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Sample records for century beijing china

  1. Opening Statement - Angel Gurria [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is a great honour to open this International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy. It is also a privilege for the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to co-sponsor this conference. I wish to thank both our hosts, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of China, represented by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the China Atomic Energy Authority, for convening us today to advance on our common goal: to secure clean and peaceful nuclear power for the 21st century. The global crisis has exposed not only the paramount challenges of today?s global economy and the remarkable level of interdependence among our nations. It has also confronted us with our duty to define the kind of global economy we need for tomorrow. It is our responsibility to devise sound policies for a stronger, cleaner and fairer global economy. Clean and affordable energy, including access to safe and secure nuclear power, should be a central element of our efforts. This is essential not only for a sustainable economy, but also for the future of our planet. The crisis has prompted us to act immediately and in concert. Take the example of our hosts, the Government of China. In the face of the economic slowdown, they responded rapidly and in a comprehensive fashion. Importantly, they increased government spending, and stimulated domestic demand, and are looking into effective ways to enhance social policies. The turmoil showed that China and all of us need to be more involved in international economic cooperation. We are profoundly affected by the policies implemented by each of our countries. There is no better example than energy to illustrate our interdependence. Holding this meeting in Beijing shows the importance China places on international cooperation and recognizes the role China could play in designing clean and safe energy solutions for the future. For me, coming to Beijing is also an opportunity to stress the high significance of the OECD partnership with

  2. The Debate about the Origin of Venereal Disease and VD Control in Modern China : Focusing on Shanghai and Beijing in the First Half of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIHN Kyuhwan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines venereal disease(VD control in Shanghai and Beijing in the first half of the twentieth century. It focuses on the debate about the origin of VD in which western doctors stressed the importance of prostitution rather than VD itself. While missionary western doctors approached VD and prostitution from a moral perspective, Chinese western doctors adopted a public health approach. Because Chinese western doctors favored the medium of popular magazines and newspapers to publicize VD and enlighten the public, it is difficult to find their writings on VD in the medical journals such as The National Medical Journal of China(NMJ. Therefore, Chinese western doctors had not been indifferent to VD as previously thought. Common people preferred the black market to the open clinic, and abused salvarsan to cure VD in secret. This suggests the sensitive nature of VD as a disease that degrades personal honor. VD control varied depending on the perspective of the origin of VD and the prostitution, and measures taken. While moralists in the debate upheld a position to abolish licensed prostitution, public health enthusiasts propped up licensed prostitution. VD control in Shanghai and Beijing displays a striking contrast. In Shanghai, the power to control VD and prostitutes were separated. The Shanghai Municipal Council(SMC, French Municipal Council(FMC, and Shanghai Municipality(SM did not cooperate in the control of VD and prostitutes. When SMC devoted its energies to abolish licensed prostitution, FMC and SM enjoyed prostitute's taxes. The Beiping Municipality(1928-1937 practiced multiple forms of control patterns and targets of VD. They adopted a bifurcated policy regarding VD. The targets of diagnosis were divided into prostitute, pregnant women, and normal citizen. The range of the reach of the health administration in Beiping Municipality was gradually magnified.

  3. Beijing, the SAS Gateway to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Scandinavian Airlines has launched the direct route from Stockholm to Beijing.China's Foreign Trade had an interview with Mr. Lars Lindgren,CEO of Scandinavian Airlines International (SAS).He pointed out that they expect to see that all across Scandinavia will be opened to China,and before long Beijing will become Scandinavian Airlines' gateway to China. The follows are the interview.

  4. The Debate about the Origin of Venereal Disease and VD Control in Modern China : Focusing on Shanghai and Beijing in the First Half of the Twentieth Century

    OpenAIRE

    SIHN Kyuhwan

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines venereal disease(VD) control in Shanghai and Beijing in the first half of the twentieth century. It focuses on the debate about the origin of VD in which western doctors stressed the importance of prostitution rather than VD itself. While missionary western doctors approached VD and prostitution from a moral perspective, Chinese western doctors adopted a public health approach. Because Chinese western doctors favored the medium of popular magazines and newspapers to public...

  5. Art Casting of China and 2008 Beijing Olympic Sculptures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Chunliang

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, a major international multi-sport event, took place in Beijing, the People's Republic of China. It has well shown the Chinese people's dream and passion about the Games. Hosting an Olympic Games has been a century-old dream for the Chinese nation.

  6. Opening Statement - Chen Qiufa [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The China Atomic Energy Authority is the authority responsible for China?s nuclear industry development and the representative organization of the Chinese Government for participating in IAEA related activities. As the Chairman of the CAEA, I would like to use this opportunity to share my views on nuclear energy development. As an important part of modern high level technology, nuclear energy, as a proven, safe and clean source of energy, plays an outstanding role in the economic and social development of humanity. The development and application of nuclear energy, involving basic nuclear research, engineering design, equipment manufacturing, nuclear fuel supply, nuclear safety regulation, nuclear waste treatment and disposal, nuclear non-proliferation, public acceptance and so on, is fairly complicated systematic engineering. Looking back on China?s more than 50 year history of nuclear energy, and looking to the promising prospect of nuclear energy development in the new century, I believe the following six development rules should be prioritized, so as to achieve sustainable and healthy development of nuclear energy for the benefits of society. MAKE OVERALL PLANS The development of nuclear energy should proceed from the strategic overall picture, including national economic development, social progress and environmental protection, obtaining a common understanding of the social, making long term development plans, and carrying them out consistently. At the beginning of reform and opening-up, when China had just begun its nuclear power development, the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident and the Chernobyl accident happened, which plunged the world nuclear industry into stagnation. The Chinese Government made the decision to continue to develop nuclear energy for economic development, which laid the foundation for China?s nuclear energy industry. In recent years, the Chinese Government has made the strategic decision of actively promoting nuclear energy

  7. Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGPEI

    2004-01-01

    As the nation's capital, Beijing hasunderstandably been positioned as China's political and cultural centel As the second largest economy among China's cities according to figures for 2003, Beijing also earns the title of an economic center. In the past two years Beijing has started to realize the indispensable value of finance for its overall economic development and set out to build a financial area in the city.

  8. Copyright agencies in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI; Yonggang; WANG; Jingui

    2009-01-01

    Based on a study of copyright agencies in Beijing area,this paper reviews the historical development of the work of copyright agencies and their agents.It analyzes their business related problems that these copyright agencies and agents are facing today.This paper also proposes a few remedial measures that may usher this copyright industry into a more sustainable development and also with a more promising outlook.

  9. Legal-Ease Beijing & Northeast China Investment Facts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2006-01-01

    Beijing and northeast China are fast becoming areas of growing interest to international investors. Here we highlight some aspects of major cities including the capital itself and other regional centers, and consider the options for setting up business in this area. While east and south China have developed primarily as export-based manufacturing centers, Beijing and northeast China represent two quite different aspects of China's macro economy. The capital is of course China's brain, with the greatest

  10. Pakistan-China Business Seminar Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On April 18, Pakistan-China Business Seminar was held in Beijing. Over 60 Chinese entrepreneurs attended the seminar, as well as Pakistani trade delegation members, who had earlier accompanied Pakistani Premier Shaukat Aziz in their visit to China.

  11. Ministerial Presentation: Sudan [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, I would like to thank the IAEA and OECD for sponsoring this conference and the government of China for hosting the conference. It gives me great pleasure to address this conference. This is a very important conference dealing with nuclear power in the 21st century. Sudan as a developing nation experiences an increase in the energy demand of its people. This is due to an increase industrialization and urbanization. Sudan with the assistance of the IAEA has initiated a planning study for long term energy supply and demand. This study showed that by the year 2020 an energy gap between energy supply and demand will occur. According to this study Sudan need to consider the nuclear option as part of an energy mix. Accordingly, Sudan with the help of the IAEA has started a technical cooperation program aiming at understanding the necessary infrastructure needed for a nuclear power program. To implement this program two committees were formed. A technical committee to address the technical requirement for the project and a high administrative committee to give the necessary political support. Utilizing nuclear energy for peaceful purposes requires strong commitment towards issues of safety, security and safeguards of nuclear and radioactive material. As part of the infrastructure requirement, in Sudan we started the amendments of the legal and regulatory framework. A new atomic energy act is being drafted. The most important features of this act are that: It provide for the establishment of a separate independent regulatory authority which will deal with all regulatory aspects of radioactive sources and nuclear material. The act also covers areas like emergency preparedness, nuclear security, liability and others. The legal requirement of nuclear program is the adherences to certain international legal instrument. A national committee from the ministries of justice, foreign affairs and science and technology was formed to advice on the country position regarding the

  12. Ministerial Presentation: China. The Development and Prospects of Nuclear Power in China [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It's my pleasure to participate in this international Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21 st Century organized by lAEA. This conference is a magnificent meeting of the global nuclear energy industry. It is a good opportunity for officials and experts from member states to share experiences in nuclear power development and explore approaches to develop nuclear power for peaceful purposes in more safe and economical manners. Please allow me to present my compliments to Mr. Chairman, and on behalf of China National Energy Administration, I would like to express my sincere congratulations on the convening of this meeting. New and higher requirements for energy are being put forward with the continuous rapid growth of China's economy. In order to strengthen the macro-administration and to solve the problems emerged in the progress of development, China National Energy Administration was established in March, 2008. Starting from its very beginning, China National Energy Administration focuses on constructing a stable, economical, clean and safe energy supply system for China through scientific development, and the acceleration of nuclear power development tops the agenda of my Administration. As the competent department for nuclear power development in China, National Energy Administration is in charge of planning, industrial policy, and project review and approval, as well as formulating regulations and standards, promoting technology R and D, equipment manufacture and international cooperation etc. Over the past twelve months, a large number of activities have been carried out, such as the adjustment of nuclear power planning, arrangement of new projects, promotion of technical progress, development of human resources, assurance of equipment manufacture and uranium supply, etc.. Meanwhile, cooperative relationships with energy administrative departments of more than 40 countries and international organizations have been established. NEA is willing to

  13. China-Russia relations in Central Asia. Energy policy, Beijing's new assertiveness and 21{sup st} century geopolitics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, Thomas Stephan [Wien Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Ostasienwissenschaften

    2014-07-01

    Publication in the field of social sciences. As China rises to global power status, its relations with other major powers, including Russia, are constantly renegotiated. Energy figures prominently in both countries' foreign policy. An extensive analysis of Chinese language sources - academic debate 1997-2012 - confirms a collision of interests over Central Asian reserves. While unanimous appeals to compromise render previous predictions of impending confrontation unconvincing, descriptions of Sino-Central Asian energy relations as ''central to energy security'', and the explicit rejection of a Russian ''sphere of influence'', also exclude a retreat. In the long term, China will likely replace Russia as the dominant force in Central Asia's energy sector, causing the Kremlin to perceive another ''encroachment''. The current notion of a ''strategic partnership'' will inevitably be challenged.

  14. Evolutionary History and Ongoing Transmission of Phylogenetic Sublineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Genotype in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qing-qin; Liu, Hai-can; Jiao, Wei-wei; Li, Qin-jing; Han, Rui; Tian, Jian-ling; Liu, Zhi-guang; Zhao, Xiu-qin; Li, Ying-jia; Wan, Kang-lin; Shen, A-dong; Mokrousov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype originated in China and has undergone a dramatic population growth and global spread in the last century. Here, a collection of M. tuberculosis Beijing family isolates from different provinces across all China was genotyped by high-resolution (24-MIRU-VNTR) and low-resolution, high-rank (modern and ancient sublineages) markers. The molecular profiles and global and local phylogenies were compared to the strain phenotype and patient data. The phylogeographic patterns observed in the studied collection demonstrate that large-scale (but not middle/small-scale) distance remains one of the decisive factors of the genetic divergence of M. tuberculosis populations. Analysis of diversity and network topology of the local collections appears to corroborate a recent intriguing hypothesis about Beijing genotype originating in South China. Placing our results within the Eurasian context suggested that important Russian B0/W148 and Asian/Russian A0/94-32 epidemic clones of the Beijing genotype could trace their origins to the northeastern and northwestern regions of China, respectively. The higher clustering of the modern isolates in children and lack of increased MDR rate in any sublineage suggest that not association with drug resistance but other (e.g., speculatively, virulence-related) properties underlie an enhanced dissemination of the evolutionarily recent, modern sublineage of the Beijing genotype in China. PMID:27681182

  15. Ministerial Presentation: Jordan. Why Nuclear? [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , with excess production to be made available for export. Jordan has been seriously exploring nuclear power as a long-term alternative for electricity generation, water desalination, and as insurance for both energy security and future volatility of oil and natural gas prices. Nuclear energy is an important alternative to fossil fuels and is a particularly important component in a low-carbon energy strategy. In this regard, I urge this Conference to call for the inclusion of nuclear energy in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of any future climate change negotiations. Nuclear power also maximizes and leverages Jordan's indigenous uranium resources. The Kingdom is endowed with rich uranium resources which have not been fully explored, with estimated reasonably assured resources of about 70,000 metric tons of uranium oxide in Central Jordan with additional quantities that could be extracted as byproduct of phosphoric acid production. There are, however, many challenges standing in the way of introducing nuclear power in Jordan such as the high investment cost, the need for skilled engineers and technicians, the limited suitable sites for power plants, the lack of adequate water sources for cooling, and the volatile regional political climate. Since 2001, Jordan has been developing a national strategy for civilian nuclear power. But only in January 2008, that Jordan's parliament empowered the Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) to lead the national effort and implement the Kingdom's nuclear strategy ---to be the Nuclear Power Implementation Organization (NEPIO) for the country. Furthermore and In compliance with the best of international practices, the parliament established an independent Jordan Nuclear Regulatory Commission (JNRC), to promulgate the needed legal, regulatory, and security framework for the introduction of nuclear power. JAEC has concluded nuclear cooperation agreements with France, China, South Korea, Canada, and will conclude two soon with Russia

  16. Ministerial Presentation: France [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Let me begin by offering my warmest thanks to our Chinese hosts, who have perfectly organised this important international conference. I would also like to thank Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, as well as all of the participants - the calibre of those in attendance today is a clear sign of the world's interest in the IAEA and the peaceful use of nuclear energy. France attaches great importance to the work carried out within the framework of the IAEA. In fact, this conference in China is the second one of its kind, following the very successful one that was held in France in 2005. Nuclear energy's current success can be explained by the fact it represents one of the solutions to today's energy challenges. Today, there is no longer any doubt - climate change is threatening the planet. Fossil fuel resources are finite as well as the source of greenhouse gases. In both developed and developing countries, energy is one of the key factors in socio-economic development. In such a context, nuclear energy plays a crucial role. In 1974, my country made a large-scale shift over to nuclear energy for its electricity needs. Today, France boasts 58 nuclear reactors that produce 80% of our electricity. They have given us greater energy independence and security, and allowed us to limit our greenhouse gas emissions. Among the OECD countries, France is the fourth largest consumer of energy, but in terms of CO2 emissions per unit of GDP, we are in 27th place. We emit 30 to 40% less carbon dioxide per inhabitant than our large European neighbours. In addition, France's decision to reprocess spent fuel in order to recycle useable components and optimise waste handling has allowed it to implement sustainable management of nuclear fuel. It is remarkable that between the 2005 Paris conference and today the development of nuclear energy around the world has continued unabated More and more nations have chosen or are considering choosing

  17. Beijing Bubble, Beijing Bust: Inequality, Trade, and Capital Inflow into China Beijing Blase, Beijing Krise: Ungleichheit, Handel und Kapitalzufluss nach China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. Galbraith

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationships between inequality, trade, and capital flows into China since the early 1990s and particularly in the first years of the present decade. We show that the rise in economic inequality in China has more to do directly with the activities associated with China’s financial and building boom, notably in Beijing, than with the massive growth in manufacturing employment and in Chinese exports since China joined the WTO in 2001. Nevertheless, it is likely that a flow of profits from the export boom did feed the speculative fires in the capital and elsewhere, and therefore it should be no surprise that the fall of one should be linked to the fall of the other, in a particularly painful reduction of economic inequality. In diesem Artikel werden die Beziehungen zwischen Ungleichheit, Handel und Kapitalzufluss nach China seit den frühen 1990er Jahren untersucht. Es wird aufgezeigt, dass die steigende wirtschaftliche Ungleichheit in China weit mehr mit Chinas Finanz- und Bauboom insbesondere in Beijing zu tun hat als mit dem großen Anstieg der Beschäftigung in der Produktion und in Chinas Exporten seit dem WTO-Beitritt im Jahr 2001.

  18. Bank of China Becomes Banking Partner of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Beijing Olympic Committee announced recently that Bank of China become a partner of 2008 Olympic Games. Bank of China will provide abundant fund, banking financial products and related services for Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, and Paralympic Games, Beijing Olympic Organizing Committee and China Olympic Committee and China Sports team to participate in 2006 Winter Olympic Games and 2008 Olympic Games.

  19. Parent-School Councils in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Wayne D.; Bjork, Lars G.; Zhao, Yuru; Chi, Bin

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines how schools in Beijing have responded to a Chinese national policy mandate to establish and maintain parent councils. We surveyed principals and parent council members across schools in the Beijing municipality about the establishment and functions of their schools' parent councils. Survey results provide insights…

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons residues in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, S; Li, K; Xia, X J; Xu, X B

    2009-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China. The PAH concentrations in 13 samples collected in Beijing ranged from 0.18 to 3.52 microg g(-1). Analysis of the sources of contamination revealed that the PAHs were derived from a coal combustion source, although various effects of traffic emissions were also observed. Furthermore, the PAH levels in Beijing tended to be higher in the southeast. Finally, the nemerow composite index revealed that the degree of pollution in the sandstorm depositions varied widely among sampling sites. PMID:18773130

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons residues in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, S.; Li, K.; Xia, X.J.; Xu, X.B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2009-02-15

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China. The PAH concentrations in 13 samples collected in Beijing ranged from 0.18 to 3.52 {mu} g g{sup -1}. Analysis of the sources of contamination revealed that the PAHs were derived from a coal combustion source, although various effects of traffic emissions were also observed. Furthermore, the PAH levels in Beijing tended to be higher in the southeast. Finally, the Nemerow composite index revealed that the degree of pollution in the sandstorm depositions varied widely among sampling sites.

