Sample records for century london dust-yards

  1. Mid-nineteenth century smoke concentrations near London (United States)

    Harrison, R. G.; Aplin, K. L.

    Measurements of atmospheric electricity began at Kew Observatory, London (51°28'N, 0°19'W) in 1843, with recording apparatus installed by Lord Kelvin in 1861. The measured electric potential gradient (PG) at Kew has always been influenced by smoke pollution, causing a December PG maximum and July minimum. Theory links PG variations with aerosol concentrations, and the 20th century smoke measurements made at Kew permit smoke concentrations to be retrieved from 19th century PG data. Absolute calibration of the 1862-1864 PG is achieved by considering changes in the global electric circuit, for which the geomagnetic aa-index is used as a proxy. The mean annual PG in 1863 is estimated as 363±29 V m -1, and the mean smoke concentration found is 0.17±0.05 mg m -3. Diurnal variations in smoke pollution differ between the seasons, and change in their character after the advent of motor traffic.

  2. Two daily smoke maxima in eighteenth century London air (United States)

    Harrison, R. Giles

    Varied electrostatics experiments followed Benjamin Franklin's pioneering atmospheric investigations. In Knightsbridge, Central London, John Read (1726-1814) installed a sensing rod in the upper part of his house and, using a pith ball electrometer and Franklin chimes, monitored atmospheric electricity from 1789 to 1791. Atmospheric electricity is sensitive to weather and smoke pollution. In calm weather conditions, Read observed two daily electrification maxima in moderate weather, around 9 am and 7 pm. This is likely to represent a double diurnal cycle in urban smoke. Before the motor car and steam railways, one source of the double maximum smoke pattern was the daily routine of fire lighting for domestic heating.

  3. Famine, the Black Death, and health in fourteenth-century London


    Daniel Antoine; Simon Hillson


    In the first half of the fourteenth century two catastrophes struck the population of Europe: the Great Famine and the Black Death. The latter has been extensively studied, but much less is known about the biological effects of the Great Famine. A large assemblage of skeletal remains from one of the Black Death burial grounds, the Royal Mint cemetery in London, provides a unique opportunity to investigate these effects by analyzing the teeth of individuals who survived the famine but died dur...

  4. Famine, the Black Death, and health in fourteenth-century London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Antoine


    Full Text Available In the first half of the fourteenth century two catastrophes struck the population of Europe: the Great Famine and the Black Death. The latter has been extensively studied, but much less is known about the biological effects of the Great Famine. A large assemblage of skeletal remains from one of the Black Death burial grounds, the Royal Mint cemetery in London, provides a unique opportunity to investigate these effects by analyzing the teeth of individuals who survived the famine but died during the Black Death.

  5. Model Making and Anti-Competitive Practices in the Late Eighteenth-Century London Sculpture Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craske, Matthew


    Full Text Available This article concerns the generation of anti-competitive practices, and the associated discontents, that rose to the fore in the London sculpture trade in the late eighteenth century (1770-1799. It charts the business strategies and technical procedures of the most economically successful practitioners, whose workshops had some of the characteristics of manufactories, and whose critics accused them of conducting a "monopoly" trade. Small-scale practitioners lost out in the competition for great public contracts on account of their design processes and their inability to represent any manifestation of "establishment". A combination of three factors increased the gap between a handful of powerful "manufacturers" and the rest of the trade: the foundation of the Royal Academy, shifts in the ways designs were evaluated, and a growing number of very lucrative contracts for public sculpture. I conclude that such were the discontents within the London trade that by the 1790s, there was a marked tendency for practitioners who were not manufacturers to be attracted to democratic political movements, to the Wilkite call for liberty and the rise of civic radicalism in the merchant population of London.

  6. Dumb O Jemmy and Others: Deaf people, Interpreters and the London Courts in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries (United States)

    Stone, Christopher; Woll, Bencie


    This article reviews eighteenth- and nineteenth-century proceedings of the London Central Criminal Court (Old Bailey) that involved deaf people. The use, role, and status of sign language and interpreters in these settings are described. These proceedings provide important information about deaf people's experiences within the court system of the…

  7. A Migrant Culture on Display: The French Migrant and French Gastronomy in London (19th – 21st centuries)


    Kelly, D.


    The large contemporary French migrant population – estimated by the French Consulate at around 300,000–400,000 in the UK, the majority living in London and the South-East – remains ‘absent’ from studies on migration, and, in a study of migrant food history in Britain, is considered not to have left traces as a migrant community. Over the centuries, the presence of various French communities in London has varied significantly as far as numbers are concerned, but what does not change is their s...

  8. A study of the German ‘Gothic’ 15th-century equestrian armour (A21) in the Wallace Collection, London


    Edge, David; Williams, Alan


    The most famous, indeed iconic, armour in the Wallace Collection, London, is the late 15th century German armour for man and horse (inventory number A21). Unfortunately for the historian of armour, it is also one of the most composite, having been assembled in its present form in the 19th century from elements of at least five armours. Archival research in the Wallace Collection has been combined with metallography in the Conservation Department to attempt to cast some further light upon its ...

  9. London, England (United States)


    For almost 2,000 years, the River Thames has served as the life force of London, capital of the United Kingdom and one of the world's most famous cities. In AD 43 the Romans established the trading settlement of Londinium at a favorable crossing point on the river. The Romans remained until the 5th century, when the city came under Saxon control. The early 17th century saw enormous growth, but the deadly plague of 1664 and 1665 ravaged the population, and in the following year the Great Fire, which burned for four days, destroyed most of the city. A public transportation system and other city services in the early 19th century eased many of the increasing urban problems of the burgeoning capital of the wealthy British Empire. After coping with the devastating effects of bombing during World War II and the gradual dismantling of the empire, London today thrives as a vital modern metropolis. London is one of 100 cities being studied using ASTER data to map and monitor urban use patterns and growth.This image was acquired on October 12, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring

  10. Composition of Façon de Venise glass from early 17th century London in comparison with luxury glass of the same age (United States)

    Cagno, S.; De Raedt, I.; Jeffries, T.; Janssens, K.

    SEM-EDX and LA-ICP-MS analyses were performed on a set of early 17th century London glass fragments. The samples originate from two archaeological sites (Aldgate and Old Broad Street) where glass workshops were active in this period. The great majority of the samples are made of soda glass. Two distinct compositional groups are observed, each typical of one site of provenance. The samples originating from the Old Broad Street excavation feature a silica-soda-lime composition, with a moderate amount of potash. The samples from Aldgate are richer in potassium and feature higher amounts of trace elements such as Rb, Zr and Cu. The distinction between the two groups stems from different flux and silica sources used for glassmaking. A comparison with different European glass compositions of that time reveals no resemblance with genuine Venetian production, yet the composition of the Old Broad Street glass shows a close similarity to that of fragments produced `à la façon de Venise' in Antwerp at the end of the 16th century. This coincides with historical sources attesting the arrival of glassworkers from the Low Countries in England and suggests that a transfer of technology took place near the turn of the century.

  11. A study of the German ‘Gothic’ 15th-century equestrian armour (A21 in the Wallace Collection, London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edge, David


    Full Text Available The most famous, indeed iconic, armour in the Wallace Collection, London, is the late 15th century German armour for man and horse (inventory number A21. Unfortunately for the historian of armour, it is also one of the most composite, having been assembled in its present form in the 19th century from elements of at least five armours. Archival research in the Wallace Collection has been combined with metallography in the Conservation Department to attempt to cast some further light upon its origins.

    La armadura más famosa y emblemática de la Wallace Collection de Londres es un arnés para hombre y caballo de finales del siglo XV (inv. A.21. Desafortunadamente para la historia del arte de la armadura es también una de las más heterogéneas, compuesta en el siglo XIX con piezas procedentes de al menos otras cinco armaduras. La investigación archivística en la Wallace Collection se ha compaginado con el estudio metalográfico del Departamento de Conservación para intentar arrojar algo más de luz sobre sus orígenes.

  12. Fritz London (United States)

    Gavroglu, Kostas


    Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. From Philosophy to Physics: The years that left nothing unaffected; 1. The appeal of ideas; 2. Goëthe as a scientist; 3. How absolute is our knowledge?; 4. How do we come to know things?; 5. London's teachers in philosophy; 6. Husserl's teachings; 7. Expectations of things to come; 8. The thesis in philosophy; 9. Tolman's principle of similitude; 10. The necessary clarifications; 11. Work on quantum theory; 12. Transformation theory; 13. Unsuccessful attempts at unification; Part II. The Years in Berlin and the Beginnings of Quantum Chemistry: The mysterious bond; 14. London in Zürich; 15. Binding forces; 16. The Pauli principle; 17. Reactions to the Heitler-London paper; 18. Polyelectronic molecules and the application of group theory to problems of chemical valence; 19. Chemists as physicists?; 20. London's first contacts in Berlin; 21. Marriage; 22. Job offers; 23. Intermolecular forces; 24. The book which could not be written; 25. Leningrad and Rome; 26. Difficulties with group theory; 27. Linus Pauling's resonance structures; 28. Robert Mulliken's molecular orbitals; Part III. Oxford and Superconductivity: The rise of the Nazis; 29. Going to Oxford; 30. Lindemann, Simon and Heinz London; 31. Electricity in the very cold; 32. The end of old certainties; 33. The thermodynamic treatment; 34. The theory of Fritz and Heinz London; 35. Initial reactions by von Laue; 36. The discussion at the Royal Society; 37. Termination of the ICI fellowship; Part IV. Paris and Superfluidity: The Front Populaire; 38. The article in Nature 1937 and 'Nouvelle Conception'; 39. Laue again; 40. The structure of solid helium; 41. The peculiar properties of helium; 42. Bose-Einstein condensation; 43. The note in Nature; 44. The two-fluid model; 45. The trip to Jerusalem; 46. Leaving again; 47. The observer in quantum mechanics; Part V. United States and the Typing up of Loose Ends: Duke University, North Carolina; 48. The Soviet Union, Kapitza and

  13. James Barry and the Portraits of His Country Patron Edmund Burke : A Struggle by the Irish Catholic Artist in the 18th Century London


    桑島, 秀樹


    The aim of this essay is two: at first I will illustrate the early life and achievement of the ‘forgotten' Irish Catholic painter, James Barry (1741-1806), who was from Cork, a southern capital town of Ireland and subsequently became a professor of painting at the Royal Academy in London (but expelled in the end). Secondly I will also show the close relationship of the painter with his country-fellow aesthetician and political philosopher, Edmund Burke (1729-97) by examining two Burke' s port...

  14. White Tower, London, England


    William the Conqueror; William Rufus; Henry I


    White Tower (Tower of London), London, England. Photograph taken by Terry Barry. There is restoration work being carried out on one of the towers. The White Tower is a central tower at the Tower of London. The great central keep was built by William the Conqueror and finished by his sons and successors, William Rufus and Henry I, around 1087. It is 90 feet high and is of massive construction, the walls varying from 15 feet thickness at the base to almost 11 feet in the upper parts. Above ...

  15. Taaskasutuses London / Marlen Promann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Promann, Marlen


    "100% Disain London" messist, kus peateemaks oli säästlikkus disainis, materjalides, tehnoloogias ja tootmises. Markko Karu jõudis sellel noore disainiettevõtja auhinna finaali (International Young Design Entrepreneur of the Year)

  16. Materials modelling in London (United States)

    Ciudad, David


    Angelos Michaelides, Professor in Theoretical Chemistry at University College London (UCL) and co-director of the Thomas Young Centre (TYC), explains to Nature Materials the challenges in materials modelling and the objectives of the TYC.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    London Metropolitan University has a widerange of scholarship programmes for internationalstudents.We offer full and partial scholarships tooustandifg students from all over the world. Ourprogrammes include joint scholarships with BBCWorld Service, Asia House, International StudentsHouse and other global organisations.If you have outstanding academic results,and an excellent track record, please see our

  18. Charmed Life in Contemporary London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Documentary film produced for the Miracles and Charms exhibition at the Wellcome Collection, London......Documentary film produced for the Miracles and Charms exhibition at the Wellcome Collection, London...

  19. Optical legacy of Imperial College London (United States)

    Kidger Webb-Moore, Tina E.


    The Industrial Revolution, beginning primarily in the UK, generated an increasing need for highly skilled technical people. Throughout the 19th century, technical instruction increased dramatically and the formation of schools specializing in science and technology grew quickly. In England, there was much motivation in favour of a national prestige center for science and technology centered in London. Central among the motivating forces was Queen Victoria's husband, Prince Albert. Although there were already existing specialist science and technology institutions in major English cities, the growth of superior institutions in other countries within Europe, especially Germany and the Charlottenburg area of Berlin (e.g., the Berlin Technical High School), encouraged important English dignitaries to become more competitive with continental Europe. As a result of this strong continental motivation, several science and technology institutions were built in the south Kensington part of London during the latter half of the 19th century. Imperial College, founded at the start of the 20th century, was a culmination and consolidation of several of these 19th century English institutions. Optical science and technology was an early beneficiary of the founding of Imperial College. This paper will attempt to provide the reader with an understanding of how great was the influence of the optical section of Imperial College in the further development of the world's optical science and technology.

  20. London 2012: Medal projection



    We project the medal number and medal ranking for the Olympic Games in London in 2012. The largest relative increase is predicted for Brazil (80% more medals) and the UK (+28%). UK will continue to rank 4th. The largest decreases in medal numbers are predicted for Australia (-13%, but remains in 5th place) and the USA (-13%, remains No. 1). Germany should retain a rank of 6th and will win 38 medals (compared to 41 in 2008).

  1. SPRUCE Mashup London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Corrado


    Full Text Available SPRUCE digital preservation mashups are a series of unique events that are being organized in the United Kingdom to bring together digital preservation practitioners and developers to work on real-world digital preservation challenges. During the 3-day event the digital preservation developers work to create practical solutions to real-world challenges the practitioners are having related to digital preservation. Meanwhile, the practitioners work to create compelling business cases for digital preservation at their institution. This article describes the SPRUCE Mashup London event held in September 2012.

  2. A Brief Analysis on William Blake's London

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 尚彦飞


    William Blake (1757-1827) is a renowned British poet in the 18th century. His lyric poems display the characteristics of romantic spirit, and he is regarded as the forefather of the British Romanticism. His London is a well-known lyric poetry, which is thought to be the best vesicle in the West. This paper will analyse this poem in terms of its form, theme, and im-age and then draw a brief conclusion for the characteristics of William Blake's poem.

  3. Detección de indicios de manipulación contable y posible práctica “fraudulenta” en el gremio del comercio textil de Londres en los siglos XIV y XV = Evidences in detection of accounting manipulation and potential “fraud” in the textile industry in London during the 14th and 15th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Ballarín Garnica


    Full Text Available El gremio del comercio textil de Londres es una institución con más de 710 años de historia que todavía sigue ejerciendo su actividad. Desde el siglo XIV dispone de registros contables detallados que reflejan su actividad económica. Este trabajo pretende obtener indicios de manipulación contable en dicha institución mediante técnicas forenses (Ley de Benford en el periodo 1390-1435. La aplicación de esta técnica ha puesto de manifiesto la existencia de indicios de una posible manipulación contable que confirma la existencia de prácticas “fraudulentas” (pagos a un parlamentario, alcalde…. The Mercers’ of London is an institution with more than 710 years of history which is exercising still today. Since the XIV century it has kept thorough accounting records showing its economic activity. This paper’s goal is to obtain indications of accounting manipulation in this institution during the period 1390 to 1435, by using forensic techniques (Benford’s Law. The use of this technique has revealed the presence of indications of a possible accounting manipulation, which confirms the existence of ‘fraudulent’ practices such as payments to a MP and the mayor of London.

  4. The Olympic legacy: feeding London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, F.


    Over the last decades, the Olympic Games have increasingly claimed to deliver a social and economic ‘legacy’ to the host city. The 2012 Olympic Games in London have set out to deliver a legacy of better food for east London, an area perceived as ‘deprived’, with higher than average rates of obesity

  5. William Blake:London VS William Wordsworth:London, 1802

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Blake and Wordsworth are all important representatives of romantic poets. Though Blake is 13 years older than Word⁃sworth, they are both concerned with human beings, especially the lives of lower class. The poem, London and London, 1802 were created in different time, but they both reflect the miserable lives of common people during industrial revolution period to some extent. This article compares some similarities and differences between the two poems.

  6. A combined Raman microscopy, XRF and SEM-EDX study of three valuable objects - A large painted leather screen and two illuminated title pages in 17th century books of ordinances of the Worshipful Company of Barbers, London (United States)

    Chaplin, Tracey D.; Clark, Robin J. H.; Martinón-Torres, Marcos


    Raman microscopy has been used to identify the pigments decorating three valuable items owned by the Worshipful Company of Barbers (established in 1308 in London), one being a large leather screen dating to before 1712, the other two being illuminated title pages of books of ordinances of the Company dating to 1605 and 1658. Pigments which could not be fully characterised by this technique (particularly the green paints) have also been subject to XRF or SEM-EDX analysis. The combined analytical approach has shown that the pigments identified on all three items are typical of those in use as artists' pigments in the 17th C and include azurite, indigo, vermilion, red lead, pink and yellow lakes, verdigris, lead white, calcite (and chalk), gypsum, carbon-based black, and gold and silver leaf. However in the case of the screen alone, restoration in the 1980s has been carried out with different pigments - haematite, phthalocyanine green, rutile, and a mixture of azurite, malachite and barium sulfate. This work constitutes the first in-depth study of painted leatherwork and demonstrates that the palette used for this purpose is similar to that used on other works of art of the same date. It has also allowed the original colour schemes of the decorations to be determined where pigment degradation has occurred. The combined analysis has also provided a more complete understanding of the materials used for, or on, objects to which access is limited.

  7. “The March of Bricks and Mortar” and Environmental Demand---An Analysis on the Preservation Process of Hampstead Heath in the 19th Century London%“砖瓦进军”与环境诉求--19世纪伦敦汉普斯特德荒野保护过程探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    汉普斯特德荒野保护是近代英国环境保护史上的一个典型案例,也是伦敦公地保护活动的起点。19世纪上半叶,“砖瓦进军”带动了伦敦郊区地产升值,荒野面临的“开发”威胁由此而生。托马斯爵士先后六次提出地产议案,但荒野保护者在公地权、锻炼、休闲、新鲜空气、自然景观等理由下,逐一否决了上述议案。在社会舆论的推动下,首都公共事务委员会成为荒野购买的责任主体并在偶发事件中促成此事,荒野被立法保护,成为英国公众的健康与休闲空间。%The Hampstead Heath Preservation was a typical case in modern Britain Environmental Protection ,and it was the starting point of Commons Preservation in London .In the first half of 19th century ,“the march of bricks and mortar”mobilized real estate appreciation of London suburban areas ,so the Heath was threatened from that development .Sir Thomas proposed estate bills in six times ,but under the reasons of common rights ,exercise ,recreation ,fresh air , landscape ,those bills were all refused .With the promotion of public opinion ,Metropolitan Board of Works became the regulator of the Heath and made it success by chance .The Heath was preserved by law and became a health and recreation space for the British .

  8. London´s erotic masterpiece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerchlango, Jørg


    Londoners call it the erotic ghurkin. Architects proclaim Norman Foster´s new building a revolutionary masterwork......Londoners call it the erotic ghurkin. Architects proclaim Norman Foster´s new building a revolutionary masterwork...

  9. The Maintenance of The London Underground Tube Tunnel Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gleig Frazer


    It is helpful to have a brief history of London Underground when considering any aspect of its maintenance or future development. The system has developed over more than 100 years and only comparatively recently come under the control of a single organisation. This partly explains the complexity that has resulted from differences in construction between lines. A brief History is accordingly appended to this presentation as Appendix B. The recent History outlines how Tube Lines have come to be involved with London Underground and explains a little of the reason for our existence. We are required to maintain and improve London Underground assets. Our performance has to be measurable and it follows that we need to know the current condition "value" of those assets. A large part of London Underground's infrastructure is tube tunnels some of which have not been fully assessed since they were first constructed in the 19th Century. They used materials whose physical and durability properties were not, at the time, fully understood; and they were designed on a very empirical basis if they were "designed" at all. Some shafts and other elements of the Tunnel Asset appeared to have been forgotten or lost when the Public Private Partnership (PPP) instigation procedures began in earnest in 1998. A major part of our current maintenance programme is thus to ascertain and agree the current condition and extent of approximately 178kilometres of tube tunnel asset that we are required to maintain and improve.

  10. Olympics Legacy: the London Olympics 2012



    The reasons for proposing a London 2012 bid are outlined in the light of London city planning over the past sixty years. The processes influencing the bid for the London 2012 Olympics are investigated in respect of the lessons from Barcelona and Sydney. The role of environmental and landscape improvement is examined and the importance of legacy is described and analysed. The cost of Olympiads since Sydney 2000 are described and compared. Then progress of the London 2012 Olympics developmen...

  11. London 2012 - Medal Projection - Medaillenvorausberechnung



    We project the medal number and medal ranking for the Olympic Games in London in 2012. The largest relative increase is predicted for Brazil (80% more medals) and the UK (+28%).UK will conti-nue to rank 4th. The largest decreases in medal numbers are predicted for Australia (-13%, but remains in 5th place) and the USA (-13%, remains No. 1). Germany should retain a rank of 6th and will win 38 medals (compared to 41 in 2008).

  12. Institutional profile: the London Centre for Nanotechnology. (United States)

    Weston, David; Bontoux, Thierry


    Located in the London neighborhoods of Bloomsbury and South Kensington, the London Centre for Nanotechnology is a UK-based multidisciplinary research center that operates at the forefront of science and technology. It is a joint venture between two of the world's leading institutions, UCL and Imperial College London, uniting their strong capabilities in the disciplines that underpin nanotechnology: engineering, the physical sciences and biomedicine. The London Centre for Nanotechnology has a unique operating model that accesses and focuses the combined skills of the Departments of Chemistry, Physics, Materials, Medicine, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Biochemical Engineering and Earth Sciences across the two universities. It aims to provide the nanoscience and nanotechnology required to solve major problems in healthcare, information processing, energy and the environment.

  13. 'Loathsome London' : Ruskin, Morris, and Henry Davey's History of English Music (1895).



    The dystopia of the Victorian city is ubiquitous as a trope of nineteenth- and early twentieth-century literature, appearing across a wide array of literature in fiction, poetry, pamphlets, articles, reviews, socio-demographic works, socialist tracts, and miscellaneous papers. Anti-urbanism plays a prominent role in Dickens, Kingsley, and Gissing, to name but a few, and emerges in more pointedly sociological titles such as Andrew Mearns's The Bitter Cry of London (1883); Thomas Escott's Engla...

  14. Lessons for climate policy from The Great Stink of London (United States)

    Skuce, A.


    A rapidly growing population and the introduction of the flush toilet in nineteenth-century London caused a crisis with sewage pollution in the River Thames (Halliday, 1999). There were decades of delays in implementing solutions owing to: inadequate governance institutions; political inertia; difficulties with financing; opposition from vested interests; scientific uncertainties; and technological challenges. Effective counter-measures were started only once the problem arose, quite literally, under the noses of parliamentarians. There are parallels, some of them pointed out earlier by Alley et al (2010), between the sewage crisis in Victorian London and the current problem with climate change. Both involve the unsustainable use of a common resource (a river, the atmosphere) for the unconstrained disposal of human waste products. Alley (2011) estimated that the costs of providing clean water and sanitation are comparable to the expected costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Despite the similarities, the climate change issue is actually much more difficult because of: a) the unequal and uncertain global distribution of cause and effect; b) its long, intergenerational time lines; c) the insufficiency of adequate institutions, conventions or the tools— political, moral or economic—for tackling the climate crisis. This analysis is consistent with the model proposed by Gardiner (2011) in his book A Perfect Moral Storm. The three "storms" he identifies, the global, intergenerational and theoretical storms, combine in a powerful synergy to create a challenge of unprecedented intractability, providing opportunities for what Gardiner calls moral corruption: the obscuring of the buck-passing and procrastination that characterizes climate policy today. In Victorian London, the crucial steps to solve the sewage crises were not taken until the stench from the River Thames during the hot summer of 1858 rendered the House of Commons uninhabitable. A greater stink of a

  15. Millennium-long damage to building materials in London. (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Peter; Grossi, Carlota M


    Damage functions from a range of sources are used to estimate deterioration of carbonate stone, iron and copper, in addition to the rate of blackening of stone surfaces in London across the period 1100-2100 CE. Meteorological and pollution input is available for only a relatively short part of this span, so non-instrumental weather records and modelled pollution are utilised for historic values, while future climate is adapted from the HadCM3A2 model output and pollution assessed from likely regulatory trends. The results from the different damage functions compare reasonably well showing comparable changes in damage rates with time. A potential square-root dependence of change in deposition velocity of SO2 to limestone suggests a possible overestimate of damage when pollution is high. Deterioration is especially intense from the 1700s. It is difficult to be certain whether the corrosion of copper accelerated as early as this or it developed in the 20th century. Nevertheless all the functions predict a decline in copper corrosion from the end of the 20th century. A blackening function was developed to relate elemental carbon concentration and the colour of deposited particulate matter to blackening rate, which suggests that soiling was particularly rapid in the late 19th century. The increase and subsequent decrease in damage to building materials is interpreted in terms of a Kuznets curve. The centuries where pollution controlled damage to durable building material seems to be over. Weathering, in a changing climate may have the greatest impact in the future.

  16. Staging the orient. Aladdin London - Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Marie-Louise


    En sammenligning af John O'Keefes / Charles Farleys sceniske opsætning af Aladdin-eventyret fra Tusind og én nats eventyr i London (1813) med Adam Oehlenschlägers Aladdin-lystspil i København (1805). Artiklen diskuterer de to versioner af eventyrstykket som fortolkning og respons på to forskellig...

  17. Loss and material culture in South London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, D.; Parrott, F.


    This article describes the ways in which people, mainly selected from a single street in South London, utilize material culture in dealing with various experiences of separation and loss, such as death or the ending of a relationship. It starts from a dialectical approach to all relationships as con

  18. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946 (United States)

    Montesorri, Maria


    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  19. Accounting for Impact at Imperial College London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perkmann, Markus; Fini, Riccardo; Ross, Jan-Michael

    We report findings of a study of academic engagement and commercialisation at Imperial College London. We detail the extent of collaboration with industry, consulting, patenting and entrepreneurship by Imperial academics, as well as individuals’ motivations and perceived barriers to engagement. T...

  20. E. B. Nicholson and the London Institution (United States)

    Manley, K. A.


    This article provides a history of the London Institution from 1805 to 1912, with special emphasis on E. B. Nicholson's term of office. The last years of the Institution are considered, its financial difficulties being traced back to the terms of its original foundation, and to the changing situation of its members. (47 references) (Author/SJ)

  1. Ethnopharmacy of Turkish-speaking Cypriots in Greater London. (United States)

    Yöney, Ahmet; Prieto, José M; Lardos, Andreas; Heinrich, Michael


    For centuries, in the Eastern Mediterranean region, medicinal plant use has been widely accepted as a treatment method for both minor and major diseases. Although some knowledge exists on the use of such medicinal plants within the Greek Cypriot culture and considerable information is available on various regions in Turkey, no detailed ethnopharmaceutical or ethnobotanical studies exist on Turkish-speaking Cypriots (TSC) both in Cyprus and within one of the largest TSC migrant communities in London, UK. Semi-structured interviews with members of the TSC community in London were conducted by using a questionnaire consisting both of open and closed questions. Open questions were aimed at identifying herbs, spices, medicinal plants and their uses. Also, graded questions were used to define informants' opinions as a quantitative parameter, constructing a statistical basis. A wide range of therapeutic claims were recorded, including 13 chronic illnesses within 85 different plant species, of which 18 were cited more than 10 times. The most frequently mentioned species were Mentha spicata, Salvia fruticosa and Pimpinella anisum. The plants recorded are frequently based on knowledge derived from Turkish-Cypriot traditions, but many examples of medicinal plants with a use based on UK or general western herbal medical traditions were also recorded. Informants highlighted the risk of knowledge loss in younger generations and thus this study serves as a repository of knowledge for use in the future. Due to a lack of knowledge about such usages in the healthcare professions, our study also highlights the need to develop information sources for use by healthcare practitioners in order to raise awareness about benefits and risks of such medical and health food products.

  2. The Importance and Criticality of Spreadsheets in the City of London

    CERN Document Server

    Croll, Grenville J


    Spreadsheets have been with us in their present form for over a quarter of a century. We have become so used to them that we forget that we are using them at all. It may serve us well to stand back for a moment to review where, when and how we use spreadsheets in the financial markets and elsewhere in order to inform research that may guide their future development. In this article I bring together the experiences of a number of senior practitioners who have spent much of their careers working with large spreadsheets that have been and continue to be used to support major financial transactions and manage large institutions in the City of London. The author suggests that the City of London is presently exposed to significant reputational risk through the continued uncontrolled use of critical spreadsheets in the financial markets and elsewhere.

  3. The City of Others: Photographs from the City of London Asylum Archive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Bressey


    Full Text Available This photographic essay presents images from the City of London Asylum archive as a example of how the visual can be used to expand our investigations of social histories of Victorian London, particularly the multi-cultural nature of the city. The essay argues that images are an essential part of the research process, but also discusses some of the disadvantages and ethical tensions encountered through the use of such portraits for historical recovery. Despite these caveats, the paper concludes that we have much to learn from the images that present images of the city that would otherwise be difficult, if not impossible, for twenty-first-century researchers to access.

  4. Forty Years of Crime in London (Journal)


    Shoemaker, R.B.


    As a contribution to the fortieth anniversary celebrations of the London Journal, this article provides an overview of the twenty-seven articles which it has published about crime and criminal justice since its inception. While few articles were published in its early years, there has been a big increase in articles published in the last decade, pushing the Journal into the forefront of the historiography on these topics. A survey of the recurring themes in articles about crime, policing, jus...

  5. Immunisation status in inner London primary schools.


    Bedford, H E; Masters, J I; Kurtz, Z


    In one inner London district health authority, the immunisation status of children attending their routine school entry health interview was reviewed over four terms. During the course of these interviews, school nurses completed a questionnaire with parents that asked for their child's immunisation history and details of family and social background. Parental reporting of immunisation history was compared with district health authority records. Only 56% of children reviewed were found to be ...

  6. On biocoloniality and 'respectability' in contemporary London.


    Narayan, Yasmeen


    This essay is framed by discussions on the civil unrest in British cities in 2011, the politics of austerity, the mass unemployment of the young, ‘the war on terror’ and ‘radicalisation’ and the vulnerability of the poor and ‘unrespectable’. It advances a concept of biocoloniality and explores ‘respectability’, class and transnational postcolonial urban cultures in contemporary London. The essay argues for a theorisation which can account for how a divided subject produces the effect of an un...

  7. "More Swimming Lessons from the London Whale"


    Jan KREGEL


    This policy brief by Senior Scholar and Program Director Jan Kregel builds on an earlier analysis (Policy Note 2012/6) of JPMorgan Chase and the actions of the "London Whale", and what this episode reveals about the larger risks inherent in the financial system. It is clear that the Dodd-Frank Act failed to prevent massive losses by one of the world's largest banks. This is undeniable evidence that work remains to be done to reform the financial system. Toward this end, Kregel reviews the fin...

  8. The Volunteering Legacy of London 2012 Games. A Pilot Study.



    The hosting of the London 2012 Olympic Games was seen as an opportunity to harness the enthusiasm of the 70000 volunteers involved and to provide a volunteer legacy post event. A total of 77 London 2012 volunteers completed a web-based open-ended survey. The participants were asked to indicate their level of current volunteering engagement and whether volunteering at the Games had an impact on their current volunteering levels. The study found that the London Olympics were the first volunteer...

  9. Five Rings: Enclosing the London 2012 Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan William Gardner


    Full Text Available Considering the successive iterations of the fence surrounding the London 2012 Olympic site in Stratford, east London, I demonstrate that during the five periods of enclosure considered, these boundaries have highlighted the London Games’ contested past, present, and future. An examination of the material and discursive constructions of each of these boundaries shows the Janus-faced nature of their relationship to the wider ‘mega-event’. I conclude that though the purpose of such enclosures may initially seem obvious, in actuality they, as parts of a wider assemblage, can act unpredictably both to support and challenge the Olympic brand and its existence in this part of east London.

  10. London in Space and Time: Peter Ackroyd and Will Self (United States)

    Green, Andrew


    This paper explores the treatment of London by two authors who are profoundly influenced by the concept of the power of place and the nature of urban space. The works of Peter Ackroyd, whose writings embody, according to Onega (1997, p. 208) "[a] yearning for mythical closure" where London is "a mystic centre of…

  11. Alternative Spaces of Learning in East London: Opportunities and Challenges (United States)

    Sneddon, Raymonde; Martin, Peter


    This article emerges from an ongoing exploration into how British minority ethnic communities in the London area create spaces in community-based programs to maintain or develop their languages and literacies. In London, more than one-third of the 850,000 school children speak a language other than English at home (Baker & Eversley, 2000).…

  12. Changing the Subject: English in London, 1945-1967 (United States)

    Yandell, John


    Two recent books, "English Teachers in a Postwar Democracy: Emerging Choice in London Schools, 1945-1965" and "The London Association for the Teaching of English, 1947-67: A History," explore an important period in the development of English as a school subject and in the remaking of the professional identity of English…

  13. Leading increasingly linguistically diverse London schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Mehmedbegović


    Full Text Available Engaging with bilingual parents, students and teachers with little awareness of the benefits of bilingualism has initiated a search for factors resulting in the low value attached to certain types of bilingualism. Working on the hypothesis that prevalent practice is influenced more by attitudes to bilingualism rather than relevant research and pedagogical theory, this research focuses on attitudes. This small-scale qualitative study conducted with a group of London headteachers provides an insight into the attitudes to bilingualism and how they impact on policy and practice in schools with significant proportions of multilingual learners. It also raises the question if schools which claim to support multilingual students in realising their full potential can achieve that without including home languages as an integral part of learning.

  14. London ütleb : mood on kunst

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Näitus 'Addressing the Century' 11. jaan.-ni 1999 Londoni Hayward Gallerys. Näitusel on võimalus näha moe-, fotograafia- ja kunstiklassikuid, sealhulgas Poiret', Matisse'i, Man Ray, Dali, Issey Miyake, Vivienne Westwoodi loomingut. Kujundaja Zaha Hadid

  15. Einstein's Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeremy Laurance; 贾庆文


    Albert Einstein began working at the patent office in Bern, Switzerland, a little more than a century ago. He had flunked the entrance exam for the Swiss Federal Insitute of Technology and took the job evaluating inventions because it paid a regular salary.

  16. Lidar Observations of Pollution Transport From London to Rural Areas (United States)

    Ricketts, Hugo; Vaughan, Geraint; Wareing, David


    The Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) Project took place in and around London, United Kingdom. The aim of the project was to learn how both atmospheric dynamics and chemistry affect air pollution in the south east of England. During the winter and summer of 2012 many different types of instrument including lidars were deployed throughout London city centre, suburbs and into rural areas. Amongst these instruments was the Boundary Layer Aerosol/Ozone Lidar owned by the National Centre for Atmospheric Sciences (NCAS) in the United Kingdom. Ozone and aerosol data are presented from data collected during July and August 2012 and compared to back trajectories to identify their origins.

  17. Teaching the History of Astronomy On Site in London (United States)

    French, Linda M.


    In the autumn of 2014, the author had the opportunity to teach a class on the history of astronomy in England as part of a study abroad experience for students at Illinois Wesleyan University. The philosophy of the program is to use the rich cultural environment of London as a setting for active learning. In the classroom, students read and discussed selected works by Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Herschel. We visited Stonehenge, the Royal Greenwich Observatory, the London Science Museum, the London Monument, and the library of the Royal Astronomical Society. Lessons learned from the experience will be shared.

  18. Collider – the LHC in London

    CERN Multimedia

    Emma Sanders


    In November the London Science Museum will open a major new exhibition about the LHC. The project marks an ambitious new approach for the museum who will work with an eclectic design team that includes a video artist and a playwright. Both Olivier Award winners, they are more renowned for their work on stage and screen than inside museums.   Image courtesy of Science Museum / Nissen Richards Studio. The Science Museum team came to Geneva expecting to be blown away by the extraordinary physics and engineering at CERN and they weren’t disappointed. But what impressed them most was the people who made it all happen. Physicists of all kinds, restaurant staff, engineers, administrators, those working in transport and logistics, all had in common a passion for CERN and an enthusiasm for communicating their work. “What really struck us was how every single person mentioned the spirit of international collaboration and the importance of curiosity,” Alison Boyle told the ...

  19. Tracker electronics testing at Imperial College London

    CERN Multimedia



    Jonathon Fulcher and Rob Bainbridge testing a rack of CMS Tracker readout electronics at Imperial College London. The signals from the front end APV chips will be transmitted optically to racks of electronics ~100m away in an adjacent underground cavern where they are fed into ~20 crates where 500 CMS Front End Driver boards (FEDs) are located. The FED inputs are 8 fibre ribbons, each ribbon consisting of 12 fibres, each fibre carrying the serially multiplexed data originating from 2 APVs. To test the FEDs special tester boards have been designed to produce simulated APV data in optical form. In the picture the yellow cables are the fibres, which originate from the FED tester boards on the left hand side of the crate as 96 individual fibres, which are then combined into the 8 fibre ribbons feeding the FED board on the right hand side of the crate. Fig. 2 shows an APV25 test board mounted in the X-ray irradiation setup, Fig. 3 the X-ray machine where the chips are irradiated and Fig. 4 the MGPA (Multi-Gain Pre...

  20. 3-D GIS : Virtual London and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Batty


    Full Text Available In this paper, we outline how we have developed a series of technologies to enable detailed interactive 3-D Geographical Information Systems (GIS based models of cities to be created. Until relatively recently these models have been developed in Computer Aided Design (CAD software more often then in GIS. One of the main reasons was that ‘3-D GIS’ was often only 2.5-D under closer inspection. This is changing, and by straddling both technologies, and integrating others, we show how these models in turn enable planning information, statistics, pollution levels, sea level rises and much more to be visualised and analysed in the context of the 3-D city model. The client for ‘Virtual London’ is the Greater London Authority (GLA and their aim is to develop improved dissemination of planning information, which is explored. We then argue that virtual cities should go well beyond the traditional conceptions of 3-D GIS and CAD into virtual worlds and online design. But we also urge caution in pushing the digital message too far, showing how more conventional tangible media is always necessary in rooting such models in more realistic and familiar representations.

  1. The Making of Two Readers: Agatha Christie and Jack London. (United States)

    Baghban, Marcia


    Looks at the lives of two well-known writers to explore how diverse experiences produce literate adults. Discusses Agatha Christie and Jack London who used reading and writing to earn a living and to gain international reputations. (MG)

  2. Bottomley fuels fears London issues are too hot to handle. (United States)


    Rumours that the government is shying away from tackling , the difficult issue of London's hospitals were fuelled by remarks made by Health Secretary Virginia Bottomley at a Conservative Party fringe meeting last week.

  3. The Growth Path and Future of London International Financial Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    London has grown up quickly to be a global financial center as a Phoenix in the past 100years,recorded history dating back to over 500 years ago.Though the financial services in London were berated to be "greedy"and as part of a giant casino led to the recession,this view was not accurate.London international financial center has become the core of the global financial industry,and played a crucial role in the development of the global economy.This article mainly discusses:the influence of London financial center on the world economy,the support to real economic development,the status of historical stages,and the development trend of the City.

  4. London house prices are power-law distributed

    CERN Document Server

    MacKay, Niall


    In this pilot study we explore the house price distributions for London, Manchester, Bristol, Newcastle, Birmingham and Leeds. We find Pareto (power law) behaviour in their upper tails, which is clearly distinct from lognormal behaviour in the cases of London and Manchester. We propose an index of Housing Wealth Inequality based on the Pareto exponent and analogous to the Gini coefficient, and comment on its possible uses.

  5. Mapping Arts, Health and Higher Education Collaborative Projects in London


    Sheridan, Jill; Pring, Linda


    This publication is based on a report commissioned by The London Centre for Arts and Cultural Enterprise (LCACE) and Arts Council England (ACE) who are committed, along with other partners to building and analysing evidence of the impact of arts activity in the health arena. It seeks to map collaborative projects which have taken place in London since 2002 between the arts, health and higher education institutions. The remit for the research defines arts and health as arts-based activities th...

  6. Spectator Consumer Behaviors at the 2012 London Paralympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridvan Ekmekci


    Full Text Available Although the Paralympics are the world’s second largest sporting event after the Olympics and continue to grow in popularity, there is little available research regarding spectators of sport competitions for disabled athletes. The purpose of this study was to profile spectators’ consumer behaviors in order to understand what factors explain spectators’ spending, length of stay, and attendance at the London Paralympic Games. Data was collected in a six-day period from a sample of 504 people present in London at three Paralympic sport facilities during the 2012 Paralympic Games. The results of the regression analyses revealed that nationality, attended contests, group size, having a connection with a Paralympic athlete, length of stay, gender and London Olympics’ spectators were significant determinants of Paralympics spectators’ spending in London. The data also indicated that spending, being from England (or not, gender, and being a friend/relative of a Paralympic athlete significantly affected spectators’ length of stay in London. Additionally, spectators’ attendance at the London Paralympic contests was predicted by spending, the size of the travel group, Beijing Paralympics’ spectators and age.

  7. London Tideway Tunnels: tackling London's Victorian legacy of combined sewer overflows. (United States)

    Thomas, G B; Crawford, D


    It takes a few millimetres of rainfall to cause the 34 most polluting combined sewer overflows (CSOs) to discharge into the River Thames. Currently, in a typical year, spillages to the tidal reaches of the River Thames occur about 60 times, with an estimated spill volume of 39 million cubic metres. Both the UK Government and the European Union have determined that the CSO discharges have an adverse environmental impact on fish species, introduce unacceptable aesthetics and elevate the health risks for recreational users of the Thames, with a frequency of discharge which is in breach of the Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive. Studies have established that the environmental objectives can be fully met on the most cost-effective basis by completing both quality improvements to treatment works and by the provision of a storage and transfer tunnel to intercept unsatisfactory CSOs. Extensive modelling has been undertaken to develop an optimised solution. In parallel with the design development a rigorous and comprehensive site selection methodology has been established to select sites and consult stakeholders and the public on the preferred sites and scheme, with the first stage of public consultation planned for later in 2010. The London Tideway Tunnels are an essential part of the delivery of improvements to the water quality of the tidal River Thames, and this ambitious, historic scheme represents a vital strategic investment in London's infrastructure.

  8. «Propriis manibus ipse transcripsit». Il manoscritto London, British Library, Harley 5383

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pani


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the manuscript London, British Library, Harley 5383. So far barely known as a 14th century copy of Paul the Deacon’s Historia Langobardorum, Harley 5383 is here proven to be an autograph by Giovanni Boccaccio. More precisely, it is a membrum disiectum of a major Boccaccio’s manuscript, two parts of which are better known and now kept at the Biblioteca Riccardiana in Florence. The identification of Harley 5383 now allows us to virtually reassemble the whole Boccaccio’s ancient and medieval history book as it is described in the 15th century inventory of Santo Spirito library. It contains Orosius’ Historiae adversus paganos (Firenze, Biblioteca Riccardiana, 627, Paul the Deacon’s Historia Langobardorum (London, British Library, 5383 and Firenze, Biblioteca Riccardiana, 2975VI, ff. 70-74, Pasquale Romano’s Epistola de origine civitatis Aretii (Firenze, Biblioteca Riccardiana, 2975VI, ff. 75-76. Both Boccaccio’s handwriting features and a marginal note in Harley 5383 referring to the Black Death of 1348 show that the manuscript was copied in the early fifties of the 14th century, whereas it is not at the moment possible to establish when, where and why it was divided into three parts.

  9. Tales of Two Cities: Architecture, Print and Early Guidebooks to Paris and London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth McKellar


    Full Text Available This pioneering paper is the first to consider the contribution of a new type of urban literature to perceptions and portrayals of the city in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. It focuses on London and Parisian guidebooks, a genre that has been little studied to date, particularly those of: Germaine Brice, Description nouvelle de ce qui’il ya de plus remarquable dans la Ville de Paris (1684; F. Colsoni, Le Guide de Londres (1693; and Edward Hatton, A New View of London (1708. The article is the first to establish the significance of language primers as source for tourist guidebooks and the prevalence of lexicographers among those producing them. It examines the modern type of non-antiquarian urban guidebook as part of the new urban consumer culture. It also explores the genre’s contribution to a novel form in the writing and understanding of the city in the period focussed on the contemporary and the experiential, rather than the traditional orientation towards the historical and the monumental.

  10. The College of Physicians in the nineteenth century. (United States)

    Cook, G C


    For much of the nineteenth century (during which there were 16 Presidents) events within the College were dominated by widespread demands for medical reform, culminating in the great Medical Reform Act of 1858. This led to major changes within the College, including an overhaul of the system(s) of elections; the old licentiates disappeared (to be replaced by the new licentiates), whilst introduction of the membership (by examination) was instituted. The style of Presidential elections was also changed. Internal College activities centred on the Library and on the London Pharmacopoeia. Early in the century, the College once again moved geographically, this time from the City to the West End of London. Regarding contemporary issues, including medical advances (notably introduction of the 'germ-theory' of disease causation) and important social changes (dominated by Poor Law reform), the College's input proved minimal.

  11. century drying (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan


    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  12. The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine: a new century of malaria research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Eleanor M


    Full Text Available The global malaria situation has scarcely improved in the last 100 years, despite major advances in our knowledge of the basic biology, epidemiology and clinical basis of the disease. Effective malaria control, leading to a significant decrease in the morbidity and mortality attributable to malaria, will require a multidisciplinary approach. New tools - drugs, vaccine and insecticides - are needed but there is also much to be gained by better use of existing tools: using drugs in combination in order to slow the development of drug resistance; targeting resources to areas of greatest need; using geographic information systems to map the populations at risk and more sophisticated marketing techniques to distribute bed nets and insecticides. Sustainable malaria control may require the deployment of a highly effective vaccine, but there is much that can be done in the meantime to reduce the burden of disease.

  13. Learning as Social Exchange in City Year London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Christine

    Learning as Social Exchange in City Year London: Action towards an image of greatness contributes to the growing field of research on social entrepreneurship. The thesis is the result of an interesting, anthropological study of a social voluntary organisation, City Year London, a British affiliate...... of an American charity. Young volunteers were followed in their daily activities working as mentors for public primary school children, and the interaction between staff and volunteers in City Year London were observed. Also, interviews with both volunteers and staff were carried out. The thesis explores...... the empirical findings applying an understanding of learning as social exchange of value. The rich empirical data has led to analyses that draw on and contribute to economic anthropology, learning theories and social entrepreneurship....

  14. Multifractal to monofractal evolution of the London's street network

    CERN Document Server

    Murcio, Roberto; Arcaute, Elsa; Batty, Michael


    We perform a multifractal analysis of the evolution of London's street network from 1786 to 2010. First, we show that a single fractal dimension, commonly associated with the morphological description of cities, does not su ce to capture the dynamics of the system. Instead, for a proper characterization of such a dynamics, the multifractal spectrum needs to be considered. Our analysis reveals that London evolves from an inhomogeneous fractal structure, that can be described in terms of a multifractal, to a homogeneous one, that converges to monofractality. We argue that London's multifractal to monofracal evolution might be a special outcome of the constraint imposed on its growth by a green belt. Through a series of simulations, we show that multifractal objects, constructed through di usion limited aggregation, evolve towards monofractality if their growth is constrained by a non-permeable boundary.

  15. Lidar Observations of Pollution Transport From London to Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricketts Hugo


    Full Text Available The Clean Air for London (ClearfLo Project took place in and around London, United Kingdom. The aim of the project was to learn how both atmospheric dynamics and chemistry affect air pollution in the south east of England. During the winter and summer of 2012 many different types of instrument including lidars were deployed throughout London city centre, suburbs and into rural areas. Amongst these instruments was the Boundary Layer Aerosol/Ozone Lidar owned by the National Centre for Atmospheric Sciences (NCAS in the United Kingdom. Ozone and aerosol data are presented from data collected during July and August 2012 and compared to back trajectories to identify their origins.

  16. Clean Air for London (CLEARFLO) Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsnop, D. R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Williams, L. R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Herndon, S. C. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Dubey, M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ng, N. L. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Thornton, J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Knighton, B. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Coulter, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Prévôt, Ash [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    This field campaign funded the participation of scientists from seven different research groups and operated over thirty instruments during the Winter Intensive Operating Period (January-February 2012) of the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) campaign. The campaign took place at a rural site in Detling, UK, 45 kilometers southeast of central London. The primary science questions for the ClearfLo winter IOP (intensive operational periods) were: 1) “what is the urban increment of particulate matter (PM) and other pollutants in the greater London area?” and 2) “what is the contribution of solid fuel use for home heating to wintertime PM?” An additional motivation for the Detling measurements was the question of whether coatings on black carbon particles enhance absorption.

  17. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by London Academy

    CERN Multimedia


    London Academy is a multicultural academy in Edgware, outer London. Within an extremely caring and supportive environment, students, including those in the sixth form, many pupils, flourish and achieve well. The Principal`s clear vision of a learning community that develops in its students the skills and values that will enable them to live their lives as respectful, caring and responsible citizens is both shared and realised. The event was organised from London Academy by the Physics Teacher, Ms Pamela Chabba; the older science students, especially those who are studying pure physics, are very excited about the event linking them to CERN. They range between 14-18 years old and many plan to go on to study sciences at university.

  18. Pan-London tuberculosis services: a service evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belling Ruth


    Full Text Available Abstract Background London has the largest proportion of tuberculosis (TB cases of any western European capital, with almost half of new cases drug-resistant. Prevalence varies considerably between and within boroughs with research suggesting inadequate control of TB transmission in London. Economic pressures may exacerbate the already considerable challenges for service organisation and delivery within this context. This paper presents selected findings from an evaluation of London’s TB services’ organisation, delivery, professional workforce and skill mix, intended to support development of a strategic framework for a pan-London TB service. These may also interest health service professionals and managers in TB services in the UK, other European cities and countries and in services currently delivered by multiple providers operating independently. Methods Objectives were: 1 To establish how London’s TB services are structured and delivered in relation to leadership, management, organisation and delivery, coordination, staffing and support; 2 To identify tools/models for calculating skill mix as a basis for identifying skill mix requirements in delivering TB services across London; 3 To inform a strategic framework for the delivery of a pan-London TB service, which may be applicable to other European cities. The multi-method service audit evaluation comprised documentary analysis, semi-structured interviews with TB service users (n = 10, lead TB health professionals and managers (n = 13 representing London’s five sectors and focus groups with TB nurses (n = 8 and non-London network professionals (n = 2. Results Findings showed TB services to be mainly hospital-based, with fewer community-based services. Documentary analysis and professionals’ interviews suggested difficulties with early access to services, low suspicion index amongst some GPs and restricted referral routes. Interviews indicated lack of managed

  19. Algebra of the Visual: The London Underground Map and the Art It Has Inspired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Ashton-Smith


    Full Text Available "Algebra of the Visual: The London Underground Map and the Art It Has Inspired" by Alan Ashton-Smith. The London Underground symbolizes London, and the London Underground map, designed by Harry Beck in 1931, symbolizes the London Underground. Accordingly, Beck’s map has in itself come to be a recognizable signifier of London. Its impact resonates beyond this city though: it is also the prototype for metro maps worldwide, with its basic topological structure having been adopted for use on the subways of many other cities. (NANO: New American Notes Online

  20. Missionaries and Tonic Sol-fa Music Pedagogy in 19th-Century China (United States)

    Southcott, Jane E.; Lee, Angela Hao-Chun


    In the 19th century, Christian missionaries in China, as elsewhere, used the Tonic Sol-fa method of music instruction to aid their evangelizing. This system was designed to improve congregational singing in churches, Sunday schools and missions. The London Missionary Society and other evangelical groups employed the method. These missionaries took…

  1. Teaching Nineteenth-Century Aesthetic Prose: A Writing-Intensive Course (United States)

    Maxwell, Catherine


    This article reviews a writing-intensive course on nineteenth-century aesthetic prose devised for the undergraduate curriculum of the School of English and Drama at Queen Mary, University of London, and considers the results to date. Using examples of students' coursework, the article examines the use of logbooks and creative exercises, considers…

  2. The 21st Century as Whose Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Scott


    Full Text Available Macro-analysis and East-West encounter are shown through consideration of objective yet subjective constructed concepts for the international system and international economy in the 21st century. Three paradigms are considered, namely the 21st century as the ‘Pacific Century’, as ‘China’s Century’ and as the ‘Asian Century’. Overlaps are shown between these three paradigms, as also developments in time, and gradually shift in geographical location. The ‘Pacific Century’, and its associated Rimspeak, was the paradigm emerging in the late 1970s, knitting together America’s West Coast and the Japanese economy. By the late 1980s this was already shifting to talk of the 21st century likely to be an ‘Asian Century’ model, mark-1, based on the Pacific Asia dynamism shown by the ‘Asian Tigers’ and Japan. However, the Asian financial crash of 1997-8, and the economic downturn in Japan, meant that such an ‘Asian Century’ seemed premature as the 21st century arrived. Instead, it was China’s economic growth that seemed most evident, and with it the concept of the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’. However, in turn that has already been modified during the first decade of the century by India’s arrival as a rapidly growing economy. Consequently the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’ and as ‘India’s Century’ has been combined into talk of an ‘Asian Century’, mark-2.

