures of 350 deg. C and 500 deg. C, respectively. The deposited film showed high oxygen ion conductivity of 5.94 x 10-3 S cm-1 at 350 deg. C. This is due to the fact that in nano-crystalline materials grain boundaries have high defect densities and the atoms there have high mobility. Due to its nano-crystalline nature, the deposited ceria material will have high sinterability, high surface area and hence can have various applications such as in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell, gas sensors, electrochromic smart window devices, in corrosion protection and catalysis. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline, uniform, dense, and adherent cerium oxide (CeO2) thin films have been successfully deposited by a simple and cost effective spray pyrolysis technique. CeO2 films were deposited at low substrate and annealing temperatures of 350 deg. C and 500 deg. C, respectively. Films were characterized by differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy; two probe resistivity method and impedance spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the formation of single phase, well crystalline thin films with cubic fluorite structure. Crystallite size was found to be in the range of 10-15 nm. AFM showed formation of smooth films with morphological grain size 27 nm. Films were found to be highly resistive with room temperature resistivity of the order of 107 Ω cm. Activation energy was calculated and found to be 0.78 eV. The deposited film showed high oxygen ion conductivity of 5.94 x 10-3 S cm-1 at 350 deg. C. Thus, the deposited material shows a potential application in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFC) and might be useful for μ-SOFC and

  5. The influence of CeO2 on the corrosion resistance of laser remelted alloy spray coatings on steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main compositions of iron-base amorphous self-fluxing alloy powders of 150 mesh, used in this work, are Fe, Cr, Ni, W, Mo, B, Si and C. The ranges of each element in at% are (65-70)Fe, (3-5)Cr, (2-4)Ni, (2-4)W, (1-2)Mo, (10-14)B, (4-7)Si and (2-3)C. The atomic ratio of metal-metalloid is about 80:20, so this alloy is abbreviated as M80X20. The material on which coatings were deposited is 1020 steel, austenitized for 1h at 880 C, water quenched, and tempered at 180 C for 1h. This heat treatment resulted in a low carbon martensite structure with a hardness of HRC35-45. After cleaning, shot blasting and preheating the steel to about 200 C, the authors sprayed a thin Ni-Al alloy layer of about 0.1--0.15mm in thickness onto the specimen by means of an oxygen-acetylene torch to provide better bonding of the coating with substrate. Then the M80X20 and M80X20+8%CeO2 alloy coatings were sprayed to a thickness of about 0.6--0.8mm. The CeO2 was added as particles of 200 mesh, injected into the spray, and became a component of the alloy coating. A single pass remelting process for the coating was then conducted by means of a 3kW CO2 laser. Corrosion tests gave the following results: (1) The addition of rare earth (8%CeO2) can improve the corrosion resistance of the laser-remelted M80X20 alloy layer remarkably, resulting in an obvious decrease of the values of ip and i'p, and hence significant improvement of passivation. (2) The addition of rare earth (8%CeO2) lowers the corrosion rate (the corrosion rate is reduced to approximately one-third of that without rare earth) of the laser remelted M80X20 alloy coating and also changes the corrosion morphology

  6. Synthesis of nanocrystalline CeO2 particles by different emulsion methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using three different methods of emulsion: (1) reversed micelle (RM); (2) emulsion liquid membrane (ELM); and (3) colloidal emulsion aphrons (CEAs). Ammonium cerium nitrate and polyoxyethylene-4-lauryl ether (PE4LE) were used as cerium and surfactant sources in this study. The powder was calcined at 500 °C to obtain CeO2. The effect of the preparation procedure on the particle size, surface area, and the morphology of the prepared powders were investigated. The obtained powders are highly crystalline, and nearly spherical in shape. The average particle size and the specific surface area of the powders from the three methods were in the range of 4–10 nm and 5.32–145.73 m2/g, respectively. The CeO2 powders synthesized by the CEAs are the smallest average particle size, and the highest surface area. Finally, the CeO2 prepared by the CEAs using different cerium sources and surfactant types were studied. It was found that the surface tensions of cerium solution and the type of surfactant affect the particle size of CeO2. - Graphical Abstract: The emulsion droplet size distribution and the TEM images of CeO2 prepared by different methods: reversed micelle (RM), emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) and colloidal emulsion aphrons (CEAs). Highlights: ► Nano-sized CeO2 was successfully prepared by three different emulsion methods. ► The colloidal emulsion aphrons method producing CeO2 with the highest surface area. ► The surface tensions of a cerium solution have slightly effect on the particle size. ► The size control could be interpreted in terms of the adsorption of the surfactant.

  7. Influence of the deposition techniques on the quality of the epitaxial buffer layers on textured Ni substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to fabricate high temperature superconducting tapes for power applications, the authors have analyzed different buffer layer architectures grown on textured Ni substrates suitable for YBCO deposition. Due to its optimal lattice matching the studied structures present as top layer a CeO2 film. The deposition of CeO2 on Ni substrates was performed by pulsed laser ablation and by e-beam evaporation at different temperatures. The films obtained by the two deposition techniques have not optimal structural properties, having a polycrystalline component. The misorientation of CeO2 is probably due to the formation of NiO at the interface between the film and the substrate during the deposition process even if no oxygen is introduced. In order to prevent Ni oxidation an intermediate 2000 angstrom Pd thick film was deposited by e-beam. Furthermore, the lattice mismatch between Pd and CeO2 is smaller than that between Ni and CeO2. The Pd layer inhibits nickel oxide formation and improves the CeO2 epitaxial growth: the XRD pattern contains only the (001) peaks of Pd and CeO2. SEM analysis on CeO2/Pd/Ni shows a smooth surface free of cracks, contrary to that observed for CeO2/Ni structure

  8. Ultraviolet spectra of CeO2 nano-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Quantum size effect is generally expected in nanometer size materials. The effect has been observed in many metal clusters and semiconducting nano-particles, but seldom in oxides, because the size control of crystalline oxides is generally difficult due to the ionic bond character. CeO2 (ceria) is one of the rare-earth oxides and the size effect is worth studying from the viewpoint of an ultraviolet (u.v.) spectroscopy and applications. This report describes the first observation of a blue shift of u.v. spectra in ceria nano-particles of 2-5 nm in diameter with its deviation within 20%. A ceria aqueous sol (pH ≅ 2.5) having particle sizes under 6 nm in diameter was produced by ultrafiltration with a polyether sulfone membrane (SIP-1013, Asahi Chemical Industry Co.) from an original ceria aqueous sol (pH ≅ 1.5) having particle sizes extending over a wide range. Obtained sol contains a high concentration of Ce3+ ions because of the high acidity. In order to separate ceria particles from Ce3+ ions and fractionate the particle size, two kinds of anion-type surfactants were used in microemulsification process with toluene and water. One is sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SD-BS) which is 2 nm in length and another is sodium octyl sulfonate (SOS) which is 1.2 nm in length. U.v. spectroscopic measurements and high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) observations were performed for (SOS)t , (SOS+SOS)t , and (SDBS+SOS+SDBS)t , where (SOS)t is a ceria suspension in toluene obtained by an emulsification with SOS surfactant, (SOS+SOS)t indicates the same product obtained by the further emulsification with SOS for an aqueous phase of the emulsion with SOS, and (SDBS+SOS+SDBS)t means that obtained by an additional emulsification with SDBS for an aqueous phase obtained by two successive emulsifications with SDBS and SOS. Optical density data for (SOS)t , (SOS+SOS)t , and (SDBS+SOS+SDBS)t show absorption edges at 4076 Angstroms, 3997 Angstroms, and 3921 Angstroms, respectively. A computer analysis of HRTEM images for (SOS)t , (SOS+SOS)t , and (SDBS+SOS+SDBS)t indicates the size distribution of ceria particles 3.90 ± 0.77 nm, 2.76 ± 0.59 nm, and 2.19 ± 0.37 nm, respectively. These results reveal a blue shift of the absorption edge with decreasing particle sizes and may provide information on the complicated orbital characters and valencies of rare-earth oxides. We are investigating now the cause of the blue shift

  9. Resource allocation for two source-destination pairs sharing a single relay with a buffer

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we obtain the optimal resource allocation scheme in order to maximize the achievable rate region in a dual-hop system that consists of two independent source-destination pairs sharing a single half-duplex relay. The relay decodes the received information and possesses buffers to enable storing the information temporarily before forwarding it to the respective destination. We consider both non-orthogonal transmission with successive interference cancellation at the receivers and orthogonal transmission. Also, we consider Gaussian block-fading channels and we assume that the channel state information is known and that no delay constraints are required. We show that, with the aid of buffering at the relay, joint user-and-hop scheduling is optimal and can enhance the achievable rate significantly. This is due to the joint exploitation of multiuser diversity and multihop diversity in the system. We provide closed-form expressions to characterize the average achievable rates in a generic form as functions of the statistical model of the channels. Furthermore, we consider sub-optimal schemes that exploit the diversity in the system partially and we provide numerical results to compare the different schemes and demonstrate the gains of the optimal one. © 2014 IEEE.

  10. Anisotropic thermopower of the antiferromagnetic Kondo semiconductor CeOs2Al10 doped with 5d electrons and holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermopower S and electrical resistivity ρ of Ce(Os1−xIrx)2Al10 and Ce(Os1−yRey)2Al10 single crystals have been measured to understand the properties of the unusual antiferromagnetic order at TN = 28.5 K in the orthorhombic Kondo semiconductor CeOs2Al10. Opening of a gap in the hybridized band of CeOs2Al10 manifests in the activation-type increase of ρ(T) along the principal axes on cooling below 60 K, whereby Sa(T) and Sc(T) exhibit shallow minima. Below TN, Sa(T) and Sc(T) jump by a few µV/K, whereas Sb(T) sharply decreases from 30 to −7 µV/K, suggesting a loss of a part of the Fermi surface of the hybridized band. The large maximum in Sb(T) between 100 and 40 K is suddenly suppressed by doping 5d electrons and holes at a few % level. With further doping of 5d electrons and holes, respectively, the hybridization gap behaviors of both S(T) and ρ(T) change to those of metallic Kondo system and valence fluctuating system. (author)

  11. Fabrication and properties of epitaxial buffer layers on nonmagnetic textured Ni based alloy substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biaxially aligned YBCO thick films on oxide buffered metallic substrates is a promising route toward the fabrication of superconducting tapes operating at liquid nitrogen temperature. The role of buffer layer is to reduce the lattice mismatch between the substrate and the YBCO film, to adapt the thermal expansion coefficient, to hamper the diffusion of Ni in YBCO film and to prevent the oxidation of the metallic substrate surface. This paper presents a study regarding CeO2 buffer layer deposition on a new nonmagnetic (001)[100] textured Ni-V alloy substrates. The deposition of CeO2 was performed by both pulsed laser ablation and e-beam evaporation techniques. The θ-2θ X-ray diffraction pattern mainly exhibits the (00 ell) peaks of CeO2, indicating that the films are epitaxially grown with the c axis perpendicular to the substrate. Rocking curves through the CeO2 (002) peak have a FWHM of about 6 degree. The SEM studies have shown that the surface is smooth, continuous and free of cracks. Texture analysis reveals a good in-plane orientation for the ablated CeO2 film, whereas the electron beam evaporated CeO2 shows two textures in the growth plane. Further efforts are focused on the deposition of YBCO thick film on the as buffered nonmagnetic metallic substrate

  12. CeO2-covered nanofiber for highly efficient removal of phosphorus from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Young Gun; Do, Taegu; Chun, Youngsang; Kim, Choong Hyun; Choi, Ung Su; Kim, Jae-Yong

    2016-04-15

    The lowering phosphorus concentration of lakes or rivers using adsorbents has been considered to be the most effective way to prevent water eutrophication. However, the development of an adsorbent is still challenging because conventional adsorbents have not shown a sufficient phosphorus adsorption capacity (0.3-2.0mmol/g) to treat industrial, agricultural or domestic wastewater at a large scale. Herein, a novel and effective strategy to remove phosphorus efficiently with a CeO2-covered nanofiber is shown. The CeO2-covered nanofiber was synthesized through (1) amine group immobilization onto an electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofiber and (2) adsorption of Ce(3+) on it. The CeO2-covered nanofiber played a role in catching phosphate ions in an aqueous solution by the oxidation, reduction, and ion-exchange of adsorbed Ce(3+) on the nanofiber from CeO2 to CePO4, and enabled remarkable phosphate adsorption capacity of the nanofiber (ca. 17.0mmol/g) at the range of ca. pH 2-6. Our strategy might be the most feasible method to efficiently lower the phosphorus concentration in lakes or rivers owing to the easy and inexpensive preparation of CeO2-covered nanofiber at an industrial scale, with a high phosphate adsorption capacity. PMID:26795705

  13. Facet-Controlled CeO2 Nanocrystals for Oxidative Coupling of Methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongnan; Shen, Yue; Song, Jianjun; Ba, Rongbin; Huang, Shuangshuang; Zhao, Yonghui; Zhang, Jun; Sun, Yuhan; Zhu, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Whether the catalysts of the high temperature reaction such methane oxidation coupling has a structure-sensitive catalytic behavior or not, it is discussed and confirmed the shape-specific impact on methane activity by designing the catalysts with different crystal facets exposed. CeO2 nanowires enclosed by {110} and {100} planes show the higher CH4 conversion and higher C2 hydrocarbons (C2H4 and C2H6) selectivity, compared with particle CeO2 rounded by {111} and {100} planes, suggesting that CeO2 (110) surface favors the activation of CH4. Encouraged by the result, to control facet-controlled synthesis of catalysts for tailoring the catalytic properties at high temperature, the CeO2 (110) surface is chosen as doped sites to form the doped catalyst such as Ca doped CeO2 nanowires for OCM reaction, enhancing C2 hydrocarbons selectivity dramatically and suppressing the deep oxidation product (CO and CO2) selectivity. PMID:27483809

  14. Effect of samarium doping on electrodeposited CeO2 thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarium-doped cerium oxide (CeO2:Sm) and undoped cerium oxide (CeO2) thin films were fabricated by electrodeposition on biaxially textured Ni-3% W substrates. The electrodeposited layers were annealed for several hours at temperatures ranging from 910 to 980 C. The resulting crystalline films were investigated by XRD and SEM. The CeO2 crystallite size was correlated to the formation of microcrack in CeO2 and CeO2:Sm using the Scherrer equation of XRD analysis. Crack-free films with an average grain size of about 28 nm were obtained for both Ce0.92Sm0.08O2-δ and Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ films. Sm doping strongly affects the crystallite size, crystal structure, texture, and crack formation in ceria films. The lattice parameter a increases and crystallite size is reduced with increased Sm doping. All electrodeposited films are highly biaxially textured. When compared to Ni-based substrates, improvements in the out-of-plane and in-plane texture in ceria- and Sm-doped ceria films were achieved. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Flowerlike CeO2 microspheres coated with Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5Ox nanoparticles for an advanced fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanyan; Tang, Yongfu; Ma, Zhaohui; Singh, Manish; He, Yunjuan; Dong, Wenjing; Sun, Chunwen; Zhu, Bin

    2015-07-01

    Flowerlike CeO2 coated with Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5Ox (Sr-Fe-Mo-oxide) nanoparticles exhibits enhanced conductivity at low temperatures (300-600 oC), e.g. 0.12 S cm-1 at 600 oC, this is comparable to pure ceria (0.1 S cm-1 at 800 oC). Advanced single layer fuel cell was constructed using the flowerlike CeO2/Sr-Fe-Mo-oxide layer attached to a Ni-foam layer coated with the conducting transition metal oxide. Such fuel cell has yielded a peak power density of 802 mWcm-2 at 550 oC. The mechanism of enhanced conductivity and cell performance were analyzed. These results provide a promising strategy for developing advanced low-temperature SOFCs.

  16. Diesel/biodiesel soot oxidation with ceo2 and ceo2-zro2-modified cordierites: a facile way of accounting for their catalytic ability in fuel combustion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo F. Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available CeO2 and mixed CeO2-ZrO2 nanopowders were synthesized and efficiently deposited onto cordierite substrates, with the evaluation of their morphologic and structural properties through XRD, SEM, and FTIR. The modified substrates were employed as outer heterogeneous catalysts for reducing the soot originated from the diesel and diesel/biodiesel blends incomplete combustion. Their activity was evaluated in a diesel stationary motor, and a comparative analysis of the soot emission was carried out through diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The analyses have shown that the catalyst-impregnated cordierite samples are very efficient for soot oxidation, being capable of reducing the soot emission in more than 60%.

  17. A Dipole Polarizable Potential for Reduced and Doped CeO$_2$ from First-Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Burbano, Mario; Yildiz, Bilge; Tuller, Harry L; Norberg, Stefan T; Hull, Stephen; Madden, Paul A; Watson, Graeme W

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present the parameterization of a new interionic potential for stoichiometric, reduced and doped CeO$_2$. We use a dipole-polarizable potential (DIPPIM) and optimize its parameters by fitting them to a series of DFT calculations. The resulting potential was tested by calculating a series of fundamental properties for CeO$_2$ and by comparing them to experimental values. The agreement for all the calculated properties (thermal and chemical expansion coefficients, lattice parameters, oxygen migration energies, local crystalline structure and elastic constants) is within 10-15% of the experimental one, an accuracy comparable to that of ab initio calculations. This result suggests the use of this new potential for reliably predicting atomic-scale properties of CeO$_2$ in problems where ab initio calculations are not feasible due to their size-limitations.

  18. Enhanced infrared emissivity of CeO2 coatings by La doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pure CeO2 and La doped CeO2 (LDC) coatings were prepared on nickel-based substrates by electron beam physical vapor deposition at 1173 K. The infrared emissivity in 2.5–25 μm of LDC coatings was enhanced with the increase of La concentration at high temperature 873–1273 K. Compared to the undoped CeO2 coating, the infrared emissivity of 16.7% LDC coating increases by 55%, and reaches up to 0.9 at 873 K. The enhancement of doped coatings’ emissivity is attributed to the increasing lattice absorption and free-carrier absorption. The high emissivity LDC coatings show a promising potential in high temperature application.

  19. Formic Acid Modified Co3O4-CeO2 Catalysts for CO Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruishu Shang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A formic acid modified catalyst, Co3O4-CeO2, was prepared via facile urea-hydrothermal method and applied in CO oxidation. The Co3O4-CeO2-0.5 catalyst, treated by formic acid at 0.5 mol/L, performed better in CO oxidation with T50 obtained at 69.5 °C and T100 obtained at 150 °C, respectively. The characterization results indicate that after treating with formic acid, there is a more porous structure within the Co3O4-CeO2 catalyst; meanwhile, despite of the slightly decreased content of Co, there are more adsorption sites exposed by acid treatment, as suggested by CO-TPD and H2-TPD, which explains the improvement of catalytic performance.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Graphite Powder Covered with CeO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the wetting properties of graphite with Al melt and reduce the oxidation of the graphite, by which the segregation of components during the liquid-stir-casting process could be prevented. In this paper, a uniform thin nano-film of CeO2, about 20 nm thick, was successfully prepared onto graphite powder surface by heterogeneous nucleation process. The results show that an obvious chemical reaction did exit between CeO2 film and graphite with the formation of Ce-O-C bond, leading to a shift of the binding energy of C and Ce. The cover with CeO2 film illustrates a distinct change of surface state of graphite with a decrease of angle of contact.

  1. Kinetics of thermal decomposition of CeO2 nanocrystalline precursor prepared by precipitation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of CeO2 nanocrystalline precursor prepared by chemical precipitation method was investigated using thermo-gravimetric/differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD).In particular,the differential thermal analysis curves for the decomposition of CeO2 nanocrystalline precursor were measured at different heating rates in air by a thermal analyzer (NETZSCH STA 449C,Germany).The kinetic parameters of the thermal decomposition of CeO2 nanocrystalline precursor were calculated using the Kissinger method and the Coats-Redfern method.Results show that the apparent active energy E of the reaction is 105.51 kJ/mol,the frequency factor lnA is 3.602 and the reaction order n is 2.This thermal decomposition process can be described by the anti-Jander equation and a threedimensional diffusion mechanism.

  2. The redox behaviour of CuO-ZrO2-CeO2 mixed oxides catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The redox behavior of CuO-ZrO2-CeO2 mixed oxide catalysts has been studied. It is found that the composition of the mixed oxides and thermal treatment could affect the reducibility of the samples, and that reduced CuO-ZrO2-CeO2 mixed oxides are oxidised easily. The experimental results also show that there is strong interaction between CuO and CeO2-ZrO2 mixed oxide, and that the interaction promotes both the reduction of CuO and CeO2 in mixed oxides as well as the catalytic activity for CO oxidation. (author)

  3. CeO_2-supported vanadium oxide catalysts for soot oxidation:the roles of molecular structure and nanometer effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘坚; 赵震; 徐春明; 段爱军; 姜桂元

    2010-01-01

    The nanometer CeO2 powder was prepared by the method of microwave-assisted heating hydrolysis,and the nanometer CeO2-supported or ordinary CeO2-supported vanadia catalysts with different vanadium loadings(atomic ratios:100V/Ce=0.1,1,4,10,and 20) were prepared by an incipient-wetness impregnation method.Spectroscopic techniques(XRD,FT-IR,Raman and UV-Vis DRS) were utilized to characterize the structures of VOx/CeO2 catalysts.The results showed that the structures of CeO2-supported vanadium oxide catalysts de...

  4. Effects of sintering on Y2O3-doped CeO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tavafoghi Jahromi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Having high electrical conductivity, Y2O3-doped CeO2 is a good candidate for various high temperature electrochemical devices, such as solid oxide fuel cells and oxygen gas sensor. However, its inferior mechanical properties compared to its competitors, e.g. ZrO2-based electrolytes, has restricted its usage.Design/methodology/approach: The present work evaluates the sintering behavior and mechanical properties of CeO2, and aims to enhance the mechanical properties and sinterability while restricting the grain growth by doping with Y2O3.Findings: The relative density, rather than the Y2O3 concentration, was the most important factor that affected the mechanical properties of CeO2. Increase of density resulted in higher hardness and elastic modulus, and lower the fracture toughness of CeO2. In the optimum condition, the KIC of 5.1 MPa.m1/2, nanohardness of 13.0 GPa, and elastic modulus of 371.5 GPa were obtained for the undoped CeO2 (density = 98.00% sintered at 1700°C.Research limitations/implications: This study does not include sintering at higher temperatures. It is also worth investigating formation of oxygen vacancy or Ce2O3 material in the Y2O3-doped CeO2.Practical implications: It is noteworthy that in this study, the high temperature calcination of mixed powders is avoided in order to keep yitria as a second phase (not as a solute in the ceria matrix. This enables yitria to be more effective to suppress the grain growth.Originality/value: The objectives are to improve the mechanical properties and to reveal the effects of various parameters, such as density, grain size, and yitria doping on the nano/micro indentation behavior of ceria material.

  5. Effect of CeO2 addition on electrical and optical properties of lithium borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare earth (RE) ions play an important role in modern technology as an active ion in many optical materials. RE-doped glasses were used in many optical devices because of abundant number of the absorption and emission bands arising from the transitions between the RE elements energy levels. Among all rare earth, glasses containing CeO2 are extensively studied for scintillating applications. Radiation length of CeO2 containing lithium silicate glasses decreases and absorption edge in transmittance shift towards longer wavelength. In the present study an attempt has been made to verify similar results in borate containing glasses. Therefore glass series 15Li2O-xCeO2-(85''x)B2O3 where x= 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1 mol% was prepared by conventional melt quench technique. Their electrical and optical properties have been investigated. It is observed that the conductivity of these glasses decreases while density, glass transition temperature and refractive index increases with the addition of CeO2. The conductivity of the glasses is mostly controlled by the activation energy. Since the lithium fraction in the present series is kept constant, the decrease in conductivity for glasses may be attributed to the reduction in the number of available vacant sites for the mobile lithium ions when boron is substituted with CeO2. The radiation length was determined using density values and it was found to decrease with the addition of CeO2. The absorption coefficient a were determined near the absorption edge of different photon energy for all glass samples and plot of (αhν)1/2 Vs. hν (Tauc's plot) is shown. It is observed that the optical band gap energy (EgOpt) decreases with the addition of CeO2

  6. Effects of sintering on Y2O3-doped CeO2

    OpenAIRE

    M. Tavafoghi Jahromi; M.J. Tan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Having high electrical conductivity, Y2O3-doped CeO2 is a good candidate for various high temperature electrochemical devices, such as solid oxide fuel cells and oxygen gas sensor. However, its inferior mechanical properties compared to its competitors, e.g. ZrO2-based electrolytes, has restricted its usage.Design/methodology/approach: The present work evaluates the sintering behavior and mechanical properties of CeO2, and aims to enhance the mechanical properties and sinterability w...

  7. RESPONSE OF SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS TO CeO2 NANOPARTICLES

    OpenAIRE

    Livia Vittori Antisari; Serena Carbone; Alberto Fabrizi; Antonietta Gatti; Gilmo Vianello

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this work was to assess the impact of the chronic exposure of CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) (50 to 105 nm nominal size) on soil microbial biomass.To evaluate if the CeO2 NPs can affect the soil quality, they were mixed to an A1 and A2 horizon of Epileptic Cambisols at a concentrations of 100 ppm and incubated in lab for short and medium (7 and 60 days) times, at a constant temperature (25°C) and moisture (60% WHC).The preliminary results of the soil physicochemical analyses have showed an i...

  8. CeO2-stabilized tetragonal ZrO2 polycrystals (Ce-TZP ceramics)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the development and the characterization of CeO2-stabilized tetragonal ZrO2 polycrystals (Ce-TZP ceramics), since it is considered candidate material for applications as structural high performance ceramics. Sintered ceramics were fabricated from mixtures of powders containing different CeO2 content prepared by conventional and nonconventional techniques. These powders and their resultant sintered ceramics were specified by chemical and physical characterization, compactation state and mechanical properties. The chemical characteristics were determined by chemical analysis and the physical characteristics were evaluated by phase content, particle and agglomerate size and aspect, and powder porosity. (author)

  9. Mixed cerium-platinum oxides: Electronic structure of [CeO]Ptn (n = 1, 2) and [CeO2]Pt complex anions and neutrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Manisha; Kafader, Jared O; Topolski, Josey E; Jarrold, Caroline Chick

    2016-07-28

    The electronic structures of several small Ce-Pt oxide complexes were explored using a combination of anion photoelectron (PE) spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Pt and Pt2 both accept electron density from CeO diatomic molecules, in which the cerium atom is in a lower-than-bulk oxidation state (+2 versus bulk +4). Neutral [CeO]Pt and [CeO]Pt2 complexes are therefore ionic, with electronic structures described qualitatively as [CeO(+2)]Pt(-2) and [CeO(+)]Pt2 (-), respectively. The associated anions are described qualitatively as [CeO(+)]Pt(-2) and [CeO(+)]Pt2 (-2), respectively. In both neutrals and anions, the most stable molecular structures determined by calculations feature a distinct CeO moiety, with the positively charged Ce center pointing toward the electron rich Pt or Pt2 moiety. Spectral simulations based on calculated spectroscopic parameters are in fair agreement with the spectra, validating the computationally determined structures. In contrast, when Pt is coupled with CeO2, which has no Ce-localized electrons that can readily be donated to Pt, the anion is described as [CeO2]Pt(-). The molecular structure predicted computationally suggests that it is governed by charge-dipole interactions. The neutral [CeO2]Pt complex lacks charge-dipole stabilizing interactions, and is predicted to be structurally very different from the anion, featuring a single Pt-O-Ce bridge bond. The PE spectra of several of the complexes exhibit evidence of photodissociation with Pt(-) daughter ion formation. The electronic structures of these complexes are related to local interactions in Pt-ceria catalyst-support systems. PMID:27475371

  10. Fabrication of Y1-xRE xBa2Cu3O y films on single crystalline substrates and IBAD buffered metallic tapes by advanced TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We fabricated Y1-xSm xBa2Cu3O y and YSm xBa2Cu3O y (YSmBCO) films on SrTiO3 (STO) single crystalline substrates and IBAD buffered metallic tapes (PLD-CeO2/IBAD-GZO/Hastelloy) by the advanced TFA-MOD process by mixing TFA salts of Y, Sm, Ba and Cu naphthenate, and tried to improve the superconductivity properties compared with those of the pure YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO). As a result, J c values of Y1-xSm xBa2Cu3O y films with x = 0.05 or 0.3, which were fabricated on STO substrates, were improved under the high magnetic fields compared with those of the YBCO without substitution. However, Sm segregation was detected near the STO substrate which was obtained by the TEM-EDS (transmission electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) analysis. On the other hand, Y1-xSm xBa2Cu3O y films with x = 0.05 and YSm xBa2Cu3O y films with x = 0.3, which were fabricated on IBAD buffered metallic substrates, also improved I c value under the high magnetic fields compared with those of the YBCO without substitution. Moreover, from the TEM-EDS analysis, Y or Sm segregation was not found. The difference in the Sm segregation behavior between the film on STO and CeO2 buffered substrates could be explained by the difference in the ratios of the misfit parameters between YBCO/substrate and SmBCO/substrate. Additionally, it was considered that the above phenomenon might be unique in the MOD system and could not be observed in the PLD system, because of the difference in the crystal growth mechanism. In the film of YSm0.3Ba2Cu3O y, we observed the grains of (Y, Sm)2O3 and (Y, Sm)2Cu2O5 by TEM observation. We will further investigate the origin of pinning centers

  11. Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy studies of CeO2 thin film deposited on Ni-W substrate by RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Preetam; Srivatsa, K. M. K.; Jewariya, Mukesh

    2016-08-01

    This study presents the first investigation of rapid dynamical processes that occur in pure CeO2 thin film, using ultra fast pump-probe spectroscopy at room temperature. For this purpose we have used a single (200) oriented CeO2 film deposited on biaxially textured Ni-W substrate by RF magnetron sputtering technique. The ultrafast transient spectra show initial sharp rise transition followed by an exponential photon decay. This rise time is about 10 ps irrespective of the probe wavelengths range 500-800 nm. The initial decay constant (τ) at 500 nm probe wavelength is found to be 171 ps, while at 800 nm probe wavelength it is 107.5 ps. The ultrafast absorption spectra show two absorption peaks at 745 and 800 nm, and are attributed to the electronic transitions from 2F7/2-2F5/2 and 1S0-1F3 respectively. The relatively high intensity absorption peak at 745 nm indicates dominant f-f electronic transition. Further, the absorption peak at 745 nm splits into two distinct peaks with respect to delay time, and is attributed to the charge transfer in between Ce4+ and Ce3+ ions. These results indicate that CeO2 itself is a potential candidate and can be used for optical applications.

  12. Magnetic manipulation by resistance switching in CeO2/PrBa2Cu3O7−δ/Pt heterostructure: The role of oxygen vacancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronounced bipolar resistance switching with a good retention property has been observed in CeO2/PrBa2Cu3O7−δ/Pt heterostructure. The low resistance state and high resistance state exhibited distinguished ferromagnetic signals, as compared to the nearly non-magnetic initial state. It is found that the migration of the oxygen vacancies under electric field is mainly responsible for the electric and the magnetic changes. The modified interfacial electronic structure by the oxygen vacancy migration and the trapping/detrapping of the carriers leads to the resistance switching. The exchange interaction of the hydrogen-like orbitals formed around the singly occupied oxygen vacancies in CeO2 is accounting for the emerged and modulated ferromagnetic signals. Temperature dependence of resistance in the low resistance state follows a variable range hopping law, further confirming that the amount of oxygen vacancies in the CeO2 layer directly affects the hydrogen-like orbital radius, which determines the strength of the ferromagnetic coupling

  13. Effect of the laser sputtering parameters on the orientation of a cerium oxide buffer layer on sapphire and the properties of a YBa2Cu3Ox superconducting film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mozhaev, P. B.; Ovsyannikov, G. A.; Skov, Johannes

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the laser sputtering parameters on the crystal properties of CeO2 buffer layers grown on a (1 (1) under bar 02) sapphire substrate and on the properties of superconducting YBa2Cu3Ox thin films are investigated. It is shown that (100) and (111) CeO2 growth is observed, depending on the...

  14. Preferential Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide in Excess Hydrogen over Au/Co3O4- CeO2 Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Au/Co3O4-CeO2 mixed-oxide catalysts were shown experimentally to be highly active and selective for the oxidation of CO in hydrogen-rich mixture. Activity was markedly influenced by the composition of the support, aging temperature and Au-loading temperature. It provided that single-step removal of CO from hydrogen-rich stream both in the absence and presence of CO2 and H2O to a PEMFC tolerant level. It was found that catalytic activity is greatly affected by adding CO2 in the mixture and increased by farther adding H2O. It meants H2O has the effect to rise catalytic activity. Moreover,it shows better stability with reaction time for the preferential CO oxidation.

  15. Facile fabrication of CeO2 hollowmicrospheres with yeast as bio-templates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟广宇; 魏清莲; 黄永民

    2015-01-01

    CeO2 hollow microspheres were prepared through a facile method by using yeast cells as bio-templates. The yeast pro-vided a solid frame for the deposition of cerium hydroxide to form the hybrid Ce(OH)3@yeast precursor. The resulting CeO2 hollow microspheres were obtained by calcining the precursor. The products were characterized by field emission scanning electron micros-copy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), N2 adsorption/desorption analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) and H2 temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR). It was found that the products fully retained the morphology of the yeast cells and the size of the hollow microspheres was about 1.5–2μm. The catalytic test results showed that the as-obtained hollow CeO2 microspheres possessed a higher catalytic activity in CO oxidation than the commercial CeO2, which attributed to their higher surface area, hollow structure and superior reducibility. This study provided a promising route for the preparation of a variety of other inorganic hollow microspheres.

  16. Ag nanocrystals anchored CeO2/graphene nanocomposite for enhanced supercapacitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Quasi spherical Ag and CeO2 nanoparticles were decorated on rGO matrix. • The Ag/CeO2/rGO nanocomposite exhibits specific capacitance of 710 F g−1. • Ag plays an imperative role in improving the electrochemical performance. - Abstract: A novel ternary Ag decorated CeO2/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposite was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as surface directing agent and was designed as an electrode material for supercapacitors application. The structure and morphology of the nanocomposites were analyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The synergistic effect between the CeO2 nanoparticles wrapped rGO matrix with Ag nanoparticles gives rise to a nanostructure, empowering the material with enhanced electrochemical performance. The electrochemical characterization was performed using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic studies in 3 M KOH aqueous electrolyte. The nanocomposite electrode materials possess a high specific capacitance of 710.42 F g−1 at an applied current density of 0.2 A g−1, which was nearly two fold higher than CeO2/rGO nanocomposite. This work endows a new route for building Ag/CeO2/rGO ternary nanocomposite which will have some impact on the exploitation of novel ternary electrode materials for supercapacitor applications

  17. Characterization of thin CeO2 films electrochemically deposited on HOPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Preparation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells catalyst using electrochemical thin film deposition. • Electrodeposition thin films of CeO2 on HOPG substrates. • The samples were characterized by in-situ AFM and ex-situ XPS. • XPS results reveal that the electrochemically deposited cerium oxide films are stoichiometric. • Exposing the films to ambient air, cracking structures are formed. - Abstract: Electrodeposition is widely used for industrial applications to deposit thin films, coatings, and adhesion layers. Herein, CeO2 thin films were deposited on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrate by cathodic electrodeposition. The influence of the deposition parameters on the yield and on the film morphology is studied and discussed. Morphology and composition of the electrodeposited films were characterized by in-situ atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). By AFM we show that the thickness of CeO2 films can be controlled via the Ce3+ concentration in solution and the deposition time. After exposing the films to ambient air, cracking structures are formed, which were analyzed by AFM in detail. The chemical composition of the deposits was analyzed by XPS indicating the formation of nearly stoichiometric CeO2

  18. Enhanced spectral emissivity of CeO2 coating with cauliflower-like microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Cauliflower-like microstructured CeO2 coating is prepared on Ni based substrate. ► The infrared emissive property at high temperature is investigated. ► Rough CeO2 coating shows high emissivity, that is, 0.9 at 873 K and 0.87 at 1073 K. ► The emissivity enhancement mechanisms for the rough CeO2 coating are discussed. - Abstract: Cerium dioxide is a transparent oxide with high refractive index (from 1.6 to 2.5 at 633 nm) in the visible and near-IR spectral regions. However, little attention has been paid to its optical property in mid-IR (2.5–25 μm). Here we report that the cauliflower-like microstructured CeO2 coating deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition technique shows high emissivity up to 0.9 at 873 K in the mid-IR spectral region. The high emissivity is attributed to the coupling between free propagating waves and space-variant polarizations caused by the cauliflower-like microstructure. This high emissivity coating shows a potential application in high temperature components.

  19. Long-term aging of a CeO2 based nanocomposite used for wood protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi-scale methodology was used to characterize the long-term behavior and chemical stability of a CeO2-based nanocomposite used as UV filter in wood stains. ATR-FTIR and 13C NMR demonstrated that the citrate coated chelates with Ce(IV) through its central carboxyl- and its α-hydroxyl- groups at the surface of the unaged nanocomposite. After 42 days under artificial daylight, the citrate completely disappeared and small amount of degradation products remained attached to the surface even after 112 days. Moreover, the release/desorption of the citrate layer led to a surface reorganization of the nano-sized CeO2 core observed by XANES (Ce L3-edge). Such a surface and structural transformation of the commercialized nanocomposite could have implications in term of fate, transport, and potential impacts towards the environment. - Highlights: • Organic coating of the nano-composite is degradated after 1.5 month. • Structural reorganization of the nano-sized CeO2 core over aging. • Potential implications in term of exposure and impact towards biological organisms. - The long-term aging of a CeO2 nanocomposite lead to surface chemistry and structural changes in aquatic environments

  20. An Evaluation of the Potential Phototoxicity of CeO2 Nanoparticles in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells in-vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerium dioxide (CeO2) engineered nanoparticles (NP) are used as fuel-borne catalysts in off-road diesel engines, which can lead to exhaust emissions of respirable CeO2 NP. Other metal oxides may act as photo-catalysts which induce the generation of free radicals upon exposure to ...

  1. Daylight photocatalysis performance of biomorphic CeO2 hollow fibers prepared with lens cleaning paper as biotemplate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A novel, simple and eco-friendly approach for hierarchical, biomorphic CeO2 hollow fibers with mesoporous tube walls is presented by using paper as template. ► The biomorphic CeO2 fibers was composed of nanosheets with bimodal pore-size mesoporous distribution and exhibited high light-harvesting under sunlight irradiation. ► The CeO2 microfibers biomimicking the natural plant structures have promising application for photodegradation of organic pollutants in water. -- Abstract: Hierarchical, biomorphic CeO2 hollow fibers with mesoporous tube walls have been fabricated using lens cleaning paper as biotemplates. After sintered at 550 °C in air, the cellulosic fibers of paper were converted into micro-tubes composing of CeO2 crystallites with grain size about 8 nm. The photocatalytic activity of the CeO2 fibers was evaluated by photodegradation efficiency of methylene blue in aqueous solution under daylight irradiation. The characterized results show that the CeO2 fibers faithfully replicated micro-fibrous structure derived from original template and possessed dramatic enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with bulk CeO2. This simple biotemplate method provides a cost-effective and eco-friendly route to obtain high performance photocatalysts.

  2. Graphite oxide-mediated synthesis of porous CeO2 quadrangular prisms and their high-efficiency adsorptive performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Porous CeO2 quadrangular prisms have been prepared via graphite oxide-mediated synthesis. • Dual-pore hierarchical systems are formed with the pore distributions around 4 nm and 30 nm. • Porous CeO2 exhibits a rapid adsorption to Rhodamine B with a removal efficiency of ∼99%. • Porous CeO2 retains the same performances in different pH solutions. - Abstract: We report a graphite oxide-mediated approach for synthesizing porous CeO2 through a facile hydrothermal process followed by thermal annealing in air. The phase structure, morphology, microstructure and porosity of the products have been revealed by a combination of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and N2 adsorption. The as-prepared CeO2 products show well-defined quadrangular prism morphology, and they are composed of interconnected nanoparticles with diameters around 30–100 nm. In particular, the dual-pore hierarchical systems are created in the CeO2 quadrangular prisms with the pore distributions around 4 nm and 30 nm. The dye sorption capacity of the porous CeO2 is investigated, which exhibits a rapid adsorption to rhodamine B with a high removal efficiency of ∼99%. Moreover, the CeO2 absorbent retains the same performances in different pH solutions

  3. Degradation reduction of polymer electrolyte membranes using CeO2 as a free-radical scavenger in catalyst layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CeO2 was added to the electrode to improve the chemical stability of the membrane. • The durability of the MEAs with CeO2 in cathode and anode was compared. • Accelerated durability tests, gas crossover and SEM were conducted. -- Abstract: Ceria nanoparticles were added to the electrodes of proton exchange membrane fuel cells as free-radical scavengers to minimize the degradation of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) components. Accelerated durability tests were performed at low humidity under open circuit voltage (OCV) conditions, and the results were compared with traditional MEAs without CeO2. Gas crossover was monitored during the durability test, and the MEAs were examined by SEM before and after the durability test. The results showed that adding CeO2 as free-radical scavengers to the electrode greatly improves the chemical stability of the membrane. The degradation rate of the MEA with CeO2 in the anode was similar to that of the MEA with CeO2 in the cathode. The fuel cell with CeO2 in the cathode showed better MEA performance that the fuel cell with CeO2 in the anode

  4. Design of the speedup buffer for the single-flux-quantum network switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have designed a speedup buffer (SB) that is indispensable for realizing a high-throughput network switch based on single-flux-quantum (SFQ) technology. The SB performs the rate conversion from 10 to 40 Gbps for the packet data streams fed into the Banyan switch. This approach can reduce the packet-blocking rate, resulting in an increased throughput for the network switch. The SB is composed of a 1:3 stream demultiplexer (SDMUX), three variable-bit-length shift registers (VLSRs) and a 3:1 stream multiplexer, coupled with a controller. We have successfully demonstrated the 1:3 SDMUX and the VLSR. As for the VLSR, we confirmed high-speed operation up to 55 GHz. We have also designed the SB using these components. The SB is a large-scale circuit composed of 11 663 Josephson junctions on a 3.8 x 3.8 mm2 area. So far, partial operations have been demonstrated experimentally

  5. Surface status and reduction behavior of porous ceria (CeO2) via amended EISA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Multi-scale porous CeO2 can be synthesized by EISA method using P123 as the template. • Step-by-step reduction is found through deconvolving the TPR curves. • Calcinations the precursor to at least 600 °C can obtain CeO2 with clean surface. - Abstract: Ceria (CeO2) powder with multi-scale porosity was synthesized by evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) strategy using tri-block copolymer (P123) as the template. The product was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), and N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms. Reducing property and repeatability were tested by temperature programmed H2 reduction (TPR). Oxygen storage capacity (OSC) was calculated according to the Gaussian–Lorentz deconvolving to the TPR curves. The results showed that the product possessed multi-scale porosity, sizes of the pores were in the ranges of ∼40 μm, ∼2 μm and <0.3 μm, respectively. Specific surface area of the porous CeO2 was 32.5 m2/g. Mechanism in the reduction of surface, near surface and inner parts of porous CeO2 were discussed. Carbonate groups remained on the surface when CeO2 were calcined below 600 °C. The initial H2-TPR yielded an OSC of 383 mol O2/g, which was attributed to oxygen release from the surface nanocrystals, (near) surface sites as well as the inner parts. While the repeated tests showed an OSC of 418 mol O2/g, which was associated with the diminished reaction before 620 °C and the enhanced reduction around 782 °C. A schematic was proposed for the preparation of CeO2 with multi-scale porosity in the amended EISA strategy, based on the characterization results, and the strategy may provide a candidate to obtain catalyst with excellent properties

  6. Spray deposited CeO2–TiO2 counter electrode for electrochromic devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Bhosale; S R Kulal; V M Gurame; P S Patil

    2015-04-01

    Optically passive thin films of CeO2–TiO2 mixed oxides with molar ratio of Ce/Ti of 0.05 were deposited by the spray pyrolysis technique (SPT) on a glass and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrates. Precursor solution containing cerium nitrate hexahydrate (Ce(NO3)2·6H2O) and titanium tetraiso-propoxide (Ti(OiPr)4) having different volumetric proportions (0–5 vol% of Ti) in methanol were used. These films were characterized for structural, morphological, molecular, optical, electrochromic and colourimetric analysis. CeO2–TiO2 films deposited at 400° C were found to be polycrystalline with cubic fluorite crystal structure. Transformation from polycrystalline to amorphous phase was observed with increasing TiO2 content. The band centred at 539 cm−1 is assigned to Ce–O stretching vibration and the two medium intensity bands assigned to (Ti–O) and (Ti–O–Ti) stretching modes at 798 and 451 cm−1, which confirms the mixed CeO2 and TiO2 phases. The band gap energy decreases (g) from 3.45 eV for pristine CeO2 to 2.98–3.09 eV for CeO2–TiO2 films. The ion storage capacity (ISC) of CeO2–TiO2 thin film with 3 vol% Ti (Ce–Ti3 sample) was found to be 26 mC cm−2 and electrochemical stability up to 30,000 cycles in 0.5 M LiClO4-PC electrolyte. The optically passive behaviour of CeO2–TiO2 thin film is confirmed by its negligible transmission modulation ( ∼ 2.5%) upon Li+ ion insertion/extraction, irrespective of the extent of Li+ ion intercalation. The optical modulation of sputter deposited electrochromic WO3 thin film was found to be enhanced from 56 to 61% with rapid increase in colouration efficiency (CE) from 42 to 231 cm2 C−1 when CeO2–TiO2 is coupled as a counter electrode with WO3 in an electrochromic device (ECD). On reduction of WO3 thin film with CeO2–TiO2 as counter electrode, the CIELAB 1931 2° colour space coordinates show the transition from colourless to the deep blue state (* = 88.07, * = −2.37, * = 24.59 and * = 40.32, * = −1.16, * = −5.65) with steady decrease in relative lightness. Yxy and *** coordinates signify CeO2–TiO2 films and it also exhibits the application as counter electrode in electrochromic smart windows in which they are able to retain their transparency under charge insertion/extraction.

  7. Crack growth resistance of Al2O3-ZrO2(nano (12 mol% CeO2 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Szutkowska

    2007-05-01

    a single edge notched beam (SENB enabled measurement of the R-curve. In presented work a new load-relaxation method was worked out for determination susceptibility tested ceramics to slow crack growth.

  8. Microstructure and corrosion resistance of Ni-based alloy laser coatings with nanosize CeO2 addition

    OpenAIRE

    Shi Hong Zhang et al

    2008-01-01

    Micron-size Ni-base alloy (NBA) powders were mixed with both 1.5 wt.% (hereinafter %) micron-size CeO2 (m-CeO2) and also 1.5% and 3.0% nano-size CeO2 (n- CeO2) powders. These mixtures were coated on low-carbon steel (Q235) by 2.0 kW CO2 laser cladding. The effects on the microstructures, phases and electrochemical corrosion of the coatings upon the addition of m- and n- CeO2 powders to NBA (m- and n- CeO2 /NBA) have been investigated. The results showed that a smooth coating was prepared unde...

  9. Effect of annealing temperature on oxygen vacancy concentrations of nanocrystalline CeO2 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nanocrystalline CeO2 films were prepared by a facile sol–gel spin coating method. • Oxygen vacancy concentrations can be controlled by annealing temperatures. • The films show perfect thermal stability at various annealing temperatures. • PL, XPS and Raman spectra are obviously affected by oxygen vacancy concentrations. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline CeO2 films with around 250 nm thickness were deposited on Si (0 0 1) substrates by a facile sol–gel process with spin coating method. The films are of cubic fluorite structure, and some lattice distortions exist in the film. The phase stability and small change in lattice parameter at different annealing temperatures indicate the good thermal stability of the nanocrystalline CeO2 films. The average grain-size and surface roughness of the films increase with the increase of annealing temperature. The content of Ce3+ and oxygen vacancy is very high in the nanocrystalline CeO2 films, while, the films still remain cubic phase regardless of its high level non-stoichiometric composition. All the annealed samples show two emission bands, and the defect peak centered at ∼500 nm shows a red-shift. The intensity of the green-emission band increases with the increasing annealing temperature, which might result from the increasing concentration of oxygen vacancies caused by the valence transition from Ce4+ to Ce3+, and it has also been confirmed by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results. This work demonstrates that oxygen vacancy plays an important role on the properties of the nanocrystalline CeO2 film, and it also provides a possible way to control the concentration of oxygen vacancies

  10. Preparation and characterization of α-Fe2O3-CeO2 composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our previous study we attempted to see the effect of cerium doping (Ce/Fe ratio 0.015 to 0.074) on goethite matrix and conversion of doped goethite to hematite. In the present communication, nano-structured α-Fe2O3-CeO2 composite with Fe/Ce weight ratio as 1.1 has been synthesized by calcination of goethite-cerium hydroxide precursor prepared by co-precipitation method. It was observed that co-precipitation of cerium along with iron in hydroxide medium resulted in hindering the formation of crystalline order as the precursor formed showed poorly crystallized goethite and almost no crystallinity in Ce(OH)4. Calcination of the precursor at 400 deg. C showed the formation of hematite together with a broad peak corresponding to cerium oxide whereas at 800 deg. C, two distinct phases of α-Fe2O3 and CeO2 were observed. The Moessbauer spectra showed the presence of a paramagnetic component both for the precursor as well as for the sample calcined at 400 deg. C but on raising the calcination temperature to 800 deg. C, the paramagnetic component disappeared and the spectrum corresponding to pure α-Fe2O3 phase was observed. The microstructure of the product obtained by calcining at 800 deg. C showed rod like structure (30 to 50 nm width and 300 to 500 nm length) of α-Fe2O3 having equi-dimensional CeO2 particles on and around the surface. Besides the rods, equi-dimensional particles and agglomerates corresponding to CeO2 were also observed. The results show that co-precipitation followed by calcinations gives nanorods hematite with CeO2 particles bonded to its surface

  11. A comparison of different lysis buffers to assess allele dropout from single cells for preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, A R; McGrath, J A; Eady, R A; Braude, P R; Handyside, A H

    2001-06-01

    Single cell polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) requires high efficiency and accuracy. Allele dropout (ADO), the random amplification failure of one of the two parental alleles, remains the most significant problem in PCR-based PGD testing since it can result in serious misdiagnosis for compound heterozygous or autosomal dominant conditions. A number of different strategies (including the use of lysis buffers to break down the cell and make the DNA accessible) have been employed to combat ADO with varying degrees of success, yet there is still no consensus among PGD centres over which lysis buffer should be used (ESHRE PGD Consortium, 1999). To address this issue, PCR amplification of three genes (CFTR, LAMA3 and PKP1) at different chromosomal loci was investigated. Single lymphocytes from individuals heterozygous for mutations within each of the three genes were collected and lysed in either alkaline lysis buffer (ALB) or proteinase K/SDS lysis buffer (PK). PCR amplification efficiencies were comparable between alkaline lysis and proteinase K lysis for PCR products spanning each of the three mutated loci (DeltaF508 in CFTR 90% vs 88%; R650X in LAMA3 82% vs 78%; and Y71X in PKP1 91% vs 87%). While there was no appreciable difference between ADO rates between the two lysis buffers for the LAMA3 PCR product (25% vs 26%), there were significant differences in ADO rates between ALB and PK for the CFTR PCR product (0% vs 23%) and the PKP1 PCR product (8% vs 56%). Based on these results, we are currently using ALB in preference to PK/SDS buffer for the lysis of cells in clinical PGD. PMID:11438956

  12. Electrochemical and optical properties of CeO2-SnO2 and CeO2-SnO2:X (X = Li, C, Si films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berton Marcos A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin solid films of CeO2-SnO2 (17 mol% Sn and CeO2-SnO2:X (X = Li, C and Si were prepared by the sol-gel route, using an aqueous-based process. The addition of Li, C and Si to the precursor solution leads to films with different electrochemical performances. The films were deposited by the dip-coating technique on ITO coated glass (Donnelly Glass at a speed of 10 cm/min and submitted to a final thermal treatment at 450 °C during 10 min in air. The electrochemical and optical properties of the films were determined from the cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry measurements using 0.1 M LiOH as supporting electrolyte. The ion storage capacity of the films was investigated using in situ spectroelectrochemical method and during the insertion/extraction process the films remained transparent. The powders were characterized by thermal analysis (DSC/TGA and X-ray diffraction.

  13. The use of buffer pellets to pseudo hot seed (RE)-Ba-Cu-O-(Ag) single grain bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunhua; Namburi, Devendra Kumar; Zhao, Wen; Durrell, John H.; Dennis, Anthony R.; Cardwell, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Reliable seeding of the superconducting (RE)Ba2Cu3O7-δ (RE-123) phase is a critical step in the melt growth of large, single grain, (RE)BaCuO ((RE)BCO) bulk superconductors. Recent improvements to the top seeded melt growth (TSMG) processing technique, which is an established method of fabricating bulk (RE)BCO superconductors, based on the use of a buffer layer between the seed and green body preform, has significantly improved the reliability of the single grain growth process. This technique has been used successfully for the primary TSMG and infiltration melt growth of all compositions within the ((RE)BCO-Ag) family of materials (where RE = Sm, Gd and Y), and in recycling processes. However, the mechanism behind the improved reliability of the melt process is not understood fully and its effect on the superconducting properties of the fully processed single grains is not clear. In this paper, we investigate the effect of the use of a buffer pellet between the seed and green body on the microstructure, critical current, critical temperature and trapped field of the bulk superconductor. We conclude that the introduction of the buffer pellet evolves the melt growth process towards that observed in the technologically challenging hot seeding technique, but has the potential to yield high quality single grain samples but by a commercially viable melt process.

  14. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of CeO2 nanoparticle modified TiO2 nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a cerium dioxide (CeO2) modified titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube array film was fabricated by electrodeposition of CeO2 nanoparticles onto an anodized TiO2 nanotube array. The structural investigation by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy indicated that the CeO2 nanoparticles grew uniformly on the walls of the TiO2 nanotubes. The composite was composed of cubic-phase CeO2 crystallites and anatase-phase TiO2 after annealing at 450 oC. The cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric charge/discharge measurement results indicated that the CeO2 modification obviously increased the charge storage capacity of the TiO2 nanotubes. The charge transfer process at the surface, that is, the pseudocapacitance, was the dominate mechanism of the charge storage in CeO2-modified TiO2 nanotubes. The greater number of surface active sites resulting from uniform application of the CeO2 nanoparticles to the well-aligned TiO2 nanotubes contributed to the enhancement of the charge storage density.

  15. Electrochemical behavior and polishing properties of silicon wafer in alkaline slurry with abrasive CeO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xiao-lan; XU Da-yu; ZHANG Xiao-wei; SHI Xun-da; JIANG Nan; QIU Guan-zhou

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of silicon wafer in alkaline slurry with nano-sized CeO2 abrasive was investigated. The variations of corrosion potential (φcorr) and corrosion current density (Jcorr) of the P-type (100) silicon wafer with the slurry pH value and the concentration of abrasive CeO2 were studied by polarization curve technologies. The dependence of the polishing rate on the pH and the concentration of CeO2 in slurries during chemical mechanical polishing(CMP) were also studied. It is discovered that there is a large change of φcorr and Jcorr when slurry pH is altered and the Jcorr reaches the maximum (1.306 μA/cm2) at pH 10.5 when the material removal rate(MRR) comes to the fastest value. The Jcorr increases gradually from 0.994 μA/cm2 with 1% CeO2 to 1.304 μA/cm2 with 3% CeO2 and reaches a plateau with the further increase of CeO2 concentration. There is a considerable MRR in the slurry with 3% CeO2 at pH 10.5. The coherence between Jcorr and MRR elucidates that the research on the electrochemical behavior of silicon wafers in the alkaline slurry could offer theoretic guidance on silicon polishing rate and ensure to adjust optimal components of slurry.

  16. Kinetics Study of Photocatalytic Activity of Flame-Made Unloaded and Fe-Loaded CeO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Channei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unloaded CeO2 and nominal 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00, 5.00, and 10.00 mol% Fe-loaded CeO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP. The samples were characterized to obtain structure-activity relation by X-ray diffraction (XRD, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET nitrogen adsorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry (UV-vis DRS. XRD results indicated that phase structures of Fe-loaded CeO2 nanoparticles were the mixture of CeO2 and Fe2O3 phases at high iron loading concentrations. HRTEM images showed the significant change in morphology from cubic to almost-spherical shape observed at high iron loading concentration. Increased specific surface area with increasing iron content was also observed. The results from UV-visible reflectance spectra clearly showed the shift of absorption edge towards longer visible region upon loading CeO2 with iron. Photocatalytic studies showed that Fe-loaded CeO2 sample exhibited higher activity than unloaded CeO2, with optimal 2.00 mol% of iron loading concentration being the most active catalyst. Results from XPS analysis suggested that iron in the Fe3+ state might be an active species responsible for enhanced photocatalytic activities observed in this study.