  2. Ministerial Presentation: Bangladesh. Statement by Arch. Yeafesh Osman [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is indeed a great pleasure and honour for me to have the opportunity to participate in this august gathering of International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21st century. At the outset I avail of this opportunity to express my heartfelt gratitude to Chinese Atomic Energy Agency (CAEA) and the Government of the People's Republic of China (PRC) for the initiative and interest of hosting this important event in Beijing. I express my profound sense of gratefulness for the firm commitment, moral, material and intellectual support of the IAEA and its Member States which enabled organization of this important conference. The history of IAEA is a history of solidarity and the joint actions of the member states, an icon of joint collaboration for 'Atom For Peace Program'. I am confident that this conference will allow the participants to address development and emerging issues relevant to the role of nuclear power in providing clean and sustainable energy for the 21st Century. The conference will also provide an opportunity to review the status and prospects of nuclear power to carry forward the positive momentum to further raise the profile of Nuclear Energy. Respected Delegates, We all share a common understanding that nuclear science and technology is now conceived as a potential instrument of change and can play a decisive and pivotal role in efforts of achieving the much coveted goal of poverty alleviation. For ensuring sustainable development energy security is the most important strategic issue for all in the 21st Century. Global warming from greenhouse gases caused by excessive and imprudent use of fossil fuels, is a problem we must overcome together to achieve sustainable development. Meanwhile, Asia is displaying a high growth rate in both population and economic development. Therefore, the low energy consumption per capita at present will see a rapid and constant increase in demand in the near future. As such, great importance is attached to

  3. Students' Experiences with Popular Music: The Case of Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1980s, the establishment of a socialist market economy has quickened the pace of China's economic development; at the same time, increased modernization and globalization have influenced, to varying degrees, the development of music and music education. With reference to 12 secondary schools in Beijing, this empirical study examines…

  4. China-ROK nanotechnology center formally opens in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The ceremony for unveiling the nameplate of the China-Korea Nanotechnology Research Center was held on the afternoon of 2 July in Beijing. CAS Executive Vice President BAI Chunli and Vice Premier and S&T Minister of Republic of Korea (ROK) Kim Woo-Sik were present to witness the event.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyl residues in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shan; Yang, Zhong-Zhi; Li, Ke; Xu, Xiao-Bai

    2008-10-01

    Sandstorms, which distribute many particles, are a special atmospheric occurrence and are frequent in northern China. We conducted this study to determine, for the first time, the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sandstorm depositions. We collected 13 samples from urban areas of Beijing, and we measured a total of 144 PCB congeners. Thirteen samples all contained PCB residues. The total PCB concentration ranged from 1.6 to 15.6ngg(-1) (median, 4.8ngg(-1), dry weight), with trichlorinated biphenyls as the predominant homologue (>50.4%). Furthermore, we observed increasing PCB contamination from northwest to east Beijing. We later explored possible factors affecting contamination of the sandstorm depositions, which revealed a significant correlation between SigmaPCBs and the minimum particle size of the sandstorm deposition samples. Principal-component analysis revealed that the major source of PCBs in Beijing may be potentially associated with the number-one commercial PCB through the long-range transmission. In previous results, PCBs were not a severe component of contamination in sandstorm depositions of Beijing. However, this study suggested that sandstorm deposition may be a potential source of exposure to PCBs for the residents of Beijing, China. PMID:18674798

  6. Bank of China Becomes Banking Partner of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

      Beijing Olympic Committee announced recently that Bank of China become a partner of 2008 Olympic Games. Bank of China will provide abundant fund, banking financial products and related services for Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, and Paralympic Games, Beijing Olympic Organizing Committee and China Olympic Committee and China Sports team to participate in 2006 Winter Olympic Games and 2008 Olympic Games.……

  7. Variability in UVB radiation in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Hu; Xinghua, Zhang; Yuesi, Wang

    2013-01-01

    The variation characteristics of Ultraviolet-B (UVB; 280-315 nm) radiation over Beijing were explored using measured data that were collected in Beijing from November 2010 to October 2011. Seasonal variations in UVB radiation and influence of ozone and clearness index on the ratio of UVB to broadband solar radiation (G) were investigated. The annual value of UVB radiation in Beijing is 6.37 MJ m(-2), and monthly average value ranges from 4.96 to 28.37 kJ m(-2) d(-1). The maximum daily total UVB radiation ranges from 6.55 kJ m(-2) d(-1) in November to 54.22 kJ m(-2) d(-1) in July. The monthly minimum of daily total UVB radiation varies from 0.5 kJ m(-2) d(-1) in February to 11.52 kJ m(-2) d(-1) in July. The monthly average of the ratio of UVB radiation to G ranges from 0.007 to 0.017%, with an annual average value of 0.012%. The variation in slant ozone column causes annual cycle of the ratio UVB radiation to G, with maximum value in summer. In addition, clouds have a greater effect on G than UVB radiation. Thus, the ratio increases by more than 17% when the atmospheric conditions change from clear to cloudy.

  8. In-use vehicle emissions in China: Beijing study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Hongyan H.; Gallagher, Kelly Sims (Energy Technology Innovation Policy Research Group, Harvard Kennedy School, Cambridge, MA (US)); Li, Mengliang; Qin, Kongjian; Zhang, Jianwei (China Automotive Research and Technology Center (CN)); Liu, Huan; He, Kebin (Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Tsinghua Univ. (CN))

    2009-05-01

    China's economic boom in the last three decades has spurred increasing demand for transportation services and personal mobility. Consequently, vehicle population has grown rapidly since the early 1990s, especially in megacities such as Beijing, Guangzhou, and Tianjin. As a result, mobile sources have become more conspicuous contributors to urban air pollution in Chinese cities. Tianjin was our first focus city, and the study there took us about two years to complete. Building upon the experience and partnership generated through the Tianjin study, the research team carried out the Beijing study from fall 2007–fall 2008. Beijing was chosen to be our second focus city for several reasons: it has the largest local fleet and the highest percentage of the population owning vehicles among all Chinese cities, and it has suffered from severe air pollution, partially due to the ever-growing population of on-road vehicles.

  9. A Survey of Occupational Therapy Practice in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yun; Howe, Tsu-Hsin

    2016-06-01

    There is an increasing demand for rehabilitation services in China as a result of the growing number of people with physical and mental challenges, as well as the growing population of older adults. The purpose of this study was to explore the current occupational therapy (OT) resources available in Beijing, China, to serve as the first step in planning the response to increasing demand for OT services from the people of China. Specifically, using the snowball sampling survey method, we explored the work practice, including years of working experience, work setting, weekly work hours, annual income and factors related to job satisfaction among occupational therapists in Beijing, China. A total of 44 occupational therapists currently working in the Beijing area responded to our survey. The results demonstrated that most of the therapists working in Beijing area were young and inexperienced. Despite the fact that the participants had an average age of 31 years old and an average of 8 years' working experience, 61.4% of therapists were under 30 years old and more than half of therapists had less than 5 years of OT experiences. Among those included in the study sample, 50% had earned degrees in OT, and the rest of the OT personnel received OT-related on-the-job training in various forms and lengths of time. A majority of the participants worked in hospital settings with adults or children with physical disabilities and used therapeutic activities and therapeutic exercises. Being an occupational therapist is not a high-paying job. Education satisfaction, work experience and annual income are the factors related to job satisfaction for the participants. The majority of occupational therapists expressed the need to receive more support for clinical-related trainings. We plan to expand this pilot study nationwide to gain an in-depth and comprehensive understanding of the OT workforce in China. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Third China-Canada Cultural Dialogue Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The Third China-Canada Cultural Dialogue, co-sponsored by the CPAFFC and the Canadian Fund for International Understanding Through Culture (Can4Culture), was held in Beijing June 25-26. Ms. Lin Yi, Secretary General of the CPAFFC, Dr. Nelly Ng, Chair of Can4Culture, Mr. Mark McDowell, Counselor of the Canadian Embassy in China, Mr. John McAvity, Executive Director of the Canadian Museums Association, among the 100 attendees, who included representatives from the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Culture, State Administration of Cultural Heritage, China Soong Ching Ling Foundation, China National Academy of Painting, China National Center for the Performing Arts, the Canadian Museums Association, Canada Science and Technology Museum, as well as from other museums, universities and cultural organizations of both countries.

  11. Mercedes-Benz China Fashion Week in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Mercedes-Benz China International Fashion Week 2012 Spring & Summer Series is held in Beijing from October 24 to November 2. More than 50 fashion brands and institutes, 40 designers and 180 emerging designers from home and abroad attended this year’s fashion week. For the very first time, the fashion week was entitled exclusively by Mercedes-Benz, making it a new member of this global fashion festival.

  12. Application of Brownian model in the northwestern Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉洪流; 周本刚

    2004-01-01

    The mathematic theory of Brownian passage-time model and its difference from other recurrence models such asPoisson, lognormal, gamma and Weibull, were introduced. We assessed and analyzed the earthquake probabilitiesof the major faults with the elapsed time much greater than the recurrence interval in the northwest region of Beijing (China) in 100-year by using both Brownian passage-time model and Poisson model, and concluded that thecalculated results obtained from Brownian passage-time model is more reasonable.

  13. First U.S.- China Women Chemists Workshop in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In memory of the 2011 International Chemistry Year and the 100th anniversary of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry awarded to Marie Curie,the first U.S.-China Women Chemists Workshop was held in the Institute of Chemistry,Chinese Academy of Sciences on October 24-27,2011.The workshop was sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China,the U.S.National Science Foundation and the Beijing National Lab for Molecular Science.The organizing committee was made up of Dr.Geraldine

  14. Source apportionment studies on particulate matter in Beijing/China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppan, P.; Shen, R.; Shao, L.; Schrader, S.; Schäfer, K.; Norra, S.; Vogel, B.; Cen, K.; Wang, Y.

    2013-05-01

    More than 15 million people in the greater area of Beijing are still suffering from severe air pollution levels caused by sources within the city itself but also from external impacts like severe dust storms and long range advection from the southern and central part of China. Within this context particulate matter (PM) is the major air pollutant in the greater area of Beijing (Garland et al., 2009). PM did not serve only as lead substance for air quality levels and therefore for adverse health impact effects but also for a strong influence on the climate system by changing e.g. the radiative balance. Investigations on emission reductions during the Olympic Summer Games in 2008 have caused a strong reduction on coarser particles (PM10) but not on smaller particles (PM2.5). In order to discriminate the composition of the particulate matter levels, the different behavior of coarser and smaller particles investigations on source attribution, particle characteristics and external impacts on the PM levels of the city of Beijing by measurements and modeling are performed: a) Examples of long term measurements of PM2.5 filter sampling in 2010/2011 with the objectives of detailed chemical (source attribution, carbon fraction, organic speciation and inorganic composition) and isotopic analyses as well as toxicological assessment in cooperation with several institutions (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (IfGG/IMG), Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU), University Rostock (UR), Chinese University of Mining and Technology Beijing, CUMTB) will be discussed. b) The impact of dust storm events on the overall pollution level of particulate matter in the greater area of Beijing is being assessed by the online coupled comprehensive model system COSMO-ART. First results of the dust storm modeling in northern China (2011, April 30th) demonstrates very well the general behavior of the meteorological parameters temperature and humidity as well as a good agreement between modeled and

  15. PetroChina and Sinopec Release High-grade Gasoline into Beijing Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Beijing Oil Products Marketing Company, a branch of PetroChina Refining and Marketing Company, held a ceremony to release 98-octane gasoline, the highest grade of gasoline in China's domestic market, at PetroChina's Youanmen Petrol Station in Beijing on June 3 at the price of 4.2 yuan per liter. This high-graded gasoline is also provided at other three petrol stations of PetroChina in the city: Nanhu, Liuyin and Guangtie. Several days earlier, PetroChina announced the first batch of 98-octane gasoline, more than 3000 tons, was carried into Beijing from PetroChina Fushun Petrochemical Company.

  16. Australia China Friendship Society Supports Beijing Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tom Loy

    2008-01-01

    <正>Editor’s note: The following is the full text of a letter CPAFFC Vice President Li Xiaolin received on May 5 from Australia: Dear Madam Li Xiaolin, As the national body representing friendship between Australia and China, we confirm our strongest support for the Olympic Torch Relay and Beijing’s hosting of the Olympic Games. Considering the difficulties that have been occurring and controversial media coverage we believe that China has set a good example. The Torch Relay has been a success in its own right and we are confident that the Olympic Games will be successful.

  17. Water Quality Management of Beijing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    At present, Beijing's water resources are insufficient and will become the limiting factor for sustainable development for the city in the near future. Although efforts have been made to control pollution, water quality degradation has occurred in some of the important surface water supplies, aggravating the water resource shortage. At present, approximately three quarters of the city's wastewater is discharged untreated into the urban river system, resulting in serious pollution and negatively influencing the urban landscape and quality of daily life. To counteract these measures, the city has implemented a comprehensive "Water Quality Management Plan" for the region, encompassing water pollution control, prevention of water body degradation, and improved water quality.The construction of municipal wastewater treatment plants is recognised as fundamental to controlling water pollution, and full secondary treatment is planned to be in place by the year 2015. Significant work is also required to expand the service area of the municipal sewage system and to upgrade and renovate the older sewer systems. The limitation on available water resources has also seen the emphasis shift to low water using industries and improved water conservation. Whilst industrial output has increased steadily over the past 10-15 years at around 10% per annum, industrial water usage has remained relatively constant. Part of the city's water quality management plan has been to introduce a strict discharge permit system, encouraging many industries to install on-site treatment facilities.

  18. Incidence of congenital heart disease in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xue-yong; LI Xiao-feng; L(U) Xiao-dong; LIU Ying-long

    2009-01-01

    Background The incidence of congenital heart disease has been studied in developed countries for many years, but rarely in the mainland of China. Fetal echocardiographic screening for congenital heart disease was first performed in Beijing in the early 2000s, but the impact was not clear. The current study was undertaken to determine the incidence of congenital heart disease in Beijing, China and to estimate the impact of fetal echocardiography on the incidence of liveborn congenital heart disease.Methods The study involved all infants with congenital heart disease among the 84 062 total births in Beijing during the period of January 1 and December 31, 2007. An echocardiographic examination was performed on every baby suspected to have congenital heart disease, prenatally or/and postnatally.Results A total of 686 infants were shown to have congenital heart disease among 84 062 total births. The overall incidence was 8.2/1000 total births. Mothers of 128 of 151 babies diagnosed prenatally were chosen to terminate the pregnancy. Two of the 151 infants died in utero. A specific lesion was identified for each infant and the frequencies of lesions were determined for each class of infants (total births, stillbirths and live births). The incidence of congenital heart disease in stillbirths and live births was 168.8/1000 and 6.7/1000, respectively. The difference between the incidence of total birth and the incidence of live birth was statistically significant (P<0.001).Conclusions The incidence of liveborn congenital heart disease in Beijing is within the range reported in developed countries. Fetal echocardiography reduce significantly the incidence of livebom congenital heart disease.

  19. China Quarterly Update World Bank Office, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Overview China's economic growth has remained resilient as the macro stance moved towards normalization.Both fiscal and monetary policy contributed to the normalization.Consumption growth slowed in early 2011.But overall domestic demand held up well,supported by still strong investment growth.Real estate investment has so far remained robust to measures to contain housing prices- a policy focus.Reducing inflation is the other policy priority,after inflation rose to 5.4 percent,largely on higher food prices.

  20. Ministerial Presentation: United States of America. Ambassador Schulte's Remarks on Behalf of Energy Secretary Chu [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is a pleasure to participate in this second Ministerial Conference convened by the IAEA here in Beijing. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu has asked that I deliver this speech on his behalf. He sends his sincere regrets that he is unable to attend this event personally. As you know, this week is Earth Week, and the Secretary is very engaged promoting our energy and climate change agenda back in Washington. Let me assure you, however, that the United States views nuclear energy as an important part of our effort to put the world on the road to a low-carbon future. The global expansion of nuclear energy. It is now widely recognized that nuclear energy has the potential to curtail dependence on fossil fuels and greatly reduce greenhouse gas emissions while promoting greater energy security. Yet, given the stakes associated with the use (and potential misuse) of nuclear energy around the world, it is imperative that all nations with existing or new nuclear power programs play an active role in global efforts to address the safety, security, and safeguards implications of nuclear power. As President Obama recently stated, it is time we consider a new framework for civil nuclear cooperation, one that allows all interested countries to enjoy the benefits of nuclear energy while limiting the associated risks of nuclear weapons proliferation. This new framework should include measures that improve energy security, including an international fuel bank and related fuel services arrangements. This conclusion reflects our recognition of the right of nations that comply with global nonproliferation norms to share in the benefits of peaceful nuclear uses. We also share a responsibility to maintain and strengthen global standards for safety, security and nonproliferation. Today, access to nuclear energy faces significant challenges-- the development of sound infrastructure, the reliable provision of nuclear fuel, and the safe and secure management of spent fuel and nuclear waste

  1. Bronze Tiger Sculptures Exhibition at the 4th China Beijing International Cultural & Creative Industry Expo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Chunliang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Sponsored and organised by the Chinese Ministry of Culture, the Chinese State Administration of Radio, Film and Television, the Chinese General Administration of Press and Publication and the Government of Beijing, the 4th China Beijing International Cultural & Creative Industry Expo (ICCIE) was successfully held in Beijing on November 26-29,2009. The Expo took China International Exhibition Centre as a main exhibition area with additional 9 sub-exhibition areas in the districts and counties of Beijing (total exhibition area 65,000 m2).

