WorldWideScience

Sample records for century botany diplomatics

  1. [The alphabet of nature and the alphabet of culture in the eighteenth century. botany, diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner : Botany, Diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture.

  2. [Half century of botany publishing in Revista de Biologia Tropical].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    Over its first half century the Revista de Biología Tropical published many papers and supplements dealing with the botany. However, the Revista is not a primary botanical journal. A wide variety of topics and geographic sources have been included, taking into consideration species from the Neotropics, but also from India and Nigeria. A complete index of botanical papers is presented.

  3. “Enlightened Policy” in Eighteenth Century Spain: а Russian Eye-witness - Diplomat Stepan Zinoviev

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    Olga Vilenovna Volosyuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the process of the establishment of Russian-Spanish relations in the 18th century and the role of one of the most distinguished Russian diplomats at the court of Catherine II Stepan Zinoviev who spent amost 20 years in Madrid (1772-1794. The study is based largely on manuscripts (diplomatic and other correspondence from the Archives of External Policy of the Russian Empire in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation and fills a gap in the research of Russian foreign policy of the 18th century and the Russian-Spanish relations. Catherine’s foreign interests were focused toward the major states of Northern Europe, but she also tried to strengthen the position of the Russian Empire in Europe, to embed the country in the European 'Balance of Power' by establishing diplomatic relations with all European countries. In this sense, the Iberian Peninsula was not wholly without significance for Russia. The political unions of Russia with the outlying countries, as Spain, depended not only on the international situation in Europe in the second half of the 18th century but on the image of the country that was created by Russians who visited Spain at that time. The position of diplomats was particularly important - they were almost the only ones, except for merchants and sailors, who visited that country and it is on the basis of their reports that Russia's foreign policy in relation to Spain was built in the 18th century. Based on the reports of Zinoviev we can reconstruct the images of such important political figures as the King Charles III, Secretary of State Count of Floridablanca and the other ministers of the Spanish government. The biography of the outstanding Russian diplomat - Stepan Zinoviev is presented in this article for the first time.

  4. Diplomatic Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Režná, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Final thesis Topic: Diplomatic protection Thesis supervisor: JUDr. Vladimír Balaš, CSc. Student: Marek Čermák Thesis on the topic of diplomatic protection deals with the granting of exercise of diplomatic protection by the states and is divided into seven chapters which follow each other. The first chapter describes the diplomatic protection and its historical foundations. The second chapter focuses on the possibility of exercise of diplomatic protection in respect of natural persons and the ...

  5. Prologues, Poetry, Prose and Portrayals: The Purposes of Fifteenth Century Fight Books According to the Diplomatic Evidence

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    Deacon Jacob Henry

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although by far the most popular use of fifteenth century Fight Books in recent years has been their application to the study of Historical European Martial Arts and interpretations of medieval combat, this manner of learning from them was rarely what their creators had in mind. The following paper, relying primarily on the materials produced by Fiore dei Liberi, Filippo Vadi, Hans Talhoffer, and the anonymous author of Le Jeu de la Hache, will address modern practice and its connection to the source material via a study of the diplomatics of fifteenth century Fight Books, that is to say common tropes that are definitive of the genre. This has been done through analysing the roles of three of these; the purposes of introductions, of the use of language relating to the employment of either a prose or poetic structure, and the importance of the relationships between texts and illustrations. Through this application of diplomatics to Fight Books, the paper shall demonstrate how modern claims regarding authenticity are often overstated and in need of moderation.

  6. Diplomatic agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    diplomatic agency has been conceptualized in International Relations theory (English School, game theory, Foreign Policy Analysis, constructivism, practice theory, post-positivism) before presenting and exemplifying major and overlapping types of diplomatic agency, including communication, negotiation......Diplomatic agency is intriguing. On the one hand, diplomats are crucial to the management of day-to-day international relations and the negotiation of war and peace. On the other hand, most diplomatic action is highly constrained or invisible. This chapter provides an overview of the ways in which...... and advocacy. It analyzes how professionalization, legalization, personalization and popularization of diplomacy have shaped diplomatic agency including how international law, bureaucracy, public diplomacy and new information technologies have impacted the scope and content of diplomatic agency. Finally...

  7. Botany on a plate. Pleasure and the power of pictures in promoting early nineteenth-century scientific knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secord, Anne

    2002-03-01

    In early nineteenth-century Britain the use of pictures in introducing novices to the study of science was contentious, leading to debates over the ways in which words and images constituted knowledge and over the role of pleasure in intellectual pursuits. While recent studies have stressed visual representation as a critical element of science and considered its relation to the written word in conveying information, this essay explores the nineteenth-century preoccupation with the mind and mental faculties in relation to corporeal responses to explain concerns over the role of images and the process of recognition. By considering illustration in this way, it argues that popular botany was defined by many expert naturalists as the means by which private individuals could best be encouraged to extend their aesthetic appreciation and love of plants to an active and participatory pursuit of science.

  8. Supermarket Botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Geoff E.; Harper, John D. I.

    2009-01-01

    Supermarket Botany is a frequently-used teaching resource or strategy. It draws on a student's existing familiarity with plant-based foods to explore plant structure and life cycles. One of its strongest points is that it is adaptable to many age levels--from lower primary school to university and general interest groups. We have designed a unique…

  9. Sowing the Seeds for Strong Relations: Seeds and Plants as Diplomatic Gifts for the Russian Empress Maria Fedorovna

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    Ekaterina Heath

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the role of botany in diplomatic relationships between Britain and Russia around the turn of the nineteenth century by looking at three gifts of exotic seeds and plants sent by different British diplomats and officials to the Russian Empress Maria Fedorovna, wife of Tsar Paul I. Gifts of live plants were a new category of diplomatic presents fuelled by the rapidly growing popularity of botany across Europe. These gifts represented British imperial ambitions and desire to build a self-sufficient economy. They also indicated an element of Britain’s anxiety about its navy’s dependence on Russian natural resources and later on about Russia’s successes in the exploration of the Antarctic regions. Empress Maria Fedorovna displayed these plants in a prominent part of her garden at Pavlovsk, next to the plants from North America that she had procured independently. This was a deliberate strategy that worked to boost her prestige at court by showcasing her international relationships.

  10. Elderberry: Botany, Horticulture, Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horticultural Review allows extensive reviews of the state of the knowledge on certain topics or crops. Elderberry: Botany, Horticulture, Potential, is outlined with an Introduction, Botany, Horticulture, Propagation, Uses and Conclusion sections. This review compiles literature from around the w...

  11. Merchant-Kings and Lords of the World: Diplomatic Gift-Exchange between the Dutch East India Company and the Safavid and Mughal Empires in the Seventeenth Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birkenholz, Frank; Sowerby, Tracey A.; Hennings, Jan

    2017-01-01

    In 1652 the VOC ambassador Joan Cunaeus presented the Safavid Shah Abbas II with a set of diplomatic gifts including goods of Asian and European origin during an audience ceremony in the Ali Qapu palace in Isfahan. A decade later, VOC director Dircq van Adrichem offered the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb

  12. Conceptions of Landscape-Ecological Relevance Emerged in the Czech Botany during the Second Half of Twentieth Century

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    Kovář Pavel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes those substantial theoretical concepts or methods for applications within interdisciplinary or practical uses published by Czech autors (geobotanists = ecological botanists, plant ecologists and ecophysiologists during the second half of the 20th century, that were internationally cited. All selected thematical clusters are of landscape-ecological relevance through various contexts. Examples include the concepts of (potential reconstructed vegetation in maps (R. Neuhäusl, Z. Neuhäuslová, linear vegetation features (corridors in landscape and deductive classification of vegetation (K. Kopecký, analysis of soil seed bank (Z. Kropáč, dependency of macrophyte plant stands on ecodynamics (S. Hejný, dynamic periodicity in segetal vegetation (Z. Kropáč, E. Hadač, S. Hejný, anemo-orographic system explaining species richness in mountain regions (J. Jeník, productivity in grassland ecosystems (M. Rychnovská, J. Květ, elementary landscape units based on homogenity and potential vegetation (E. Hadač, landscape dispensation phenomena (V. Ložek, afforestation of coastal sandy dunes – the Netherlands, and polluted areas - the Czech Republic (J. Fanta, invasive plants and invasions into landscapes (M. Rejmánek.

  13. Russian Chronicles and Diplomatic Documents on the Moscow-Crimean-Kazan Relations at the end of the 15th – the first half of the 16th centuries

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    A.V. Aksanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research objective: The article analyzes chronicles’ and diplomatic information about joining of the Kazan Khanate to the Moscow-Crimean alliance in 1487, about the joint actions of these three states against the Great Horde in 1491–1492 and about the Moscow-Crimean-Kazan peace negotiations of 1537–1542. Research materials: Special attention is given to inconsistencies in the sources that often has not been considered in the historiography. In official chronicles the campaign of 1487 marks the submission of Kazan. Whereas diplomatic documents represent the expedition of the Moscow troops of 1487 as the military aid of Ivan III to the khan Mahomed-Amin in his struggle for the Kazan throne. According to official chronicles, in 1491 the Kazan khan warred against the Horde on the side of the Crimea by the order of the Moscow sovereign. In turn, in the Novgorod chronicle the campaign of 1491 is represented as the act of the help of Ivan III to the sultan Satylgan and khan Mahomed-Amin in their fight against the Great Horde. The data of diplomatic documents are consistent with the estimate of the Novgorod chronicle. Research results and novelty: Therefore, it can be assumed that Mahomed-Amin participated in the war against the Great Horde as he was in allied relations with Moscow and the Crimea. Diplomatic documents confirm the point of view of official chroniclers of rather intermediary role of the Crimean khan in the Moscow-Kazan negotiations of 1537–1542. Thus, they display a completely different character of the relations between Moscow, the Crimea and Kazan. The Moscow boyars demanded from the Kazan khan to recognize the supremacy of the Moscow sovereign. In turn, the governors of the Crimea and Kazan called for equal relations. Possibly, this contradiction was the main reason for a failure of the peace negotiations.

  14. Diplomatic Documentation of the Crimean Khanate in the 16th century (1515–1596: To the Question about the Current State of Publishing »

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    A.V. Vinogradov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research objectives: to outline the key issues of the current state of publication of diplomatic documents containing information about the Crimean Khanate’s relations with Russian and Polish-Lithuanian states during the period of 1515–1596. Research materials: the Crimean diplomatic documents and letters of the Crimean khans Muhammad Giray I, Saadet Giray, Islam Giray I, Sahib Giray, Devlet Giray I, Mohammed Giray II, Islam Giray II and Gazi Giray II to the Moscow princes and Polish kings preserved in the archives and library manuscript collections in Russia and Poland. Research results: as a result of research the author has introduced into scholarly circulation a generic list of (both published and unpublished messages of the Crimean khans to the Polish kings and princes of Moscow for the period of 1515–1596 preserved in the archives and library manuscript collections in Russia and Poland. Research novelty: the author is the first to consider the problem of the publication of diplomatic documents of the Crimean Khanate being a part of the Crimean ambassadorial books in the fund 123 (“Russian relations with the Crimea” of Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts.

  15. Botany in Edinburgh's Medical Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hazel

    2012-01-01

    In the early 18th century, at the founding of Edinburgh University Medical School, the study of botany was regarded as an essential component of medical training. Botanical teaching began as basic instruction in the recognition of medical plants, considered a vital aspect of a physician's Materia Medica studies. Over the next hundred years growing importance was given to the study of botany as a science, its popularity peaking under John Hutton Balfour's tenure as Professor (1845-1879). The relevance of botanical study later declined in the undergraduate medical curriculum until its cessation in 1961 .This paper considers the history of botanical studies in Edinburgh, including the reasons for its introduction and its changing importance over time.

  16. The Visual in Botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Maura C., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a variety of writers who have published books that demonstrate the art of botany. The following sections are included: (1) Herbal; (2) Printed Books; (3) Flowers; (4) British Botany; (5) Printing Advances; and (6) Art and Science. Contains 23 references. (ZWH)

  17. Diplomacy and Diplomatic Protocol

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    Lect. Ph.D Oana Iucu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to observe relationships and determining factors between diplomacyand diplomatic protocol as outlined by historical and contextual analyses. The approach is very dynamic,provided that concepts are able to show their richness, antiquity and polyvalence at the level of connotations,semantics, grammatical and social syntax. The fact that this information is up to date determines anattitude of appreciation and a state of positive contamination.

  18. Locke and botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Peter R; Harris, Stephen A

    2006-06-01

    This paper argues that the English philosopher John Locke, who has normally been thought to have had only an amateurish interest in botany, was far more involved in the botanical science of his day than has previously been known. Through the presentation of new evidence deriving from Locke's own herbarium, his manuscript notes, journal and correspondence, it is established that Locke made a modest contribution to early modern botany. It is shown that Locke had close and ongoing relations with the Bobarts, keepers of the Oxford Botanic Garden, and that Locke distributed seeds and plant parts to other botanists, seeds of which the progeny almost certainly ended up in the most important herbaria of the period. Furthermore, it is claimed that the depth of Locke's interest in and practice of botany has a direct bearing on our understanding of his views on the correct method of natural philosophy and on the interpretation of his well known discussion of the nature of species in Book III of his Essay concerning human understanding.

  19. South African Journal of Botany

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Journal of Botany, the official journal of the South African Association of Botanists publishes papers which make an original contribution to any field of Botany. Papers are accepted on the understanding that their contents have not been published, or submitted for publication, elsewhere. All submitted ...

  20. Theorising the EU's diplomatic service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    , examining specifically two main approaches to the EEAS: the rationalist approach (including intergovernmentalism, rational choice institutionalism and rationalist organisation theory) and the constructivist approach (including sociological institutionalism and sociological organisation theory). The chapter...... then demonstrates how these approaches paint contrasting portraits of the EEAS: as a rational political player seeking autonomy from its principals (the member states) or as a social body or organisational arena with norm-abiding civil servants trying to make sense of the new diplomatic world. These theoretically......-constitutional frameworks, diplomatic theory, network theory, practice theory, anthropology and democratic theory....

  1. [Lysenkoism in Polish botany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    Lysenkoism by PAN came with the Sixth General Assembly of its members on June 11-12, 1956. The second tier of propagating Lysenkoism consisted in activities aimed at the general public, including the teaching of creative Darwinism (obligatory for pupils of various levels of education), in the school years 1949/50-1956/57. There were few botanists who published studies in Lysenkoism: only 55 persons did so. Among them, there were only a few botanists who could boast of significant previous scientific achievements--they included Stefan Białobok (1909-1992), Władysław Kunicki-Goldfinger (1916-1995), Edmund Malinowski (1885-1979), Konstanty Moldenhawer (1889-1962), Józef Motyka (1900-1984), Szczepan Pieniazek. A majority of the authors of publication in Lysenkoism were young scientists or people who did publish anything later on. Basing on the available bibliographies, it is possible to ascertain that there were ca. 140 Lysenkoist botanical publications (out of the total of 3410), i.e. 4.1% (fig. 1) of all the botanist publications in Poland in that period. Their number in the years 1949-1953 was higher than in the next period, and oscillated between 15 and 24 publications annually (fig. 2). The percentage of Lysenkoist studies among all publications in botany published each year was highest in 1949 (11.5%), and decreased systematically in the following years (fig. 3). Lysenkoism was a marginal phenomenon in Polish botany. Among the Lysenkoist publications, most summarized papers delivered at successive conferences, or consisted in reprints of Soviet studies. A significant group was made up of publications popularizing the principles and achievements of Lysenkoism (on the basis of Soviet publications). There were relatively studies presenting the results of research conducted in Poland on the basis of Lysenko's theory. Botanists who remember those times recollect that topics connected with Michurinian-Lysenkoist biology were avoided. It is symptomatic that not a single

  2. 19 CFR 148.83 - Diplomatic and consular bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diplomatic and consular bags. 148.83 Section 148... bags. (a) Diplomatic bags. The contents of diplomatic bags are restricted to diplomatic documents and articles intended exclusively for official use and packages constituting the diplomatic bag must bear...

  3. Progress in Malesian botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    2002-01-01

    Dr. Si He (MO) has put an annotated list of Thai mosses on the web. Especially many Peninsular species are Malesian as well. The introductory chapters are of general botanical interest. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/moss/Thailand/thailand.htm Dr. A. Touw (L) has started a survey of all 19th century

  4. Exploring Language and Diplomatic Thinking through Process Types: A Contrastive Study on Sino-British Diplomatic Thinking Based on the China-UK Joint Declaration

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    Song Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The China-UK Joint Declaration on Building a Global Comprehensive Strategic Partnership for the 21st Century is one of the fruits of Chinese President Xi Jinping’s recent official state visit to the Great Britain. As a typical and important diplomatic language document, the Joint Declaration deserves scientific research. In this paper, based on the six process types of Halliday’s Transitivity system, we attempt to disclose the diplomatic thinking underlying the employment of process types and make a contrastive study of the diplomatic thinking of both China and the UK. The research leads to three findings. Firstly, the high frequency of material process clause in both Chinese and English versions reflects the “Action thinking”, a shared diplomatic thinking adopted by the two nations. Secondly, the Chinese version employs more relational process clauses than the English version, which is an indication of the “Relationality thinking” underlying Chinese diplomacy and it is much less emphasized or even absent in British diplomacy. Thirdly, the analysis of the mental process clauses reveals that China has an “Inclusive thinking” in its diplomatic exchange with Britain whereas the UK a “Friendship thinking”.

  5. Lysenko affair and Polish botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the slight impact of Lysenkoism upon Polish botany. I begin with an account of the development of plant genetics in Poland, as well as the attitude of scientists and the Polish intelligentsia toward Marxist philosophy prior to the World War II. Next I provide a short history of the introduction and demise of Lysenkoism in Polish science, with a focus on events in botany, in context with key events in Polish science from 1939 to 1958. The article outlines the little effects of Lysenkoism upon botanists and their research, as well as how botanists for the most part rejected what was often termed the "new biology." My paper shows that though Lysenko's theories received political support, and were actively promoted by a small circle of scientists and Communist party activists, they were never accepted by most botanists. Once the political climate in Poland altered after the events of 1956, Lysenko's theories were immediately abandoned.

  6. Gastronomic botany and molecular gastronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Urria Carril, Elena; Gómez Garay, Aranzazu; Ávalos García, Adolfo; Martín Calvarro, Luisa; Pintos López, Beatriz; Saco Sierra, M. Dolores; Martín Gómez, M. Soledad; Pérez Alonso, M. José; Puelles Gallo, María; Palá Paúl, Jesús; Cifuentes Cuencas, Blanca; Llamas Ramos, José Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Complutense University of Madrid through the "Vicerrectorado de Calidad" develops projects to innovate and improve teaching quality. Among these projects is "Gastronomic Botany and Molecular Gastronomy" which aims to develop new materials and tools for the Virtual Campus and consequently offer new possibilities for teaching and training. Also this project organize and structure a new teaching matter for post-graduate education that will be an example of approach, relationship and cooper...

  7. Ambivalence in International Dialogue: Implications for Diplomatic Training

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    Shamsiyya Mustafayeva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Diplomats are civil servants who represent their governments abroad. By the nature of their work, diplomats work in multicultural environments. Working in intercultural settings can involve grey areas, paradoxes, and a wide range of emotions. This article analyzes how diplomats construct their professional identity, how they approach intercultural diversity and how they manage ambivalence. Qualitative interviews with senior diplomats as well as a review of literature from multiple disciplines indicate that it is vital for diplomats to be highly skilled in self-management; in building and maintaining relationships; and in operating in intercultural environments. We argue that it is essential to include these emotional, social, and cultural competences in diplomatic training so that diplomats may become effective bridge-builders. This will be particularly relevant for a diplomat whose country is currently involved in a conflict with another country, as well as for diplomats who work in the context of a political conflict. 

  8. Archives: South African Journal of Botany

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archives: South African Journal of Botany. Journal Home > Archives: South African Journal of Botany. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. This journal has not ...

  9. Journal of History and Diplomatic Studies: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of History and Diplomatic Studies: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Journal of History and Diplomatic Studies: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. The voice of American botanists: the founding and establishment of the American Journal of Botany, "American botany," and the Great War (1906-1935).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smocovitis, Vassiliki Betty

    2014-03-01

    This paper examines the crucial early history of the American Journal of Botany from the years following the founding of the Botanical Society of America in 1906 to the termination of the agreement for publication with the Brooklyn Botanic Garden in 1935. It examines the efforts of individuals like F. C. Newcombe, who did the most to raise support for the journal and became the first Editor-in-Chief, in the context of the growing numbers of professional botanists and plant scientists who were actively engaged in research requiring appropriate publication venues and in the process of forming an independent identity as "American botanists." It also examines the launching of the journal in the context of the Great War in Europe and the transition from German botany to American botany in the second decade of the 20th century.

  11. Botany teaching in Portugal and Brazil : analysis of school textbooks and their application in elementary school classes (2001- 2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Fernando; Santos, Fernando S.

    2009-01-01

    We have privileged the study of Botany contents in our research. Such contents derive from reorganizational approaches within the teaching of Natural Sciences at the elementary level in Portugal and Brazil. Along with the development of scientific knowledge on biological classifications and attempts to solve existing weaknesses in both countries, various governments introduced, throughout the last century, new programmatic Botany contents within the teaching of Natural Sciences at...

  12. Diplomatic asylum and the Assange case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, M.

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the place and development of diplomatic asylum in international law in close connection with the more specific questions raised by the case of Julian Assange, who was granted asylum in the Ecuador embassy in London on 16 August 2012. After discussing the historical rise and

  13. Reinventing Nigeria's Diplomatic Machinery: The Challenge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of History and Diplomatic Studies ... Since this idea was mooted in 2007 by the then Minister of Foreign Affairs, Chief Ojo Maduekwe, there does not seem to be any structure on the ground for its logical pursuit, depicting the Achilles heel of Nigeria's foreign policy-making – lack of continuity and extreme ...

  14. Journal of History and Diplomatic Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of History and Diplomatic Studies journal includes papers that focus specifically on developments in Africa and/or the continent's relations with the outside world. All articles must, however, make fresh and original contribution to knowledge and the journal will consider well-researched articles on any aspects of ...

  15. A Historical Perspective on Problems in Botany Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how the many problems in botany teaching are interrelated and most have existed since at least the early 1900s. Considers botany teaching at both the precollege and introductory college levels. Discusses botany neglect in biology teaching, botanical illiteracy, uninteresting or irrelevant botany teaching, zoochauvinism, research…

  16. [Use of personal computers by diplomats of anesthesiology in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Ohmura, S; Tsubokawa, T; Kita, M; Kushida, Y; Kobayashi, T

    1999-04-01

    Use of personal computers by diplomats of the Japanese Board of Anesthesiology working in Japanese university hospitals was investigated. Unsigned questionnaires were returned from 232 diplomats of 18 anesthesia departments. The age of responders ranged from twenties to sixties. Personal computer systems are used by 223 diplomats (96.1%), while nine (3.9%) do not use them. The computer systems used are: Apple Macintosh 77%, IBM compatible PC 21% and UNIX 2%. Although 197 diplomats have e-mail addresses, only 162 of them actually send and receive e-mails. Diplomats in fifties use e-mail most actively and those in sixties come second.

  17. South African Journal of Botany: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mailing Address. South African Journal of Botany Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development University of Natal Pietermaritzburg Private Bag X01 Scottsville 3209, South Africa Street address: Carbis Road, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg 3201 ...

  18. Experimental Garden Plots for Botany Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodnicheva, V. V.; Vasil'eva, E. I.

    1976-01-01

    Discussion of the botany lessons used at two schools points out the need for fifth and sixth grade students to be taught the principles of plant life through observations made at an experimental garden plot at the school. (ND)

  19. Elements of plant physiology in theophrastus' botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    For thousands of years the plants were considered only as a source of food and medicine, and as ornamental objects. Only from the fifth century BC, some philosophers of Ancient Greece realized that the plants were living organisms but, unfortunately, their works have come to us as fragments that we often know from the biological works of Aristotle. This eminent philosopher and man of science, however, did not give us a complete work on the plants, which he often promised to write. From scattered fragments of his conspicuous biological work, it emerges a concept of nutritive soul that, in the presence of heat and moisture, allows plants to grow and reproduce. The task of writing a comprehensive botanical work was delegated to his first pupil, Theophrastus, who left us two treatises over time translated into the various languages up to the current versions (Enquiry into plants, On the causes of plants). The plant life is described and interpreted on the basis of highly accurate observations. The physiological part of his botany is essentially the nutrition: According to Theophrastus, plants get matter and moisture from the soil through root uptake and process the absorbed substances transforming them into food, thanks to the heat. The processing (pepsis, coction) of matter into the food represents an extraordinary physiological intuition because individual organs of a plant appear to perform its specific transformation. Despite that Theophrastus did not do scientific experiments or use special methods other than the sharpness of his observations, he can be considered the forerunner of a plant physiology that would take rebirth only after two millennia.

  20. Comparative study of the introduction of modern botany in Japan and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Métailié, Georges

    2002-03-01

    Prior to the eighteenth-century, a similar approach towards the vegetable kingdom, mainly influenced by the tradition of the Chinese pharmacopoeias, could be observed in China and Japan. During the eighteenth-century, the interest for "Dutch learning" led some Japanese physicians and interpreters to be more and more interested in Western knowledge about medicinal plants. At the beginning of the nineteenth-century, a few scholars, through direct contact with foreigners or with foreign books, realised that there was a specific scientific field called "botany" and began to introduce the Japanese scholarly community to this new science which became one of the subjects taught at the "University of Tokyo" in 1877. In China, up to the middle of the nineteenth-century, no trace of modern botany can be found in any published document. In the second half of the century, a few botanical treatises were published, all being adaptations or translations of Western books, done by foreign-Chinese teams of translators. This situation began to change when Chinese students had the opportunity to go and study abroad, mainly to Japan, at the beginning of the twentieth-century, and, actually, it is between 20 and 30 years later that botany became a real scientific practice in China. We will analyse these two processes, their specificities and their interactions.

  1. The elixir of incompleteness - Goedel for diplomats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gescher, Valentin

    2007-01-01

    Though Godel did not succeed by his insight in politics, a diplomatic inspiration can be found in his work. The statement that not everything that is true can be proven, along with the impossibility of reaching completeness and consistency at the same time, is not only restricted to mathematics. In the context of diplomacy, the extended meaning of the Godel lesson is a benefit rather than a restriction

  2. The elixir of incompleteness - Goedel for diplomats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gescher, Valentin [Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany, Vlasska 19, Postbox 88, 118 01 Prague 1 (Czech Republic)

    2007-11-15

    Though Godel did not succeed by his insight in politics, a diplomatic inspiration can be found in his work. The statement that not everything that is true can be proven, along with the impossibility of reaching completeness and consistency at the same time, is not only restricted to mathematics. In the context of diplomacy, the extended meaning of the Godel lesson is a benefit rather than a restriction.

  3. Break off and Resumption of Diplomatic Relations 1965 - 1972

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Samra, Dalia

    2010-01-01

    Ministry in Bonn and the archive of the Ministry of Economy in Koblenz until 1967/68 gave the author the possibility to evaluated the break off the diplomatic relationship between Germany and Egypt. As a reaction to the signing of the diplomatic relationship between Germany and Israel in May 1965, ten Arab States, including Egypt, broke off their diplomatic relationship with Germany. The dissertation analysis Germany?s foreign policy towards Egypt during the time span 1965 until 1972, w...

  4. South African Journal of Botany: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Association of Botanists. The association is open to all scientists interested in Plant Biology. Information on the Association, its membership directory, membership applications and meetings are available on its website: http://botany.ru.ac.za/saab/SAAB.htm ...

  5. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 2: the years 1937 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael B

    2016-12-01

    Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed plant biology journal. It was started in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published plant science title. A previous article [Jackson MB. 2015. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany Part 1: the first 50 years (1887-1936). Annals of Botany 115: : 1-18] summarized events leading to its founding, highlighted the individuals involved and examined the Journal's achievements and management practices over the first 50 years to 1937. This second article covers the next 75 years. The account draws principally on the Journal's own records, minute books, financial accounts, original letters and notes held by the Annals of Botany Company, the Journal's owners and managers. In 1937, its 51st year, the Journal was re-launched as Annals of Botany New Series and its volume numbers were reset to No. I. The present article evaluates the evolution of the New Series up to 2012, Annals of Botany's 125th anniversary year. The period includes a 2-year run-up to World War II, six war years and their immediate aftermath, and then on through increasingly competitive times. The ebb and flow of the Journal's fortunes are set against a roll-call of the often highly distinguished scientists who managed and edited the Journal. The article also examines an internal crisis in the 1980s that radically altered the Journal's organization in ways that were, ultimately, to its benefit. The narrative is set against changes to economic conditions in Great Britain over the period, to the evolving nature and geographical distribution of much experimental plant science and to the digital revolution that, from the late 20th century, transformed the workings of Annals of Botany and of scientific publishing more generally. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Commercial Diplomats as corporate entrepreneurs: an institutional perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, R.; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Ruel, H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents a study on the work of commercial diplomats as international business promoters at foreign posts. Research has largely overlooked the actual roles and activities of commercial diplomats in explaining the effectiveness of commercial diplomacy and international business support.

  7. USSR in Reports of Italian Diplomats (1924-1941

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Dubrovina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the reports of Italian diplomatic officials who worked in the USSR between the two World Wars will be analyzed. On the basis of the unpublished sources, an attempt to explain Mussolini's decision to enter the war against the USSR in 1941 will be carried out. As a historical source, the diplomatic reports present, on one hand, rich material about different aspects of soviet life as seen by foreigners and presented by them with thorough details. On the other hand, the subjective character of the diplomatic information foresees a critical approach towards the judgements and opinions of Italian diplomats. However, despite the limitation of their sources from where the Italian diplomats obtained the information, we have to underline the importance of the diplomatic reports and to consider the diplomatic channel as one of the multiple factors in the determining process of the international fascist policy. The attention is focused on two aspects of soviet reality: public sentiment and the national mentality of Russian people. The goal of the article is to examine the mechanism that led to the diplomats' conclusions about the soviet power instability and about its imminent collapse in the case of foreign invasion.

  8. Global Ordo-Liberalism, Private Power and the Transfiguration of Diplomatic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noe Cornago

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Diplomatic law is commonly depicted as a field of law particularly differentiated and stable, and apparently at least not particularly vulnerable to the tensions associated to the restructuring of the global political economy which are so easily observable in other fields of international law. For centuries its formative process was customary. Later, early diplomatic practices, institutions, and norms were tailored to measure the functional and normative needs of a world of nation States. However, it was not until the signing in 1961 of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations that its basic rules were formally codified. But, as the preamble in this Convention affirms, the rules of customary law continue to govern all questions not expressly regulated by its contents. Custom however is not always the residue of the past that some practitioners and scholars use to imagine. Moreover, its formative processes are also embedded in wider historical transformations of global capitalism. Through the examination of current transformations affecting diplomatic settlement of disputes, diplomatic protection, diplomatic immunity and diplomatic reciprocity, this article contends that diplomatic law is becoming another field of struggle, both particularly unexpected and revealing, in the current transition from embedded liberalism towards a new era of global ordo-liberalism. El derecho diplomático se representa comúnmente como una rama del derecho especialmente diferenciada y estable, y aparentemente al menos no particularmente vulnerable a las tensiones asociadas a la reestructuración de la economía política global, que son tan fácilmente observables en otros ámbitos del derecho internacional. Su proceso formativo era habitual durante siglos. Más tarde , las tempranas prácticas diplomáticas, instituciones y normas se adaptaban para medir las necesidades funcionales y normativas de un mundo de estados naciones. Sin embargo, no fue hasta la firma

  9. Relationalism or why diplomats find international relations theory strange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    In this conclusion, which reflects critically on the relational approach to diplomacy and its wider consequences, I argue that diplomats are estranged from IR theory and vice versa - because International Relations scholars generally subscribe to substantialism, whereas diplomats tend to think...... by diplomatic scholars). Relationalism takes as its point of departure the idea that social phenomena making up world politics always develop in relation to other social phenomena. Thus, for example, states are not born into' this world as fully developed states that then "exist"; states are made in continuous...... scholarship and diplomatic knowledge and practice are important for how we understand (and construct) world politics, including war, international cooperation, and responses to human and natural catastrophes....

  10. [Application of DNA labeling technology in forensic botany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znang, Xian; Li, Jing-Lin; Zhang, Xiang-Yu

    2008-12-01

    Forensic botany is a study of judicial plant evidence. Recently, researches on DNA labeling technology have been a mainstream of forensic botany. The article systematically reviews various types of DNA labeling techniques in forensic botany with enumerated practical cases, as well as the potential forensic application of each individual technique. The advantages of the DNA labeling technology over traditional morphological taxonomic methods are also summarized.

  11. Shooting the Messenger: Diplomats Crushed by Wave of New Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-26

    War ems to determine trends in attacks against diplomatic targets and identifies a dangerous evolution in terrorist tactics that combines suicide...but the number of fatalities increased. Bombings /explosions rettsain the most consmon tactics, but armed assaults increased greatly since the end of...diplomatic targets have decreased, but the number of fatalities increased. Bombings /explosions-remain the most common tactics, but armed assaults

  12. COP 21: a diplomatic and... climatic success?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combe, Matthieu

    2016-09-01

    If the agreement signed at the end of the COP21 has been greeted as historical, compromises made for such a diplomatic success cast doubt on the constraining aspect of this treaty. This publication thus proposes comments on the content of the COP21 agreement by discussing the perspective and opportunities of a possible commitment of air transport in the struggle against climate change, by questioning the existence of a dynamics for world commitment in the development of renewable energies, for the emergence of more responsible companies and sustainable cities, by commenting the almost unanimous success of the COP21 acknowledged by all parties (except Nicaragua), by commenting the opinion of NGOs on the agreement. Other articles evoke and comment examples of mobilisation of civil society and companies in demonstrations during the COP21, other demonstrations organised in parallel with the COP21 (a citizen summit on climate in Montreuil, exhibition in the Grand Palais where large companies like Veolia, L'Oreal, Evian, BIC, Coca-Cola or Renault presented some initiatives)

  13. On New Spain and Mexican medicinal botany in cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli-Serra, Alfredo Alessandro; Izaguirre-Ávila, Raúl

    2014-01-01

    Towards the middle of the XVI century, the empirical physician Martín de la Cruz, in New Spain, compiled a catalogue of the local medicinal herbs and plants, which was translated into Latin by Juan Badiano, professor at the Franciscan college of Tlatelolco. On his side, Dr. Francisco Hernández, the royal physician (protomédico) from 1571 until 1577, performed a systematic study of the flora and fauna in this period. His notes and designs were not published at that time, but two epitomes of Hernández' works appeared, respectively, in 1615 in Mexico and in 1651 in Rome. During the XVIII century, two Spanish scientific expeditions arrived to these lands. They were led, respectively, by the Spanish naturalist Martín Sessé and the Italian seaman, Alessandro Malaspina di Mulazzo, dependent from the Spanish Government. These expeditions collected and carried rich scientific material to Spain. At the end of that century, the Franciscan friar Juan Navarro depicted and described several Mexican medicinal plants in the fifth volume of his botanic work. In the last years of the colonial period, the fundamental works of Humboldt and Bonpland on the geographic distribution of the American plants were published. In the modern age, the first research about the Mexican medicinal botany was performed in the laboratory of the Instituto Médico Nacional [National Medical Institute] under the leadership of Dr. Fernando Altamirano, who started pharmacological studies in this country. Later, trials of cardiovascular pharmacology were performed in the small laboratories of the cardiological unit at the General Hospital of Mexico City, on Dr. Ignacio Chávez' initiative. The Mexican botanical-pharmacological tradition persists alive and vigorous at the Instituto Nacional de Cardiología and other scientific institutions of the country.

  14. A Comparative Study of Students' Achievement in Botany and Zoology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, P.

    1974-01-01

    A comparative study of student achievement in botany and zoology based on data of 10 studies conducted in 20 countries. Up to age 14, students achieve better in zoology; after age 14, students achieve better in botany. Based on the findings, recommendations are suggested regarding curriculum planning, laboratory work and the need for specific…

  15. Montessori Botany Studies: Why It Is Time for a Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Elisabeth; Spears, Priscilla

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the need to change the Montessori botany nomenclature cards to reflect the progress of the field over the past 55 years. Maintains that the materials used should reflect the goals of botany study for children. Provides a sample outline of lessons and nomenclature for the flowering plants. Discusses the need to use available reference…

  16. The End of the Botany Degree in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drea, Sinead

    2011-01-01

    The last student enrolled in a pure "Botany" degree in the UK began in the University of Bristol this year, 2010. In recent years only the University of Reading also offered the Botany degree, before it was dropped there 3 years ago. This short article is written to draw attention to this fact and to a more general relative decline in…

  17. CONTEMPORARY DIPLOMATIC: REFLECTIONS ON THEIR APPLICABILITY IN THE DIGITAL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Silva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over a long time, the Diplomatic contributed significantly to the identification of the authenticity of the documents, expanding its acting role when he was influenced by other disciplines such as modern archiving, which leveraged its object of study, showing the deep connection between species and its generating activity. Objective: This study aims to conduct reflections on the evolution of the Diplomatic Classical to Contemporary Diplomacy, the relationship between this discipline and Document Classification and its impact on the digital age, the constitution of the authenticity process of digital archival documents. Methodology: The nature of research is classified as basic, how to approach is classified as qualitative, the research objective classified as exploratory, involving literature review regarding the diplomatic in its relationship with the archival and employability in the digital age. Results: After searching, it is understood that the Diplomatic permeates time, on aspects of study of the documentary kind, yet its relationship with modern archiving, as is the study of the universe of the Document Type, identifying with Classification as matrix function of modern archiving, and using the analysis features of authenticity in the digital environment. Conclusion: It is evident that there is an intrinsic relationship between the Diplomatic in his contemporary perspective , with modern archiving , both in understanding the aspects of documentary typology , as an essential tool in the analysis of authenticity in the digital environment.

  18. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 2: the years 1937 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed plant biology journal. It was started in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published plant science title. A previous article [Jackson MB. 2015. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 1: the first 50 years (1887–1936). Annals of Botany 115: 1–18] summarized events leading to its founding, highlighted the individuals involved and examined the Journal’s achievements and management practices over the first 50 years to 1937. This second article covers the next 75 years. Sources of information The account draws principally on the Journal’s own records, minute books, financial accounts, original letters and notes held by the Annals of Botany Company, the Journal’s owners and managers. Content In 1937, its 51st year, the Journal was re-launched as Annals of Botany New Series and its volume numbers were reset to No. I. The present article evaluates the evolution of the New Series up to 2012, Annals of Botany’s 125th anniversary year. The period includes a 2-year run-up to World War II, six war years and their immediate aftermath, and then on through increasingly competitive times. The ebb and flow of the Journal’s fortunes are set against a roll-call of the often highly distinguished scientists who managed and edited the Journal. The article also examines an internal crisis in the 1980s that radically altered the Journal’s organization in ways that were, ultimately, to its benefit. The narrative is set against changes to economic conditions in Great Britain over the period, to the evolving nature and geographical distribution of much experimental plant science and to the digital revolution that, from the late 20th century, transformed the workings of Annals of Botany and of scientific publishing more generally. PMID:27974325

  19. Rethinking Diplomatic Transformation Through Social Theories of Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keating, Vincent Charles

    In the 2012 Martin Wight Memorial Lecture, Nicholas Wheeler explored how trust might be built between political leaders, drawing primarily on how the interpersonal relationship between Reagan and Gorbachev changed the diplomatic relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union. This pa...... and interpersonal level,' this paper suggests that investigations of diplomatic transformation through trustbuilding must include both international and societal components and examines the issues that must be considered to build a larger theory of state trust.......In the 2012 Martin Wight Memorial Lecture, Nicholas Wheeler explored how trust might be built between political leaders, drawing primarily on how the interpersonal relationship between Reagan and Gorbachev changed the diplomatic relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union...

  20. Education and Diplomats: A Changing World Demands Our Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höne, Katharina E.

    2018-01-01

    Diplomacy as it is traditionally understood is changing. Diverse, non-state actors in the social sector have become influential participants in setting global goals and priorities. In education, classroom teachers, administrators, academics, and policymakers play an increasingly important diplomatic role in exchanging knowledge, building consensus…

  1. Diplomatic assurances - a permissible tool in the struggle against terrorism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouyal, Lone Wandahl

    2011-01-01

    such reliance on diplomatic assurances by scrutinizing the practice and the case-law of the UN treaty bodies, the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) and the offi cial statements and reports of UN institutions such as the Human Rights Council, Th e Offi cer of the High Commissioner for Human Rights as well...

  2. Dispute settlement process under GATT/WTO diplomatic or judicial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper probes the mechanisms of the dispute resolution process under the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and the General Agreement on Tariff and Trade (GATT). It tries to analyse the evolution of the dispute process which was initially based on diplomatic procedures and gives an account of its evolution and ...

  3. Changing techniques in crop plant classification: molecularization at the National Institute of Agricultural Botany during the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Matthew

    2017-04-01

    Modern methods of analysing biological materials, including protein and DNA sequencing, are increasingly the objects of historical study. Yet twentieth-century taxonomic techniques have been overlooked in one of their most important contexts: agricultural botany. This paper addresses this omission by harnessing unexamined archival material from the National Institute of Agricultural Botany (NIAB), a British plant science organization. During the 1980s the NIAB carried out three overlapping research programmes in crop identification and analysis: electrophoresis, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and machine vision systems. For each of these three programmes, contemporary economic, statutory and scientific factors behind their uptake by the NIAB are discussed. This approach reveals significant links between taxonomic practice at the NIAB and historical questions around agricultural research, intellectual property and scientific values. Such links are of further importance given that the techniques developed by researchers at the NIAB during the 1980s remain part of crop classification guidelines issued by international bodies today.

  4. Historical Contribution of Pharmaceutics to Botany and Pharmacognosy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunic, Lejla; Skrbo, Armin; Dobraca, Amra

    2017-12-01

    Pharmacy and medicine belong to the oldest human activities, so the development of these sciences is closely related to the socio-economic, cultural and religious opportunities of the nations within which they have been developing. To present the historical influence of pharmacy on the development of the human being from its very beginning; To present the historical link between pharmaceutical and medical activity, as well as early development of independent pharmaceutical activity; To present the historical influence of pharmacists on the development of botany and pharmacognosy and to present the historical influence of the first written herbarium and incunabula on the development of pharmacognosy. The article has a descriptive character, and represents a systematic review of the literature dealing with this topic. The roots of pharmacy started to the very beginning of human civilization, when people collected various medicinal herbs and try to alleviate their health problems, pain and suffering. The scientific foundations of the pharmacy were set up in the antique period by the books of Dioskurides and Galen, and its further development continued in the mid-century, at the beginning by rewriting famous parts of ancient literature, and later by writing new discoveries (the base of this development was represented by South Italy) so that in 1240, for the first time in history, came the separation of doctors and pharmacists, and at the beginning of the 13th century the opening of the first pharmacy. The effort to maintain knowledge of medicinal herbs and its practical application has led to the writing of a large number of recipes books, the forerunners of today's pharmacopeia, while the aspiration to classify medicinal herbs, and the desire to present medicinal herbs to ordinary people, has led to a large number of herbaria, making the knowledge and descriptions of plants available to many, not just the nobility. Descriptions of plants in herbaria and later in

  5. The elixir of incompleteness Gödel for diplomats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gescher, Valentin

    2007-11-01

    Though Godel did not succeed by his insight in politics, a diplomatic inspiration can be found in his work. The statement that not everything that is true can be proven, along with the impossibility of reaching completeness and consistency at the same time, is not only restricted to mathematics. In the context of diplomacy, the extended meaning of the Godel lesson is a benefit rather than a restriction.

  6. I.Ya. Korostovetz, "the Creator of Mongolia" and Russian Diplomatic Mission in Urga in 1912

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel N. Dudin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The author defines the role of Russian diplomacy and one of its brightest representatives – Ivan Korostovetz in establishing their own Mongolian state in 1911–1912 through the analysis of diplomatic correspondence, as well as relying on other sources and memoirs of the contemporaries. The author studied the challenges faced by the diplomatic mission and ways to overcome them, showing the position and arguments of each party on the issue of the status of Mongolia. It is noted that the Russian Far East policy was not a priority at the beginning of the twentieth century, giving way to solving of the European problems and it gave rise to a certain alienation of the outlying territories, which eventually became a threat to the national security. The Xinhai Revolution of 1911–1912 and the collapse of the Qing Empire contributed to the awareness of the possibility of gaining a foothold in the region and ensure its economic and geopolitical interests in many ways. Not being interested in the aggravation of relations with China, the Russian government through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs entrusted solving the sudden Outer Mongolia's independence declaration problem to an experienced diplomat, the former envoy to the Qing’s court – Ivan Korostovets. However, a simple task at first glance was complicated by the fact that representatives of the Mongolian side, resting on Western concepts of the state, state sovereignty, etc. did not see themselves as a part of China, while Russia recognized for its neighbor the principle of the territorial integrity. In turn, China was considering the activities of the Russian side as interference in its internal affairs, in that time, Russia insisted on defending of only its commercial interests. As a result of lengthy and difficult negotiations Korostavets persuaded the Mongols to make concessions, the Chinese - not to start military operations and not to make provocations and Russian Foreign Ministry – in

  7. The correspondence of Thomas Dale (1700-1750): Botany in the transatlantic Republic of Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, William J

    2012-03-01

    This paper seeks to provide a full account of the life and career of Dr. Thomas Dale (1700-1750), with particular reference to his botanical works and correspondence. Born in Hoxton, London, Dale studied medicine at Leiden and engaged fully in the social, literary and epistolary network in which botany was practised in eighteenth-century England. In 1730, however, Dale relocated to the British colonial port of Charles Town, South Carolina. Here he continued to engage in a transatlantic network of botanical exchange and discussion, corresponding on equal and reciprocal terms with his former colleagues in England. Where Dale differs from naturalists in South Carolina before him is that his motives for pursuing botany and for corresponding with English naturalists were located firmly in the New World. Such a conclusion forms a valuable, albeit small contribution to models for the development of national scientific cultures in the imperial world. Similarly, Dale's pursuit of botanical information in South Carolina provides a small amount of material with which to illustrate currently fashionable models for the mediated exchange and circulation of scientific knowledge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Potential, Distribution, Ethno-Botany and Tapping Procedures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential, Distribution, Ethno-Botany and Tapping Procedures of Gum Producing Acacia Species in the Somali Region, Southeastern Ethiopia. ... Therefore, promotion of gum extraction in the Somali Region both for economic benefit of the community and sustainable management of the fragile ecosystem is recommended.