  17. Electrical and structural characterization of PLD grown CeO2–HfO2 laminated high-k gate dielectrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karakaya, K.; Barcones, B.; Rittersma, Z.M.; Berkum, van J.G.M.; Verheijen, M.A.; Rijnders, G.; Blank, D.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    The electrical and physical properties of CeO2–HfO2 nanolaminates deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) are investigated. The properties of the nanolaminates are compared with binary CeO2 and HfO2 thin films. Layers were deposited using CeO2 and HfO2 targets at substrate temperatures between 22

  18. Resistive switching behaviour of highly epitaxial CeO2 thin film for memory application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the remarkable potential of highly epitaxial and pure (001)-oriented CeO2 thin films grown on conducting Nb-doped SrTiO3 (NSTO) substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy for nonvolatile memory application. Resistive switching (RS) devices with the structure of Au/epi-CeO2/NSTO exhibit reversible and steady bipolar RS behaviour with large high/low resistance ratio and a narrow dispersion of the resistance values. Detailed analysis of the conduction mechanisms reveals that the trapping/detrapping processes and oxygen vacancies migration play important roles in the switching behaviour. In the light of XPS measurement results, the CeO2/NSTO interface with oxygen vacancies or defects is responsible for the RS effect. Furthermore, a model is proposed to explain this resistance switching behaviour. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Texture development of CeO2 thin films deposited by ion beam assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CeO2 thin films were prepared on amorphous quartz glass substrates by the ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) technique at room temperature. In order to control both the in-plane and out-of-plane texture of the films, a special geometrical arrangement of the ion sources, the target, and the substrate was used. A new concept, considering the role of reflected particles from the target, which we call self-IBAD, was introduced. The structural properties of the CeO2 films were investigated by x-ray diffraction. Good biaxially textured films were obtained with out-of-plane mosaic spreads of 3.0 deg. and in-plane alignment of 10.8 deg. C

  20. Magnetic properties in nitrogen-doped CeO2 from first-principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic structures and magnetic properties of N-doped CeO2 crystals have been investigated by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory with and without U. The results demonstrate a magnetic moment of 1.00μB per N obtained from all schemes. Predictions based on both LSDA and GGA calculations with and without U capture a half-metallic ground state for the N-doped CeO2 system. Several doped configurations calculations within LSDA demonstrate that there exist robust ferromagnetic couplings between these local magnetic moments, which mainly stem from Hund's rule coupling. The hole-mediated long-range double exchange mechanism is responsible for the predicted ferromagnetism. It turns out that the percolation concentration needed to establish the collective ferromagnetism is at a few percent. However, further test calculations show that a weakly half-metallic ground state is predicted by GGA+U for this system.

  1. Erosion-Corrosion Property of CeO2-Modified HVOF WC-Co Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Hang, Zongqiu; Chen, Hui; Ceng, Shengbo; Gou, Guoqing; Wang, Xiaomin; Tu, Mingjing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2016-04-01

    Rare-earth elements have been widely used in materials manufacturing to improve hardness and toughness. In this work, conventional, nanostructured, and CeO2-modified WC-12Co powders were sprayed using high-velocity oxygen flame spraying. The erosion-corrosion behavior and interaction of erosion and corrosion of the coatings in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution were investigated. In situ observation was employed to analyze the failure mechanism. The results showed that the CeO2-modified WC-12Co coating possessed the best erosion-corrosion resistance, while the lowest corrosion resistance was exhibited by the conventional WC-12Co coating. The results also suggested that the erosion-corrosion mechanism in the three coatings was dominated by corrosion-accelerated erosion. However, the extent of acceleration of erosion by corrosion differed.

  2. Electrodeposition of Ni-La2O3/CeO2 nanocomposite and its catalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni-La2O3/CeO2 nanocomposite film was prepared by electrodeposition method. Nanosized La2O3(20-50 nm) and CeO2 (20-50 nm) particles were dispersed into a conventional watt's nickel electrolyte bath. Electrodeposited film was characterized by SEM, EDS, XRD and AFM. The resulting film was used as a cathode for hydrogen evolution reaction and it shows better catalytic activity. Microhardness, corrosion resistance studies, and catalytic activity towards methanol oxidation were also carried out. The synergism of La2O3 and CeO2 in nickel matrix significantly enhances the catalytic activities. (author)

  3. Microwave sintering of ZrO2-12 mol% CeO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sintering of ZrO2-12 mol% CeO2 was accelerated by microwave processing at 2.45 GHz as compared with conventional firing. However, the size of the ''microwave effect'' was significantly smaller than that which was previously observed for microwave sintering of ZrO2-8 mol% Y2O3. The difference in the effect that the microwave field had on the two zirconia systems is interpreted in terms of their ionic conductivities

  4. Oxygen vacancy-assisted coupling and enolization of acetaldehyde on CeO2(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaza, Florencia C; Xu, Ye; Mullins, David R; Overbury, Steven H

    2012-10-31

    The temperature-dependent adsorption and reaction of acetaldehyde (CH(3)CHO) on a fully oxidized and a highly reduced thin-film CeO(2)(111) surface have been investigated using a combination of reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) and periodic density functional theory (DFT+U) calculations. On the fully oxidized surface, acetaldehyde adsorbs weakly through its carbonyl O interacting with a lattice Ce(4+) cation in the η(1)-O configuration. This state desorbs at 210 K without reaction. On the highly reduced surface, new vibrational signatures appear below 220 K. They are identified by RAIRS and DFT as a dimer state formed from the coupling of the carbonyl O and the acyl C of two acetaldehyde molecules. This dimer state remains up to 400 K before decomposing to produce another distinct set of vibrational signatures, which are identified as the enolate form of acetaldehyde (CH(2)CHO¯). Furthermore, the calculated activation barriers for the coupling of acetaldehyde, the decomposition of the dimer state, and the recombinative desorption of enolate and H as acetaldehyde are in good agreement with previously reported TPD results for acetaldehyde adsorbed on reduced CeO(2)(111) [Chen et al. J. Phys. Chem. C 2011, 115, 3385]. The present findings demonstrate that surface oxygen vacancies alter the reactivity of the CeO(2)(111) surface and play a crucial role in stabilizing and activating acetaldehyde for coupling reactions. PMID:23020248

  5. MnO2/CeO2 for catalytic ultrasonic degradation of methyl orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, He; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Quanling

    2014-05-01

    Catalytic ultrasonic degradation of aqueous methyl orange was studied in this paper. Heterogeneous catalyst MnO2/CeO2 was prepared by impregnation of manganese oxide on cerium oxide. Morphology and specific surface area of MnO2/CeO2 catalyst were characterized and its composition was determined. Results showed big differences between fresh and used catalyst. The removal efficiency of methyl orange by MnO2/CeO2 catalytic ultrasonic process was investigated. Results showed that ultrasonic process could remove 3.5% of methyl orange while catalytic ultrasonic process could remove 85% of methyl orange in 10 min. The effects of free radical scavengers were studied to determine the role of hydroxyl free radical in catalytic ultrasonic process. Results showed that methyl orange degradation efficiency declined after adding free radical scavengers, illustrating that hydroxyl free radical played an important role in degrading methyl orange. Theoretic analysis showed that the resonance size of cavitation bubbles was comparable with the size of catalyst particles. Thus, catalyst particles might act as cavitation nucleus and enhance ultrasonic cavitation effects. Measurement of H2O2 concentration in catalytic ultrasonic process confirmed this hypothesis. Effects of pre-adsorption on catalytic ultrasonic process were examined. Pre-adsorption significantly improved methyl orange removal. The potential explanation was that methyl orange molecules adsorbed on catalysts could enter cavitation bubbles and undergo stronger cavitation. PMID:24369902

  6. Synthesis, Characterization and Properties of CeO2-doped TiO2 Composite Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oman ZUAS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pure TiO2 and CeO2-doped TiO2 (3 % CeO2-97 %TiO2 composite nanocrystals were synthesized via co-precipitation method and characterized using TGA, XRD, FTIR, DR-UV-vis and TEM. The XRD data revealed that the phase structure of the synthesized samples was mainly in pure anatase having crystallite size in the range of 7 nm – 11 nm. Spherical shapes with moderate aggregation of the crystal particles were observed under the TEM observation. The presence of the CeO2 at TiO2 site has not only affected morphologically but also induced the electronic property of the TiO2 by lowering the band gap energy from 3.29 eV (Eg-Ti to 3.15 eV (Eg-CeTi. Performance evaluation of the synthesized samples showed that both samples have a strong adsorption capacity toward Congo red (CR dye in aqueous solution at room temperature experiment, where  the capacity of the CeTi was higher than the Ti sample. Based on DR-UV data, the synthesized samples obtained in this study may also become promising catalysts for photo-assisted removal of synthetic dye in aqueous solution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.4.2732

  7. Ferromagnetism induced by oxygen and cerium vacancies above the percolation limit in CeO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, V.; Schio, P.; de Oliveira, A. J. A.; Ortiz, W. A.; Fichtner, P.; Amaral, L.; Graff, I. L.; Varalda, J.; Mattoso, N.; Schreiner, W. H.; Mosca, D. H.

    2010-06-01

    We studied the structural, chemical and magnetic properties of non-doped ceria (CeO2) thin films electrodeposited on silicon substrates. Experimental results confirm that the observed room temperature ferromagnetism is driven by both cerium and oxygen vacancies. We investigated ceria films presenting vacancy concentrations well above the percolation limit. Irradiation experiments with neon ions were employed to generate highly oxygen defective CeO2 - δ structures. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy were used to estimate the concentration of Ce3 + sites in the films, which can reach up to 50% of Ce3 + replacing Ce4 + , compared to a stoichiometric CeO2 structure. Despite the increment of structural disorder, we observe that the saturation magnetization continuously increases with Ce3 + concentration. Our experiments demonstrate that the ferromagnetism observed in ceria thin films, highly disordered and oxygen-deficient, preserving the fluorite-type structure only in a nanometer scale, remains intrinsically stable at room temperature.

  8. Ferromagnetism induced by oxygen and cerium vacancies above the percolation limit in CeO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the structural, chemical and magnetic properties of non-doped ceria (CeO2) thin films electrodeposited on silicon substrates. Experimental results confirm that the observed room temperature ferromagnetism is driven by both cerium and oxygen vacancies. We investigated ceria films presenting vacancy concentrations well above the percolation limit. Irradiation experiments with neon ions were employed to generate highly oxygen defective CeO2-δ structures. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy were used to estimate the concentration of Ce3+ sites in the films, which can reach up to 50% of Ce3+ replacing Ce4+, compared to a stoichiometric CeO2 structure. Despite the increment of structural disorder, we observe that the saturation magnetization continuously increases with Ce3+ concentration. Our experiments demonstrate that the ferromagnetism observed in ceria thin films, highly disordered and oxygen-deficient, preserving the fluorite-type structure only in a nanometer scale, remains intrinsically stable at room temperature.

  9. Synthesis, Characterization and Properties of CeO2-doped TiO2 Composite Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oman ZUAS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pure TiO2 and CeO2-doped TiO2 (3 % CeO2-97 %TiO2 composite nanocrystals were synthesized via co-precipitation method and characterized using TGA, XRD, FTIR, DR-UV-vis and TEM. The XRD data revealed that the phase structure of the synthesized samples was mainly in pure anatase having crystallite size in the range of 7 nm – 11 nm. Spherical shapes with moderate aggregation of the crystal particles were observed under the TEM observation. The presence of the CeO2 at TiO2 site has not only affected morphologically but also induced the electronic property of the TiO2 by lowering the band gap energy from 3.29 eV (Eg-Ti to 3.15 eV (Eg-CeTi. Performance evaluation of the synthesized samples showed that both samples have a strong adsorption capacity toward Congo red (CR dye in aqueous solution at room temperature experiment, where the capacity of the CeTi was higher than the Ti sample. Based on DR-UV data, the synthesized samples obtained in this study may also become promising catalysts for photo-assisted removal of synthetic dye in aqueous solution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.4.2732

  10. Study on rare earth/alkaline earth oxide-doped CeO2 solid electrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Kai; ZHEN Qiang; Song Xiwen

    2007-01-01

    Five types of rare earth/alkaline earth oxide-doped CeO2 superfine-powders were synthesized by a low-temperature combustion technique. The relevant solid electrolyte materials were also sintered by pressureless sintering at different temperatures. The results of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that the grain size of the powders was approximately 20-30 nm, and rare earth/alkaline earth oxides were completely dissolved into ceria-based solid solution with fluorite structure. The electrical conductivities of the Sm2O3-CeO2 system were measured by the ac impedance technique in air at temperatures ranging from 513-900℃. The results indicated that the ionic conductivities of Sm0.20Ce0.8O1.875 solid electrolyte increase with increasing sintering temperature, and the relationship between the conductivities and measuring temperature obeys the Arrhenius equation. Then the Sm2O3-CeO2 material was further doped with other rare earth/alkaline earth oxide, and the conductivities improve with the effective index.

  11. Thermodynamic modeling of the CeO2–CoO nano-phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The CeO2–CoO nano-phase diagram was modeled thermodynamically. • The surface energies of the solution phases were modeled with Butler’s equation. • The present work agreed with the experimental work on the nanoparticle sintering. -- Abstract: A nano-phase diagram of the CeO2–CoO system was modeled thermodynamically with experimental data available in the literatures. The surface energies of CeO2 and CoO unavailable in the literatures were estimated reasonably on the thermodynamic basis. Butler’s model was used to describe the surface energy and the surface composition of the solution phases and then the nano interaction parameters on the particle radius were assessed through the multiple linear regression method. A consistent set of optimized interaction parameters in the present system was derived for describing the Gibbs energy of liquid, fluorite, and halite solution phases as a function of particle radius. The eutectic temperatures calculated in the present work interpreted well the experimental data for the unusual low sintering temperature of the nanoparticles with the tri-modal particle size distribution. Furthermore, with the aid of the present result, the microstructure evolution in the CGO–CoO system during the nanoparticle sintering was described reasonably. It is concluded that the present modeling will be a good guide for the condition of the liquid phase sintering to obtain the rapid densification of the nanoparticles at lower temperatures

  12. Photocatalytic activity of mixture of ZrO2/SnO2, ZrO2/CeO2 and SnO2/CeO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The formation of tetragonal and monoclinic phases of SnO2, CeO2 and ZrO2 nanoparticles calcined at 550 °C. ► The photocatalytic activity is obtained as SnO2/ZrO2 > CeO2/ZrO2 > SnO2/CeO2 > ZrO2 > SnO2 > CeO2. ► The photocatalytic activity of mixture of ZrO2/SnO2 (4:1) > Zr0.8Sn0.2O2 nanocomposite. ► The complete degradation of 2-nitrophenol at 45 min at presence of ZrO2/SnO2 (4:1) and H2O2. - Abstract: The ZrO2, SnO2 and CeO2 nanoparticles synthesized by sol–gel procedure and calcined at 550 °C. The prepared nanoparticles characterized by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and IR spectrophotometry. The structure of prepared nanoparticles were tetragonal and monoclinic as confirmed from the XRD patterns. The photocatalytic activity of ZrO2, SnO2, CeO2 nanoparticles and the mixture of 1:1 of ZrO2/SnO2, ZrO2/CeO2 and SnO2/CeO2 studied in 2-nitrophenol degradation reaction. The order of photocatalytic activity is ZrO2/SnO2 > ZrO2/CeO2 > SnO2/CeO2 > ZrO2 > SnO2 > CeO2. Among mixtures of ZrO2/SnO2, the mixture with weight ratio of 4:1 showed the highest photocatalytic activity. The results indicated the ZrO2 nanoparticles with the more band-gap energy had an important role in photocatalytic activity. The mixture of ZrO2/SnO2 (4:1) is also indicated the higher photocatalytic activity in comparison to Zr0.8Sn0.2O2 nanocomposite. The complete degradation of 2-nitrophenol was obtained at time 45 min in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (0.1 g/L) and the mixture of ZrO2/SnO2 (4:1).

  13. pH buffering of single rat skeletal muscle fibers in the in vivo environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshinori; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; Poole, David C; Kano, Yutaka

    2016-05-15

    Homeostasis of intracellular pH (pHi) has a crucial role for the maintenance of cellular function. Several membrane transporters such as lactate/H(+) cotransporter (MCT), Na(+)/H(+) exchange transporter (NHE), and Na(+)/HCO3 (-) cotransporter (NBC) are thought to contribute to pHi regulation. However, the relative importance of each of these membrane transporters to the in vivo recovery from the low pHi condition is unknown. Using an in vivo bioimaging model, we pharmacologically inhibited each transporter separately and all transporters together and then evaluated the pHi recovery profiles following imposition of a discrete H(+) challenge loaded into single muscle fibers by microinjection. The intact spinotrapezius muscle of adult male Wistar rats (n = 72) was exteriorized and loaded with the fluorescent probe 2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein-acetoxymethyl ester (10 μM). A single muscle fiber was then loaded with low-pH solution [piperazine-N,N'-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid) buffer, pH 6.5, ∼2.33 × 10(-3) μl] by microinjection over 3 s. The rats were divided into groups for the following treatments: 1) no inhibitor (CONT), 2) MCT inhibition (by α-Cyano-4-hydroxyciannamic acid; 4 mM), 3) NHE inhibition (by ethylisopropyl amiloride; 0.5 mM), 4) NBC inhibition (by DIDS; 1 mM), and 5) MCT, NHE, and NBC inhibition (All blockade). The fluorescence ratio (F500 nm/F445 nm) was determined from images captured during 1 min (60 images/min) and at 5, 10, 15, and 20 min after injection. The pHi at 1-2 s after injection significantly decreased from resting pHi (ΔpHi = -0.73 ± 0.03) in CONT. The recovery response profile was biphasic, with an initial rapid and close-to-exponential pHi increase (time constant, τ: 60.0 ± 7.9 s). This initial rapid profile was not affected by any pharmacological blockade but was significantly delayed by carbonic anhydrase inhibition. In contrast, the secondary, more gradual, return toward baseline that restored CONT pHi to

  14. RESPONSE OF SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS TO CeO2 NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Vittori Antisari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this work was to assess the impact of the chronic exposure of CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs (50 to 105 nm nominal size on soil microbial biomass.To evaluate if the CeO2 NPs can affect the soil quality, they were mixed to an A1 and A2 horizon of Epileptic Cambisols at a concentrations of 100 ppm and incubated in lab for short and medium (7 and 60 days times, at a constant temperature (25°C and moisture (60% WHC.The preliminary results of the soil physicochemical analyses have showed an insolubility of the CeO2 NPs at short-term incubation in water, EDTA and aqua regia. The biological assays detect a storing of Ce-CeO2 in the microbial biomass at short time that decreases in the C amount. An increment of the basal respiration and a decrease in the amount of carbon soil microbial biomass determined a higher metabolic quotient (qCO2 than the control test, that identifies a stressful situation, most evident in the short term condition.Physical-chemical characterization of the CeO2 NPs and of the soil before and after the NPs addition, was carried out by means of Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM and an Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS. The investigations showed Ce-NPs and Ce-compounds in both- incubation-condition samples. The control soil showed the presence of cerium associated with other elements, like P, Nd, La, Th e Si. From literature, it appears that these elements identify Monazite-Ce/Nd minerals, whose chemical formulas are respectively (Ce, La, Nd, Th PO4 and (Nd, Ce, La (P, Si O4. The presence of CeO2 NPs was clearly detected in soil and recognized by ESEM morphological observations coupled with EDS characterization. The NPs chemical composition appears unaltered, while the size can be modified by NPs aggregation and clustering.The results contribute to setting reference baseline values of cerium in soil and indicate an impact on the amount of carbon soil microbial biomass due to a higher metabolic quotient (qCO2 that can condition the soil fertility.

  15. Microstructure and corrosion resistance of Ni-based alloy laser coatings with nanosize CeO2 addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micron-size Ni-base alloy (NBA) powders were mixed with both 1.5 wt.% (hereinafter %) micron-size CeO2 (m-CeO2) and also 1.5% and 3.0% nano-size CeO2 (n- CeO2) powders. These mixtures were coated on low-carbon steel (Q235) by 2.0 kW CO2 laser cladding. The effects on the microstructures, phases and electrochemical corrosion of the coatings upon the addition of m- and n- CeO2 powders to NBA (m- and n- CeO2 /NBA) have been investigated. The results showed that a smooth coating was prepared under suitable processing parameters (P= 2.0 kW, V= 180 mm min-1) by adding 1.5% n- CeO2. In addition to the primary phases of γ-Ni, Cr23 C6 and Ni3 B in the Ni-base alloy coating, CeNi3 was formed in Ni-base alloy coatings with both n- CeO2 and m-CeO2 particles, and CeNi5 appeared in the coating upon decreasing the size of CeO2 particles. Well-developed dendrites were observed in the Ni-base alloy coating; directional dendrites grew at the interface in the coating upon the addition of m-CeO2, whereas fine and multioriented dendrites grew upon decreasing the size of CeO2 particles to the nanoscale. Actinomorphic dendrites and compact equiaxed dendrites grew from the interface to near the surface upon increasing the content of n- CeO2 from 1.5 to 3.0%. In strongly acidic HNO3 solution, the severe corrosion of dendrites occurred and there were many corrosion pits in the Ni-base alloy coating; intercrystalline corrosion also has a dominant role upon the addition of m-CeO2, whereas uniform corrosion occurs in the coating as the size of CeO2 particles is decreased to nanoscale

  16. Microstructure and corrosion resistance of Ni-based alloy laser coatings with nanosize CeO2 addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Hong Zhang et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Micron-size Ni-base alloy (NBA powders were mixed with both 1.5 wt.% (hereinafter % micron-size CeO2 (m-CeO2 and also 1.5% and 3.0% nano-size CeO2 (n- CeO2 powders. These mixtures were coated on low-carbon steel (Q235 by 2.0 kW CO2 laser cladding. The effects on the microstructures, phases and electrochemical corrosion of the coatings upon the addition of m- and n- CeO2 powders to NBA (m- and n- CeO2 /NBA have been investigated. The results showed that a smooth coating was prepared under suitable processing parameters (P= 2.0 kW, V= 180 mm min- 1 by adding 1.5% n- CeO2. In addition to the primary phases of γ-Ni, Cr23 C6 and Ni3 B in the Ni-base alloy coating, CeNi3 was formed in Ni-base alloy coatings with both n- CeO2 and m-CeO2 particles, and CeNi5 appeared in the coating upon decreasing the size of CeO2 particles. Well-developed dendrites were observed in the Ni-base alloy coating; directional dendrites grew at the interface in the coating upon the addition of m-CeO2, whereas fine and multioriented dendrites grew upon decreasing the size of CeO2 particles to the nanoscale. Actinomorphic dendrites and compact equiaxed dendrites grew from the interface to near the surface upon increasing the content of n- CeO2 from 1.5 to 3.0%. In strongly acidic HNO3 solution, the severe corrosion of dendrites occurred and there were many corrosion pits in the Ni-base alloy coating; intercrystalline corrosion also has a dominant role upon the addition of m-CeO2, whereas uniform corrosion occurs in the coating as the size of CeO2 particles is decreased to nanoscale.

  17. Integration of atomic layer deposition CeO2 thin films with functional complex oxides and 3D patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a low-temperature, < 300 °C, ex-situ integration of atomic layer deposition (ALD) ultrathin CeO2 layers (3 to 5 unit cells) with chemical solution deposited La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) functional complex oxides for multilayer growth without jeopardizing the morphology, microstructure and physical properties of the functional oxide layer. We have also extended this procedure to pulsed laser deposited YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) thin films. Scanning force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and macroscopic magnetic measurements were used to evaluate the quality of the perovskite films before and after the ALD process. By means of microcontact printing and ALD we have prepared CeO2 patterns using an ozone-robust photoresist that will avoid the use of hazardous lithography processes directly on the device components. These bilayers, CeO2/LSMO and CeO2/YBCO, are foreseen to have special interest for resistive switching phenomena in resistive random-access memory. - Highlights: • Integration of atomic layer deposition (ALD) CeO2 layers on functional complex oxides • Resistive switching is identified in CeO2/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 and CeO2/YBa2Cu3O7 bilayers. • Study of the robustness of organic polymers for area-selective ALD • Combination of ALD and micro-contact printing to obtain 3D patterns of CeO2

  18. Using single buffers and data reorganization to implement a multi-megasample fast Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    Data ordering in large fast Fourier transforms (FFT's) is both conceptually and implementationally difficult. Discribed here is a method of visualizing data orderings as vectors of address bits, which enables the engineer to use more efficient data orderings and reduce double-buffer memory designs. Also detailed are the difficulties and algorithmic solutions involved in FFT lengths up to 4 megasamples (Msamples) and sample rates up to 80 MHz.

  19. Microstructure and thermal cycling behavior of CeO2 coatings deposited by the electron beam physical vapor technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excellent thermal shock resistance is required for thermal protection coatings experiencing high/low temperature cycles. In this paper, the pure ceria oxide coatings were deposited by electron beam physical vapor technique at different power densities. The grain orientation, morphology, hardness and thermal cycling oxidation behavior of CeO2 coatings were systematically studied. The deposition power density has remarkable influence on the preferred crystal orientation and morphology of the coatings. The heating–cooling test cycles from 1000 °C to room temperature indicate that the CeO2 coatings with the columnar structure show excellent thermal shock resistance. The hardness of the CeO2 coating varies with thermal cycling. - Highlights: • Electron-beam physical vapor deposited CeO2 coatings show preferred orientation. • Surface morphology of CeO2 coatings is deeply influenced by the deposition power. • CeO2 coatings with columnar structure exhibit excellent thermal shock resistance. • The hardness increases initially and then decreases during thermal cycling

  20. CTAB assisted hydrothermal synthesis, controlled conversion and CO oxidation properties of CeO2 nanoplates, nanotubes, and nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, CeO2 nanoplates were synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction assisted by hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at 100-160 deg. C. The size of nanoplates was around 40 nm. Further experiment showed that the controlled conversion of nanoplates into nanotubes, and nanorods can be realized by changing the reaction time, temperature, and CTAB/Ce3+ ratio value. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements were employed to characterize the samples. The CO oxidation properties of nanorods, nanoplates, and nanotubes were investigated. An enhanced catalytic activity has been found for CO oxidation by using CeO2 nanoplates as compared with CeO2 nanotubes and nanorods, and the crystal surfaces (100) of CeO2 nanoplates were considered to play an important role in determining their catalytic oxidation properties. - Graphical abstract: CeO2 nanoplates were synthesized by hydrothermal reactions assisted by CTAB, and the controlled conversion of nanoplates into nanotubes, and nanorods were realized by changing the CTAB/Ce3+ ratio value, reaction time, and temperature. An excellent catalytic activity is found for CO oxidation using CeO2 nanoplates due to their exposed surface (100)

  1. Synthesis of mesoporous Bi2O3/CeO2 microsphere for photocatalytic degradation of Orange II dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Bi2O3/CeO2 microspheres were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal procedure. • Bi2O3/CeO2 microspheres were used to remove wastewater pollutant containing azo dye. • The activity of Bi2O3/CeO2 is synergically enhanced compared to its pristine forms. - Abstract: We report on the visible-light responsive porous assembly of Bi2O3/CeO2 microspheres, which were synthesized via a simple hydrothermal reaction between Bi(NO3)3·5H2O and Ce(NO3)3·6H2O in the presence of ethylene glycol and ethanol. Systematic structural (X-ray diffraction (XRD)), morphological (field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM)), BET surface area and diffuse reflectance spectral (DRS) analyses were carried out to characterize the formed product. The effects of experimental parameters on the microstructural and morphological behavior of Bi2O3/CeO2 composites were discussed. The semiconductor material as obtained was evaluated as a heterogeneous photocatalyst for the photolytic degradation of an azo dye in water and the degradation was found to follow pseudo-first-order rate kinetics. The study compares the rate constants of the new hybrid catalyst to a pristine Bi2O3 and CeO2, which has excellent catalytic properties under visible light irradiation for the degradation of Orange II dye

  2. Solid state sintering of lime in presence of La2O3 and CeO2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T K Bhattacharya; A Ghosh; H S Tripathi; S K Das

    2003-12-01

    The sintering of lime by double calcination process from natural limestone has been conducted with La2O3 and CeO2 additive up to 4 wt.% in the temperature range 1500–1650°C. The results show that the additives enhanced the densification and hydration resistance of sintered lime. Densification is achieved up to 98.5% of the theoretical value with La2O3 and CeO2 addition in lime. Grain growth is substantial when additives are incorporated in lime. The grain size of sintered CaO (1600°C) with 4 wt.% La2O3 addition is 82 m and that for CeO2 addition is 50 m. The grains of sintered CaO in presence of additive are angular with pores distributed throughout the matrix. EDX analysis shows that the solid solubility of La2O3 and CeO2 in CaO grain is 2.9 and 1.7 weight %, respectively. The cell dimension of CaO lattice is 4.803 Å. This value decreases with incorporation of La2O3 and CeO2. The better hydration resistance of La2O3 added sintered lime compared to that of CeO2 added one, is related to the bigger grain size of the lime in former case.

  3. O/W/O double emulsion-assisted synthesis and catalytic properties of CeO 2 hollow microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, DongEn; Xie, Qing; Wang, MingYan; Zhang, XiaoBo; Li, ShanZhong; Han, GuiQuan; Ying, AiLing; Chen, AiMei; Gong, JunYan; Tong, ZhiWei

    2010-09-01

    CeO 2 hollow microspheres have been fabricated through a simple thermal decomposition of precursor approach. The precursor with an average size of 10 μm was prepared in a reverse microemulsions containing Ce(NO 3) 3·6H 2O and CO(NH 2) 2 at 160 °C. The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The possible formation mechanism of hollow spheres was discussed. In addition, the CeO 2 hollow microspheres modified glassy carbon electrode exhibit excellent sensing performance towards methyl orange, which provide a new application of CeO 2 hollow spheres. The catalytic activity of CeO 2 hollow spheres on the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) also was investigated by TGA. The catalytic performance of CeO 2 hollow spheres is superior to that of commercial CeO 2 powder.

  4. Simultaneous removal of elemental mercury and NO from flue gas by V2O5-CeO2/TiO2 catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xunan; Li, Caiting; Zhao, Lingkui; Zhang, Jie; Zeng, Guangming; Xie, Yin'e.; Yu, Ming'e.

    2015-08-01

    A series of Ce-doped V2O5/TiO2 catalysts synthesized by an ultrasound assisted impregnation method were employed to investigate simultaneous removal of elemental mercury (Hg0) and NO in lab-scale experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffractogram (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses were used to characterize the samples. Compared to TiO2 support, the catalytic performance of CeO2 doped on both TiO2 and V2O5/TiO2 catalysts have been improved. Remarkably, 1%V2O5-10% CeO2/TiO2 (V1Ce10Ti) exhibited the highest Hg0 oxidation efficiency of 81.55% at 250 °C with a desired NO removal efficiency under the same condition. Both the NO conversion and Hg0 oxidation efficiency were enhanced in the presence of O2. The activity was inhibited by the injection of NH3 with the increase of NH3/NO. When in the presence of 400 ppm SO2, Hg0 oxidation was slightly affected. Furthermore, Hg0 removal behavior under both oxidation and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) condition over V1Ce10Ti were well investigated to further probe into the feasibility of one single unit for multi-pollutants control in industry application. The existence of the redox cycle of V4+ + Ce4+ ↔ V5+ + Ce3+ in V2O5-CeO2/TiO2 catalyst could not only greatly improve the NO conversion, but also promote the oxidation of Hg0.

  5. Low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of NO on CeO2-CuO/Al2O3 catalysts prepared by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui-Tang; Zhen, Wen-Long; Pan, Wei-Guo; Hong, Jie-Nan; Jin, Qiang; Ding, Cheng-Gang; Guo, Shi-Yi

    2014-08-01

    CeO2-CuO/Al2O3 catalysts were prepared by three different methods and their activities for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3 were investigated. As can be seen from the experimental results, the catalyst prepared by the single-step sol-gel (SG) method showed the best SCR activity and resistance to SO2 and H2O. In order to investigate the relationship between the preparation method and the performance of SCR catalysts, the catalysts were characterized by using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, X-ray diffraction, temperature programmed reduction with hydrogen, temperature programmed desorption with ammonia, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared and thermo-gravimetric analysis techniques. It was found that the excellent performance of CeO2-CuO/Al2O3 catalyst prepared by the single-step SG method should be resulted from its large surface area, low crystallinity, high oxygen storage capacity, high NH3 adsorption capacity, high concentration of surface chemisorbed oxygen, weak sulphation process and weak water absorption. PMID:24956769

  6. Potential rare-earth modified CeO2 catalysts for soot oxidation. Part 2. Characterisation and catalytic activity with NO + O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceria (CeO2) and rare-earth modified ceria (CeReOx with Re = La3+, Pr3+/4+, Sm3+, Y3+) supports and Pt impregnated supports are studied for the soot oxidation under a loose contact with the catalyst with the feed gas, containing NO + O2. The catalysts are characterised by XRD, H2-TPR, DRIFT and Raman spectroscopy. Among the single component oxides, CeO2 is significantly more active compared with the other lanthanide oxides used in this study. Doping CeO2 with Pr3+/4+ and La3+ improved, however, the soot oxidation activity of the resulting solid solutions. This improvement is correlated with the surface area in the case of CeLaOx and to the surface area and redox properties of CePrOx catalyst. The NO conversion to NO2 over these catalysts is responsible for the soot oxidation activity. If the activity per unit surface area is compared CePrOx is the most active one. This indicates that though La3+ can stabilise the surface area of the catalyst in fact it decreases the soot oxidation activity of Ce4+. The lattice oxygen participates in NO conversion to NO2 and the rate of this lattice oxygen transfer is much faster on CePrOx. In general, the improvement of the soot oxidation is observed over the Pt impregnated CeO2 and CeReOx catalysts, and can be correlated to the presence of Pt . The surface reduction of the supports in the presence of Pt occurred below 100 C. The surface redox properties of the support in the Pt catalysts do not have a significant role in the NO to NO2 conversion. In spite of the lower surface area, the Pt/CeYOx and Pt/CeO2 catalysts are found to be more active due to larger Pt crystal sizes. The presence of Pt also improved the CO conversion to CO2 over these catalysts. The activation energy for the soot oxidation with NO + O2 is found to be around 50 kJ/mol. (author)

  7. Structure, bonding, and catalytic activity of monodisperse, transition-metal-substituted CeO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Joseph S; Risch, Marcel; Giordano, Livia; Mansour, Azzam N; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2014-12-10

    We present a simple and generalizable synthetic route toward phase-pure, monodisperse transition-metal-substituted ceria nanoparticles (M0.1Ce0.9O2-x, M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu). The solution-based pyrolysis of a series of heterobimetallic Schiff base complexes ensures a rigorous control of the size, morphology and composition of 3 nm M0.1Ce0.9O2-x crystallites for CO oxidation catalysis and other applications. X-ray absorption spectroscopy confirms the dispersion of aliovalent (M(3+) and M(2+)) transition metal ions into the ceria matrix without the formation of any bulk transition metal oxide phases, while steady-state CO oxidation catalysis reveals an order of magnitude increase in catalytic activity with copper substitution. Density functional calculations of model slabs of these compounds confirm the stabilization of M(3+) and M(2+) in the lattice of CeO2. These results highlight the role of the host CeO2 lattice in stabilizing high oxidation states of aliovalent transition metal dopants that ordinarily would be intractable, such as Cu(3+), as well as demonstrating a rational approach to catalyst design. The current work demonstrates, for the first time, a generalizable approach for the preparation of transition-metal-substituted CeO2 for a broad range of transition metals with unparalleled synthetic control and illustrates that Cu(3+) is implicated in the mechanism for CO oxidation on CuO-CeO2 catalysts. PMID:25406101

  8. Development of La3+ Doped CeO2 Thick Film Humidity Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Chunjie Wang; Aihua Zhang; Hamid Reza Karimi

    2014-01-01

    The humidity sensitive characteristics of the sensor fabricated from 10 mol% La2O3 doped CeO2 nanopowders with particle size 17.26 nm synthesized via hydrothermal method were investigated at different frequencies. It was found that the sensor shows high humidity sensitivity, rapid response-recovery characteristics, and narrow hysteresis loop at 100 Hz in the relative humidity range from 11% to 95%. The impedance of the sensor decreases by about five orders of magnitude as relative humidity in...

  9. Interface-engineered resistive switching: CeO(2) nanocubes as high-performance memory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Adnan; Chu, Dewei; Mihail, Ionsecu; Li, Sean

    2013-10-01

    We reported a novel and facile approach to fabricate self-assembled CeO2 nanocube-based resistive-switching memory device. The device was found to exhibit excellent bipolar resistive-switching characteristics with a high resistance state (HRS/OFF) to low resistance state (LRS/ON) ratio of 10(4), better uniformity, and stability up to 480 K. The presence of oxygen vacancies and their role was discussed to explain the resistive-switching phenomenon in the fabricated devices. Further, the effect of the film thickness on carrier concentrations and estimated electric field strength with the switching (OFF/ON) ratio were also discussed. PMID:24028707

  10. Defect and transport properties of nanocrystalline CeO2-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that unique defect thermodynamics and transport properties result for oxides of a few nanometers crystallite size. Fully-dense CeO2-x polycrystals of ∼10 nm grain size were synthesized, and their electrical properties compared with those of samples coarsened from the same material. The nanocrystals showed reduced grain boundary resistance, 104 higher electronic conductivity, and less than one-half the heat of reduction of its coarse-grained counterpart. These properties are attributed to a dominant role of interfacial defect formation. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  11. Theory of multiplet structure in 4d core photoabsorption spectra of CeO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed analysis of 4d core x-ray photoabsorption spectra (4d-XAS) in CeO2 is made with the impurity Anderson model by incorporating the solid-state effect of hybridization between 4f and valence-band states into the atomic calculation of multiplet structures. The hybridization effect plays an essential role in the multiplet structure observed in the prethreshold region of 4d-XAS. The effect of the finite width of the valence band, as well as that of the core-hole potential, is discussed. The multiplet structures in α- and γ-Ce are also calculated for the sake of comparison

  12. OILY WASTEWATER TREATMENT FOR CATALYTIC OXIDATION WITH K-MNO2/CeO2

    OpenAIRE

    JERÔNIMO, Carlos Enrique de Medeiros; FERNANDES, Hermano Gomes; SOUSA, João Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    The search for alternatives for the treatment of industrial effluents, especially high toxicity is one of the main difficulties of the industrial treatment systems. This work aims to use potassium as a promoter of electrons for the oxidation to the catalyst by impregnating it MnO2/CeO2 to degrade the effluent coming from the processing of cashew nuts in the presence of oxygen. The experiments were performed in a slurry bed reactor. In the experiments were kept constant initial concentratio...

  13. Photoluminescent properties of Eu3+ doped electrospun CeO2 nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Dong; Zhang, Min; Luo, Zhiping; Cao, Tingting; Wang, Qing; Zhou, Zhi; Jiang, Ming; Xiong, Chuanxi

    2014-12-01

    In this study, CeO2 nanofibers and that doped with Eu3+ were prepared via a facile electrospinning route and annealed at different temperatures ranging from 500 to 900 °C. Their structures were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Photoluminescence properties of the nanofibers were studied in detail. It was found that the nanofibers with Eu% concentration of 0.67 mol.% and annealed at 700 °C exhibited the highest intensities of the luminescence peaks between 550 and 650 nm.

  14. Study of Crystal Defect Behaviors in CeO2-Based Electrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Zhifang; Liang Guangchuan; Liang Jinsheng

    2004-01-01

    The defect behaviors, such as fundamental point defect, defect pair formation and oxygen vacancy migration in ceria, were studied on the basis of energy minimization calculations. The result shows that anion Frenkel disorder is the preferred intrinsic disorder, and it is easier to be dissolved in CeO2 for CaO and SrO than for MgO and BaO via an oxygen vacancy compensation mechanism. The association energy of an oxygen vacancy with a substitutional cation depends on dopant cation radius. The favorable migration route for oxygen vacancy with the lowest migration energy is from the second neighbor site to another one.

  15. Thermodynamic modeling of the CeO2-CoO phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermodynamic modeling of the CeO2-CoO phase diagram was performed with recent experimental data. The excess Gibbs energies of the solution phases were described on the basis of the simple regular solution. A consistent set of optimized interaction parameters was derived for describing the Gibbs energy of each phase in this system leading to a good fit between calculation and experimental data. The liquidus, solidus, and solvus curves were calculated and also the lattice stabilities of the components were evaluated

  16. Structural characterization and photocatalytic behaviors of doped CeO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceria nanoparticles doped by different transition metals were prepared by the reverse coprecipitation method via the reaction of Ce(NO3)3 aqueous solution, where different metal cation was dissolved, to NH3.H2O aqueous solution. The doped ceria nanoparticles were sythesized and characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. It was found that the doped ceria nanoparticles with transition metals could apparently shift the ultraviolet and visible absorption band of CeO2 towards a visible range and significantly improve their optical activity.

  17. Sorption of Cd(II) on CeO2 Resin and Its Solvent-Elution Pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capability of CeO2 resin as chemical separator component and its immobilization potential to cadmium can be exploited for utilization of the resin in the separation of Cd-In matrices. The separation of Cd-In matrices is important for improving and mastering production technology of 111/115m In using high-enriched 112/114 Cd targets. The phenomena on the sorption of Cd(11) on CeO2 resin and its solvent elution pattern were studied using CeO2 synthesized from reaction between Ce(SO4)2 and NH4OH. A series of Cd(11) standard solution was treated with the activated resin in the both static and dynamic systems. The Cd(11) content of the solution after the treatment was the determined by UV-spectrophotometry for measuring Cd (11)-sorption capacity. The solvent elution pattern was observed by fractional elution from CeO2 column followed by UV-spectrophotometric determination to the fractions giving positive test for Cd(11). It was found that the treatment of the resin with 10% NH4OH solution increases the Cd(11)-sorption capacity of the resin compared to the treatment with water or 1M HCI solution. A sharp elution patter with quantitative yield of Cd(11) recovery (more than 94%) was found by elution using 5, 10 or 20% NH4OH solution. Key words : CeO2 resin, hydrous cerium oxide, radioisotope 111/115m In, separation of Cd-In matrices, sorption of Cd(11) on CeO2 resin , elution profile of Cd(11) on CeO2 resin, Cd(11) measurement by means of UV spectrophotometry

  18. Sub-solidus phase equilibria in the CeO2-ThO2-ZrO2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase relations in the CeO2-ThO2-ZrO2 system have been established after slowly cooling the samples from 1400 deg. C. Ceria has been used as a surrogate material in place of plutonia. The various phase boundaries were delineated by refining the powder XRD data. Thoria and ceria were shown to form an ideal solid solution in the complete homogeneity range. About 5 and 20 mol.% of zirconia can be dissolved, under the heating conditions used in the present investigations, in the lattice of thoria and ceria, respectively. In the ZrO2-Th0.5Ce0.5O2 system, 10 mol.% zirconia was found to get incorporated in the lattice of Th0.5Ce0.5O2. The (Th0.5Zr0.5)1-xCexO2 system shows the formation of single-phase solid solutions from x≥0.70. Thorium rich compositions in (Ce0.5Zr0.5)1-xThxO2 system were also found to be cubic solid solution. In addition, a number of other phases like t-ZrO2, various two-phase and multi-phase regions could also be identified in this pseudo-ternary system

  19. Aqueous Chemical Solution Deposition of Novel, Thick and Dense Lattice-Matched Single Buffer Layers Suitable for YBCO Coated Conductors: Preparation and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel van Driessche

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the preparation and characterization of cerium doped lanthanum zirconate (LCZO films and non-stoichiometric lanthanum zirconate (LZO buffer layers on metallic Ni-5% W substrates using chemical solution deposition (CSD, starting from aqueous precursor solutions. La2Zr2O7 films doped with varying percentages of Ce at constant La concentration (La0.5CexZr1−xOy were prepared as well as non-stoichiometric La0.5+xZr0.5−xOy buffer layers with different percentages of La and Zr ratios. The variation in the composition of these thin films enables the creation of novel buffer layers with tailored lattice parameters. This leads to different lattice mismatches with the YBa2Cu3O7−x (YBCO superconducting layer on top and with the buffer layers or substrate underneath. This possibility of minimized lattice mismatch should allow the use of one single buffer layer instead of the current complicated buffer architectures such as Ni-(5% W/LZO/LZO/CeO2. Here, single, crack-free LCZO and non-stoichiometric LZO layers with thicknesses of up to 140 nm could be obtained in one single CSD step. The crystallinity and microstructure of these layers were studied by XRD, and SEM and the effective buffer layer action was studied using XPS depth profiling.

  20. Portable Enzyme-Paper Biosensors Based on Redox-Active CeO2 Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, A; Othman, A; Andreescu, S

    2016-01-01

    Portable, nanoparticle (NP)-enhanced enzyme sensors have emerged as powerful devices for qualitative and quantitative analysis of a variety of analytes for biomedicine, environmental applications, and pharmaceutical fields. This chapter describes a method for the fabrication of a portable, paper-based, inexpensive, robust enzyme biosensor for the detection of substrates of oxidase enzymes. The method utilizes redox-active NPs of cerium oxide (CeO2) as a sensing platform which produces color in response to H2O2 generated by the action of oxidase enzymes on their corresponding substrates. This avoids the use of peroxidases which are routinely used in conjunction with glucose oxidase. The CeO2 particles serve dual roles, as high surface area supports to anchor high loadings of the enzyme as well as a color generation reagent, and the particles are recycled multiple times for the reuse of the biosensor. These sensors are small, light, disposable, inexpensive, and they can be mass produced by standard, low-cost printing methods. All reagents needed for the analysis are embedded within the paper matrix, and sensors stored over extended periods of time without performance loss. This novel sensor is a general platform for the in-field detection of analytes that are substrates for oxidase enzymes in clinical, food, and environmental samples. PMID:27112400

  1. Clustering of Oxygen Vacancies at CeO2(111): Critical Role of Hydroxyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin-Ping; Gong, Xue-Qing

    2016-02-26

    By performing density functional theory calculations corrected by an on site Coulomb interaction, we find that the defects at the CeO_{2}(111) surface observed by the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements of Esch et al. [Science 309, 752 (2005)] are not mere oxygen vacancies or fluorine impurities as suggested by Kullgren et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 156102 (2014)], but actually the hydroxyl-vacancy combined species. Specifically, we show that hydroxyls play a critical role in the formation and propagation of oxygen vacancy clusters (VCs). In the presence of neighboring hydroxyls, the thermodynamically unstable VCs can be significantly stabilized, and the behaviors of oxygen vacancies become largely consistent with the STM observations. In addition to the clarification of the long term controversy on the surface defect structures of CeO_{2}(111), the "hydroxyl-vacancy model" proposed in this work emphasizes the coexistence of hydroxyls and oxygen vacancies, especially VCs, which is important for understanding the catalytic and other physicochemical properties of reducible metal oxides. PMID:26967428

  2. Combustion synthesis of nanocrystalline ceria (CeO2) powders by a dry route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, ceria (CeO2) powders were synthesized with 50 g per batch via a combustion technique using two kinds of starting materials-urea [(NH2)2CO] (as a fuel) and ceric ammonium nitrate [Ce(NH4)2(NO3)6] (acting as both the source of cerium ion and an oxidizer). The starting materials were mixed thoroughly without adding water, and then ignited in the air at room temperature. It underwent a self-combustion process with a large amount of smoke, a voluminous loose product. The as-synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), CHN elemental analyzer, surface area measurements, and sinterability. Experimental results revealed that the nanocrystalline CeO2 powders with low impurity content (2/g and ∼25 nm, respectively, through the stoichiometric fuel/oxidizer ratio reaction. The powder, when cold pressed and sintered in the air at 1250 deg. C for 1 h, was measured to attain the sintered density ∼92% of theoretical density having submicron grain size. In addition, the thermal decomposition and combustion process of the reactant mixture were investigated using thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and mass spectrometry (MS) techniques simultaneously. Based on the results of thermal analysis, a possible mechanism concerning the combustion reaction is proposed

  3. Synthesis of morphology-controllable mesoporous Co3O4 and CeO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, extensive works have been devoted to the morphology control of mesoporous materials with respect to their use in various applications. In this paper, we used two kinds of mesoporous silica, SBA-15 rods and spheres as hard templates to synthesize morphology-controllable mesoporous metal oxides. By carefully controlling the loading of metal precursors in the mesopores of the hard template, mesoporous Co3O4 and CeO2 with different morphologies, such as micrometer-sized rod, hollow sphere, saucer-like sphere, and solid sphere were conveniently obtained. The structural properties of these materials were characterized by XRD, BET, SEM and TEM. In addition, it is found that the differences observed in the textural properties of the two mesoporous metal oxides nanocasted from the same template can be attributed to the properties of metal precursors and the interaction between metal oxide and SiO2. Thus-obtained mesoporous metal oxides with such special morphologies may have a potential application in the field of environmental catalytic oxidation. - Graphical Abstract: Mesoporous Co3O4 and CeO2 with different morphologies, such as micrometer-sized rod, hollow sphere, saucer-like sphere, and solid sphere were synthesized by nanocasting.

  4. Surface potentials of (111), (110) and (100) oriented CeO2-x thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenga, Hans F.; Klein, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    Differently oriented CeO2 thin films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputter deposition from a nominally undoped CeO2 target. (111), (110) and (100) oriented films were achieved by deposition onto Al2O3(0001)/Pt(111), MgO(110)/Pt(110) and SrTiO3:Nb(100) substrates, respectively. Epitaxial growth is verified using X-ray diffraction analysis. The films were analyzed by in situ photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the ionization potential, work function, Fermi level position and Ce3+ concentration at the surface in dependence of crystal orientation, deposition conditions and post-deposition treatment in reducing and oxidizing atmosphere. We observed a very high variation of the work function and ionization potential of more than 2 eV for all surface orientations, while the Fermi level varies by only 0.3 eV within the energy gap. The work function generally decreases with increasing Ce3+ surface concentration but comparatively high Ce3+ concentrations remain even after strongly oxidizing treatments. This is related to the presence of subsurface oxygen vacancies.

  5. Simulation and experimental study of rheological properties of CeO2-water nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loya, Adil; Stair, Jacqueline L.; Ren, Guogang

    2015-10-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles offer great merits over controlling rheological, thermal, chemical and physical properties of solutions. The effectiveness of a nanoparticle to modify the properties of a fluid depends on its diffusive properties with respect to the fluid. In this study, rheological properties of aqueous fluids (i.e. water) were enhanced with the addition of CeO2 nanoparticles. This study was characterized by the outcomes of simulation and experimental results of nanofluids. The movement of nanoparticles in the fluidic media was simulated by a large-scale molecular thermal dynamic program (i.e. LAMMPS). The COMPASS force field was employed with smoothed particle hydrodynamic potential (SPH) and discrete particle dynamics potential (DPD). However, this study develops the understanding of how the rheological properties are affected due to the addition of nanoparticles in a fluid and the way DPD and SPH can be used for accurately estimating the rheological properties with Brownian effect. The rheological results of the simulation were confirmed by the convergence of the stress autocorrelation function, whereas experimental properties were measured using a rheometer. These rheological values of simulation were obtained and agreed within 5 % of the experimental values; they were identified and treated with a number of iterations and experimental tests. The results of the experiment and simulation show that 10 % CeO2 nanoparticles dispersion in water has a viscosity of 2.0-3.3 mPas.

  6. Electrical and microstructural properties of Yb-doped CeO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Matović

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanopowdered Ce1−xYbxO2−δ solid solutions (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2 were synthesized by a self-propagating room temperature synthesis. XRD and SEM were used to study the properties of these materials as well as the Yb solubility in CeO2 lattice. Results showed that all the obtained powders were solid solutions with a fluorite-type crystal structure and with nanometric particle size. The average size of Ce1−xYbxO2−δ particles was approximately 3 nm. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for the sintered pellets depicted that it was possible to separate Rbulk and Rgb in the temperature interval of 550–800 °C. The activation energy for the bulk conduction was 1.03 eV and for grain boundary conduction was 1.14 eV. Grain boundary resistivity dominates over the other resistivities. These measurements confirmed that Yb3+-doped CeO2 material had a potential as electrolyte for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell applications.

  7. Effects of CeO2 Support Facets on VOx/CeO2 Catalysts in Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yan; Wei, Zhehao; Gao, Feng; Kovarik, Libor; Peden, Charles HF; Wang, Yong

    2014-05-13

    CeO2 supports with dominating facets, i.e., low index (100), (110) and (111) facets, are prepared. The facet effects on the structure and catalytic performance of supported vanadium oxide catalysts are investigated using oxidative dehydrogenation of methanol as a model reaction. In the presence of mixed facets, Infrared and Raman characterizations demonstrate that surface vanadia species preferentially deposit on CeO2 (100) facets, presumably because of its higher surface energy. At the same surface vanadium densities, VOx species on (100) facets show better dispersion, followed by (110) and (111) facets. The VOx species on CeO2 nanorods with (110) and (100) facets display higher activity and lower apparent activation energies compared to that on CeO2 nanopolyhedras with dominating (111) facets and CeO2 nanocubes with dominating (100) facets. The higher activity for VOx/CeO2(110) might be related to the more abundant oxygen vacancies present on the (110) facets, evidenced from Raman spectroscopic measurements.

  8. Hydrogen and syngas production from two-step steam reforming of methane using CeO2 as oxygen carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Zhu; Hua Wang; Yonggang Wei; Kongzhai Li; Xianming Cheng

    2011-01-01

    CeO2 oxygen carrier was prepared by precipitation method and tested by two-step steam reforming of methane (SRM).Two-step SRM for hydrogen and syngas generation is investigated in a fixed-bed reactor.Methane is directly converted to syngas at a H2/CO ratio close to 2∶ 1 at a high temperature (above 750 ℃) by the lattice oxygen of CeO2; methane cracking is found when the reduction degree of CeO2 was above 5.0% at 850 ℃ in methane isothermal reaction.CeO2-δ obtained from methane isothermal reaction can split water to generate CO-free hydrogen and renew its lattice oxygen at 700 ℃; simultaneously, deposited carbon is selectively oxidized to CO2 by steam following the reaction (C+2H2O→CO2+2H2).Slight deactivation in terms of amounts of desired products (syngas and hydrogen) is observed in ten repetitive two-step SRM process due to the carbon deposition on CeO2 surface as well as sintering of CeO2.