  3. The University College London Archive of Stuttered Speech (UCLASS) (United States)

    Howell, Peter; Davis, Stephen; Bartrip, Jon


    Purpose: This research note gives details of 2 releases of audio recordings available from speakers who stutter that can be accessed on the Web. Method: Most of the recordings are from school-age children. These are available on the University College London Archive of Stuttered Speech (UCLASS) Web site, and information is provided about how to…

  4. Intergenerational Learning between Children and Grandparents in East London (United States)

    Kenner, Charmian; Ruby, Mahera; Jessel, John; Gregory, Eve; Arju, Tahera


    This study investigates the learning exchange between three- to six-year-old children and their grandparents, in Sylheti/Bengali-speaking families of Bangladeshi origin and monolingual English-speaking families living in east London. The following concepts from sociocultural theory are applied to this new area of intergenerational learning:…

  5. A Multimodal Discourse Analysis of 2012 London Olympic Emblem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    At present,communication is developing from mono-modality to multi-modality.The related study on multimodal discourse is becoming a hot issue.This paper will adopt the theory of Kress and van Leeuwen's visual grammar as the theoretical framework to analyze the 2012 London Olympic emblem,exploring the meanings hidden behind the visual images.

  6. 'ah famous citie' : women, writing, and early modern London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilcox, Helen


    This article explores aspects of the textual relationship between women and early modern London by examining three verbal 'snapshots' of the city in works either written by women or focusing on women in their urban environment. The first text, Isabella Whitney's 'Wyll and Testament' (1573), addresse

  7. London tõukas New Yorgi troonilt / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-


    Maailma finantskeskuste indeksi järgi on London tõuganud New Yorgi teisele kohale, neile järgnevad Hongkong, Singapur ja Zürich. Vt. samas: IPOd on USAs kokku kuivanud. Tabel: Londoni börsile tuli mullu rohkem firmasid

  8. A fatal case of Lassa fever in London, January 2009. (United States)

    Kitching, A; Addiman, S; Cathcart, S; Bischop, L; Krahé, D; Nicholas, M; Coakley, J; Lloyd, G; Brooks, T; Morgan, D; Turbitt, D


    In January 2009, the eleventh [corrected] case of Lassa fever imported to the United Kingdom was diagnosed in London. Risk assessment of 328 healthcare contacts with potential direct exposure to Lassa virus - through contact with the case or exposure to bodily fluids - was undertaken. No contacts were assessed to be at high risk of infection and no secondary clinical cases identified.

  9. Jack London and "the Call of the Wild"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The article vividly analyzes the characteristics of Jack London's writing theme that is the description of the con-flicts between nature and human. Based on the "call of the wild" and its hero Buck, It points out the author' s writingthoughts, that is strong will human show in their fight against nature.

  10. Participation and Performance at the London 2012 Olympics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Gerard H.; Sterken, Elmer


    The current paper predicts the medal tally for the London 2012 Olympic Games. The forecast procedure consists of analyzing participation and success at the country level of the three most recent editions of the Olympic Summer Games. Potential explanatory variables for medal winnings are income per c

  11. Sébastien Lechevalier (editor), The Great Transformation of Japanese Capitalism. London: Routledge, 2014. 240 pp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravtsova, Victoria


    Book review of: Sébastien Lechevalier (editor), The Great Transformation of Japanese Capitalism. London: Routledge, 2014.......Book review of: Sébastien Lechevalier (editor), The Great Transformation of Japanese Capitalism. London: Routledge, 2014....

  12. Deaths of cyclists in london: trends from 1992 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee William E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cycling is an increasingly important mode of transport for environmental and health reasons. Cycling fatalities in London were previously investigated in 1994 using routinely collected data. Since then, there have been shifts in the modes of transport used, and in transport policies. We sought to replicate the previous work using data on cyclist deaths in London between 1992 and 2006, specifically investigating whether heavy goods vehicles continued to pose a threat. Methods Observational study based on analysis of time series of police road casualties data, 1992 to 2006, in London, UK. The main outcome measures were cyclists killed in road traffic collisions. Poisson regression and chi-squared test for homogeneity were used to assess time effects. Travel flow data was then used to estimate annual fatality rates per 100,000 cyclists per kilometre. Results From 1992 to 2006 there was a mean of 16 cycling fatalities per year (range 8-21. 146 deaths (60% were in inner London and 96 in outer London. There was no evidence for a decline over time (p = 0.7 other than a pronounced dip in 2004 when there were 8 fatalities. Freight vehicles were involved in 103 of 242 (43% of all incidents and the vehicle was making a left turn in over half of these (53%. The fatality rate ranged from 20.5 deaths in 1992 to 11.1 deaths in 2006 per 100,000 estimated cyclists per kilometre (rate ratio 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.28 to 1.03. Conclusions There is little evidence fatality rates have fallen. Freight vehicles over 3.5 tonnes continue to present a disproportionate threat; they should be removed from urban roads and more appropriate means of delivery of essential goods found.

  13. Rock and mineral physics at University College London (United States)

    Dennis, Paul; Meredith, Philip; Price, David

    The Department of Geological Sciences at University College London (UCL), has undergone a period of major expansion and growth as a result of the restructuring of geology departments within the University of London that was carried out in 1982. This exercise produced the amalgamation of selected parts of the Department of Geological Sciences of Queen Mary College and the Department of Geology, UCL, on the UCL site. The creation of this strengthened grouping has been successful in attracting a significant number of active researchers in the field of rock and mineral physics (RMP) to the new UCL department. As a result, the academic staff has more than douhled since 1982 and now stands at 31.

  14. "Mothering through Islam": Narratives of Religious Identity in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Ryan


    Full Text Available This paper draws upon research with mothers of diverse Muslim backgroundsin London to explore how these women use ‘conservative’ interpretations ofIslamic beliefs and practices to underpin their parenting strategies. In particularthe paper looks at how mothers use religion as a frame to make sense of andgive meaning to their experiences and encounters in Britain. We suggest thatthe women use Islam in four key ways: (i as a framework for teaching theirchildren right and wrong, (ii as a means of protecting children from the ‘moral’dangers of British society, (iii as an authoritative voice that reinforces parentingand (iv as a means of critiquing specific aspects of both the traditional andBritish culture in which they live and daily negotiate their different cultural andreligious belonging. In attempting to instil religious values in their London-basedchildren, these mothers have to negotiate the hostility that Islam increasinglyprovokes in British society’s public arenas.

  15. A London shop window for PPARC industry partnership successes

    CERN Multimedia

    Neale, R


    The UK Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council recently held a seminar in London to reveal the results of the impressive work they are doing in fostering partnerships between science and industry. They have many different types of funded programmes, the purpose of all of them is to encourage industry and entrepreneurs to both benefit from and service the requirements of particle physics science and technology (1 page).

  16. Intergenerational learning between children and grandparents in East London


    Kenner, Charmian; Gregory, Eve E.; Jessel, John; Ruby, Mahera; Arju, Tahera


    The study set out to investigate learning events taking place between young children and grandparents in London's East End, both in activities where older people have traditionally provided support (such as storytelling) and in the newer areas of information and communication technology where children have competences which their grandparents would like to access. This area of family learning is growing in significance as grandparents are increasingly taking on a childcare role in different e...

  17. Enhancing Resilience of London by Learning from Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Atun


    Full Text Available The concept of resilience was introduced at the beginning of the 70s to indicate the capability of natural systems to absorb perturbations, preserving their structure and keeping the system functioning. The paper considers London as an example to a resilient city by focusing on some remarkable disasters in the history of London, such as the Great Fire of 1666, the air raids during the World War 2, 18 December 1987 Kings Cross Fire, terrorist attack to tube network on the 7th of July 2005, 1928 flooding and 1953 storm surge. The paper starts by giving short descriptions of these disasters and continues by discussing the lessons learned. In this paper, the concept of resilience has been studied in three phases: prepare for, respond to and recover from a disaster. Besides, actions that have to be taken according to these three phases are going to be explored in detail. In conclusion, the notable effects of the mentioned disasters on the structural and non-structural tools for disaster prevention have been revealed by considering resilience of London.

  18. London 2012: espacio de excepción London 2012: espaço de exceção;London 2012: space of exception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Marrero-Guillamón


    Full Text Available La teoría del estado de excepción de Giorgio Agamben, según la cual, lejos de ser una medida provisional y extraordinaria, éste habría devenido una técnica de gobierno, puede ayudar a entender la configuración legal y espacial de los Juegos Olímpicos. Este texto analiza los documentos fundamentales de la arquitectura legal de London 2012 con el fin de mostrar su impacto en la regulación y vigilancia del espacio económico y político de la ciudad. Tras presentar los pilares fundamentales de la gobernanza olímpica, el texto se centra en la configuración jurídica de la excepcionalidad. A través de un sistema de legitimación basado en la necesidad y la amenaza, la normativa asociada a los Juegos aprobada por el Gobierno Británico logra efectivamente materializar un estado de excepción: una suerte de paraíso capitalista, en el que la actividad económica está regulada por contratos exclusivos, toda actividad política está criminalizada, y los privilegios son protegidos policial y militarmente. De aquí que London 2012 pueda ser calificado como un “espacio de excepción”.

  19. Australian Modernists in London: William Dobell’s The Dead Landlord and Patrick White’s The Ham Funeral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Varney


    Full Text Available When Patrick White was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1973, it was primarily for his novels. Less well recognised is the significance of White’s dramatic literature and his involvement in the theatre. This article offers a new analysis of White’s first notable breakthrough into theatre and drama, The Ham Funeral, which he wrote in postwar London and which was produced in Adelaide in 1961. This article argues that a modernist idiom of 20th-century Australian drama can be found in this play that laid the groundwork for a poetics of language, image and theatricality. The play’s aesthetic modernism is found primarily in the blend of expressionist and surrealist elements, the poetic language, the alienated creative subject and the representation of sexuality and the unconscious. White’s thematics also become political, concerned with power, masculinity and gendered assumptions about rationality and emotion, poetry and the body. Having lived in London during the interwar years, White was also part of the networks that included Australian-born artists, and he was exposed to influences from visual arts as well as theatre. Of these, the artist William Dobell was central to the genesis of The Ham Funeral, as was the Polish-born modernist artist S. Ostoja-Kotkowski, who was critical to the design of the brooding expressionist set that set the standard for subsequent stage realisations of the play.

  20. Stylistic Analysis of William Blake’s Poem London

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    William Blake utilized ingenious language in his creation of the poem London. Foregrounding and deviation are well practised in this poem. In rhyme pattern, the poem takes end rhyme, consonance, alliteration and internal rhyme. In rhythm pat-tern, the poem mainly uses iambic tetrameter along with the variation of three troches and one single stress at the end of lines which produces a shocking atmosphere. Among syntax features, emphatic pattern and anticipatory structure are used. Among lexi-cal features, the reiteration of specific words makes neat euphonious parallelism while the subtle pun word create a far-reaching artistry.

  1. Regeneralized London free energy for high-Tc vortex lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Shahzamanian


    Full Text Available   The London free-energy is regeneralized by the Ginsburg-Landau free-energy density in the presence of both d and s order parameters. We have shown that the strength of the s-d coupling, makes an important rule to determine the form of the lattice vortex. Appearance of the ratios of the coherence length to penetration depth in the higher order corrections of the free-energy density will truncate these corrections for even large values of .

  2. Reform of the London Stock Exchange: the prudential issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J.B. HALL


    Full Text Available In October 1986 the London Stock Exchange underwent what was termed the Big Bang. This consisted of the removal of fixed commissions on UK securities transactions, the abolition of the single capacity system, and the removal of barriers to entry to UK securities markets. The author considers five prudential issues raised by this event: monopoly power and foreign dominance, international supervisory harmonisation, capital adequacy and managerial competence, the management of 'fall out' (exit from the industry, and conflicts of interest. Three further factors are considered in detail; the regulator's approach to conflicts of interest, the regulation of financial conglomerates, and the implications of the Financial Services Act.

  3. The psychological and psychiatric effects of terrorism: lessons from London. (United States)

    Rubin, G James; Wessely, Simon


    The 7 July 2005 bombings in London caused heightened levels of distress among some in the general community. This distress was most notable in Muslims and members of ethnic minority groups. These effects were transient for most. An estimated 30% of those who were more affected by the attacks, including victims and witnesses, developed psychiatric disorders as a result. An outreach program was set up to screen those who were exposed to potentially traumatic events and to offer them evidence-based treatment. This article discusses what lessons might be learned from studies of the general community and the screen-and-treat approach.

  4. Analysis on Jack London's Feminist Point of View in Martin Eden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Martin Eden is one of the famous novels of Jack London, who is a distinguished writer in America, and now it still wins great popularity in the whole world. In this novel, the author Jack London depicts the protagonist Martin Eden's striving for success incisively. This thesis, based on the theory of feminism, will give a detailed analysis of the character traits of female characters in Martin Eden and Jack London's attitudes towards women.

  5. ""Thames Valley cotton pickers"": Race and youth in London blues culture



    This study addresses the reception of African American blues music and the ensuing production of English blues in London from 1955 to 1966. It concentrates on London adolescents' unexpected fascination with a musical style that they virtually had no contact with prior to 1955, while analyzing how this immersion in African American culture shaped their cultural identity. Analysis of the influence of African American blues music in London during this period highlights the BBC's weakened influen...

  6. Space-Time Analysis of Crime Patterns in Central London (United States)

    Cheng, T.; Williams, D.


    Crime continues to cast a shadow over citizen well-being in big cities today, while also imposing huge economic and social costs. Timely understanding of how criminality emerges and how crime patterns evolve is crucial to anticipating crime, dealing with it when it occurs and developing public confidence in the police service. Every day, about 10,000 crime incidents are reported by citizens, recorded and geo-referenced in the London Metropolitan Police Service Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD) database. The unique nature of this dataset allows the patterns to be explored at particularly fine temporal granularity and at multiple spatial resolutions. This study provides a framework for the exploratory spatio-temporal analysis of crime patterns that combines visual inquiry tools (interactive animations, space-time cubes and map matrices) with cluster analysis (spatial-temporal scan statistics and the self-organizing map). This framework is tested on the CAD dataset for the London Borough of Camden in March 2010. Patterns of crime through space and time are discovered and the clustering methods were evaluated on their ability to facilitate the discovery and interpretation of these patterns.

  7. Carbon Capture and Storage and the London Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that 100 Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) projects will be required by 2020 and over 3000 by 2050 if CCS is to contribute fully to the least-cost technology portfolio for CO2 mitigation. For CCS to reach its emissions reduction potential, the 2009 IEA publication Technology Roadmap: Carbon Capture and Storage recommends that international legal obstacles associated with global CCS deployment be removed by 2012 -- including the prohibition on transboundary CO2 transfer under the London Protocol. The London Protocol was amended by contracting parties in 2009 to allow for cross-border transportation of CO2 for sub-seabed storage, but the amendment must be ratified by two-thirds of contracting parties to enter into force. It is unlikely that this will occur in the near term; this working paper therefore outlines options that may be available to contracting parties under international law to address the barrier to deployment presented by Article 6, pending formal entry into force of the 2009 amendment.

  8. Giovanni Niccolò Servandoni: his early education among Florence, Rome and London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Guidoboni


    Full Text Available This research work – part of a phd thesis in co-supervision between the " Sapienza " University of Rome and the University of Paris 1 “Panthéon- Sorbonne” - has the objective of investigating the lesser-known aspects of the life of architect Giovanni Niccolò Servandoni, especially the period of his training in Florence and Rome, and the years when he lived in England before his arrival in Paris in 1724. At the same time he was painter, architect and decorator and his name was famous thanks to a large number of sets made for the Opéra and to the design of the façade of the church of Saint- Sulpice in Paris. During his life, Servandoni had the opportunity to travel throughout Europe, where he worked for the major courts of that time, from Paris to London, from Lisbon to Brussels, Vienna, Dresden and Stuttgart. The archival research allowed to make the major breakthroughs, such as the discovery of  the Servandoni stay in Rome between 1719 and 1720, in the Prince Vaini's palace, a man “entiérement attaché à la France” and related to the environment of the Capranica and d'Alibert theaters. This find let us to make some assumptions about his life and his contacts in the papal city. And yet, the study highlighted the strong relationship that he had with the english cultural environment during  his early stay in Rome, that convinced him to take the trip to London. Thanks to this research, Servandoni's complete work - so vaguely interpreted as an anticipation of the “goût à la grecque” and the revival of classicism of the late eighteenth century - is reinterpreted as the result of his training in Italy and England. It is indebted, in fact, that as well the classicism that characterized the Florentine architecture of that period as his close contact with the English Palladian circle and with the Wren, Vanbrugh and Hawksmoor works, exercised a great influence on him.

  9. Medicines, monopolies and mortars: the chemical laboratory and pharmaceutical trade at the Society of Apothecaries in the eighteenth century. (United States)

    Simmons, Anna


    In 1672, a laboratory was founded by the Society of Apothecaries at its premises in Blackfriars, London, to manufacture chemical medicines. By exploring the society's motivations for constructing a laboratory and its development during the eighteenth century, this paper examines the roles that chemistry played within the activities of the institution. While the chemistry's primary utility was in drug manufacturing for the society's pharmaceutical trade, through its laboratory, the society used chemistry to develop its corporate and educational aims, thus helping to secure its institutional authority in London's medical marketplace.

  10. Offshore wind power fundaments. Practical experience from the projects London Array and Dan Tysk; Offshore Windkraft Fundamente. Praxiserfahrung aus den Projekten London Array und DanTysk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Moritz [Bilfinger Berger Ingenieurbau GmbH, Hamburg (Germany). Ingenieurwasserbau


    Based on a collection of diagrams and images the authors of the contribution under consideration report on practical experiences resulting from the project London Array and Dan Tysk with respect to the foundations of offshore wind turbines.

  11. Twentieth Century Moral Philosophy


    Stout, Rowland


    Despite being somewhat long in the tooth at the time, Aristotle, Hume and Kant were still dominating twentieth century moral philosophy. Much of the progress made in that century came from a detailed working through of each of their approaches by the expanding and increasingly professionalized corps of academic philosophers. And this progress can be measured not just by the quality and sophistication of moral philosophy at the end of that century, but also by the narrowing of s...

  12. Development and validation of the Dutch version of the London Handicap Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.M.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Verrips, G.H.W.; Detmar, S.B.


    BACKGROUND: The London Handicap Scale (LHS) was found to be a valid and reliable scale for measuring participation restrictions in adults. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the development and assesses the construct-related validity of a Dutch version of the London Handicap Scale (DLHS). METHODS: The

  13. The electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App - The London man who went to the Tokio Olympics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Ternier, Stefaan; Drachsler, Hendrik; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus


    Lezcano, L., Ternier, S., Drachsler, H., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2013, September). The Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App - The London man who went to the Tokio Olympics. Presentation at MEDICINE 2.0: 6th World Congress on Social Media, Mobile Apps, Internet/Web 2.0, London, England.

  14. Travel in holography continued: from London to Gent to Point Reyes (United States)

    Casdin-Silver, Harriet


    Since Lake Forest Symposium '91, when her paper recounted her holographic work in three locations, Kiev, Ukraine; Miami Beach, U.S.A.; and Paris, France; the author has worked in the laboratories of the Royal college of Art, London, England; Rijksuniversiteit, Gent, Belgium; Third Dimension, London, England; and in Point Reyes, California, U.S.A. A discussion of these ventures follows.

  15. Psychoanalysis of Jack London's "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang" (United States)

    Yang, Hongyan


    "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang" both are masterpieces of Jack London. The protagonists Buck and White Fang are the incarnation of Jack himself to some extent for the two novels reveal a great deal of the writer. This essay aims at psychoanalyzing Jack London's creative process, the Oedipus complex and the confliction…

  16. Diversity in Adoption of Linguistic Features of London English by Chinese and Bangladeshi Adolescents (United States)

    Pennington, Martha C.; Lau, Lawrence; Sachdev, Itesh


    This comparative study, conducted in multicultural London, investigates the occurrence in interviews with a researcher and in constructed same-sex peer conversations of five linguistic features characteristic of London English in the speech of two groups of British-born adolescents: ethnic Bangladeshis and ethnic Chinese of Cantonese heritage. The…

  17. Postmodern Apocalypse in White Noise and London Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Khodadadegan


    Full Text Available Postmodern Apocalypse is considered as a strategy a writer employs to depict the dreadfulness of nuclear disaster. It is a rich way of transmitting ideas of catastrophe and fear into a more meaningful fiction about a teleological end. This study analyzes postmodern apocalypse in two selected novels, namely Don DeLillo’s White Noise (1985 and Martin Amis’s London Fields (1989. The term which refers to characters who cry their concern about the destruction of the world demonstrates a sense of apocalypse in a community of nuclear age. Both DeLillo and Amis show their fear of a nuclear explosion. The present study aims to present an apocalyptic reading of two selected texts through using in the 1980s.Elizabeth K. Rosen’s Apocalyptic Transformation: Apocalypse and the Postmodern Imagination (2008. Keywords: Postmodern Apocalyptic Literature, Apocalypse, Post-Hiroshima era

  18. Optimum design methodologies for pile foundations in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Letsios


    Full Text Available Given the importance of pile foundations in geotechnical engineering for supporting high-significance structures such as bridges, high-rise buildings, power plant stations, offshore platforms and museums, it becomes a necessity to find the best pile foundation design in terms of performance and economy. The number of piles required might exceed several hundreds or even thousands while the pile foundation cost might exceed 20% of the construction cost of the superstructure. In this work the problem of finding optimized designs of pile foundations is examined and is performed in accordance to two design code recommendations, namely Eurocode 7 and DIN 4014. The proposed structural optimization procedure is implemented in two real-world cases both located in London, UK in order to assess the efficiency of the proposed design formulation.

  19. Brachial plexus injury: the London experience with supraclavicular traction lesions. (United States)

    Birch, Rolfe


    In this article, the author details the experiences of his hospital and other London hospitals in treating brachial plexus injury. As noted, important advances have been made in methods of diagnosis and repair. Myelography was replaced by CT scan and later by MRI. Among the topics the author explores are diagnosis (including pain, the presence or absence of the Tinel sign, and the irradiation of pins and needles) and the principles of repair. The author emphasizes that it is imperative that ruptured nerves be repaired as soon as possible, with the closed traction lesion coming, in urgency, close behind reattachment of the amputated hand or repair of a great artery and a trunk nerve in the combined lesion. Finally, the article concludes that the surgeon must be actively engaged in the whole process of rehabilitation and treatment of pain. This is part of a Point-Counterpoint discussion with Dr. David G. Kline's presentation of "A Personal Experience."

  20. ATLAS Virtual Visit London-20-08-2014

    CERN Multimedia


    Working at the highest energy particle accelerator in the world, a group of scientists gathers each year to discuss the science and discovery potential of extremely energetic and complex phenomena that might emerge from the proton collisions at the LHC. The BOOST Conference of 2014 is hosted by the UCL HEP Group at the heart of London, and features an evening of particle physics, including an introduction to the Higgs and the Large Hadron Collider, a virtual visit to CERN hosted by David Miller of Chicago University, a talk by TEDx speaker Lily Asquith (Argonne National Lab/Sussex Uni) on sonification of LHC data, and a question and answer session! More information can be found on the conference website at:

  1. Cost benefit analysis of 20 mph zones in London. (United States)

    Steinbach, Rebecca; Cairns, John; Grundy, Chris; Edwards, Phil


    Evidence suggests that 20 mph zones are an effective intervention to reduce casualties from road traffic crashes in urban areas. This analysis compares the costs of construction of the 20 mph zone intervention in high and low casualty areas in London to the value of casualties avoided over 5 and 10 year time horizons. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to quantify uncertainty in the results associated with model parameters. Results indicate a net present value (NPV) of £18 947 (90% credible limits -£75 252 to £82 021 2005 prices) after 5 years and £67 306 (£-29 157 to £137 890) after 10 years when 20 mph zones are implemented in areas with one or more casualty per kilometre of road. Simulations from our model suggest that the 'threshold of casualties' where NPVs become positive using a 10 year time horizon is 0.7 casualties per kilometre.

  2. Carbon dioxide and methane emission dynamics in central London (UK) (United States)

    Helfter, Carole; Nemitz, Eiko; Barlow, Janet F.; Wood, Curtis R.


    London, with a population of 8.2 million, is the largest city in Europe. It is heavily built-up (typically 8% vegetation cover within the central boroughs) and boasts some of the busiest arteries in Europe despite efforts to reduce traffic in the city centre with the introduction of a congestion charging scheme in 2007. We report on two substantial pollution monitoring efforts in the heart of London between October 2006 and present. Fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) were measured continuously by eddy-covariance in central London from October 2006 until May 2008 from a 190 m telecommunication tower (BT tower; 51° 31' 17.4'' N 0° 8' 20.04'' W). The eddy-covariance system consisted of a Gill R3-50 ultrasonic anemometer operated at 20 Hz and a LI-COR 6262 infrared gas analyser. Air was sampled 0.3 m below the sensor head of the ultrasonic anemometer - which was itself mounted on a 3 m mast to the top of a 15 m lattice tower situated on the roof of the tower (instrument head at 190 m above street level) - and pulled down 45 m of 12.7 mm OD Teflon tubing. In addition, meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, pressure, precipitation, wind speed and direction) were also measured with a multi-sensor (Weather Transmitter WXT510, Vaisala). Eddy-covariance measurements at the BT tower location were reinstated in July 2011 and include methane (CH4), CO2 and H2O concentrations measured by a Picarro fast methane analyser (G2301-f). CO2 emissions were found to be mainly controlled by fossil fuel combustion (e.g. traffic, commercial and domestic heating). Diurnal averages of CO2 fluxes were found to be highly correlated to traffic. However changes in heating-related natural gas consumption and, to a lesser extent, photosynthetic activity in two large city centre green spaces (Hyde Park and Regent's Park) explained the seasonal variability. Annual estimates of net exchange of CO2 obtained by eddy-covariance agreed well with up-scaled data from the UK

  3. Interoceptive Ability Predicts Survival on a London Trading Floor. (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Page, Lionel; Hardy, Ben; Critchley, Hugo D; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John M


    Interoception is the sensing of physiological signals originating inside the body, such as hunger, pain and heart rate. People with greater sensitivity to interoceptive signals, as measured by, for example, tests of heart beat detection, perform better in laboratory studies of risky decision-making. However, there has been little field work to determine if interoceptive sensitivity contributes to success in real-world, high-stakes risk taking. Here, we report on a study in which we quantified heartbeat detection skills in a group of financial traders working on a London trading floor. We found that traders are better able to perceive their own heartbeats than matched controls from the non-trading population. Moreover, the interoceptive ability of traders predicted their relative profitability, and strikingly, how long they survived in the financial markets. Our results suggest that signals from the body - the gut feelings of financial lore - contribute to success in the markets.

  4. World of Learning, Sociability and City  in early Eighteenth Century France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Van Damme


    Full Text Available In this last paper, I wish to present the research project I am currently working on, which is about the connection between the world of learning and scholars and the emergence of urban identities in Europe in the first half of the 18th century. To speak in broader terms, what I would like to grasp is how the circulation of knowledge shaped the making of the great cultural metropolises in the period between the 17th and the 18th century, mainly in a few sites : Paris, Lyon, London, Edinburgh,...

  5. Rhetoric, Reality, and Rationalization: A Study of the Masking Function of Rhetoric in the London Theosophical Movement. (United States)

    Clark, Thomas D.


    Examines the history of the "Blavatsky" phase of the London Theosophical movement. Focuses on the disparity between the public rhetoric of the Theosophical Society's leadership and the deeper motivations which inspired many Londoners to join the movement. (JMF)

  6. Nineteenth-Century English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Anne


    The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg......The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg...

  7. A Critical Assessment of Spatial Strategic Planning for Greater London%大伦敦地区空间战略规划的评介与启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵景亚; 殷为华


      In 1944, “Greater London Plan 1944”had been published, presided over by Patrick Abercrombie,which was the first planning for mega city-region in the world.Since the 21st century, London has also issued three different versions of the London plan, respectively in 2004, 2008 and 2011, namely Spatial Development Strategy for Greater London. It has taken in detail account of the overall strategic plans for London. The London plan 2011 sets out a fully integrated framework of economic, environmental, transport and social development of the capital to 2031. Against the background of socio-economic development, it makes a critical assessment of the London plan 2011, particularly focusing on the spatial strategic development of Greater London by the end of 2031. Based on the analysis of relevant inspiration, it looks forward to promoting innovative efforts of mega-city regional planning in China.%  自1944年阿伯克隆比主持编制了世界上第一部特大型城市区域规划-《大伦敦规划》以来,每一阶段的伦敦地区发展规划都主要立足于自身需求和可行的程序性工具,以利于指导首都地区未来20-30年的发展。进入21世纪,作为英国第一个引入空间发展战略的地区,伦敦先后三次制定出台了大伦敦地区规划。本文以不同社会经济发展背景下的伦敦规划演变为基础,重点对大伦敦地区空间发展战略规划(2011)的核心内容、重要特点及其相关启示进行评介和分析,以期促进我国特大型城市区域的规划创新。

  8. Radical observations during the Clean air for London project (United States)

    Whalley, L. K.; Stone, D.; Clancy, N.; Lee, J. D.; Laufs, S.; Kleffmann, J.; Heard, D. E.


    With greater than 50 % of the global population residing in urban conurbations, poor urban air quality has a demonstrable effect on human health. OH and HO2 radicals, (collectively termed HOx) together with RO2 radicals, mediate virtually all of the oxidative chemistry in the atmosphere, being responsible for the transformation of primary emissions into secondary pollutants such as NO2, O3 and particulates. Understanding the chemistry of free-radicals in the atmosphere is essential in improving predictions of the lifetimes of pollutants and spatial scales of their transport within urban areas. Results from earlier field campaigns in urban and polluted regions have demonstrated the significance of HONO photolysis and alkene ozonolysis in the production of HOx radicals. In many cases, however, measurements of HONO have not been made, reducing the ability to evaluate model successes for OH in these environments. Here we present measurements of OH, HO2, RO2 and OH reactivity taken during the wintertime (January - February, 2012) and summertime (July - August, 2012) as part of the Clean air for London (ClearfLo) project in London. RO2 was detected using a newly developed flow-reactor laser-induced fluorescence technique which is able to discriminate between HO2 and organic peroxy radicals [1]. Low concentrations of radicals were observed during the wintertime, midday [OH], [HO2] and [RO2] were ~ 0.04, 0.8 and 1.5 pptv respectively, comparable to observations of radicals at other urban locations in winter [2,3,4], and which displayed a negative correlation with NO concentrations. OH reactivity was high and largely tracked the diurnal profiles of NOx and CO, with the highest reactivity ~100 s-1 observed during the morning rush hour. Analysis of factors controlling OH concentrations during the wintertime suggests that the formation of OH from the photolysis of O3 and subsequent reaction of O(1D) with H2O is a minor contribution both under high and low NOx conditions owing

  9. ‘Playing Deaf’: Jewish Women at the Medical Missions of East London, 1880–1920s

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    Ellen Ross


    Full Text Available Organizations whose fundamentalist eschatology inspired them to attempt to convert Jews to Christianity had existed from early in the nineteenth century, but with the intensification of Jewish emigration to Britain in the 1880s dozens opened stations in East London. Historians today correctly continue to stress the insult and annoyance the missionaries represented to the struggling Jewish immigrants. This essay focuses on the specialized medical missions - at least a dozen, at times more - attached to the major East London missionary organizations, and designed to exchange good health care (for free for a hearing of the ‘Gospel truth’. These have received less attention from historians than have the general missions, though they proved extremely popular with poor Jews, so much so that many urged the Jewish Board of Guardians to provide rival dispensaries. This study thus places the medical missions within the extensive health care systems of the district. ‘Playing Deaf’ also seeks to position the medical missions within Jewish immigrant social and family life. Mission dispensaries were among the several Christian spaces that Jewish women would have to negotiate as they tried to organize work and family life in a state with an established Protestant church, so women’s behaviour in mission spaces may exemplify other kinds of interactions with the Christian world. Jewish mothers used the missions’ free doctors and nurses to stretch their household budgets, so the majority of patients were women and children - yet women as a group were less susceptible to conversionist rhetoric than men, especially single men. A major primary source for this study is the missionary press, with its extensive coverage of the largest of the medical missions, the Mildmay Medical Mission to the Jews. Mildmay’s reports depict encounters inside the medical missions and provide insight into the subjective lives of the mission doctors, whose efforts to


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article deals with Huth & Co.'s activities in Chile during the 1820s-1850s. Huth was the only London merchant-banker that decided to go global before 1850, and also the only one to open a branch in Chile. The analysis of how his branches operated should take this into account, yet Huth's activities in Chile have only previously been examined using a bilateral approach to examine the economic relations between Chile and Britain. This situation was mainly due to the fact that the richest collection of primary material on Huth & Co. (the Huth papers at University College London had been ignored by scholars working on Anglo-Chilean economic relations during the first half of the nineteenth-century. The main focus of this paper is on the information that we were made unaware of due to this restricted investigative approach. Among them are the connections established between Huth's branches in Chile and the USA, Asia, continental Europe and the rest of Latin America; and the important trade in Spanish quicksilver.El presente artículo trata sobre las actividades económicas en Chile de Huth & Co. durante el período 1820-1850. Huth & Co. fue el único mercader banquero de Londres que decidió tener una empresa global antes de 1850 y el único también en abrir una oficina en Chile. Por lo tanto, las actividades de la sucursal en Chile deben ser analizadas considerando estos dos importantes hechos. Sin embargo, antes de este estudio, las actividades de Huth en el país fueron examinadas usando un enfoque estrictamente bilateral de las relaciones entre Chile y Gran Bretaña. Esta visión restrictiva se debió en gran parte al desconocimiento de los historiadores interesados en las relaciones anglo-chilenas de una importante fuente de información: los archivos de Huth disponibles en el University College London. Debido a este desconocimiento, la historiografía no ha dado cuenta de importantes hechos tratado en este artículo. Por ejemplo, de las

  11. Comet of the Century (United States)

    Schaaf, Fred; Ottewell, G.

    The present century has been a disappointing one for comets, but past centuries often featured spectacular, unforgettable comet shows that dominated the night (and even daytime) sky for months: comets that outshone Venus or even the Moon, whose spectacular tails stretched more than halfway across the sky or were weirdly split, and whose apparition was held responsible for everything from wars to unusually good wine vintages. Published to coincide with the first naked-eye appearance of Comet Hale-Bopp, perhaps our own comet of the century, this book is an irresistible guide to comet facts and lore throughout history.

  12. Healthcare planning for the Olympics in London: a qualitative evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Black

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass gatherings, such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games, represent an enormous logistical challenge for the host city. Health service planners must deliver routine and emergency services and, in recent Games, health legacy initiatives, for the local and visiting population. However there is little evidence to support their planning decisions. We therefore evaluated the strategic health planning programme for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games to identify generalisable information for future Games. METHODS: We thematically analysed data from stakeholder interviews and documents. The data were prospectively collected in three phases, before, during and after the Games. FINDINGS: We identified five key themes: (1 Systemic Improvement for example in communications, (2 Effective relationships led to efficiencies and permanent gains, such as new relationships with the private sector (3 Difficult relationships led to inefficiencies, for instance, duplication in testing and exercising emergency scenarios, (4 Tendency to over-estimate demand for care, particularly emergency medicine, and (5 Difficulties establishing a health legacy due to its deprioritisation and lack of vision by the programme team. INTERPRETATION: Enduring improvements which are sustained after the Games are possible, such as the establishment of new and productive partnerships. Relationships must be established early on to avoid duplication, delay and unnecessary expense. There should be greater critical evaluation of the likely demand for health services to reduce the wasting of resources. Finally, if a health legacy is planned, then clear definitions and commitment to its measurement is essential.

  13. Persistent sulfate formation from London Fog to Chinese haze (United States)

    Wang, Gehui; Zhang, Renyi; Gomez, Mario E.; Yang, Lingxiao; Levy Zamora, Misti; Hu, Min; Lin, Yun; Peng, Jianfei; Guo, Song; Meng, Jingjing; Li, Jianjun; Cheng, Chunlei; Hu, Tafeng; Ren, Yanqin; Wang, Yuesi; Gao, Jian; Cao, Junji; An, Zhisheng; Zhou, Weijian; Li, Guohui; Wang, Jiayuan; Tian, Pengfei; Marrero-Ortiz, Wilmarie; Secrest, Jeremiah; Du, Zhuofei; Zheng, Jing; Shang, Dongjie; Zeng, Limin; Shao, Min; Wang, Weigang; Huang, Yao; Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Yujiao; Li, Yixin; Hu, Jiaxi; Pan, Bowen; Cai, Li; Cheng, Yuting; Ji, Yuemeng; Zhang, Fang; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Liss, Peter S.; Duce, Robert A.; Kolb, Charles E.; Molina, Mario J.


    Sulfate aerosols exert profound impacts on human and ecosystem health, weather, and climate, but their formation mechanism remains uncertain. Atmospheric models consistently underpredict sulfate levels under diverse environmental conditions. From atmospheric measurements in two Chinese megacities and complementary laboratory experiments, we show that the aqueous oxidation of SO2 by NO2 is key to efficient sulfate formation but is only feasible under two atmospheric conditions: on fine aerosols with high relative humidity and NH3 neutralization or under cloud conditions. Under polluted environments, this SO2 oxidation process leads to large sulfate production rates and promotes formation of nitrate and organic matter on aqueous particles, exacerbating severe haze development. Effective haze mitigation is achievable by intervening in the sulfate formation process with enforced NH3 and NO2 control measures. In addition to explaining the polluted episodes currently occurring in China and during the 1952 London Fog, this sulfate production mechanism is widespread, and our results suggest a way to tackle this growing problem in China and much of the developing world.

  14. The nutritional composition of British bread: London area study. (United States)

    Sivell, L M; Wenlock, R W


    Samples of white and brown bread, both sliced and unsliced, and of wheatgerm breads and wholemeal bread were purchased in London and analysed for a wide range of nutrients. Available carbohydrate, dietary fibre, fatty acids, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and iodine were determined in bulked samples of each type of bread and, in addition, every loaf was analysed for moisture, fat, protein, phosphorus, chloride, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, thiamin, nicotinic acid, and free and total folic acid, in order to provide an estimate the variability within each kind of bread. Virtually all the constituents that were measured in the individual loaves showed inter-loaf variation--particularly moisture contents and the levels of calcium, copper and folic acid. Unsliced loaves were more variable than sliced loaves but when expressed on a dry matter basis there were no significant differences in the nutrient levels in sliced and unsliced breads. Wheatgerm breads were relatively more homogenous products but wholemeal loaves were very unhomogenous reflecting the difficulty of accurately identifying unwrapped wholemeal loaves in retail outlets. Some differences from previously published values for all breads were found for dietary fibre, iron, thiamin and vitamin B6. Experience of sampling at retail outlets and analysis provided by this study will be integrated into the design of a planned study of breads throughout Britain.

  15. Ethnic variations in orthodontic treatment need in London schoolchildren

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    Jopanputra Pooja


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of orthodontic treatment need in children from minority ethnic groups and compare the need to the white population. The second objective was to explore variations in agreement between subjective and objective treatment need in a multiethnic context using the aesthetic component of Orthodontic Treatment Need Index (IOTN AC. Methods A cross-sectional study in North West London, 14 schools were randomly selected from the 27 schools in the two boroughs of Harrow and Hillingdon. Comparison between objective and subjective treatment need was carried out using IOTN AC index. Clinical orthodontic treatment need was also recorded using the dental health component of Orthodontic Treatment Need Index (IOTN DHC. Results 2,788 children were examined and completed the questionnaire. 16% of the study population were already wearing appliances or had finished orthodontic treatment. Of the remaining children; 15% had definite need for treatment using the dental health component of the IOTN. There was no significant variation in the need for orthodontic treatment between different ethnic backgrounds (P > 0.05 whether using the AC or DHC components of the IOTN index. However, poor agreement was detected between professional and subjective assessment of ethnic minority of orthodontic treatment need using IOTN AC index. Conclusion Orthodontic treatment need in children of ethnic minorities does not differ significantly from the vast majority of white children. However treatment need based on aesthetic index continues to vary in all ethnic groups from the professional aesthetic assessment

  16. Tracer concentration profiles measured in central London as part of the REPARTEE campaign (United States)

    Martin, D.; Petersson, K. F.; White, I. R.; Henshaw, S. J.; Nickless, G.; Lovelock, A.; Barlow, J. F.; Dunbar, T.; Wood, C. R.; Shallcross, D. E.


    There have been relatively few tracer experiments carried out that have looked at vertical plume spread in urban areas. In this paper we present results from two tracer (cyclic perfluorocarbon) experiments carried out in 2006 and 2007 in central London centred on the BT Tower as part of the REPARTEE (Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment) campaign. The height of the tower gives a unique opportunity to study vertical dispersion profiles and transport times in central London. Vertical gradients are contrasted with the relevant Pasquill stability classes. Estimation of lateral advection and vertical mixing times are made and compared with previous measurements. Data are then compared with a simple operational dispersion model and contrasted with data taken in central London as part of the DAPPLE campaign. This correlates dosage with non-dimensionalised distance from source. Such analyses illustrate the feasibility of the use of these empirical correlations over these prescribed distances in central London.

  17. Tracer concentration profiles measured in central London as part of the REPARTEE campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martin


    Full Text Available There have been relatively few tracer experiments carried out that have looked at vertical plume spread in urban areas. In this paper we present results from two tracer (cyclic perfluorocarbon experiments carried out in 2006 and 2007 in central London centred on the BT Tower as part of the REPARTEE (Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment campaign. The height of the tower gives a unique opportunity to study vertical dispersion profiles and transport times in central London. Vertical gradients are contrasted with the relevant Pasquill stability classes. Estimation of lateral advection and vertical mixing times are made and compared with previous measurements. Data are then compared with a simple operational dispersion model and contrasted with data taken in central London as part of the DAPPLE campaign. This correlates dosage with non-dimensionalised distance from source. Such analyses illustrate the feasibility of the use of these empirical correlations over these prescribed distances in central London.

  18. Die Rhizostomeen-Sammlung des British Museum (Natural History) in London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiasny, G.


    Die Rhizostomeen-Sammlung des British Museum (Natural History) in London (South Kensington), die ich wahrend eines kurzen Aufenthaltes daselbst untersuchen konnte, umfasst folgende Formen: Cassiopea andromeda Eschscholtz, Australien, Mozambique, Madagascar, Suez. „ „ var. maldivensis Browne, Malediv

  19. Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. London Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Jonathan Swain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Swain, Jonathan


    Uuest heliplaadist "Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. London Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos MC ABTD 1496; CD CHAN 8885 (57 minutes). Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. Staatskapelle Berlin. Otmar Suitner." Denon CD CO- 74597 (53 minutes)

  20. Scoping the role and education needs of practice nurses in London. (United States)

    Procter, Susan; Griffiths, Lauren; Fanning, Agnes; Wallman, Lizzie; Loveday, Heather P


    Aims To identify education priorities for practice nursing across eight London Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs); to identify the education, training, development and support needs of practice nurses in undertaking current and future roles.

  1. Lichen and bryophyte distribution on oak in London in relation to air pollution and bark acidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R.S. [Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Bell, J.N.B. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); James, P.W. [Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Chimonides, P.J. [Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Rumsey, F.J. [Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Tremper, A. [Kings College, London (United Kingdom); Purvis, O.W. [Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:


    Epiphytic lichen and bryophyte distribution and frequency were investigated on the trunks of 145 young oak trees throughout London and surrounding counties, and compared with pollution levels and bark pH. Sixty-four lichen and four bryophyte species were recorded. Three major zones were identified: (i) two central regions with a few lichens, bryophytes absent; (ii) a surrounding region with a more diverse flora including a high cover of nitrophyte lichens; and (iii) an outer region, characterised by species absent from central London, including acidophytes. Nineteen species were correlated with nitrogen oxides and 16 with bark pH, suggesting that transport-related pollution and bark acidity influence lichen and bryophyte distribution in London today. Lichens and bryophytes are responding to factors that influence human and environmental health in London. Biomonitoring therefore has a practical role to assess the effects of measures to improve London's air quality. - Transport-related pollutants and bark acidity influence lichen and bryophyte distribution and abundance in London today.

  2. Connected or informed?: Local Twitter networking in a London neighbourhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bingham-Hall


    Full Text Available This paper asks whether geographically localised, or ‘hyperlocal’, uses of Twitter succeed in creating peer-to-peer neighbourhood networks or simply act as broadcast media at a reduced scale. Literature drawn from the smart cities discourse and from a UK research project into hyperlocal media, respectively, take on these two opposing interpretations. Evidence gathered in the case study presented here is consistent with the latter, and on this basis we criticise the notion that hyperlocal social media can be seen as a community in itself. We demonstrate this by creating a network map of Twitter followers of a popular hyperlocal blog in Brockley, southeast London. We describe various attributes of this network including its average degree and clustering coefficient to suggest that a small and highly connected cluster of visible local entities such as businesses form a clique at the centre of this network, with individual residents following these but not one another. We then plot the locations of these entities and demonstrate that sub-communities in the network are formed due to close geographical proximity between smaller sets of businesses. These observations are illustrated with qualitative evidence from interviews with users who suggest instead that rather than being connected to one another they benefit from what has been described as ‘neighbourhood storytelling’. Despite the limitations of working with Twitter data, we propose that this multi-modal approach offers a valuable way to investigate the experience of using social media as a communication tool in urban neighbourhoods.

  3. Survey of community pharmacists' perception of electronic cigarettes in London (United States)

    Marques Gomes, Ana C N; Nabhani-Gebara, Shereen; Kayyali, Reem; Buonocore, Federico; Calabrese, Gianpiero


    Objectives To seek community pharmacists' perception on use, safety and possible effectiveness of e-cigarettes as quit smoking tools, and their future regulation. Setting A survey of a sample of 154 community pharmacies across London, UK. Context E-cigarettes have exclusively established themselves in the market through consumers-led demand. To date, e-cigarettes still remain unregulated and can be easily purchased in shops, over the internet, but more controversially also in pharmacies in the UK. Pharmacists find themselves with a shortage of information on their safety and efficacy, and may experience an ethical dilemma when consulted by patients/customers. Key findings Response rate: 60% (n=92). Independent pharmacies accounted for 90% of the sample. The majority of participants (73%) sell e-cigarettes. A minority of participants (20%) have been presented with adverse effects such as cough and dry mouth. As possible reasons for their use, pharmacists ranked ‘aid in stop smoking’ as the most important (56%), with ‘cheaper alternative’ (43%) and ‘social/recreational use’ (31%) being the least important ones. Safety issues were raised as statements such as ‘e-liquid in cartridges may be toxic’ were agreed by 52% of respondents. The majority of pharmacists (97%) were supportive of e-cigarettes being regulated, expressing current concerns regarding excipients (42%) and nicotine content (34%). Participants indicated that they would require training in the form of information packs (88%), online tutorials (67%), continuous professional development (CPD) workshops (43%) to cover safety, counselling, dosage instructions, adverse effects and role in the smoking cessation care pathway in the future. Conclusions Pharmacists expressed concerns about the safety of e-cigarettes, especially regarding the amounts of excipients and nicotine as these still remain unregulated. Currently, there are no guidelines for pharmacists regarding e-cigarettes. Community

  4. Sarcoidosis in Caucasians, Blacks and Asians in London. (United States)

    Edmondstone, W M; Wilson, A G


    The incidence and clinical features of sarcoidosis were studied in a retrospective survey of 156 patients attending two South London hospitals between 1969 and 1982. Sixty-eight patients were Caucasian, 59 were Black West Indian or African immigrants and 29 were immigrants racially derived from Indo-Pakistan (Asians). The annual incidence of sarcoidosis in the local community in 1977-78 was 19.8 per 10(5) for Blacks and 16.8 per 10(5) for Asians compared with 1.5 per 10(5) for Caucasians. Erythema nodosum was a more common presenting feature in Caucasians than in Blacks (P less than 0.001) or Asians (P less than 0.05). Blacks developed sarcoidosis at a later age than Caucasians (P less than 0.05) and were less likely to present as a chance finding on a chest radiograph (P less than 0.05). They had more widespread extrathoracic disease than Caucasians (P less than 0.001) and were more commonly treated with corticosteroids (P less than 0.001). In the Asians there was a male predominance compared with Caucasians (P less than 0.01). Asians also had more extrathoracic sarcoidosis than Caucasians (P less than 0.001) and more of them were treated with corticosteroids (P less than 0.05). A stage 2 chest radiograph at presentation (P less than 0.05) and skin sarcoidosis (P less than 0.05) were less common in Asians than in Blacks, but otherwise there were no significant differences between the two groups. In this study the incidence of sarcoidosis in Asians approached that in Blacks, while the clinical features were intermediate in severity between Blacks and Caucasians. In both Blacks and Asians the disease was more common, more severe and more extensive than in Caucasians.

  5. Down and Out in London: Addictive Behaviors in Homelessness. (United States)

    Sharman, Steve; Dreyer, Jenny; Clark, Luke; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta


    Backgrounds and aims Problem gambling occurs at higher levels in the homeless than the general population. Past work has not established the extent to which problem gambling is a cause or consequence of homelessness. This study sought to replicate recent observations of elevated rates of problem gambling in a British homeless sample, and extend that finding by characterizing (a) the temporal sequencing of the effect, (b) relationships with drug and alcohol misuse, and (c) awareness and access of treatment services for gambling by the homeless. Methods We recruited 72 participants from homeless centers in Westminster, London, and used the Problem Gambling Severity Index to assess gambling involvement, as well as DSM-IV criteria for substance and alcohol use disorders. A life-events scale was administered to establish the temporal ordering of problem gambling and homelessness. Results Problem gambling was evident in 23.6% of the sample. In participants who endorsed any gambling symptomatology, the majority were categorized as problem gamblers. Within those problem gamblers, 82.4% indicated that gambling preceded their homelessness. Participants displayed high rates of substance (31.9%) and alcohol dependence (23.6%); these were not correlated with PGSI scores. Awareness of treatment for gambling was significantly lower than for substance and alcohol use disorders, and actual access of gambling support was minimal. Discussion and conclusions Problem gambling is an under-recognized health issue in the homeless. Our observation that gambling typically precedes homelessness strengthens its role as a causal factor. Despite the elevated prevalence rates, awareness and utilization of gambling support opportunities were low compared with services for substance use disorders.