  9. Improving Student Engagement in a Lower-Division Botany Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Nisse A.; Ingram, Kathleen W.

    2011-01-01

    Active-learning techniques have been advocated as a means to promote student engagement in lower-division biology courses. In this case study, mini-lectures in combination with active-learning activities were evaluated as strategies to promote a culture of learning and participation in a required botany course. These activities were designed to…

  10. Illustrated Plant Identification Keys: An Interactive Tool to Learn Botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Helena; Pinho, Rosa; Lopes, Lisia; Nogueira, Antonio J. A.; Silveira, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    An Interactive Dichotomous Key (IDK) for 390 "taxa" of vascular plants from the Ria de Aveiro, available on a website, was developed to help teach botany to school and universitary students. This multimedia tool includes several links to Descriptive and Illustrated Glossaries. Questionnaires answered by high-school and undergraduate students about…

  11. Plants & Perpetrators: Forensic Investigation in the Botany Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Amy E.

    2006-01-01

    Applying botanical knowledge to a simulated forensic investigation provides inquiry-based and problem-based learning in the botany classroom. This paper details one such forensic investigation in which students use what they have learned about plant morphology and anatomy to analyze evidence and solve a murder mystery. (Contains 1 table.)

  12. Art Instruction in the Botany Lab: A Collaborative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Lyn; Crawford, Ila

    2010-01-01

    Good observations are often fundamental to good science, and drawing has long been recognized as a tool to develop students' observation skills. Yet when drawing in illustrated journals was introduced into botany laboratories in an undergraduate, teaching-focused university, students reported feeling uncomfortable and intimidated by the required…

  13. Research in the Botany Department. University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1969-01-01

    Dr. B.C. Stone, the present Head of the Botany Unit, is continuing his investigations on Pandanaceae, which form the major research work; and on Rutaceae and Araliaceae, two other families which are his favorites. The genus Freycinetia is the nearest to completion; it is expected to have about

  14. Women and botany in Risorgimento Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Gabriella Berti

    2004-01-01

    The first Italian women described as botanists by their male peers were active during the Risorgimento. They were few in numbers and only one of them, Elisabetta Fiorini, was recognized for her extensive contributions to the field of cryptogams in Italy by being nominated to important Italian scientific academies. No such recognition was ever alloted to the other female botanists who acted as collectors, correspondents and/or patrons to male botanists, had their own garden of exotic plants, or discovered a new species of phanerogams, and occasionally published on the subject. This study will show that a woman could still belong to Italian scientific academies in the nineteenth century, if like Fiorini, she chose to practice science in a way that was considered at par with that of male scientists.

  15. Young Diplomats' Socialization to the Networked Professional Cultures of Their Workplace Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytönen, Kaisa; Hakkarainen, Kai; Palonen, Tuire

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine young diplomats' socialization to the professional expert culture of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland over a six-month on-job training period, as part of their preparation for service in the diplomatic corps. Using social network analysis, we analyzed departments' internal social…

  16. Commercial Diplomats as corporate entrepreneurs: explaining role behavior from an institutional perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Visser, R.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of an empirical study on the roles of commercial diplomats at foreign posts. As commercial diplomacy is just starting to grow in importance in a globalising world, the actual work and activities of commercial diplomats at foreign posts have hardly been researched.

  17. Botany facility, phase A study. Part 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, B.; Frey, A.; Schiller, P.

    1983-10-01

    A facility for spaceborne botany experiments to be flown on the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) is proposed. Configuration and design, thermal control, electronics, subsystem design, add-on concepts and ground support equipment are described. The facility has 16 sample-containers at microgravity and 8 on the centrifuge. Containers are 50 x 50 x 150 mm and are observed by video and optical cine cameras. A controlled environment can be assured during 6 month operation.

  18. Botany meets archaeology: people and plants in the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jo

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores the close links between botany and archaeology, using case studies from the ancient Mediterranean. It explains the kinds of palaeobotanical remains that archaeologists can recover and the methods used to analyse them. The importance of iconographic and textual evidence is also underlined. Examples of key research areas that focus on ancient plants are discussed: diet and palaeoeconomy; medicines, poisons, and psychotropics; perfumes, cosmetics, and dyes; and prestige.

  19. The Interplay Between International Law And Labour Law In South Africa: Piercing The Diplomatic Immunity Veil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezette Gericke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the interplay between labour law and international law in the context of the diplomatic employment relationship. The overriding effect of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 as supreme law to protect the labour rights of employees is weighed against the effect of various binding international legal instruments aimed at protecting diplomats' right to immunity. In view of the competing rights of employees and diplomatic employers, the question in this regard is to what extent employees in a diplomatic employment relationship can rely on their right to "fair labour practices" in the broad sense and the overall protection afforded to employees whose rights are infringed. In view of the perception that diplomatic employers can hide behind a veil of diplomatic immunity and in the absence of judgments by the Commission for Conciliation, Mediation and Arbitration (CCMA and the Labour Court, answers and guidelines were sought from various international courts and legal instruments. However, it is pointed out that the application of labour law and international law to protect the interests of individuals against a state is an exceptionally sensitive and controversial issue. It is suggested that the international relationship between two states be used as a holistic framework, but it is cautioned that international law limits the diplomat employer's liability both in terms of the Bill of Rights and South African labour laws. The author shows that protection is afforded to diplomats/consular agents by international law. Moreover, the Diplomatic Immunities and Privileges Act (DIPA of 2001 is discussed. It is submitted that employees are not prevented from taking legal action against a diplomat/consular employer in South Africa in terms of the Labour Relations Act (LRA or the DIPA. The author suggests that diplomatic employees and employers should be made aware of their rights and obligations in this regard. In

  20. 76 FR 9071 - Advisory Committee on Historical Diplomatic Documentation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... notify Nick Sheldon, Office of the Historian (202-663-1123) no later than March 3, 2011 to provide date..., Advisory Committee on Historical Diplomatic Documentation, Department of State, Office of the Historian...

  1. To Your Health: NLM update transcript - Why US diplomats in Cuba became ill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye movements. In addition, the study suggests severe hearing loss occurred among three of the 21 diplomats that ... study's three authors explain most of the impacted workers were motivated to return to work after a ...

  2. 77 FR 69915 - Advisory Committee on Historical Diplomatic Documentation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Control System (VACS-D) database. Please see the Security Records System of Records Notice (State-36) at... 99-399 (Omnibus Diplomatic Security and Antiterrorism Act of 1986), as amended; Public Law 107-56...

  3. 78 FR 9105 - Advisory Committee on Historical Diplomatic Documentation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... into the Visitor Access Control System (VACS-D) database. Please see the Security Records System of... requested pursuant to Public Law 99-399 (Omnibus Diplomatic Security and Antiterrorism Act of 1986), as...

  4. 77 FR 45410 - Advisory Committee on Historical Diplomatic Documentation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... entered into the Visitor Access Control System (VACS- D) database. Please see the Security Records System... data are requested pursuant to Public Law 99-399 (Omnibus Diplomatic Security and Antiterrorism Act of...

  5. Malthus and the Philanthropists, 1764–1859: The Cultural Circulation of Political Economy, Botany, and Natural Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marc MacDonald

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modernity does not possess a monopoly on mass incarceration, population fears, forced migration, famine, or climatic change. Indeed, contemporary and early modern concerns over these matters have extended interests in Thomas Malthus. Yet, despite extensive research on population issues, little work explicates the genesis of population knowledge production or how the process of intellectual transfer occurred during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. This paper examines the Delessert network’s instrumental role in cultivating, curating, and circulating knowledge that popularized Malthusian population theory, including the theory’s constitutive elements of political economy, philanthropy, industry, agriculture, and botany. I show how deviant, nonconformist groups suffered forced migration for their political philosophy, particularly during the revolutionary 1790s, resulting in their imprisonment and migration to America. A consequence of these social shifts was the diffusion and dissemination of population theory—as a pursuit of scientific knowledge and exploration—across both sides of the Atlantic. By focusing on the Delesserts and their social network, I find that a byproduct of inter and intra continental migration among European elites was a knowledge exchange that stimulated Malthus’s thesis on population and Genevan Augustin Pyramus Candolle’s research on botany, ultimately culminating in Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection and human evolution.

  6. Diplomatic History of the Great Patriotic War and the New World Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Y. Borisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available From ancient times, war was called "the creator of all things". And winners created the postwar world order. The article reveals the backstage, the diplomatic history of the Great Patriotic War, which make the picture of the main events of the war, that culminated in victory May 1945 in the capital of the defeated Third Reich, complete. The decisive role of the Soviet Union and its armed forces in the defeat of Nazi Germany and its allies was the strong foundation on which to build the strategy and tactics of Soviet diplomacy during the war. It was implemented in the course of negotiations with the Western Allies - the United States and Britain, led by President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill. World history teaches, large and small wars have been fought on Earth for centuries for specific political interests. In this context, the Second World War has been a shining example not only to curb the aggressor states, the liberation of peoples from the Nazi tyranny, but also an attempt by the victor to organize a new, better postwar world order to guarantee a durable and lasting peace based on the cooperation of the allied states. But the allies in the war did not become allies in the organization of the postwar world. Their collaboration briefly survived the end of hostilities and was overshadowed start turning to the Cold War. It was largely due to the US desire to realize their material advantages to the detriment of the Soviet Union after the war and build a system that would be a one-sided expression of the interests of Washington. Americans, especially after the death of President Roosevelt, and during his successor Truman understood international cooperation as an assertion of its global leadership while ignoring the interests of the Soviet Union, which bore the brunt of the war.

  7. Implementing the OPRC - translating diplomatic concepts into reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, W.F.

    1993-01-01

    The International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation, 1990 (OPRC) was successfully negotiated at a diplomatic conference in November 1990. While the convention has been ratified by only two countries to date, some of the basic provisions have already been put to the test. The most notable example was the international effort in support of the government of Saudi Arabia during the massive release of oil into the Persian Gulf in 1991. The means of translating the requirements of a new convention into a viable system has always been a challenge for individual governments. The OPRC raises particularly difficult issues in its implementation because it represents the internationalization of preparedness and response to massive oil spills. The difficulty lies in the fact that these issues have traditionally been the purview of individual states or, at most, of regional associations of states with similar economic standing. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) achieves a new status with the OPRC and the convention marks a divergence from some of the traditional activities of the IMO. The challenge before the world community and IMO is to make the OPRC workable. Despite the apparent success of the international effort in the Persian Gulf, the experience revealed many problems. Forging new links between the developing and the developed worlds to combat oil spills can be an exciting opportunity or it can be an utter disaster. Whether or not OPRC is successful depends on the willingness of developed nations, developing nations, and international institutions to make meaningful contributions to the internationalization of oil pollution preparedness and response

  8. The plant breeding industry after pure line theory: Lessons from the National Institute of Agricultural Botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Dominic

    2014-06-01

    In the early twentieth century, Wilhelm Johannsen proposed his pure line theory and the genotype/phenotype distinction, work that is prized as one of the most important founding contributions to genetics and Mendelian plant breeding. Most historians have already concluded that pure line theory did not change breeding practices directly. Instead, breeding became more orderly as a consequence of pure line theory, which structured breeding programmes and eliminated external heritable influences. This incremental change then explains how and why the large multi-national seed companies that we know today were created; pure lines invited standardisation and economies of scale that the latter were designed to exploit. Rather than focus on breeding practice, this paper examines the plant varietal market itself. It focusses upon work conducted by the National Institute of Agricultural Botany (NIAB) during the interwar years, and in doing so demonstrates that, on the contrary, the pure line was actually only partially accepted by the industry. Moreover, claims that contradicted the logic of the pure line were not merely tolerated by the agricultural geneticists affiliated with NIAB, but were acknowledged and legitimised by them. The history of how and why the plant breeding industry was transformed remains to be written. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Acanthopanax senticosus: review of botany, chemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Linzhang; Zhao, Hongfang; Huang, Baokang; Zheng, Chengjian; Peng, Wei; Qin, Luping

    2011-02-01

    Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim) Harms (Araliaceae), also called Siberian Ginseng, Eleutherococcus senticosus, and Ciwujia in Chinese, is a widely used traditional Chinese herb that could invigorate qi, strengthen the spleen, and nourish kidney in the theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine. With high medicinal value, Acanthopanax senticosus (AS, thereafter) is popularly used as an "adaptogen" like Panax ginseng. In recent decades, a great number of chemical, pharmacological, and clinical studies on AS have been carried out worldwide. Several kinds of chemical compounds have been reported, including triterpenoid saponins, lignans, coumarins, and flavones, among which, phenolic compounds such as syringin and eleutheroside E, were considered to be the most active components. Considerable pharmacological experiments both in vitro and in vivo have persuasively demonstrated that AS possessed anti-stress, antiulcer, anti-irradiation, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities, etc. The present review is an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the botany, chemistry, pharmacology, toxicity and clinical trials of AS.

  10. The EU in Geneva: The Diplomatic Representation of a System of Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Carta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU diplomatic system can be conceived as representative of a system of governance, and, through this, of its constitutive independent units. The way in which the EU's political system is represented through diplomatic practices is telling of two interrelated aspects of the EU's international actorness. First, it reveals the link between the foreign policy of a non-state actor and sheds light on the division of competences that characterises the EU's foreign policy-making system. Second, it highlights the complex institutional and organisational features of a non-state diplomatic system. This article locates the puzzle of EU diplomatic activity in the general debate about changes in the institution of diplomacy. Secondly, it explains how post-Lisbon institutional arrangements have been translated into practice in two multilateral delegations: the delegation to the UN and the mission to the WTO in Geneva. It finally draws some preliminary conclusions. The article concludes that beyond competition over the attribution of competences in the EU’s diplomatic governance, different ideas coexist about what ‘locating the EU in the international scene’ means. Pursuing a ‘single voice’ by unifying forms of external representation is not necessarily perceived as the most convenient strategy envisaged by all EU actors. While institutional actors tend to believe that coherence and strength may descend from a more unified system of representation, the member states tend to believe that, in certain circumstances, differentiation could increase the EU’s strength.

  11. IAEA Orientation for Diplomats 2013. The IAEA in Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-02-01

    their ives. The Agency supports over 130 projects in cancer diagnosis, management and treatment and helps to mprove access to life-saving radiotherapy services in developing countries. Our work in nuclear non-proliferation is generally the best known area of our activities. IAEA inspectors conduct about 2000 inspection missions annually to over 1200 sites in 78 states to verify that nuclear material is not being diverted from peaceful purposes. This is an important contribution to international peace and security. Hope you will enjoy our seminar for Diplomats and that this Brochure will provide a useful overview of IAEA activities.

  12. IAEA Orientation for Diplomats 2013. The IAEA in Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    their ives. The Agency supports over 130 projects in cancer diagnosis, management and treatment and helps to mprove access to life-saving radiotherapy services in developing countries. Our work in nuclear non-proliferation is generally the best known area of our activities. IAEA inspectors conduct about 2000 inspection missions annually to over 1200 sites in 78 states to verify that nuclear material is not being diverted from peaceful purposes. This is an important contribution to international peace and security. Hope you will enjoy our seminar for Diplomats and that this Brochure will provide a useful overview of IAEA activities.

  13. The influence of new world species on the botany of the 16th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubrizsy Savoia, Andrea

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about how some New World species, not as widespread as tomato, tobacco, etc. were introduced in the botanical European knowledge, with special reference to Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522-1605. His herbal, his inconographic collections and manuscripts containing lists of seeds, woods and other matrials, are conserved in his Museum and grown in the Botanical Garden of Bologna.

    El presente trabajo analiza cómo algunas especies botánicas del Nuevo mundo, no tan difundidas como el tomate, el tabaco, etc., formaron parte del conocimiento botánico europeo, haciendo especial referencia a la de obra de Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522-1605. Su herbario, sus colecciones iconográficas y manuscritos que contienen listas de semillas, maderas y otros materiales, se conservan en su Museo y algunas de las especies crecen en el Jardín Botánico de Bolonia.

  14. Linnaeus' restless system: translation as textual engineering in eighteenth-century botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Bettina

    2016-04-01

    In this essay, translations of Linnaeus' Systema naturae into various European languages will be placed into the context of successively expanded editions of Linnaeus' writings. The ambition and intention of most translators was not only to make the Systema naturae accessible for practical botanical use by a wider readership, but also to supplement and correct it, and thus to shape it. By recruiting more users, translations made a significant contribution to keeping the Systema up to date and thus maintaining its practical value for decades. The need to incorporate countless additions and corrections into an existing text, to document their provenance, to identify inconsistencies, and to refer to relevant observations, descriptions, and illustrations in the botanical literature all helped to develop and refine techniques of textual montage. This form of textual engineering, becoming increasingly complex with each translation cycle, shaped the external appearance of new editions of the Systema, and reflected the modular architecture of a botanical system designed for expansion.

  15. Ethno – Medico – Botany of Chenchus of Mahaboobnagar District, Andhra Pradesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, T. Dharmachandra; Pullaiah, T.

    1999-01-01

    The present paper deals with the ethno-medico-botany of Chenchus of Mahaboobnagar district, Andhra Pradesh. About fourty four plants are enumerated with knowledge of the tribals for their medicinal uses in curing different diseases and ailments. PMID:22556915

  16. Higher education biology students’ conceptions on botany teaching : a Brazil – Portugal case study

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, João Rodrigo Santos da; Guimarães, Fernando; Sano, Paulo Takeo

    2012-01-01

    Generally, the teaching of botany is seen as mainly based on the transmission of knowledge and on empirical-logical thinking, in a context of scientific knowledge and with the purpose of affirming truth about the world. From this perspective, both in Brazil and in Portugal botany is usually seen as a list of scientific names remote from the daily life of students, which might make classes demotivating. This project was designed with the aim of understanding the prior conceptions of higher ...

  17. Teaching of Botany in higher education: representations and discussions of undergraduate students

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, João Rodrigo Santos da; Guimarães, Fernando; Sano, Paulo Takeo

    2016-01-01

    The teaching of botany is characterised as being taught in a technical and uninteresting way for students. The objective of this work is to find out what students think of the way Botany is taught and their views on this as students and in the future as teachers. To achieve this objective an open questionnaire was given to first year undergraduate students studying Biological Sciences. Two hundred and twenty one students from four different Universities filled in the questionnaire. From the r...

  18. The plant microbiome explored: implications for experimental botany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Gabriele; Rybakova, Daria; Grube, Martin; Köberl, Martina

    2015-11-07

    The importance of microbial root inhabitants for plant growth and health was recognized as early as 100 years ago. Recent insights reveal a close symbiotic relationship between plants and their associated microorganisms, and high structural and functional diversity within plant microbiomes. Plants provide microbial communities with specific habitats, which can be broadly categorized as the rhizosphere, phyllosphere, and endosphere. Plant-associated microbes interact with their host in essential functional contexts. They can stimulate germination and growth, help plants fend off disease, promote stress resistance, and influence plant fitness. Therefore, plants have to be considered as metaorganisms within which the associated microbes usually outnumber the cells belonging to the plant host. The structure of the plant microbiome is determined by biotic and abiotic factors but follows ecological rules. Metaorganisms are coevolved species assemblages. The metabolism and morphology of plants and their microbiota are intensively connected with each other, and the interplay of both maintains the functioning and fitness of the holobiont. Our study of the current literature shows that analysis of plant microbiome data has brought about a paradigm shift in our understanding of the diverse structure and functioning of the plant microbiome with respect to the following: (i) the high interplay of bacteria, archaea, fungi, and protists; (ii) the high specificity even at cultivar level; (iii) the vertical transmission of core microbiomes; (iv) the extraordinary function of endophytes; and (v) several unexpected functions and metabolic interactions. The plant microbiome should be recognized as an additional factor in experimental botany and breeding strategies.

  19. Balancing Inside and Outside Lobbying: The Political Strategies of Lobbyists at Global Diplomatic Conferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanegraaff, M.; Beyers, J.; De Bruycker, I.

    2016-01-01

    This article seeks to explain the use of inside and outside lobbying by organised interests at global diplomatic conferences. At first sight, the lobbying at these venues is puzzling as it does not seem to be a very fruitful way to acquire influence. The use of outside strategies especially is

  20. 78 FR 12134 - Advisory Committee on Historical Diplomatic Documentation; Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Relations of the United States series as well as on the Department's responsibility under statute (22 U.S.C. 4351, et seq.) to open its 30-year old and older records for public review at the National Archives and... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8192] Advisory Committee on Historical Diplomatic Documentation...

  1. 76 FR 13444 - Advisory Committee on Historical Diplomatic Documentation; Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... the Foreign Relations of the United States series as well as on the Department's responsibility under statute (22 U.S.C. 4351, et seq.) to open its 30-year-old and older records for public review at the... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7241] Advisory Committee on Historical Diplomatic...

  2. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE HISTORY OF BOTANY AND EXPLORATION IN MALAYSIA—7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. D. DE WIT

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Barchewitz reached the islet of Leti, in the southwestern Moluccas, on September 2, 1714; he returned to Europe in September 1720, having represented the East India Company on Leti for six years. Like so many of his contemporaries he wrote a book on his life's adventures. This work appeared in 1730 and proved a success. A second, slightly enlarged, edition followed in 1751, entitled "Neu-vermehrte Ost-Indianische Reise- Beschreibung." Barchewitz is the earliest author on the natural history of Leti and -he paid attention to a number of plants. The present note is mainly a survey of the botany contained in his book. Ernst Christoph Barchewitz was born at the close of the 17th century at Grosz-Sommerda near Erfurt. He was bound apprentice to a tawer at Erfurt but soon preferred to travel ("Wanderschaft" with his brother to Holland. He visited the larger towns, learned at the Hague the art of dressing and the barber's craft, and became the valet de chambre of the Imperial Ambassador, Baron von Heems, whom he accompanied to Austria and the southern Netherlands. He ended his service at Delft Where he enlisted with the East India Company. As a soldier he embarked at Hellevoetsluis on the "Voorburg," sailing April 1, 1711. The treatment on board he judged to be fair; his only objection was that he had to drink water whereas wine would have seemed very suitable. After a stay at Batavia (December 20, 1711 till January 29, 1712, he was garrisoned on Banda, where he remained till August 15, 1714. He left when he was appointed Corporal of Leti. The following pertains to the second edition of Barchewitz's book, the pages referred to are cited between brackets. All quotations have been translated.

  3. KEBUN RAYA BOTANI DENGAN SISTEM WTP (WATER TREATMENT PLAN DI MAKASSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Innayah Wahid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak—Pariwisata merupakan salah satu sumber devisa yang sangat potensial dan mempunyai andil besar dalam membangun perekonomian yang memiliki nilai jual menjadi objek yang menguntungkan bagi kemajuan Makassar. Tujuan wisata yang hanya ada di Makassar menciptakan rasa ingin tahu pengunjung untuk berkunjung.Pengunjung yang datang menginvestasikan akomodasi seluruh kegiatan wisata dengan pengusaha lokal setempat.Pengunjung domestik maupun asing juga menjadi sumber pendapatan bagi masyarakat yang tinggal di sekitar objek wisata. Laporan ini bertujuan untuk menata elemen-elemen fisik kawasan seperti tata guna lahan, bentuk dan massa bangunan, jalur pejalan kaki, sirkulasi dan parker signage atau penanda, serta fasilitas pendukung kedalam suatu kawasan kebun raya botani yang dibutuhkan untuk mencapai kenyamanan bagi para pengguna lahan dan menerapkan sistem WTP dalam bentuk desain yang bersifat berkelanjutan (sustainable.dan tujuan non arsitektural yang lain untuk merumuskan kegiatan rekayasa tumbuhan secara alami sehingga kebun raya botani dapat menjadi alternatif pusat pendidikan, mengelompokkan tanaman yang sesuai dengan iklim dan kondisi tapak kebun raya botani, untuk menentukan sistem kerja WTP dalam kebun raya botani yang dapat memenuhi kebutuhan tanaman. Hasil laporan ini berupa desain penataan kebun raya botani dengan sistem WTP (water Treatment Plan di Makassar Kata Kunci :kebun raya botani, WTP Abstract- Tourism is one potential source of foreign exchange and have a larger share in building an economy that has a sale value into an object that is beneficial to the progress of Makassar. Tourist destinations that exist only in Makassar creates curiosity of visitors to visit. Visitors who come to invest accommodation all over the local tourism activities with local entrepreneurs. Domestic and foreign visitors are also a source of income for the people who live around the attraction. This report aims to restructure the physical elements

  4. Filadelfia y la botánica en Norteamérica Philadelphia and the Botany in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Freire-Fierro

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El establecimiento y el desarrollo de la investigación botánica en Norteamérica se inician con la fundación de tres instituciones de Filadelfia, la American Philosophical Society en 1743, el Departamento de Botánica de la Universidad de Pennsylvania en 1768 y la Academia de Ciencias Naturales (PH en 1812. Algunos de los botánicos más influyentes durante los últimos cuatro siglos y en particular durante los siglos XVIII y XIX, vivieron en Filadelfia, entre ellos William Bartram (1699-1777, fundador del primer jardín botánico de Norteamérica, Benjamin Smith Barton (1766-1815, escritor del primer libro de texto de botánica en Estados Unidos y posiblemente en toda América, Federico Pursh (1774-1820, autor de una de las floras norteamericanas más completas del siglo XIX, Thomas Nuttall (1786-1859, autor de la primera flora norteamericana a nivel continental y Lewis David von Schweinitz (1780-1834, ampliamente reconocido como el padre de la micología norteamericana. Aunque la botánica alcanzó su cenit en Filadelfia durante el siglo XIX, continúa hoy contribuyendo al desarrollo de la botánica, gracias al aporte de muchas instituciones. El Herbario PH con sus más de 1,4 millones de especímenes y con la proporción más alta de tipos/totalidad de especímenes de todos los herbarios en los Estados Unidos, continúa siendo una fuente importante para estudios sistemáticos, no solo de taxones norteamericanos, sino también de otras regiones del mundo.The establishment and development of botanical research in North America began with the foundation of three Philadelphian institutions: The American Philosophical Society in 1743, the Botany Department at University of Pennsylvania in 1768 and the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia in 1812. Some of the most influential botanists of the last four centuries, and in particular, the 18th and 19th centuries lived in Philadelphia, including William Bartram (1699-1777, founder of the

  5. Activation Analysis in Botany and Agriculture. Survey Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, H. J.M. [University of Reading, Reading, Berks. (United Kingdom)

    1967-10-15

    The applications of activation analysis to the plant sciences are reviewed. In soil science the technique has only been used by a few workers but its potentialities are good. In particular, it offers a practical method of measuring the concentrations of trace elements such as Co, Cu, Mn, Mo, Se and Zn in the soil solution, which has rarely if ever been carried out by other techniques. It can also be used to determine phosphorus in the soil solution from phosphate-deficient soils, which cannot be done by current methods. In pure botany there have been many applications, mostly concerned with the behaviour of essential trace elements. The sensitivity of the method is adequate for the analysis not only of minute seeds but of embryos, endosperm and seed coats dissected from those seeds. Important developments include the use of the (n, {alpha}) reaction to determine boron, the (p, n) reaction to determine oxygen-18 in products of photosynthesis, and the detection of minute traces of organic phosphates on chromatograms. Most papers refer to seed plants, but there has been some work on fungi and about 20 elements have been determined in algae. Some of the latter elements could not have been determined by any other technique. There have been numerous applications in agriculture, though here the sensitivity of the method for essential trace elements has not been taken advantage of as much as might have been expected. There has, however, been particular interest in the determination of selenium, mainly because of the difficulty of using conventional analysis for the levels normally found in herbage and fertilizers. The determination of toxic residues, containing such elements as As, Br, CI, Hg or Ni is another application of great potential interest. In a recent intercomparison programme involving the analysis of standard kale, activation analysis has been shown to give results agreeing with those obtained by other techniques in all but one instance. The exception is the

  6. The plant microbiome explored: implications for experimental botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Gabriele; Rybakova, Daria; Grube, Martin; Köberl, Martina

    2016-02-01

    The importance of microbial root inhabitants for plant growth and health was recognized as early as 100 years ago. Recent insights reveal a close symbiotic relationship between plants and their associated microorganisms, and high structural and functional diversity within plant microbiomes. Plants provide microbial communities with specific habitats, which can be broadly categorized as the rhizosphere, phyllosphere, and endosphere. Plant-associated microbes interact with their host in essential functional contexts. They can stimulate germination and growth, help plants fend off disease, promote stress resistance, and influence plant fitness. Therefore, plants have to be considered as metaorganisms within which the associated microbes usually outnumber the cells belonging to the plant host. The structure of the plant microbiome is determined by biotic and abiotic factors but follows ecological rules. Metaorganisms are co-evolved species assemblages. The metabolism and morphology of plants and their microbiota are intensively connected with each other, and the interplay of both maintains the functioning and fitness of the holobiont. Our study of the current literature shows that analysis of plant microbiome data has brought about a paradigm shift in our understanding of the diverse structure and functioning of the plant microbiome with respect to the following: (i) the high interplay of bacteria, archaea, fungi, and protists; (ii) the high specificity even at cultivar level; (iii) the vertical transmission of core microbiomes; (iv) the extraordinary function of endophytes; and (v) several unexpected functions and metabolic interactions. The plant microbiome should be recognized as an additional factor in experimental botany and breeding strategies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Little Botany: A Mobile Game Utilizing Data Integration to Enhance Plant Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphanut Jamonnak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices are rapidly becoming the new medium of educational and social life for young people, and hence mobile educational games have become an important mechanism for learning. To help school-aged children learn about the fascinating world of plants, we present a mobile educational game called Little Botany, where players can create their own virtual gardens in any location on earth. One unique feature of Little Botany is that the game is built upon real-world data by leveraging data integration mechanism. The gardens created in Little Botany are augmented with real-world location data and real-time weather data. More specifically, Little Botany is using real-time weather data for the garden location to simulate how the weather affects plants growth. Little Botany players can learn to select what crops to plant, maintain their own garden, watch crops to grow, tend the crops on a daily basis, and harvest them. With this game, users can also learn plant structure and three chemical reactions.

  8. The diplomatic crisis between Rome and Carthago and the snap of the Second Punic War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique HERNÁNDEZ PRIETO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available After their defeat in the First Punic War, the Carthaginians, led by the Barcids, initiated the extension of their domains in Spain. Their movements did not slip by the Romans, who developed a series of diplomatic maneuvers. The ?rst possible contact with Hamilcar was followed by an agreement with his successor Hasdrubal. Unlike these measures, that would have favored a climate of dialog between both powers, the approximation of Rome to Sagunto, and Hannibal’s assault against the second one, produced unleashed tensions that ?nally culminate with the declaration of a new con?ict. The aim of this paper is to analyze the evolution of the diplomatic relationships between Rome and Carthage during the interwar period, paying special attention to their motivations, premeditation and ef?ciency, as well as to the perceptions that they could provoke in both sides.

  9. Structural diagnosis of historic timber structures: the Diplomatic Room of the of Royal Palace of Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Calicchio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the diagnosis process made on the timber structure that holds up the vault of the Diplomatic Room of the Royal Palace in Naples (Italy. After a brief historical description of the Royal Palace and the Diplomatic Room, it discusses the methodology according to Italian regulations and the speci­fic problems that arose during the works. To complete the diagnosis, a dendrochronological analysis of the wooden elements was performed. The results show the residual mechanical properties of each structural element and the main problems to be resolved by the restorers. The dendrochronological conclusions yield that the dating of the elements is compatible with that of the frescoes on the vault and therefore demonstrate that the elements have not been replaced.

  10. Cooperation of Ukraine and Republic of Poland: Economic and Diplomatic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Poland in viewed by Ukraine as a reliable economic and political partner supporting Ukraine’s intention to integrate in Europe. Therefore, facts, documents and statistical data reflecting qualitative and quantitative aspects of relations between Ukraine and Poland need to be subject to non-stop monitoring and analysis, to help in finding timely solutions for problematic issues that may occur in these countries’ relations. The article’s objective is to analyze the performance and perspectives of economic and diplomatic relations between Ukraine and Republic of Poland. The analysis of documents on diplomatic and economic cooperation of the two countries after they gained political independence, and statistical data on trade in goods and services (by category and investment flows (by data on direct investment from Ukraine to Poland and from Poland to Ukraine shows that both countries have immense potentials for cooperation in various fields. As regards diplomatic dimension, Republic of Poland is the strongest promoter and lobbyist of the Euro-integration and Euro-Atlantic course of Ukraine. Regarding the economic cooperation, while mutual trade in goods declined in 2014 due to the economic and political crisis in Ukraine, it grew in 2016 with the recovery processes in the Ukrainian economy. Mutual trade in services is less intensive than trade in goods. Analysis of the investment cooperation shows the large asymmetry in favor of Polish investors in Ukraine and the reducing investment in both directions in the latest years.

  11. The Diplomatic Asylum: From Haya De La Torre to The "WikiLeaks" Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Vázquez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The WikiLeaks’ founder represents not only a challenge to freedom of information, but also to International Law related to the diplomatic asylum. Julian Assange has been living in the Ecuadorian embassy in London for five years. In the last weeks, news surfaced that Sweden has ceased to request his extradition, the fact that caused much of the case under study. Assange’s situation seems to be diametrically different from Edward Snowden’s; however, both are labeled as "refugees for political reasons". While Assange looks forward to an improvement in his situation in the Ecuadorian embassy in London, Snowden still lives in Russia. Is the diplomatic asylum a usual practice? How to understand the diplomatic asylum in Latin America? What about England? In this paper, the analysis will assume that the concept of asylum is not recognized as a universal practice of International Law. However, in Latin America, it seems to be a usual practice since the judgment of the International Court of Justice on Haya de la Torre’s case.

  12. Traditional usages, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Longfei; Ni, Boran; Lin, Hongmei; Zhang, Miao; Li, Xuechun; Yin, Xingbin; Qu, Changhai; Ni, Jian

    2015-01-15

    Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., which is known as Heshouwu ( in Chinese) in China. It is traditionally valued and reported for hair-blacking, liver and kidney-tonifying and anti-aging effects as well as low toxicity. The aim of this review is to provide comprehensive information on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological research and toxicology of Polygonum multiflorum, based on the scientific literature. Moreover, trends and perspectives for future investigation of this plant are discussed. It will build up a new foundation for further study on Polygonum multiflorum. A systematic review of the literature on Polygonum multiflorum was performed using several resources, including classic books on Chinese herbal medicine and various scientific databases, such as PubMed, SciFinder, the Web of Science, Science Direct, China Knowledge Resource Integrated (CNKI). Polygonum multiflorum is widely distributed throughout the world and has been used as a traditional medicine for centuries in China. The ethnomedical uses of Polygonum multiflorum have been recorded in many provinces of China and Japan for nine species of adulterants in six families. More than 100 chemical compounds have been isolated from this plant, and the major components have been determined to be stilbenes, quinones, flavonoids and others. Crude extracts and pure compounds of this plant are used as effective agents in pre-clinical and clinical practice due to their anti-aging, anti-hyperlipidaemia, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects and to promote immunomodulation, neuroprotection, and the curing of other diseases. However, these extracts can also lead to hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and embryonic toxicity. Pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated that the main components of Polygonum multiflorum, such as 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and emodin are distributed among many organs and tissues. Therapeutic potential of Polygonum multiflorum has been

  13. Economic botany collections: A source of material evidence for exploring historical changes in Chinese medicinal materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Eric; Leon, Christine; Nesbitt, Mark; Guo, Ping; Huang, Ran; Chen, Hubiao; Liang, Li; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2017-03-22

    Many Chinese medicinal materials (CMMs) have changed over centuries of use, particularly in terms of their botanical identity and processing methods. In some cases, these changes have important implications for safety and efficacy in modern clinical practice. As most previous research has focused on clarifying the evolution of CMMs by analyzing traditional Chinese materia medica ("bencao") literature, assessments of historical collections are needed to validate these conclusions with material evidence. Historical collections of Chinese medicines reveal the market materials in circulation at a given moment in time, and represent an underexploited resource for analyzing the evolution of Chinese herbal medicines. This study compares specimens from a rare collection of CMMs from the 1920s with contemporary market materials; by highlighting examples of changes in botanical identity and processing that remain relevant for safe clinical practice in the modern era, this work aims to stimulate further research into previously unexplored historical collections of Chinese medicines. 620 specimens of CMMs that were collected from Chinese pharmacies in the Malay peninsula in the 1920s were examined macroscopically and compared with current pharmacopoeia specifications and authentic contemporary samples. These historical specimens, which are stored in the UK in the Economic Botany Collections (EBC) of Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, were morphologically examined, photographed, and compared to authentic CMMs stored at the Bank of China (Hong Kong) Chinese Medicines Center at Hong Kong Baptist University, as well as authentic herbarium-vouchered specimens from the Leon Collection (LC) at the Kew EBC. Case studies were selected to illustrate examples of historical changes in botanical identity, used plant parts, and processing methods. This investigation confirmed that confusion due to shared common names and regional variations in the botanical identity of certain CMMs has been a

  14. The History of Women in Botany and Science at the Herbarium Library: Evaluation for Historical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, Sandra J.

    Evaluating library collections by comparing them to bibliographies has a long history in research libraries. This evaluative study examined all 107 titles within the "Women in Botany" section of the Herbarium Library at The Ohio State University (OSU). The Herbarium is not part of the OSU Library system, but functions as a satellite to…

  15. Effects of the Teacher's Background on Teaching and Students' Achievement in Botany and Zoology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, P.

    1976-01-01

    The relationship of certain teacher background variables to their attitudes priorities, expectations, and instructional practices regarding botany and zoology was investigated. Teachers were grouped into three categories: botanists, zoologists, and neutrals; the academic achievement of the students of the teachers in the three categories was…

  16. Supporting Upper-Level Undergraduate Students in Building a Systems Perspective in a Botany Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangori, Laura; Koontz, Jason A.

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate biology majors require biological literacy about the critical and dynamic relationships between plants and ecosystems and the effect human-made processes have on these systems. To support students in understanding systems relationships, we redesigned an undergraduate botany course using an ecological framework and embedded systems…

  17. Basic Botany On-Line: A Training Tool for the Master Gardener Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerZanden, Ann Marie; Rost, Bob; Eckel, Rick

    2002-01-01

    A noncredit, online training module on botany was offered to participants in the Oregon Master Gardener program. The 48 participants felt the module was a useful training tool. They also noted that the convenience of completing the material at their own pace and during a time that fit into their schedule. (SK)

  18. [Herbalism, botany and components analysis study on original plants of frankincense].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Xu, Jimin; Jin, Hongyu; Tian, Jingai; Lin, Ruichao

    2011-01-01

    In order to clarify original plants of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) frankincense, a GC method for determination essential oils and a HPLC method for determination boswellic acids were carried out together with analysis of herbalism, botany, components and pharmacology papers of frankincense. It was concluded that original plants of TCM frankincense include at least Boswellia sacra, B. papyrifera and B. serrata.

  19. Field Botanist for a Day: A Group Exercise for the Introductory Botany Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbatt, Natalie M.

    2004-01-01

    A group exercise, suggested to be most effective when used near the semester-end, enables entry-level students to appreciate the application of plant biology and makes botany labs experimental. It is believed that this series of labs helps students to appreciate their own learning when they teach and explain things to others.

  20. [News on the trip and the diplomatic mission of a Portuguese ambassador to China in 1752. Critical and analytical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    José, J; Frada, C

    1994-11-01

    The author of this report has worked out a critical-analytical study, based on the news of a voyage to China, carried out by a Portuguese ambassador, which was also a diplomatic mission, in 1752, during the Marquis of Pombal era, Prime Minister of king Dom Jose I. This study is directed under two perspectives: medical and historical-diplomatic. The former not only allows the assessment of the high degree of organization of this voyage as far as food supplies and medical support are concerned, but it also shows the reflection and the diagnosis correction of tuberculosis of the lungs, in a seaman, carried out by a surgeon on board, which we totally refute. The latter, which only aims at giving some further data for the study of the Portuguese Diplomatic History, let us know some of the complex procedures and protocols established between our diplomatic representative and the high Chinese rulers, both the Emperor himself and the mandarins. Contrary to other previous attempts of diplomatic, economic and social relations, either partially or totally frustrated, this mission constituted a great success for Portugal and may, indeed, be considered as a decisive step for the recognition of Portuguese sovereignty over the territory of Macao and its dependencies in 1887.

  1. Soviet diplomats and Comintern representatives in People’s Republic of Tuva in the 1920s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay M. Mollerov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study of the role Soviet diplomats and representatives of the Communist International (Comintern played in the Soviet-Tuvan relations during the first decade after the emergence of the young Tuvan state – People’s Republic of Tuva (1920s. From representing the interests of a small military mission, the Soviet diplomatic office in Tuva evolved into a full-scale embassy of the Soviet state. Its history clearly falls into two stages: from early 1920s to 1927 Soviet mission members largely abstained from interfering into PRT’s internal issues, but subsequently they started actively promoting the left wing of Tuvan People Revolutionary Party, which contributed to its accession to power. The Soviet state began to act as PRT’s patron on the international arena. This policy of support and custody was in accordance with Article 2 of PRT’s constitution. Using documentary sources, this article traces the appointments and transfers of a number of Soviet diplomatic officers and consuls (F.G. Falsky (Falkovsky, I.A. Chichayev, F.F. Razumov, A.G. Starkov, as well as Comintern representatives (I.G. Safyanov, B. Tsivenzhapov, V. Borovikov, A.M. Amur-Sanan, S.A. Natsov, V. Machavariani, V.A. Bogdanov. In the duopoly of consuls and Comintern representatives, the former dominated at the earlier stages, but after the defeat of Chinese communists in 1927 the Soviet leaders thought that Socialist transformations in Mongolia in Tuva should be sped up. The article makes use of archival sources from the State Archive of the Republic of Tuva, Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History (RGASPI, and the Research archive of Tuva Institute for Humanities and Applied Socioeconomic Studies.

  2. Diplomatic History of the Great Patriotic War and the New World Order

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Y. Borisov

    2015-01-01

    From ancient times, war was called "the creator of all things". And winners created the postwar world order. The article reveals the backstage, the diplomatic history of the Great Patriotic War, which make the picture of the main events of the war, that culminated in victory May 1945 in the capital of the defeated Third Reich, complete. The decisive role of the Soviet Union and its armed forces in the defeat of Nazi Germany and its allies was the strong foundation on which to build the strate...

  3. Constructions of Identity and Threat in North Korea’s “Diplomatic War” Discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Ballbach, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes North Korea’s most central foreign policy discourse in the post-Cold War era: the discourse of the Diplomatic War. Embedding North Korea’s nuclear strive and its conflictual relations with a significant Other – the U.S. – the analysis of this discourse provides crucial insights into the immaterial factors driving North Korea’s foreign relations in the post-Cold War era. In specific, the study focusses on two central characteristics of the discourse, i.e. the writing of ide...

  4. Normalization of China-Indonesia’s diplomatic relations and the role of the mianzi concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tuty Nur Mutia Enoch Muas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This thesis examines the normalization of China-Indonesia’s diplomatic relations in order to understand China’s main motivation. The “micro-macro linkage” approach is used to uphold the empirical evidence that is enhanced by the mianzi concept. In Chinese culture, mianzi consists of honourable values and meanings. The result of this research shows that the changes in China’s foreign policy priority have been caused by the demise of the socialist power in the late 1980s and the Tiananmen incident in 1989. Threat to China’s sovereignty and unity has been the basis of the priority to keep the country’s honour and existence. The term baoquan mianzi is used in this matter. It means using the whole potential of the Chinese people to defend the country’s honour. The People's Republic of China’s international image and glory need to be restored. The normalization of diplomatic relations has proven to be part of baoquan mianzi effort and has given China a big opportunity to participate in regional and global forums.

  5. Brazil's Rendition of the 'Responsibility to Protect' Doctrine: Promising or Stillborn Diplomatic Proposal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Tuffi Saliba

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has actively participated in the debate around the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ (R2P doctrine. More recently, Brazil has even proposed what it believes to be a new approach—the ‘Responsibility while Protecting’ (RwP corollary to R2P. By launching its own rendition for R2P, Brazil has attempted to reinforce the role of the UN Security Council in two different ways: First, in restricting the use of force on the grounds of ‘Responsibility to Protect,’ which, according to Brazilian diplomatic reasoning, would hinge upon a multilateral assessment of the situation — a condition expected to considerably diminish the arbitrariness in decision making with respect to the use of force.  Second, Brazil aimed to highlight the necessity of reform in the UNSC, since, from a Brazilian viewpoint, the decisions of this organ must be representative in order to discharge new tasks assigned to it. Notwithstanding, Brazil's diplomatic proposal has arguably failed to gain massive support from the countries that compose the UN Security Council political establishment and seems now to be forgotten. This paper aims to provide an account on the Brazilian reaction to “Responsibility to Protect” and its first consequences.

  6. In the Service of the King. Concerning Royal Diplomatic Letters in the Crown of Aragon (1336-1458

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luz Mandingorra Llavata

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the morphological evolution of the royal diplomatic letter in the Crown of Aragon between the reigns of Peter the Ceremonious and Alfonso the Magnanimous. During this period, the form taken by this document was adapted to its contents and those in receipt of it, according to the principles of the Ars dictaminis, without relinquishing its material and textual simplicity in the process. With its adaptation to the communicative requirements of the monarchy, the royal diplomatic letter became an instrument of governance that helped to strengthen royal power and anticipated mechanisms that would be fully developed during the Early Modern Period.