  9. Microstructure and fatigue behaviors of a biomedical Ti–Nb–Ta–Zr alloy with trace CeO2 additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new β-type Ti–29Nb–13Ta–4.6Zr (TNTZ) alloy containing trace amounts of CeO2 additions has been designed as a biomedical implant with improved fatigue properties achieved by keeping Young's modulus to a low value. The results show that the microstructure is refined by the addition of CeO2; the β grain size becomes a little larger when Ce content increases from 0.05% to 0.10%. This occurs because dispersed CeO2 particles can act as nucleation sites for β grains; thus, the effect of rare earth oxides on microstructure refinement mainly depends on the size and dispersion of the rare earth oxides. Young's moduli of TNTZ with CeO2 additions are maintained as low as those of TNTZ without CeO2, while the fatigue limit is highly improved. The 0.10% Ce alloy exhibits the best fatigue strength among the experimental alloys; its fatigue strength is increased by 66.7% compared to that of pure TNTZ. The mechanism by which rare earth oxides affect fatigue performance is dominated by dispersion strengthening. The stiff rare earth oxides can hinder the movement of dislocations, resulting in resistance to the formation of fatigue cracks. Rare earth oxides also change the crack propagation direction and the crack propagation route, effectively decreasing the crack propagation rate

  10. Slow light enhanced near infrared luminescence in CeO2: Er3+, Yb3+ inverse opal photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CeO2: Er3+, Yb3+ photonic crystals was prepared. • Near infrared emission in the CeO2: Er3+, Yb3+ inverse opal was obtained. • Near infrared emission was enhanced by slow light effect of photonic crystals. - Abstract: The surface plasmon resonances of metal nanoparticles and energy transfer between rare earth ions were used widely to enhance the near infrared emission of rare earth ions. In this paper, a new method for near infrared emission enhancement of rare-earth is reported. The CeO2: Er3+, Yb3+ inverse opals with the photonic band gaps at the 500 and 450 nm were prepared by using polystyrene colloidal crystal as templates, and their near infrared emission properties were investigated. The results show that the near infrared emission property of the CeO2: Er3+, Yb3+ inverse opals depends on the overlapped extend between the excited light and photonic band gap. The near infrared emission located at the 1540 nm of the CeO2: Er3+, Yb3+ inverse opals have been enhanced obviously when the wavelength of the excitation light overlapped with photonic band gaps edge, which is attributed to the slow light effect of photonic crystals. The enhancement of near infrared emission may be important for the development of infrared laser and amplifiers for optical communication

  11. Influence of two types of organic matter on interaction of CeO2 nanoparticles with plants in hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Franziska; Schulin, Rainer; Limbach, Ludwig K; Stark, Wendelin; Bürge, Diane; Nowack, Bernd

    2013-04-01

    An important aspect in risk assessment of nanoparticles (NPs) is to understand their environmental interactions. We used hydroponic plant cultures to study nanoparticle-plant-root interaction and translocation and exposed wheat and pumpkin to suspensions of uncoated CeO2-NP for 8d (primary particle size 17-100 nm, 100 mg L(-1)) in the absence and presence of fulvic acid (FA) and gum arabic (GA) as representatives of different types of natural organic matter. The behavior of CeO2-NPs in the hydroponic solution was monitored regarding agglomeration, sedimentation, particle size distribution, surface charge, amounts of root association, and translocation into shoots. NP-dispersions were stable over 8d in the presence of FA or GA, but with growing plants, changes in pH, particle agglomeration rate, and hydrodynamic diameter were observed. None of the plants exhibited reduced growth or any toxic response during the experiment. We found that CeO2-NPs translocated into pumpkin shoots, whereas this did not occur in wheat plants. The presence of FA and GA affected the amount of CeO2 associated with roots (pure>FA>GA) but did not affect the translocation factor. Additionally, we could confirm via TEM and SEM that CeO2-NPs adhered strongly to root surfaces of both plant species. PMID:23352517

  12. Near-infrared luminescence of Tm3+-doped CeO2 films based on silicon substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CeO2/Tm2O3 multilayer films were deposited on silicon substrates by electron-beam evaporation. Tm3+ ions were doped in CeO2 after the films were annealed in oxygen atmosphere at 1000 C. The doping concentration of Tm3+ varies in the range of 0.1-3 mol%. A series of near-infrared emission peaks were observed under the excitation of 330 nm, which correspond to 1G4-3H5, 3H4-3H6, 1G4-3H4, 3H5-3H6, 3F2-3H5, 3H4-3F4, 1G4-3F3,2 and 3F4-3H6 transitions of Tm3+, respectively. The dominant transition of 3H4-3H6 near 805 nm was within optical transmission window. The luminescence properties and the crystal structure of CeO2:Tm3+ films were investigated by excitation and emission spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Meanwhile, the substitution process of Ce4+ by Tm3+ was illustrated, and lattice expansion of the matrix CeO2 gave rise to the increase in FWHM of CeO2 diffraction peaks. In addition, the effect of Tm3+ concentration on photoluminescence was also studied, and the optimal concentration of Tm3+ was 0.5 mol%. (orig.)

  13. Exploration of CeO2 nanoparticles as a chemi-sensor and photo-catalyst for environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CeO2 nanoparticles were synthesized hydrothermally and utilized as redox mediator for the fabrication of efficient ethanol chemi-sensor. The developed chemi-sensor showed an excellent performance for electrocatalytic oxidization of ethanol by exhibiting higher sensitivity (0.92 μA·cm-2·mM-1) and lower limit of detection (0.124 ± 0.010 mM) with the linear dynamic range of 0.17 mM-0.17 M. CeO2 nanoparticles have been characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and UV-visible absorption spectrum which revealed that the synthesized CeO2 is an aggregated form of optically active spherical nanoparticles with the range of 15-36 nm (average size of ∼ 25 ±10 nm) and possessing well crystalline cubic phase. Additionally, CeO2 performed well as a photo-catalyst by degrading amido black and acridine orange. - Research highlights: → CeO2 nanoparticles. → Sensitive ethanol chemi-sensor. → Efficient photo-catalyst. → Degradation of environmental pollutant. → Environmental safety.

  14. Aggregation kinetics of CeO2 nanoparticles in KCl and CaCl2 solutions: measurements and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To characterize the environmental transport and health risks of CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs), it is important to understand their aggregation behavior. This study investigates the aggregation kinetics of CeO2 NPs in KCl and CaCl2 solutions using time-resolved dynamic light scattering (TR-DLS). The initial hydrodynamic radius of CeO2 NPs measured by DLS was approximately 95 nm. Attachment efficiencies were derived both from aggregation data and predictions based on the Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) theory. The deviations of the DLVO predictions were corrected by employing the extended DLVO (EDLVO) theory. The critical coagulation concentration (CCC) of CeO2 NPs at pH = 5.6 is approximately 34 mM for KCl and 9.5 mM for CaCl2. Furthermore, based on the EDLVO theory and the von Smoluchowski’s population balance equation, a model accounting for diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) kinetics was established. For the reaction-limited aggregation (RLA) kinetics, a model that takes fractal geometry into account was established. The models fitted the experimental data well and proved to be useful for predicting the aggregation kinetics of CeO2 NPs.

  15. Different synthesis protocols for Co3O4 -CeO2 catalysts--part 1: influence on the morphology on the nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingxia; Lukashuk, Liliana; Akbarzadeh, Johanna; Stöger-Pollach, Michael; Peterlik, Herwig; Föttinger, Karin; Rupprechter, Günther; Schubert, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Co3 O4 -modified CeO2 (Co/Ce 1:4) was prepared by a combination of sol-gel processing and solvothermal treatment. The distribution of Co was controlled by means of the synthesis protocol to yield three different morphologies, namely, Co3 O4 nanoparticles located on the surface of CeO2 particles, coexistent Co3 O4 and CeO2 nanoparticles, or Co oxide structures homogeneously distributed within CeO2 . The effect of the different morphologies on the properties of Co3 O4 -CeO2 was investigated with regard to the crystallite phase(s), particle size, surface area, and catalytic activity for CO oxidation. The material with Co3 O4 nanoparticles finely dispersed on the surface of CeO2 particles had the highest catalytic activity. PMID:25384333

  16. Anolyte recirculation effects in buffered and unbuffered single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Zhu, Xun; Kashima, Hiroyuki; Li, Jun; Ye, Ding-ding; Liao, Qiang; Regan, John M

    2015-03-01

    Two identical microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with a floating air-cathode were operated under either buffered (MFC-B) or bufferless (MFC-BL) conditions to investigate anolyte recirculation effects on enhancing proton transfer. With an external resistance of 50 Ω and recirculation rate of 1.0 ml/min, MFC-BL had a 27% lower voltage (9.7% lower maximal power density) but a 64% higher Coulombic efficiency (CE) than MFC-B. MFC-B had a decreased voltage output, batch time, and CE with increasing recirculation rate resulting from more oxygen transfer into the anode. However, increasing the recirculation rate within a low range significantly enhanced proton transfer in MFC-BL, resulting in a higher voltage output, a longer batch time, and a higher CE. A further increase in recirculation rate decreased the batch time and CE of MFC-BL due to excess oxygen transfer into anode outweighing the proton-transfer benefits. The unbuffered MFC had an optimal recirculation rate of 0.35 ml/min. PMID:25514399

  17. A comparative study of CeO2-Al2O3 support prepared with different methods and its application on MoO3/CeO2-Al2O3 catalyst for sulfur-resistant methanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CeO2-Al2O3 supports prepared with impregnation (IM), deposition precipitation (DP), and solution combustion (SC) methods for MoO3/CeO2-Al2O3 catalyst were investigated in the sulfur-resistant methanation. The supports and catalysts were characterized by N2-physisorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR). The N2-physisorption results indicated that the DP method was favorable for obtaining better textural properties. The TEM and RS results suggested that there is a CeO2 layer on the surface of the support prepared with DP method. This CeO2 layer not only prevented the interaction between MoO3 and γ-Al2O3 to form Al2(MoO4)3 species, but also improved the dispersion of MoO3 in the catalyst. Accordingly, the catalysts whose supports were prepared with DP method exhibited the best catalytic activity. The catalysts whose supports were prepared with SC method had the worst catalytic activity. This was caused by the formation of Al2(MoO4)3 and crystalline MoO3. Additionally, the CeO2 layer resulted in the instability of catalysts in reaction process. The increasing of calcination temperature of supports reduced the catalytic activity of all catalysts. The decrease extent of the catalysts whose supports were prepared with DP method was the lowest as the CeO2 layer prevented the interaction between MoO3 and γ-Al2O3.

  18. Laminated CeO2/HfO2 High-K Gate Dielectrics Grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition in Reducing Ambient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karakaya, K.; Barcones, B.; Zinine, A.; Rittersma, Z.M.; Graat, P.; Berkum, van J.G.M.; Verheijen, M.A.; Rijnders, G.; Blank, D.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    CeO2 and HfO2 dielectric layers were deposited in an Ar+(5%)H2 gas mixture by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) on Si (100). A CeO2-Ce2O3 transformation is achieved by deposition in reducing ambient. It is also shown that in-situ post deposition anneal efficiently oxidizes Ce2O3 layers to CeO2. The prop

  19. Effects of CeO2 doping on the structure and properties of PSN-PZN-PMS-PZT piezoelectric ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Qingchi; LU Cuimin; ZHOU Hua

    2005-01-01

    Quinary system piezoelectric ceramics PSN-PZN-PMS-PZT were prepared by using a two-step method. The effects of CeO2 doping on piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the system were investigated at morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). The results reveal that the relative dielectric constant εT33 / ε0, the Curie temperature Tc, the piezoelectric constant d33, the mechanical quality factor Qm, and the electromechanical coupling coefficient Kp are changed with the increase of CeO2 content. On the other hand, the effects of CeO2 doping on the dielectric properties of PSN-PZN-PMS-PZT piezoelectric ceramics at high electric field are consistent with the change at weak electric field. The values of dielectric constant and dielectric loss are enhanced with the increasing of electric field.

  20. A photoemission study of the interaction of Ga with CeO2(1 1 1) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of gallium with CeO2(1 1 1) layers was studied using standard and resonant photoelectron spectroscopy, by means of both a laboratory X-ray source and tunable synchrotron light. Firstly a 1.5-nm thick CeO2 film was grown on a Cu(1 1 1) substrate. Secondly Ga was deposited in six steps up to a thickness of 0.35 nm, at room temperature. The interaction of gallium with the oxide layer induced partial CeO2 reduction, and gallium oxidation. The photoemission data suggest that a mixed Ga-Ce-O oxide was established similarly to the Sn-Ce-O case for Sn deposited on cerium oxide layers. As a consequence, gallium-induced weakening of Ce-O bonds provides a higher number of active sites on the surface that play a major role in its catalytic behaviour

  1. Fabrication of multianalyte CeO2 nanograin electrolyte–insulator–semiconductor biosensors by using CF4 plasma treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyuan Haur Kao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Multianalyte CeO2 biosensors have been demonstrated to detect pH, glucose, and urine concentrations. To enhance the multianalyte sensing capability of these biosensors, CF4 plasma treatment was applied to create nanograin structures on the CeO2 membrane surface and thereby increase the contact surface area. Multiple material analyses indicated that crystallization or grainization caused by the incorporation of flourine atoms during plasma treatment might be related to the formation of the nanograins. Because of the changes in surface morphology and crystalline structures, the multianalyte sensing performance was considerably enhanced. Multianalyte CeO2 nanograin electrolyte–insulator–semiconductor biosensors exhibit potential for use in future biomedical sensing device applications.

  2. A study on the growth kinetics of CeO2-modified aluminide coating and its computer fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A CeO2-modified aluminide coating was obtained by composite electro-deposition Ni and CeO2 particles on 20 steel with different holding time using pack cementation. The growth kinetics curve was given with computer fitting by measuring the thickness of the layer. Scanning electronic microscopy and X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry were used to analyze the microstructure and components of the layer. The results showed that the content of CeO2 was up to 5.21 wt.% in the rich area of NiAl coatings, which restrain the interdiffusion between the coating and the base during the oxidation process at high temperature. Meanwhile, the growth curve obtained could offer an important basis to forecasting and controlling the depth of the coating

  3. The effect of CeO2 support upon activity and selectivity of Ru and Co Fischer Tropsh catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some CeO2 supported Ru and Co catalysts with 5% metal loading were prepared by impregnation methods, and characterised by temperature programmed reduction techniques (TPR). Their catalytic activities and selectivities were tested in H2 + CO reactions and compared with a Ru on SiO2 catalyst in the range of 1-9 atmospheres at 2600C. Ru/SiO2 and Co/SiO2 catalysts gave CH4 only at 1 atm., and = 70% CH4 at 9 atms., whilst CeO2 supported Ru and Co gave significantly smaller quantities (20-80%) of CH4 over the same pressure range

  4. Highly Enhanced Concentration and Stability of Reactive Ce^3+ on Doped CeO_2 Surface Revealed In Operando

    OpenAIRE

    Chueh, William C.; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Grass, Michael E.; Hao, Yong; Jabeen, Naila; Liu, Zhi; Haile, Sossina M.; McCarty, Kevin F.; Bluhm, Hendrik; El Gabaly, Farid

    2012-01-01

    Trivalent cerium ions in CeO_2 are the key active species in a wide range of catalytic and electro-catalytic reactions. We employed ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to quantify simultaneously the concentration of the reactive Ce^3+ species on the surface and in the bulk of Sm-doped CeO_2(100) in hundreds of millitorr of H2–H2O gas mixtures. Under relatively oxidizing conditions, when the bulk cerium is almost entirely in the 4+ oxida...

  5. Ultrasonic-induced synthesis of high surface area colloids CeO2-ZrO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nanostructures of high surface area ceria-zirconia colloids have been successfully synthesized via a sonochemical method in the presence of polyethylene glycol 600. Their structural characteristics have been investigated using powder XRD, FESEM, BET surface area, TG, and other techniques. The average size of CeO2-ZrO2 nanoparticles is estimated to be 3.7 nm using Debye-Scherrer's equation. The BET analysis indicates that colloids CeO2-ZrO2 have a remarkably high surface area of 226 m2 g-1.

  6. Non-Enzymatic Glucose Biosensor Based on CuO-Decorated CeO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Guan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Copper oxide (CuO-decorated cerium oxide (CeO2 nanoparticles were synthesized and used to detect glucose non-enzymatically. The morphological characteristics and structure of the nanoparticles were characterized through transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The sensor responses of electrodes to glucose were investigated via an electrochemical method. The CuO/CeO2 nanocomposite exhibited a reasonably good sensitivity of 2.77 μA mM−1cm−2, an estimated detection limit of 10 μA, and a good anti-interference ability. The sensor was also fairly stable under ambient conditions.

  7. Solvothermal synthesis, electrochemical and photocatalytic properties of monodispersed CeO2 nanocubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubic-like CeO2 nanocrystals were successfully synthesized through an improved-toluene solvothermal process using hexadecylamine (HAD) as a capping agent and CeCl3.7H2O as a precursor at 180 deg. C for 24 h. These nanocubes are about 10 nm in size, and have a tendency to assemble into 2D superstructure. The obtained samples were characterized by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the water content, the concentration of ligand and kinds of aliphatic amine played important roles in the formation of the novel morphology. A possible formation mechanism was proposed based on the controlling reaction parameters. The electrochemical and photocatalytic properties of the as-synthesized samples exhibited the size/shape-dependent properties and potential applications.

  8. Crystallization and crystal growth of CeO2 under hydrothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with the effect of several mineralizers on the crystallization and the crystal growth of CeO2 under hydrothermal conditions. The starting material was hydrous ceria precipitate from Ce(NO3)3.6H2O solution with 3N NH4OH. The precipitate was repeatedly washed, and then dried. Distilled water or a solution of KF, LiCl, LiBr, K2CO3, LiNO3, Li2SO4 or NaOH was used as a mineralizer. The results for each mineralizer are shown as crystallite size at various temperatures, the crystallites being examined by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results are discussed. (U.K.)

  9. Atomic structures and oxygen dynamics of CeO2 grain boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bin; Sugiyama, Issei; Hojo, Hajime; Ohta, Hiromichi; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2016-02-01

    Material performance is significantly governed by grain boundaries (GBs), a typical crystal defects inside, which often exhibit unique properties due to the structural and chemical inhomogeneity. Here, it is reported direct atomic scale evidence that oxygen vacancies formed in the GBs can modify the local surface oxygen dynamics in CeO2, a key material for fuel cells. The atomic structures and oxygen vacancy concentrations in individual GBs are obtained by electron microscopy and theoretical calculations at atomic scale. Meanwhile, local GB oxygen reduction reactivity is measured by electrochemical strain microscopy. By combining these techniques, it is demonstrated that the GB electrochemical activities are affected by the oxygen vacancy concentrations, which is, on the other hand, determined by the local structural distortions at the GB core region. These results provide critical understanding of GB properties down to atomic scale, and new perspectives on the development strategies of high performance electrochemical devices for solid oxide fuel cells.

  10. A Single-Phase Photovoltaic Inverter Topology With a Series-Connected Energy Buffer

    OpenAIRE

    Pierquet, Brandon J.; Perreault, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Module integrated converters (MICs) have been under rapid development for single-phase grid-tied photovoltaic applications. The capacitive energy storage implementation for the double-line-frequency power variation represents a differentiating factor among existing designs. This paper introduces a new topology that places the energy storage block in a series-connected path with the line interface block. This design provides independent control over the capacitor voltage, soft-switching for al...

  11. Citric acid modifies surface properties of commercial CeO2 nanoparticles reducing their toxicity and cerium uptake in radish (Raphanus sativus) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The citric acid capping significantly reduced the ζ potential values. • As the amount of CA increased, thicker the layer surrounding the CeO2 NPs. • CeO2/CA NPs had better distribution and small particle size than bare CeO2 NPs. • CeO2/CA NPs decrease the Ce uptake by radish seedlings. -- Abstract: Little is known about the mobility, reactivity, and toxicity to plants of coated engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Surface modification may change the interaction of ENPs with living organisms. This report describes surface changes in commercial CeO2 NPs coated with citric acid (CA) at molar ratios of 1:2, 1:3, 1:7, and 1:10 CeO2:CA, and their effects on radish (Raphanus sativus) seed germination, cerium and nutrients uptake. All CeO2 NPs and their absorption by radish plants were characterized by TEM, DLS, and ICP-OES. Radish seeds were germinated in pristine and CA coated CeO2 NPs suspensions at 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, and 200 mg/L. Deionized water and CA at 100 mg/L were used as controls. Results showed ζ potential values of 21.6 mV and −56 mV for the pristine and CA coated CeO2 NPs, respectively. TEM images showed denser layers surrounding the CeO2 NPs at higher CA concentrations, as well as better distribution and smaller particle sizes. None of the treatments affected seed germination. However, at 200 mg/L the CA coated NPs at 1:7 ratio produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more root biomass, increased water content and reduced by 94% the Ce uptake, compared to bare NPs. This suggests that CA coating decrease CeO2 NPs toxicity to plants

  12. Buffer-Gas Cooling of a Single Ion in a Multipole Radio Frequency Trap Beyond the Critical Mass Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höltkemeier, Bastian; Weckesser, Pascal; López-Carrera, Henry; Weidemüller, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    We theoretically investigate the dynamics of a trapped ion immersed in a spatially localized buffer gas. For a homogeneous buffer gas, the ion's energy distribution reaches a stable equilibrium only if the mass of the buffer gas atoms is below a critical value. This limitation can be overcome by using multipole traps in combination with a spatially confined buffer gas. Using a generalized model for elastic collisions of the ion with the buffer-gas atoms, the ion's energy distribution is numerically determined for arbitrary buffer-gas distributions and trap parameters. Three regimes characterized by the respective analytic form of the ion's equilibrium energy distribution are found. Final ion temperatures down to the millikelvin regime can be achieved by adiabatically decreasing the spatial extension of the buffer gas and the effective ion trap depth (forced sympathetic cooling).

  13. NO reduction by CO over CuO supported on CeO2-doped TiO2: the effect of the amount of a few CeO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Changshun; Li, Bin; Dong, Lihui; Zhang, Feiyue; Fan, Minguang; Jin, Guangzhou; Gao, Junbin; Gao, Liwen; Zhang, Fei; Zhou, Xinpeng

    2015-06-28

    This work is mainly focused on the investigation of the influence of the amount of a few CeO2 on the physicochemical and catalytic properties of CeO2-doped TiO2 catalysts for NO reduction by a CO model reaction. The obtained samples were characterized by means of XRD, N2-physisorption (BET), LRS, UV-vis DRS, XPS, (O2, CO, and NO)-TPD, H2-TPR, in situ FT-IR, and a NO + CO model reaction. These results indicate that a small quantity of CeO2 doping into the TiO2 support will cause an obvious change in the properties of the catalyst and the TC-60 : 1 (the TiO2/CeO2 molar ratio is 60 : 1) support exhibits the most extent of lattice expansion, which indicates that the band lengths of Ce-O-Ti are longer than other TC (the solid solution of TiO2 and CeO2) samples, probably contributing to larger structural distortion and disorder, more defects and oxygen vacancies. Copper oxide species supported on TC supports are much easier to be reduced than those supported on the pure TiO2 and CeO2 surface-modified TiO2 supports. Furthermore, the Cu/TC-60 : 1 catalyst shows the highest activity and selectivity due to more oxygen vacancies, higher mobility of surface and lattice oxygen at lower temperature (which contributes to the regeneration of oxygen vacancies, and the best reducing ability), the most content of Cu(+), and the strongest synergistic effect between Ti(3+), Ce(3+) and Cu(+). On the other hand, the CeO2 doping into TiO2 promotes the formation of a Cu(+)/Cu(0) redox cycle at high temperatures, which has a crucial effect on N2O reduction. Finally, in order to further understand the nature of the catalytic performances of these samples, taking the Cu/TC-60 : 1 catalyst as an example, a possible reaction mechanism is tentatively proposed. PMID:26030478

  14. Fabrication of Ni-5 at. %W Long Tapes with CeO2 Buffer Layer by Reel-to-Reel Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Lin; Tian, Hui; Yue, Zhao;

    2015-01-01

    A 10-m-long homemade textured Ni-5at.%W (Ni5W) long tape with a CeO2 buffer layer has been prepared successfully by means of rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrate (RABiTS) route followed by a chemical solution deposition method in a reel-to-reel manner. Globally, the Ni5W substrate and CeO2...... film exhibit high homogeneity in terms of biaxial texture over the tape. The average values of full width at half maximum of in-plane and out-of-plane texture are 7.2° and 6.1° in Ni5W substrate, 7.6° and 6.1° in CeO2 buffer layer, respectively, all of those with a small standard deviation. On a...... microlevel, the CeO2 film epitaxially grows well on top of the Ni5W tape. A continuous, smooth, and crack-free morphology was observed on the CeO2 film and the fraction of low-angle grain boundaries (≤ 10°) is about 98 %. This process is a potential possibility for producing long-length textured CeO2/Ni5W...

  15. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of CeO2 using β-cyclodextrin on visible light assisted decoloration of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchaimuthu, Sakthivel; Velusamy, Ponnusamy

    2014-01-01

    An attempt has been made to enhance the photocatalytic activity of CeO(2) for visible light assisted decoloration of methylene blue (MB) dye in aqueous solutions by β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The inclusion complexation patterns between host and guest (i.e., β-CD and MB) have been confirmed with UV-visible spectral data. The interaction between CeO(2) and β-CD has also been characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis. The photocatalytic activity of the catalyst under visible light was investigated by measuring the photodegradation of MB in aqueous solution. The effects of key operational parameters such as initial dye concentration, initial pH, CeO(2) concentration as well as illumination time on the decolorization extents were investigated. Among the processing parameters, the pH of the reaction solution played an important role in tuning the photocatalytic activity of CeO(2). The maximum photodecoloration rate was achieved at basic pH (pH 11). Under the optimum operational conditions, approximately 99.6% dye removal was achieved within 120 min. The observed results indicate that the decolorization of the MB followed a pseudo-first order kinetics. PMID:24434976

  16. CeO2 catalysed soot oxidation. The role of active oxygen to accelerate the oxidation conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of CeO2 in the acceleration of NOx-assisted soot oxidation has been studied in flow-reactor equipment by comparing two catalyst configurations, namely: (1) Pt upstream of soot and (2) Pt upstream of CeO2-soot. The role of CeO2 has been elucidated by means of DRIFT spectroscopy coupled with mass spectrometry and TAP reactor experiments. It was found that CeO2 has the potential to accelerate the oxidation rate of soot due to its active oxygen storage. The formation of active oxygen is initiated by NO2 in the gas phase. A synergetic effect is observed as a result of surface nitrate decomposition, which results in gas phase NO2 and desorption of active oxygen. Stored oxygen is postulated to exist in the form of surface peroxide or super oxide. Active oxygen is likely to play a role on the acceleration of soot oxidation and to contribute more than desorbed NO2 or NO2 from surface nitrate decomposition

  17. Optimization of CeO2-ZrO2 mixed oxide catalysts for ethyl acetate combustion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dimitrov, M.; Ivanova, R.; Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Kovacheva, D.; Tsoncheva, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2015), s. 323-329. ISSN 0324-1130 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : nanosized CeO2-ZrO2 * mixed oxide phase * ethyl acetate combustion Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.201, year: 2014

  18. Co3O4-CeO2 mixed oxide-based catalytic materials for diesel soot oxidation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dhakad, M.; Mitshuhashi, T.; Rayalu, S.; Doggali, P.; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Šubrt, Jan; Fino, D.; Haneda, H.; Labhsetwar, N.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 132, 1-4 (2008), s. 188-193. ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC523 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : soot oxidation * diesel particulate * Co3O4-CeO2 type mixed oxide Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.004, year: 2008

  19. Hydrogenated CeO2-xSx mesoporous hollow spheres for enhanced solar driven water oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuting; Chen, Yajie; Xie, Ying; Tian, Guohui; Guo, Shien; Han, Taoran; Fu, Honggang

    2016-02-11

    A facile route for the fabrication of hydrogenated sulfur-doped CeO2 (H-CeO2-xSx) mesoporous hollow spheres is reported. The spheres exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity due to the synergistic effect of the higher sulfur doping level and hydrogen post-treatment. PMID:26741276

  20. Biochemical effects of six TiO2 and four CeO2 nanomaterials in HepG2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochemical effects of six TiO2 and four CeO2 nanomaterials in HepG2 cellsBecause of their growing number of uses, nanoparticles composed of CeO2 (cosmetics, polishing materials and automotive fuel additives) and TiO2 (pigments, sunscreens and photocatalysts) are of particular to...

  1. Direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from methanol and carbon dioxide over CeO2(X)-ZnO(1-X) nano-catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ki Hyuk; Joe, Wangrae; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Mieock; Kim, Dong Baek; Jang, Boknam; Song, In Kyu

    2013-12-01

    CeO2(X)-ZnO(1-X) (X = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, and 1.0) nano-catalysts were prepared by a co-precipitation method with a variation of CeO2 content (X, mol%), and they were applied to the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from methanol and carbon dioxide. Successful formation of CeO2(X)-ZnO(1-X) nano-catalysts was well confirmed by XRD analysis. The amount of DMC produced over CeO2(X)-ZnO(1-X) catalysts exhibited a volcano-shaped curve with respect to CeO2 content. Acidity and basicity of CeO2(X)-ZnO(1-X) nano-catalysts were measured by NH3-TPD and CO2-TPD experiments, respectively, to elucidate the effect of acidity and basicity on the catalytic performance in the reaction. It was revealed that the catalytic performance of CeO2(X)-ZnO(1-X) nano-catalysts was closely related to the acidity and basicity of the catalysts. Amount of dimethyl carbonate increased with increasing both acidity and basicity of the catalysts. Among the catalysts tested, CeO2(0.7)-ZnO(0.3) with the largest acidity and basicity showed the best catalytic performance in the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from methanol and carbon dioxide. PMID:24266202

  2. Synergic effect of the TiO2-CeO2 nanoconjugate system on the band-gap for visible light photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanostructured TiO2-CeO2 films are successfully synthesized by combining of sputtering and electrophoresis methods. • Synergic effect of CeO2 on TiO2 band gap was demonstrated, CeO2 diminishes it from 3.125 to 2.74. • Morphologic characterization of the nanoconjugate TiO2-CeO2 films by different microscopy techniques. - Abstract: The TiO2-CeO2 photocatalytic system in films is proposed here, in order to obtain photocatalytic systems that can be excited by solar light. The films were obtained through the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of TiO2-CeO2 gel on sputtered Ti Corning glass substrates. The synergic effect of CeO2 in TiO2 films was analyzed as a function of the optical band gap reduction at different concentrations (1, 5, 10, and 15 mol%). The effect of two thermal treatments was also evaluated. The lowest band gap value was obtained for the sample with 5 mol% ceria that was thermally treated at 700 °C. The nanostructured films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high angle annular dark field (HAADF), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The nanocomposites were formed by TiO2 and CeO2 nanoparticles in the anatase and fluorite type phases, respectively

  3. The effects of CeO2 addition on crystallization behavior and pore size in microporous calcium titanium phosphate glass ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We prepare a phosphate glass ceramic in the system of CaO–TiO2–P2O5 and add 2 to 6 mol% CeO2 to it. We determine the optimum percentage of CeO2 addition. ► We study phase separation, suitable time and temperature for crystallization in the microporous Calcium Titanium Phosphate Glass Ceramics utilizing DTA, SEM and XRD. ► We investigate on pore size utilizing BET and SEM techniques before and after CeO2 addition. ► CeO2 increases the pore size in the Calcium Titanium Phosphate Glass Ceramics. -- Abstract: In this research the effect of the addition of CeO2 to microporous Calcium Titanium Phosphate glass ceramics was studied. Different molar percentages of CeO2 were added to three samples of a base glass whose composition was P2O5 30, CaO 45, TiO2 25 (mol%). The first sample had 2 mol% CeO2, the second sample had 4 mol% CeO2, and the third sample had 6 mol% CeO2. The fourth sample did not contain any CeO2. The glass samples were melted and crystallized to bulk glass ceramics by a conventional method. Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) was utilized to determine the appropriate nucleation and crystallization temperatures. Among the samples, the DTA curve of the sample which had 2 mol% CeO2 had the sharpest crystallization peak. Therefore, this sample was chosen to prepare the glass ceramics. Using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) it was found that in all samples β-Ca3(PO4)2 and CaTi4(PO4)6 were the major phases. The β-Ca3(PO4)2 phase was dissolved away by soaking the glass ceramics in HCl, leaving a porous skeleton of CaTi4(PO4)6. CeO2 addition increased the glass transition temperature and decreased the crystallization time and temperature. It was shown that CeO2 addition resulted in an increase in the mean pore diameter while the specific surface area decreased. The median pore diameter and specific surface area were determined as 27 nm and 14 m2/g, respectively, for the sample containing 2 mol% CeO2.

  4. Pyridine-thermal synthesis and high catalytic activity of CeO2/CuO/CNT nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were controllably coated with the uninterrupted CuO and CeO2 composite nanoparticles by a facile pyridine-thermal method and the high catalytic performance for CO oxidation was also found. The obtained nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is found that the CuO/CeO2 composite nanoparticles are distributed uniformly on the surface of CNTs and the shell of CeO2/CuO/CNT nanocomposites is made of nanoparticles with a diameter of 30-60 nm. The possible formation mechanism is suggest as follows: the surface of CNTs is modified by the pyridine due to the π-π conjugate role so that the alkaline of pyridine attached on the CNT surface is more enhanced as compared to the one in the bulk solvent, and thus, these pyridines accept the proton from the water molecular preferentially, which result in the formation of the OH- ions around the surface of CNTs. Subsequently, the metal ions such as Ce3+ and Cu2+ in situ react with the OH- ions and the resultant nanoparticles deposit on the surface of CNTs, and finally the CeO2/CuO/CNT nanocomposites are obtained. The T50 depicting the catalytic activity for CO oxidation over CeO2/CuO/CNT nanocomposites can reach ∼113 deg. C, which is much lower than that of CeO2/CNT or CuO/CNT nanocomposites or CNTs.

  5. Controlled fabrication and enhanced photocatalystic performance of BiVO4@CeO2 hollow microspheres for the visible-light-driven degradation of rhodamine B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • m-BiVO4@CeO2 hollow microspheres were firstly fabricated. • m-BiVO4@CeO2 was used for photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B. • The photocatalytic activity of heterogeneous hollow microspheres is enhanced. • Photocatalytic mechanism on m-BiVO4@CeO2 by visible light irradiation was proposed. • Efficient separation of photoexcited charges results in enhanced catalytic activity. - Abstract: m-BiVO4@CeO2 hollow microspheres have been fabricated by a facile low-temperature co-precipitation method and subsequent annealing process. The composition, morphology and size of the as-fabricated m-BiVO4@CeO2 hollow microspheres were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The vibrational features and the electronic state of the as-obtained m-BiVO4@CeO2 hollow microspheres were studied by Raman spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Band-gap energy of the as-prepared m-BiVO4@CeO2 hollow microspheres was evaluated by UV–vis spectrum. The visible-light-driven photocatalystic performances were evaluated by degradation for RhB dye molecules, demonstrating that the as-fabricated m-BiVO4@CeO2 hollow microspheres exhibit the enhanced photocatalystic activity, compared to the obtained pure m-BiVO4 microspheres. The separation of photoinduced electron–hole pairs and transfer between CeO2 and BiVO4 has been discussed in detail, in order to have in-depth understanding on the enhanced photocatalytic performance. The results indicate that the enhanced photocatalystic activity of the as-fabricated m-BiVO4@CeO2 hollow microspheres is attributed to the efficient separation of the photoexcited electrons and holes

  6. An ultrasensitive electrochemical sensor for simultaneous determination of xanthine, hypoxanthine and uric acid based on Co doped CeO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavanya, N; Sekar, C; Murugan, R; Ravi, G

    2016-08-01

    A novel electrochemical sensor has been fabricated using Co doped CeO2 nanoparticles for selective and simultaneous determination of xanthine (XA), hypoxanthine (HXA) and uric acid (UA) in a phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH5.0) for the first time. The Co-CeO2 NPs have been prepared by microwave irradiation method and characterized by Powder XRD, Raman spectroscopy, HRTEM and VSM measurements. The electrochemical behaviours of XA, HXA and UA at the Co-CeO2 NPs modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) were studied by cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry methods. The modified electrode exhibited remarkably well-separated anodic peaks corresponding to the oxidation of XA, HXA and UA over the concentration range of 0.1-1000, 1-600 and 1-2200μM with detection limits of 0.096, 0.36, and 0.12μM (S/N=3), respectively. For simultaneous detection by synchronous change of the concentrations of XA, HXA and UA, the linear responses were in the range of 1-400μM each with the detection limits of 0.47, 0.26, and 0.43μM (S/N=3), respectively. The fabricated sensor was further applied to the detection of XA, HXA and UA in human urine samples with good selectivity and high reproducibility. PMID:27157753

  7. Cube Texture Formation of Cu-33at.%Ni Alloy Substrates and CeO2 Buffer Layer for YBCO Coated Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Hui; Li, Suo Hong; Ru, Liang Ya;

    2014-01-01

    Cube texture formation of Cu-33 at.%Ni alloy substartes and CeO2 buffer layer prepared by chemical solution deposition on the textured substrate were investigated by electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) and XRD technics systematically. The results shown that a strong cube textured Cu-33at...... epitaxially grown CeO2 buffer layer was 95 % (<10°), and the FWHM values of phi-scan and omega-scan being 6.98° and 5.92°, respectively....

  8. Novel CeO2-CuO-decorated enzymatic lactate biosensors operating in low oxygen environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunoglu, Aytekin; Stanciu, Lia A

    2016-02-25

    The detection of the lactate level in blood plays a key role in diagnosis of some pathological conditions including cardiogenic or endotoxic shocks, respiratory failure, liver disease, systemic disorders, renal failure, and tissue hypoxia. Here, we described for the first time the use of a novel mixed metal oxide solution system to address the oxygen dependence challenge of first generation amperometric lactate biosensors. The biosensors were constructed using ceria-copper oxide (CeO2-CuO) mixed metal oxide nanoparticles for lactate oxidase immobilization and as electrode material. The oxygen storage capacity (OSC, 492 μmol-O2/g) of these metal oxides has the potential to reduce the oxygen dependency, and thus eliminate false results originated from the fluctuations in the oxygen concentration. In an effort to compare the performance of our novel sensor design, ceria nanoparticle decorated lactate sensors were also constructed. The enzymatic activity of the sensors were tested in oxygen-rich and oxygen-lean solutions. Our results showed that the OSC of the electrode material has a big influence on the activity of the biosensors in oxygen-lean environments. While the CeO2 containing biosensor showed an almost 21% decrease in the sensitivity in a O2-depleted solution, the CeO2-CuO containing electrode, with a higher OSC value, experienced no drop in sensitivity when moving from oxygen-rich to oxygen-lean conditions. The CeO2-CuO decorated sensor showed a high sensitivity (89.3 ± 4 μA mM(-1) cm(-2)), a wide linear range up to 0.6 mM, and a low limit of detection of 3.3 μM. The analytical response of the CeO2-CuO decorated sensors was studied by detecting lactate in human serum with good selectivity and reliability. The results revealed that CeO2-CuO containing sensors are promising candidates for continuous lactate detection. PMID:26851092

  9. A 1,2-propylene oxide sensor utilizing cataluminescence on CeO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongmei; Zhang, Yantu; Zhen, Yanzhong; Ma, Yuan; Zuo, Weiwei

    2014-12-01

    A simple and sensitive gas sensor was proposed for the determination of 1,2-propylene oxide (PO) based on its cataluminescence (CTL) by oxidation in the air on the surface of CeO2 nanoparticles. The luminescence characteristics and optimal conditions were investigated in detail. Under optimized conditions, the linear range of the CTL intensity versus the concentration of PO was 10-150 ppm, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9974 and a limit of detection (S/N = 3) of 0.9 ppm. The relative standard deviation for 40 ppm PO was 1.2% (n = 7). There was no or only weak response to common foreign substances including acetone, formaldehyde, ethyl acetate, acetic acid, chloroform, propanol, carbon tetrachloride, ether and methanol. There was no significant change in the catalytic activity of the sensor for 100 h. The proposed method was simple and sensitive, with a potential of detecting PO in the environment and industry. PMID:24802092

  10. Diffusion Barriers Block Defect Occupation on Reduced CeO2(111 )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustemberg, P. G.; Pan, Y.; Shaw, B.-J.; Grinter, D.; Pang, Chi; Thornton, G.; Pérez, Rubén; Ganduglia-Pirovano, M. V.; Nilius, N.

    2016-06-01

    Surface defects are believed to govern the adsorption behavior of reducible oxides. We challenge this perception on the basis of a combined scanning-tunneling-microscopy and density-functional-theory study, addressing the Au adsorption on reduced CeO2 -x(111 ) . Despite a clear thermodynamic preference for oxygen vacancies, individual Au atoms were found to bind mostly to regular surface sites. Even at an elevated temperature, aggregation at step edges and not decoration of defects turned out to be the main consequence of adatom diffusion. Our findings are explained with the polaronic nature of the Au-ceria system, which imprints a strong diabatic character onto the diffusive motion of adatoms. Diabatic barriers are generally higher than those in the adiabatic regime, especially if the hopping step couples to an electron transfer into the ad-gold. As the population of O vacancies always requires a charge exchange, defect decoration by Au atoms becomes kinetically hindered. Our study demonstrates that polaronic effects determine not only electron transport in reducible oxides but also the adsorption characteristics and therewith the surface chemistry.

  11. Biogenic synthesis and catalysis of porous CeO2 hollow microspheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Feng; WANG Wei; CHEN Zhigang; WANG Taibin

    2012-01-01

    Porous CeO2 hollow microspheres were successfully prepared through a facile process by using the rape pollen as the biotemplate.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM),transmission electron microscopy (TEM),the N2 adsorption and desorption,X-ray diffraction (XRD),UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra,and hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR) were used for their characterization.The results showed that the obtained materials exhibited the same morphology as that of the pollen template,with a diameter of ca.10 μm,and the surface was evenly covered with a special network-like structure with mesh size of about 0.3 μm,and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area was measured to be 156 m2/g.The detailed property investigation inferred that the product exhibited better photocatalytic activity in acid fuchsine decolorization under daylight because of higher surface area,smaller crystallite size and higher oxygen capacity.

  12. Enhanced transport of CeO2 nanoparticles in porous media by macropores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jing; Wang, Min-hao; Lin, Dao-hui; Shen, Bing

    2016-02-01

    This is the first study to investigate the effect of macropores on the transport of CeO2 nanoparticles (nCeO2) in quartz sand and soil. The artificial macropore types are the vertical continuous macropore (O-O), and the vertical discontinuous macropore (O-C). The results indicated that the mobility of nCeO2 was significantly enhanced by the macropore in both quartz sand and soil, and the enhancement was greater in the continuous macropore than in the discontinuous macropore. Compared with the homogeneous column, both the O-O and O-C macropores in quartz sand favored an earlier breakthrough and a larger initial effluent recovery rate of nCeO2. However, there was little influence on the plateau concentration and the total effluent recovery rate. In soil, both types of macropores significantly shortened nCeO2 breakthrough time, and favored a higher plateau concentration, and a larger initial and total effluent recovery rate. The O-O macropore which accounted for only 1% of the total pore volume had doubly increased the total mobility of nCeO2 in soil; even the mobility was increased by 30% with the O-C macropore. It was found that the effect of preferential flow on nCeO2 transport was greater in soil than it was in quartz sand. PMID:26584072

  13. Role of defect interaction in boundary mobility and cation diffusivity of CeO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grain boundary mobility of CeO2 containing 0.1% and 1.0% trivalent dopant cations (Sc, Yb, Y, Gd, and La, in order of increasing ionic radius) has been measured. At the lower dopant concentration (intrinsic regime), mobility is controlled by grain boundary diffusion of host cations, whereas at the higher dopant concentration (extrinsic regime), mobility is controlled by solute drag through the lattice. The effect of trivalent dopants is closely associated with their ability to provide and to interact with oxygen vacancies. Evidence consistent with an interstitial mechanism for cation diffusion has been found which is remarkably affected by the presence of oxygen vacancies. Ce diffusion is enhanced by free oxygen vacancies in the system, while dopant diffusion is suppressed if a dopant-associated oxygen vacancy is not present. A bare Sc cation however, appears to be a fast-diffusing species, due to its highly distorted local environment, while Y at 1.0% emerges as the most effective grain growth suppressant

  14. Chemical composition and corrosion protection of silane films modified with CeO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work aims at understanding the role of CeO2 nanoparticles (with and without activation in cerium(III) solutions) used as fillers for hybrid silane coatings applied on galvanized steel substrates. The work reports the improved corrosion protection performance of the modified silane films and discusses the chemistry of the cerium-activated nanoparticles, the mechanisms involved in the formation of the surface coatings and its corrosion inhibition ability. The anti-corrosion performance was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), the scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) and d.c. potentiodynamic polarization. The chemical composition of silanised nanoparticles and the chemical changes of the silane solutions due to the presence of additives were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), respectively. The NMR and XPS data revealed that the modified silane solutions and respective coatings have enhanced cross-linking and that silane-cerium bonds are likely to occur. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the modified coatings have improved barrier properties and the SVET measurements highlight the corrosion inhibition effect of ceria nanoparticles activated with Ce(III) ions. Potentiodynamic polarization curves demonstrate an enhanced passive domain for zinc, in the presence of nanoparticles, in solutions simulating the cathodic environment.

  15. Diffusion Barriers Block Defect Occupation on Reduced CeO_{2}(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustemberg, P G; Pan, Y; Shaw, B-J; Grinter, D; Pang, Chi; Thornton, G; Pérez, Rubén; Ganduglia-Pirovano, M V; Nilius, N

    2016-06-10

    Surface defects are believed to govern the adsorption behavior of reducible oxides. We challenge this perception on the basis of a combined scanning-tunneling-microscopy and density-functional-theory study, addressing the Au adsorption on reduced CeO_{2-x}(111). Despite a clear thermodynamic preference for oxygen vacancies, individual Au atoms were found to bind mostly to regular surface sites. Even at an elevated temperature, aggregation at step edges and not decoration of defects turned out to be the main consequence of adatom diffusion. Our findings are explained with the polaronic nature of the Au-ceria system, which imprints a strong diabatic character onto the diffusive motion of adatoms. Diabatic barriers are generally higher than those in the adiabatic regime, especially if the hopping step couples to an electron transfer into the ad-gold. As the population of O vacancies always requires a charge exchange, defect decoration by Au atoms becomes kinetically hindered. Our study demonstrates that polaronic effects determine not only electron transport in reducible oxides but also the adsorption characteristics and therewith the surface chemistry. PMID:27341245

  16. Catalytic propane reforming mechanism over Mn-Doped CeO2 (111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krcha, Matthew D.; Janik, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    MnOx/CeOx mixed oxide systems exhibit encouraging hydrocarbon oxidation activity, without the inclusion of a noble metal. Using density functional theory (DFT) methods, we examined the oxidative reforming path of propane over the Mn-doped CeO2 (1 1 1) surface. A plausible set of elementary reaction steps are identified for conversion of propane to CO/CO2 and H2/H2O over the oxide surface. The rate-limiting reaction process may vary with redox conditions, with C-H dissociation limiting under more oxidizing conditions and more complex reaction sequences, including surface re-oxidation, limiting under highly reducing conditions. The possibility of intermediate desorption from the surface during the reforming process is low, with desorption energies of the intermediates being much less favorable than further surface reactions until CO/CO2 products are formed. The reforming paths over Mn-doped ceria are similar to those previously identified over Zr-doped ceria. The extent of surface reduction and the electronic structure of the surface intermediates are examined.

  17. Influence of nanometric CeO2 coating on high temperature oxidation of Cr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Huiming; Zhang Linnan; Liu Xiaojun

    2007-01-01

    Isothermal and cyclic oxidation behavior of chromium and its superficially applied nanometric CeO2 samples were studied at 900℃ in air. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and high resolution electronic microscopy (HREM) were used to examine the morphology and micro-structure of oxide films. It was found that ceria addition greatly improved the anti-oxidation ability of Cr both in isothermal and cyclic oxidizing experiments. Acoustic emission (AE) technique was used in situ to monitor the cracking and spalling of oxide films, and AE signals were analyzed in time-domain and number-domain according to the related oxide fracture model. Laser Raman spectrometer was also used to study the stress status of oxide films formed on Cr with and without ceria. The main reason for the improvement in anti-oxidation of chromium was that ceria greatly reduced the growing speed and grain size of Cr2O3. This fine-grained Cr2O3 oxide film might have better high temperature plasticity and could relieve parts of compressive stress by means of creeping, and maintained the ridge character and relatively low internal stress level. Meanwhile, ceria application reduced the size and the number of interfacial defects, while remarkably enhanced the adhesive property of Cr2O3 oxide scale formed on Cr substrate.

  18. Diesel/biodiesel soot oxidation with CeO2 and CeO2-ZrO2- modified cordierites: a facile way of accounting for their catalytic ability in fuel combustion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CeO2 and mixed CeO2-ZrO2 nanopowders were synthesized and efficiently deposited onto cordierite substrates, with the evaluation of their morphologic and structural properties through XRD, SEM, and FTIR. The modified substrates were employed as outer heterogeneous catalysts for reducing the soot originated from the diesel and diesel/biodiesel blends incomplete combustion. Their activity was evaluated in a diesel stationary motor, and a comparative analysis of the soot emission was carried out through diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The analyses have shown that the catalyst-impregnated cordierite samples are very efficient for soot oxidation, being capable of reducing the soot emission in more than 60%. (author)

  19. Properties and structure of SPEEK proton exchange membrane doped with nanometer CeO2 and treated with high magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The membranes of sulfonated polyetheretherketone(SPEEK doped with rare earth metal oxide nanometer cerium oxide (CeO2 were prepared for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC application, which was treated by parallel or perpendicular high magnetic field of 6 Teslas (T at 100°C. The proton conductivity of membrane specimens increased with temperature raised from 20 to 60°C and decreased with increasing CeO2 contents. The proton conductivity of membrane specimens under treatment with high magnetic field was better than that without treatment. The membrane specimens treated with perpendicular magnetic field demonstrated better proton conductivity than those treated with parallel magnetic field. The methanol permeation coefficient of membrane specimens decreased with increasing CeO2 contents and furthermore reduced by about 20% after treated with perpendicular high magnetic field. The water uptake of membrane specimens decreased with CeO2 doping, but would not be influenced by the magnetic field. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS revealed certain reaction between oxygen anion in sulfonic groups and cerium cation in the CeO2 which dispersed evenly in the membranes but formed small conglomerates as shown by the atomic force microscopy (AFM images. X-ray diffraction (XRD proved the stability of the crystal structure of the nanometer CeO2 in polymer membranes, indicating that the reaction occurred only at the interface between SPEEK resin and CeO2 particles.

  20. Effects of CeO2 Coating on Oxidation Behavior of TP304H Steel in High-temperature Water Vapor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xingeng; Wang Xuegang; He Jiawen

    2005-01-01

    Oxidation behaviors of TP304H steel with electrophoresis deposited CeO2 coating in water vapor were studied at 610℃~770℃ for 65 h. The results showed that CeO2 coating reduced effectively the oxidation rate of TP304H. Analysis with SEM and EDS showed the structure of oxide scale turned from multi-layer to mono-layer and oxide scale with high Cr content formed on the surface of CeO2 coating while inner oxidation disappeared. Based on test results and CeO2characters that Ce ion can vary between Ce4+ and Ce3+ under oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor environment, it is concluded that CeO2 coating acts as a barrier to prevent oxygen inner diffusion and the partial oxygen pressure of CeO2 coating-substrate interface is limited. Cr first diffuses outward across CeO2 coating and forms oxide scale on the surface, which delays formation of Fe oxide.

  1. Electrochemical properties of Atomic layer deposition processed CeO2 as a protective layer for the molten carbonate fuel cell cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nano-structured CeO2-coated Ni by Atomic Layer Deposition, crystalline as-deposited. • Progressive transformation into a complex surface stable in molten carbonates. • Lower Ni solubility with CeO2 protective coating. • Feasibility of CeO2 coating in Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell cathode conditions. - Abstract: In order to increase the lifetime and performance of the molten carbonate fuel cell, it is compulsory to control the corrosion and dissolution of the state of the art porous nickel oxide cathode. A protective coating constituted by more stable oxides appears to be the best approach. Previous research on CeO2 coatings obtained by DC reactive magnetron sputtering to protect the Molten carbonate fuel cell cathode gave promising results but it was necessary to improve the coating adhesion. In this paper Atomic Layer Deposition, producing high quality, homogeneous and conformal layers, was used to obtain thin layers of CeO2 (20 nm and 120 nm) deposited over porous nickel. CeO2-Ni coated samples were tested as cathodes in Li2CO3-K2CO3 (62-38 mol %) eutectic mixture under standard cathode atmosphere (CO2/air 30:70 vol. %). Structural and morphological characterizations of the nickel coated cathode before and after electrochemical tests in the molten carbonate melt are reported together with the Open Circuit Potential evolution all over 230 h for both the bare porous nickel and the CeO2-coated samples

  2. Hydrogen production from methane steam reforming over Ni on high surface area CeO2 and CeO2-ZrO supports synthesized by surfactant-assisted method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumittra Charojrochkul

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Methane steam reforming performances of Ni on high surface area (HSA CeO2 and CeO2-ZrO2 supports have been studied under solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC operating conditions. Their performances were compared to general Ni/CeO2, Ni/CeO2-ZrO2, and Ni/Al2O3. It was firstly observed that Ni/CeO2-ZrO2 (HSA with the Ce/Zr ratio of 3/1 showed the best performance in terms of activity and stability toward the methane steam reforming among those with the Ce/Zr ratios of 1/1, 1/3, and 3/1. Both Ni/CeO2-ZrO2 (HSA and Ni/CeO2 (HSA presented better resistance toward carbon formation than the general Ni/CeO2, Ni/CeO2- ZrO2, and Ni/Al2O3 at the same operating conditions. These benefits are related to the high oxygen storage capacity (OSC of CeO2-ZrO2. During the steam reforming process, in addition to the reactions on Ni surface (*, the redox reactions between the gaseous components presented in the system and the lattice oxygen (Ox on CeO2-ZrO2 surface also take place. Among these reactions, the redox reactions between the high carbon formation potential compounds (CH4, CHx-*n and CO and the lattice oxygen (Ox can prevent the formation of carbon species from the methane decomposition and Boudard reactions at the inlet H2O/CH4 ratio of 3.0/1.0.

  3. Zn(2+)-cyclen-based complex enable a selective detection of single-stranded thymine-rich DNA in aqueous buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zece; Wang, Sheng; Wei, Danqing; Yang, Chuluo

    2016-11-15

    It is a big challenge to develop fluorescent probes for selective detection of DNA with specific sequences in aqueous buffers. We report a new tetraphenylethene-based Zn(2+)-cyclen complex (TPECyZn), and a chemo-sensing ensemble of the Zn complex with phenol red. TPECyZn showed significant fluorescence enhancement upon binding to thymine-rich DNA in HEPES buffers. But its selectivity was not high enough to eliminate the interference from some random DNA. By constructing the chemo-sensing ensemble of TPECyZn with phenol red, the background fluorescence was eliminated due to the energy transfer from TPECyZn to phenol red. Moreover, this chemo-sensing ensemble revealed high selectivity in detecting thymine-rich single-stranded DNA over other DNA in aqueous buffer. It can detect poly deoxythymidylic acid sequence as short as 2 nt. This detection in aqueous media makes this probe feasible in real application. PMID:27288711

  4. Combined removal of diesel soot particulates and NOx over CeO2–ZrO2 mixed oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Atribak, Idriss; Bueno López, Agustín; García García, Avelina

    2008-01-01

    CeO2 and Ce–Zr mixed oxides with different Ce:Zr ratios were prepared; characterised by Raman spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, N2 adsorption at −196 ◦C, and H2-TPR; and tested for soot oxidation under NOx/O2. Among the different mixed oxides, Ce0.76Zr0.24O2 provided the best results. Ce0.76Zr0.24O2 presented greater activity than pure CeO2 for soot oxidation by NOx/O2 when both catalysts were calcined at 500 ◦C (soot oxidation rates at 500 ◦C are 14.9 and 11.4 μgsoot/s, respectively), and ...

  5. Inelastic neutron scattering studies of hydrated CuO, ZnO and CeO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • INS spectra of hydrated CeO2, ZnO, and CuO nanoparticles are presented. • The heat capacities for the nanoparticle hydration layers have been calculated. • The chemistry of the particles influences the thermodynamic properties of the water. - Abstract: In this contribution we demonstrate how the vibrational density of states (VDOS) for water confined to the surface of CeO2, CuO and ZnO nanoparticles can be determined from high-resolution, low-temperature, inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectra. These VDOS have been employed in the calculation of the isochoric heat capacities (0–300 K) and room temperature vibrational entropies of the nanoparticle hydration layers. The results from this analysis clearly demonstrate that the structure and chemical composition of the metal oxide nanoparticles has a notable effect on the thermodynamic properties of their hydration layers

  6. Effect of oxidizer to fuel molar ratio on particle size and DC conductivity of CeO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, B. M.; Rajeeva, M. P.; Naveen, C. S.; Chaturmukha, V. S.; Avinash, B. S.; Jayanna, H. S.; Lamani, Ashok R.

    2016-05-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by solution combustion method with varying the oxidizer (cerium nitrate hexa hydrate) to fuel (Glycine) molar ratio. The prepared samples were characterized by UV-visible spectrometer, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Energy dispersive X-Ray analysis (EDAX). XRD pattern reveals the formation of cubic fluorite structure of CeO2. It was observed that finest crystallites were found at extreme fuel-deficient condition and it is good enough to produce favorable powder characteristics. The average crystallite size was found to be 14.46 nm to 21.57 nm. The temperature dependent dc conductivity was carried out using Keithley source meter between the temperature range from 300K to 573K. From this study it was found that the conductivity increases with increase of temperature due to semiconducting behavior of CeO2 and it decreases with particle size due to increase in the energy band gap.