  2. Ministerial Presentation: Egypt. Speech of H.E. Dr. Hassan Younes [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, I would like to express my sincere appreciation to our host country China, for making possible this International Ministerial Conference. Also, I would like to commend the efforts of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the (OECD) in organizing this important conference. Egypt was one of the countries to realize that nuclear power could be utilized to secure the supply of electricity and fresh water. Several attempts haven't been materialized in the last 3 decades due to different factors. Recently, Egypt has reconsidered the nuclear power as an option to supply electricity. Egypt was motivated to consider the introduction of nuclear power by the following factors: Steadily increasing demand for electricity; Egypt is not a rich country of indigenous fossil energy resources, and almost full utilized its hydro power resources; Instability in the prices of fossils energy resources. Introducing the nuclear power alongside other forms of energy resources will maximize the usage of these resources; Nuclear energy is a technically and economically viable source of energy. In the 21st century, these reasons have not only retained their validity, but have been also reinforced by the developments which have been taking place. Egypt electricity demand will continue to increase in the foreseeable future. Currently, electricity reaches over 99% of the Egypt's population and it is planned to add 58 GW by the year 2027. The challenges of meeting these increasing demand will have to be met in the best possible ways within the prevailing constraints. These include: Increase the share of renewable energy, in electricity generation to 20% by the year 2020. By the year 2020 the total wind farm capacities will be at least 7200 MW, of which 63% would be constructed by private sector. A 140-MW solar-thermal power plant is currently under construction, and is expected to be connected to the grid by the end of year 2010; Conservation of

  3. Ministerial Presentation: Indonesia. Statement by the Delegation of the Republic of Indonesia [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allow me, on behalf of my delegation, to express our gratitude to the IAEA, OECD and China Atomic Energy Agency for organizing this Conference. It is indeed a great pleasure to participate in this important Conference. In the midst of nuclear renaissance in the 21st century, the convening of this Conference is not only timely, but also significant to address challenges and opportunities related to global energy security. Entering the 21st century, we continue to witness the rising expectations for nuclear energy in different parts of the world, especially for generating electricity. As a country with more than 230 million people, Indonesia needs huge amount of energy. One of the alternative primary energy resources to meet its rising demand for energy in the future is nuclear energy. As a faithful state party to the NPT and a member of the IAEA, Indonesia has long been a strong advocate of promoting nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Article IV of the NPT clearly recognizes the inalienable right of every state party to develop nuclear energy for peaceful purposes without discrimination. As long as it is aimed and used for peaceful purposed and under the full comprehensive safeguards of the IAEA, this right should be fully respected by all States without any interference. Indonesia has fully committed to strengthen nuclear non-proliferation within the framework of the NPT. In this regard, since the last few years, Indonesia has put in place integrated safeguards which covers both the comprehensive safeguards agreement and the additional protocol of the IAEA to its nuclear facilities. In the context of combating nuclear terrorism, Indonesia has also worked with the IAEA as well as through bilateral and regional cooperation to undertake measures and improvements in strengthening nuclear safety and security of its nuclear facilities. In the context of the civil use of nuclear energy, Indonesia has enacted Law No. 10 of 1997 on Nuclear Energy, which underscores the

  4. Ministerial Presentation: Nigeria. Statement by His Excellency Dr. Alhassan Bako Zaku [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On behalf of the Nigerian Delegation, it is my pleasure to extend warm congratulations to you, Minister Li, for the able and masterful manner you have piloted the affairs of this Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21st Century. I also wish to congratulate the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for its foresight in organizing this topical and timely conference; particularly at a time that there appears to be signs of global nuclear power renaissance. To the Government and good People of the Peoples Republic of China, I thank you for your usual display of rare hospitality and being such wonderful hosts. And to all of you participants and members of the respective national delegations, I bring to you special felicitations and goodwill from President Umaru Musa Yar' Adua and the good people of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. It is my understanding that the major theme of this conference is aimed at providing participants, an opportunity to assess and review the status and prospects of nuclear power in the 21st Century, and what it entails in contributing towards achieving an optimal global energy mix. Obviously, these issues will in broad terms include an assessment of the progress in the evolution of technology vis-a-vis the global environmental concerns, assurance of nuclear fuel supply and waste management, as well as the thorny issues of nuclear non-proliferation. Furthermore, this conference is also designed to offer a forum to assess the challenges, viability and potential benefits for developing countries which are considering the introduction of nuclear power into their national energy mix. It is my delegation's expectation that open and frank discussions on these issues, and the proper identification of the requisite actions needed to maintain the positive momentum that nuclear power has witnessed in recent years, will form the basis for the outcome of this meeting. It is generally acknowledged that energy usage is a major index of human

  5. Prof C. N. Yang (Physics Nobel Prize 1957) from Tsinghua University (Beijing) during his CERN Colloquium: "Thematic Melodies of Twentieth Century Theoretical Physics: Quantization, Symmetry and Phase Factor".

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Prof C. N. Yang (Physics Nobel Prize 1957) from Tsinghua University (Beijing) during his CERN Colloquium: "Thematic Melodies of Twentieth Century Theoretical Physics: Quantization, Symmetry and Phase Factor".

  6. Investigation on Mycobacterium tuberculosis diversity in China and the origin of the Beijing clade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanglin Wan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Investigation of the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in China has shown that Beijing genotype strains play a dominant role in the tuberculosis (TB epidemic. In order to examine the strain diversity in the whole country, and to study the evolutionary development of Beijing strains, we sought to genotype a large collection of isolates using different methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We applied a 15-loci VNTR typing analysis on 1,586 isolates from the Beijing municipality and 12 Chinese provinces or autonomous regions. The data was compared to that of 900 isolates from various other worldwide geographic regions outside of China. A total of 1,162/1,586 (73.2% of the isolates, distributed into 472 VNTR types, were found to belong to the Beijing genotype family and this represented 56 to 94% of the isolates in each of the localizations. VNTR typing revealed that the majority of the non-Beijing isolates fall into two genotype families, which represented 17% of the total number of isolates, and seem largely restricted to China. A small number of East African Indian genotype strains was also observed in this collection. Ancient Beijing strains with an intact region of difference (RD 181, as well as strains presumably resembling ancestors of the whole Beijing genotype family, were mainly found in the Guangxi autonomous region. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the largest M. tuberculosis VNTR-based genotyping study performed in China to date. The high percentage of Beijing isolates in the whole country and the presence in the South of strains representing early branching points may be an indication that the Beijing lineage originated from China, probably in the Guangxi region. Two modern lineages are shown here to represent the majority of non-Beijing Chinese isolates. The observed geographic distribution of the different lineages within China suggests that natural frontiers are major factors in their diffusion.

  7. Investigation on Mycobacterium tuberculosis Diversity in China and the Origin of the Beijing Clade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Kanglin; Liu, Jinghua; Hauck, Yolande; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Xiuqin; Liu, Zhiguang; Lu, Bing; Dong, Haiyan; Jiang, Yi; Kremer, Kristin; Vergnaud, Gilles; van Soolingen, Dick; Pourcel, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Background Investigation of the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in China has shown that Beijing genotype strains play a dominant role in the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic. In order to examine the strain diversity in the whole country, and to study the evolutionary development of Beijing strains, we sought to genotype a large collection of isolates using different methods. Methodology/Principal Findings We applied a 15-loci VNTR typing analysis on 1,586 isolates from the Beijing municipality and 12 Chinese provinces or autonomous regions. The data was compared to that of 900 isolates from various other worldwide geographic regions outside of China. A total of 1,162/1,586 (73.2%) of the isolates, distributed into 472 VNTR types, were found to belong to the Beijing genotype family and this represented 56 to 94% of the isolates in each of the localizations. VNTR typing revealed that the majority of the non-Beijing isolates fall into two genotype families, which represented 17% of the total number of isolates, and seem largely restricted to China. A small number of East African Indian genotype strains was also observed in this collection. Ancient Beijing strains with an intact region of difference (RD) 181, as well as strains presumably resembling ancestors of the whole Beijing genotype family, were mainly found in the Guangxi autonomous region. Conclusions/Significance This is the largest M. tuberculosis VNTR-based genotyping study performed in China to date. The high percentage of Beijing isolates in the whole country and the presence in the South of strains representing early branching points may be an indication that the Beijing lineage originated from China, probably in the Guangxi region. Two modern lineages are shown here to represent the majority of non-Beijing Chinese isolates. The observed geographic distribution of the different lineages within China suggests that natural frontiers are major factors in their diffusion. PMID:22220207

  8. Being the Pioneer of Life Sciences in China--Introduction to Beijing Genomics Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beijing Genomics Institute; Xin Zhang

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Beijing Genomics Institute (BGI) of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) was officially founded in December 2003. Its predecessor, Beijing Huada Genomics Research Center, has presented significant contributions to the development of life sciences in China by its excellent scientific innovations and achievements in the last five years.

  9. Population growth, deforestation, and fuel substitution in Ming Beijing (Ecology, China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, C.L. [Academy of Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2003-03-01

    This article investigates why people of Beijing started to burn coal instead of logs after the middle Ming Dynasty. The records of the city's population, illegal logging and the government's fuel policy showed the Beijing's population boom, which resulted in a stronger demand of cooking fuel and construction materials, had led to illegal logging. In the early 16th century, there were hardly any trees on the Yan Mountain north of Beijing. On the other hand, to provide huge amounts of fuel for the palace and offices, the government set up a charcoal works on the northern Tiahang Mountain, which is southwest of Beijing. In 1442, 57,000 tons firewood and charcoal were burned for official purposes. Even though the quantity declined later, it still consumed 30,000 tons firewood and charcoal a year during the middle of the 16th century. After the middle of the 15th century, forests around Beijing disappeared due to extensive logging. The prices of logs also went up. Therefore people started to use easily available coal. Since the late 15th century, written accounts of coal mining in the mountain west of Beijing were increasing. In the early Ming, Beijing's households burned logs. Since then, more and more adopted coal burning especially during the late Ming. The city became so dependent on West Mountain's coal mine that any northern invasion that crossed the Great Wall would cause a coal supply problem. Fuel substitution in Beijing throughout the Ming Dynasty was a good example of environmental change caused by urban development. After the loss of forests and the mass consumption of coal, the city's environment also changed. Ever since the late Ming, coal-burning-caused problems such as earth dumping and air pollution were worsening. Evidently, the city of Beijing was suffering from the decay of its environment since the late 16th century.

  10. Composition, distribution, and characterization of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, S; Yang, Z Z; Zhang, L; Li, K; Xu, X B

    2009-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of 8 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China. The PBDE concentrations in 10 samples collected in Beijing ranged from 8.47 to 29.02 ng g(-1), with BDE-209 as the predominant congener (>85%). Principal component analysis revealed that the major source of PBDEs in Beijing may be potentially associated with deca-BDE. Furthermore, increasing PBDE contamination was observed from northwest to east Beijing. Finally, possible factors affecting contamination of the sandstorm depositions were subsequently explored revealing a significant correlation between SigmaPBDEs and the minimum particle size of the sandstorm deposition samples. PMID:19322505

  11. 1st Meeting of China-ROK Eligibility Assessment Subcommittee Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The 1st Meeting of China-ROK Eligibility Assessment Subcommittee was held in Beijing on May 27. Sun Dawei, Chief Chinese representative and Certification and Accreditation Administration of China (CNCA)Deputy Director of presided over the meeting and Hong Zong, Chief ROK representative and Director of Security Service Standard Department of Technology Standard Institute of the Ministry of Industrial Resources of the Republic of Korea led a delegation to Beijing for the meeting.

  12. Measurements of thoron and radon progeny concentrations in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lei; Liu Cuihong; Guo Qiuju [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: qjguo@pku.edu.cn

    2008-12-15

    It has been reported that thoron levels in China are above the world average and may therefore make a significant contribution to the natural background radiation dose. We therefore conducted a pilot study of concentrations of both thoron and radon progeny during the spring of 2006 in the Beijing area, China. A new type of portable 24 h integrating monitor with a CR-39 detector was used during the survey. Seventy dwellings and eight outdoor sites were measured during the survey. For country houses built of red bricks and slurry, the average equilibrium equivalent concentrations (EEC) of thoron and radon were 1.02 {+-} 0.48 and 16.41 {+-} 9.02 Bq m{sup -3}, respectively, whereas for city dwellings built of cement blocks and floor slabs, the results were 0.48 {+-} 0.47 and 11.50 {+-} 6.99 Bq m{sup -3} for thoron and radon, respectively. For outdoor air, concentrations of thoron and radon progeny were 0.29 {+-} 0.28 and 7.05 {+-} 2.68 Bq m{sup -3}, respectively. Radiation exposures from thoron and radon progeny were also evaluated; the ratio of dose contribution from thoron progeny to that of radon progeny was evaluated to be 28% and 17% in country houses and city dwellings, respectively. (note)

  13. Ozone and ozone injury on plants in and around Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone (O3) levels were assessed for the first time with passive samplers at 10 sites in and around Beijing in summer 2012. Average O3 concentrations were higher at locations around Beijing than in the city center. Levels varied with site locations and ranged from 22.5 to 48.1 ppb and were highest at three locations. Hourly O3 concentrations exceeded 40 ppb for 128 h and 80 ppb for 17 h from 2 to 9 in August at one site, where it had a real-time O3 analyzer. Extensive foliar O3 injury was found on 19 species of native and cultivated trees, shrubs, and herbs at 6 of the 10 study sites and the other 2 sites without passive sampler. This is the first report of O3 foliar injury in and around Beijing. Our results warrant an extensive program of O3 monitoring and foliar O3 injury assessment in and around Beijing. - Highlights: • Plants have been threatened by high O3 concentration in and around Beijing, China. • 19 plant species are reported as obvious ambient O3 injury symptoms in Beijing. • The O3 injury symptoms occur more often where ambient O3 concentration is higher. • The results warrant more extensive and long-term study of ambient O3 in China. - First report of ozone incidence and ozone injury on plants in and around Beijing, China

  14. Ministerial Presentation: Sri Lanka. Presentation by Tissa Vitarana [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thank you, Mr. Chairman for giving me the opportunity to address this distinguished audience at short notice. I would also like to thank the Government of China and the China Atomic Energy Authority together with the IAEA and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD for hosting and organizing this second ministerial meeting on nuclear energy. It takes place at a time when the world is faced with an energy crisis and also an environmental crisis. Besides cost considerations, dependence on fossil fuels is no longer feasible because of their impact on climate leading to global warming with all the adverse consequences for all forms of life on this planet. Therefore, from the point of view of generating electricity on a large scale without carbon emissions, nuclear energy is the need of the hour. This meeting is addressing the main issues that arise in expanding the use of nuclear energy as a source of power, such as fuel supply, waste management, infrastructure development, technology availability and environmental aspects. In addition by providing time for ministerial presentations the current experience and needs of the various countries are being surfaced and shared. Before discussing some issues pertaining to Sri Lanka, I wish to express my agreement with the statement made by the Vice Prime Minister of China who clearly emphasized the need for a total ban on nuclear weapons, which was supported by speakers from several other countries. The statement attributed to US President Barak Obama that he is prepared to work towards reducing nuclear arms in the USA is also welcome. Further, the right of every country to resort to peaceful use of nuclear energy for generating power should be respected so long as they conform to the regulations of the IAEA, including the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT). I wish to share with the learned delegates a few issues pertaining to Sri Lanka as a country which has not yet taken a firm decision to turn to nuclear energy as a part of its

  15. Ministerial Presentation: Saudi Arabia. Statement by the Head of the Delegation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I am pleased to open this address by expressing my appreciation to you and to confirm the delegation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's cooperation in attaining the goals sought by this high-level meeting. We thank our friends in the People's Republic of China for their excellent hosting of this important conference. We are all keen to shoulder the task deriving from our recognition of the benefits of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy for the development and well-being of humankind. We all understand the importance of making international efforts to develop all the possible technical aspects of the uses of nuclear energy so as to increase production efficiency, to optimize radioactive waste management and to enhance safety levels. All of this in order to face the growing demand for energy at the global level since, in this sphere, there are many States which are seriously seeking sources of energy and are focusing on nuclear energy. This includes my country, which is seriously considering the option of introducing nuclear energy among other sources of energy. We are all aware of the readiness of the Secretariat of the International Atomic Energy Agency, in the framework of its programme activities and services, to respond to the requests for technical assistance expected from States embarking on the use of nuclear energy, to support their national plans to this end, and to ensure that the implementation of the planned national programmes is in line with international safety and security levels. Also, we recognize the leading role of this Agency in the development of all the technical and legal aspects of the applications of nuclear energy, thus emphasizing the need for full support of these aspects. We underline the important role of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and of the comprehensive safeguards agreement in connection with it, and the need to work towards its universalization, to increase the number of geographical regions free from

  16. Ministerial Presentation: India. Statement by Dr. Anil Kakodkar [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allow me to compliment the IAEA and the Government of People's Republic of China and OECD/NEA for setting up this important Conference which allows us to look ahead and attempt to shape the future of nuclear energy to meet increasing developmental aspirations of the world at large without adding to the burden of carbon dioxide emissions. Growth in energy demand as a result of rapid economic progress in large emerging countries like India, China and others, and the climate change concerns have created conditions favourable for nuclear renaissance. Concerns relating to availability of fossil energy have led to a rethink on use of nuclear power in some countries. In this context we need to be aware of the factors that have led to barriers to growth of nuclear power in a large number of countries thus far. It is also clear that these factors vary from country to country. Appropriate nuclear power technologies to address such issues are the need of the hour. For a smaller country, perhaps, one needs a relatively small nuclear power unit that needs minimum refuelling with an assurance on reliable fuel supply. On the other hand, for a large country, which may necessarily have to be heavily dependent on nuclear power, ability to manage the nuclear fuel cycle, on its own, would be a crucial factor. Further, if the growth in nuclear power takes place along the expected lines, nuclear fuel recycle in a breeding mode would be necessary. For nuclear power to grow worldwide we, thus, need a basket of appropriate technologies that cater to diverse needs. Concerns relating to safety, security and proliferation have led to a significant barrier to expanding the global reach and volume of deployment of nuclear power. In the context of technology transfer and international cooperation these issues have become a major constraining factor. Several institutional and management frameworks at national and international level have been considered. Even today these occupy a large share of

  17. Rice production in China in the early 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ Rice is the staple food crop in China. In the second half of the 20th century, rice has played an important role in feeding a large number of people. In the 21st century, rice will still be a main food crop in China and make great contribution to Chinese people's life.

  18. Epidemiological Characteristics of Hypertension in the Elderly in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Ma

    Full Text Available The prevalence rate of hypertension increases significantly with the aging society, and hypertension is obviously becoming a major health care concern in China. The aim of the study was to explore the epidemiological characteristics of hypertension in the elderly and to provide a basis for the prevention of hypertension.3-cross sectional studies in 2000, 2004, and 2007, respectively.Beijing, China.A group of 2,832, 1,828, and 2,277 elderly residents aged ≥60 years were included this study in 2000, 2004, and 2007, respectively.None.Statistical sampling techniques included cluster, stratification, and random selection. Trained staff used a comprehensive geriatric assessment questionnaire and a standard survey instrument to complete the assessments. During the person-to-person interviews, the participants' demographic characteristics, living conditions, and health status were collected, and their blood pressure was measured.The prevalence rates (69.2%, 61.9%, and 56.0% of hypertension and the control rates (22.6%, 16.7%, and 21.5% lowered annually, while the awareness rates (43.7%, 55.8%, and 57.6% of the treatment elevated annually in 2000, 2004, and 2007, respectively. There was no increase in the control rates for males (26.2%, 16.7%, and 20.8%, younger participants (28.0%, 18.4%, and 21.0%, and rural residents (19.5%, 9.6%, and 13.4% in 2000, 2004, and 2007, respectively.Our study findings indicated that the prevalence of hypertension is high in rural elderly participants, while the rates of awareness, treatment, and control were low. This suggests that effective public measures need to be developed to improve the prevention and control of hypertension.