  7. Use of Diplomatic Assurances in Terrorism-related Cases: In search of a Balance between Security Concerns and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi van Ginkel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Research Fellow Dr. Bibi van Ginkel and intern Federico Rojas analyse the different policies on diplomatic assurances in a number of countries that are representative of a certain trend and attempt to clarify the criteria that have to be fulfilled before assurance may be used. Key in the whole discussion surrounding the use of diplomatic assurances is finding the right balance between national security concerns and human rights obligations. The outcomes of the Expert Meeting on this topic, that took place on 22 March 2011, have been incorporated in this paper.

  8. Afrikaans in Botany after 75 years of “Akademie” activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. van der Schijff

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available Just like the Afrikaans language itself, the use of Afrikaans as a technical language in Botany made meaningful progress during the last 75 years. It cannot, however, be divorced from the general use of Afrikaans by the Afrikaner in his daily contact with his non-Afrikaans speaking compatriots in all other spheres of activities, such as business, sports or politics. Unless Afrikaans as a spoken language can hold its own in a growing English-speaking community and world, it will not survive as a technical scientific language in Botany. As a technical language only, no language can hold its own. The publishing of scientific papers in international journals by Afrikaans-speaking scientists cannot be attributed to selfishness or a lack of appreciation for their mother tongue. It must also be seen as a means of enhancing the scientific image of his country and of the Afrikaner.

  9. The role of forensic botany in crime scene investigation: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Isabella; Ausania, Francesco; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Serra, Arianna; Boca, Silvia; Capelli, Arnaldo; Magni, Paola; Ricci, Pietrantonio

    2014-05-01

    Management of a crime is the process of ensuring accurate and effective collection and preservation of physical evidence. Forensic botany can provide significant supporting evidences during criminal investigations. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the importance of forensic botany in the crime scene. We reported a case of a woman affected by dementia who had disappeared from nursing care and was found dead near the banks of a river that flowed under a railroad. Two possible ways of access to crime scene were identified and denominated "Path A" and "Path B." Both types of soil and plants were identified. Botanical survey was performed. Some samples of Xanthium Orientalis subsp. Italicum were identified. The fall of woman resulted in external injuries and vertebral fracture at autopsy. The botanical evidence is important when crime scene and autopsy findings are not sufficient to define the dynamics and the modality of death. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. [Recent advances of amplified fragment length polymorphism and its applications in forensic botany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Tao; Li, Li

    2008-10-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a new molecular marker to detect genomic polymorphism. This new technology has advantages of high resolution, good stability, and reproducibility. Great achievements have been derived in recent years in AFLP related technologies with several AFLP expanded methodologies available. AFLP technology has been widely used in the fields of plant, animal, and microbes. It has become one of the hotspots in Forensic Botany. This review focuses on the recent advances of AFLP and its applications in forensic biology.

  11. 50 CFR 23.17 - What are the requirements for CITES specimens traded internationally by diplomatic, consular...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the requirements for CITES... ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Prohibitions, Exemptions, and Requirements § 23.17 What are the requirements for CITES specimens traded internationally by diplomatic, consular, military, and...

  12. Unfinished business: concurrence of claims presented before a human rights court or treaty body and through diplomatic protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer-Künzli, A.M.H.

    2010-01-01

    International law has not, yet, defined the limits of concurrent cases involving resort to a human rights mechanism and diplomatic protection. The European Court of Human Rights has on occasion dealt with questions of simultaneous procedures and the International Law Commission (ILC) has described

  13. A systematic review of social, economic and diplomatic aspects of short-term medical missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldron, Paul H; Impens, Ann; Pavlova, Milena; Groot, Wim

    2015-09-15

    Short-term medical missions (STMMs) represent a grass-roots form of aid, transferring medical services rather than funds or equipment. The objective of this paper is to review empirical studies on social, economic and diplomatic aspects of STMMs. A systematic literature review was conducted by searching PubMed and EBSCOhost for articles published from 1947-2014 about medical missions to lower and middle income countries (LMICs). Publications focused on military, disaster and dental service trips were excluded. A data extraction process was used to identify publications relevant to our objective stated above. PubMed and EBSCOhost searches provided 4138 and 3262 articles respectively for review. Most articles that provide useful information have appeared in the current millennium and are found in focused surgical journals. Little attention is paid to aspects of volunteerism, altruism and philanthropy related to STMM activity in the literature reviewed (1 article). Evidence of professionalization remains scarce, although elements including guidelines and tactical instructions have been emerging (27 articles). Information on costs (10 articles) and commentary on the relevance of market forces (1 article) are limited. Analyses of spill-over effects, i.e., changing attitudes of physicians or their communities towards aid, and characterizations of STMMs as meaningful foreign aid or strategic diplomacy are few (4 articles). The literature on key social, economic and diplomatic aspects of STMMs and their consequences is sparse. Guidelines, tactical instructions and attempts at outcome measures are emerging that may better professionalize the otherwise unregulated activity. A broader discussion of these key aspects may lead to improved accountability and intercultural professionalism to accompany medical professionalism in STMM activity.

  14. Diplomatic advantages and threats in global health program selection, design, delivery and implementation: development and application of the Kevany Riposte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian

    2015-05-27

    Global health programs, as supported by organizations such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), stand to make significant contributions to international medical outcomes. Traditional systems of monitoring and evaluation, however, fail to capture downstream, indirect, or collateral advantages (and threats) of intervention selection, design, and implementation from broader donor perspectives, including those of the diplomatic and foreign policy communities, which these programs also generate. This paper describes the development a new métier under which assessment systems designed to consider the diplomatic value of global health initiatives are described and applied based on previously-identified "Top Ten" criteria. The "Kevany Riposte" and the "K-Score" were conceptualized based on a retrospective and collective assessment of the author's participation in the design, implementation and delivery of a range of global health interventions related to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Responses and associated scores reframe intervention worth or value in terms of global health diplomacy criteria such as "adaptability", "interdependence", "training," and "neutrality". Response options ranged from "highly advantageous" to "significant potential threat". Global health initiatives under review were found to generate significant advantages from the diplomatic perspective. These included (1) intervention visibility and associations with donor altruism and prestige, (2) development of international non-health collaborations and partnerships, (3) adaptability and responsiveness of service delivery to local needs, and (4) advancement of broader strategic goals of the international community. Corresponding threats included (1) an absence of formal training of project staff on broader political and international relations roles and responsibilities, (2) challenges to recipient cultural and religious practices

  15. The Teaching of Botany in Last Century in Portugal: analysis of school textbooks of primary school education 1

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    O presente estudo assume como objetivo principal analisar qual a importância que tem sido conferida, em Portugal, à área de Botânica nos livros didáticos de Ciências da Natureza do Ensino Fundamental 1. Na tentativa de perceber de que forma ocorreu uma evolução na abordagem de conteúdos de Botânica, apreciamos livros didáticos baseados em onze princípios. Esta apreciação, apoiada numa abordagem metodológica assente na análise de conteúdo, pelo estabelecimento de categorias a posteriori, e na ...

  16. Botany and zoology in the late seventeenth-century Philippines: the work of Georg Josef Camel SJ (1661-1706).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Raquel A G

    2009-10-01

    Georg Josef Camel (1661-1706) went to the Spanish colony of the Philippine Islands as a Jesuit lay brother in 1687, and he remained there until his death. Throughout his time in the Philippines, Camel collected examples of the flora and fauna, which he drew and described in detail. This paper offers an overview of his life, his publications and the Camel manuscripts, drawings and specimens that are preserved among the Sloane Manuscripts in the British Library and in the Sloane Herbarium at the Natural History Museum, London. It also discusses Camel's links and exchanges with scientifically minded plant collectors and botanists in London, Madras and Batavia. Among those with whom Camel corresponded were John Ray, James Petiver, and the Dutch physician Willem Ten Rhijne.

  17. Is the United States Marine Corps the Best Organization to be Tasked with Providing Security to U.S. Diplomatic Missions?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    ...; this partnership can be improved to the betterment of the program and the missions they protect. Since its inception in 1791, Department of State diplomats have been escorted and protected by U.S. Marines...

  18. Root (Botany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Ziemer

    1981-01-01

    Plant roots can contribute significantly to the stability of steep slopes. They can anchor through the soil mass into fractures in bedrock, can cross zones of weakness to more stable soil, and can provide interlocking long fibrous binders within a weak soil mass. In deep soil, anchoring to bedrock becomes negligible, and lateral reinforcement predominates

  19. Synthetic Botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Christian R; Pollak, Bernardo; Purswani, Nuri; Patron, Nicola; Haseloff, Jim

    2017-07-05

    Plants are attractive platforms for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. Plants' modular and plastic body plans, capacity for photosynthesis, extensive secondary metabolism, and agronomic systems for large-scale production make them ideal targets for genetic reprogramming. However, efforts in this area have been constrained by slow growth, long life cycles, the requirement for specialized facilities, a paucity of efficient tools for genetic manipulation, and the complexity of multicellularity. There is a need for better experimental and theoretical frameworks to understand the way genetic networks, cellular populations, and tissue-wide physical processes interact at different scales. We highlight new approaches to the DNA-based manipulation of plants and the use of advanced quantitative imaging techniques in simple plant models such as Marchantia polymorpha. These offer the prospects of improved understanding of plant dynamics and new approaches to rational engineering of plant traits. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  20. SOME ASPECTS CONCERNING THE DIPLOMATIC PROTECTION OFFERED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION FOR THE CITIZENS IN THE PRESENT ECONOMIC SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirisan Ligia-Valentina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the particular meaning that is specific to European citizenship and that is involved in the practice of citizenship, it causes modern concepts of citizenship which are derived from the universal norms of citizenship. It's important to underline that the European citizenship is a concept which does not replace the National citizenship, but it is a new modern concept which has a real connection with the national citizenship and why not connected with the Romanian citizenship. From this point of view, emphasize in this paper that the diplomatic and consular authorities from member states of the Union have to guarantee the protection of the European citizens in third countries in which their state is not represented. The cooperation of the diplomatic representatives is an important point for the Foreign Politic of the European Union.

  1. A Review of Botany and Pharmacological Effect and Chemical Composition of Echinophora Species Growing in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Zohreh; Lorigooini, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Shirmardi, Hamzeh Ali; Solati, Kamal

    2017-01-01

    This review was conducted to investigate the botany, phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties of Echinophora species. The information of this review was obtained by searching for keywords Apiaceae , Echinophora , pharmacological effects, and traditional and modern medicine in scientific articles and books published in search engines Scopus, Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, and Web of Science. The traditional uses of Echinophora and the existence of valuable phytochemicals in the plant have led to isolation and drug discovery of natural medicines such as antibiotic, analgesics, and anticancer drugs, and the beneficial effects of these plants can widely be used in healthcare. Echinophora species are medicinal and aromatic plants that are belong to Apiaceae family. This genus have four species in Iran. The botany, geographical distribution, traditional and pharmacological effects of Echinophora genus were described. Also, the major chemical constituents of the essential oil and extract of different species of Echinophora that have been reported. Overall, the existence of valuable phytochemicals purpose Echinophora species as novel candidate to isolation and drug discovery of natural medicines such as antibiotic, analgesics, and anticancer drugs.

  2. Platycladus orientalis leaves: a systemic review on botany, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ming-Qiu; Shang, Jing; Ding, An-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Platycladus orientalis leaves (Cebaiye) have been used for thousands of years as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). According to the theory of TCM, they are categorized as a blood-cooling and hematostatic herb. In clinical practice, they were usually prescribed with heat-clearing herbs to reinforce the efficacy of hemostasis. The review provides the up-to-date information from 1980 to present that is available on the botany, processing research, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of the leaves. The information is collected from scientific journals, books, theses and reports via library and electronic search (Google Scholar, Pubmed and CNKI). Through literature reports, we can find that the leaves show a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, disinsection, anticancer, diuretic, hair growth-promoting, neuroprotective and antifibrotic activities. Diterpene and flavonoids would be active constituents in P. orientalis leaves. Many studies have provided evidence for various traditional uses. However, there is a great need for additional studies to elucidate the mechanism of blood-cooling and hematostatic activity of the leaves. Therefore, the present review on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and toxicity has provided preliminary information for further studies of this herb.

  3. Between boats and telegrams: the crisis of diplomatic asylum after the end of the Brazilian Naval Revolt (1894

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Júlio Gomes dos Santos Júnior

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Naval Revolt ended on March 13th of 1894 with the diplomatic asylum of more than five hundred fighters in two Portuguese warships. This episode originated a contest between Brazil and Portugal based on different interpretations of the international law of that time. While the negotiation was happening both corvettes went away from Rio de Janeiro to Buenos Aires, where a new boat would be rented to take the asylees until Portuguese territory. The Portuguese commanders, following political instructions, have denied to the refugees the right to disembark to complete the quarantine time at Martin Garcia’s lazaretto. The discontent with the overcrowding, the fear of some epidemic on board, plus the Portuguese government's discordance to allow the disembark, were the main reasons to refugee's flee and a diplomatic contest between Portugal and Argentina. Later on, both Portuguese corvettes went to Montevideo where a similar process ended with a large escape of asylees. The Brazilian government, extremely disturbed with the escapes, decided to break the international relations with Portugal. All the process was followed by the intense telegram's exchange between diplomats, warships commanders and foreign ministers.

  4. CAR PARKS P3 AND P4 AT GENEVA AIRPORT: PRIVILEGES GRANTED TO PERSONS HOLDING DIPLOMATIC STATUS

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service; Tel. 72848

    2001-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the international organisations in Geneva (hereinafter referred to as the «Swiss Mission») has informed CERN that the privileges granted to drivers of vehicles bearing diplomatic registration plates with respect to the use of Car-Park P3, situated at the «Departures» level of Geneva International Airport, have been renewed for an indefinite duration, subject to the following conditions: Vehicles bearing Swiss or French diplomatic plates are authorised to park for one hour in Car-Park P3 free of charge. The white entrance ticket entitles the holder to 15 minutes' free parking. Should the period of stay exceed 15 minutes but remain within one hour, drivers of vehicles bearing diplomatic plates should proceed to the car-parks control centre («Centre de Contrôle») at the Arrivals level, which is open 24 hours a day, and exchange their white entrance ticket for a pink exit pass free of charge by presen...

  5. The Performer as Philosopher and Diplomat of Dissensus: Thinking and Drinking Tea with Benjamin Verdonck in Bara/ke (2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Stalpaert

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecology and activism is a burning issue in theatre and performance studies. However, following the French philosopher Bruno Latour, a radically new encounter with ecology is needed today, if eco-activism still wants to have a future. It seems that, in order to survive, eco-activism and eco-art have to move beyond their narrow and limited anthropocentric perspective. In this paradigm shift, the performer as philosopher – in the sense of a diplomat of dissensus – might play an important role. The Flemish artist and performer Benjamin Verdonck picks up this role of a performer as philosopher. In his artistic tree houses, Verdonck invites passers-by for coffee or tea and gently raises ecological issues. He performs protest as what I call “a diplomat of dissensus”, combining Latour’s writings on contemporary ecology and the function of the diplomat therein, and Jacques Rancière’s writings on dissensus and art in public space. Ecology, for its part, moves into the direction of what Félix Guattari in The Three Ecologies refers to as “the ethico-aesthetic aegis of an ecosophy” (Guattari 2000, 41, a contraction of ecology and philosophy that connects the environmental with a reflection on the psychic production of subjectivity and social relations.

  6. Arabic plant names and botany in Arabic civilisation. The contribution of Peter Forsskål (1732-1763) and others

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Provencal, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    A presentation of the state of Botany in the Classical Arabic Civilisation and of some of the main contributors to our knowledge in this field, especially Peter Forsskål.......A presentation of the state of Botany in the Classical Arabic Civilisation and of some of the main contributors to our knowledge in this field, especially Peter Forsskål....

  7. Radix Bupleuri: A Review of Traditional Uses, Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fude; Dong, Xiaoxv; Yin, Xingbin; Wang, Wenping; You, Longtai; Ni, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Radix Bupleuri (Chaihu) has been used as a traditional medicine for more than 2000 years in China, Japan, Korea, and other Asian countries. Phytochemical studies demonstrated that this plant contains essential oils, triterpenoid saponins, polyacetylenes, flavonoids, lignans, fatty acids, and sterols. Crude extracts and pure compounds isolated from Radix Bupleuri exhibited various biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antipyretic, antimicrobial, antiviral, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory effects. However, Radix Bupleuri could also lead to hepatotoxicity, particularly in high doses and with long-term use. Pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated that the major bioactive compounds (saikosaponins a, b 2 , c, and d) were absorbed rapidly in rats after oral administration of the extract of Radix Bupleuri . This review aims to comprehensively summarize the traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and pharmacokinetics of Radix Bupleuri reported to date with an emphasis on its biological properties and mechanisms of action.

  8. Real Time Analysis of Bioanalytes in Healthcare, Food, Zoology and Botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianqi; Ramnarayanan, Ashwin; Cheng, Huanyu

    2017-12-21

    The growing demand for real time analysis of bioanalytes has spurred development in the field of wearable technology to offer non-invasive data collection at a low cost. The manufacturing processes for creating these sensing systems vary significantly by the material used, the type of sensors needed and the subject of study as well. The methods predominantly involve stretchable electronic sensors to monitor targets and transmit data mainly through flexible wires or short-range wireless communication devices. Capable of conformal contact, the application of wearable technology goes beyond the healthcare to fields of food, zoology and botany. With a brief review of wearable technology and its applications to various fields, we believe this mini review would be of interest to the reader in broad fields of materials, sensor development and areas where wearable sensors can provide data that are not available elsewhere.

  9. Forensic botany: using plant evidence to aid in forensic death investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller Coyle, Heather; Lee, Cheng-Lung; Lin, Wen-Yu; Lee, Henry C; Palmbach, Timothy M

    2005-08-01

    Forensic botany is still an under-utilized resource in forensic casework, although it has been used on occasion. It is an area of specialty science that could include traditional botanical classification of species, DNA, or materials evidence (trace and transfer evidence), crime mapping or geo-sourcing, all dependent on the specific case application under consideration. Critical to the evaluation of plant evidence is careful collection, documentation, and preservation for later scientific analysis. This article reviews proper procedures and recent cases where botanical evidence played a role in establishing either manner or time of death. Plant evidence can be useful for determining if a death was due to an accident, suicide, or homicide, or what time of year burial may have taken place. In addition, plant evidence can be used to determine if a crime scene is a primary or secondary scene and to locate missing bodies.

  10. New categories for traditional medicine in the Economic Botany Data Collection Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruca, Marta; Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Macía, Manuel J; Balslev, Henrik

    2014-09-11

    The Economic Botany Data Collection Standard (EBDCS) has been successfully followed by ethnobotanists investigating plant uses in many parts of the world. However, we have encountered some cases in our study of traditional medicine where the standard seems incomplete and inaccurate when it is applied to plant uses of rural or indigenous societies in developing countries. We propose two categories to be added to the EBDCS: Cultural Diseases and Disorders, and Ritual/Magical Uses. Adding these categories, we believe will give a more accurate insight into traditional medicine and will contribute to developing an integrative ethnomedicinal data collection protocol, which will make ethnomedicinal studies more comparable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. International Relations and Diplomatic Service: Retrospective Analysis and Prospects of The New World Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenii V. Ohotskii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presented as a review to the textbook of the Doctor of History Shakhalilov Shamansur, The History of International Relations: Driving Forces, Global Tendencies. Moscow State University Press, 2015. The author focuses readers attention on the regularities of formation, development and peculiarities of legal regulation of international relations, considers these relations as an ongoing, highly controversial and multidirectional developing process of the formation of the world system of States and international relations, explores the driving forces, events and phenomena, who had in his time, and many still have a decisive influence on international policy the leading powers of the world in the framework of nonlinear processes of globalization and the current, seriously flawed by today's standards, world order and system of international law. The article draws readers attention to everything presented in the tutorial main substantial characteristics and patterns of international relations in their historical context. Emphasizes the inadmissibility of violations of principles and norms of functioning of the traditional system of international law; analyses the factors of influence on the world trends of globalization processes is the gradual destruction of the boundaries between national and international levels of government and governance, the increasing role of supranational political actors. Attention is drawn to the increasing importance in international Affairs information and communication technologies and social networks, expanding the access of citizens to discuss government decisions on international issues. Article will help not only students, but all interested in the patterns, principles and features of international practices in different historical periods and in different civilization. Will foster in the reader a holistic view of the system of international relations and diplomatic activities, to learn, to understand the

  12. Rheum australe D. Don: a review of its botany, ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Timsina, Binu; Bhattarai, Krishna Ram

    2012-06-14

    Rheum australe D. Don (Polygonaceae) has been commonly used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to the circulatory, digestive, endocrine, respiratory and skeletal systems as well as to infectious diseases. To provide the up-to-date information that is available on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Rheum australe. Additionally, to highlight the possible uses of this species to treat different diseases and to provide a basis for future research. The present review covers the literature available from 1980 to 2011. The information was collected from scientific journals, books, theses and reports via a library and electronic search (Google Scholar, Web of Science and ScienceDirect). Ethnomedical uses of Rheum australe have been recorded from China, India, Nepal and Pakistan for 57 different types of ailments. The phytochemical studies have shown the presence of many secondary metabolites belonging to anthraquinones, stilbenes, anthrones, oxantrone ethers and esters, chromones, flavonoids, carbohydrate, lignans, phenols and sterols. Crude extracts and isolated compounds from Rheum australe show a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, hepatoprotective and immune-enhancing activities, as well as a usefulness for improving renal function. Rheum australe has been widely used source of medicine for years without any adverse effects. Many studies have provided evidence for various traditional uses. However, there is a need for additional studies of the isolated compounds to validate the traditional uses in human models. The present review on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and toxicity has provided preliminary information for further studies and commercial exploitations of the plant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Botanical Expedition to New Spain, 1786-1803: Mexico City's Botanical Garden and Pro­fessorship in Botany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Luis Maldonado Polo

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Thís work is about a  scientific enterprise carried out by  the Spanish Crown during the illustrated period, as a part of the ex­peditionary project to the overseas  territories. It describes the details and circumstances in which the Botanical Expedition be­gan, considering the prevailing intellectual environment at the time and the people who took a Ieading role in the cultural life of  the  incipient but  vigorous New Spain scientific community. After describing this background, the  author considers one of the Expedition's main results: the creation of  Mexico City's Botanical Garden and  Professorship in Botany,  which was the first of its kind in the American continent and contributed toes­ establish the study of Botany and related sciences in New Spain.

  14. Military and diplomatic roles and options for managing and responding to the proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction. Final report: Program on Stability and the Offense/Defense Relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, R.A.; Gill, J.M.; Murray, B.L.

    1993-05-26

    The March seminar, ``Military and Diplomatic Roles and Options`` for managing and responding to proliferation, featured three presentations: the military and diplomatic implications of preemptive force as a counterproliferation option; an in-depth assessment of the threat posed by biological weapons; and, a new proposed US counterproliferation policy.

  15. Importance of the Hungarian phytosociological school established at the University of Debrecen in development of current field botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhidi, A; Salamon-Albert, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The paper gives a short panoramic historical survey about the main activities of the Hungarian phytosociology, their chief protagonists, the fundamental role of professor Rezső Soó in the creation and development of the phytosociological school of Debrecen established by him in the Botanical Department of the University of Debrecen, which is celebrating the 80 anniversary of its existence and has played a determinant role in the Hungarian botany.

  16. Diospyros lycioides Desf.: Review of its botany, medicinal uses, pharmacological activities and phytochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Maroyi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diospyros lycioides Desf. (D. lycioides is traditionally used as herbal medicine against various human and animal ailments in tropical Africa. The present paper reviewed information on botany, medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of D. lycioides. This review was compiled using scientific literature from electronic search engine such as PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Springerlink, BioMed Central, Scielo, Medline and Science domain. Additional literatures were obtained from book chapters, books, dissertations, websites and other scientific publications. D. lycioides is used as traditional medicine in 50% of the countries where the species is native in tropical Africa. This study recorded 22 medicinal uses of D. lycioides which included abdominal pains, infertility in women, sexually transmitted infections, and used as chewing sticks (or mouthwash, toothbrushes and ethnoveterinary medicine. D. lycioides extracts demonstrated anti-adhesive, anti-inflammatory, antimetastatic, antioxidant, antifungal, antiproliferative, mutagenicity and antibacterial activities. Future research should focus on the pharmacological properties, phytochemistry, clinical trials and pharmacokinetics of D. lycioides which will enhance the therapeutic potential of the species.

  17. A Review of the Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology of Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqiu Shan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rubia cordifolia Linn (Rubiaceae is a climbing perennial herbal plant, which is widely distributed in China and India. Its root and rhizome, Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma (called Qiancao in China and Indian madder in India, is a well known phytomedicine used for hematemesis, epistaxis, flooding, spotting, traumatic bleeding, amenorrhea caused by obstruction, joint impediment pain, swelling and pain caused by injuries from falls. In addition, it is a kind of pigment utilized as a food additive and a dye for wool or fiber. This review mainly concentrates on studies of the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of this Traditional Chinese Medicine. The phytochemical evidences indicated that over a hundred chemical components have been found and isolated from the medicine, such as anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, triterpenoids, cyclic hexapeptides and others. These components are considered responsible for the various bioactivities of the herbal drug, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, antitumor, effects on coagulation-fibrinolysis system, neuroprotection and other effects. Additionally, based on these existing results, we also propose some interesting future research directions. Consequently, this review should help us to more comprehensively understand and to more fully utilize the herbal medicine Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma.

  18. A Review of the Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology of Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Mingqiu; Yu, Sheng; Yan, Hui; Chen, Peidong; Zhang, Li; Ding, Anwei

    2016-12-20

    Rubia cordifolia Linn (Rubiaceae) is a climbing perennial herbal plant, which is widely distributed in China and India. Its root and rhizome, Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma (called Qiancao in China and Indian madder in India), is a well known phytomedicine used for hematemesis, epistaxis, flooding, spotting, traumatic bleeding, amenorrhea caused by obstruction, joint impediment pain, swelling and pain caused by injuries from falls. In addition, it is a kind of pigment utilized as a food additive and a dye for wool or fiber. This review mainly concentrates on studies of the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of this Traditional Chinese Medicine. The phytochemical evidences indicated that over a hundred chemical components have been found and isolated from the medicine, such as anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, triterpenoids, cyclic hexapeptides and others. These components are considered responsible for the various bioactivities of the herbal drug, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, antitumor, effects on coagulation-fibrinolysis system, neuroprotection and other effects. Additionally, based on these existing results, we also propose some interesting future research directions. Consequently, this review should help us to more comprehensively understand and to more fully utilize the herbal medicine Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma.

  19. Forensic botany: species identification of botanical trace evidence using a multigene barcoding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Corradini, Beatrice; Beduschi, Giovanni

    2009-09-01

    Forensic botany can provide significant supporting evidence during criminal investigations. However, it is still an underutilized field of investigation with its most common application limited to identifying specific as well as suspected illegal plants. The ubiquitous presence of plant species can be useful in forensics, but the absence of an accurate identification system remains the major obstacle to the present inability to routinely and correctly identify trace botanical evidence. Many plant materials cannot be identified and differentiated to the species level by traditional morphological characteristics when botanical specimens are degraded and lack physical features. By taking advantage of a universal barcode system, DNA sequencing, and other biomolecular techniques used routinely in forensic investigations, two chloroplast DNA regions were evaluated for their use as "barcoding" markers for plant identification in the field of forensics. We therefore investigated the forensic use of two non-coding plastid regions, psbA-trnH and trnL-trnF, to create a multimarker system for species identification that could be useful throughout the plant kingdom. The sequences from 63 plants belonging to our local flora were submitted and registered on the GenBank database. Sequence comparison to set up the level of identification (species, genus, or family) through Blast algorithms allowed us to assess the suitability of this method. The results confirmed the effectiveness of our botanic universal multimarker assay in forensic investigations.

  20. Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicity of Strychnos nux-vomica L.: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rixin; Wang, Ting; Zhou, Guohong; Xu, Mengying; Yu, Xiankuo; Zhang, Xiao; Sui, Feng; Li, Chun; Tang, Liying; Wang, Zhuju

    2018-01-01

    Strychnos nux-vomica L. belongs to the genus Strychnos of the family Loganiaceae and grows in Sri Lanka, India and Australia. The traditional medicinal component is its seed, called Nux vomica. This study provides a relevant and comprehensive review of S. nux-vomica L., including its botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology, thus providing a foundation for future studies. Up to the present day, over 84 compounds, including alkaloids, iridoid glycosides, flavonoid glycosides, triterpenoids, steroids and organic acids, among others, have been isolated and identified from S. nux-vomica. These compounds possess an array of biological activities, including effects on the nervous system, analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions, antitumor effects, inhibition of the growth of pathogenic microorganisms and regulation of immune function. Furthermore, toxicity and detoxification methods are preliminarily discussed toward the end of this review. In further research on S. nux-vomica, bioactivity-guided isolation strategies should be emphasized. Its antitumor effects should be investigated further and in vivo animal experiments should be performed alongside in vitro testing. The pharmacological activity and toxicology of strychnine [Formula: see text]-oxide and brucine [Formula: see text]-oxide should be studied to explore the detoxification mechanism associated with processing more deeply.

  1. Euclea undulata Thunb.: Review of its botany, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroyi, Alfred

    2017-11-01

    Euclea undulata (E. undulata) is traditionally used for the treatment of body pains, chest complaints, cough, diabetes, diarrhoea, headaches, heart diseases and toothaches in southern Africa. This study was aimed at reviewing the botany, ethnopharmacology and biological activities of E. undulata in southern Africa. Results presented in this study are based on review of literature using search engines such as Science Direct, Springerlink, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, BioMed Central and Google Scholar. Herbal medicine is prepared from the decoctions of the roots, bark and leaves, and extracts of these plant parts have demonstrated anticholinesterase, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antimycobacterial, antiplasmodial, antioxidant and hypoglycaemic activities. Multiple classes of phytochemical compounds such alkaloids, diterpenes, fatty acids, flavonoids, glycosides, naphthoquinones, phenolics, phytosterols, reducing sugars, saponins and tannins have been isolated from the species. E. undulata has a lot of potential as herbal medicine in tropical Africa, and advanced research is required aimed at correlating its medicinal uses with the phytochemistry and pharmacological properties. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Illicium verum: a review on its botany, traditional use, chemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Wei; Hu, Wen-Ting; Huang, Bao-Kang; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2011-06-14

    The fruit of Illicium verum Hook. f. (Chinese star anise) has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine and food industry with the actions of dispelling cold, regulating the flow of Qi and relieving pain. A bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing recognized books including Chinese herbal classic, and worldwide accepted scientific databases (Pubmed, SciFinder, Scopus and Web of Science) were searched for the available information on I. verum. I. verum is an aromatic evergreen tree of the family Illiciaceae. It is sometimes contaminated with highly toxic Japanese star anise (I. anisatum L.) and poisonous star anise (I. lanceolatum A. C. Smith), which contain several neurotoxic sesquiterpenes. Traditional uses of I. verum are recorded throughout Asia and Northern America, where it has been used for more than 10 types of disorders. Numerous compounds including volatiles, seco-prezizaane-type sesquiterpenes, phenylpropanoids, lignans, flavonoids and other constituents have been identified from I. verum. Modern pharmacology studies demonstrated that its crude extracts and active compounds possess wide pharmacological actions, especially in antimicrobial, antioxidant, insecticidal, analgesic, sedative and convulsive activities. In addition, it is the major source of shikimic acid, a primary ingredient in the antiflu drug (Tamiflu). This review summarizes the up-to-date and comprehensive information concerning the botany, traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacology of I. verum together with the toxicology, and discusses the possible trend and scope for future research of I. verum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Euphorbia neriifolia L.: Review on botany, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Prashant Y; Panchal, Shital S

    2017-05-01

    The present review is intended to provide information on botany, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of various parts of Euphorbia neriifolia (E. neriifolia). E. neriifolia has several ethnomedicinal uses. The latex of E. neriifolia is used as laxative, purgative, rubefacient, carminative and expectorant as well as in treatment of whooping cough, gonorrhoea, leprosy, asthma, dyspepsia, jaundice, enlargement of the spleen, tumours, stone in the bladder, abdominal troubles and leucoderma. Leaves are brittle, heating, carminative, and good for improving the appetite and treatment of tumours, pains, inflammations, abdominal swellings and bronchial infections. Roots are used as symptomatic treatment of snake bite, scorpion sting and antispasmodic. Various plant parts or whole E. neriifolia extract and its isolates have been reported scientifically using various in-vivo and in-vitro experimental methods for anaesthetic, analgesic, anti-anxiety, anti-convulsant, anti-psychotic, anti-arthritis, anti-carcinogenic, antidiabetic, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, cytotoxic, death-receptor expression enhancing, dermal irritation, diuretic, haemolytic, immunomodulatory, radioprotective, scorpion venom and wound healing properties. It is reported to have chemical constituents like, neriifolin-S, neriifolin, neriifoliene, euphol, neriifolione, cycloartenol, nerifoliol, lectin, euphonerins A-G, 3-O-acetyl-8-O-tigloylingol, taraxerol, antiquorin, etc. Identified chemical constituents are still required to be explored for their advanced isolation techniques and biological activities. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Forensic botany as a useful tool in the crime scene: Report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margiotta, Gabriele; Bacaro, Giovanni; Carnevali, Eugenia; Severini, Simona; Bacci, Mauro; Gabbrielli, Mario

    2015-08-01

    The ubiquitous presence of plant species makes forensic botany useful for many criminal cases. Particularly, bryophytes are useful for forensic investigations because many of them are clonal and largely distributed. Bryophyte shoots can easily become attached to shoes and clothes and it is possible to be found on footwear, providing links between crime scene and individuals. We report a case of suicide of a young girl happened in Siena, Tuscany, Italia. The cause of traumatic injuries could be ascribed to suicide, to homicide, or to accident. In absence of eyewitnesses who could testify the dynamics of the event, the crime scene investigation was fundamental to clarify the accident. During the scene analysis, some fragments of Tortula muralis Hedw. and Bryum capillare Hedw were found. The fragments were analyzed by a bryologists in order to compare them with the moss present on the stairs that the victim used immediately before the death. The analysis of these bryophytes found at the crime scene allowed to reconstruct the accident. Even if this evidence, of course, is circumstantial, it can be useful in forensic cases, together with the other evidences, to reconstruct the dynamics of events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. The 21st Century as Whose Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Scott

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Macro-analysis and East-West encounter are shown through consideration of objective yet subjective constructed concepts for the international system and international economy in the 21st century. Three paradigms are considered, namely the 21st century as the ‘Pacific Century’, as ‘China’s Century’ and as the ‘Asian Century’. Overlaps are shown between these three paradigms, as also developments in time, and gradually shift in geographical location. The ‘Pacific Century’, and its associated Rimspeak, was the paradigm emerging in the late 1970s, knitting together America’s West Coast and the Japanese economy. By the late 1980s this was already shifting to talk of the 21st century likely to be an ‘Asian Century’ model, mark-1, based on the Pacific Asia dynamism shown by the ‘Asian Tigers’ and Japan. However, the Asian financial crash of 1997-8, and the economic downturn in Japan, meant that such an ‘Asian Century’ seemed premature as the 21st century arrived. Instead, it was China’s economic growth that seemed most evident, and with it the concept of the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’. However, in turn that has already been modified during the first decade of the century by India’s arrival as a rapidly growing economy. Consequently the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’ and as ‘India’s Century’ has been combined into talk of an ‘Asian Century’, mark-2.

  6. The contribution of the International Atomic Energy Agency to peace and development. Address at the Diplomatic Academy conference, Lima, Peru, 20 October 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1999-01-01

    In his address at the Diplomatic Academy Conference (Lima, Peru, 20 October 1999), the Director General of the IAEA described the role of the IAEA and its contribution to peace and development, focussing in four areas: technology transfer, nuclear power and sustainable energy development, nuclear safety, and the Agency's verification system

  7. A molecular identification system for grasses: a novel technology for forensic botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, J; Peakall, R; Gilmore, S R; Robertson, J

    2005-09-10

    Our present inability to rapidly, accurately and cost-effectively identify trace botanical evidence remains the major impediment to the routine application of forensic botany. Grasses are amongst the most likely plant species encountered as forensic trace evidence and have the potential to provide links between crime scenes and individuals or other vital crime scene information. We are designing a molecular DNA-based identification system for grasses consisting of several PCR assays that, like a traditional morphological taxonomic key, provide criteria that progressively identify an unknown grass sample to a given taxonomic rank. In a prior study of DNA sequences across 20 phylogenetically representative grass species, we identified a series of potentially informative indels in the grass mitochondrial genome. In this study we designed and tested five PCR assays spanning these indels and assessed the feasibility of these assays to aid identification of unknown grass samples. We confirmed that for our control set of 20 samples, on which the design of the PCR assays was based, the five primer combinations produced the expected results. Using these PCR assays in a 'blind test', we were able to identify 25 unknown grass samples with some restrictions. Species belonging to genera represented in our control set were all correctly identified to genus with one exception. Similarly, genera belonging to tribes in the control set were correctly identified to the tribal level. Finally, for those samples for which neither the tribal or genus specific PCR assays were designed, we could confidently exclude these samples from belonging to certain tribes and genera. The results confirmed the utility of the PCR assays and the feasibility of developing a robust full-scale usable grass identification system for forensic purposes.

  8. Botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Apocynum venetum L. (Luobuma): A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenyan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Wang, Tian; Hu, Jianjun

    2012-05-07

    Apocynum venetum L. (Apocynaceae, Luobuma ) has a long history as a Chinese traditional medicine with uses to calm the liver, soothe the nerves, dissipate heat, and promote diuresis. Recently, Luobuma tea has been commercialized as a sedative and anti-aging supplement that has become increasingly popular in North American and East Asian health food markets. The aim of this review is to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive overview of the botany, chemical constituents, traditional uses, pharmacological activities and safety aspects of Apocynum venetum in order to assess its ethnopharmacological use and to explore its therapeutic potentials and future opportunities for research. The accessible literature on Apocynum venetum written in English, Chinese and Japanese were collected and analyzed. The literatures included ancient Chinese herbal classics, pharmacopoeias and articles that included in Pubmed, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Wanfang. Modern pharmacological studies demonstrated that Apocynum venetum possess wide pharmacological activities that include antihypertensive, cardiotonic, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, lipid-lowering, antidepressant and anxiolytic effects, which can be explained by the presence of various flavonoid compounds in this plant. The traditional (Lop Nor region) use of Apocynum venetum with tobacco as an agent to detoxify nicotine may receive interest as a possible therapeutic option to detoxify the body from smoking. Based on animal studies and clinical trials, Apocynum venetum causes no severe side effects, even in a stable daily dosage (50mg/person/day) for more than three years. Apocynum venetum potentially has therapeutic potential in the prevention and treatment for the cardiovascular and neurological diseases, especially for high blood pressure, high cholesterol, neurasthenia, depression and anxiety. Further investigations are needed to explore individual bioactive compounds responsible for these in vitro and in vivo

  9. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 1: the first 50 years (1887-1936).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    The Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing papers on a wide range of topics in plant biology. It first appeared in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published botanical title. The present article gives a historical account of events leading to the founding of the Journal and of its development over the first 50 years. Much of the content is drawn from the Journal's own records and from extensive Minutes, financial accounts, personal letters and notes relating to the Annals of Botany that were repatriated from University College, University of London in 1999. Documents held at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and at the Oxford University Press Museum were also consulted. Emphasis is placed on the individuals who instigated, edited and managed the Annals of Botany up to 1937, especially the nine founding members of the Journal and the background that brought them together and motivated them to start the Annals of Botany. A falling out between two of the founders in 1899 is highlighted since not only did this threaten the Journal's future but also gives much insight into the personalities of those most closely involved in the Journal during its formative years. The article also examines the way the Journal was funded and how it dealt with its publisher (the University of Oxford's Clarendon Press), turned itself into a registered company (the Annals of Botany Company) and coped with the travails of the First World War, currency inflation and the Great Depression. Plans to re-start the Journal as a New Series, beginning in 1937, are discussed in the context of the competition the Annals of Botany then faced from younger journals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Forensic botany II, DNA barcode for land plants: Which markers after the international agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, G; Corradini, B; Ferrari, F; Santunione, A L; Palazzoli, F; Alu', M

    2015-03-01

    forensic botany. Based on obtained results, we recommend the adoption of a two-locus combination with rbcL+trnH-psbA plastid markers, which currently best satisfies forensic needs for botanical species identification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium (Chenpi): Botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin; Sun, Shuang; Guo, Yuyan; Liu, Yan; Yang, Dayu; Li, Guoyu; Lü, Shaowa

    2018-06-28

    Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium (Rutaceae, CRP), commonly called as Chenpi () in Chinese, is most frequently used as a qi-regulating drug in thousands of Chinese medicine prescriptions. CRP is found mainly in major citrus-producing areas such as the Guangdong, Guangxi, Sichuan, Fujian, and Zhejiang Provinces of China. Since thousands of years in China, CRP has been used widely in clinical practice to treat nausea, vomiting, indigestion, anepithymia, diarrhea, cough, expectoration, and so on. Currently, CRP is listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China. The present paper reviews the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, quality control, and toxicology of CRP. Information on CRP was gathered from various sources including the books on traditional Chinese herbal medicine; scientific databases including Elsevier, PubMed, and ScienceDirect; Baidu Scholar; CNKI; and others and from different professional websites. Approximately 140 chemical compounds have been isolated and identified from CRP. Among them, volatile oils and flavonoids are generally considered as the main bioactive and characteristic ingredients. CRP possesses wide pharmacological effects such as having a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular, digestive, and respiratory systems, antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties; and a protective effect on the liver and nerve. Moreover, hesperidin is chosen as an indicator in the quantitative determination of CRP, and the quantity of aflatoxin in CRP must not exceed the standard limit mentioned in the pharmacopoeia. In brief, CRP has a warming nature, and hence, it can be used in harmony with a lot of medicines. CRP not only exhibits its effects individually but also aids other medicines exhibit a better effect. CRP can be consumed with tea, food, alcohol, and medicine. Irrespective of the form it is being consumed, CRP not only shows a synergistic effect but also has strengths on its own. Modern pharmacological

  12. Areca catechu L. (Arecaceae): a review of its traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Liu, Yu-Jie; Wu, Na; Sun, Tao; He, Xiao-Yan; Gao, Yong-Xiang; Wu, Chun-Jie

    2015-04-22

    Areca catechu L. (Arecaceae), widely distributed in South and Southeast Asia, is a popular traditional herbal medicine that can be chewed for the purpose of dispersing accumulated fluid in the abdominal cavity and killing worms. The present paper aims to provide an up-to-date review on the traditional uses and advances in the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of this plant. Furthermore, the possible trends and a perspective for future research of this plant are also discussed. A literature search was performed on A. catechu based on classic books of herbal medicine, PhD. and MSc. dissertations, government reports, the state and local drug standards, scientific databases including Pubmed, SciFinder, Scopus, the Web of Science, Google Scholar, and others. Various types of information regarding this plant are discussed in corresponding parts of this paper. In addition, perspectives for possible future studies of A. catechu are discussed. The seeds of A. catechu (areca nut) have been widely used in clinical practice in China, India and other South and Southeast Asian Countries. Currently, over 59 compounds have been isolated and identified from A. catechu, including alkaloids, tannins, flavones, triterpenes, steroids, and fatty acids. The extracts and compounds isolated from A. catechu have many pharmacological activities. These include antiparasitic effects, anti-depressive effects, anti-fatigue effects, antioxidant effects, antibacterial and antifungal effects, antihypertensive effects, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, anti-allergic effects, the promotion of digestive functions, suppression of platelet aggregation, regulatory effects on blood glucose and lipids, etc. Although arecoline is the primary active constituent of A. catechu, it is also the primary toxic compound. The main toxicities of arecoline are the promotion of oral submucosal fibrosis (OSF) and cytotoxic effects on normal human cells, which involve inducing apoptosis. As an

  13. Botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and potential application of Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb.et Zucc.: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Qin, Rongxin; Li, Xiaoli; Zhou, Hong

    2013-07-30

    Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. (Polygonum cuspidatum), also known as Reynoutria japonica Houtt and Huzhang in China, is a traditional and popular Chinese medicinal herb. Polygonum cuspidatum with a wide spectrum of pharmacological effects has been used for treatment of inflammation, favus, jaundice, scald, and hyperlipemia, etc. The present paper reviews the traditional applications as well as advances in botany, phytochemistry, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and toxicology of this plant. Finally, the tendency and perspective for future investigation of this plant are discussed, too. A systematic review of literature about Polygonum cuspidatum is carried out using resources including classic books about Chinese herbal medicine, and scientific databases including Pubmed, SciFinder, Scopus, the Web of Science and others. Polygonum cuspidatum is widely distributed in the world and has been used as a traditional medicine for a long history in China. Over 67 compounds including quinones, stilbenes, flavonoids, counmarins and ligans have been isolated and identified from this plant. The root of this plant is used as the effective agent in pre-clinical and clinical practice for regulating lipids, anti-endotoxic shock, anti-infection and anti-inflammation, anti-cancer and other diseases in China and Japan. As an important traditional Chinese medicine, Polygonum cuspidatum has been used for treatment of hyperlipemia, inflammation, infection and cancer, etc. Because there is no enough systemic data about the chemical constituents and their pharmacological effects or toxicities, it is important to investigate the pharmacological effects and molecular mechanisms of this plant based on modern realization of diseases' pathophysiology. Drug target-guided and bioactivity-guided isolation and purification of the chemical constituents from this plant and subsequent evaluation of their pharmacologic effects will promote the development of new drug and make sure which

  14. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 1: the first 50 years (1887–1936)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing papers on a wide range of topics in plant biology. It first appeared in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published botanical title. The present article gives a historical account of events leading to the founding of the Journal and of its development over the first 50 years. Sources of Information Much of the content is drawn from the Journal’s own records and from extensive Minutes, financial accounts, personal letters and notes relating to the Annals of Botany that were repatriated from University College, University of London in 1999. Documents held at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and at the Oxford University Press Museum were also consulted. Content Emphasis is placed on the individuals who instigated, edited and managed the Annals of Botany up to 1937, especially the nine founding members of the Journal and the background that brought them together and motivated them to start the Annals of Botany. A falling out between two of the founders in 1899 is highlighted since not only did this threaten the Journal’s future but also gives much insight into the personalities of those most closely involved in the Journal during its formative years. The article also examines the way the Journal was funded and how it dealt with its publisher (the University of Oxford’s Clarendon Press), turned itself into a registered company (the Annals of Botany Company) and coped with the travails of the First World War, currency inflation and the Great Depression. Plans to re-start the Journal as a New Series, beginning in 1937, are discussed in the context of the competition the Annals of Botany then faced from younger journals. PMID:25561090

  15. Differences between epiphytic assemblages on introduced Caulerpa taxifolia and coexisting eelgrass (Zostera capricorni in Botany Bay (NSW, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Prado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to assess the potential effects of introduced Caulerpa taxifolia (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta on the biodiversity and trophic functioning of seagrass systems in New South Wales, Australia. Epiphytic assemblages growing on fronds of C. taxifolia were compared to those on eelgrass Zostera capricorni (Aschers. leaves in zones where both species were coexisting. The study was conducted at three shallow sites (ca. 1 m depth in Botany Bay during austral spring. Assemblages on both C. taxifolia and Z. capricorni were dominated by epiphytic algae (ca. 65% of the total taxa but results showed significantly greater numbers on C. taxifolia compared to Z. capricorni as well as important differences among study sites. n-MDS ordinations and PERMANOVA analyses confirmed the existence of significant differences in the assemblage compositions of C. taxifolia and Z. capricorni as well as differences between times and sites. SIMPER analysis showed that animal composition made a higher contribution to dissimilarities between habitats compared to epiphytic algae (36% vs. 23% respectively. In particular, filter-feeding organisms, associated with surfaces such as ascidians (5 taxa and bryozoans (2 taxa emerged as important contributing taxa. Hence, our results suggest that introduced C. taxifolia from Botany Bay is a suitable substratum for settlement of epiphytes, at least during the study period, and that observed patterns are due to differences in habitat structure. Further research is necessary to determine the influence of seasonal processes, such as production of toxic secondary metabolites, in other invaded locations of New South Wales.