  7. Study of the growth of biaxially textured CeO2 films during ion-beam-assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biaxially textured CeO2 films were deposited on Hastelloy C276 substrates at room temperature using ion-beam-assisted e-beam evaporation with the ion beam directed at 55 deg. to the normal of the film plane. The crystalline structure and in-plane orientation of films were investigated by x-ray diffraction 2θ-scan and φ-scan. The orientation of the films was studied as a function of ion-to-atom ratio and film thickness. The ion-to-atom ratio was varied by independently adjusting the deposition rate and the ion current density. Under optimum condition, (200) textured CeO2 films have been successfully grown on Hastelloy C276

  8. Study of the growth of biaxially textured CeO2 films during ion-beam-assisted deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Su; Jo, Sung Jin; Jeong, Soon Moon; Kim, Woo Jin; Baik, Hong Koo; Lee, Se Jong; Song, Kie Moon

    2005-03-01

    Biaxially textured CeO2 films were deposited on Hastelloy C276 substrates at room temperature using ion-beam-assisted e-beam evaporation with the ion beam directed at 55° to the normal of the film plane. The crystalline structure and in-plane orientation of films were investigated by x-ray diffraction 2θ-scan and phgr-scan. The orientation of the films was studied as a function of ion-to-atom ratio and film thickness. The ion-to-atom ratio was varied by independently adjusting the deposition rate and the ion current density. Under optimum condition, (200) textured CeO2 films have been successfully grown on Hastelloy C276.

  9. Heteroepitaxy of Ir films on silicon with a ceria/yttria stabilized zirconia buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heteroepitaxial Ir films on Si(001) with a double ceria/yttria stabilized zirconia heteroepitaxial buffer layer were grown by magnetron sputtering. As-deposited CeO2 films covered with {111} faceted pyramids resulted in iridium films with the [001] axis normal to the substrate plane. The buffered substrates annealed at 1115 °C have a smooth surface; Ir films on such substrates have the (111) orientation and consist of grains turned at 90° toward each other. - Highlights: ► Heteroepitaxial Ir films on CeO2[001] film surface grow in two orientations. ► The surface of the as-grown CeO2 films is the {111} facets of the pyramids. ► Ir films deposited on this surface has [001] orientation. ► Annealing at 1115 °C of CeO2 films results in an atomically smooth surface. ► Ir films deposited on smooth surface have [111] orientation.

  10. Aspect Ratio Plays a Role in the Hazard Potential of CeO2 Nanoparticles in Mouse Lung and Zebrafish Gastrointestinal Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Sijie; Wang, Xiang; Ji, Zhaoxia; Chang, Chong Hyun; Dong, Yuan; Meng, Huan; Liao, Yu-Pei; Wang, Meiying; Song, Tze-Bin; Kohan, Sirus; Xia, Tian; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Lin, Shuo; Nel, André E.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that there is a relationship between the aspect ratio (AR) of CeO2 nanoparticles and in vitro hazard potential. CeO2 nanorods with AR ≥ 22 induced lysosomal damage and progressive effects on IL-1β production and cytotoxicity in the human myeloid cell line, THP-1. In order to determine whether this toxicological paradigm for long aspect ratio (LAR) CeO2 is also relevant in vivo, we performed comparative studies in the mouse lung and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) ...

  11. Memory resistive switching in CeO2-based film microstructures patterned by a focused ion beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velichko, A.; Boriskov, P.; Grishin, A.;

    2014-01-01

    Heteroepitaxial CeO2 (80 nm)/La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 (500 nm) film structure has been pulsed laser deposited on a sapphire substrate. The Ag/CeO2 microjunctions patterned by a focused ion beam on a La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 film exhibit reproducible reversible switching between a high resistance state (OFF...

  12. Synthesis and characterization of molybdenum catalysts supported on γ-Al2O3-CeO2 composite oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical and chemical properties of a catalyst play a vital role in various industrial applications. Molybdenum catalysts supported on γ-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3-CeO2 mixed oxides with varying loading of CeO2 (5, 10, 15, 20 wt% with respect to γ-Al2O3) were prepared by wet impregnation method. The physiochemical properties of these synthesized Mo catalysts were studied with various characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), field emission scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive analysis (FESEM-EDX) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF). The results showed that the addition of CeO2 into the support affected the binding energies of the elements and reducibility of the metal oxides formed after calcination of catalyst samples due to the change in metal-support interaction. Further, the characterization techniques showed that the active metal was well dispersed on the surface of support material.

  13. β-Cyclodextrin-assisted preparation of hierarchical walnut-like CeOHCO3 and CeO2 mesocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hierarchical walnut-like CeOHCO3 mesocrystals were prepared by a facile hydrothermal method under low temperature with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) as assistant agent. The hierarchical walnut-like CeO2 mesocrystals were obtained by thermal decomposition of CeOHCO3 mesocrystals. The crystal phase, morphology, and structure of CeOHCO3 and CeO2 mesocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The time-dependent experimental results indicated that the morphology transformation from shuttle-like to walnut-like and the crystal phase transformation from orthorhombic to hexagonal simultaneously occurred in the formation processes of CeOHCO3 mesocrystals. On the basis of the morphological and crystal phase evolution processes, the formation mechanism of hierarchical walnut-like CeOHCO3 mesocrystals, including dissolution-recrystallization processes, was discussed. β-CD was believed to play an important role in the formation of the hierarchical walnut-like CeOHCO3 mesocrystals. The effects of reaction temperature, β-CD amount, and concentration of reactants on the morphologies of the products were systematically studied. CeO2 mesocrystals exhibited the distinct red-shift phenomenon in UV-vis absorption spectra.

  14. Effects of Pretreatment Conditions on Redox Property over Au/Co3O4/CeO2 Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Jian-jun; MA Xiao-lei; ZHU Xi

    2009-01-01

    Au/Co3O4/CeO2 materials are prepared using conventional deposition-precipitation method. The effects of calcination temperatures and pretreatment conditions on the catalytic performance of Au/Co3O4/CeO2 for CO low-temperature oxidation in humid circumstance are investigated. The sample calcines at 443 K in flowing air exhibited good activity and stability for CO oxidation. 80% CO conversion rate can be achieved after 3 000 min with a feed gas contained 3.1%(φw) of water vapor. The physical and chemical properties of the Au/Co3O4/CeO2 samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The characterized results show that the prepared material calcined at 443 K has a weak diffraction peak of gold species observed by XRD, the grain diameter of 3 nm by TEM and best redox property and the highest activity for CO oxidation by H2-TPR at prope calcined temperature.

  15. Influence of mineralizer agents on the growth of crystalline CeO2 nanospheres by the microwave-hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cystalline ceria (CeO2) nanoparticles have been synthesized by a simple and fast microwave-assisted hydrothermal (MAH) under NaOH, KOH, and NH4OH mineralizers added to a cerium ammonium nitrate aqueous solution. The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformed-IR and Raman spectroscopies. Rietveld refinement reveals a cubic structure with a space group Fm3m while infrared data showed few traces of nitrates. Field emission scanning microcopy (FEG-SEM) revealed a homogeneous size distribution of nanometric CeO2 nanoparticles. The MAH process in KOH and NaOH showed most effective to dehydrate the adsorbed water and decrease the hydrogen bonding effect leaving a weakly agglomerated powder of hydrated ceria. TEM micrographs of CeO2 synthesized under MAH conditions reveal particles well-dispersed and homogeneously distributed. The MAH enabled cerium oxide to be synthesized at 100 °C for 8 min.

  16. Mechanical Properties of ZrO2 Ceramic Stabilized by Y2O3 and CeO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    ZrO2 ceramic was made from evenly dispersed (Y,Ce)-ZrO2 powder with different compositions,which was prepared by the chemical coprecipitation, and stabilized by compound additions through appropriate techniques.And its mechanical property that is related to the phase content and its microstructure was studied by X-ray diffraction(XRD),scan electron microscope(SEM).The results show that Y2O3 has stronger inhibition to the growth of ZrO2 crystal than CeO2 has.Therefore,within an appropriate composition range of Y2O3 and CeO2,the higher the content of Y2O3,the lower the content of CeO2,the smaller ZrO2 crystal.Combining this feature and the stabilization technique with complex additions instead of simple addition,ZrO2 ceramic with high density and excellent mechanical properties can be made under normal conditions. It is concluded that the improvement of mechanical properties originates from the toughening of microcrack,phase transformation and the effect of grain evulsions.

  17. Direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from CO2 and methanol over CeO2 catalysts of different morphologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    UNNIKRISHNAN P; SRINIVAS DARBHA

    2016-06-01

    The direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from carbon dioxide CO2 and methanol is an attractive approach towards conversion of the greenhouse gas - CO2 into value-added chemicals and fuels.Ceria CeO2 catalyzes this reaction. But the conversion efficiency of CeO2 is enhanced when the byproductwater in the reaction medium is separated by employing trapping agents like 2-cyanopyridine (2-CP). In thiswork, the influence of morphology of CeO2 on the direct synthesis of DMC in presence of 2-CP is reported.CeO2 catalysts of cube, rod, spindle and irregular morphology (Ce - C, Ce - R, Ce - S and Ce - N, respectively)were prepared, characterized and studied as catalysts in the said reaction conducted in a batch mode. Amongall, Ce - S shows superior catalytic performance with nearly 100 mol% of DMC selectivity. Catalytic activitycorrelates with the concentration of acid and base sites of medium strength as well as defect sites. Ce - S has anoptimum number of these active sites and thereby shows superior catalytic performance.

  18. Effects of CeO2 on microstructure and corrosion resistance of TiC-VC reinforced Fe-based laser cladding layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉; 邹勇; 邹增大; 史传伟

    2014-01-01

    The effects of CeO2 on microstructure and corrosion resistance of TiC-VC reinforced Fe-based laser cladding layers were investigated. The results showed that carbides presented in cladding layers were TiVC2 and VC. A small quantity of CeC appeared with 2.0 wt.%CeO2 addition. The amount of lamellar pearlite increased while the amount of residual austenite decreased with in-creasing CeO2 addition. The corrosion resistance of cladding layers increased firstly and then decreased with the addition of CeO2 in-creasing. The EIS spectrum of the cladding layer without CeO2 was composed of an inductive arc at low frequency and a capacitive arc at high frequency. The cladding layer with 0.5 wt.%CeO2 addition showed the best corrosion resistance, and then the inductive arc at low frequency transformed into a capacitive arc.

  19. Promoting Effect of CeO2 Addition on Activity and Catalytic Stability in Steam Reforming of Methane over Ni/Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen production by steam reforming of methane was studied over Ni catalysts supported on CeO2, Al2O3 and CeO2-Al2O3. These catalysts were prepared using the impregnation method and characterized by XRD. The effect of CeO2 promoter on the catalytic performance of Ni/Al2O3 catalyst for methane steam reforming reaction was investigated. In fact, CeO2 had a positive effect on the catalytic activity in this reaction. Experimental results demonstrated that Ni/CeO2-Al2O3 catalyst showed excellent catalytic activity and high reaction performance. In addition, the effects of reaction temperature and metal content on the conversion of CH4 and H2/CO ratio were also investigated. Results indicated that CH4 conversion increased significantly with the increase of the reaction temperature and metal content. (author)

  20. Catalytic Performance of CeO2/ZnO Nanocatalysts on the Oxidative Coupling of Methane with Carbon Dioxide and their Fractal Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongjun He; Blun Yang; Haimin Pan; Guozhi Li

    2004-01-01

    CeO2/ZnO nanocatalysts were prepared from the coupling route of homogeneous precipitation with microemulsion and the impregnation method. The catalytic performance of these two kinds of catalysts on the oxidative coupling of methane with carbon dioxide was tested and compared; the fractal behavior of the nanocatalysts was analyzed using fractal theory. The CeO2/ZnO nanocatalysts had much higher activity than the catalysts prepared by impregnation method. There was no regular relationship between the average size of CeO2/ZnO nanocatalysts and their catalytic performance; however, the conversion of methane increased with the increase of the fractal dimension of CeO2/ZnO nanocatalysts.

  1. The influence of Er3+ doping on the structural and optical properties of CeO2 thin films grown by PED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbium doped CeO2 thin films were deposited on both Corning glass substrates and indium doped tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates by pulsed e-beam deposition (PED) method at room temperature. Structural features of Er doped CeO2 thin films were studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro-Raman spectra. The XRD patterns of all films showed polycrystalline nature and cubic crystalline structure. Raman active peaks for both undoped CeO2 and Er doped CeO2 films were determined at ∼465 cm−1. The Raman shift observed in this study can also be assigned to Raman active modes of CeO2 that are shifted from the original position due to different doping concentration. The optical properties of CeO2 films and Er doped CeO2 films, which were determined from transmittance and reflectance measurements at room temperature, were very similar in character. The refractive indices and extinction coefficients, which were calculated from 3.5 to 1.25 eV (300–1000 nm), were between 1.5–3 and 0.05–0.2, respectively. The optical band gaps were deduced from the absorption coefficient according to solid band theory. The electrochromic measurements revealed that 2% Er doped CeO2 films grown on ITO + WO3 substrates had highest charge density compared to the other samples. Long-time cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) measurements were carried out to investigate the stability of this film.

  2. Characterization of laminated CeO2-HfO2 high-k gate dielectrics grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karakaya, K.; Zinine, A.; Berkum, van J.G.M.; Verheijen, M.A.; Rittersma, Z.M.; Rijnders, G.; Blank, D.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    The electrical and physical properties of CeO2-HfO2 nanolaminates on Si100, by pulsed laser deposition, are investigated. Layers were deposited using pure CeO2 and HfO2 targets at various substrate temperatures ranging from 220 to 620°C at Ar+H2 and O2 and in situ postdeposition anneal of nanolamina

  3. Fabrication of CeO2 by sol-gel process based on microfluidic technology as an analog preparation of ceramic nuclear fuel microspheres

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Bin; Miao, Jilang; Li, Jiaolong; Zhao, Zichen; Chang, Zhenqi; Serra, Christophe A.

    2012-01-01

    Microfluidics integrated with sol-gel processes is introduced in preparing monodispersed MOX nuclear fuel microspheres using nonactive cerium as a surrogate for uranium or plutonium. The detailed information about microfluidic devices and sol-gel processes are provided. The effects of viscosity and flow rate of continuous and dispersed phase on size and size distribution of CeO2 microspheres have been investigated. A comprehensive characterization of the CeO2 microspheres has been conducted, ...

  4. The hazard assessment of nanostructured CeO2-based mixed oxides on the zebrafish Danio rerio under environmentally relevant UV-A exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of nanomaterials on biota under realistic environmental conditions is an important question. However, there is still a lack of knowledge on how different illumination conditions alter the toxicity of some photocatalytic nanomaterials. We have investigated how environmentally relevant UV-A exposure (intensity 8.50 ± 0.61 W/m2, exposure dose 9.0 J/cm2) affected the toxicity of cerium oxide (CeO2)-based nanostructured materials to the early-life stages of zebrafish Danio rerio. Pure cerium oxide (CeO2), copper–cerium (CuO–CeO2) (with a nominal 10, 15 and 20 mol.% CuO content), cerium–zirconium (CeO2–ZrO2) and nickel and cobalt (Ni–Co) deposited over CeO2–ZrO2 were tested. It was found that under both illumination regimes, none of the tested materials affected the normal development or induced mortality of zebrafish early-life stages up to 100 mg/L. Only in the case of CuO–CeO2, the growth of larvae was decreased (96 h LOEC values for CuCe10, CuCe15 and CuCe20 were 50, 50 and 10 mg/L, respectively). To conclude, CeO2-based nanostructured materials are not severely toxic to zebrafish and environmentally relevant UV-A exposure does not enhance their toxicity. - Highlights: • CeO2–ZrO2 nanomaterials and pure CeO2 (up to 100 mg/L) were not harmful to zebrafish. • Only CuO modified CeO2 affected the growth of zebrafish larvae. • UV-A radiation did not enhance the toxicity of tested nanomaterials

  5. Enhanced SO2 and CO poisoning resistance of CeO2 modified Pt/C catalysts applied in PEM fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • SO2 tolerance is better at lower content of CeO2 presenting in catalyst. • CO tolerance increases as increasing content of CeO2 presenting in catalyst. • The amount of oxygen supplied by CeO2 is important to the CO and SO2 oxidation. - Abstract: SO2 and CO are detrimental agents to Pt based catalysts applied in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. We introduce low-content (2, 4, and 6 wt%) amorphous cerium oxide (CeO2) to modify Pt catalysts for enhancing the SO2 and CO tolerance. The structure and morphology of the catalysts are studied by XRD, TEM and XPS analyses. Electrochemical results show that 2 wt% of CeO2 in the Pt/C catalyst exhibits the best SO2 poisoning resistance, while CO tolerance is enhanced as increasing content of CeO2. The promotional effect of Pt–CeO2/C catalysts on SO2 and CO poisoning resistance is also discussed

  6. Investigation of surface defect states in CeO2-y nanocrystals by Scanning−tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis process strongly influences the nanocrystalline CeO2-y defective structure. The presence of surface defects, in the form of oxygen vacancies in different charge states (F centers), can change the electronic properties of ceria nanocrystals. Nanocrystalline CeO2-y samples were synthesized using three different methods (precipitation, self-propagating room temperature, and hydrothermal synthesis). Raman spectroscopy was used to identify the presence of oxygen vacancies which presumably were formed at the nanoparticle surface. The defect concentration depended on the crystallite size of differently prepared CeO2-y samples. Scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and ellipsometry were employed to investigate the electronic band structure of defective CeO2-y nanocrystals. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements demonstrated that inside the band gap of CeO2-y nanocrystals, besides the filled 4 f states, appeared additional states which were related to occupied and empty F center defect states. From the ellipsometric measurements, using the critical points model, the energy positions of different F centers states and the values of the reduced band gap energies were determined. The analysis of obtained data pointed out that depending on the synthesis method, different types of F centers (F+ and F0) can be formed in the CeO2-y nanocrystals. The formation of different F center defect states inside the ceria gap have a strong impact on the electrical, optical, and magnetic properties of ceria nanocrystals

  7. Effect of CeO2 addition on thermal shock resistance of WC–12%Co coating deposited on ductile iron by electric contact surface strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • WC–Co powders with CeO2 were deposited by electric contact strengthening (ECS). • ECS is based on electric resistive heating between the electrode and work piece. • WC–Co coating with CeO2 by ECS was metallurgically bonded to the substrate. • The addition of CeO2 could refine the coating microstructure and increase the microhardness. • By the proper addition of cerium oxide, the thermal shock performance was enhanced. - Abstract: The WC–12%Co powders with different contents of CeO2 (0.1–2 wt.%) were deposited on ductile iron by electric contact surface strengthening. The coatings with and without CeO2 were examined and tested for microstructural characteristic, phase structure, microhardness and thermal shock resistance. The comparison concluded that the proper addition of CeO2 could refine the microstructure of coatings and increase the microhardness of the coatings. By the small amount addition of cerium oxide (0.5 wt.%), the solid solution strengthening effect and grain boundaries strengthening effect would delay the time of crack formation and propagation in the coatings and enhance the thermal shock performance

  8. Improvement of electrochemical stability of LiMn2O4 by CeO2 coating for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CeO2-coated LiMn2O4 spinel cathode was synthesized using two-step synthesis method. All the samples exhibited a pure cubic spinel structure without any impurities in the XRD patterns. The results of the electrochemical performances on CeO2-coated electrode are compared to those of electrodes based on LiMn2O4 spinel without CeO2 coating. CeO2-coated LiMn2O4 cathode improved the cycling stability of the electrode. The capacity retention of 2 wt% CeO2-coated LiMn2O4 was more than 82% after 150 cycles between 3.0 and 4.4 V at room temperature and 82% after 40 cycles at elevated temperature of 60 oC. The amounts of dissolved manganese-ions in CeO2-coated LiMn2O4 significantly are smaller than pristine LiMn2O4 systems especially at elevated temperatures. Surface-modified LiMn2O4 can suppress the dissolution reaction of manganese-ions at elevated temperature and clearly improve the cyclability of the spinel LiMn2O4 cathode materials

  9. Influence of laser power on the orientation and microstructure of CeO 2 films deposited on Hastelloy C276 tapes by laser chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pei; Ito, Akihiko; Tu, Rong; Goto, Takashi

    2010-08-01

    CeO 2 films were prepared on LaMnO 3/MgO/Gd 2Zr 2O 7 multi-coated Hastelloy C276 tapes by laser chemical vapor deposition at different laser power ( PL) from 46 to 101 W. Epitaxial (1 0 0) CeO 2 films were prepared at PL = 46-93 W (deposition temperature, Tdep = 705-792 K). Epitaxial CeO 2 films had rectangular-shaped grains at PL = 46-77 W ( Tdep = 705-754 K), while square-shaped grains were obtained at PL = 85-93 W ( Tdep = 769-792 K). CeO 2 films showed a columnar microstructure. Epitaxial (1 0 0) CeO 2 films with rectangular grains exhibited full width at half maximum of ω-scan on (2 0 0) reflection and ϕ-scan on (2 2 0) reflection of 3.4-3.2° and 6.0-7.2°, respectively. The deposition rate of the epitaxial (1 0 0) CeO 2 films had a maximum of 4.6 μm h -1 at PL = 77 W ( Tdep = 754 K).

  10. Immobilization of metalloporphyrins on CeO2@SiO2 with a core-shell structure prepared via microemulsion method for catalytic oxidation of ethylbenzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈丹华; 吉琳韬; 付玲玲; 董旭龙; 刘志刚; 刘强; 刘世明

    2015-01-01

    CeO2@SiO2 core−shell nanoparticles were prepared by microemulsion method, and metalloporphyrins were immobilized on the CeO2@SiO2 core−shell nanoparticles surface via amide bond. The supported metalloporphyrin catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption−desorption isotherm (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results show that the morphology of CeO2@SiO2 nanoparticles is core−shell microspheres with about 30 nm in diameter, and metalloporphyrins are immobilized on the CeO2@SiO2 core−shell nanoparticles via amide bond. Especially, the core−shell structure contains multi CeO2 core and thin SiO2 shell, which may benefit the synergistic effect between the CeO2 core and the porphyrin anchored on the very thin SiO2 shell. As a result, this supported metalloporphyrin catalysts present comparably high catalytic activity and stability for oxidation of ethylbenzene with molecular oxygen, namely, ethylbenzene conversion remains around 12% with identical selectivity of about 80%for acetophenone even after six-times reuse of the catalyst.

  11. Yield of radiation-induced DNA single-strand breaks in Escherichia coli and superinfecting phage lambda at different dose rates. Repair of strand breaks in different buffers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cells of E. coli K-12 strain AB 1886 were irradiated in oxygenated phosphate buffered saline at 20C with electrons from a 4-MeV linear accelerator. The yield of DNA single-strand breaks was determined as a function of the dose rate between 2.5 and 21,000 krad/min. For dose rates over 100 krad/min the yield was found to be constant. Below 10 krad/min the yield of breaks decreases drastically. This is explained by rejoining of breaks during irradiation. Twenty percent of the breaks induced by acute exposure are repaired within 3 min at 20C. Superinfecting phage lambda DNA is repaired at the same rate as chromosomal DNA. In contrast to the results obtained with phosphate-buffered saline, an increase in the number of breaks after irradiation is observed when the bacteria are suspended in tris buffer. It is suggested that buffers of low ionic strength facilitate the leakage through the membrane of a small-molecular-weight component(s) necessary for DNA strand rejoining

  12. Surface and Interface Properties of 10–12 Unit Cells Thick Sputter Deposited Epitaxial CeO2 Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Saraf

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrathin and continuous epitaxial films with relaxed lattice strain can potentially maintain more of its bulk physical and chemical properties and are useful as buffer layers. We study surface, interface, and microstructural properties of ultrathin (∼10–12 unit cells thick epitaxial ceria films grown on single crystal YSZ substrates. The out-of -plane and in-plane lattice parameters indicate relaxation in the continuous film due to misfit dislocations seen by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and substrate roughness of ∼1-2 unit cells, confirmed by atomic force microscopy and HRTEM. A combination of secondary sputtering, lattice mismatch, substrate roughness, and surface reduction creating secondary phase was likely the cause of surface roughness which should be reduced to a minimum level for effective use of it as buffer layers.

  13. Cost-effective electrodeposition of an oxide buffer for high-temperature superconductor coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is demonstrated that electrodeposition is a promising cost-effective technique to grow oxide buffer on metallic tapes. The resultant layer of CeO2 shows the biaxial texture of FWHM = 5.5° as well as a smooth surface of RMS = 2.0 nm, and YBa2Cu3O7−δ coated conductor with such a buffer exhibits the critical current density of 1.85 MA cm−2 at 77 K. Of more interest is that the CeO2 film thickness reaches a high value of more than 200 nm without any cracks, while it is very hard to achieve a thickness of more than 70 nm in the conventional vapor deposition methods employed. (paper)

  14. Simultaneous sensing of L-tyrosine and epinephrine using a glassy carbon electrode modified with nafion and CeO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electrochemical sensor was developed and tested for detection of L-tyrosine in the presence of epinephrine by surface modification of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with Nafion and cerium dioxide nanoparticles. Fabrication parameters of a surfactant-assisted precipitation method were optimized to produce 2–3 nm CeO2 nanoparticles with very high surface-to-volume ratio. The resulting nanocrystals were characterized structurally and morphologically by X-ray diffractometery (XRD), scanning and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (SEM and HR-TEM). The nanopowder is sonochemically dispersed in a Nafion solution which is then used to modify the surface of a GCE electrode. The electrochemical activity of L-tyrosine and epinephrine was investigated using both a Nafion-CeO2 coated and a bare GCE. The modified electrode exhibits a significant electrochemical oxidation effect of L-tyrosine in a 0.2 M Britton-Robinson (B-R) buffer solution of pH 2. The electro-oxidation peak current increases linearly with the L-tyrosine concentration in the molar concentration range of 2 to 160 μM. By employing differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) for simultaneous measurements, we detected two reproducible peaks for L-tyrosine and epinephrine in the same solution with a peak separation of about 443 mV. The detection limit of the sensor (signal to noise ratio of 3) for L-tyrosine is ∼90 nM and the sensitivity is 0.20 μA μM−1, while for epinephrine these values are ∼60 nM and 0.19 μA μM−1. The sensor exhibited excellent selectivity, sensitivity, reproducibility and stability as well as a very good recovery time in real human blood serum samples. (author)

  15. Reel-to-reel continuous deposition of CexZr1-xO2 single buffer layer for YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a study regarding the epitaxial growth of CexZr1-xO2 film on biaxially textured Ni-5at.%W substrate and its use as a single buffer layer of a YBCO coated conductors was reported. Films of Ce-Zr mixed oxide were prepared by direct-current (d.c.) reactive magnetron sputtering with the two sputtering guns arranged symmetrically with respect to the substrate. In sputtering process, d.c. power of Zr was fixed in 200 W while that of Ce was varied with 30 W, 50 W, 75 W, and 100 W, respectively. It was confirmed that the composition of the films could be controlled with modulating power of Ce target. All samples exhibited good epitaxial growth with c-axis perpendicular to the substrate surface. Atomic force microscope revealed a continuous, dense, and crack-free surface morphology for Ce0.32Zr0.68O2 thin films, which provided themselves as the good single buffer to the YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) coated conductors. High quality Ce0.32Zr0.68O2 buffer layers up to 100-m length could be fabricated with production speed of about 1.2m/h. X-ray scans have been performed as a function of length to determine the crystallographic consistency of the epitaxial Ce0.32Zr0.68O2 over length.

  16. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS of freshwater biofilms stabilize and modify CeO2 and Ag nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kroll

    Full Text Available Streams are potential receiving compartments for engineered nanoparticles (NP. In streams, NP may remain dispersed or settle to the benthic compartment. Both dispersed and settling NP can accumulate in benthic biofilms called periphyton that are essential to stream ecosystems. Periphytic organisms excrete extracellular polymeric substances (EPS that interact with any material reaching the biofilms. To understand the interaction of NP with periphyton it is therefore crucial to study the interaction of NP with EPS. We investigated the influence of EPS on the physicochemical properties of selected NP (CeO2, Ag under controlled conditions at pH 6, 7.6, 8.6 and light or dark exposure. We extracted EPS from five different periphyton communities, characterized the extracts, and exposed CeO2 and carbonate-stabilized Ag NP (0.5 and 5 mg/L, both 25 nm primary particle size and AgNO3 to EPS (10 mg/L over two weeks. We measured NP size distribution, shape, primary particle size, surface plasmon resonance, and dissolution. All EPS extracts were composed of biopolymers, building blocks of humic substances, low molecular weight (Mr acids, and small amphiphilic or neutral compounds in varying concentrations. CeO2 NP were stabilized by EPS independent of pH and light/dark while dissolution increased over time in the dark at pH 6. EPS induced a size increase in Ag NP in the light with decreasing pH and the formation of metallic Ag NP from AgNO3 at the same conditions via EPS-enhanced photoreduction. NP transformation and formation were slower in the extract with the lowest biopolymer and low Mr acid concentrations. Periphytic EPS in combination with naturally varying pH and light/dark conditions influence the properties of the Ag and CeO2 NP tested and thus the exposure conditions within biofilms. Our results indicate that periphytic organisms may be exposed to a constantly changing mixture of engineered and naturally formed Ag NP and Ag+.

  17. Density functional theory study of water interactions on Mn-doped CeO2(1 1 1) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We studied geometric and electronic effects of water interactions on 12.5% Mn-doped CeO2(1 1 1) surface through a spin-polarized DFT + U approach. • Water molecular and dissociative interactions were favored on Mn dopant compared to those on Ce sites. • Surface oxygen vacancies formation was not promoted by water adsorption. • OH species could attach on surface O-hole (left by surface oxygen remotion) causing important structural atomic relaxations, but without changing the oxidation state of Mn and Ce cations. - Abstract: Spin-polarized density functional theory (DFT + U) periodic calculations have been performed to study water adsorption and dissociation on the 12.5% Mn-doped CeO2(1 1 1) surface. Our results indicated that Mn cation is the surface active site for water adsorption and dissociation reactions. The H2O molecule preferably adsorbs on a Mn cation, causing some relaxation of the surface O-layer and, thus, facilitating the bonding of one of the HH2O with the nearest oxygen atom. After overcoming an energy barrier of 0.46 eV, the water molecule could dissociate into OH and H species. The latter configuration is about 50% more exothermic than the molecular one, suggesting the Ce0.875Mn0.125O1.9375(1 1 1) surface would be easily hydroxylated under reaction conditions. In addition, the calculations showed that water adsorption on the Mn-doped CeO2(1 1 1) surface did not favor the creation of surface oxygen vacancies as it has been reported for pure CeO2(1 1 1). On the other hand, we created a surface oxygen defect in the slab with structural oxygen vacancies and computed water interactions on the reduced surface. Although, the adsorption of OH species in the O-hole caused many surface and subsurface atomic displacements, no changes in the oxidation state of Mn and Ce cations were detected

  18. Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Behavior of CeO2 and SiC Incorporated Al5083 Alloy Surface Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amra, M.; Ranjbar, Khalil; Dehmolaei, R.

    2015-08-01

    In this investigation, nano-sized cerium oxide (CeO2) and silicon carbide (SiC) particles were stirred and mixed into the surface of an Al5083 alloy rolled plate using friction stir processing (FSP) to form a surface nano-composite layer. For this purpose, various volume ratios of the reinforcements either separately or in the combined form were packed into a pre-machined groove on the surface of the plate. Microstructural features, mechanical properties, and corrosion behavior of the resultant surface composites were determined. Microstructural analysis, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, showed that reinforcement particles were fairly dispersed inside the stir zone and grain refinement was gained. Compared with the base alloy, all of the FSP composites showed higher hardness and tensile strength values with the maximum being obtained for the composite containing 100% SiC particles, i.e., Al5083/SiC. The corrosion behavior of the samples was studied by conducting potentiodynamic polarization tests and assessed in terms of corrosion potential, pitting potential, and passivation range. The result shows a significant increase in corrosion resistance of the base alloy; i.e., the longest passivation range when CeO2 alone was incorporated into the surface by acting as cathodic inhibitors. Composites reinforced with SiC particles exhibited lower pitting resistance due to the formation of microgalvanic couples between cathodic SiC particles and anodic aluminum matrix. The study was aimed to fabricate metal matrix surface composites with improved hardness, tensile strength, and corrosion resistance by the incorporation of CeO2 and SiC reinforcement particles into the surface of Al5083 base alloy. Optimum mechanical properties and corrosion resistance were obtained for the FSP composite Al5083/(75%CeO2 + 25%SiC). In this particular FSP composite, hardness and tensile strength were increased by 30, and 14%, respectively, and passivation range was increased to 0.19 V/SCE compared to the base alloy with no passivation range.

  19. The influence of CeO2 on the microstructure and electrical behaviour of ZnO-Bi2O3 based varistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processing-microstructure-property relations have been studied in order to understand the role of the addition of CeO2 (up to 0.9 mole%) in the ZnO-Bi2O3 based varistor recipe. The microstructural investigation suggests that CeO2 is segregated at the corners of the ZnO grains in addition to the existence of the Zn7Sb2O12 spinel phase. However, the α -spinel phase was observed instead of the β -spinel phase that is usually found in most commercial and laboratory ZnO-Bi2O3 based varistors. The α -spinel phase is more stable than the β -spinel phase and does not transform to the pyrochlore phase during the cooling process. The most significant effect of the CeO2 particles is the ZnO grain refinement owing to the pinning effect of the grain growth. The average grain size decreases from 7.8 to 5.7 μm when compared to the 0.9 mole% CeO2-added sample against the CeO2-free sample. This grain refinement results in a significantly enhanced breakdown field when compared to the CeO2-free sample. The coefficient of nonlinearity of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics is found to be nearly identical for the CeO2 added varistor materials. However, when a slower cooling cycle (1 deg. C min-1 instead of 4 deg. C min-1) is used in the sintering process, these varistor materials exhibited a high nonlinear coefficient (α = 29 ± 5) as extracted from the I-V behaviour

  20. Identification of the arsenic resistance on MoO3 doped CeO2/TiO2 catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of NOx with ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Li, Xiansheng; Li, Junhua; Hao, Jiming

    2016-11-15

    Arsenic resistance on MoO3 doped CeO2/TiO2 catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3 (NH3-SCR) is investigated. It is found that the activity loss of CeO2-MoO3/TiO2 caused by As oxide is obvious less than that of CeO2/TiO2 catalysts. The fresh and poisoned catalysts are compared and analyzed using XRD, Raman, XPS, H2-TPR and in situ DRIFTS. The results manifest that the introduction of arsenic oxide to CeO2/TiO2 catalyst not only weakens BET surface area, surface acid sites and adsorbed NOx species, but also destroy the redox circle of Ce(4+) to Ce(3+) because of interaction between Ce and As. When MoO3 is added into CeO2/TiO2 system, the main SCR reaction path are found to be changed from the reaction between coordinated NH3 and ad-NOx species to that between an amide and gaseous NO. Additionally, for CeO2-MoO3/TiO2 catalyst, As toxic effect on active sites CeO2 can be released because of stronger As-Mo interaction. Moreover, not only are the reactable Brønsted and Lewis acid sites partly restored, but the cycle of Ce(4+) to Ce(3+) can also be free to some extent. PMID:27474851

  1. Preparation and Characterization of CeO2-TiO2/SnO2:Sb Films Deposited on Glass Substrates by R.F.Sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qingnan; DONG Yuhong; NI Jiamiao; WANG Peng; ZHAO Xiujian

    2008-01-01

    CeO2-TiO2 films and CeO2-TiO2/SnO2:Sb(6 mol%)double films were deposited on glass substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering(R.F.Sputtering),using SnO2:Sb(6 mol%)target,and CeO2-TiO2 targets with different molar ratio of CeO2 to TiO2 (CeO2:TiO2=0:1.0;0.1:0.9;0.2:0.8;0.3:0.7;0.4:0.6;0.5:0.5;0.6:0.4; 0.7:0.3; 0.8:0.2;0.9:0.1;1.0:0).The films are characterized by UV-visible transmission and infrared reflection spectra,scanning electron microscopy(SEM),Raman spectroscopy,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS)and X-ray diffraction(XRD),respectively.The obtained results show that the amorphous phases composed of CeO2-TiO2 play an important role in absorbing UV, there are Ce3+,Ce4+ and Ti4+ on the surface of the films;the glass substrates coated with CeO2-TiO2(Ce/Ti=0.5:0.5;0.6:0.4)/SnO2:Sb(6 mol%) double films show high absorbing UV(>99),high visible light transmission(75%)and good infrared reflection films can be used as window glass of buildings,automobile and so on.

  2. Analysis and optimization of oxide buffer layers related to YBCO films deposited by CSD and MOCVD on biaxially textured NiW substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies based on epitaxial buffer layers of CeO2 and Yttria-stabilised ZrO2 (YSZ) having been deposited on biaxially textured nickel substrates using thermal reactive evaporation and rf sputtering in continuous deposition processes in reel-to-reel systems. Starting from the well known architecture of CeO2/YSZ/CeO2 the thickness of the different buffer layers was varied. Misorientation, porosity and roughness was analyzed and optimized for YBCO deposition by MOCVD und CSD. The grain morphology and the behavior of the grain boundary networks in YBCO coated conductors have been shown to depend on both the YBCO deposition method and the buffers layer. The possibility of using only one and two buffers layer and conductive layers of perovskite type was studied. X-ray-diffraction, SEM and TEM have been used to investigate the microstructure of both the buffer layers and the YBCO films. Optimal growth conditions of YBCO for the different buffer layers have been determined. YBCO films were deposited by CSD, MOCVD and for comparison by high pressure dc sputtering, resulting on CeO2/YSZ/CeO2 buffered substrates Jc values higher than 2 MA/cm2. The resulting superconducting properties were measured by inductive characterization and by Hall probe measurements of the magnetic field due to induced magnetization currents. (orig.)

  3. Novel Recovery of Nano-Structured Ceria (CeO2 from Ce(III-Benzoxazine Dimer Complexes via Thermal Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattamon Koonsaeng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available N,N-bis(2-hydroxybenzylalkylamines, benzoxazine dimers, are the major product produced from benzoxazine monomers on mono-functional phenol by the one  step ring opening reaction. Due to the metal responsive property of benzoxazine dimers, in this present work, N,N-bis(5-methyl-2-hydroxybenzylmethylamine (MMD, N,N-bis (5-ethyl-2-hydroxybenzylmethylamine (EMD, and N,N-bis(5-methoxy-2-hydroxybenzyl methyl amine (MeMD, are considered as novel ligands for rare earth metal ion, such as cerium(III ion. The complex formed when the clear and colorless solutions of cerium nitrate and benzoxazine dimers were mixed, results in a brown colored solution. The metal-ligand ratios determined by the molar ratio and the Job’s methods were found to be in a ratio of 1:6. To clarify the evidence of the complex formation mechanism, the interactions among protons in benzoxazine dimers both prior to and after the formation of complexes were determined by means of 1H-NMR, 2D-NMR and a computational simulation. The single phase ceria (CeO2 was successfully prepared by thermal decomposition of the Ce(III-benzoxazine dimer complexes at 600 °C for 2 h, was then characterized using XRD. In addition, the ceria powder investigated by TEM is spherical with an average diameter of 20 nm.

  4. Fabrication of GaN epitaxial thin film on InGaZnO{sub 4} single-crystalline buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinozaki, Tomomasa, E-mail: shinozaki@lucid.msl.titech.ac.j [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama (Japan); Nomura, Kenji [ERATO-SORST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), in Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama (Japan); Katase, Takayoshi [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama (Japan); Kamiya, Toshio [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama (Japan); ERATO-SORST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), in Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama (Japan); Hirano, Masahiro [ERATO-SORST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), in Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama (Japan); Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama (Japan); Hosono, Hideo [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama (Japan); ERATO-SORST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), in Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama (Japan); Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama (Japan)

    2010-03-31

    Epitaxial (0001) films of GaN were grown on (111) YSZ substrates using single-crystalline InGaZnO{sub 4} (sc-IGZO) lattice-matched buffer layers by molecular beam epitaxy with a NH{sub 3} source. The epitaxial relationships are (0001){sub GaN}//(0001){sub IGZO}//(111){sub YSZ} in out-of-plane and [112-bar 0]{sub GaN}//[112-bar 0]{sub IGZO}//[11-bar 0]{sub YSZ} in in-plane. This is different from those reported for GaN on many oxide crystals; the in-plane orientation of GaN crystal lattice is rotated by 30{sup o} with respect to those of oxide substrates except for ZnO. Although these GaN films showed relatively large tilting and twisting angles, which would be due to the reaction between GaN and IGZO, the GaN films grown on the sc-IGZO buffer layers exhibited stronger band-edge photoluminescence than GaN grown on a low-temperature GaN buffer layer.

  5. Anchoring noble metal nanoparticles on CeO2 modified reduced graphene oxide nanosheets and their enhanced catalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhenyuan; Shen, Xiaoping; Xu, Yuling; Zhu, Guoxing; Chen, Kangmin

    2014-10-15

    The strategy of structurally integrating noble metal, metal oxide, and graphene is expected to offer prodigious opportunities toward emerging functions of graphene-based nanocomposites. In this study, we develop a facile two-step approach to disperse noble metal (Pt and Au) nanoparticles on the surface of CeO2 functionalized reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets. It is shown that Pt and Au with particle sizes of about 5 and 2nm are well dispersed on the surface of RGO/CeO2. The reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP) by NaBH4 was used as a model reaction to quantitatively evaluate the catalytic properties of the as-synthesized RGO/Pt/CeO2 and RGO/Au/CeO2 ternary nanocomposites. In such triple-component catalysts, CeO2 nanocrystals provide unique and critical roles for optimizing the catalytic performance of noble metallic Pt and Au, allowing them to express enhanced catalytic activities in comparison with RGO/Pt and RGO/Au catalysts. In addition, a possible mechanism for the enhanced catalytic activities of the RGO/Pt/CeO2 and RGO/Au/CeO2 ternary catalysts in the reduction of 4-NP is proposed. It is expected that our prepared graphene-based triple-component composites, which inherit peculiar properties of graphene, metal oxide, and noble metal, are attractive candidates for catalysis and other applications. PMID:25080384

  6. Enhanced blue light shielding property of light-diffusion polycarbonate composites by CeO2-coated silicate microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Shi, Liyi; Tang, Anjie; Song, Na; Tang, Shengfu; Ding, Peng

    2015-07-01

    The CeO2 coated silicate microspheres (SMSs) core-shell particles (SMS-CeO2) were synthesized for enhancing blue light shielding property of polycarbonate (PC) composites. The structure analysis showed that CeO2 particles were homogenously coated on SMS by Ce-O-Si bonds. The optical analysis indicated that the transmittance of PC/SMS-CeO2 composites were enhanced to 63.2% from 42.9% for PC/SMS/CeO2 composites when 0.6 wt.% fillers were loaded, while there was no obvious influence on the haze of the composites. UV-Vis analysis showed that the absorbance at 450-nm wavelength of blue-light increased from 24% of PC/SMS to 50% of PC/SMS-CeO2 composites, while the absorbance at 650-nm wavelength of red-light was unchanged. These results indicated that the PC/SMS-CeO2 composites had blue light shielding property and better performance on transmitting other visible lights.

  7. Etch characteristics of CeO2 thin film in Ar/CF4/Cl2 plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of Cl2 addition into CF4/Ar plasma on etching of CeO2 thin film was studied in terms of etch rate and selectivity. We obtained the maximum etch rate of 250 Aa/min at 10% Cl2 addition into CF4/Ar gas mixing ratio of 20%. The maximum etch rate may be explained by the variation of volume density for Cl atoms and by the concurrence of two etching mechanisms such as physical sputtering and chemical reaction with formation of low-volatile products, which can be desorbed only by ion bombardment. In addition, the roles of ion bombardment include destruction of Ce-O bonds to facilitate the chemical interaction of Ce with chlorine and fluorine atoms. The variation of volume density for Cl, F, and Ar atoms are measured by optical emission spectroscopy. The chemical states of CeO2 thin films before and after etching are investigated with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

  8. High density electronic excitation effects on microstructural evolution in CeO2 under irradiations with high energy fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For progressing high burnup extension of LWR fuels, formation and growth mechanism of a crystallographic re-structuring in the periphery region of high burnup fuel pellets, as named 'rim structure', should be clarified. The structure shall be formed by the accumulation and mutual interactions of radiation damages, fission products (FPs) and electronic excitations deposited partially by nuclear fissions. In order to clarify electronic excitation effects on the microstructural evolution in CeO2, 70-210 MeV FP ions (Xe, I, Zr) irradiation examinations on CeO2 have been done at JAERI-Tandem facility. These experiments clarify that 1) the effective area of electronic excitation by high energy fission products might be around 5-7 mmφ, and the square of ion track diameter tends to be proportional to the electronic stopping power (Se), and 2) overlapping of ion tracks, under 210 MeV Xe irradiation to a fluence of 1x1015 ions/cm2, makes the surface to be rough, whose size of the roughness is around 1 μm. (author)

  9. Adsorption and Reaction of Acetaldehyde on Shape-Controlled CeO2 Nanocrystals: Elucidation of Structure-function Relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Amanda K [ORNL; Wu, Zili [ORNL; Calaza, Florencia [Max Planck Society, Fritz Haber Institute; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    CeO2 cubes with {100} facets, octahedra with {111} facets, and wires with highly defective structures were utilized to probe the structure-dependent reactivity of acetaldehyde. Using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), temperature-programmed surface reactions (TPSR), and in situ infrared spectroscopy it was found that acetaldehyde desorbs unreacted or undergoes reduction, coupling, or C-C bond scission reactions depending on the surface structure of CeO2. Room temperature FTIR indicates that acetaldehyde binds primarily as 1-acetaldehyde on the octahedra, in a variety of conformations on the cubes, including coupling products and acetate and enolate species, and primarily as coupling products on the wires. The percent consumption of acetaldehyde follows the order of wires > cubes > octahedra. All the nanoshapes produce the coupling product crotonaldehyde; however, the selectivity to produce ethanol follows the order wires cubes >> octahedra. The selectivity and other differences can be attributed to the variation in the basicity of the surfaces, defects densities, coordination numbers of surface atoms, and the reducibility of the nanoshapes.

  10. Shape tailored green synthesis of CeO2:Ho3+ nanopowders, its structural, photoluminescence and gamma radiation sensing properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malleshappa, J.; Nagabhushana, H.; Kavyashree, D.; Prashantha, S. C.; Sharma, S. C.; Premkumar, H. B.; Shivakumara, C.

    2015-06-01

    CeO2:Ho3+ (1-9 mol%) nanopowders have been prepared by efficient and environmental friendly green combustion method using Aloe vera gel as fuel for the first time. The final products are well characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Bell, urchin, core shell and flower like morphologies are observed with different concentrations of the A. vera gel. It is apparent that by adjusting the concentration of the gel, considerable changes in the formation of CeO2:Ho3+ nano structures can be achieved. Photoluminescence (PL) studies show green (543, 548 nm) and red (645, 732 nm) emissions upon excited at 400 nm wavelength. The emission peaks at ∼526, 548, 655 and 732 nm are associated with the transitions of 5F3 → 5I8, 5S2 → 5I8, 5F5 → 5I8 and 5S2 → 5I7, respectively. Three TL glow peaks are observed at 118, 267 and 204 °C for all the γ irradiated samples which specify the surface and deeper traps. Linear TL response in the range 0.1-2 kGy shows that phosphor is fairly useful as γ radiation dosimeter. Kinetic parameters associated with the glow peaks are estimated using Chen's half width method. The CIE coordinate values show that phosphor is quite useful for the possible applications in WLEDs as orange red phosphor.

  11. Spectroscopic study of ZnO doped CeO 2-PbO-B 2O 3 glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal Singh, Gurinder; Singh, D. P.

    2011-09-01

    Glass samples of compositions xZnO- xCeO 2-(30- x)PbO-(70- x)B 2O 3 with x varying from 2% to 10% mole fraction are prepared by the melt quench technique. The structural and optical analysis of glasses is carried out by XRD, FTIR, density and UV-visible spectroscopic measurement techniques. The FTIR spectral analysis indicates that with the addition of ZnO contents in glass network, structural units of BO 3 are transformed into BO 4. It has been observed in our previous work that band gap decreases from 2.89 to 2.30 eV for CeO 2-PbO-B 2O 3 glasses with cerium content varying from 0% to 10% [Gurinder Pal Singh, Davinder Paul Singh, Physica B 406(3) (2011) 640-644]. With the incorporation of zinc in CeO 2-PbO-B 2O 3 glasses, the optical band gap energy decreases further from 2.38 to 2.03 eV. This causes more compaction of the borate network, which results in an increase of density (3.39-4.02 g/cm 3). Transmittance shows that ZnO in glass samples acts as a reducing agent thathelps to convert Ce 4+→Ce 3+ ions.

  12. Selective hydrogenation of benzene to cyclohexene over monometallic ruthenium catalysts in the presence of CeO2 and ZnSO4 as co-modifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海杰; 陈凌霞; 李帅辉; 江厚兵; 张元馨; 任保增; 刘仲毅; 刘仲毅

    2013-01-01

    The monometallic Ru catalysts with the CeO2 without calcination and ZnSO4 as co-modifiers gave a cyclohexene yield of 58.5% at the optimum nominal CeO2/Ru molar ratio of 0.15. Moreover, this catalyst had a good stability. The chemisorbed (Zn(OH)2)3(ZnSO4)(H2O)3 salt on Ru surface, which was formed by the CeO2 reacting with ZnSO4, created the new Ru active sites suitable for the formation of cyclohexene and improved the selectivity to cyclohexene. In addition, the Zn2+in the aqueous phase could form a stable complex with cyclohexene, stabilizing the cyclohexene in the liquid phase and improving the selectivity to cyclo-hexene. The calcination treatment of CeO2 was not beneficial for the enhancement of the selectivity to cyclohexene since it is difficult for the CeO2 calcinated to react with ZnSO4 to form the (Zn(OH)2)3(ZnSO4)(H2O)3 salt.

  13. Effect of 10 MeV iodine ion irradiation on the magnetic properties and lattice structure of CeO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the magnetic properties and the lattice structure of pure CeO2 irradiated with swift heavy ions. Experimental results showed that the ferromagnetism was induced at room temperature by 10 MeV I ion irradiation. The value of saturation magnetization increases with increasing the ion fluence and reaches a maximum value at about the fluence of 1.2 × 1013/cm2, and then decreases. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra showed that the lattice parameter of CeO2 increases with increasing ion fluence. To examine the origin of the ferromagnetic state in CeO2, we compared the result for 10 MeV I ion irradiation with that for 200 MeV Xe ion irradiation. We also estimated the magnetic properties for CeO2 pellets annealed at 1273 K in a vacuum. From the experimental results, we concluded that oxygen vacancies, which are produced by electronic excitation process due to high energy ion beam, play an important role in the appearance of the ferromagnetic state in CeO2. (author)

  14. Electrochemical characterization of an aqueous lithium rechargeable battery: The effect of CeO2 additions to the MnO2 cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of CeO2 additions on an aqueous rechargeable lithium battery has been investigated. The CeO2 additions (0, 2, and 5 wt.%) were made to the manganese dioxide (MnO2) cathode of a cell comprising zinc as an anode and an aqueous saturated lithium hydroxide solution as the electrolyte. The CeO2 enhances the performance of the cell in terms of capacity and resistance to capacity fade with cycling. This effect is only evident after the first charge cycle. The mechanism by which this occurs may be due to suppression of the oxygen evolution reaction during charging. This results in full reversion of the products of discharge (principally LixMnO2) to MnO2 during charging, and suppresses the formation of non-rechargeable oxyhydroxides. CeO2 additions of 2 wt.% were found to be most effective, since additions at the 5 wt.% level caused a decrease in capacity during long-term cycling. This could be due to a synchronizing effect. The effect of additions of a rare earth oxide (CeO2) and an alkaline earth oxide (CaO) on the electrochemical behavior of the cell is also compared and discussed.

  15. Photoluminescence, photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of CeO2·CuO·ZnO nanocomposite fabricated by co-precipitation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, Md Abdus; Uddin, Nizam; Sarker, Prosenjit; Azad, Abul Kalam; Begum, Kulsuma

    2015-10-01

    A novel tri-metallic oxide nanocomposite CeO2·CuO·ZnO has been synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method. The nanocomposite has been characterized by XRD, SEM, EDS, FTIR and PL spectra. The crystallite size of the CeO2·CuO·ZnO was calculated using XRD data. The crystallite size of the CeO2·CuO·ZnO mixed metal oxide annealed at 600 °C is found to be in range of 15.34-44.81 nm, with an average size of 29.51 nm. Excitation at different wavelengths showed PL in UV and visible regions. It has been found that PL behavior of CeO2·CuO·ZnO is excitation wavelength dependent. This flexible PL property is conflicting to well-known Kasha's rule of excitation wavelength dependence of emission spectrum. The catalyst shows better photo-catalytic dye degradation efficiency in slightly alkaline pH in presence of H2O2. Nanocomposite CeO2·CuO·ZnO was found to be effective against pathogenic bacteria. PMID:26002435

  16. Synthesis of Dimethyl Carbonate from Ethylene Carbonate and Methanol Over Nano-Catalysts Supported on CeO2-MgO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jin Oh; Lee, Joongwon; Kang, Ki Hyuk; Song, In Kyu

    2015-10-01

    A series of CeO2(X)-MgO(1-X) (X = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0) nano-catalysts were prepared by a co-precipitation method for use in the synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from ethylene carbonate and methanol. Among the CeO2(X)-MgO(1-X) catalysts, CeO2(0.25)-MgO(0.75) nano-catalyst showed the best catalytic performance. Alkali and alkaline earth metal oxides (MO = Li2O, K2O, Cs2O, SrO, and BaO) were then supported on CeO2(0.25)-MgO(0.75) by an incipient wetness impregnation method with an aim of improving the catalytic performance of CeO2(0.25)-MgO(0.75). Basicity of the catalysts was determined by CO2-TPD experiments in order to elucidate the effect of basicity on the catalytic performance. The correlation between catalytic performance and basicity showed that basicity played an important role in the reaction. Yield for dimethyl carbonate increased with increasing basicity of the catalysts. Among the catalysts tested, Li2O/CeO2(0.25)-MgO(0.75) nano-catalyst with the largest basicity showed the best catalytic performance in the synthesis of dimethyl carbonate. PMID:26726512

  17. Effect of CeO2 addition on Ni/Al2O3 catalysts for methanation of carbon dioxide with hydrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hezhi Liu; Xiujing Zou; Xueguang Wang; Xionggang Lu; Weizhong Ding

    2012-01-01

    The Ni-CeO2/Al2O3 catalysts with a nickel content of 15 wt% prepared via impregnating boehmite were found to be highly active and stable for methanation of carbon dioxide with hydrogen at a H2/CO2 molar ratio of 4.The effects of CeO2 content and reaction temperature on the performance of the Ni-CeO2/Al2O3 catalysts were studied in detail.The results showed that the catalytic performance was strongly dependent on the CeO2 content in Ni-CeO2/Al2O3 catalysts and that the catalysts with 2 wt% CeO2 had the highest catalytic activity among the tested ones at 350 ℃.The XRD and H2-TPR characterizations revealed that the addition of CeO2 decreased the reduction temperature by altering the interaction between Ni and Al2O3,and improved the reducibility of the catalyst.Preliminary stability test of 120 h on stream over the Ni-2CeO2/Al2O3 catalyst at 350 ℃ revealed that the catalyst was much better than the unpromoted one.

  18. Optimized CeO2 content of the carbon nanofiber support of PtRu catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunitomo, Hikari; Ishitobi, Hirokazu; Nakagawa, Nobuyoshi

    2015-11-01

    A series of CeO2 embedded carbon nanofibers, CECNFs, with different CeO2 contents was prepared by an electrospinning technique. About 15 wt% PtRu nanoparticles were deposited on the fibers, and the effect of the CeO2 content on the methanol oxidation activity of the catalyst, PtRu/CECNF, was investigated. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and CO stripping electrochemical measurements and physical characterization along with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were carried out on the prepared catalysts. The mass activity of the PtRu was significantly increased by the CeO2 addition up to Ce/C = 0.4, and the maximized activity was 2 times higher than that without CeO2. The increased activity was attributed to the strong interaction between the metal and oxide in the embedded nanofiber structure. A DMFC with the PtRu/CECNF exhibited more than 2.5 times high power density with one half the PtRu loading compared to that of the commercial catalyst, PtRu/Ccom.