  19. Ministerial Presentation: Cameroon. Statement by Madeleine Tchuinte [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Government of Cameroon, on behalf of which I am speaking, wishes to express its appreciation and gratitude to the People's Republic of China for agreeing to host this conference, and the International Atomic Energy Agency for taking the initiative to organize it. On behalf of my delegation, I welcome the presence of all other delegates at this international forum for exchanging experience and sharing knowledge. The topic of this conference invites us to reflect upon the problem of nuclear power generation to meet sustainably the socio-economic development demands of our respective countries. This concern is multidimensional and affects us all. It must be noted, however, that energy resources in the world are unequally distributed. This is the place to say that certain countries have hardly any, while others have a considerable potential that is not exploited owing to the weakness of their economy. We know that sustainable energy development is dependent on several factors, in particular availability of resources, mastery of technology and security of facilities. These are the major challenges that humanity will have to face over the coming decades. Cameroon's hydroelectric potential is estimated at 55.2 GW, 19.7 GW of which is technically exploitable. However, the level of access to electricity is only 15%. Consequently, Cameroon attaches great importance to the diversification of technical measures to increase the quality and quantity of national electricity supply. Thus, new projects under way will allow, in the medium and long term, an additional 1600 MW of capacity to be installed in total - 1400 MW from hydroelectric power and 200 MW from thermal power. To respond to the energy challenge to its development, Cameroon plans to develop all its resources, and in particular to exploit its uranium deposits. Despite the energy potential mentioned previously, disturbances caused by climate change affect the reliability of Cameroon's hydroelectricity supplies. That

  20. Forty Years of Diplomatic Relations Between China and Malaysia Commemorated in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Yan

    2014-01-01

    <正>On the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Malaysia,the CPAFFC hosted a series of commemorative events on May 30 and 31 in collaboration with Beijing Foreign Studies University(B F S U),t h e M a l a y s i aChina Friendship Association(PPMC)and the Malaysian Embassy in Beijing.Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak and his wife Rosmah Mansor,then on a visit to China,attended all events accompanied by Chinese Ambassador to Malaysia Huang Huikang.

  1. China-France International Symposium on Rural Construction and Development, Beijing, China,23-24 September 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China)The China-France International Symposium on Rural Construction and Development was held in Beijing, China, from 23 to 24 September 2007, under the auspices of National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research (IGSNRR), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The symposium was co-sponsored by the following organizations: IGSNRR, CAS; Specialty Committee of Rural Geography, Geographical Society of France; and Specialty Committee of Sustainable Agriculture & Rural Geography, Geographical Society of China. The local organizers included: Research Center of Regional Agriculture and Rural Development, IGSNRR, CAS; New Countryside Construction and Planning Center of Capital's Mountainous Region, Beijing Branch of CAS & Beijing Academy of Science and Technology; and the Project Team of"The New Countryside Construction Patterns and Approach to Sustainable Development in Eastern Coastal Region of China", which is a key project funded by NSFC (No. 40635029). Prof. Liu Yansui with his team at IGSNRR organized the symposium. And about 100 scientists attended the symposium, among them some 30 came from outside China (mainly from France).

  2. Etiological features of cirrhosis inpatients in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Guang-jun; FENG Bo; RAO Hui-ying; WEI Lai

    2013-01-01

    Background The etiological spectrum of cirrhosis has changed over the years,but our knowledge of it is limited.The present study aimed to investigate the etiological features of cirrhosis inpatients and their variation in the past 18 years in Beijing.Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on all patients with cirrhosis diagnosed for the first time in Peking University People's Hospital from January 1,1993,to October 25,2010.Data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0.Results A total of 2119 cirrhosis inpatients were included in this study:1412 (66.6%) male and 707 (33.4%) female.Chronic hepatitis B accounted for 58.7%; chronic hepatitis C for 7.6%; chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus co-infection for 0.8% (16 cases); alcoholic liver disease for 9.4% (200 cases); and autoimmune diseases for 9.4% (199 cases).In the past 18 years,the percentage of chronic hepatitis B has decreased from 75.2% to 48.7%; alcoholic liver disease has increased from 5.1% to 10.6%; and autoimmune disease has increased from 2.2% to 12.9%.The percentages of chronic hepatitis B and alcoholic liver disease were higher among men,whereas the percentages of chronic hepatitis C,autoimmune diseases and cryptogenic cirrhosis were higher among women.Conclusions Chronic hepatitis B was still the most common etiology of cirrhosis in China,but the percentage has been decreasing.The percentages of alcoholic liver disease and autoimmune diseases have been increasing.The etiological spectrum of cirrhosis inpatients differed significantly according to sex.

  3. Ozone source attribution during a severe photochemical smog episode in Beijing,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Beijing,the capital of China,frequently suffers from the high levels of ozone in summer.A 3-D regional chemical transport model,the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions(CAMx),has been used to simulate a heavy O3 pollution episode in Beijing during June 26―July 2,2000.Ozone Source Apportionment Technology(OSAT) and Geographic Ozone Assessment Technology(GOAT) were applied to quantify the contributions of the precursor emissions from different regions to O3 concentrations in Beijing,to identify the relative importance of different ways by which regional sources affected the O3 levels in Beijing urban areas,and to investigate the sensitivity of O3 formation to the precursors during the episode.The O3 pollution in Beijing showed a significant spatial distribution with strong regional contribution.The results suggested that the plume originating from Beijing urban areas greatly affected the O3 concentrations at the Dingling site,accounting for 55% of elevated O3 there,while O3 pollution in the Beijing urban areas resulted from both local emissions and those from Tianjin and the south of Hebei Province.Transport of O3 was responsible for about 70% of the regional O3 contribution to Beijing urban areas,while transport of O3 precursors accounted for the remainder.The formation of O3 was limited by volatile organic compounds(VOCs) in the urban areas of Beijing,while being more sensitive to NOx levels in the suburban and more remote areas.Therefore,it is necessary to consider a large number of factors,including impacts of emissions from different regions,the two modes of regional contribution as well as the sensitivity of O3 formation to precursors,in the design of emissions control strategies for O3 reduction in Beijing.

  4. Ozone source attribution during a severe photochemical smog episode in Beijing,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XueSong; LI JinLong; ZHANG YuanHang; XIE ShaoDong; TANG XiaoYan

    2009-01-01

    Beijing,the capital of China,frequently suffers from the high levels of ozone in summer.A 3-D regional chemical transport model,the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx),has been used to simulate a heavy O3 pollution episode in Beijing during June 26-July 2,2000.Ozone Source Apportionment Technology (OSAT) and Geographic Ozone Assessment Technology (GOAT) were applied to quantify the contributions of the precursor emissions from different regions to O3 concentrations in Beijing,to identify the relative importance of different ways by which regional sources affected the O3 levels in Beijing urban areas,and to investigate the sensitivity of O3 formation to the precursors during the episode.The O3 pollution in Beijing showed a significant spatial distribution with strong regional contribution.The results suggested that the plume originating from Beijing urban areas greatly affected the O3 concentrations at the Dingling site,accounting for 55% of elevated O3 there,while O3 pollution in the Beijing urban areas resulted from both local emissions and those from Tianjin and the south of Hebei Province.Transport of O3 was responsible for about 70% of the regional O3 contribution to Beijing urban areas,while transport of O3 precursors accounted for the remainder.The formation of O3 was limited by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the urban areas of Beijing,while being more sensitive to NO,levels in the suburban and more remote areas.Therefore,it is necessary to consider a large number of factors,including impacts of emissions from different regions,the two modes of regional contribution as well as the sensitivity of O3 formation to precursors,in the design of emissions control strategies for O3 reduction in Beijing.

  5. “Yingli Cup” China-Germany Friendly Football Match Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>On the evening of July 24, the "Yingli Cup" China-Germany Friendly Football Match was held in the Workers Stadium in Beijing. The home team was Football Club (FC) Beijing Guo’an and the visit team FC Bayern Munich. The CPAFFC, as the honorary organizer,participated in the preparation for the match, one of a series of activities celebrating the 40th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic ties between China and Germany.Bayern Munich is one of the

  6. Seminar on Internationalization of China National Technical Standards Was Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On May 26th, the seminar on the internationalization of China national technical standards, hosted by the professional management office on research of important technical standards, jointly organized and implemented by Ministry of Science and Technology of the People'Republic of China, General Administration for Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of P.R. China (AQSIQ) and Standardization Administration of China (SAC), was held in Beijing. The theme of the seminar was to explore the road for the internationalization of China national technical standards.

  7. China's Energy Strategy in the Twenty-first Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan He; Donghai Qin

    2006-01-01

    China's energy demand and energy imports have increased substantially in recent 5 years andwill continue to grow in future. Increasing dependency on the world market and the tension between energy supply and demand clearly show that energy is becoming a major constraint for China's future economic development. We introduce the background of China's energy demand and supply in this paper and discuss China's energy strategy in the twentyfirst century, focusing on growth, energy security and environmental sustainability.

  8. Economic evaluation of health losses from air pollution in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Yu, Xueying; Wang, Ying; Fan, Chunyang

    2016-06-01

    Aggravated air pollution in Beijing, China has caused serious health concern. This paper comprehensively evaluates the health losses from illness and premature death caused by air pollution in monetary terms. We use the concentration of PM10 as an indicator of the pollution since it constitutes the primary pollutant in Beijing. By our estimation, air pollution in Beijing caused a health loss equivalent to Ұ583.02 million or 0.03 % of its GDP. Most of the losses took the form of depreciation in human capital that resulted from premature death. The losses from premature deaths were most salient for people of either old or young ages, with the former group suffering from the highest mortality rates and the latter group the highest per capital losses of human capitals from premature death. Policies that target on PM10 emission reduction, urban vegetation expansion, and protection of vulnerable groups are all proposed as possible solutions to air pollution risks in Beijing.

  9. Travelling to china for the beijing 2008 olympic and paralympic games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Marc T M; Leggat, Peter A; Borwein, Sarah

    2007-11-01

    The 29th modern Olympic Summer Games, conducted once every 4 years since 1896, will be held in Beijing, China, from 8 to 24 August 2008. There will be approximately 28 major and 302 minor events in 37 venues in the prominent cities of Beijing, Hong Kong and Shanghai, and also in Qingdao (a coastal town in Shandong Province), Qinhuangdao (northeast of Beijing), Shanghai, Shenyang (an industrial city in Liaoning Province) and in Tianjin (on the coast near Beijing). Following the Olympic Games, the Paralympic Games will be conducted from 6 to 17 September 2008 in Beijing and 20 Paralympic Sports will be represented. This paper focuses on health and safety issues for travellers to China in general, although it makes specific references to advice for visiting Olympic and Paralympic athletes and team staff, who will be travelling to the games. It must be remembered that travel health advice can change, and that travellers should be advised to seek up-to-date travel health advice for China closer to their departure. PMID:17983975

  10. Aerosol composition, sources and processes during wintertime in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a major environmental concern among all seasons in megacity Beijing, China. Here we present the results from a winter study that was conducted from 21 November 2011 to 20 January 2012 with an Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM and various collocated instruments. The non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1 species vary dramatically with clean periods and pollution episodes alternating frequently. Compared to summer, wintertime submicron aerosols show much enhanced organics and chloride, which on average account for 52% and 5%, respectively of the total NR-PM1 mass. All NR-PM1 species show quite different diurnal behaviors between summer and winter. For example, the wintertime nitrate presents a gradual increase during daytime and correlates well with secondary organic aerosol (OA, indicating a dominant role of photochemical production over gas-particle partitioning. Positive matrix factorization was performed on ACSM OA mass spectra, and identified three primary OA (POA factors, i.e. hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, cooking OA (COA, and coal combustion OA (CCOA, and one secondary factor, i.e. oxygenated OA (OOA. The POA dominates OA during wintertime, contributing 69% with the rest of 31% being SOA. Further, all POA components show pronounced diurnal cycles with the highest concentrations occurring at nighttime. CCOA is the largest primary source during the heating season, on average accounting for 33% of OA and 17% of NR-PM1. CCOA also plays a significant role in chemically-resolved particulate matter (PM pollution as its mass contribution increases linearly as a function of NR-PM1 mass loadings. The SOA however presents a reversed trend, which might indicate the limited SOA formation during high PM pollution episodes in winter. The effects of meteorology on PM pollution and aerosol processing were also explored. In particular, the sulfate mass is largely enhanced

  11. Lidar observation campaigns on diurnal variations of the sodium layer in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jihong

    2016-07-01

    Based on observations from daytime lidars in eastern China, diurnal cycles of the sodium layer over Beijing (40.5°N, 116°E) are investigated. Diurnal variations of Na density, root mean square (RMS) layer width, and centroid height of the sodium layer are analyzed. Results reveal that the large diurnal cycles of the sodium layer are controlled mainly by 24-hr oscillations at the Beijing observation site. The diurnal variation over Beijing was controlled principally by photoionization and photochemistry effects during another campaign, and there was little evidence of direct tidal perturbations. The comparisons suggest that the diurnal variation of the sodium layer perhaps has obvious regional characteristics across China. The variation can be either controlled mainly by tidal perturbations or by photoionization and photochemistry effects in different seasons.

  12. Transport of airborne particulate matters originating from Mentougou, Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a coupled regional air quality modeling system is applied to investigate the time spatial variations in airborne particulate matters (PM10), originating from Mentougou to Beijing municipal area in the period of April 1-7, 2004, and the influences of complex terrain and meteorological conditions upon boundary layer structure and PMio concentration distributions. An intercomparison of the performance with CALPUFF against the observed data is presented and an examination of scatter plots is provided. The statistics show that the correlation coefficient and STD between the modeled and observed data are 0.86 and 0.03, respectively. Analysis of model results illustrates that the pollutants emitted from Mentougou can be transported to Beijing municipal area along certain transport pathways, and PMio concentration distributions show heterogeneity characteristics. Contributions of the Mentougou sources to the PMio concentrations in Beijing municipal area are up to 0.1-15 μg/m3.

  13. Translating National Ideology in China English -A Diachronic Investigation of Beijing Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming YUAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As an expanding circle variety, the distinctive features of China English have been identified as: idiom transfers, loan translations of political terms, connotation changes, semantic shifts, and the orientalized style of discourse. While its characteristics are agreed upon by most researchers, China English does not always display these characteristics to the same extent. A Comparison of articles in Beijing Review (the first English weekly news magazine in the PRC for international consumption over the years of 1958-2015 shows both endonormative (towards the “Chinese” characteristics and exonormative (towards “international English” movements. In general, earlier issues, especially those during the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976 are more “marked” than recent ones. It is argued that the shaping and re-shaping of China English is a reflection of the changing political, ideological and economic priorities of the nation.Keywords: China English, ideology, Beijing Review

  14. 14th WORLD MINING CONGRESS AND EXHIBITION HELD IN BEIJING, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1990-01-01

    The 14th World Mining Congress and Exhibition was held from 14th to 18th May in Beijing, capital of China. About 3700 mining specialists, professors, scholars, manufacturers and salesmen of mining equipment companies, of which 2700 Chinese delegates, from more than 50 countries

  15. China-Spain Forum Meeting on Sports Cooperation Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our Staff Reporter

    2008-01-01

    <正>Ameeting on sports cooperation of the Chi-na-Spain Forum (CSF), co-sponsored by the CPAFFC and the Sports Committee of the CSF, was held in Beijing on August 2. Distinguished guests from sports circles of China and Spain gathered at the Diaoyutai State Guesthouse to discuss future

  16. Investigating commuting flexibility with GPS data and 3D geovisualization: a case study of Beijing, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Y.; Kwan, M.-P.; Chai, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Using the notion of commuting flexibility, this paper investigates the intra-personal day-to-day variability and flexibility of commuting behavior using a 7-day GPS dataset collected in Beijing, China. Four dimensions of commuting variability are evaluated: space, time, travel mode, and travel route

  17. Travel Daily China Travel Innovation Summit to Be Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Guangzhou,China,April 7th- TravelDaily (www.traveldaily.cn), China’s leading online publisher and event organizer with emphasis on trends in the distribution,marketing and technology of the travel and tourism industries,today announced it will partner with PhoCusWright to host the 2009 China Travel Innovation Summit in Beijing from May 12 to 13,2009.

  18. Second Meeting of China-Japan-Korea Cultural Exchange Forum Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>The Second Meeting of the China-Japan-Korea(RO K) Cultural Exchange Forum was held in Beijing on December 19,2006.Chinese representatives Liu Deyou,Wang Yunze and Jing Dunquan,Japanese representative and president of the Japan-China Friendship Association Ikuo Hirayama,and ROK representative and professor of Hanyang University Kim Yong-woon,among others,attended the meeting.

  19. The current status of self-management of type 2 diabetic people in Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: In the Chinese community, rapid urbanization, sedentary life style, stress, smoking and changes in dietary may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. Studies conducted in China showed an increasing prevalence rate from 1.1%in 1980 to 4.56% in 1996. However, no studies carried on self-management implementation is available in China now. Objectives: To describe the status of self-management implementation among diabetic people in Beijing and to identify possible factors in...

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils around Guanting Reservoir, Beijing, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiao, W.T.; Lu, Y.L.; Wang, T.Y.; Li, J.; Han, Jingyi; Wang, G.; Hu, W.Y.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( 16PAHs) were measured by gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS) in 56 topsoil samples around Guanting Reservior (GTR), which is an important water source for Beijing. Low to medium levels of PAH contamination

  1. Multifunctionality assessment of urban agriculture in Beijing City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Liu, Zhicong; Liu, Yanxu; Hu, Xiaoxu; Wang, An

    2015-12-15

    As an important approach to the realization of agricultural sustainable development, multifunctionality has become a hot spot in the field of urban agriculture. Taking 13 agricultural counties of Beijing City as the assessing units, this study selects 10 assessing index from ecological, economic and social aspects, determines the index weight using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method, and establishes an index system for the integrated agricultural function. Based on standardized data from agricultural census and remote sensing, the integrated function and multifunctionality of urban agriculture in Beijing City are assessed through the index grade mapping. The results show that agricultural counties with the highest score in ecological, economic, and social function are Yanqing, Changping, and Miyun, respectively; and the greatest disparity among those counties is economic function, followed by social and ecological function. Topography and human disturbance may be the factors that affect integrated agricultural function. The integrated agricultural function of Beijing rises at the beginning then drops later with the increase of mean slope, average altitude, and distance from the city. The whole city behaves balance among ecological, economic, and social functions at the macro level, with 8 out of the 13 counties belonging to ecology-society-economy balanced areas, while no county is dominant in only one of the three functions. On the micro scale, however, different counties have their own functional inclination: Miyun, Yanqing, Mentougou, and Fengtai are ecology-society dominant, and Tongzhou is ecology-economy dominant. The agricultural multifunctionality in Beijing City declines from the north to the south, with Pinggu having the most significant agricultural multifunctionality. The results match up well with the objective condition of Beijing's urban agriculture planning, which has proved the methodological rationality of the assessment to a certain extent.