  16. Saussurea involucrata: A review of the botany, phytochemistry and ethnopharmacology of a rare traditional herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chik, Wai-I; Zhu, Lin; Fan, Lan-Lan; Yi, Tao; Zhu, Guo-Yuan; Gou, Xiao-Jun; Tang, Yi-Na; Xu, Jun; Yeung, Wing-Ping; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hu-Biao

    2015-08-22

    Saussurea involucrata Matsum. & Koidz. is an endangered species of the Asteraceae family, growing in the high mountains of central Asia. It has been, and is, widely used in traditional Uyghur, Mongolian and Kazakhstan medicine as well as in Traditional Chinese Medicine as Tianshan Snow Lotus (Chinese: ). In traditional medical theory, S. involucrata can promote blood circulation, thereby alleviating all symptoms associated with poor circulation. It also reputedly eliminates cold and dampness from the body, diminishes inflammation, invigorates, and strengthens Yin and Yang. It has long been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, cough with cold, stomach ache, dysmenorrhea, and altitude sickness in Uyghur and Chinese medicine. To comprehensively summarize the miscellaneous research that has been done regarding the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, biological activity, and toxicology of S. involucrata. An extensive review of the literature was carried out. Apart from different electronic databases including SciFinder, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), ScienceDirect that were sourced for information, abstracts, full-text articles and books written in English and Chinese, including those traditional records tracing back to the Qing Dynasty. Pharmacopoeia of China and other local herbal records in Uighur, Mongolian and Kazakhstan ethnomedicines were investigated and compared for pertinent information. The phytochemistry of S. involucrata has been comprehensively investigated. More than 70 compounds have been isolated and identified; they include phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, coumarins, lignans, sesquiterpenes, steroids, ceramides, polysaccharides. Scientific studies on the biological activity of S. involucrata are equally numerous. The herb has been shown to have anti-neoplastic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-oxidative, anti-fatigue, anti-aging, anti-hypoxic, neuroprotective and immunomodulating effects. Many have shown correlations to the

  17. The Role of Forensic Botany in Solving a Case: Scientific Evidence on the Falsification of a Crime Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Isabella; Gratteri, Santo; Sacco, Matteo A; Ricci, Pietrantonio

    2018-05-01

    Forensic botany can provide useful information for pathologists, particularly on crime scene investigation. We report the case of a man who arrived at the hospital and died shortly afterward. The body showed widespread electrical lesions. The statements of his brother and wife about the incident aroused a large amount of suspicion in the investigators. A crime scene investigation was carried out, along with a botanical morphological survey on small vegetations found on the corpse. An autopsy was also performed. Botanical analysis showed some samples of Xanthium spinosum, thus leading to the discovery of the falsification of the crime scene although the location of the true crime scene remained a mystery. The botanical analysis, along with circumstantial data and autopsy findings, led to the discovery of the real crime scene and became crucial as part of the legal evidence regarding the falsity of the statements made to investigators. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. A question of merit: John Hutton Balfour, Joseph Hooker and the 'concussion' over the Edinburgh chair of botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Richard

    2005-03-01

    In 1845, Robert Graham's death created a vacancy for the traditionally dual appointment to the University of Edinburgh's chair of botany and the Regius Keepership of the Edinburgh Royal Botanic Garden. John Hutton Balfour and Joseph Hooker emerged as the leading candidates. The contest quickly became embroiled in long running controversies over the nature and control of Scottish university education at a time of particular social and political tension after a recent schism in Church of Scotland. The politics of the appointment were complicated by the fact that the Edinburgh Town Council (which preferred Balfour) chose the chair while the keepership was under the patronage of the Westminster government (which preferred Hooker). Balfour eventually emerged triumphant after a bitter campaign marked on all sides by intense politicking. The struggle to replace Graham provides a case study in how Victorian men of science adapted their aspirations to the practical realities of life in industrial, reforming, imperial, multinational Britain.

  19. The Tatar Tsarevitches in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (15th–18th centuries »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Dumin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the genealogy of the three families of the Tatar tsarevitches (Soltans, settled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 15th or early 16th century. The first of these (extinct until the mid 16th century descended from “tsarevitch Sihdohman from Perekop” (in all probability, from khan Sidi Ahmed. The second, tsarevitches Ostrynsky (extinct in the early 17th century, were descendants of the Crimean Giray dynasty. The third, ”tsarevitches Zavolzhsky”, called later “tsarevitches Punsky”, were the descendants of Halleck-Soltan, nephew of the last khan of the Great Horde Shah Ahmat (Sheikh Ahmed and they still existed in the first half of the 18th century. At the beginning of the 16th century these tsarevitches maintained their contacst with the Great Horde and Crimea and played some role in the diplomatic relations of the Grand Duchy and Tatar khanates. Later, they turned into ordinary military landowners, though they occupied the honored place in the Lithuanian Tatar aristocracy and retained their traditional title of tsarevitches (though often they also titled princes, like other noble Tatars.

  20. Traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Guo, Rixin; Zhou, Guohong; Zhou, Xidan; Kou, Zhenzhen; Sui, Feng; Li, Chun; Tang, Liying; Wang, Zhuju

    2016-07-21

    Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine known as Sanqi or Tianqi in China. This plant, which is distributed primarily in the southwest of China, has wide-ranging pharmacological effects and can be used to treat cardiovascular diseases, pain, inflammation and trauma as well as internal and external bleeding due to injury. This paper provides up-to-date information on investigations of this plant, including its botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology. The possible uses and perspectives for future investigation of this plant are also discussed. The relevant information on Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen was collected from numerous resources, including classic books about Chinese herbal medicine, and scientific databases, including Pubmed, SciFinder, ACS, Ebsco, Elsevier, Taylor, Wiley and CNKI. More than 200 chemical compounds have been isolated from Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen, including saponins, flavonoids and cyclopeptides. The plant has pharmacological effects on the cardiovascular system, immune system as well as anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, haemostatic and anti-tumour activities, etc. Panax notoginseng is a valuable traditional Chinese medical herb with multiple pharmacological effects. This review summarizes the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of P. notoginseng, and presents the constituents and their corresponding chemical structures found in P. notoginseng comprehensively for the first time. Future research into its phytochemistry of bio-active components should be performed by using bioactivity-guided isolation strategies. Further work on elucidation of the structure-function relationship among saponins, understanding of multi-target network pharmacology of P. notoginseng, as well as developing its new clinical usage and comprehensive utilize will enhance the therapeutic potentials of P. notoginseng. Copyright © 2016

  1. The Image of Russia in French Travel Literature of the XIXth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne M. Aroutiounova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the literature of travel of French authors of the XIXth century. Authers put the aim to create the general investigation dedicated to this therm, bringing in the quality of the source base as a quite famous works of the French travelers and writers, and little-known to a wide circle of readers. XIX century is a time of expanding cultural, humanitarian, diplomatic contacts between Russia and France, which resulted in an increase in the number of foreigners who traveled to Russia, and, consequently, of the works explaining all the features of the trip, impressions, fears, etc. During this period, the Europeans started to visit not only Moscow and Saint Petersburg, but also Siberia, the Far East, the geography of travelling considerably expanded, and new works of foreigners about Russia appeared. Still, as in the previous epoch, the French authors writed about traditions and mores, the state and social structure, religious peculiarities, the culture of Russia. In general, the travel literature on Russia is significantly enriched, indicating the increasing interest of the Russian state.It is not only about informative motives, but also need to learn the realities of the Russian state, the mood in society, the level of military capabilities etc.Notes of a travelling foreigners were thus provided very valuable information about the state of affairs in Russia, it was important for European readers and, of course, diplomats, military and the rulers of other states. Of course, the French authors reproduced pictures seen in Russia through the prism of their own experience, political affiliation, certain stereotypes and myths about the Russian state and people, developed in a previous era. However, despite a certain subjectivity in the estimates and judgments, the works of French authors are a very valuable source in the framework of imagological research, studying the image of «their» and «alien» in the view of

  2. The Impact of the Telegraph on Anglo-Japanese Diplomacy during the Nineteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Nicholls

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In our age of high-speed communication, it is easy to underestimate how vast the distance between Britain and Japan really is. At a time when it took over four months for letters to cross from Japan to Britain and back, the first British diplomats posted there were almost completely isolated by their remoteness. The British Ministers to Japan were thus forced to rely on their own judgement in carrying out their allotted task of nurturing British commerce, with occasionally disastrous consequences. This isolation was ended at a stroke in 1870, when Japan was connected to the globe-spanning telegraph network, and the British could send messages via the wire between London and Tokyo in a matter of hours rather than months. This article explores the degree to which the everyday business of a British envoy in Japan was actually changed by the introduction of the telegraph, and asks whether the availability of a technology is enough, in itself, to change society. To answer this question, I look at the careers of the three most distinguished nineteenth-century British diplomats in Japan: Sir Rutherford Alcock (1859–1864, Sir Harry Parkes (1865– 1883 and Sir Ernest Mason Satow (1895–1900.

  3. Small money, big problems: how an investigation on small Latin American republics shaped the financial market for sovereign debt in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Ribas Miranda

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1875 the British Parliament set up a Committee to investigate frauds on loans underwritten by British and French banks to the Republics of Honduras, Costa Rica, Santo Domingo and Paraguay, reaching an amount of £12 million. The reports of the Committee and the press coverage issue revealed financial malpractices by banks and diplomats in order to induce millionaire defaults at expense of the bondholders, whilst the loan agents were living in luxuriant mansions in southern France. After the investigation, these shoddy practices were exposed to the public, reshaping the loan business for the rest of the century.

  4. Nineteenth-Century English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg......The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg...

  5. Temperature profile and other data collected from XBT casts in South Pacific Ocean from BOTANY BAY and other platforms from 24 January 1991 to 20 November 1991 (NODC Accession 9400208)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using XBT casts from BOTANY BAY and other platforms in South Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 24 January...

  6. Bryophytes as Teaching Materials on the Textbook of Botany (The Latter Term of Meiji to the Beginning of Showa) and Suggestions for Development of New Teaching Material

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Takayuki; Muko, Heiwa; Ohshika, Kiyoyuki

    2007-01-01

    Bryophytes have some characteristics as teaching material, but it is very difficult to use them in secondary education. Nevertheless, from the latter term of Meiji to the beginning of Showa, there are many teaching materials for natural history.Therefore, we analyzed teaching materials on the textbook of botany that was published at the period, take suggestions for newly development of teaching material. We analyzed composition of textbooks and species of Bryophytes, and compared them to a ma...

  7. Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. (Rutaceae: A Systematic Review of Its Traditional Uses, Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics, and Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. (Rutaceae is a popular food additive and traditional Chinese herbal medicine commonly named HuaJiao in China. This plant is widely distributed in Asian countries. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review on the traditional usages, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology of this plant. Furthermore, the possible development and perspectives for future research on this plant are also discussed. To date, over 140 compounds have been isolated and identified from Z. bungeanum, including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, and free fatty acids. The extracts and compounds have been shown to possess wide-ranging biological activity, such as anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, antioxidant and anti-tumor effects, antibacterial and antifungal effects, as well as regulatory effects on the gastrointestinal system and nervous system, and other effects. As a traditional herbal medicine, Z. bungeanum has been widely used to treat many diseases, especially digestive disorders, toothache, stomach ache, and diarrhea. Many traditional usages of this plant have been validated by present investigations. However, further research elucidating the structure-function relationship among chemical compounds, understanding the mechanism of unique sensation, as well as exploring new clinical effects and establishing criteria for quality control for Z. bungeanum should be further studied.

  8. Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. (Rutaceae): A Systematic Review of Its Traditional Uses, Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics, and Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengmeng; Wang, Jiaolong; Zhu, Lei; Li, Tao; Jiang, Weidong; Zhou, Juan; Peng, Wei; Wu, Chunjie

    2017-10-18

    Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. (Rutaceae) is a popular food additive and traditional Chinese herbal medicine commonly named HuaJiao in China. This plant is widely distributed in Asian countries. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review on the traditional usages, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology of this plant. Furthermore, the possible development and perspectives for future research on this plant are also discussed. To date, over 140 compounds have been isolated and identified from Z. bungeanum , including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, and free fatty acids. The extracts and compounds have been shown to possess wide-ranging biological activity, such as anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, antioxidant and anti-tumor effects, antibacterial and antifungal effects, as well as regulatory effects on the gastrointestinal system and nervous system, and other effects. As a traditional herbal medicine, Z. bungeanum has been widely used to treat many diseases, especially digestive disorders, toothache, stomach ache, and diarrhea. Many traditional usages of this plant have been validated by present investigations. However, further research elucidating the structure-function relationship among chemical compounds, understanding the mechanism of unique sensation, as well as exploring new clinical effects and establishing criteria for quality control for Z. bungeanum should be further studied.

  9. Dinoflagellate cyst abundance is positively correlated to sediment organic carbon in Sydney Harbour and Botany Bay, NSW, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chang; Doblin, Martina A; Dafforn, Katherine A; Johnston, Emma L; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong

    2018-02-01

    There is growing public concern about the global expansion of harmful algal bloom species (HABs), with dinoflagellate microalgae comprising the major portion of the harmful taxa. These motile, unicellular organisms have a lifecycle involving sexual reproduction and resting cyst formation whereby cysts can germinate from sediments and 'seed' planktonic populations. Thus, investigation of dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) distribution in sediments can provide significant insights into HAB dynamics and contribute to indices of habitat quality. Species composition and abundance of dinocysts in relation to sediment characteristics were studied at 18 stations in two densely populated temperate Australian estuaries, Sydney Harbour (Parramatta River/Port Jackson; PS) and Botany Bay (including Georges River; GB). Eighteen dinocyst taxa were identified, dominated by Protoceratium reticulatum and Gonyaulax sp.1 in the PS estuary, together with Archaeperidinium minutum and Gonyaulax sp.1 in the GB estuary. Cysts of Alexandrium catenella, which is one of the causative species of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), were also detected in both estuaries. Out of the measured sediment characteristics (TOC, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), TOC was the parameter explaining most of the variation in dinocyst assemblages and was positively correlated to most of the heavy metals. Given the significant relationship between sediment TOC and dinocyst abundance and heavy metal concentrations, this study suggests that sediment TOC could be broadly used in risk management for potential development of algal blooms and sediment contamination in these estuaries.

  10. [The century of noise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivato, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    When did, actually, "noise pollution" begin to coexist along with our daily life and activities and change our environmental natural sounds, which hadn't changed for centuries? Industrial revolution, first, and the introduction of new technologies later, introduced "noise" as one of the most relevant features that marked the development of progress. Later on, it became the distinctive characteristic of the XX century. The incessant rumble of industrial machinery, of weapons and cannons from the wars, the roar of cars in the streets and aeroplanes from the sky, the deafening sound of XX century music, as well as the shouting out of new political ideas suddenly invaded the new century. They became part of our daily life so much as almost to become a new lay religion of modernity. As the century proceeded towards economic boom, a "new noisy Man" complied with this change, becoming the anthropologic prototype who was able to adapt to the new style of life and even contribute to its expansion. All this finally allows, to day, a definition of the XX century as the "century of noise".

  11. The treatment of syphilis in Ferrara (Italy) in the 19th century: the example of the Ferrarese pharmacopoeia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Enrica; Angelini, Lauretta; Mares, Donatella; Contini, Carlo; Vicentini, Chiara Beatrice

    2010-03-01

    The authors have taken the Italian city of Ferrara as an example of the remedies against syphilis, commonly used worldwide in the 1800s. After having identified the terminologies used to diagnose syphilis, they evidence the legislative behaviours of the government authorities in 19th century in Italy and, in particular, the social and sanitary measures taken in Ferrara to limit the spread of the syphilis epidemic. Historical sources permitted description of the remedies employed in Ferrara from the beginning to the end of that century, not only to treat conditions linked directly to the malady itself, but also its complications and secondary pathologies. The pharmacopoeia written for the apothecaries of Ferrara by Antonio Campana, a famous Professor of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Botany, won a great reputation and distribution in the international medical world not only of the first half of the 1800s. His authoritative work was much appreciated in Italy and abroad.

  12. Organizing the Electronic Century

    OpenAIRE

    Richard N. Langlois

    2007-01-01

    This paper's title is an echo of Alfred Chandler's (2001) chronicle of the electronics industry, Inventing the Electronic Century. The paper attempts (A) a general reinterpretation of the pattern of technological advance in (American) electronics over the twentieth century and (B) a somewhat revisionist account of the role of organization and institution in that advance. The paper stresses the complex effects of product architecture and intellectual property regime on industrial organization ...

  13. Le discours diplomatique dans la correspondance franco-allemande 1871-1914 The diplomatic discourse in the correspondence between France and Germany from 1870 to 1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivan Cohen-Wiesenfeld

    2008-09-01

    crise internationale.This paper describes the characteristics of the diplomatic discourse between France and Germany from 1870 to the First World War through the analysis of a corpus of diplomatic correspondence. The latter is divided into two main genres: the letters exchanged between foreign ministries and ambassadors, and the correspondence between states. These two genres reflect different socio-discursive practices and aim at different objectives; their main common point is the role played by the ambassador as the central axis of the communication. Although very formal and distanced in order to preserve international harmony, the notes between states are strongly argumentative texts which crystallize antagonist positions and express subjective points of view “masked” by rational arguments. Diplomatic reports, in spite of their generic constraints, have high relational stakes, and leave considerable room to self-presentation, or the construction of ethos. The concomitant analysis of these two forms of diplomatic correspondence enlightens the way diplomatic exchanges work at this period and helps to understand the evolution of the discursive interaction between the two involved states. Beyond this distinction between genres, some constitutive features of diplomatic discourse can be identified. Because it must reconcile antithetical aims such as defense of national interests and preservation of international peace, diplomatic discourse has to use linguistic forms that are oblique and implicit. It also recurs to ritualized exchanges in order to save the territory and the “face” of nations. Identity borders between national egos can be perceived as well in the materiality of the discourse, especially during periods of international crisis.

  14. Muscovy and the Crimea in the Historical Destinies of the Peoples of the North Caucasus in the second half of the XVI century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Kudryavtsev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of the XVI century Moscow state, defeating Kazan (1552 and Astrakhan (1556 khanate, came to the Caspian sea to the North Caucasus, where he encountered opposition from two very strong opponents: Turkey and the Crimean khanate. The Ottoman Empire, which included Northern Caspian and the Caucasus in the number of its geopolitical interests, sought power and diplomatic means to subdue the mountain and nomadic population, their power and actively opposed their rapprochement with Russia. One of the main performers and conductors of Turkish policy in the region were dependent vassal of Turkey, the Crimean khanate. The peoples of the North Caucasus, first of all Nogai, the Kabardians and the representatives of several other Circassian tribes, seen in Moscow state protection from the expansive aspirations of the Crimea and Turkey and actively supported the Russian fortification construction and anticrime military operations of the Russian North Caucasus. Military and diplomatic successes of the Russian state in the North Caucasus and the Caspian sea in the second half of the XVI century contributed to the development of international Eastern trade along the Volga-Caspian route and the strengthening of the authority of Moscow in the region and in the international arena.

  15. The contribution of the International Atomic Energy Agency to peace and development. Address at the conference of the Diplomatic Academy at the Institute of 'Matias Romero', Mexico City, Mexico, 13 October 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1999-01-01

    In his address at the Conference of the Diplomatic Academy at the Institute of 'Matias Romero' (Mexico City, Mexico, 13 October 1999), the Director General of the IAEA described the role of the IAEA and its contribution to peace and development, focussing in four areas: technology transfer, nuclear power and sustainable energy development, nuclear safety, and the Agency's verification system

  16. The anxieties of a science diplomat: field coproduction of climate knowledge and the rise and fall of Hans Ahlmann's polar warming".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörlin, Sverker

    2011-01-01

    In the decades between the world wars there were several attempts to document and explain perceived tendencies of atmospheric warming. Hans Ahlmann, a seminal figure in modern glaciology and a science policy adviser and diplomat, constructed a theory of "polar warming" using field results from glacier melting in the Arctic. This article aims to link the rise and fall of "polar warming" with Ahlmann's style of fieldwork. In Ahlmann's view, fieldwork should (1) enhance credibility of polar climate science by emulating laboratory methods and (2) secure knowledge in remote places through collaboration with local residents and fieldworkers. The bodily nature of this style of knowledge production turned out to be an asset in establishing Ahlmann's theory of polar warming but ultimately proved nonresilient to theories of anthropogenic climate change, which became influential from the 1950s onward.

  17. The ecological century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worthington, E. B.

    1981-01-01

    This essay attempts to reconstruct the evolution of Ecology as the scientific basis for environmental conservation and human progress, as seen through the eyes of a biologist who has exercised that science during a number of tasks in various parts of the world over most of the twentieth century. From its beginnings in evolutionary thinking during the nineteenth century, ecology emerged from natural history at the beginning of the twentieth. At first the running was made by botanists; but this was soon followed by zoologists, who dealt with more mobile communities. The first quarter-century was mainly exploratory; the second was mainly descriptive (although biological exploration was still dominant in the tropics). The third quarter saw ecology developing into an experimental science, and, as the environmental revolution got into its stride, ecology became organized both nationally and internationally. Although the term is now often misused and sometimes misunderstood by laymen, the last quarter-century is seeing the wide application of ecology in environmental and human affairs, and this gives some assurance that the twenty-first century will not become one of chaos.

  18. A comparative analysis of literary depictions of social violence in two important 16th Century autobiographies, from the perspective of the fencing manuals of the Renaissance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandler Jean

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the late 16th century two interesting individuals made substantial contributions to the relatively new genre of the autobiography. In 1595 Bartholomäus Sastrow (1520–1603, a north German burgher, notary, diplomat, and eventually burgomeister of the Hanseatic City of Stralsund, penned his life story. Benvenuto Cellini (1500–1571, goldsmith, soldier, musician and famous Renaissance artist from Florence, wrote his memoir between 1558 and 1563. Though they were born twenty years apart, both men had similar backgrounds. Both were from the lower-middle strata of society but rose to high status, both were widely traveled and directly acquainted with the most powerful individuals of their time (as well as some of the most lowly and both experienced firsthand some of the most dramatic and important political and military events of the mid-16th century.

  19. Botany in children's literature: A content analysis of plant-centered children's picture books that have a plot and characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goins, Sheila Lewis

    This content analysis study examined 36 plant-centered children's science picture books that have a plot and characters published from 1950 to present. Botanical subject matter and learning opportunities offered by these books were analyzed, along with the range and frequency of the National Science Education Standards-consistent and age-appropriate plant science concepts and principles. The science graphics, artistic innovations, and story plot of these books were also examined. Rubrics and research-based recommendations were developed to offer parents, teachers, and librarians assistance in identifying, evaluating, and using such books to help children of ages 4--8 learn about plants and enjoy plant science. This genre of children's literature was identified and selected primarily through extensive research at four major, nationally recognized children's literature collections: The Kerlan Collection, The de Grummond Collection, The Center for Children's Books, and The Central Children's Room at the Donnell Library. This study determined that there was a substantial increase in the number of books written in this genre of children's literature from 1990 to 2000. Botanical subject-matter knowledge and learning opportunities offered by these books include biodiversity of plants; characteristics of plants; life cycles of plants; economic botany, ecology, and ethnobotany. The range and frequency of National Standards-consistent and age-appropriate plant science concepts and principles identified within these books, in part, though not exclusively, included the emergent categories of the process of photosynthesis; basic needs of plants; plant structures; external signals affecting plant growth; environmental stress to plants; biodiversity of plants; plants as animal habitats; and common uses of plants. With regard to plant science graphics, 13 books were identified as presenting some type of science graphic, beyond simple illustrations. The most frequently used

  20. Latin Empire of Constantinople, the Jochids and Crimea in the Mid-Thirteenth Century »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Uzelac

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the analysis of relations between the Latin Empire of Constantinople and Ulus of Jochi (the Golden Horde. It is primarily focused upon the diplomatic mission of Baldwin of Hainaut, which took place approximately between 1249 and 1252. As a representative of the namesake Latin Emperor, Baldwin of Hainaut led negotiations with the Batu’s son Sartak, and then, he traveled to the Far East, where he possibly met with the Great Khan Möngke. The aim of the mission was to secure the Mongol support for the defense of Constantinople against aggressive aspirations of the Empire of Nicaea. The immediate results of the Baldwin’s mission are not known, but it is certain that they led to the establishment of the diplomatic relations between the Latin Empire and the Jochids. It is confirmed by the fact that the famous Flemish traveler William of Rubruck carried recommendations of the Latin emperor to a Tatar representative who governed the lands to the north of Crimea. Exactly these recommendations provided Rubruck safe passage through the Tatar territory. Important factor that led to the Baldwin’s enterprise were activities of Venetian and other Italian merchants. They served as primary intermediaries between the Frankish establishment of Constantinople and the Tatars, but they were not the only ones who played this role. Political and ecclesiastical elite of the Crimean cities, especially of its main port Soldaia, also had important place in these contacts. In the mid-thirteenth century, the Crimea became a contact zone between the two civilizations. In Crimea, western and the Tatar political interests intermingled, as a result of the strategic location of the peninsula, commercial activities of its inhabitants and the cosmopolitan character of the Crimean urban centers.

  1. A Campaign of the Great Hetman Jan Zamoyski in Moldavia (1595. Part I. Politico-diplomatic and military preliminaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Milewski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Polish-Turkish relations in the sixteenth century were generally peaceful, but the source of a conflict remained because of recurring bouts of Tatars and Cossacks, and the unexpired Polish claims to sovereignty over Moldavia. The outbreak of the war between the Ottomans and the Habsburgs in 1593 offered for Poland an opportunity to strengthen its policy in the southeast. The movement of the Christian vassals of the Sultan to the side of the Emperor Rudolf II resulted in the relocation of military operations to the territory of today’s Romania. The subordination of the Romanian lands to the Habsburgs or their complete subjugation by the Ottomans was dangerous to Rzeczpospolita. Thus, in the summer of 1595, the Chancellor and the Great Hetman of the Crown Jan Zamoyski decided to enter with a part of Polish troops to Moldavia.

  2. Solomon Islands Botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1969-01-01

    A discussion of the Results of the Royal Society Expedition to the British Solomon Islands Protectorate, 1965. Organized by E.J.H. Corner. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 255 (1969) 185-631, 196 fig. University Printing House, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge. Obtainable through booksellers or direct to the Royal

  3. Progress in Malesian botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1969-01-01

    Annonaceae. Mr. J. Sinclair had begun collecting details for tackling Malesian Annonaceae. He left several notebooks of notes made in various herbaria of examined specimens, several envelopes containing slips bearing identifications, and a thick file with manuscript. It is not possible to say

  4. Progress in Malesian botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1985-01-01

    The research on the Clavariaceae of the Philippines aims to establish a taxonomic account and the distribution, seasonality and economic importance of the indigenous species. A total of 85 specimens belonging to 7 genera have so far been collected by Mr. L.T. EVANGELISTA. Among his interesting

  5. Marine botany. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawes, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    Marine plants are a diverse group that include unicellular algae, seaweeds, seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangrove forests. They carry out a variety of ecological functions and serve as the primary producers in coastal wetlands and oceanic waters. The theme that connects such a wide variety of plants is their ecology, which was also emphasized in the 1981 edition. The goal of this revision is to present taxonomic, physiological, chemical, and ecological aspects of marine plants, their adaptations, and how abiotic and biotic factors interact in their communities. The data are presented in a concise, comparative manner in order to identify similarities and differences between communities such as salt marsh and mangroves or subtidal seaweeds and seagrasses. To accomplish this, the text is organized into five chapters that introduce the marine habitats, consider abiotic and biotic factors, and anthropogenic influences on the communities followed by seven chapters that deal with microalgae, seaweeds, salt marshes, mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs. Two appendixes are included; one presents simple field techniques and the other is a summary of seaweed uses

  6. Progress in Malesian botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1995-01-01

    Anacardiaceae — Mr. K.M. Kochummen (KEP) is revising the family for the Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak. Araliaceae — The family has been revised by Dr. P.P. Lowry (MO) for the Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie.

  7. Progress in Malesian botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1967-01-01

    At Singapore, Mr. H. M. Burkill began a study of the marine genus Avrainvillea, and of the aerophilous genus Trentepohlia, on which he had made observations for a long time. Many anatomical drawings were prepared of both genera.

  8. Progress in Malesian botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1982-01-01

    Acanthaceae. At C, Dr. Bertel Hansen took an interest in the family, and began by going through the many papers by C.E.B. Bremekamp. Annonaceae. Mr. Paul Kessler, Botanik, Universität, Box 3049, Kaiserslautern, W. Germany, has undertaken work on Orophea.

  9. Progress in Malesian botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1966-01-01

    Dr. R. Grolle, Jena, started a revision of the hitherto published records and determination of unstudied collections of Hepaticae from New Guinea (and neighbouring regions). The results will be successively published in the Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory under the title ”Lebermoose aus

  10. Progress in Malesian botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1977-01-01

    Apocynaceae. Professor F. Markgraf at Zürich, after having sent his Alyxia revision, 57 species, for publication in Blumea, is continuing his FM work with the genera Dyera and Amblyocalyx. He then means to take up Rauvolfia. His large MS. for the Flore de Madagascar, prepared years ago, has just

  11. Progress in Malesian botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1986-01-01

    Check Lists of Indonesian Trees under editorship of Dr. T.C. WHITMORE (OXF) and Dr. I.G.M. TANTRA (Forest Dept., Bali). In April 1986 the list for Sumatra was ready to be printed. The lists for Celebes and Nusa Tenggara were in the typing stage. Manuscripts for the Moluccas, Borneo and New Guinea

  12. Progress in Malesian botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1987-01-01

    Tree Flora of Indonesia checklists under editorship of Dr. T.C. WHITMORE and Dr. I.G.M. TANTRA (Forest Dept., Bali). Sumatra has now been distributed at least to at least a few key Institutes outside Indonesia. Others can write to either Ir. Rubardi, or Ir. K. Sumarno, Forest Research & Development

  13. Towering tribute to botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nigel

    2003-08-05

    One of the world's greatest plant collections has won a top heritage award at a time when it is highlighting with a tree-top walkway the need to study the forest canopy which is one of the most crucial but least understood habitats.

  14. Botany and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cucurbits (family Cucurbitaceae) form a diverse group of species grown around the world under many different conditions and for many different purposes. The major cultivated types include cucumber, melon (cantaloupe or muskmelon, honeydew, etc.), watermelon, squash, and pumpkin. Minor cultivated...

  15. Food-System Botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rop, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    This set of inquiry lessons is adaptable for middle school through high school life science or biology classrooms and will help meet the NSTA scientific inquiry position statement (2004) and the AAAS benchmarks (1993) and NRC standards (1996; 2000) related to health and food literacy. The standards require adolescents to examine their own diet and…

  16. Next Generation Botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybczynski, Stephen; Li, Zheng; Hickey, R. James

    2014-01-01

    Civilization simply would not exist without plants, yet their importance is often overlooked. As the nation's ability to respond to the botanical challenges associated with food production, climate change, invasive species, and biodiversity loss continues to decrease (Kramer, Zorn- Arnold, and Havens 2010), educators must discourage this…

  17. Botany and topography: the problem of the levelling of plants in the scientific historiography on Francisco José de Caldas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Puerta Olaya,

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The levelling of plants is usually recognized as one of the main concepts in the works and the thought of Francisco José de Caldas. There are different interpretations about this concept, but in general, the treatment is not very careful and does not really go into the details concerning its theoretical assumptions and consequences. In this article, we identify the diverse interpretations that historians have offered regarding the origin, the function and the definition of this concept. Our interest is to show the difficulties that the scientific historiography on Caldas faces when it deals with this concept, and how these difficulties generate uncertainty concerning the coherence that may exist between those different interpretations. In particular, we defend the thesis that the approach to the term “levelling of plants” has been focused more on the plants part than on the levelling part, that is, more on botany than on topography. This historiographic assumption has led to the construction of historical narratives that, despite the explicit topographic dimension of the term, place it in the history of botany and not in the history of topography.

  18. Contributions of the Meaningful Learning Theory to the learning of botany concepts - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v33i2.14355

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton José Vinholi Júnior

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in a school of the black community of Furnas do Dionísio (Jaraguari, Mato Grosso do Sul State. For its realization, initially, a test with questions of botany was applied to the students to identify the absence or presence of subsumers classified into adequate or partially adequate. This analysis was used for the planning and production of instructional strategies in order to facilitate interaction between new information and background on the student's cognitive structure in order to promote learning. After, educational interventions have been proposed based on dialogue between traditional knowledge and science in the classroom. Based on the results of these strategies and concept maps based on the Theory of Meaningful Learning of David Ausubel, built by students on the proposed content, we concluded that learning was satisfactory. Taking into account the methodology used to investigate the local knowledge about medicinal plants, it is concluded that this contribution was significant to the learning of botany

  19. Description of concept and first feasibility test results of a life support subsystem of the Botany Facility based on water reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeser, H. R.

    1986-01-01

    The Botany Facility allows the growth of higher plants and fungi over a period of 6 months maximum. It is a payload planned for the second flight of the Eureca platform around 1990. Major tasks of the Life Support Subsystem (LSS) of the Botany Facility include the control of the pressure and composition of the atmosphere within the plant/fungi growth chambers, control of the temperature and humidity of the air and the regulation of the soil water content within specified limits. Previous studies have shown that various LSS concepts are feasible ranging from heavy, simple and cheap to light, complex and expensive solutions. A summary of those concepts is given. A new approach to accomplish control of the temperature and humidity of the air within the growth chambers based on water reclamation is discussed. This reclamation is achieved by condensation with a heat pump and capillary transport of the condensate back into the soil of the individual growth chamber. Some analytical estimates are given in order to obtain guidelines for circulation flow rates and to determine the specific power consumption.

  20. Heritage of the romantic philosophy in post-Linnaean botany Reichenbach's reception of Goethe's metamorphosis of plants as a methodological and philosophical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the importance of the reception and development of Goethe's metamorphosis of plants as a methodological and philosophical framework in the history of botanical theories. It proposes a focus on the textbooks written by the German botanist Ludwig Reichenbach and his first attempt to use Goethe's idea of metamorphosis of plants as fundamental to his natural system of plants published under the title 'Botany for Women', in German Botanik für Damen (1828). In this book, Reichenbach paid particular attention to Goethe's sensitive views on the essence of nature; he regarded Goethe's idea of metamorphosis in the plant kingdom as an ideal model to interpret connections of natural phenomena, in particular as a conceptual frame for a natural system. Furthermore, he aimed to develop the philosophical statement of the metamorphosis, in which he called for nature-philosophical conceptions in order to materialize his representation of plant "affinities," and of a kind of "ontogeny" of the whole plant kingdom. This paper demonstrates that, between speculative views and empirical attempts, the extent to which Reichenbach actually belonged to a new "school" of thought, which left its mark on the history and philosophy of botany.

  1. A Century of Acoustic Metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud

    1998-01-01

    The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect.......The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect....

  2. Statisticians of the centuries

    CERN Document Server

    Seneta, E; Crépel, P; Fienberg, S; Gani, J

    2001-01-01

    Statisticians of the Centuries aims to demonstrate the achievements of statistics to a broad audience, and to commemorate the work of celebrated statisticians. This is done through short biographies that put the statistical work in its historical and sociological context, emphasizing contributions to science and society in the broadest terms rather than narrow technical achievement. The discipline is treated from its earliest times and only individuals born prior to the 20th Century are included. The volume arose through the initiative of the International Statistical Institute (ISI), the principal representative association for international statistics (founded in 1885). Extensive consultations within the statistical community, and with prominent members of ISI in particular, led to the names of the 104 individuals who are included in the volume. The biographies were contributed by 73 authors from across the world. The editors are the well-known statisticians Chris Heyde and Eugene Seneta. Chris Heyde is Pro...

  3. Identifying 21st Century Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    What are the capabilities necessary to meet 21st century challenges? Much of the literature on 21st century skills focuses on skills necessary to meet those challenges associated with future work in a globalised world. The result is a limited characterisation of those capabilities necessary to address 21st century social, health and particularly…

  4. [Fragments of an old west Nordic pharmacopoeia of the 13th century ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Fabian

    2009-01-01

    Only few medicine books in Norrøn language have survived till today. Concerning Norway and Iceland, just seven fragments of manuscripts are known to us. The oldest manuscript has been dated at about the 13th century, the youngest, which was found in Ireland, at about the time between 1500 and 1550. In medieval times, genuine Scandinavian medical literature did not exist. All seven manuscripts are connected with Continental European sources that are derived from monastic medicine and classical antiquity. The names of Galen, Hippocrates of Kos and Dioscorides are mentioned in some of the texts. Obviously, Norway and Iceland were the recipients of an intensive knowledge transfer from the South via Denmark to the North. Henrik Harpestraeng's book of herbs and the well-known 'Macer floridus' (11th century) are the main sources of the Norrøn manuscripts that are highly related to each other. The text and its variations was made use of during a long period of time and it was widely distributed. A diplomatic edition of the oldest fragment, manuscript AM 655 XXX, and a translation into modern German are the core of the article.

  5. Spanish Americanists, Diplomats and Emigrant Leaders in the Mexico of Centenario: the «Intellectual Embassy» as a Model of Pan-Hispanist Action (1909-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo H. Prado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the period of Centennial Celebrations of Latin American Independence, Spanish intellectuals of great reputation organized a persistent panhispanist campaign in Hispanic America. This paper analyzes the way in which americanists, diplomats and Spanish emigration leaders made common caused with, to promote their ideas, during the previous years to Porfiriato in Mexico. The concept of intellectual embassy will be used here to analyze their strategies.

  6. Assessing Psycho-Social Resilience in Diplomatic, Civilian & Military Personnel Serving in a High-Threat Security Environment during Counter-Insurgency and Counter-Terrorism Operations in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Speckhard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently thousands of military, diplomatic and civilian personnel are deployed under NATO, UN, and other multi-national, as well as national auspices in high-threat security environments, including active conflict zones such as Iraq and Afghanistan.  Soldiers are generally well trained and prepared psychologically to face armed conflict. Civilian contractors and diplomats, on the other hand, often are not.  Moreover in today’s high-threat security environments terrorists, insurgents and even child soldiers may be the opposing force, creating a more uncertain and anxiety provoking environment and more difficult to identify security threat. These facts have serious implications for the psycho-social resilience of diplomatic, civilian and military personnel deployed in such environments.  This article investigates psycho-social resilience in a small exploratory sample of US embassy staff, contractors and US forces serving in Iraq during 2007, a time when Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs, roadside bombings, mortar attacks, kidnappings, murders and sniper fire were an everyday occurrence in Iraq.

  7. Internetveikala E-diplomatic mārketinga stratēģija un attīstības prognozes.

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorčenko, Jeļena

    2013-01-01

    Darba mērķis ir izpētīt globālo Interneta tirdzniecības vidi, tās attīstības un beznodokļu tirdzniecības kā tirdzniecības specifiskā veida, attīstības iespējas Internetā; izvērtēt internetveikala E-diplomatic kopējo darbības stratēģiju un mērķus, izstrādāt atbilstošu mārketinga stratēģiju. Darbs sastāv no 3 pamatdaļām. Pirmā daļa ir darba teorētiskā bāze, tajā raksturota elektroniskās tirdzniecības mārketinga specifika un īpatnības. Otrā daļā tiek veikta pasaules elektroniskās tirdzniecīb...

  8. The quantum century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kragh, Helge

    2000-01-01

    Physicists often complain that the phrase q uantum leap'' is used erroneously, if harmlessly, by people to describe a large jump or change. Yet this month the physics community is celebrating the 100th anniversary of what must count as the beginning of the biggest quantum leap in the history of science, whichever way you define the phrase. On 14 December 1900 Max Planck presented a paper on the radiation emitted by a black body at a meeting of the German Physical Society in Berlin. This event is generally taken to mark the start of the quantum century, though few people realized it at the time - not even Planck himself. (U.K.)

  9. Mostly Plants. Individualized Biology Activities on: I. Investigating Bread Mold; II. Transpiration; III. Botany Project; IV. Collecting/Preserving/Identifying Leaves; [and] V. Student Science Laboratory Write-Ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Paul R.

    Individualized biology activities for secondary students are presented in this teaching guide. The guide is divided into five sections: (1) investigating bread mold; (2) investigating transpiration; (3) completing a botany project; (4) collecting, preserving, and identifying leaves; and (5) writing up science laboratory investigations. The…

  10. A century of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bromley, D Allan

    2002-01-01

    In this amazing tour d'horizon, D. Allan Bromley uses the occasion of the centenary of the American Physical Society to reflect upon the growth of physics over the past 100 years, its fragmentation into numerous subdisciplines, the impact physics has had upon modern technology, and the re-emergence of the fundamental unity of the discipline in recent years. Hundreds of historical illustrations accompany the text. Bromley conveys much of the excitement and wonder that research in physics generated in the 20th century and asks what new things are in store in the next century. He covers such topics as relativity and quantum mechanics, the Manhattan project, superconductivity, transistors and the revolution brought about by solid-state electronics, protein folding, the uses of nuclear and atomic physics in biology and medicine, plate tectonics, the expansion of the universe and the Big Bang, and gravitational radiation. Bromley, the Sterling Professor of the Sciences and Dean of Yale University, served as Assista...

  11. The management century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiechel, Walter

    2012-11-01

    In 1886, addressing the nascent American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Henry R. Towne proposed that "the management of works" be considered a modern art--thereby heralding the Management Century, when management as we know it came into being and shaped the world in which we work. Kiechel, a past editorial director of Harvard Business Publishing, elucidates the three eras that punctuate this period: the years leading up to World War II, during which scientific exactitude gave wings to a new managerial elite; the early postwar decades, managerialism's apogee of self-confidence and a time when wartime principles of strategy were adapted, sometimes ruthlessly, to the running of companies; and the 1980s to the present, years that saw fast-moving changes, disequilibrium, and a servitude to market forces but also ushered in globalism, unprecedented innovation, and heightened expectations about how workers are to be treated. Along the way he examines the contributions of thinkers such as Frederick Taylor, Elton Mayo, Peter Drucker, and Michael Porter. What lies ahead? Perhaps the biggest challenge facing the 21st-century company, Kiechel posits, is to truly free the spark of human imagination from the organization's tidal pull toward the status quo. There's almost always a better way, he concludes--and management will continue to seek it.

  12. Virulence of BotaniGard® to Second Instar Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce L. Parker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål (BMSB is an exotic invasive insect originating in East Asia, currently causing significant damage to fruits, vegetables and other crops throughout most of the Mid-Atlantic states of the U.S. It also is a nuisance pest, entering homes in the fall in search of suitable overwintering sites. Two formulations of BotaniGard® with a strain of Beauveria bassiana (GHA as the active ingredient were tested against second instar BMSB. Both the wettable powder and the emulsifiable suspension formulations were efficacious at 1 × 107 conidia mL−1, causing 67%–80% mortality 9 days post treatment and 95%–100% after 12 days. The wettable powder formulation was slightly more efficacious.