  19. Effects of grain size and CeO2 addition on the corrosion behaviour of Cr2O3 based ceramics in high temperature supercritical water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this investigation, Cr2O3 ceramics with different grain sizes were prepared and tested in supercritical water (SCW) environment at 650°C /25 MPa for 200 hours. The results show that the stability of Cr2O3 in SCW was affected by its grain size. In addition, various amounts of CeO2 were added to Cr2O3 to examine the effect of CeO2 on the corrosion behaviour of the Cr2O3 based ceramic under SCW condition. These Cr2O3-based ceramics were exposed to an SCW environment at 650°C/ 25 MPa for up to 600 hours. The results showed that adding a proper amount (≤ 5 wt. %) of CeO2 increased the corrosion resistance of Cr2O3-based ceramics in SCW. (author)

  20. Mineralization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over the catalyst CuO-Co3O4-CeO2 and its applications in industrial odor control

    KAUST Repository

    Somekawa, Shouichi

    2011-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present at ppm levels were decomposed over the catalyst CuO-Co3O4-CeO2 (Cu:Co:Ce = 10:45:45 in mol) in an attempt to scale up for industrial odor control. In addition to enhancing the catalytic activity, CuO-Co3O4 and CeO2 helped, respectively, to maintain the strength of the pelleted catalysts and inhibit their sintering. Using toluene as a VOC model compound, kinetic analysis of the total oxidation to carbon dioxide was conducted. The odor emitted from paint-drying processes could be eliminated effectively using CuO-Co3O4-CeO2 (Cu:Co:Ce = 10:45:45) pelleted catalysts (188 ml) in a large-scale system. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Removals of aqueous sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide using CeO2-NiAl-LDHs coating activated carbon and its mix with carbon nano-tubes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2015-07-01

    Ce-doped NiAl/layered double hydroxide was coated at activated carbon by urea hydrolysis method (CeO2-NiAl-LDHs/AC) in one pot, which was characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectra, field emission scanning electron microscope and electrochemical techniques. CeO2-NiAl-LDHs/AC shows good uptake for aqueous sulfur dioxide (483.09mg/g) and hydrogen sulfide (181.15mg/g), respectively at 25°C. Meanwhile, the electrochemical removals of aqueous sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide were respectively investigated at the mix of CeO2-NiAl-LDHs/AC and carbon nano-tubes modified homed paraffin-impregnated electrode. Both sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide could be effectively oxidized to sulfuric acid at 1.0V in alkaline aqueous solution. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  2. CeO2-TiO2 as a visible light active catalyst for the photoreduction of CO2 to methanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamidah Abdullah; Maksudur R Khan; Manoj Pudukudy; Zahira Yaakob; Nur Aminatulmimi Ismail

    2015-01-01

    The performance of CeO2-TiO2 photocatalyst for the photocatalytic reduction of CO2 into methanol was studied under visi-ble light irradiation. The as-prepared catalysts were characterized for their structural, textural and optical properties using X-ray dif-fraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nitrogen phy-sisorption analysis, UV-vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The characterization results indicated that the presence of CeO2 stabilized the anatase phase of TiO2, decreased its crystallite size, increased the surface area, reduced the band gap energy and lowered the rate of electron-hole pair recombination. The CeO2-TiO2 photocatalyst showed an increased methanol yield of 18.6 µmol/g under visible light irradiation, compared to the bare TiO2 (6.0 µmol/g).

  3. First-principles study of elastic properties of CeO2, ThO2 and PoO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using first-principles density functional calculations, the structural and elastic properties of fluorite type oxides CeO2, ThO2 and PoO2 were studied by means of the full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital method. Calculations were performed within the local density approximation (LDA) as well as generalized gradient approximation (GGA) to the exchange correlation potential. The calculated equilibrium lattice constants and bulk moduli are in good agreement with the experimental results, as are the computed elastic constants for CeO2 and ThO2. For PoO2 this is the first quantitative theoretical prediction of the ground state properties, and it still awaits experimental confirmation. The calculations find PoO2 to be a semiconductor with an indirect band gap and elastic constants similar in magnitude to those of CeO2 and ThO2

  4. Epitaxial growth of CeO2 thin film on cube textured NiW substrate using a propionate-based metalorganic deposition (MOD) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Accurate study of decomposition of cerium propionate based precursors. ► Epitaxial CeO2 thin film on Ni–W substrate in a reducing atmosphere. ► The films exhibit a high degree of epitaxy within the Dimos criteria. ► The obtained CeO2 films are appropriate for YBCO based coated conductor application. - Abstract: The CeO2 films were epitaxially grown on (0 0 1)[1 0 0]Ni–W biaxially textured substrate using a propionate-based metalorganic deposition (MOD) method. The as deposited CeO2 films exhibit a sharp biaxial texture, with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of φ and ω-scans of about 7.15° and 7.8°, respectively. The in-plane and out-of plane epitaxial relationship are [0 0 1]CeO2//[0 0 1]Ni–W and [1 0 0]CeO2//[1 1 0]Ni–W, respectively. The morphology of the films is strongly correlated with the film thickness and crystallization temperature. Thus, the 0.3 μm thick film crystallized at 1100 °C has a smooth surface free of cracks or voids with a root mean square roughness (RMS) of about 2.5 nm, whilst the 1.1 μm thick film presents many cracks and a low density of voids. The cracks along the substrate grain boundaries observed in the thicker films take place in the already crystallized film during the rapid cooling process due to difference between the thermal expansion coefficients of the film and metallic Ni–W substrate.

  5. Long and short term impacts of CuO, Ag and CeO2 nanoparticles on anaerobic digestion of municipal waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünşar, E Kökdemir; Çığgın, A S; Erdem, A; Perendeci, N A

    2016-02-01

    In this study, long and short term inhibition impacts of Ag, CuO and CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) on anaerobic digestion (AD) of waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated. CuO NPs were detected as the most toxic NPs on AD. As the CuO NP concentration increased from 5 to 1000 mg per gTS, an increase in the inhibition of AD from 5.8 to 84.0% was observed. EC50 values of short and long term inhibitions were calculated as 224.2 mgCuO per gTS and 215.1 mgCuO per gTS, respectively. Ag and CeO2 NPs did not cause drastic impacts on AD as compared to CuO NPs. In the long term test, Ag NPs created 12.1% decrease and CeO2 NPs caused 9.2% increase in the methane production from WAS at the highest dosage. FISH imaging also revealed that the abundance of Archaea in raw WAS was similar in short and long term tests carried out with WAS containing Ag and CeO2 NPs. On the other hand, CuO NPs caused inhibition of Archaea in the long term test. Digestion kinetics of WAS containing Ag, CeO2, CuO NPs were also evaluated with Gompertz, Logistic, Transference and First Order models. The hydrolysis rate constant (kH) for each concentration of Ag and CeO2 NPs and the raw WAS was 0.027745 d(-1) while the kH of WAS containing high concentrations of CuO NPs was found to be 0.001610 d(-1). PMID:26767436

  6. CO2 Reduction to Methanol on CeO2 (110) Surface: a Density Functional Theory Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The mechanism for CO2 reduction to methanol on CeO2(110) surface was studied by DFT. • Formate (HCOO) intermediate species may not participate in methanol formation. • Carboxyl (COOH) intemediate species may produce CO via a RWGS type reaction. • Subsequent CO hydrogenation produces methanol which involves exothermic steps. • Methane formation via CO dissociation is unlikely on CeO2(110) surface. - Abstract: Numerical basis-set based density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to investigate the routes for CO2 reduction to methanol on extended CeO2(110) surface. Thermochemistry of elementary steps for the suggested routes of CO2 reduction to CH3OH was evaluated. Calculations were performed to determine the most favorable adsorption orientation and corresponding binding energy of reaction intermediates. Mechanistic routes considering the formation of the carboxyl (COOH) or the formate (HCOO) intermediate species were considered. Formate was observed to be stable with a binding energy of -222.9 kJ/mole on the surface of the stoichiometric ceria as compared to the carboxyl (Ebinding = -36.0 kJ/mole). Formate species on subsequent hydrogenation produce H2COOH. In order to produce methanol, H2COOH is required to dissociate into H2CO and OH which is a significantly endothermic (ΔErxn = 64.0 kJ/mol) step. On the contrary, the overall route involving a carboxyl intermediate is exothermic, on both stoichiometric and reduced ceria surface, except for the dissociation of carboxyl (COOH) into CO and OH (COOH -> CO + OH) which is endothermic by 5.0 kJ/mole and 24.4 kJ/mole on stoichiometric and reduced ceria respectively. On the stoichiometric ceria, the activation barrier (Ea = 126.9 kJ/mole) for COOH dissociation was estimated to be significantly higher as compared to the expected rate limiting step of CO2 hydrogenation (Ea = 36.5 kJ/mole). A possible lateral route for the reduction of CO2 to methane via the fomation of adsorbed CO was considered. CO dissociation on the ceria surface was estimated to be highly endothermic (ΔErxn = 772.9 kJ/mole) and is unlikely to produce methane

  7. Effect of Oxide Buffer Layer on the Thermochromic Properties of VO2 Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun; Xu, Lu; Ko, Kyeong-Eun; Ahn, Seunghyun; Chang, Se-Hong; Park, Chan

    2013-12-01

    VO2 thin films were deposited on soda lime glass substrates with ZnO, TiO2, SnO2, and CeO2 thin films applied as buffer layers between the VO2 films and the substrates in order to investigate the effect of buffer layer on the formation and the thermochromic properties of VO2 film. Buffer layers with thicknesses over 50 nm were found to affect the formation of VO2 film, which was confirmed by XRD spectra. By using ZnO, TiO2, and SnO2 buffer layers, monoclinic VO2 (VO2(M)) film was successfully fabricated on soda lime glass at 370 °C. On the contrary, films of VO2(B), which is known to have no phase transition near room temperature, were formed rather than VO2(M) when the film was deposited on CeO2 buffer layer at the same film deposition temperature. The excellent thermochromic properties of the films deposited on ZnO, TiO2, and SnO2 buffer layers were confirmed from the temperature dependence of electrical resistivity from room temperature to 80 °C. Especially, due to the tendency of ZnO thin film to grow with a high degree of preferred orientation on soda lime glass at low temperature, the VO2 film deposited on ZnO buffer layer exhibits the best thermochromic properties compared to those on other buffer layer materials used in this study. These results suggest that deposition of VO2 films on soda lime glass at low temperature with excellent thermochromic properties can be achieved by considering the buffer layer material having structural similarity with VO2. Moreover, the degree of crystallization of buffer layer is also related with that of VO2 film, and thus ZnO can be one of the most effective buffer layer materials.

  8. The effects of physicochemical properties of CeO2 nanoparticles on toxicity to soil denitrification processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahle, Jessica Teague

    The studies presented in this thesis identify the impact of NP CeO 2 on soil denitrifying microbial communities and reveal that physical and chemical characteristics including particle size, speciation, concentration, pH, and presence of ligands are key to predicting environmental fate and reactivity of NP CeO2 in the soil. A review of the literature in Chapter 1 revealed a widespread lack of toxicological information for soil exposures to NP CeO2. Soil denitrifying bacteria are a keystone species because they serve an important role in the global nitrogen cycle controlling the atmospheric nitrogen input. Soil denitrifiers are important to this study because the reducing conditions during denitrification could induce phase transformation of Ce(IV) to Ce(III), potentially influencing the toxicity of Ce. Cerium is well known for being the only lanthanide that is thermodynamically stable in both the trivalent and tetravalent state in low temperature geochemical environments. Using well characterized NP Ce(IV)O 2 as well as bulk soluble Ce(III), batch denitrification experiments were conducted to evaluate the toxicity of Ce species to the denitrifying community in a Toccoa sandy loam soil. The statistical analysis on the antimicrobial effect on soil denitrifiers was conducted using both steady-state evaluation and zero-order kinetic models in order to compare the toxicity of the Ce(III) species to the NPs. These studies, presented in Chapter 3, show that soluble Ce(III) is far more toxic than Ce(IV)O2 NPs when an equal total concentration of Ce is used, though both species exhibit toxicity to the denitrifiers via statistically significant inhibition of soil denitrification processes. Particle-size dependent toxicity, species-dependent toxicity, and concentration-dependent toxicity were all observed in this study for both the steady-state and the kinetic evaluations. The possibility of toxicity enhancement and diminishment via dissolution and ligand complexation pathways was investigated thoroughly in Chapter 2. In addition to the equilibrium and kinetic-based toxicological assessments presented in Chapter 1, dissolution and sorption experiments were performed to gain an overall understanding of Ce biogeochemistry in the terrestrial environment post-release and reveal possible geochemical controls on toxicity. It was shown that dissolution of bioavailable Ce is pH-dependent; dissolution is only detectable at acidic pH values (denitrifiers are strongly affected by physical and chemical characteristics such as speciation, pH, and bioavailable ligands. As the global market for nanomaterials rapidly expands, so does the need of the scientific community for an understanding of how these influences in environmental fate and reactivity may be key in assessing toxicological risks associated with environmental exposures to NP CeO2 as well as other engineered metal oxide nanoparticles. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  9. Facile synthesis of catalytically active CeO2-Gd2O3 solid solutions for soot oxidation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Naga Durgasri; T Vinodkumar; Benjaram M Reddy

    2014-03-01

    CeO2-Gd2O3 oxides were synthesized by a modified coprecipitation method and subjected to thermal treatments at different temperatures to understand their thermal behaviour. The obtained samples were characterized by XRD, BET, TEM, Raman and TPR techniques. Catalytic efficiencies for oxygen storage/release capacity (OSC) and soot oxidation were evaluated by a thermogravimetric (TG) method. XRD and Raman results indicated the formation of Ce0.8Gd0.2O2− (CG) solid solutions at lower calcination temperatures, and TEM studies confirmed nanosized nature of the particles. Raman studies further confirmed the presence of oxygen vacancies and lattice defects in the CG sample. TPR measurements indicated a facile reduction of ceria after Gd3+ addition. Activity studies revealed that incorporation of Gd3+ into the ceria matrix favoured the creation of more structural defects, which accelerates the oxidation rate of soot compared to pure ceria.

  10. Synthesis by Sol-gel and characterization of catalysts Ag/Al2O3-CeO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminia, cerium and mixed oxides Al2O3-CeO2 with different relationship Al/Ce (0.75, 0.50 and 0.25) were prepared by sol-gel and used as support for the Ag. The samples were characterized by XRD, DRIFT, TPR and adsorption of N2 to temperature of liquid nitrogen. The surface area BET showed that the materials that contain aluminia present near values among them. XRD allowed to identify to the cerianite in the oxides that whose support contains cerium and to the α-aluminia. A mixture of phases was observed in the aluminia. Vibration bands attributed to the bond Al-O and Ce-O were observed by DRIFT in the catalytic materials. TPR showed differences in the reducibility of the Ag precursor in the indicative catalysts of a different interaction with the support. (Author)

  11. Growth and structure of epitaxial CeO2 films on yttria-stabilized ZrO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty to a hundred-nm thick epitaxial CeO2 layers are grown on YSZ (100), (110) and (111) surfaces of yttria-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) by electron beam evaporation of Ce in oxygen at reduced pressure. Their growth, structure and thermal stability are studied with several bulk and surface sensitive techniques including Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, cross-sectional high resolution electron microscopy, low energy electron diffraction and low energy reflection electron microscopy. Excellent epitaxy is obtained on all YSZ surfaces at a growth temperature of 750 K. The surfaces of films grown on (111)-oriented substrates are flat, whereas those on the other substrates are faceted into small (111) planes. The grain sizes in the films are in the 10 nm range and smaller

  12. Synthesis and characterization of biomorphic CeO2 obtained by using egg shell membrane as template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Prekajski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new technology based on bio-templating approach was proposed in this paper. Egg-shell membrane (ESM has been employed as a natural biotemplate. Fibrous oxide ceramics was prepared by wet impregnation of biological template with water solution of cerium nitrate. The template was derived from membranes of fresh chicken eggs. Repeated impregnation, pyrolysis and final calcination in the range of 600 to 1200 °C in air resulted in template burnout and consolidation of the oxide layers. At low temperatures, the obtained products had structure which corresponded to the negative replication of biological templates. Unique bio-morphic CeO2 microstructures with interwoven networks were synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD, whereas low-temperature nitrogen adsorption (BET method was used in order to characterize porous properties.

  13. Raman and FTIR spectra of CeO2 and Gd2O3 in iron phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The structure of the studied samples has been investigated by Raman and FTIR spectroscopy. • The structure for the all samples has similar features. • The structure consists of predominantly Q1 with a fraction of Q0 and Q2 units. • The Ce and Gd enters in the structure of studied glasses as a network modifier. - Abstract: In the present work, multicomponent oxide samples of composition x(CeO2 + Gd2O3)–(40 − x)Fe2O3–60P2O5 (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 8 mol%) were produced by conventional melting method. The samples were investigated to examine the effect of the CeO2 and Gd2O3 composition on the structure of the iron phosphate glasses system. The X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the x ⩽ 6 mol% samples show all the samples formed homogeneous glass, but for the x = 8 mol% samples show the presence of randomly distributed crystalline phase embedded in an amorphous matrix. The x(CeO2 + Gd2O3)–(40 − x)Fe2O3–60P2O5 glass containing 8 mol% CeO2 and Gd2O3 partially crystallized during annealing and Ce/Gd-rich were identified by EDS in the crystalline phase. The structure of the studied samples has been investigated using Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The Raman and FTIR spectra for the samples have analogous spectral features. The Raman and FTIR spectra suggest that the structure is mainly constituted by the pyrophosphate glass based structure, with a part proportion of metaphosphate and orthophosphate structure. Raman and FTIR spectra allowed us to identify the structural units which appear in the structural network of these phosphate glasses and also the network modifier role of cerium and gadolinium ions

  14. Voltage tunable dielectric properties of oxides at nanoscale: TiO2 and CeO2 as model systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, T.; Tamil Selvan, A.; Suraiya Begum, S. N.

    2016-03-01

    Carrier transport through electrically active grain boundaries has been studied under biased condition using Solartron 1260 impedance/gain phase analyzer with an applied AC potential of 250 mV in the frequency range 1 Hz-1 MHz for nanocrystalline TiO2 and CeO2 as the model systems. Prior to the measurement both the materials were converted into cylindrical pellets with (8 mm diameter and 1 mm thick) by applying uni-axial pressure of 4 ton using a hydraulic press, then sintered at 300, 450 and 600 °C for 30 min for TiO2 sample and for the case of CeO2 it was done at 300, 600 and 900 °C for 30 min. Further, they were characterized using powder X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to know the crystal structure, average crystallite size and morphology. The impedance measurements were performed at room temperature under applied DC bias voltages from 0 to 3 V in the periodic increment of 0.2 V. The observed applied bias voltage effect on dielectric constant of both the systems was analyzed with 'grain boundary double Schottky potential barrier height model' for different grain sizes. The percentage of voltage tunable dielectric constant (T%) as a function of frequency was estimated for all the grain sizes and it was found to be increase with reduction of grain size. Our experimental findings reveal the possibilities of utilizing these nanocrystals as a potential active material for phased array antenna since both the samples exhibits T% = 85% at 100 Hz frequency.

  15. Buffer design 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posiva's spent nuclear fuel disposal is based on the KBS-3V concept and on the characteristics of the Olkiluoto site. In this concept single canisters containing spent nuclear fuel surrounded by a bentonite buffer are emplaced in individual vertical boreholes drilled in the floor of deposition tunnels in bedrock at about 420 m depth below ground level. Disk type bentonite blocks are installed at the bottom of the hole and on the top of the disposal canister. Ring type bentonite blocks surround the canisters. This report describes the detailed design of the buffer for a KBS-3V repository. The report presents the design basis, the reference design, and summarises the performance analyses carried out for the design. This report addresses aspects concerning the manufacture, quality control, mechanical strength, chemical resistance, thermal dimensioning, handling of buffer components and material ageing phenomena including the effect of radiation. Interaction of buffer and other engineered barriers are included in the study. The long-term evolution of the repository and its effective drivers are considered if they have an impact on the buffer performance but operational safety aspects are also included because they may affect long-term safety. (orig.)

  16. Effect of Nano CeO2 Addition on the Microstructure and Properties of a Cu-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhishek; Jain, Ashish Kumar; Hussain, Shahadat; Sampath, V.; Dasgupta, Rupa

    2016-08-01

    This article deals with the effect of adding nano CeO2 to act as a grain pinner/refiner to a known Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy. Elements were taken in a predefined ratio to prepare 300 g alloy per batch and melted in an induction furnace. Casting was followed by homogenization at 1173 K (900 °C) and rolling to make sheets of 0.5-mm thickness. Further, samples were characterized for microstructure using optical and electron microscope, hardness, and different phase studies by X-ray and transformation temperatures by differential scanning calorimetry. X-ray peak broadenings and changes were investigated to estimate the crystallite size, lattice strain, and phase changes due to different processing steps. A nearly uniform distribution of CeO2 and better martensitic structure were observed with increasing CeO2. The addition of CeO2 also shows a visible effect on the transformation temperature and phase formation.

  17. Correction: One step in situ synthesis of CeO2 nanoparticles grown on reduced graphene oxide as an excellent fluorescent and photocatalyst material under sunlight irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sachin; Ojha, Animesh K; Patrice, Donfack; Yadav, Brajesh S; Materny, Arnulf

    2016-05-14

    Correction for 'One step in situ synthesis of CeO2 nanoparticles grown on reduced graphene oxide as an excellent fluorescent and photocatalyst material under sunlight irradiation' by Animesh Kumar Ojha et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2015, DOI: . PMID:27089926

  18. CeO2-ZnO hexagonal nanodisks: Efficient material for the degradation of direct blue 15 dye and its simulated dye bath effluent under solar light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Synthesis of CeO2-ZnO hexagonal nanodisks. • Excellent morphological, crystalline and photoluminescent properties. • Solar light responsive photocatalyst for degradation of direct blue 15 dye and its simulated dye bath effluent. - Abstract: Well-crystalline CeO2-ZnO hexagonal nanodisks were synthesized by simple and facile chemical reaction process at low-temperature and characterized in detail by using several techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The detailed characterizations results revealed that the prepared samples are well-crystalline with good optical and structural properties and possessing hexagonal morphologies. Further, the prepared material was used as efficient photocatalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of highly hazardous direct blue (DB)-15 dye under solar light irradiation. The CeO2-ZnO hexagonal nanodisks exhibited superior photocatalytic performance towards the degradation of DB 15 dye and its simulated dye bath effluent under solar light. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of CeO2-ZnO hexagonal nanodisks could be attributed to the suppression of photo-induced e−/h+ pair recombination. Moreover, various scavengers have been used to study the role of reactive species in the photo-degradation process

  19. Microstructural and spectroscopic investigations into the effect of CeO2 additions on the performance of a MnO2 aqueous rechargeable battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of CeO2 additions on the electrochemical behaviour of the MnO2 cathode in a Zn-MnO2 battery using lithium hydroxide (LiOH) as an electrolyte is investigated using microscopy and spectroscopic techniques. The results showed that such additions greatly improve the discharge capacity of the battery (from 155 to 190 mAh g-1) but only from the second discharge cycle onwards. Capacity fade with subsequent cycling is also greatly reduced. With an aim to understand the role of CeO2 on the discharge-charge characteristics of MnO2 and its mechanism, we have used a range of microscopy, spectroscopy and diffraction-based techniques to study the process. The CeO2 is not modified by multiple discharged and charged cycles. The CeO2 may enhance the discharge-charge performance of the battery by raising the oxygen evolution potential during charging but does not take part directly in the redox reaction

  20. Ionic conductivity ageing behaviour of 10 mol.% Sc2O3–1 mol.% CeO2–ZrO2 ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omar, Shobit; Bonanos, Nikolaos

    2010-01-01

    The long-term ionic conductivity behaviour of samples of zirconia co-doped with 10 mol.% of Sc2O3 and 1 mol.% CeO2 is evaluated in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres at 600 °C. After 3,000 h, the sample kept in reducing atmospheres exhibits 20% loss in the ionic conductivity, while the sample kept...

  1. Effect of Co3O4 and CeO2 Infiltration on the Activity of a LSM15/GDC10 Highly Porous Electrochemical Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ippolito, Davide; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2014-01-01

    VOC component of Diesel engine exhausts, over a wide range of temperatures. The entire reactor was thought as a highly porous catalytic filter for a possible application in a Diesel exhausts purification system. The porous reactor was used as a backbone for the infiltration of Co3O4 and Co3O4/CeO2...

  2. Stability of uncoated and fulvic acids coated manufactured CeO2 nanoparticles in various conditions: From ultrapure to natural Lake Geneva waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriekhova, Olena; Stoll, Serge

    2016-08-15

    Understanding the behavior of engineered nanoparticles in natural water and impact of water composition in changing conditions is of high importance to predict their fate once released into the environment. In this study we investigated the stability of uncoated and Suwannee River fulvic acids coated CeO2 manufactured nanoparticles in various environmental conditions. The effect of pH changes on the nanoparticle and coating stability was first studied in ultrapure water as well as the variation of zeta potentials and sizes with time in presence of fulvic acids at environmental pH. Then the stability of CeO2 in synthetic and natural Lake Geneva waters was investigated as a function of fulvic acids concentration. Our results indicate that the adsorption of environmentally relevant concentrations of Suwannee River fulvic acids promotes CeO2 stabilization in ultrapure water as well as synthetic water and that the coating stability is high upon pH variations. On the other hand in natural Lake Geneva water CeO2 NPs are found in all cases aggregated due to the effect of heterogeneous organic and inorganic compounds. PMID:27100013

  3. Mixed-valence metal oxide nanoparticles as electrochemical half-cells: substituting the Ag/AgCl of reference electrodes by CeO(2-x) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarale, Rajaram K; Hoss, Udo; Heller, Adam

    2012-12-26

    Cations of mixed valence at surfaces of metal oxide nanoparticles constitute electrochemical half-cells, with potentials intermediate between those of the dissolved cations and those in the solid. When only cations at surfaces of the particles are electrochemically active, the ratio of electrochemically active/all cations is ~0.1 for 15 nm diameter CeO(2-x) particles. CeO(2-x) nanoparticle-loaded hydrogel films on printed carbon and on sputtered gold constitute reference electrodes having a redox potential similar to that of Ag/AgCl in physiological (0.14 M) saline solutions. In vitro the characteristics of potentially subcutaneously implantable glucose monitoring sensors made with CeO(2-x) nanoparticle reference electrodes are undistinguishable from those of sensors made with Ag/AgCl reference electrodes. Cerium is 900 times more abundant than silver, and commercially produced CeO(2-x) nanoparticle solutions are available at prices well below those of the Ag/AgCl pastes used in the annual manufacture of ~10(9) reference electrodes of glucose monitoring strips for diabetes management. PMID:23171288

  4. Preparation and characterization of p–n heterojunction CuBi2O4/CeO2 and its photocatalytic activities under UVA light irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkader Elaziouti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available CuBi2O4/CeO2 nanocomposites were synthesized by the solid state method and were characterized by a number of techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was investigated under UVA light and assessed using Congo red (CR dye as probe reaction. The efficiency of the coupled CuBi2O4/CeO2 photocatalyst was found to be related to the amount of added CuBi2O4 and to the pH medium. The CuBi2O4/CeO2 photocatalyst exhibited the high efficiency as a result of 83.05% of degradation of CR under UVA light for 100 min of irradiation time with 30 wt% of CuBi2O4 at 25 °C and pH 7, which is about 6 times higher than that of CeO2. The photodegradation reactions satisfactorily correlated with the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The mechanism of the enhanced photocatalytic efficiency was explained by the heterojunction model.

  5. Facile Synthesis of CeO2-LaFeO3 Perovskite Composite and Its Application for 4-(Methylnitrosamino-1-(3-Pyridyl-1-Butanone (NNK Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaixuan Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A facile and environmentally friendly surface-ion adsorption method using CeCO3OH@C as template was demonstrated to synthesize CeO2-LaFeO3 perovskite composite material. The obtained composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, thermo-gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS measurements. The catalytic degradation of nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK was tested to evaluate catalytic activity of the CeO2-LaFeO3 composite. Much better activity was observed for the CeO2-LaFeO3 composite comparing with CeO2 and LaFeO3. These results suggested that perovskite composite materials are a promising candidate for the degradation of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs.

  6. Germination and early plant development of 10 plant species exposed to Nano TiO2 and CeO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten agronomic plant species were exposed to different concentrations of nano-TiO2 or CeO2 (0, 250, 500 and 1000 ug/l) and followed to examine effects on germination and early seedling development. For TiO2, cabbage showed increased and corn decreased percent germination, while ...

  7. A DFT+U study on the contribution of 4f electrons to oxygen vacancy formation and migration in Ln-doped CeO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaydrus, M; Sakaue, M; Kasai, H

    2016-05-14

    A rare earth doped form of ceria (CeO2) is of interest as a potential candidate for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) because of its relatively high oxygen ion conductivity at temperatures below 600 °C. At the present time, computational chemistry has reached a certain maturity which allows the prediction of materials properties that are difficult to observe experimentally. However, understanding of the roles of dopants in the oxygen ion conduction in CeO2 is still incomplete for quantitatively reliable analysis due to the strong electron correlation of 4f electrons. In this study, density functional theory calculations with Hubbard U corrections are used to discuss ionic/covalent interactions in rare-earth-doped CeO2 and their consequences to oxygen ion conduction. This study suggests that the variable occupancy of empty 4f orbitals is important typically for early Ln elements to produce the covalent interactions that essentially affect the formation and migration of oxygen vacancies. This finding is important in understanding the factors responsible for oxygen ion diffusion in doped CeO2. PMID:27108893

  8. Dose-Dependent Effects of CeO2 on Microstructure and Antibacterial Property of Plasma-Sprayed TiO2 Coatings for Orthopedic Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaobing; Liu, Gaopeng; Zheng, Hai; Cao, Huiliang; Liu, Xuanyong

    2015-02-01

    Titanium and its alloys have been used extensively for orthopedic and dental implants. Although these devices have achieved high rates of success, two major complications may be encountered: the lack of osseointegration and the biomaterial-related infection. Accordingly, cerium oxide (CeO2)-doped titanium oxide (TiO2) materials were coated on titanium by an atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) technique. The phase structures, morphologies, and surface chemical states of the obtained coatings were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. The in vitro antibacterial and cytocompatibility of the materials were studied with Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus, ATCC25923) and osteoblast precursor cell line MC3T3-E1. The results indicated that the addition of CeO2 shifts slightly the diffraction peaks of TiO2 matrix to low angles but does not change its rutile phase structure. In addition, the CeO2/TiO2 composite coatings possess dose-dependent corrosion resistance and antimicrobial properties. And doping of 10 wt.% CeO2 exhibits the highest activity against S. aureus, improved corrosion resistance, and competitive cytocompatibility, which argues a promising option for balancing the osteogenetic and antibacterial properties of titanium implants.

  9. Photon management properties of rare-earth (Nd,Yb,Sm)-doped CeO2 films prepared by pulsed laser deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrieri, Matteo; Colis, Silviu; Gallart, Mathieu; Schmerber, Guy; Bazylewski, Paul; Chang, Gap Soo; Ziegler, Marc; Gilliot, Pierre; Slaoui, Abdelilah; Dinia, Aziz

    2016-01-28

    CeO2 is a promising material for applications in optoelectronics and photovoltaics due to its large band gap and values of the refractive index and lattice parameters, which are suitable for silicon-based devices. In this study, we show that trivalent Sm, Nd and Yb ions can be successfully inserted and optically activated in CeO2 films grown at a relatively low deposition temperature (400 °C), which is compatible with inorganic photovoltaics. CeO2 thin films can therefore be efficiently functionalized with photon-management properties by doping with trivalent rare earth (RE) ions. Structural and optical analyses provide details of the electronic level structure of the films and of their energy transfer mechanisms. In particular, we give evidence of the existence of an absorption band centered at 350 nm from which energy transfer to rare earth ions occurs. The transfer mechanisms can be completely explained only by considering the spontaneous migration of Ce(3+) ions in CeO2 at a short distance from the RE(3+) ions. The strong absorption cross section of the f-d transitions in Ce(3+) ions efficiently intercepts the UV photons of the solar spectrum and therefore strongly increases the potential of these layers as downshifters and downconverters. PMID:26699802

  10. Introduction manner of sulfate acid for improving the performance of SO42-/CeO2 on selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋忠贤; 张秋林; 宁平; 刘昕; 樊洁; 黄真真

    2016-01-01

    A series of sulfated CeO2 catalysts were synthesized by impregnation and sol-gel methods and used for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx by NH3. The results showed that the sulfated CeO2 catalysts prepared by sol-gel method showed excellent catalytic activity at 150–450 °C, and more than 90% NOx conversion was obtained at 232–450 °C with a gas hourly space velocity of 60000 h–1. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption, Raman, thermogravimetry (TG), H2-tem-perature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR) and Py-infrared spectroscopy (Py-IR). The excellent SCR performance was associated with the surface acidity and the micro-structure. The introduction of sulfate acid into CeO2 could increase the amount of Brönsted and Lewis acid sites over the catalysts, resulting in the improvement of the low temperature activity. The sulfated CeO2 catalysts prepared by sol-gel method possessed lower crystallization degree, excellent redox property and larger specific surface areas, which were re-sponsible for the superior SCR performance.

  11. Influence of CeO2 doping amount on property of BCTZ lead-free piezoelectric ceramics sintered at low temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄新友; 邢仁克; 高春华; 陈志刚

    2014-01-01

    Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.9Zr0.1O3 (BCTZ) lead-free piezoelectric ceramics co-doped with CeO2 (x=0.1 wt.%, 0.2 wt.%, 0.3 wt.%, 0.4 wt.%, 0.5 wt.%) and Li2CO3 (0.6 wt.%) were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. Influence of CeO2 doping amount on the piezoelectric properties, dielectric properties, phase composition and microstructure of prepared BCTZ lead-free piezoelectric ceramics doped with Li2CO3 were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and other ana-lytical methods. The results showed that the sintered temperature of BCTZ lead-free piezoelectric ceramics doped with CeO2 de-creased greatly when Li2CO3 doping amount was 0.6 wt.%;a pure perovskite structure of BCTZ lead-free piezoelectric ceramics co-doped with Li2CO3 and CeO2 and sintered at 1050 °C could also be obtained. The piezoelectric constant (d33), the relative permit-tivity (εr) and the planar electromechanical coupling factor (kp) of BCTZ ceramics doped with Li2CO3 increased firstly and then de-creased, the dielectric loss (tanδ) decreased firstly and then increased and decreased at last when CeO2 doping amount increased. The influence of CeO2 doping on the properties of BCTZ lead-free piezoelectric ceramics doped with Li2CO3 were caused by“soft effect”and “hard effect”piezoelectric additive and causing lattice distortion. When CeO2 doping amount (x) was 0.2 wt.%, the BCTZ ce-ramics doped with Li2CO3 (0.6 wt.%) and sintered at 1050 °C possessed the best piezoelectric property and dielectric property with d33 of 436 pC/N, kp of 48.3%,εr of 3650, tanδof 1.5%.

  12. Colloidal stability of CeO2 nanoparticles coated with either natural organic matter or organic polymers under various hydrochemical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippon, Urs; Pabst, Silke; Klitzke, Sondra

    2016-04-01

    The worldwide marked for engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is growing and concerns on the environmental fate- and toxicity of ENPs are rising. Understanding the transport of ENPs within and between environmental compartments such as surface water and groundwater is crucial for exposition modeling, risk assessment and ultimately the protection of drinking water resources. The transport of ENPs is strongly influenced by the surface properties and aggregation behavior of the particles, which is strongly controlled by synthetic and natural organic coatings. Both, surface properties and aggregation characteristics are also key properties for the industrial application of ENPs, which leads to the development and commercialization of an increasing number of surface-functionalized ENPs. These include metals and oxides such as Cerium dioxide (CeO2) with various organic coatings. Therefore, we investigate CeO2 ENPs with different surface coatings such as weakly anionic polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or strongly anionic poly acrylic acid (PAA) with respect to their colloidal stability in aqueous matrix under various hydrochemical conditions (pH, ionic strength) and their transport behavior in sand filter columns. Furthermore, we investigate the interaction of naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) with CeO2 ENPs and its effect on surface charge (zeta potential), colloidal stability and transport. While uncoated CeO2 ENPs aggregate at pH > 4 in aqueous matrix, our results show that PAA and PVA surface coatings as well as NOM sorbed to CeO2-NP surfaces can stabilize CeO2 ENPs under neutral and alkaline pH conditions in 1 mM KCl solution. Under slightly acidic conditions, differences between the three particle types were observed. PVA can stabilize particle suspensions in presence of 1 mM KCl at pH > 4.3, PAA at pH >4.0 and NOM at >3.2. While the presence of KCl did not influence particle size of NOM-CeO2 ENPs, CaCl2 at >2 mM lead to aggregation. Further results on the influence of KCl and CaCl2 on aggregation of coated CeO2 ENPs and transport in sand filter columns will be presented.

  13. Action spectrum for the induction of single-strand breaks in DNA buffered aqueous solution in the wavelength range from 150 to 272 nm: dual mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The induction of single-strand breaks by vacuum-u.v. and far-u.v. radiations (150 nm - 272 nm) in plasmid Col E1 DNA in buffered aqueous solution was studied by agarose gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that the mechanisms of DNA strand-break induction are different in the two u.v. regions: above 210 nm the direct excitation of DNA seemed to be the main cause; below 180 nm the photolysis of solvent water seemed to be essential. The demonstration of a systematic protection at 160 nm and not at 209 nm by OH scavengers, such as ethyl alcohol, potassium iodide and D-mannitol, supports the involvement of OH radicals in the vacuum-u.v. region. (author)

  14. Zero lattice mismatch and twin-free single crystalline ScN buffer layers for GaN growth on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the growth of thin ScN layers deposited by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Sc2O3/Y2O3/Si(111) substrates. Using x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, we find that ScN films grown at 600 °C are single crystalline, twin-free with rock-salt crystal structure, and exhibit a direct optical band gap of 2.2 eV. A high degree of crystalline perfection and a very good lattice matching between ScN and GaN (misfit < 0.1%) makes the ScN/Sc2O3/Y2O3 buffer system a very promising template for the growth of high quality GaN layers on silicon

  15. Zero lattice mismatch and twin-free single crystalline ScN buffer layers for GaN growth on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupina, L.; Zoellner, M. H.; Dietrich, B.; Capellini, G. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt, Oder (Germany); Niermann, T.; Lehmann, M. [Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Thapa, S. B.; Haeberlen, M.; Storck, P. [SILTRONIC AG, Hanns-Seidel-Platz 4, 81737 München (Germany); Schroeder, T. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt, Oder (Germany); BTU Cottbus, Konrad-Zuse-Str. 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

    2015-11-16

    We report the growth of thin ScN layers deposited by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si(111) substrates. Using x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, we find that ScN films grown at 600 °C are single crystalline, twin-free with rock-salt crystal structure, and exhibit a direct optical band gap of 2.2 eV. A high degree of crystalline perfection and a very good lattice matching between ScN and GaN (misfit < 0.1%) makes the ScN/Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer system a very promising template for the growth of high quality GaN layers on silicon.

  16. The effect of the feed-to-buffer ratio on bacterial diversity and ruminal fermentation in single-flow continuous-culture fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantalapiedra-Hijar, G; Yáñez-Ruiz, D R; Newbold, C J; Molina-Alcaide, E

    2011-03-01

    Eight single-flow continuous-culture fermenters were used in a completely randomized block design with a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments to investigate the effects of the feed-to-buffer ratio (F/B) on ruminal fermentation, the diversity and community structure of bacteria, nutrient digestibility, and N metabolism. Four diets with forage-to-concentrate ratios of 70:30 or 30:70 with alfalfa or grass hay as forage were supplied to fermenters twice per day at 2 different F/B (23.5 and 35 g of DM/L). The dilution rate was kept constant (5.3%) among all fermenters by infusing the same volume of buffer. An increase in the total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration and a decrease in the average pH were observed with an increased F/B. In addition, the molar proportions of all individual VFA found in fermenters differed, depending on the F/B. A terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that the community structure and diversity of bacteria were highly influenced by the F/B. Both diversity and the number of peaks in the electropherograms were lower in most fermenters receiving diets at a high F/B, whereas the similarity percentage of the bacterial communities across diets was higher as the F/B increased. Moreover, the high reduction of neutral detergent fiber digestibility (15.3% ± 3.65) in fermenters with high F/B suggested a pH-related decrease in the cellulolytic bacterial community as the F/B increased. The crude protein degradation found in fermenters receiving diets with a high F/B was lower compared with that from fermenters with a low F/B. The VFA concentration and purine bases flow response patterns to diets were similar to in vivo conditions only in the case of fermenters with a low F/B. The results suggested that the community structure and diversity of bacteria, as well as the in vitro fermentation parameters, may be affected by the F/B that is used, most likely through a pH effect. In addition, several fermentation

  17. N-doped carbon nanotubes synthesized in high yield and decorated with CeO2 and SnO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: · Nitrogen doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNxNTs) with high yield have been prepared. · The maximum yield of the CNxNTs is 920%. · SnO2 and CeO2 nanoparticles were decorated on the surface of CNxNTs without any pre-treatment. · The SnO2/CNxNTs and the CeO2/CNxNTs have excellent activity for NO electrooxidation. - Abstract: Nitrogen doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNxNTs) with high yield and purity have been successfully prepared from n-propylamine precursor with CoxMg1-xMoO4 catalyst. The maximum yield of the CNxNTs is 920%. SnO2 and CeO2 nanoparticles are decorated on the surface of CNxNTs without any acid treatment due to the inherent interface activity. The TEM images reveal that SnO2 and CeO2 nanoparticles were anchored on the surface of the CNxNTs uniformly, and the XPS results indicate that the doped nitrogen atoms of CNxNTs play significant roles in immobilizing SnO2 and CeO2 nanoparticles, and the mechanism of the composite process has been discussed. The electrooxidation performance of the composites for NO at the modified electrodes was investigated. The CNxNTs-based composites show greater activity and sensitivity than the conventional CNTs-based composites for NO electrooxidation, which render them excellent electrode materials for NO detection and other potential applications.

  18. Enhanced arsenic removal from water by hierarchically porous CeO2–ZrO2 nanospheres: Role of surface- and structure-dependent properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The CeO2–ZrO2 hollow nanospheres had strong affinity and selectivity to arsenic. •The adsorbent showed excellent ability to remove arsenic at low concentrations. • The adsorption mechanism was investigated by FTIR and XPS. • The adsorbent showed potential application for drinking water treatment. -- Abstract: Arsenic contaminated natural water is commonly used as drinking water source in some districts of Asia. To meet the increasingly strict drinking water standards, exploration of efficient arsenic removal methods is highly desired. In this study, hierarchically porous CeO2–ZrO2 nanospheres were synthesized, and their suitability as arsenic sorbents was examined. The CeO2–ZrO2 hollow nanospheres showed an adsorption capacity of 27.1 and 9.2 mg g−1 for As(V) and As(III), respectively, at an equilibrium arsenic concentration of 0.01 mg L−1 (the standard for drinking water) under neutral conditions, indicating a high arsenic removal performance of the adsorbent at low arsenic concentrations. Such a great arsenic adsorption capacity was attributed to the high surface hydroxyl density and presence of hierarchically porous network in the hollow nanospheres. The analysis of Fourier transformed infrared spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrated that the adsorption of arsenic on the CeO2–ZrO2 nanospheres was completed through the formation of a surface complex by substituting hydroxyl with arsenic species. In addition, the CeO2–ZrO2 nanospheres were able to remove over 97% arsenic in real underground water with initial arsenic concentration of 0.376 mg L−1 to meet the guideline limit of arsenic in drinking water regulated by the World Health Organization without any pre-treatment and/or pH adjustment

  19. Effect of K and CeO2 promoters on the activity of Co/SiO2 catalyst for liquid fuel production from syngas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Incorporation of K and CeO2 improved the catalyst reducibility and Co dispersion. ► Highest CO conversion and C5+ selectivity for ceria doped Co/SiO2 catalyst. ► Higher selectivity for diesel range paraffin hydrocarbons on CeO2 promoted catalyst. -- Abstract: Effect of potassium and ceria promotion on the activity and selectivity of Co/SiO2 catalyst was investigated for CO hydrogenation in a high pressure reactor. Five different SiO2 supported cobalt catalysts promoted with K and CeO2 were synthesised by sol gel followed and wet impregnation. These catalysts were characterised by BET surface area, pore volume, TGA, TPR, SEM, TEM, and chemisorptions methods. The cobalt particles were well dispersed in sol gel method in presence of complexing agent. The major phase obtained was Co3O4 and the average metal particle size as determined from the hydrogen chemisorptions and TEM studies varied from 20 to 60 nm. The performance of these catalysts were compared at 250 °C and 20 bar pressure and at a weight hourly space time of (W/Fo) 1000 kg (catalyst) s/N m3. Incorporation of K and CeO2 significantly influenced the catalyst reducibility due to increased metal support interaction. The CO conversion and C5+ selectivity were highest for ceria doped Co/SiO2 catalyst. Both K and CeO2 promoted Co/SiO2 were found active and stable for the FTS reaction, however compared to K promoted catalyst ceria promoted catalyst notably improved the C5+ selectivity, while suppressing the CH4 and coke formation.

  20. Estudo microestrutural do catalisador Ni/gama-Al2O3: efeito da adição de CeO2 na reforma do metano com dióxido de carbono Microstructural study of Ni/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst: addition effects of CeO2 on carbon dioxide reforming of methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoninho Valentini

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The carbon dioxide reforming of methane was carried out over nickel catalysts supported on the gamma-Al2O3/CeO2 system prepared by wet impregnation. With the increase of the CeO2 weight in the catalyst, a higher stability was observed in the catalytic activity, together with an excellent resistance to carbon deposition and a better Ni dispersion. The catalysts were characterized by means of surface area measurements, TPR, H2 chemisorption, XRD, SEM, EDX, XPS and TEM. An interaction between Ni and CeO2 was observed to the Ni/CeO2 sample after activation in a H2 atmosphere above 300 ºC. Such behavior has a significantly influence on the catalytic activity.

  1. Structural and physical characteristics of CeO2-GeO2-PbO glasses and glass ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of the xCeO2(100 - x)[GeO2.PbO] system with 0 ≤ x ≤ 15 mol% were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) investigation revealed the presence of a crystalline phase for samples with x ≥ 3 mol%, namely that of Ce1.88Pb2.12O6.53. The structural role of germanium, lead and cerium ions was discussed. The presence of the CeO4, GeO4, GeO6 and PbO4 structural units was evidenced by FT-IR spectrocopy in the studied glasses and glass ceramics. It was shown that the ratio of the mentioned structural units depends on the CeO2 content of the xCeO2(100 - x)[GeO2.PbO] system. As a part of an on-going investigation of the physical properties of xCeO2(100 - x)[GeO2.PbO] glass ceramics, the magnetic behavior of this system was studied. The fractions of the cerium ions in the 3+ and 4+ valence states were determined.

  2. Coke formation over zeolites and CeO2-zeolites and its influence on selective catalytic reduction of NOx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selective catalytic reduction, various possible reasons of coke formation, and temperature programmed oxidation of coke deposits are studied over HFER, HZSM-5 and 15|wt% CeO2-H zeolites. The materials are characterised by TGA, NH3-TPD and in-situ FTIR measurements. HFER based catalysts showed superior NOx (NO+NO2) conversion in SCR with propene compared with HZSM-5 based catalysts. It is found that NO2 (formed by the oxidation of NO) is not the only important intermediate in determining the extent of NOx conversion. The topology and acidity of the zeolites play an important role in selective activation of propene and its reaction with NO2. Over HZSM-5 based catalysts the rate of deposition of carbonaceous compounds is higher than the rate of reaction of activated propene with NO2, leading to unselective reduction to NO. The nature and the amount of the carbonaceous products deposited over the zeolites are found to depend on the acidity, structure of the zeolite and reaction conditions (inert or oxidative atmosphere). Coke deposition rate is enhanced in the presence of oxygen and most of the coke is retained by the zeolite which is detrimental for NOx reduction. in-situ IR studies show that hydrocarbon deposits are more heterogeneous and carbon rich over HZSM-5 compared with HFER. TPO studies show that only a negligible fraction of hydrocarbon deposits are active in NOx conversion

  3. Growth mode, morphology, and reducibility of CeO2(111) thin films on Cu(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate morphology and degree of reduction in model oxide system CeO2 (ceria) on Cu(111) using scanning tunneling microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy. We identify growth mechanisms of ceria on Cu(111) - formation of incomplete oxide interfacial layer and formation of three-dimensional ceria pyramids by stacking of monolayer-high islands. Using these mechanisms we control the coverage, the number of open monolayers, and the step density of ceria thin films on Cu(111). Annealing in vacuum allows us to control besides the morphology also the degree of ceria surface reduction. We find a correlation between surface reduction and morphological stability in annealed ceria layers. Oriented and stoichiometric thin films of ceria on Cu(111) can be prepared at temperatures as low as 150 C and 250 C. Both the morphology and the degree of reduction of these films readily change with increasing temperature, which must be accounted for in evaluating temperature-programmed experiments with ceria on Cu(111).

  4. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of CeO2-Na2O-SiO2 glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of (CeO2)x-(Na2O)0.3-(SiO2)(0.7-x) glasses, where 0.025 ≤ x ≤ 0.075, have been synthesized and investigated by mean of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Ce 3d spin-orbit doublet was curve fitted in order to quantify the proportions of each cerium oxidation state in these glasses. It was found that Ce ions are predominantly in the Ce(III) state in glasses with compositions x ≤ 0.075, while mixed Ce valences were found in the glass with composition x = 0.10. The O 1s spectra have also been curve fitted with two components, one from bridging oxygen (BO) and the other from non-bridging oxygen atoms (NBO). The measured number of NBO, based on the fact that only oxygen atoms in the site Si-O-Na+ contribute to the NBO peak, was found to be constant at ∼35% for all samples, in good agreement with the value calculated from the glass composition and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) suggesting that Ce ions enter the network as a glass intermediate. The thermal measurements done on these glasses agree well with the XPS findings

  5. Memory resistive switching in CeO2-based film microstructures patterned by a focused ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heteroepitaxial CeO2 (80 nm)/La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 (500 nm) film structure has been pulsed laser deposited on a sapphire substrate. The Ag/CeO2 microjunctions patterned by a focused ion beam on a La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 film exhibit reproducible reversible switching between a high resistance state (OFF) with insulating properties and a semiconducting or metallic low resistance state (ON) with resistance ratios up to 104. The influence of micro-scaling and defects formed at the cell boundaries during etching on its electrical characteristics has been analyzed. The appearance of a switching channel at the moment of the electrical forming, responsible for the memory effect, has been proved, along with a mechanism of a self-healing electrical breakdown. - Highlights: • Ag/CeO2/La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 microstructures were patterned by a focused ion beam. • Reproducible memory resistive switching was discovered in Ag/CeO2 microjunctions. • Micro-scaling affects electrical characteristics of Ag/CeO2 microjunctions. • A mechanism of a self-healing breakdown was discovered

  6. Influence of the substitution of Y2O3 for CeO2 on the mechanical and microstructural properties of silicon nitride Influência da substituição de Y2O3 por CeO2 nas propriedades mecânicas e microestruturais do nitreto de silício

    OpenAIRE

    J. V. C. de Souza; Kelly, C A; M. R. V. Moreira; M.V. RIBEIRO; dos Santos, C.(Centro de Física e Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal); O . M. M. Silva; M. A. Lanna

    2005-01-01

    This work investigated the substitution of Y2O3 for CeO2 in liquid-phase sintered silicon nitride ceramics. Cost reduction as well as good physical, mechanical and microstructural properties are the main objectives of the present study. Two powder mixtures were prepared, varying the contents of alpha-Si3N4, Al2O3, AlN, Y2O3 and CeO2. The mixtures were homogenized in ethanol, dried in a rotating evaporator and kiln, respectively, and then uniaxially (100 MPa) and cold isostatically pressed (30...

  7. Tunable flux pinning landscapes achieved by functional ferromagnetic Fe2O3:CeO2 vertically aligned nanocomposites in YBa2Cu3O7−δ thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Functional ferromagnetic (Fe2O3)x:(CeO2)1−x vertically aligned nanocomposites (VAN). • An ordered arrangement of ferromagnetic Fe2O3 nanoinclusions. • Significant in-field improvement of Jc (H//c) in both VAN nanolayer capped and buffered samples. • Tc above 90 K and the Jcsf maximized at 3.07 MA/cm2 (75 K) and 9.2 MA/cm2 (65 K) for 30% Fe2O3 sample. - Abstract: Functional ferromagnetic (Fe2O3)x:(CeO2)1−x vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) layers were deposited as either buffer or cap layers for YBa2Cu3O7−δ (YBCO) thin films. The composition of Fe2O3 dopants in the VAN nanolayers is controlled at 10%, 30% and 50% in order to create different arrangements of Fe2O3 and CeO2 nanopillars and therefore to tune the flux pining landscapes. The composition variation provides tunable and ordered arrangements of magnetic nanodopants and interfacial defects as pinning centers in the YBCO thin films. The superconducting property measurements show that most doped samples obtain a Tc above 90 K and the Jcsf measured at 75 K and 65 K maximized at 3.07 MA/cm2 and 9.2 MA/cm2 for 30% Fe2O3 VAN doped sample. As the temperature decreased to 5 K, the sample with 50% Fe2O3 VAN doped sample show the best pinning effect due to pronounced magnetic pinning effects. This work demonstrates the tunable density of magnetic pinning centers can be achieved by VAN to meet the specific pinning requirement

  8. Room temperature ferromagnetism in pure and Co- and Fe-doped CeO2 dilute magnetic oxide: effect of oxygen vacancies and cation valence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of reversible room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) has been investigated in Co- and Fe-doped (5% each) and non-doped CeO2 polycrystalline samples. Specimens with different oxygen vacancy (VO) concentration including the (i) as-synthesized, (ii) hydrogenated and (iii) re-annealed in air were investigated using SQUID magnetometry, x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The influence of the electronic properties on the RTFM was examined/analysed systematically. Our findings confirm that the ferromagnetism observed in CeO2 originates due to the oxygen vacancies, supporting the VO mediated ferromagnetic exchange mechanism. Additionally, the cationic (cerium and transition metal) valence states play a crucial role.

  9. Magnetic anisotropy of 3 nm diameter Co nanowires embedded in CeO2/SrTiO3(001): a ferromagnetic resonance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic anisotropy of 3-nm wide cobalt nanowires embedded in epitaxial CeO2/SrTiO3(001) layers is investigated by ferromagnetic resonance measurements. The measured magnetic shape and the magnetocrystalline anisotropies confirm that the Co nanowires have their main axes perpendicular to the film surface, and they are composed of hcp Co grains with the c-axes oriented along one of the 〈111〉 directions of the CeO2 matrix. The effects of such a peculiar structure on the magnetic anisotropy are addressed experimentally. The results show that the magnetic anisotropy of the wires is dominated by the magnetostatic term. The inhomogeneous structure of the wires leads to an effective magnetocrystalline anisotropy smaller than the bulk value of hcp Co. (paper)

  10. Magneto-optical study of slanted Co nanowires embedded in CeO2/SrTiO3(0 0 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequential pulsed laser deposition of CoO and CeO2 at 650 °C under vacuum leads to the formation of a slanted Co nanowires assembly embedded in CeO2/SrTiO3(0 0 1) epilayers. High temperature magneto-optical Faraday measurements were performed, which revealed a Faraday ellipticity of 1.3° at a wavelength of 450 nm for 300 nm thick samples and which allowed to access the magnetic properties. From the analysis of the coercivity dependence on temperature, it is shown that the magnetic anisotropy of the slanted Co nanowires is dominated by shape anisotropy and that their magnetization reversal is localized.

  11. E-beam and UV induced fabrication of CeO2, Eu2O3 and their mixed oxides with UO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelková, Tereza; Vaněček, Vojtěch; Jakubec, Ivo; Čuba, Václav

    2016-07-01

    CeO2, Eu2O3 and mixed oxides of CeO2-UO2, Eu2O3-UO2 were fabricated. The preparative method was based on the irradiation of aqueous solutions containing cerium/europium (and uranyl) nitrates and ammonium formate. In the course of irradiation, the solid phase (precursor) was precipitated. The composition of irradiated solutions significantly affected the properties of precursor formed in the course of the irradiation. However, subsequent heat treatment of (amorphous) precursors at temperatures ≤650 °C invariably resulted in the formation of powder oxides with well-developed nanocrystals with linear crystallite size 13-27 nm and specific surface area 10-46 m2 g-1. The applicability of both ionizing (e-beam) and non-ionizing (UV) radiation was studied.

  12. Effects of CeO2 on structure and properties of Ni-Mn-K/bauxite catalysts for water-gas shift reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Lilong; YE Binghuo; WEI Kemei

    2008-01-01

    Multiple-metal catalysts (Ni-Mn-Ce-K/bauxite) for Water-Gas Shift (WGS) reaction were prepared by impregnation, and the catalytic structure and properties were investigated by N2 physical, XRD, H2-TPR, and CO-TPD. The results indicated that the addition of 7.5% CeO2 improved the activity of the WGS reaction obviously, and also increased the specific surface area and pore volume of the catalysts. The addition of CeO2 decreases the reduction temperature, enhanced the adsorption and activation of H2O, and improved the adsorption content of CO. Besides, active sites were not changed and the number of active sites on catalysts did not increase obviously.