  2. Multifunctionality assessment of urban agriculture in Beijing City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Liu, Zhicong; Liu, Yanxu; Hu, Xiaoxu; Wang, An

    2015-12-15

    As an important approach to the realization of agricultural sustainable development, multifunctionality has become a hot spot in the field of urban agriculture. Taking 13 agricultural counties of Beijing City as the assessing units, this study selects 10 assessing index from ecological, economic and social aspects, determines the index weight using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method, and establishes an index system for the integrated agricultural function. Based on standardized data from agricultural census and remote sensing, the integrated function and multifunctionality of urban agriculture in Beijing City are assessed through the index grade mapping. The results show that agricultural counties with the highest score in ecological, economic, and social function are Yanqing, Changping, and Miyun, respectively; and the greatest disparity among those counties is economic function, followed by social and ecological function. Topography and human disturbance may be the factors that affect integrated agricultural function. The integrated agricultural function of Beijing rises at the beginning then drops later with the increase of mean slope, average altitude, and distance from the city. The whole city behaves balance among ecological, economic, and social functions at the macro level, with 8 out of the 13 counties belonging to ecology-society-economy balanced areas, while no county is dominant in only one of the three functions. On the micro scale, however, different counties have their own functional inclination: Miyun, Yanqing, Mentougou, and Fengtai are ecology-society dominant, and Tongzhou is ecology-economy dominant. The agricultural multifunctionality in Beijing City declines from the north to the south, with Pinggu having the most significant agricultural multifunctionality. The results match up well with the objective condition of Beijing's urban agriculture planning, which has proved the methodological rationality of the assessment to a certain extent

  3. Dominant modern sublineages and a new modern sublineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing family clinical isolates in Heilongjiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; Dong, Cai-Bo; Cui, Jia-Yi; Nakajima, Chie; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Pan, Xin-Ling; Sun, Gao-Xiang; Dai, En-Yu; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Zhuang, Min; Ling, Hong

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing family includes a variety of sublineages. Knowledge of the distribution of a certain sublineage of the Beijing family may help to understand the mechanisms of its rapid spread and to establish an association between a certain genotype and the disease outcome. We have previously found that M. tuberculosis Beijing family clinical isolates represent approximately 90% of the clinical isolates from Heilongjiang Province, China. To clarify the distribution of M. tuberculosis Beijing family sublineages in Heilongjiang Province, China and to investigate the regularity rule for their evolution, we examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 250 M. tuberculosis Beijing family clinical isolates using 10 SNP loci that have been identified as appropriate for defining Beijing sublineages. After determining the sequence type (ST) of each isolate, the sublineages of all M. tuberculosis Beijing family isolates were determined, and phylogenetic analysis was performed. We found that 9 out of the 10 SNP loci displayed polymorphisms, but locus 1548149 did not. In total, 92.8% of the isolates in Heilongjiang Province are modern sublineages. ST10 is the most prevalent sublineage (ST10 and ST22 accounted for 63.2% and 23.6% of all the Beijing family isolates, respectively). A new ST, accounting for 4% of the Beijing family isolates in this area, was found for the first time. Each new ST isolate showed a unique VNTR pattern, and none were clustered. The present findings suggest that controlling the spread of these modern sublineages is important in Heilongjiang Province and in China.

  4. Life course and residential mobility in Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Si-ming Li

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the residential mobility rate in Beijing over the period 1980 - 2001 as revealed by retrospective residential histories collected by a questionnaire survey conducted in early 2001. The results show that there was a sharp increase in residential mobility in the early reform period; however, from the mid-1980s onwards the mobility rate has been oscillating, with a slightly downward trend. Adjusting the gross mobility rate observed by means of logit regression estimation show...

  5. Dynamic changes of sandy land in northwest of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; He, Ting; Guo, Xudong; Liu, Aixia; Zhou, Qing

    2006-10-01

    The area northwest of Beijing is one of the most important regions where many organizations invest and pay most attention. The environmental problems in this region affect not only Beijing but also the surrounding area. Based on observation of the characteristics of the change in sandy land, this study classified four types of dynamic change of sandy land, including extended sandy land, the reversely changed sandy land, the potential sandy land and no change in sandy land. Then the process and the trend of changes in sandy land and their environmental impact on the area northwest of Beijing were analyzed. The results show that the area of sandy land has increased in this region in the period of 1991 to 2002. Change between sandy land and grassland was the dominant change. It is found that the monitoring zones of Hunshandake sandy land and north of Yin Shan are regions with high ratio of extended sandy land, and are connected with widespread potential change of sandy land. This implies that these two regions have a high probability of increase in sandy land in the future. On the other hand, in the monitoring zone of Horqin sandy land and Ba Shang Plateau and its surrounding area, desertification had been controlled and the area of sandy land is expected to decrease. This indicates that the direction of the sandstorm to Beijing is expected to gradually move to the northwest. Furthermore, the decreases in sandy land and the reversing change from arable land to grassland and forests in the study region will affect the land quality and atmosphere. And the logistic multiple regression (LMR) model was employed to better understand the complexity and processes of increases in sandy land. This model predicts that there is a high probability of increases in sandy land in north of Siziwang Banner, Zhengxiangbai Banner and Zhenglan Banner. Finally, suggestions to the ecological construction of the study area have been proposed. PMID:16758285

  6. Mercury in urban soils with various types of land use in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Xia, Xinghui; Wu, Shan; Wang, Fan; Guo, Xuejun

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentration was investigated for 127 urban soil samples collected from business area (BA), classical garden (CG), culture and education area (CEA), public green space (PGS), residential area (RA) and roadside area (RSA) in Beijing. The median of Hg concentration in Beijing was 0.26 mg/kg. The value in CG was much higher than the other 5 types of land use, which was due to the historical use of Hg. More than 87% of the samples were not contaminated according to the guideline values of China, UK, Canada, and USEPA. Spatial distribution map revealed that Hg concentration showed a decreasing trend from the center to the suburb, it increased with the age of the urban area. Hg contamination in urban area of Beijing is marked by features of non-point sources associated with human activities, and it is most likely to be the common characteristics of Hg contamination in cities.

  7. Seasonal variations and source estimation of saccharides in atmospheric particulate matter in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Linlin; Engling, Guenter; Du, Zhenyu; Cheng, Yuan; Duan, Fengkui; Liu, Xuyan; He, Kebin

    2016-05-01

    Saccharides are important constituents of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). In order to better understand the sources and seasonal variations of saccharides in aerosols in Beijing, China, saccharide composition was measured in ambient PM samples collected at an urban site in Beijing. The highest concentrations of total saccharides in Beijing were observed in autumn, while an episode with abnormal high total saccharide levels was observed from 15 to 23 June, 2011, due to extensive agricultural residue burning in northern China during the wheat harvest season. Compared to the other two categories of saccharides, sugars and sugar alcohols, anhydrosugars were the predominant saccharide group, indicating that biomass burning contributions to Beijing urban aerosol were significant. Ambient sugar and sugar alcohol levels in summer and autumn were higher than those in spring and winter, while they were more abundant in PM2.5 during winter time. Levoglucosan was the most abundant saccharide compound in both PM2.5 and PM10, the annual contributions of which to total measured saccharides in PM2.5 and PM10 were 61.5% and 54.1%, respectively. To further investigate the sources of the saccharides in ambient aerosols in Beijing, the PM10 datasets were subjected to positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis. Based on the objective function to be minimized and the interpretable factors identified by PMF, six factors appeared to be optimal as to the probable origin of saccharides in the atmosphere in Beijing, including biomass burning, soil or dust, isoprene SOA and the direct release of airborne fungal spores and pollen. PMID:26921589

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil from three typical industrial areas in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongfei; Fu, Shan; Liu, Xinchun; Li, Zheng; Dong, Yuan

    2013-12-01

    Areas containing industrial facilities belonging to three different typical industries that may cause pollution by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Beijing, China were investigated. Specifically, the areas contained a solid waste incineration plant, a chemical factory, and a heat and power plant. Investigation of the pollution status of PBDEs in the surface soil from areas around these industries revealed the highest concentration of 42 PBDE congeners (118 ng/g, dry mass) at the solid waste incineration plant. In the other two plants, the highest concentrations were both 26 ng/g (dry mass). Among the PBDE homologues, the PBDE contamination at all sites showed similar congener compositions, with BDE 209 being the dominant congener. Our findings established the first contamination status of three typical industrial areas in Beijing. Furthermore, the total concentrations of 42 PBDE congeners tended to decrease as the distance from the investigated plants increased. Overall, these plants were identified as potential pollution sources of PBDEs in Beijing. Moreover, Pearson correlation analysis revealed that the major PBDE source in Beijing may be associated with the technical deca-BDE and penta-BDE mixture. Based on the data obtained in this preliminary investigation, further study of the potential of these sources to emit PBDEs in Beijing is warranted. PMID:24649676

  9. Monitoring and analyzing surface subsidence based on SBAS-InSAR in Beijing region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Guo, J. M.; Li, X.

    2015-12-01

    Surface subsidence is the main regional environmental geological disaster in plain area in China. The rapid growth of population, the over-exploitation of groundwater and the rapid development of urbanization impacts the occurrence and development of surface subsidence to some extent. The city of Beijing, located in the Beijing Plain, is one of international metropolis in China that experiences the severe surface subsidence. Because of conventional measurement methods with low spatial resolution, differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar(D-InSAR) is susceptible to signal decorrelation and atmospheric delay, persistent scatterer interferometric synthetic aperture radar(PS-InSAR) is based on a large number of SAR images, but small baseline subset interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SBASInSAR) only needs a small number of images and performs better than PS-InSAR for obtaining nonlinear deformation information, in this paper, SBAS-InSAR was used to obtain the high resolution surface subsidence information in Beijing region, China. A spatial-temporal analysis of the surface subsidence in Beijing region during the years of 2007- 2010 was performed utilizing eighteen C-band ENVISAT ASAR images (from August 1, 2007 to September 29, 2010). The results show that subsidence in Beijing region is severe uneven, subsidence funnels appear in Changping District, Shunyi District, Tongzhou District, Daxing District, etc., and many subsidence funnels are interconnected and have an eastward expansion trend; during the period of 2007 to 2010, the subsidence velocities are in the range of -158.5 mm/year to 12.4 mm/year and the maximum subsidence of subsidence center is over 400 mm; surface subsidence is influenced by groundwater exploitation and urbanization significantly.

  10. Numerical Simulation of NOx and Particular Matter Distribution from Urban Street in Beijing China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, air quality has been a nation-wide issue in Beijing, China with frequent appearance of haze. Disappointingly, most detectors and sensors are mounted in suburb regions that are over ten kilometers away from the center of Beijing. Additionally, most researches are focusing on a general air flow in large scale instead of a specific community. It is important to be aware of the air quality at living communities in urban areas due to a large population. In this study, computational fluid dynamic (CFD technologies were used to analyze the distribution of NOx and particular matter (PM from urban street in Beijing to evaluate the air quality at a certain building. As most air pollutions are caused by vehicle emissions in urban areas, containing NOx and particular matters, traffic emissions were considered as the only source of contaminants in this study. Commercial software ANSYS Fluent® was used to simulate a number of dispersion scenarios under different boundary conditions to quantify the pollution level for the selected living environment in Beijing, China. Mass fraction, isosurfaces and streamlines of contaminant were presented to analyze the pollution distribution around the area

  11. Epidemiology of pterygium in aged rural population of Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Qing-feng; XU Liang; JIN Xiu-ying; YOU Qi-sheng; YANG Xiao-hui; CUI Tong-tong

    2010-01-01

    Background Pterygium is a common ophthalmic disease and an important public health problem. It may be affected by many factors such as age, gender, ultraviolet radiation exposure, and time spent outdoors. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of pterygium and evaluate the risk factors for the development of pterygium in the aged rural population of Beijing.Methods The investigation is a population-based cross-sectional study. Participants from 198 villages of 13 suburban districts, aged 55-85 years old, were invited to complete a medical record, and 37 067 individuals were taken external ocular and fundus photos at Beijing ocular disease survey in 2008-2009. The information was uploaded by Internet and diagnosed with stages and grades by ophthalmological specialists. The prevalence, stages and grades of pterygia were observed.Results Of the 37 067 individuals, 1395 (3.76%) had pterygium. There was a significantly higher prevalence in male (5.13%) than in female (3.17%, P=0.000). The prevelence rate increased obviously with ages (x2=7.939, P=0.019) in rural Beijing. The average prevalence of 5.91% in Daxing and Fangshan districts with low latitude and low precipitation was significantly higher than that in Miyun and Huairou districts with high latitude and deep precipitation (3.17%, P=0.000). The majority of the pterygia (43.5%) were in active stage and 46.5% pterygia involved pupil area corneas. Conclusions There is a statistically significant association between latitude and precipitation of habitation region and pterygium formation. Solar radiation, especially ultraviolet exposure represents a significant environment hazard to pterygium development.

  12. Overseas Development of Chinese Industry:Enterprises + Projects——The Second Session of "China Overseas Investment Seminar" is Scheduled to be Held in Beijing November This Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The se cond session of "China Overseas Investment Seminar" will be held on November 2 to 3, 2010 in Beijing's China World Trade Centre. The seminar is organized by China Industrial Overseas Development and Planning Association.

  13. Temporal variations of organochlorine pesticides in precipitation in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guosheng; Ma, Lingling; Xu, Diandou; Liu, Liyan; Jia, Hongliang; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Yongbao; Chai, Zhifang

    2012-12-01

    Temporal variations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in precipitation and monthly depositional fluxes were calculated in Beijing from February 2009 to March 2011. Compounds which were detected most often included α-HCH and β-HCH, and the volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) was 33.0 ng L-1, accounting for 72.3% of the ∑OCPs in precipitation. The total concentrations of OCPs ranged from 3.73 to 152 ng L-1 (mean: 29.7 ± 3.5 ng L-1) for dissolved phase and from 1.61 to 114 ng L-1 (mean: 15.9 ± 2.0 ng L-1) for particulate phase, respectively. OCPs in dissolved phase dominated sampled concentrations in precipitation (HCHs: 71.8%, Chlordane: 77.7%, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes-DDTs: 50.1%) with an exception of hexachlorobenzene-HCB (26.3%). Furthermore, the distribution coefficient, Kpd, was generally large in low temperature, especially in spring. The abundance of ∑OCPs in the precipitation fluctuated monthly, with high value in late winter and spring. The past farmland near the sampling site was under construction during sampling, which may be an important local re-emission source in this study. The elevated wet deposition flux of 11 selected OCPs was 14.9 μg m-2 yr-1 in Beijing.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in urban soil from Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xing-hong; MA Ling-ling; LIU Xiu-fen; FU Shan; CHENG Hang-xin; XU Xiao-bai

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EPA-PAHs) in the urban surface soils from Beijing were determined using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It is significantly complementary for understanding the PAHs pollution in soil of integrated Beijing city on the basis of the information known in the outskirts. The total concentration of 16 EPA-PAH was from 0.467 to 5.470 μg/g and was described by the contour map. Compound profiles presented that the 4-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs were major compositions. The correlation analysis showed that PAHs have the similar source in the most sampling sites and BaP might be considered as the indicator of PAHs. Characteristic ratios of anthracene (An)/(An+ phenanthrene (Phe)), fluoranthene (Flu)/(Flu+pyrene (Pyr)) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)/benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BghiP) indicated that the PAHs pollutants probably mainly originated from the coal combustion and it was not negligible from vehicular emission. The level of PAHs in our study area was compared with other studies.

  15. China-Japan-ROK Relations in Post-Beijing Olympics-Summary of the Sino-Japan-ROK Trilateral Symposium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Fang

    2008-01-01

    @@ The trilateral seminar of "China-Japan-ROK Relations in Post Beijing Olympics" -organized by China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations (CICIR), the Asahi Shimbun Asia Network (AAN) of Japan and the Hwajeong Peace Foundation of Northeast Asia Daily (the Dibg-A Ilbo) in South Korea-opened in Beijing on October 11th, 2008. Over 30 representatives from China, Japan and Korea attended the seminar and shared their views on a variety of issues, including China beyond the Games, security cooperation in Northeast Asia and Sino-Japanese-ROK cooperation in a new era. The discussions are summarized as follows:

  16. Implementation of Geographical Conditions Monitoring in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jixian Zhang; Jiping Liu; Liang Zhai; Wei Hou

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly accelerated urbanization and socio-economic development can cause a series of environmental problems. Accurate and efficient monitoring of the geographical conditions is important for achieving sustainable development. This paper presents the first results of the project “Geographical Conditions Monitoring (GCM)” in an exemplified area “Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH)” in China over the last three decades. It focuses on four hot issues in BTH: distribution of dust surfaces and pollut...

  17. Romanian Economic Mission Beijing-Harbin, China JUNE 08-18,2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ This is for the third time in 2007 that a Romanian business delegation has come to China headed by Foreign Trade Department, Ministry for Small and Medium-Sized Comp.,Trade Tourism & Liberal Professions.During the 10 days from June 08 to 18,a number of agreements and achievements have between made with joint efforts of the host organization, Beijing Office of Romanian-Sino Chamber of Commerce, and Embassy of Romania.

  18. Mass Media and HIV/AIDS Prevention Among Female Sex Workers in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiwen; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Tam, Cheuk Chi

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify the sources of HIV prevention information for female sex workers in Beijing and assess the associations between levels of mass media exposure of HIV/AIDS prevention information and HIV/AIDS knowledge as well as condom use-related attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. Cross-sectional data were collected from 359 female sex workers in Beijing, China. Chi-square tests and one-way ANOVA tests were employed. Female sex workers sampled in Beijing were more likely to obtain HIV/AIDS prevention information from television and street posters than radio and the Internet. However, a higher level of exposure to and a lasting impression on online information were significantly associated with a higher level of condom use self-efficacy and more consistent condom use among the participants. Exposure to HIV/AIDS prevention information delivered by radio, street posters, and the Internet was found to be associated with sexual communication about HIV or condom use with sexual partners. Overall, this study provides preliminary evidence of the utility of various mass media outlets in delivering HIV/AIDS prevention information among female sex workers in China. Future studies are needed to systematically examine the effectiveness of mass media-based prevention education on HIV/AIDS related attitudes and behaviors among female sex workers and other populations in China.

  19. Beijing Alley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiXiaoke

    2004-01-01

    There are many distinguished artists with work in residence at Beijing's Creation Gallery, but there is one worthy of particular mention - gallery founder Li Xiaoke. Through his work, Li successfully unites elements of western art with traditional Chinese ideas and art theories. His favorite places of inspiration are old Beijing, Tibet, and southern China.