  13. The role of botany in the development of the Republic of South Africa with special emphasis on the contributions of the Botanical Research Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. B. Killick

    1979-11-01

    Full Text Available Five papers cover different aspects of the contributions to and role of botany in the development of the Republic of South Africa. Two papers sum up the contributions for the non-agricultural and agricultural sectors. The introductory paper by D. J. B. Killick provides a short historical account of the Botanical Research Institute, followed by a discussion of the contributions of the Institute to botany in South Africa through its National Herbarium and identification service as well as researches in taxonomy, plant anatomy, cyto-genetics, ecology, economic botany and data processing. B. de Winter emphasizes the fundamental role of taxonomy and bio-systematics for planning and the optimal use of the natural plant resources. The current support for taxonomy and biosystematics is examined and proposals made for improving progress in the Flora of Southern Africa series. For plant physiology, N. Grobbelaar discusses, firstly, the ways whereby the productivity of a plant species with its characteristic genetic constitution can be raised by determining and modifying for optimal response the effects of environmental factors such as spacing, mineral nutrition, water provision, etc.; and, secondly, usually when the first means has been achieved, of improving plant productivity by altering the genetic constitution of the plant so that it can perform better than its ancestors under the prevailing conditions. After discussing and illustrating the applications and roles of plant ecology, D. Edwards concludes that basic plant ecological research is required, firstly, at the regional level through regional plant ecological studies to supply the essential local knowledge needed by researchers, planners and users of the land; and, secondly, at the more detailed level where knowledge is needed of the processes and factors that govern the behaviour of vegetation so that it can be properly used, managed and manipulated. M. J. Wells discusses the role of economic

  14. The treatment of tuberculosis in Ferrara (Italy) in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentini, Chiara Beatrice; Mares, Donatella; Guidi, Enrica; Angelini, Lauretta; Contini, Carlo; Manfredini, Stefano

    2010-12-01

    The present work is a review of the remedies in use in Ferrara against tuberculosis in the 1800s. The work started from the discovery of accounts describing methods and remedies. These remedies were also in use world wide. Of particular interest is the work by Antonio Campana, a famous professor of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Botany in Ferrara, who wrote a pharmacopoeia which had several editions between 1797 and 1841. The Farmacopea Ferrarese was addressed to the apothecaries of Ferrara. Nevertheless, due to its great reputation it had an international distribution. It provided us with an exhaustive view about the medical field in Ferrara in the early 1800s. The remedies adopted in the city in the second half of the century were in line with those present abroad. The work was also supported by the discovery of statistical accounts of the Sant'Anna hospital from 1871. The manuscript written by Alessandro Bennati enabled elucidation of the methods used to treat tuberculosis in the second half of the century. Bennati's work is an historical document completed by the work of the physician Cesare Minerbi.

  15. Network Partnership Diplomatic Mechanism: The New Path in Sino-Russian Cooperation - On the Sino-Russian Joint Dominance of BRICS Governance Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 成志杰 王 宛 【内容提要】中俄合作是将来一定时期内国际格局变革与发展的决定性力量。但是,中俄关系存在典型的“二律背反”情结:既借重又怀疑,既合作又防范。处理两国关系,除了原有的双边机制外,中俄还可以通过网状伙伴外交机制进行多边机制下的合作。网状伙伴外交机制主要是指中俄在各个相关多边机制内的互动合作,是双方彼此需要、彼此借重,有效处理双边关系,共同应对国际事务的灵活机制。它具有自身的逻辑。加强和深化中俄合作并不意味着中俄要结盟。网状伙伴外交机制的提出更多是中俄合作的新路径,对于缓解中俄关系中竞争与博弈困境、促进相关国际机制发展等具有重要的意义。金砖国家应该建立金砖国家治理型机制。它需要一个主导性力量中心进行推动。网状伙伴外交机制有利于塑造金砖国家机制的主导性力量中心——中俄联合主导,它是金砖国家治理型机制的内涵之一。中俄联合主导将会在金砖国家机制发展中发挥引领作用。 Sino-Russian cooperation will become an important force in reforming and developing the international system in the near future. However, Sino-Russian relations are complicated since the two countries maintain a guarded attitude towards each other even while cooperating extensively. In addition to furthering bilateral relations, China and Russia can also choose to cooperate through multilateral network mechanisms. This provides opportunities for flexible and strategic cooperation and coordination between the two countries. Strengthening and deepening the Sino-Russian cooperation does not imply forming an actual alliance. The network partnership diplomatic mechanism could play an important role in alleviating competition and mistrust between China and Russia, promoting the development of relevant international

  16. Od latiny k němčině. Slezská města jako vydavatel i příjemce německých a latinských písemností ve 14. století / From latin to german. Silesian towns as the recipients and issuers of german and latin charters in the 14th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Velička

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The core of this article deals with the use of language in the diplomatic texts written in Silesia throughout the 14th century. Main focus is on the administrative offices of the territorial lord and their produce directed towards the towns, as well as the resources based in town’s offices and the language in which these are written. Individual towns are dealt with individually as well as from the viewpoint of belonging to a certain duchy and region, where the practice in terms of using a certain language may have been different.

  17. Antisocial Personality Disorder and Pathological Narcissism in Prolonged Conflicts and Wars of the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2016-02-01

    The end of the Cold War brought with it many protracted internal conflicts and wars that have lasted for decades and whose persistent instability lies at the heart of both chronic nation-state and regional instability. Responsibility for these chronically failed states has been attributed to multiple unresolved root causes. With previous governance and parties to power no longer trusted or acceptable, the vacuum of leadership in many cases has been filled with "bad leadership." This Concept piece argues that in a number of cases opportunistic leaders, suffering from severe antisocial character disorders, have emerged first as saviors and then as despots, or as common criminals claiming to be patriots, sharing a psychological framework that differs little from those responsible for World War II and the Cold War that followed. I describe the identifying characteristics of this unique and poorly understood subset of the population who are driven to seek the ultimate opportunity to control, dictate, and live out their fantasies of power on the world scene and discuss why their destructive actions remain unabated in the 21st century. Their continued antisocial presence, influence, and levels of violence must be seen as a global security and strategic issue that is not amenable to conventional diplomatic interventions, negotiations, mediations, or international sanctions.

  18. Sixteenth Century Astronomical Telescopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, P. D.

    2001-12-01

    Ophelia in Shakespeare's Hamlet is named for the ``moist star" which in mythology is the partner of Hamlet's royal Sun. Together the couple seem destined to rule on earth just as their celestial counterparts rule the heavens, but the tragedy is that they are afflicted, just as the Sun and Moon are blemished. In 1.3 Laertes lectures Ophelia on love and chastity, describing first Cytherean phases (crescent to gibbous) and then Lunar craters. Spots mar the Sun (1.1, 3.1). Also reported are Jupiter's Red Spot (3.4) and the resolution of the Milky Way into stars (2.2). These interpretations are well-founded and support the cosmic allegory. Observations must have been made with optical aid, probably the perspective glass of Leonard Digges, father of Thomas Digges. Notably absent from Hamlet is mention of the Galilean moons, owing perhaps to the narrow field-of-view of the telescope. That discovery is later celebrated in Cymbeline, published soon after Galileo's Siderius Nuncius in 1610. In 5.4 of Cymbeline the four ghosts dance ``in imitation of planetary motions" and at Jupiter's behest place a book on the chest of Posthumus Leonatus. His name identifies the Digges father and son as the source of data in Hamlet since Jupiter's moons were discovered after the deaths of Leonard (``leon+hart") and Thomas (the ``lion's whelp"). Lines in 5.4 urge us not to read more into the book than is contained between its covers; this is understandable because Hamlet had already reported the other data in support of heliocentricism and the cosmic model discussed and depicted by Thomas Digges in 1576. I conclude therefore that astronomical telescopy began in England before the last quarter of the sixteenth century.

  19. Crimean Khanate, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Russian State in 1524–1571: The Diplomatic Correspondence from the Archive of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erusalimskiy K.Yu.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The manuscript of the Czartoryskis’ Library in Krakow № 2893 contains, among other sources, the correspondence of the Crimean-Kazan Gireys with the kings of Polish Crown and Grand Duchy of Lithuania in Ruthenian translation (“prosta mowa”. The collection of letters springs from the Radziwills’ archive and can be dated back to 1524–1571 based on the reasons outlined in this article. The manuscript from the Warsaw Main Archive of the Ancient Acts (Radziwills coll., part II, № 3294 contains a part of the same correspondence, which is present in the Czartoryski manuscript № 2893. The author reinterprets the historical context of the Warsaw manuscript. The senders of the letters are Sahib-Giray (to Sigismund I, 1st: ca. 1521–1524, 2nd: June–July 1530, 3rd: September–October 1537, Safa-Giray (two letters to Sigismund I, spring or summer of 1524, Amin-Giray-Saltan (a letter to Sigismund I, September–October 1537 and Poland’s King Sigismund I the Old (to Khan Sahib-Giray at end of December 1537 or the beginning of January 1538. The latest-dated part of the Polish-Lithuanian and Crimean-Kazan correspondence in the Czartoryski manuscript contains the materials of Devlet-Giray’s diplomatic correspondence with Sigismund II Augustus, which sheds a new light on the Crimean march against the Muscovite state in 1571. These materials are contextualized and studied with respect to the new information they may provide on the history of Russian-Crimean relations (letter to Sigismund II ca. April 5, 1571 and Ardy-Berdey’s embassy ca. July 5, 1571. The author found a list of 27 towns devastated by the khan during the war against Moscow recorded in the embassy accounts of the Polish Royal Treasury at the Warsaw Archive. It was composed as a means of propaganda, but it reflects the marching route of the Crimean troops to Moscow and the ravaging of other Russian districts after Moscow had been burned on May 24, 1574.

  20. Changes in the Use of the Passive Voice over Time: A Historical Look at the "American Journal of Botany" and the Changes in the Use of the Passive Voice from 1914-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumin, Laura Marie

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study. This study looks at 15 articles from the "American Journal of Botany"--5 articles from 1914-1918, 5 articles from 1962-1966, and 5 articles from 2004-2008--to determine if and how the use of the passive voice has changed over time. Findings and Conclusions. The ways in which the passive voice was used, and the…

  1. Diplomatic negotiation : essence and evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerts, Paul Willem

    2014-01-01

    Diplomatiek onderhandelen is een moeilijk te begrijpen en te beheersen proces. Toch is het onderhandelen tussen staten en in internationale organisaties van levensbelang voor het functioneren van het internationale bestel. Het Handvest van de Verenigde Naties noemt onderhandelen dan ook als het

  2. A Portuguese manor in rural Brazil; or The saga of the enlightened Dom Frei Cipriano and the garden of the former episcopal palace in the late eighteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Moacir Rodrigo de Castro

    2009-01-01

    This is a reconstruction of the career of the Most Reverend Dom Frei Cipriano de São José and the historical garden he built for his palace in Mariana, Minas Gerais, in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The grounds, which, like most of their counterparts in Minas Gerais, contained an orchard and kitchen garden, underwent a major reform to fit the mold of the classical European garden. Orderly and showing aesthetic concern, they were an admirable space at the end of the colonial period, representing as they did the enlightened metropolitan elite's growing interest in natural history and botany. A variety of documental sources were used to reconstruct the history of the grounds and the career of the person behind their design, the enlightened Dom Frei Cipriano de São José.

  3. The Great War and the Shaping of the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, Blaine; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Traces the convoluted alliances and diplomatic blundering that resulted in World War I. Places a large degree of the blame on Kaiser Wilhelm II who almost singlehandedly dismantled or ruptured the alliances and treaties of imperial chancellor Otto von Bismarck. Includes photos, paintings, and diary entries. (MJP)

  4. Twenty-first century vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappuoli, Rino

    2011-01-01

    In the twentieth century, vaccination has been possibly the greatest revolution in health. Together with hygiene and antibiotics, vaccination led to the elimination of many childhood infectious diseases and contributed to the increase in disability-free life expectancy that in Western societies rose from 50 to 78–85 years (Crimmins, E. M. & Finch, C. E. 2006 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103, 498–503; Kirkwood, T. B. 2008 Nat. Med 10, 1177–1185). In the twenty-first century, vaccination will be expected to eliminate the remaining childhood infectious diseases, such as meningococcal meningitis, respiratory syncytial virus, group A streptococcus, and will address the health challenges of this century such as those associated with ageing, antibiotic resistance, emerging infectious diseases and poverty. However, for this to happen, we need to increase the public trust in vaccination so that vaccines can be perceived as the best insurance against most diseases across all ages. PMID:21893537

  5. The pipe model theory half a century on: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnebach, Romain; Beyer, Robert; Letort, Véronique; Heuret, Patrick

    2018-01-23

    More than a half century ago, Shinozaki et al. (Shinozaki K, Yoda K, Hozumi K, Kira T. 1964b. A quantitative analysis of plant form - the pipe model theory. II. Further evidence of the theory and its application in forest ecology. Japanese Journal of Ecology14: 133-139) proposed an elegant conceptual framework, the pipe model theory (PMT), to interpret the observed linear relationship between the amount of stem tissue and corresponding supported leaves. The PMT brought a satisfactory answer to two vividly debated problems that were unresolved at the moment of its publication: (1) What determines tree form and which rules drive biomass allocation to the foliar versus stem compartments in plants? (2) How can foliar area or mass in an individual plant, in a stand or at even larger scales be estimated? Since its initial formulation, the PMT has been reinterpreted and used in applications, and has undoubtedly become an important milestone in the mathematical interpretation of plant form and functioning. This article aims to review the PMT by going back to its initial formulation, stating its explicit and implicit properties and discussing them in the light of current biological knowledge and experimental evidence in order to identify the validity and range of applicability of the theory. We also discuss the use of the theory in tree biomechanics and hydraulics as well as in functional-structural plant modelling. Scrutinizing the PMT in the light of modern biological knowledge revealed that most of its properties are not valid as a general rule. The hydraulic framework derived from the PMT has attracted much more attention than its mechanical counterpart and implies that only the conductive portion of a stem cross-section should be proportional to the supported foliage amount rather than the whole of it. The facts that this conductive portion is experimentally difficult to measure and varies with environmental conditions and tree ontogeny might cause the commonly

  6. CANDU in the next century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, D.A.; Torgerson, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    AECL's main product line is available today in two designs, designated as CANDU 6 and CANDU 9. Each of these is based on successfully operating pressurized-heavy-water nuclear plants. Several new CANDU stations are under construction or planned around the world. The author presents plant concepts which may evolve from today's products during the 21st century, indicating the particular development directions which might be followed by AECL product development depending on the future competitive environment, economics, and market circumstances. This study shows that the CANDU energy supply system is sufficiently flexible to be adapted into widely varying circumstances over the next century and beyond

  7. First systematic plant proteomics workshop in Botany Department, University of Delhi: transferring proteomics knowledge to next-generation researchers and students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deswal, Renu; Abat, Jasmeet Kaur; Sehrawat, Ankita; Gupta, Ravi; Kashyap, Prakriti; Sharma, Shruti; Sharma, Bhavana; Chaurasia, Satya Prakash; Chanu, Sougrakpam Yaiphabi; Masi, Antonio; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Sarkar, Abhijit; Agrawal, Raj; Dunn, Michael J; Renaut, Jenny; Rakwal, Randeep

    2014-07-01

    International Plant Proteomics Organization (INPPO) outlined ten initiatives to promote plant proteomics in each and every country. With greater emphasis in developing countries, one of those was to "organize workshops at national and international levels to train manpower and exchange information". This third INPPO highlights covers the workshop organized for the very first time in a developing country, India, at the Department of Botany in University of Delhi on December 26-30, 2013 titled - "1(st) Plant Proteomics Workshop / Training Program" under the umbrella of INPPO India-Nepal chapter. Selected 20 participants received on-hand training mainly on gel-based proteomics approach along with manual booklet and parallel lectures on this and associated topics. In house, as well as invited experts drawn from other Universities and Institutes (national and international), delivered talks on different aspects of gel-based and gel-free proteomics. Importance of gel-free proteomics approach, translational proteomics, and INPPO roles were presented and interactively discussed by a group of three invited speakers Drs. Ganesh Kumar Agrawal (Nepal), Randeep Rakwal (Japan), and Antonio Masi (Italy). Given the output of this systematic workshop, it was proposed and thereafter decided to be organized every alternate year; the next workshop will be held in 2015. Furthermore, possibilities on providing advanced training to those students / researchers / teachers with basic knowledge in proteomics theory and experiments at national and international levels were discussed. INPPO is committed to generating next-generation trained manpower in proteomics, and it would only happen by the firm determination of scientists to come forward and do it. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Three Centuries of American Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindert, Peter H.; Williamson, Jeffrey G.

    Income inequality in the United States displays considerable variance since the seventeenth century. There is no eternal constancy to the degree of inequality in total income, in labor earnings, or in income from conventional nonhuman wealth either before or after the effects of government taxes and spending. When all the necessary adjustments to…

  9. A Century of Environmental Legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Cain, Louis

    2014-01-01

    We examine federal intervention in natural resource use by analyzing roll-call votes over the past century. These votes involved decisions regarding public land that reallocated the returns to users by changing the asset’s physical character or its usage rights. We suggest that long term...

  10. A century of oil exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The paper speech of the events and decisions that marked the history of the petroleum in Colombia and of Ecopetrol, from the adventure undertaken by some visionary at the beginning of the century X X, until the changes introduced in 1999

  11. Seventeenth-century indivisibles revisited

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The tremendous success of indivisibles methods in geometry in the seventeenth century, responds to a vast project: installation of infinity in mathematics. The pathways by the authors are very diverse, as are the characterizations of indivisibles, but there are significant factors of unity between the various doctrines of indivisible; the permanence of the language used by all authors is the strongest sign. These efforts do not lead to the stabilization of a mathematical theory (with principles or axioms, theorems respecting these first statements, followed by applications to a set of geometric situations), one must nevertheless admire the magnitude of the results obtained by these methods and highlights the rich relationships between them and integral calculus. The present book aims to be exhaustive since it analyzes the works of all major inventors of methods of indivisibles during the seventeenth century, from Kepler to Leibniz. It takes into account the rich existing literature usually devoted to a singl...

  12. Manumission in Nineteenth Century Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Howard Bodenhorn

    2010-01-01

    A long-standing debate concerns the rationality of slave owners and this paper addresses that debate within the context of manumission. Using a new sample of 19th-century Virginia manumissions, I show that manumission was associated with the productive characteristics of slaves. More productive slaves were manumitted at younger ages than less productive slaves. Although more productive slaves were more valuable to slave owners, which might be expected to delay manumission, more productive sla...

  13. 21st Century Security Manager

    OpenAIRE

    Stelian ARION

    2010-01-01

    We live in world of uncertainty that generates major paradigms changing that affect security risk management. Modern organization’s security risks management can’t be done without a profound knowlegde and daily practice for security governance, security risk management and resilience. 21st Century security manager need to deal with several areas of konwledge in order to succesfully manage security risks. The document presents the advantages, disadvantages and challenges for security managers ...

  14. The first list of Malayalam words at the end of 15th century by a Portuguese seaman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalo Fernandes

    Full Text Available Abstract MS-804 from the Municipal Library of Porto, Portugal, is a unique copy of the journal of the first voyage to India under Vasco da Gama’s (ca. 1460–1524 command. It describes the voyage subsequent to the departure from the Tagus River, Portugal, on 8 July 1497 until the return up the shallows of the Grande River de Buba, Guinea, on 25 April 1499. The author of the original of this account is probably Álvaro Velho (fl. 1497/1507, born in Barreiro, but the arguments are still weak, being only achieved by deduction. The copyist is also probably John Theotonius, CRSA. The great merit of this document is the fact that the author was a direct eyewitness of all events. In the last appendix, at folio 45, it has a list of 122 useful daily words and expressions in Portuguese and their translation into Malayalam, a provincial Dravidian language spoken in Kerala State, India. It is a relevant testimony of a variety of Malayalam at the end of the 15th century, despite certain transcription mistakes and the scribe’s censorship of some vulgarisms. In this new semi-diplomatic edition, I applied rigorous transcription criteria and corrected earlier editions, adding English translations and Malayalam equivalences.

  15. State Policy of Russia in the Field of Science and Education (The end of 17th-early 18th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veroniсa E. Matveenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of education and science intensive development in Russia at the end of the 17th - the beginning of the 18th centuries is completely related with the personality of Emperor Peter I (Great, who understood the grandiose importance of public education for Russia. The reforms of Peter I in the field of science and education became the most important foundation in the history of pedagogy and military affairs development in Russia, as well as in the history of the Russian state national security strengthening. The result of Peter I reforms in education was the creation of domestic regular Armed Forces of Russia and the provision of the Russian state with the experts of different profiles: military people, engineers, technicians and diplomats. The authors of the article carried out a comprehensive analysis of the materials available in Russia about the Peter schools in order to systematize and preserve these data for pedagogical science and history. The work studied the documents (decrees and letters of Peter the Great reflecting the reforms in the field of science and education of Russia at the end of the 17th - early 18th centuries. With the support of historical documents, the establishment chronology of the first schools in Russia, the conditions for schoolchildren teaching, the structure and the content of training programs were described, and the teaching aids used in Peter schools were listed.

  16. Sunflower disease compendium: Sunflower botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    The number one challenge for global sunflower production is diseases. Sunflower is the fifth largest oilseed crop grown in temperate and subtropical areas in 72 countries and on every continent, except Antarctica. This has facilitated the spread of diseases globally. Disease control can be by chemic...

  17. Bitter Gourd: Botany, Horticulture, Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter gourd fruits are a good source of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals and have the highest nutritive value among cucurbits. Moreover, the crude protein content (11.4-20.9 g.kg-1) of bitter gourd fruits is higher than that of tomato and cucumber. This book chapter focuses on the ...

  18. COMMERCIAL RELATIONS BETWEEN RUSSIA AND SPAIN IN THE EARLY 19TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О В Волосюк

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the development of trade relations between Russia and Spain during the reign of two Spanish kings: Charles IV and Ferdinand VII. The author’s attention is focused on the agency of diplomats, who made a big advance in the formation of trading relations between the two countries. The author concentrates on Ivan Muravyov-Apostol, the Russian ambassador to Spain (1802-1805, his Spanish partner Gaspar Maria de la Nava y Álvarez de Noroña (1802-1807, and on the consuls of Spain Antoni de Colombí (St. Petersburg and Francisco de Baguer y Ribas (Odessa. Based on their reports, which are located in both Rus-sian and Spanish archives, it is possible to trace the dependence of commercial relations from the political situation in the world, established in Europe in the era of Napoleonic wars. Their information also allows revealing the main stages of development in trading during these years and the future, observe the merchantry on the Baltic Sea and in the area of the Black Sea. Ana-lyzing these materials, conclusions about the cause of diminishing of the commercial activity between Russia and Spain during the reign of Ferdinand VII can be made. The attention of the author is also paid to the conditions, which were established for the trade of Spain´s main export product to Russia - wine, and trading of grain through the area of the Black and Mediterranean Seas, which received special progress in the beginning of the 19th century.

  19. A Century of Environmental Legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cain, Louis P.; Kaiser, Brooks

    2016-01-01

    in natural resource use by analyzing roll call votes over the past century with a Random Utility Model (Manski, 1977) and conclude that economics mattered. So did ideology, but not uniformly. After World War II, the pro-environment vote which had been conservative shifted to being liberal. All these votes...... involved decisions regarding public land that reallocated the returns to users by changing the asset’s physical character or its usage rights. We suggest that long-term consequences affecting current resource allocations arose from disparities between broadly dispersed benefits and locally concentrated...

  20. Nineteenth-century aether theories

    CERN Document Server

    Schaffner, Kenneth F

    2013-01-01

    Nineteenth-Century Aether Theories focuses on aether theories. The selection first offers information on the development of aether theories by taking into consideration the positions of Christiaan Huygens, Thomas Young, and Augustin Fresnel. The text then examines the elastic solid aether. Concerns include Green's aether theory, MacCullagh's aether theory, and Kelvin's aether theory. The text also reviews Lorentz' aether and electron theory. The development of Lorentz' ideas of the stagnant aether and electrons; Lorentz' theorem of corresponding states and its development; and Lorentz' respons

  1. Frontiers twentieth-century physics

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Steve

    2000-01-01

    The revolution in twentieth century physics has changed the way we think about space, time and matter and our own place in the universe. It has offered answers to many of the big questions of existence, such as the ultimate nature of things and the how the universe came into being. It has undermined our belief in a Newtonian mechanistic universe and a deterministic future, posing questions about parallel universes, time-travel and the origin and end of everything. At the same time we have witnessed amazing attempts at unification so that physicists are able to contemplate the discovery of a si

  2. THE EUROPEAN UNION’S EXTERNAL AFFAIRS POLICY – THE HIGH REPRESENTATIVE OF THE UNION FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS AND SECURITY POLICY – A FAVORABLE FRAMEWORK FOR CREATING A SINGLE VOICE FOR THE EUROPEAN DIPLOMATIC SYSTEM OR JUST A NEW BUREAUCRATIC STRUCTURE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Bogdan CALANCE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the Lisbon Treaty, which establishes the new European diplomatic landscape structure, this paper analyses the difference between the objectives expressed in the treaties governing the European Union's foreign policy, and the diplomatic European and international reality. The main objective of this paper is to reveal the extent in which the European Union runs a coherent and unified foreign policy, especially highlighting the problems faced by these institutions in the current international environment, after five years since the creation of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, as well as the European External Action Service The results of this paper show that, although from a legal standpoint it was attempted to clearly outline how the Union's external policies should work, on a practical level, this area still faces difficulties in performing at its full capacity.

  3. A century of Dutch neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, P J; Bruyn, G W; Moffie, D

    1998-12-01

    The Netherlands Society of Neurology evolved from the Society of Psychiatry founded in 1871. The name was changed into Netherlands Society of Psychiatry and Neurology (NSPN) in 1897. In the same year, the word neurology was also added to the name of the journal. The Society steadily blossomed, but in 1909 the first signs of dissatisfaction occurred: the Amsterdam Neurologists Society was founded. A few split-offs would follow. The number of members of the NSPN increased from 205 in 1920 to 585 in 1960. In the early 1960s, the Society was reorganised and would consist of two sections, one for psychiatry and one for neurology. However, this would not last, as a full separation was established in 1974. For several reasons, the name of the journal was changed four times until it assumed its present name in 1974. The 100th volume of CNN was not published, as expected. in 1996, but in 1998, because of two skipped publication years, one during WWII and another in the 1970s. During the last decades of the nineteenth century, teaching of neurology was mostly given within the frame of psychiatry, following the German tradition of 'brainpsychiatry' (organic or biologic psychiatry). The first official chair of psychiatry was founded at Utrecht, 1893 (Winkler). In Amsterdam, private teachers such as Delprat taught 'electro-therapy and nervous diseases' since the 1880s. The first extraordinary chair of neurology and electrotherapy was founded for his successor, Wertheim Salomonson in 1899. The first university clinic for psychiatry and neurology started at the Amsterdam Municipal University, when Winkler became professor of psychiatry and neurology in Amsterdam in 1896. Around the turn of the century, chairs of psychiatry and neurology were also founded in Groningen and Leiden. Separate chairs for neurology and psychiatry appeared in Amsterdam in 1923 and in Utrecht in 1936. Following an initiative of Brouwer, the first neurological university clinic opened its doors in

  4. The century of nuclear materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Lou; Was, Gary S.; Zinkle, Steve; Petti, David; Ukai, Shigeharu

    2018-03-01

    In the spring of 1959 the well-read metallurgist would have noticed the first issue of an infant Journal, one dedicated to a unique and fast growing field of materials issues associated with nuclear energy systems. The periodical, Journal of Nuclear Materials (JNM), is now the leading publication in the field from which it takes its name, thriving beyond the rosiest expectations of its founders. The discipline is well into the second half-century. During that time much has been achieved in nuclear materials; the Journal provides the authoritative record of virtually all those accomplishments. These pages introduce the 500th volume, a significant measure in the world of publishing. The Editors reflect on the progress in the field and the role of this journal.

  5. 21st Century Security Manager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian ARION

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We live in world of uncertainty that generates major paradigms changing that affect security risk management. Modern organization’s security risks management can’t be done without a profound knowlegde and daily practice for security governance, security risk management and resilience. 21st Century security manager need to deal with several areas of konwledge in order to succesfully manage security risks. The document presents the advantages, disadvantages and challenges for security managers thah have government backgroud, or IT security backgroud, or are promoted from organization’s inside leaders. There are six different areas of knowledge that successful security programs of the future must incorporate, either in the knowledge base of their leaders or in the collective knowledge of the leading staff. They are government elements, security organization, emerging issue awareness, IT security, business elements and executive leadership.

  6. Idea e imagen del rey en la diplomática medieval hispana: el valor de los preámbulos = Idea and Image of Kingship in Spanish Medieval Diplomatics: The Importance of Preambles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Martín Prieto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo trata del papel de los preámbulos de diplomas reales en la España medieval, como fuente para establecer varios rasgos definitorios de los reyes y la realeza tal como entonces se entendían. La detenida consideración de una cierta cantidad de tales preámbulos de documentos reales ayuda a caracterizar ideas e imágenes generales que definen la representación de la realeza de acuerdo con la propaganda de la época. Algunas concepciones clave sobre las dimensiones y deberes morales de la realeza pueden seguirse a lo largo de series enteras de documentos reales en la larga duración, al tiempo que adoptan formas diplomáticas diferentes en los preámbulos.This paper deals with the role of the preamble in royal documents of medieval Spain as a source for establishing various defining traits of kings and kingship as they were understood at the time. Thorough consideration of a certain number of such preambles in royal charters allows one to determine the general ideas and images that inform the representation of kingship as portrayed by the propaganda of its era. Some key ideas pertaining to the scope and moral duties of royalty can be traced throughout an entire series of royal charters in the long term, while assuming different diplomatic forms in the preambles.

  7. Russia and Mexico in the 19th – Beginning of the 20th Century: on the Crimean War’s Influence on Russia-Mexico Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yu. Redkina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the prerequisites and establishment of the first Russia-Mexico contacts, which took place after the Crimean War (1853-1856. It was revealed that Mexico’s interest in the collaboration with Russia began to reveal in a higher degree after the Crimean War. The factors, which had led to the diplomatic rapprochement of the two states, include the Mexico’s search for allies in the contradiction to increased aggression of European states and the USA in the Central American region, and the increase of Russian intellectuals’ emigration, resettlement of religious groups of the Old Russian sectarians to the region. At the turn of 19th – 20th centuries many Russian travelers and writers, such as S.D. Protopopov and K.D. Balmont, visited Mexico for the purpose of studying the culture of ancients Indians, who lived in Central America during many centuries before the Spanish colonization. Besides of the impressions on ancient Indian culture, these travelers described the life of ordinary Mexican people of that time. They mentioned their poverty and hopelessness in the years of Porfirio Dias’s dictatorship. Nevertheless, political and cultural contacts had begun to established in the late 19th century between the Russian Empire and Mexico, because after the Crimean War the Mexico’s interest to Russians increased. In addition, Russia tried to strengthen its position in Central American region. In total, these factors had led to the strengthening of political, social and cultural contacts between Russia and Mexico.

  8. Capital in the Twenty-First Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp......Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp...

  9. Physics of the Twentieth Century, and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, Frederick J.

    2009-01-01

    This talk is intended for a general audience. A brief history of the two primary physical theories of the twentieth century is presented, and the similarity between the late nineteenth and the early twenty-first centuries is highlighted. In particular, the past and possible future of exact solutions in general relativity are briefly described, and reasons why time is growing short are cited.

  10. An Unfashionable Rhetoric in the Fifteenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Marjorie Curry

    1989-01-01

    Reveals the continued importance of medieval rhetorical pedagogy throughout the high Middle Ages and early Renaissance by exploring the fifteenth-century popularity, uses of, and references to Geoffrey of Vinsauf's "Poetria nova" (a thirteenth-century verse treatise on the composition of poetry according to rhetorical principles). (SR)

  11. 21 CENTURY LIBRARIANS AND EFFECTIVE INFORMATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    21st century librarians to reposition the academic library for effective service delivery. ... to acquire 21st century skills through personal training so as to be relevant ... As information providers, they are constantly under pressure to provide .... to take risks; abiding public service perspective; good interpersonal skills; skill at.

  12. The Century of Education. CEE DP 109

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrisson, Christian; Murtin, Fabrice

    2009-01-01

    Global economic transformations have never been as dramatic as in the twentieth century. Most countries have experienced radical changes in the standards of income per capita, technology, fertility, mortality, income inequality and the extent of democracy in the course of the past century. It is the goal of many disciplines--economics, history,…

  13. 21st Century Skills Map: The Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

  14. 21st Century Skills Map: Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Geography.

  15. 21st Century Skills Map: World Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of World Languages. [Funding for this paper was provided by EF Education.

  16. Morphing into a 21st Century Trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, R. F.

    1996-01-01

    Forces that will affect trainers into the next century include rapid change, information overload, globalization, downsizing, empowerment, and remote worksites. Key characteristics of a 21st-century trainer include performance orientation, technical skills, social skills, self-employability, bilingualism, and international competence. (JOW)

  17. Terrorism and its centuries challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonida Drogu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to portray how to better understand the epistemic differences of terminology used for terrorism and how people’s lives have been and are still affected by this undefined violence. By collecting some diary information from 20people about their perception about terrorism attaches we will analyze some of overall countries and Saudi Arabia’s commitment in fighting this century’s challenge. Fighting radical religious beliefs in the Kingdom is an immense challenge. The true Islamic faith is in large contrast to those individuals and entities whose actions are centered on the intentional misrepresentation or the degradation of the teachings of Islam. The base of this data will indicate the progress within Saudi Arabia, its position in the world prospect and its impact in society since it remains a robust construction even now days, even thought, a lot has been done. The first signs provided in this analysis start with the beginning of the new century, when a strong attack happened just days before it began. Some important indicators such as terrorism founding, or money charities caused many changes in Saudi Arabia as a leading power, in the war against terrorism in Middle East.

  18. Hashimoto thyroiditis: a century later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rania; Al-Shaikh, Safa; Akhtar, Mohammed

    2012-05-01

    More than a century has passed since the first description of Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) as a clinicopathologic entity. HT is an autoimmune disease in which a breakdown of immune tolerance is caused by interplay of a variety of immunologic, genetic, and environmental factors. Thyrocyte injury resulting from environmental factors results in expression of new or hidden epitopes that leads to proliferation of autoreactive T and B cells. Infiltration of thyroid by these cells results in HT. In addition to the usual type of HT, several variants such as the fibrous type and Riedal thyroiditis are also recognized. The most recently recognized variant is immunoglobulin G4(+) HT, which may occur as isolated thyroid limited disease or as part of a generalized Ig4-related sclerosing disease. The relationship between HT and Riedel thyroiditis remains unclear; however, recent evidence seems to suggest that it may also be part of the spectrum of Ig4-related sclerosing disease. HT is frequently associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma and may indeed be a risk factor for developing this type of cancer. The relationship between thyroid lymphoma and HT on the other hand appears well established.

  19. 21st Century Cell Culture for 21st Century Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamies, David; Hartung, Thomas

    2017-01-17

    There is no good science in bad models. Cell culture is especially prone to artifacts. A number of novel cell culture technologies have become more broadly available in the 21st century, which allow overcoming limitations of traditional culture and are more physiologically relevant. These include the use of stem-cell derived human cells, cocultures of different cell types, scaffolds and extracellular matrices, perfusion platforms (such as microfluidics), 3D culture, organ-on-chip technologies, tissue architecture, and organ functionality. The physiological relevance of such models is further enhanced by the measurement of biomarkers (e.g., key events of pathways), organ specific functionality, and more comprehensive assessment cell responses by high-content methods. These approaches are still rarely combined to create microphysiological systems. The complexity of the combination of these technologies can generate results closer to the in vivo situation but increases the number of parameters to control, bringing some new challenges. In fact, we do not argue that all cell culture needs to be that sophisticated. The efforts taken are determined by the purpose of our experiments and tests. If only a very specific molecular target to cell response is of interest, a very simple model, which reflects this, might be much more suited to allow standardization and high-throughput. However, the less defined the end point of interest and cellular response are, the better we should approximate organ- or tissue-like culture conditions to make physiological responses more probable. Besides these technologic advances, important progress in the quality assurance and reporting on cell cultures as well as the validation of cellular test systems brings the utility of cell cultures to a new level. The advancement and broader implementation of Good Cell Culture Practice (GCCP) is key here. In toxicology, this is a major prerequisite for meaningful and reliable results, ultimately

  20. Compassionate Play in The Ludic Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Dyer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2013 game designer Eric Zimmerman wrote a provocative manifesto entitled ‘Manifesto for a Ludic Century’ (2013a, in which Zimmerman declares the 21st Century’s dominant cultural form to be games. Consequently, Zimmerman proposes that the individual occupant of the century is therefore in a continuous state of game engagement. As such, this re-contextualisation of game space and play, indefinitely articulates the individual as a constant player and character, and thusly challenges the notions of selfhood. Importantly it should be noted, the state of a ludic century is explicitly assumed as a truth, however superficial it may appear. Accordingly, this paper is then afforded to be an extended hypothesis of the proposed ludic century, rather than a critical dissection and response to Zimmerman’s manifesto. This enables a hermeneutic framing of the questions: ‘What does it mean to live in a ludic century?’and ‘in what capacity may the self exist in the ludic century?’ These questions will attempt to distinguish play as an inherent cultural logic that extends beyond the limitations of explicit ‘gamification’ or instrumental play (Stenros et al., 2009; Zichermann, 2010. Concluding, it is claimed that the ludic century elicits a sustained delusion of self, as the player is confined to the designed game structure, which inhibits authentic engagement and interaction with environment and self. It is proposed that this evokes a form of suffering, the compassionate play within the ludic century.

  1. Nuclear computational science a century in review

    CERN Document Server

    Azmy, Yousry

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear engineering has undergone extensive progress over the years. In the past century, colossal developments have been made and with specific reference to the mathematical theory and computational science underlying this discipline, advances in areas such as high-order discretization methods, Krylov Methods and Iteration Acceleration have steadily grown. Nuclear Computational Science: A Century in Review addresses these topics and many more; topics which hold special ties to the first half of the century, and topics focused around the unique combination of nuclear engineering, computational

  2. Enrichment into the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, E.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the future of the enrichment services market into the next century. It is estimated that demand for enrichment services will reach 31 million SWU by the end of the century and remain constant for the following 10 years. The current world enrichment capacity is 44 million SWU, or some 50% ahead of the demand. This oversupply is projected to continue into the next century, but in spite of this, several suppliers are planning new enrichment facilities. HEU as a source of enriched uranium is examined. Overall, long-term prices for enrichment services are expected to decline in the coming decade

  3. Italian horticultural and culinary records of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbitaceae) and emergence of the zucchini in 19th-century Milan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lust, Teresa A; Paris, Harry S

    2016-07-01

    Summer squash, the young fruits of Cucurbita pepo, are a common, high-value fruit vegetable. Of the summer squash, the zucchini, C. pepo subsp. pepo Zucchini Group, is by far the most cosmopolitan. The zucchini is easily distinguished from other summer squash by its uniformly cylindrical shape and intense colour. The zucchini is a relatively new cultivar-group of C. pepo, the earliest known evidence for its existence having been a description in a book on horticulture published in Milan in 1901. For this study, Italian-language books on agriculture and cookery dating from the 16th to 19th centuries have been collected and searched in an effort to follow the horticultural development and culinary use of young Cucurbita fruits in Italy. The results indicate that Cucurbita fruits, both young and mature, entered Italian kitchens by the mid-16th century. A half-century later, round and elongate young fruits of C. pepo were addressed as separate cookery items and the latter had largely replaced the centuries-old culinary use of young, elongate bottle gourds, Lagenaria siceraria Allusion to a particular, extant cultivar of the longest fruited C. pepo, the Cocozelle Group, dates to 1811 and derives from the environs of Naples. The Italian diminutive word zucchini arose by the beginning of the 19th century in Tuscany and referred to small, mature, desiccated bottle gourds used as containers to store tobacco. By the 1840s, the Tuscan word zucchini was appropriated to young, primarily elongate fruits of C. pepo The Zucchini Group traces its origins to the environs of Milan, perhaps as early as 1850. The word zucchini and the horticultural product zucchini arose contemporaneously but independently. The results confirm that the Zucchini Group is the youngest of the four cultivar-groups of C. pepo subsp. pepo but it emerged approximately a half-century earlier than previously known. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany

  4. A Pale Reflection of Fascism: Primo de Rivera’s Dictatorship in Italian Diplomatic Reports | Un pálido reflejo del fascismo: la dictadura de Primo de Rivera en los informes diplomáticos italianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Avilés Farré

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyses the information on and the assessments of home politics in Spain during the Primo de Rivera regime (1923-1930. Those reports provide interesting first-hand accounts on the regime and have the additional value of offering a comparison with the simultaneous experience of the Italian fascist regime. They confirm that Primo de Rivera had a persistent tendency to seek inspiration in the fascist model. This eventually led to the unsuccessful attempt to institutionalize the regime in 1929, although according to the Italian diplomats Primo de Rivera’s dictatorship reached no further than a pale reflection of fascism. | Este ensayo analiza las informaciones y las valoraciones de los diplomáticos italianos sobre la política interior de España durante el régimen de Primo de Rivera (1923-1930. Sus informes ofrecen interesantes referencias de primera mano sobre el régimen y presentan el interés adicional de ofrecer una comparación con la simultánea experiencia del régimen fascista italiano. Confirman que Primo de Rivera tuvo una persistente tendencia a inspirarse en el modelo fascista, que culminó en el fracasado intento de institucionalizar el régimen en 1929, aunque en opinión de los diplomáticos italianos la dictadura de Primo de Rivera sólo llegó a representar un pálido reflejo del fascismo.

  5. Twentieth Century Spectacle. Music and Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ristivojević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Review of the book by Miroslava Lukić Krstanović. Spektakli XX veka: Muzika i moć. [Twentieth Century Spectacle. Music and Power]. 2010. Beograd: Etnografski institut SANU. Posebna izdanja 72

  6. The Ninth-Century Renaissance in Astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Charlotte

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the events in the ninth century that moved astronomy away from the pursuit of mystical hermetic sciences and astrology back toward observation and measurement. Describes the achievements of astronomers and the instruments and calculations used during that period. (JRH)

  7. Women in Eighteenth-century Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    he eighteenth century looms large in the Scottish imagination. It is a century that saw the doubling of the population, rapid urbanisation, industrial growth, the political Union of 1707, the Jacobite Rebellions and the Enlightenment - events that were intrinsic to the creation of the modern nation...... and to putting Scotland on the international map. The impact of the era on modern Scotland can be seen in the numerous buildings named after the luminaries of the period - Adam Smith, David Hume, William Robertson - the endorsement of Robert Burns as the national poet/hero, the preservation of the Culloden...... battlefield as a tourist attraction, and the physical geographies of its major towns. Yet, while it is a century that remains central to modern constructions of national identity, it is a period associated with men. Until recently, the history of women in eighteenth-century Scotland, with perhaps...

  8. Revolution, Romanticism and the Long Nineteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Craciun

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to consider the future of Victorian literary studies within the long nineteenth century, we must go back to that earlier “period” of the nineteenth century, and the French Revolution of 1789. Drawing on the aesthetic and political innovations of 1790s women's writings, this essay argues that we need to reconceive of nineteenth-century literary studies beyond the period boundaries of Romantic and Victorian. The sexualization of revolutionary Terror, and particularly of Robespierre, in Romantic-era writings by women like Helen Maria Williams, Mary Robinson and Fanny Burney, offers surprising precedents for the feminization of Terror associated with the retrospectives of Victorian writers like Carlyle and Dickens. In this respect, and given many other aesthetic continuities (for example, the crossgender and cross-period appeal of the “poetess” figure, the “Victorian period” appears increasingly unsatisfactory when compared to the merits of a long nineteenth-century model for literary studies.

  9. The century of the Petroleum in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1999-01-01

    A recount of the big changes is made with hydrocarbons in Colombia during the X X century. The X X century it meant everything for Colombia in oil matter. In this century it took off and it consolidated their industry of the hydrocarbons and with her great part of the industrialization process and development of the country. It is undeniable that the petroleum was one of the big main characters of the century X X and Colombia has not been unaware to the sways of a highly changing industry. The creation of the OPEC, the warlike conflicts, the times of high and low prices, the technological advances, the processes of energy integration and the mega coalitions are hardly some of the ingredients that seasoned the Oil Industry in the years 1900

  10. St. Augustine in Twentieth-Century Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2012-01-01

    A discussion - in a cultural historical perspective - of primarily two important twentieth-century musical works setting texts by St Augustine: Klaus Huber's Soliloquia Sancti Aurelii Augustini and Michael Tippett's The Vision of Saint Augustine.......A discussion - in a cultural historical perspective - of primarily two important twentieth-century musical works setting texts by St Augustine: Klaus Huber's Soliloquia Sancti Aurelii Augustini and Michael Tippett's The Vision of Saint Augustine....

  11. Fossil fuels in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Stephen F

    2005-12-01

    An overview of the importance of fossil fuels in supplying the energy requirements of the 21st century, their future supply, and the impact of their use on global climate is presented. Current and potential alternative energy sources are considered. It is concluded that even with substantial increases in energy derived from other sources, fossil fuels will remain a major energy source for much of the 21st century and the sequestration of CO2 will be an increasingly important requirement.

  12. Commodity Price Fluctuations: A Century of Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Labys

    2005-01-01

    Commodity prices again! The twentieth century has only been the latest spectator to the impacts and importance of commodity price fluctuations. It is reasonably well known that commodity price records have come down to us from the ancient civilizations of India, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Rome. Earlier in the century, formal research began on the relationships between agricultural demand, supply and prices in a market context. This research not only evolved in sophistication but extended ...

  13. Contribuições da Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa para a aprendizagem de conceitos em Botânica = Contributions of the Meaningful Learning Theory to the learning of botany concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton José Vinholi Júnior

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado em uma escola da comunidade quilombola Furnas do Dionísio (Jaraguari, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. Para sua realização, inicialmente, um teste com questões de Botânica foi aplicado aos alunos para identificar ausência ou presença de subsunçores, classificados em adequados ou parcialmente adequados. Esta análise foi utilizada para o planejamento e confecção de estratégias instrucionais, visando a facilitar a interação entre as novas informações e as preexistentes na estrutura cognitiva do aluno, com o intuito de promover aprendizagem. Posteriormente, foram propostas intervenções pedagógicas baseadas no diálogo entre conhecimento tradicional e científico em sala de aula. Baseando-se nos resultados dessas estratégias e em Mapas Conceituais fundamentados na Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa, de David Ausubel, construídos pelos alunos sobre os conteúdos propostos, concluiu-se que a aprendizagem foi satisfatória. Quanto à metodologia utilizada, verificou-se que essa contribuição foi significativa para a aprendizagem de Botânica.The study was conducted in a school of the black community of Furnas do Dionísio (Jaraguari, Mato Grosso do Sul State. For its realization, initially, a test with questions of botany was applied to the students to identify the absence or presence of subsumers classified into adequate or partially adequate. This analysis was used for the planning and production of instructional strategies in order to facilitate interaction between new information and background on the student's cognitive structure in order to promote learning. After, educational interventions have been proposed based on dialogue between traditional knowledge and science in the classroom. Based on the results of these strategies and concept maps based on the Theory of Meaningful Learning of David Ausubel, built by students on the proposed content, we concluded that learning was satisfactory. Taking into

  14. Cuba and Economic Sanctions: A Cold War Strategy in the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelley, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    .... These sanctions and U.S. attitudes and perceptions were based on objectives driven by the Cold War and as such are outdated and overtaken by events. The sanctions should be lifted and diplomatic ties once again established both to support United States goals in the region and for quality of life improvements for Cuba.