  6. A White Atlantic? The Idea of American Art in Nineteenth-Century Britain

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    Tim Barringer


    Full Text Available This article begins with the contention that 'American art' is a powerful retrospective construction, rooted in the institutional practices of art history and museology. Through a focus on the experiences of expatriate American artists (John Singleton Copley and Benjamin West in London at the start of the nineteenth century, and the genre or landscape painting in transatlantic art (including the work of the British artist Thomas Cole, this essay exposes the complex and dynamic cultural interrelationship that existed between the United States and Europe in the period. It extends Paul Gilroy's and Joseph Roach's recent concept of the 'Black Atlantic', in which they argue that a single cultural zone brought together London and New Orleans, Kingston, Jamaica and the ports of the Ivory coast, to analyse the cultural and performative exchanges that were also taking place between America and Europe (particularly Great Britain, and that have hitherto been neglected in dominant art history narratives.

  7. Evolving Pb isotope signatures of London airborne particulate matter (PM 10)-constraints from on-filter and solution-mode MC-ICP-MS. (United States)

    Noble, Stephen R; Horstwood, Matthew S A; Davy, Pamela; Pashley, Vanessa; Spiro, Baruch; Smith, Steve


    Pb isotope compositions of biologically significant PM(10) atmospheric particulates from a busy roadside location in London UK were measured using solution- and laser ablation-mode MC-ICP-MS. The solution-mode data for PM(10) sampled between 1998-2001 document a dramatic shift to increasingly radiogenic compositions as leaded petrol was phased out. LA-MC-ICP-MS isotope analysis, piloted on a subset of the available samples, is shown to be a potential reconnaissance analytical technique. PM(10) particles trapped on quartz filters were liberated from the filter surface, without ablating the filter substrate, using a 266 nm UV laser and a dynamic, large diameter, low-fluence ablation protocol. The Pb isotope evolution noted in the London data set obtained by both analytical protocols is similar to that observed elsewhere in Western Europe following leaded petrol elimination. The data therefore provide important baseline isotope composition information useful for continued UK atmospheric monitoring through the early 21(st) century.

  8. The surgions mate the first compendium on naval medicine, surgery and drug therapy (London 1617) : edited and annotated by Irmgard Müller

    CERN Document Server


    This book reproduces and comments John Woodall’s handbook which was used as standard text for medical treatment at sea in the seventeenth century and was the first instruction for medical service aboard on the whole. In 1612 the East India Company, founded in London 1600 and invested with special royal privileges and authority, appointed John Woodall as its first surgeon-general, who had gained great medical experience at theatres of war abroad. Woodall was appointed the task to radically reform the medical aid on sailing ships and to supervise the education of talented ship doctors. He was the first one to establish standardized regulations concerning the provision of instruments and medicaments on board. To this end he wrote an instructive manual for ship surgeons with the title “The Surgions Mate”, published in 1617 in London and edited repeatedly until 1655, listing essential instruments and remedies for the use at sea and providing detailed annotations. The manual’s particularities include notes ...

  9. Chapter 9: understanding the nervous system in the 18th century. (United States)

    Smith, Christopher U M


    The 18th century was an age of transition. The time-honored neuropsychology of classical and medieval times, mechanized in Descartes' hydraulic neurophysiology, was undermined by microscopical observations and careful physiological experimentation. Yet it was not until the very end of the century, when work on electric fish and amphibia began to suggest an acceptable successor to "animal spirit," that the old understanding of human neurophysiology began to fade. This chapter traces this slow retreat from the iatrophysics of the early part of the century, with its hollow nerves and animal spirits, through a number of stop-gap explanations involving mysterious subtle fluids or forces described variously as irritability, élan vital, vis viva, vis insita, the spirit of animation etc., or perhaps involving vibrations and vibratiuncles and mysterious magnetic effluvia, to the dawning electrophysiology of the end of the century and the beginning of the next. This developing understanding filtered slowly through to affect medical education, and the 18th century saw the development of strong medical schools at Leiden, Edinburgh, Paris, Bologna and London. Associated with these developments there was a great increase, as a well-known physician looking back at the beginning of the following century noted, in a class of diseases that had little concerned physicians in the preceding century - "nervous disorders."

  10. Potential Damage to Modern Building Materials from 21st Century Air Pollution

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    Peter Brimblecombe


    Full Text Available The evolution of damage to building materials has been estimated for the 21st century, with a particular focus on aluminum, zinc, copper, plastic, paint, and rubber in urban areas. We set idealized air pollution and climates to represent London and Prague across the period 1950–2100. Environmental parameters were used to estimate future recession, corrosion, and loss of properties through published damage or dose-response functions. The 21st century seems to provide a less aggressive environment for stone and metals than recent times. Improvements in air quality are the most relevant drivers for this amelioration. Changes in climate predicted for the 21st century do not alter this picture. On the other hand, polymeric materials, plastic, paint, and rubber might show slightly increased rates of degradation, to some extent the result of enhanced oxidant concentrations, but also the possibility of contributions from more solar radiation.

  11. Century Tide Nicotine Patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Century Tide Nicotine Patch, a hi-tech smoking control therapy, is designed in accordance with the scientific principle of nicotine replacement. The therapy is promoted by the World Health Organization. Meanwhile, it also integrates traditional Chinese medical therapy and adopts advanced TTS technology.

  12. “This fabulous flotsam”: Michael Moorcock’s Urban Anthropology in “London under London”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houswitschka Christoph


    Full Text Available Michael Moorcock is often described as “one of the most prolific and varied writers working in Britain” (Malcolm 146. His success as a writer and editor of science fiction and fantasy literature is well established, but he is also the author of two novels about London, Mother London (1988 and King of the City (2000. Hardly known, Mother London by Michael Moorcock, offers itself to a variety of approaches that have been widely discussed in the context of studies on English literature during the Thatcher years, post-modernism, and psycho-geography. The novel resonates with the author’s own childhood in war-time London without being autobiographical. It tells the story of three Londoners who were traumatised during the Blitz. The following article focuses on the mysteries of subterranean London that represents the hidden and unconscious identities of its inhabitants in the post-war period.

  13. A Century of Acoustic Metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud


    The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect.......The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect....

  14. 伦敦2012奥林匹克公园总体规划及赛后利用%London 2012 Olympic Park Masterplan and Legacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    比尔·汉威[英国; 孙帅(译)


    Lower Lea Valley was surrounded by poor and badly served communities in the early 21st Century. Creating the venues for the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games has been just one step on route to the transformation of a large swathe of run-down land in East London and has offered opportunity to create an exemplary sustainable environment for this East London. With an overall analysis to the rivers, the masterplan for the Olympic Park has helped to establish the green corridors, restore the damaged urban fabric and will leave a new sustainable community after the Olympic Games, making the Olympic Park one of the largest European parks in more than a century. The creation of the park is underpinned by environmental, economic and social sustainability and the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games and their legacy were planned together from the outset. The Legacy Masterplan Framework for the park underpins the development and further regeneration of the area. The Olympic site will be transformed into a new city district in the near future.%21世纪初,下利亚山符曾经基础设施薄弱,破旧而不利于生活。2012年伦敦奥运会及残奥会场地建设是实现东伦敦地区大片废弃土地转型利用的第一步,并使这里有机会成为一个示范性的可持续发展环境。规划通过充分利用本地区的河流资源构建绿色廊道,修复破旧的城市肌理,同时还会在赛后留下可持续新社区,而奥运公园也将成为一个多世纪以来欧洲最大的公园之一。公园建设考虑到了环境、经济和社会的可持续发展,赛时及赛后规划紧密结合,同时进行,公园的遗产总规划框架是区域再生和进一步发展的基础。未来的奥林匹克区将转变成一个城市新区。

  15. Statisticians of the centuries

    CERN Document Server

    Seneta, E; Crépel, P; Fienberg, S; Gani, J


    Statisticians of the Centuries aims to demonstrate the achievements of statistics to a broad audience, and to commemorate the work of celebrated statisticians. This is done through short biographies that put the statistical work in its historical and sociological context, emphasizing contributions to science and society in the broadest terms rather than narrow technical achievement. The discipline is treated from its earliest times and only individuals born prior to the 20th Century are included. The volume arose through the initiative of the International Statistical Institute (ISI), the principal representative association for international statistics (founded in 1885). Extensive consultations within the statistical community, and with prominent members of ISI in particular, led to the names of the 104 individuals who are included in the volume. The biographies were contributed by 73 authors from across the world. The editors are the well-known statisticians Chris Heyde and Eugene Seneta. Chris Heyde is Pro...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    IN an excavated pit at the side of an expressway in Shandong’s Linzi are visible 2,000-year-old remains of horses and wooden carriages. The horse skeletons are on their side, in an attitude of motion. The pit was discovered in the late 20th century, when the expressway was being built. These early ancestors of modern transport, no longer "road-worthy," are now protected historic artifacts.

  17. Analytical calculations of frequency-dependent hypermagnetizabilities and Cotton-Mouton constants using London atomic orbitals (United States)

    Thorvaldsen, Andreas J.; Ruud, Kenneth; Rizzo, Antonio; Coriani, Sonia


    We present the first gauge-origin-independent, frequency-dependent calculations of the hypermagnetizability anisotropy, which determines the temperature-independent contribution to magnetic-field-induced linear birefringence, the so-called Cotton-Mouton effect. A density-matrix-based scheme for analytical calculations of frequency-dependent molecular properties for self-consistent field models has recently been developed, which is also valid with frequency- and field-dependent basis sets. Applying this scheme to Hartree-Fock wave functions and using London atomic orbitals in order to obtain gauge-origin-independent results, we have calculated the hypermagnetizability anisotropy. Our results show that the use of London orbitals leads to somewhat better basis-set convergence for the hypermagnetizability compared to conventional basis sets and that London orbitals are mandatory in order to obtain reliable magnetizability anisotropies.

  18. Rethinking John Snow's South London study: a Bayesian evaluation and recalculation. (United States)

    Koch, Thomas; Denike, Kenneth


    Famously, John Snow attempted to convince a critical professional audience that public water supplied to South London residents by private companies was a principal vector for the transmission of cholera. The result has been called the sine qua non of the "epidemiological imagination," a landmark study still taught today. In fact, Snow twice attempted to prove public water supplies spread cholera to the South London population. His first, published in 1855, suffered from an incomplete data set that limited its descriptive and predictive import. In 1856, armed with new data, Snow published a more definitive study. This paper describes a previously unacknowledged methodological and conceptual problem in Snow's 1856 argument. We review the context of the South London study, identify the problem and then correct it with an empirical Bayes estimation (EBE) approach. The result hopefully revitalizes Snow's research as a teaching case through the application of a contemporary statistical approach.

  19. Using GIS to Understand and Prioritise Worker Movements during the 2012 London Olympics (United States)

    McGuinness, I. M.


    The performance of the transport network and the associated movement of people was one of the most critical elements to London's successful delivery of the 2012 Olympic Games. During the planning stages Transport for London asked the London Borough of Newham to mitigate the impact of the authority's 13 500 employees on transport infrastructure close to the Olympic Park. To achieve this, the authority needed to understand the geographic distribution of its workforce and the demand it placed on roads and local transport hubs. The authority's Geospatial Team led the research based on four cross-referenced data sources, and spatial analysis was used to determine priorities for special absence arrangements and a commissioned coach service. The research was used to support a targeted information campaign but also presented considerations on large-scale data collection, the use of Human Resources data, and the degree to which the movement of people can be measured and managed.

  20. An analysis of population and social change in London wards in the 1980s. (United States)

    Congdon, P


    "This paper discusses the estimation and projection of small area populations in London, [England] and considers trends in intercensal social and demographic indices which can be calculated using these estimates. Information available annually on vital statistics and electorates is combined with detailed data from the Census Small Area Statistics to derive demographic component based population estimates for London's electoral wards over five year periods. The availability of age disaggregated population estimates permits derivation of small area social indicators for intercensal years, for example, of unemployment and mortality. Trends in spatial inequality of such indicators during the 1980s are analysed and point to continuing wide differentials. A typology of population and social indicators gives an indication of the small area distribution of the recent population turnaround in inner London, and of its association with other social processes such as gentrification and ethnic concentration."

  1. Tracer concentration profiles measured in central London as part of the REPARTEE campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Shallcross


    Full Text Available There have been relatively few tracer experiments carried out that have looked at vertical plume spread in urban areas. In this paper we present results from cyclic perfluorocarbon tracer experiments carried out in 2006 and 2007 in central London centred on the BT Tower as part of the REPARTEE (Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment campaign. The height of the tower gives a unique opportunity to study dispersion over a large vertical gradient. These gradients are then compared with classical Gaussian profiles of the relevant stability classes over a range of distances as well as interpretation of data with reference to both anemometry and LIDAR measurements made. Data are then compared with an operational model and contrasted with data taken in central London as part of the DAPPLE campaign looking at dosage compared with non-dimensionalised distance from source. Such analysis illustrates the feasibility of the use of these empirical correlations over these prescribed distances in central London.

  2. To Moscow with love: partial reconstruction of Vygotsky's trip to London. (United States)

    van der Veer, René; Zavershneva, Ekaterina


    The Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) left the Soviet Union only once to attend a conference on the education of the deaf in London. So far almost nothing was known about this trip, which took place in a period when Vygotsky was still completely unknown as a psychologist, both inside his own country and abroad. Making use of a newly discovered notebook, it proved possible to partially reconstruct Vygotsky's journey and stay in London. Vygotsky's very personal remarks show him to have been a very sensitive and spirited man, who was prey to strong emotions during the conference and afterwards. Rather surprisingly, Vygotsky's own paper about the education of the deaf was never presented during the conference and the stay in London appears to have had a limited value for his own scientific development.

  3. Sao Paulo city and London architectonic epigraphs: a comparison from an information design perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Lena Farias


    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study on inscriptions containing the names of architects and builders found in the façades of building in the cities of São Paulo and London. For the study, 123 architectonic epigraphs found in São Paulo city historic centre were compared with 71 inscriptions of the same kind found in the regions of Westminster and Camden, in central London. The focus of the analysis is the informational aspects of the inscriptions, including its location, size, typographic configuration and content.

  4. The development of neurosurgery at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, England. (United States)

    Powell, Michael; Kitchen, Neil


    The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London is one of the oldest clinical neuroscience hospitals in the world. It was formed from the fusion of itself with the Maida Vale Hospital in 1948. More recently, in 1996, it was incorporated into the University College London Hospitals group. It has had many distinguished neurosurgeons on its staff, whose history from Sir Victor Horsley to the present is described with particular reference to the development of the specialty of neurosurgery. The current neurosurgical staff and future developments of neurosurgery at the hospital are also elucidated.

  5. The Sindhi Hindus of London − Language Maintenance or Language Shift?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Khemlani David


    Full Text Available The linguistic situation of the Sindhi language in London is examined with a view to determining whether the community is maintaining the use of its ethnic language. The Sindhi Hindus of London are a language community, which have never been researched. The language choice of the community in different domains and for a range of language functions is discussed. Both external and internal factors of language shift have weakened the linguistic and communicative competence of Sindhi speakers in the language contact situation of the United Kingdom.

  6. Sport psychology consultants’ perceptions of their challenges at the London 2012 Olympic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Peter; Diment, Gregory; Elbe, Anne-Marie

    The aim of the study was to explore the challenges sport psychology consultants perceived at the 2012 London Olympic Games. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 sport psychology consultants up to six weeks after the London Games. The interviews were transcribed and inductively content......). Furthermore, four different Sport psychology consultant roles during the Olympics could be defined. On the one hand, the reported challenges validate and cohere with the challenge descriptions in the literature. On the other hand, the data identifies individual contextual differences between the consultants...

  7. The sooterkin doctor: the London career of John Maubray, MD (1700-1732), "andro-boethogynist". (United States)

    Bates, A W


    Dr John Maubray (1700-1732) was one of the most prominent man-midwives of Georgian London. His emphasis on the importance of physical examination and a combination of theoretical and practical teaching seems to have foreshadowed later methods of training in midwifery. His espousal of the non-instrumental Deventerian system of obstetrics and his activities in the parish of St George's, Hanover Square in London, identified him with the dominant Whig party. Although he failed to acquire a major patron, his network of social connections enabled him to obtain charitable and public service appointments, culminating in his chairmanship of the Charitable Corporation.

  8. New information on the 19th century provenance of Albertinelli's Old Testament cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulibić, Ljerka


    Full Text Available Analysis of the correspondence of Bishop J. J. Strossmayer and his agents, and of W. Buchanan and his agents, has provided new evidence of the 19th century provenance of Mariotto Albertinelli's paintings The Expulsion from Paradise in the Strossmayer Gallery in Zagreb, and The Creation and Fall of Man in the Courtauld Institute of Art Gallery in London. The material analysed provides an insight into the then common practice of fragmenting artworks, sometimes very violently, and enables a revision of some assumptions and claims concerning the fate of the two paintings by Albertinelli, ultimately suggesting some guidelines for conclusions as to the original appearance of his Old Testament cycle.

  9. The development of forensic medicine in the United Kingdom from the 18th century. (United States)

    Eckert, W


    Forensic medicine in the United Kingdom includes both forensic pathology and clinical forensic medicine on the living. It began at the end of the 18th century, long after its development in Germany, Italy, France, and other countries in Europe. Initial beginnings were in Scotland, where a program began at the University of Edinburgh with the establishment of a chair in Forensic Medicine by Prof. Andrew Duncan Sr. The development in England began in London's Kings College Medical School with a chair held by Prof. William A. Guy. Later chairs in Forensic Medicine were established in Glasgow, Aberdeen, and in London, where Forensic Medicine was taught at St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, Guy's Hospital Medical School, London Hospital Medical School, Charing Cross Hospital Medical School, St. Thomas Hospital Medical School, and St. George's Hospital Medical School. In other cities in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, departments were founded in Leeds, Manchester, Cardiff, and Belfast. Many textbooks were prepared during this time by professors from these medical schools and by others working in nonacademic areas. The development of coroner activities and those of the police surgeons is also part of the study of forensic medicine.

  10. New Century, New Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Nuclear weapons changed the world of the 20th century. Their powerful force rewrote history. Nuclear bombs dropped on Japan by the United States accelerated the collapse of Japanese militarism and hastened the end of World War Ⅱ. The West led by the United States and the East bloc led by the Soviet Union started a bitter nuclear arms race that mutually assured destruction. The balance of terror between the two blocs stabilized in the Cold War and prevented the world from actual armed conflict, thus maintaining a long-term but occasionally uneasy peace in Europe and the world.

  11. Investing in Diversity in London Schools: Leadership Preparation for Black and Global Majority Educators (United States)

    Johnson, Lauri; Campbell-Stephens, Rosemary


    This article traces the historical roots, describes the philosophy and curriculum, and analyzes the approach to leadership in Investing in Diversity, a 1-year Black-led leadership development course in the London schools. An exploratory qualitative case study approach was used to collect historical and empirical data about the program over a…

  12. "Kelo v. City of New London": An Ideal Case to Teach Ethical and Legal Principles (United States)

    Odom, Lamar; Gonzalez, Analco


    In June 2005, the U.S. Supreme Court rendered a decision that caused much concern and anxiety across America. "Kelo v. City of New London" was viewed by many as an egregious violation of the Takings Clause of the U.S. Constitution. In "Kelo", the majority upheld a state statute that supported the use of eminent domain for purposes of economic…

  13. A Virtual Walk through London: Culture Learning through a Cultural Immersion Experience (United States)

    Shih, Ya-Chun


    Integrating Google Street View into a three-dimensional virtual environment in which users control personal avatars provides these said users with access to an innovative, interactive, and real-world context for communication and culture learning. We have selected London, a city famous for its rich historical, architectural, and artistic heritage,…

  14. 77 FR 16198 - Safety & Security Zones; OPSAIL 2012 Connecticut, Thames River, New London, CT (United States)


    ... for Comments'' portion of the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section below for instructions on submitting... fireworks will be launched from two barges anchored in the Thames River adjacent to New London City Pier... all foreign naval vessels while underway, anchored, or moored while on the navigable waters of...

  15. Scarlet Fever Upsurge in England and Molecular-Genetic Analysis in North-West London, 2014

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of the article, Scarlet Fever Upsurge in England and Molecular-Genetic Analysis in North-West London, 2014.  Created: 8/16/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/16/2016.

  16. Pandemic Fear and Literature: Observations from Jack London’s The Scarlet Plague

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of the essay, Pandemic Fear and Literature: Observations from Jack London’s The Scarlet Plague.  Created: 11/18/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/20/2014.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruud, K.; Helgaker, T.; Jørgensen, Poul


    We report a systematic investigation of the magnetizability of a series of small molecules. The use of London atomic orbitals ensures gauge invariance and a fast basis set convergence. Good agreement is obtained with experimental magnetizabilities, both isotropic and anisotropic. The calculations...

  18. Multiconfigurational self-consistent field calculations of nuclear shieldings using London atomic orbitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruud, Kenneth; Helgaker, Trygve; Kobayashi, Rika;


    Nuclear shielding calculations are presented for multiconfigurational self-consistent field wave functions using London atomic orbitals (gauge invariant atomic orbitals). Calculations of nuclear shieldings for eight molecules (H2O, H2S, CH4, N2, CO, HF, F2, and SO2) are presented and compared...

  19. Dating the Shift to English in the Financial Accounts of Some London Livery Companies: A Reappraisal (United States)

    Alcolado Carnicero, José Miguel


    A mixed-language phenomenon such as language shift has been acknowledged to constitute one of the hallmarks of the manuscripts in which the members of the City of London livery companies recorded their financial transactions during the late medieval period. Despite these texts having been studied by scholars in very diverse disciplines,…

  20. "Delays and Vexation": Jack London and the Russo-Japanese War. (United States)

    Sweeney, Michael S.


    Contributes to scholarship on journalism history and censorship by discussing Jack London's efforts as a war correspondent to cover the Russo-Japanese War in Korea and Manchuria in 1904. Focuses on the difficulties he encountered as a result of systematic and highly restrictive censorship by the Japanese. (SR)

  1. Forging New Identities: Young Refugees and Minority Students Tell Their Stories. Views from London and Amsterdam. (United States)

    Minority Rights Group, London (England).

    This document is a collection of writings by refugee and minority children from the George Orwell School in London (England) and the Montessori College in Oost, Amsterdam (the Netherlands). About one-third of the students at the George Orwell School, were refugees. These students were aged 11 to 16 years old. About 30 to 40% of the students at the…

  2. Post-Event Volunteering Legacy: Did the London 2012 Games Induce a Sustainable Volunteer Engagement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki Koutrou


    Full Text Available The hosting of the London 2012 Olympic Games was seen as an opportunity to harness the enthusiasm of the 70,000 volunteers involved and to provide a post-event volunteer legacy. A total of 77 individuals who had acted as volunteers in London 2012 were contacted approximately four years after the Games and agreed to complete a web-based open-ended survey. The participants were asked to indicate their level of current volunteering engagement and whether volunteering at the Games had an impact on their current volunteering levels. The study found that the London Olympics were the first volunteer experience for most of the volunteers who completed the survey, with the main motivation to volunteer being anything related to the Olympic Games. Just over half of the respondents are currently volunteering. Lack of time is shown to be the main barrier towards further volunteering commitment. Only half of respondents had been contacted by a volunteering scheme after London 2012. The implications of the findings for a potential volunteering legacy are then explored.

  3. Complementary Schools in Action: Networking for Language Development in East London (United States)

    Sneddon, Raymonde


    In a challenging economic and political context, complementary schools in East London are mentoring each other and forming networks across communities to gain recognition and status for community languages in education and the wider community. As issues of power and status impact in different ways on differently situated communities, complementary…

  4. Bruckner: Simfonie N8 c-moll, London Philharmonic Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Martin Elste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elste, Martin


    Uuest heliplaadist "Bruckner: Simfonie N8 c-moll; Reger: Variationen und Fuge über ein Thema von Beethoven op. 86. London Philharmonic Orchestra, Neeme Järvi". Chandos/ Koch Records 2 CD 8843/44 (WD: 107'13") DDD

  5. Qualitative Research, Semiotics, North Beach, South of Markey, Jack London, and the Grateful Dead. (United States)

    Shank, Gary


    Looks at educational research from a macro perspective, advocating semiotics as the foundation for qualitative research in education. Presents myths and disputations and an open-ended conclusion via the kaleidoscopic interpretations of Jack London, Phil Dick, Jack Kerouac, the Grateful Dead, and an assortment of street characters. (Author/VWL)

  6. Different Spaces: Learning and Literacy with Children and Their Grandparents in East London Homes (United States)

    Jessel, John; Kenner, Charmian; Gregory, Eve; Ruby, Mahera; Arju, Tahera


    This paper investigates informal learning, literacy and language development occurring in the home through exchanges between children of three to six years of age and their grandparents in Sylheti/Bengali-speaking families of Bangladeshi origin and monolingual English-speaking families of mixed ethnicity living in east London. A survey identifying…

  7. Analyzing the Roles, Activities, and Skills of Learning Technologists: A Case Study from City University London (United States)

    Fox, Olivia; Sumner, Neal


    This article reports on a case study carried out at City University London into the role of learning technologists. The article examines how the role developed by providing points of comparison with a report on the career development of learning technology staff in UK universities in 2001. This case study identified that learning technologists…

  8. The Philae Controversy – Muscular Modernization and Paternalistic Preservation in Aswan and London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper


    Philae as it unfolded at the Foreign Office in Downing Street, in Egyptologists circles in Britain, among British administrators in Cairo, and in public spheres in late-Victorian London. Introducing the terms muscular modernization and paternalistic preservation the article analyses the tensions...

  9. Fra Bartolomeo della Porta detto Fra Bartolomeo, Adorazione del Bambino, National Gallery, London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Chris


    En artikel om et maleri af Fra Bartolomeo i National Gallery i London udlånt til en udstilling i Museo Tosio Martinengo I Brescia i forbindelse med opdagelsen af et fuldstændigt overensstemmende maleri i dette museums magasiner. Hypotesen var at Bresciabilledet var et værkstedsarbejde lavet på...

  10. The London Association for the Teaching of English 1947-67: A History (United States)

    Gibbons, Simon


    This is the fascinating story of the birth, growth, and development of the London Association for the Teaching of English from its earliest years through to the formation of the National Association for the Teaching of English and thereafter. The work of founder members of LATE, such as James Britton, Harold Rosen, and Nancy Martin, was critical…

  11. Teachers' Experiences of Autonomy in Continuing Professional Development: Teacher Learning Communities in London and Hong Kong (United States)

    Hargreaves, Eleanore; Berry, Rita; Lai, Y. C.; Leung, Pamela; Scott, David; Stobart, Gordon


    This paper examines teachers' experiences of autonomy as they undertook Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in the form of Teacher Learning Communities (TLCs) to develop Assessment for Learning (AfL). Participant teacher interview data were used from two parallel TLC projects, one in Hong Kong and one in London, UK. Autonomy was defined in…

  12. London Calling Olympic spotlight will shine on U.K. consumer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Come summer, the international spotlight will shine on the United Kingdom when the 2012 Olympics begin in London. While billions worldwide wilt be watching athletes striving to achieve their personal best, the coverage will also allow viewers to learn about the U.K. and its denizens. For apparel brands and retailers, it could offer a glimpse into possible new selling opportunities.

  13. Bilingual Behaviour, Attitudes, Identity and Vitality: Some Data from Japanese Speakers in London, UK (United States)

    Brown, Ivan; Sachdev, Itesh


    Although the Japanese community in London is relatively small, its composition is stable and reflects several aspects of Japan's relationship with the international community. Yet there appears to have been no systematic research exploring patterns of bilingual behaviour in relation to social psychological processes amongst Japanese nationals in…

  14. Inequalities in the Provision of Paediatric Speech and Language Therapy Services across London Boroughs (United States)

    Pring, Tim


    Background: The inverse-care law suggests that fewer healthcare resources are available in deprived areas where health needs are greatest. Aims: To examine the provision of paediatric speech and language services across London boroughs and to relate provision to the level of deprivation of the boroughs. Methods & Procedures: Information on the…

  15. Eilne London - maapealne põrgu / Katrin Lust-Buchanan, Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lust-Buchanan, Katrin


    Londoni metroos toimunud pommiplahvatustest. Vt. samas: Terrorirünnak Londonile. Katrin Pauts, Allar Viivik, Mirjam Roosioja. Londoni eestlased shokis. Allar Viivik. Astroloogid: rünnakut võis ennustada. Skeem: Londoni plahvatuses hukkus vähemalt 37 inimest. Lisad: London; Esmaspäeval heisatakse leinalipud; Eesti presidendi kaastundeavaldus; Eesti välisministri kaastundeavaldus

  16. A century of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bromley, D Allan


    In this amazing tour d'horizon, D. Allan Bromley uses the occasion of the centenary of the American Physical Society to reflect upon the growth of physics over the past 100 years, its fragmentation into numerous subdisciplines, the impact physics has had upon modern technology, and the re-emergence of the fundamental unity of the discipline in recent years. Hundreds of historical illustrations accompany the text. Bromley conveys much of the excitement and wonder that research in physics generated in the 20th century and asks what new things are in store in the next century. He covers such topics as relativity and quantum mechanics, the Manhattan project, superconductivity, transistors and the revolution brought about by solid-state electronics, protein folding, the uses of nuclear and atomic physics in biology and medicine, plate tectonics, the expansion of the universe and the Big Bang, and gravitational radiation. Bromley, the Sterling Professor of the Sciences and Dean of Yale University, served as Assista...

  17. The management century. (United States)

    Kiechel, Walter


    In 1886, addressing the nascent American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Henry R. Towne proposed that "the management of works" be considered a modern art--thereby heralding the Management Century, when management as we know it came into being and shaped the world in which we work. Kiechel, a past editorial director of Harvard Business Publishing, elucidates the three eras that punctuate this period: the years leading up to World War II, during which scientific exactitude gave wings to a new managerial elite; the early postwar decades, managerialism's apogee of self-confidence and a time when wartime principles of strategy were adapted, sometimes ruthlessly, to the running of companies; and the 1980s to the present, years that saw fast-moving changes, disequilibrium, and a servitude to market forces but also ushered in globalism, unprecedented innovation, and heightened expectations about how workers are to be treated. Along the way he examines the contributions of thinkers such as Frederick Taylor, Elton Mayo, Peter Drucker, and Michael Porter. What lies ahead? Perhaps the biggest challenge facing the 21st-century company, Kiechel posits, is to truly free the spark of human imagination from the organization's tidal pull toward the status quo. There's almost always a better way, he concludes--and management will continue to seek it.

  18. Dislocations and Ecologies. The Disruption of the Urban Experience of London in Peter Ackroyd, Iain Sinclair and Gilbert & George

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Pogossian


    Full Text Available London exerts attraction and repulsion upon travellers, writers and artists alike.Its past is overshadowed by the never-ending process of change, yet a closeinvestigation helps unveiling hidden parts of a collective memory. PeterAckroyd, Iain Sinclair and Gilbert & George have explored the memory ofLondon through the prism of cultural studies, psychogeography orcontemporary art. London: The Biography by Peter Ackroyd, Lights Out for theTerritory, London Orbital by Iain Sinclair and the 20 London E 1 Pictures byGilbert & George may serve as a basis for retrieving fragile realms of memory.We may wonder whether these realms cannot be likened to « ecology ofknowledge ». If ecology designates an environment regulated by specific rulesand mechanisms, what do “ecologies of knowledge” refer to in the urbancontext? Besides, the nature of the relationship between the experience ofLondon and the ecology of knowledge prompts questions. Does the experienceof London dislocate the artistic universes created by Peter Ackroyd, Iain Sinclairand Gilbert & George? Or do the artistic works partake in the dislocation ofurban experience? My contention in this paper is to unveil the ways in whichthe polymorphism of the city is translated into writerly and iconographic codes.As the understanding of the urban ecology keeps receding, similarly the worksadopt process and metamorphosis as structuring principles. First, thedestabilising exploration of London shall be assessed by its impact upon thephysical experience, and the renegotiation of concepts such as body,empiricism, and the spirit of the place. Then, the frustrating exploration ofLondon may be analysed through literary and artistic devices that echo thedislocation in the works. Eventually, these works will lead us to consider the dismemberingof the city body as the only means to the re-membering of London.

  19. Listening to those on the frontline: service users' experiences of London tuberculosis services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudioni M


    Full Text Available Markella Boudioni, Susan McLaren, Ruth Belling, Leslie WoodsInstitute for Leadership and Service Improvement, Faculty of Health and Social Care, London South Bank University, London, UKAim: To explore tuberculosis (TB service users' experiences and satisfaction with care provision.Background: Thirty-nine percent of all new UK TB cases occur in London. Prevalence varies considerably between and within boroughs. Overall, research suggests inadequate control of London's TB transmission; TB has become a health care priority for all London Primary Care Trusts. Service users' experiences and satisfaction with care provision have not been explored adequately previously.Methods: A qualitative research design, using semi-structured face-to-face interviews was used. Ten service users, purposively selected in key risk groups across London, were interviewed. All interviews were digitally recorded with users' permission, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically.Results: Participants were treated in local hospitals for 6–12 months. Treatment was administered by TB nurses to inpatients and outpatients receiving directly observed therapy in consultation with medical staff and home visits for complex cases. Two participants did not realize the importance of compliance. Overall, they were satisfied with many TB services' aspects, communication, and service organization. Early access, low suspicion index amongst some GPs, and restricted referral routes were identified as service barriers. Other improvement areas were information provision on drug side effects, diet, nutritional status, and a few health professionals' attitudes. The effects on people varied enormously from minimal impact to psychological shock; TB also affected social and personal aspects of their life. With regard to further support facilities, some positive views on managed accommodation by TB-aware professionals for those with accommodation problems were identified.Conclusion: This

  20. Application of MM5/CMAQ for modelling urban air pollution a case study for London, UK (United States)

    Kitwiroon, N.; Fragkou, E.; Sokhi, R. S.; San Jose, R.; Pérez Camaño, J. L.; Middleton, D.


    Urban air pollution has been particularly studied for the last few decades because of its recognised environmental dangers and health implications. The complexity of the urban surface characteristics and turbulence patterns has dictated the use of numerical models by environmental research agencies and regulators in order to predict and manage urban air pollution. However, most of these models are not specifically adapted to urban applications and normally do not include detailed urban parameterisation, such as for surface roughness or urban heat fluxes. Flow structure and dispersion of air pollutants within cities, however, are influenced by urban features such as increased surface roughness. This paper presents a study using MM5 and CMAQ to assess the effect of urban boundary layer features on meteorological parameters, and hence London's air quality. MM5 is a non-hydrostatic (version 3), terrain-following sigma-coordinate model designed to simulate mesoscale and regional-scale atmospheric circulation. This paper employs an improved surface roughness treatment on meteorological profiles and pollution dispersion. A surface roughness scale has been developed for London and the surrounding region. The land cover data was derived from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) data, with a spatial resolution of 25 × 25 m. These z_o values are employed with MM5 for modelling meteorological parameters over London, covering an inner domain area of 49 × 49 km. The outputs of MM5 have been coupled to CMAQ photochemical model to predict concentrations of particles, NO_2 and O_3 for London and the surrounding regions at a spatial resolution of 1 × 1 km. The predicted concentrations have been compared with monitored data obtained from a range of national air quality monitoring sites including Central London (Bloomsbury, Brent), East London (Bexley) and West London (Hillingdon). Comparison of hourly model predictions with measured data is made for pollution levels for

  1. The transmission of Rabbi Moses Arragel: Maqueda, Paris, London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutwirth, Eleazar


    Full Text Available Rabbi Moshe Arragel and other scholars composed in the years 1422-30/33 the Arragel Bible. It is an extensive work that includes several texts in at least five different genres, as well as more than three hundred illuminations. Scholarly research on this medieval codex has been carried out now for more than one century. It is therefore possible today to analyse and investigate some of the factors that define its particularities, traditions and changes. Political interests, institutional or scholarly traditions and technological changes are factors that determine this kind of studies. Attention is drawn to: a issues of technological reproduction (photolithography or facsimile industry in determining criticism, and b the role played by institutions (such as the Roxburghe Club in the making of knowledge.

    La Biblia de Arragel es el resultado del trabajo de Rabbi Moshe Arragel y de otros durante el periodo 1422-30/33. Se trata de un códice extenso que incluye textos en al menos cinco géneros diferentes, así como más de trescientas miniaturas. La investigación sobre esta obra medieval tiene ya más de un siglo. Hoy en día, por tanto, es posible analizar esta historia e indagar acerca de algunos de los factores que determinan sus peculiaridades, tradiciones y cambios. Apropiaciones políticas, tradiciones institucionales o disciplinarias, y cambios tecnológicos son factores que determinan esta clase de estudios. Así, además de señalar algunos aspectos relevantes de la historia de la investigación, se presta también atención a: a el problema de la relación entre crítica y tecnologías de reproducción (fotolitografía, industria del facsímil; y b el marco institucional (historia del Roxburghe Club y su papel en la producción del saber.

  2. Did policies to abate atmospheric emissions from traffic have a positive effect in London? (United States)

    Font, Anna; Fuller, Gary W


    A large number of policy initiatives are being taken at the European level, across the United Kingdom and in London to improve air quality and reduce population exposure to harmful pollutants from traffic emissions. Trends in roadside increments of nitrogen oxides (NOX), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM), black carbon (CBLK) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were examined at 65 London monitoring sites for two periods of time: 2005-2009 and 2010-2014. Between 2005 and 2009 there was an overall increase in NO2 reflecting the growing evidence of real world emissions from diesel vehicles. Conversely, NO2 decreased by 10%·year(-1) from 2010 onwards along with PM2.5 (-28%·year(-1)) and black carbon (-11%·year(-1)). Downwards trends in air pollutants were not fully explained by changes in traffic counts therefore traffic exhaust emission abatement policies were proved to be successful in some locations. PM10 concentrations showed no significant overall change suggesting an increase in coarse particles which offset the decrease in tailpipe emissions; this was especially the case on roads in outer London where an increase in the number of Heavy Good Vehicles (HGVs) was seen. The majority of roads with increasing NOX experienced an increase in buses and coaches. Changes in CO2 from 2010 onwards did not match the downward predictions from reduced traffic flows and improved fleet efficiency. CO2 increased along with increasing HGVs and buses. Polices to manage air pollution provided differential benefits across London's road network. To investigate this, k-means clustering technique was applied to group roads which behaved similarly in terms of trends to evaluate the effectiveness of policies to mitigate traffic emissions. This is the first time that London's roadside monitoring sites have been considered as a population rather than summarized as a mean behaviour only, allowing greater insight into the differential changes in air pollution abatement policies.

  3. The millions of people who use public transport in London every day deserve a frequent, comprehensive, and fairly priced service\\ud


    Freeston-Clough, Richard


    More than 3 million Londoners use public transport in the capital every day; without it, London would literally grind to a halt. Richard Freeston-Clough of London TravelWatch writes that ahead of the upcoming Mayoral elections in May, public transport must be a priority for the candidates, and sets out ten policies to keep Londoners moving and ensure an accessible, efficient service that provides good value for money for its users.\\ud \\ud

  4. A Century of Tuberculosis Epidemiology in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere: The Differential Impact of Control Interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hermans

    Full Text Available Cape Town has one of the highest TB burdens of any city in the world. In 1900 the City of Cape Town, New York City and London had high mortality of tuberculosis (TB. Throughout the 20th century contemporaneous public health measures including screening, diagnosis and treatment were implemented in all three settings. Mandatory notification of TB and vital status enabled comparison of disease burden trajectories.TB mortality, notification and case fatality rates were calculated from 1912 to 2012 using annual TB notifications, TB death certifications and population estimates. Notification rates were stratified by age and in Cape Town by HIV status (from 2009 onwards.Pre-chemotherapy, TB mortality and notification rates declined steadily in New York and London but remained high in Cape Town. Following introduction of combination chemotherapy, mean annual case fatality dropped from 45-60% to below 10% in all three settings. Mortality and notification rates subsequently declined, although Cape Town notifications did not decline as far as those in New York or London and returned to pre-chemotherapy levels by 1980. The proportional contribution of childhood TB diminished in New York and London but remained high in Cape Town. The advent of the Cape Town HIV-epidemic in the 1990s was associated with a further two-fold increase in incidence. In 2012, notification rates among HIV-negatives remained at pre-chemotherapy levels.TB control was achieved in New York and London but failed in Cape Town. The TB disease burden trajectories started diverging before the availability of combination chemotherapy in 1952 and further diverged following the HIV epidemic in 1990. Chemotherapy impacted case fatality but not transmission, evidenced by on-going high childhood TB rates. Currently endemic TB results from high on-going transmission, which has been exacerbated by the HIV epidemic. TB control will require reducing transmission, which is inexorably linked to

  5. Property Inheritance of Wives in British and China from 14th Century to 16th Century%14-16世纪英、中妻子财产继承比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    It was the social transition of Englandduring the period from fourteenth century to sixteenth century,and London has been at the forefront of the time for its prosperity of handicraft industry and commerce.London also enjoyed its own laws and customs because of its autonomous city status.Among these laws and customs,there were many provisions conducive to the property inheritance of wives of London.This was a pledge for wives of London to inherited a large amount of property from their husbands.On the other hand,wives of China of this period of time had never enjoyed independent rights of property inheritance,even though China had also gone through the prosperity of commodity economy.Customs of nongovernmental al-lowed wives to keep property of their husbands,but these customs were not as tolerant as customs of London.From the com-parison between China and London,we can see not only the different attitudes toward wives in different society,but also their different positionson their own survival and developing road.%14-16世纪是英国的社会转型期。在伦敦,工商业的繁荣使其居于时代的前沿,自治城市地位又使之拥有自己的法律与习俗,其中有许多有利于妻子财产继承的规定,为寡妻继承大量亡夫遗产提供了一定的保障。同时期的中国也曾有过商品经济的繁荣,但妻子在法律上始终没有独立的财产继承权,虽然民间习俗允许寡妻继管家产,但也不似伦敦的习俗那般宽容。两相比较,不仅可见中国和伦敦社会对待寡妻的不同态度,亦可体现出她们在生存与发展道路上所处的不同位置。

  6. A tale of two cities. Vulnerabilities of the London and Paris transit networks

    CERN Document Server

    von Ferber, C; Holovatch, T; Holovatch, Yu


    This paper analyses the impact of random failure or attack on the public transit networks of London and Paris in a comparative study. In particular we analyze how the dysfunction or removal of sets of stations or links (rails, roads, etc.) affects the connectivity properties within these networks. We show how accumulating dysfunction leads to emergent phenomena that cause the transportation system to break down as a whole. Simulating different directed attack strategies, we find minimal strategies with high impact and identify a-priory criteria that correlate with the resilience of these networks. To demonstrate our approach, we choose the London and Paris public transit networks. Our quantitative analysis is performed in the frames of the complex network theory - a methodological tool that has emerged recently as an interdisciplinary approach joining methods and concepts of the theory of random graphs, percolation, and statistical physics. In conclusion we demonstrate that taking into account cascading effec...

  7. Looking back on the London Olympics: Independent outcome and hindsight effects in decision evaluation. (United States)

    Blank, Hartmut; Diedenhofen, Birk; Musch, Jochen


    Outcome bias and hindsight bias are related, but how exactly? To remedy theoretical ambiguity and non-existent directly relevant empirical research, we contrast an older idea (Baron & Hershey, 1988, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 54, 569) that sees outcome bias as partly mediated through hindsight bias with the idea that the two biases independently affect decision evaluations. In an Internet study of retrospections on the 2012 London Olympics, evaluations of the Games' success and its foreseeability had independent effects on evaluations of the International Olympic Committee's decision to award the Olympics to London; there was no evidence of mediation. Further theoretical discussion emphasizes the need to distinguish between a holistic assessment of decisions and a more specific assessment of the decision-making process in future outcome bias research.

  8. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by Natural History Museum, London

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment


    Nature Live is a programme of daily events which take place at the Natural History Museum, London. Nature Live brings together scientists and visitors to explore, discover and discuss the natural world and our place within it. In each event visitors get the chance to meet our scientists, see the specimens they study and ask lots of questions. Today Nature Live will feature a live link to the LHC control room at CERN. This will give visitors the amazing opportunity to ask questions to the physicists involved about the Large Hadron Collider experiments, Higgs particles and antimatter. As well as to discover how scientists at the Museum and at CERN are all looking back through deep time to answer those big questions on the origins of life, the universe and everything.

  9. Annotated type catalogue of the Amphibulimidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London. (United States)

    Breure, Abraham S H; Ablett, Jonathan D


    The type status is described of 39 taxa classified within the family Amphibulimidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea) and kept in the London museum. One taxon, Bulimus elaeodes Pfeiffer, 1853, is removed to the Strophocheilidae. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus adoptus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus (Eurytus) eros Angas, 1878; Helix onca d'Orbigny, 1835; Amphibulima pardalina Guppy, 1868. The type status of the following taxon is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Strophocheilus (Dryptus) jubeus Fulton, 1908.As general introduction to this and following papers on Orthalicoid types in the Natural History Museum, a brief history of the London collection is given and several examples of handwriting from different authors are presented.

  10. Exhibition Season: Annual Archaeological Exhibitions in London, 1880s-1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amara Thornton


    Full Text Available Annual archaeological exhibitions were a visible symbol of archaeological research. Held mainly in London, the displays encapsulated a network of archaeologists, artists, architects and curators, and showcased the work of the first generations of trained archaeologists. The exhibition catalogues and published reviews of the displays provide a unique method for exploring the reception and sponsorship of archaeological work overseas and its promotion to a fascinated, well connected and well moneyed public. The exhibitions were a space in which conversation and networking were as important as educational enrichment. This paper analyses the social history of the “annual exhibition” in archaeology, highlighting the development and maintenance of the networks behind archaeological research, the geography of London as a way to examine influence in archaeology, and the utility of exhibitions for archaeological publicity during this period of exploration.

  11. From Sanctuaries to Prefigurative Social Change: Creating Health-Enabling Spaces in East London Community Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine A. Guerlain


    for effective community mobilization. AIDS Care, 22(Suppl. 2, 1569-1579; and a discussion of how creating these spaces is an act of prefigurative social change. Our findings suggest that in East London, participation in community gardens is not based on a common political intention or self-conscious motive to prefigure a new society, but instead on the shared practice of gardening. This results in unintended benefits that often address participants’ personal adversities in ways that contribute to the material, relational and symbolic deprivation of their daily lives – opening up new possibilities for being, seeing and doing. In this sense, community gardens in East London offer an alternative to traditional notions of prefigurative social action that are predicated on strategic intention. We argue for an understanding of prefiguration that better accounts for what participants themselves would like to achieve in their own lives, rather than in relation to externally imposed notions of what counts as political change.

  12. Quasiclassical approach to nonlocal generalized London equation in mixed state of s -wave superconductors (United States)

    Laiho, R.; Safonchik, M.; Traito, K. B.


    We extend the Ginsburg-Landau solution for cutoff function in London equation to low temperatures by solving numerically the quasiclassical Eilenberger equations in mixed state of s -wave superconductors. As a result the nonlocal generalized London equation (NGLE) is obtained. The magnetic field and temperature dependence of the cutoff function parameter k1(B,T) are calculated. Due to Kramer-Pesch effect k1 decreases strongly at low temperatures. It is also found that k1 has a minimum at a value of magnetic field depending on temperature. We reduce the NGLE model to an effective local model and calculate the value of an effective penetration depth λeff(B,T) . The sublinear field dependence of λeff is predicted that agrees with experimental μ SR results for the penetration depth of magnetic field in the s -wave superconductor V3Si and NbSe2 .

  13. A Typical Model Audit Approach: Spreadsheet Audit Methodologies in the City of London

    CERN Document Server

    Croll, Grenville J


    Spreadsheet audit and review procedures are an essential part of almost all City of London financial transactions. Structured processes are used to discover errors in large financial spreadsheets underpinning major transactions of all types. Serious errors are routinely found and are fed back to model development teams generally under conditions of extreme time urgency. Corrected models form the essence of the completed transaction and firms undertaking model audit and review expose themselves to significant financial liability in the event of any remaining significant error. It is noteworthy that in the United Kingdom, the management of spreadsheet error is almost unheard of outside of the City of London despite the commercial ubiquity of the spreadsheet.

  14. Diversity and sensitivity of epiphytes to oxides of nitrogen in London

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, L. [Centre for Environmental Policy, South Kensington Campus, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom) and Natural History Museum, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:; Bates, J.W. [Centre for Environmental Policy, South Kensington Campus, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bell, J.N.B. [Centre for Environmental Policy, South Kensington Campus, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); James, P.W. [Natural History Museum, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Purvis, O.W. [Natural History Museum, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom)


    This study investigated the distribution and diversity of epiphytes in London in relation to NO{sub x} using fine-scale atmospheric dispersion modelling. The survey recorded over 3000 epiphytes from 334 trees (Fraxinus excelsior) representing 74 lichen, 14 moss, 7 fungal and 3 algal species. There was a significant inverse relationship between diversity and NO{sub x}. Diversity declined where NO{sub x} exceeded 70 {mu}g m{sup -3} and NO{sub 2} exceeded 40 {mu}g m{sup -3}, suggesting a phytotoxic effect. However, there was a significant positive relationship between NO{sub x} and lichen abundance due to the ubiquitous distribution of pollution tolerant species, mainly associated with eutrophication. A scale of lichen sensitivity to NO{sub x} has been derived. - Epiphytic biodiversity in London is related to ambient NO{sub x}.

  15. The radiological impact on the Greater London population of postulated accidental releases from the Sizewell PWR

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, G N; Charles, D; Hemming, C R


    This report contains an assessment of the radiological impact on the Greater London population of postulated accidental releases from the Sizewell PWR. Three of the degraded core accident releases postulated by the CEGB are analysed. The consequences, conditional upon each release, are evaluated in terms of the health impact on the exposed population and the impact of countermeasures taken to limit the exposure. Consideration is given to the risk to the Greater London population as a whole and to individuals within it. The consequences are evaluated using the NRPB code MARC (Methodology for Assessing Radiological Consequences). The results presented in this report are all conditional upon the occurrence of each release. In assessing the significance of the results, due account must be taken of the frequency with which such releases may be predicted to occur.

  16. Biomarkers in Clinical Trials--SMi Conference. 23-24 September 2009, London, UK. (United States)

    Walker, Glenda


    The Biomarkers in Clinical Trials conference, held in London, included topics covering new developments in the field of biomarkers. This conference report highlights selected presentations on the definition of biomarkers, the use of biomarkers to support decisions in drug development and to improve treatment outcomes, and the aims of the Biomarkers Consortium. A case study of the investigational drug selumetinib (AstraZeneca plc) is also discussed.

  17. Sociodemographic differences in return to work after stroke - the South London Stroke Register (SLSR)


    Busch, Markus; Coshall, C.; Heuschmann, P. U.; McKevitt, C; Wolfe, C.D.A.


    Abstract Background: Loss of employment contributes significantly to the burden of stroke on individuals and society. There is limited information on factors influencing return to work after stroke. Objectives: To investigate frequency and determinants of return to paid work after stroke in a multiethnic urban population. Methods: Patterns of return to work were examined among people with first-ever stroke registered in the population-based South London Stroke...