  20. Molecular characteristics of rifampin and isoniazid resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Wei-wei; Mokrousov Igor; SUN Gui-zhi; LI Mo; LIU Jia-wen; Narvskaya Olga; SHEN A-dong

    2007-01-01

    Background China is one of the high burden countries of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) infection globally, with high incidence and mortality. We studied the molecular characteristics of rifampin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from Beijing, China, in order to find out the genetic marker for rapid detection of specific drug resistance.Methods Forty pansusceptible and 81 resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from Beijing, China during 2002-2005 were analyzed. The modified rifampin oligonucleotide (RIFO) assay based on reverse line blot hybridization was used to detect mutations in the 81 bp hot-spot region of rpoB gene, which is associated with RIF resistance. The INH resistance associated genes, regulatory region mab-inhA (-15C/T) and structural gene katG S315T were detected by reverse line blot hybridization and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method respectively. All the strains were typed by spoligotying and the Beijing genotype was further subdivided by NTF locus analysis. The distribution of drug resistance associated mutations in the above genes was compared in these groups.Results Sixty-five (91.5%) of 71 RIF resistant and 52 (92.9%) of 56 multidrug-resistant (MDR, Ⅰ.e. Resistant to at least RIF and INH) strains were found to harbor mutations in the rpoB hot-spot region. No mutation was detected in RIF sensitive strains. The specificity and sensitivity of the modified RIFO assay were 100% and 91.5%, respectively. katG315 AGC>ACC and inhA-15C>T mutations were found in 40 (60.6%) and 10 (15.2%) of 66 Ⅰ NH resistant strains, respectively;7.6% of INH-resistant strains had mutations in both of these genes. Therefore, a combined use of both katG315 and inhA-15 identified 68.2% of INH-resistant strains. The Beijing genotype accounted for 91.7% of total strains and was further subdivided into "modern" (76.6%) and "ancestral" (23.4%) group. There is no significant difference between

  1. Observation of atmospheric nitrous acid with DOAS in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Min; XIE Pin-hua; LIU Wen-qing; LI Ang; DOU Ke; FANG Wu; LIU Jian-guo; ZHANG Wei-jun

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of nitrous acid (HONO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in Beijing City have been performed by means of a developed differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) system based on photodiode array (PDA), during the autumn of 2004.HONO and NO2 were simultaneously identified by their characteristic absorption bands in the spectral region between 337 nm and 372 nm with high sensibility and time resolution. The concentrations of HONO exhibit obviously diurnal variation with a nocturnal maximum and a daytime minimum. The highest HONO value up to 11.8 μg/m3 was observed during the night of 2/3 September.Possible sources of the observed HONO were discussed. Good correlation to NO2 indicates that NO2 is a main source component. The measurement also shows direct emission of HONO is an important source in strongly polluted urban area.

  2. Observation of atmospheric nitrous acid with DOAS in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Min; Xie, Pin-Hua; Liu, Wen-Qing; Li, Ang; Dou, Ke; Fang, Wu; Liu, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Wei-Jun

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of nitrous acid (HONO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in Beijing City have been performed by means of a developed differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) system based on photodiode array (PDA), during the autumn of 2004. HONO and NO2 were simultaneously identified by their characteristic absorption bands in the spectral region between 337 nm and 372 nm with high sensibility and time resolution. The concentrations of HONO exhibit obviously diurnal variation with a nocturnal maximum and a daytime minimum. The highest HONO value up to 11.8 microg/m3 was observed during the night of 2/3 September. Possible sources of the observed HONO were discussed. Good correlation to NO2 indicates that NO2 is a main source component. The measurement also shows direct emission of HONO is an important source in strongly polluted urban area. PMID:20050551

  3. Drought assessment and trends analysis from 20th century to 21st century over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X. L.; Ren, L. L.; Tong, R.; Liu, Y.; Cheng, X. R.; Jiang, S. H.; Yuan, F.

    2015-06-01

    Droughts are becoming the most expensive natural disasters in China and have exerted serious impacts on local economic development and ecological environment. The fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) provides a unique opportunity to assess scientific understanding of climate variability and change over a range of historical and future period. In this study, fine-resolution multimodel climate projections over China are developed based on 7 CMIP5 climate models under RCP8.5 emissions scenarios by means of Bilinear Interpolation and Bias Correction. The results of downscaled CMIP5 models are evaluated over China by comparing the model outputs with the England Reanalysis CRU3.1 from 1951 to 2000. Accordingly, the results from the output of downscaled models are used to calculate the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Time series of SPI has been used to identify drought from 20th century to 21st century over China. The results show that, most areas of China are projected to become wetter as a consequence of increasing precipitation under RCP8.5 scenarios. Detailed examination shows that the SPI show a slightly increasing trend in the future period for the most parts of China, but drought in Southwest region of China will become the norm in the future RCP8.5 scenarios.

  4. Use of homing pigeons as biomonitors of atmospheric metal concentrations in Beijing and Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jia; Halbrook, Richard S; Zang, Shuying; You, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Biomonitoring provides direct evidence of the bioavailability and accumulation of toxic elements in the environment and in the current study, homing pigeons were used as a biomonitor of atmospheric pollution in Beijing and Guangzhou, China. Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in lung, kidney, and liver tissues of 25 homing pigeons collected from Beijing (n = 15) and Guangzhou (n = 10). Cadmium concentrations in all tissue and lung Pb concentrations were significantly greater in pigeons collected from Guangzhou compared to those collected from Beijing. Lung Cd and Pb concentrations corresponded to differences in ambient air concentrations between the two cities, suggesting that homing pigeons are valuable biomonitors of atmospheric metal contamination. Liver and kidney Hg concentrations were significantly greater in pigeons collected from Beijing compared to those collected from Guangzhou, while Hg concentrations in lung tissue were not significantly different. Results of the current study support a conclusion that homing pigeons provide valuable data for evaluating exposure and potential effects to environmental metal concentrations. PMID:26703383

  5. Economic evaluation of health losses from air pollution in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Yu, Xueying; Wang, Ying; Fan, Chunyang

    2016-06-01

    Aggravated air pollution in Beijing, China has caused serious health concern. This paper comprehensively evaluates the health losses from illness and premature death caused by air pollution in monetary terms. We use the concentration of PM10 as an indicator of the pollution since it constitutes the primary pollutant in Beijing. By our estimation, air pollution in Beijing caused a health loss equivalent to Ұ583.02 million or 0.03 % of its GDP. Most of the losses took the form of depreciation in human capital that resulted from premature death. The losses from premature deaths were most salient for people of either old or young ages, with the former group suffering from the highest mortality rates and the latter group the highest per capital losses of human capitals from premature death. Policies that target on PM10 emission reduction, urban vegetation expansion, and protection of vulnerable groups are all proposed as possible solutions to air pollution risks in Beijing. PMID:26944425

  6. Mercury in urban soils with various types of land use in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury (Hg) concentration was investigated for 127 urban soil samples collected from business area (BA), classical garden (CG), culture and education area (CEA), public green space (PGS), residential area (RA) and roadside area (RSA) in Beijing. The median of Hg concentration in Beijing was 0.26 mg/kg. The value in CG was much higher than the other 5 types of land use, which was due to the historical use of Hg. More than 87% of the samples were not contaminated according to the guideline values of China, UK, Canada, and USEPA. Spatial distribution map revealed that Hg concentration showed a decreasing trend from the center to the suburb, it increased with the age of the urban area. Hg contamination in urban area of Beijing is marked by features of non-point sources associated with human activities, and it is most likely to be the common characteristics of Hg contamination in cities. - Hg distribution in Beijing was affected by both types of land use and the age of urban area.

  7. Risk of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A case study in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can cause adverse effects on human health. The relative contributions of their two major intake routes (diet and inhalation) to population PAH exposure are still unclear. We modeled the contributions of diet and inhalation to the overall PAH exposure of the population of Beijing in China, and assessed their human incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) using a Mont Carlo simulation approach. The results showed that diet accounted for about 85% of low-molecular-weight PAH (L-PAH) exposure, while inhalation accounted for approximately 57% of high-molecular-weight PAH (H-PAH) exposure of the Beijing population. Meat and cereals were the main contributors to dietary PAH exposure. Both gaseous- and particulate-phase PAHs contributed to L-PAH exposure through inhalation, whereas exposure to H-PAHs was mostly from the particulate-phase. To reduce the cancer incidence of the Beijing population, more attention should be given to inhaled particulate-phase PAHs with considerable carcinogenic potential. - Highlights: • We modeled the contributions of diet and inhalation to population PAH exposure. • Diet contributed 85% of population exposure to low molecular-weight PAHs. • Inhalation contributed 57% of population exposure to high molecular-weight PAHs. • The PAH exposure level with body-weight adjustment decreased with age increasing. • The population cancer risk of PAH exposure is lower than the serious risk level. - The exposure of the Beijing population to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was mainly from inhaled particulate matter

  8. Hydrochemical and isotopic investigation of atmospheric precipitation in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Yuanzheng, E-mail: diszyz@163.com [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Engineering Research Center of Groundwater Pollution Control and Remediation, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing 100875 (China); Wang, Jinsheng, E-mail: wangjs@bnu.edu.cn [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Engineering Research Center of Groundwater Pollution Control and Remediation, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang, Yang [College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Teng, Yanguo; Zuo, Rui; Huan, Huan [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Engineering Research Center of Groundwater Pollution Control and Remediation, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2013-07-01

    Precipitation water samples were collected at an urban site in Beijing in a hydrological cycle (July 2008–July 2009), and analyzed for TDS, total alkalinity, total hardness, free CO{sub 2}, soluble SiO{sub 2}, bromide, sulfide, phosphate, major ions (K{sup +}, Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, HCO{sub 3}{sup −}, Cl{sup −}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, NO{sub 3}{sup −}), trace elements (CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}, Mn, Sr{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Al, F{sup −}, NO{sub 2}{sup −}), stable isotopes ({sup 2}H and {sup 18}O), and radioactive isotope ({sup 3}H). In addition, available published hydrochemical and isotopic data of precipitation of Beijing in the past were also collected and conjointly analyzed. Most of the parameters of samples tested varied considerably in the hydrological cycle. In general, HCO{sub 3}{sup −} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, and Ca{sup 2+} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} are the dominant anions and cations, respectively. Using Na{sup +} as an indicator of marine origin, and Al for the terrestrial inputs, the proportions of major elements from sea salt and terrestrial sources were estimated by using the combination of statistical analysis methods and analogy method. More than 70.1% of Cl{sup −}, 98.1% of Ca{sup 2+}, and 93.6% of K{sup +} were non-sea-salt origin, while more than 98.4% of Na{sup +} was from marine sources. The LMWL (Local Meteoric Water Line) was obtained with an equation of δ{sup 2}H = 7.0181δ{sup 18}O + 3.5231 (‰, R{sup 2} = 0.86, n = 36), which was similar to GMWL (Global Meteoric Water Line). δ{sup 2}H, δ{sup 18}O and Δ-excess changed radically with month and season, but had no apparent seasonal effect, precipitation amount effect, and temperature effect. The annual mean values of Δ-excess for 1979 (16.5‰) and 1980 (16.3‰) were much bigger than that for 2007 (7.2‰), 2008 (2.1‰) and 2009 (4.5‰). The composition of {sup 2}H and {sup 18}O was probably intrinsically determined by the sources of water

  9. The Urbanization Pattern of China in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chengxin; Yao Shimou; Wang Gefang

    2005-01-01

    The 21st century is referred to as a "century for cities" or "era for cities" and China has also speeded up its process of urbanization. It is very important to choose a scientific urbanization pattern to exert the function of cities and realize our dream for China to become a powerful modernized country.It's concluded from history since 1800 that the pattern of the world urbanization has transformed from "extensive" to "intensive". However, it is still an extensive pattern in China, and there are many problems behind the splendid achievements, reflected on the urbanization process of our country since 1949. Today, sustainable development and the knowledge economy are the themes of the cities; it is inevitable to change our urbanization pattern.Based on the dialectic relationship of quality and quantity, the article points out that urbanization should not only focus on quantity but also on quality in China. High quality and multiform urbanization pattern is an inevitable choice of China, and the development of the region can also be exalted by the radiation of the cities. But what's the real meaning of the new pattern? What's its difference from the western countries'? The article discusses its content according to the reality of China.

  10. Using stable isotopes to trace sources and formation processes of sulfate aerosols from Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaokun; Guo, Qingjun; Liu, Congqiang; Fu, Pingqing; Strauss, Harald; Yang, Junxing; Hu, Jian; Wei, Lianfang; Ren, Hong; Peters, Marc; Wei, Rongfei; Tian, Liyan

    2016-07-20

    Particulate pollution from anthropogenic and natural sources is a severe problem in China. Sulfur and oxygen isotopes of aerosol sulfate (δ(34)Ssulfate and δ(18)Osulfate) and water-soluble ions in aerosols collected from 2012 to 2014 in Beijing are being utilized to identify their sources and assess seasonal trends. The mean δ(34)S value of aerosol sulfate is similar to that of coal from North China, indicating that coal combustion is a significant contributor to atmospheric sulfate. The δ(34)Ssulfate and δ(18)Osulfate values are positively correlated and display an obvious seasonality (high in winter and low in summer). Although an influence of meteorological conditions to this seasonality in isotopic composition cannot be ruled out, the isotopic evidence suggests that the observed seasonality reflects temporal variations in the two main contributions to Beijing aerosol sulfate, notably biogenic sulfur emissions in the summer and the increasing coal consumption in winter. Our results clearly reveal that a reduction in the use of fossil fuels and the application of desulfurization technology will be important for effectively reducing sulfur emissions to the Beijing atmosphere.

  11. Culture-Independent Detection and Genotyping of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Clinical Specimens from Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhao

    Full Text Available A duplex real-time PCR assay was designed for simultaneous detection and genotyping of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae. The detection/typing performance of this duplex PCR method, targeting specific genes for M. pneumoniae type 1 (mpn 459 and type 2 (mpna 5864, was compared to that of the previously published MpP1 real-time PCR assay and the genotyping method for the adhesin P1 gene (mpn 141. A total of 1,344 throat swab specimens collected from patients in Beijing, China were tested for M. pneumoniae by bacterial culture, MpP1 real-time PCR assay, and our duplex PCR assay, and positive detection rates of 26.9%, 34.4%, and 33.7%, respectively, were obtained. The duplex PCR method demonstrated high sensitivity and accuracy for detecting and genotyping M. pneumoniae, and significant differences in genotyping ability were observed when compared to the conventional P1 gene-based method. M. pneumoniae type 1 was the predominate genotype from 2008 to 2012 in Beijing, and a shift from type 1 to type 2 began to occur in 2013. To our knowledge, this is the first reported incidence of a type shift phenomenon of M. pneumoniae clinical isolates in China. These genotyping results provide important information for understanding recent changes in epidemiological characteristics of M. pneumoniae in Beijing.

  12. Using stable isotopes to trace sources and formation processes of sulfate aerosols from Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaokun; Guo, Qingjun; Liu, Congqiang; Fu, Pingqing; Strauss, Harald; Yang, Junxing; Hu, Jian; Wei, Lianfang; Ren, Hong; Peters, Marc; Wei, Rongfei; Tian, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Particulate pollution from anthropogenic and natural sources is a severe problem in China. Sulfur and oxygen isotopes of aerosol sulfate (δ34Ssulfate and δ18Osulfate) and water-soluble ions in aerosols collected from 2012 to 2014 in Beijing are being utilized to identify their sources and assess seasonal trends. The mean δ34S value of aerosol sulfate is similar to that of coal from North China, indicating that coal combustion is a significant contributor to atmospheric sulfate. The δ34Ssulfate and δ18Osulfate values are positively correlated and display an obvious seasonality (high in winter and low in summer). Although an influence of meteorological conditions to this seasonality in isotopic composition cannot be ruled out, the isotopic evidence suggests that the observed seasonality reflects temporal variations in the two main contributions to Beijing aerosol sulfate, notably biogenic sulfur emissions in the summer and the increasing coal consumption in winter. Our results clearly reveal that a reduction in the use of fossil fuels and the application of desulfurization technology will be important for effectively reducing sulfur emissions to the Beijing atmosphere. PMID:27435991

  13. Using stable isotopes to trace sources and formation processes of sulfate aerosols from Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaokun; Guo, Qingjun; Liu, Congqiang; Fu, Pingqing; Strauss, Harald; Yang, Junxing; Hu, Jian; Wei, Lianfang; Ren, Hong; Peters, Marc; Wei, Rongfei; Tian, Liyan

    2016-07-01

    Particulate pollution from anthropogenic and natural sources is a severe problem in China. Sulfur and oxygen isotopes of aerosol sulfate (δ34Ssulfate and δ18Osulfate) and water-soluble ions in aerosols collected from 2012 to 2014 in Beijing are being utilized to identify their sources and assess seasonal trends. The mean δ34S value of aerosol sulfate is similar to that of coal from North China, indicating that coal combustion is a significant contributor to atmospheric sulfate. The δ34Ssulfate and δ18Osulfate values are positively correlated and display an obvious seasonality (high in winter and low in summer). Although an influence of meteorological conditions to this seasonality in isotopic composition cannot be ruled out, the isotopic evidence suggests that the observed seasonality reflects temporal variations in the two main contributions to Beijing aerosol sulfate, notably biogenic sulfur emissions in the summer and the increasing coal consumption in winter. Our results clearly reveal that a reduction in the use of fossil fuels and the application of desulfurization technology will be important for effectively reducing sulfur emissions to the Beijing atmosphere.

  14. Using stable isotopes to trace sources and formation processes of sulfate aerosols from Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaokun; Guo, Qingjun; Liu, Congqiang; Fu, Pingqing; Strauss, Harald; Yang, Junxing; Hu, Jian; Wei, Lianfang; Ren, Hong; Peters, Marc; Wei, Rongfei; Tian, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Particulate pollution from anthropogenic and natural sources is a severe problem in China. Sulfur and oxygen isotopes of aerosol sulfate (δ(34)Ssulfate and δ(18)Osulfate) and water-soluble ions in aerosols collected from 2012 to 2014 in Beijing are being utilized to identify their sources and assess seasonal trends. The mean δ(34)S value of aerosol sulfate is similar to that of coal from North China, indicating that coal combustion is a significant contributor to atmospheric sulfate. The δ(34)Ssulfate and δ(18)Osulfate values are positively correlated and display an obvious seasonality (high in winter and low in summer). Although an influence of meteorological conditions to this seasonality in isotopic composition cannot be ruled out, the isotopic evidence suggests that the observed seasonality reflects temporal variations in the two main contributions to Beijing aerosol sulfate, notably biogenic sulfur emissions in the summer and the increasing coal consumption in winter. Our results clearly reveal that a reduction in the use of fossil fuels and the application of desulfurization technology will be important for effectively reducing sulfur emissions to the Beijing atmosphere. PMID:27435991

  15. China's china : Jingdezhen porcelain and the production of art in the Nineteenth Century

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    My dissertation examines the interaction between global political-economic transformations and changing concepts of Chinese art in the nineteenth century. Its focus is on the porcelain from the renowned "porcelain city," Jingdezhen in Jiangxi Province of southeast China. Jingdezhen has been the center of world porcelain production since the thirteenth century. Although Jingdezhen's porcelain industries experienced tremendous changes and upheaval during the nineteenth century- including expand...