  15. Three typological approaches to Catalonian archival evidence, 10-12 centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito i Monclús, Pere

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This tripartite study draws upon the vast documentation surviving from Catalonia in the tenth through twelfth centuries. It focuses in turn on the following processes, each represented by numerous surviving charters of a specific type: testamentary proof and publication (Nathaniel L. Taylor, convenientiae and agreement enforcement (Adam J. Kosto, and agrarian precaria (Pere Benito. In each case, comparison of large numbers of similar documents has enabled the construction of complex typology, not just in the traditional diplomatic sense, but also considering the function of the documents and the social causes and implications of changes in form or function. The testamentary probate documents illuminate a long-standing civil judiciary; changes in the form of the documents and the identity of testamentary authorities reflect the obsolescence and transformation of this judiciary in the eleventh and twelfth century. A case study of an eleventh-century comital conflict revealed in conventientiae shows notarial responses to changes in political behavior. Finally, agrarian precaria also follow modalities in tenurial structure. Drawing on a very rich archival resources, these findings support the relationship of social change and documentary change. Together, these studies demonstrate the nature of comparative work that can be done with studies based on large numbers of documents of superficially similar type.[fr] Cet article tripartite s'inspire de la survivance d'un grand nombre de documents catalans des Xe-XIIe siècles. Il rassemble les conclusions partielles de trois recherches de doctorat menées à partir d'un grande nombre d'actes d'un seul type: documents de publication et authentification testamentaires (Nathaniel L. Taylor, convenientiae et executions d'accords (Adam J. Kosto, et contrats d'accensement appelés precariae (Pere Benito. Dans chaque cas, l'analyse d'un grand nombre de documents a permis de bâtir une typologie complexe, non

  16. Brazilian Cannibals in Sixteenth-Century Europe and Seventeenth-Century Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leca, R.

    2014-01-01

    This article follows the transmission of a visual trope depicting Brazilian cannibals from accounts of travelers to Brazil in the 16th century to world maps and popular tales in 17th century Japan. The image of tribesmen roasting human limbs over a fire in woodcut illustrations (such as Theodore de

  17. Visions of the past and dreams of the future in the Orient: the Irano-Turanian region from classical botany to evolutionary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafzadeh, Sara; Staedler, Yannick M; Conti, Elena

    2017-08-01

    Ever since the 19th century, the immense arid lands of the Orient, now called the Irano-Turanian (IT) floristic region, attracted the interest of European naturalists with their tremendous plant biodiversity. Covering approximately 30% of the surface of Eurasia (16000000 km 2 ), the IT region is one of the largest floristic regions of the world. The IT region represents one of the hotspots of evolutionary and biological diversity in the Old World, and serves as a source of xerophytic taxa for neighbouring regions. Moreover, it is the cradle of the numerous species domesticated in the Fertile Crescent. Over the last 200 years, naturalists outlined different borders for the IT region. Yet, the delimitation and evolutionary history of this area remain one of the least well-understood fields of global biogeography, even though it is crucial to explaining the distribution of life in Eurasia. No comprehensive review of the biogeographical delimitations nor of the role of geological and climatic changes in the evolution of the IT region is currently available. After considering the key role of floristic regions in biogeography, we review the history of evolving concepts about the borders and composition of the IT region over the past 200 years and outline a tentative circumscription for it. We also summarise current knowledge on the geological and climatic history of the IT region. We then use this knowledge to generate specific evolutionary hypotheses to explain how different geological, palaeoclimatic, and ecological factors contributed to range expansion and contraction, thus shaping patterns of speciation in the IT region over time and space. Both historical and ecological biogeography should be applied to understand better the floristic diversification of the region. This will ultimately require evolutionary comparative analyses based on integrative phylogenetic, geological, climatic, ecological, and species distribution studies on the region. Furthermore, an

  18. El deporte en el campo diplomático: el caso de la Copa Mundial de la FIFA Sudáfrica 2010 Sport in the Diplomatic Arena: The Case of FIFA World Cup South Africa 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Carreño Lara

    2012-12-01

    analyze the political, economical and social motivations behind the organization of FIFA World Cup South Africa 2010. It is an explanatory study supported by the review of secondary sources and official data provided by the South African government aimed at estimating the diplomatic implications of an event that clearly surpassed the purely sporting.

  19. Materials for the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Segal, David

    2017-01-01

    The book is a general text that shows how materials can contribute to solving problems facing nations in the 21st century. It is illustrated with diverse applications and highlights the potential of existing materials for everyday life, healthcare and the economies of nations. There are 13 chapters and a glossary of 500 materials with their descriptions, historical development, their use or potential use and a range of references. Specific areas include synthetic polymers (e.g. nylon), natural polymers (e.g. proteins, cellulose) and the role of materials in the development of digital computers and in healthcare. Solid-state lighting, energy supplies in the 21st century, disruptive technologies and intellectual property, in particular patents, are discussed. The book concludes by asking how the 21st century will be characterised. Will it be the Silicon Age, Genomic Age or New Polymer Age, as examples?

  20. Climate: Into the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, William

    2003-08-01

    Toward the end of the twentieth century, it became evident to professionals working within the meterological arena that the world's climate system was showing signs of change that could not be adequately explained in terms of natural variation. Since that time there has been an increasing recognition that the climate system is changing as a result of human industries and lifestyles, and that the outcomes may prove catastrophic to the world's escalating population. Compiled by an international team formed under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Climate: Into the 21st Century features an unrivalled collection of essays by the world's leading meteorological experts. These fully integrated contributions provide a perspective of the global climate system across the twentieth century, and describe some of the most arresting and extreme climatic events and their effects that have occurred during that time. In addition, the book traces the development of our capabilities to observe and monitor the climate system, and outlines our understanding of the predictability of climate on time-scales of months and longer. It concludes with a summary of the prospects for applying the twentieth century climate experience in order to benefit society in the twenty-first century. Lavishly illustrated in color, Climate is an accessible acccount of the challenges that climate poses at the start of the twenty-first century. Filled with fascinating facts and diagrams, it is written for a wide audience and will captivate the general reader interested in climate issues, and will be a valuable teaching resource. William Burroughs is a successful science author of books on climate, including Weather (Time Life, 2000), and Climate Change: A Multidisciplinary Approach (2001), Does the Weather Really Matter? (1997) and The Climate Revealed (1999), all published by Cambridge University Press.

  1. A Century of Human Capital and Hours

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Restuccia; Guillaume Vandenbroucke

    2012-01-01

    An average person born in the United States in the second half of the nineteenth century completed 7 years of schooling and spent 58 hours a week working in the market. By contrast, an average person born at the end of the twentieth century completed 14 years of schooling and spent 40 hours a week working. In the span of 100 years, completed years of schooling doubled and working hours decreased by 30 percent. What explains these trends? We consider a model of human capital and labor supply t...

  2. Statistics in the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, Martin T; Wells, Martin T

    2001-01-01

    Exactly what is the state of the art in statistics as we move forward into the 21st century? What promises, what trends does its future hold? Through the reflections of 70 of the world's leading statistical methodologists, researchers, theorists, and practitioners, Statistics in the 21st Century answers those questions. Originally published in the Journal of the American Statistical Association, this collection of vignettes examines our statistical past, comments on our present, and speculates on our future. Although the coverage is broad and the topics diverse, it reveals the essential intell

  3. Nineteenth-century transnational urban history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus Møller

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to take stock of nineteenth-century transnational urban history. After a short introduction to transnational history, general urban histories are analysed with respect to the ways in which transnational perspectives are incorporated into the narratives. Specific...... contributions to urban history in a transnational perspective are analysed. Approaches to urban planning history that focus on transnational linkages and international organization are discussed. Approaches to urban history within enlarged geographical scales that go beyond the nation-state framework......, with a particular focus on cities as nodes in translocal networks, are analysed. The article concludes with a critical discussion of nineteenth-century transnational urban history....

  4. Commanding Coalitions: The Diplomat-at-Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-20

    packets labeled “ halal ” for Muslims, “kosher” for Jews, and “Mexican,” or “vegeterian” for those inclined. A Japanese-American has held the top...spoke the language, ate the food , and immersed himself in the culture of his area of responsibility.155 Fulfilling his duties, Franks traveled

  5. Diplomatic Counterterrorist Deterrence: Moving beyond Military Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Iraq and victory over al-Qaeda. Unfortunately, the re- branding of al-Qaeda and the emergence of ISIL/DAESH have led many analysts to believe that...cause. Terrorists also need this coverage to amplify panic, spread fear, and facilitate economic loss, such as a decline in invest- ment and tourism ...presenting them as criminals instead of glamorizing their operations or cause with extensive coverage. So far, an understanding and alliance between the

  6. Spain’s foreign diplomatic economic policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru GRIBINCEA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish economy was hit hard by the late 2007 collapse of a speculative housing boom as well as by the global financial crisis. The economy formally went into recession in 2009 as Spain’s pre-crisis budget surplus of 3 per cent of GDP became a deficit of 11.1 per cent. Spain posted -0.1 per cent growth in 2010 and 0.7 per cent growth in 2011. The economy once again entered recession in 2012, with only modest prospects for recovery forecast for 2013 and 2014. Unemployment has soared to over 25 per cent, and is not expected to decrease significantly in the next few years. Youth unemployment has reached over 50 per cent. Responding to the crisis, the Government embarked in 2010 on a substantial program of reforms and austerity measures aimed at correcting imbalances in the economy and encouraging recovery, improving public finances. These efforts have intensified. Eurozone finance ministers (the ‚Eurogroup’ have set the government a budget deficit target of 6.5 per cent of GDP for 2013 and 5.8 per cent in 2014, falling to the desired target of under 3 per cent by 2016. The Eurogroup has also provided a euro 100bn line of credit to recapitalise Spain’s banking sector. Successive austerity measures, which have become the subject of popular protests, aim to cut the deficit through spending reductions to public administration.

  7. 22 CFR 41.26 - Diplomatic visas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) United Nations Economic Commission for Europe; (viii) The Secretary General of the United Nations... and Social Planning; (x) The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees; (xi) The United Nations... Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East; (xiii) The spouse or child of any nonimmigrant alien...

  8. Diplomats defend Snaige in duty row

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Leedu soovib, et Ukraina tühistaks uued tollimaksud Euroopa Liidus valmistatud kodukaupadele. Leedu kodumasinate tootja Snaige kavatseb hakata eksportima oma tooteid just Ukrainasse ja suurendada müüki Venemaale ja Valgevenesse

  9. From 21st century skills to 21st century human being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Niels-Peder Osmundsen; Jørgensen, Tobias Heiberg

    2017-01-01

    In Denmark, in Scandinavia and in all of Europe there is a lot of talk about the skills of the future. But if we want our students to aim for and gain a different learning outcome, we must set new and different standards for the way we teach – and start to walk the talk. The focus of the presenta...... CLD and we must take the next step, where we stop thinking about skills and competencies and start thinking and acting on the fundamental existential implication of the 21st century. What we need now is not more 21st century skills, but 21st century human beings....

  10. Towards a 21st century ready curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vloon, N.G.J.; Hammer, M.H.M.; Brahimi, N.

    2015-01-01

    Entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education is generally viewed upon as being important for economic growth in the 21st century. Teaching entrepreneurship however seems to need another approach than regular education to fulfill the professional and ever changing needs. In this perspective active

  11. Learning, Teaching, and Evaluating Century 21 Shorthand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Patricia A.

    This paper describes and evaluates the implementation of a two-semester course in Century 21 shorthand by an experienced business education instructor. Student characteristics, course organization, learning activities, and difficulties encountered by both students and the instructor are described for each course. Detailed evaluations of the…

  12. Glimpses of a Century-Old Story

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 4. Glimpses of a Century-Old Story - Agrobacterium, a Pathogen Deployed for Genetic Engineering. Jasmine M Shah. General Article Volume 18 Issue 4 April 2013 pp 336-344 ...

  13. Build Green: Wood Can Last for Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen; Samuel V. Glass

    2012-01-01

    This report updates and revises information from the 1976 Forest Service publication by Rodney C. DeGroot, “Your Wood Can Last for Centuries.” It explains why wood decays, alerts the homeowner to conditions that can result in decay in buildings, and describes measures to prevent moisture-related damage to wood.

  14. 21st Century Skills: The Challenges Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotherham, Andrew J.; Willingham, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The skills that students need for the 21st century are not really new, assert Rotherham and Willingham. Critical thinking, problem solving, information literacy, and global awareness have been important to human progress throughout history, at least among the elites in different societies. What is new is the extent to which individual and…

  15. Affinity Spaces and 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses video games as "attractors" to "affinity spaces." It argues that affinity spaces are key sites today where people teach and learn 21st Century skills. While affinity spaces are proliferating on the Internet as interest-and-passion-driven sites devoted to a common set of endeavors, they are not new, just…

  16. The twentieth century in European Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Twentieth Century in European Memory investigates contested and divisive memories of conflicts, world wars, dictatorship, genocide and mass killing. Focusing on the questions of transculturality and reception, the book looks at the ways in which such memories are being shared, debated...

  17. Turkey: migration 18th-20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, A.; Ness, I.

    2013-01-01

    For many centuries, Europe called the Ottoman empire "Turkey." This applied to the registry of population movements to and from the Ottoman empire insofar as such registrations were made. The country's rulers and inhabitants, however, only took on the name Turkey (Türkiye) in 1923, upon proclamation

  18. Academic Freedom in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William G.; Lechuga, Vicente M.

    2005-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, academic freedom was a foundational value for the academy in the United States. The concept of academic freedom pertains to the right of faculty to enjoy considerable autonomy in their research and teaching. The assumption that drives academic freedom is that the country benefits when faculty are able to search for…

  19. Surviving 1000 centuries can we do it?

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet, Roger-Maurice

    2010-01-01

    This full color book provides a quantitative view of our civilization over the next 100,000 years. The authors present the dangers and stress the importance of taking decisions in the 21st century to ensure the long-term survival of people on Earth.

  20. - ED ITO RIAL - A Century's Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    broke out on the subcontinent of southern Africa that was to have a profound effect ... This war, historicised as the Second Anglo-Boer War, was a watershed ... this was one of the first 'total' wars of the twentieth century and its impact on ... The Union Defence Force, an essentially unhappy marriage between the British and.

  1. Curriculum for the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, David

    1983-01-01

    Urges reconsideration of educational ends. Suggests eight curriculum principles that can help Canadian schools move into the next century. Explains six educational needs roughly based on Maslow's hierarchy (aesthetic needs, need for meaning, self-actualization, self-concept, social needs, need for survival) and relates them to curriculum…

  2. Coal into the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beecy, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Plenary lecture to the conference addresses coal technologies with improved environmental performance to serve 21st century needs. The US DoE recognises the need for 'premium' processes for all stages of the fuel cycle. This has led to a research focus on fundamental science and technology

  3. Learning Analytics for 21st Century Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham Shum, Simon; Crick, Ruth Deakin

    2016-01-01

    Many educational institutions are shifting their teaching and learning towards equipping students with knowledge, skills, and dispositions that prepare them for lifelong learning, in a complex and uncertain world. These have been termed "21st century competencies." Learning analytics (LA) approaches in general offer different kinds of…

  4. Learning from Twentieth Century Hermeneutic Phenomenology for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implications of commonalities in the contributions of five key thinkers in twentieth century phenomenology are discussed in relation to both original aims and contemporary projects. It is argued that, contrary to the claims of Husserl, phenomenology can only operate as hermeneutic phenomenology. Hermeneutics arose ...

  5. Birds of paradise for the sultan. Early seventeenth-century Dutch-Turkish encounters and the uses of wonder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Swan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes and analyzes the first diplomatic gift presented by the States General of the Netherlands to the Ottoman Sultan Ahmet I in 1612/1613. The extensive and very costly assortment of items was presented to the Sultan in gratitude for capitulations, permitting the Dutch access to Ottoman ports and therefore direct access to trade in the Levant and Mediterranean. This paper describes the diplomatic gift, a long-neglected episode in Dutch material cultural history, and looks in particular at the role that wonder and wonders played in structuring this remarkable encounter between the fledgling Dutch Republic and the Ottoman court.

  6. Health care in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, L R

    1996-01-01

    Our primary agenda for the 21st Century is the reinvention of America. We must reinvent democracy, capitalism, entrepreneurism, and community. Indeed, we must recreate all of our major social institutions. This includes health care. A design for a new society requires a new design for health care. In fact, health care enjoys a special privilege in this regard. It is the gateway to total societal redesign. Health is the common denominator in any society. If you loose your health you cannot work, you cannot play, you cannot study; and, if you lose it sufficiently, you cannot even pray. Health and well-being create the foundation for all other constructive human endeavors. Therefore, the design of healthy communities is the necessary first step in the redesign of total human habitats. This massive redesign effort will take a century. However, it will be launched in the next few years.

  7. Detergents of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Tan Tai Louis

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Detergents of the 21st century will depend on evolutions in household appliances, in substrates and in consumer needs. In addition, the environmental constraints, which become more and more stringent, will also play an important role, particularly in the formulations. Surfactants, which constitute one of the main raw materials in detergents, will have to be more environmentally friendly with increasing criteria of biodegradability and renewable materials. Builders (phosphates or zeolithes, heavy metal complexants (EDTA and bleaching agents (combination perborate/TAED are also expected to be replaced by biodegradable compounds, with better performances and lower costs. The real raw materials of the detergents of the 21st century will probably be enzymes (oxidase, hydrolase, peroxidase which present several advantages. At the same time, efforts will be made on biodegradable packaging through the use of micro-organisms able to degrade polymers. Finally, in terms of product forms, the concept of concentration might come back through the use of tablets.

  8. A century of wind tunnels since Eiffel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanetz, Bruno

    2017-08-01

    Fly higher, faster, preserve the life of test pilots and passengers, many challenges faced by man since the dawn of the twentieth century, with aviation pioneers. Contemporary of the first aerial exploits, wind tunnels, artificially recreating conditions encountered during the flight, have powerfully contributed to the progress of aeronautics. But the use of wind tunnels is not limited to aviation. The research for better performance, coupled with concern for energy saving, encourages manufacturers of ground vehicles to perform aerodynamic tests. Buildings and bridge structures are also concerned. This article deals principally with the wind tunnels built at ONERA during the last century. Somme wind tunnels outside ONERA, even outside France, are also evocated when their characteristics do not exist at ONERA.

  9. Gallbladder Cancer in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gallbladder cancer (GBC is an uncommon disease in the majority of the world despite being the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tree. Early diagnosis is essential for improved prognosis; however, indolent and nonspecific clinical presentations with a paucity of pathognomonic/predictive radiological features often preclude accurate identification of GBC at an early stage. As such, GBC remains a highly lethal disease, with only 10% of all patients presenting at a stage amenable to surgical resection. Among this select population, continued improvements in survival during the 21st century are attributable to aggressive radical surgery with improved surgical techniques. This paper reviews the current available literature of the 21st century on PubMed and Medline to provide a detailed summary of the epidemiology and risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, radiology, pathology, management, and prognosis of GBC.

  10. Poverty in the first-century Galilee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakari Häkkinen

    2016-09-01

    In order to understand the activity of Jesus and the early Jesus movement in Galilee, it is essential to know the social and economic context where he and his followers came. The principal literary source in first-century Galilee is Josephus, who provides a very incomplete glimpse of the political and economic character of the Galilee and his account is both tendentious and selfserving. There is no consensus among the scholars on the conditions of ordinary people in Galilee at the time of Jesus and the early Jesus movement. The evidence can be interpreted either so that first-century Galilee was peaceful and people had somewhat better times economically because of the large building projects, or just the opposite – the building projects demanded a lot more taxes and forced labour and made life even more difficult. In this article it is argued that the latter conditions explain better the birth and rapid increase of the early Jesus movement in Galilee.

  11. Forest biorefinery : the next century of innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junyong Zhu

    2011-01-01

    The concept of producing cel¬lulosic biofuel, bioproducts, and chemicals using ligno¬celluloses in a biorefinery has been around for over a century. Renewed interest in the biorefinery concept has more recently arisen from concerns about climate change and the depletion of fossil fuels. Much research and progress has been made in the last three decades in the area of...

  12. The theatrical portrait in eighteenth century London

    OpenAIRE

    West, Shearer

    1986-01-01

    A theatrical portrait is an image of an actor or actors in character. This genre was widespread in eighteenth century London and was practised by a large number of painters and engravers of all levels of ability. The sources of the genre lay in a number of diverse styles of art, including the court portraits of Lely and Kneller and the fetes galantes of Watteau and Mercier. Three types of media for theatrical portraits were particularly prevalent in London, between c.1745...

  13. Arming shoes of the fifteenth century

    OpenAIRE

    Volken Marquita

    2017-01-01

    Military footwear for the fifteenth century includes arming shoes worn under sabatons. Written sources suggest arming shoes and footwear used for fighting were ordinary shoes adapted for the purpose. Archaeological footwear was examined for signs of such modifications. Medieval shoe technology is presented, showing the range of footwear and its uses and gait biomechanics. Based on experiences from re-enactors wearing armours, medieval shoe styles are discussed for appropriateness as arming sh...

  14. Nineteenth Century Public And Private Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMA REMINA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to illustrate the public and private spheres. The former represents the area in which each of us carries out their daily activities, while the latter is mirrored by the home. Kate Chopin and Charlotte Perkins Gilman are two salient nineteenth-century writers who shape the everyday life of the historical period they lived in, within their literary works that shed light on the areas under discussion.

  15. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.; Miller, M.; Zinaman, O.; Milligan, M.; Arent, D.; Palmintier, B.; O' Malley, M.; Mueller, S.; Lannoye, E.; Tuohy, A.; Kujala, B.; Sommer, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Soonee, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). This paper summarizes the analytic frameworks that have emerged to measure this characteristic and distills key principles of flexibility for policy makers.

  16. Medical Articles in Eighteenth Century American Magazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, Clemency Chase

    1965-01-01

    Formal medical publication began in the United States with The Medical Repository in 1797. Between 1741, the date of the first American magazine, and 1797 medical articles were included in general magazines. This study deals with ten representative magazines and reviews their general content. The varying content of the medical articles is analyzed into broad categories, and several important physicians, contributors to the magazines, are discussed. The Medical Repository is treated as a culmination of eighteenth century medical publication. PMID:14306031

  17. Nuclear weapons in the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, Therese

    2007-01-01

    The 21. century may have started with the 1998 Indian and Pakistani nuclear explosions. The Korean and Iranian crises weaken the non-proliferation system. The great nations have witnessed, all during the Cold War, crises that included the nuclear hypothesis. The multiplication of nuclear actors who do not have the same experience is making the system unstable. Will we again have to experience the Cold War stages, with a new Cuban crisis, this time explicitly nuclear?

  18. Mozart and medicine in the eighteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J S

    1995-01-01

    Over the years the medical history and death of Mozart have been the subject of many studies, but in spite of all this attention much remains controversial. In an attempt to resolve some of the difficulty it is useful to see his life, and that of his family as recorded in their letters, in the context of medicine in eighteenth-century Europe. PMID:7562811

  19. Nuclear safety in the next century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneley, D A [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Can nuclear plants b made safe enough to be suitable for worldwide large-scale use? Can the radioactive wastes generated be safely managed over long terms? This paper addresses these questions from a vantage point within the nuclear industry. It also provides a scenario of the possible development over the next century of the Bruce nuclear energy centre on Lake Huron as an illustration of why it is worthwhile to further nuclear technology. (author). 4 figs.

  20. [Plica polonica in the 21st century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedli, A; Pierriard-Wolfensberger, J; Harms, M

    2000-03-01

    We describe a young man presenting with dreadlocks. There are remarkable similarities with the so called plica polonica, that historically had been treated with long courses of mercury. Apparently very important in the 18th century, the interest for this hair-disorder appears to be lost in specialized medical literature. In contrast dreadlocks, a recent hairstyle are frequently encountered. Lack of other sources various websites provide dermatologists with answers to questions regarding complications. Fortunately a simply haircut is today treatment enough.

  1. Science for the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    The Federal government plays a key role in supporting the country's science infrastructure, a national treasure, and scientific research, an investment in our future. Scientific discoveries transform the way we think about our universe and ourselves, from the vastness of space to molecular-level biology. In innovations such as drugs derived through biotechnology and new communications technologies we see constant evidence of the power of science to improve lives and address national challenges. We had not yet learned to fly at the dawn of the 20th century, and could not have imagined the amazing 20th century inventions that we now take for granted. As we move into the 21st century, we eagerly anticipate new insights, discoveries, and technologies that will inspire and enrich us for many decades to come. This report presents the critical responsibilities of our Federal science enterprise and the actions taken by the Federal research agencies, through the National Science and Technology Council, to align our programs with scientific opportunity and with national needs. The many examples show how our science enterprise has responded to the President's priorities for homeland and national security, economic growth, health research, and the environment. In addition, we show how the science agencies work together to set priorities; coordinate related research programs; leverage investments to promote discovery, translate science into national benefits, and sustain the national research enterprise; and promote excellence in math and science education and work force development.

  2. Ionizing radiation in 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworowski, Zbigniew

    2005-01-01

    The paper begins with the author's personal experience in Poland on the occasion of Chernobyl nuclear accident followed by main lessons that the author could deduce from the accident. After the discovery of ionizing radiation at the end of 19th century, social perception has altered between acceptance and rejection stemming from recognition of the basic aspects: usefulness for medical applications and for technical and scientific aims, beneficial effects of their low levels, and harmful effects of high levels. The author explains how linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption according to which even the lowest, near zero doses of radiation may cause cancer genetic harm has become established. Comparing the natural radioactivity of the earth's crust with the activity of much shorter-lived radioactive wastes from the nuclear power cycle, it is concluded that none of the man-made component of the radioactive wastes has higher-toxicity than the natural Th 232. The paper concludes by stating that one century has not been long enough to adapt mentally to ionizing radiation and radioactivity and perhaps 21st century will suffice for this adaptation. (S. Ohno)

  3. French in the XX Century: Development Tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisiya I. Skorobogatova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the disclosure of changes that occurred in the French language in the XX century. The task of the authors is to present the main features characteristic of the French language of the 20th century, taking into account external history and to give their perspective assessment. World wars, the development of communication tools and the creation of new technologies, the strengthening of cultural and economic ties between France and other countries of the world had a significant impact on the evolution of the French language. Important results of the development of the French language in the period under review include: fixing a new phoneme [ŋ] in the consonantial system of the French language; enrichment of the lexical system at the expense of internal resources and at the expense of other languages; strengthening the dynamics of the development of the non-literary part of the language; increase in the number of syntactic Anglicisms. In general, the authors of the article attempted to give a detailed answer to the question: if there was the impoverishment of the French language in the twentieth century.

  4. 77 FR 32391 - Building a 21st Century Digital Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... of May 23, 2012 Building a 21st Century Digital Government Memorandum for the Heads of Executive... century digital Government that delivers better digital services to the American people. Today, the CIO is releasing that strategy, entitled ``Digital Government: Building a 21st Century Platform to Better Serve the...

  5. Twenty-First Century Learning: Communities, Interaction and Ubiquitous Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leh, Amy S.C.; Kouba, Barbara; Davis, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    Advanced technology makes 21st century learning, communities and interactions unique and leads people to an era of ubiquitous computing. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the discussion of learning in the 21st century. The paper will review literature on learning community, community learning, interaction, 21st century learning and…

  6. “Greek” Secular Migration to Russia: Priorities and Regulation (End of 16th – First Half of 17th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oparina Tatyana A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the problem of the attitude of the Russian authorities to the “Greek” migration. The author tracks the general and specific features of the Orthodox christians’ migration from the Ottoman Empire and from its vassal states. It was revealed that the “Greeks”, like other foreigners, were willingly turned to the Russian citizenship. However, in peacetime the need for foreigners sharply decreased. The admission of military and other experts to Russia who provoked doubts concerning their allegiance was banned. These prohibitions referred mainly to the immigrants from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, not the “Greeks”. The authorities had always been ready to engage the “Greeks” in the service. The precedent effort of the migration of Greek jeweler Alexander Dmitriev changed the situation for a short period. All the “Creeks” were allowed to cross the border without coordination with Moscow departments (Diplomatic or Internal Affair. But then the master asked a too large sum for his services. The authorities were extremely disappointed and refused to employ him in the Royal workshops. This was the only example during the first half of the 17th century when a “Greek” was rejected from the Russian citizenship. However, the incident of Alexandr Dmitriev had not changed the authorities’ politics, he became the reason for moving back to the old rules of coordination before allowing the “Greeks” to cross the Russian border. Besides, it was forbidden to hire foreigners, including the “Greeks”, who had violated the oath and fled from Russia. After that they had no chance to return.

  7. Musicology, Diplomacy, and International Networks at the Turn of the 20th Century. Discourses, Practices, Events

    OpenAIRE

    Urchueguía, Cristina; Napoli, Alberto; Caceres, Maria; Ottomano, Vincenzina; Körner, Axel; Wade, Bonnie; Escrivá-Llorca, Ferran; Sibille, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    The birth of musicology as a theoretical discipline coincided with the professionalization of international academic bodies, most famously in natural and social sciences, but also in the humanities. While presenting an important example of transnational exchange, such trend in academic research was directly affected by intergovernmental relations. The intersections between the beginnings of musicology as a theoretical discipline and diplomatic relations will be the object of...

  8. Living with the Devil: Stability in the 21st Century World With or Without Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    author’s opinion - if we are not progressing, we must be falling behind . While an arms race is not desired, a strong and unwavering approach towards...than your congresses: on the day that two army corps can mutually annihilate each other in a second, all civilised nations will surely recoil with...we must thus consider this a driving force behind nuclear proliferation. Therefore, as diplomatic, political and social consequences continue to

  9. A century of progress in industrial and organizational psychology: Discoveries and the next century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Eduardo; Kozlowski, Steve W J; Chen, Gilad

    2017-03-01

    In a century of research published in the Journal of Applied Psychology , we have seen significant advances in our science. The results of this science have broad applications to the workplace and implications for improving organizational effectiveness through a variety of avenues. Research has focused on understanding constructs, relationships, and processes at multiple levels, including individual, team, and organizational. A plethora of research methods and questions have driven this work, resulting in a nuanced understanding of what matters in the workplace. In this paper, we synthesize the most salient discoveries, findings, and/or conclusions in 19 domains. We seek to summarize the progress that has been made and highlight the most salient directions for future work such that the next century of research in industrial and organizational psychological science can be as impactful as the first century has been. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. 19th Century Ankara Through Historical Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Öztekin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A city is a place whose meaning is found in the poetry created there. In Kevin Lynch’s words, a city presents the imagination with an unlimited potential for “readability”. If we consider this unlimited readability through poetry, it can be said that attempts to find the zeitgeist of a city at a certain time through literary texts must evaluate the poetry, the city and the time. This is because poetry (or literature in general, just like a city, has an important memory which oscillates through ideas of its past and future. In this sense, divan poetry and one particular example of it—historical “manzume” poems—are memories which richly illustrate the ‘continuity’ and ‘change’ within a period. This work, on 19th century Ankara, aims to evaluate the traces reflected in historical manzume poems of the time they were written. Five historical manzume poems in three texts out of seventy 19th century divan collections scanned for this work were found to be about Ankara. Two of these manzumes are by Cazib, one by Ziver Pasha, and one by Mahmud Celaleddin Pasha. The first of these is on Ankara’s dervish lodge; the second on a barracks being built in Ankara; the third on Vecihi Pasha’s governorship of Ankara; the fourth on the the Mayoral Residence. In addition to these, a manzume on the construction of Hamidiye Caddesi by Mahmud Celaleddin Pasha is discovered with in scope of the work. The aim of this work is to provide a contribution to city history through a commentary on elements of 19th century poetry concerning Ankara.

  11. The development of science during this century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisskopf, V.F.

    1993-01-01

    This is a slightly revised version of a talk delivered at the meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, in Boston, on 14 February 1993, and at a CERN Colloquium, on 5 August 1993, entitled 'Science -yesterday, today and tomorrow'. It describes the tremendous growth of scientific knowledge and insights acquired since the beginning of this century. The changes in the character, sociology and support, of science are discussed, including the growing predominance of American science and the recent trend away from basic science towards applied research. (orig.)

  12. Arming shoes of the fifteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volken Marquita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Military footwear for the fifteenth century includes arming shoes worn under sabatons. Written sources suggest arming shoes and footwear used for fighting were ordinary shoes adapted for the purpose. Archaeological footwear was examined for signs of such modifications. Medieval shoe technology is presented, showing the range of footwear and its uses and gait biomechanics. Based on experiences from re-enactors wearing armours, medieval shoe styles are discussed for appropriateness as arming shoes. The question of why medieval military footwear shows no purposed development is addressed.

  13. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARAIVAN LUIZA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008 and Zoo City (2010 are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published in 2011 as this consolidates women's presence in the SF world.

  14. Health Physics in the 21st Century

    CERN Document Server

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2008-01-01

    Adopting a proactive approach and focusing on emerging radiation-generating technologies, Health Physics in the 21st Century meets the growing need for a presentation of the relevant radiological characteristics and hazards. As such, this monograph discusses those technologies that will affect the health physics and radiation protection profession over the decades to come. After an introductory overview, the second part of this book looks at fission and fusion energy, followed by a section devoted to accelerators, while the final main section deals with radiation on manned space missions.

  15. Teratology in Mexico. 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbach, Frida

    2014-01-01

    It was not until the last third of the 19th century, the period in which, according to historiography, the country definitely inserted itself into modernity, that anomalies and monstrosities had a presence in Mexico. Therefore, what I present here are four moments of teratology in Mexico, four dates in which I try to recount how teratology, which still occupied a marginal place within the main themes of national science, not only reached to cover the realm of medical discussions at the time, but also laid the foundations for new disciplines like biology and anthropology.

  16. Mammalian developmental genetics in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artzt, Karen

    2012-12-01

    This Perspectives is a review of the breathtaking history of mammalian genetics in the past century and, in particular, of the ways in which genetic thinking has illuminated aspects of mouse development. To illustrate the power of that thinking, selected hypothesis-driven experiments and technical advances are discussed. Also included in this account are the beginnings of mouse genetics at the Bussey Institute, Columbia University, and The Jackson Laboratory and a retrospective discussion of one of the classic problems in developmental genetics, the T/t complex and its genetic enigmas.

  17. Selective Reproduction in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    detection of fetal anomalies during prenatal screening and testing programs, the development of preimplantation genetic diagnosis techniques as well as the screening of potential gamete donors by egg agencies and sperm banks. Selective Reproduction in the 21st Century provides unique ethnographic insights...... from around the world on how SRTs are made available within different cultural, socio-economic and regulatory settings as well as how people in these settings perceive and make use of new possibilities for selective reproduction as they envision and try to form their future family lives....

  18. Benjamin Banneker's 18th Century Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Sethanne

    2018-01-01

    Benjamin Banneker is considered to be the first African-American man of science (1731-1806), a contempory of George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. He was a self taught clock maker, mathematician, and astronomer. He owned land in Baltimore County near Ellicott City, Maryland where he farmed tobacco. He is especially known for his work on the Boundary Survey of our new Capital. Surveyors place boundary stones along the boundary of the nascent Capital. Banneker was part of the team who measured the latitutde and longitude for each stone. Using 18th century surveying techniques Banneker became part of the early history of Washington DC. He also published popular almanacs.

  19. Haphazard Reality Half a Century of Science

    CERN Document Server

    Casimir, HBG

    2010-01-01

    Casimir, himself a famous physician, studied and worked with three great physicists of the twentieth century: Niels Bohr, Wolfgang Pauli and Paul Ehrenfest. In his autobiography, the brilliant theoretician lets the reader witness the revolution that led to quantum physics, whose influence on modern society turned out to be many times larger than the first atomic physicists could have imagined. Through his involvement in the technical-scientific and the business aspects of physics, through management positions at Philips Research Laboratory and as a member of the Board of Directors of Philips,

  20. DISEASES IN MAZATLAN DURING THE XIX CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cázares-Aboytes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyzes sanitary conditions in the city- port of Mazatlan during the 19th century, as well as the main illnesses or illnesses that afflicted the resident and floating population of the Sinaloa population nucleus, such as cholera and yellow fever, decimated the population at different times, being national and international news, for the importance of Mazatlan. Aspects such as doctors and healers, natural remedies and pharmaceuticals used to mitigate daily and extraordinary suffering, are included in the analysis of the work.

  1. Phonetics of English in the nineteenth century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    grew. This was reflected in the appearance of a large number of books and other publications dealing with speech sound, and also in the application of phonetics to such diverse areas as language teaching, elocution, teaching the deaf, shorthand writing and dialectology. The nineteenth century can...... therefore be said to be the era when the true foundations of the modern disciplines of phonetics and phonology were laid. This collection features works by well-known figures such as Isaac Pitman, Alexander Ellis, Alexander Melville Bell, and Henry Sweet. In addition, contributions of less well...

  2. Which energy for the 21 century transports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauquis, P.R.; Lovelock, J.

    2005-01-01

    With more than 95% of the energy consumption realized by the petroleum, the transportation sector represents 20% of the world energy consumption. How will be assure the energy need of this sector for the 21 century? How control the greenhouse gases emissions and in particular the CO 2 by the control of the transportation sector? This paper aims to answer the first question taking into account the bond second one. It analyzes the today situation and scenario for 2020 and 2050, the possible substitution fuels, the hybrid vehicles, the hydrogen fuel and the electric power vehicles. (A.L.B.)

  3. Malta and the Nineteenth Century Grain Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    2009-01-01

    It is often assumed that Britain's colonies followed the British doctrine of free trade in the second half of the nineteenth century. Malta, which became a British colony in 1814, did indeed become an early free trader. However, she failed to liberalize the grain trade, even when the mother country....... The duties on grain in Malta were therefore not protectionist, but rather for revenue purposes, in contrast to the UK Corn Laws. Taxing an inelastic demand for foreign wheat by Maltese, who were unable to grow enough food to support themselves, was certainly an effective way of raising revenue, but probably...

  4. Malta and the Nineteenth Century Grain Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    It is often assumed that Britain's colonies followed the British doctrine of free trade in the second half of the nineteenth century. Malta, which became a British colony in 1814, did indeed become an early free trader. However, she failed to liberalize the grain trade, even when the mother country....... The duties on grain in Malta were therefore not protectionist, but rather for revenue purposes, in contrast to the UK Corn Laws. Taxing an inelastic demand for foreign wheat by Maltese, who were unable to grow enough food to support themselves, was certainly an effective way of raising revenue, but probably...

  5. Nuclear power for the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    An international conference on Nuclear Power for the 21. Century was held in Paris on 21-22 March 2005. Organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the OECD and the NEA, the conference was. hosted by the French government. The aim of the conference was to analyse the potential contribution of nuclear energy to meeting the world's energy needs in an economic manner, while respecting social and environmental concerns. The conference was attended by ministers high-ranking officials and experts from 74 countries and 10 international organisations. (author)

  6. The development of science during this century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, V. F.

    1993-12-01

    This is a slightly revised version of a talk delivered at the meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, in Boston, on 14 February 1993, and at a CERN Colloquium, on 5 August 1993, entitled 'Science -yesterday, today and tomorrow'. It describes the tremendous growth of scientific knowledge and insights acquired since the beginning of this century. The changes in the character, sociology and support, of science are discussed, including the growing predominance of American science and the recent trend away from basic science towards applied research.

  7. Renewable energy education for 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charters, W.W.S.

    2000-01-01

    The major technological developments in equipment, designed to harness new and renewable sources of energy, have only taken place in the last four decades of the twentieth century, although the principles involved have been previously known for many centuries and were clearly formulated in many of the ancient civilizations. The term renewable energy (RE) itself is of relatively recent origin and only came into widespread use worldwide in the eighties, after the United Nations Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy, held in Nairobi, Kenya in 1981, Ref 1. Currently, the term renewable s is extensively used to describe the full range of direct and indirect uses of solar radiation incident on the earth's surface, and is often extended to include energy resources, such as tidal power or geothermal energy, neither of which is strictly renewable in the true sense of the word. Energy extracted from biomass is also generally included under this heading, although biomass is truly renewable only if continuous plantation development and replanting is carried out as the biomass is harvested. On a global scale, relatively extensive teaching about renewable energy started in the late seventies and early eighties, after the first impact of the OPEC oil price shock. Up till this time, there were only a few centres around the world where individual dedicated researchers and university teachers were involved in such activity. The next impetus to course and teaching material development came with national movements for energy independence and finally, in the latter years of this century, considerable stimulation has been given due to the increasing realisation of global environmental factors such as global warming, ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere, acid rain formation, and many other environmental degradation effects due to the increasing use of fossil fuel reserves. Considerable attention has been focused in the last twenty years through the many national and

  8. South African Journal of Botany: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  9. DNA fingerprinting in botany: past, present, future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybom, Hilde; Weising, Kurt; Rotter, Björn

    2014-01-03

    Almost three decades ago Alec Jeffreys published his seminal Nature papers on the use of minisatellite probes for DNA fingerprinting of humans (Jeffreys and colleagues Nature 1985, 314:67-73 and Nature 1985, 316:76-79). The new technology was soon adopted for many other organisms including plants, and when Hilde Nybom, Kurt Weising and Alec Jeffreys first met at the very First International Conference on DNA Fingerprinting in Berne, Switzerland, in 1990, everybody was enthusiastic about the novel method that allowed us for the first time to discriminate between humans, animals, plants and fungi on the individual level using DNA markers. A newsletter coined "Fingerprint News" was launched, T-shirts were sold, and the proceedings of the Berne conference filled a first book on "DNA fingerprinting: approaches and applications". Four more conferences were about to follow, one on each continent, and Alec Jeffreys of course was invited to all of them. Since these early days, methodologies have undergone a rapid evolution and diversification. A multitude of techniques have been developed, optimized, and eventually abandoned when novel and more efficient and/or more reliable methods appeared. Despite some overlap between the lifetimes of the different technologies, three phases can be defined that coincide with major technological advances. Whereas the first phase of DNA fingerprinting ("the past") was dominated by restriction fragment analysis in conjunction with Southern blot hybridization, the advent of the PCR in the late 1980s gave way to the development of PCR-based single- or multi-locus profiling techniques in the second phase. Given that many routine applications of plant DNA fingerprinting still rely on PCR-based markers, we here refer to these methods as "DNA fingerprinting in the present", and include numerous examples in the present review. The beginning of the third phase actually dates back to 2005, when several novel, highly parallel DNA sequencing strategies were developed that increased the throughput over current Sanger sequencing technology 1000-fold and more. High-speed DNA sequencing was soon also exploited for DNA fingerprinting in plants, either in terms of facilitated marker development, or directly in the sense of "genotyping-by-sequencing". Whereas these novel approaches are applied at an ever increasing rate also in non-model species, they are still far from routine, and we therefore treat them here as "DNA fingerprinting in the future".

  10. DNA fingerprinting in botany: past, present, future

    OpenAIRE

    Nybom, Hilde; Weising, Kurt; Rotter, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Almost three decades ago Alec Jeffreys published his seminal Nature papers on the use of minisatellite probes for DNA fingerprinting of humans (Jeffreys and colleagues Nature 1985, 314:67–73 and Nature 1985, 316:76–79). The new technology was soon adopted for many other organisms including plants, and when Hilde Nybom, Kurt Weising and Alec Jeffreys first met at the very First International Conference on DNA Fingerprinting in Berne, Switzerland, in 1990, everybody was enthusiastic about the n...

  11. Computational botany methods for automated species identification

    CERN Document Server

    Remagnino, Paolo; Wilkin, Paul; Cope, James; Kirkup, Don

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses innovative methods for mining information from images of plants, especially leaves, and highlights the diagnostic features that can be implemented in fully automatic systems for identifying plant species. Adopting a multidisciplinary approach, it explores the problem of plant species identification, covering both the concepts of taxonomy and morphology. It then provides an overview of morphometrics, including the historical background and the main steps in the morphometric analysis of leaves together with a number of applications. The core of the book focuses on novel diagnostic methods for plant species identification developed from a computer scientist’s perspective. It then concludes with a chapter on the characterization of botanists' visions, which highlights important cognitive aspects that can be implemented in a computer system to more accurately replicate the human expert’s fixation process. The book not only represents an authoritative guide to advanced computational tools fo...

  12. South African Journal of Botany: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    com/products/acrobat/acrrsystemreqs.html#70win. If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line ...

  13. Rhubarb botany, horticulture, and genetic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhubarb (Rheum spp.) is native to areas around the Tibetan Plateau and has been cultivated for medicinal purposes for approximately 4,000 years. The roots (rhizomes) of species in this genus are rich in anthraquinones and other biochemicals that may show promise in treating or preventing cancer, dia...

  14. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opened at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for audience of all ages, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one...

  15. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opens at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for all ages' audiences, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one m...

  16. DIMMING OF THE 17TH CENTURY SUN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foukal, Peter; Ortiz, Ada; Schnerr, Roald

    2011-01-01

    Reconstructions of total solar irradiance (TSI) rely mainly on linear relations between TSI variation and indices of facular area. When these are extrapolated to the prolonged 15th-17th century Spoerer and Maunder solar activity minima, the estimated solar dimming is insufficient to explain the mid-millennial climate cooling of the Little Ice Age. We draw attention here to evidence that the relation departs from linearity at the lowest activity levels. Imaging photometry and radiometry indicate an increased TSI contribution per unit area from small network faculae by a factor of 2-4 compared with larger faculae in and around active regions. Even partial removal of this more TSI-effective network at prolonged minima could enable climatically significant solar dimming, yet be consistent with the weakened but persistent 11 yr cycle observed in Be 10 during the Maunder Minimum. The mechanism we suggest would not alter previous findings that increased solar radiative forcing is insufficient to account for 20th century global warming.