  13. Facile Electrospinning of CeO2 /Bi2 WO6 Heterostructured Nanofibers with Excellent Visible-light-driven Photocatalytic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaona; Lu, Qifang; Wei, Mingzhi; Wang, Cuiqing; Liu, Suwen

    2015-08-01

    One-dimensional (1D) CeO2 /Bi2 WO6 heterostructured nanofibers with a diameter of about 300 nm were successfully synthesized by using a straightforward strategy combining an electrospinning technique with a sintering process. The acquired products were characterized by thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric (TG-DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurements, and UV/Vis spectroscopy. The obtained CeO2 /Bi2 WO6 heterostructured nanofibers exhibited an excellent photocatalytic property for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) dye driven by visible light due to the promoted separation of photoelectrons and holes and the large contact area between the photocatalyst and organic pollutant. PMID:25974711

  14. Hydrophilic CeO2 nanocubes protect pancreatic β-cell line INS-1 from H2O2-induced oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Guang-Ming; Wang, Yan-Jie; Huang, Xue; Zhang, Huai-Yuan; Sun, Ling-Dong; Liu, Yan-Jun; Yan, Chun-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress plays a key role in the occurrence and development of diabetes. With their unique redox properties, CeO2 nanoparticles (nanoceria) exhibit promising potential for the treatment of diabetes resulting from oxidative stress. Here, we develop a novel preparation of hydrophilic CeO2 nanocubes (NCs) with two different sizes (5 nm and 25 nm) via an acetate assisted hydrothermal method. Dynamic light scattering, zeta potential measurements and thermogravimetric analyses were utilized to investigate the changes in the physico-chemical characteristics of CeO2 NCs when exposed to in vitro cell culture conditions. CCK-8 assays revealed that the CeO2 NCs did not impair cell proliferation in the pancreatic β-cell line INS-1 at the highest dose of 200 μg mL-1 over the time scale of 72 h, while being able to protect INS-1 cells from H2O2-induced cytotoxicity even after protein adsorption. It is also noteworthy that nanoceria with a smaller hydrodynamic radius exhibit stronger antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects, which is consistent with their H2O2 quenching capability in biological systems. These findings suggest that nanoceria can be used as an excellent antioxidant for controlling oxidative stress-induced pancreatic β-cell damage.Oxidative stress plays a key role in the occurrence and development of diabetes. With their unique redox properties, CeO2 nanoparticles (nanoceria) exhibit promising potential for the treatment of diabetes resulting from oxidative stress. Here, we develop a novel preparation of hydrophilic CeO2 nanocubes (NCs) with two different sizes (5 nm and 25 nm) via an acetate assisted hydrothermal method. Dynamic light scattering, zeta potential measurements and thermogravimetric analyses were utilized to investigate the changes in the physico-chemical characteristics of CeO2 NCs when exposed to in vitro cell culture conditions. CCK-8 assays revealed that the CeO2 NCs did not impair cell proliferation in the pancreatic β-cell line INS-1 at the highest dose of 200 μg mL-1 over the time scale of 72 h, while being able to protect INS-1 cells from H2O2-induced cytotoxicity even after protein adsorption. It is also noteworthy that nanoceria with a smaller hydrodynamic radius exhibit stronger antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects, which is consistent with their H2O2 quenching capability in biological systems. These findings suggest that nanoceria can be used as an excellent antioxidant for controlling oxidative stress-induced pancreatic β-cell damage. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00826g

  15. Near-infrared emissions from Yb3+-doped CeO2 and Ce2Si2O7 films based on silicon substrates subjected to thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Guangyao; Wang, Shenwei; Li, Ling; Yin, Xue; Huang, Miaoling; Yi, Lixin

    2016-05-01

    Photoluminescence properties of Yb3+-doped CeO2 films annealed in different atmospheres were investigated. CeO2:Yb3+ films were deposited by electron-beam evaporation technique. Near-infrared emission around 970 nm was observed after annealing the films both in air and in Ar-H2 atmosphere, which is attributed to the Yb3+:2F5/2 → 2F7/2 transition. Optimization of the Yb3+ concentration for the 970 nm luminescence yield was also investigated. Characterized by different methods, Ce2Si2O7 was formed in the films annealed in reducing atmosphere, which was expected to be more applicable for the silicon-based optoelectronic applications.

  16. Fabrication of CeO2 by sol-gel process based on microfluidic technology as an analog preparation of ceramic nuclear fuel microspheres

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Bin; Li, Jiaolong; Zhao, Zichen; Chang, Zhenqi; Serra, Christophe A

    2012-01-01

    Microfluidics integrated with sol-gel processes is introduced in preparing monodispersed MOX nuclear fuel microspheres using nonactive cerium as a surrogate for uranium or plutonium. The detailed information about microfluidic devices and sol-gel processes are provided. The effects of viscosity and flow rate of continuous and dispersed phase on size and size distribution of CeO2 microspheres have been investigated. A comprehensive characterization of the CeO2 microspheres has been conducted, including XRD pattern, SEM, density, size and size distribution. The size of prepared monodisperse particles can be controlled precisely in range of 10{\\mu}m to 1000{\\mu}m and the particle CV is below 3%.

  17. Fabrication and Mechanical Properties of Sm2O3 Doped CeO2 Reinforced Ti3AlC2 Nano Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae Ho Han; Sang Whan Park; Young Do Kim

    2004-01-01

    The fabrication process of Sm2O3 doped CeO2 reinforced Ti3AlC2 nano composites including the nano particle dispersion process by a hetero-coagulation process was developed using in-situ synthesis and densification process of Ti3AlC2. The effects of Sm2O2 doped CeO2 nano particles on mechanical properties of Ti3AlC2 were investigated. It was found that the presence of 20SDC nano particles in Ti3AlC2 was very effective to improve the mechanical properties of Ti3AlC2 without spoiling the unique characteristics of Ti3AlC2temary carbide.

  18. Roles of Lewis and Brnsted acid sites in NO reduction with ammonia on CeO_2-ZrO_2-NiO-SO_4~(2-) catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司知蠢; 翁端; 吴晓东; 江洋

    2010-01-01

    Nickel and sulfate co-modified CeO2-ZrO2 catalysts were prepared by sol-gel method. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, FTIR, XPS, NH3 chemisorption and NH3-SCR activity tests. The results showed that the enhanced acidity of CeO2-ZrO2 catalysts by nickel and sulfate co-modification was responsible for the broadened temperature window and improved the selectivity to N2 in NH3-SCR deNOx. The introduction of nickel to CeO2-ZrO2 solid solutions resulted in more Ce3+ on surface of catalyst, leading to an in...

  19. Influence of Different Subsistence States of CeO2-ZrO2 Mixed Oxides in Catalyst Coating on Catalytic Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The metallic substrate-catalysts with different subsistence states of CeO2-ZrO2 mixed oxides were prepared and the catalytic properties were investigated. The studies on CeO2-ZrO2-V2O5-CuO mixed oxides which were prepared by coprecipitation, show that the doping of V5+ and Cu2+ in CeO2-ZrO2 mixed oxides can enhance the catalytic activity and thermal stability of coating materials. Moreover, different additives were doped in slurries of γ-Al2O3 to investigate the influence of additives on oxidation activity of catalysts. The mixture of ceria-zirconia, alkali metals and other rare earths acting as additives exhibits promotion effect on oxidation activity by optimizing the distribution of oxygen on the surface and in the bulk of ceria species. This mentioned mixture was mixed with γ-Al2O3 and a newly proposed active component to prepare a new catalyst. Afterward, the influence of thermal treatment on the new catalyst were investigated by calcinations at 500, 650, 750, 800, 850 and 900 ℃ for 2 h. The light-off curves of CO and HC show that after being treated at 650~750 ℃, catalysts present the best activity. XRD patterns show that ceria and zirconia species in the newly proposed active component form a phase of extra CeO2-ZrO2 mixed oxides on the surface of catalysts after the thermal treatment at 750 ℃, which has practical value for improving the preparation process and promoting the catalytic properties. Moreover, XPS results imply the existence of Ce1-xPdxO2-σ and Ce1-xPtxO2-σ on the surface of these treated samples, which may show influence on the catalytic activities.

  20. Assessing the axonal translocation of CeO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles in the sciatic nerve fibers of the frog: an ex vivo electrophysiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastrinaki G

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Georgia Kastrinaki,1,* Christos Samsouris,2,* Efstratios K Kosmidis,3 Eleni Papaioannou,1 Athanasios G Konstandopoulos,1,4 George Theophilidis2 1Aerosol and Particle Technology Laboratory (APTL, CERTH/CPERI, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Laboratory of Animal Physiology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 3Laboratory of Physiology, Department of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 4Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The axonal translocation of two commonly used nanoparticles in medicine, namely CeO2 and SiO2, is investigated. The study was conducted on frog sciatic nerve fibers in an ex vivo preparation. Nanoparticles were applied at the proximal end of the excised nerve. A nerve stimulation protocol was followed for over 35 hours. Nerve vitality curve comparison between control and exposed nerves showed that CeO2 has no neurotoxic effect at the concentrations tested. After exposure, specimens were fixed and then screen scanned every 1 mm along their length for nanoparticle presence by means of Fourier transform infrared microscopy. We demonstrated that both nanoparticles translocate within the nerve by formation of narrow bands in the Fourier transform infrared spectrum. For the CeO2, we also demonstrated that the translocation depends on both axonal integrity and electrical activity. The speed of translocation for the two species was estimated in the range of 0.45–0.58 mm/h, close to slow axonal transportation rate. Transmission electron microscopy provided direct evidence for the presence of SiO2 in the treated nerves. Keywords: CeO2, SiO2, FTIR, nanoparticles, ex vivo electrophysiology, frog sciatic nerve, translocation

  1. XAS Corroboration of the Uptake and Storage of CeO2 Nanoparticles and Assessment of their Differential Toxicity in Four Edible Plant Species

    OpenAIRE

    López-Moreno, Martha L.; de la Rosa, Guadalupe; Hernández-Viezcas, José A.; Peralta-Videa, José R.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

    2010-01-01

    Fate, transport, and possible toxicity of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria, CeO2) are still unknown. In this study, seeds of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), corn (Zea mays), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were treated with nanoceria at 0–4000 mg L−1. Cerium uptake and oxidation state within tissues were determined using ICP-OES and XAS, respectively. Germination rate and root elongation were also determined. Results showed that nanoceria significantly reduced...

  2. Anchoring High-Concentration Oxygen Vacancies at Interfaces of CeO(2-x)/Cu toward Enhanced Activity for Preferential CO Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoqing; Li, Liping; Hu, Wanbiao; Huang, Xinsong; Li, Qi; Xu, Yangsen; Zuo, Ying; Li, Guangshe

    2015-10-21

    Catalysts are urgently needed to remove the residual CO in hydrogen feeds through selective oxidation for large-scale applications of hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cells. We herein propose a new methodology that anchors high concentration oxygen vacancies at interface by designing a CeO2-x/Cu hybrid catalyst with enhanced preferential CO oxidation activity. This hybrid catalyst, with more than 6.1% oxygen vacancies fixed at the favorable interfacial sites, displays nearly 100% CO conversion efficiency in H2-rich streams over a broad temperature window from 120 to 210 °C, strikingly 5-fold wider than that of conventional CeO2/Cu (i.e., CeO2 supported on Cu) catalyst. Moreover, the catalyst exhibits a highest cycling stability ever reported, showing no deterioration after five cycling tests, and a super long-time stability beyond 100 h in the simulated operation environment that involves CO2 and H2O. On the basis of an arsenal of characterization techniques, we clearly show that the anchored oxygen vacancies are generated as a consequence of electron donation from metal copper atoms to CeO2 acceptor and the subsequent reverse spillover of oxygen induced by electron transfer in well controlled nanoheterojunction. The anchored oxygen vacancies play a bridging role in electron capture or transfer and drive molecule oxygen into active oxygen species to interact with the CO molecules adsorbed at interfaces, thus leading to an excellent preferential CO oxidation performance. This study opens a window to design a vast number of high-performance metal-oxide hybrid catalysts via the concept of anchoring oxygen vacancies at interfaces. PMID:26444246

  3. Towards the standardization of nanoecotoxicity testing: Natural organic matter 'camouflages' the adverse effects of TiO2 and CeO2 nanoparticles on green microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrillo, Cristina; Barandika, Gotzone; Igartua, Amaya; Areitioaurtena, Olatz; Mendoza, Gemma

    2016-02-01

    In the last few years, the emission of CeO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) into the environment has been raising concerns about their potential adverse effects on wildlife and human health. Aquatic organisms constitute one of the most important pathways for the entrance of these NPs and transfer throughout the food web, but divergences exist in the experimental data published on their aquatic toxicity. The pressing need for standardization of methods to analyze their ecotoxicity requires aquatic media representing realistic environmental conditions. The present study aimed to determine the usefulness of Suwannee River natural organic matter (SR-NOM) in the assessment of the agglomeration kinetics and ecotoxicity of CeO2 and TiO2 NPs towards green microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. SR-NOM alleviated the adverse effects of NPs on algal growth, completely in the case of TiO2 NPs and partially in the case of CeO2 NPs, suggesting a 'camouflage' of toxicity. This behavior has been observed also for other algal species and types of natural organic matter in the literature. Furthermore, SR-NOM markedly increased the stability of the NPs in algal medium, which led to a better reproducibility of the toxicity test results, and provided an electrophoretic mobility similar to that previously reported in various river and groundwaters. Thus, SR-NOM can be a representative sample of what is found in many different ecosystems, and the observed 'camouflage' of the effects of CeO2 and TiO2 NPs on algal cells might be considered as a natural interaction occurring in their standardized ecotoxicological assessment. PMID:26580731

  4. Metabolomic effects in HepG2 cells exposed to CeO2, SiO2 and CuO nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better assess potential hepatotoxicity of nanomaterials, human liver HepG2 cells were exposed for three days to 5 different CeO2 (either 30 or 100 ug/ml), 3 SiO2 based (30 ug/ml) or 1 CuO (3 ug/ml) nanomaterials with dry primary particle sizes ranging from 15 to 213 nm. Metab...

  5. Screening of MgO- and CeO2-Based Catalysts for Carbon Dioxide Oxidative Coupling of Methane to C2+ Hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Istadi; Nor Aishah Saidina Amin

    2004-01-01

    The catalyst screening tests for carbon dioxide oxidative coupling of methane (CO2-OCM)have been investigated over ternary and binary metal oxide catalysts. The catalysts are prepared by doping MgO- and CeO2-based solids with oxides from alkali (Li2O), alkaline earth (CaO), and transition metal groups (WO3 or MnO). The presence of the peroxide (O22-) active sites on the Li2O2, revealed by Raman spectroscopy, may be the key factor in the enhanced performance of some of the Li2O/MgO catalysts.The high reducibility of the CeO2 catalyst, an important factor in the CO2-OCM catalyst activity, may be enhanced by the presence of manganese oxide species. The manganese oxide species increases oxygen mobility and oxygen vacancies in the CeO2 catalyst. Raman and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FT-IR) spectroscopies revealed the presence of lattice vibrations of metal-oxygen bondings and active sites in which the peaks corresponding to the bulk crystalline structures of Li2O, CaO, WO3 and MnO are detected. The performance of 5%MnO/15%CaO/CeO2 catalyst is the most potential among the CeO2-based catalysts,although lower than the 2%Li2O/MgO catalyst. The 2%Li2O/MgO catalyst showed the most promising C2+ hydrocarbons selectivity and yield at 98.0% and 5.7%, respectively.

  6. Fabrication of catalytically active nanocrystalline samarium (Sm)-doped cerium oxide (CeO2) thin films using electron beam evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarium (Sm)-doped cerium oxide (CeO2) thin films were fabricated using electron beam evaporation technique. The synthesized films were deposited either on glass or ITO substrates and studied their nature by annealing at different temperatures. The optical properties and other morphological studies were done by UV–Vis, XRD, XPS, SEM, EDS, and FT-IR analysis. XRD and XPS analysis clearly confirm the presence of Sm in the ceria site. From the SEM study, it was found that after annealing at high temperature (∼300 or 500 °C), the particles size was reduced due to breakdown of large aggregates of particles which is also confirmed from UV–Vis, XPS, and XRD analyses. The FT-IR study proves the presence of –COO–, –OH, or ammonium group on the particles surface. The deposition of Sm-doped CeO2 nanomaterials was found more feasible on ITO substrate compared to that of glass substrate in terms of stability and depth of film thickness. The Sm-doped CeO2 nanomaterial acts as a re-usable catalyst for the reduction of organic dye molecules in the presence of NaBH4. The catalysis rate was compared by considering the electron transfer process during the reduction. The synthesized Sm-doped CeO2 thin films might find wide variety of applications in various emerging fields like solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), oxygen sensor or as catalyst in different types of organic and inorganic catalytic reactions. The fabrication process is very simple, straightforward, less time consuming, and cost effective.Graphical Abstract

  7. CeO2 as the Oxygen Carrier for Partial Oxidation of Methane to Synthesis Gas in Molten Salts: Thermodynamic Analysis and Experimental Investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new technique - the direct partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas using lattice oxygen in molten salts medium has been introduced. Using CeO2 as the oxygen carrier, thermodynamic data were calculated in the reaction process, and the results indicated that direct partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas using lattice oxygen of cerium oxide is feasible in theory. In a stainless steel reactor, the effects of temperature and varying amounts of γ-Al2O3 supported CeO2 on CH4 conversion,H2 and CO selectivity, were investigated, respectively. The results show that 10% CeO2/γ-Al2O3 has the maximal reaction activity at a temperature of 865 ℃ and above, the H2/CO ratio in the gas that has been produced reaches 2 and the CH4 conversion, H2 and CO selectivity reached the following percentages: i.e.61%, 89%, and 91% at 870 ℃, respectively. In addition, increase of reaction temperature is favorable for the partial oxidation of methane.

  8. Assessing the axonal translocation of CeO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles in the sciatic nerve fibers of the frog: an ex vivo electrophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastrinaki, Georgia; Samsouris, Christos; Kosmidis, Efstratios K; Papaioannou, Eleni; Konstandopoulos, Athanasios G; Theophilidis, George

    2015-01-01

    The axonal translocation of two commonly used nanoparticles in medicine, namely CeO2 and SiO2, is investigated. The study was conducted on frog sciatic nerve fibers in an ex vivo preparation. Nanoparticles were applied at the proximal end of the excised nerve. A nerve stimulation protocol was followed for over 35 hours. Nerve vitality curve comparison between control and exposed nerves showed that CeO2 has no neurotoxic effect at the concentrations tested. After exposure, specimens were fixed and then screen scanned every 1 mm along their length for nanoparticle presence by means of Fourier transform infrared microscopy. We demonstrated that both nanoparticles translocate within the nerve by formation of narrow bands in the Fourier transform infrared spectrum. For the CeO2, we also demonstrated that the translocation depends on both axonal integrity and electrical activity. The speed of translocation for the two species was estimated in the range of 0.45-0.58 mm/h, close to slow axonal transportation rate. Transmission electron microscopy provided direct evidence for the presence of SiO2 in the treated nerves. PMID:26648718

  9. Heterogeneous synthesis of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate from 1,6-hexanediamine and methyl carbonate in methanol over a CeO2 catalyst☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Cao; Huiquan Li; Xintao Li; Liguo Wang; Ganyu Zhu; Qing Tang

    2015-01-01

    The efficient synthesis of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate (HDC) from 1,6-hexanediamine (HDA) and methyl carbonate over a series of heterogeneous catalysts (e.g., MgO, Fe2O3, Mo2O3, and CeO2) was investigated. The reaction pathway was confirmed as an alcoholysis reaction through a series of designed experiments. Under optimized conditions, 100%HDA conversion with 83.1%HDCtotal and 16.9%polyurea was obtained using a one-step with high temperature procedure with CeO2 as the catalyst. A new two-step with variable temperature technol-ogy was developed based on the reaction pathway to reduce the polyurea yield. Using the proposed method, the HDCtotal yield reached 95.2%, whereas the polyurea yield decreased to 4.8%. The CeO2 catalyst showed high stability and did not exhibit any observable decrease in the HDC yield or any structural changes after four recycling periods. © 2014 The Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China, and Chemical Industry Press. Al rights reserved.

  10. Methanol conversion over a Pd5Cu/Al2O3-CeO2 catalyst: an FT-IR study and reaction mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Escribano, V; del Hoyo Martínez, C; Castro Baz, A; Gallardo Amores, J M; Fernández López, E

    2011-12-01

    A catalyst composed of a Pd(5)Cu mixed oxide supported over Al(2)O(3)-CeO(2) with general formula Pd(5)CuO(x)/Al(2)O(3)-CeO(2) (Al/Ce atomic ratio=1/1) has been prepared by a wet impregnation method and tested in the methanol conversion. The structural and morphological characterization of the catalyst evidences that it is a mesoporous material thermally stable up to 873 K. At that temperature the specific surface area value is 170 m(2)/g, and a CeO(2) cubic phase is identified together with ill-defined diffraction peaks tentatively assigned to Cu-Pd clusters, suggesting that the active phase is well dispersed over the support. Infrared studies prove that methanol conversion takes place over the catalyst to a high extent yielding syngas as main product in the range 473-723 K and methane at higher temperatures. Oxygenated intermediates containing methoxy, carbonile or formiate species are not detected, which evidences that methanol conversion to methane very probably takes place according to a via-carbide mechanism. PMID:21930417

  11. Nitrate conversion and supercritical fluid extraction of UO2-CeO2 solid solution prepared by an electrolytic reduction-coprecipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low-waste technology for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) has been developed recently, which involves the conversion of actinide and lanthanide oxides with liquid N2O4 into their nitrates followed by supercritical fluid extraction of the nitrates. The possibility of the reprocessing of SNF from high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) with nitrate conversion and supercritical fluid extraction is a current area of research in China. Here, a UO2-CeO2 solid solution was prepared as a surrogate for a UO2-PuO2 solid solution, and the recovery of U and Ce from the UO2-CeO2 solid solution with liquid N2O4 and supercritical CO2 containing tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) was investigated. The UO2-CeO2 solid solution prepared by electrolytic reduction-coprecipitation method had square plate microstructures. The solid solution after heat treatment was completely converted into nitrates with liquid N2O4. The XRD pattern of the nitrates was similar to that of UO2(NO3)2 . 3H2O. After 120 min of online extraction at 25 MPa and 50 , 99.98% of the U and 98.74% of the Ce were recovered from the nitrates with supercritical CO2 containing TBP. The results suggest a promising potential technology for the reprocessing of SNF from HTGRs. (orig.)

  12. Synthesis and characterization of a fatty acid self-assembled monolayer on CeO2 nanoparticles: to explore solution-state property of a SAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decanoic acid self-assembled monolayer (SAM) in the quasi-crystalline state was prepared on the surface of the cubic CeO2 nanoparticles (6.5 ± 1.1 nm) by hydrothermal synthesis. The purification method to obtain quasi-crystalline SAM without residual (free) decanoic acid was developed. The SAM was carefully washed (purified) and characterized carefully by FT-IR, TG, DSC, and NMR. The obtained results showed that good agreement with the property of the dry state SAM. The solution state properties of the SAM were also examined by the CeO2 nanoparticles. It turned out that the quasi-crystalline SAM could be swollen by its good solvents, cyclohexane, and chloroform; however, the quasi-crystalline SAM showed that a size exclusion effect to the solvent, trans-decalin. In addition, it turned out that the molecular motion of the decanoic acids in the SAM was highly restricted even in the swollen state depending on the distance from the grafting point to the CeO2 surface. The strong osmosis was also observed. The solvent molecules were not easily released from the SAM even after the solvent molecules outside of the SAM were frozen.

  13. Modeling of a CeO2 thermochemistry reduction process for hydrogen production by solar concentrated energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Hernández, Julio; Romero-Paredes, Hernando; Arancibia-Bulnes, Camilo A.; Villafan-Vidales, Heidi I.; Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto

    2016-05-01

    In this paper the simulation of the thermal reduction for hydrogen production through the decomposition of cerium oxide is presented. The thermochemical cycle for hydrogen production consists of the endothermic reduction of CeO2 at high temperature, where concentrated solar energy is used as a source of heat; and of the subsequent steam hydrolysis of the resulting cerium oxide to produce hydrogen. For the thermochemical process, a solar reactor prototype is proposed; consisting of a cubic receptacle made of graphite fiber thermally insulated. Inside the reactor a pyramidal arrangement with nine tungsten pipes is housed. The pyramidal arrangement is made respect to the focal point where the reflected energy is concentrated. The solar energy is concentrated through the solar furnace of high radiative flux. The endothermic step is the reduction of the cerium oxide to lower-valence cerium oxide, at very high temperature. The exothermic step is the hydrolysis of the cerium oxide (III) to form H2 and the corresponding initial cerium oxide made at lower temperature inside the solar reactor. For the modeling, three sections of the pipe where the reaction occurs were considered; the carrier gas inlet, the porous medium and the reaction products outlet. The mathematical model describes the fluid mechanics; mass and energy transfer occurring therein inside the tungsten pipe. Thermochemical process model was simulated in CFD. The results show a temperature distribution in the solar reaction pipe and allow obtaining the fluid dynamics and the heat transfer within the pipe. This work is part of the project "Solar Fuels and Industrial Processes" from the Mexican Center for Innovation in Solar Energy (CEMIE-Sol).

  14. Hydrogen activation, diffusion, and clustering on CeO2(111): A DFT+U study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a comprehensive density functional theory+U study of the mechanisms underlying the dissociation of molecular hydrogen, and diffusion and clustering of the resulting atomic species on the CeO2(111) surface. Contrary to a widely held view based solely on a previous theoretical prediction, our results show conclusively that H2 dissociation is an activated process with a large energy barrier ∼1.0 eV that is not significantly affected by coverage or the presence of surface oxygen vacancies. The reaction proceeds through a local energy minimum – where the molecule is located close to one of the surface oxygen atoms and the H–H bond has been substantially weaken by the interaction with the substrate –, and a transition state where one H atom is attached to a surface O atom and the other H atom sits on-top of a Ce4+ ion. In addition, we have explored how several factors, including H coverage, the location of Ce3+ ions as well as the U value, may affect the chemisorption energy and the relative stability of isolated OH groups versus pair and trimer structures. The trimer stability at low H coverages and the larger upward relaxation of the surface O atoms within the OH groups are consistent with the assignment of the frequent experimental observation by non-contact atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopies of bright protrusions on three neighboring surface O atoms to a triple OH group. The diffusion path of isolated H atoms on the surface goes through the adsorption on-top of an oxygen in the third atomic layer with a large energy barrier of ∼1.8 eV. Overall, the large energy barriers for both, molecular dissociation and atomic diffusion, are consistent with the high activity and selectivity found recently in the partial hydrogenation of acetylene catalyzed by ceria at high H2/C2H2 ratios

  15. A facile approach to fabrication of novel CeO2–TiO2 core–shell nanocomposite leads to excellent UV-shielding ability and lower catalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports the development of a fast and facile route for the synthesis of novel CeO2–TiO2 core–shell nanocomposite particles using microwave (MW) irradiation of the mixture of commercial CeO2, titanium-tetra-n-butoxide (TBOT) and aqueous ammonia. Solutions of TBOT in ethanol and ammonia were mixed with dispersed CeO2 nanoparticles in ethanol, and the mixture was rapidly MW irradiated at 70 °C for 2 min. The resulting nanocomposite particles were characterized in terms of phase, shell thickness, composition, surface charge, morphology, and chemical state of the elements by XRD, TEM, XPS, SEM, Zeta potential analyzer, XRF, and FT-IR. Conventional methods of the synthesis of CeO2–TiO2 nanocomposite require a long time, and TiO2 is rarely found as a coated material. In contrast, the MW method was able to synthesize CeO2–TiO2 core–shell nanocompsite particles within a very short time. CeO2–TiO2 nanocomposite particles were fairly unaggregated with an average titania layer thickness of 2–5 nm. The obtained nanocomposites retained the crystalline cubic phase of CeO2, and the phase of coated TiO2 was amorphous. The catalytic activities of uncoated and TiO2-coated CeO2 nanoparticles for the oxidation of organic compounds were evaluated by the degradation study of methylene blue in air atmosphere at 403 K. The enhanced UV-shielding ability and visible transparency of the nanocomposite obtained by UV visible spectroscopic measurements suggested that the core–shell material has novel characteristics for using as a sunscreen material.

  16. Surface Acidity/Basicity and Catalytic Reactivity of CeO2/γ-Al2O3 Catalysts for the Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Ethane with Carbon Dioxide to Ethylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Ge; Shenghua Hu; Qing Sun; Jianyi Shen

    2003-01-01

    Dehydrogenation of ethane to ethylene in CO2 was investigated over CeO2/γ-Al2O3 catalysts at 700 ℃ in a conventional flow reactor operating at atmospheric pressure. XRD, BET and microcalorimetric adsorption techniques were used to characterize the structure and surface acidity/basicity of the CeO2/γ-Al2O3 catalysts. The results show that the surface acidity decreased while the surface basicity increased after the addition of CeO2 to γ-Al2O3. Accordingly, the activity of the hydrogenation reaction of CO2 increased, which might be responsible for the enhanced conversion in the dehydrogenation of ethane to ethylene. The highest ethane conversion obtained was about 15% for the 25%CeO2/γ-Al2O3. The selectivity to ethylene was high for all the CeO2, γ-Al2O3 and CeO2/γ-Al2O3 catalysts.

  17. Microstructure, magnetic, and low-field magnetotransport properties of self-assembled (La0.7Sr0.3MnO3)0.5:(CeO2)0.5 vertically aligned nanocomposite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-phase (La0.7Sr0.3MnO3)0.5:(CeO2)0.5 (LSMO:CeO2) heteroepitaxial nanocomposite films were grown on SrTiO3 (STO) (001) by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show that LSMO:CeO2 films epitaxially grow on STO as self-assembled vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN). Magnetic and magnetotransport measurements demonstrate that the LSMO phase in the VAN structure behaves differently from its epitaxial single-phase counterpart, e.g. greatly enhanced coercivity (HC) and low-field magnetoresistance (LFMR). The enhanced properties in the VAN system are attributed to the interaction between the perovskite and the secondary phase or phase boundary. The results suggest that the growth of functional oxide in another oxide matrix with vertical heteroepitaxial form is a promising approach to achieve new functionality that may not be easily realized in the single epitaxial phase.

  18. Thermoluminescence induced by UV radiation in mixed systems of ZrO2-La2O3 AND ZrO2 -CeO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo F. Estrada Guerrero

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study of the properties of the ceramic materials has been observed that some of them, such as TiO2, Al2O3, ZrO2, La2O3 and CeO2, are highly sensible to the ultraviolet radiation (UV; this characteristic can be taken as an advantage to detect this kind of radiation. The present work presents preliminary results obtained in the UV-induced thrmoluminescence (TL response in mixed systems of ZrO2-La2O3 and ZrO2-CeO2 which were obtained by the Sol-Gel method. The originality of this contribution is that this mixed systems has not been synthesized and studied on its properties presented here. The first system presents high sensibility to the UV radiation with a TL curve formed mainly by two peaks localized at 70 °C and 140 °C; a third less intense peak at 255 °C was obtained too. On the other hand, the mixed system of ZrO2-CeO2 shows less sensibility with a TL curve formed by two peaks localized at 60 °C and 140 °C. With respect to the stability signal at environmental temperature, it can be observed, in both materials the signal vanishes for the peak at low temperature during the first minutes after the irradiation time, while the second peak have higher stability. According to the sensibility and stability of the signal associated to the ZrO2-La2O3 indicate that this system would be a promising for dosimetric applications in UV radiation fields.RESUMEN En el estudio de las características y propiedades de materiales cerámicos se ha observado que algunos de estos materiales, tales como TiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 La 2 O 3 y CeO 2 , son altamente sensibles a las radiación ultravioleta (UV; característica que puede ser aprovechada para detectar este tipo de radiación. Este trabajo es una contribución importante que trata sobre los resultados obtenidos para la respuesta termoluminiscente (TL inducida por la radiación UV en sistemas mixtos de ZrO 2 -La2O 3 y ZrO 2 -CeO 2 obtenidos por el método sol-gel. La originalidad de esta contribuciòn es que estos sistemas mixtos no han sido sintetizados ni estudiados en las propiedades que se presentan en este trabajo. El primer sistema posee alta sensibilidad a la radiación UV con una curva TL compuesta principalmente por dos picos localizados en 70 ° C y 140 ° C y uno poco intenso alrededor de 255 ° C, en tanto que el sistema ZrO 2 -CeO 2 presenta menor sensibilidad con una curva TL constituida por dos picos también localizados en 60 y 140 ° C. Con respecto a la estabilidad a temperatura ambiente se observó que para ambos materiales, el pico localizado a baja temperatura se desvanece en los primeros minutos después de la irradiación, el segundo tiene mayor estabilidad. De acuerdo a su sensibilidad y estabilidad de la información, el sistema ZrO 2 -La 2 O 3 resulta prometedor para aplicaciones dosimétricas en campos de radiación UV.

  19. Passivity of OC404 steel modified electrochemically with CeO2-Ce2O3 layers in sulfuric acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of cerium oxides film, formed electrochemically on OC404 stainless steel (SS), upon the corrosion behavior of steel in 0.1N H2SO4 was investigated. The modification of the steel surface by deposition of cerium oxides films was found to improve the steel corrosion resistance. A linear dependence between the stationary corrosion potential of the cerium oxides/SS system and the cerium concentration in the oxide film was established. The shift of the corrosion potential in the positive direction was found to depend on the proceeding of a depolarizing cathode reaction of CeO2 reduction (instead of the hydrogen depolarizing reaction) occurring on the cathodic zones, formed by this oxide. On the basis of XPS analyses of the samples, subjected to real corrosion under the conditions of self-dissolution, a pronounced drop of the surface concentration of CeO2 was established. This is a proof of the occurrence of an effective cathode process of CeO2 reduction to Ce2O3, which was then dissolved in H2SO4. Data were obtained (XPS) on the composition and structure of the surface film (SEM) after electrodeposition of cerium oxides and after corrosion in the sulfuric acid medium under consideration for time intervals ranging from 50 up to 1000 h. The ICP-AES studies acquired data on the quantity of dissolved elements, forming the passive layer. After exposure to the corrosive medium, the deposited layer showed enrichment in oxides of chromium and aluminium. The passive film on stainless steel, modified in this way, proved to be more stable to the effect of aggressive sulfuric acid medium, compared to the case of natural passive film.

  20. Aqueous Chemical Solution Deposition of Novel, Thick and Dense Lattice-Matched Single Buffer Layers Suitable for YBCO Coated Conductors: Preparation and Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Van Driessche; Petra Lommens; Sigelinde van Steenberge; Vyshnavi Narayanan

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present the preparation and characterization of cerium doped lanthanum zirconate (LCZO) films and non-stoichiometric lanthanum zirconate (LZO) buffer layers on metallic Ni-5% W substrates using chemical solution deposition (CSD), starting from aqueous precursor solutions. La2Zr2O7 films doped with varying percentages of Ce at constant La concentration (La0.5CexZr1−xOy) were prepared as well as non-stoichiometric La0.5+xZr0.5−xOy buffer layers with different percentages of La a...

  1. Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity of CeO2-ZnO-TiO2 Composites for the Degradation of Rhodamine B

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhu, S.; Viswanathan, T.; K. Jothivenkatachalam; K. Jeganathan

    2014-01-01

    TiO2 plays a significant role in many applications including solar cell. Consecutively to absorb the low-energy radiation, it is very much essential to tune the optical property of TiO2. We fabricated CeO2-ZnO-TiO2 semiconductor composites by sol-gel method and achieved the absorption of lower energy radiation. The prepared composites were characterized by TG-DTA, UV-DRS, XRD, AFM, TEM and FESEM techniques. The particle and crystalline size of the composites was calculated using FESEM and XRD...

  2. Oxygen vacancy formation in CeO2 and Ce(1-x)Zr(x)O2 solid solutions: electron localization, electrostatic potential and structural relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Feng; Li, Hui-Ying; Gong, Xue-Qing; Guo, Yang-Long; Lu, Guan-Zhong; Hu, P

    2012-12-28

    Ceria (CeO(2)) and ceria-based composite materials, especially Ce(1-x)Zr(x)O(2) solid solutions, possess a wide range of applications in many important catalytic processes, such as three-way catalysts, owing to their excellent oxygen storage capacity (OSC) through the oxygen vacancy formation and refilling. Much of this activity has focused on the understanding of the electronic and structural properties of defective CeO(2) with and without doping, and comprehending the determining factor for oxygen vacancy formation and the rule to tune the formation energy by doping has constituted a central issue in material chemistry related to ceria. However, the calculation on electronic structures and the corresponding relaxation patterns in defective CeO(2-x) oxides remains at present a challenge in the DFT framework. A pragmatic approach based on density functional theory with the inclusion of on-site Coulomb correction, i.e. the so-called DFT + U technique, has been extensively applied in the majority of recent theoretical investigations. Firstly, we review briefly the latest electronic structure calculations of defective CeO(2)(111), focusing on the phenomenon of multiple configurations of the localized 4f electrons, as well as the discussions of its formation mechanism and the catalytic role in activating the O(2) molecule. Secondly, aiming at shedding light on the doping effect on tuning the oxygen vacancy formation in ceria-based solid solutions, we summarize the recent theoretical results of Ce(1-x)Zr(x)O(2) solid solutions in terms of the effect of dopant concentrations and crystal phases. A general model on O vacancy formation is also discussed; it consists of electrostatic and structural relaxation terms, and the vital role of the later is emphasized. Particularly, we discuss the crucial role of the localized structural relaxation patterns in determining the superb oxygen storage capacity in kappa-phase Ce(1-x)Zr(1-x)O(2). Thirdly, we briefly discuss some interesting findings for the oxygen vacancy formation in pure ceria nanoparticles (NPs) uncovered by DFT calculations and compare those with the bulk or extended surfaces of ceria as well as different particle sizes, emphasizing the role of the electrostatic field in determining the O vacancy formation. PMID:23080297

  3. Chemistry of NO2 on CeO2 and MgO: Experimental and theoretical studies on the formation of NO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In environmental catalysis the destruction or removal of nitrogen oxides (DeNOx process) is receiving a lot of attention. Synchrotron-based x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy, high-resolution photoemission, and first-principles density-functional calculations (DFT-GGA) were used to study the interaction of nitrogen dioxide with CeO2 and MgO. The only product of the reaction of NO2 with pure CeO2 at 300 K is adsorbed nitrate. The NO3 is a thermally stable species which mostly decomposes at temperatures between 450 and 600 K. For the adsorption of NO2 on partially reduced ceria (CeO2-x), there is full decomposition of the adsorbate and a mixture of N, NO, and NO3 coexists on the surface of the oxide at room temperature. Ce3+ cations can assist in the transformation of NO and NO2 in DeNOx operations. Adsorbed NO3 (main product) and NO2 are detected after exposing MgO to NO2 gas. A partial NO2,ads→NO3,ads transformation is observed on MgO(100) from 150 to 300 K. DFT-GGA calculations show strong bonding interactions for NO2 on Mg sites of this surface, and dicoordination via O, O is more favorable energetically than monocoordination via N. The NO2,ads species disappears from magnesium oxide at temperatures below 600 K, whereas part of the NO3,ads is stable up to temperatures near 800 K. MgO can be very useful as a sorbent for trapping NO2. A general trend is found after comparing the chemical behavior of NO2 on different types of oxides (CeO2, MgO, TiO2, Fe2O3, CuO, ZnO). On all these systems, the main product after adsorbing NO2 at 300 K is nitrate with minor amounts of chemisorbed NO2 and no signs of full decomposition of the adsorbate. This trend and the results of DFT-GGA calculations indicate that NO2 is very efficient for the nitration (i.e., formation of NO3 as a ligand) of metal centers that are missing O neighbors in oxide surfaces. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  4. Influence of the Incorporation of CeO2 Nanoparticles on the Ion Exchange Behavior of Dodecylsulfate Doped Polypyrrole Films: Ac-Electrogravimetry Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Benmouhoub, Chabba; Agrisuelas, Jeronimo; Benbrahim, N.; Pillier, Francoise; Gabrielli, Claude; Kadri, A.; Pailleret, Alain; Perrot, Hubert; Sel, Ozlëm

    2014-01-01

    Cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles (NPs) possessing defined size and crystallinity have been synthe-sised by a co-precipitation method. The effect of several parameters, such as the nature of the solventand the calcination process, on the crystallite size was studied by XRD, TEM and BET methods. TheseCeO2nanoparticles were then incorporated in dodecylsulfate (DS) doped PPy films during their elec-trodeposition in potentiodynamic conditions in order to produce PPy-DS/CeO2NPs nanocomposite thinf...

  5. Dip-coated TiO2CeO2 films as transparent counter-electrode for transmissive electrochromic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Baudry, Paul; Rodrigues, A. C. M.; Michel A. Aegerter; Bulhoes, Luis O. S.

    1990-01-01

    The dip-coating process is an attractive way for the preparation of thin films used in the field of electrochromism. The scope of the present paper is focused on the TiO2CeO2 compounds since they exhibit a reversible electrochemical insertion of lithium ions maintaining a high optical transmissivity. These films can be used as transparent counter-electrode in an all solid state electrochromic transmissive device with, for example, WO3 as electrochromic material and a lithium conductive po...

  6. Synthesis by sol-gel and characterization of catalysts Ag/Al2O3- CeO2 for the elimination of nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental pollution is one from the big problems to solve at the present time, because the quality of the alive beings life is affected. For such reason, more clean and economic technologies are required, that it conduces to develop new catalytic alternatives to diminish the nitrogen oxides that due to its chemical processes in the environment contribute considerably in the air pollution. The main objective of the present work, is the preparation and characterization of catalytic materials with base of silver supported in simple and mixed aluminium oxides (Al2O3) and Cerium oxide (CeO2), and its catalytic evaluation that through of the reduction of nitric oxide (NO) using hydrogen (H2) as reducer agent. It was synthesized alumina (Al2O3) and Cerium oxide (CeO2) and mixed oxides (Al2O3- CeO2), by the sol-gel method and the cerium oxide (CeO2) by precipitation of the cerium nitrate (III) hexa hydrated. The oxides were stabilized thermally at 900 C by 5 hr. The catalysts were prepared by impregnation using silver nitrate (AgNO3), the nominal concentration of Ag was of 5% in weight. The catalysts were reduced at 400 C by 2 hr, in hydrogen flow of 60 cc/min. The characterization of the catalytic materials was carried out through different techniques as: nitrogen adsorption to determine the surface area BET, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to observe the final morphology of the catalysts, X-ray diffraction (XRD) to identify the crystalline phases of the catalytic materials, Infrared spectroscopy (DRIFT) to know the structural characterization of the catalysts, reduction to programmed temperature (TPR) to evidence the interaction metal-support. The catalytic properties of the catalysts were evaluated in the model reaction NO + H2, to determine the activity and selectivity. The results indicate that the preparation technique, the precursors and the thermal treatments that underwent these materials influence in the catalyst and by consequence in the reduction reaction of the nitric oxide. (Author)

  7. CHx adsorption (x = 1-4) and thermodynamic stability on the CeO2(111) surface: A first-principles investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Fronzi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    We present an ab initio investigation of the interaction between methane, its dehydrogenated forms and the cerium oxide surface. In particular, the stoichiometric CeO2(111) surface and the one with oxygen vacancies are considered. We study the geometries, energetics and electronic structures of various configurations of these molecules adsorbed on the surface in vacuum, and we extend the analysis to realistic environmental conditions. A phase diagram of the adsorbate-surface system is constructed and relevant transition phases are analyzed in detail, showing the conditions where partial oxidation of methane can occur. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Selective CO methanation over CeO2--ZrO2-composed NiO and Co3O4 catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    DEREKAYA, Filiz BALIKÇI; ERMERGEN, Derya MERCAN

    2014-01-01

    CeO2--ZrO2-composed NiO and Co3O4 catalysts were prepared by 3 different methods. Both CO methanation and selective CO methanation were carried out. All catalysts were prepared by (1) co-precipitation, (2) surfactant-assisted co-precipitation, and (3) surfactant-assisted co-precipitation with ultrasound mixing methods. Catalysts were characterized by using N2 physisorption, XRD, SEM, TEM, and TPR-H2 techniques. The highest surface area value, uniform pore size distribution, and pores having s...

  9. Enhancement of solar light photocatalytic activity of TiO2-CeO2 composite by Er3+:Y3Al5O12 in organic dye degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Li, S. G.; Zhang, L.; Wang, J.; Li, Y.; Ma, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Er3+:Y3Al5O12, as an upconversion luminescence agent which is able to transform the visible part of the solar light to ultraviolet light, was prepared by nitrate-citrate sol-gel method. A novel solar light photocatalyst, Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2-CeO2 composite was synthesized using ultrasonic treatment. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning election microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the structural morphology of the Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2-CeO2 composite. In order to evaluate the solar light photocatalytic activity of Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2-CeO2 composite, the Azo Fuchsine dye was used as a model organic pollutant. The progress of the degradation reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and ion chromatography. The key influences on the solar light photocatalytic activity of Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2-CeO2 were studied, such as Ti/Ce molar ratio, heat-treatment temperature and heat-treatment time. Otherwise, the effects of initial dye concentration, Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2-CeO2 amount, solar light irradiation time and the nature of the dye on the solar light photocatalytic degradation process were investigated. It was found that the solar light photocatalytic activity of Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2-CeO2 composite was superior to Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2 and Er3+:Y3Al5O12/CeO2 powder in the similar conditions.

  10. Synthesis and physicochemical characterizations of nanostructured Pt/Al2O3-CeO2 catalysts for total oxidation of VOCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pt/Al2O3-CeO2 nanocatalysts with Pt loading of 1% and ceria loading of 10, 20 and 30% were successfully prepared via wet impregnation method to be utilized in catalytic oxidation of BTX. The nanocatalysts were characterized using XRD, FESEM, TEM, N2 adsorption, FTIR and TPR-H2 techniques. The XRD patterns confirmed the formation of cerium oxide as the crystalline phase on alumina with the average crystallite size of 8.1-8.7 nm, derived by Scherrer equation. FESEM images confirmed that these nanocatalysts had ceria particles in nano-ranges. TEM analysis showed that platinum particles were fairly well dispersed on Al2O3-CeO2 with an average size of 5-20 nm. BET surface area presented large surface area for nanocatalysts. TPR patterns showed that by adding 1% platinum to support, the reducibility is highly increased. These patterns also revealed the promoting effect of ceria on reducibility of Pt and Al2O3. The results of toluene oxidation indicated that the synthesized nanocatalysts were highly active and able to remove nearly 100% of toluene and xylene and about 85% of benzene as representative VOCs. The presence of nanoparticles along with good characteristics of the synthesized nanocatalysts presented them as highly efficient materials for catalytic oxidation of VOCs.

  11. Evidence for subsurface ordering of oxygen vacancies on the reduced CeO2(111) surface using density-functional and statistical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgida, Gustavo E; Ganduglia-Pirovano, M Verónica

    2013-06-14

    Oxygen vacancies on ceria (CeO(2)) surfaces play a crucial role in catalytic applications, yet whether vacancies are at surface or subsurface sites on reduced CeO(2)(111), and whether vacancies agglomerate or repel each other, is still under discussion, with few and inconsistent experimental results. By combining density-functional theory (DFT) in the DFT+U (U is an effective onsite Coulomb interaction parameter) approach and statistical thermodynamics, we show that the energetically most stable near-surface oxygen vacancy structures for a broad range of vacancy concentrations, Θ (1/16 ≤ Θ ≤ 1 monolayer) have all vacancies at subsurface oxygen sites and predict that the thermodynamically stable phase for a wide range of reducing conditions is a (2 × 2) ordered subsurface vacancy structure (Θ = 1/4). Vacancy-induced lattice relaxations effects are crucial for the interpretation of the repulsive interactions, which are at the basis of the vacancy spacing in the (2 × 2) structure. The findings provide theoretical data to support the interpretation of the most recent experiments, bringing us closer to solving the debate. PMID:25165940

  12. Unexpected Li2O2 Film Growth on Carbon Nanotube Electrodes with CeO2 Nanoparticles in Li-O2 Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunzhen; Wong, Raymond A; Hong, Misun; Yamanaka, Keisuke; Ohta, Toshiaki; Byon, Hye Ryung

    2016-05-11

    In lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries, it is believed that lithium peroxide (Li2O2) electrochemically forms thin films with thicknesses less than 10 nm resulting in capacity restrictions due to limitations in charge transport. Here we show unexpected Li2O2 film growth with thicknesses of ∼60 nm on a three-dimensional carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode incorporated with cerium dioxide (ceria) nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs). The CeO2 NPs favor Li2O2 surface nucleation owing to their strong binding toward reactive oxygen species (e.g., O2 and LiO2). The subsequent film growth results in thicknesses of ∼40 nm (at cutoff potential of 2.2 V vs Li/Li(+)), which further increases up to ∼60 nm with the addition of trace amounts of H2O that enhances the solution free energy. This suggests the involvement of solvated superoxide species (LiO2(sol)) that precipitates on the existing Li2O2 films to form thicker films via disproportionation. By comparing toroidal Li2O2 formed solely from LiO2(sol), the thick Li2O2 films formed from surface-mediated nucleation/thin-film growth following by LiO2(sol) deposition provides the benefits of higher reversibility and rapid surface decomposition during recharge. PMID:27105122

  13. Comparative Study on Redox Properties of Nanosized CeO2 and CuO/Ce2 Under CO/O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanosized CeO2 and CuO/CeO2 samples, active for CO-PROX or related processes were comparatively examined by O2 probe electron paramagnetic resonance and in situ Raman and X-ray diffraction techniques. Their behavior toward CO reduction, as well as the oxygen-handling properties of the CO-reduced samples, was explored. An appreciable reduction of the ceria bulk was detected on treatment under CO at 473 K. On the basis of the analysis of the evolution of different oxygen-derived species (superoxide, peroxide, O-) on low-temperature (77-300 K) oxygen chemisorption on the CO-reduced samples, a general picture of the redox properties of the samples is presented. Results demonstrate that the presence of copper promotes completion of the redox cycle under CO/O2 by favoring both ceria reduction and oxidation. This can be relevant to explaining the remarkable oxidation activity and synergetic effects observed for catalysts combining CuO and CeO2

  14. Thermoluminescence induced by UV radiation in ZrO2-La2O3 and ZrO2-CeO2 mixed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, the development of catalytic materials by means of pure or mixed oxides mainly as TiO2, Al2O3, ZrO2, La2O3 and CeO2 used as support or active phases, are widely used in oxidation-reduction reactions in the chemical industry and in petroleum refining processes. the cerium and lanthanum oxides in zircon, have been studied recently in processes for reduction of pollutant gases (SOx, NOx, etc.). They result very interesting for resolving the problems of environmental pollution. Moreover, it has been observed that some of these materials are highly sensitive to ultraviolet radiation (UV), characteristic that can be took in advantage for detecting this type of radiation. In this work the preliminary obtained results on the thermoluminescent response (Tl) induced by the UV radiation in ZrO2-La2O3 and ZrO2-CeO2 mixed systems obtained by the sol-gel method are presented. The results show that the first system has a high sensitivity to UV radiation with a Tl curve composed by three peaks, two ones of greater intensity located in 70 and 140 Centigrade degrees. Likewise it was observed that for both materials, the peak located at low temperature is fadeout in few minutes after irradiation, while that the second one peak presented very good stability, resulting promising for dosimetric applications in UV radiation fields. (Author)

  15. Surface, kinetics and electrocatalytic properties of the Ti/(Ti + Ru + Ce)O2-system for the oxygen evolution reaction in alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ti-supported (Ti + Ru + Ce)O2 electrodes, prepared at 450 deg. C, were characterised by XRD, open-circuit potential (E oc), capacity data (C) and morphology factor (φ) determinations. XRD measurements showed mixed oxides present a low degree of crystallinity. E oc-data and CV-spectra support surface electrochemistry of mixed oxides is governed by the Ru(III)/Ru(IV) redox couple. In situ surface characterisation revealed the active surface area increases on increasing nominal CeO2-content. φ-Values remained in the 0.18-0.3 interval supporting the coatings have a low electrochemical porosity. Kinetics was studied recording polarisation and chronopotentiometric curves, which permitted to determine the Tafel slope and reaction order (with respect to OH-), in the low and high overpotential domains. Tafel slope data, b, presented a dependence on overpotential and oxide composition indicating the OER electrode mechanism depends on these variables. A unit reaction order with respect to OH- was found for all electrode compositions investigated. The theoretical analysis of the electrode mechanism permitted to analyse the changes in the experimental Tafel slopes taking into account modifications in the apparent electronic transfer coefficient, α ap. Analysis of the true and apparent electrocatalytic activities revealed the O2-evolution reaction rate is affected by oxide composition due to morphologic effects

  16. Designed synthesis of multi-functional PEGylated Yb2O3:Gd@SiO2@CeO2 islands core@shell nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junqi; Yao, Shuang; Song, Shuyan; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Yinghui; Ding, Xing; Wang, Fan; Zhang, Hongjie

    2016-07-28

    Nanomaterials that can restrain or reduce the production of excessive reactive oxygen species such as H2O2 to defend and treat against Alzheimer's disease (AD) have attracted much attention. In this paper, we adopt the strategy of layer-by-layer deposition; namely, first synthesizing available gadolinium-doped ytterbia nanoparticles (Yb2O3:Gd NPs) as cores, and then coating them with silica via the classical Stöber method to prevent leakage and act as a carrier for subsequent ceria deposition and PEGylation, and finally obtain the expected core@shell-structured nanocomposite of PEGylated Yb2O3:Gd@SiO2@CeO2 islands. The nanomaterial has proved not only to be a high-performance dual-modal contrast agent for use in MRI and CT, but also to exhibit excellent catalase mimetic activity, which may help the prognosis, diagnosis and treatment of AD in the future. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy characterization have revealed the successful design and synthesis of the cores with remarkable size uniformity, with well-distributed CeO2 islands decorated on the surface of SiO2 shells, and tightly immobilized PEG. PMID:27351951

  17. Suppression of the pulmonary clearance of Staphylococcus aureus in mice that had inhaled either 144CeO2 or 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate of pulmonary clearance of inhaled Staphylococcus aureus in mice was determined at intervals after inhalation exposure to either 144CeO2 or 239PuO2. In mice with mean initial lung burdens between 0.6 and 4.7 μCi 144Ce the pulmonary clearance of S. aureus was suppressed up to 12 weeks after inhalation of 144CeO2. In mice with mean initial lung burdens between 1.3 and 29.0 μCi 239Pu the pulmonary clearance of S. aureus was suppressed up to 26 weeks after inhalation of 239PuO2. The suppressed pulmonary clearance of S. aureus appeared to correlate with the radiation dose rate to the lungs at the time of exposure to bacteria but not with the cumulative radiation dose to the lungs. The changes in bacterial clearance did not appear to be correlated with changes in body weight, hematological parameters, or radiation-induced histopathological changes. Altered bacterial clearance may be related to radiation damage to pulmonary macrophages. It was concluded that irradiation of the lung from radionuclides inhaled in relatively insoluble forms may result in increased bacterial invasion of the lungs

  18. Study on characteristics of Ni-W-B composites containing CeO2 nano-particles prepared by pulse electrodeposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Junli; XU Ruidong; ZHANG Yuzhi

    2012-01-01

    Ni-W-B composites containing CeO2 nano-particles on the surface of 45 steel were prepared by pulse electrodeposition,and the influence of pulse frequency,pulse duty circle and heat treatment temperature on the structures and properties were investigated.The results indicated that the pulse co-deposition of Ni,W,B and CeO2 nano-particles led to Ni-W-B/CeO2 composites possessing higher microhardness and better wear resistance when heat-treated at 400 ℃ for 1 h.The microhardness of 636 HV and the deposition rate of 0.0281 mm/h of the as-deposited alloy were the highest at pulse frequency of 1000 Hz,pulse duty circle of 10% and pulse average current density of 10 A/dm2.The composites were mainly in the amorphous state and were partially crystallized as-deposited,and the crystallization trend was strengthened when heat-treated at 400 ℃.Decreasing pulse duty cycle from 75% to 10% was favorable to the refinement in grain strctures and improvement ofmicrostructures.The crystal sizes of the composites were smaller by means of pulse electrodeposition.