  16. Differences in the population of genetics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis between urban migrants and local residents in Beijing, China.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, G.M.; Zhang, Z.G.; Ding, P.J.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, L.; Wang, L.X.; Soolingen, D. van; Huang, H.R.; Li, W.M.; Li, C.Y.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently, migration has become one of the risk factors of high burden of tuberculosis in China. This study was to explore the influence of mass migration on the dynamics of Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis in Beijing, the capital and an urban area of China. METHODS: Three hundred and thi

  17. Differences in the population of genetics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis between urban migrants and local residents in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Guang-ming; ZHANG Zhi-guo; DING Peng-ju; ZHANG Qian; WANG Li; WANG Li-xia; Dick van Soolingen

    2013-01-01

    Background Currently,migration has become one of the risk factors of high burden of tuberculosis in China.This study was to explore the influence of mass migration on the dynamics of Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis in Beijing,the capital and an urban area of China.Methods Three hundred and thirty-six M.tuberculosis strains from the Changping district,where the problem of urban migrants was more pronounced than in other Beijing regions,were genotyped by Spoligotyping,large sequence polymorphisms (LSPs 105 and 181),and variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing.Based on the genotype data,the phylogeny of the isolates was studied.Results In Changping district,the proportion of Beijing lineage M.tuberculosis isolates amounted to 89.0% (299/336),among which 86.6 % (252) belonged to the modern lineage.The frequency of modern Beijing lineage strains is so high (around 75% (252/336)) that associated risk factors affecting the tuberculosis epidemic cannot be determined.The time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of the Beijing lineage strains was estimated to be 5073 (95% CI:4000-6200) years.There was no significant difference in the genetic variation of Beijing isolates from urban migrants and local residents.Conclusions The clone of modern Beijing lineage M.tuberculosis,which is dominant in the Beijing area,most likely started to expand with the five thousand-year-old Chinese civilization.In the future,with the urbanization in the whole of China,modern Beijing lineage M.tuberculosis may gain the larger geographical spread.

  18. Emerging markets for imported beef in China: Results from a consumer choice experiment in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, David L; Hong, Soo Jeong; Wang, H Holly; Wu, Laping

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore emerging markets for imported beef in China by assessing Beijing consumer demand for quality attributes. This study utilizes data from an in-store choice experiment to evaluate consumer willingness-to-pay for select food quality attributes (food safety, animal welfare, Green Food and Organic certification) taking into account country-of-origin information. Our results show that Beijing consumers value food safety information the most, and are willing to pay more for Australian beef products than for US or domestic (Chinese) beef. We explore the various relationships between the quality attributes, find evidence of preference heterogeneity and discuss agribusiness and marketing implications of our findings.

  19. Emerging markets for imported beef in China: Results from a consumer choice experiment in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, David L; Hong, Soo Jeong; Wang, H Holly; Wu, Laping

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore emerging markets for imported beef in China by assessing Beijing consumer demand for quality attributes. This study utilizes data from an in-store choice experiment to evaluate consumer willingness-to-pay for select food quality attributes (food safety, animal welfare, Green Food and Organic certification) taking into account country-of-origin information. Our results show that Beijing consumers value food safety information the most, and are willing to pay more for Australian beef products than for US or domestic (Chinese) beef. We explore the various relationships between the quality attributes, find evidence of preference heterogeneity and discuss agribusiness and marketing implications of our findings. PMID:27395825

  20. Secular trends of low birthweight and macrosomia and related maternal factors in Beijing, China: a longitudinal trend analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Xiaoyi; Chen, Fangfang; Wang, Wenpeng; Zhao, Juan; Teng, Yue; Wu, Minghui; Teng, Honghong; Zhang, Xue; Qi, Hong; Liu, Xiaohong; Tan, Chunying; Mi, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Background Information tracking changes of birthweight is scarce in China. To examine trends of low birthweight (birthweight < 2500 g) and macrosomia (birthweight ≥ 4000 g) and potential risk factors in Beijing, hospital records from two major obstetrics and gynecology hospitals in urban districts in Beijing were analyzed. Methods Hospital records from 1996 to 2010 were retrieved. Information of prenatal examination and birth outcomes was entered into a structured database. Live births were u...

  1. Development of Geological Science in China in the Twentieth Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In the present stage of accelerated development of science and technology at the turn of the century it may be deemed that the geological science in China is destined to prosper, as viewed from the increasing society needs, the scientific problems and the basic technological background provided by the society, the three basic elements for the development of science. Owing to the sagacity and foresight of the founders of geology in China, Chinese geological research had already won a world fame in 1920s to 1930s. From the 1950s to 1970s the geological science in China had undergone a rapid development. From the end of 1970s onwards the geological science in China had undergone an overall development. With the acceptance of the new concept of Earth System Science by the majority of geologists, all branches of geological studies will merge into a comprehensive and coordinate research and the geological science in China will be facing an entirely new stage of development in the 21st century.

  2. First Training Course for Leading Members of Arab Countries’ Friendship-with-China Organizations Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>From May 21 to 30,a training course for leading members of the Arab countries’ friendship-with-China organizations jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC and the China-Arab Friendship Association (CAFA) was held in Beijing. This was the first training course ever held by the CPAFFC for leading members of a group of friendship-with-China organizations of foreign countries,and of the 22 Arab countries in particular. On May 21,

  3. Tongrentang,A Pearl of Chinese Traditional Medicine Interview with Mei Qun, General Manager of China Beijing Tongrentang(Group) Co., Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian; Bai Yifeng

    2006-01-01

    @@ On June 10, China Beijing Tongrentang (Group) Co., Ltd. celebrated its first Day of Cultural Heritage because its brand Tongrentang had been registered in the Directory of Chinese Intangible Cultural Heritages. Tongrentang is welknown in China for its effective Chinese traditional medicine, but what is the core value of the brand? Mei Qun, General Manager of China Beijing Tongrentang(Group) Co., Ltd. let the secret out when interviewed by China's Foreign Trade.

  4. A Network Flow Analysis of the Nitrogen Metabolism in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Lu, Hanjing; Fath, Brian D; Zheng, Hongmei; Sun, Xiaoxi; Li, Yanxian

    2016-08-16

    Rapid urbanization results in high nitrogen flows and subsequent environmental consequences. In this study, we identified the main metabolic components (nitrogen inputs, flows, and outputs) and used ecological network analysis to track the direct and integral (direct + indirect) metabolic flows of nitrogen in Beijing, China, from 1996 to 2012 and to quantify the structure of Beijing's nitrogen metabolic processes. We found that Beijing's input of new reactive nitrogen (Q, which represents nitrogen obtained from the atmosphere or nitrogen-containing materials used in production and consumption to support human activities) increased from 431 Gg in 1996 to 507 Gg in 2012. Flows to the industry, atmosphere, and household, and components of the system were clearly largest, with total integrated inputs plus outputs from these nodes accounting for 31, 29, and 15%, respectively, of the total integral flows for all paths. The flows through the sewage treatment and transportation components showed marked growth, with total integrated inputs plus outputs increasing to 3.7 and 5.2 times their 1996 values, respectively. Our results can help policymakers to locate the key nodes and pathways in an urban nitrogen metabolic system so they can monitor and manage these components of the system. PMID:27406465

  5. Emergy-based analysis of Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Z. F.; Zhang, L. X.; Zhang, B.; Chen, Z. M.

    2009-12-01

    An emergy-based analysis was conducted for the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan urban agglomeration district from perspectives of emergy density, resource structure, environmental pressure and resource use efficiency during the period of 1991-2005. The results showed that Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan as contiguous regions shared similar characters and evolving trends in certain aspects as emergy intensity and proportion of local renewable resources on the whole. As for the local resources availability, process efficiency and environmental pressure, however, these three cities have significant differences. With comparison of the other cities in China, it is shown that Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region has higher environment loading and lower sustainability level though enjoying rapid urbanization process and economic development. This study also suggests that the first priority on economic development competition within urban agglomeration regions may lead to the wasting of resources and redundant construction, while cooperative and rational selection for development pattern are the proper choice for coordinate regional development and long term sustainability to overcome resource restrictions.

  6. Aerosol chemistry in Beijing, China: Different pollution regimes and diurnal profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pinxteren, D.; Brüggemann, E.; Gnauk, T.; Iinuma, Y.; Müller, K.; Nowak, A.; Achtert, P.; Wiedensohler, A.; Herrmann, H.

    2009-04-01

    The rapid economic development during the last three decades in China has led to a severe decrease in air quality, especially in densely populated regions such as Beijing, Shanghai, and the Pearl River Delta. Although during last years a number of measures for air pollution control have been implemented especially in the capital Beijing, air pollution is still regarded to be one of the top environmental concerns in China during the next decade. To better characterize the processes leading to the frequently observed high concentrations of air pollutants on a regional scale, the international field campaign "Campaigns of Air Quality Research in Beijing 2006" (CAREBEIJING2006) was conducted in summer 2006. Organized by the Peking University, project partners from Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, Germany, and China studied the various aspects of gaseous and particulate air pollution in a megacity environment. In this contribution, we present chemical data of size-resolved particles, obtained by a 5-stage Berner impactor (0.05-10 μm) during 3 weeks at both an urban and a suburban site in the area of Beijing, China. The sampling time of the impactors was about 4-5 hours. This allowed for taking four size-resolved samples per day and obtaining rough diurnal profiles of particle components. The samples were analyzed for inorganic ions (Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, K+, Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+), carbon sum parameters (OC, EC, WSOC), and a variety of organic compounds such as dicarboxylic acids, alkanes, PAHs and, for the first time in China, nitrooxy-organosulfates. On average, the observed PM10 mass concentrations were 133 μg m-3 and 112 μg m-3 at the urban and suburban site, respectively. In general, the observed concentrations of particulate pollutants were similarly high as reported from previous studies in the Beijing summer atmosphere. A back trajectory analysis allowed the classification of the samples into different meteorological categories with different air mass origins. A high

  7. Formation and evolution mechanism of regional haze: a case study in the megacity Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to investigate the formation and evolution mechanism of the regional haze in megacity Beijing by analyzing the process of a severe haze that occurred 20–27 September 2011. Mass concentration and size distribution of aerosol particles as well as aerosol optical properties were concurrently measured at the Beijing urban atmospheric environment monitoring station. Gaseous pollutants (SO2, NO-NO2-NOx, O3, CO and meteorological parameters (wind speed, wind direction, and relative humidity (RH were simultaneously monitored. Meanwhile, aerosol spatial distribution and the height of planetary boundary layer (PBL were retrieved from the signal of satellite and LIDAR (light detection and ranging. Results showed that high intensity of local pollutants from Beijing urban source is the fundamental cause that led to the regional haze. Meteorological factors such as higher RH, weak surface wind speed, and decreasing height of PBL played an important role on the deterioration of air quality. New particle formation was considered to be the most important factor contributing the formation of haze. In order to improve the atmospheric visibility and reduce the occurrence of the haze, the mass concentration of PM2.5 at dry condition should be less than 60 µg m−3 in Beijing according to the empirical relationship of visibility, PM2.5 mass concentration and RH. This case study may provide valuable information for the public to recognize the formation mechanism of the regional haze event over the megacity, which is also useful for the government to adopt scientific approach to forecast and eliminate the occurrence of regional haze in China.

  8. Campylobacter enteritis in adult patients with acute diarrhea from 2005 to 2009 in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; SUN Xin-ting; ZENG Zheng; YU Yan-yan

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been a marked global increase in the incidence of human Campylobacter enteritis in recent years. This study investigated the epidemiological and clinical features of Campylobacter enteritis in adult patients suffering from acute diarrhea.Methods This was a retrospective review of Campylobacter enteritis in adult patients with acute diarrhea presenting at Beijing University First Hospital, Beijing, China, in the summer and autumn (April to October) of 2005 to 2009. The data collected included the species of campylobacter identified, and the age, gender, clinical manifestations and results of laboratory test on stool samples collected from the patients. Campylobacter sensitivity tests to various antimicrobial agents were conducted on 80 specimens. Chi-square tests were applied using SPSS13.0 software and a two-sided P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results Campylobacter spp. isolated from the stool specimens of 142 patients with diarrhea represented 14.9% of all the cases examined. C. jejuni was identified in 127 patients (89.4%) and C. coli in 15 others (10.6%). The infection incidence was highest in the age range of 21-30 years which comprised 21.7% of the total cases examined. Most cases of diarrhea (46 patients) occurred in June. Watery diarrhea (97.2%), abdominal pain (72.5%) and fever (64.8%) were the most common manifestations of enteric campylobacteriosis. Only four patients (2.8%) had bloody diarrhea. The antimicrobial resistance rates were: cefoperazone (100%), levofloxacin (61.3%), gentamicin (12.5%), erythromycin (6.3%), and azithromycin (2.5%).Conclusions Campylobacter was prevalent among adults with acute diarrhea from 2005 to 2009 in Beijing, China. The large number of those afflicted by the disease warrants the commission of a large multicenter study to determine the extent of enteric campylobacteriosis in this region.

  9. How do Beijing Residents Value Environmental Improvements in Remote Parts of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael; AHLHEIM; Oliver; FRR; LUO; Jing; Sonna; PELZ; JIANG; Tong

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of climate adaptation policy are sometimes underestimated because its nonuse values perceived by people indirectly afected are usually ignored.Using data from a representative sample of Beijing’s urban population,it is shown that people living at a distance perceive nonuse values of climate change adaptation measures aimed at improving the environmental conditions in the Tarim River Basin in Northwest China.Using the contingent valuation method the monetized benefit of a particular set of climate adaptation measures experienced by a Beijing household is approximated.It is concluded that not only the preferences of local people,but also of people living in other parts of China should be considered when deciding if a climate adaptation policy is worthwhile implementing from a social welfare point of view.

  10. How do Beijing Residents Value Environmental Improvements in Remote Parts of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael AHLHEIM; Oliver FRÖOR; LUO Jing; Sonna PELZ; JIANG Tong

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of climate adaptation policy are sometimes underestimated because its nonuse values perceived by people indirectly affected are usually ignored. Using data from a representative sample of Beijing’s urban population, it is shown that people living at a distance perceive nonuse values of climate change adaptation measures aimed at improving the environmental conditions in the Tarim River Basin in Northwest China. Using the contingent valuation method the monetized benefit of a particular set of climate adaptation measures experienced by a Beijing household is approximated. It is concluded that not only the preferences of local people, but also of people living in other parts of China should be considered when deciding if a climate adaptation policy is worthwhile implementing from a social welfare point of view.

  11. A case-control study of risk factors associated with scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanning Lyu

    Full Text Available To investigate the risk factors of scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China, a case-control study was carried out. Cases (n = 56 were defined as persons who were diagnosed by PCR and serological method within three years. Three neighborhood control subjects were selected by matching for age and occupation. Living at the edge of the village, living in the houses near grassland, vegetable field or ditch, house yard without cement floor, piling weeds in the house or yard, all of these were risk factors for scrub typhus infection. Working in vegetable fields and hilly areas, and harvesting in autumn posed the highest risks, with odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of 3.7 (1.1-11.9, 8.2 (1.4-49.5, and 17.2 (5.1-57.9, respectively. These results would be useful for the establishment of a detail control strategy for scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China.

  12. On-road emission characteristics of VOCs from light-duty gasoline vehicles in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinyue; Yao, Zhiliang; Shen, Xianbao; Ye, Yu; Jiang, Xi

    2016-01-01

    This study is the third in a series of three papers aimed at characterizing the VOC emissions of vehicles in Beijing. In this study, 30 light-duty vehicles fueled with gasoline were evaluated using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) as they were driven on a predesigned, fixed test route. All of the tested vehicles were rented from private vehicle owners and spanned regulatory compliance guidelines ranging from Pre-China I to China IV. Alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and some additional species in the exhaust were collected in Tedlar bags and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Carbonyls were collected on 2,4-dinitrophenyhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Overall, 74 VOC species were detected from the tested vehicles, including 22 alkanes, 6 alkenes, 1 alkyne, 16 aromatics, 3 cyclanes, 10 halohydrocarbons, 12 carbonyls and 4 other compounds. Alkanes, aromatics and carbonyls were the dominant VOCs with weight percentages of approximately 36.4%, 33.1% and 17.4%, respectively. The average VOC emission factors and standard deviations of the Pre-China I, China I, China II, China III and China IV vehicles were 469.3 ± 200.1, 80.7 ± 46.1, 56.8 ± 37.4, 25.6 ± 11.7 and 14.9 ± 8.2 mg/km, respectively, which indicated that the VOC emissions significantly decreased under stricter vehicular emission standards. Driving cycles also influenced the VOC emissions from the tested vehicles. The average VOC emission factors based on the travel distances of the tested vehicles under urban driving cycles were greater than those under highway driving cycles. In addition, we calculated the ozone formation potential (OFP) using the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) method. The results of this study will be helpful for understanding the true emission levels of light-duty gasoline vehicles and will provide information for controlling VOC emissions from vehicles in Beijing, China.

  13. Source apportionment and air quality impact assessment studies in Beijing/China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppan, P.; Schrader, S.; Shen, R.; Ling, H.; Schäfer, K.; Norra, S.; Vogel, B.; Wang, Y.