  17. History of twentieth-century physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1995-01-01

    The meaning and message of the history of science will be discussed with relevance to XX century physics. This decisive period began in 1894-95 with the discoveries of the electron,X-rays and radioactivity,with the consequent development of relativity and quantumphysics. Connections of the development of science and society in XX century with culture and the influence on industry will be examined. Finally, the corruption of physics by the military will be considered. The influence of physics on chemistry and biology will be briefly treated and the impact of the approach and method of physics on modern thinking will be assessed. It should be kept in mind that the history of science is not a way of getting a simplified or adulterated presentation of the subject ,in this case of physics and so some understanding of general physics will be assumed. On the other hand, the broader generalisations of the history of ideas and events are illustrated (if not proven) by the facts (and myths) of science. Finally,as an e...

  18. Bible translations into Italian (20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Wróbel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Discussing twentieth-century translations of the Bible into Italian we have to make a crucial distinction: there are different translations and different editions; the latter are more numerous, as the same translation may appear in different forms. For many of them it is difficult to determine to whom they are addressed: some of the features show a broad willingness to promote the content of the Bible, while others make them a tool only for a group of specialists. The article discusses the issue of the Bibles, which were printed in Italy in the twentieth century; there were 27. It deliberately does not include translations and elaborations less prevalent or partial studies for professionals. The information is presented in a tangible and transparent scheme, which facilitates their mutual compatibility. Each description contains the name or title of work, author’s name, place and date of publication, publisher’s name, names of translators, editors, source of translation, editing characteristics, and other observations.

  19. Challenges in 21st Century Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    We are truly fortunate to live in one of the great epochs of human discovery, a time when science is providing new visions and understanding about ourselves and the world in which we live. At last, we are beginning to explore the Universe itself. One particularly exciting area of advancement is high-energy physics where several existing concepts will be put to the test. A brief survey will be given of accomplishments in 20th Century physics. These include relativity and quantum physics which have produced breakthroughs in cosmology, astrophysics, and high-energy particle physics. The current situation is then assessed, combining the last 100 years of progress with new 21st Century challenges about unification and where to go next. Finally, the future is upon us. The next frontier in experimental high-energy physics, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, is scheduled to begin coming online this year (2007). The potential for the LHC to address several of the significant problems in physics today will be discussed, as this great accelerator examines the predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics and even cosmology. New physics and new science will surely emerge and a better vision of the world will unfold.

  20. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gover, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huray, P.G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  1. Astrology in seventeenth-century Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseder, Claudia

    2010-06-01

    This article discusses three aspects of the history of astrology in seventeenth-century Peru that are of larger interest for the history of science in Latin America: Creole concerns about indigenous idolatry, the impact of the Inquisition on natural philosophy, and communication between scholars within the Spanish colonies and the transatlantic world. Drawing mainly on the scholars Antonio de la Calancha, Juan de Figueroa, and Ruiz de Lozano, along with several Jesuits, the article analyzes how natural and medical astrology took shape in Peru and how they fostered astronomical investigations of the southern skies. While natural and medical astrology, showing New and Old World influences, oscillated between orthodoxy and heterodoxy, and between scholasticism and new science, judicial astrology remained undeveloped. Toward the end of the seventeenth century the discourse about astrology took an unexpected turn, reflecting a newly invigorated moral and Christian reading of the heavens that was in part a response to a deep-rooted dissatisfaction with the failure of the extirpation of idolatry campaigns. Inscribing divine and cardinal virtues, the Virgin Mary, Christian saints, and Greco-Roman allegories into the heavens was considered a way to finally solve the problem of idolatry and to convey Creole greatness.

  2. The twenty-first century in space

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Ben

    2015-01-01

    This final entry in the History of Human Space Exploration mini-series by Ben Evans continues with an in-depth look at the latter part of the 20th century and the start of the new millennium. Picking up where Partnership in Space left off, the story commemorating the evolution of manned space exploration unfolds in further detail. More than fifty years after Yuri Gagarin’s pioneering journey into space, Evans extends his overview of how that momentous voyage continued through the decades which followed. The Twenty-first Century in Space, the sixth book in the series, explores how the fledgling partnership between the United States and Russia in the 1990s gradually bore fruit and laid the groundwork for today’s International Space Station. The narrative follows the convergence of the Shuttle and Mir programs, together with standalone missions, including servicing the Hubble Space Telescope, many of whose technical and human lessons enabled the first efforts to build the ISS in orbit. The book also looks to...

  3. POLITICAL ISLAM IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Izquierdo Brichs

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, political Islam or Islamism has created enormous concern both in the political media and the news media. The revolution in Iran in the late 1970s and the election victory by FIS in Algeria in the late 1980s represented two decisive points in the popular and ideological mobilisation by Islamist groups. Immediately after that, the civil war in Algeria and terrorist violence left their mark on the 1990s. The perception of Islamism today is still associated, in many cases, with the dynamics of the end of the past century, and with the jihadism of a few fundamentalist groups, without taking into account the fact that the majority of Islamist groups have undergone an enormous evolution, and that the context in which they are operating is also very different. As we will see, instead of the jihadism or the ideological radicalness of the past century, today’s political Islam is much better represented by the moderation (both ideological and in terms of political activity of Turkey’s AKP party, the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, Morocco’s PJD, Tunisia’s al-Nahdah and most of the parties and large groups. Central factors in this dynamic of moderation are, on one hand, the link between Islamist groups with regimes and, on the other, the claims for and acceptance of liberal democracy as a strategy in their political struggle.

  4. Vaccines for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, Isabel; Rappuoli, Rino; De Gregorio, Ennio

    2014-01-01

    In the last century, vaccination has been the most effective medical intervention to reduce death and morbidity caused by infectious diseases. It is believed that vaccines save at least 2–3 million lives per year worldwide. Smallpox has been eradicated and polio has almost disappeared worldwide through global vaccine campaigns. Most of the viral and bacterial infections that traditionally affected children have been drastically reduced thanks to national immunization programs in developed countries. However, many diseases are not yet preventable by vaccination, and vaccines have not been fully exploited for target populations such as elderly and pregnant women. This review focuses on the state of the art of recent clinical trials of vaccines for major unmet medical needs such as HIV, malaria, TB, and cancer. In addition, we describe the innovative technologies currently used in vaccine research and development including adjuvants, vectors, nucleic acid vaccines, and structure-based antigen design. The hope is that thanks to these technologies, more diseases will be addressed in the 21st century by novel preventative and therapeutic vaccines. PMID:24803000

  5. Book of extremes why the 21st century isn’t like the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Ted G

    2014-01-01

    What makes the 21st century different from the 20th century? This century is the century of extremes -- political, economic, social, and global black-swan events happening with increasing frequency and severity. Book of Extremes is a tour of the current reality as seen through the lens of complexity theory – the only theory capable of explaining why the Arab Spring happened and why it will happen again; why social networks in the virtual world behave like flashmobs in the physical world; why financial bubbles blow up in our faces and will grow and burst again; why the rich get richer and will continue to get richer regardless of governmental policies; why the future of economic wealth and national power lies in comparative advantage and global trade; why natural disasters will continue to get bigger and happen more frequently; and why the Internet – invented by the US -- is headed for a global monopoly controlled by a non-US corporation. It is also about the extreme innovations and heroic innovators yet t...

  6. Imagining the Twentieth Century: Retrospective, Myth, and the Colonial Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B MacDonald

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrospectives on the twentieth century often portray it as the most atrocious century in human history, in terms of totalising ideologies, moral abandonment, technological horror, and mass death. The nineteenth and earlier centuries, by contrast, emerge as progressive and enlightened eras, characterised by morality, rationalism, and the absence of war. Creating a dramatic contrast between old and new centuries ignores the historical reality of colonialism and violence outside Europe’s borders. This article problematises twentieth century retrospectives and their nostalgia for the past, comparing these with recent histories of colonialism and genocide. Rather than see the twentieth century as a decisive break from the past, there are important elements of continuity and evolution which should not be ignored.

  7. Leadership for a healthy 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Every economic institution finds itself caught on the horns of a dilemma: Competing sets of values strike a conflict between social good and economic wealth, regardless of whether organizations articulate it. The struggle in U.S. health care, however, is both more acute and poignant. On the one hand, ethical and cultural values require societal commitments to the well-being of the individual. Who among us would want to refuse help to someone sick or injured? On the other hand, market forces require an economic accounting of health care. Social trends emphasize a mission to provide care for all, while managed care promotes the industry's fidelity to a balanced ledger. U.S. health care is thus defined by paradox. The nation spends more than $1.3 trillion annually on health care--a national line-item larger than the economies of all other nations except two (Germany and Japan). A new study by the Health Care Financing Administration warns that health care spending may nearly double to $2.1 trillion by 2007. Yet the industry is perceived to be too "resource-constrained" to assure health care services for all citizens. This poses a key question: Are there too few resources, or are we simply not allocating them in the best ways possible? Health care's "double bottom line"--social and economic accountability--typifies the social and economic milieu of health care as the final pages turn on the 20th Century. And, it is this duality that forms the underlying theme for the landmark study--Leadership for a Healthy 21st Century--conducted over the course of the past year by Arthur Andersen and The Healthcare Forum Foundation, with primary research support from DYG, Inc. and Baruch Lev, professor at the Stern School of Business, New York University. The study was designed to investigate a new economic model emerging in the information economy and its impact on health care; the evolving values of consumers in relation to business, health and health care; and the values of

  8. Jews, Music-Making, and the Twentieth Century Maghrib

    OpenAIRE

    Silver, Christopher Benno

    2017-01-01

    From the early twentieth century and through at least mid-century, indigenous North African Jews came to play an outsized role as music-makers and music-purveyors across the Maghrib. In Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, all under French rule until the middle of the twentieth century, Jewish vocalists and instrumentalists, record label artistic directors and concessionaires, commercial agents, and sonic impresarios utilized the phonograph and recording technology to safeguard and promote traditio...

  9. Extraction of 16th Century Calender Fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Jakob Povl; Etheridge, Christian

    at the Cultural Heritage & Archaeometric Research Team, SDU. Upon finding medieval manuscript fragments in the university library’s special collections, scholars at the Centre for Medieval Literature are consulted. In most cases, digital pictures of the finds will circulate in the international community...... fragments may require extensive use of Big Data and other forms of analysis in order to be identified. Usually, the university library prefers not to remove the fragments from their “fragment carriers”. In order to read fragments that are only partially visible or invisible, x-ray technology may be deployed...... of medieval scholars. Thousands of 16th and 17th Century books are stored in the University Library of Southern Denmark. One out of five of these books is expected to contain medieval manuscript fragments or fragments of rare prints, e.g. incunabula....

  10. Energy strategy for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Susumu

    1979-01-01

    Emphasis in the report is placed on how to cope with the stringent situation of energy resources in Japan when the energy demands are rising with the advance of economies. For the future, countermeasures must be taken in time and on firm basis. The characteristics of respective energy resources are clarified, and on this basis, review is made on the energy supplies up to the beginning of the 21st century. In the above connection, the following measures are taken up: promotion of energy saving, stable supply of petroleum, development and utilization of substitute energies, development of technologies for new energies, enhancement in the location of power stations, and securing of the necessary funds. In conclusion, it points out the need for further efforts on overall energy measures and the need for full co-ordination of the energy policy with the social situation. (Mori, K.)

  11. IAEA safeguards for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The publication includes the lectures held during the seminar on IAEA safeguards for the 21st century. The topics covered are as follows: the nuclear non-proliferation regime; Legal instruments related to the application of safeguards; multilateral nuclear export controls; physical protection and its role in nuclear non-proliferation; the evolution of safeguards; basis for the strengthening of safeguards; information required from states, including 'small quantities protocol'; processing and evaluation of new information for strengthened safeguards; additional physical access and new technologies for strengthened safeguards; equipping the IAEA Inspectorate with new skills; achievements to date the strengthened safeguards; complement of regional non-proliferation arrangements in international nuclear verification; promotion of transparency through Korean experience; and the future prospects of safeguards

  12. [Twentieth-century Penelopes: popular culture revisited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Cleci Eulalia

    2010-01-01

    During their settlement of the so-called Old Italian Colonies of Rio Grande do Sul, immigrants constructed a set of positive values that were to serve as an emotional support and a means of outside communication. When women immigrants embroidered images and sayings on wall hangings or kitchen towels made of rustic fabric, they helped nourish the dream of a better life, sought by all and achieved by some. The objects crafted by these twentieth-century Penelopes bear witness to a way of doing, thinking, and acting. Local museums and exhibits have fostered the recovery of old-time embroidery techniques and themes; sold at open-air markets and regional festivals, these products represent income for women whose age excludes them from the formal labor market.

  13. Danish Capitalism in the 20th Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Martin Jes; Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard

    marked by large-scale redistribution and a very active public sector. The purpose of this book project is to analyze development of Danish capitalism in the 20th century. The first of our hypothesis state that the phases of Danish capitalism and the general corporate strategies reflected each other...... how the corporate strategies shaped and was shaped by the changing nature of Danish capitalism. Such a work as this is important as it bears testimony to the changing nature of market institutions. A descriptive and analytic exercise such as proposed here have only to a limited extent been carried out...... in the Danish language, and never in a compiled, comprehensive, and connected work. The English language situation for understanding Danish capitalism is even more dire, which leads to increasing, and likely reinforcing, stereotypes and myths about “the fairytale country”....

  14. Digital Humanities in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    In this article it is argued that one of the major transformative factors of the humanities at the beginning of the 21st century is the shift from analogue to digital source material, and that this shift will affect the humanities in a variety of ways. But various kinds of digital material...... are not digital in the same way, which a distinction between digitized, born-digital, and reborn-digital may help us acknowledge, thereby helping us to understand how each of these types of digital material affects different phases of scholarly work in its own way. This is illustrated by a detailed comparison...... of the nature of digitized collections and web archives....

  15. Local censuses in the 18th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, C M

    1969-03-01

    Abstract Recent work on the population problems of the eighteenth century has been mainly based on the use of parish records. Another source, and one which, surprisingly, has received little attention is the local census. These are more numerous than is generally realised; and can be of great use in demographic studies. This paper examines 125 local censuses mainly taken in urban areas. They are discussed in terms of how they come to be taken, their reliability, extant manuscript material and their contents. Whilst most of the censuses confine themselves to the basic facts such as total population, number of houses and number of families, some give details of sex, age, marital status and occupation. Generally the information is given for the parish or local administrative unit, but in a few instances it is available by streets.

  16. Radiology in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, P.L.; Seltzer, S.E.; Gore, J.C.; Heiiman, R.S.; Abrams, H.L.; Davis, K.A.; Henkelman, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    On the leading edge in ''high-tech'' medicine, radiology is experiencing several revolutions simultaneously that promise an exciting future. New imaging methods and digital technologies not only offer novel ways to view tissues but also provide opportunities for quantitative evaluation of function and even permit determination of metabolic status. New approaches to technology assessment are being explored that alter the ways in which equipment and procedures are introduced into clinical medicine. With the plethora of radiology services available, the radiologist must serve as a consultant in the triage of patients in radiology and the dissemination of information from radiology. For similar reasons, training in diagnostic radiology may eventually accommodate to the concept of specialization along organ-system lines. Without question, radiology is destined for an exciting period as it moves into the 21st century

  17. Motivating Students in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedden, Mandy L; Clark, Kevin R

    2016-07-01

    To examine instructors' and students' perspectives on motivation in the classroom and clinical environments and to explore instructional strategies educators can use to motivate college students in the 21st century. Articles selected for this review were from peer-reviewed journals and scholarly sources that emphasized student and educator perspectives on motivation and instructional strategies to increase student motivation. Understanding how college students are motivated can help educators engage students in lessons and activities, ultimately improving the students' academic performance. Students exhibit increased motivation in classes when educators have high expectations, conduct an open-atmosphere classroom, and use multidimensional teaching strategies. Instructional styles such as connecting with students, creating an interactive classroom, and guiding and reminding students improved student motivation. Radiologic science educators must be mindful of how college students are motivated and use various instructional strategies to increase students' motivation in the classroom and clinical setting. ©2016 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  18. Space Biology in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Thora W.; Krauss, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    Space Biology is poised to make significant contributions to science in the next century. A carefully crafted, but largely ground-based, program in the United States has evolved major questions that require answers through experiments in space. Science, scientists, and the new long-term spacecrafts designed by NASA will be available for the first time to mount a serious Space Biology effort. The scientific challenge is of such importance that success will provide countless benefits to biologically dependent areas such as medicine, food, and commerce in the decades ahead. The international community is rapidly expanding its role in this field. The United States should generate the resources that will allow progress in Space Biology to match the recognized progress made in aeronautics and the other space sciences.

  19. Effective Leadership in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Leaders know how to achieve goals and inspire people along the way. While the terms and definitions may change with the times, it is important to understand the skills and abilities needed to lead in the 21st century. Most effective leaders have one element in common, and that is they are able to keep their teams engaged. If team members are not engaged, they may very well leave the organization. With four generations in the workplace, leaders must adapt and modify their leadership style in order to maintain employee engagement. The ability to lead effectively is based on a number of skills, including communication, motivation, vision, modeling, demonstrating empathy, confidence, persistence, and integrity.

  20. Neutron physics entering the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, V.L.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of present-day neutron physics are neutron-aided investigations of fundamental interactions and symmetries, high excited states of nuclei, crystalline and magnetic structures, dynamic excitations in solids and liquids over a wide range of energies. The state-of-art and perspectives of the solution of most topical and principle problems of neutron physics are analyzed. The main conclusion is that neutron physics provides rich information for nuclear particle physics, physics of nucleus, condensed matter physics, chemistry, biology, materials science, and earth sciences. In the next century, however, new higher flux neutron sources must be created. By the year 2010 the number of nuclear reactors used for physical research will reduce to 10-15 reactors over the world. Trends in the development of neutron sources are analyzed. The possibilities of leading neutron research centers in the world are considered and most promising projects of neutron sources are discussed. (author)

  1. IAEA safeguards for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The publication includes the lectures held during the seminar on IAEA safeguards for the 21st century. The topics covered are as follows: the nuclear non-proliferation regime; Legal instruments related to the application of safeguards; multilateral nuclear export controls; physical protection and its role in nuclear non-proliferation; the evolution of safeguards; basis for the strengthening of safeguards; information required from states, including 'small quantities protocol'; processing and evaluation of new information for strengthened safeguards; additional physical access and new technologies for strengthened safeguards; equipping the IAEA Inspectorate with new skills; achievements to date the strengthened safeguards; complement ofregional non-proliferation arrangements in international nuclear verification; promotion of transparency through Korean experience; and the future prospects of safeguards.

  2. Nuclear energy for the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    This document gathers 5 introductory papers to this conference about nuclear energy for the 21. century: the French energy policy during the last 30 years (situation of France with respect to the energy supply and demand, main trends of the French energy policy, future of the French nuclear policy); presentation of IAEA (technology transfer, nuclear safety, non-proliferation policy, structure and financial resources, council of governors, general conference, secretariat); nuclear power and sustainable development; promoting safety at nuclear facilities (promoting safety, basics of safety, safety at the design stage, risk management, regulatory control and efficiency of the regulation organization, role of IAEA); nuclear energy today (contribution to sustainable development, safety, best solution for the management of radioactive wastes, future of nuclear energy). (J.S.)

  3. Cooperative learning in 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Johnson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century brings four important challenges in which cooperation plays a central role: (1 a rapidly increasing global interdependence that will result in increasing local diversity as well as more frequent and intense conflicts, (2 the increasing number of democracies throughout the world, (3 the need for creative entrepreneurs, and (4 the growing importance of interpersonal relationships that affect the development of personal identity. The tools for meeting these challenges include cooperative learning. In this article the nature of cooperative learning will be reviewed, the underlying theory of social interdependence will be discussed, and the results of the research on cooperative learning will be briefly reviewed. The way in which cooperative learning contributes to meeting the four challenges will then be discussed.

  4. Astronomical dating in the 19th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgen, Frederik J.

    2010-01-01

    Today astronomical tuning is widely accepted as numerical dating method after having revolutionised the age calibration of the geological archive and time scale over the last decades. However, its origin is not well known and tracing its roots is important especially from a science historic perspective. Astronomical tuning developed in consequence of the astronomical theory of the ice ages and was repeatedly used in the second half of the 19th century before the invention of radio-isotopic dating. Building upon earlier ideas of Joseph Adhémar, James Croll started to formulate his astronomical theory of the ice ages in 1864 according to which precession controlled ice ages occur alternatingly on both hemispheres at times of maximum eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. The publication of these ideas compelled Charles Lyell to revise his Principles of Geology and add Croll's theory, thus providing an alternative to his own geographical cause of the ice ages. Both Croll and Lyell initially tuned the last glacial epoch to the prominent eccentricity maximum 850,000 yr ago. This age was used as starting point by Lyell to calculate an age of 240 million years for the beginning of the Cambrium. But Croll soon revised the tuning to a much younger less prominent eccentricity maximum between 240,000 and 80,000 yr ago. In addition he tuned older glacial deposits of late Miocene and Eocene ages to eccentricity maxima around 800,000 and 2,800,000 yr ago. Archibald and James Geikie were the first to recognize interglacials during the last glacial epoch, as predicted by Croll's theory, and attempted to tune them to precession. Soon after Frank Taylor linked a series of 15 end-moraines left behind by the retreating ice sheet to precession to arrive at a possible age of 300,000 yr for the maximum glaciation. In a classic paper, Axel Blytt (1876) explained the scattered distribution of plant groups in Norway to precession induced alternating rainy and dry periods as recorded by the

  5. The Century Ahead: Searching for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Rosen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The global future lies before us as a highly uncertain and contested landscape with numerous perils along the way. This study explores possible pathways to sustainability by considering in quantitative detail four contrasting scenarios for the twenty-first century. The analysis reveals vividly the risks of conventional development approaches and the real danger of socio-ecological descent. Nonetheless, the paper underscores that a Great Transition scenario—turning toward a civilization of enhanced human well-being and environmental resilience—remains an option, and identifies a suite of strategic and value changes for getting there. A fundamental shift in the development paradigm is found to be an urgent necessity for assuring a sustainable future and, as well, a hopeful opportunity for creating a world of enriched lives, human amity, and a healthy ecosphere.

  6. A Half-century of SETI Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuch, H. Paul

    We begin our journey with a brief review of half a century of SETI science. The material in this introductory chapter is offered for the benefit of those educated laypersons whose enthusiasm for the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence exceeds their detailed knowledge of the relevant technologies. It is my hope that readers of this volume will better appreciate the material which follows if they first have a basic understanding of SETI concepts. Hence, I offer an overview, which is intended not to be exhaustive, but rather representative. Together, we will explore the nature of radio telescopes, experimental design strategies, SETI instrumentation, signal analysis, and the hallmarks of artificiality that allow us to differentiate between natural astrophysical emissions and intelligent interstellar transmissions. If you are already a technical specialist in these areas, feel free to bypass this introduction, and proceed directly to the subsequent chapters.

  7. Revolutions in twentieth-century physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Relativity theory, quantum mechanics, elementary-particle physics, and cosmology are the four pillars of modern physics. The life in the 21th century is without them no more conceivable: The special relativity theory renewed our understanding of space and time, on the laws of quantum mechanics are based countless everyday objects like transistors, computer chips, and mobile telephones; in particle accelerators we study the components oof matter, and with telescopes we take an ever deeper look in the past of the universe. Taking reference books to these themes at hand, one is overwhelmed by the plethora and complexity of the mathematical formulas. This book of the renowned professor of physics David J. Griffiths id refreshingly different. By means of many illustrative examples and entertaining stories it introducts to the themes and helps the reader also without a large mathematical apparatus to a fundamental understanding of that, about which Einstein, Schroedinger, Heisenberg, and Hubble actually thought and spoke. In each chapter numerous, pedagogically selected examples are completely worked out, in order to fill the matter with life. Moreover the text contains a manifold of problems, which allow the reader to deepen his knowledge and apply immediately. Griffith's ''Revolution in Twentieth Century Physics'' appeals not only to pupils and future studyings of natural sciences, who want to get an appetite for what lies ahead, but also to interested readers, which have already heared in the media from quarks and quanta, the curved space-time, Albert Einstein, and the big bang and now want to understandably know what is at stake in all the excitement.

  8. Tropical mathematics and the financial catastrophe of the 17th century. Thermoeconomics of Russia in the early 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslov, V. P.

    2010-03-01

    In the paper, an example is presented concerning relationships (which cannot be neglected) between mathematics and other sciences. In particular, the relationship between the tropical mathematics and the humanitarian-economic catastrophe of 17th century (related to slavery of Africans) is considered. The notion of critical state of economy of the 19th century is introduced by using the refined Fisher equation. A correspondence principle for thermodynamics of fluids and economics of the 19th century is presented.

  9. Adult Learning Development in Poland in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiarska-Khomenko, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a retrospective analysis of adult learning development in Poland in the 20th century. Based on the study and analysis of historical and pedagogical literature, normative documents of the official bodies of Polish government, the periodical press of the 20th century, several stages of adult learning development, in the…

  10. Presence and its absences. The 17th century gallery picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogh, Mikkel

    A discussion of how pictures made specifically for the gallery viewer in the 17th century produce certain kinds of presence in order to catch attention......A discussion of how pictures made specifically for the gallery viewer in the 17th century produce certain kinds of presence in order to catch attention...

  11. Arab Families and Youth : a Century of War, Migration and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Arab Families and Youth : a Century of War, Migration and Displacement. The past century has witnessed disruptions in Middle Eastern politics, economics, religion and society that have taken their toll on Arab families and youth. Yet despite the centrality of family and youth in Arab society, there exists little scientific ...

  12. A century of trends in adult human height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Molbo, Drude

    2016-01-01

    the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8-144.8). The height differential between the tallest...

  13. Education, Empire and Social Change in Nineteenth Century England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the effects of imperialism on British (or chiefly English) social life and education in the nineteenth century rather than examining the effects on the colonised as is usually done. It is shown that the nineteenth century was infused with different visual and written images which helped develop attitudes and ideas which…

  14. Smart Social Networking: 21st Century Teaching and Learning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boholano, Helen B.

    2017-01-01

    Education in the 21st century highlights globalization and internationalization. Pre-service teachers in the 21st century are technology savvy. To effectively engage and teach generation Z students, preservice teachers will help the educational system meet this requirement. The educational systems must be outfitted with a prerequisite of ICT…

  15. Preparing Students for the Future--21st Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    The 21st century economy is driven by information and communication technologies (ICT). This change has made innovation, manufacturing and production of products and services, rather than manufacturing of material goods, the driving force of economies of leading countries (Wagner, 2008). Due to this shift, today's 21st century society and…

  16. Aligning Business and Education: 21st Century Skill Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles L., Jr.; Kresyman, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore stakeholder perceptions concerning four key 21st century skills required for graduates to be successful in today's workplace, and to report on common themes surrounding how a post-secondary school in the Southwest United States is preparing graduates with predominant 21st Century skills: interpersonal…

  17. Commerce and morality in eighteenth-century Italian political thought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. Stapelbroek (Koen)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis special issue presents a number of studies by young scholars in the history of eighteenth-century Italian political thought, a field that was put on the map in the second half of the twentieth century by the efforts of Franco Venturi. By taking up the theme of commerce and morality,

  18. 21st Century leadership skills for learning networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, Floor; Evers, Arnoud; Geijsel, Femke; Vermeulen, Marjan

    2018-01-01

    Ultimate goal: to prepare pupils for a life in a society that requires 21st century skills and actions Immediate focus: teachers and principals develop 21st century skills in the practice of their work → together with researchers principals co-create tools to support teacher learning.

  19. Koeberg: SA's only 20th century nuclear station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The article deals with the question of Koeberg being South Africa's only 20th century nuclear power station. According to Escom's chairman, Koeberg must be seen as a forerunner of a programme which will begin to mature in the next century. The cost of Koeberg is compared to the cost attached to a coal-fired power station

  20. A century of progress in weed control in hardwood seedbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. South

    2009-01-01

    Weeds have existed in nurseries since before the time Bartram grew hardwoods during the 18th century. Hand weeding was the primary method of weed control during the first part of the 20th century. From 1931 to 1970, advances in chemistry increased the use of herbicides, and advances in engineering increased the reliance on machines for cultivation. Many managers now...

  1. A century of trends in adult human height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Molbo, Drude

    2016-01-01

    in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over...... the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8-144.8). The height differential between the tallest...... and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries....

  2. Environmental issues in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, D.B.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental issues in the 21st century D.B. Chambers SENES Consultants Limited, Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada Abstract. This paper provides an overview of some of the environmental challenges facing the uranium production industry in the 21st century. For many years, the linear, non-threshold (LNT) model has been regarded as a prudent hypothesis for radiation protection purposes. This paradigm has been challenged at the same time for both underestimating and overestimating the risks from ionizing radiation. The reality is that the ability of conventional epidemiology to distinguish small risks will always be limited by statistical power at low doses. In the future, there will be increased emphasis on better understanding the effects of ionizing radiation at the cellular (and sub cellular) level. The concept of 'controllable dose' has been proposed as an alternative to the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) current approach to dose limitation. The concept is that if the most exposed individual is protected, then society as a whole is protected. A hazard ranking scale based on comparisons to natural background levels of radiation has been proposed. Adoption of a concept such as 'controllable dose' would require a parallel re-evaluation of the concepts and application of collective dose and ALARA optimization. The protection of non-human biota is an issue of considerable interest in many countries. The science in this area is rapidly evolving, as are discussions of a more philosophical nature. For example, should the focus of environmental risk assessment be the sustainability of the population or should the focus be to limit effects on a single member of the population? The future of environmental risk assessment should be of great interest to the uranium production industry. A systematic approach to risk assessment addressing the full scope of potential hazards -- environmental, human health, engineering, financial and others -- will be

  3. The radiation exposure regulation for XXI century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirim-Markus, I.B.

    2000-01-01

    The regulation of the people radiation exposure by the ICRP and IAEA is subject to well-founded criticism for the excessive severity and complexity. In Russia these shortcomings adversely affected at the removal of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The future regulation system must be better coordinated with the other sources of human life risks. In the advanced countries the death probability from the all reasons is equal 1-2·10 -2 year -1 with the age variation from 5·10 -4 to 2·10 -1 . Therefore it is reasonable to consider that death risk from radiation less than 1·10 -5 - 1·10 -3 depending on age, as an insignificant, but not 1·10 -6 as it is accepted now. Whatever heritable effects of human irradiation are not revealed by the observation during a half on century. Therefore, there is no any reason to account them. As concern the dose dependence of the stochastic effects of radiation the new information is already demonstrating that more than an a half of the whole human's radiation cancers are submitted to dependence with the threshold from 0.3 to tens of sievert at the low dose rate. Therefore, the linear nonthreshold dependence is not true. This fact is undermining the modern system of irradiation regulation institution. One can't use the effective dose. One hasn't to fear of the radiation exposure in small doses. There isn't the necessity in optimization of such exposure all the more the balance detriment-benefit depends on not only dose but even not so much on dose. It is reasonable to base the future system regulation of radiation exposure with the only one principle: one mustn't exceed the limit of the personal life-span dose, which must be set at the level 2.5 Sv for the staff. The limit equal to 0.5 Sv during every 10 consecutive years will ensure that. For the population, the limit as 50-70 mSv during every 10 consecutive years will ensure the level 0.35-05 Sv for life-span. Equally, with the half century dose it is necessary to regulate

  4. Global Warming and 21st Century Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdun, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twentyfirst century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman- Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  5. [The consolidation of memory, one century on].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Alcala, R A; Quirarte, G L

    The theory of memory consolidation, based on the work published by Georg Elias Muller and Alfons Pilzecker over a century ago, continues to guide research into the neurobiology of memory, either directly or indirectly. In their classic monographic work, they concluded that fixing memory requires the passage of time (consolidation) and that memory is vulnerable during this period of consolidation, as symptoms of amnesia appear when brain functioning is interfered with before the consolidation process is completed. Most of the experimental data concerning this phenomenon strongly support the theory. In this article we present a review of experiments that have made it possible to put forward a model that explains the amnesia produced in conventional learning conditions, as well as another model related to the protection of memory when the same instances of learning are submitted to a situation involving intensive training. Findings from relatively recent studies have shown that treatments that typically produce amnesia when they are administered immediately after a learning experience (during the period in which the memory would be consolidating itself) no longer have any effect when the instances of learning involve a relatively large number of trials or training sessions, or relatively high intensity aversive events. These results are not congruent with the prevailing theories about consolidation.

  6. Neutron therapy in the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroc, Thomas K.; Welsh, James S.

    2015-01-01

    The question of whether or not neutron therapy works has been answered. It is a qualified yes, as is the case with all of radiation therapy. But, neutron therapy has not kept pace with the rest of radiation therapy in terms of beam delivery techniques. Modern photon and proton based external beam radiotherapy routinely implements image-guidance, beam intensity-modulation and 3-dimensional treatment planning. The current iteration of fast neutron radiotherapy does not. Addressing these deficiencies, however, is not a matter of technology or understanding, but resources. The future of neutron therapy lies in better understanding the interaction processes of radiation with living tissue. A combination of radiobiology and computer simulations is required in order to optimise the use of neutron therapy. The questions that need to be answered are: Can we connect the macroscopic with the microscopic? What is the optimum energy? What is the optimum energy spectrum? Can we map the sensitivity of the various tissues of the human body and use that knowledge to our advantage? And once we gain a better understanding of the above radiobiological issues will we be able to capitalise on this understanding by precisely and accurately delivering fast neutrons in a manner comparable to what is now possible with photons and protons? This presentation will review the accomplishments to date. It will then lay out the questions that need to be answered for neutron therapy to truly be a 21. century therapy. (authors)

  7. A quarter century of stimulated Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloembergen, N.

    1987-01-01

    To round out a quarter century of SRS the timing of this writing (1986) requires a look ahead of only one year into the future. The proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy present a picture of current activity. Further progress will be made in time-resolved spectroscopy with subpicosecond resolution, in the study of hyper-Raman and other higher order effects with CARS, in extension of resonant Raman excitation in the UV region of spectrum, and in the development of Raman laser sources. During past few years extensive theoretical investigations have been made for four-wave light mixing in the case of one or more very strong light beams. The perturbation approach for those fields ceases to be valid. If only one light field is strong, the usual approach is to make a transformation to a rotating coordinate system so that the strong Hamiltonian for this light field becomes time-independent. Very recently these techniques have been extended to the case of two or more strong fields. CARS-type experiments with strong beams are likely to receive more attention. Extrapolation of the current activities instills confidence in the vitality of stimulated Raman scattering for the foreseeable future

  8. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Markwald, R; Kasyanov, V; Little, S; Swaja, R

    2009-01-01

    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry. (topical review)

  9. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Kasyanov, V; Little, S; Swaja, R; Markwald, R

    2009-06-01

    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry.

  10. Cold fusion labeled fiasco of century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizenga, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    The gamble of researchers B. Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann to go public with their announcement of excess power from nuclear fusion at room temperature before they had solid evidence of fusion products is the scientific fiasco of the century, charges John R. Huizenga of the University of Rochester. He describes the claims of Pons and Fleischmann as a delusion and as pathological science. It would require belief in miracle after miracle for one to accept their discovery, he charges. Huizenga criticizes the researchers on several counts: they failed to challenge their own findings with control experiments and presentations to colleagues; they rushed to publication with unchecked and inaccurate data; they chose an unconventional method, a public press conference, to release scientific findings; their claims were not easily reproduced by others; and they lobbied Congress for funds before their claims were confirmed by independent researchers. Cold fusion producing excess power is an example of bad science where the normal rules and procedures of the scientific process were violated, Huizenga says

  11. Flower Style on Seventeenth Century Agra Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Fuat BAYSAL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available India is a uniquely rich country thanks to its historical characteristics and complex mixture of different races, cultures and religions. The diversity of the religious groups has particularly affected the decorative arts, which have generated another form of diversity and richness. Every religious group built their own houses of worship and decorated them in accordance with their beliefs because of the close relationship between religion and decoration. Many buildings containing Turkish overtones have been constructed in India, particularly in Agra, during the Mughal era. The style of Kara Memi, a sixteenth century Ottoman painter, draws attention with the decoration of the buildings constructed during the Shah Jahan era. Of them, the most popular is the Taj Mahal. It is well known that the Ottomans respected and appreciated the artistic characteristics, particularly the architecture, of the region instead of acting in a dominating manner. Thus, we can consider the relationship between the Ottomans and Mughal Empire is similar only in terms of style. Cooperation was present between them, and artistic transfers between these two empires were thus inevitable.

  12. [Syphilis in Ferrara in the nineteenth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Lauretta; Guidi, Enrica; Contini, Carlo

    2009-06-01

    In this article the authors highlight the behaviour of government authorities in the nineteenth century in Italy and especially in Ferrara to implement those measures deemed necessary to stem the spread of syphilis in epidemic form through the control of prostitution. Albeit discontinuously and until 1865, corrupted and infected women in Ferrara were assisted and treated by charitable institutions (Congregation of Charity, the Congregation of the Ladies of St. Vincent and the Sisters of Charity at the complex St. Mary of Consolation) since the Ferrara public hospital (Arcispedale S. Anna) could not accept or treat infected prostitutes for economic reasons and lack of beds. Subsequently, the hospital only treated prostitutes free of charge if they bore a certificate of poverty. The other infected prostitutes were sent to the sifilicomio in Modena. The authors also study mortality from syphilis in Ferrara from 1813 to 1899 in order to detect any significant differences according to age, sex and professional status and attempt to identify the stage of the disease (primary, secondary and tertiary), according to the terminology used by the doctors of that time.

  13. Epidemiology of Stuttering: 21st Century Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yairi, Ehud; Ambrose, Nicoline

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological advances in stuttering during the current century are reviewed within the perspectives of past knowledge. The review is organized in six sections: (a) onset (b) incidence (c) prevalence (d) developmental paths, (e) genetics and (f) subtypes. It is concluded that: (1) most of the risk for stuttering onset is over by age 5, earlier than has been previously thought, with a male-to-female ratio near onset smaller than what has been thought, (2) there are indications that the lifespan incidence in the general population may be higher than the 5% commonly cited in past work, (3) the average prevalence over the lifespan may be lower than the commonly held 1%, (4) the effects of race, ethnicity, culture, bilingualism, and socioeconomic status on the incidence/prevalence of stuttering remain uncertain, (5) longitudinal, as well as incidence and prevalence studies support high levels of natural recovery from stuttering, (6) advances in biological genetic research have brought within reach the identification of candidate genes that contribute to stuttering in the population at large, (7) subtype-differentiation has attracted growing interest, with most of the accumulated evidence supporting a distinction between persistent and recovered subtypes. PMID:23773662

  14. Century Scale Evaporation Trend: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounoui, Lahouari

    2012-01-01

    Several climate models with different complexity indicate that under increased CO2 forcing, runoff would increase faster than precipitation overland. However, observations over large U.S watersheds indicate otherwise. This inconsistency between models and observations suggests that there may be important feedbacks between climate and land surface unaccounted for in the present generation of models. We have analyzed century-scale observed annual runoff and precipitation time-series over several United States Geological Survey hydrological units covering large forested regions of the Eastern United States not affected by irrigation. Both time-series exhibit a positive long-term trend; however, in contrast to model results, these historic data records show that the rate of precipitation increases at roughly double the rate of runoff increase. We considered several hydrological processes to close the water budget and found that none of these processes acting alone could account for the total water excess generated by the observed difference between precipitation and runoff. We conclude that evaporation has increased over the period of observations and show that the increasing trend in precipitation minus runoff is correlated to observed increase in vegetation density based on the longest available global satellite record. The increase in vegetation density has important implications for climate; it slows but does not alleviate the projected warming associated with greenhouse gases emission.

  15. Planetary Missions of the 20th Century*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, V. I.; Huntress, W. T.; Shevalev, I. L.

    2002-09-01

    Among of the highlights of the 20th century were flights of spacecraft to other bodies of the Solar System. This paper describes briefly the missions attempted, their goals, and fate. Information is presented in five tables on the missions launched, their goals, mission designations, dates, discoveries when successful, and what happened if they failed. More detailed explanations are given in the accompanying text. It is shown how this enterprise developed and evolved step by step from a politically driven competition to intense scientific investigations and international cooperation. Initially, only the USA and USSR sent missions to the Moon and planets. Europe and Japan joined later. The USSR carried out significant research in Solar System exploration until the end of the 1980s. The Russian Federation no longer supports robotic planetary exploration for economic reasons, and it remains to be seen whether the invaluable Russian experience in planetary space flight will be lost. Collaboration between Russian and other national space agencies may be a solution.

  16. Engineering toxins for 21st century therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddock, John A; Acharya, K Ravi

    2011-04-01

    'Engineering Toxins for 21st Century Therapies' (9-10 September 2010) was part of the Royal Society International Seminar series held at the Kavli International Centre, UK. Participants were assembled from a range of disciplines (academic, industry, regulatory, public health) to discuss the future potential of toxin-based therapies. The meeting explored how the current structural and mechanistic knowledge of toxins could be used to engineer future toxin-based therapies. To date, significant progress has been made in the design of novel recombinant biologics based on domains of natural toxins, engineered to exhibit advantageous properties. The meeting concluded, firstly that future product development vitally required the appropriate combination of creativity and innovation that can come from the academic, biotechnology and pharma sectors. Second, that continued investigation into understanding the basic science of the toxins and their targets was essential in order to develop new opportunities for the existing products and to create new products with enhanced properties. Finally, it was concluded that the clinical potential for development of novel biologics based on toxin domains was evident. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  17. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas

  18. The general physics theory for 21 century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassym, T. M.

    2006-01-01

    By solving the coupled system of kinetic equations for interacting system of electrons positrons (holes) and photons (phonons) at high external electric, arbitrary magnetic and at the propagation of strong electromagnetic waves non-equilibrium and non-stationary distribution function of photons (phonons) and charge carriers by taking into account of arbitrary heating and mutual drag of carriers and photons (phonons) was found. Author was sure that received him in 1976 distribution function of photons (phonons) must lay on the basis of Theoretical Physics of 21 Century, as the equilibrium Planck's distribution function of black-body radiation received in 1900 lied on the basis of Quantum Physics of 20 Century. Authors many years mental work (from 1976 till today) confirmed the rightness of searched him way and leads to the conclusion that Kinetic Theory is more general and fundamental theory of nature, which unificated Non-stationary Dynamics (the left-hand side) with Non-stationary Statistical Mechanics (the right-hand side) of Kinetic Equation. It is shown that other sections of Theoretical Physics such as Newtonian, Hamiltonian and Relativistic Classical Mechanics, Quantum Physics, Optics, Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics, Particle Physics may be received from Kinetic Theory under the special conditions and are the special parts of this theory. The problems such as the irreversibility and instability, the paradox of time, quantum paradox and others are solved. This new General Theory explains all the problems and troubles contents with the foundations and interpretation of quantum mechanics and relativity. It was found the mechanism of quantization and transition from one energetic level to another,the squeezed effect, the transition of particles wave-packets through the energetic barriers. It is shown the possibility of superluminal motion of light pulses and wave-packets through the medium and photonic barriers. It is well known that the experiments

  19. Glaciers in 21st Century Himalayan Geopolitics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Wessels, R.; Kieffer, H. H.

    2002-05-01

    Glaciers are ablating rapidly the world over. Nowhere are the rates of retreat and downwasting greater than in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) region. It is estimated that over the next century, 40,000 square kilometers of present glacier area in the HKH region will become ice free. Most of this area is in major valleys and the lowest glaciated mountain passes. The existence and characteristics of glaciers have security impacts, and rapidly changing HKH glaciers have broad strategic implications: (1) Glaciers supply much of the fresh water and hydroelectric power in South and Central Asia, and so glaciers are valuable resources. (2) Shared economic interests in water, hydroelectricity, flood hazards, and habitat preservation are a force for common cause and reasoned international relations. (3) Glaciers and their high mountains generally pose a natural barrier tending to isolate people. Historically, they have hindered trade and intercultural exchanges and have protected against aggression. This has further promoted an independent spirit of the region's many ethnic groups. (4) Although glaciers are generally incompatible with human development and habitation, many of the HKH region's glaciers and their mountains have become sanctuaries and transit routes for militants. Siachen Glacier in Kashmir has for 17 years been "the world's highest battlefield," with tens of thousands of troops deployed on both sides of the India/Pakistan line of control. In 1999, that conflict threatened to trigger all-out warfare, and perhaps nuclear warfare. Other recent terrorist and military action has taken place on glaciers in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. As terrorists are forced from easily controlled territories, many may tend to migrate toward the highest ground, where definitive encounters may take place in severe alpine glacial environments. This should be a major concern in Nepali security planning, where an Army offensive is attempting to reign in an increasingly robust and brutal

  20. El cuidado del alma y otros cuidados en las cartas de aniversario del cabildo de los clérigos de Cuéllar en el siglo XIV = The Care of the Soul and Other Concerns in Obit Endowment Charters of the Chapter of Clerics of Cuéllar in the Fourteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Herrero Jiménez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo que presentamos tiene como objeto fundamental el estudio de las cartas de aniversario. Aplicando el método de la ciencia diplomática, nos proponemos mostrar cómo las cartas de aniversario del cabildo de los clérigos de Cuéllar muestran lo concerniente a la preocupación por el alma después de la muerte, al valor de la oración y lo que fue donado para pagarlas, con  cuyas donaciones el capítulo incremento su patrimonio, sobre todo en el siglo XIV.The present paper aims to offer an study of anniversary documents. Using the method of the diplomatic science, we propose showing how the anniversary documents of the chapter of clerics of Cuéllar teach us to concern about the soul after death, the value of prayer, and what was donated to pay them, with whose donations the chapter increased its heritage specially in the XIV century.