  19. Surface reactive species on MnOx(0.4)-CeO2 catalysts towards soot oxidation assisted with pulse dielectric barrier discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付名利; 林俊敏; 朱文波; 吴军良; 陈礼敏; 黄碧纯; 叶代启

    2014-01-01

    MnOx(0.4)-CeO2 was investigated for soot oxidation assisted with a pulse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The catalysts were evaluated and characterized with TPO (temperature programmed oxidation), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). The ignition temperature Ti for soot oxidation decreased from 240.8 to 216.4 ºC with the increase of the pulse DBD frequencies from 50 to 400 Hz, lower than that of the case without pulse DBD present (253.4 ºC). The results of XRD, Raman and XPS agreed well with the TPO activities of MnOx(0.4)-CeO2 towards soot oxidation. More solid solution of ceria and manganese, and surface reactive species including O2-, O-and Mn4+were responsible for the enhancement of soot oxidation due to pulse DBD injection in the present study. For solid solution favors to the activation and transformation of those species, which are be-lieved to be involved in the soot oxidation in a hybrid catalysis-plasma.

  20. Effects of surface modification on the cycling stability of LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 electrodes by CeO2 coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-performance LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 cathode was successfully fabricated by a sol-gel coating of CeO2 to the surface of the LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 powder and subsequent heat treatment at 700 deg C for 5 h. The surface-modified and pristine LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), slow rate cyclic voltammogram (CV), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Unlike pristine LiNi0.8Co0.2O2, the CeO2-coated LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 cathode exhibits no decrease in its original specific capacity of 182 mAh/g (versus lithium metal) and excellent capacity retention (95% of its initial capacity) between 4.5 and 2.8 V after 55 cycles. The results indicate that the surface treatment should be an effective way to improve the comprehensive properties of the cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

  1. Surface morphology, optical and electrochemical properties of undoped and Ni-doped CeO2 thin films prepared by polymeric precursor method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosousi Sani, Zara; Esmaeli Ghodsi, Farhad; Mazloom, Jamal

    2016-04-01

    In this study, undoped and Ni-doped CeO2 thin films were deposited onto glass and ITO substrates by polymeric precursor (Pechini) method. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the ceria thin film has a cerianite structure with the average crystallite size of 14 nm while the doped samples are amorphous. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the presence of predominant Ce4+ oxidation state of ceria and Ni2+ in the films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed that the surface texture is crack free and the CeO2 grains regularly distributed on the surface. Optical constant (refractive index and extinction coefficient) and thickness of films were calculated using pointwise unconstraint minimization approach. The optical transmittance increases and the absorption edge has a blue shift by Ni incorporation. The highest band gap value (i.e., 3.43 eV) was obtained for 2.5 mol.% Ni doping sample. The refractive index and extinction coefficient of ceria films were decreased by Ni doping. The evaluated thicknesses are in the range of 150-170 nm. The strength of interband transition was appraised as a function of nickel content by using dielectric function. Luminescent emission intensity of the ceria film was enhanced by Ni doping. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurement revealed that the total charge density and ion storage capacitance of ceria thin film were increased by Ni doping.

  2. YBCO coated conductors on highly textured Pd-buffered Ni-W tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High critical current density YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) coated conductors were obtained on cube textured Ni-W. The use of a Pd transient layer as a first buffer led to a sharp out-of-plane grains alignment of the CeO2/YSZ/CeO2 buffer layer. YBCO films grown on this template exhibit an out-of-plane orientation with a full width at half maximum of about 30, less than 50% of the respective starting Ni-W value. Despite the complete interdiffusion between Ni-W and Pd after the YBCO film deposition, the coated conductors exhibit good film adherence as well as a crack free and smooth surface of the YBCO film. YBCO thin films show critical temperature values above than 88 K and a critical current density of 2.1 MA/cm2 at 77 K and self field

  3. The Effect of Acidic and Redox Properties of V2O5/CeO2-ZrO2 Catalysts in Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by NH3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    V2O5 supported ZrO2 and CeO2–ZrO2 catalysts were prepared and characterized by N2 physisorption, XRPD, TPR, and NH3-TPD methods. The influence of calcination temperature from 400 to 600 °C on crystallinity, acidic and redox properties were studied and compared with the catalytic activity in the...... selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with ammonia. The surface area of the catalysts decreased gradually with increasing calcination temperature. The SCR activity of V2O5/ZrO2 catalysts was found to be related with the support crystallinity, whereas V2O5/CeO2–ZrO2 catalysts were also dependent on...... acidic and redox properties of the catalyst. The V2O5/CeO2–ZrO2 catalysts showed high activity and selectivity for reduction of NO with NH3....

  4. A DFT study on CO oxidation on Pd4 and Rh4 clusters and adsorbed Pd and Rh atoms on CeO2 and Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 supports for TWC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CO oxidation reaction mechanisms and energetics are examined on adsorbed Pd4 and Rh4 clusters and adsorbed Pd and Rh atoms on CeO2 and Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 support structures using DFT methods. Activation barriers and TS structures are computed with CI-NEB method. On cluster adsorbed systems, Zr affects CO binding position and O2 adsorption mode. Energetically, formation of two CO2 molecules without barrier and surface regeneration is possible only on Pd4-CeO2 surface. With metal atom substituted surfaces, Pd substituted Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 and CeO2 supports are found to be capable of completing catalytic cycle with consecutive CO oxidations by creating and filling surface oxygen vacancies.

  5. Effects of Substrate Temperatures on the Structure and UV-shielding Properties of TiO2-CeO2 Films Deposited on Glass by Radio-frequency Magnetron Sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qingnan; NI Jiamiao; ZHANG Naizhi; ZHAO Xiujian; JIANG Hong; WANG Guirong

    2005-01-01

    TiO2-CeO2 films were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates at varied substrate temperatures by rf magnetron sputtering using 40% molar TiO2- 60% molar CeO2 ceramic target in Ar: O2 = 95: 5 atmosphere. The structure, surface composition, UV-visible spectra of the films were measured by scanning electron microscopy and X- ray diffraction, and X- ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The experimental results show that the films are amorphous, there are only Ti4+ and Ce4+ on the surface of the films, the obtained TiO2-CeO2 films show a good uniformity and high densification, and the films deposited on the glass can shield ultraviolet light without significant absorption of visible light, the films deposited on substrates at room temperature and 220 ℃ absorb UV effectively.

  6. Resistive switching effects in CeO2/La0.7(Sr0.1Ca0.9)0.3MnO3/Pt heterostructures prepared by pulse laser deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heterostructural junctions of CeO2/La0.7(Sr0.1Ca0.9)0.3MnO3/Pt (CeO2/LSCMO/Pt) were prepared using pulse laser deposition technique. Their resistive switching (RS) behavior was investigated. As compared to the metal/manganite/Pt junction, the CeO2/LSCMO/Pt device displayed an improved switching characteristic. The RS effects with characteristics of bipolar, threshold, and complementary were realized by adjusting the thicknesses of the CeO2 layer in the CeO2/LSCMO/Pt junctions. Under a higher external bias voltage, the threshold and complementary switching modes of the junctions could turn into bipolar switching mode. The switching behavior shows strong dependence on the O2 partial pressure during the fabrication, indicating that the amount and behavior of the oxygen at the interface play an important role in the determination of the RS behavior. The observed switching behavior is related to the modification of the accumulation/depletion layers as well as the interfacial potential barrier due to the migration of the oxygen vacancies. - Highlights: • Heterostructure of CeO2/LSMO/Pt displayed an improved resistance switching characteristic. • Resistance switching with characteristics of bipolar, threshold and complementary was found. • Threshold and complementary switching mode could turn into bipolar switching mode. • Switching behavior is related to the modification of the accumulation/depletion layers. • Interfacial potential barrier due to the migration of oxygen vacancies was proposed

  7. First principles study of the magnetism driven by cation defects in CeO2: the important role of O2p states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Zhan-Sheng; Ma Dong-Wei; Zhang Jing; Xu Guo-Liang; Yang Zong-Xian

    2012-01-01

    The magnetism driven by cation defects in undoped CeO2 bulk and thin films is studied by the density functional theory corrected for on-site Coulomb interactions (DFT+U) with U =5 eV for the Ce4f states and U =7 eV for the O2p states.It is found that the Ce vacancies can induce a magnetic moment of the ~ 4 μB/supercell,which arises mainly from the 2p hole state of the nearest neighbouring O atom (~ 1 μB on per oxygen) to the Ce vacancy.The effect of the methodology is investigated,indicating that U =7 eV for the O2p state is necessary to obtain the localized O2p hole state in defective ceria with cation vacancies.

  8. Mechanical and microstructural characteristics of detonation gun sprayed NiCrAlY + 0.4 wt% CeO2 coatings on superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of detonation gun sprayed NiCrAlY + CeO2 alloy coatings deposited on superalloys were investigated. The morphologies of the coatings were characterized by using the techniques such as optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive analysis. The coating depicts the formation of dendritic structure and the microstructural refinement in the coating was due to ceria. Average porosity on three substrates was less than 0.58% and surface roughness of the coatings was in the range of 6.17-6.94 μm. Average bond strength and microhardness of the coatings were found to be 58 MPa and 697-920 HV, respectively.

  9. First principles study of the magnetism driven by cation defects in CeO2: the important role of O2p states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetism driven by cation defects in undoped CeO2 bulk and thin films is studied by the density functional theory corrected for on-site Coulomb interactions (DFT+U) with U = 5 eV for the Ce4f states and U = 7 eV for the O2p states. It is found that the Ce vacancies can induce a magnetic moment of the ∼ 4 μB/supercell, which arises mainly from the 2p hole state of the nearest neighbouring O atom (∼ 1 μB on per oxygen) to the Ce vacancy. The effect of the methodology is investigated, indicating that U = 7 eV for the O2p state is necessary to obtain the localized O2p hole state in defective ceria with cation vacancies. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  10. Characterization and Catalytic Activity for the Oxidation of Ethane and Propane on Platinum and Copper Supported on CeO2/Al2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cataluña R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethane and propane oxidation on platinum and copper supported on Al2O3 and CeO2/Al2O3 catalysts were studied comparatively by examining reaction rates as a function of temperature. Results show that the addition of cerium oxide shifts the catalytic activity to higher temperatures. This negative influence is less pronounced in the case of supported copper samples, which on the basis of EPR and FTIR of adsorbed CO results is attributed to the low relative amount of this metal is in contact with ceria. The decrease in activity the presence of ceria might be due to changes in metal particle size or to the stabilization of the oxidized states of the metals, induced by their interactions with cerium oxide. The higher activity of platinum, in comparison with copper, is attributed to its higher reducibility along with an easier hydrocarbon activation on that metal.

  11. Hydrogen transfer reaction of cyclohexanone with 2-propanol catalysed by CeO2-ZnO materials: Promoting effect of ceria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Braja Gopal Mishra; G Ranga Rao; B Poongodi

    2003-10-01

    Ce-Zn-O mixed oxides were prepared by amorphous citrate process and decomposition of the corresponding acetate precursors. The resulting materials were characterised by TGA, XRD, UV-Vis-DRS, EPR, SEM and surface area measurements. XRD and DRS results indicated fine dispersion of the ceria component in the ZnO matrix. EPR results clearly indicate the presence of oxygen vacancy and defect centres in the composite oxide. Addition of CeO2 to ZnO produced mixed oxides of high surface area compared to the pure ZnO. Hydrogen transfer reaction was carried out on these catalytic materials to investigate the effect of rare earth oxide on the activity of ZnO. Addition of ceria into zinc oxide was found to increase the catalytic activity for hydrogen transfer reaction. The catalytic activity also depended on the method of preparation. Citrate process results in uniformly dispersed mixed oxide with higher catalytic activity.

  12. Role of Surface Adsorption in Fast Oxygen Storage/Release of CeO2-ZrO2 Mixed Oxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Xiaodong; Liang Qing; Wu Xiaodi; Weng Duan

    2007-01-01

    Four kinds of CeO2-ZrO2 mixed oxides, i.e., a physical mixture of ceria and zirconia (CZP), zirconia-coated ceria (ZCC), ceria-coated zirconia (CCZ) and a chemical mixture of ceria and zirconia (CZC), were prepared. The oxygen storage capacity (OSC) measurements at 500 ℃ were performed under transient and stationary reaction conditions. All the curves of CO2 evolution during CO-O2 cycles presented a bimodal shape. The first peak was primarily the result of the reaction of CO with the oxygen from the oxides, which was mainly determined by the nature of the material. The second peak was mostly related to the CO2 adsorption behavior and was highly influenced by the surface area and the number of surface active sites. As a result, OSC activity of the samples followed in the order of CZC>CCZ>ZCC≈CZP.

  13. Indium oxide base solid solutions with HfO2, CeO2, TiO2 additions and their some properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indium oxide interaction with hafnium, cerium and titanium oxides at 800-1600 deg C in the air, as well as some physical properties of the reaction products are studied. It is ascertained that a solid solution of substitution-deduction-introduction based on indium oxide and a solid solution based on HfO2 of a cubic fluorite structure are produced in In2O3-HfO2 system. These phases are stable within 500-1200 deg C interval. A solid solution of substitution-deduction, stable at 500-1200 deg C, is also produced in In23-CeO2 system. 8 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

  14. Influence of the Electronic Structure and Optical Properties of CeO2 and UO2 for Characterization with UV-Laser Assisted Atom Probe Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billy Valderrama; H.B. Henderson; C. Yablinsky; J. Gan; T.R. Allen; M.V. Manuel

    2015-09-01

    Oxide materials are used in numerous applications such as thermal barrier coatings, nuclear fuels, and electrical conductors and sensors, all applications where nanometer-scale stoichiometric changes can affect functional properties. Atom probe tomography can be used to characterize the precise chemical distribution of individual species and spatially quantify the oxygen to metal ratio at the nanometer scale. However, atom probe analysis of oxides can be accompanied by measurement artifacts caused by laser-material interactions. In this investigation, two technologically relevant oxide materials with the same crystal structure and an anion to cation ratio of 2.00, pure cerium oxide (CeO2) and uranium oxide (UO2) are studied. It was determined that electronic structure, optical properties, heat transfer properties, and oxide stability strongly affect their evaporation behavior, thus altering their measured stoichiometry, with thermal conductance and thermodynamic stability being strong factors.

  15. Effect of Preparation Method on Surface Area and Crystalline Form of CeO2-ZrO2 Solid Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓红; 郭耘; 卢冠忠; 郭杨龙; 王筠松; 张志刚; 刘晓晖

    2004-01-01

    The CeO2-ZrO2 solid solutions were prepared by a reverse microemulsion method. The effect of preparation parameters on the surface area and crystalline form of the solid solutions were studied by the BET surface area and XRD analysis. The studies indicate that the separation of the microemulsion phase during the preparation procedure can decrease the specific surface area of sample, adding hydrogen peroxide in the matrix solution can increase the specific surface area and stability of sample. The surface area of sample calcined at 550 ℃ for 5 h is 149 m2·g-1, and that calcined at 900 ℃ for 6 h is 88 m2·g-1.The sample with tetragonal symmetry Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 phase has a higher stability.

  16. A novel recipe to improve the magnetic properties of Mn doped CeO2 as a room temperature ferromagnetic diluted metal oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mn doped ceria nanocrystals have been prepared using hexamethylene triperoxide diamine assisted solvothermal technique for the first time. The impact of this novel recipe on the structure, magnetic and spectroscopic behaviors was discussed. The doped oxides were studied using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and magnetic measurements. The XRD analysis revealed that all the powders can be indexed to the pure cubic ceria, revealing complete solubility of Mn atoms in the ceria crystal structure with an interstitial substitution of Mn in the Ce sites. At the percolation concentration x=0.08 (Mn0.08Ce0.92O2), the Mn doped cerium oxide displays a very high saturation magnetization of 4.48 emu/g and coercivity of 175.5 Oe. The enhanced magnetic properties are attributed to the formation of the complex between the Mn ion and an oxygen vacancy which is confirmed by the XPS analysis. According to the obtained results, one can say that this novel synthetic recipe increased the solubility of Mn ions into the CeO2 crystal structure and improved the magnetization by more than 37 times compared to the Mn doped CeO2 prepared by conventional methods. - Highlights: • Mn doped ceria was prepared by HMTD assisted solvothermal technique. • Complete solubility of Mn atoms in the ceria structure was achieved up to 10 at%. • High saturation magnetization of 4.48 emu/g was achieved at 8 at%. • The magnetization was improved by more than 37 times compared to conventional methods

  17. Activity and hydrothermal stability of CeO2-ZrO2-WO3 for the selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhongxian; Ning, Ping; Zhang, Qiulin; Li, Hao; Zhang, Jinhui; Wang, Yancai; Liu, Xin; Huang, Zhenzhen

    2016-04-01

    A series of CeO2-ZrO2-WO3 (CZW) catalysts prepared by a hydrothermal synthesis method showed excellent catalytic activity for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3 over a wide temperature of 150-550°C. The effect of hydrothermal treatment of CZW catalysts on SCR activity was investigated in the presence of 10% H2O. The fresh catalyst showed above 90% NOx conversion at 201-459°C, which is applicable to diesel exhaust NOx purification (200-440°C). The SCR activity results indicated that hydrothermal aging decreased the SCR activity of CZW at low temperatures (below 300°C), while the activity was notably enhanced at high temperature (above 450°C). The aged CZW catalyst (hydrothermal aging at 700°C for 8hr) showed almost 80% NOx conversion at 229-550°C, while the V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst presented above 80% NOx conversion at 308-370°C. The effect of structural changes, acidity, and redox properties of CZW on the SCR activity was investigated. The results indicated that the excellent hydrothermal stability of CZW was mainly due to the CeO2-ZrO2 solid solution, amorphous WO3 phase and optimal acidity. In addition, the formation of WO3 clusters increased in size as the hydrothermal aging temperature increased, resulting in the collapse of structure, which could further affect the acidity and redox properties. PMID:27090708

  18. Synthesis and application of CeO2–NiO loaded TiO2 nanofiber as novel catalyst for hydrogen production from sodium borohydride hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple electrospinning technique was used to fabricate cerium–nickel loaded titanium nanofibers for efficient use in catalytic applications for hydrogen production. The prepared nanofibers were characterized by the SEM (scanning electron microscopy), EDX (energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer), FTIR (fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), BET (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller) technique and TEM (transmission electron microscopy). The SEM and TEM analyses showed that fabricated nanofibers were defect-free and had well deposition of cerium and nickel. The BET analysis concluded that cerium–nickel loaded titanium oxide nanofiber showed greater surface area and high porosity than other nanofiber compositions. The experimental results showed that addition of cerium with nickel enhanced the catalytic activity significantly, but excessive cerium-loading had a negative effect on sodium borohydride hydrolysis. Activation energy of cerium–nickel loaded titanium oxide nanofiber was comparatively lesser than nickel-loaded titanium oxide nanofiber. It was evident that cerium had a beneficial effect in the catalytic activity for hydrogen production. Furthermore, it is very convenient to recover the catalyst at the end of reactions; the solid catalyst left could be readily reused for the next consecutive cycles. - Highlights: • A simple electrospinning is used to allow uniform deposition of spherical CeO2 and NiO NPs on nanofiber based TiO2. • The prepared materials were characterized by SEM, EDX, TEM, XRD, BET and FT–IR analyses. • The presence of Ni with Ce has beneficial attributes on the catalyst performance by structural modifications. • In this study, 1:2 ratio of Ce/Ni was found to be the best for CeO2–NiO–TiO2 catalyst system. • The catalysts obtained show high catalytic activity and good stability to produce H2 with higher reusability

  19. Stability and migration barriers of small vanadium oxide clusters on the CeO2(111) surface studied by density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paier, Joachim; Kropp, Thomas; Penschke, Christopher; Sauer, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    By virtue of periodic density functional theory, we investigate structure and thermodynamic stability of (VO)k and (VO2)k (k = 1, 2, 3) clusters deposited on the CeO2(111) surface, which serve as models for the very active sub-monolayer vanadia catalyst on a ceria support. We find V always completely oxidized (oxidation state +5) and coordinated to four O atoms. As a consequence, Ce4+ is (partially) reduced to Ce3+. Thus, localized Ce-4f states are populated, which requires an onsite U-term (PBE+U) to avoid over-delocalization off-electrons. Importantly, trimers of VO2 were found to be extraordinarily stable (agglomeration energy: -1.68 eV), whereas aggregation of VO species on CeO2(111) is thermodynamically clearly unfavourable (agglomeration energy: 3.45 eV). As a consequence a large area of the VnOm phase diagram (for relevant temperatures) is dominated by the VO2 trimer. The latter is less active towards reduction/oxidation than the active monomer and dimer of VO2, which are not present in the phase diagram at all, although directly observed by recent STM measurements. This suggests that kinetic effects hinder VO2 to grow into larger oligomers. The lowest migration energy barrier we found is as high as 1.95 eV, which indicates that adsorbed monomeric VO2 is "kinetically locked" at low temperatures and explains why monomers are stabilized on the ceria surface. PMID:24015586

  20. Effect of WO3 on structural and optical properties of CeO2-PbO-B2O3 glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pure and WO3 doped CeO2-PbO-B2O3 glasses are prepared by the melt-quench technique. The structural and optical analyses of glasses are carried out by XRD, FTIR, density and UV-vis spectroscopic measurement techniques. FTIR analysis indicates the transformation of structural units of BO3 into BO4 with W-O-W vibration and the presence of WO4 and WO6 units observed with increase in WO3 contents. Decrease in band gap for CeO2-PbO-B2O3 glasses from 2.89 to 2.30 eV and for WO3 doped glasses from 2.89 to 1.95 eV has been observed and discussed. This decrease in band gap with WO3 doping approaches to semiconductor behavior. It shows that the presence of WO3 in the glass samples causes more compaction of the borate network due to the formation of BO4 groups and the presence of WO4 and WO6 groups, which result in a decrease in the optical band gap energy and increase in the density. -- Research Highlights: →Shrinkage of band gap of glasses shows semiconducting behaviour with WO3 doping. →Optical band edge shows more red shift with the Co-doping of cerium and tungsten. →Formation of tetrahedral BO4 groups, conversion of WO4 to WO6 with tungsten doping. →The higher value of density is due the formation of BO4, WO4 and WO6 groups.

  1. Oxidación Húmeda de Fenoles con Catalizadores Fe-CeO2, K-MnO2/ CeO2/Paligorsquita y Fe/ Paligorsquita Wet Oxidation of Phenols using Fe-CeO2, K-MnO2/ CeO2/Paligorskite and Fe/ Palygorskite Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago A. F Junior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha evaluado el funcionamiento de catalizadores Fe-MnO2/CeO2, K-MnO2/CeO2/Paligorsquita y Fe/Paligorsquita en la degradación oxidativa húmeda del fenol en un reactor de mezcla. Los experimentos se ejecutaron a: temperatura de 130º C, presión de 20.4 atm., concentración másica del catalizador de 5 g/L y concentración inicial del fenol de 0,5 g/L Los parámetros evaluados fueron: contenido de hierro impregnado (0, 3; 7 y 10%, m/m y el pH inicial del medio reactivo (3.1; 6.8 y 8.7. Las curvas de degradación del fenol indican que el catalizador Fe+2/Paligorsquita tiene un papel preponderante en la conversión de carbono orgánico total comparado con los demás catalizadores. Se encontró también que la disminución de la alcalinidad del medio reactivo favorece la conversión de fenol y que el soporte paligorsquita parece ser más resistente a la acción de los compuestos ácidos formados durante la reacción.The performance of Fe-MnO2/CeO2, K-MnO2/CeO2/ Palygorskite and Fe/ Palygorskite catalysts during the wet oxidative degradation of phenol in a stirred reactor has been evaluated. The experiments were run at 130°C, 20.4 atm., and with an initial phenol and catalyst mass concentration of 0.5 g/L and 5 g/L, respectively. The influence of iron loaded on the support (0, 3; 7 and 10%, m/m and the initial pH of the reactant medium (3.1; 6.8; 8.7 were studied. The phenol degradation curves showed that the Fe+2//Palygorskite catalyst had the best performance toward the organic carbon conversion compared to the other catalysts. It was also found that by lowering the alkalinity of the reacting media favoured the phenol conversion and that the Palygorskite support showed higher resistance to the actions of the acids formed during the reaction.

  2. Epataxial growth of the high-temperature superconductors YBa2Cu3O7-x on silicon single crystals with buffer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the growth of thin films of the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-x on Si(001) substrates has been investigated by Rutherford backscattering, channeling, X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and electrical measurements. Epitaxial buffer layers of electrically insulating, pure and yttria-stabilized ZrO2 ([Y2O3]0.06[ZrO2]0.94 = YSZ) as well as of metallic CoSi2 were employed to largely prevent the interdiffusion and chemical reaction between the superconductor film and the substrate in spite of the high deposition temperatures of the YBa2Cu3O7-x in the range of 600 to 800deg C. (orig.)

  3. Development of biaxially textured buffer layers on rolled-Ni substrates for high current YBa2Cu3O7-y coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development of 3 buffer layer architectures with good biaxial textures on rolled-Ni substrates using vacuum processing techniques. The techniques include pulsed laser ablation, e-beam evaporation, dc and rf magnetron sputtering. The first buffer layer architecture consists of an epitaxial laminate of Ag/Pd(Pt)/Ni. The second buffer layer consists of an epitaxial laminate of CeO2/Pd/Ni. The third alternative buffer layer architecture consists of an epitaxial laminate of YSZ/CeO2/Ni. The cube (100) texture in the Ni was produced by cold rolling followed by recrystallization. Crystallographic orientations of the Pd, Ag, CeO2, and YSZ films grown were all (100). We recently demonstrated a critical- current density of 0.73x106 A/cm2 at 77 K and zero field on 1.4 μm thick YBa2Cu3O7-y (YBCO) film. This film was deposited by pulsed laser ablation on a YBCO/YSZ/CeO2/Ni substrate

  4. Investigation of the Poisoning Mechanism of Lead on the CeO2-WO3 Catalyst for the NH3-SCR Reaction via in Situ IR and Raman Spectroscopy Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yue; Si, Wenzhe; Li, Xiang; Chen, Jianjun; Li, Junhua; Crittenden, John; Hao, Jiming

    2016-09-01

    The in situ IR and Raman spectroscopy measurements were conducted to investigate lead poisoning on the CeO2-WO3 catalysts. The deactivation mechanisms were studied with respect to the changes of surface acidity, redox property, nitrate/nitrite adsorption behaviors, and key active sites (note that the results of structure-activity relationship of CeO2-WO3 were based on our previous research). (1) Lewis acid sites originated from CeO2 and crystalline WO3, whereas Brønsted acid sites originated from Ce2(WO4)3. The poisoned catalysts exhibited a lower surface acidity than the fresh catalysts: the number of acid sites decreased, and their thermal stability weakened. (2) The reducibility of catalysts and the amount of active oxygen exhibited a smaller influence after poisoning because lead preferred to bond with surface WOx species rather than CeO2. (3) The quantity of active nitrate species decreased due to the lead coverage on the catalyst and the partial bridged-nitrate species induced by lead exhibited a low degree of activity at 200 °C. (4) Crystalline WO3 and Ce2(WO4)3 originated from the transformation of polytungstate sites. These sites were the key active sites during the SCR process. The formation temperatures of polytungstate on the poisoned catalysts were higher than those on the fresh catalysts. PMID:27480109

  5. Ni-doped (CeO2−δ)–YSZ mesoarchitectured with nanocrystalline framework: the effect of thermal treatment on structure, surface chemistry and catalytic properties in the partial oxidation of methane (CPOM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni-doped (CeO2−δ)–YSZ (5 mol% Ni oxide, 10 mol% ceria) mesoarchitectures (MA) with nanocrystalline framework have been synthesized by an original, facile and cheap approach based on Triton X100 nonionic surfactant as template and water as solvent at a strong basic pH value. Following the hydrothermal treatment under autogenous pressure (∼18 bars), Ni, Ce, Y, and Zr were well ordered as MA with nanocrystalline framework, assuring thermal stability. A comprehensive investigation of structure, texture, morphology, and surface chemistry was performed by means of a variety of complementary techniques (X-Ray Diffraction, XRD; Raman Spectroscopy, RS; Brunauer—Emmett—Teller, BET; Temperature—Programmed Reduction, TPR; Transmission Electron Microscopy, TEM and DF-STEM; X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, XPS; Catalytic activity and selectivity). N2 sorption measurements highlighted that the mesoporous structure is formed at 600 °C and remains stable at 800 °C. At 900 °C, the MA collapses, favoring the formation of macropores. The XRD and Raman Spectroscopy of all samples showed the presence of a pure, single phase with fluorite-type structure. At 900 °C, an increased tetragonal distortion of the cubic lattice was observed. The surface chemistry probed by XPS exhibits a mixture of oxidation states (Ce3+ + Ce4+) with high percentage of Ce3+ valence state ∼35 % and (Ni3+ and Ni2+) oxidation states induced by the thermal treatment. These nanoparticles assembled into MA show high stability and selectivity over time in catalytic partial oxidation of methane (CPOM). These promising performances suggest an interesting prospect for introduction as anode within IT-SOFC assemblies.Graphical Abstract

  6. Physico-Chemical Property and Catalytic Activity of a CeO2-Doped MnO(x)-TiO2 Catalyst with SO2 Resistance for Low-Temperature NH3-SCR of NO(x).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Byeongkil; Chun, Ho Hwan; Cha, Jin-Sun; Shin, Min-Chul; Lee, Heesoo

    2016-05-01

    The effects of CeO2 addition on the catalytic activity and the SO2 resistance of CeO2-doped MnO(x)-TiO2 catalysts were investigated for the low-temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with NH3 of NO(x) emissions in marine applications. The most active catalyst was obtained from 30 wt% CeO2-MnO(x)-TiO2 catalyst in the whole temperature range of 100-300 degrees C at a low gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 10,000 h(-)1, and its de-NO(x) efficiency was higher than 90% over 250 degrees C. The enhanced catalytic activity may contribute to the dispersion state and catalytic acidity on the catalyst surface, and the highly dispersed Mn and Ce on the nano-scaled TiO2 catalyst affects the increase of Lewis and Brønsted acid sites. A CeO2-rich additive on MnO(x)-TiO2 could provide stronger catalytic acid sites, associated with NH3 adsorption and the SCR performance. As the results of sulfur resistance in flue gas that contains SO2, the de-NO(x) efficiency of MnO(x)-TiO2 decreased by 15% over 200 degrees C, whereas that of 30 wt% ceria-doped catalyst increased by 14-21% over 150 degrees C. The high SO2 resistance of CeO2-MnO(x)-TiO2 catalysts that resulted from the addition of ceria suppressed the formation of Mn sulfate species, which led to deactivation on the surface of nano-catalyst. PMID:27483759

  7. The Effect of the Oxygen Scavenging System on the pH of Buffered Sample Solutions: in the Context of Single-molecule Fluorescence Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Lee, Il Buem; Hong, Seok Cheol [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    In single-molecule fluorescence experiment, the oxygen scavenging system is indispensable for avoiding photo-bleaching of fluorescent dyes. Here we report that the gloxy-based oxygen scavenging system commonly used in single molecule fluorescence experiments can disturb the solution pH considerably. To track in situ pH change, we utilized the pH-sensitive conformational transition of i-motif and examined the transition with ensemble and single-molecule FRET measurements. Based on our results, we also suggested several practical remedies for the stability of the solution pH

  8. The Effect of the Oxygen Scavenging System on the pH of Buffered Sample Solutions: in the Context of Single-molecule Fluorescence Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In single-molecule fluorescence experiment, the oxygen scavenging system is indispensable for avoiding photo-bleaching of fluorescent dyes. Here we report that the gloxy-based oxygen scavenging system commonly used in single molecule fluorescence experiments can disturb the solution pH considerably. To track in situ pH change, we utilized the pH-sensitive conformational transition of i-motif and examined the transition with ensemble and single-molecule FRET measurements. Based on our results, we also suggested several practical remedies for the stability of the solution pH

  9. Eco-friendly green synthesis, structural and photoluminescent studies of CeO2:Eu3+ nanophosphors using E. tirucalli plant latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Crystal structure and CIE diagram of CeO2:Eu3+ nanophosphor. - Highlights: • Eco friendly green combustion route is used for the synthesis using E-tirucalli latex. • Characteristic emission peaks of Eu3+ion in the range 525-725 nm are recorded. • CIE co-ordinate values located in the deep red region. • Present method is friendliness, high yield, non toxic etc. - Abstract: The investigation involves preparation and photoluminescence properties of CeO2:Eu3+ (1–11 mol%) nano phosphors by eco-friendly green combustion route using Euphorbia tirucalli plant latex as fuel. The final product was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Scanning electron microcopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The PXRD and SEM results reveals cubic fluorite phase with flaky structure. The crystallite size obtained from TEM was found to be ∼20–25 nm, which was comparable to W–H plots and Scherrer’s method. Photoluminescence (PL) emission of all the Eu3+ doped samples shows characteristic bands arising from the transitions of 5D0 → 5FJ (J = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4) manifolds under excitation at 373 and 467 nm excitation. The 5D0 → 7F2 (613 nm) transition often dominate the emission spectra, indicating that the Eu3+ cations occupy a site without inversion center. The highest PL intensity was recorded for 9 mol% Eu3+ ions with 5 ml latex. PL quenching was observed upon further increase in Eu3+ concentration. The international commission on illumination (CIE) chromaticity co-ordinates were calculated from emission spectra, the values (x, y) were very close to national television system committee (NTSC) standard values of pure red emission. The results demonstrate that the synthesized phosphor material could be very useful for display applications. Further, the phosphor material prepared by this method was found to be non toxic, environmental friendly and could be a potential alternative to economical routes

  10. Photorefractive Properties of Potassium Lithium Niobate Crystals with CeO2 and Nd2O3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    KLN and Ce:Nd:KLN crystals were grown by Czochralski method and polarized into single ferroelectrics domain along c-axis. The properties of KLN and Ce:Nd:KLN crystals, such as Curie temperature, Raman spectra, exponential gain coefficient (Г) and thin crystal sheet effect, were measured. The results showed that the two spectra resembling Ce:Nd:KLN crystal were of tetragonal tungsten bronze structure, the exponential gain coefficient of Ce:Nd:KLN crystal was higher than that of KLN crystals and Ce:Nd:KLN crystal had thin crystal sheet effect, for its exponential gain coefficient increasing with crystal sheet thinning. The thin crystal sheet effect of Ce:Nd:KLN crystal was also discussed.

  11. High Catalytic Activity and Chemoselectivity of Sub-nanometric Pd Clusters on Porous Nanorods of CeO2 for Hydrogenation of Nitroarenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sai; Chang, Chun-Ran; Huang, Zheng-Qing; Li, Jing; Wu, Zhemin; Ma, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhiyun; Wang, Yong; Qu, Yongquan

    2016-03-01

    Sub-nanometric Pd clusters on porous nanorods of CeO2 (PN-CeO2) with a high Pd dispersion of 73.6% exhibit the highest catalytic activity and best chemoselectivity for hydrogenation of nitroarenes to date. For hydrogenation of 4-nitrophenol, the catalysts yield a TOF of ∼44059 h(-1) and a chemoselectivity to 4-aminophenol of >99.9%. The superior catalytic performance can be attributed to a cooperative effect between the highly dispersed sub-nanometric Pd clusters for hydrogen activation and unique surface sites of PN-CeO2 with a high concentration of oxygen vacancy for an energetically and geometrically preferential adsorption of nitroarenes via nitro group. The high concentration of surface defects of PN-CeO2 and large Pd dispersion contribute to the enhanced catalytic activity for the hydrogenation reactions. The high chemoselectivity is mainly governed by the high Pd dispersion on the support. The catalysts also deliver high catalytic activity and selectivity for nitroaromatics with various reducible substituents into the corresponding aminoarenes. PMID:26828123

  12. Defect interactions with stepped CeO2/SrTiO3 interfaces: Implications for radiation damage evolution and fast ion conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to reduced dimensions and increased interfacial content, nanocomposite oxides offer improved functionalities in a wide variety of advanced technological applications, including their potential use as radiation tolerant materials. To better understand the role of interface structures in influencing the radiation damage tolerance of oxides, we have conducted atomistic calculations to elucidate the behavior of radiation-induced point defects (vacancies and interstitials) at interface steps in a model CeO2/SrTiO3 system. We find that atomic-scale steps at the interface have substantial influence on the defect behavior, which ultimately dictate the material performance in hostile irradiation environments. Distinctive steps react dissimilarly to cation and anion defects, effectively becoming biased sinks for different types of defects. Steps also attract cation interstitials, leaving behind an excess of immobile vacancies. Further, defects introduce significant structural and chemical distortions primarily at the steps. These two factors are plausible origins for the enhanced amorphization at steps seen in our recent experiments. The present work indicates that comprehensive examination of the interaction of radiation-induced point defects with the atomic-scale topology and defect structure of heterointerfaces is essential to evaluate the radiation tolerance of nanocomposites. Finally, our results have implications for other applications, such as fast ion conduction

  13. Interplay of dopant, defects and electronic structure in driving ferromagnetism in Co-doped oxides: TiO2, CeO2 and ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive study of the defects and impurity (Co)-driven ferromagnetism is undertaken in the oxide semiconductors: TiO2, ZnO and CeO2. The effect of magnetic (Co2+) and non-magnetic (Cu2+) impurities in conjunction with defects, such as oxygen vacancies (Vo), have been thoroughly investigated. Analyses of the x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data reveal the incorporation of cobalt in the lattice, with no signature of cobalt segregation. It is shown that oxygen vacancies are necessary for the ferromagnetic coupling in the Co-doped oxides mentioned above. The possible exchange mechanisms responsible for the ferromagnetism are discussed in light of the energy levels of dopants in the host oxides. In addition, Co and Cu co-doped TiO2 samples are studied in order to understand the role of point defects in establishing room temperature ferromagnetism. The parameters calculated from the bound magnetic polaron (BMP) and Jorgensen's optical electronegativity models offer a satisfactory explanation of the defect-driven ferromagnetism in the doped/co-doped samples.

  14. The CeO2-TiO2-ZrO2 sol-gel film: a counter-electrode for electrochromic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin films of CeO2-TiO2-ZrO2 with 23 mol% of Ce, 45 mol% of Ti and 32 mol% of Zr were obtained by the sol-gel method. The precursor sol was prepared from a mixture of Ce(NH4)2 (NO3)6, Ti(OPri)4 and Zr(OPri)4 solubilized in isopropanol and then sonicated. Xerogels were characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction. The films were deposited by dip-coating technique on a glass plate coated with an indium tin oxide film (ITO) and thermally treated at 80 deg. C for 15 min. and heated at 450 deg. C for 15 min in an oxygen atmosphere. By means of the addition of a lithium salt (LiCF3SO3) to the precursor solution, films with different electrochemical performances were obtained. Their possible use as ion storage (counter-electrode) in electrochromic devices (ECD) was analyzed by spectroelectrochemical measurements using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry coupled to spectrometric measurements

  15. Template-assisted formation of microsized nanocrystalline CeO2 tubes and their catalytic performance in the carboxylation of methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg J. Schneider

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA/ceria composite fibres were synthesized by using a sequential combination of polymer electrospinning, spray-coating with a sol, and a final calcination step to yield microstructured ceria tubes, which are composed of nanocrystalline ceria particles. The PMMA template is removed from the organic/inorganic hybrid material by radio frequency (rf plasma etching followed by calcination of the ceramic green-body fibres. Microsized ceria (CeO2 tubes, with a diameter of ca. 0.75 µm, composed of nanocrystalline agglomerated ceria particles were thus obtained. The 1-D ceramic ceria material was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, UV–vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL, as well as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Its catalytic performance was studied in the direct carboxylation of methanol with carbon dioxide leading to dimethyl carbonate [(CH3O2CO, DMC], which is widely employed as a phosgene and dimethyl sulfate substitute, and as well as a fuel additive.

  16. Total catalytic wet oxidation of phenol and its chlorinated derivates with MnO2/CeO2 catalyst in a slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Luna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a synthetic effluent of phenol was treated by means of a total oxidation process-Catalyzed Wet Oxidation (CWO. A mixed oxide of Mn-Ce (7:3, the catalyst, was synthesized by co-precipitation from an aqueous solution of MnCl2 and CeCl3 in a basic medium. The mixed oxide, MnO2/CeO2, was characterized and used in the oxidation of phenol in a slurry reactor in the temperature range of 80-130ºC and pressure of 2.04-4.76 MPa. A phenol solution containing 2.4-dichlorophenol and 2.4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was also degraded with good results. A lumped kinetic model, with two parallel reaction steps, fits precisely with the integrated equation and the experimental data. The kinetic parameters obtained are in agreement with the Arrhenius equation. The activation energies were determined to be 38.4 for the total oxidation and 53.4 kJ/mol for the organic acids formed.

  17. Synthesis of ZrO2-8%CeO2 and ZrO2-8%Y2O3 by polymeric precursors route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stabilization of zirconia in the cubical and tetragonal structures comes gaining importance because of its excellent thermal stability, chemical resistance, mechanical properties and oxygen conductivity. Its main applications include electrolytes of high temperature fuel cells, sensors of oxygen and electrochemical reactors. In this work the polymeric precursors route was used to synthesize ZrO2-8 mol% Y2O3 and ZrO2-8 mol%CeO2. In this process the dopant concentration, besides making possible the stabilization of distinct structures, influences in the morphologic characteristics of the powders synthesized. The characterization of the powders was carried through X-ray diffraction for existing phases verification and average crystallite size, thermogravimetric analysis, specific surface area measures, particles size distribution by laser scattering and the powder morphology was observed using scanning electronic microscopy. The powder only calcined at 700 deg C had presented of average crystallite size of 6,77 nm for ZrO2-8%Y2O3 and 7,14 nm for ZrO2-CeO2. (author)

  18. Direct electrochemistry of myoglobin in a layer-by-layer film on an ionic liquid modified electrode containing CeO2 nanoparticles and hyaluronic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe an ionic liquid modified electrode (CPE-IL) for sensing hydrogen peroxide (HP) that was modified by the layer-by-layer technique with myoglobin (Mb). In addition, the surface of the electrode was modified with CeO2 nanoparticles (nano-CeO2) and hyaluronic acid. UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed that Mb retains its native structure in the composite film. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the nano-CeO2 closely interact with Mb to form an inhomogeneously distributed film. Cyclic voltammetry reveals a pair of quasi-reversible redox peaks of Mb, with the cathodic peak at -0. 357 V and the anodic peak at -0. 269 V. The peak separation (ΔEp) and the formal potential (Eσ) are 88 mV and -0. 313 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), respectively. The Mb immobilized in the modified electrode displays an excellent electrocatalytic activity towards HP in the 0. 6 to 78. 0 μM concentration range. The limit of detection is 50 nM (S/N = 3), and then the Michaelis-Menten constant is 71. 8 μM. We believe that such a composite film has potential to further investigate other redox proteins and in the fabrication of third-generation biosensors. (author)

  19. High power density cell using nanostructured Sr-doped SmCoO3 and Sm-doped CeO2 composite powder synthesized by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Toshio; Sumi, Hirofumi; Hamamoto, Koichi; Fujishiro, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    High power density solid oxide electrochemical cells were developed using nanostructure-controlled composite powder consisting of Sr-doped SmCoO3 (SSC) and Sm-doped CeO2 (SDC) for electrode material. The SSC-SDC nano-composite powder, which was synthesized by spray pyrolysis, had a narrow particle size distribution (D10, D50, and D90 of 0.59, 0.71, and 0.94 μm, respectively), and individual particles were spherical, composing of nano-size SSC and SDC fragments (approximately 10-15 nm). The application of the powder to a cathode for an anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) realized extremely fine cathode microstructure and excellent cell performance. The anode-supported SOFC with the SSC-SDC cathode achieved maximum power density of 3.65, 2.44, 1.43, and 0.76 W cm-2 at 800, 750, 700, and 650 °C, respectively, using humidified H2 as fuel and air as oxidant. This result could be explained by the extended electrochemically active region in the cathode induced by controlling the structure of the starting powder at the nano-order level.

  20. A parallel buffer tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitchinava, Nodar; Zeh, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    We present the parallel buffer tree, a parallel external memory (PEM) data structure for batched search problems. This data structure is a non-trivial extension of Arge's sequential buffer tree to a private-cache multiprocessor environment and reduces the number of I/O operations by the number...... of available processor cores compared to its sequential counterpart, thereby taking full advantage of multicore parallelism. The parallel buffer tree is a search tree data structure that supports the batched parallel processing of a sequence of N insertions, deletions, membership queries, and range queries...... in the optimal OhOf(psortN + K/PB) parallel I/O complexity, where K is the size of the output reported in the process and psortN is the parallel I/O complexity of sorting N elements using P processors....

  1. Influence of the substitution of Y2O3 for CeO2 on the mechanical and microstructural properties of silicon nitride Influência da substituição de Y2O3 por CeO2 nas propriedades mecânicas e microestruturais do nitreto de silício

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. C. de Souza

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the substitution of Y2O3 for CeO2 in liquid-phase sintered silicon nitride ceramics. Cost reduction as well as good physical, mechanical and microstructural properties are the main objectives of the present study. Two powder mixtures were prepared, varying the contents of alpha-Si3N4, Al2O3, AlN, Y2O3 and CeO2. The mixtures were homogenized in ethanol, dried in a rotating evaporator and kiln, respectively, and then uniaxially (100 MPa and cold isostatically pressed (300 MPa. The samples were sintered at 1850ºC for 1 h in a graphite resistive furnace under nitrogen atmosphere. After sintering the density of the samples was higher than 97% of the theoretical value. The fracture toughness and hardness were higher than 5.28 MPa.m½ and 17.12 GPa, respectively. Phase analysis by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of alpha-SiAlON and beta-Si3N4.Este trabalho foi proposto com objetivo de analisar a possibilidade da substituição de Y2O3 por CeO2 sinterização via fase líquida de nitreto de silício (Si3N4, visando obter um material com boas propriedades físicas, mecânicas e microestruturais, além da redução de custos de produção desta cerâmica. Para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho foram preparadas duas misturas de pós, variando-se as proporções entre alfa-Si3N4, Al2O3, AlN, Y2O3 e CeO2. As misturas de pós foram homogeneizadas em etanol, secas em evaporador rotativo e estufa, respectivamente. Em seguida, prensadas uniaxialmente (100 MPa e isostaticamente a frio(300 MPa. As amostras foram sinterizadas à 1850 ºC durante 1 h, em forno com elemento resistivo de grafite sob atmosfera de nitrogênio. Após sinterização, as amostras apresentaram densidades relativas superiores a 97% do valor teórico. A tenacidade à fratura e a dureza foram superiores a 5,28 MPa.m½ e 17,12 GPa, respectivamente. As análises de fases por difração de raios X e microscopia eletrônica de varredura mostraram a presença das fases alfa-SiAlON e beta-Si3N4.

  2. Effect of CeO2, MgO and Y2O3 additions on the sinterability of a milled Si3N4 with 14.5 wt% SiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, A.

    1981-01-01

    The sinterability of alpha Si3N4 with 0-5.07 equivalent per cent of CeO2, MgO, or Y2O3 has been studied in the temperature range 1650-1820 C by density measurements and X-ray diffraction analysis. Maximum densities were obtained in the range 1765-1820 C and were 99.6% of theoretical with 2.5% CeO2; 98.5% of theoretical with 1.24 to 1.87% MgO, and 99.2% of theoretical with 2.5% Y2O3. Densities 94% or more of theoretical value were obtained with as little as 0.62 equivalent per cent additive.

  3. Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of CeO2-added nonstoichiometric (Na0.5K0.5)0.97(Nb0.96Sb0.04)O3 ceramics for piezoelectric energy harvesting device applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Youngkwang; Noh, Jungrae; Yoo, Juhyun; Kang, Jinhee; Hwang, Larkhoon; Hong, Jaeil

    2011-09-01

    In this study, nonstoichiometric (Na(0.5)K(0.5))(0.97)(Nb(0.96)Sb(0.04))O(3) ceramics were fabricated and their dielectric and piezoelectric properties were investigated according to the CeO(2) addition. In this ceramic composition, CeO(2) addition improved sinterability, electromechanical coupling factor k(p), mechanical quality factor Q(m), piezoelectric constant d(33), and g(33). At the sintering temperature of 1100°C, for the 0.2wt% CeO(2) added specimen, the optimum values of density = 4.359 g/cm(3), k(p) = 0.443, Q(m) = 588, ε(r) = 444, d(33) = 159 pC/N, and g(33) = 35 × 10(-3) V·m/N, were obtained. A piezoelectric energy harvesting device using 0.2 wt% CeO(2)- added lead-free (K(0.5)Na(0.5))(0.97)(Nb(0.96)Sb(0.04))O(3) ceramics and a rectifying circuit for energy harvesting were fabricated and their electrical characteristics were investigated. Under an external vibration acceleration of 0.7 g, when the mass, the frequency of vibration generator, and matching load resistance were 2.4 g, 70 Hz, and 721 Ω, respectively, output voltage and power of piezoelectric harvesting device indicated the optimum values of 24.6 mV(rms) and 0.839 μW, respectively-suitable for application as the electric power source of a ubiquitous sensor network (USN) sensor node. PMID:21937318

  4. Optimization of Exctraction Procedure using Supercritical and Pressurized Methanol and Water for Preparation of TiO2-CeO2 and ZrO2 Nanostructured Powders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějová, Lenka; Matěj, Z.; Brunátová, T.; Dřínek, Vladislav; Peikertová, P.

    Marseille: International Society for Advancement of Supercritical Fluids, 2014, s. 163. ISBN 978-2-37111-002-1. [European Meeting on Supercritical Fluids /14./. Marseille (FR), 18.05.2014-21.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-23274S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : TiO2-CeO2 * ZrO2 * catalyst s Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  5. Evidence of Coulomb correction and spin–orbit coupling in rare-earth dioxides CeO2, PrO2 and TbO2: An ab initio study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current study investigates the structural, elastic, electronic and optical properties of CeO2, PrO2 and TbO2 using the full potential (linearized) augmented plane wave plus local orbital method within the Wu–Cohen generalized gradient approximation (GGA) with Hubbard (U) correction and spin–orbit coupling (SOC). The GGA+U implementation lead us to describe correctly the relativistic effect on 4f electrons for CeO2. We clarify that the inclusion of the Hubbard U parameter and the spin–orbit coupling are responsible for the ferromagnetic insulating of PrO2 and TbO2. The magnetic description is achieved by the spin-density contours and magnetic moment calculations, where we show the polarization of oxygen atoms from the rare earth atoms. The mechanical stability is shown via the elastic constants calculations. The optical properties, namely the dielectric function and the reflectivity are calculated for radiation up to 12 eV, giving interesting optoelectronic properties to these dioxides. - Highlights: ► GGA+U implementation lead us to describe correctly the relativistic effect on 4f electrons for CeO2. ► Inclusion of the Hubbard-U parameter and spin–orbit coupling is responsible for ferromagnetic insulating of PrO2 and TbO2. ► Elastic constants calculation proves the mechanical stability of CeO2, PrO2 and TbO2. ► The electronic structure description shows that these compounds are stable in ferromagnetic phases.

  6. Effects of Doping CeO2, Er2O3 on Properties of TiO2-SiO2 Ceramics for Catalyst Supporter of deNOx

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Effects of doping CeO2 and Er2O3 on the mechanical strength, thermal expansion coefficient, sintering temperature of TiO2-SiO2 ceramics were investigated. The experimental results and the microscopic analysis of SEM, XRD, TG-DSC, FT-IR and TEM show that adding CeO2 and Er2O3 into TiO2-SiO2 ceramics can prohibit the growth of its crystal grains, make their size uniform and form them into a dense structure, which finally enhance its mechanical behaviors, and the lower thermal expansion coefficient that leads to an excellent property of thermal shock resistance. After the reforming TiO2-SiO2 ceramics doped by CeO2 was sintered at 1380 ℃, the bending strength reached to 83 MPa, and the thermal expansion coefficient was 9.8×10-6/℃ within the temperature range of 25~800 ℃, which provides a promising basis of making equipped honeycomb catalyst of deNOx.

  7. Effect of Ce doping of TiO2 support on NH3-SCR activity over V2O5-WO3/CeO2-TiO2 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Tao; Li, Jianmei; Zhao, Zhen; Wei, Yuechang; Jiang, Guiyuan; Duan, Aijun

    2014-10-01

    CeO2-TiO2 composite supports with different Ce/Ti molar ratios were prepared by a homogeneous precipitation method, and V2O5-WO3/CeO2-TiO2 catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with NH3 were prepared by an incipient-wetness impregnation method. These catalysts were characterized by means of BET, XRD, UV-Vis, Raman and XPS techniques. The results showed that the catalytic activity of V2O5-WO3/TiO2 was greatly enhanced by Ce doping (molar ratio of Ce/Ti=1/10) in the TiO2 support. The catalysts that were predominantly anatase TiO2 showed better catalytic performance than the catalysts that were predominantly fluorite CeO2. The Ce additive could enhance the surface adsorbed oxygen and accelerate the SCR reaction. The effects of O2 concentration, ratio of NH3/NO, space velocity and SO2 on the catalytic activity were also investigated. The presence of oxygen played an important role in NO reduction. The optimal ratio of NH3/NO was 1/1 and the catalyst had good resistance to SO2 poisoning. PMID:25288555

  8. Characterization and catalytic performance of CeO2-Co/SiO2 catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis using nitrogen-diluted synthesis gas over a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoping Dai; Changchun Yu

    2008-01-01

    The surface species of CO hydrogenation on CeO2-Co/SiO2 catalyst were investigated using the techniques of temperature programmed reaction and transient response method. The results indicated that the formation of H2O and CO2 was the competitive reaction for the surface oxygen species, CH4 was produced via the hydrogenation of carbon species step by step, and C2 products were formed by the polymerization of surface-active carbon species (-CH2-). Hydrogen assisted the dissociation of CO. The hydrogenation of surface carbon species was the rate-limiting step in the hydrogenation of CO over CeO2-Co/SiO2 catalyst. The investigation of total pressure, gas hourly space velocity (GHSV), and product distribution using nitrogen-rich synthesis gas as feedstock over a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor indicated that total pressure and GHSV had a significant effect on the catalytic performance of CeO2-Co/SiO2 catalyst. The removal of heat and control of the reaction temperature were extremely critical steps, which required lower GHSV and appropriate CO conversion to avoid the deactivation of the catalyst. The feedstock of nitrogen-rich synthesis gas was favorable to increase the conversion of CO, but there was a shift of product distribution toward the light hydrocarbon. The nitrogen-rich synthesis gas was feasible for F-T synthesis for the utilization of remote natural gas.

  9. Structures and oxygen storage capacities of CeO2-ZrO2-Al2O3 ternary oxides prepared by a green route: supercritical anti-solvent precipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Pan; JIANG Haoxi; ZHANG Minhua

    2012-01-01

    CeO2-ZrO2-Al2O3 ternary oxides were successfully prepared by a green route of supercritical anti-solvent precipitation with supercritical CO2 as anti-solvent and methanol as solvent.The structures and oxygen storage capacities of these ternary oxides were characterized by XRD,Raman spectra and oxygen storage capacity measurements.It was found that Al3+ and Zr4+ inserted into CeO2 lattice,forming CeO2-ZrO2-Al2O3 solid solution.The concentration of aluminium isopropoxide in the solution affected the concentration of oxygen vacancy and the distortion of oxygen sublattice which were responsible for the oxygen storage capacity.The rapidest oxygen uptake/release rate and maximum total oxygen storage capacity (122.0 mmolO2/molCeO2) were obtained with the aluminium isopropoxide concentration at 0.2 wt.% in the solution.