  18. Orwell Court. Gegen/Blicke in einer betongewordenen Wohnutopie im Londoner Nordosten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Grschrey


    Full Text Available Die Fotoserie und der Begleittext untersuchen Blicke und Gegenblicke innerhalb des im Londoner Stadtteil Hackney gelegenen Wohnkomplexes „Orwell Court“, der von Videoüberwachung, Zäunen und Warnschildern dominiert wird. Assoziationen zu dessen Namen, der auf den Autoren des dystopischen Romans 1984 verweist, dienen als Referenz für die Betrachtung des speziellen Raumgefühls des „Orwell Court“, der (SicherheitsArchitektur, sowie deren Individualisierung und Subversion.

  19. Does sleep disturbance predict depression in elderly people? A study in inner London.


    Livingston, G.; Blizard, B; Mann, A


    Insomnia in elderly people has traditionally been regarded as inevitable and trivial. A longitudinal study was undertaken to examine the prevalence of sleep disturbance among elderly people in an inner London community and its association with demographic variables, depression, dementia and disability. Those aged 65 years and over living at home were interviewed using a validated and reliable semi-structured interview schedule. A total of 705 people were interviewed in 1987-88 and 524 were re...

  20. Evaluating the use of an urban consolidation centre and electric vehicles in central London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Browne


    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the role that can be played by urban consolidation centres (UCCs in reducing freight traffic and its environmental impacts in towns and cities. It is based on the before and after evaluation of a trial led by a major stationery and office supplies company in which urban freight deliveries in central London made from a depot in the suburbs using diesel vehicles were replaced with the use of an urban micro-consolidation centre located in the delivery area together with the use of electrically-assisted cargo tricycles and electric vans. The results show that the total distance travelled and the CO2eq emissions per parcel delivered fell by 20% and 54% respectively as a result of this delivery system. However, the evaluation has also indicated that the distance travelled per parcel rose substantially in the City of London delivery area as a result of the electric vehicles having far smaller load limits in both weight and volume compared with diesel vans. But, at the same time, the trial system was able to virtually eliminate CO2eq emissions per parcel delivered in the City of London. The trial proved successful from the company's perspective in transport, environmental and financial terms. The company therefore decided to continue the operation beyond the end of the trial with it being officially launched during 2010.

  1. Age estimation in Portuguese population: The application of the London atlas of tooth development and eruption. (United States)

    Pavlović, Strahinja; Palmela Pereira, Cristiana; Vargas de Sousa Santos, Rui Filipe


    Chronological age estimation from the dental parameters is becoming increasingly important. The London atlas of tooth development is the most recent developed method and represents a modification of the previous older methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the London atlas for the dental age estimation in the Portuguese population. The study sample included 736 radiographic images (498 females and 238 males) of Portuguese origin, patients of Dental Clinic of Superior Institute of Health Sciences Egas Moniz and Dental Medicine Faculty, University of Lisbon. The age range of the individuals was between 3 and 24 years. Estimated age was compared with the chronological age using the paired t-test. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between left and right side of the jaw (p>0.05). Both sides showed an average overestimation of age by one month approximately. Moreover, the significant difference between chronological and estimated age was not observed in the females. However, the significant difference was observed in a sample coming from males (right: p=0.008; left: p=0.003). Our results showed that the London atlas can be potentially used as a tool for age estimation. However, the difference between sexes clearly suggests that separate charts should be made for each sex. Further studies, which will have as a final goal the development of a new method for age estimation using dental parameters, are needed.

  2. Uncertainties in Tidally Adjusted Estimates of Sea Level Rise Flooding (Bathtub Model for the Greater London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali P. Yunus


    Full Text Available Sea-level rise (SLR from global warming may have severe consequences for coastal cities, particularly when combined with predicted increases in the strength of tidal surges. Predicting the regional impact of SLR flooding is strongly dependent on the modelling approach and accuracy of topographic data. Here, the areas under risk of sea water flooding for London boroughs were quantified based on the projected SLR scenarios reported in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC fifth assessment report (AR5 and UK climatic projections 2009 (UKCP09 using a tidally-adjusted bathtub modelling approach. Medium- to very high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs are used to evaluate inundation extents as well as uncertainties. Depending on the SLR scenario and DEMs used, it is estimated that 3%–8% of the area of Greater London could be inundated by 2100. The boroughs with the largest areas at risk of flooding are Newham, Southwark, and Greenwich. The differences in inundation areas estimated from a digital terrain model and a digital surface model are much greater than the root mean square error differences observed between the two data types, which may be attributed to processing levels. Flood models from SRTM data underestimate the inundation extent, so their results may not be reliable for constructing flood risk maps. This analysis provides a broad-scale estimate of the potential consequences of SLR and uncertainties in the DEM-based bathtub type flood inundation modelling for London boroughs.

  3. Terahertz vibrations of crystalline acyclic and cyclic diglycine: benchmarks for London force correction models. (United States)

    Juliano, Thomas R; Korter, Timothy M


    Terahertz spectroscopy provides direct information concerning weak intermolecular forces in crystalline molecular solids and therefore acts as an excellent method for calibrating and evaluating computational models for noncovalent interactions. In this study, the low-frequency vibrations of two dipeptides were compared, acyclic diglycine and cyclic diglycine, as benchmark systems for gauging the performance of semiempirical London force correction approaches. The diglycine samples were investigated using pulsed terahertz spectroscopy from 10 to 100 cm(-1) and then analyzed using solid-state density functional theory (DFT) augmented with existing London force corrections, as well as a new parametrization (DFT-DX) based on known experimental values. The two diglycine molecules provide a useful test for the applied models given their similarities, but more importantly the differences in the intermolecular forces displayed by each. It was found that all of the considered London force correction models were able to generate diglycine crystal structures of similar accuracy, but considerable variation occurred in their abilities to predict terahertz frequency vibrations. The DFT-DX parametrization was particularly successful in this investigation and shows promise for the improved analysis of low-frequency spectra.

  4. The Roots of Fencing from the Twelfth to the Fourteenth Centuries in the French Language Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dupuis Olivier


    Full Text Available This article offers a partial overview on fencing, as recognized through archive records, as well as French epics and romances from the twelfth to the early fourteenth century. In the twelfth century, fencing was only attested through knightly vocabulary as a way to describe actions performed during single combats involving a combination of shield and another weapon, most commonly a sword. Fencing was progressively dissociated from the knightly arts and there were even few mentions of its use by common people. There are archive records from the thirteenth century of individuals bearing the nickname “fencer”, although there is rarely enough context to be certain that they were really practicing the art. At the end of the thirteenth century, archives and narrative fiction show an established fashion for a certain form of fencing with a short round shield, the buckler. This is clearly established in London where surviving manuscripts include many regulations on fencing, however the fashion was also spread in the continent, even though it seems to be less documented.

  5. Population genomics of cardiometabolic traits: design of the University College London-London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine-Edinburgh-Bristol (UCLEB Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Shah

    Full Text Available Substantial advances have been made in identifying common genetic variants influencing cardiometabolic traits and disease outcomes through genome wide association studies. Nevertheless, gaps in knowledge remain and new questions have arisen regarding the population relevance, mechanisms, and applications for healthcare. Using a new high-resolution custom single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array (Metabochip incorporating dense coverage of genomic regions linked to cardiometabolic disease, the University College-London School-Edinburgh-Bristol (UCLEB consortium of highly-phenotyped population-based prospective studies, aims to: (1 fine map functionally relevant SNPs; (2 precisely estimate individual absolute and population attributable risks based on individual SNPs and their combination; (3 investigate mechanisms leading to altered risk factor profiles and CVD events; and (4 use Mendelian randomisation to undertake studies of the causal role in CVD of a range of cardiovascular biomarkers to inform public health policy and help develop new preventative therapies.

  6. Identifying socio-demographic and socioeconomic determinants of health inequalities in a diverse London community: the South East London Community Health (SELCoH study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatch Stephani L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Responses to public health need require information on the distribution of mental and physical ill health by demographic and socioeconomic factors at the local community level. Methods The South East London Community Health (SELCoH study is a community psychiatric and physical morbidity survey. Trained interviewers conducted face-to-face computer assisted interviews with 1698 adults aged 16 years and over, from 1076 randomly selected private households in two south London boroughs. We compared the prevalence of common mental disorders, hazardous alcohol use, long standing illness and general physical health by demographic and socioeconomic indicators. Unadjusted and models adjusted for demographic and socioeconomic indicators are presented for all logistic regression models. Results Of those in the sample, 24.2% reported common mental disorder and 44.9% reported having a long standing illness, with 15.7% reporting hazardous alcohol consumption and 19.2% rating their health as fair or poor. The pattern of indicators identifying health inequalities for common mental disorder, poor general health and having a long term illness is similar; individuals who are socioeconomically disadvantaged have poorer health and physical health worsens as age increases for all groups. The prevalence of poor health outcomes by ethnic group suggests that there are important differences between groups, particularly for common mental disorder and poor general health. Higher socioeconomic status was protective for common mental disorder, fair or poor health and long standing illness, but those with higher socioeconomic status reported higher levels of hazardous alcohol use. The proportion of participants who met the criteria for common mental disorder with co-occurring functional limitations was similar or greater to those with poor physical health. Conclusions Health service providers and policy makers should prioritise high risk, socially defined

  7. London Calling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amos, Lisbeth Rieshøj


    The above contribution appears in Down The Block: An Anthology of City Life; available at In this anthology, new authors and bloggers react to life in cities throughout the world. With a foreword by Mary Beard, Cambridge University Professor and Times Literary...

  8. An eighteenth century travelling theodolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Malaquias

    Full Text Available Abstract An old topographic compass displayed in a showroom of the Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, took our curiosity namely because of its resemblance to a theodolite, described by J.H. de Magellan. Not many things were known about its previous history. From the different documents studied, and the characteristics of this singular theodolite, it must have belonged to the collections of instruments acquired for the Brazilian border demarcations undertaken after the Santo Ildefonso Treaty, agreed to by the Portuguese and Spanish courts in 1777. Several instruments were bought in London, and supervised and chosen by Magellan, the Portuguese instruments expert. We present arguments in favour of this conclusion.

  9. An eighteenth century travelling theodolite. (United States)

    Malaquias, Isabel


    An old topographic compass displayed in a showroom of the Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST), in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, took our curiosity namely because of its resemblance to a theodolite, described by J.H. de Magellan. Not many things were known about its previous history. From the different documents studied, and the characteristics of this singular theodolite, it must have belonged to the collections of instruments acquired for the Brazilian border demarcations undertaken after the Santo Ildefonso Treaty, agreed to by the Portuguese and Spanish courts in 1777. Several instruments were bought in London, and supervised and chosen by Magellan, the Portuguese instruments expert. We present arguments in favour of this conclusion.

  10. Central and East European migrant men who have sex with men in London: a comparison of recruitment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Christopher J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the expansion of the European Union, there has been a large influx of Central and East European (CEE migrants to the UK. CEE men who have sex with men (MSM represent a small minority within this population that are none-the-less important to capture in sexual health research among the CEE migrant community. This paper examines the feasibility of recruiting CEE MSM for a survey of sexual behaviour in London using respondent driven sampling (RDS, via gay websites and in GUM clinics. Methods We sought CEE MSM to start RDS chain referral among GUM clinic attendees, our personal contacts and at gay events and venues in central London. We recruited CEE MSM (n = 485 via two popular websites for gay men in Britain (March-May 2009 and at two central London GUM clinics (n = 51 (July 2008-March 2009. Results We found seventeen men who knew other CEE MSM in London and agreed to recruit contacts into the study. These men recruited only three men into the study, none of whom recruited any further respondents, and RDS was abandoned after 7 months (July 2008-January 2009. Half of the men that we approached to participate in RDS did not know any other CEE MSM in London. Men who agreed to recruit contacts for RDS were rather more likely to have been in the UK for more than one year (94.1% vs 70.0%, p = 0.052. Men recruited through gay websites and from GUM clinics were similar. Conclusions The Internet was the most successful method for collecting data on sexual risk behaviour among CEE MSM in London. CEE MSM in London were not well networked. RDS may also have failed because they did not fully understand the procedure and/or the financial incentive was not sufficient motivation to take part.

  11. Combined Ground and Space-Based Measurements of Air Quality during the London Olympic Games 2012 (United States)

    Graves, R. R.; Leigh, R. J.; Singh Anand, J.; McNally, M.; Lawrence, J.; Remedios, J.; Monks, P. S.


    During July and August 2012 the Summer Olympic Games were held in London. During this period, unusually high levels of traffic and visitors to the city were expected, it is important to understand the effect this had on the air quality in London during this period. To this end three novel CityScan instruments were installed in London from the 20th July though to the end of September; affording the unique opportunity to monitor the spatial and vertical structure of nitrogen dioxide within the boundary layer in unprecedented detail. The deployment was included as part of the large NERC funded ClearfLo project (Clean Air for London) involving many other institutions and complementary measurement techniques. CityScan is a Hemispherical Scanning Imaging Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer (HSI-DOAS) which is has been optimised to measure concentrations of nitrogen dioxide. CityScan has a 95° field of view (FOV) between the zenith and 5° below the horizon. Across this FOV there are 128 resolved elements which are measured concurrently, the spectrometer is rotated azimuthally 1° per second providing full hemispherical coverage every 6 minutes. CityScan measures concentrations of nitrogen dioxide over specific lines of sight and due to the extensive field of view of the instrument this produces measurements which are representative over city-wide scales. Nitrogen dioxide is an important air pollutant which is produced in all combustion processes and can reduce lung function; especially in sensitised individuals. These instruments aim to bridge the gap in spatial scales between point source measurements of air quality and satellite measurements of air quality offering additional information on emissions, transport and the chemistry of nitrogen dioxide. More information regarding the CityScan technique can be found at The first of the three CityScan instruments was located in North Kensington, the second in Soho and third

  12. Analysis of the cost of hydrogen infrastructure for buses in London (United States)

    Shayegan, S.; Hart, D.; Pearson, P.; Joffe, D.

    The use of hydrogen (H 2) as transport fuel is often said to suffer from the 'chicken and egg' problem: vehicles that depend on H 2 cannot go on the roads due to the lack of an adequate infrastructure, and the almost non-existent fleet of H 2 vehicles on the roads makes it economically unsound to build a H 2 infrastructure. Although both hydrogen vehicles (fuel cell and internal combustion engine) and the related infrastructure have been (and are being) developed and some are commercially available, cost is seen as a major barrier. With today's technologies, H 2 only becomes competitive with petrol and diesel when produced at large quantities, suitable for supplying e.g. thousands of H 2 buses. The question is, how might this point be reached, and are there least cost infrastructural pathways to reach it. This paper tries to address the latter question, using the early development of a H 2 infrastructure for buses in London as a case study. The paper presents some of the analyses and results from a Ph.D. project (in progress) being undertaken at Imperial College London, funded by EPSRC (Grant GR/R50790/01). The results presented here illustrate that cost of hydrogen production and delivery vary mainly with levels of hydrogen demand and delivery distances, as well as other logistic criteria; least cost production-delivery pathways have been identified for various hydrogen demand scenarios and refuelling station set-ups. Another important conclusion is that the pattern of converting a group of refuelling stations to hydrogen (e.g. a group of refuelling stations for buses in London) has a significant effect on the unit cost of hydrogen.

  13. Making Bengali Brick Lane: claiming and contesting space in East London. (United States)

    Alexander, Claire


    Based on a recent empirical project on 'the Bengal diaspora', the paper explores the construction and contestation of meanings around the iconic East London street, Brick Lane. Taking the 2006 protests around the film Brick Lane as its starting point, the paper draws on original interviews conducted in 2008 with a range of Bengali community representatives, to examine the narratives of space, community and belonging that emerge around the idea of Brick Lane as the 'cultural heartland' of the British Bangladeshi community. By exploring the representation, production and contestation of 'social space' through everyday practices, the paper engages with and contests the representation of minority ethnic 'communities' in the context of contemporary multicultural London and examines the process of 'claiming' and 'making' space in East London. In so doing, the paper contributes to a critical tradition that challenges essentialising and pathologizing accounts of ethnic communities and racialized spaces, or that places them outside of broader social and historical processes - redolent, for example, in contemporary discussions about 'parallel lives' or 'the clash of civilizations'. By contrast, this paper views social space as made through movement and narration, with a particular emphasis on the social agency of local Bengali inhabitants and the multiple meanings that emerge from within this 'imagined community'. However, rather than simply stressing the unfinished and processual nature of spatial meanings, the paper insists on the historical, embodied and affective dimensions of such meaning making, and a reckoning with the broader social and political landscape within which such meanings take shape. The focus on Brick Lane provides an empirically rich, geographically and historically located lens through which to explore the complex role of ethnicity as a marker of social space and of spatial practices of resistance and identity. By exploring Bengali Brick Lane through

  14. Seasonal trends in concentrations and fluxes of volatile organic compounds above central London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Valach


    Full Text Available Concentrations and fluxes of seven volatile organic compounds (VOCs were measured between August and December 2012 at a roof-top site in central London as part of the ClearfLo project (Clean Air for London. VOC concentrations were quantified using a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer and fluxes were calculated using a virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique. The median VOC fluxes, including aromatics, oxygenated compounds and isoprene, ranged from 0.07 to 0.33 mg m−2 h−1 and mixing ratios were 7.27 ppb for methanol (m / z 33 and <1 ppb for the remaining compounds. Strong relationships were observed between most VOC fluxes and concentrations with traffic density, but also with photosynthetically active radiation (PAR and temperature for the oxygenated compounds and isoprene. An estimated 50–90 % of aromatic fluxes were attributable to traffic activity, which showed little seasonal variation, suggesting boundary layer effects or possibly advected pollution may be the primary causes of increased concentrations of aromatics in winter. PAR and temperature-dependent processes accounted for the majority of isoprene, methanol and acetaldehyde fluxes and concentrations in August and September, when fluxes and concentrations were largest. Modelled biogenic isoprene fluxes using the G95 algorithm agreed well with measured fluxes in August and September, due to urban vegetation. Comparisons of estimated annual benzene emissions from the London and National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory agreed well with measured benzene fluxes. Flux footprint analysis indicated emission sources were localized and that boundary layer dynamics and source strengths were responsible for temporal and spatial VOC flux and concentration variability during the measurement period.

  15. Your name is not good enough: introducing the ORCID researcher identifier at Imperial College London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Reimer


    Full Text Available The ORCID researcher identifier ensures that research outputs can always reliably be traced back to their authors. ORCID also makes it possible to automate the sharing of research information, thereby increasing data quality, reducing duplication of effort for academics and saving institutions money. In 2014, Imperial College London created ORCID identifiers (iDs for academic and research staff. This article discusses the implementation project in the context of the role of ORCID in the global scholarly communications system. It shows how ORCID can be used to automate reporting, help with research data publication and support open access (OA.

  16. The trypanosomatid evolution workshop London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Jamie


    Full Text Available The trypanosome evolution workshop, a joint meeting of the University of Exeter and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, focused on topics relating to trypanosomatid and vector evolution. The meeting, sponsored by The Wellcome Trust, The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Disease of World Health Organization and the British Section of the Society of Protozoologists, brought together an international group of experts who presented papers on a wide range of topics including parasite and vector phylogenies, molecular methodology and relevant biogeographical data.

  17. Sustainable cities: A research by McKinsey and Siemens on sustainable development in London

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denig, Stefan


    The research Sustainable Urban Infrastructure conducted by McKinsey and Company and Siemens assesses technological levers of varying effectiveness, and with different cost implications, which can all contribute to greater environmental sustainability in cities, drawing in particular on the example of London. It's the first comprehensive research focusing on technological and economic implications of a city's infrastructure management in the fields of energy, buildings and transportation. The encouraging message is that many of the levers to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions in urban agglomerations not only help protect the environment, but also pay back from an economic point of view.

  18. Diasporismo e anonimidade migratória no cinema: London River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Tassi Teixeira


    Full Text Available O artigo discute o filme London River (Rachid Bouchareb, 2009 explorando as relações entre escolhas imagético-narrativas, identidades e lugares das personagens em trânsito, focalizando as dinâmicas interculturais entre as historicidades móveis e as culturas de recepção. Desenvolve a noção da experiência do deslocamento como condição sine qua non da construção dos itinerários culturais pela globalização circundante.

  19. Symbiote 5 @ the Rag Factory Gallery London: a gallery guide in 8 postcards


    van Rijn, Walter


    Made as part of the project Symbiote 5 @ The Rag Factory London (2011) Artist book: A set of 8 printed postcards, 147 x 105mm A6, numbered 1-8?Colour and black&white. Double sided print.? Edition of 50 ex. All images are based on videos of actual exhibitions/events at the Rag Factory, downloaded from youtube. (cc)BY-NC-SA 2011 Walter van Rijn?. See also: Exhibited: ?Symbiote 5 @ The Rag Factory, 6-10 July 2011. The Rag Factory, 16 Hene...

  20. Against over-interpretation: the understanding of pain amongst Turkish and Kurdish speakers in London. (United States)

    Yazar, J; Littlewood, R


    The understanding of experienced pain has recently moved from the biological to the metaphorical. Detailed interviews with twelve Turkish and Kurdish patients in London who had been unsuccessfully investigated medically for chronic pain showed that their understanding reflected local, typically humoural, conceptions of self and body. However there was little to suggest interpretation of the illness as a more specific and grounded idiom for social or political experience. It is suggested that the current vogue for 'interpretation' in medical anthropology and social psychiatry may occasionally be, as Umberto Eco puts it, 'over-interpretation'.

  1. Materials 88: Materials and Engineering Design Held in London, England, on 9-13 May 1988 (United States)


    0 equivalent stress in the crack tip field. For o0 0 example, Hancock and Cowling (1980) discovered that cracks in HY80 steel began to grow at values...P900-903 STRESS RELAXATION AND CRAZE INITIATION LIMITS 3. Passaglia E and Knox J R Engineering The strain £. also provides a useful working Design for...P51-61 J Wiley London limited stress decay, it also avoids stress 1974. levels that cause crazing (Ref 4). 5. Yee R Y and Martin E C Naval Weapons

  2. Narrative features of 12 klondike stories by Jack London : semiodiscursive and textual approach


    Kuzmicheva, Maria


    En este trabajo de investigación exploramos doce cuentos del escritor americano Jack London. Nuestro objetivo es la aplicación del marco teórico del análisis del discurso a estos textos narrativos para poner de manifiesto sus estrategias discursivas. Hemos escogido estos doce cuentos sobre Klondike y la “quimera del oro” por ser especialmente adecuados al tipo de investigación que nos hemos propuesto realizar. Para analizar este corpus hemos recurrido a fundamentos teó...

  3. The Roman Empire - The Third Century Crisis and Crisis Management (United States)


    Ferrill, Arther. The Fall of the Oman Empire: the Military Explanation. London: Thames & Hudson , 1986. Gibbon, Edward. The History of the Decline and...Rankov, Boris. The Praetorian Guard. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 1994. Scarre, Chris. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. London: Thames And Hudson , 1995...of the Roman Emperors (London: Thames And Hudson , 1995), 149, 197. 8. Srdan Milasinovic and Zelimir Kesetovic, "Crisis And Crisis Management - A

  4. Ars scientia mores: science comes to English dentistry in the seventeenth century. 1. Medical publications and the Royal Society. (United States)

    Bishop, M


    During the late seventeenth century scientific knowledge came dentistry, much of it through the activity of the new Royal Society, which was initiated by gatherings in London and Oxford from 1645 and formally established in 1660 after the restoration of the monarchy. The Society received its first charter from Charles II in 1662 and from 1665 onwards published its Philosophical Transactions. This paper outlines items published in that journal, and other relevant scientific publications of the century, applicable to dentistry. A companion paper employs Allen's dental treatise, The operator for the teeth, first published in York in 1685 to provide the evidence that he was aware of several of these scientific findings of his day.

  5. The role of one large greenspace in mitigating London's nocturnal urban heat island. (United States)

    Doick, Kieron J; Peace, Andrew; Hutchings, Tony R


    The term urban heat island (UHI) describes a phenomenon where cities are on average warmer than the surrounding rural area. Trees and greenspaces are recognised for their strong potential to regulate urban air temperatures and combat the UHI. Empirical data is required in the UK to inform predictions on cooling by urban greenspaces and guide planning to maximise cooling of urban populations. We describe a 5-month study to measure the temperature profile of one of central London's large greenspaces and also in an adjacent street to determine the extent to which the greenspace reduced night-time UHI intensity. Statistical modelling displayed an exponential decay in the extent of cooling with increased distance from the greenspace. The extent of cooling ranged from an estimated 20 m on some nights to 440 m on other nights. The mean temperature reduction over these distances was 1.1 °C in the summer months, with a maximum of 4 °C cooling observed on some nights. Results suggest that calculation of London's UHI using Met Stations close to urban greenspace can underestimate 'urban' heat island intensity due to the cooling effect of the greenspace and values could be in the region of 45% higher. Our results lend support to claims that urban greenspace is an important component of UHI mitigation strategies. Lack of certainty over the variables that govern the extent of the greenspace cooling influence indicates that the multifaceted roles of trees and greenspaces in the UK's urban environment merit further consideration.

  6. Complaints about dog faeces as a symbolic representation of incivility in London, UK: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Derges, Jane; Lynch, Rebecca; Clow, Angela; Petticrew, Mark; Draper, Alizon


    During a 'Well London' study, residents were asked about their neighbourhood and its environment. Above all other complaints, 'dog poo' was mentioned as a key concern. Despite low rates of infection and disease among the human population resulting from contact with canine faecal matter, the concerns of the public continue to rate it as a serious public health issue. Most public health studies, therefore, seek to identify processes of transmission and disease pathology as a method of addressing the problem. This study approaches the issue through a contextualised analysis of residents' complaints, using anthropological theory to examine the symbolic representation of 'dog poo'. Analysis of the interviews shows that these specific complaints were located among less easily defined or articulated experiences of social and environmental neglect, where neighbours were estranged from one another and local authorities seen as negligent. This approach has important implications for public health, as it provides not only a strong indicator of the level of dissatisfaction within some of London's more disadvantaged neighbourhoods, but also identifies a need for policies that are grounded in cross-disciplinary research into the relationship between health, 'wellbeing' and experiences of marginalisation among urban populations.

  7. Boosting Belligerence: How the July 7, 2005, London Bombings Affected Liberals' Moral Foundations and Prejudice. (United States)

    Van de Vyver, Julie; Houston, Diane M; Abrams, Dominic; Vasiljevic, Milica


    Major terrorist events, such as the recent attacks in Ankara, Sinai, and Paris, can have profound effects on a nation's values, attitudes, and prejudices. Yet psychological evidence testing the impact of such events via data collected immediately before and after an attack is understandably rare. In the present research, we tested the independent and joint effects of threat (the July 7, 2005, London bombings) and political ideology on endorsement of moral foundations and prejudices among two nationally representative samples (combined N = 2,031) about 6 weeks before and 1 month after the London bombings. After the bombings, there was greater endorsement of the in-group foundation, lower endorsement of the fairness-reciprocity foundation, and stronger prejudices toward Muslims and immigrants. The differences in both the endorsement of the foundations and the prejudices were larger among people with a liberal orientation than among those with a conservative orientation. Furthermore, the changes in endorsement of moral foundations among liberals explained their increases in prejudice. The results highlight the value of psychological theory and research for understanding societal changes in attitudes and prejudices after major terrorist events.

  8. Humdrum Tasks of the Salaried Men: Edwin Williams, a London County Council Architect at War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Beech


    Full Text Available Working at the London County Council Architects’ Department through the 1930s to 1950s, and known (if at all as a member of the design team for the Royal Festival Hall, Edwin Williams is usually presented as a regressive figure, his design work marked by his Beaux Arts training. Using archival evidence and histories of the construction industry, this paper sets out Williams’s role in the organisation of rescue and recovery services in London during the Second World War. The paper argues that through his development of training schools and curricula for Rescue Service personnel, Williams played a key role in the formation of a skilled, mechanised, modern demolition industry. Operating complex emergency projects under extreme conditions, the same contractors and building operatives trained in Williams’s programme were later responsible for the clearance of bomb damaged sites and slums. This paper suggests that certain developments in modern architecture can be considered contingent upon practices of the demolition industry as developed by Williams. By concentrating on the ‘organisation’ and ‘progress’ of production that architects engaged with during the Second World War and after, new configurations of continuity and change emerge in which the ‘humdrum tasks’ of ‘salaried men’ appear crucial.

  9. Eight International London Cough Symposium 2014: Cough hypersensitivity syndrome as the basis for chronic cough. (United States)

    Chung, Kian Fan; Canning, Brendan; McGarvey, Lorcan


    At the Eighth International London Cough Conference held in London in July 2014, the focus was on the relatively novel concept of cough hypersensitivity syndrome (CHS) as forming the basis of chronic cough. This concept has been formulated following understanding of the neuronal pathways for cough and a realisation that not all chronic cough is usually associated with a cause. The CHS is defined by troublesome coughing triggered by low level of thermal, mechanical or chemical exposure. It also encompasses other symptoms or sensations such as laryngeal hypersensitivity, nasal hypersensitivity and possibly also symptoms related to gastrooesopahgeal reflux. The pathophysiologic basis of the CHS is now being increasingly linked to an enhancement of the afferent pathways of the cough reflex both at the peripheral and central levels. Mechanisms involved include the interactions of inflammatory mechanisms with cough sensors in the upper airways and with neuronal pathways of cough, associated with a central component. Tools for assessing CHS in the clinic need to be developed. New drugs may be developed to control CHS. A roadmap is suggested from the inception of the CHS concept towards the development of newer antitussives at the Symposium.

  10. Evaluation of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy in a United States population of women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Morof

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reliability and validity of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (a U.K.-developed measure of pregnancy intention, in English and Spanish translation, in a U.S. population of women. METHODS: A psychometric evaluation study of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (LMUP, a six-item, self-completion paper measure was conducted with 346 women aged 15-45 who presented to San Francisco General Hospital for termination of pregnancy or antenatal care. Analyses of the two language versions were carried out separately. Reliability (internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha and item-total correlations. Test-retest reliability (stability was assessed using weighted Kappa. Construct validity was assessed using principal components analysis and hypothesis testing. RESULTS: Psychometric testing demonstrated that the LMUP was reliable and valid in both U.S. English (alpha = 0.78, all item-total correlations >0.20, weighted Kappa = 0.72, unidimensionality confirmed, hypotheses met and Spanish translation (alpha = 0.84, all item-total correlations >0.20, weighted Kappa = 0.77, unidimensionality confirmed, hypotheses met. CONCLUSION: The LMUP was reliable and valid in U.S. English and Spanish translation and therefore may now be used with U.S. women.

  11. Authoritative Images. The Kiwi and the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London. (United States)

    Canadelli, Elena


    The first exemplar of a kiwi, the wingless bird of New Zealand, arrived in the form of a lifeless specimen in Europe in 1812. A debate was sparked over the appearance and nature of this strange creature and indeed whether it actually existed. In 1833 the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London entered the debate and the illustrations published in this journal contributed greatly to the acceptance and further study of the kiwi. Some of the most eminent British zoologists and anatomists of the time were involved, from William Yarrell to Richard Owen, and from John Gould to Abraham Dee Bartlett. This crucial period in the discussion, which would extend over two decades and would only be brought to a close with the arrival of the first living specimen in the London Zoological Garden in 1851, will be analyzed based on a detailed examination of the reports published in the Transactions and other journals. This essay will show how images of the bird were produced and used by zoologists during different stages in the early research on the bird and how these figures circulated inside and outside the zoologists' community.

  12. Forecasting asthma-related hospital admissions in London using negative binomial models. (United States)

    Soyiri, Ireneous N; Reidpath, Daniel D; Sarran, Christophe


    Health forecasting can improve health service provision and individual patient outcomes. Environmental factors are known to impact chronic respiratory conditions such as asthma, but little is known about the extent to which these factors can be used for forecasting. Using weather, air quality and hospital asthma admissions, in London (2005-2006), two related negative binomial models were developed and compared with a naive seasonal model. In the first approach, predictive forecasting models were fitted with 7-day averages of each potential predictor, and then a subsequent multivariable model is constructed. In the second strategy, an exhaustive search of the best fitting models between possible combinations of lags (0-14 days) of all the environmental effects on asthma admission was conducted. Three models were considered: a base model (seasonal effects), contrasted with a 7-day average model and a selected lags model (weather and air quality effects). Season is the best predictor of asthma admissions. The 7-day average and seasonal models were trivial to implement. The selected lags model was computationally intensive, but of no real value over much more easily implemented models. Seasonal factors can predict daily hospital asthma admissions in London, and there is a little evidence that additional weather and air quality information would add to forecast accuracy.

  13. Postcode Lotteries in Public Health - The NHS Health Checks Programme in North West London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCoy David C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postcode lotteries in health refer to differences in health care between different geographic areas. These have been previously associated with clinical services. However there has been little documentation of postcode lotteries relating to preventative health care services. This paper describes a postcode lottery effect in relation to the NHS Health Checks Programme (a national cardiovascular screening programme in England in eight PCTs in the North West sector of London. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional analysis of the Health Checks Programme was carried out in eight PCTs in North West London using a structured data-collecting instrument. Results The analysis found variation in the implementation of the national Health Checks Programme in terms of: the screening approach taken; the allocated budget (which varied from £69,000 to £1.4 million per 100,000 eligible population; payment rates made to providers of Health Checks; tools used to identify and measure risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes; monitoring and evaluation; and preventative services available following the health check. Conclusions This study identifies a postcode lottery effect related to a national public health programme. Although it is important to allow enough flexibility in the design of the Health Checks Programme so that it fits in with local factors, aspects of the programme may benefit from greater standardisation or stronger national guidance.

  14. Numerical Simulations of Daytime Temperature and Humidity Crossover Effects in London (United States)

    Sparks, N.; Toumi, R.


    The effect of the London urban area on vertical profiles of temperature and humidity was analyzed using a mesoscale model. It was found that the near-surface warming and drying effects usually associated with the urban heat island in London in the summer daytime are reversed at heights near the top of the boundary layer. This effect has previously been observed for nighttime temperatures above cities and termed a `crossover'. The mechanism proposed here to explain this new phenomenon, the daytime crossover, is similar to the previously suggested cause of the nighttime effect, that is, increased entrainment of warm dry air into the top of a cooler, more humid, boundary layer. The median summer daytime temperature crossover was found to be 1.1 K. The cooling was shown to be of a similar magnitude to the warming near the surface and extends up to 100 km downwind with a maximum magnitude at about 1500 UTC in summer. The moistening occurred over a similar spatial scale and peak values were typically two times greater than the near-surface drying effect.

  15. 伦敦——历史悠久的城市%London,a City with a Long History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    It was the Romans who decided to build the city of London. They saw that a city with a bridge over the River Thames could be useful, both for traveling to Europe and for traveling in England. The Guildhall is the town hall of the city, where you can see both the old buildings and the new ones. It was built by Dick Whittington. He was a young man who went to London, with his cat, lo make money. But after a few years, he was still very poor and he decided to leave the city. Then he heard the bells of London ringing. He stopped and listened. They seemed to be saying, "Try again, Mayor of Londo,l." So he turned back, deciding to try again. I,ater, he became very rich and was Lord Mayor four times between 1397 and 1419. In 1423, he died.

  16. Talladega College: The First Century. (United States)

    Jones, Maxine D.; Richardson, Joe M.

    The book presents the history of the growth, development, and significance of Alabama's Talladega College, a black liberal arts college, from its inception in the 1860s through the student protest movement more than a century later. The historical account emphasizes such college issues as finance, enrollment, students, educational policy, and the…

  17. Selenography in the seventeenth century. (United States)

    Whitaker, E. A.

    Contents: 1. Pre-telescopic observations. 2. The first telescopic observations. 3. Galileo's lunar observations. 4. Two new selenographical programmes. 5. A flurry of activity. 6. Hevelius and his Selenographia. 7. Riccioli, Grimaldi, and nomenclature. 8. Robert Hooke and selenology. 9. Cassini and La Hire. 10. Other seventeenth-century selenography. 11. Conclusion.

  18. Two Centuries of Soil Conservation. (United States)

    Helms, Douglas


    Narrates U.S. soil conservation history since the late eighteenth century. Discusses early practices such as contour plowing. Profiles individuals who promoted soil conservation and were largely responsible for the creation of the Soil Conservation Service. Explains the causes of erosion and how soil conservation districts help farmers prevent…

  19. A Century of Environmental Legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Cain, Louis P.


    At the beginning of the 20th century, three intertwined ambitions drove federal legislation over wildlife and biodiversity: establishment of multiple-use federal lands, the economic development of natural resources, and the maintenance of option values. We examine this federal intervention...

  20. Immigration and the American century. (United States)

    Hirschman, Charles


    The full impact of immigration on American society is obscured in policy and academic analyses that focus on the short-term problems of immigrant adjustment. With a longer-term perspective, which includes the socioeconomic roles of the children of immigrants, immigration appears as one of the defining characteristics of twentieth-century America. Major waves of immigration create population diversity with new languages and cultures, but over time, while immigrants and their descendants become more "American," the character of American society and culture is transformed. In the early decades of the twentieth century, immigrants and their children were the majority of the workforce in many of the largest industrial cities; in recent decades, the arrival of immigrants and their families has slowed the demographic and economic decline of some American cities. The presence of immigrants probably creates as many jobs for native-born workers as are lost through displacement. Immigrants and their children played an important role in twentieth-century American politics and were influential in the development of American popular culture during the middle decades of the twentieth century. Intermarriage between the descendants of immigrants and old-stock Americans fosters a national identity based on civic participation rather than ancestry.

  1. Arterial Stiffening in Perspective: Advances in Physical and Physiological Science Over Centuries. (United States)

    O'Rourke, Michael F; O'Brien, Caroline; Edelman, Elazer R


    Arterial stiffening is not a new issue in medicine or research but was the prime concern of Richard Bright in the early 19th century and of the prominent London physicians and pathologists who tried to unscramble the relationship between kidney, heart, and cerebrovascular disease and hardness of the pulse in the late 19th century. It was of major concern to medical educators including Osler and Mackenzie who were still active in practice 100 years ago. It is all too easy (when dependent on the Internet) to consider arterial stiffness to be a new issue. The terms arterial stiffness, aortic stiffness, or wave reflection do not appear as categories for articles such as this in respectable journals, nor in categories for meetings of specialized physicians. Yet as described in this article, the subject was of interest to clinicians, to investigators such as Harvey in the 17th century, and to physicists who developed laws and principles of elasticity from the study of biological materials including ligaments and arteries. This paper provides a perspective on arterial stiffness from the time of William Harvey and Isaac Newton to the present, with a glance into the future.

  2. Three centuries of protozoology: a brief tribute to its founding father, A. van Leeuwenhoek of Delft. (United States)

    Corliss, J O


    It was exactly 300 years ago this month (August 1974) that the 17th century modest draper from Delft, Holland--Antony van Leeuwenhoek--discovered protozoa. Describing them, often with amazing accuracy considering the optical equipment he was using (simply a home-made "glorified" hand lens), in letters to the Royal Society of London, he established himself, certainly, as the founding father of protozoology. It is particularly appropriate for an assemblage of protozoologists to pay homage to this intrepid "philosopher in little things," a man with an insatiable curiosity about his wee animalcules, on the tricentenary of his discovery of them, since it was an event of such long-lasting significance.

  3. Catalogue of the type-specimens of Bolitophilidae, Diadocidiidae and Ditomyiidae (Diptera, Bibionomorpha in the Natural History Museum, London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Lopes Falaschi


    Full Text Available Catalogue of the type-specimens of Bolitophilidae, Diadocidiidae and Ditomyiidae (Diptera, Bibionomorpha in the Natural History Museum, London. A commented list of the types of three families of Bibionomorpha - Bolitophilidae, Diadocidiidae and Ditomyiidae - housed at the Natural History Museum (London is provided. This includes four holotypes and one paratype of five species of Bolitophilidae; one paratype and three syntypes of two species of Diadocidiidae; and 17 holotypes, 91 paratypes, four lectotypes, and fourteen paralectotypes of 38 species of Ditomyiidae. Lectotypes are designated for the Neotropical species of the ditomyiids Australosymmerus (Melosymmerus bisetosus Edwards, 1940 and A. (M. pediferus Edwards, 1940.

  4. Head injuries in the 18th century: the management of the damaged brain. (United States)

    Ganz, Jeremy C


    The 18th century was the time when trauma neurosurgery began to develop into the modern discipline. Before this, the management had, for the most part, changed little from the days of Hippocrates, Celsus, and Galen. Attention was directed to skull injuries, and the brain was treated as the seat of the rational soul but without other function. Symptoms after trauma were attributed to injuries to the bone and meninges. Following the lead of the Royal Academy of Surgery in Paris, it was accepted from the 1730s that the brain was the seat of symptoms after cranial trauma. During the 18th century, at least 12 surgeons published articles on cranial injury, 6 describing significant clinical series on this topic. They were Henri-François Le Dran (1685-1770) of Paris, Percival Pott (1714-1788) of London, James Hill (1703-1776) from Dumfries, Sylvester O'Halloran (1728-1807) of Limerick (Ireland), William Dease (1750-1798) of Dublin, and John Abernethy (1764-1831) of London. This article analyzes these series. Each individual made a different contribution. It is suggested that the relatively lesser-known James Hill in Scotland demonstrated the greatest understanding of the management of brain trauma and achieved the best results. A product of the Scottish Enlightenment, he adapted his management to his own experience and was not tied to the accepted authorities of his day, but he improved the management of each case following his experience with previous patients. He deserves to be remembered.

  5. Investigating the annual behaviour of submicron secondary inorganic and organic aerosols in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Young


    Full Text Available For the first time, the behaviour of non-refractory inorganic and organic submicron particulate through an entire annual cycle is investigated using measurements from an Aerodyne compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (cToF-AMS located at a UK urban background site in North Kensington, London. We show secondary aerosols account for a significant fraction of the submicron aerosol burden and that high concentration events are governed by different factors depending on season. Furthermore, we demonstrate that on an annual basis there is no variability in the extent of secondary organic aerosol (SOA oxidation, as defined by the oxygen content, irrespective of amount. This result is surprising given the changes in precursor emissions and contributions as well as photochemical activity throughout the year; however it may make the characterisation of SOA in urban environments more straightforward than previously supposed. Organic species, nitrate, sulphate, ammonium, and chloride were measured during 2012 with average concentrations (±one standard deviation of 4.32 (±4.42, 2.74 (±5.00, 1.39 (±1.34, 1.30 (±1.52 and 0.15 (±0.24 μg m–3, contributing 43, 28, 14, 13 and 2% to the total submicron mass, respectively. Components of the organic aerosol fraction are determined using positive matrix factorisation (PMF where five factors are identified and attributed as hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, cooking OA (COA, solid fuel OA (SFOA, type 1 oxygenated OA (OOA1, and type 2 oxygenated OA (OOA2. OOA1 and OOA2 represent more and less oxygenated OA with average concentrations of 1.27 (±1.49 and 0.14 (±0.29 μg m–3, respectively, where OOA1 dominates the SOA fraction (90%. Diurnal, monthly, and seasonal trends are observed in all organic and inorganic species, due to meteorological conditions, specific nature of the aerosols, and availability of precursors. Regional and transboundary pollution as well as other individual pollution events influence

  6. Volatile organic compound fluxes and concentrations in London (ClearfLo) (United States)

    Valach, Amy; Langford, Ben; Nemitz, Eiko; MacKenzie, Rob; Hewitt, Nick


    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from anthropogenic sources such as fuel combustion or evaporative emissions can directly and indirectly affect human health. Some VOCs, such as benzene and 1,3- butadiene are carcinogens. These and other VOCs contribute to the formation of ozone (O3) and aerosol particles, which have effects on human health and the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Although in the UK VOC emissions are subject to control under European Commission Directive 2008/50/EC and emission reducing technologies have been implemented, urban air pollution remains a concern. Urban air quality is likely to remain a priority since currently >50% of the global population live in urban areas with trends in urbanization and population migration predicted to increase. The ClearfLo project is a large multi-institutional consortium funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and provides integrated measurements of meteorology, gas phase and particulate composition of the atmosphere over London. Both long term and IOP measurements were made at street and elevated locations at a range of sites across London and its surroundings during 2011 and 2012. Mixing ratios of a selection of nine VOCs were measured using a high sensitivity proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) at a ground level urban background (North Kensington) and kerbside (Marylebone Road) site during the winter IOP. VOC fluxes were measured by virtually disjunct eddy covariance (vDEC) at an elevated urban site (King's College Strand) in Aug-Dec 2012. Our results for the first IOP showed that most of the selected compound concentrations depended on traffic emissions, although there was a marked difference between the urban background and kerbside sites. We identified some temperature effects on VOC concentrations. We also present the first analyses of VOC flux measurements over London. Preliminary analyses indicate most compounds associated with vehicle emissions closely

  7. Atmospheric OH reactivity in central London: observations, model predictions and estimates of in situ ozone production (United States)

    Whalley, Lisa K.; Stone, Daniel; Bandy, Brian; Dunmore, Rachel; Hamilton, Jacqueline F.; Hopkins, James; Lee, James D.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Heard, Dwayne E.


    Near-continuous measurements of hydroxyl radical (OH) reactivity in the urban background atmosphere of central London during the summer of 2012 are presented. OH reactivity behaviour is seen to be broadly dependent on air mass origin, with the highest reactivity and the most pronounced diurnal profile observed when air had passed over central London to the east, prior to measurement. Averaged over the entire observation period of 26 days, OH reactivity peaked at ˜ 27 s-1 in the morning, with a minimum of ˜ 15 s-1 during the afternoon. A maximum OH reactivity of 116 s-1 was recorded on one day during morning rush hour. A detailed box model using the Master Chemical Mechanism was used to calculate OH reactivity, and was constrained with an extended measurement data set of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) derived from a gas chromatography flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) and a two-dimensional GC instrument which included heavier molecular weight (up to C12) aliphatic VOCs, oxygenated VOCs and the biogenic VOCs α-pinene and limonene. Comparison was made between observed OH reactivity and modelled OH reactivity using (i) a standard suite of VOC measurements (C2-C8 hydrocarbons and a small selection of oxygenated VOCs) and (ii) a more comprehensive inventory including species up to C12. Modelled reactivities were lower than those measured (by 33 %) when only the reactivity of the standard VOC suite was considered. The difference between measured and modelled reactivity was improved, to within 15 %, if the reactivity of the higher VOCs (⩾ C9) was also considered, with the reactivity of the biogenic compounds of α-pinene and limonene and their oxidation products almost entirely responsible for this improvement. Further improvements in the model's ability to reproduce OH reactivity (to within 6 %) could be achieved if the reactivity and degradation mechanism of unassigned two-dimensional GC peaks were estimated. Neglecting the contribution of the higher VOCs (⩾ C

  8. Change in Urban Albedo in London: A Multi-scale Perspective (United States)

    Susca, T.; Kotthaus, S.; Grimmond, S.


    Urbanization-induced change in land use has considerable implications for climate, air quality, resources and ecosystems. Urban-induced warming is one of the most well-known impacts. This directly and indirectly can extend beyond the city. One way to reduce the size of this is to modify the surface atmosphere exchanges through changing the urban albedo. As increased rugosity caused by the morphology of a city results in lower albedo with constant material characteristics, the impacts of changing the albedo has impacts across a range of scales. Here a multi-scale assessment of the potential effects of the increase in albedo in London is presented. This includes modeling at the global and meso-scale informed by local and micro-scale measurements. In this study the first order calculations are conducted for the impact of changing the albedo (e.g. a 0.01 increase) on the radiative exchange. For example, when incoming solar radiation and cloud cover are considered, based on data retrieved from NASA ( for ~1600 km2 area of London, would produce a mean decrease in the instantaneous solar radiative forcing on the same surface of 0.40 W m-2. The nature of the surface is critical in terms of considering the impact of changes in albedo. For example, in the Central Activity Zone in London pavement and building can vary from 10 to 100% of the plan area. From observations the albedo is seen to change dramatically with changes in building materials. For example, glass surfaces which are being used increasingly in the central business district results in dramatic changes in albedo. Using the documented albedo variations determined across different scales the impacts are considered. For example, the effect of the increase in urban albedo is translated into the corresponding amount of avoided emission of carbon dioxide that produces the same effect on climate. At local scale, the effect that the increase in urban albedo can potentially have on local

  9. Austere kindness or mindless austerity: the efects of gift-giving to beggars in east London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Lenhard


    Full Text Available The current austerity policies in the United Kingdom are creating a precarious situation for many people on the margins of society. Employing micro-level ethnographic analysis, this article addresses how government decisions affect people living on the street. Observations of how local policies demonize gift-giving to street people led me to revisit arguments about the positive and negative effects of gifts. Four months of fieldwork amongst people who beg in the City of London confirmed the Maussian ambiguity of gift exchange. The material benefit of monetary gifts is often accompanied by shared time and conversation; gifts to beggars can go beyond materiality and are hence able to create bonds of sociability.

  10. Policy entrepreneurship in the development of public sector strategy: the case of London health reform. (United States)

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Exworthy, Mark


    The development of health policy is recognized as complex; however, there has been little development of the role of agency in this process. Kingdon developed the concept of policy entrepreneur (PE) within his ‘windows’ model. He argued inter-related ‘policy streams' must coincide for important issues to become addressed. The conjoining of these streams may be aided by a policy entrepreneur. We contribute by clarifying the role of the policy entrepreneur and highlighting the translational processes of key actors in creating and aligning policy windows. We analyse the work in London of Professor Sir Ara Darzi as a policy entrepreneur. An important aspect of Darzi's approach was to align a number of important institutional networks to conjoin related problems. Our findings highlight how a policy entrepreneur not only opens policy windows but also yokes together a network to make policy agendas happen. Our contribution reveals the role of clinical leadership in health reform.

  11. Implementing e-resource access for alumni at King's College London: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna França


    Full Text Available University libraries are increasingly considering ways to develop the library services offered to their alumni in response to growing demand. In particular, there has been a rising interest in how university libraries can extend access to e-resources to include provision of access for alumni, raising a number of challenging questions around the licensing of e-resources for alumni as well as access and funding considerations. This article describes the work carried out at King's College London to investigate extending e-resource access to alumni and the experience of implementing access to JSTOR in 2012. The article then examines some of the barriers that King's have faced in building on this work.

  12. Measuring unintended pregnancies in postpartum Iranian women: validation of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy. (United States)

    Roshanaei, S; Shaghaghi, A; Jafarabadi, M A; Kousha, A


    Research suggests a relatively sizable rate of unintended pregnancies in some subgroups of Iranian women, but there is no concise, standard scale to measure the pregnancy intention of Iranian women. Therefore, the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (LMUP) were investigated. The Persian version of the LMUP was tested on randomly selected married women aged 15-49 years in the city of Ajabshir, East Azerbaijan province, north-west of Islamic Republic of Iran. The scale's face validity and internal consistency was examined and its construct validity was tested by exploratory factor analysis. The internal consistency of the scale was acceptable (Cronbach alpha coefficient 0.87). Structural indicators of the Kaiser-Meyer- Olkin measure (0.85) and Bartlett test of sphericity (P pregnancy intentions.