  1. Pediatrics in 21st Century and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meharban

    2016-11-01

    Pediatrics is a dynamic discipline and there is awareness and hope for actualizing outstanding achievements in the field of child health in 21 st century and beyond. Improved lifestyle and quality of children's health is likely to reduce the burden of adult diseases and enhance longevity because seeds of most adult diseases are sown in childhood. Identification and decoding of human genome is expected to revolutionize the practice of pediatrics. The day is not far off when a patient will walk into doctor's chamber with an electronic or digital health history on a CD or palmtop and a decoded genomic constitution. There will be reduced burden of genetic diseases because of selective abortions of "defective" fetuses and replacement of "bad" genes with "good" ones by genetic engineering. Availability of totipotent stem cells and developments in transplant technology are likely to revolutionize the management of a variety of hematologic cancers and life-threatening genetic disorders. The possibility of producing flawless designer babies by advances in assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) is likely to be mired by several ethical and legal issues.The availability of newer vaccines by recombinant technology for emerging infective and for non-infective lifestyle diseases is likely to improve survival and quality of life. There is going to be a greater focus on the "patient" having the disease rather than "disease" per se by practicing holistic pediatrics by effective utilization of alternative or complementary strategies for health care. Due to advances in technology, pediatrics may get further dehumanized. A true healer cannot simply rely on technology; there must be a spiritual bond between the patient and the physician by exploiting the concept of psycho-neuro-immunology and body-mind interactions. In the years to come, physicians are likely to play "god" but medicine can't achieve immortality because anything born must die in accordance with nature's recycling

  2. 21st Century's energy: Hydrogen energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veziroglu, T. Nejat; Sahin, Suemer

    2008-01-01

    Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their combustion products are causing the global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in our planet. Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system by the hydrogen energy system. Hydrogen is a very efficient and clean fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, little or no acid rain ingredients and pollution. Hydrogen, produced from renewable energy (e.g., solar) sources, would result in a permanent energy system, which we would never have to change. However, there are other energy systems proposed for the post-petroleum era, such as a synthetic fossil fuel system. In this system, synthetic gasoline and synthetic natural gas will be produced using abundant deposits of coal. In a way, this will ensure the continuation of the present fossil fuel system. The two possible energy systems for the post-fossil fuel era (i.e., the solar-hydrogen energy system and the synthetic fossil fuel system) are compared with the present fossil fuel system by taking into consideration production costs, environmental damages and utilization efficiencies. The results indicate that the solar-hydrogen energy system is the best energy system to ascertain a sustainable future, and it should replace the fossil fuel system before the end of the 21st century

  3. Isaac Newton: Eighteenth-century Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A. Rupert

    1999-05-01

    This new product of the ever-flourishing Newton industry seems a bit far-fetched at first sight: who but a few specialists would be interested in the historiography of Newton biography in the eighteenth century? On closer inspection, this book by one of the most important Newton scholars of our day turns out to be of interest to a wider audience as well. It contains several biographical sketches of Newton, written in the decades after his death. The two most important ones are the Eloge by the French mathematician Bernard de Fontenelle and the Italian scholar Paolo Frisi's Elogio. The latter piece was hitherto unavailable in English translation. Both articles are well-written, interesting and sometimes even entertaining. They give us new insights into the way Newton was revered throughout Europe and how not even the slightest blemish on his personality or work could be tolerated. An example is the way in which Newton's famous controversy with Leibniz is treated: Newton is without hesitation presented as the wronged party. Hall has provided very useful historical introductions to the memoirs as well as footnotes where needed. Among the other articles discussed is a well-known memoir by John Conduitt, who was married to Newton's niece. This memoir, substantial parts of which are included in this volume, has been a major source of personal information for Newton biographers up to this day. In a concluding chapter, Hall gives a very interesting overview of the later history of Newton biography, in which he describes the gradual change from adoration to a more critical approach in Newton's various biographers. In short, this is a very useful addition to the existing biographical literature on Newton. A J Kox

  4. 21st century's energy: hydrogen energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veziroglu, T. N.

    2007-01-01

    Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their combustion products are causing the global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in our planet. Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system by the Hydrogen Energy System. Hydrogen is a very efficient and clean fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, little or no acid rain ingredients and pollution. Hydrogen, produced from renewable energy (e.g., solar) sources, would result in a permanent energy system, which we would never have to change. However, there are other energy systems proposed for the post-petroleum era, such as a synthetic fossil fuel system. In this system, synthetic gasoline and synthetic natural gas will be produced using abundant deposits of coal. In a way, this will ensure the continuation of the present fossil fuel system. The two possible energy systems for the post-fossil fuel era (i.e., the solar hydrogen energy system and the synthetic fossil fuel system) are compared with the present fossil fuel system by taking into consideration production costs, environmental damages and utilization efficiencies. The results indicate that the solar hydrogen energy system is the best energy system to ascertain a sustainable future, and it should replace the fossil fuel system before the end of the 21st Century

  5. New Century Local Government: Commonwealth Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Wall

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This ambitious and highly informative volume is premised on both the seismic shift in the perceived developmental role of local government across the globe, and the challenges that local governments will face as their key role in achieving the post-2015 sustainable development goals is increasingly being recognised within the global policy fora. New Century Local Government brings together an impressively wide geographic spread of country case studies from across the four regions of the Commonwealth, and pulls together work by leading scholars of local government who are all members of the Commonwealth Local Government Research Advisory Group (CLGF-RAG. It provides a plethora of detailed country case studies arranged around three themes: decentralisation in the Caribbean, Pakistan and England, local government finance and local economic development in India, South Africa and Tanzania, and new approaches to governance in Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Not only do the papers provide detailed accounts of the changes in policy and practice within their focus country cases – but many of them, notably the papers by Brown, Reid, McKinlay and Sansom include a comparative perspective with developments from Commonwealth countries in other regions, which is one of the key strengths of the volume. It is also the raison d’être of comparative work across the countries of the Commonwealth, given the shared legal and administrative histories and the dominance of English as the academic and often administrative lingua franca. It would have been great to see more of the cross-regional and cross-country lessons being drawn out from across the contributions in a final concluding chapter, but the editors leave this to the reader – possibly to ensure they read the volume in full.

  6. Women in 19th Century Irish immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, P

    1984-01-01

    By the 1950s--100 years after the great famine of 1845-49-- 57% of emigrants from the 26 countries of Ireland were women. In the latter 1/2 of the 19th Century, increasing proportions of women emigrated, until they outnumbered men. For women it was more than a flight from poverty. It was also an escape from an increasingly patriarchal society, whose asymetrical development as a colony curtailed women's social space, even in their traditional role as wife and mother. The famine, which is the single greatest influence forcing emigration, undermined the social fabric of an agrarian society, hastening the process of agricultural transformation. The growth of a new class of Irish a British grazier landlords resulted in a situation of acute land scarcity, encouraging tendencies to cling to one's land holding without dividing it. This, combined with new inheritance practices, gave rise to widespread arranged marriages as a means of land consolidation, and the dowry system. The spontaneous marriage practices of famine days also were replaced by a postponement of marriage. These trends severely reduced the choices exerted by women. The absence of big industrialized cities, which might have absorbed displaced rural populations, removed available options, particularly for women. The system of land monopoly and inheritance revolving around male heads of households reinforced partriarchal relations, within a framework of rigid sexual norms, whose enforcement was easy because the church, which played an important role in the emergence of these values, was a major landowner in itself. The subordinated, invisible status of women in post-famine Ireland, and growing barriers to easy access to marriage partners, to waged employment and self-expression, all helped ensure the higher and higher emigration rates of women. The economic transformation of Irish agriculture accelerated the establishment of oppressive values and helped depreciate the position of women to a very low level. The

  7. The neural crest migrating into the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Marianne E.; Simões-Costa, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    From the initial discovery of the neural crest over 150 years ago to the seminal studies of Le Douarin and colleagues in the latter part of the 20th century, understanding of the neural crest has moved from the descriptive to the experimental. Now, in the 21st century, neural crest research has migrated into the genomic age. Here we reflect upon the major advances in neural crest biology and the open questions that will continue to make research on this incredible vertebrate cell type an important subject in developmental biology for the century to come. PMID:26970616

  8. 76 FR 78703 - American Century Strategic Asset Allocations, Inc., et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ...] American Century Strategic Asset Allocations, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application December 13, 2011. AGENCY... Century Strategic Asset Allocations, Inc. (``ACSAA''), American Century Investment Management, Inc... with its investment objectives, policies, strategies and limitations, in financial instruments that may...

  9. Statures of 19th century Chinese males in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2007-01-01

    This study considers statures of 19th century male Chinese immigrant to the American West and assesses how their personal characteristics were related with stature variation. The subjects were 1423 male Chinese prisoners received between 1850 and 1920 in the Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah and Washington state prisons. The study compares 19th century Chinese inmate statures with other studies and employs stature regression models on time, socio-economic status and residence within the USA to account for biological variation. Between 1830 and 1870, Chinese youth male stature declined by over 2 cm. Between 1820 and 1860, Chinese adult male stature also declined by over 2 cm. Chinese stature did not vary with socio-economic status or residence. Nineteenth century Chinese emigrant statures were influenced more by political and economic events than socio-economic status, and male emigrants' biological conditions may have deteriorated throughout the 19th century.

  10. Preparing for China in the Twenty-First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simmons, Brian

    1998-01-01

    With China's emergence in the next century as a world economic and military power, it is imperative that the United States continue an engagement approach to assist with China's continued development...

  11. Spectroscopy, colorimetry, and biological chemistry in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinsler, M G

    1981-01-01

    The development of colorimetry and spectroscopy in the nineteenth century is described. An account is given of the application of their techniques to biological chemistry during that period. PMID:7014652

  12. Integration of the "Americas" in the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guimaraes, Milton

    2001-01-01

    Through a program of comprehensive research and detailed analysis, the paper presents current and proposed steps for the Integration of the Americas in the 21st Century within the time frame agreed...

  13. RSA Opening Minds: A Curriculum for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the RSA Opening Minds competence framework, an innovative curriculum to meet the needs of young people as future employees, lifelong learners and as citizens of the twenty-first century.

  14. Radically Rethinking Agriculture for the 21st Century

    KAUST Repository

    Fedoroff, N. V.; Battisti, D. S.; Beachy, R. N.; Cooper, P. J M; Fischhoff, D. A.; Hodges, C. N.; Knauf, V. C.; Lobell, D.; Mazur, B. J.; Molden, D.; Reynolds, M. P.; Ronald, P. C.; Rosegrant, M. W.; Sanchez, P. A.; Vonshak, A.; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2010-01-01

    Population growth, arable land and fresh water limits, and climate change have profound implications for the ability of agriculture to meet this century's demands for food, feed, fiber, and fuel while reducing the environmental impact

  15. Commentary on "Sonata Form in the Nineteenth-Century Symphony"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Duane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This commentary compares observational corpus analysis and hypothesis-driven analytical methods, and discusses the methods used in Cannon's "Sonata Form in the Nineteenth-Century Symphony" article.

  16. XVII CENTURY TURKISH DIVAN POETS WHOSE WORKS HAVE BEEN COMPOSED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Nuri PARMAKSIZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical Turkish poetry and classical Turkish music have been inseparable art branches for centuries. The best examples of music and poems created in the same periods have been the most prominent proof of this. One of these periods without doubt have been 17th century. It has been observed that composers demand divan poetry of 17thand 18thcentury greatly. Mystical poems constitute most of the poems composed in these centuries. Almost all of the poems in the divans of some mystic divan poets have been composed. In this study, the poets in the mentioned century have been determined and then the poems in the new and previous repertoires of these poets have been tried to reveal with screening and comparasion methods .

  17. Developing Operational Leaders for the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prickett, Shawn

    2003-01-01

    .... This will not change as we transform our military throughout the 21th Century. The development of operational leaders will continue to be a significant challenge for our military in the coming years...

  18. National Metrical Types in Nineteenth Century Art Song

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh VanHandel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available William Rothstein’s article “National metrical types in music of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries” (2008 proposes a distinction between the metrical habits of 18th and early 19th century German music and those of Italian and French music of that period. Based on theoretical treatises and compositional practice, he outlines these national metrical types and discusses the characteristics of each type. This paper presents the results of a study designed to determine whether, and to what degree, Rothstein’s characterizations of national metrical types are present in 19th century French and German art song. Studying metrical habits in this genre may provide a lens into changing metrical conceptions of 19th century theorists and composers, as well as to the metrical habits and compositional style of individual 19th century French and German art song composers.

  19. Comparative endocrinology in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, R.J.; Hopkins, P.M.; McCormick, S.D.; Propper, C.R.; Riddiford, L.; Sower, S.A.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    responses to the environment. A major challenge for life scientists in the 21st century is to understand how a changing environment impacts all life on earth. A full understanding of the capabilities of organisms to respond to environmental variation, and the resilience of organisms challenged by environmental changes and extremes, is necessary for understanding the impact of pollution and climatic change on the viability of populations. Comparative endocrinologists have a key role to play in these efforts.

  20. Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Blockstein, D.; Keane, C. M.; Kirk, K. B.; Schejbal, D.; Wilson, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Geoscience knowledge and skills play new roles in the workforce as our society addresses the challenges of living safely and sustainably on Earth. As a result, we expect a wider range of future career opportunities for students with education in the geosciences and related fields. A workshop offered by the InTeGrate STEP Center on 'Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce' brought together representatives from 24 programs with a substantial geoscience component, representatives from different employment sectors, and workforce scholars to explore the intersections between geoscience education and employment. As has been reported elsewhere, employment in energy, environmental and extractive sectors for geoscientists with core geology, quantitative and communication skills is expected to be robust over the next decade as demand for resources grow and a significant part of the current workforce retires. Relatively little is known about employment opportunities in emerging areas such as green energy or sustainability consulting. Employers at the workshop from all sectors are seeking the combination of strong technical, quantitative, communication, time management, and critical thinking skills. The specific technical skills are highly specific to the employer and employment needs. Thus there is not a single answer to the question 'What skills make a student employable?'. Employers at this workshop emphasized the value of data analysis, quantitative, and problem solving skills over broad awareness of policy issues. Employers value the ability to articulate an appropriate, effective, creative solution to problems. Employers are also very interested in enthusiasm and drive. Participants felt that the learning outcomes that their programs have in place were in line with the needs expressed by employers. Preparing students for the workforce requires attention to professional skills, as well as to the skills needed to identify career pathways and land a job. This critical

  1. Innovative fission reactors for this century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minguez, E.

    2007-01-01

    of the 21st Century both innovative fission reactors and fusion reactors. For 2025, it seems that many countries of EU will have to construct NPPs until 40 GWe: France, UK, Germany, North Europe, Russia, Spain, Rumania and Turkey, between others. The viability of these innovative concepts will be presented in this paper

  2. Nuclear Power in the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2013-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency helps its Member States to use nuclear technology for a broad range of peaceful purposes, one of the most important of which is generating electricity. The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan in March 2011 caused anxiety about nuclear safety throughout the world and raised questions about the future of nuclear power. Two years on, it is clear that the use of nuclear power will continue to grow in the coming decades, although growth will be slower than was anticipated before the accident. Many countries with existing nuclear power programmes plan to expand them. Many new countries, both developed and developing, plan to introduce nuclear power. The factors contributing to this growing interest include increasing global demand for energy, as well as concerns about climate change, volatile fossil fuel prices, and security of energy supply. It will be difficult for the world to achieve the twin goals of ensuring sustainable energy supplies and curbing greenhouse gases without nuclear power. The IAEA helps countries that opt for nuclear power to use it safely and securely. Countries that have decided to phase out nuclear power will have to deal with issues such as plant decommissioning, remediation, and waste management for decades to come. The IAEA also assists in these areas. I am grateful to the Russian Federation for hosting the 2013 International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Power in the 21st Century in St Petersburg in June. This timely conference provides a valuable opportunity to take stock of nuclear power in the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi accident. A high level of public confidence in the safety of nuclear power is essential for the future of the sector. Much valuable work has been done in the past two years to improve safety. But much remains to be done. It is vitally important that the momentum is maintained and that everything is done to ensure that nuclear power is as safe as humanly

  3. Environmental issues in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, D.B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of some of the environmental challenges facing the uranium production industry in the 21st century. For many years, the linear, non-threshold (LNT) model has been regarded as a prudent hypothesis for radiation protection purposes. This paradigm has been challenged at the same time for both underestimating and overestimating the risks from ionizing radiation. The reality is that the ability of conventional epidemiology to distinguish small risks will always be limited by statistical power at low doses. In the future, there will be increased emphasis on better understanding the effects of ionizing radiation at the cellular (and sub cellular) level. The concept of 'controllable dose' has been proposed as an alternative to the ICRP's current approach to dose limitation. The concept is that if the most exposed individual is protected, then society as a whole is protected. A hazard ranking scale based on comparisons to natural background levels of radiation has been proposed. Adoption of a concept such as 'controllable dose' would require a parallel re-evaluation of the concepts and application of collective dose and ALARA optimization. The protection of non-human biota is an issue of considerable interest in many countries. The science in this area is rapidly evolving, as are discussions of a more philosophical nature. For example, should the focus of environmental risk assessment be the sustainability of the population or should the focus be to limit effects on a single member of the population? The future of environmental risk assessment should be of great interest to the uranium production industry. A systematic approach to risk assessment addressing the full scope of potential hazards - environmental, human health, engineering, financial and others - will be increasingly important in the future. What level of risk is it reasonable to accept? What is meant by 'reasonable'? How much risk can be engineered away, for how long, and at what

  4. The Workforce for the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry O'Lawrence

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: In today’s changing economy, economic growth depends on career and technical programs for skill training. Background: This study discusses the key area in promoting individual learning and skill training and discusses the importance of career education and training as a way of promoting economic growth. Methodology\t: This study uses a qualitative study approach to investigate and report on the status and influence of Workforce Education and Development and its economic importance. Contribution: This report contributes to the knowledge base common to all work settings that can solve many human performance problems in the workplace. Findings: This study also justifies and validates the ideas on the importance of workforce education and development in the 21st century as a way of developing economic growth and providing learning to make individuals competitive in the global economy. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: For practitioners, this study suggests that we must always have discussions of what leads to career success and understanding that there is not enough high-skill/high-wage employment to go around. Therefore, developing these skills requires a decision about a career or related group of jobs to prepare to compete for them; we have to provide training needed in order to be competitive in global economy. Recommendation for Researchers: Researchers have to develop strategies to promote career direction with willingness to evaluate the level of academic interest, level of career focus and readiness for life away from home (attitudes, skills and knowledge of self. Impact on Society: Institutions must regularly evaluate curriculum to reflect the rapid technological changes and the globalization of world markets that reflect their mission and develop students’ mindset to always think big and think outside the box in order to be competitive in the global market. Change is external, transition is internal. It is important

  5. A century of quantitating radiation response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withers, H.R.; Geffen, D.

    2003-01-01

    As their name indicates, X rays were a surprise serendipitous discovery about which nothing was known a little over a century ago. Not surprisingly, characterizing of dose responses evolved slowly, reflecting difficulties in quantifying both physical dose and biological responses. It was about 35 years after Roentgen's discovery before an international standard (the R) was accepted for measuring dose and named after him. Within 10 years of that there was pressure to change from measuring ionization of air to absorbed dose in tissue but another 20 years and a second World War before the rad was adopted. Thirty years later the rad was dropped in favor of SI units to describe the same thing and named the Gray after the main proponent of the concept of the rad. Early on, radiochemical dosimetry was introduced in the form of color changes in proprietary pastilles. Biological function was also used as a dosimeter in the early times, examples being erythema of the skin, inhibition of growth of bean roots, or the suppression of hatching of eggs from fruit flies or worms. Other biological responses were measured (eg destruction of fertility by irradiating testes), but were not used as dosimeters. Dose survival curves based on clonal regrowth by survivors were first described for bacteria about 30 years before Puck's first description of mammalian ceFll radiosensitivity, using Chinese hamster cells. Functional changes in irradiated normal tissues after a multifraction course of radiation therapy can provide a very precise estimate of cell survival per single dose fraction but conversely, it requires very precise measurement of survival from a single dose fraction to be able to predict the ultimate response to a series of doses, a level of precision never likely to be achieved for clinical application. It seems that there is not a wide spread in radiosensitivities of normal tissues within the population. Progress is slow in predicting which tumors will respond poorly to

  6. Alan Turing: person of the XXth century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Ron, José M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available “Time” magazine chose Albert Einstein as “Person of the Century.” This was undoubtedly a reasonable choice, but as I will argue in this article, there are also good reasons for contending that Turing might have received this honor. One such reason I consider here is his purely scientific work, which stems from the greatest mathematical tradition, and how it affected the development of mathematics itself and was finally instrumental in shaping a new technological world. This is true both as regards the computation and treatment of information as well as the establishment of new forms of social relations. In relation to the foregoing, we have Turing’s contributions to the deciphering of secret codes during the Second World War, which in a somewhat metaphorical sense may be regarded as a new tool for undermining personal privacy, that civil right whose denial finally ruined his lifeEn diciembre de 1999, la revista Time eligió a Albert Einstein “The Person of the Century”. Fue, no cabe duda, una elección razonable, pero, como se argumenta en este artículo, existen también buenos argumentos para sostener que Turing podría haber recibido tal honor. En apoyo de semejante tesis están sus trabajos puramente científicos, que se esbozan aquí, trabajos que entroncan con la mejor tradición matemática, y cómo afectaron al desarrollo matemático, siendo finalmente instrumentales en la configuración de un nuevo mundo tecnológico, tanto en lo que al cálculo y manejo de información se refiere, como en lo relativo al establecimiento de nuevas formas de relaciones sociales. Relacionadas con lo anterior, se encuentran las aportaciones que hizo durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial al desciframiento de códigos secretos, que, en cierto sentido, metafórico, se pueden considerar como una nueva herramienta para socavar la privacidad, ese derecho civil cuya negación arruinó su propia vida.

  7. America First Isolationism in U.S. Foreign Policy from the 19th to the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    his third diplomatic mission to Europe to offer mediation to the belligerent parties, but, as Link points out, the British and French leaders were...represented the German people and “not the military masters and the monarchical autocrats ”; Germany accepted the conditions in their entirety on October...the Republican leader of the Senate, Henry Cabot Lodge, generally opposed any democratic attempts and personally disliked Wilson.145 Duroselle

  8. Amsterdam and London as financial centers in the eighteenth century

    OpenAIRE

    Ann M. Carlos; Larry Neal

    2011-01-01

    In the seventeenth century, Amsterdam and London developed distinctive innovations in finance through both banks and markets that facilitated the growth of trade in each city. In the eighteenth century, a symbiotic relation developed that led to bank-oriented finance in Amsterdam cooperating with market-oriented finance in London. The relationship that emerged allowed each to rise to unprecedented dominance in Europe, while the respective financial innovations in each city provided the means ...

  9. The Roman Empire - The Third Century Crisis and Crisis Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    December 2010. Hekster, Olivier, Gerda De Kleijn, and Danielle Slootjes. "Introduction." Impact of Empire. 7, (2006, June 1): 3-10. Koselleck...Crisis of the Third Century. Edited by Olivier Hekster, Gerda De Kleijn, and Danielle Slootjes. Vol. 7, Impact of EMpire. Boston: Brill Academic, 2012...1. Protagoras and John Nicols, Mapping the Crisis of the Third Century, ed. Olivier Hekster, Gerda De Kleijn, and Danielle Slootjes

  10. The gas industry at the nineteenth and twentieth centuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williot, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The beginning of gas industry in nineteenth and twentieth centuries is related here and opens on the nowadays natural gas industry. Clean, cheap, easy to handle, the only problems seem to be the transport and the storage but technologies work to solve them. The natural gas should take an important place in the next century and seems to be the only substitution energy source for some countries where pollution is a big problem such eastern Europe countries. (N.C.)

  11. PHONOGRAPHIC INDUSTRY: SUMMIT AND DECLINE IN THE 20TH CENTURY

    OpenAIRE

    Valterlei Borges de Araújo; Leandro de Paula Santos

    2017-01-01

    By highlighting the Brazilian context as the analytical approach, this article gathers data on the impacts on music consumption brought by the development of the phonographic industry. Since the emergence of the phonograph in the late 19th century until the revolution brought by the digitization and sharing of files in the first decade of the 21st century, this research presents, chronologically, the main devices for sound reproduction or physical music supports that have appeared within this...

  12. Classical elements in the endowments of Serbian XIII century donors

    OpenAIRE

    Gligorijević-Maksimović Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    In Byzantine painting, starting from the XIII and particularly during the XIV century, there was a visible return to models from the period of Antiquity. The influences of ancient, ostensibly, Hellenistic heritage were reflected in the shapes, in the content of the compositions, as well as in the drawing, modellation and colours. In the art that came into being in the course of the XIII century, in the endowments of the Serbian donors numerous elements emerged that had existed in ancient art....

  13. Radically Rethinking Agriculture for the 21st Century

    KAUST Repository

    Fedoroff, N. V.

    2010-02-11

    Population growth, arable land and fresh water limits, and climate change have profound implications for the ability of agriculture to meet this century\\'s demands for food, feed, fiber, and fuel while reducing the environmental impact of their production. Success depends on the acceptance and use of contemporary molecular techniques, as well as the increasing development of farming systems that use saline water and integrate nutrient flows. © 2010 American Association for the Advancement for Science. All Rights Reserved.

  14. A QUARTER CENTURY OF NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN JAPAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper is entitled ''A QUARTER CENTURY OF NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN JAPAN''. Since the first statement on the strategy for radioactive waste management in Japan was made by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in 1976, a quarter century has passed, in which much experience has been accumulated both in technical and social domains. This paper looks back in this 25-year history of radioactive waste management in Japan by highlighting activities related to high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal

  15. Empiricism and rationalism in nineteenth-century histories of philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Vanzo, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    This paper traces the ancestry of a familiar historiographical narrative, according to which early modern philosophy was marked by the development of empiricism, rationalism, and their synthesis by Immanuel Kant. It is often claimed that this narrative became standard in the nineteenth century, due to the influence of Thomas Reid, Kant and his disciples, or German Hegelians and British Idealists. The paper argues that the narrative became standard only at the turn of the twentieth century. Th...

  16. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  17. 21st Century Water Conservation Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2013-12-01

    This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of water conservation principles has been emphasized. The population of United States has more than doubled over the past 50 years. The need for water however, has tripled. The EPA estimates that more than 36 states face water shortage during the forthcoming years. The EPA has prepared a plan for achieving environmental and energy performance. This will be coupled with leadership and accountability. Carbon neutrality is also of prime importance. The objective is to focus on six important, essential areas. 1. Efficient use of already available energy resources. 2. Intelligent water consumption and focusing on water conservation. 3. Expand the use of renewable energy resources. 4. Explore innovative transportation systems and methodologies. 5. Change building codes and promote high performance sustainable buildings. 6. Focus on developing creative environment management systems. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is also emitted to the atmosphere through a variety of natural processes and also some human activities. However, fluorinated gases are emitted to the atmosphere solely through human activities, because they are created by humans. It is very important to observe that water conservation is probably the most cost-effective way to reduce our demand for water. Furthermore, it is certainly environmentally justifiable. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN. It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The

  18. Alfabetizare politică prin lexic, instituții și modele teoretice englezești: România în a doua jumătate a secolului al XIX-lea (Political Literacy through English Lexic, Institutions and Models. Romania in the Second Hald of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana PATRAȘ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article endeavours to explore the political terminology of Anglo-Saxon origin, as well as to emphasize the influence of the Anglo-American political model through the analysis of some speeches delivered in various political contexts by the most appreciated Romanian orators of the 19th century. The assumption that, besides the interactions with French and German models, a third influence (the English, the British or the American may be taken into consideration has been already suggested by several historians’ research. However, our hypothesis is that the Anglo-Saxon model can be emphasized not only in the “archives” of immediate economic or diplomatic interests, but as a cultural „mediator” between the French culture’s “modelling influence” and the German culture’s “catalytic influence” (according to Lucian Blaga’s theories. The relationship between the beginning of the Romanian political civilization (the stage of political literacy and the Anglo-Saxon tradition shall be inquired from three perspectives: 1. As a step-by-step evolution; 2. As an ideal standard of political civilization; 3. As a mediation formula between opposite realities and principles (absolutism – democracy/ constitutional monarchy; centralisation – local autonomy/ federalism etc.. In the first part of the article, I propose a list of English words that are imported in the Romanian language of the 19th century and are put into circulation by the speeches delivered in the Romanian Parliament. In complementarity with the lexicographic analysis, I will emphasize the fragments where works by Edmund Burke, Benjamin Disraeli, William Ewart Gladstone, Thomas Babington Macauley, Thomas Hare, James Stuart Mill, Henry Wheaton and others are mentioned by the Romanian orators, and follow the track of their dissemination through either English originals or Romanian/ French translations.

  19. ESO Receives Computerworld Honors Program 21st Century Achievement Award in Science Category

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    In a ceremony held in Washington, D.C. (USA) on June 6, 2005, ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the southern Hemisphere, received the coveted 21st Century Achievement Award from the Computerworld Honors Program for its visionary use of information technology in the Science category. Sybase, a main database server vendor and member of the Chairmen's Committee, nominated ESO's Data Flow System in recognition of its contributions to the global information technology revolution and its positive impact on society. The citations reads: "ESO has revolutionized the operations of ground-based astronomical observatories with a new end-to-end data flow system, designed to improve the transmission and management of astronomical observations and data over transcontinental distances." This year's awards, in 10 categories, were presented at a gala event at the National Building Museum, attended by over 250 guests, including leaders of the information technology industry, former award recipients, judges, scholars, and diplomats representing many of the 54 countries from which the 17-year-old program's laureates have come. "The Computerworld Honors Program 21st Century Achievement Awards are presented to companies from around the world whose visionary use of information technology promotes positive social, economic and educational change," said Bob Carrigan, president and CEO of Computerworld and chairman of the Chairmen's Committee of the Computerworld Honors Program. "The recipients of these awards are the true heroes of the information age and have been appropriately recognized by the leading IT industry chairmen as true revolutionaries in their fields." ESO PR Photo 18/05 ESO PR Photo 18/05 ESO Receives the Award in the Science Category [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 496 pix - 53k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 992 pix - 470k] [Full Res - JPEG: 1250 x 1550 pix - 1.1M] Caption: ESO PR Photo 18/05: Receiving the Computerworld 21st Century Achievement Award for Science

  20. Chronology of 3rd–5th Century Female Graves from Tarasovo Burial Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldina Rimma D.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article represents the concluding part a series of works by the authors on the dating of burials from the unique 1st–5th century Tarasovo burial ground in the Middle Kama region. The first article was dedicated to the chronology of graves dating back to the early Nyrgynda stage (1st–2nd centuries of this monument. The second and third publications feature an analysis of the chronology of 3rd–5th century male burials. The present work describes 160 female burials of 3rd–5th centuries analyzed from the perspective of chronology. Similarly to previous research, the three main methods employed by the authors of this research include those of formal typology, cultural stratigraphy and the nearest neighbour method. A total of 12 chronological groups were singled out as a result: 1st half of 3rd century A.D. (group 1; 2nd half of 3rd century (2; 3rd century (3; 4th century (group 4; 2nd half of 3rd–4th centuries (5а; 3rd–4th centuries (5б; 1st half of 5th century (6; 2nd half of 5th century (7; 5th century (group 8; 2nd half of 4th–5th centuries (9; 4th–5th centuries (10; 2nd half of 3rd–5th centuries

  1. Early 20th century conceptualization of health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Wendy

    2017-12-01

    This historical analysis of the term 'health promotion' during the early 20th century in North American journal articles revealed concepts that strongly resonate with those of the 21st century. However, the lineage between these two time periods is not clear, and indeed, this paper supports contentions health promotion has a disrupted history. This paper traces the conceptualizations of health promotion during the 1920s, attempts to operationalize health promotion in the 1930s resulting in a narrowing of the concept to one of health education, and the disappearance of the term from the 1940s. In doing so, it argues a number of factors influenced the changing conceptualization and utilization of health promotion during the first half of the 20th century, many of which continue to present times, including issues around what health promotion is and what it means, ongoing tensions between individual and collective actions, tensions between specific and general causes of health and ill health, and between expert and societal contributions. The paper concludes the lack of clarity around these issues contributed to health promotion disappearing in the mid-20th century and thus resolution of these would be worthwhile for the continuation and development of health promotion as a discipline into the 21st century. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. [Tarantism in Spain in the eighteen century: latrodectism and suggestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Corral, I; Corral-Corral, C

    2016-10-16

    Tarantism is the disease caused by the bite of the tarantula, in which the music tarantella triggers an involuntary dance. It is known in Italy since the sixteenth century. To analyze the tarantism reported in Spain at the end of the eighteenth century, with special attention to its neurological aspects, and to propose its medical and psychopathological explanation. An epidemic of people affected by the tarantula bite occurred in Spain in 1782. Spanish doctors described appropriately the clinical effects, identical to those produced by the bite of the spider black widow (Latrodectus tredecimguttatus), which was at that time identified as a tarantula. The cases reported by Francisco Xavier Cid cured with the involuntary dance triggered by the tarantella, as was described in Italy since the sixteenth century. Our interpretation is that this curative effect of dance in Spain was induced by suggestion. In Spanish patients there were no behavioral disturbances, periodic recurrences or collective involvement as those reported by Italian authors, which suggest an hysterical phenomenon, probably a continuation of the dancing mania of the Middle Age. Tarantism reported in Spain in the eighteenth century includes two different phenomena: the systemic symptoms produced by the tarantula bite, which is actually latrodectism, and the curative effect of the tarantella, explained by suggestion. The psychiatric disturbances, with a hysterical nature, falsely associated to the tarantula bite, observed in Italy, were not present among the Spanish cases of tarantism in the eighteenth century.

  3. Global Energy Challenges of the 21. Century and Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagarinskiy, Andrey

    2008-01-01

    The paper considers the world energy demand till the middle of the century, as well as possible forecasting solution for this challenge. On the base of the mathematical model developed in the Kurchatov Institute in 2003- 2006, the vision of the global nuclear energy system and its potential contribution in the energy mix was analyzed. The rate of rapprochement between specific energy consumptions in different countries of the world is a key parameter determining the energy market strain. It was shown that a continuation of the current world trends of this rapprochement would result in an energy resource deficit already in the nearest future. The energy mix picture would contain an 'unsatisfied demand' area of about 10 000 Mtoe of total energy to be consumed by the mid-century Supposing that the mankind has to meet the 'unsatisfied demand' by nuclear energy, the global energy challenges of the 21. century energy do not impose any upper limit on nuclear energy development, the scale of which would be determined by development opportunities. Russia, as one of the pioneers of the First Nuclear Era, possesses great experience of solving the key issues of nuclear energy of the 20. century, and is capable to play an important role in dealing with the challenges faced by nuclear in the 21. century. (authors)

  4. From Sentiment to Sentimentality: A Nineteenth-Century Lexicographical Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Banfield

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The brief account of the lexicographical history of the word ‘sentiment' in the nineteenth century, and the table of definitions which follows it, grew from my increasing sense of the shifting and ambivalent nature of the term in the literature of the period, despite the resonance and the proverbial solidity of phrases such as ‘Victorian sentiment' and ‘Victorian sentimentality'. The table is self explanatory, representing the findings of a search, among a wide range of nineteenth-century dictionaries over the period, for the changing meanings accrued by the word ‘sentiment' over time, its extensions and its modifications. The nineteenth-century lexicographical history of the word ‘sentiment' has its chief roots in the Eighteenth-century enlightenment, with definitions from Samuel Johnson and quotations from John Locke, chiefly based on intellect and reason. The nineteenth century generated a number of derivatives of the word over a period of time to express altered modes of feeling, thought and moral concern. The history of the word ‘sentiment' offers a psychological as well as a linguistic narrative.

  5. Italian musicians in Greece during the nineteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanou Ekaterini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In Greece, the monophonic chant of the Orthodox church and its neumatic notation have been transmitted as a popular tradition up to the first decades of the 20th century. The transformation of Greek musical tradition to a Western type of urban culture and the introduction of harmony, staff notation and western instruments and performance practices in the country began in the 19th century. Italian musicians played a central role in that process. A large number of them lived and worked on the Ionian Islands. Those Italian musicians have left a considerable number of transcriptions and original compositions. Quite a different cultural background existed in Athens. Education was in most cases connected to the church - the institution that during the four centuries of Turkish occupation kept Greeks united and nationally conscious. The neumatic notation was used for all music sung by the people, music of both western and eastern origin. The assimilation of staff notation and harmony was accelerated in the last quarter of the 19th century. At the beginning of the 20th century in Athens a violent cultural clash was provoked by the reformers of music education all of them belonging to German culture. The clash ended with the displacement of the Italian and Greek musicians from the Ionian Islands working at the time in Athens, and the defamation of their fundamental work in music education.

  6. A History of the Danubian Costume in the XIXth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Partenie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays we attach a great importance to the clothes we wear from the moment we buy or make them, to the moment we decide if they are appropriate with our personal style, the place where we wear them or when we use them. If the XIXth century tries to preserve the tradition with great accuracy the way it was transmitted from generation to generation, in the tumultuous XXth century we attend to the birth of a real industry of fashion. Some reminiscences remain, however, which gives us the opportunity to draw up a study in this regard. The present paper intends to add information regarding the folk costumes in Galati County, especially in the XIXth century. It is a short presentation of some of the most traditional clothes such as: skirt, apron, hood, shirt male and shirt female, decorative designs, footwear; without claiming to have finished the subject we intend to go on with further research.

  7. THE DANCING SCULPTURES OF THE 19TH CENTURY EUROPEAN ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel ALMELEK ISMAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dance has been an indispensable element of human life for centuries. Painters and sculptors have created the dynamism of dance steps either on the canvas or stone with the same excitement. Charits, Nymphs, Bacchantes and Satyrs, the Greek and Roman mythological figures who attract attention with their dances have been a source of inspiration for artists. In this research, the dancing sculptures of the 19th century which is an interesting period in European art because of its witnessing of long term styles like Neoclassicism and Romanticism and short term movements such as Realism and Impressionism are examined. Examples of sculptures which brings dance to life before and after the 19th century have also been mentioned. The likenesses as well as dissimilarities in the way the arts of painting and sculpture approach to the theme of dance has been briefly evaluated.

  8. Thermal power - emerging scenario in the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saran, Keshav

    2000-01-01

    The developing countries have to ensure that their development in the new millennium is supported by a strong infrastructure to meet the challenges of this century where survival would be of the fittest. In India, globalization of economy will be the main thrust in this century. Today self reliance and determination is needed to develop, adopt and implement new technologies which are more efficient and eco-friendly. The economy of the country calls for a higher rate of growth in the power infrastructure. To ensure the momentum of 7 per cent overall growth in the economy, India need about 12-14 per cent growth in power generation. In power sector, selection of resources, systems, fuel options and appropriate technology would be major determinants that will decide the success for sustained development in the new century

  9. The adolescence of a thirteenth-century visionary nun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, J; De Ganck, R

    1986-11-01

    Among the most notable features of the religious revival in western Europe in the early thirteenth century was the development of mysticism among the nuns and religious women of the lowlands. As scholarly attention becomes increasingly focused on this group of remarkable women, the question arises whether a psychiatric viewpoint has something of value to offer to the understanding of such individuals and the culture in which they struggled. The methodological and intellectual problems inherent in examining the life of a thirteenth-century mystic with a twentieth-century empirical frame of reference are illustrated in this study of the adolescence of Beatrice of Nazareth. Beatrice's stormy asceticism, ecstatic states and mood swings lend themselves to potentially competing hypotheses regarding the spiritual and psychopathological significance of her adolescent development and eventual life-course. Common grounds for reconciling these alternative models are discussed.

  10. Evolution of the framework for 21st century competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sdenka Z. Salas-Pilco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the successive changes and evolution of the frameworks for 21st century competencies, since the appearance of the first conceptual models during the final years of the last century, and also it is a review of the competencies that are needed in the 21st century with a special focus on the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT competencies. The included frameworks have been elaborated by diverse institutions such as international organizations, private consortia and also governments as a guideline for educational policies in elementary and secondary schools. Later, the frameworks are compared and analyzed according to a classification of the competencies into general categories, in order to visualize some trends and obtain some insights about the direction they are heading. Finally, it provides some suggestions for the conception of future frameworks.

  11. Public support for medical research in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P M

    2000-01-01

    Key public policies that have contributed to the rise of modern medical research in the 20th Century are reviewed, focusing especially on the United States and the post-World War II period. Drawing on this history, the question is posed: "Are these policies sufficient to insure vigorous medical research in the 21st Century?" Although radical policy changes are not needed, several proposals for policy and medical research portfolio redirection are offered, including a rebalancing of public supported research in all fields of science that contribute to medical advances. Medical research must also invest in a national and international information infrastructure that will allow the linking of researchers, clinical experimenters, practicing physicians, and the public in ways heretofore not imagined. Medical researchers must be leaders and advocates for the whole research enterprise in the 21st Century.

  12. 19th-century and early 20th-century jaundice outbreaks, the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, C G

    2018-01-01

    Historical enquiry into diseases with morbidity or mortality predilections for particular demographic groups can permit clarification of their emergence, endemicity, and epidemicity. During community-wide outbreaks of hepatitis A in the pre-vaccine era, clinical attack rates were higher among juveniles rather than adults. In community-wide hepatitis E outbreaks, past and present, mortality rates have been most pronounced among pregnant women. Examination for these characteristic predilections in reports of jaundice outbreaks in the USA traces the emergence of hepatitis A and also of hepatitis E to the closing three decades of the 19th century. Thereafter, outbreaks of hepatitis A burgeoned, whereas those of hepatitis E abated. There were, in addition, community-wide outbreaks that bore features of neither hepatitis A nor E; they occurred before the 1870s. The American Civil War antedated that period. If hepatitis A had yet to establish endemicity, then it would not underlie the jaundice epidemic that was widespread during the war. Such an assessment may be revised, however, with the discovery of more extant outbreak reports.

  13. [Dental aspects of general symptoms in the 18th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrai, Judit

    2009-05-24

    In the 18th century, numerous diseases with symptoms of oral cavity were cured by chirurgien-dentist, barber-surgeons, or tooth drawer. The so called "dentitio difficilis" was blamed for the high children mortality, therefore gum cut or use of leeches was advised as a treatment. Both acute and chronic type of gum inflammation was called scurvy. It seems that the mechanical removal of plaque was enough to cure the scurvy as it was written in advertisements from that time. Syphilis was present in the everyday life throughout centuries, and assumed to cause different stigmas in the oral cavity. Today we consider theses stigmas as the toxic signs of mercury treatment.

  14. Empiricism and Rationalism in Nineteenth-Century Histories of Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzo, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    This paper traces the ancestry of a familiar historiographical narrative, according to which early modern philosophy was marked by the development of empiricism, rationalism, and their synthesis by Kant. It is often claimed that this narrative became standard in the nineteenth century because of the influence of Thomas Reid, Kant and his disciples, or German and British idealists. I argue that the narrative became standard at the turn of the twentieth century. Among the factors that allowed it to become standard are its aptness to be adopted by philosophers of the most diverse persuasions, its simplicity and suitability for teaching.

  15. Accelerators for the twenty-first century a review

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Edmund J N

    1990-01-01

    The development of the synchrotron, and later the storage ring, was based upon the electrical technology at the turn of this century, aided by the microwave radar techniques of World War II. This method of acceleration seems to have reached its limit. Even superconductivity is not likely to lead to devices that will satisfy physics needs into the twenty-first century. Unless a new principle for accelerating elementary particles is discovered soon, it is difficult to imagine that high-energy physics will continue to reach out to higher energies and luminosities.

  16. Lucas and patriotism in mid-eighteenth century Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magennis, E

    2015-09-01

    This paper explores the extent to which Charles Lucas can be described as a typical patriot in mid-eighteenth century Ireland. The political ideas and practices of Irish patriots of the mid-eighteenth century belong to broad spectrum including opposition MPs, anti-Catholic rhetoricians and questioners of the usefulness of the penal laws, economic pamphleteers and individuals interested in recovering Ireland's history and antiquities. Lucas was significant in that he sometimes inhabited all of these political and cultural guises, but also mobilised the Dublin public in political campaigns and was striking in his voluminous output in newspapers and pamphlets.

  17. Provisions on illegitimate children in 19th century Montenegrin legislature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulauzov Maša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal position of illegitimate children according to 19th century Montenegrin legislature is examined in this paper. Provisions on personal rights, property rights and rights of succession of illegitimate children are presented and critically analyzed. Children born out of wedlock were not equal to children born in lawful marriage. Therefore, significance of legalization of illegitimate children regarding improvement of their legal status is accentuated. As non-marital relationships were condemned in patriarchal Montenegrin 19th century society, illegitimate children were considered a product of sin and family disgrace. Hence, legislative attempts to protect their interests and improve their legal position are emphasized in this paper.

  18. Physical medicine and rehabilitation in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, L

    1994-01-01

    In conclusion, physical medicine and rehabilitation in the 21st century will be: new, exciting technologies, different patient populations, different practice settings, fewer PM&R residents, and more physician assistants, all operating under a universal access, single payer, Canadian-style health care system. I began my presentation with a quote from Yogi Berra. I'll close by paraphrasing the immortal words of Charles Dickens in the opening lines of A Tale Of Two Cities. PM&R in the 21st century will be "the best of times, the worst of times, the epoch of belief, the epoch of incredulity."

  19. Coal, an unavoidable energy in the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botte, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    With the steam engine generalization, coal has become the emblematic energy source of the 19. century industrial revolution and of the progress of the maritime and rail transports. It should have been disappeared of the world energy during the first half of the 21. century on account of the production of nobler energies (nuclear power, petroleum, natural gas, photovoltaic energy or wind power) and of the requirements of the climatic change. Nevertheless, all around the world, coal backs down and sets up as an unavoidable fuel for the 2030-2050 scenarios. (O.M.)

  20. Immigration and crime in early 20th century America

    OpenAIRE

    Moehling, Carolyn; Piehl, Anne Morrison

    2007-01-01

    Research on crime in the late 20th century has consistently shown that immigrants have lower rates of involvement in criminal activity than natives. We find that a century ago immigrants may have been slightly more likely than natives to be involved in crime. In 1904 prison commitment rates for more serious crimes were quite similar by nativity for all ages except ages 18 and 19 when the commitment rate for immigrants was higher than for the native born. By 1930, immigrants were less likely t...