  10. Color tunability in green, red and infra-red upconversion emission in Tm3+/Yb3+/Ho3+ co-doped CeO2 with potential application for improvement of efficiency in solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of Tm3+/Yb3+/Ho3+ co-doped CeO2 prepared by the precipitation method using ammonium hydroxide as a precursor is presented. By X-ray diffraction the materials show the phase-type of fluorite structure and the crystallite sizes were calculated by the Scherrer's equation. No other phase was observed evincing that the rare earth ions were inserted into the fluorite phase as substitutional or interstitial dopants. The microstrain calculated by the Williamson–Hall method do not show significant changes in their values, indicating that the inclusion of rare earths does not causes structural changes in the CeO2 used as a host matrix. All material showed intense upconversion emission at red and green region under excitation with diode laser at 980 nm. The color of emission changes from green to red with increasing excitation power pump. The materials showed suitable photoluminescent properties for applications as a laser source, solar cells, and great emitter at 800 nm. - Highlights: • Tm3+/Yb3+/Ho3+ co-doped CeO2 prepared by the simple way. • Intense upconversion emission regions and the tunability of emission color by the laser power pump. • The materials showed suitable photoluminescent properties for different applications

  11. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction characterization of CuO-TiO2-CeO2 catalyst system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) techniques have been applied to characterize the surface composition and structure of a series of CuO-TiO2-CeO2 catalysts. For a small loading of cerium, ceria was mainly dispersed on the titania surface and a minor amount of CeO2 crystallite appeared. At higher loading of cerium, the CeO2 phase increased and the atomic Ce/Ti ratio values were smaller than the nominal composition, as a consequence of cerium agglomeration. This result suggests that only a fraction of cerium can be spread on the titania surface. For titanium-based mixed oxide, we observed that cerium is found as Ce3+ uniquely on the surface. The atomic Cu/(Ce+Ti) ratio values showed no influence from cerium concentration on the dispersion of copper, although the copper on the surface was shown to be dependent on the cerium species. For samples with a high amount of cerium, XPS analysis indicated the raise of second titanium species due cerium with spin-orbit components at higher binding energies than those presented by Ti4+ in a tetragonal structure. The structural results obtained by XAS are consistent with those obtained by XRD and XPS

  12. Structural, microstructural and surface properties of a specific CeO2-Bi2O3 multiphase system obtained at 600 oC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycrystalline samples of (1-x) CeO2-x/2 Bi2O3 phases, where x is the atom fraction of bismuth have been synthesized by the precipitation process and after the thermal treatment at 600 oC, under air. Samples are first characterized by the X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. To determine the samples specific surface areas, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses have been performed. In the composition range 0≤x≤0.20, a cubic solid solution with fluorite structure is obtained. For compositions x comprised between 0.30 and 0.90, two types of T' (or β') and T (or β) tetragonal phases, similar to the well-known β' or β Bi2O3 metastable structural varieties, are observed. However, the crystal cell volumes of these β' or β Bi2O3 phases increase with the composition x in bismuth: this might be due to the presence of defects or substitution by cerium atoms, in the tetragonal lattices. Using X-ray diffraction profile analyses, correlations between bismuth composition x and crystal sizes or lattice distortions have been established. The solid-gas interactions between these polycrystalline materials and air-CH4 and air-CO flows have been studied as a function of temperature and composition x, using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses of the conversions of CH4 and CO gases into the CO2 gas. The transformations of CH4 and CO molecules as a function of time and temperature are determined through the intensities of FTIR CO2 absorption bands. Using the specific surface areas determined from BET analyses, these FTIR intensities have been normalized and compared. For all bismuth compositions, a low catalytic reactivity is observed with air-CH4 gas flows, while, for the highest bismuth compositions, a high catalytic reactivity is observed with air-CO gas flows. -- Graphical abstract: Catalytic efficiencies of CeO2-Bi2O3system: catalytic actions on methane (on the left) or carbon monoxide (on the right) of (1-x)CeO2-x/2 Bi2O3 samples, as a function of the fraction x, and for fixed temperatures: on the vertical axis, the intensities of CO2 FTIR absorption bands are reported. Strong efficiency of bismuth rich samples for CO conversion. Display Omitted Research highlights: → Stabilization of metastable polymorph Bi2O3 phases in the mix system [(1-x)CeO2+(x/2)Bi2O3] at 600 oC. → Solid gas interactions between this system and air-CO or air-CH4 gas flows at various temperatures and bismuth compositions. → High efficiency of bismuth rich samples to convert CO into CO2.

  13. Variations in the structural, optical and electrochemical properties of CeO2-TiO2 films as a function of TiO2 content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcohol based sols of cerium chloride (CeCl3.7H2O) and titanium propoxide (Ti(OPr)4) in ethanol mixed in different mole ratios have yielded mixed oxide films on densification at 500 deg. C. The reversibility of the intercalation/deintercalation reactions has shown electrochemical stability of the films. Addition of TiO2 in an equivalent mole ratio manifests in producing highly transparent films with appreciable ion storage capacity. The electrochemical studies have revealed the significant role of TiO2 in controlling the ion storage capacity of the films, as it tends to induce the disorder. In addition, the films prepared from an aged sol are observed to exhibit a much higher ion storage capacity than the films deposited using the as-prepared sol. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies have provided information on the variation of Ce4+/Ce3+ ratio as a function of increased TiO2 content in the films. This study has led to a better understanding of the increased ion storage capacity with the increased TiO2 proportion. The transmission electron microscopic study has demonstrated the presence of CeO2 nanograins even in films, which are amorphous to X-rays. Elucidation of the structural, optical and electrochemical features of the films has yielded information on aspects relevant to their usage in transmissive electrochromic devices. The films have been found to exhibit properties that can find application as counter electrode in electrochromic smart windows in which they are able to retain their transparency under charge insertion, high enough for practical uses. Also, the fastest coloration-bleaching kinetics for the primary electrochromic electrode (WO3) working in combination with Ce/Ti (1:1) electrode stimulates the use of latter in electrochromic windows (ECWs)

  14. Effect of CeO2 on the catalytic performance of Ni/Al2O3 for autothermal reforming of methane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiulan Cai; Xinfa Dong; Weiming Lin

    2008-01-01

    The effect of promoter Ce on the catalytic performance of N1/Al2O3 catalyst for autothermal reforming of methane to hydrogen was investigated. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that the catalytic performance of the catalysts was improved with the addition of Ce. Ni/Ce3oAl70Oδ showed the highest CH4 conversion in operation temperatures ranging from 650 ℃ to 850 ℃. At the same time, the decrease in H2/CO ratio with increasing reaction temperature was consistent with the fact that water-gas shift reaction was thermodynamically unfavorable at higher temperatures. The XRD result indicated that adding Ce to N1/AI2O3 catalyst prevented the formation of NiAl2O4 and facilitated the formation of NiO. The formation of NiO increased the number of active sites, resulting in higher activity. Comparing the TPR profiles of Ni/Ce30Al70Oδ with Ni/Al2O3, it could be clearly observed that with the addition of Ce, the total reduction peak areas in the middle and low temperatures increased. It was most probably that the addition of Ce inhibited the stronger interaction between Ni and Al2O3 to form the phase of NiAl2O4, and favored the formation of the strong interaction between NiO species and CeO2. Therefore, the addition of Ce to the N1/AI2O3 catalyst increased the active surface that promoted the activity of the catalyst.

  15. Variations in the structural, optical and electrochemical properties of CeO 2-TiO 2 films as a function of TiO 2 content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Amita; Joshi, Amish G.; Bakhshi, A. K.; Shivaprasad, S. M.; Agnihotry, S. A.

    2006-05-01

    Alcohol based sols of cerium chloride (CeCl 3·7H 2O) and titanium propoxide (Ti(OPr) 4) in ethanol mixed in different mole ratios have yielded mixed oxide films on densification at 500 °C. The reversibility of the intercalation/deintercalation reactions has shown electrochemical stability of the films. Addition of TiO 2 in an equivalent mole ratio manifests in producing highly transparent films with appreciable ion storage capacity. The electrochemical studies have revealed the significant role of TiO 2 in controlling the ion storage capacity of the films, as it tends to induce the disorder. In addition, the films prepared from an aged sol are observed to exhibit a much higher ion storage capacity than the films deposited using the as-prepared sol. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies have provided information on the variation of Ce 4+/Ce 3+ ratio as a function of increased TiO 2 content in the films. This study has led to a better understanding of the increased ion storage capacity with the increased TiO 2 proportion. The transmission electron microscopic study has demonstrated the presence of CeO 2 nanograins even in films, which are amorphous to X-rays. Elucidation of the structural, optical and electrochemical features of the films has yielded information on aspects relevant to their usage in transmissive electrochromic devices. The films have been found to exhibit properties that can find application as counter electrode in electrochromic smart windows in which they are able to retain their transparency under charge insertion, high enough for practical uses. Also, the fastest coloration-bleaching kinetics for the primary electrochromic electrode (WO 3) working in combination with Ce/Ti (1:1) electrode stimulates the use of latter in electrochromic windows (ECWs).

  16. Synergy of CuO and CeO2 combination for mercury oxidation under low-temperature selective catalytic reduction atmosphere

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Hailong

    2016-07-19

    Synergy for low temperature Hg0 oxidation under selective catalytic reduction (SCR) atmosphere was achieved when copper oxides and cerium oxides were combined in a CuO-CeO2/TiO2 (CuCeTi) catalyst. Hg0 oxidation efficiency as high as 99.0% was observed on the CuCeTi catalyst at 200 °C, even the gas hourly space velocity was extremely high. To analyze the synergistic effect, comparisons of catalyst performance in the presence of different SCR reaction gases were systematically conducted over CuO/TiO2 (CuTi), CeO2/TiO2 (CeTi) and CuCeTi catalysts prepared by sol-gel method. The interactions between copper oxides and cerium oxides in CuCeTi catalyst yielded more surface chemisorbed oxygen, and facilitated the conversion of gas-phase O2 to surface oxygen, which are favorable for Hg0 oxidation. Copper oxides in the combination interacted with NO forming more chemisorbed oxygen for Hg0 oxidation in the absence of gas-phase O2. Cerium oxides in the combination promoted Hg0 oxidation through enhancing the transformations of NO to NO2. In the absence of NO, NH3 exhibited no inhibitive effect on Hg0 oxidation, because enough Lewis acid sites due to the combination of copper oxides and cerium oxides scavenged the competitive adsorption between NH3 and Hg0. In the presence of NO, although NH3 lowered Hg0 oxidation rate through inducing reduction of oxidized mercury, complete recovery of Hg0 oxidation activity over the CuCeTi catalyst was quickly achieved after cutting off NH3. This study revealed the synergistic effect of the combination of copper oxides and cerium oxides on Hg0 oxidation, and explored the involved mechanisms. Such knowledge would help obtaining maximum Hg0 oxidation co-benefit from SCR units in coal-fired power plants.

  17. Short-term effects of TiO2, CeO2, and ZnO nanoparticles on metabolic activities and gene expression of Nitrosomonas europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ran; Fang, Xiaohua; Somasundaran, Ponisseril; Chandran, Kartik

    2015-06-01

    Nanosized TiO2 (n-TiO2), CeO2 (n-CeO2), and ZnO (n-ZnO) and bulk ZnO were chosen for a 4-h exposure study on a model ammonia oxidizing bacterium, Nitrosomonas europaea. n-ZnO displayed the most serious cytotoxicity while n-TiO2 was the least toxic one. The change of cell morphologies, the retardance of specific oxygen uptake rates and ammonia oxidation rates, and the depression of amoA gene expressions under NP stresses were generally observed when the cell densities and membrane integrities were not significantly impaired yet. The TEM imaging and the synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy of the NPs impacted cells revealed the increase of the corresponding intracellular Ti, Ce or Zn contents and suggested the intracellular NP accumulation. The elevation of intracellular S contents accompanied with higher K contents implied the possible activation of thiol-containing glutathione and thioredoxin production for NP stress alleviation. The NP cytotoxicity was not always a function of NP concentration. The 200 mg L(-1) n-TiO2 or n-CeO2 impacted cells displayed the similar ammonia oxidation activities but higher amoA gene expression levels than the 20 mg L(-1) NPs impacted ones. Such phenomenon further indicated the possible establishment of an anti-toxicity mechanism in N. europaea at the genetic level to redeem the weakened AMO activities along with the NP aggregation effects. PMID:25710320

  18. A multipurpose switched reluctance motor with a series commutation buffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Vasil'ev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a power-supply circuit for a multipurpose switched reluctance motor with a series commutation buffer is presented. It is shown that a series buffer improves output characteristics of multipurpose switched reluctance motors under supply from a single-phase circuit and also lifts necessity of switching capacitors according to the motor power supply modes.

  19. Bioactivity of Y2O3 and CeO2 doped SiO2-SrO-Na2O glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placek, L M; Keenan, T J; Wren, A W

    2016-08-01

    The bioactivity of yttrium and cerium are investigated when substituted for Sodium (Na) in a 0.52SiO2-0.24SrO-0.24-xNa2O-xMO glass-ceramics (where x = 0.08 and MO = Y2O3 or CeO2). Bioactivity is monitored through pH and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry where pH of simulated body fluid ranged from 7.5 to 7.6 and increased between 8.2 and 10.0 after 14-day incubation with the glass-ceramic disks. Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) levels in simulated body fluid after incubation with yttrium and cerium containing disks show a continual decline over the 14-day period. In contrast, Con disks (not containing yttrium or cerium) caused the elimination of Ca in solution after 1 day and throughout the incubation period, and initially showed a decline in P levels followed by an increase at 14 days. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy confirmed the presence of Ca and P on the surface of the simulated body fluid-incubated disks and showed precipitates on Con and HCe (8 mol% cerium) samples. Cell viability of MC3T3 osteoblasts was not significantly affected at a 9% extract concentration. Optical microscopy after 24 h cell incubation with disks showed that Con samples do not support osteoblast or Schwann cell growth, while all yttrium and cerium containing disks have direct contact with osteoblasts spread across the wells. Schwann cells attached in all wells, but only showed spreading with the HY-S (8 mol% yttrium, heated to sintering temperature) and YCe (4 mol% yttrium and cerium) disks. Scanning electron microscopy of the compatible disks shows osteoblast and sNF96.2 Schwann cells attachment and spreading directly on the disk surfaces. PMID:27231265

  20. Enhancement of Glycerol Steam Reforming Activity and Thermal Stability by Incorporating CeO2 and TiO2 in Ni- and Co-MCM-41 Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade, William N.

    Hydrogen (H2) has many applications in industry with current focus shifted to production of hydrocarbon fuels and valuable oxygenates using the Fischer-Tropsch technology and direct use in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Hydrogen is generally produced via steam reforming of natural gas or alcohols like methanol and ethanol. Glycerol, a by-product of biodiesel production process, is currently considered to be one of the most attractive sources of sustainable H2 due to its high H/C ratio and bio-based origin. Ni and Co based catalysts have been reported to be active in glycerol steam reforming (GSR); however, deactivation of the catalysts by carbon deposition and sintering under GSR operating conditions is a major challenge. In this study, a series of catalysts containing Ni and Co nanoparticles incorporated in CeO2 and TiO2 modified high surface area MCM-41 have been synthesized using one-pot method. The catalysts are tested for GSR (at H2O/Glycerol mole ratio of 12 and GHSV of 2200 h-1) to study the effect of support modification and reaction temperature (450 - 700 °C) on the product selectivity and long term stability. GSR results revealed that all the catalysts performed significantly well exhibiting over 85% glycerol conversion at 650 °C except Ni catalysts that showed better low temperature activities. Deactivation studies of the catalysts conducted at 650 °C indicated that the Ni-TiO2-MCM-41 and Ni-CeO 2-MCM-41 were resistant to deactivation with ˜100% glycerol conversion for 40 h. In contrast, Co-TiO2-MCM-41 perform poorly as the catalyst rapidly deactivated after 12 h to yield ˜20% glycerol conversion after 40 h. The WAXRD and TGA-DSC analyses of spent catalysts showed a significant amount of coke deposition that might explain catalysts deactivation. The flattening shape of the original BET type IV isotherm with drastic reduction of catalyst surface area can also be responsible for observed drop in catalysts activities.

  1. On the Behavioral Modeling of Integrated Circuit Output Buffers

    OpenAIRE

    Canavero, Flavio; Stievano, Igor Simone; Maio, Ivano Adolfo

    2003-01-01

    The properties of common behavioral macromodels for single ended CMOS integrated circuits output buffers are discussed with the aim of providing criteria for an effective use of possible modeling options

  2. Pulsed laser deposition of thin YBCO films on faceted YSZ single crystal fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flexible rods of single crystals of 9% Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) were used as substrates for deposition of high-critical temperature superconducting (HTS) thin films. YSZ fibers were prepared by mini-pedestal method with laser heating and had average diameter of 300 micrometers and 30 mm length. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated high crystalline quality of obtained fibers and also indicated the presence of 15° deviation of the fiber axis from the [001] YSZ direction. Thin YBa2Cu3O7−x films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on YSZ rods using CeO2 buffer layer. Films have shown high critical temperature of 90 K with sharp superconducting transition. Critical current density was estimated to about 3×104 A/cm2 at 80 K. Temperature dependence of critical current density suggests granular structure of films with grain size about several microns. Our results demonstrate feasibility of flexible YSZ fibers coated by HTS thin films for practical use.

  3. Optimization Of Process Parameters For The Production Of Bio diesel From Waste Cooking Oil In The Presence Of Bifunctional γ-Al2O3-CeO2 Supported Catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huge quantities of waste cooking oils are produced all over the world every day, especially in the developed countries with 0.5 million ton per year waste cooking oil are being generated in Malaysia alone. Such large amount of waste cooking oil production can create disposal problems and contamination to water and land resources if not disposed properly. The use of waste cooking oil as feedstock for bio diesel production will not only avoid the competition of the same oil resources for food and fuel but will also overcome the waste cooking oil disposal problems. However, waste cooking oil has high acid value, thus would require the oil to undergo esterification with an acid catalyst prior to transesterification with a base catalyst. Therefore, in this study, bifunctional catalyst supports were developed for one-step esterification-transesterification of waste cooking oil by varying the CeO2 loading on γ-Al2O3. The bifunctional supports were then impregnated with 5 wt % Mo and characterized using N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm to determine the surface area of the catalysts while temperature programmed desorption with NH3 and CO2 as adsorbents were used to determine the acidity and basicity of the catalysts. Results show that the γ-Al2O3-CeO2 supported Mo catalysts are active for the one-step esterification-transesterification of waste cooking oil to produce bio diesel with the Mo/ γ-Al2O3-20 wt% CeO2 as the most active catalyst. Optimization of process parameters for the production of bio diesel from waste cooking oil in the presence of this catalyst show that 81.1 % bio diesel yield was produced at 110 degree Celsius with catalyst loading of 7 wt %, agitation speed of 600 rpm, methanol to oil ratio of 30:1 and reaction period of 270 minutes. (author)

  4. Catalytic Oxidation of Propene over Pd Catalysts Supported on CeO2, TiO2, Al2O3 and M/Al2O3 Oxides (M = Ce, Ti, Fe, Mn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the following work, the catalytic behavior of Pd catalysts prepared using different oxides as support (Al2O3, CeO2 and TiO2 in the catalytic combustion of propene, in low concentration in excess of oxygen, to mimic the conditions of catalytic decomposition of a volatile organic compound of hydrocarbon-type is reported. In addition, the influence of different promoters (Ce, Ti, Fe and Mn when added to a Pd/Al2O3 catalyst was analyzed. Catalysts were prepared by the impregnation method and were characterized by ICP-OES, N2 adsorption, temperature-programmed reduction, temperature-programmed oxidation, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Catalyst prepared using CeO2 as the support was less easily reducible, due to the stabilization effect of CeO2 over the palladium oxides. Small PdO particles and, therefore, high Pd dispersion were observed for all of the catalysts, as confirmed by XRD and TEM. The addition of Ce to the Pd/Al2O3 catalysts increased the metal-support interaction and the formation of highly-dispersed Pd species. The addition of Ce and Fe improved the catalytic behavior of the Pd/Al2O3 catalyst; however, the addition of Mn and Ti decreased the catalytic activity in the propene oxidation. Pd/TiO2 showed the highest catalytic activity, probably due to the high capacity of this catalyst to reoxidize Pd into PdO, as has been found in the temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO experiments.

  5. Enhanced Activity of CuCeO Catalysts for CO Oxidation: Influence of Cu2O and the Dispersion of Cu2O, CuO, and CeO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhua; Li, Ren; Chen, Qianwang

    2015-08-01

    CuCeO catalysts prepared by a hydrothermal method with subsequent calcination are tested for the catalytic oxidation of CO. This synthesis method leads to a homogeneous dispersion of Cu2 O, CuO, and CeO2 in the catalysts. The composition of the catalysts is determined by the molar ratio of the metals, the hydrothermal process, and calcination temperature and influences the catalytic performance. The catalyst containing Cu2 O exhibits high catalytic activity with almost 100 % CO conversion at 105 °C and shows excellent stability with the conversion ratio not decreasing after four months of storage. PMID:26017784

  6. Raman and Fluorescence Spectroscopy of CeO2, Er2O3, Nd2O3, Tm2O3, Yb2O3, La2O3, and Tb4O7

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    To better understand and ascertain the mechanisms of flotation reagent interaction with rare earth (RE) minerals, it is necessary to determine the physical and chemical properties of the constituent components. Seven rare earth oxides (CeO2, Er2O3, Nd2O3, Tm2O3, Yb2O3, La2O3, and Tb4O7) that cover the rare earth elements (REEs) from light to heavy REEs have been investigated using Raman spectroscopy. Multiple laser sources (wavelengths of 325 nm, 442 nm, 514 nm, and 632.8 nm) for the Raman sh...

  7. Ti4+掺杂纳米CeO2的制备及其抗紫外性能%Preparation of Ti4+ - doped Nano - CeO2 and Its Anti - ultraviolet Peformance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史艳丽; 张金生; 李丽华; 李秀萍

    2012-01-01

    以Ce(SO4)2·4H2O为主要材料,采用超声-沉淀法制备了掺杂Ti4+的纳米CeO2,并研究了掺杂Ti4+离子对CeO2的晶型和抗紫外性能的影响.用X- ray衍射、傅立叶红外光谱仪、紫外分光光度计、对其进行了表征.测试结果表明,CeO2晶型为面心立方,粒径范围15nm~25nm,并且CeO2的红外吸收峰明显发生蓝移.当Ti/Ce摩尔比为0.4:1时吸收性能最好,使CeO2的光谱响应范围变宽.单体CeO2的紫外屏蔽范围在250nm~350nm,掺杂了Ti4+离子的CeO2的紫外屏蔽范围在220nm~450 nm.%Ti4+ - doped nano - CeO2 particles were prepared by ultrasound - precipitation method with Ce(SO4) 2 · 4H2 0 as raw material,the influence of Ti + on crystal type and anti - UV properties of CeO2 was studied. FT - 1R、XRD and UV -Vis were employed to characterize the sample. The results indicated that Ti4 + - doped nano - CeO2 particles were face - centered cubic with crystal size 15 - 25 nm . It is obviouds that infrared absorption peaks were blue shifted . When the molar ratio of Ti/Ce was o. 4: 1, the light response of nano - CeO, particles was the best. UV - shielding performance of pure nano -CeO2 was achieved in the UV region between 250 nm and 350 nm. The UV region from 220 nm to 450 nm was shielded with doping Ti + in molar ratio of 0.4:1.

  8. Buffer moisture protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the present knowledge, bentonite blocks have to be protected from the air relative humidity and from any moisture leakages in the environment that might cause swelling of the bentonite blocks during the 'open' installation phase before backfilling. The purpose of this work was to design the structural reference solution both for the bottom of the deposition hole and for the buffer moisture protection and dewatering system with their integrated equipment needed in the deposition hole. This report describes the Posiva's reference solution for the buffer moisture protection system and the bottom plate on basis of the demands and functional requirements set by long-term safety. The reference solution with structural details has been developed in research work made 2010-2011. The structural solution of the moisture protection system has not yet been tested in practice. On the bottom of the deposition hole a copper plate which protects the lowest bentonite block from the gathered water is installed straight to machined and even rock surface. The moisture protection sheet made of EPDM rubber is attached to the copper plate with an inflatable seal. The upper part of the moisture protection sheet is fixed to the collar structures of the lid which protects the deposition hole in the disposal tunnel. The main function of the moisture protection sheet is to protect bentonite blocks from the leaking water and from the influence of the air humidity at their installation stage. The leaking water is controlled by the dewatering and alarm system which has been integrated into the moisture protection liner. (orig.)

  9. Buffer moisture protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritola, J.; Peura, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2013-11-15

    With the present knowledge, bentonite blocks have to be protected from the air relative humidity and from any moisture leakages in the environment that might cause swelling of the bentonite blocks during the 'open' installation phase before backfilling. The purpose of this work was to design the structural reference solution both for the bottom of the deposition hole and for the buffer moisture protection and dewatering system with their integrated equipment needed in the deposition hole. This report describes the Posiva's reference solution for the buffer moisture protection system and the bottom plate on basis of the demands and functional requirements set by long-term safety. The reference solution with structural details has been developed in research work made 2010-2011. The structural solution of the moisture protection system has not yet been tested in practice. On the bottom of the deposition hole a copper plate which protects the lowest bentonite block from the gathered water is installed straight to machined and even rock surface. The moisture protection sheet made of EPDM rubber is attached to the copper plate with an inflatable seal. The upper part of the moisture protection sheet is fixed to the collar structures of the lid which protects the deposition hole in the disposal tunnel. The main function of the moisture protection sheet is to protect bentonite blocks from the leaking water and from the influence of the air humidity at their installation stage. The leaking water is controlled by the dewatering and alarm system which has been integrated into the moisture protection liner. (orig.)

  10. Buffer capacity of biologics--from buffer salts to buffering by antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karow, Anne R; Bahrenburg, Sven; Garidel, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Controlling pH is essential for a variety of biopharmaceutical process steps. The chemical stability of biologics such as monoclonal antibodies is pH-dependent and slightly acidic conditions are favorable for stability in a number of cases. Since control of pH is widely provided by added buffer salts, the current study summarizes the buffer characteristics of acetate, citrate, histidine, succinate, and phosphate buffers. Experimentally derived values largely coincide with values calculated from a model that had been proposed in 1922 by van Slyke. As high concentrated protein formulations become more and more prevalent for biologics, the self-buffering potential of proteins becomes of relevance. The current study provides information on buffer characteristics for pH ranges down to 4.0 and up to 8.0 and shows that a monoclonal antibody at 50 mg/mL exhibits similar buffer capacity as 6 mM citrate or 14 mM histidine (pH 5.0-6.0). Buffer capacity of antibody solutions scales linearly with protein concentration up to more than 200 mg/mL. At a protein concentration of 220 mg/mL, the buffer capacity resembles the buffer capacity of 30 mM citrate or 50 mM histidine (pH 5.0-6.0). The buffer capacity of monoclonal antibodies is practically identical at the process relevant temperatures 5, 25, and 40°C. Changes in ionic strength of ΔI=0.15, in contrast, can alter the buffer capacity up to 35%. In conclusion, due to efficient self-buffering by antibodies in the pH range of favored chemical stability, conventional buffer excipients could be dispensable for pH stabilization of high concentrated protein solutions. PMID:23296746

  11. Emplacement of small and large buffer blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes emplacement of a buffer structure encircling a spent fuel canister to be deposited in a vertical hole. The report deals with installability of various size blocks and with an emplacement gear, as well as evaluates the achieved quality of emplacement and the time needed for installing the buffer. Two block assembly of unequal size were chosen for examination. A first option involved small blocks, the use of which resulted in a buffer structure consisting of small sector blocks 200 mm in height. A second option involved large blocks, resulting in a buffer structure which consists of eight blocks. In these tests, the material chosen for both block options was concrete instead of bentonite. The emplacement test was a three-phase process. A first phase included stacking a two meter high buffer structure with small blocks for ensuring the operation of test equipment and blocks. A second phase included installing buffer structures with both block options to a height matching that of a canister-encircling cylindrical component. A third phase included testing also the installability of blocks to be placed above the canister by using small blocks. In emplacement tests, special attention was paid to the installability of blocks as well as to the time required for emplacement. Lifters for both blocks worked well. Due to the mass to be lifted, the lifter for large blocks had a more heavy-duty frame structure (and other lifting gear). The employed lifters were suspended in the tests on a single steel wire rope. Stacking was managed with both block sizes at adequate precision and stacked-up towers were steady. The stacking of large blocks was considerably faster. Therefore it is probably that the overall handling of the large blocks will be more convenient at a final disposal site. From the standpoint of reliability in lifting, the small blocks were safer to install above the canister. In large blocks, there are strict shape-related requirements which are

  12. 稀土元素 Gd 掺杂 CeO2(111)面储释氧性能的第一性原理研究%First principles study of the oxygen storage/release properties for the Gd doped CeO2 (111) surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常培荣

    2015-01-01

    本文采用第一性原理平面波超软赝势方法,研究了Gd掺杂CeO2改性材料应用于固体氧化物电池电解质时的表面储释氧性能.对比研究了三种表面覆盖率Ce1-xGdxO2(x=0,0.10,0.15)下掺杂元素Gd对CeO2的晶体结构、电子结构、氧缺陷形成过程以及表面积碳过程的影响.计算给出了相应掺杂比例下的氧缺陷形成能以及晶体表面吸附石墨烯的吸附能;结果表明:随着掺杂量的增大,氧缺陷形成能减小,晶体表面对石墨烯的吸附能增大;分析掺杂前后改性催化材料的电子结构的变化;说明Gd掺杂会导致CeO2晶体表面结构畸变收缩,有效活化表面氧,同时利用化学平衡原理证明了Gd掺杂后的催化材料可以有效抑制表面碳沉积.从理论的角度解释了Gd掺杂CeO2改性材料在固体氧化物电解质应用中的优势.%A first-principles plane-wave pseudopotential method was used to investigate the Oxygen Storage/Re-lease Properties of a new type of modified catalytic materials-Gd doped CeO2 for applications in the Solid oxide fuel cells.A comparative study was carried out using three differently doped materials, Ce1-x Gdx O2 ( x =0, 0.10, 0.15.The effects of doped element Gd on ceria 111 surface.Such as electronic structure, crystal struc-ture, formation of oxygen defect, and surface carbon deposition were studied.The energies of oxygen defect for-mation and adsorption on graphene surface under different doping ratios were obtained through calculation.The results indicate that the energy of oxygen defect formation decreased with the doping ratio increasing, while the energy of the crystal surface adsorbing graphene increases with the increase in doping ratio.While the energy of adsorption on graphene surface increase with the increase in doping ratio.According to the variation in the elec-tronic and atomic structures before and after the doping Gd, the doping caused the distortion and contraction of crystal surface structure.Resulting in the efficient activation of surface oxygen atoms.Simultaneously, the Gd-doped catalytic materials effectively restrained the surface carbon deposition, as explained by the principle of chemical equilibrium.Thus, Gd-doped CeO2 materials are advantageous as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells.

  13. Development of Xe and Kr empirical potentials for CeO2, ThO2, UO2 and PuO2, combining DFT with high temperature MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M W D; Kuganathan, N; Burr, P A; Rushton, M J D; Grimes, R W; Stanek, C R; Andersson, D A

    2016-10-12

    The development of embedded atom method (EAM) many-body potentials for actinide oxides and associated mixed oxide (MOX) systems has motivated the development of a complementary parameter set for gas-actinide and gas-oxygen interactions. A comprehensive set of density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to study Xe and Kr incorporation at a number of sites in CeO2, ThO2, UO2 and PuO2. These structures were used to fit a potential, which was used to generate molecular dynamics (MD) configurations incorporating Xe and Kr at 300 K, 1500 K, 3000 K and 5000 K. Subsequent matching to the forces predicted by DFT for these MD configurations was used to refine the potential set. This fitting approach ensured weighted fitting to configurations that are thermodynamically significant over a broad temperature range, while avoiding computationally expensive DFT-MD calculations. The resultant gas potentials were validated against DFT trapping energies and are suitable for simulating combinations of Xe and Kr in solid solutions of CeO2, ThO2, UO2 and PuO2, providing a powerful tool for the atomistic simulation of conventional nuclear reactor fuel UO2 as well as advanced MOX fuels. PMID:27549186

  14. Catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds (n-hexane, benzene, toluene, o-xylene promoted by cobalt catalysts supported on γ-Al2O3-CeO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balzer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt catalysts supported on γ-alumina, ceria and γ-alumina-ceria, with 10 or 20%wt of cobalt load, prepared by the wet impregnation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, field emission transmission electron microscopy (FETEM, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms (BET/BJH methods, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS, O2-chemisorption and temperature programmed reduction (TPR were used to promote the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (n-hexane, benzene, toluene and o-xylene. For a range of low temperatures (50-350 °C, the activity of the catalysts with a higher cobalt load (20% wt was greater than that of the catalysts with a lower cobalt load (10% wt. The Co/γ-Al2O3-CeO2 catalytic systems presented the best performances. The results obtained in the characterization suggest that the higher catalytic activity of the Co20/γ-Al2O3-CeO2 catalyst may be attributed to the higher metal content and amount of oxygen vacancies, as well as the effects of the interaction between the cobalt and the alumina and cerium oxides.

  15. Infrared spectroscopy analyses of air-CH4 or air-CO gas flows interacting with polycrystalline CeO2, La2O3 and Lu2O3 oxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahcine BAKIZ; Lamia BOURJA; Abdeljalil BENLHACHEMI; Frédéric GUINNETON; Madjid ARAB; Jean-Raymond GAVARRI

    2012-01-01

    A comparative study of reactivity between air-CH4 or air-CO gas flows and CeO2,La2O3 and Lu2O3 rare earth oxides was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses of CO2 gas resulted from the conversion of CH4 or CO gases.Polycrystalline samples of CeO2,La2O3 and Lu2O3 were first prepared by specific precipitation methods followed by low temperature calcination process.In the case of Lu2O3 oxide,a new specific route was proposed.Crystallite dimensions were determined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analyses.Morphologies were characterized using scanning electron microscopy.Specific surface areas were determined from Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) technique.Using infrared spectroscopy analyses,the conversion rates of CH4 or CO into CO2 were determined from the evolutions of CO2 vibrational band intensities,as a function of time and temperature.It was clearly established that,despite its low specific surface,the LU2O3 oxide presented the highest capacity of conversion of CH4 or CO into CO2.

  16. Evidence of Coulomb correction and spinorbit coupling in rare-earth dioxides CeO 2, PrO 2 and TbO 2: An ab initio study

    KAUST Repository

    Kanoun, Mohammed

    2012-04-01

    The current study investigates the structural, elastic, electronic and optical properties of CeO 2, PrO 2 and TbO 2 using the full potential (linearized) augmented plane wave plus local orbital method within the WuCohen generalized gradient approximation (GGA) with Hubbard (U) correction and spinorbit coupling (SOC). The GGAU implementation lead us to describe correctly the relativistic effect on 4f electrons for CeO 2. We clarify that the inclusion of the Hubbard U parameter and the spinorbit coupling are responsible for the ferromagnetic insulating of PrO 2 and TbO 2. The magnetic description is achieved by the spin-density contours and magnetic moment calculations, where we show the polarization of oxygen atoms from the rare earth atoms. The mechanical stability is shown via the elastic constants calculations. The optical properties, namely the dielectric function and the reflectivity are calculated for radiation up to 12 eV, giving interesting optoelectronic properties to these dioxides. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Photocatalytic degradation of C.I. Direct Red 23 in aqueous solutions under UV irradiation using SrTiO3/CeO2 composite as the catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photocatalytic degradation of C.I. Direct Red 23 (4BS) in aqueous solutions under UV irradiation was investigated with SrTiO3/CeO2 composite as the catalyst. The SrTiO3/CeO2 powders had more photocatalytic activity for decolorization of 4BS than that of pure SrTiO3 powder under UV irradiation. The effects of catalytic dose, pH value, initial concentration of dye, irradiation intensity as well as scavenger KI were ascertained, and the optimum conditions for maximum degradation were determined. Under the irradiation of a 250 W mercury lamp, the best catalytic dose was 1.5 g/L and the best pH was 12.0. Light intensity exhibited a significant positive effect on the efficiency of decolorization, whereas the initial dye concentration showed a significant negative effect. Under the conditions of a catalytic dose of 1.5 g/L, pH of 12.0, initial dye concentration of 100 mg/L, light intensity of 250 W, and air flow rate of 0.15 m3/h, complete decolorization, as determined by UV-visible analysis, was achieved in 60 min, corresponding to a reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 69% after a 240 min reaction. A tentative degradation pathway based on the sensitization mechanism of photocatalysis is proposed

  18. BUFFERS AND VEGETATIVE FILTER STRIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffers and filter strips are areas of permanent vegetation located within and between agricultural fields and the water courses to which they drain. These buffers are intended to intercept and slow runoff thereby providing water quality benefits. In addition, in many settings they are intended to...

  19. An Optimal Lower Bound for Buffer Management in Multi-Queue Switches

    OpenAIRE

    Bienkowski, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    In the online packet buffering problem (also known as the unweighted FIFO variant of buffer management), we focus on a single network packet switching device with several input ports and one output port. This device forwards unit-size, unit-value packets from input ports to the output port. Buffers attached to input ports may accumulate incoming packets for later transmission; if they cannot accommodate all incoming packets, their excess is lost. A packet buffering algorithm has to choose fro...

  20. Study of hyperfine interactions in pure and Mn-doped CeO2 nanoparticles by perturbed gamma-gamma angular perturbed spectroscopy using 111Cd and 140Ce as nuclei probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Cerium dioxide (CeO2) or ceria has played a crucial role in scientific research due to its extreme importance for the high-technology industry, so it has been widely studied and applied in various applications such as in automotive industry, medicine, oxygen sensors, protectors of the radiation and so on. A special case of our interest is that ceria is a good candidate to substitute SiO2 at electronic devices. In this work, a nuclear technique called Perturbed gamma-gamma Angular Correlation (PAC) was used to measure hyperfine interactions in nanostructured insulating CeO2 oxide doped with 3d transition metals that present magnetic moment. Ceria was doped with around 5 at. % Manganese (Mn), which introduce spin property for the charge carriers. It is important to remark that PAC spectroscopy uses a nuclear probe, which decays in gamma-gamma ray cascade. Here it was used 140La (140Ce) which decays through the gamma cascade 329-487 keV and 111In (111Cd) (171-245 keV) probe, both nuclear properties of the intermediate level are well known. 111Cd: t1/2 = 84.5 ns, quadrupolar moment (Q) is 0.83 b and dipolar moment μ 0.76 μN. And 140Ce: t1/2 = 3.4 ns, Q = 0.3 b and μ = 4.68 μN. Doped ceria samples were prepared by the Pechini sol-gel method from pure Ce and Mn elements. In this methodology metallic Ce and Mn are separately dissolved in nitric acid and then mixed. The obtained gel is then heated in air in a muffle furnace at 380 deg C during 10h. Radioactive probe nuclei 140La (140Ce) or 111In (111Cd) were introduced during the sample preparation. The obtained pure and doped CeO2 were annealed at 1100 deg C for 5h in N2. The PAC measurements were carried out in the temperature range from 15 K to 1175 K with a conventional slow-fast coincidence set-up with four conical Baf2 detectors. A small tubular furnace was used for heating the sample while a cryogenic system was used to cool. A comparative analysis was made for two probes nuclei used which showed that to both nuclei PAC spectroscopy is a good technique to investigate hyperfine parameters as electric field gradient (EFG) and magnetic field which are respectively characterized by quadrupole frequency and Larmor frequency. (author)

  1. Heat conductivity of buffer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report deals with the thermal conductivity of bentonite based buffer materials. An improved technique for measuring the thermal conductivity of buffer materials is described. Measurements of FLAC calculations applying this technique have led to a proposal of how standardized tests should be conducted and evaluated. The thermal conductivity of bentonite with different void ratio and degree of water saturation has been determined in the following different ways: * Theoretically according to three different investigations by other researchers. * Laboratory measurements with the proposed method. * Results from back-calculated field tests. Comparison and evaluation showed that these results agreed very well, when the buffer material was almost water saturated. However, the influence of the degree of saturation was not very well predicted with the theoretical methods. Furthermore, the field tests showed that the average thermal conductivity in situ of buffer material (compacted to blocks) with low degree of water saturation was lower than expected from laboratory tests. 12 refs, 29 figs, 11 tabs

  2. Catalytic ethanolysis and gasification of kraft lignin into aromatic alcohols and H2-rich gas over Rh supported on La2O3/CeO2-ZrO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Zhao, Liang; Liu, Chunze; Wang, Yuanyuan; Dai, Liyi

    2016-10-01

    Efficient catalytic ethanolysis and gasification of kraft lignin were conducted over a versatile supported catalyst Rh/La2O3/CeO2-ZrO2 to give high-value aromatic alcohols and H2-rich gas. The removal of phenolic hydroxyl group was the most prevalent reaction, and importantly, almost no phenols, undesired char and saturating the aromatic ring were detected. Meanwhile, the feedstock and solvent both played key roles in H2 generation that contributed to the hydrodeoxygenation of liquid components and made the whole catalytic process out of H2 supply. Reusability tests of catalyst indicated that the crystalline phase transition and agglomeration of support, the loss of noble metal Rh and carbon deposition were the possible reasons for its deactivation in supercritical ethanol. Comparing with water, methanol and isopropanol system, ethanol was the only effective solvent for the depolymerization process. PMID:27441830

  3. Influence of the ZrO2 grain size and content on the transformation response in the Al2O3-ZrO2 (12 mol% CeO2) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on experimental and modeling studies, the rate of increase in the martensite start temperature Ms for the tetragonal-to-monoclinic transformation with increase in zirconia grain size is found to rise with decrease in ZrO2 content in the zirconia-toughened alumina ZTA system. The observed grain size dependence of Ms can be related to the thermal expansion mismatch tensile (internal) stresses which increase with decrease in zirconia content. The result is that finer zirconia grain sizes are required to retain the tetragonal phase as less zirconia is incorporated into the alumina, in agreement with the experimental observations. At the same time, both the predicted and observed applied stress required to induce the transformation are reduced with increase in the ZrO2 grain size. In addition, the transformation-toughening contribution at temperature T increases with increase in the Ms grain size, when T>Ms. In alumina containing 20 vol% ZrO2 (12 mol% CeO2), a toughness of ∼10 MPa · √m can be achieved for a ZrO2 grain size of ∼2 μm (Ms ∼225K). However, at a grain size of ∼2μm, the alumina-40 vol% ZrO2 (12 mol% CeO2) has a toughness of only 8.5 MPa · √m (Ms ∼ 150K) but reaches 12.3 MPa · √m (Ms ∼ 260K) at a grain size of ∼3 μm. These findings show that composition (and matrix properties) play critical roles in determining the ZrO2 grain size to optimize the transformation toughening in ZrO2-toughened ceramics

  4. Biaxially aligned buffer layers of cerium oxide, yttria stabilized zirconia, and their bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biaxially aligned cerium oxide (CeO2) and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films were deposited on Ni-based metal (Hastelloy C276) substrates held at room temperature using ion beam assisted (IBAD) magnetron deposition with the ion beam directed at 55 degree to the normal of the film plane. In addition, we achieved, room-temperature epitaxial growth of CeO2 by bias sputtering to form biaxially aligned CeO2/YSZ bilayers. The crystalline structure and in-plane orientation of films was investigated by x-ray diffraction techniques. Both the IBAD CeO2 and YSZ films, and the CeO2/YSZ bilayers have a (111) pole in the ion beam direction. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  5. Biaxially aligned buffer layers of cerium oxide, yttria stabilized zirconia, and their bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanarajan, S.; Katsaros, A.; Savvides, N.

    1997-05-01

    Biaxially aligned cerium oxide (CeO2) and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films were deposited on Ni-based metal (Hastelloy C276) substrates held at room temperature using ion beam assisted (IBAD) magnetron deposition with the ion beam directed at 55° to the normal of the film plane. In addition, we achieved, room-temperature epitaxial growth of CeO2 by bias sputtering to form biaxially aligned CeO2/YSZ bilayers. The crystalline structure and in-plane orientation of films was investigated by x-ray diffraction techniques. Both the IBAD CeO2 and YSZ films, and the CeO2/YSZ bilayers have a (111) pole in the ion beam direction.

  6. Thermophysical tests of buffer materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H. [ITC, Tokyo (Japan); Taniguchi, Wataru

    1999-03-01

    Thermodynamic properties of buffer materials were measured for putting in order thermodynamic constants to be used in the near-field thermal analysis. The thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity were measured as functions of the water content and temperature to deduce the specific heat. The thermal conductivity and specific heat varied significantly as the water content changed. Obtained values of the specific heat agreed well the expected values calculated based on the constituents of the buffer material. Temperature dependence of the thermodynamic constants was found small below 90degC. From the findings, the thermal conductivity and specific heat of the buffer material were formulated as functions of the water content. Thermodynamic study of powdery bentonite was carried out as well with a purpose of use for filling apertures in the artificial barrier. (H. Baba)

  7. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  8. Buffering in cyclic gene networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyzin, S. D.; Kolesov, A. Yu.; Rozov, N. Kh.

    2016-06-01

    We consider cyclic chains of unidirectionally coupled delay differential-difference equations that are mathematical models of artificial oscillating gene networks. We establish that the buffering phenomenon is realized in these system for an appropriate choice of the parameters: any given finite number of stable periodic motions of a special type, the so-called traveling waves, coexist.

  9. Deflating link buffers in a wireless mesh network

    KAUST Repository

    Jamshaid, Kamran

    2014-05-01

    We analyze the problem of buffer sizing for backlogged TCP flows in 802.11-based wireless mesh networks. Our objective is to maintain high network utilization while providing low queueing delays. Unlike wired networks where a single link buffer feeds a bottleneck link, the radio spectral resource in a mesh network is shared among a set of contending mesh routers. We account for this by formulating the buffer size problem as sizing a collective buffer distributed over a set of interfering nodes. In this paper we propose mechanisms for sizing and distributing this collective buffer among the mesh nodes constituting the network bottleneck. Our mechanism factors in the network topology and wireless link rates, improving on pre-set buffer allocations that cannot optimally work across the range of configurations achievable with 802.11 radios. We evaluate our mechanisms using simulations as well as experiments on a testbed. Our results show that we can reduce the RTT of a flow by 6× or more, at the cost of less than 10% drop in end-to-end flow throughput.

  10. Current status of mechanical erosion studies of bentonite buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of the bentonite buffer in KBS-3-type nuclear waste repository concept relies to a great extent on the buffer surrounding the canister having sufficient dry density. Loss of buffer material caused by erosion remains as the most significant process reducing the density of the buffer. The mechanical erosion, or pre-saturation erosion, is the process where flowing groundwater transports buffer material away from the deposition hole towards the deposition tunnel. This process reduces the overall buffer density and potentially creates localized regions of low density. In the worst case the process is assumed to last as long as the free volume between the pellets in the pellets filled regions is filled with groundwater. With fixed environmental and material parameters a set of experiments was performed, testing the erosive properties of different buffer and backfill materials (MX-80 and Friedland Clay) in different groundwater conditions. The method used was a pinhole erosion test using two sizescales; 100 mm and 400 mm of cell length. The purpose of the pinhole tests was to test the scenario where piping channel is formed in the buffer and water flows through a single channel. The erosion data was produced with two methods, firstly the time-related erosion rates measured in-situ during the measurement and secondly the overall mass loss in the sample cell measured after dismantling of the test. It was observed that erosion in piping channels decreases rapidly (∼24 h) and irreversibly to a level that is an order of magnitude lower than the peak values. (orig.)

  11. Dual mode logic buffers for VLSI interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Ilakkiya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Buffer insertion is a mechanism widely used to increase the performance of VLSI digital circuits. Buffer insertion has a strong impact on reliability in terms of delay and power dissipation of synchronous systems, since the clock distribution system requires reduced or controlled clock skew, being the buffer insertion and buffer sizing becomes an important aspect. Buffer insertion has also been used to reduce the noise generation, especially in heavy loaded nets, since the inclusion of buffer helps to desynchronize signal transitions.

  12. A Capital Adequacy Buffer Model

    OpenAIRE

    David Allen; Michael McAleer

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a new capital adequacy buffer model (CABM) which is sensitive to dynamic economic circumstances. The model, which measures additional bank capital required to compensate for fluctuating credit risk, is a novel combination of the Merton structural model which measures distance to default and the timeless capital asset pricing model (CAPM) which measures additional returns to compensate for additional share price risk.

  13. Static Switching Dynamic Buffer Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, A. K.; R. A. Mishra; R. K. Nagaria

    2013-01-01

    We proposed footless domino logic buffer circuit. It minimizes redundant switching at the dynamic and the output nodes. The proposed circuit avoids propagation of precharge pulse to the output node and allows the dynamic node which saves power consumption. Simulation is done using 0.18 µm CMOS technology. We have calculated the power consumption, delay, and power delay product of the proposed circuit and compared the results with the existing circuits for different logic function, loading co...

  14. The synergistic combination of bis-silane and CeO2.ZrO2 nanoparticles on the electrochemical behaviour of galvanised steel in NaCl solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bis-1,2-[triethoxysilylpropyl]tetrasulfide silane films containing CeO2.ZrO2 nanoparticles were deposited by dip-coating on galvanised steel substrates. The morphological features of the coated substrates were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The anti-corrosion performance of the modified silane film applied on galvanised steel substrates was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The ability of nanoparticles to mitigate localized corrosion activity at artificially induced defects was investigated via the scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) and by the scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET). The results showed that the addition of nanoparticles provides good corrosion protection of the galvanised steel substrates pre-treated with the modified silane solutions. The corrosion activity was reduced by more than one order of magnitude. Complementary d.c. experiments, using zinc electrodes exposed to NaCl solutions containing the nanoparticles were also performed in order to better understand the role of the nanoparticles. An ennoblement of the corrosion potential and polarisation of the anodic reactions could be detected

  15. Investigation on preparation of CuO-SnO2-CeO2/γ-Al2O3 catalysts for catalytic wet air oxidation process and their catalytic activity for degradation of phenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiao-jun; ZHANG Mi-lin; WAN Jia-feng; XIA Zhi; LIU Xiao-hui; LIU hui

    2008-01-01

    Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation process is an efficient measure for treatment of wastewater with great strength which is not biodegradable. Heterocatalysts now become the key investigation subject of catalytic wet air oxidation process due to their good stability and easy separation. In the paper, CuO-SnOE-CeO2/γ-Al2O3 catalysts are prepared by impregnation method, with SnO2 as a doping component, CuO as an active component, CeO2 as a structure stabilizer, γ-Al2O3 as a substrate. XPS test is carried out to investigate the effect of Sn on the chemical surrounding of Cu and O element on the catalyst surface and their catalytic activity. It is shown that the right do-ping of Sn can increase Cu+ content on the catalyst surface, as a result the quantity of adsorption oxygen is also increased. It is found that Cu + content on the catalyst surface is one of the primary factors that determin catalytic activity of catalyst through analyzing the catalytic wet air oxidation process of phenol.

  16. Y0.08Sr0.88TiO3-CeO2 composite as a diffusion barrier layer for stainless-steel supported solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kun Joong; Kim, Sun Jae; Choi, Gyeong Man

    2016-03-01

    A new diffusion barrier layer (DBL) is proposed for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) supported on stainless-steel where DBL prevents inter-diffusion of atoms between anode and stainless steel (STS) support during fabrication and operation of STS-supported SOFCs. Half cells consisting of dense yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, porous Ni-YSZ anode layer, and ferritic STS support, with or without Y0.08Sr0.88TiO3-CeO2 (YST-CeO2) composite DBL, are prepared by tape casting and co-firing at 1250 and 1350 °C, respectively, in reducing (H2) atmosphere. The porous YST-CeO2 layer (t ∼ 60 μm) blocks inter-diffusion of Fe and Ni, and captures the evaporated Cr during cell fabrication (1350 °C). The cell with DBL and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) cathode achieved a maximum power density of ∼220 mW cm-2 which is stable at 700 °C. In order to further improve the power performance, Ni coarsening in anode during co-firing must be prevented or alternative anode which is resistive to coarsening is suggested. This study demonstrates that the new YST-CeO2 layer is a promising as a DBL for stainless-steel-supported SOFCs fabricated with co-firing process.

  17. Room temperature redox reaction by oxide ion migration at carbon/Gd-doped CeO2 heterointerface probed by an in situ hard x-ray photoemission and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Tsuchiya, Shogo Miyoshi, Yoshiyuki Yamashita, Hideki Yoshikawa, Kazuya Terabe, Keisuke Kobayashi and Shu Yamaguchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HX-PES and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (SX-XAS have been employed to investigate a local redox reaction at the carbon/Gd-doped CeO2 (GDC thin film heterointerface under applied dc bias. In HX-PES, Ce3d and O1s core levels show a parallel chemical shift as large as 3.2 eV, corresponding to the redox window where ionic conductivity is predominant. The window width is equal to the energy gap between donor and acceptor levels of the GDC electrolyte. The Ce M-edge SX-XAS spectra also show a considerable increase of Ce3+ satellite peak intensity, corresponding to electrochemical reduction by oxide ion migration. In addition to the reversible redox reaction, two distinct phenomena by the electrochemical transport of oxide ions are observed as an irreversible reduction of the entire oxide film by O2 evolution from the GDC film to the gas phase, as well as a vigorous precipitation of oxygen gas at the bottom electrode to lift off the GDC film. These in situ spectroscopic observations describe well the electrochemical polarization behavior of a metal/GDC/metal capacitor-like two-electrode cell at room temperature.

  18. Electrochemical properties of (La, Sr)(Fe, Co)O3 cathodes with additives of copper oxide nanoparticles for fuel elements with CeO2-based solid electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical and electrochemical properties of LSFC-cathodes for fuel cells with CeO2-based electrolytes are studied. It is shown that the addition of copper oxide in the LSFC-cathode positive influences on properties of LSFC-CuO/SDC electrode system, moreover the introduction of copper oxide as nanopowder acts noticeably more, than the introduction of CuO micropowder. By this time at the content of 0.5 mas.% of CuO nanopowder conductivity of the LSFC-cathode decreases almost by order. Cathode adhesion to electrolyte increases essentially, thal allows decreasing the temperature of cathode burning by 100 Deg C. Maximum of electrochemical activity have cathodes with 2 mas.% of CuO at sintering temperatures of 1000 Deg C. Life tests of CuO nanopowder-doped LSFC-SDC-composite cathodes lasting to 2011 h demonstrate that the temporal stability of their electrochemical characteristics grows with the increase of SDC-phase in electrodes. Temporal dependencies of polarization resistance of 40-50 mas.% of SDC cathodes obeys the law of damped exponent, and on this basis the stationary value of their polarization resistance are determined. At 700 Deg C it comprises 0.1-0.2 Ω cm2, and at overvoltage lower than 100 mV electrodes provide the current density 0.5-1 A/cm2

  19. Effect of scanning speeds on microstructure and wear behavior of laser-processed NiCr-Cr3C2-MoS2-CeO2 on 38CrMoAl steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guifang; Tong, Zhaopeng; Fang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Xiaojun; Ni, Zhonghua; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Self-lubricating wear-resistant NiCr-Cr3C2-MoS2-CeO2 layers were fabricated on 38CrMoAl extruder screws by laser processing. The effect of scanning speeds on microstructure, phases, microhardness, and wear behavior was investigated. The obtained results indicate that the laser-processed layers had fine and nonuniform microstructures with undissolved MoS2 particles distributed on the matrix. With an increase of the laser-scanning speeds, the microstructures changed from hypoeutectic to hypereutectic, volume fraction of martensite increased, microhardness increased, and thickness and friction coefficients of the layers decreased. Wear resistance of the optimized layer was increased by 29.76 times compared with that of the substrate. The undissolved MoS2 was separated from the matrix on loading. In addition to the grain-refining and solution-strengthening effects, oxide films formed on the surface of the layers shielded them and enhanced their wear resistance. The crack or fracture behavior of the laser-processed layers on loading was determined by its toughness, which also had an important effect on the wear behavior of the processed layers.

  20. Buffer erosion in dilute groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One scenario of interest for repository safety assessment involves the loss of bentonite buffer material in contact with dilute groundwater flowing through a transmissive fracture interface. In order to examine the extrusion/erosion behavior of bentonite buffer material under such circumstances, a series of experiments were performed in a flow-through, 1 mm aperture, artificial fracture system. These experiments covered a range of solution chemistry (salt concentration and composition), material composition (sodium montmorillonite and admixtures with calcium montmorillonite), and flow velocity conditions. No erosion was observed for sodium montmorillonite against solution compositions from 0.5 g/L to 10 g/L NaCl. No erosion was observed for 50/50 calcium/sodium montmorillonite against 0.5 g/L NaCl. Erosion was observed for both sodium montmorillonite and 50/50 calcium/sodium montmorillonite against solution compositions ≤ 0.25 g/L NaCl. The calculated erosion rates for the tests with the highest levels of measured erosion, i.e., the tests run under the most dilute conditions (ionic strength (IS) < ∼1 mM), were well-correlated to flow velocity, whereas the calculated erosion rates for the tests with lower levels of measured erosion, i.e., the tests run under somewhat less dilute conditions (∼1 mM < IS < ∼4 mM), were not similarly correlated indicating that material and solution composition can significantly affect erosion rates. In every experiment, both erosive and non-erosive, emplaced buffer material extruded into the fracture and was observed to be impermeable to water flowing in the fracture effectively forming an extended diffusive barrier around the intersecting fracture/buffer interface. Additionally, a model which was developed previously to predict the rate of erosion of bentonite buffer material in low ionic strength water in rock fracture environments was applied to three different cases: sodium montmorillonite expansion in a vertical tube, a