  13. Annotated type catalogue of land snails collected from Taiwan (Formosa) in the Natural History Museum, London. (United States)

    Hwang, Chung-Chi


    The present catalogue lists the type specimens of land snail species, collected from Taiwan and deposited in the Natural History Museum, London. Thirty-seven nominal species described by Pfeiffer, Adams, Nevill, Moellendorff, Godwin-Austen and Gude were traced. I present here information on type status, collection data obtained from the registers and labels of each collection, and annotations on the current taxonomic affiliation. Lectotypes of 28 nominal (sub)species were newly designated. One holotype was fixed originally and two holotypes newly fixed by monotypy. Syntypes of two species and paralectotypes of three species were also discovered in the Museum. No specimen of the species Pupina adamsi Sowerby, 1878, which was supposed to be deposited in the NHM, was found. Pictures of the name-bearing types are provided for further research on biodiversity of the island.

  14. Accessible by design: Library Search at the University of the Arts London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Carden


    Full Text Available This brief case study, originally presented as a breakout session by Sandra Reed and Sara Osman at the UKSG Annual Conference in April 2016,1 outlines how the University of the Arts London put accessibility at the centre of its new open source library catalogue ‘Library Search’. It discusses how accessibility and inclusive design were prioritized throughout the initial discovery process and during engagement with students and other stakeholders, and how our requirement for accessibility was enhanced by the procurement method chosen. The article also considers how practical elements of good, accessible design are an integral part of the new interface. Our broader service offer and plans for the future are also included.

  15. Voting suffrage and the political budget cycle: Evidence from the London Metropolitan Boroughs 1902–1937 (United States)

    Aidt, Toke S.; Mooney, Graham


    We study the opportunistic political budget cycle in the London Metropolitan Boroughs between 1902 and 1937 under two different suffrage regimes: taxpayer suffrage (1902–1914) and universal suffrage (1921–1937). We argue and find supporting evidence that the political budget cycle operates differently under the two types of suffrage. Taxpayer suffrage, where the right to vote and the obligation to pay local taxes are linked, encourages demands for retrenchment and the political budget cycle manifests itself in election year tax cuts and savings on administration costs. Universal suffrage, where all adult residents can vote irrespective of their taxpayer status, creates demands for productive public services and the political budget cycle manifests itself in election year hikes in capital spending and a reduction in current spending. PMID:25843984

  16. Imaging of plantar fascia and Achilles injuries undertaken at the London 2012 Olympics. (United States)

    Elias, David A; Carne, Andrew; Bethapudi, Sarath; Engebretsen, Lars; Budgett, Richard; O'Connor, Philip


    Plantar fascia and distal Achilles injuries are common in elite athletes. Acute athletic injuries of the plantar fascia include acute plantar fasciopathy and partial or complete tears. Underlying most acute injuries is a background of underlying chronic plantar fasciopathy. Injuries may affect the central or less commonly lateral portions of the fascia and acute tears are generally proximal. Athletic Achilles injuries may occur at the mid tendon or the distal insertion, and there may be an underlying chronic tendinopathy. Acute or chronic paratendinopathy may occur as a separate entity or combined with Achilles injury. In this article, the spectrum of athletic injuries of the plantar fascia and Achilles is described, illustrated by imaging findings from the London 2012 Olympic games.

  17. Sport psychology consultants’ perceptions of their challenges at the London 2012 Olympic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Peter; Diment, Greg; Elbe, Anne-Marie


    The objective of this study was to explore how sport psychology consultants perceive the challenges they face at the Olympic Games. Post-Olympics semistructured interviews with 11 experienced sport psychology consultants who worked at the London Games were conducted. The interviews were transcribed...... the Olympics (e.g., negotiating one’s role) and Challenges During the Olympics (e.g., dealing with the media). The challenges the sport psychology consultants perceived as important validate and cohere with the challenge descriptions that exist in the literature. The findings extend the knowledge on sport...... psychology consultancy at the Olympic Games by showing individual contextual differences between the consultants’ perceptions and by identifying four SPC roles at the Olympic Games....

  18. Analysis of the Reasons for Jack London ’s Disillusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦宏莉; 张玲


    Jack London is an outstanding realistic writer in the American modern times, creating 19 novels and 125 short stories. He came from a poor working class family. Through his hard work, he finally became a world famous writer. However ,he ended up with suicide of his 40-year-old life after his success. Jack betrayed his success in the way of death. This outcome is not only the end of life, but is also a negative to the empty life. What on earth is the meaning of life? This paper analyzes the reasons for Jack’s disillusion from the aspects of his family background, the era he lived, his experience, his education, his works and his outlook on life.

  19. Age differences in strategic planning as indexed by the tower of London. (United States)

    Albert, Dustin; Steinberg, Laurence


    The present study examined age differences in performance on the Tower of London, a measure of strategic planning, in a diverse sample of 890 individuals between the ages of 10 and 30. Although mature performance was attained by age 17 on relatively easy problems, performance on the hardest problems showed improvements into the early 20s. Furthermore, whereas age-related performance gains by children and adolescents (ages 10-17) on the hardest problems were partially mediated by maturational improvements in both working memory and impulse control, improved performance in adulthood (ages 18+) was fully mediated by late gains in impulse control. Findings support an emerging picture of late adolescence as a time of continuing improvement in planned, goal-directed behavior.

  20. From the Physics of Interacting Polymers to Optimizing Routes on the London Underground

    CERN Document Server

    Yeung, Chi Ho; Wong, K Y Michael


    Optimizing paths on networks is crucial for many applications, from subway traffic to Internet communication. As global path optimization that takes account of all path-choices simultaneously is computationally hard, most existing routing algorithms optimize paths individually, thus providing sub-optimal solutions. We employ the physics of interacting polymers and disordered systems to analyze macroscopic properties of generic path-optimization problems and derive a simple, principled, generic and distributed routing algorithm capable of considering simultaneously all individual path choices. We demonstrate the efficacy of the new algorithm by applying it to: (i) random graphs resembling Internet overlay networks; (ii) travel on the London underground network based on Oyster-card data; and (iii) the global airport network. Analytically derived macroscopic properties give rise to insightful new routing phenomena, including phase transitions and scaling laws, which facilitate better understanding of the appropr...

  1. Ethnic Residential Segregation: A Multilevel, Multigroup, Multiscale Approach Exemplified by London in 2011. (United States)

    Jones, Kelvyn; Johnston, Ron; Manley, David; Owen, Dewi; Charlton, Chris


    We develop and apply a multilevel modeling approach that is simultaneously capable of assessing multigroup and multiscale segregation in the presence of substantial stochastic variation that accompanies ethnicity rates based on small absolute counts. Bayesian MCMC estimation of a log-normal Poisson model allows the calculation of the variance estimates of the degree of segregation in a single overall model, and credible intervals are obtained to provide a measure of uncertainty around those estimates. The procedure partitions the variance at different levels and implicitly models the dependency (or autocorrelation) at each spatial scale below the topmost one. Substantively, we apply the model to 2011 census data for London, one of the world's most ethnically diverse cities. We find that the degree of segregation depends both on scale and group.

  2. [Identification of ancient Chinese medicinal specimens preserved at Natural History Museum in London]. (United States)

    Zhao, Zhong-zhen; Zhao, Kai-cun; Brand, Eric


    On-site field investigation was conducted to authenticate a batch of ancient Chinese medicinal decoction pieces that have been preserved in a rare collection at the Natural History Museum in London. These treasured artifacts comprise a portion of the Sloane Collection, and the nearly one hundred Chinese medicinal specimens examined within provide an objective record of the real situation regarding the Chinese medicinal materials in commercial circulation three hundred years ago. The precious data from this collection pro-vides an extremely valuable reference for the research into the history of medicinal exchange between China and the West during the Age of Exploration, shedding light on the evolution and historical changes in the species used in Chinese medicine, as well as the history of medicinal processing and decoction pieces.

  3. Using complexity theory to analyse the organisational response to resurgent tuberculosis across London. (United States)

    Trenholm, Susan; Ferlie, Ewan


    We employ complexity theory to analyse the English National Health Service (NHS)'s organisational response to resurgent tuberculosis across London. Tennison (2002) suggests that complexity theory could fruitfully explore a healthcare system's response to this complex and emergent phenomenon: we explore this claim here. We also bring in established New Public Management principles to enhance our empirical analysis, which is based on data collected between late 2009 and mid-2011. We find that the operation of complexity theory based features, especially self-organisation, are significantly impacted by the macro context of a New Public Management-based regime which values control, measurement and risk management more than innovation, flexibility and lateral system building. We finally explore limitations and suggest perspectives for further research.

  4. Diversity and sensitivity of epiphytes to oxides of nitrogen in London. (United States)

    Davies, L; Bates, J W; Bell, J N B; James, P W; Purvis, O W


    This study investigated the distribution and diversity of epiphytes in London in relation to NO(x) using fine-scale atmospheric dispersion modelling. The survey recorded over 3000 epiphytes from 334 trees (Fraxinus excelsior) representing 74 lichen, 14 moss, 7 fungal and 3 algal species. There was a significant inverse relationship between diversity and NO(x). Diversity declined where NO(x) exceeded 70 microg m(-3) and NO2 exceeded 40 microg m(-3), suggesting a phytotoxic effect. However, there was a significant positive relationship between NO(x) and lichen abundance due to the ubiquitous distribution of pollution tolerant species, mainly associated with eutrophication. A scale of lichen sensitivity to NO(x) has been derived.

  5. Highlights from Faraday Discussion: Designing New Heterogeneous Catalysts, London, UK, April 2016. (United States)

    Fischer, Nico; Manyar, Haresh G; Roldan, Alberto


    The Faraday Discussion on the design of new heterogeneous catalysts took place from 4-6 April 2016 in London, United Kingdom. It brought together world leading scientists actively involved in the synthesis, characterisation, modelling and testing of solid catalysts, attracting more than one hundred delegates from a broad spectrum of backgrounds and experience levels - academic and industrial researchers, experimentalists and theoreticians, and students. The meeting was a reflection of how big of an impact the ability to control and design catalysts with specific properties for particular processes can potentially have on the chemical industry, environment, economy and society as a whole. In the following, we give an overview of the topics covered during this meeting and briefly highlight the content of each presentation.

  6. Evidence for the Continued Use of Medieval Medical Prescriptions in the Sixteenth Century: A Fifteenth-Century Remedy Book and its Later Owner. (United States)

    Connolly, Margaret


    This article examines a fifteenth-century remedy book, Oxford, Bodleian Library, Rawlinson c. 299, and describes its collection of 314 medieval medical prescriptions. The recipes are organised broadly from head to toe, and often several remedies are offered for the same complaint. Some individual recipes are transcribed with modern English translations. The few non-recipe texts are also noted. The difference between a remedy book and a leechbook is explained, and this manuscript is situated in relation to other known examples of late medieval medical anthologies. The particular feature that distinguishes Oxford, Bodleian Library, Rawlinson c. 299 from other similar volumes is the evidence that it continued to be used during the sixteenth century. This usage was of two kinds. Firstly, the London lawyer who owned it not only inscribed his name but annotated the original recipe collection in various ways, providing finding-aids that made it much more user-friendly. Secondly, he, and other members of his family, added another forty-three recipes to the original collection (some examples of these are also transcribed). These two layers of engagement with the manuscript are interrogated in detail in order to reveal what ailments may have troubled this family most, and to judge how much faith they placed in the old remedies contained in this old book. It is argued that the knowledge preserved in medieval books enjoyed a longevity that extended beyond the period of the manuscript book, and that manuscripts were read and valued long after the advent of printing.

  7. Seventeenth-century indivisibles revisited

    CERN Document Server


    The tremendous success of indivisibles methods in geometry in the seventeenth century, responds to a vast project: installation of infinity in mathematics. The pathways by the authors are very diverse, as are the characterizations of indivisibles, but there are significant factors of unity between the various doctrines of indivisible; the permanence of the language used by all authors is the strongest sign. These efforts do not lead to the stabilization of a mathematical theory (with principles or axioms, theorems respecting these first statements, followed by applications to a set of geometric situations), one must nevertheless admire the magnitude of the results obtained by these methods and highlights the rich relationships between them and integral calculus. The present book aims to be exhaustive since it analyzes the works of all major inventors of methods of indivisibles during the seventeenth century, from Kepler to Leibniz. It takes into account the rich existing literature usually devoted to a singl...

  8. Book review of Capital in the Twenty-First Century, by Thomas Piketty. Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard Press, 2014, 605 pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Dobrescu


    Full Text Available “Every now and then, the field of economics produces an important book; this is one of them” (Cowen, 2014. These are the opening words of Tyler Cowen’s presentation of Thomas Piketty’s work, “Capital in the Twenty-First Century” (Piketty, 2014, in Foreign Affairs. This is a book that is visibly placed in all important bookstores around the world, widely debated, acclaimed, sold (over 1 million copies have been sold so far. It has been favorably reviewed or quoted in all major journals. The assessment of “Capital in the Twenty-First Century” by Paul Krugman, Nobel Economics Prize Laureate as a “magnificent, sweeping meditation on inequality”, is highly relevant: “This is a book that will change both the way we think about society and the way we do economics” (Krugman, 2014. Finally, Piketty’s book is included in the list of the year’s best books by prestigious journals, such as The Economist, Financial Times, The Washington Post, Observer, The Independent, Daily Telegraph; Financial Times and McKinsey have hailed it as the best book of 2014.

  9. Chinese Identity in London-An Analysis from the Aspects of Cultural Heritage and Cultural Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ning


    The basic aim of this study is to find out and understand the strength and inspira-tion behind the identity of Chinese in London , and how it has been maintained from the aspects of cul-tural heritage and cultural memory . “Individuals have always been capable of i-dentifying with different social groups and spatial scales” ( Ashworth et al.2007, 4); and further-more, as Sewell puts it , “culture exists only in and through practices” ( 1999 in Ashworth et al . 2007, 7).Therefore, the main methodology for researching Chinese identity in London will be through interviews and questionnaires , looking for answers by asking questions about the circum-stances of Chinese daily lives; at the same time , the ways of their maintenance will be explored fur-ther . The questionnaires were divided into mainly two groups of respondents:Chinese and non-Chi-nese, and they were done in Chinatown and in my volunteer group doing the placement at the Museum of London Docklands . The purpose of question-naires was to unearth general ideas about Chinese identity. The interviews were based on semi -struc-tured questions .The questions were based on the use of an “interview guide” ( Bernard 2006, 212 ) , which directed the conversation towards their daily lives , connections with China , living habits, social surroundings such as friends , and interests . Meanwhile , during the interviewing process, the respondents were also encouraged to feel free to talk more about other things that they would like to say . Through these interviews , a general description of Chinese lives in London could be drawn . When talking to interviewees about China-town, we find that it is a place connected with dai-ly life;whereas for non-Chinese , it is considered more as tourist or leisure site full of lanterns and an enormous variety of restaurants ( Masters et al . 2008, 67) .A lot of Chinese get jobs there in or-der to survive .Chinese go to Chinatown to buy food and commodities that are not

  10. Social deprivation, inequality, and the neighborhood-level incidence of psychotic syndromes in East London. (United States)

    Kirkbride, James B; Jones, Peter B; Ullrich, Simone; Coid, Jeremy W


    Although urban birth, upbringing, and living are associated with increased risk of nonaffective psychotic disorders, few studies have used appropriate multilevel techniques accounting for spatial dependency in risk to investigate social, economic, or physical determinants of psychosis incidence. We adopted Bayesian hierarchical modeling to investigate the sociospatial distribution of psychosis risk in East London for DSM-IV nonaffective and affective psychotic disorders, ascertained over a 2-year period in the East London first-episode psychosis study. We included individual and environmental data on 427 subjects experiencing first-episode psychosis to estimate the incidence of disorder across 56 neighborhoods, having standardized for age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. A Bayesian model that included spatially structured neighborhood-level random effects identified substantial unexplained variation in nonaffective psychosis risk after controlling for individual-level factors. This variation was independently associated with greater levels of neighborhood income inequality (SD increase in inequality: Bayesian relative risks [RR]: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04-1.49), absolute deprivation (RR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.08-1.51) and population density (RR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.00-1.41). Neighborhood ethnic composition effects were associated with incidence of nonaffective psychosis for people of black Caribbean and black African origin. No variation in the spatial distribution of the affective psychoses was identified, consistent with the possibility of differing etiological origins of affective and nonaffective psychoses. Our data suggest that both absolute and relative measures of neighborhood social composition are associated with the incidence of nonaffective psychosis. We suggest these associations are consistent with a role for social stressors in psychosis risk, particularly when people live in more unequal communities.

  11. Killer smog of London, 50 years on. Particle properties and oxidative capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittaker, Andy; BeruBe, Kelly; Richards, Roy [School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3US, Wales (United Kingdom); Jones, Tim [Department of Earth Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3US, Wales (United Kingdom); Maynard, Robert [Department of Health, Skipton House, 80, London Road, London SE (United Kingdom)


    Total suspended particulate (TSP) samples collected on glass fibre filters in London before (1955) and after (1958-1974) the Clean Air Act was examined for physicochemical characteristics and oxidative capacity. High-resolution microscopy identified most of the material as soot with smelter spheres, fly ash (FA), sodium chloride and calcium sulphate particles. Image analysis (IA) was used to show that most of the soot aggregates were less than 1 {mu}m in size and contained chains of individual particles of 10-50 nm. Speed mapping of large agglomerates of the historic particles confirmed that the samples were enriched with soot probably derived from a sulphur-rich coal called nutty slack which was used extensively at this time. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to examine elemental composition. Meaningful quantitation of certain elements (Mg, Al and Zn) proved impossible because they were in high quantities in the glass fibre filters. However, high quantities of Fe>Pb>Cu>Mn>V>As were detected which may explain in part the bioreactivity of the samples. Using a simple in vitro test of oxidative capacity (plasmid assay), one historic particulate sample (1958) showed three times the activity of a modern-day diesel exhaust particle (DEP) sample but ten times less activity than a modern-day urban ambient particle collection. Such studies are continuing to link particle physicochemical properties and bioreactivity with a wider range of the samples collected between 1955 and 74 and how such historic samples compare with present-day London ambient particles.

  12. Types of Neotropical Mycetophilidae (Diptera) at the Natural History Museum collection, London. (United States)

    De Souza Amorim, Dalton; Oliveira, Sarah Siqueira


    The primary types, secondary types, and some other identified specimens of 407 Neotropical species of Mycetophilidae at the Natural History Museum, London were examined. Notes were made on the condition of the primary types, their labels, and presence of other specimens in the type series. Additional comments are made about types, secondary types and some few other cases worth of note mistakenly determined to be at the NHM. Lectotypes are designated for syntypes of 17 species: Epicypta insipiens (Williston), Epicypta dolosa (Williston), Leia amabilis Williston, Leia concinna(Williston), Leia nitens (Williston), Megalopelma cellularis Edwards, Megalopelma fraudulenta (Williston), Megalopelma platyura Edwards, Mycetophila borgmeieri Edwards, Mycomya meridionalis Johannsen, Monoclona digitata Edwards, Mycomya peruviana Edwards, Neoempheria maculipennis Williston, Procycloneura paranensisEdwards, Stenophragma nigricauda Edwards, Tetragoneura simplex Edwards, Trizygia nitens Edwards. Three species–Leia biamputata Edwards, Leia fuscicornis Edwards, and Neallodia flavida Edwards–previously considered subjective junior synonyms in the literature were revalidated. Mycetophila rufoides nom. nov. is proposed for Mycetophila rufaLane (preocc. Macquart 1826). Mycetophila dolosa Williston is transferred to Epicypta, without being assigned to a particular subgenus. The type of Sceptonia paiaguensis Freeman is formally considered lost. Photographs taken of holotypes and lectotypes are included, helping taxonomic documentation and in some extent, species identification. After the nomenclatural acts in this paper, the Natural History Museum, London, now holds holotypes of 292 Neotropical species of the Mycetophilidae, 23 lectotypes, syntypes of 3 species that have syntypes in other collections, paratypes of 81 species that have holotypes in other collections, identified specimens of 5 species with types lost and specimens of three species which fit in other cases.

  13. Salt intake of children and adolescents in South London: consumption levels and dietary sources. (United States)

    Marrero, Naomi M; He, Feng J; Whincup, Peter; Macgregor, Graham A


    Since 2003/2004, the United Kingdom has implemented a salt reduction campaign; however, there are no data on salt intake in children as assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium, the gold standard method, to inform this campaign. We performed a cross-sectional study, involving South London school children across 3 age tiers: young children (5- to 6-year olds), intermediate-aged children (8- to 9-year olds), and adolescents (13- to 17-year olds). Dietary salt intake was measured by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and compared with newly derived maximum salt intake recommendations. In addition, dietary sources of salt were assessed using a 24-hour photographic food diary. Valid urine collections were provided by 340 children (162 girls, 178 boys). The mean salt intakes were 3.75 g/d (95% confidence interval, 3.49-4.01), 4.72 g/d (4.33-5.11), and 7.55 g/d (6.88-8.22) for the 5- to 6-year olds, 8- to 9-year olds, and 13- to 17-year olds, respectively. Sixty-six percent of the 5- to 6-year olds, 73% of the 8- to 9-year olds, and 73% of 13- to 17-year olds had salt intake above their maximum daily intake recommendations. The major sources of dietary salt intake were cereal and cereal-based products (36%, which included bread 15%), meat products (19%), and milk and milk products (11%). This study demonstrates that salt intake in children in South London is high, with most of the salt coming from processed foods. Much further effort is required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods.

  14. Nanotechnology Quantum Detectors for Gravitational Waves: Adelaide to London Correlations Observed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.


    Full Text Available The discovery of the nanotechnology zener diode quantum detector effect for gravitational waves is reported, based upon the quantum to classical transition being induced by dynamical 3-space fluctuations. Gravitational waves were detected by way of waveform correlations between time measurement in two Digital Storage Oscilloscopes, revealing time delays of 13 to 20 seconds over 24 hrs for Adelaide to London travel, varying as the earth rotates. The speed and direction were found, for January 1, 2013, to be 512 km/s, RA = 4.8 hrs, Dec = 83 deg S. This velocity agrees with previous detections using different techniques, such as the NASA spacecraft Earth-flyby Doppler shifts, which found 491 km/s, RA = 5.2 hrs, Dec = 80 deg S, for December 8, 1992. Consequently it was realised that nanotechnology zener diode quantum detectors have been operating, for different reasons, for some 15 years, and are known as RNGs (Random Number Generators or REGs (Random Event Generators. The discovery herein reveals that they are not random. Correlations between data from a REG in Perth and a REG in London gave the speed and direction, for January 1, 2013, to be 528 km/s, RA = 5.3 hrs, Dec = 81 deg S. We also report highly correlated current fluctuations from collocated zener diode circuits. The GCP REG network constitutes an international gravitational wave detector network, with currently some 60 REGs operating, and with records going back to 1998. These detectors permit the study of dynamical 3-space structure, and also apparent anomalous scattering of the waves when passing deeper into the earth, solar flares, coronal mass ejections, earthquakes, and correlations with fluctuations in various rate processes such as nuclear decays. The quantum to classical transition is shown to be caused by 3-space dynamics, and so challenges the standard interpretation of probabilities in quantum theory.

  15. New Century,Broad Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    During his recent visit to the United States,Chinese Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi delivered a speech entitled "Broaden China-U.S. Cooperation in the 21st Century" at the Center for Strategic and International Studies(CSIS) in Washington,D.C. on March 12. John Hamre,President and Chief Executive Officer of the CSIS,and John Frisbie,President of the U.S.-China Business Council,hosted the event. Yang’s remarks follow:

  16. Bullying, "Cussing" and "Mucking About": Complexities in Tackling Homophobia in Three Secondary Schools in South London, UK (United States)

    Warwick, Ian; Aggleton, Peter


    In countries such as the UK, schools have a responsibility to prevent all forms of bullying, including those related to sexual orientation. However, relatively little is known about how schools go about this work successfully. This study aimed to identify how three secondary schools in south London, England, were addressing homophobia. Three…

  17. 77 FR 12241 - Smart Grid Trade Mission to the United Kingdom; London, United Kingdom, October 15-17, 2012 (United States)


    ... Smart Grid Action Network (ISGAN), a mechanism through which multinational stakeholders can collaborate on accelerating the development and deployment of smarter electric grids around the world. ISGAN aims... International Trade Administration Smart Grid Trade Mission to the United Kingdom; London, United...

  18. Understanding Planning Ability Measured by the Tower of London: An Evaluation of Its Internal Structure by Latent Variable Modeling (United States)

    Koppenol-Gonzalez, Gabriela V.; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Boonstra, A. Marije


    The Tower of London (TOL) is a widely used instrument for assessing planning ability. Inhibition and (spatial) working memory are assumed to contribute to performance on the TOL, but findings about the relationship between these cognitive processes are often inconsistent. Moreover, the influence of specific properties of TOL problems on cognitive…

  19. The Creolisation of London Kinship : Mixed African-Caribbean and White British Extended Families, 1950-2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, Elaine


    In de afgelopen vijftig jaar heeft het Verenigd Koninkrijk een aanzienlijke groei meegemaakt van gemengde gezinnen met een Afro-Caribische en blanke achtergrond. The Creolisation of London Kinship levert een belangrijke bijdrage aan zowel onderzoek naar verwantschap als aan bredere maatschappelijke

  20. Boundary Spanners and Advocacy Leaders: Black Educators and Race Equality Work in Toronto and London, 1968-1995 (United States)

    Johnson, Lauri


    This comparative study examines the historical development of race equality efforts during the 1970s and 1980s in two global cities--Toronto and London--and the role of African Canadian and Black British educators in longstanding school-community partnerships. I characterize the leadership stance of Black educators as boundary spanners and…

  1. Share Price Reactions to Sporty Performances of Soccer Clubs listed on the London Stock Exchange and the AIM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Vanbrabant, P.


    This paper investigates whether or not the share prices of soccer clubs listed on the London Stock Exchange and the Alternative Investment Market are influenced by the soccer teams' weekly sporty performances. Event studies corrected for thin trading and with Baysian updating reveal that at the firs

  2. Young People and E-Safety: The Results of the 2015 London Grid for Learning E-Safety Survey (United States)

    Wespieser, Karen


    This report looks at the online activities of London's young people. The report highlights that children and young people use technology to have fun, study and communicate with others. Most children and young people have positive experiences online. On the whole they are sensible online and do not put themselves "at risk". However, the…

  3. Conflict in the Colonies: The London Times Coverage of Watergate from the Break-in to the Pardon. (United States)

    Stovall, James Glen


    From the breakin through the pardon of President Nixon, the London "Times" maintained thorough coverage of the Watergate scandal--a difficult task, considering the complexities of the American judicial and political systems. A special Watergate section was added to the other sections of the "Times," and even the British…

  4. Implementation of an Open Source Library Management System: Experiences with Koha 3.0 at the Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital (United States)

    Bissels, Gerhard


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the selection process and criteria that led to the implementation of the Koha 3.0 library management system (LMS) at the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Library and Information Service (CAMLIS), Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is a report based on…

  5. Gender, Education and Social Change: A Study of Feminist Politics and Practice in London, 1870-1990 (United States)

    Martin, Jane


    This article explores feminist interventions in urban school politics. First, it argues that the female contribution was an essential component to politics and policy making in the 120-year period that London had a single education authority. Second, it suggests that these women politicians were advocates of a cultural praxis that involved…

  6. "The Rag-Bag of All the Subjects": English in a London Grammar School, 1945-1963 (United States)

    Hardcastle, John


    Evidence from a recent study of English teaching in three London schools in the post-war era suggests that changes to curriculum and pedagogy, commonly attributed by historians to the 1960s, were well underway in the 1950s. Major changes associated with "New English" occurred when teachers began taking the lives and experiences of their…

  7. Administering "Operation Pied Piper"--How the London County Council Prepared for the Evacuation of Its Schoolchildren 1938-1939 (United States)

    Gartner, Niko


    In September 1939, two days before declaring war on Germany, the British government evacuated over half a million children from London to supposedly safer areas in the country. Schoolchildren went there with their teachers and infants with their mothers. Immediately after the event (and ever since) the impact of the evacuation on the children--the…

  8. Stakeholder Positioning and Cultural Diversity in the Creative Sector: A Case Study of the London Modern Architecture Scene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, H.L.; Kamp, A.


    This chapter explores the antecedents of stakeholder positioning in the creative sector, a sector well known for its diversity in organizational cultures. Drawing from empirical data collected at the heart of London's modern architecture scene we analyze the interactive process of commissioned artwo

  9. Choosing the Local School: Middle Class Parents' Values and Social and Ethnic Mix in London and Paris (United States)

    Raveaud, Maroussia; Zanten, Agnes Van


    This paper analyses a specific kind of choice, choice of the local school, by a specific middle class group, characterized by its high cultural capital, its "caring" perspective and liberal political orientation, in two cosmopolitan, "mixed" settings, London and Paris, with a focus on values and how ethical dilemmas raised by confrontation with…

  10. Olympic Summer Games medals from Athens 1896 to London 2012: visual overview of each medal with a brief description



    This document traces the evolution of the Olympic Summer Games medals, from the first Games in Athens in 1896 to those in London in 2012. Each medal is presented with a photo of its obverse and reverse, with a description of the design and the technical details available.

  11. Quantum generations: a history of physics in the twentieth century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechenberg, H


    Full text: The author attempts to handle the most important physics development of the twentieth century, namely that of quantum theory, in one, not too bulky, volume. This heroic task is split into 29 chapters, each treating a topic that forms a well defined subpart of the big theme embracing quantum theory itself (and also some of its companions), and the experimental discoveries, technology, sociology and science politics connected with it. The contents of Part One cover roughly the first twenty years of the century. There are also chapters on the introduction of the quantum of action and atomic constitution, on discharge in gases, low-temperature research and the interaction of science with industrial and military affairs in World War I. Part Two, leading up to the Hiroshima bomb, includes, beyond such central chapters as the rise of nuclear physics, quantum field theory and the physical and philosophical interpretation of quantum mechanics, further accounts of the Eddington-Milne cosmology, physics in the dictatorial regimes of National Socialism, Fascism and Stalinism, and the intellectual immigration during the 1930s into the USA. Part Three brings the story up to the end of the century, embracing great topics like nuclear energy, Big Science (i.e. physics in military and civil projects), fundamental particle theories up to speculations about 'grand unification', quantum electronics, or the increasingly hostile attitude toward science in the past 30 years. The short Part Four contains two chapters on a century in retrospect, which was really the century of physics. An enormous amount of material has been addressed in this book, and one wonders how one person can say anything reasonable about all these topics. The overall organization and the selection of chapters appears to be well planned and carried out quite successfully. In this reviewer's opinion, some chapters, e.g. on Dirac's theoretical work or cosmology (on which the author has

  12. Regional methods for mapping major faults in areas of uniform low relief, as used in the London Basin, UK (United States)

    Haslam, Richard; Aldiss, Donald


    Most of the London Basin, south-eastern UK, is underlain by the Palaeogene London Clay Formation, comprising a succession of rather uniform marine clay deposits up to 150 m thick, with widespread cover of Quaternary deposits and urban development. Therefore, in this area faults are difficult to delineate (or to detect) by conventional geological surveying methods in the field, and few are shown on the geological maps of the area. However, boreholes and excavations, especially those for civil engineering works, indicate that faults are probably widespread and numerous in the London area. A representative map of fault distribution and patterns of displacement is a pre-requisite for understanding the tectonic development of a region. Moreover, faulting is an important influence on the design and execution of civil engineering works, and on the hydrogeological characteristics of the ground. This paper reviews methods currently being used to map faults in the London Basin area. These are: the interpretation of persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) data from time-series satellite-borne radar measurements; the interpretation of regional geophysical fields (Bouguer gravity anomaly and aeromagnetic), especially in combination with a digital elevation model; and the construction and interpretation of 3D geological models. Although these methods are generally not as accurate as large-scale geological field surveys, due to the availability of appropriate data in the London Basin they provide the means to recognise and delineate more faults, and with more confidence, than was possible using traditional geological mapping techniques. Together they reveal regional structures arising during Palaeogene crustal extension and subsidence in the North Sea, followed by inversion of a Mesozoic sedimentary basin in the south of the region, probably modified by strike-slip fault motion associated with the relative northward movement of the African Plate and the Alpine orogeny. This

  13. Spatial and temporal associations of road traffic noise and air pollution in London: Implications for epidemiological studies. (United States)

    Fecht, Daniela; Hansell, Anna L; Morley, David; Dajnak, David; Vienneau, Danielle; Beevers, Sean; Toledano, Mireille B; Kelly, Frank J; Anderson, H Ross; Gulliver, John


    Road traffic gives rise to noise and air pollution exposures, both of which are associated with adverse health effects especially for cardiovascular disease, but mechanisms may differ. Understanding the variability in correlations between these pollutants is essential to understand better their separate and joint effects on human health. We explored associations between modelled noise and air pollutants using different spatial units and area characteristics in London in 2003-2010. We modelled annual average exposures to road traffic noise (LAeq,24h, Lden, LAeq,16h, Lnight) for ~190,000 postcode centroids in London using the UK Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CRTN) method. We used a dispersion model (KCLurban) to model nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxide, ozone, total and the traffic-only component of particulate matter ≤2.5μm and ≤10μm. We analysed noise and air pollution correlations at the postcode level (~50 people), postcodes stratified by London Boroughs (~240,000 people), neighbourhoods (Lower layer Super Output Areas) (~1600 people), 1km grid squares, air pollution tertiles, 50m, 100m and 200m in distance from major roads and by deprivation tertiles. Across all London postcodes, we observed overall moderate correlations between modelled noise and air pollution that were stable over time (Spearman's rho range: |0.34-0.55|). Correlations, however, varied considerably depending on the spatial unit: largest ranges were seen in neighbourhoods and 1km grid squares (both Spearman's rho range: |0.01-0.87|) and was less for Boroughs (Spearman's rho range: |0.21-0.78|). There was little difference in correlations between exposure tertiles, distance from road or deprivation tertiles. Associations between noise and air pollution at the relevant geographical unit of analysis need to be carefully considered in any epidemiological analysis, in particular in complex urban areas. Low correlations near roads, however, suggest that independent effects of road noise and

  14. Nineteenth-century aether theories

    CERN Document Server

    Schaffner, Kenneth F


    Nineteenth-Century Aether Theories focuses on aether theories. The selection first offers information on the development of aether theories by taking into consideration the positions of Christiaan Huygens, Thomas Young, and Augustin Fresnel. The text then examines the elastic solid aether. Concerns include Green's aether theory, MacCullagh's aether theory, and Kelvin's aether theory. The text also reviews Lorentz' aether and electron theory. The development of Lorentz' ideas of the stagnant aether and electrons; Lorentz' theorem of corresponding states and its development; and Lorentz' respons

  15. Balancing Fear: Why Counter-Terror Legislation was Blocked after the Oklahoma City and London Bombings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rubin


    Full Text Available Este artículo escruta las reacciones legislativas a los atentados en la ciudad de Oklahoma y los de Londres en 2005 para intentar descifrar como la legislación antiterrorista ha sustancialmente bloqueado estos ataques. Se intenta mostrar como la resistencia de los gobiernos y los ejecutivos aprueba índices críticos en las leyes antiterroristas. A la luz de una reciente encuesta sobre legislación antiterrorista mundial, los casos donde la legislación antiterrorista ha sido bloqueada ha llegado a ser verdaderamente crítica. A este fin, este artículo se pregunta por qué la legislación antiterrorista se bloquea cuando esto sucede. Para responder a esta cuestión, se han testado tres variables: la composición de los gobiernos, la opinión pública-basada en los niveles de terror en sus medios, y el nivel de acuerdos ejecutivos. Para testar estas variables, se han evaluado dos casos: la evolución de la legislación antiterrorista antes de los ataques de la ciudad de Oklahoma en 1995 y antes de los atentados de Londres de 2005. En la evaluación de los casos, los debates legislativos y ejecutivos han ocurrido antes de los ataques terroristas examinados y luego se han comparado los dos casos con el Reino Unido en 1974 y los Estados Unidos en 2001 cuando la legislación antiterrorista inicia su camino. Este artículo concluye que el nivel de acuerdos ejecutivos y la composición de los gobiernos tiene el mayor poder de explicación en determinadas decisiones antiterroristas que llevarán a secundar la legislación antiterrorista o no.Palabras clave: ataques terroristas a Londres, legislación antiterrorista, Estados Unidos, Reino Unido___________________________ABSTRACT:This article scrutinizes the legislative reactions to the Oklahoma City Bombing and the 2005 London Bombings to try to decipher why counter-terror legislation was substantially blocked after these attacks.  It finds that the partisan composition of the government and

  16. Discovery of previously unrecognised local faults in London, UK, using detailed 3D geological modelling (United States)

    Aldiss, Don; Haslam, Richard


    In parts of London, faulting introduces lateral heterogeneity to the local ground conditions, especially where construction works intercept the Palaeogene Lambeth Group. This brings difficulties to the compilation of a ground model that is fully consistent with the ground investigation data, and so to the design and construction of engineering works. However, because bedrock in the London area is rather uniform at outcrop, and is widely covered by Quaternary deposits, few faults are shown on the geological maps of the area. This paper discusses a successful resolution of this problem at a site in east central London, where tunnels for a new underground railway station are planned. A 3D geological model was used to provide an understanding of the local geological structure, in faulted Lambeth Group strata, that had not been possible by other commonly-used methods. This model includes seven previously unrecognised faults, with downthrows ranging from about 1 m to about 12 m. The model was constructed in the GSI3D geological modelling software using about 145 borehole records, including many legacy records, in an area of 850 m by 500 m. The basis of a GSI3D 3D geological model is a network of 2D cross-sections drawn by a geologist, generally connecting borehole positions (where the borehole records define the level of the geological units that are present), and outcrop and subcrop lines for those units (where shown by a geological map). When the lines tracing the base of each geological unit within the intersecting cross-sections are complete and mutually consistent, the software is used to generate TIN surfaces between those lines, so creating a 3D geological model. Even where a geological model is constructed as if no faults were present, changes in apparent dip between two data points within a single cross-section can indicate that a fault is present in that segment of the cross-section. If displacements of similar size with the same polarity are found in a series


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyers, Cathy; Sidell, Jane; van der Plicht, Johannes; Marshall, Peter; Cook, Gordon; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Bayliss, Alex


    A slice of pine from the period covered by single-year calibration data (Stuiver 1993) was selected to serve as part of the quality assurance procedures of the English Heritage radiocarbon dating program. following successful wiggle-matching, of (14)C measurements from structural 15th century Englis

  18. Detailed budget analysis of HONO in central London reveals a missing daytime source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Lee


    Full Text Available Measurements of HONO were carried out at an urban background site near central London as part of the Clean air for London (ClearfLo project in summer 2012. Data was collected from 22 July–18 August 2014, with peak values of up to 1.8 ppbV at night and non-zero values of between 0.2 and 0.6 ppbV seen during the day. A wide range of other gas phase, aerosol, radiation and meteorological measurements were made concurrently at the same site, allowing a detailed analysis of the chemistry to be carried out. The peak HONO/NOx ratio of 0.04 is seen at ~ 02:00 UTC, with the presence of a second, daytime peak in HONO/NOx of similar magnitude to the night-time peak suggesting a significant secondary daytime HONO source. A photostationary state calculation of HONO involving formation from the reaction of OH and NO and loss from photolysis, reaction with OH and dry deposition shows a significant underestimation during the day, with calculated values being close to zero, compared to the measurement average of 0.4 ppbV at midday. The addition of further HONO sources, including postulated formation from the reaction of HO2 with NO2 and photolysis of HNO3, increases the daytime modelled HONO to 0.1 ppbV, still leaving a significant extra daytime source. The missing HONO is plotted against a series of parameters including NO2 and OH reactivity, with little correlation seen. Much better correlation is observed with the product of these species with j(NO2, in particular NO2 and the product of NO2 with OH reactivity. This suggests the missing HONO source is in some way related to NO2 and also requires sunlight. The effect of the missing HONO to OH radical production is also investigated and it is shown that the model needs to be constrained to measured HONO in order to accurately reproduce the OH radical measurements.

  19. Atmospheric ethanol in London and the potential impacts of future fuel formulations. (United States)

    Dunmore, Rachel E; Whalley, Lisa K; Sherwen, Tomás; Evans, Mathew J; Heard, Dwayne E; Hopkins, James R; Lee, James D; Lewis, Alastair C; Lidster, Richard T; Rickard, Andrew R; Hamilton, Jacqueline F


    There is growing global consumption of non-fossil fuels such as ethanol made from renewable biomass. Previous studies have shown that one of the main air quality disadvantages of using ethanol blended fuels is a significant increase in the production of acetaldehyde, an unregulated and toxic pollutant. Most studies on the impacts of ethanol blended gasoline have been carried out in the US and Brazil, with much less focus on the UK and Europe. We report time resolved measurements of ethanol in London during the winter and summer of 2012. In both seasons the mean mixing ratio of ethanol was around 5 ppb, with maximum values over 30 ppb, making ethanol currently the most abundant VOC in London air. We identify a road transport related source, with 'rush-hour' peaks observed. Ethanol is strongly correlated with other road transport-related emissions, such as small aromatics and light alkanes, and has no relationship to summer biogenic emissions. To determine the impact of road transport-related ethanol emission on secondary species (i.e. acetaldehyde and ozone), we use both a chemically detailed box model (incorporating the Master Chemical Mechanism, MCM) and a global and nested regional scale chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem), on various processing time scales. Using the MCM model, only 16% of the modelled acetaldehyde was formed from ethanol oxidation. However, the model significantly underpredicts the total levels of acetaldehyde, indicating a missing primary emission source, that appears to be traffic-related. Further support for a primary emission source comes from the regional scale model simulations, where the observed concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde can only be reconciled with the inclusion of large primary emissions. Although only constrained by one set of observations, the regional modelling suggests a European ethanol source similar in magnitude to that of ethane (∼60 Gg per year) and greater than that of acetaldehyde (∼10 Gg per year). The

  20. Synovial fluid over the centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marson


    Full Text Available This review deals with the most meaningful historical topics on the study of synovial fluid, by starting from the Greco- Roman Medicine, up to Paracelsus (1493-1541, who introduced the term “synovia” to name the intra-articular humour. Afterwards, some till now unreported historical sources are recorded, e.g., a short text by the Italian XVIII century physician Giambattista Contoli (“Breve Instruzione sopre il Glutine, ò Colla…, 1699”. Then, in keeping with some recent researches, a brief history of arthrocentesis is outlined, by considering the first procedures, which should have been performed in Mexico, during the precolonial period. Moreover, the first chemical analysis of synovial fluid, as carried out by the French chemist Jean-Louis Margueron (1792, and the first modern study on the synovial membrane by Marie-François-Xavier Bichat (1800 are explained. Finally, some XIX century investigations concerning the synovial pharmacodynamics, in particular an Italian one based on the elimination of certain chemical substances through the synovial membrane, are discussed.

  1. A Century of Environmental Legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Cain, Louis


    We examine federal intervention in natural resource use by analyzing roll-call votes over the past century. These votes involved decisions regarding public land that reallocated the returns to users by changing the asset’s physical character or its usage rights. We suggest that long term conseque......We examine federal intervention in natural resource use by analyzing roll-call votes over the past century. These votes involved decisions regarding public land that reallocated the returns to users by changing the asset’s physical character or its usage rights. We suggest that long term...... consequences affecting current resource allocations arose from disparities between broadly dispersed benefits and locally concentrated socio-economic and geo-physical (spatial) costs. We show that a primary intent of public land management has become to preserve multiple-use option values and identify...... important factors in computing those option values. We do this by demonstrating how the willingness to forego current benefits for future ones depends on the community’s resource endowments. These endowments are defined not only in terms of users’ current wealth accumulation but also from their expected...

  2. No evidence of XMRV or related retroviruses in a London HIV-1-positive patient cohort.

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    Eleanor R Gray

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have implicated a recently discovered gammaretrovirus, XMRV (Xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus, in chronic fatigue syndrome and prostate cancer, though whether as causative agent or opportunistic infection is unclear. It has also been suggested that the virus can be found circulating amongst the general population. The discovery has been controversial, with conflicting results from attempts to reproduce the original studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We extracted peripheral blood DNA from a cohort of 540 HIV-1-positive patients (approximately 20% of whom have never been on anti-retroviral treatment and determined the presence of XMRV and related viruses using TaqMan PCR. While we were able to amplify as few as 5 copies of positive control DNA, we did not find any positive samples in the patient cohort. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In view of these negative findings in this highly susceptible group, we conclude that it is unlikely that XMRV or related viruses are circulating at a significant level, if at all, in HIV-1-positive patients in London or in the general population.

  3. Key Barriers to Community Cohesion: Views from Residents of 20 London Deprived Neighbourhoods (United States)

    Bertotti, Marcello; Adams-Eaton, Faye; Sheridan, Kevin; Renton, Adrian


    The notion of community has been central to the political project of renewal of New Labour in the UK. The paper explores how the discourses of community are framed within New Labour and discusses these in the light of the results from research which focuses on how people within urban deprived areas construct their community. It draws upon the results of one part of a larger research project (the ‘Well London’ programme) which aimed to capture the views of residents from 20 disadvantaged neighbourhoods throughout London using an innovative qualitative method known as the ‘World Café’. Our results show the centrality of young people to the development of cohesive communities, the importance of building informal relationships between residents alongside encouraging greater participation to policy making, and the need to see these places as fragile and temporary locations but with considerable social strengths. Government policies are only partially addressing these issues. They pay greater attention to formally encouraging citizens to become more involved in policy making, largely ignore the contribution young people could make to the community cohesion agenda, and weakly define the shared norms and values that are crucial in building cohesive communities. Thus, the conclusion is that whilst an emphasis of the government on ‘community’ is to be welcome, more needs to be done in terms of considering the ‘voices’ of the community as well as enabling communities to determine and act upon their priorities.

  4. Low temperature London penetration depth and superfluid density in Fe-based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunsoo [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The superconducting gap symmetry of the Fe-based superconductors was studied by measurements and analysis of London penetration depth and super uid density. Tunnel diode resonator technique for these measurements was implemented in a dilution refrigerator allowing for the temperatures down to 50 mK. For the analysis of the super uid density, we used both experimental studies of Al-coated samples and original thermodynamic approach based on Rutgers relation. In three systems studied, we found that the superconducting gap at the optimal doping is best described in multi-gap full gap scenario. By performing experiments on samples with arti cially introduced disorder with heavy ion irradiation, we show that evolution of the superconducting transition temperature and of the super uid density are consistent with full-gap sign changing s superconducting state. The superconducting gap develops strong modulation both in the under-doped and the over-doped regimes. In the terminal hole-doped KFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, both temperature dependence of the super uid density and its evolution with increase of the scattering rate are consistent with symmetry imposed vertical line nodes in the superconducting gap. By comparative studies of hole-doped (Ba,K)Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and electron-doped Ca10-3-8, we show that the superconducting gap modulation in the under-doped regime is intrinsic and is not induced by the coexisting static magnetic order.

  5. Many-objective optimization and visual analytics reveal key trade-offs for London's water supply (United States)

    Matrosov, Evgenii S.; Huskova, Ivana; Kasprzyk, Joseph R.; Harou, Julien J.; Lambert, Chris; Reed, Patrick M.


    In this study, we link a water resource management simulator to multi-objective search to reveal the key trade-offs inherent in planning a real-world water resource system. We consider new supplies and demand management (conservation) options while seeking to elucidate the trade-offs between the best portfolios of schemes to satisfy projected water demands. Alternative system designs are evaluated using performance measures that minimize capital and operating costs and energy use while maximizing resilience, engineering and environmental metrics, subject to supply reliability constraints. Our analysis shows many-objective evolutionary optimization coupled with state-of-the art visual analytics can help planners discover more diverse water supply system designs and better understand their inherent trade-offs. The approach is used to explore future water supply options for the Thames water resource system (including London's water supply). New supply options include a new reservoir, water transfers, artificial recharge, wastewater reuse and brackish groundwater desalination. Demand management options include leakage reduction, compulsory metering and seasonal tariffs. The Thames system's Pareto approximate portfolios cluster into distinct groups of water supply options; for example implementing a pipe refurbishment program leads to higher capital costs but greater reliability. This study highlights that traditional least-cost reliability constrained design of water supply systems masks asset combinations whose benefits only become apparent when more planning objectives are considered.

  6. The London Riots and the Simulation of Sociality in Social Media Data Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid M. Hoofd


    Full Text Available The concept of collectivity in the social sciences hinges on a tension between technology’s propensity for speeding-up and slowing-down, as well as for calculation and change. Furthermore, it implies that the social sciences inhabit this tension by assuming the technological possibility of objectivity, while also performing the idea that true objectivity must rid itself of all limiting techniques. These accelerating tensions then generate ‘more true’ and more questionable renditions of the social. In order to illustrate the tensions embedded in the concept of collectivity, this article explores the progressive rationale that informed the data mining and modelling conducted by the British newspaper The Guardian around the London riots, which can be understood as the harnessing of change and risk through ‘social media’ for neoliberal capital. Social science data mining shows itself here to be implicated in an increasingly displaced and oppressive ideal of social change and scientific progress via its utopia of ideal community.

  7. Social Media in Gay London: Tinder as an Alternative to Hook-Up Apps

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    Freddy MacKee


    Full Text Available The article explores how the mobile app Tinder complements dating practices and the wider app ecosystem gay men use in London. Within the local gay community discourse, Tinder is said to be a site where the gay “nice guys” go, rendering the platform as a socially constructed environment where gay men behave in a diametrically opposed way to the normative hyper-sexualized behavior of widespread gay hook-up apps. The research question, therefore, is whether Tinder is in fact a place where these “nice guys” go and where one would find them. Through an ethnographic methodology conducted both online and offline, a case is built on how initial conceptions about the app cannot be fully studied or interpreted without understanding the place it holds among other social networks. Evidence is presented to support the case that gay users of Tinder do, in fact, curate the portrayal of their digital identity to present a considerably less sexualized persona with the hopes of finding dates or a relationship. This, however, does not mean that users refrain from using other platforms in parallel as a way of exploring different subject positions and motivations. Behavior and normativity on Tinder are largely explained both by context and also by the design of the platform, which imports and displays personal data from other social networks. Findings should be limited to the population and location proposed as the fieldsite.

  8. Seven years of teenage pregnancy in an inner London genitourinary medicine service - a retrospective cohort study. (United States)

    Hegazi, Aseel; Daley, Natalie; Williams, Elizabeth; McLeod, Felicity; Rafiezadeh, Saba; Prime, Katia


    Young people attending genitourinary medicine services are at high risk of unplanned pregnancy. We performed a retrospective cohort study to identify characteristics of pregnant teenagers accessing an inner London genitourinary medicine service. There were 481 pregnancies in 458 teenagers with 54 previous pregnancies and 46 previous terminations of pregnancy. The under-18 and under-16 teenage pregnancy rates were 92.1 and 85.8 per 1000 age-matched clinic attendees, respectively. Median age was 17.1 years. 'Black Other' teenagers ('Black British', 'Mixed White-Black Caribbean' and 'Mixed White-Black African') were over-represented, compared to our clinic population, while those of White ethnicity were under-represented. Few pregnancies (1.5%) were planned with the majority (64%) intending terminations of pregnancy. Most teenagers did not use consistent contraception. Two-thirds of patients had attended genitourinary medicine services in the past and sexually transmitted infection prevalence at presentation was high. Effectively targeting the sexual and reproductive health needs of teenage genitourinary medicine clinic attendees may have a significant impact on reducing sexually transmitted infections, unplanned pregnancy and terminations of pregnancy in this group.

  9. Integrating research & teaching: the Queen Mary, University of London module in Geodiversity & Geoconservation (United States)

    Gray, M.


    The School of Geography at Queen Mary, University of London has been running a Level 6 (undergraduate) module in "Geodiversity & Geoconservation" since 2004. The course is based around the book Geodiversity: valuing and conserving abiotic nature (John Wiley, 2004) but lectures are used to update each topic based on the latest research. The course is divided into 5 parts: 1. Defining and describing geodiversity - which discusses the concept of geodiversity, its definition and the nature of the geodiversity of Planet Earth; 2. Values of, and threats to, geodiversity - a lecture on valuing geodiversity is now based around important research on the role of geodiversity in "ecosystem services" assessments. A second lecture covers the major threats to geodiversity; 3. The protected area approach - lectures here cover geological World Heritage Sites, Global Geoparks, GSSPs, and national geoconservation systems in the UK, USA and other parts of the world; 4. Protecting geodiversity in the wider landscape - the contribution of geology and geomorphology to landscape character are described, together with the role of land-use planning and policy-making in protecting geodiversity. 5. Putting it all together - lectures here emphasize that geodiversity is an important basis for geoconservation, that different geoconservation methods are appropriate to different elements of geodiversity, and that integrated geo/bio conservation is essential. A field trip to three Chalk/Quaternary Sites of Special Scientific Interest in East Sussex is included which discusses some of the planning issues that have arisen at these sites, a theme that is expanded in the lectures.

  10. Integrated care pilot in north west London: a mixed methods evaluation

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    Natasha Curry


    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper provides the results of a year-long evaluation of a large-scale integrated care pilot in North West London. The pilot aimed to integrate care across primary, acute, community, mental health and social care for people with diabetes and those over 75 years through: care planning; multidisciplinary case reviews; information sharing; and project management support.   Methods: The evaluation team conducted qualitative studies of change at organisational, clinician, and patient levels (using interviews, focus groups and a survey; and quantitative analysis of change in service use and patient-level clinical outcomes (using patient-level data sets and a matched control study.  Results: The pilot had successfully engaged provider organisations, created a shared strategic vision and established governance structures. However, engagement of clinicians was variable and there was no evidence to date of significant reductions in emergency admissions. There was some evidence of changes in care processes. Conclusion: Although the pilot has demonstrated the beginnings of large-scale change, it remains in the early stages and faces significant challenges as it seeks to become sustainable for the longer term. It is critical that NHS managers and clinicians have realistic expectations of what can be achieved in a relatively short period of time.

  11. The Covent Garden Old Price Riots: Protest and Justice in Late‑Georgian London

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    James William Baker


    Full Text Available This article explores perceptions of the law and of how agents of the law responded to events at Covent Garden Theatre during the bitter months between mid-October and late-November 1809, the height of the Covent Garden Old Price riots. It does so through the lens of the periodical press, a vital and voluminous source of not only what happened during the riots but also of opinions on what happened and of perceptions of what happened, opinions and perceptions that are the primary concern of this article. The article begins with a discussion of how the magistrates, ‘police officers,’ justices, and lawyers who together were agents of the legal system were seen, where they were seen, and what they did. It moves on to examine how the actions of those agents and the legal system they represented were reported upon. And it concludes with a discussion of how theatregoers and Londoners were seen to have responded to those actions, moving a significant element of the conflict outside of Covent Garden Theatre and into the public press in a direct response to how they were policed as threats to public order and security. It argues that the Covent Garden Old Price riots was a significant urban act of multi-class protest because of the ways that it intersected with wider late-Georgian concerns, with discursive arenas where British liberty and the freedom of her subjects were contested and at stake.

  12. Evaluating London Dispersion Interactions in DFT: A Nonlocal Anisotropic Buckingham-Hirshfeld Model. (United States)

    Krishtal, A; Geldof, D; Vanommeslaeghe, K; Alsenoy, C Van; Geerlings, P


    In this work, we present a novel model, referred to as BH-DFT-D, for the evaluation of London dispersion, with the purpose to correct the performance of local DFT exchange-correlation functionals for the description of van der Waals interactions. The new BH-DFT-D model combines the equations originally derived by Buckingham [Buckingham, A. D. Adv. Chem. Phys1967, 12, 107] with the definition of distributed multipole polarizability tensors within the Hirshfeld method [Hirshfeld, F.L. Theor. Chim. Acta1977, 44, 129], resulting in nonlocal, fully anisotropic expressions. Since no damping function has been introduced yet into the model, it is suitable in its present form for the evaluation of dispersion interactions in van der Waals dimers with no or negligible overlap. The new method is tested for an extended collection of van der Waals dimers against high-level data, where it is found to reproduce interaction energies at the BH-B3LYP-D/aug-cc-pVTZ level with a mean average error (MAE) of 0.20 kcal/mol. Next, development steps of the model will consist of adding a damping function, analytical gradients, and generalization to a supramolecular system.

  13. Reseña de Pinker, S. (1998. How the Mind Works, London, Penguin Books.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Eizaga


    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Se trata de una reseña de Pinker, S. (1998. How the Mind Works, London, Penguin Books.

  14. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room during Researchers Night by Natural History Museum, London

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    ATLAS Experiment


    This event is part of EU Researchers Night, when institutions in more than 200 cities across Europe reveal the exciting science research taking place behind their doors and how science research is exciting, fun and vital to our daily lives. Following the success of Science Uncovered in 2010 and 2011, the Natural History Museum, London throws open its doors once again this September. There will be hundreds of inspiring scientific activities happening throughout the Museum's iconic galleries and behind the scenes. One big part of the night is a series of Nature Live events, where visitors get the chance to meet our scientists, see the specimens they study and join in the discussion. Throughout the night these events will feature live links to other scientific institutions across the world, including to the LHC control room at CERN. This will give visitors the amazing opportunity to ask questions to the physicists involved about the Large Hadron Collider experiments, Higgs particles and antimatter. As well as to...

  15. The social ecology of girls' bullying practices: exploratory research in two London schools. (United States)

    Jamal, Farah; Bonell, Chris; Harden, Angela; Lorenc, Theo


    This exploratory study adopts a socio-ecological approach to examine the context of school bullying. It asks: (1) what are students' accounts of bullying practices?; (2) how are these enabled and constrained by the school-environment?; (3) how is gender implicated? Qualitative data were collected from girls in two schools in London via focus groups (one in each school; students aged 12-15) and seven semi-structured interviews (in one school; students aged 16-18); and from school policy documents. Our interpretation of girls' accounts, informed by Giddens' structuration theory, suggests that bullying practices were spatially patterned in the schools and often characterised by the regulation of girls' sexuality and sexual-harassment. Repeated acts of aggression were fluid with regard to the bully and victim role, challenging the dominant view of bullying as characterised by consistent disparities in power between individuals. Schools structured bullying behaviour via policies and practices that ignored these forms of abuse and which focused on and may have been complicit in the making of stable 'bully' and 'victim' roles, thus indirectly contributing to the reproduction of unhealthy relationships between students. In terms of gender, traditional gendered and sexual discourses appear to structure the identities of the schools and girls in our study.

  16. Investigating an outbreak of Clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis in a school using smartphone technology, London, March 2013. (United States)

    Simone, B; Atchison, C; Ruiz, B; Greenop, P; Dave, J; Ready, D; Maguire, H; Walsh, B; Anderson, S


    On 22 March 2013, 150 of 1,255 students (13–17 years) and staff at a school in London reported gastrointestinal symptoms; onset peaked 8 to 12 hours after a lunch served in the school on 21 March. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all students and staff. We defined cases as school attenders on 20 and 21 March with onset of gastrointestinal symptoms between 20 and 23 March. We tested food, environmental and stool samples of cases for common pathogens and bacterial toxins. We administered an online questionnaire via email, encouraging the use of smartphones to respond, to measure risk of illness for food items eaten at school on 20 and 21 March. Survey response was 45%. Adjusted risk ratios were generated in a multivariable analysis. Those who ate chicken balti on 21 March were 19.3 times more likely to become ill (95% confidence interval: 7.3–50.9). Clostridium perfringens was detected in all 19 stool samples collected. Within eight school hours of its launch, 412 of 561 (73%) responders had completed the survey. Hygienic standards in the kitchen were satisfactory. The investigation was done rapidly due to smartphone technology and we recommend considering this technology in future outbreaks.

  17. Measuring the impact of digitized theses: a case study from the London School of Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Bennett


    Full Text Available This study tests the assertion that the online dissemination of theses has a positive impact on the research profile of the institution and sets out to gain a greater understanding of how digital theses fit into the scholarly resources landscape. The year-long study combined primary and secondary research and was undertaken with the London School of Economics, based on its programme of theses digitization. The paper outlines the types of metrics an institution may use to measure the impact of its corpus of digitized dissertations and examines how these metrics may be generated. Findings included: a higher volume of theses attracts more traffic; Google’s strong indexing capabilities make it the most frequentlyused tool for discovery of digital theses; primary conclusions are that there is little correlation between downloads and citations of digitized theses; having a digital thesis collection enhances the reputation of the institution; although they recognize that digital theses are a valuable research tool, postgraduates and academics widely believe that making them available affects future publication opportunities; building and maintaining a digital thesis collection makes considerable ‘hidden’ work for librarians in terms of training about copyright and permissions. Some conclusions: better statistics are needed, especially of citations; institutions need to promote digital thesis collections better; more work needs to be done on whether digitizing theses impairs authors’ chances of traditional publication and on how digital theses affect and are affected by the open access movement.

  18. Northwest Russia and the Dumping of Radioactive Waste: The London Convention Implemented

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokke, Olav Schram


    The `Polar Oceans and the Law of the Sea Project`, POLOS, is a three-year international research project in international law and international relations. This report is one of the publications under POLOS. The subject is the Soviet dumping of radioactive waste in the Barents and Kara Seas. The most intensely radioactive waste is a number of submarine reactors still containing high-level spent fuel. Some of this dumping violated Soviet commitments to the 1972 London Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, and this is the starting point of the report. The discussion focuses on how international regimes may affect the domestic implementation in member states, that is, how international agreements can be converted into behavioural adaptation on the part of target groups. Soviet and later Russian management of nuclear waste in the north has been significantly influenced by regulations and programmes generated under international dumping instruments. These international programmes have been supported by the active participation of the Navy itself in the belief that they would lead to transfer of technology and financial resources to Russia from the West. Inspection of military nuclear waste management is largely left to the Northern Fleet. As for monitoring, measurements were for a long time not taken near the dumping sites. As for regulations, the Northern Fleet continued dumping long into the 1990s without permission. Regarding compliance stimulation, foreign support has helped the Northern Fleet avoid dumping. 113 refs.

  19. Dynamics of the forest vegetation of the Umtiza Nature Reserve, East London

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    J. J. Midgley


    Full Text Available The forest community at the Umtiza Nature Reserve near East London was surveyed using 24 plots (0.04 ha in which all woody stems >0.5 m tall were enumerated. Based on a classification using numbers of stems of canopy species, it was assumed that basically only one forest community was sampled. Further multivariate analyses suggest that this forest is fine-grained. Sample plots were similarly placed in ordination space irrespective of whether woody species occurrence was used as importance value or if species occurrence per size class was used separately [seedlings (0.5-1.0 m, saplings (1-5 m or canopy individuals (> 5 m. An analysis of size-class distributions of the most common canopy species indicated that the majority of species exhibited inverse J-shaped size-class distributions. This is the expected pattern for a fine-grained forest. In these measures of dynamics, this forest is not fundamentally different to the more temperate Afromontane forests.

  20. Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment of Sediment Remediation at the London Olympic Park (United States)

    Hou, D.; Al-Tabbaa, A.


    In recent years, there is an emerging 'green and sustainable remediation' (GSR) movement. It is drawing increasing attention from both the government and the industry, because this GSR movement is promising in accelerating process in addressing the contaminated land issue, by overcoming regulatory barriers, encouraging technological innovation, and balancing life cycle environmental stewardship with economic vitality and social well-being. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used by both researchers and industrial practitioners in an initiative to make environmental remediation greener and more sustainable. Life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA), aiming at expanding the traditional LCA model in both breadth and depth (e.g. to incorporate both environmental and social-economic sustainability), is an important research direction in the existing LCA research field. The present study intends to develop a LCSA method based on a hybrid LCA model and economic input-output (EIO) data. The LCSA method is applied to a contaminated sediment remediation project conducted at the London Olympic Park site.

  1. Identity management, negotiation and resistance among women in the sex trade in London, Ontario. (United States)

    Orchard, Treena; Farr, Sara; Macphail, Susan; Wender, Cass; Young, Dawn


    Sex work, and ideas about women in the trade, have long been represented as tragic and/or threatening. However, such portrayals tell us very little about how women think about themselves and the kinds of work they do. The data for this paper come from an ethnographic, community-based study in London, Ontario, that involves women in street-based, indoor and transactional sex work. This discussion focuses on how women develop different individual identities, including the management of multiple selves, their sexual identities and what we have termed the 'good junkie' identity. We also examine how these women employ aspects of dominant representation of sex workers, namely the low status accorded to those in street-based work and the defamatory term 'whore' or 'ho', when negotiating the moral hierarchies that exist within various kinds of sex work (i.e., stripping, massage parlours) and making sense of their professional and personal lives. The work that goes into the creation and maintenance of the women's divergent identities sheds important light on this complicated and tremendously demanding, yet inadequately understood, aspect of life as women in the sex trade.


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    Full Text Available Options’ volatility forecasting represented, in the last decades, a very interesting and frequent domain of research in financial econometrics due to its importance in option pricing, portfolio selection, risk management and other financial activities. The aim of this study is to realize a comparative analysis of the performances obtained by several forecast models in forecasting stock options volatility.For this, we consider the volatility of the 4 most traded options at Euronext London International Financial Futures and Options Stock Exchange (Euronext.Liffe in the period 2009-2010.When analyzing and forecasting these stock options we use the period January 2009-May 2011; using this base period, we determine the models that describe better the evolution of the volatility. Based on these models we realize forecasts that are finally compared with the real values recorded in the next 10 trading days.In relation with the differences that appear, we determine the forecast errors and by these we identify the best models and the ones that generate the biggest errors.

  3. Exploring the Evolution of London's Street Network in the Information Space: a Dual Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Masucci, A Paolo; Batty, Michael


    We study the growth of London's street-network in its dual representation, as the city has evolved over the last 224 years. The dual representation of a planar graph is a content-based network, where each node is a set of edges of the planar graph, and represents a transportation unit in the so-called information space, i.e. the space where information is handled in order to navigate through the city. First, we discuss a novel hybrid technique to extract dual graphs from planar graphs, called the hierarchical intersection continuity negotiation principle. Then we show that the growth of the network can be analytically described by logistic laws and that the topological properties of the network are governed by robust lognormal distributions characterising the network's connectivity and small-world properties that are consistent over time. Moreover, we find that the double-Pareto-like distributions for the connectivity emerge for major roads and can be modelled via a stochastic content-based network model usin...

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in community and nosocomial Escherichia coli urinary tract isolates, London 2005 – 2006

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    Wareham David W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli is the commonest cause of community and nosocomial urinary tract infection (UTI. Antibiotic treatment is usually empirical relying on susceptibility data from local surveillance studies. We therefore set out to determine levels of resistance to 8 commonly used antimicrobial agents amongst all urinary isolates obtained over a 12 month period. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefalexin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim and cefpodoxime was determined for 11,865 E. coli urinary isolates obtained from community and hospitalised patients in East London. Results Nitrofurantoin was the most active agent (94% susceptible, followed by gentamicin and cefpodoxime. High rates of resistance to ampicillin (55% and trimethoprim (40%, often in combination were observed in both sets of isolates. Although isolates exhibiting resistance to multiple drug classes were rare, resistance to cefpodoxime, indicative of Extended spectrum β-lactamase production, was observed in 5.7% of community and 21.6% of nosocomial isolates. Conclusion With the exception of nitrofurantoin, resistance to agents commonly used as empirical oral treatments for UTI was extremely high. Levels of resistance to trimethoprim and ampicillin render them unsuitable for empirical use. Continued surveillance and investigation of other oral agents for treatment of UTI in the community is required.

  5. Anthropological demography in Europe: Methodological lessons from a comparative ethnographic study in Athens and London

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    Katerina Georgiadis


    Full Text Available This paper offers a descriptive account of the methods used to conduct a comparative ethnographic study of below-replacement fertility in Athens, Greece and London, UK. It argues that in order for anthropology and demography to forge a closer relationship each discipline first needs to gain a deeper appreciation of the other's methodological perspectives. The following discussion presents the key anthropological approaches employed to realize a research project on low fertility in Europe, and provides justification for their use. While the practices described in this paper might be familiar to anthropologists and qualitative demographers, they are less well-known in the wider demographic community. Those convinced of the benefits of the ethnographic approach to the study of fertility are also invited to consider the specific obstacles encountered in the course of this enquiry. This paper reaches the following methodological conclusions: 1 Findings from two ethnographic studies of low fertility can be compared and generalised if such concepts as 'comparison' and 'generalisation' are understood in the anthropological sense. 2 Those investigating fertility in Europe must remain critical of their position relative to their study participants, even if they are undertaking research 'at home'. 3 Exploring attitudes towards reproduction and experiences of family-formation in an urban setting presents unique challenges as does 4 asking women about their childbearing beliefs and practices. 5 Analysing press perspectives on low fertility must involve treating media representations as 'discourse' and 6 qualitative studies are invaluable to the low fertility debate because of their thematic contributions.

  6. Biomedical practices from a patient perspective. Experiences of Polish female migrants in Barcelona, Berlin and London. (United States)

    Main, Izabella


    This paper focuses on the diversity in patients' experience of bio-medicine and contrasts it with the normative view characteristic of health professionals. Ethnographic fieldwork among Polish migrant women in London, Barcelona and Berlin included interviews about their experiences with local healthcare and health professionals. Themes drawn from the narratives are differences between the cities in terms of communication between patients and health professionals, respect for patients' choices and dignity, attitudes to pregnancy and birth (different levels of medicalization), and paediatric care. It is argued that patients continuously negotiate among their own views and expectations based on previous experiences and knowledge from personal communication; internet forums and publications; and the offer of medical services in the countries of their settlement. Patients experience pluralism of therapeutic traditions within and outside bio-medicine. In turn, representatives of bio-medicine are rarely aware of other medical practices and beliefs and this leads to various misunderstandings. By highlighting the pluralism of medical practices in European countries and the increasing mobility of patients, this case study has useful implications for medical anthropologists and health professionals in a broader Western context, such as raising sensitivity to different communication strategies and a diversity of curing traditions and expectations.

  7. Performance of humans vs. exploration algorithms on the Tower of London Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Fimbel

    Full Text Available The Tower of London Test (TOL used to assess executive functions was inspired in Artificial Intelligence tasks used to test problem-solving algorithms. In this study, we compare the performance of humans and of exploration algorithms. Instead of absolute execution times, we focus on how the execution time varies with the tasks and/or the number of moves. This approach used in Algorithmic Complexity provides a fair comparison between humans and computers, although humans are several orders of magnitude slower. On easy tasks (1 to 5 moves, healthy elderly persons performed like exploration algorithms using bounded memory resources, i.e., the execution time grew exponentially with the number of moves. This result was replicated with a group of healthy young participants. However, for difficult tasks (5 to 8 moves the execution time of young participants did not increase significantly, whereas for exploration algorithms, the execution time keeps on increasing exponentially. A pre-and post-test control task showed a 25% improvement of visuo-motor skills but this was insufficient to explain this result. The findings suggest that naive participants used systematic exploration to solve the problem but under the effect of practice, they developed markedly more efficient strategies using the information acquired during the test.

  8. Going for gold: blood planning for the London 2012 Olympic Games. (United States)

    Glasgow, S M; Allard, S; Rackham, R; Doughty, H


    The Olympics is one of the largest sporting events in the world. Major events may be complicated by disruption of normal activity and major incidents. Health care and transfusion planners should be prepared for both. Previously, transfusion contingency planning has focused on seasonal blood shortages and pandemic influenzas. This article is the first published account of transfusion contingency planning for a major event. We describe the issues encountered and the lessons identified during transfusion planning for the London 2012 Olympics. Planning was started 18 months in advance and was led by a project team reporting to the Executive. Planning was based on three periods of Gamestime. The requirements were planned with key stakeholders using normal processes enhanced by service developments. Demand planning was based on literature review together with computer modelling. The aim was blood-stock sufficiency complimented by a high readiness donor panel to minimise waste. Plans were widely communicated and table-top exercised. Full transfusion services were maintained during both Games with all demands met. The new service improvements and high readiness donors worked well. Emergency command and control have been upgraded. Red cell concentrate (RCC) stock aged but wastage was not significantly increased. The key to success was: early planning, stakeholder engagement, service developments, integration of transfusion service planning within the wider health care community and conduct within an assurance framework.

  9. The permeable institution: an ethnographic study of three acute psychiatric wards in London. (United States)

    Quirk, Alan; Lelliott, Paul; Seale, Clive


    In Asylums, Goffman [1961. Asylums. London: Penguin] identified some permeable features of the old mental hospitals but presented them as exceptions to the rule and focused on their impermeable aspects. We argue that this emphasis is no longer valid and offer an alternative ideal type that better represents the reality of everyday life in contemporary 'bricks and mortar' psychiatric institutions. We call this the "permeable institution". The research involved participant observation of between 3 and 4 months and interviews with patients, patient advocates and staff on 3 psychiatric wards. Evidence for permeability includes that ward membership is temporary and changes rapidly (patients tend to have very short stays and staff turnover is high); patients maintain contact with the outside world during their stay; and institutional identities are blurred to the point where visitors or new patients can easily mistake staff and patients for one another. Permeability has both positive consequences (e.g., reduced risk of institutionalism), and negative consequences (e.g., unwanted people coming into hospital to cause trouble, and illicit drug use among patients). Staff employ various methods to regulate their ward's permeability, within certain parameters. The metaphor of the total/closed institution remains valuable, but it fails to capture the highly permeable nature of the psychiatric institutions we studied. Analysts may therefore find the permeable institution a more helpful reference point or ideal type against which to examine and compare empirical cases. Perhaps most helpful is to conceptualise a continuum of institutional permeability with total and permeable institutions at each extreme.

  10. 备战要诀%Essentials of Preparation for London Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    At present, we are at the crucial moment of preparation for London Olympics. Collecting his several years' experiences and inspirations as a veteran in athletics, the author talks about essentials of Olympics preparation from three aspects: pre-competition mobilization,competition rules, perceptions of final competition. The aim of pre-competition mobilization is to help athletes reach a desired level of on- the-spot performance through correct competition perception, accurate strength estimation, appropriate psychological orientation, active attitude regulation, and effective pre-competition preparation.At final competition, it is actually a contest of psychology. Those who understand final competition better and more thorough will have more chance to win.%眼下,我们正值备战奥运的关键时刻。作为竞技体育的“老兵”,谈谈多年备战的体会与感受,供同行借鉴,以求各项目能联系实际,触类旁通,真正为我所用。如有点滴功效,则不胜欣慰。

  11. National Nutritional Programs for the 2012 London Olympic Games: a systematic approach by three different countries. (United States)

    Burke, Louise M; Meyer, Nanna L; Pearce, Jeni


    Preparing a national team for success at major sporting competitions such as the Olympic Games has become a systematic and multi-faceted activity. Sports nutrition contributes to this success via strategic nutritional interventions that optimize the outcomes from both the training process and the competitive event. This review summarizes the National Nutrition Programs involved with the 2012 London Olympic Games preparation of the Australian, British and American sports systems from the viewpoints of three key agencies: the Australian Institute of Sport, the English Institute of Sport and the United States Olympic Committee. Aspects include development of a nutrition network involving appropriately qualified sports dietitians/nutritionists within a multi-disciplinary team, recognition of continual updates in sports nutrition knowledge, and a systematic approach to service delivery, education and research within the athlete's daily training environment. Issues of clinical nutrition support must often be integrated into the performance nutrition matrix. Food service plays an important role in the achievement of nutrition goals during the Olympic Games, both through the efforts of the Athlete Dining Hall and catering activities of the host Olympic Games Organizing Committees as well as adjunct facilities often provided by National Olympic Committees for their own athletes.

  12. 'Gay times': identity, locality, memory, and the Brixton squats in 1970's London. (United States)

    Cook, Matt


    Through a thick description of a gay squatting community in south London in the 1970s, this piece explores the ways in which local histories complicate broader accounts of gay life, politics, and culture. Such a focus alerts us to the impact of personal encounters, of local politics, and material circumstances, of coincident local communities, of jobs (or the lack of them), and of major local events (like the Brixton riots of 1981). The local focus and the oral history sources also illuminate the complex ways in which unspoken and often unconscious imperatives associated with ethnicity, class, and the familial, social, and cultural contexts of our upbringings are played out under new and changing circumstances. Taking this approach fractures homogenizing assumptions about gay identity and community--even of a self-identified gay community like this squatting collective. It can also decentre sexuality as a primary category of identity and analysis as other factors come into sharper focus and shed light on the ebb and flow of identification and on the ways in which broader histories are woven into everyday lives. The piece thus considers different scales of analysis, the limits of identification, the inclusions and exclusions enacted when communities come together and identities coalesce, the continuities and discontinuities between broader and counter cultures (especially in relation to ideas and lived experiences of home), and the way memories of the squats and of the 1970s are modulated by subsequent national and gay politics, by AIDS, and by a profound sense of loss.

  13. Water-energy links in cities: the urban metabolism of London (United States)

    Mijic, A.; Ruiz Cazorla, J.; Keirstead, J.


    Rapid urbanisation results in increased water consumption in cities, requiring improved tools for understanding adaptive measures for water resources management under climate change. The energy sector is facing the same challenges and requires equally comprehensive solutions. More frequent water shortages due to climate and land use changes and potential limits on CO2 emissions from fossil fuels that science demands indicate clearly that the next step in the sustainable city development will be to look for the most efficient use of these highly interdependent resources. One of the concepts that could be used for quantifying fundamental flows in an urban environment such as water and energy is the urban metabolism framework. This paper will examine the concept of urban metabolism by quantifying amounts and trends of water and energy consumed in London by four main sectors: residential, industrial, commercial and public. Key data requirements at the sector level will be identified and initial mapping of critical factors for urban sustainability will be provided. Finally, the work will examine the potential of urban metabolism framework to provide data and information for implementing water, energy and greenhouse emissions trade-off 'fit-for-purpose' strategy for water supply security. The paper is a part of the Panta Rhei Research Initiative of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) under the working group of Energy and Food Impacts on Water.

  14. Zoo Store 1 at the Natural History Museum, London: Meeting National Standards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Carnall


    Full Text Available The Natural History Museum (NHM, London is at the forefront of natural history science, and a major player in developing standards for the care of these collections in museums. Around ten years ago, there was a great deal of activity developing policies and standards for the care of the different museum collections. Despite this, the feeling in the museum is that the management of the collections was neglected for some years. Since the Museum Registrar was appointed in 2004, the Museum hosted the International SPNHC Conference and has been working on implementing these policies. This paper examines how the NHM’s collections storage compares to the standards and policies to which the museum aspires. Zoo Store 1, one of the NHM’s oldest storerooms, is used as a case study. The investigation found that the store falls short of the aspired standards in documentation, security, storage and environmental conditions, but significant progress has been made in the last two years. Reasons range from historical problems inherited from previous generations of museum workers, the attitudes of personnel, and the sheer time that it takes to implement a series of standards across very large collections and numbers of staff.

  15. Integrated Multibeam and LIDAR Bathymetry Data Offshore of New London and Niantic, Connecticut (United States)

    Poppe, L.J.; Danforth, W.W.; McMullen, K.Y.; Parker, Castle E.; Lewit, P.G.; Doran, E.F.


    Nearshore areas within Long Island Sound are of great interest to the Connecticut and New York research and resource management communities because of their ecological, recreational, and commercial importance. Although advances in multibeam echosounder technology permit the construction of high-resolution representations of sea-floor topography in deeper waters, limitations inherent in collecting fixed-angle multibeam data make using this technology in shallower waters (less than 10 meters deep) difficult and expensive. These limitations have often resulted in data gaps between areas for which multibeam bathymetric datasets are available and the adjacent shoreline. To address this problem, the geospatial data sets released in this report seamlessly integrate complete-coverage multibeam bathymetric data acquired off New London and Niantic Bay, Connecticut, with hydrographic Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data acquired along the nearshore. The result is a more continuous sea floor representation and a much smaller gap between the digital bathymetric data and the shoreline than previously available. These data sets are provided online and on CD-ROM in Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) raster-grid and GeoTIFF formats in order to facilitate access, compatibility, and utility.

  16. A century of Dutch neurology. (United States)

    Koehler, P J; Bruyn, G W; Moffie, D


    The Netherlands Society of Neurology evolved from the Society of Psychiatry founded in 1871. The name was changed into Netherlands Society of Psychiatry and Neurology (NSPN) in 1897. In the same year, the word neurology was also added to the name of the journal. The Society steadily blossomed, but in 1909 the first signs of dissatisfaction occurred: the Amsterdam Neurologists Society was founded. A few split-offs would follow. The number of members of the NSPN increased from 205 in 1920 to 585 in 1960. In the early 1960s, the Society was reorganised and would consist of two sections, one for psychiatry and one for neurology. However, this would not last, as a full separation was established in 1974. For several reasons, the name of the journal was changed four times until it assumed its present name in 1974. The 100th volume of CNN was not published, as expected. in 1996, but in 1998, because of two skipped publication years, one during WWII and another in the 1970s. During the last decades of the nineteenth century, teaching of neurology was mostly given within the frame of psychiatry, following the German tradition of 'brainpsychiatry' (organic or biologic psychiatry). The first official chair of psychiatry was founded at Utrecht, 1893 (Winkler). In Amsterdam, private teachers such as Delprat taught 'electro-therapy and nervous diseases' since the 1880s. The first extraordinary chair of neurology and electrotherapy was founded for his successor, Wertheim Salomonson in 1899. The first university clinic for psychiatry and neurology started at the Amsterdam Municipal University, when Winkler became professor of psychiatry and neurology in Amsterdam in 1896. Around the turn of the century, chairs of psychiatry and neurology were also founded in Groningen and Leiden. Separate chairs for neurology and psychiatry appeared in Amsterdam in 1923 and in Utrecht in 1936. Following an initiative of Brouwer, the first neurological university clinic opened its doors in

  17. Lessons for control of heroin-associated anthrax in Europe from 2009-2010 outbreak case studies, London, UK. (United States)

    Abbara, Aula; Brooks, Tim; Taylor, Graham P; Nolan, Marianne; Donaldson, Hugo; Manikon, Maribel; Holmes, Alison


    Outbreaks of serious infections associated with heroin use in persons who inject drugs (PWIDs) occur intermittently and require vigilance and rapid reporting of individual cases. Here, we give a firsthand account of the cases in London during an outbreak of heroin-associated anthrax during 2009-2010 in the United Kingdom. This new manifestation of anthrax has resulted in a clinical manifestation distinct from already recognized forms. During 2012-13, additional cases of heroin-associated anthrax among PWIDs in England and other European countries were reported, suggesting that anthrax-contaminated heroin remains in circulation. Antibacterial drugs used for serious soft tissue infection are effective against anthrax, which may lead to substantial underrecognition of this novel illness. The outbreak in London provides a strong case for ongoing vigilance and the use of serologic testing in diagnosis and serologic surveillance schemes to determine and monitor the prevalence of anthrax exposure in the PWID community.


    Aguayo, Joseph; Regeczkey, Agnes


    The authors historically situate the London Kleinian development in terms of the small-group collaborations and adversaries that arose during the course of Melanie Klein's career. Some collaborations later became personally adversarial (e.g., those Klein had with Glover and Schmideberg); other adversarial relationships forever remained that way (with A. Freud); while still other long-term collaborations became theoretically contentious (such as with Winnicott and Heimann). After the Controversial Discussions in 1944, Klein marginalized one group of supporters (Heimann, Winnicott, and Riviere) in favor of another group (Rosenfeld, Segal, and Bion). After Klein's death in 1960, Bion maintained loyalty to Klein's ideas while quietly distancing his work from the London Klein group, immigrating to the United States in 1968.

  19. The Information Seeking Behaviour of Distance Learners: A Case Study of the University of London International Programmes


    Tury, S.; Robinson, L; Bawden, D.


    An examination of the information behaviour of distance learning students is described, based on a case study of the International Programmes of the University of London. A comprehensive literature analysis, and comparison of relevant information behaviour models were carried out, supported by a survey of student behaviour. Following a pilot study, the main survey gained responses from 649 students, in 81 countries and following diverse study programmes. A variety of inter-related factors wer...

  20. PORTUGUESE STUDENTS IN LONDON SCHOOLS: Patterns of participation in community language classes and patterns of educational achievement



    This study investigates the academic achievement of Portuguese students in the London borough of Lambeth according to their attendance or non-attendance at Portuguese classes. The following questions are addressed: 1- Why do parents make the commitment of taking their children to Portuguese classes? 2- What differences can we find, in terms of academic results, between Portuguese students attending mother tongue classes and those not attending? 3- What factors can be identifie...

  1. Alcohol Gel Ingestion Among Homeless Eastern and Central Europeans in London: Assessing the Effects on Cognitive Functioning and Psychological Health


    Dawkins, LE; Soar, K; Papaioannou, G.


    Background: Intentional consumption of alcohol based hand gels has been reported especially amongst non-UK national, alcohol dependent, homeless individuals in London. Whilst alcohol misuse is known to be associated with impaired cognitive functioning and mental health problems, the effects of additional ingestion of alcohol gel are unknown. Objectives: To explore cognitive and psychological functioning in users who intentionally ingest alcohol gel compared with ethyl-alcohol only misusers an...

  2. Examining the Reasons Black Male Youths Give for Committing Crime with Reference to Inner City Areas of London (United States)

    Achinewhu-Nworgu, Elizabeth; Nworgu, Chioma; Azaiki, Steve; Nworgu, Helen


    This paper presents a mini research carried out by the Focus Learning Support (FLS) team on reasons why young black males in the community commit crime. Knife and gun crime is seen as a serious problem in the black community involving black males in the inner London city areas--many of whom are both victims and offenders of knife and gun crime.…

  3. Cohort profile: Examining Neighbourhood Activities in Built Living Environments in London: the ENABLE London—Olympic Park cohort (United States)

    Ram, Bina; Nightingale, Claire M; Hudda, Mohammed T; Kapetanakis, Venediktos V; Ellaway, Anne; Cooper, Ashley R; Page, Angie; Lewis, Daniel; Cummins, Steven; Giles-Corti, Billie; Whincup, Peter H; Cook, Derek G; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Owen, Christopher G


    Purpose The Examining Neighbourhood Activities in Built Living Environments in London (ENABLE London) project is a natural experiment which aims to establish whether physical activity and other health behaviours show sustained changes among individuals and families relocating to East Village (formerly the London 2012 Olympics Athletes' Village), when compared with a control population living outside East Village throughout. Participants Between January 2013 and December 2015, 1497 individuals from 1006 households were recruited and assessed (at baseline) (including 392 households seeking social housing, 421 seeking intermediate and 193 seeking market rent homes). The 2-year follow-up rate is 62% of households to date, of which 57% have moved to East Village. Findings to date Assessments of physical activity (measured objectively using accelerometers) combined with Global Positioning System technology and Geographic Information System mapping of the local area are being used to characterise physical activity patterns and location among study participants and assess the attributes of the environments to which they are exposed. Assessments of body composition, based on weight, height and bioelectrical impedance, have been made and detailed participant questionnaires provide information on socioeconomic position, general health/health status, well-being, anxiety, depression, attitudes to leisure time activities and other personal, social and environmental influences on physical activity, including the use of recreational space and facilities in their residential neighbourhood. Future plans The main analyses will examine the changes in physical activity, health and well-being observed in the East Village group compared with controls and the influence of specific elements of the built environment on observed changes. The ENABLE London project exploits a unique opportunity to evaluate a ‘natural experiment’, provided by the building and rapid occupation of East

  4. Countering 21st Century Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharling Pedersen, Peter; Pillai, Chad M.; Hun, Lee Jae


    The United States and its Allies confront an increasingly volatile world where threats range from traditional state-on-state challenges to non-state transnational networks. To successfully combat these 21st Century problems, in an era of resource and geo-political power constraints, the U......), Counter-Terrorism (CT), and Security and Stability Operations (SSO). • Establishing a construct that allows a strategic Whole-of-Government capacity for operations coordinated by joint interagency task forces. • Continue to developing the Global SOF network. • Increased intelligence sharing in areas...... (UW). Other obstacles such as resolving tensions in U.S. statutory law between traditional military and intelligence activities, bridging the gap with non-security Departments and Agencies, and developing the necessary trust with bilateral and multilateral partners are components that need...

  5. Twentieth Century Internationalism in Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiermann, Ole


    The 20th century saw the transformation of international law into a legal discipline concerned with the practical  application of law. It was fuelled by a manifold variety of treaties, procedures and institutions. Still, international lawyers persisted in conceiving and judging their discipline...... against a background coloured by national legal traditions. International lawyers did not overcome the optimist and evolutionary tradition based on the assumption that international law is but an ever closer approximation of national legal systems; nor did lawyers escape the fl ip side of this tradition......, i.e., doubt and insecurity about international law and its basis. Rather than facilitating international law as a practical discipline, a superfi cial understanding of internationalism reinforced fetishisms of the discipline's theoretical past, not least the axiom that states only are proper...

  6. Assessment of the impact of the London Olympics 2012 on selected non-genitourinary medicine clinic sexual health services. (United States)

    Hartley, A; Foster, R; Brook, M G; Cassell, J A; Mercer, C H; Coyne, K; Hughes, G; Crook, P


    With minimal information on sexual health provision during mass-gathering events, our aim was to describe the use of sexual health, contraceptive, sex worker and sexual assault services during the London 2012 Olympics. We analysed data from five sources. One contraceptive service provider reported a 10% increase in attendance during the main Games, while emergency contraception prescriptions rose during the main Olympics, compared to the week before, but were similar or lower than at the beginning and end of the summer period. A health telephone advice line reported a 16% fall in sexual health-related calls during the main Olympics, but a 33% increase subsequently. London sexual assault referral centres reported that 1.8% of sexual assaults were Olympics-linked. A service for sex workers reported that 16% started working in the sex industry and 7% moved to London to work during the Olympics. Fifty-eight per cent and 45% of sex workers reported fewer clients and an increase in police crack-downs, respectively. Our results show a change in activity across these services during the 2012 summer, which may be associated with the Olympics. Our data are a guide to other services when anticipating changes in service activity and planning staffing for mass-gathering events.

  7. Mapping the evolution of 'food deserts' in a Canadian city: Supermarket accessibility in London, Ontario, 1961–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilliland Jason


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of research suggests that the suburbanization of food retailers in North America and the United Kingdom in recent decades has contributed to the emergence of urban 'food deserts', or disadvantaged areas of cities with relatively poor access to healthy and affordable food. This paper explores the evolution of food deserts in a mid-sized Canadian city (London, Ontario by using a geographic information system (GIS to map the precise locations of supermarkets in 1961 and 2005; multiple techniques of network analysis were used to assess changing levels of supermarket access in relation to neighbourhood location, socioeconomic characteristics, and access to public transit. Results The findings indicate that residents of inner-city neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status have the poorest access to supermarkets. Furthermore, spatial inequalities in access to supermarkets have increased over time, particularly in the inner-city neighbourhoods of Central and East London, where distinct urban food deserts now exist. Conclusion Contrary to recent findings in larger Canadian cities, we conclude that urban food deserts exist in London, Ontario. Policies aimed at improving public health must also recognize the spatial, as well as socioeconomic, inequities with respect to access to healthy and affordable food. Additional research is necessary to better understand how supermarket access influences dietary behaviours and related health outcomes.

  8. Mapping the evolution of 'food deserts' in a Canadian city: Supermarket accessibility in London, Ontario, 1961–2005 (United States)

    Larsen, Kristian; Gilliland, Jason


    Background A growing body of research suggests that the suburbanization of food retailers in North America and the United Kingdom in recent decades has contributed to the emergence of urban 'food deserts', or disadvantaged areas of cities with relatively poor access to healthy and affordable food. This paper explores the evolution of food deserts in a mid-sized Canadian city (London, Ontario) by using a geographic information system (GIS) to map the precise locations of supermarkets in 1961 and 2005; multiple techniques of network analysis were used to assess changing levels of supermarket access in relation to neighbourhood location, socioeconomic characteristics, and access to public transit. Results The findings indicate that residents of inner-city neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status have the poorest access to supermarkets. Furthermore, spatial inequalities in access to supermarkets have increased over time, particularly in the inner-city neighbourhoods of Central and East London, where distinct urban food deserts now exist. Conclusion Contrary to recent findings in larger Canadian cities, we conclude that urban food deserts exist in London, Ontario. Policies aimed at improving public health must also recognize the spatial, as well as socioeconomic, inequities with respect to access to healthy and affordable food. Additional research is necessary to better understand how supermarket access influences dietary behaviours and related health outcomes. PMID:18423005

  9. Global sport mega-events and the politics of mobility: the case of the London 2012 Olympics. (United States)

    Giulianotti, Richard; Armstrong, Gary; Hales, Gavin; Hobbs, Dick


    This paper examines the politics of mobility which surrounded the London 2012 Olympics. We provide a critical discussion of the mobility conflicts, problems and criticisms which emerged from our research with local people in the Stratford and wider Newham areas of London, where most Olympic events were located. The paper is divided into four broad parts. First, we identify and discuss the relevant components of the 'mobilities paradigm' in social science which underpin our analysis. Second, we briefly outline our research methods, centring particularly on fieldwork and interviews with different social groups. Third, we examine in detail the six main themes of mobility politics which were evident at London 2012, relating to social context, event construction, event mobility systems, commercial mobilities, the mobile politics of exclusion, and contested modes of mobility. In doing so, we seek to extend the mobilities paradigm by introducing various concepts and keywords - notably on the three-speed city, entryability, mobility panics, instrumental mobility, and corporate kettling - which may be utilized by social scientists to examine mobility systems in other social contexts. We conclude by reaffirming the significance of mobility-focused research at sport and other mega-events, and by indicating future lines of inquiry for social scientists.

  10. A new surveillance system for undiagnosed serious infectious illness for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. (United States)

    Heinsbroek, E; Said, B; Kirkbride, H


    A new surveillance system was developed to detect possible new or emerging infections presenting as undiagnosed serious infectious illness (USII) for use during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Designated clinicians in sentinel adult and paediatric intensive care units (ICU/ PICUs) reported USII using an online reporting tool or provided a weekly nil notification. Reported cases were investigated for epidemiological links. A pilot study was undertaken for six months between January and July 2011 to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the system. In this six-month period, 5 adults and 13 children were reported by six participating units (3 ICUs, 3 PICUs). Of these 18 patients, 12 were reported within four days after admission to an ICU/PICU. Nine patients were subsequently diagnosed and were thus excluded from the surveillance. Therefore, only nine cases of USII were reported. No clustering was identified.On the basis of the pilot study, we conclude that the system is able to detect cases of USII and is feasible and acceptable to users. USII surveillance has been extended to a total of 19 sentinel units in London and the south-east of England during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  11. SHORTER, Aylward. African recruits and missionary conscripts: the White Fathers and the Great War (1914 – 1922. London: Missionaries of Africa History Project, 2007. 270 p. ISBN: 9780955523502

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Olivatto da Silva


    Full Text Available Resenha do livroSHORTER, Aylward. African recruits and missionary conscripts: the White Fathers and the Great War (1914 – 1922. London: Missionaries of Africa History Project, 2007. 270 p. ISBN: 9780955523502

  12. News of the European Society of Cardiology Congress (London, 28 August - 2 September 2015: old drugs may be better than the new ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Martsevich


    Full Text Available News of the European Society of Cardiology Congress (London, 2015 is presented. The results of recent randomized controlled trials and observational studies (registers data are discussed.

  13. News of the European Society of Cardiology Congress (London, 28 August - 2 September 2015: old drugs may be better than the new ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Martsevich


    Full Text Available News of the European Society of Cardiology Congress (London, 2015 is presented. The results of recent randomized controlled trials and observational studies (registers data are discussed.

  14. An annotated catalogue of type specimens of the land snail genus Cyclophorus Monfort, 1810 (Caenogastropoda, Cyclophoridae) in the Natural History Museum, London. (United States)

    Nantarat, Nattawadee; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Tongkerd, Piyoros; Ablett, Jonathan; Naggs, Fred; Panha, Somsak


    The collection of land caenogastropod snails in the genus Cyclophorus Monfort, 1810 housed in the Natural History Museum, London (NHM), includes 52 type lots. Lectotypes have been designated for 43 available species-level names to stabilize existing nomenclature, two previously designated lectotype, two holotypes, one paratype, one syntype, one possible syntype and two paralectotypes are also listed. A complete catalogue of the Cyclophorus types in NHM, London is provided for the first time.

  15. Analysis of symbolism in Jack London’s A Piece of Steak--A brief analy-sis on contradictory beliefs of Jack London

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A Piece of Steak is one of Jack London’s short stories in which lots of symbolism usage could be found. Jack London is an American realistic writer who did not receive much formal education. However, he loved reading and was greatly influenced by Spenser, Darwin, Nietzsche, Karl Marx and etc. The influences made Jack London form contradictory beliefs which were shown in this short story.

  16. 21st Century Skills Map: The Arts (United States)

    Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.


    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

  17. Women in Eighteenth-century Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonton, Deborah Leigh


    he eighteenth century looms large in the Scottish imagination. It is a century that saw the doubling of the population, rapid urbanisation, industrial growth, the political Union of 1707, the Jacobite Rebellions and the Enlightenment - events that were intrinsic to the creation of the modern nation...

  18. Capital in the Twenty-First Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.


    Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp......Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp...

  19. An Unfashionable Rhetoric in the Fifteenth Century. (United States)

    Woods, Marjorie Curry


    Reveals the continued importance of medieval rhetorical pedagogy throughout the high Middle Ages and early Renaissance by exploring the fifteenth-century popularity, uses of, and references to Geoffrey of Vinsauf's "Poetria nova" (a thirteenth-century verse treatise on the composition of poetry according to rhetorical principles). (SR)

  20. 2014 Beller Lectureship: Chinese Physicists Educated in the Great Britain during the First Half of the 20th Century (United States)

    Yin, Xiaodong


    More than 30 Chinese students went to Great Britain to study physics during the first half of the 20th century. They were concentrated in London University (13), Cambridge University (9), Edinburgh University (5) and Manchester University (3) and so on. All these students returned to China after finishing their study and most of them later became excellent physicists. They contributed to the development of physics in China. Based on newly discovered primary materials concerning these Chinese physicists, I examine their study in UK and subsequent accomplishments after their return to China. I will then analyze these British-trained Chinese physicists and compare them with those studying in Japan and America. I would argue that Chinese physicists educated in Britain have high degree of specialization as a whole and formed unique style. They made certain unique contributions to Chinese physics development.

  1. The Politics of Religion in an Age of Revival: Studies in Nineteenth-Century Europe and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraclio Bonilla


    Full Text Available Austen Ivereigh (ed., The Politics of Religion in an Age  of Revival: Studies in Nineteenth-Century Europe and Latin America (London: Institute of Latin American Studies, 2000. El libro editado por Austen Ivereigh, antiguo profesor de la Universidad de Leeds y ahora docente en la Universidad de Ayacucho (Perú, reúne ocho trabajos escritos por distinguidos especialistas de la historia del siglo XIX en América Latina y en Europa, precedidos de una sugerente introducción por parte del editor. Los trabajos y la introducción están orientados a una revisión radical sobre los estereotipos sobre el papel de la Iglesia, particularmente aquél que enfatizaba su papel fundamentalmente conservador y de respaldo a los intereses de la clase propietaria.

  2. Spectral mixing formulations for van der Waals-London dispersion interactions between multicomponent carbon nanotubes. (United States)

    Rajter, Rick; French, Roger H; Podgornik, Rudi; Ching, W Y; Parsegian, V Adrian


    Recognition of spatially varying optical properties is a necessity when studying the van der Waals-London dispersion (vdW-Ld) interactions of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that have surfactant coatings, tubes within tubes, andor substantial core sizes. The ideal way to address these radially dependent optical properties would be to have an analytical add-a-layer solution in cylindrical coordinates similar to the one readily available for the plane-plane geometry. However, such a formulation does not exist nor does it appear trivial to be obtained exactly. The best and most pragmatic alternative for end-users is to take the optical spectra of the many components and to use a spectral mixing formulation so as to create effective solid-cylinder spectra for use in the far-limit regime. The near-limit regime at "contact" is dominated by the optical properties of the outermost layer, and thus no spectral mixing is required. Specifically we use a combination of a parallel capacitor in the axial direction and the Bruggeman effective medium in the radial direction. We then analyze the impact of using this mixing formulation upon the effective vdW-Ld spectra and the resulting Hamaker coefficients for small and large diameter single walled CNTs (SWCNTs) in both the near- and far-limit regions. We also test the spectra of a [16,0,s+7,0,s] multiwalled CNT (MWCNT) with an effective MWCNT spectrum created by mixing its [16,0,s] and [7,0,s] SWCNT components to demonstrate nonlinear coupling effects that exist between neighboring layers. Although this paper is primarily on nanotubes, the strategies, implementation, and analysis presented are applicable and likely necessary to any system where one needs to resolve spatially varying optical properties in a particular Lifshitz formulation.

  3. Scheduling and adaptation of London's future water supply and demand schemes under uncertainty (United States)

    Huskova, Ivana; Matrosov, Evgenii S.; Harou, Julien J.; Kasprzyk, Joseph R.; Reed, Patrick M.


    The changing needs of society and the uncertainty of future conditions complicate the planning of future water infrastructure and its operating policies. These systems must meet the multi-sector demands of a range of stakeholders whose objectives often conflict. Understanding these conflicts requires exploring many alternative plans to identify possible compromise solutions and important system trade-offs. The uncertainties associated with future conditions such as climate change and population growth challenge the decision making process. Ideally planners should consider portfolios of supply and demand management schemes represented as dynamic trajectories over time able to adapt to the changing environment whilst considering many system goals and plausible futures. Decisions can be scheduled and adapted over the planning period to minimize the present cost of portfolios while maintaining the supply-demand balance and ecosystem services as the future unfolds. Yet such plans are difficult to identify due to the large number of alternative plans to choose from, the uncertainty of future conditions and the computational complexity of such problems. Our study optimizes London's future water supply system investments as well as their scheduling and adaptation over time using many-objective scenario optimization, an efficient water resource system simulator, and visual analytics for exploring key system trade-offs. The solutions are compared to Pareto approximate portfolios obtained from previous work where the composition of infrastructure portfolios that did not change over the planning period. We explore how the visual analysis of solutions can aid decision making by investigating the implied performance trade-offs and how the individual schemes and their trajectories present in the Pareto approximate portfolios affect the system's behaviour. By doing so decision makers are given the opportunity to decide the balance between many system goals a posteriori as well as

  4. Micronutrient supplemented probiotic yogurt for HIV-infected adults taking HAART in London, Canada. (United States)

    Hemsworth, Jaimie Caitlin; Hekmat, Sharareh; Reid, Gregor


    The Human Immunodeficiency Virus has devastating effects worldwide. The burden is less pronounced, but still present in Canada where approximately 64,000 men and women are HIV positive. The virus and the life-saving antiretroviral therapies often contribute to diarrhea and other gastrointestinal disturbances. Certain probiotic organisms, such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1, have been shown to alleviate diarrhea as well as delay the decline of CD4 lymphocytes in some subjects. In addition, micronutrient formulae have been used extensively among HIV positive persons as a cost-effective method for improving quality of life and immune function. The objective of the present study was to combine probiotics and micronutrients into an affordable and highly palatable nutritional supplement and assess outcomes in 21 HIV-positive participants receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy in London, Ontario, Canada. The design was a randomized, double blind, three-period, cross-over controlled trial with three different formulations of supplemented yogurt; micronutrient and probiotic (A), micronutrient alone (B) and probiotic alone (C). The period of intake for each of the types was 30 days with a 14 day wash-out period between the intervention types. The mean increase in CD4 was greatest with B (41 cells/µL, SD 221). Supplement A showed a mean change of +19 cells/µL (SD 142) and supplement C a mean change of - 7 cells/µL (SD 154). All yogurt types caused an increase in subjective energy and ability to perform daily activity scores. According to the safety measures taken to assess the tolerance of the yogurt, there were no adverse events and the yogurt was well-tolerated. These preliminary findings suggest that micronutrient supplemented probiotic yogurt may support immune function among people living with HIV.

  5. The strategic control of gaze direction in the Tower-of-London task. (United States)

    Hodgson, T L; Bajwa, A; Owen, A M; Kennard, C


    In this paper, we describe a novel approach to the study of problem solving involving the detailed analysis of natural scanning eye movements during the "one-touch" Tower-of-London (TOL) task. We showed subjects a series of pictures depicting two arrangements of colored balls in pockets within the upper and lower halves of a computer display. The task was to plan (but not to execute) the shortest movement sequence required to rearrange the balls in one half of the display (the Workspace) to match the arrangement in the opposite half (the Goalspace) and indicate the minimum number of moves required for problem solution. We report that subjects are more likely to look towards the Goalspace in the initial period after picture presentation, but bias gaze towards the Workspace during the middle of trials. Towards the end of a trial, subjects are once again more likely to fixate the Goalspace. This pattern is found regardless of whether the subjects solve problems by rearranging the balls in the lower or upper visual fields, demonstrating that this strategy correlates with discrete phases in problem solving. A second experiment showed that efficient planners direct their gaze selectively towards the problem critical balls in the Workspace. In contrast, individuals who make errors spend more time looking at irrelevant items and are strongly influenced by the movement strategy needed to solve the preceding problem. We conclude that efficient solution of the TOL requires the capacity to generate and flexibly shift between control sets, including those underlying ocular scanning. The role of working memory and the prefrontal cerebral cortex in the task are discussed.

  6. Fear of crime, mobility and mental health in inner-city London, UK. (United States)

    Whitley, Rob; Prince, Martin


    This paper examines the relationship between fear of crime and mental health, and assesses the role interventions may have in helping overcome any negative impact arising from this fear. The data were gathered over a 2-year period in the Gospel Oak neighbourhood of North London using in-depth interviews, focus groups and participant observation. The data are analysed primarily by comparing the impact of fear of crime across sub-groups notably divided by gender, age and mental health status. It was found that fear of crime had a disproportionately negative impact on certain sub-groups, most notably low-income mothers, and to a lesser extent the mentally ill. They experienced what we term "time-space inequalities" as a consequence of fear of crime and other related factors. These inequalities describe variation in the ability to access and utilise different times and spaces within both the immediate and the wider environment. These have negative behavioural and affective consequences that appear to impact on overall mental health. They restrict spatial and temporal movement deterring protective social activity, health-promoting community involvement and use of services. Affective consequences include negative mood and low self-esteem. These inequalities were experienced less in other groups such as mentally healthy men or middle-income women. They appeared to be diminished by interventions that encourage spatial and temporal movement. These include comprehensive local transport, government-issued free travel passes for vulnerable populations and neighbourhood community safety measures such as the installation of CCTV. We suggest that experience of time-space inequalities may be damaging to mental health and that interventions which lessen them may help prevent, ameliorate or shorten episodes of mental illness.

  7. Derivation of the King's College London human embryonic stem cell lines. (United States)

    Stephenson, Emma L; Braude, Peter R


    Since the derivation of the first human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line in 1998, there has been substantial interest in the potential of these cells for regenerative medicine and cell therapy and in the use of hESCs carrying clinically relevant genetic mutations as models for disease research and therapeutic target identification. There is still a need to improve derivation efficiency and further the understanding of the basic biology of these cells and to develop clinical grade culture systems with the aim of producing cell lines suitable for subsequent manipulation for therapy. The derivation of initial hESC lines at King's College London is discussed here, with focus on derivation methodology. Each of the derivations was distinctive. Although the stage and morphology of each blastocyst were generally similar in each attempt, the behaviour of the colonies was unpredictable; colony morphology and development was different with each attempt. Days 5, 6 and 7 blastocysts were used successfully, and the number of days until appearance of stem-like cells varied from 4 to 14 d. Routine characterisation analyses were performed on three lines, all of which displayed appropriate marker expression and survived cryopreservation-thaw cycles. From the lines discussed, four are at various stages of the deposition process with the UKSCB, one is pending submission and two are unsuitable for banking. Continued open and transparent reporting of results and collaborations will maximise the efficiency of derivation and facilitate the development of standardised protocols for the derivation and early culture of hESC lines.

  8. How different measures of cold weather affect chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD hospital admissions in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marno


    Full Text Available Many COPD sufferers find that their symptoms become worse during colder weather, which can lead to an exacerbation resulting in hospital admission. This study investigates different measures of cold, assessing which most strongly relate to COPD admissions and whether they can be used to forecast risk of exacerbation. COPD admissions (ICD10 J40–J44 for the five Strategic Health Authorities (SHAs in London and corresponding meteorological data were extracted for October–March 1997–2003. Correlations and regressions were used to compare the effects on admissions of: daily mean, maximum and minimum temperature; significant drops in temperature; weekly average maximum temperature; "cumulative cold", summing the number of degrees the daily maximum temperature was below a threshold across a week; different windchill indices. All measures of cold showed significant negative correlations with COPD admissions. Daily relationships were weaker than weekly ones (R = –0.19, p<0.001 for daily maximum temperature, R = –0.36, p<0.001 for weekly average maximum temperature but are most significant with an 8-day lag. Windchill had the strongest correlation with one-week lag (R = –0.397, p<0.001 accounting for 20% of the variation in admissions. "Cumulative cold" is also significant at p<0.001, ranging from R = 0.28 for a 3°C threshold to R = 0.36 for 18°C. Cold measures explain sufficient variation in COPD hospital admissions to be used in a forecast model of risk of exacerbation. The Met Office uses such a model in a health forecasting and anticipatory care service in England.

  9. Psychiatric morbidity of overseas patients in inner London: A hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parshall Alice M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation of the referral, admission, treatment, and outcome of overseas patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital in central London. Ethical, legal and economic implications, and the involvement of consulates in the admission process, are discussed. Method Assessment and review of overseas patients admitted between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 1999. Non-parametric statistical tests were used, and relevant outcomes described. Results 19% of admissions were overseas patients. Mean age was 38 years. 90% were unattached; 84% were white, 71% from European countries. 45% spoke fluent English. Differences in socio-economic status between home country and England were found. 74% were unwell on arrival; 65% travelled to England as tourists. 65% of admissions came via the police. 32% had been ill for more than one year before admission; 68% had psychiatric history. 77% were admitted and 48% discharged under section of the Mental Health Act. 74% had psychotic disorders, all of them with positive symptoms. 55% showed little to moderate improvement in mental state; 10% were on Enhanced Care Programme Approach. Relatives of 48% of patients were contacted. The Hospital repatriated 52% of patients; the Mental Health Team followed up 13% of those discharged. The average length of admission was 43.4 days (range 1–365. Total cost of admissions was GBP350, 600 ($577, 490; average individual cost was GBP11, 116 (range GBP200-81, 000. Conclusions Mentally ill overseas individuals are a vulnerable group that need recognition by health organisations to adapt current practice to better serve their needs. The involvement of consulates needs further evaluation.

  10. "Chase CRP", "Review patient": Improving the Quality of Weekend Medical Handover at a London Teaching Hospital. (United States)

    Saifuddin, Aamir; Magee, Lucia; Barrett, Rachael


    Clinical handover has been identified as a "major preventable cause of harm" by the Royal College of Physicians (RCP). Whilst working at a London teaching hospital from August 2013, we noted substandard weekend handover of medical patients. The existing pro forma was filled incompletely by day doctors so it was difficult for weekend colleagues to identify unwell patients, with inherent safety implications. Furthermore, on-call medical staff noted that poor accessibility of vital information in patients' files was affecting acute clinical management. We audited the pro formas over a six week period (n=83) and the Friday ward round (WR) entries for medical inpatients over two weekends (n=84) against the RCP's handover guidance. The results showed poor documentation of several important details on the pro formas, for example, ceiling of care (4%) and past medical history (PMH) (23%). Problem lists were specified on 62% of the WR entries. We designed new handover pro formas and 'Friday WR sheets' to provide prompts for this information and used Medical Meetings and emails to explain the project's aims. Re-audit demonstrated significant improvement in all parameters; for instance, PMH increased to 52% on the pro formas. Only 10% of Friday WR entries used our sheet. However, when used, outcomes were much better, for example, problem list documentation increased to 100%. In conclusion, our interventions improved the provision of crucial information needed to prioritise and manage patients over the weekend. Future work should further highlight the importance of safe handover to all doctors to induce a shift in culture and optimise patient care.

  11. Hashimoto thyroiditis: a century later. (United States)

    Ahmed, Rania; Al-Shaikh, Safa; Akhtar, Mohammed


    More than a century has passed since the first description of Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) as a clinicopathologic entity. HT is an autoimmune disease in which a breakdown of immune tolerance is caused by interplay of a variety of immunologic, genetic, and environmental factors. Thyrocyte injury resulting from environmental factors results in expression of new or hidden epitopes that leads to proliferation of autoreactive T and B cells. Infiltration of thyroid by these cells results in HT. In addition to the usual type of HT, several variants such as the fibrous type and Riedal thyroiditis are also recognized. The most recently recognized variant is immunoglobulin G4(+) HT, which may occur as isolated thyroid limited disease or as part of a generalized Ig4-related sclerosing disease. The relationship between HT and Riedel thyroiditis remains unclear; however, recent evidence seems to suggest that it may also be part of the spectrum of Ig4-related sclerosing disease. HT is frequently associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma and may indeed be a risk factor for developing this type of cancer. The relationship between thyroid lymphoma and HT on the other hand appears well established.

  12. Medicine in 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    An ancient Chinese theme of "Shen Nong tasted hundred herbs and confronted seventy toxicities a day" means generally that medicine was created by the ancient labor people, although there's no trace of the real Shen Nong. Accordingly some animals would take certain herbs for stopping traumatic bleeding just as our ancestors done. Medicine iniated a long time ago but the development of modern medicine is really a little bit more than hundred years, Pasteur discovered bacteria and reported in 1857, not yet 150 years from now. Virchow discovered cell cleavage and thus founded modern basic cellular pathology somewhat a year later than the former. Mendels bean test opened a new era for genetic research and concluded in 1863. Roentgen discovered X-ray in 1895 and We've celebrated the 100th anniversary of the X-ray discovery several years ago. The earliest application of penicillin was in 1940, not yet 60 years ago. The medicine possesses a jumping development during the recent half century in association with the advancement of synthetic chemistry, electronic and bioscientific technolgy.

  13. The experience of pregnancy and childbirth for unmarried mothers in London, 1760-1866. (United States)

    Williams, Samantha


    This article explores the experience of pregnancy and childbirth for unmarried mothers in the metropolis in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. It draws upon, in particular, the infanticide cases heard at the Old Bailey between 1760 and 1866. Many of the women in these records found themselves alone and afraid as they coped with the pregnancy and birth of their first child. A great deal is revealed about the birthing body: the ambiguity surrounding the identification of and signs of pregnancy, labour and delivery, the place of birth and the degree of privacy, and the nature of, and dangers associated with, solitary childbirth.

  14. Highlights from Faraday Discussion 184: Single-Molecule Microscopy and Spectroscopy, London, UK, September 2015. (United States)

    Gellings, E; Faez, S; Piatkowski, L


    The 2015 Faraday Discussion on single-molecule microscopy and spectroscopy brought together leading scientists involved in various topics of single-molecule research. It attracted almost a hundred delegates from a broad spectrum of backgrounds and experience levels - from experimentalists to theoreticians, from biologists to materials scientists, from masters students to Nobel Prize Laureates. The meeting was merely a reflection of how big of an impact the ability to detect individual molecules has had on science over the past quarter of a century. In the following we give an overview of the topics covered during this meeting and briefly highlight the content of each presentation.

  15. Evidence for the Continued Use of Medieval Medical Prescriptions in the Sixteenth Century: A Fifteenth-Century Remedy Book and its Later Owner (United States)

    Connolly, Margaret


    This article examines a fifteenth-century remedy book, Oxford, Bodleian Library, Rawlinson c. 299, and describes its collection of 314 medieval medical prescriptions. The recipes are organised broadly from head to toe, and often several remedies are offered for the same complaint. Some individual recipes are transcribed with modern English translations. The few non-recipe texts are also noted. The difference between a remedy book and a leechbook is explained, and this manuscript is situated in relation to other known examples of late medieval medical anthologies. The particular feature that distinguishes Oxford, Bodleian Library, Rawlinson c. 299 from other similar volumes is the evidence that it continued to be used during the sixteenth century. This usage was of two kinds. Firstly, the London lawyer who owned it not only inscribed his name but annotated the original recipe collection in various ways, providing finding-aids that made it much more user-friendly. Secondly, he, and other members of his family, added another forty-three recipes to the original collection (some examples of these are also transcribed). These two layers of engagement with the manuscript are interrogated in detail in order to reveal what ailments may have troubled this family most, and to judge how much faith they placed in the old remedies contained in this old book. It is argued that the knowledge preserved in medieval books enjoyed a longevity that extended beyond the period of the manuscript book, and that manuscripts were read and valued long after the advent of printing. PMID:26971594

  16. Compassionate Play in The Ludic Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Dyer


    Full Text Available In 2013 game designer Eric Zimmerman wrote a provocative manifesto entitled ‘Manifesto for a Ludic Century’ (2013a, in which Zimmerman declares the 21st Century’s dominant cultural form to be games. Consequently, Zimmerman proposes that the individual occupant of the century is therefore in a continuous state of game engagement. As such, this re-contextualisation of game space and play, indefinitely articulates the individual as a constant player and character, and thusly challenges the notions of selfhood. Importantly it should be noted, the state of a ludic century is explicitly assumed as a truth, however superficial it may appear. Accordingly, this paper is then afforded to be an extended hypothesis of the proposed ludic century, rather than a critical dissection and response to Zimmerman’s manifesto. This enables a hermeneutic framing of the questions: ‘What does it mean to live in a ludic century?’and ‘in what capacity may the self exist in the ludic century?’ These questions will attempt to distinguish play as an inherent cultural logic that extends beyond the limitations of explicit ‘gamification’ or instrumental play (Stenros et al., 2009; Zichermann, 2010. Concluding, it is claimed that the ludic century elicits a sustained delusion of self, as the player is confined to the designed game structure, which inhibits authentic engagement and interaction with environment and self. It is proposed that this evokes a form of suffering, the compassionate play within the ludic century.

  17. Nuclear computational science a century in review

    CERN Document Server

    Azmy, Yousry


    Nuclear engineering has undergone extensive progress over the years. In the past century, colossal developments have been made and with specific reference to the mathematical theory and computational science underlying this discipline, advances in areas such as high-order discretization methods, Krylov Methods and Iteration Acceleration have steadily grown. Nuclear Computational Science: A Century in Review addresses these topics and many more; topics which hold special ties to the first half of the century, and topics focused around the unique combination of nuclear engineering, computational

  18. Receptor modelling of both particle composition and size distribution from a background site in London, UK (United States)

    Beddows, D. C. S.; Harrison, R. M.; Green, D. C.; Fuller, G. W.


    Positive matrix factorisation (PMF) analysis was applied to PM10 chemical composition and particle number size distribution (NSD) data measured at an urban background site (North Kensington) in London, UK, for the whole of 2011 and 2012. The PMF analyses for these 2 years revealed six and four factors respectively which described seven sources or aerosol types. These included nucleation, traffic, urban background, secondary, fuel oil, marine and non-exhaust/crustal sources. Urban background, secondary and traffic sources were identified by both the chemical composition and particle NSD analysis, but a nucleation source was identified only from the particle NSD data set. Analysis of the PM10 chemical composition data set revealed fuel oil, marine, non-exhaust traffic/crustal sources which were not identified from the NSD data. The two methods appear to be complementary, as the analysis of the PM10 chemical composition data is able to distinguish components contributing largely to particle mass, whereas the number particle size distribution data set - although limited to detecting sources of particles below the diameter upper limit of the SMPS (604 nm) - is more effective for identifying components making an appreciable contribution to particle number. Analysis was also conducted on the combined chemical composition and NSD data set, revealing five factors representing urban background, nucleation, secondary, aged marine and traffic sources. However, the combined analysis appears not to offer any additional power to discriminate sources above that of the aggregate of the two separate PMF analyses. Day-of-the-week and month-of-the-year associations of the factors proved consistent with their assignment to source categories, and bivariate polar plots which examined the wind directional and wind speed association of the different factors also proved highly consistent with their inferred sources. Source attribution according to the air mass back trajectory showed, as

  19. Pedestrian exposure to air pollution along a major road in Central London, UK (United States)

    Kaur, S.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J.; Colvile, R. N.

    Pedestrian exposure to PM 2.5, the loss of reflectance ('blackness') of the PM 2.5 filters, ultrafine particle counts (particle range: 0.02-1 μm) and carbon monoxide (CO) was investigated along a major road running through the DAPPLE study site in Central London, UK. During an intensive 12-day exposure measurement campaign, groups of four volunteers sampled twice in the morning and twice in the afternoon along Marylebone Road. They were randomly designated a walking direction, walking position (kerbside or buildingside) and a side of the major road to walk along. PM 2.5 was sampled using high-flow gravimetric personal samplers, ultrafine particle counts were measured using TSI P-TRAKs and Langans were used to measure CO exposure. PM 2.5 samples were analysed gravimetrically and reflectance was measured using a smoke stain reflectometer to obtain a measure of 'black smoke'. In total 603 acceptable samples were obtained—155 PM 2.5 and reflectance, 120 ultrafine particle count and 173 CO. The average pedestrian exposure along the road was 37.7 μg/m 3, 12.1 m -1×10 -5, 80 009 pt/cm 3 and 1.3 ppm for PM 2.5, loss of reflectance, ultrafine particle counts and CO, respectively. PM 2.5 exposure in the morning was significantly higher than in the afternoon, and there was a significant difference in exposure on the different sides of the road. For both reflectance and ultrafine particle counts, the exposure was significantly different both between the two walking positions on the pavement and the two sides of the street canyon. However there was no significant difference in CO exposure based on walking position, walking direction, canyon side or timing. Filter reflectance was significantly but weakly correlated with PM 2.5 exposure ( r=0.3, N=155), CO exposure ( r=0.2, N=154) and ultrafine particle count exposure ( r=0.7, N=108). PM 2.5 and CO personal exposure measurements were much higher than those recorded at both the local background fixed monitoring station (FMS

  20. Does undertaking an intercalated BSc influence first clinical year exam results at a London medical school?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Melvyn


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intercalated BScs (iBScs are an optional part of the medical school curriculum in many Universities. Does undertaking an iBSc influence subsequent student performance? Previous studies addressing this question have been flawed by iBSc students being highly selected. This study looks at data from medical students where there is a compulsory iBSc for non-graduates. Our aim was to see whether there was any difference in performance between students who took an iBSc before or after their third year (first clinical year exams. Methods A multivariable analysis was performed to compare the third year results of students at one London medical school who had or had not completed their iBSc by the start of this year (n = 276. A general linear model was applied to adjust for differences between the two groups in terms of potential confounders (age, sex, nationality and baseline performance. Results The results of third year summative exams for 276 students were analysed (184 students with an iBSc and 92 without. Unadjusted analysis showed students who took an iBSc before their third year achieved significantly higher end of year marks than those who did not with a mean score difference of 4.4 (0.9 to 7.9 95% CI, p = 0.01. (overall mean score 238.4 "completed iBSc" students versus 234.0 "not completed", range 145.2 - 272.3 out of 300. There was however a significant difference between the two groups in their prior second year exam marks with those choosing to intercalate before their third year having higher marks. Adjusting for this, the difference in overall exam scores was no longer significant with a mean score difference of 1.4 (-4.9 to +7.7 95% CI, p = 0.66. (overall mean score 238.0 " completed iBSc" students versus 236.5 "not completed". Conclusions Once possible confounders are controlled for (age, sex, previous academic performance undertaking an iBSc does not influence third year exam results. One explanation for this

  1. A Portable Low-Cost High Density Sensor Network for Air Quality at London Heathrow Airport (United States)

    Popoola, Olalekan; Mead, Iq; Bright, Vivien; Baron, Ronan; Saffell, John; Stewart, Gregor; Kaye, Paul; Jones, Roderic


    Outdoor air quality and its impact on human health and the environment have been well studied and it has been projected that poor air quality will surpass poor sanitation as the major course of environmental premature mortality by 2050 (IGAC / IGBP, release statement, 2012). Transport-related pollution has been regulated at various levels by enactment of legislations at local, national, regional and global stages. As part of the mitigation measures, routine measurements of atmospheric pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have to be established in areas where air quality problems are identified. In addition, emission inventories are also generated for different atmospheric environments including urban areas and airport environments required for air quality models. Whilst recognising that most of the existing sparse monitoring networks provide high temporal measurements, spatial data of these highly variable pollutants are not captured, making it difficult to adequately characterise the highly heterogeneous air quality. Spatial information is often obtained from model data which can only be constrained using measurements from the sparse monitoring networks. The work presented here shows the application of low-cost sensor networks aimed at addressing this missing spatial information. We have shown in previous studies the application of low-cost electrochemical sensor network instruments in monitoring road transport pollutants including CO, NO and NO2 in an urban environment (Mead et. al. 2012, accepted Atmospheric Environment). Modified versions of these instruments which include additional species such as O3, SO2, VOCs and CO2 are currently deployed at London Heathrow Airport (LHR) as part of the Sensor Network for Air Quality (SNAQ) project. Meteorology data such as temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction are also measured as well as size-speciated particulates (0.38 to 17.4 µm). A network of 50

  2. Effects of the urban heat island on the phenology of Odonata in London, UK (United States)

    Villalobos-Jiménez, Giovanna; Hassall, Christopher


    Urbanisation is one of the major drivers of ecosystem change and includes increased temperatures in cities leading to an urban heat island (UHI). This study quantified the phenological response of odonates across London, UK, from 1990 to 2012, using a database of 1,031,277 historical sightings. The ordinal flight dates of each species were used to calculate the leading edge, middle and trailing edge of the flight period (P5, P50 and P95, respectively). The results suggest that the phenology of odonates is affected by the UHI only at a community level: no significant changes in the P5 or P50 of the flight period were found, although the P95 shows a mean advance of 4.13 days compared to rural areas, thus suggesting a contraction of the flight period in urban areas. However, only one individual species (Sympetrum striolatum) exhibited an advance in the P95 of the flight period in urban areas compared to rural areas. On the other hand, climate change (minimum temperature) had a much stronger impact on the phenology of odonates at the community level with a significant advance of 6.9 days °C-1 in the P5 of the flight period, 3.1 days °C-1 in the P50 and 3.3 days °C-1 in the P95 flight date. Similarly, a significant advance in P5 was found in 7 of the 15 species tested in response to minimum temperature, and 2 species showed a significant advance in P50 in response to minimum temperature, but no species showed a shift in the P95 flight date due to minimum temperature. As shown in previous studies, life history influences the phenological response of odonates, with spring species and those species lacking an egg diapause being the most responsive to increased temperatures, although summer species and species with obligate egg diapause also respond to the UHI by advancing the P95 by 3.8 and 4.5 days, respectively, compared to rural areas, thus contracting the flight period. The present study shows that the UHI has negligible impacts on emergence patterns of odonates

  3. PM2.5 Indoor Air Quality at Two Sites in London Ontario - A Case Study (United States)

    Mates, A. V.; Xu, X.; Gilliland, J.; Maltby, M. J.


    Studies have shown an association between ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and health impacts, particularly for the elderly and children. As part of a larger study, PM2.5 concentrations were measured using the DustTrak (Model 8520, TSI, St. Paul, MN, USA) at two schools within the city of London, Ontario (Canada). Site A was in a suburban environment while site B was in an urban setting. Monitoring took place for 3 weeks during winter (Feb. 16 - Mar. 8) and 3 weeks during spring (May 05 - 25) of 2010. The winter campaign monitored indoor PM2.5 only, while the spring campaign added outdoor monitors (PM2.5 and CO2) after the first week. Ten min. concentrations were used for analysis. Indoor measurements were split into weekday and weekend. For the same time interval, the outdoor concentrations showed mean values of 18 and 21 μg/m3 for sites A & B, respectively, both under the Canada Wide Standard of 30 μg/m3. Measurements at the two sites showed good associations (R^2 = 0.44), during the spring campaign. This indicates that the outdoor PM2.5 had similar sources. For indoor concentrations, Site B showed a significantly different mean concentration 5 times higher compared to site A during the winter ( 8.1 vs. 1.5 μg/m3 ) and 3 times higher (11.9 vs. 3.7 μg/m3) during the spring campaign. Since the outdoor concentrations were similar the large difference in indoor concentrations could be attributed to the following factors: site B being an older building, and the different physical characteristics between the two sites. The spring measurements showed an increase of 50% from weekday to weekend for site A and 22% for site B. The higher level of PM2.5 during weekends is possibly due to the infiltration of outdoor air while the ventilation/filtration system is shut off. During the winter campaign, Site A showed a 14% higher concentration during weekdays compared to weekends while site B weekend concentrations were 17% higher compared to weekday, which will be

  4. The London Charter and the Seville Principles as sources of requirements for e-archaeology systems development purposes

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    Juan M. Carrillo Gea


    Full Text Available Requirements engineering (RE is a discipline of critical importance in software development. This paper provides a process and a set of software artefacts to help in the production of e-archaeology systems with emphasis on requirements reuse and standards. In particular, two important guidelines in the field of earchaeology, the London Charter and the Principles of Seville, have been shown as two sources of requirements to be considered as a starting point for developing this type of systems.

  5. Estimating the influence of different urban canopy cover types on atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) pollution abatement in London UK. (United States)

    Tallis, Matthew; Freer-Smith, Peter; Sinnett, Danielle; Aylott, Matthew; Taylor, Gail


    In the urban environment atmospheric pollution by PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 x 10-6 m) is a problem that can have adverse effects on human health, particularly increasing rates of respiratory disease. The main contributors to atmospheric PM10 in the urban environment are road traffic, industry and power production. The urban tree canopy is a receptor for removing PM10s from the atmosphere due to the large surface areas generated by leaves and air turbulence created by the structure of the urban forest. In this context urban greening has long been known as a mechanism to contribute towards PM10 removal from the air, furthermore, tree canopy cover has a role in contributing towards a more sustainable urban environment. The work reported here has been carried out within the BRIDGE project (SustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism). The aim of this project is to assess the fluxes of energy, water, carbon dioxide and particulates within the urban environment and develope a DSS (Decision Support System) to aid urban planners in sustainable development. A combination of published urban canopy cover data from ground, airborne and satellite based surveys was used. For each of the 33 London boroughs the urban canopy was classified to three groups, urban woodland, street trees and garden trees and each group quantified in terms of ground cover. The total [PM10] for each borough was taken from the LAEI (London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory 2006) and the contribution to reducing [PM10] was assessed for each canopy type. Deposition to the urban canopy was assessed using the UFORE (Urban Forest Effects Model) approach. Deposition to the canopy, boundary layer height and percentage reduction of the [PM10] in the atmosphere was assessed using both hourly meterological data and [PM10] and seasonal data derived from annual models. Results from hourly and annual data were compared with measured values. The model was then


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    Balayan A. V.


    Full Text Available The phenomenon of the special relationship in BritishAmerican politics of the second part of the XX century also received intensive development in the early XXI century. In fact, according to conditions of modern processes of globalization, cooperation between the United States and Great Britain, as within framework of NATO and in other international organizations, became increasingly close. Both States played a significant role in the international policy, working on various issues of economy, politics, environment, culture, etc. Attention is drawn to the forms of cooperation between the studied States in the implementation of military initiatives in the Balkans (1998 and Iraq (2003. These events allowed characterizing the first and final stages of the development of relations between the United States and Britain in the form of «special» in the period of late XX – early XXI centuries. In the beginning of XXI century the cooperation between the U.S. and the UK in reforming NATO, taking into account national foreign policy strategy of the USA, was an example of favorable development of bilateral “special relationship”. For London, the following external course of the US has remained a higher priority than for Washington

  7. Science diplomacy in the 21st century. (United States)

    Fedoroff, Nina V


    Science diplomacy is the use of scientific collaborations among nations to address the common problems facing 21(st) century humanity and to build constructive international partnerships. There are many ways that scientists can contribute to this process.

  8. Fossil fuels in the 21st century. (United States)

    Lincoln, Stephen F


    An overview of the importance of fossil fuels in supplying the energy requirements of the 21st century, their future supply, and the impact of their use on global climate is presented. Current and potential alternative energy sources are considered. It is concluded that even with substantial increases in energy derived from other sources, fossil fuels will remain a major energy source for much of the 21st century and the sequestration of CO2 will be an increasingly important requirement.

  9. Training Ranges in the 21st Century (United States)


    warfighting tactical principles established during the early 19th Century. In making training as real as possible, in the spirit of “Train As We Fight...few use restrictions. Early on, installations were established in rural areas, but, during the last century, the population exploded, and some...CMTC), Hohenfels Training Area ( HTA ), Germany; and the Joint Readiness Training Center, Fort Polk, Louisiana. o MCTCs focus on brigade task force

  10. St. Augustine in Twentieth-Century Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger


    A discussion - in a cultural historical perspective - of primarily two important twentieth-century musical works setting texts by St Augustine: Klaus Huber's Soliloquia Sancti Aurelii Augustini and Michael Tippett's The Vision of Saint Augustine.......A discussion - in a cultural historical perspective - of primarily two important twentieth-century musical works setting texts by St Augustine: Klaus Huber's Soliloquia Sancti Aurelii Augustini and Michael Tippett's The Vision of Saint Augustine....

  11. The Well London program - a cluster randomized trial of community engagement for improving health behaviors and mental wellbeing: baseline survey results

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    Phillips Gemma


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Well London program used community engagement, complemented by changes to the physical and social neighborhood environment, to improve physical activity levels, healthy eating, and mental wellbeing in the most deprived communities in London. The effectiveness of Well London is being evaluated in a pair-matched cluster randomized trial (CRT. The baseline survey data are reported here. Methods The CRT involved 20 matched pairs of intervention and control communities (defined as UK census lower super output areas (LSOAs; ranked in the 11% most deprived LSOAs in London by the English Indices of Multiple Deprivation across 20 London boroughs. The primary trial outcomes, sociodemographic information, and environmental neighbourhood characteristics were assessed in three quantitative components within the Well London CRT at baseline: a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered adult household survey; a self-completed, school-based adolescent questionnaire; a fieldworker completed neighborhood environmental audit. Baseline data collection occurred in 2008. Physical activity, healthy eating, and mental wellbeing were assessed using standardized, validated questionnaire tools. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing data in the outcomes and other variables in the adult and adolescent surveys. Results There were 4,107 adults and 1,214 adolescent respondents in the baseline surveys. The intervention and control areas were broadly comparable with respect to the primary outcomes and key sociodemographic characteristics. The environmental characteristics of the intervention and control neighborhoods were broadly similar. There was greater between-cluster variation in the primary outcomes in the adult population compared to the adolescent population. Levels of healthy eating, smoking, and self-reported anxiety/depression were similar in the Well London adult population and the national Health Survey for England. Levels of

  12. Symptom removal: the twentieth century experience. (United States)

    Weitzenhoffer, André M


    The twentieth century hypnosis literature regarding the use of direct symptom removal with hypnosis is in strong contrast with that of the nineteenth. It shows much ambivalence about the use of symptom removal. Objections, largely based on conclusions drawn from psychoanalytic theory, led many twentieth century psychotherapists to reject direct symptom removal. However, a certain amount of empirical evidence, scattered through the literature, has accumulated during the twentieth century to support this rejection. The lack of satisfactory twentieth century statistics and of nineteenth century details concerning hypnotic interventions that were used, makes it impossible to satisfactorily account for the discrepancy in experiences of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Although therapists did not altogether abandon working directly with symptoms, many opted instead for modifying and manipulating them by suggestion instead of completely removing them, usually allowing the patient to retain a psychodynamically suitable substitute. Here again a lack of adequate statistics prevents one from being able to properly appraise the effectiveness of this approach which has remained the preferred one for a number of therapists.

  13. Howard Carter and the Discovery of Tuttankhamun, H.V.F. Winstone, Constable, London, 1991

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    Alexander C. Niven


    Full Text Available This is a fascinating book dealing with a memorable character. To really understand all the trials and tribulations associated with the discovery of Tutankhamun's tomb in 1922. one must read this book more than once. This book should be read first as a character study of a complex individual who rose from humble beginnings in Norfolk, En­gland, to perhaps the most famous archaeologist of this century. Howard Carter was a gifted child whose drawings of antiquities attracted the attention of Lord and Lady Amherst who sponsored his first trip to Egypt as an assistant draughtsman under the supervision of Flinders Petrie. Petrie had already established a reputation for himself as an Egyptologist and unless one had the eye and skills as exhibited by Carter, there would have been little or no chance for such a job or assignment.

  14. Curtis's cephaloscope: deafness and the making of surgical authority in London, 1816-1845. (United States)

    Virdi-Dhesi, Jaipreet


    Aural surgery is a branch of nineteenth-century medicine and surgery providing specialized treatment for ear diseases. During the 1830s, faced with a "popular prejudice" against the curability of deafness as well as intraprofessional rivalries and continuous accusations of quackery, aurists found their surgical authority questioned and their field's value threatened. In an attempt to bolster aural surgery's reputation, in 1841, the aurist John Harrison Curtis (1778-1856) introduced his new diagnostic instrument, the cephaloscope, which could not only improve diagnosis but also provide approaches for regulating aural knowledge, thus strengthening aural surgery's authority. This article examines the motives underlying Curtis's introduction of the cephaloscope and the meanings it held for the occupational group at large.

  15. Making Sense of Pain: Delusions, Syphilis, and Somatic Pain in London County Council Asylums, c. 1900

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    Louise Hide


    Full Text Available During the late nineteenth century, a high percentage of male deaths in asylums was attributed to various forms of tertiary syphilis, most notably General Paralysis of the Insane (GPI and tabes dorsalis. It was not unusual for patients to present symptoms of both conditions, the latter of which could be agonizingly painful. Some patients also suffered from persecutory delusions, believing that electricity was running through them or that their limbs were gnawed by lions and wolves at night. Drawing on a theory advanced by a number of key alienists and pathologists of the period, I suggest that these delusions were misinterpretations of felt sensations and, as such, illusions rather than delusions. Despite the well-known problems around using these historical sources, I contend that recorded delusions in asylum case notes can be treated as narratives of pain that provide invaluable insights into patients' subjective experiences.

  16. 1941 English Art and the Mediterranean. A photographic exhibition by the Warburg Institute in London

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    Katia Mazzucco


    Full Text Available Between 1939 and 1948 the Warburg Institute organized a series of photographic exhibitions. The most important of these, held in 1941, was entitled English Art and the Mediterranean. The various exhibitions all presented distinct research themes according to indications by the Warburg Library. They were also aligned technically as well as in their methodological perspective: the exhibition had no original works, only displaying photographic reproductions, and the exhibitions’ major themes were intended to provide a comparative and multidisciplinary overview of issues that had already been discussed in the area of art history. These events represented a significant encounter between the late nineteenth-century German school of aesthetics and art history and the British cultural and academic contexts. The exhibitions also presented new approaches to British art, through their original conception, as well as a demonstration of a particular sensitivity to visual culture, in terms of a broader understanding of images.

  17. Sleep quality and psychobiological aspects of Brazilian Paralympic athletes in the London 2012 pre-Paralympics period

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    Dayane Ferreira Rodrigues


    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the psychobiological aspects of the Paralympic athletes athletics mode, before the London Paralympic Games 2012. We evaluated 40 athletes without 31 men and 9 women who were selected by the Brazilian Paralympic Committee to be part of the Brazilian delegation. For the evaluation of psychobiological aspects used questionnaires: Trait Anxiety Inventory-State, POMS, the Beck Depression questionnaire Pittsburgh Epworth Scale to assess, respectively, anxiety, mood, depression, sleep and sleepiness. For trait anxiety and state anxiety, athletes exhibited a mean level of anxiety in relation to the profile of mood states and higher intensity values than any other dimensions. The lower total sleep time was in athletes with bad sleep, sleep deficiency was lower in athletes with poor sleep and total sleep time was lower for those who had efficiency < 85%. All psychobiological variables evaluated in pre-competition period were normal for the athletes of the Brazilian Paralympic athletics team that took part in the London 2012 Paralympic Games.

  18. Royden McIntosh Muir and His Anesthetic Links Between South Africa, London, and the United States. (United States)

    Gordon, Peter Crichton


    New Zealand born, Dr. Royden McIntosh Muir, MBChB(Edin), DA(RCS&RCP), emigrated to Cape Town in 1921 having specialized in anesthesia in London after World War 1 and became one of South Africa's earliest and leading anesthesiologists. He was appointed honorary anesthetist and clinical teacher by the University of Cape Town at South Africa's first medical school in 1922, and lecturer in 1927. Aware of Cape Town's isolation at the southern tip of Africa, he undertook extensive tours studying anesthetic practice at major hospitals in London, the United States and Canada in 1933 and 1938. He became a lifelong friend of Ralph Waters in Madison, who coached him in the use of cyclopropane, and he subsequently introduced cyclopropane into England and South Africa. In the United States, he met Richard von Foregger, founder of the New York based Foregger Company, from whom he later commissioned a purpose-built anesthetic machine marketed by Foregger as "The Muir Midget." Muir was a founder member of the South African Society of Anaesthetists in 1943 and was elected as its second president the following year. Based on what he had seen in academic hospitals in the United States and England, he fought until his retirement for the improved recognition of the specialty in South Africa and the establishment of adequately staffed departments of anesthesia at teaching hospitals in that country.

  19. Professional lives under review: Evaluating the human capital impact of overseas trained teachers (OTTs on secondary education in London

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    Paul Washington Miller


    Full Text Available Notions of teacher quality, character and identity are debated worldwide. It is commonly held that the voices of ‘new’ teachers are largely underrepresented in such debates (Kompf, 2005. By engaging teachers in research into their own determinations of teacher quality, their dialogue can provide insights into the personal and individual processes of becoming a teacher within a broader socio-political framework (Frid and Reid, 2003. The earlier phase of teaching can be described as one of 'survival' and 'discovery' (Huberman, 1992, signifying the 'reality shock' new teachers face. Researchers (Day, 1999; Graham and Phelps, 2003; Bleach and Rhodes, 2004 emphasise the need for teachers to be properly supported at the earlier phase of their career; a requirement also identified for migrant or Overseas Trained Teachers (Miller, 2006. This paper discusses findings on teacher identity as regard the experiences of Overseas Trained Teachers (OTTs from the Caribbean in the course of their employment in London. Through teaching in London, OTTs have experienced both negative and positive impacts. On the one hand, these impacts have undermined previously held value positions resulting in some degree of confusion and turbulence. On the other hand, OTTs have navigated conflicting discourses and have combined past experiences with present knowledges to produce a form of localised ‘teacher identity’.

  20. Metabolic bone disease in lion cubs at the London Zoo in 1889: the original animal model of rickets. (United States)

    Chesney, Russell W; Hedberg, Gail


    In 1889 Dr. John Bland-Sutton, a prominent London surgeon, was consulted about fatal rickets in over 20 successive litters of lion cubs born at the London Zoo. He evaluated the diet and found the cause of rickets to be nutritional in origin. He recommended that goat meat with crushed bones and cod-liver oil be added to the lean horsemeat diet of the cubs and their mothers. Rickets were reversed, the cubs survived, and subsequent litters thrived. Thirty years later, in classic controlled studies conducted in puppies and young rats, the definitive role of calcium, phosphate and vitamin D in prevention and therapy of rickets was elucidated. Further studies led to identifying the structural features of vitamin D.Although the Bland-Sutton diet provided calcium and phosphate from bones and vitamins A and D from cod-liver oil, some other benefits of this diet were not recognized. Taurine-conjugated bile salts, necessary for intestinal absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, were provided in the oil cold-pressed from cod liver. Unlike canine and rodent species, felines are unable to synthesize taurine, yet conjugate bile acids exclusively with taurine; hence, it must be provided in the diet. The now famous Bland-Sutton "experiment of nature," fatal rickets in lion cubs, was cured by addition of minerals and vitamin D. Taurine-conjugated bile salts undoubtedly permitted absorption of vitamins A and D, thus preventing the occurrence of metabolic bone disease and rickets.

  1. The role of bicycle sharing systems in normalising the image of cycling: An observational study of London cyclists. (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Green, Judith; Woodcock, James


    Bicycle sharing systems are increasingly popular around the world and have the potential to increase the visibility of people cycling in everyday clothing. This may in turn help normalise the image of cycling, and reduce perceptions that cycling is 'risky' or 'only for sporty people'. This paper sought to compare the use of specialist cycling clothing between users of the London bicycle sharing system (LBSS) and cyclists using personal bicycles. To do this, we observed 3594 people on bicycles at 35 randomly-selected locations across central and inner London. The 592 LBSS users were much less likely to wear helmets (16% vs. 64% among personal-bicycle cyclists), high-visibility clothes (11% vs. 35%) and sports clothes (2% vs. 25%). In total, 79% of LBSS users wore none of these types of specialist cycling clothing, as compared to only 30% of personal-bicycle cyclists. This was true of male and female LBSS cyclists alike (all p>0.25 for interaction). We conclude that bicycle sharing systems may not only encourage cycling directly, by providing bicycles to rent, but also indirectly, by increasing the number and diversity of cycling 'role models' visible.


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    İhsan Burak BİRECİKLİ


    Full Text Available After the First Balkan War, the Conference of Ambassadors held in London and representing the six Great European Powers. (England, Germany, France, Italy, Austria and Russia. It began its work on 17 December in 1912 under the direction of the British secretary Edward Grey. European powers had politico-strategic interests on Albania, which cross the boundaries of Balkan States. They could not allow the establishment of bigger Albania and being a threat to the safety of the members of the Balkan Alliance (Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, Greece. It has been foreseen the fragmentation of Albania between them. Thus, the Great Powers didn’t respect the sovereignty and the territorial integrity of Albania aimed at meeting its neighbors’ intentions. For example Serbia that is landlocked, with no access to an ocean and sea, has a disadvantage because it cannot easily transport and import products and guns to other parts of the world. They discussed the borders of Albania in the conference. The issue of borders connected to solving the Adriatic question and Aegean Islands problems. They established International Boundary Comissions to study the exact border. This paper aims to analyze the attitude of Great Powers on Albanian’s borders in the Conference of Ambassadors in London.

  3. Characterisation of hydraulic head changes and aquifer properties in the London Basin using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry ground motion data (United States)

    Bonì, R.; Cigna, F.; Bricker, S.; Meisina, C.; McCormack, H.


    In this paper, Persistent Scatterer Interferometry was applied to ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT satellite data covering 1992-2000 and 2002-2010 respectively, to analyse the relationship between ground motion and hydraulic head changes in the London Basin, United Kingdom. The integration of observed groundwater levels provided by the Environment Agency and satellite-derived displacement time series allowed the estimation of the spatio-temporal variations of the Chalk aquifer storage coefficient and compressibility over an area of ∼1360 km2. The average storage coefficient of the aquifer reaches values of 1 × 10-3 and the estimated average aquifer compressibility is 7.7 × 10-10 Pa-1 and 1.2 × 10-9 Pa-1 for the periods 1992-2000 and 2002-2010, respectively. Derived storage coefficient values appear to be correlated with the hydrogeological setting, where confined by the London Clay the storage coefficient is typically an order of magnitude lower than where the chalk is overlain by the Lambeth Group. PSI-derived storage coefficient estimates agree with the values obtained from pumping tests in the same area. A simplified one-dimensional model is applied to simulate the ground motion response to hydraulic heads changes at nine piezometers. The comparison between simulated and satellite-observed ground motion changes reveals good agreement, with errors ranging between 1.4 and 6.9 mm, and being 3.2 mm on average.

  4. Planning like an Olympian. How London Ambulance Service successfully handled their 'summer of sport'. (United States)

    Killens, Jason


    LOCOG Medical managed thousands of patient contacts across all the Games venues without our intervention. A polyclinic in the athlete's village had extensive diagnostic options, including X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging for athletes and the Olympic family. These helped limit the number of patients who needed transport to the ED. Although the delivery was seamless, there were "behind the scenes" moments in the final stages of planning that made us think. We received additional requests for ambulance cover at training venues that hadn't been planned for on short notice. In addition, the torch relay attracted bigger crowds than initially planned for. Some of the planning assumptions and agreements changed on short notice for various reasons. This meant we had to adjust our plans while also solving human resource issues that you would expect to see among a workforce of around 500 across a six-week period. As part of the National Health Service (NHS) ambulance service Games cohort, more than 500 staff were deployed across 18 venues and 30 days of sport in London. In doing so, they delivered in excess of 165,000 hours of standby and care, responded to nearly 1,500 Games-related incidents and conveyed 800 patients to emergency departments across the capital. After such an influx, it wasn't easy to return to business as usual. Officials with previous host cities had advised us that there would be a feeling of "what next" once the Games concluded. When I first heard this, I thought the opposite would be the case. I expected feeling relieved of overwhelming emotion as well as from the exhaustion of the long days. I do have to say that although this was the case, it's also true that there is a "post Games" come down. We had just been part of a fantastic summer of sport with a brilliant medal tally from Team Great Britain and Paralympics Great Britain that, of course, helped the euphoria. But we did feel real sense of uncertainty about what to do next. We had spent five

  5. Gothic Art for the 21st Century?

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    Robert Gibbs


    Full Text Available Review of: Roland Recht, Believing and Seeing: The Art of Gothic Cathedrals, Translated by Mary Whittall, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, 2008. A translation of a book originally published in 1999, ‘Believing and Seeing’ expresses the nature of this volume more clearly than its subtitle, ‘The art of the gothic cathedrals.’ The prominence of the arts as a means of expression for devotion is central to its discourse. A highly idiosyncratic book that has perhaps suffered a little from the passage of time and translation, it is full of revealing citations and insights. But it is methodologically fluid and needs to be read with a more current bibliography, especially the Gothic Architecture of Paul Frankl as revised by Paul Crossley.

  6. Household production of alcoholic beverages in early eighteenth-century Connecticut. (United States)

    Saracino, M E


    In light of the recent controversy concerning the applicability of the household economy model to early American history, this study examines the case of alcoholic beverages produced in the households of early-eighteenth-century Connecticut. All probate inventories from Hartford, New London and Fairfield counties for 1700, 1710, 1720, 1730 and 1740 (a total of 274 inventories) were examined with a checklist of items (e.g., hops, malt, cider presses and stills) crucial to the production of alcoholic beverages during that period. The presence of these beverages themselves was also noted. Of the inventories read, 133 (49%) suggested that beverage making took place in the household. The three counties sampled showed surprisingly little deviation in the percentages of inventories suggesting alcohol production and in the preferences for specific types of drinks. Of all inventories bearing references to alcohol production, beer brewing was indicated in 83% and cider in only 55%--despite the traditional opinion of cider's predominance. The independence of cider entries from the seasonal bias of the inventories was also demonstrated. These findings, insofar as they show the pervasiveness of alcohol production within the households inventoried, thus argue strongly for the validity of the household economy model. Some implications of this model for alcohol studies are also discussed.

  7. From agricultural geology to hydropedology: Forging links within the twenty-first-century geoscience community (United States)

    Landa, E.R.; ,


    Despite historical linkages, the fields of geology and soil science have developed along largely divergent paths in the United States during much of the mid- to late-twentieth century. The shift in recent decades within both disciplines, towards greater emphasis on environmental-quality issues and a systems approach, has created new opportunities for collaboration and cross-training. Because of the importance of the soil as a dynamic interface between the hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere, introductory and advanced soil-science classes are now taught in a number of Earth and environmental science departments. The National Research Council's recent report, Basic Research Opportunities in Earth Science, highlights the soil zone as part of the land surface to groundwater 'critical zone' requiring additional investigation. To better prepare geology undergraduates to deal with complex environmental problems, their training should include a fundamental understanding of the nature and properties of soils. Those undergraduate geology students with an interest in this area should be encouraged to view soil science as a viable Earth-science specialty area for graduate study. ?? The Geological Society of London 2006.

  8. Reading, writing, drawing and making in the 18th-century instrument trade

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    Dr Florence Grant


    Full Text Available When George Adams assembled a large collection of philosophical instruments for King George III in the early 1760s, he drew on a variety of printed books as sources of experiments and instrument designs. Most important of these was Mathematical Elements of Natural Philosophy by the Dutch mathematician and philosopher Willem ’s Gravesande, whose own collection of instruments is now in the Museum Boerhaave in Leiden. Papers in the Science Museum archives reveal the specific practices through which Adams used books such as Mathematical Elements in the course of his business. These techniques included commonplacing, a widespread method for organising information in the early-modern period; and physically cutting and pasting fragments from engraved illustrations into new drawings, as part of the process of design. These practices connected mobile print with local networks of production. They fundamentally shaped the group of instruments Adams made for George III, and constitute a material link between two important collections of 18th-century instruments: those of ’s Gravesande in Leiden, and those of George III at the Science Museum in London.

  9. The Shorts of Bury St Edmunds: medicine, Catholicism and politics in the 17th century. (United States)

    Young, Francis


    The Short family of Bury St Edmunds produced at least eight doctors between the first half of the 17th century and the first half of the 18th. Some of these practised locally and others went on to achieve fame in London or abroad. They included Richard Short (d. 1668), a medical polemicist, and Thomas Short (1635-85) who treated Charles II in his last illness and became the subject of poetry and other literature. The Shorts generated controversy through their adherence to the Roman Catholic faith at a time of persecution and suspicion. Richard Short used medical polemic as a vehicle for advancing his religious views, and his son and nephew became involved in James II's political programme to introduce religious toleration in 1688. After the Revolution the Shorts withdrew from political life but continued in their medical practice and their recusancy. This paper is the first to unravel the family relationships of the Shorts, which previously have eluded most historians.

  10. Prevalence and correlates of disordered eating in a general population sample: the South East London Community Health (SELCoH) study


    Solmi, F.; Hatch, S. L.; Hotopf, M; Treasure, J.; Micali, N.


    Purpose Disordered eating has been shown to be more prevalent than full eating disorders diagnoses. However, research on its prevalence, socio-demographic, psychological correlates, and patterns of service use in multi-ethnic samples is still limited. This paper explores these associations in a South London-based (UK) sample. Methods The South East London Community Health (SELCoH) study is a general population survey (N = 1,698) of individuals aged 16+. Disordered eating was defined as ≥2 pos...

  11. Life Sciences in the 21 st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Chenglu (C. L. Tsou)


    This article presents a retrospective of the achievements of life sciences in the 20th century and a prospective in the 21 st century.primarily,because of the emergence of molecular biology in the 20th cetury,life sciences have grown up from a descriptive discipline to an exact science.Biology in the 21st century features a unification between analysis and integration,i.e.the unification of analysis and func-tional research.More and more interdisciplinary integration will be based on works of penetrating analyses.Secondly.the deeper understanding of all living phenomena will lead to a unified connition of the essence of life so that general biology in the genuine sese of the term will come into being.finally,basic research on the life sciences will produce an unprecedented influence on all aspects of human life.

  12. Spatial and temporal variability of urban fluxes of methane, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide above London, UK (United States)

    Helfter, Carole; Tremper, Anja H.; Halios, Christoforos H.; Kotthaus, Simone; Bjorkegren, Alex; Grimmond, C. Sue B.; Barlow, Janet F.; Nemitz, Eiko


    We report on more than 3 years of measurements of fluxes of methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) taken by eddy-covariance in central London, UK. Mean annual emissions of CO2 in the period 2012-2014 (39.1 ± 2.4 ktons km-2 yr-1) and CO (89 ± 16 tons km-2 yr-1) were consistent (within 1 and 5 % respectively) with values from the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory, but measured CH4 emissions (72 ± 3 tons km-2 yr-1) were over two-fold larger than the inventory value. Seasonal variability was large for CO with a winter to summer reduction of 69 %, and monthly fluxes were strongly anti-correlated with mean air temperature. The winter increment in CO emissions was attributed mainly to vehicle cold starts and reduced fuel combustion efficiency. CO2 fluxes were 33 % higher in winter than in summer and anti-correlated with mean air temperature, albeit to a lesser extent than for CO. This was attributed to an increased demand for natural gas for heating during the winter. CH4 fluxes exhibited moderate seasonality (21 % larger in winter), and a spatially variable linear anti-correlation with air temperature. Differences in resident population within the flux footprint explained up to 90 % of the spatial variability of the annual CO2 fluxes and up to 99 % for CH4. Furthermore, we suggest that biogenic sources of CH4, such as wastewater, which is unaccounted for by the atmospheric emissions inventories, make a substantial contribution to the overall budget and that commuting dynamics in and out of central business districts could explain some of the spatial and temporal variability of CO2 and CH4 emissions. To our knowledge, this study is unique given the length of the data sets presented, especially for CO and CH4 fluxes. This study offers an independent assessment of "bottom-up" emissions inventories and demonstrates that the urban sources of CO and CO2 are well characterized in London. This is however not the case for CH4 emissions which are

  13. Short-term associations between outdoor air pollution and visits to accident and emergency departments in London for respiratory complaints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, R.W.; Anderson, H.R.; Strachan, D.P.; Bland, J.M.; Bremner, S.A. [St. George`s Hospital Medical School, Dept. of Public Health Sciences, London (United Kingdom); Ponce de Leon, A. [IME/UERJ Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, Dept. de Estatistica, Maracana Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)


    Many epidemiological studies have shown positive short-term associations between health and current levels of outdoor air pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between air pollution and the number of visits to accident and emergency (A and E) departments in London for respiratory complaints. A and E visits include the less severe cases of acute respiratory disease and are unrestricted by bed availability. Daily counts of visits to 12 London A and E departments for asthma, other respiratory complaints, and both combined for a number of age groups were constructed from manual registers of visits for the period 1992-1994. A poison regression allowing for seasonal patterns meteorological conditions and influenza epidemics was used to assess the associations between the number of visits and six pollutants: nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particles measured as black smoke (BS) and particles with a median aerodynamic diameter of <10 {mu}m (PM10). After making an allowance for the multiplicity of tests, there remained strong associations between visits for all respiratory complaints and increases in SO{sub 2}: a 2.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-4.9) increase in the number of visits for a 18 {mu}g{sup .}m{sup -3} increase (10th-90th percentile range) and a 3.0% (95% Cl 0.8-5.2) increase for a 31 {mu}g{sup .}m{sup -3} increase in PM10. There were also significant associations between visits for asthma and SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} and PM10. No significant associations between O{sub 3} and any of the respiratory complaints investigated were found. Because of the strong correlation between pollutants, it was difficult to identify a single pollutant responsible for the associations found in the analyses. This study suggests that the levels of air pollution currently experienced in London are linked to short-term increases in the number of people visiting accident and emergency departments with respiratory complaints

  14. Short-term associations between outdoor air pollution and visits to accident and emergency departments in London for respiratory complaints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, R.W.; Anderson, H.R.; Strachan, D.P.; Bland, J.M.; Bremner, S.A. [St. George' s Hospital Medical School, Dept. of Public Health Sciences, London (United Kingdom); Ponce de Loen, A. [IME/UERJ Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, Dept. de Estatistica, Maracana Rio de Janeiro , RJ (Brazil)


    Many epidemiological studies have shown positive short-term associations between health and current levels of outdoor air pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between air pollution and the number of visits to accident and emergency (A and E) departments in London for respiratory complaints. A and E visits include the less severe cases of acute respiratory disease and are unrestricted by bed availability. Daily counts of visits to 12 London A and E departments for asthma, other respiratory complaints, and both combined for a number of age groups were constructed from manual registers of visits for the period 1992-1994. A Poisson regression allowing for seasonal patterns, meteorological conditions and influenza epidemics was used to assess the associations between the number of visits and six pollutants: nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particles measured as black smoke (BS) and particles with a median aerodynamic diameter of <10 {mu}m (PM10). After making an allowance for the multiplicity of tests, there remained strong associations between visits for all respiratory complaints and increases in SO{sub 2}: a 2.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-4.9) increase in the number of visits for a 18 {mu}g{sup .}m{sup -3} increase (10th-90th percentile range) and a 3.0% (95% CI 0.8-5.2) increase for a 31 {mu}g{sup .}m{sup -3} increase in PM10. There were also significant associations between visits for asthma and SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} and PM10. No significant associations between O{sub 3} and any of the respiratory complaints investigated were found. Because of the strong correlation between pollutants, it was difficult to identify a single pollutant responsible for the associations found in the analyses. This study suggests that the levels of air pollution currently experineced in London are linked to short-term increases in the number of people visiting accident and emergency departments with respiratory

  15. Transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance in treatment naïve HIV-infected persons in London in 2011 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie McFaul


    Full Text Available Introduction: Previously published UK data on HIV transmitted drug resistance (TDR shows that it ranges between 3 and 9.4% [1,2]. However, there are no recent data from populations where HIV transmission rates are increasing. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of TDR in untreated HIV-infected individuals attending three HIV specialist clinics under the HIV Directorate, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital and based throughout London – the Kobler Clinic, 56 Dean Street and West London Centre for Sexual Health. Methods: We included all patients with a HIV diagnosis, no history of antiretroviral therapy (ART intake, attending one of the three clinics (Kobler (K, 56 Dean Street (DS and West London (WL, between 2011 and 2013 who started antiretrovirals. Reverse transcriptase (RT and protease region sequencing was performed using Vircotype virtual phenotype resistance analysis. Drug resistance mutations were identified according to Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database ( Results: Among 1705 HIV-1-infected patients enrolled in the study, 1252 were males (919 were MSM, 107 were females and 346 had no gender recorded. Ethnicity was 51.1% white British/Irish/other, 6.1% African, 2.1% Caribbean, 2.8% Asian, 1.3% Indian/Pakistani/Bangladeshi, 4.2%, other, 3.2% not stated, and 29.2% unknown. 547 were from K (84.3% males, 48.3% MSM, 826 were from DS (84.3% males, 71.9% MSM, and 109 from WL (87.2% males, 56.0% MSM, 223 from other sites not specified. 77.5% (1321 of 1705 of patients had baseline viral resistance testing performed. Prevalence of primary resistance in those with a baseline viral resistance test was 13.5% overall: 19.3% in K, 14.9% in DS, and 14.7% in WL. The most common mutations detected were: NRTI: 184V, 215F, 41L; NNRTI 103N, 179D, 90I; PI 90M, 46I, and 82A. Among patients who tested with TDR, 79.1% had one single mutation, 18.7% and 2.2% exhibited dual or triple class-resistant viruses

  16. [Evaluation of vital constants. 18th century]. (United States)

    Sánchez González, Natividad; Ortega Martínez, Carmen


    The evaluation of patients' vital statistics is part of health care and in many cases this is the first step in knowing what is the health status of a patient. Therefore, we are interested in analysing what knowledge nurses had regarding these vital statistics during the 18th century, how they evaluated these statistics and what treatment they applied in order to maintain or balance them whenever they became unstable. A manual written by a nurse in the 18th century in order to aid her colleagues in their treatment of patients is the source of the authors' research material.

  17. A Century of Human Capital and Hours


    Diego Restuccia; Guillaume Vandenbroucke


    An average person born in the United States in the second half of the nineteenth century completed 7 years of schooling and spent 58 hours a week working in the market. By contrast, an average person born at the end of the twentieth century completed 14 years of schooling and spent 40 hours a week working. In the span of 100 years, completed years of schooling doubled and working hours decreased by 30 percent. What explains these trends? We consider a model of human capital and labor supply t...

  18. Nursing theory: the 21st century. (United States)

    Randell, B P


    On September 21, 1990, at the University of California, Los Angeles, Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital, six nurse theorists participated in a panel discussion on theory development for the 21st century. The theorists included Dorothy Johnson, Betty Neuman, Dorothea E. Orem, Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, Martha E. Rogers and Callista Roy. The panel provided the participants the opportunity to speculate on the course for future development of nursing knowledge. Three questions were posed to the panel relating to the development of their models, the direction nursing theory will take in the 21st century, and current research emerging from the extant theories. The panel also addressed questions from the audience.

  19. Statistics in the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, Martin T; Wells, Martin T


    Exactly what is the state of the art in statistics as we move forward into the 21st century? What promises, what trends does its future hold? Through the reflections of 70 of the world's leading statistical methodologists, researchers, theorists, and practitioners, Statistics in the 21st Century answers those questions. Originally published in the Journal of the American Statistical Association, this collection of vignettes examines our statistical past, comments on our present, and speculates on our future. Although the coverage is broad and the topics diverse, it reveals the essential intell

  20. Geir Hønneland, Russia and the Arctic: Environment, Identity and Foreign Policy & Leif Christian Jensen, International Relations in the Arctic: Norway and the Struggle for Power in the New North (London/New York: IB Tauris, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Chuffart


    Full Text Available A review of the books: Geir Hønneland, Russia and the Arctic: Environment, Identity and Foreign Policy (London/New York: IB Tauris, 2016; and Leif Christian Jensen, International Relations in the Arctic: Norway and the Struggle for Power in the New North (London/New York: IB Tauris, 2016

  1. Annotated type catalogue of land snails collected from Taiwan (Formosa in the Natural History Museum, London

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    Chungchi Hwang


    Full Text Available The present catalogue lists the type specimens of land snail species, collected from Taiwan and deposited in the Natural History Museum, London. Thirty-seven nominal species described by Pfeiffer, Adams, Nevill, Moellendorff, Godwin-Austen and Gude were traced. I present here information on type status, collection data obtained from the registers and labels of each collection, and annotations on the current taxonomic affiliation. Lectotypes of 28 nominal (subspecies were newly designated. One holotype was fixed originally and two holotypes newly fixed by monotypy. Syntypes of two species and paralectotypes of three species were also discovered in the Museum. No specimen of the species Pupina adamsi Sowerby, 1878, which was supposed to be deposited in the NHM, was found. Pictures of the name-bearing types are provided for further research on biodiversity of the island.

  2. Scientific discussion | Unifying physics and technology in light of Maxwell's equations | Royal Society, London | 16-17 November

    CERN Multimedia


    Discussion meeting organised by Professor Anatoly Zayats, Professor John Ellis and Professor Roy Pike.   16-17 November 2015 at The Royal Society 6-9 Carlton House Terrace, London Event details The unification of electric and magnetic fields about 150 years ago in what is now known as electromagnetic theory expressed in Maxwell's Equations has enabled virtually all modern electrical, electronic, radio and photonic technologies. What new scientific breakthroughs and applications will unification with the other fields provide? This meeting brings together high-energy, optical, quantum and solid-state physicists to discuss recent developments enabled by Maxwell's Equations and will try to predict future innovations. Attending this event This event is intended for researchers in relevant fields and is free to attend. There are a limited number of places and registration is essential. For more information, visit the Royal Society event website.

  3. Quantifying the causal effects of 20mph zones on road casualties in London via doubly robust estimation. (United States)

    Li, Haojie; Graham, Daniel J


    This paper estimates the causal effect of 20mph zones on road casualties in London. Potential confounders in the key relationship of interest are included within outcome regression and propensity score models, and the models are then combined to form a doubly robust estimator. A total of 234 treated zones and 2844 potential control zones are included in the data sample. The propensity score model is used to select a viable control group which has common support in the covariate distributions. We compare the doubly robust estimates with those obtained using three other methods: inverse probability weighting, regression adjustment, and propensity score matching. The results indicate that 20mph zones have had a significant causal impact on road casualty reduction in both absolute and proportional terms.

  4. "Esta viagem é tão boa quanto qualquer viagem ao Peru". O Minion of London no Brasil (1581

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    Sheila Moura Hue


    Full Text Available o artigo focaliza a viagem comercial do Minion of London ao Brasil, em 1581, organizada por cinco mercadores de Londres, e os documentos relativos a essa viagem publicados por Richard Hakluyt na coletânea Principall Navigations. A expedição pretendia estabelecer comércio direto entre o Brasil e a Inglaterra, trocando manufaturas e têxteis ingleses pelo açúcar da colônia portuguesa. A viagem reflete o propósito inglês de burlar o monopólio português e espanhol no Novo Mundo, depois da viagem de Drake, e a ambiguidade dos habitantes da colônia portuguesa diante dos mercadores estrangeiros, num momento de transição na geopolítica europeia.

  5. Annotated type catalogue of the Bothriembryontidae and Odontostomidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London. (United States)

    Breure, Abraham S H; Ablett, Jonathan D


    The type status is described for specimens of 84 taxa classified within the families Bothriembryontidae and Odontostomidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea) and kept in the Natural History Museum, London. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus (Liparus) brazieri Angas, 1871; Bulimus broderipii Sowerby I, 1832; Bulimus fuligineus Pfeiffer, 1853; Helix guarani d'Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus (Tomigerus) ramagei E.A. Smith, 1890; Helix rhodinostoma d'Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus (Bulimulus) ridleyi E.A. Smith, 1890. The type status of the following taxa is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Placostylus (Euplacostylus) cylindricus Fulton, 1907; Bulimus pyrostomus Pfeiffer, 1860; Bulimus turneri Pfeiffer, 1860. The following taxon is synonymised: Bulimus oblitus Reeve, 1848 = Bahiensis neglectus (Pfeiffer, 1847).

  6. Illustrated type catalogue of Amphidromus Albers, 1850 in the Natural History Museum, London, and descriptions of two new species. (United States)

    Sutcharit, Chirasak; Ablett, Jonathan; Tongkerd, Piyoros; Naggs, Fred; Panha, Somsak


    The collection of the Southeast Asian tree snail genus Amphidromus Albers, 1850 at the Natural History Museum, London includes more than 100 lots of type specimens representing 85 name-bearing types, 9 paratypes and 6 paralectotypes, and one nomen nudum. Lectotypes are here designated for Amphidromuscambojiensis, Amphidromusperakensisglobosus, Amphidromuscolumellarisgloriosa, Amphidromusmaculiferusinflata, Amphidromuslepidus, Amphidromussinistralislutea, Amphidromusmoniliferus, Amphidromusmaculiferusobscura, Amphidromussinistralisrosea and Amphidromussinensivicaria. In addition, the missing types of A.A. Gould were discovered and their type status is discussed. A complete catalogue of these types, including colour photographs is provided for the first time. After examining these type specimens, two new Amphidromus species, Amphidromus (Syndromus) globonevilli Sutcharit & Panha, sp. n. and Amphidromus (Syndromus) principalis Sutcharit & Panha, sp. n. were recognized and are described herein.

  7. Report on Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Meeting of the European CME Forum, London, UK, 14–15 November 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Murray


    Full Text Available Delegates from around the world attended the sixth annual meeting of the European CME Forum in London between 14 and 15 November 2013. The participants discussed best practices in continuing medical education and continuing professional development (CME–CPD delivery, reviewed CME provision by various medical specialist societies, and viewed examples of e-CME educational activities in CME–CPD. The details of a new code for disclosure by European pharmaceutical companies were unveiled, and the implications were discussed with expert panels comparing the CME landscape in the United States with that in Europe. Accreditation systems were compared, and a number of informal sessions allowed the delegates to consider issues relevant to physician learners, transparency and accountability in CME planning and implementation, and opportunities for collaboration.

  8. Antes de Adán : Autor: Jack London. Valencia: Editorial Prometeo. ca 1925. 240 pp.


    Lombo Montañés, Alberto


    La edición dirigida por Blasco Ibáñez y traducida por Fernando Valera cuenta con una excelente biografía escrita por el propio autor. Jack London (1876-1916) empezó a interesarse por la evolución humana en Klondike (Yukón) donde además de leer a Spencer y Darwin, aprendió a sobrevivir en la naturaleza. Before Adam fue publicada entre 1906-1907 en la revista Everybody’s Magazine y narra las increíbles memorias de un anciano que sueña con un antepasado prehistórico. Previamente, se habían publi...

  9. Hotel-based ambulatory care for complex cancer patients: a review of the University College London Hospital experience. (United States)

    Sive, Jonathan; Ardeshna, Kirit M; Cheesman, Simon; le Grange, Franel; Morris, Stephen; Nicholas, Claire; Peggs, Karl; Statham, Paula; Goldstone, Anthony H


    Since 2005, University College London Hospital (UCLH) has operated a hotel-based Ambulatory Care Unit (ACU) for hematology and oncology patients requiring intensive chemotherapy regimens and hematopoietic stem cell transplants. Between January 2005 and 2011 there were 1443 patient episodes, totaling 9126 patient days, with increasing use over the 6-year period. These were predominantly for hematological malignancy (82%) and sarcoma (17%). Median length of stay was 5 days (range 1-42), varying according to treatment. Clinical review and treatment was provided in the ACU, with patients staying in a local hotel at the hospital's expense. Admission to the inpatient ward was arranged as required, and there was close liaison with the inpatient team to preempt emergency admissions. Of the 523 unscheduled admissions, 87% occurred during working hours. An ACU/hotel-based treatment model can be safely used for a wide variety of cancers and treatments, expanding hospital treatment capacity, and freeing up inpatient beds for those patients requiring them.

  10. The Contribution of a Social Enterprise to the Building of Social Capital in a Disadvantaged Urban Area of London. (United States)

    Bertotti, Marcello; Harden, Angela; Renton, Adrian; Sheridan, Kevin


    There has been much enthusiasm over the past 10 years for the potential contribution of social enterprises to the regeneration of disadvantaged urban areas. This enthusiasm has far outstripped the availability of empirical evidence. This paper reports a qualitative study of one social enterprise, a community café, and its contribution to building social capital in a disadvantaged urban area in London. The analysis reveals how the café builds 'bonding' and 'bridging' social capital whilst also addressing 'downside' social capital. Overall, the manager of the social enterprise played a considerable role in facilitating the development of social capital, thus emphasising the importance of individuals and their attitudes, skills, and background in urban regeneration. However, the role of the social enterprise in building 'linking' social capital was minor. In this instance, more effective mechanisms of community engagement need to be put in place in order to empower local residents and organisations.

  11. Sheila Jeffreys: The Industrial Vagina. The Political Economy of the Global Sex Trade. London: Routledge 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Hofmann


    Full Text Available Sheila Jeffreys analysiert die Prozesse, die zu einer Industrialisierung und Globalisierung von Prostitution im späten 20. und 21. Jahrhundert geführt haben. Hauptverantwortlich für die gegenwärtige Diskursverschiebung um Prostitution ist für Jeffreys zum einen die sexuelle Revolution der 1970er Jahre und zum anderen die massive Finanzierung von Unterstützer/-innen der Sexarbeiterinnen zur HIV-Prävention in den 1980ern. Jeffreys legt wie in früheren Arbeiten ihre radikal-feministische Position dar und fordert eine Abschaffung der Prostitution. In ihrer Abrechnung mit dem liberalen feministischen Diskurs, für den eine Unterstützung von Sexarbeiterinnen prioritär ist, ignoriert sie die Widersprüchlichkeiten und Komplexitäten der gelebten Realitäten. An vielen Stellen ihres Buches bekräftigt Jeffreys stereotypische Männlichkeitsvorstellungen, was durch einen Blick über den Tellerrand des ihr vertrauten wissenschaftlichen Bezugsrahmens hätte vermieden werden können.Sheila Jeffreys analyzes the processes that led to the industrialization and globalization of prostitution in the late 20th and 21th centuries. Jeffreys considers those primary factors responsible for the current shift in discourse on prostitution, which can be attributed to the sexual revolution of the 1970s on the one hand, and to massive financing of HIV prevention in the 1980s by sex worker supporters on the other. As in earlier studies, Jeffreys presents readers with her radical-feminist position and demands prostitution be abolished. In her confrontation with liberal-feminist discourse, in which the support of sex workers takes priority, she ignores the inconsistencies and complexities of real lived experience. At many points throughout her book, Jeffreys affirms stereotypical male conceptions, which could have been avoided had she looked beyond the theoretical frame of reference that makes up her comfort zone.

  12. The 21st Century: The Century of Biology on Earth and Beyond (United States)

    Tarter, Jill C.; SETI Team


    In a bold 2004 paper, Craig Venter and Daniel Cohen* claimed that whereas the 20th century had been the Century of Physics (Special and General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Big Bang Cosmology, Dark Matter and Dark Energy, the Standard Model of Particle Physics…) the 21st century would be the century of biology. They outlined the fantastic potential of genomic research to define the current century. Wondrous as these predictions were, and as rapidly as they have played out and over-delivered during this past decade, these predictions were too parochial. This century will permit us the first opportunities to study biology beyond Earth; biology as we don’t yet know it, and biology that we have exported off the surface of our planet.The technologies needed for discovering biology beyond Earth are different depending on whether you are searching for microbes or mathematicians, and depending on whether you are searching in-situ or remotely. In many cases the necessary technologies do not yet exist, but like genomics, they will probably develop more rapidly, and in more ways, than anyone of us can now imagine. The developing toolkit of the astronomers (stellar, planetary, and exoplanetary) will be shaped and improved as a result of this focus for at least the rest of this century.* New Perspectives Quarterly, Vol 21, pp. 73-77, 2004

  13. Evaluation of the source area of rooftop scalar measurements in London, UK using wind tunnel and modelling approaches. (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Aidan; Boon, Alex; Barlow, Janet; Hayden, Paul; Robins, Alan


    The source area of an instrument is an estimate of the area of ground over which the measurement is generated. Quantification of the source area of a measurement site provides crucial context for analysis and interpretation of the data. A range of computational models exists to calculate the source area of an instrument, but these are usually based on assumptions which do not hold for instruments positioned very close to the surface, particularly those surrounded by heterogeneous terrain i.e. urban areas. Although positioning instrumentation at higher elevation (i.e. on masts) is ideal in urban areas, this can be costly in terms of installation and maintenance costs and logistically difficult to position instruments in the ideal geographical location. Therefore, in many studies, experimentalists turn to rooftops to position instrumentation. Experimental validations of source area models for these situations are very limited. In this study, a controlled tracer gas experiment was conducted in a wind tunnel based on a 1:200 scale model of a measurement site used in previous experimental work in central London. The detector was set at the location of the rooftop site as the tracer was released at a range of locations within the surrounding streets and rooftops. Concentration measurements are presented for a range of wind angles, with the spread of concentration measurements indicative of the source area distribution. Clear evidence of wind channeling by streets is seen with the shape of the source area strongly influenced by buildings upwind of the measurement point. The results of the wind tunnel study are compared to scalar concentration source areas generated by modelling approaches based on meteorological data from the central London experimental site and used in the interpretation of continuous carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration data. Initial conclusions will be drawn as to how to apply scalar concentration source area models to rooftop measurement sites and

  14. Ranking current and prospective NO2 pollution mitigation strategies: An environmental and economic modelling investigation in Oxford Street, London. (United States)

    Jeanjean, A P R; Gallagher, J; Monks, P S; Leigh, R J


    Air pollution continues to be a problem in the urban environment. A range of different pollutant mitigation strategies that promote dispersion and deposition exist, but there is little evidence with respect to their comparative performance from both an environmental and economic perspective. This paper focuses on examining different NO2 mitigation strategies such as trees, buildings facades coated with photocatalytic paint and solid barriers in Oxford Street in London. The case study findings will support ranking the environmental and economic impacts of these different strategies to improve personal exposure conditions on the footpath and on the road in a real urban street canyon. CFD simulations of airflow and NO2 dispersion in Oxford Street in London were undertaken using the OpenFOAM software platform with the k-ε model, taking into account local prevailing wind conditions. Trees are shown to be the most cost-effective strategy, with a small reduction in NO2 concentrations of up to 0.7% on the road. However, solid barriers with and without the application of photocatalytic paint and an innovative material (20 times more expensive than trees) can improve air quality on the footpaths more substantially, up to 7.4%, yet this has a significant detrimental impact on NO2 concentrations (≤23.8%) on the road. Photocatalytic paint on building surfaces presented a minimal environmental reductions (1.2%) and economic (>100 times more expensive than trees) mitigation strategy. The findings recognised the differences between footpath and road concentrations occurred and that a focused examination of three pollution hotspots can provide more cost effective pollution mitigation. This study considers how a number of pollutant mitigation measures can be applied in a single street canyon and demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of these strategies from economic and environmental perspectives. Further research is required to extrapolate the findings presented here to

  15. Variability in Regularity: Mining Temporal Mobility Patterns in London, Singapore and Beijing Using Smart-Card Data. (United States)

    Zhong, Chen; Batty, Michael; Manley, Ed; Wang, Jiaqiu; Wang, Zijia; Chen, Feng; Schmitt, Gerhard


    To discover regularities in human mobility is of fundamental importance to our understanding of urban dynamics, and essential to city and transport planning, urban management and policymaking. Previous research has revealed universal regularities at mainly aggregated spatio-temporal scales but when we zoom into finer scales, considerable heterogeneity and diversity is observed instead. The fundamental question we address in this paper is at what scales are the regularities we detect stable, explicable, and sustainable. This paper thus proposes a basic measure of variability to assess the stability of such regularities focusing mainly on changes over a range of temporal scales. We demonstrate this by comparing regularities in the urban mobility patterns in three world cities, namely London, Singapore and Beijing using one-week of smart-card data. The results show that variations in regularity scale as non-linear functions of the temporal resolution, which we measure over a scale from 1 minute to 24 hours thus reflecting the diurnal cycle of human mobility. A particularly dramatic increase in variability occurs up to the temporal scale of about 15 minutes in all three cities and this implies that limits exist when we look forward or backward with respect to making short-term predictions. The degree of regularity varies in fact from city to city with Beijing and Singapore showing higher regularity in comparison to London across all temporal scales. A detailed discussion is provided, which relates the analysis to various characteristics of the three cities. In summary, this work contributes to a deeper understanding of regularities in patterns of transit use from variations in volumes of travellers entering subway stations, it establishes a generic analytical framework for comparative studies using urban mobility data, and it provides key points for the management of variability by policy-makers intent on for making the travel experience more amenable.

  16. Engaging the Somali community in the road safety agenda: a process evaluation from the London borough of Hounslow. (United States)

    Christie, Nicola; Sleney, Judith; Ahmed, Fatima; Knight, Elisabeth


    In the UK the most disadvantaged in society are more likely than those more affluent to be injured or killed in a road traffic collision and therefore it is a major cause of health inequality. There is a strong link between ethnicity, deprivation and injury. Whilst national road traffic injury data does not collect ethnic origin the London accident and analysis group does in terms of broad categories such as 'white', 'black' and 'Asian'. Analysis of this data revealed the over-representation of child pedestrian casualties from a 'black' ethnic origin. This information led road safety practitioners in one London borough to map child pedestrian casualties against census data which identified the Somali community as being particularly at risk of being involved in a road traffic collision. Working with the community they sought to discuss and address road safety issues and introduced practical evidence based approaches such as child pedestrian training. The process evaluation of the project used a qualitative approach and showed that engaging with community partners and working across organisational boundaries was a useful strategy to gain an understanding of the Somali community. A bottom approach provided the community with a sense of control and involvement which appears to add value in terms of reducing the sense of powerlessness that marginalised communities often feel. In terms of evaluation, small projects like these, lend themselves to a qualitative process evaluation though it has to be accepted that the strength of this evidence may be regarded as weak. Where possible routine injury data needs to take into account ethnicity which is a known risk factor for road casualty involvement which needs to be continually monitored.

  17. Does the local food environment around schools affect diet? Longitudinal associations in adolescents attending secondary schools in East London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Dianna


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The local retail food environment around schools may act as a potential risk factor for adolescent diet. However, international research utilising cross-sectional designs to investigate associations between retail food outlet proximity to schools and diet provides equivocal support for an effect. In this study we employ longitudinal perspectives in order to answer the following two questions. First, how has the local retail food environment around secondary schools changed over time and second, is this change associated with change in diet of students at these schools? Methods The locations of retail food outlets and schools in 2001 and 2005 were geo-coded in three London boroughs. Network analysis in a Geographic Information System (GIS ascertained the number, minimum and median distances to food outlets within 400 m and 800 m of the school location. Outcome measures were ‘healthy’ and ‘unhealthy’ diet scores derived from adolescent self-reported data in the Research with East London Adolescents: Community Health Survey (RELACHS. Adjusted associations between distance from school to food retail outlets, counts of outlets near schools and diet scores were assessed using longitudinal (2001–2005 n=757 approaches. Results Between 2001 and 2005 the number of takeaways and grocers/convenience stores within 400 m of schools increased, with many more grocers reported within 800 m of schools in 2005 (p Conclusions The results provide some evidence that the local food environment around secondary schools may influence adolescent diet, though effects were small. Further research on adolescents’ food purchasing habits with larger samples in varied geographic regions is required to identify robust relationships between proximity and diet, as small numbers, because of confounding, may dilute effect food environment effects. Data on individual foods purchased in all shop formats may clarify the frequent, overly simple

  18. Variability in Regularity: Mining Temporal Mobility Patterns in London, Singapore and Beijing Using Smart-Card Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhong

    Full Text Available To discover regularities in human mobility is of fundamental importance to our understanding of urban dynamics, and essential to city and transport planning, urban management and policymaking. Previous research has revealed universal regularities at mainly aggregated spatio-temporal scales but when we zoom into finer scales, considerable heterogeneity and diversity is observed instead. The fundamental question we address in this paper is at what scales are the regularities we detect stable, explicable, and sustainable. This paper thus proposes a basic measure of variability to assess the stability of such regularities focusing mainly on changes over a range of temporal scales. We demonstrate this by comparing regularities in the urban mobility patterns in three world cities, namely London, Singapore and Beijing using one-week of smart-card data. The results show that variations in regularity scale as non-linear functions of the temporal resolution, which we measure over a scale from 1 minute to 24 hours thus reflecting the diurnal cycle of human mobility. A particularly dramatic increase in variability occurs up to the temporal scale of about 15 minutes in all three cities and this implies that limits exist when we look forward or backward with respect to making short-term predictions. The degree of regularity varies in fact from city to city with Beijing and Singapore showing higher regularity in comparison to London across all temporal scales. A detailed discussion is provided, which relates the analysis to various characteristics of the three cities. In summary, this work contributes to a deeper understanding of regularities in patterns of transit use from variations in volumes of travellers entering subway stations, it establishes a generic analytical framework for comparative studies using urban mobility data, and it provides key points for the management of variability by policy-makers intent on for making the travel experience more

  19. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (7th, London, United Kingdom, July 4-7, 2014) (United States)

    Stamper, John, Ed.; Pardos, Zachary, Ed.; Mavrikis, Manolis, Ed.; McLaren, Bruce M., Ed.


    The 7th International Conference on Education Data Mining held on July 4th-7th, 2014, at the Institute of Education, London, UK is the leading international forum for high-quality research that mines large data sets in order to answer educational research questions that shed light on the learning process. These data sets may come from the traces…

  20. Factors Affecting the Involvement of Day Centre Care Staff in the Delivery of Physiotherapy to Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: An Exploratory Study in One London Borough (United States)

    Middleton, M. -J.; Kitchen, S. S.


    Background: Physiotherapists for adults with intellectual disabilities often work in day centres, relying on care staff to support programmes. This study investigates factors affecting physiotherapy delivery in 4 day centres in one London borough. Materials and Method: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with day centre care staff,…

  1. Bringing Froebel into London's Infant Schools: The Reforming Practice of Two Head Teachers, Elizabeth Shaw and Frances Roe, from the 1890s to the 1930s (United States)

    Read, Jane


    This article explores how infant school reform took hold in London's schools from the 1890s to the 1930s through examination of the work of two Froebelian head teachers, Elizabeth Mary Shaw and Frances Emily Roe. In contrast to teacher-led rote-learning methods and rigid discipline they implemented play-based activities drawing on children's…

  2. Resilience of Self-Organised and Top-Down Planned Cities--A Case Study on London and Beijing Street Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqiu Wang

    Full Text Available The success or failure of the street network depends on its reliability. In this article, using resilience analysis, the author studies how the shape and appearance of street networks in self-organised and top-down planned cities influences urban transport. Considering London and Beijing as proxies for self-organised and top-down planned cities, the structural properties of London and Beijing networks first are investigated based on their primal and dual representations of planar graphs. The robustness of street networks then is evaluated in primal space and dual space by deactivating road links under random and intentional attack scenarios. The results show that the reliability of London street network differs from that of Beijing, which seems to rely more on its architecture and connectivity. It is found that top-down planned Beijing with its higher average degree in the dual space and assortativity in the primal space is more robust than self-organised London using the measures of maximum and second largest cluster size and network efficiency. The article offers an insight, from a network perspective, into the reliability of street patterns in self-organised and top-down planned city systems.

  3. The Sustainable Development of the London 2012 Olympic Park: A Real Controversy? 11- to 15-Year-Old Students' Perspectives Right from the Scene (United States)

    Amos, Ruth; Robertson, Helen


    In the midst of challenges facing school science education in providing students with authentic learning experiences aimed at development of important life skills for future citizens, a project at the London 2012 Olympic Park is providing a unique opportunity for urban field visits in the built environment. The Field Studies Council is bringing…

  4. A Comparison of the Performance on Three Multiple Choice Question Papers in Obstetrics and Gynecology Over a Period of Three Years Administered at Five London Medical Schools (United States)

    Stevens, J. M.; And Others


    Five of the medical schools in the University of London collaborated in administering one multiple choice question paper in obstetrics and gynecology, and results showed differences in performance between the five schools on questions and alternatives within questions. The rank order of the schools may result from differences in teaching methods.…

  5. Higher Education Governance as Language Games: A Wittgensteinian Case Study of the Breakdown of Governance at the London School of Economics 2004-2011 (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha


    This paper calls for a more detailed study of social practices in the analysis of governance failures. Using the Woolf report on the breakdown of governance at the London School of Economics as a case study and Wittgenstein's notion of language games as an analytic lens, the author argues that widely used institutional and structural theories of…

  6. Nutrition Labeling and Portion Size Information on Children's Menus in Fast-Food and Table-Service Chain Restaurants in London, UK (United States)

    Reeves, Sue; Wake, Yvonne; Zick, Andrea


    Objective: To investigate meals, price, nutritional content, and nutrition and portion size information available on children's menus in fast-food and table-service chain restaurants in London, since the United Kingdom does not currently require such information but may be initiating a voluntary guideline. Methods: Children's menus were assessed…

  7. Malta and the Nineteenth Century Grain Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    It is often assumed that Britain's colonies followed the British doctrine of free trade in the second half of the nineteenth century. Malta, which became a British colony in 1814, did indeed become an early free trader. However, she failed to liberalize the grain trade, even when the mother country...

  8. Malta and the Nineteenth Century Grain Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard


    It is often assumed that Britain's colonies followed the British doctrine of free trade in the second half of the nineteenth century. Malta, which became a British colony in 1814, did indeed become an early free trader. However, she failed to liberalize the grain trade, even when the mother country...

  9. Mozart and medicine in the eighteenth century. (United States)

    Jenkins, J S


    Over the years the medical history and death of Mozart have been the subject of many studies, but in spite of all this attention much remains controversial. In an attempt to resolve some of the difficulty it is useful to see his life, and that of his family as recorded in their letters, in the context of medicine in eighteenth-century Europe.

  10. The 21st Century Information Environment. (United States)

    Badger, Rod

    This paper on the 21st century information environment begins with a section that discusses the impact of e-commerce over the next ten years. The second section addresses government focus areas, including ensuring a telecommunications infrastructure, developing the IT (information technology) industry, promoting innovation and entrepreneurship,…

  11. Surviving 1000 centuries can we do it?

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet, Roger-Maurice


    This full color book provides a quantitative view of our civilization over the next 100,000 years. The authors present the dangers and stress the importance of taking decisions in the 21st century to ensure the long-term survival of people on Earth.

  12. PR in the 21st Century. (United States)

    Forbush, Dan; Toon, John


    The ways in which advancing technology will affect college and university public relations and the mass media in the next century are examined, and a survey of 60 campus public relations specialists and 40 journalists concerning predicted changes is reported. Implications for campus communications with the media are also discussed. (MSE)

  13. Academic Freedom in the 21st Century (United States)

    Tierney, William G.; Lechuga, Vicente M.


    Throughout the 20th century, academic freedom was a foundational value for the academy in the United States. The concept of academic freedom pertains to the right of faculty to enjoy considerable autonomy in their research and teaching. The assumption that drives academic freedom is that the country benefits when faculty are able to search for…

  14. A Day in the Nineteenth Century. (United States)

    Kanton, Ann Halpenny


    Describes a living history program on life in nineteenth-century San Diego for secondary students. During tours of a restored Victorian house, students view slides of historical photographs, study clothing and furniture styles, and participate in typical sewing, cooking, and cleaning chores. (AM)

  15. Black Women Workers in the Twentieth Century. (United States)

    Newman, Debra Lynn


    At the beginning of the twentieth century one-third of black women worked; most did agricultural or domestic work. Gradually as employment benefits increased and anti-discrimination laws were enforced, work opportunities for black women became more varied and better paying. (VM)

  16. Learning Analytics for 21st Century Competencies (United States)

    Buckingham Shum, Simon; Crick, Ruth Deakin


    Many educational institutions are shifting their teaching and learning towards equipping students with knowledge, skills, and dispositions that prepare them for lifelong learning, in a complex and uncertain world. These have been termed "21st century competencies." Learning analytics (LA) approaches in general offer different kinds of…

  17. Wackernagel's Law in Fifth-Century Greek (United States)

    Goldstein, David Michael


    This dissertation investigates the distribution of the pronominal clitics and the modal particle [Special characters omitted.] in fifth-century Greek (more specifically in Herodotus, the tragedians, and Aristophanes), which is typically assumed to be governed by Wackernagel's Law. It argues for a prosody-dominant model of clitic distribution,…

  18. The "Casa dei Bambini": A Century Concept. (United States)

    Hall, Elizabeth


    Reviews the early history of Montessori education from the Italian State Orthophrenic School to the opening of the original Casa dei Bambini in San Lorenzo, Italy on January 6, 1907. Includes a synopsis of Maria Montessori's progressive revelations of the child's developing self over the past century. (JPB)

  19. Turkey: migration 18th-20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, A.; Ness, I.


    For many centuries, Europe called the Ottoman empire "Turkey." This applied to the registry of population movements to and from the Ottoman empire insofar as such registrations were made. The country's rulers and inhabitants, however, only took on the name Turkey (Türkiye) in 1923, upon proclamation

  20. Making Sense of the Eighteenth Century (United States)

    Burn, Katharine


    Pressures on curriculum time force us all to make difficult choices about curriculum content, but the eighteenth century seems to have suffered particular neglect. Inspired by the tercentenary of the accession of the first Georgian king and the interest in the Acts of Union prompted by this year's referendum on Scottish independence, Katharine…

  1. Defining War for the 21st Century (United States)


    over the centuries. It adapted to medievalism , the rise of the nation state, and the emergence of international organizations, so it can adapt to a...Dr. Vlahos has published over 80 articles, appearing in, among oth- ers, Foreign Affairs, Washington Quarterly, The Times Literary Supplement

  2. Phonetics of English in the nineteenth century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    grew. This was reflected in the appearance of a large number of books and other publications dealing with speech sound, and also in the application of phonetics to such diverse areas as language teaching, elocution, teaching the deaf, shorthand writing and dialectology. The nineteenth century can...

  3. Toward the 21st Century for Women (United States)

    Osborn, Ruth H.


    The International Women's Year Conference decided that the key to the future for women throughout the world was continuing education enabling women to gain a sense of self realization, promote family life, increase options, and to contribute their talents to a better world in the 21st century. (Author/BP)

  4. Digital Humanities in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels


    In this article it is argued that one of the major transformative factors of the humanities at the beginning of the 21st century is the shift from analogue to digital source material, and that this shift will affect the humanities in a variety of ways. But various kinds of digital material...

  5. Creating 21st Century Learning Environments (United States)

    Li, Phan P.; Locke, John; Nair, Prakash; Bunting, Andrew


    What is involved in creating learning environments for the 21st century? How can school facilities serve as tools for teaching and meet the needs of students in the future? What components are required to design effective schools, and how does architecture relate to the purposes of schooling? These are some of the questions addressed at the…

  6. Soaring into the 21st Century. (United States)

    Burke, John


    Describes the implementation of ideas from the National Congress on Catholic Schools for the 21st Century at Saint Thomas Aquinas School in the South Bronx. Discusses Catholic identity, school spirit, social change, and school development with respect to the school's long-range planning for success in an economically depressed neighborhood. (MAB)

  7. Curriculum for the 21st Century. (United States)

    Pratt, David


    Urges reconsideration of educational ends. Suggests eight curriculum principles that can help Canadian schools move into the next century. Explains six educational needs roughly based on Maslow's hierarchy (aesthetic needs, need for meaning, self-actualization, self-concept, social needs, need for survival) and relates them to curriculum…

  8. 20th-Century Gold Rush. (United States)

    Wargo, Joseph G.


    Presents Nevada's gold rush activities spurred by technological advancements in search methods. Describes the events that led to the twentieth-century gold rush, the techniques for finding deposits and the geological formation process of disseminated gold deposits. Vignettes present the gold extraction process, cross-section, and profile of a…

  9. Twentieth-Century Art: Issues of Representation. (United States)

    Springer, Julie


    Presents lesson plans designed for secondary students that assess the role of naturalistic representation in twentieth-century art by examining the artwork of four artists: Pablo Picasso, Rene Magritte, David Smith, and Jackson Pollock. Provides background information on each illustration, and outlines discussion and art production activities for…

  10. Investigation of market efficiency and Financial Stability between S&P 500 and London Stock Exchange: Monthly and yearly Forecasting of Time Series Stock Returns using ARMA model (United States)

    Rounaghi, Mohammad Mahdi; Nassir Zadeh, Farzaneh


    We investigated the presence and changes in, long memory features in the returns and volatility dynamics of S&P 500 and London Stock Exchange using ARMA model. Recently, multifractal analysis has been evolved as an important way to explain the complexity of financial markets which can hardly be described by linear methods of efficient market theory. In financial markets, the weak form of the efficient market hypothesis implies that price returns are serially uncorrelated sequences. In other words, prices should follow a random walk behavior. The random walk hypothesis is evaluated against alternatives accommodating either unifractality or multifractality. Several studies find that the return volatility of stocks tends to exhibit long-range dependence, heavy tails, and clustering. Because stochastic processes with self-similarity possess long-range dependence and heavy tails, it has been suggested that self-similar processes be employed to capture these characteristics in return volatility modeling. The present study applies monthly and yearly forecasting of Time Series Stock Returns in S&P 500 and London Stock Exchange using ARMA model. The statistical analysis of S&P 500 shows that the ARMA model for S&P 500 outperforms the London stock exchange and it is capable for predicting medium or long horizons using real known values. The statistical analysis in London Stock Exchange shows that the ARMA model for monthly stock returns outperforms the yearly. ​A comparison between S&P 500 and London Stock Exchange shows that both markets are efficient and have Financial Stability during periods of boom and bust.

  11. Are fuel poverty reduction schemes associated with decreased excess winter mortality in elders? A case study from London, U.K. (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; El-Silimy, Sally


    The London Borough of Newham, London piloted the Warm Zone, a government-led fuel poverty reduction scheme. Fuel poverty is often cited as a factor in excess winter mortality (EWM) in the U.K. This study reported in this paper assessed whether EWM decreased for people aged > or =65 years in Newham as compared to all London, employing data from before and throughout the duration of the Warm Zone project. The paper also discusses the difficulties surrounding the measurement and interpretation of health impact relating to fuel poverty. We calculated and compared the yearly EWM indices for people aged > or =65 years for all of London, and for Newham over 12 years (1993-2005). The yearly EWM ratio for Newham in relation to all London was then calculated and compared. No definitive evidence to support the effect of the War Zone on EMW were noted. Relationships between EWM and fewer poverty reduction schemes are difficult to interpret, as many factors are entangled. These include cold strain and biological, genetic, gender, physiological, thermoregulation, environmental, meteorological, socio-economic, healthcare provision/expenditure, lifestyle and co-morbidity aspects, besides the challenges of sample sizes and whether other fuel poverty reduction schemes were simultaneously in operation. Those in privately owned housing might be ;masked' (underestimated) in their vulnerability to fuel poverty. Redefining the specific criteria for eligibility for fuel poverty grants and tackling heat inefficiency in privately owned homes not eligible for home heating improvement despite fulfilling other criteria for vulnerability requires attention. The implications are discussed.

  12. What makes london work like london?

    KAUST Repository

    AlHalawani, Sawsan


    Urban data ranging from images and laser scans to traffic flows are regularly analyzed and modeled leading to better scene understanding. Commonly used computational approaches focus on geometric descriptors, both for images and for laser scans. In contrast, in urban planning, a large body of work has qualitatively evaluated street networks to understand their effects on the functionality of cities, both for pedestrians and for cars. In this work, we analyze street networks, both their topology (i.e., connectivity) and their geometry (i.e., layout), in an attempt to understand which factors play dominant roles in determining the characteristic of cities. We propose a set of street network descriptors to capture the essence of city layouts and use them, in a supervised setting, to classify and categorize various cities across the world. We evaluate our method on a range of cities, of various styles, and demonstrate that while standard image-level descriptors perform poorly, the proposed network-level descriptors can distinguish between different cities reliably and with high accuracy. © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. 伦敦、纽约、东京经济转型的经验及其借鉴%Experience of London, New York, Tokyo's Economic Transformation and Reference for Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    At present, Shanghai is in a transitional period. A number of unconventional, non - linear, atypical new changes will gradually appear. And many new problems full of suspense and difficulties will also been brought to us. In order to Actively respond to the new changes and new problems, it is necessary for us to learn from international experience, especially typical cases of urban economic transition in London, New York and Tokyo during the 60s -80s of 20th century. It is helpful to accurately grasp the unique rnles and efficiently guide the practice of urban transition and development of Shanghai.%目前上海正处于转型发展之中,日益呈现出许多非常规、非线性、非典型的新变化,同时也将带来许多充满悬念、令人疑难的新问题。为积极应对上海转型发展中的新变化与新问题,学习与借鉴国际经验,特别是20世纪60-80年代伦敦、纽约和东京等城市经济转型的典型案例,有助于准确把握城市转型的特有规律,更好地指导上海转型发展的实践探索。

  14. Vision & Strategy: Predictive Ecotoxicology in the 21st Century (United States)


    Vision & Strategy: Predictive Ecotoxicology in the 21st Century Daniel L. Villeneuve* and Natàlia Garcia-Reyero In the 20th century, predicting...2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Predictive Ecotoxicology in the 21st Century 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...century ecotoxicology can do Researchers have, for the first time, identi- fied the mechanisms of action of two toxins released by certain microalgae

  15. Heliportable drilling in the 21. century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argue, F. [Academy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Korach, D. [Nabors Alaska, Anchorage, AK (United States); Read, M. [Nabors Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    The access season for conventional ice roads has been reduced. Therefore, efficient drilling programs are required for a short winter drilling, and long wells are not able to compete in one season. Heliportable drilling provides non-ice access. This presentation outlined the merits of heliportable drilling in the twenty-first century. Conventional heliportable drilling was discussed and several images of current and past heliportable drilling rigs were presented. New technologies were also illustrated and discussed, with particular reference to the Mi26T enabler, a Russian super heavy lift helicopter, leased to Airborne Energy Solutions. Operating data for the Mi26T was also presented and the heli-drill system was explained. Several twenty-first century heli-rigs were also illustrated and described, including rig 119H, rig 103AC, rig 106E, rig 99AC, and rig 105E. Last, the presentation identified the next steps for heli-rigs. tabs., figs.

  16. Cosmic Dust in the 21st Century

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, J M; Shen, Chuanjian


    The past century of interstellar dust has brought us from first ignoring it to finding that it plays an important role in the evolution of galaxies. Current observational results in our galaxy provide a complex physical and chemical evolutionary picture of interstellar dust starting with the formation of small refractory particles in stellar atmospheres to their modification in diffuse and molecular clouds and ultimately to their contribution to star forming regions. Observations of the properties of dust in very young galaxies will be an important probe of the rates of star formation in terms of the production and destruction of dust grains. Future observations of dust at high spectral and spatial resolution will provide detailed information on processes in collapsing clouds up to star formation. Space missions to comets in the next century will first study them in situ but ultimately will bring back pristine nucleus material which will contain the end product of the collapsing protosolar molecular cloud at ...

  17. Detergents of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Tan Tai Louis


    Full Text Available Detergents of the 21st century will depend on evolutions in household appliances, in substrates and in consumer needs. In addition, the environmental constraints, which become more and more stringent, will also play an important role, particularly in the formulations. Surfactants, which constitute one of the main raw materials in detergents, will have to be more environmentally friendly with increasing criteria of biodegradability and renewable materials. Builders (phosphates or zeolithes, heavy metal complexants (EDTA and bleaching agents (combination perborate/TAED are also expected to be replaced by biodegradable compounds, with better performances and lower costs. The real raw materials of the detergents of the 21st century will probably be enzymes (oxidase, hydrolase, peroxidase which present several advantages. At the same time, efforts will be made on biodegradable packaging through the use of micro-organisms able to degrade polymers. Finally, in terms of product forms, the concept of concentration might come back through the use of tablets.

  18. Selective Reproduction in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 21st century, human reproduction increasingly involves decisions about which gametes to fertilize, which embryos to implant, or which fetuses to abort. The term ‘selective reproduction’ refers to these increasingly widespread efforts to bring specific kinds of children into being....... To this end, selective reproductive technologies (SRTs) have been developed and routinized over the last few decades. In today’s world, selective reproduction is taking place on a historically unprecedented scale; through sex-selective abortions following ultrasound scans, termination of pregnancies following...... detection of fetal anomalies during prenatal screening and testing programs, the development of preimplantation genetic diagnosis techniques as well as the screening of potential gamete donors by egg agencies and sperm banks. Selective Reproduction in the 21st Century provides unique ethnographic insights...

  19. A new neuropsychology for the XXI century. (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo


    Regardless of the significant interest in comparing neuropsychological syndromes across cultures, little interest is observed in comparing these syndromes across time. Most of the neuropsychological syndromes were described during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century (e.g., aphasia, alexia, agraphia, acalculia, etc.). However, living conditions have so dramatically changed during the last 100 years that those classical neuropsychological syndromes have to be re-stated and reconsidered; eventually, new syndromes could be proposed. In this paper, an analysis of the impact of the new living conditions in spoken language, written language, numerical abilities, memory, spatial orientation, people recognition, and executive functions is presented. It is concluded that it is time to re-analyze and re-interpret the classical neuropsychological syndromes; and develop new assessment procedures, more in accordance with the twenty-first century living conditions.

  20. Nineteenth Century Public And Private Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to illustrate the public and private spheres. The former represents the area in which each of us carries out their daily activities, while the latter is mirrored by the home. Kate Chopin and Charlotte Perkins Gilman are two salient nineteenth-century writers who shape the everyday life of the historical period they lived in, within their literary works that shed light on the areas under discussion.