    2012-04-01

    More than 15 million people in the greater area of Beijing are still suffering from severe air pollution levels caused by sources within the city itself but also from external impacts like severe dust storms and long range advection from the southern and central part of China. Within this context particulate matter (PM) is the major air pollutant in the greater area of Beijing (Garland et al., 2009). PM did not serve only as lead substance for air quality levels and therefore for adverse health impact effects but also for a strong influence on the climate system by changing e.g. the radiative balance. Investigations on emission reductions during the Olympic Summer Games in 2008 have caused a strong reduction on coarser particles (PM10) but not on smaller particles (PM2.5). In order to discriminate the composition of the particulate matter levels, the different behavior of coarser and smaller particles investigations on source attribution, particle characteristics and external impacts on the PM levels of the city of Beijing by measurements and modeling are performed: Examples of long term measurements of PM2.5 filter sampling in 2005 with the objectives of detailed chemical (source attribution, carbon fraction, organic speciation and inorganic composition) and isotopic analyses as well as toxicological assessment in cooperation with several institutions (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (IfGG/IMG), Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU), University Rostock (UR), Chinese University of Mining and Technology Beijing, CUMTB) will be discussed. Further experimental studies include the operation of remote sensing systems to determine continuously the MLH (by a ceilometer) and gaseous air pollutants near the ground (by DOAS systems) as well as at the 320 m measurement tower (adhesive plates at different heights for passive particle collection) in cooperation with the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The influence of the MLH on

  14. Landscape practices and representations in eighteenth-century Dongchuan, Southwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Fei

    2012-01-01

    My doctorial thesis, entitled ‘Landscape Practices and Representations in Dongchuan, Southwest Eighteenth-Century China’, focuses on the interdisciplinary study of landscape, space and architecture in Southwest eighteenth-century China. Through intensive archival research and contemporary ethnograph

  15. BEIJING RESTAURANT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Maxim’s de Paris, Beijing In the late 19th century, Maxim Garcia opened a restaurant, Maxim’s, in Paris. On September 26, 1983, a new Maxim’s de Paris was opened in Beijing, becoming the first Sino-foreign cooperative Western-style restaurant. The interior decorations of Maxim’s de Paris imitate those of Maxim’s in Paris. Entering the restaurant, you will feel you have entered the French royal palace in the 19th century. Maxim’s de Paris Beijing has a dining hall, a coffee house and several bars, being able to accommodate 200 persons for dinner or 300 persons for a cocktail party and buffet. Here, you can enjoy different kinds of delicious food from European countries. Maxim’s cakes are loved by people because of their unique taste and style. At present, the restaurant is promoting a type of sugarless cake for those who dislike or cannot eat sugar. For more than 20 years, Maxim’s de Paris Beijing has consistently provided top-notch service and food. Welcome to Maxim’s de Paris Beijing to enjoy your life! Address: No.2 Chongwenmen Xidajie, Beijing Tel: 86-10-6512-1992

  16. Factors associated with health-seeking behavior among migrant workers in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Hongpu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migrant workers are a unique phenomenon in the process of China's economic transformation. The household registration system classifies them as temporary residents in cities, putting them in a vulnerable state with an unfair share of urban infrastructure and social public welfare. The amount of pressure inflicted by migrant workers in Beijing, as one of the major migration destinations, is currently at a threshold. This study was designed to assess the factors associated with health-seeking behavior and to explore feasible solutions to the obstacles migrant workers in China faced with when accessing health-care. Methods A sample of 2,478 migrant workers in Beijing was chosen by the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method. A structured questionnaire survey was conducted via face-to-face interviews between investigators and subjects. The multilevel methodology (MLM was used to demonstrate the independent effects of the explanatory variables on health seeking behavior in migrant workers. Results The medical visitation rate of migrant workers within the past two weeks was 4.8%, which only accounted for 36.4% of those who were ill. Nearly one-third of the migrant workers chose self-medication (33.3% or no measures (30.3% while ill within the past two weeks. 19.7% of the sick migrants who should have been hospitalized failed to receive medical treatment within the past year. According to self-reported reasons, the high cost of health service was a significant obstacle to health-care access for 40.5% of the migrant workers who became sick. However, 94.0% of the migrant workers didn't have any insurance coverage in Beijing. The multilevel model analysis indicates that health-seeking behavior among migrants is significantly associated with their insurance coverage. Meanwhile, such factors as household monthly income per capita and working hours per day also affect the medical visitation rate of the migrant workers in Beijing

  17. Projections of Climate Change over China for the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yong; ZHAO Zongci; XU Ying; GAO Xuejie; DING Yihui

    2005-01-01

    The projections of climate changes in China for the 21st century by about 40 climate scenarios and multi-model ensembles have been investigated in this research. All the models with the different scenarios project a warming of 1.2℃ to 9.2℃ in China by the end of 21st century. Most of the projections point show the increasing of precipitation in China for the 21st century.

  18. An evaluation of atmospheric Nr pollution and deposition in North China after the Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X. S.; Liu, P.; Tang, A. H.; Liu, J. Y.; Zong, X. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Kou, C. L.; Zhang, L. J.; Fowler, D.; Fangmeier, A.; Christie, P.; Zhang, F. S.; Liu, X. J.

    2013-08-01

    North China is known for its large population densities and rapid development of industry and agriculture. Air quality around Beijing improved substantially during the 2008 Summer Olympics. We measured atmospheric concentrations of various Nr compounds at three urban sites and three rural sites in North China from 2010 to 2012 and estimated N dry and wet deposition by inferential models and the rain gauge method to determine current air conditions with respect to reactive nitrogen (Nr) compounds and nitrogen (N) deposition in Beijing and the surrounding area. NH3, NO2, and HNO3 and particulate NH4+ and NO3-, and NH4+-N and NO3--N in precipitation averaged 8.2, 11.5, 1.6, 8.2 and 4.6 μg N m-3, and 2.9 and 1.9 mg N L-1, respectively, with large seasonal and spatial variability. Atmospheric Nr (especially oxidized N) concentrations were highest at urban sites. Dry deposition of Nr ranged from 35.2 to 60.0 kg N ha-1 yr-1, with wet deposition of Nr of 16.3 to 43.2 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and total deposition of 54.4-103.2 kg N ha-1 yr-1. The rates of Nr dry and wet deposition were 36.4 and 33.2% higher, respectively, at the urban sites than at the rural sites. These high levels reflect the occurrence of a wide range of Nr pollution in North China and suggest that further strict air pollution control measures are required.

  19. STRUCTURE AND RESTRUCTURING OF BEIJING-TIANJIN-HEBEI MEGALOPOLIS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Scott proposes to use the term global city-regions to designate the phenomena that bear some resemblance to the "world cities" firstly identified by Hall and Friedmann and Wolff, and to the "global cities" of Sassen but whose essential social logic and contextual characteristics have evolved considerably since these pioneering studies were published. In simple geographical terms, a global city-region can be refered to comprise any major metropolitan area or any contiguous set of metropolitan areas together with a surrounding hinterland of variable extent-itself a locus of scattered urban settlements-whose internal economic and political affairs are bound up in intricate ways in intensifying and far-flung extra-national relationships. Scott refers to these extra-national relationships as a symptom of"globalization". As economic motors and political actors, the global city regions have been regarded as crucial parts of development strategies in China. In the "Eleventh Five-year Plan" issued by the National Development and Reform Commission ofP. R. China, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Province (Jing-Jin-Ji) region, one of the typical megalopolises or global city regions in the East Coastal China is paid more attention. This paper first analyzes the regional structure of the Jing-Jin-Ji region based on data of the fifth national population census of China. And then through the changes of the population growth, the dynamic process and mechanisms of the regional restructuring in the Jing-Jin-Ji is explored and discussed.

  20. Investigation and analysis of incidence of awareness in patients undergoing cardiac surgery in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yun; YUE Yun; SUN Yong-hai; WU An-shi; WU Qi-wei; ZHANG Yong-qian; FENG Chun-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Background Awareness under general anesthesia is a serious complication which leads to psychiatric disorders. The incidence of awareness in patients undergoing cardiac surgery has been reported in as many as 1.5%-23% in foreign countries. But so far, medical literature about awareness during cardiac surgery is still rare in China. Therefore, we investigated the incidence of awareness in patients undergoing different kinds of cardiac surgery, the phases when awareness occured and the effect of cardiopulmonary bypass on the incidence of awareness in coronary artery bypass grafting in Beijing.Methods Patients' recall of awareness during cardiac surgery was assessed. One hundred patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in Chaoyang Hospital, Beijing, one hundred patients undergoing CABG and one hundred patients undergoing valve replacement or septal defect repair in Fuwai Hospital, Beijing, were interviewed 3-6 days after surgery. Every report obout patients on recall of awareness was recorded. An independent research team, blinded to patients' surgery and anesthesia, assessed every report of awareness.Results The incidence of awareness of patients received CABG under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), off -pump CABG, septal repair or valve replacement under CPB was 4.7% (5 of 106 cases), 9.6% (9 of 94 cases) and 4% (4 of 100 cases), respectively. CPB did not greatly affect the incidence of awareness during the period of CABG (P>0.05). The incidence of awareness of patients who received CABG under CPB did not increase significantly, in comparison with that of patients who received septal repair or valve replacement under CPB in Fuwai Hospital (P>0.05). Awareness easily occurred before bypass grafting or CPB.Conclusions Awareness mainly occurs before bypass grafting or CPB in cardiac surgery. Most cases with awareness have auditory perceptions. CPB is not a main factor which affects the incidence of awareness of CABG. Surgical types do not affect the

  1. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in placenta and umbilical cord blood and dietary intake for women in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placenta and umbilical cord blood are important media for investigating maternal–fetal exposure to environmental pollutants. Historically hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were once widely-used in China. In this study, residues of HCHs were measured in placenta and umbilical cord blood samples for 40 women from Beijing. The measured median values of HCHs were 62.0 and 68.8 ng/g fat in placenta and umbilical cord blood, respectively. Concentrations of HCHs in placenta and umbilical cord blood of urban cohort were higher than those of rural group due to enhanced consumption of fish, meat, and milk. Residues of HCHs in placenta were significantly correlated with total food consumption, dietary intake, and maternal age, and could be predicted using the parameters dependent upon ingestion of meat and milk. The transplacental exposure of fetuses to HCHs was revealed by a close association between the residual levels in the paired placenta and the paired umbilical cord blood samples. -- Highlights: •Medians of HCH in placenta and umbilical cord blood of 40 puerperal women from Beijing were 62.0 and 68.8 ng/g⋅fat. •HCHs in placenta and umbilical cord blood of urban cohort were higher than those of rural one. •HCH residues in placenta were significantly correlated with total food consumption, daily dietary intake, and maternal age. •The transplacental exposure of fetus to HCHs was revealed. -- HCHs in placenta of women in Beijing were significantly correlated with total food consumption, dietary intake, and maternal age

  2. Scenario analysis to vehicular emission reduction in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiurui; Fu, Liwei; Ji, Muse; Lang, Jianlei; Chen, Dongsheng; Cheng, Shuiyuan

    2016-09-01

    Motor vehicle emissions are increasingly becoming one of the important factors affecting the urban air quality in China. It is necessary and useful to policy makers to demonstrate the situation given the relevant pollutants reduction measures are taken. This paper predicted the reduction potentials of conventional pollutants (PM10, NOx, CO, HC) under different control strategies and policies in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region during 2011-2020. There are the baseline and 5 control scenarios designed, which presented the different current and future possible vehicular emissions control measures. Future population of different kinds of vehicles were predicted based on the Gompertz model, and vehicle kilometers travelled estimated as well. After that, the emissions reduction under the different scenarios during 2011-2020 could be estimated using emission factors and activity level data. The results showed that, the vehicle population in the BTH region would continue to grow up, especially in Tianjin and Hebei. Comparing the different scenarios, emission standards updating scenario would achieve a substantial reduction and keep rising up for all the pollutants, and the scenario of eliminating high-emission vehicles can reduce emissions more effectively in short-term than in long-term, especially in Beijing. Due to the constraints of existing economical and technical level, the reduction effect of promoting new energy vehicles would not be significant, especially given the consideration of their lifetime impact. The reduction effect of population regulation scenario in Beijing cannot be ignorable and would keep going up for PM10, CO and HC, excluding NOx. Under the integrated scenario considering all the control measures it would achieve the maximum reduction potential of emissions, which means to reduce emissions of PM10, NOx, CO, HC, by 56%, 59%, 48%, 52%, respectively, compared to BAU scenario for the whole BTH region in 2020. PMID:27325548

  3. Willingness to pay for renewable electricity: A contingent valuation study in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In China, renewable/green electricity, which can provide significant environmental benefits in addition to meeting energy demand, has more non-use value than use-value for electricity consumers, because its users have no way to actually own this use-value. To assess the value of renewable electricity and obtain information on consumer preferences, this study estimated the willingness to pay (WTP) of Beijing residents for renewable electricity by employing the contingent valuation method (CVM) and identified the factors which affect their WTP. The survey randomly selected 700 participants, of which 571 questionnaires were valid. Half of respondents were found to have positive WTP for renewable electricity. The average WTP of Beijing residents for renewable electricity is estimated to be 2.7–3.3 US$ (18.5–22.5CNY) per month. The main factors affecting the WTP of the respondents included income, electricity consumption, bid and payment vehicle. Knowledge of and a positive attitude towards renewable energy also resulted in the relatively higher willingness of a respondent to pay for renewable electricity. The proportion of respondents replying “yes” to WTP questions using a mandatory payment vehicle was slightly higher than that for questions using a voluntary vehicle. Lastly, several policy implications of this study are presented. - Highlights: • Most (54%) of respondents in Beijing have positive WTP to renewable electricity. • The average WTP for renewable electricity ranges from 2.7 to 3.3 US$ monthly. • The main factors affecting the WTP include income, electricity consumption, bid and payment vehicle. • Deployment of renewable electricity can cause considerable benefit

  4. Ozone weekend effects in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. H.; Hu, B.; Ji, D. S.; Liu, Z. R.; Tang, G. Q.; Xin, J. Y.; Zhang, H. X.; Song, T.; Wang, L. L.; Gao, W. K.; Wang, X. K.; Wang, Y. S.

    2014-03-01

    The ozone weekend effect (OWE) was first investigated in the metropolitan area of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), China, using in situ measurements from the Atmospheric Environment Monitoring Network from July 2009 to August 2011. The results indicate that there is an obvious weekly periodical variation in the surface ozone concentration. There is a lower ozone concentration from Wednesday to Friday (weekday) and a higher concentration from Saturday to Monday (weekend) at all the locations of the study. NOx also displays a weekly cycle, with the maximum level occurring on weekdays and the minimum level on weekends, especially later on Sunday night and early Monday morning. This pattern may be responsible for the higher concentration of ozone on weekends. Additionally, the vertical variations in O3 and NOx from the 8 m, 47 m, 120 m and 280 m observation platforms on the 325 m Beijing meteorological tower displayed obvious weekly cycles that corresponded to the surface results. A smaller decrease in volatile organic compounds (VOCs; using CO as a proxy) and much lower NOx concentrations on the weekend may lead to higher VOC / NOx ratio, which can enhance the ozone production efficiency in VOC-limited regime areas. Additionally, a clear weekly cycle in the fine aerosol concentration was observed, with maximum values occurring on weekdays and minimum values occurring on weekends. Higher concentrations of aerosol on weekdays can reduce the UV radiation flux by scattering or absorbing, which leads to a decrease in the ozone production efficiency. A significant weekly cycle in UV radiation, consistent with the aerosol concentration, was discovered at the Beijing meteorological tower site (BJT), validating the assumption. A comprehensive understanding of the ozone weekend effect in the BTH area can provide deep insights into controlling photochemical pollution.

  5. Sand Dust Weather in Beijing from the Late 19th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue Zhen; Fang, Xiuqi

    Based on an ancient Chinese diary named Weng Tonghe Diary written in the late Qing Dynasty, daily weather entries were extracted, excluding the months with more than 4 absent recording days. From the data, monthly sand dust days (SDD) and monthly colder days from 1860 to 1898 are reconstructed. Then, based on the records of complementary rainfall/sunshine days, monthly rainfall/snowfall days are reconstructed. The results reveal that sand dust weather of the later half of the 19th century is more frequent than the mid-1980s, and especially the 1990s. The monthly distribution of the past differs to the recent several decades. The spring contribution to the total frequency during the later 19th century and during the years 1961-2000 is 70 and 60%, respectively. The spring SDD is significantly correlated with local meteorological conditions during the later 19th century. However, based on the present data, it would be difficult to attribute a dynamical mechanism as the prime meteorological factor responsible for the sand dust frequency distribution.

  6. Generation amount prediction and material flow analysis of electronic waste: a case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianbing; Tanaka, Masaru; Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2006-10-01

    The draft legislation on e-waste prepared by the Chinese national government assigns management responsibility to local governments. It is an urgent task for the municipal government to plan an effective system as soon as possible to divert the e-waste flow from the existing informal e-waste recycling processes. This paper presents a case study implemented in Beijing, the capital city of China, with the purpose of predicting the amount of obsolete equipment for five main kinds of electronic appliances from urban households and to analyse the flow after the end of their useful phase. The amount to be handled was 885,354 units in 2005 and is predicted to double by 2010. Due to consumption growth and the expansion of urbanization it is estimated that the amount will increase to approximate 2,820,000 units by 2020: 70% of the obsolete appliances will be awaiting collection for possible recycling, 7% will be stored at the owner's home for 1 year on average and 4% will be discarded directly and enter the municipal solid waste collecting system. The remaining items will be reused for about 3 years on average after the change of ownership. The results of this study will assist the waste management authorities of Beijing to plan the collecting system and facilities needed for management of e-waste generated in the near future.

  7. Occurrence of gas phase ammonia in the area of Beijing (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ianniello

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric concentrations of gaseous ammonia have been measured during two field campaigns in the winter and in the summer of 2007 at Beijing (China. These measurements were carried out by means of diffusion annular denuders coated with phosphorous acid. The results were discussed from the standpoint of seasonal and diurnal variations and meteorological effects. The daily average NH3 concentrations were in the range of 0.20–44.38 μg/m3 and showed regular seasonal variations with higher concentrations during summer and with lower during winter. The seasonal trends seemed to be largely affected by air temperature because of agricultural sources. No diurnal variability was observed for gaseous NH3 levels in both winter and summer seasons. The highest ammonia value of 105.67 μg/m3 was measured in the early morning during the summer period when stable atmospheric conditions occurred. The diurnal winter and summer trends of ammonia were nearly independent on the air temperatures but they were affected by wind direction suggesting a strong local source influences. Ammonia was also correlated with the atmospheric mixing in the boundary layer, and, with NOx and CO air concentrations supporting the hypothesis that the traffic may be also an important source of ammonia in Beijing.

  8. Landfill site selection using spatial information technologies and AHP: a case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiqin; Qin, Li; Li, Guoxue; Chen, Lijun

    2009-06-01

    Site selection is an important and necessary issue for waste management in fast-growing regions. Because of the complexity of waste management systems, the selection of the appropriate solid waste landfill site requires consideration of multiple alternative solutions and evaluation criteria. Based on actual conditions of the study area, we considered economic factors, calculated criteria weights using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and built a hierarchy model for solving the solid waste landfill site-selection problem in Beijing, China. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to manipulate and present spatial data. All maps are graded from 1 (lowest suitability) to 5 (highest suitability) using spatial information technologies. The candidate sites were determined by aggregation based on the criteria weights. The candidate sites are divided by 'best', 'good' and 'unsuitable' landfill areas. Best landfill areas represent optimal sites; good landfill areas can be used as back-up candidate sites. Our work offers a sitting methodology and provides essential support for decision-makers in the assessment of waste management problems in Beijing and other rapidly developing cities in developing countries. PMID:19375842

  9. The Long Twentieth Century and Barriers to China's Hegemonic Accession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gulick

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Arrighi's The Long Twentieth Century is an almost unfathomably ambitious andcomplex work. Its monumentality derives from Arrighi 's conviction that the best way to handicapthe possible futures of the world capitalist geo-economy is to analyze the structural evolution ofthis global system, an evolution spanning more than five centuries; the genius of the work rests inthe distinctive approach that Arrighi takes. At the core of his approach is the identification ofthose long-term trends and accreted characteristics - one might call them "systemiccontradictions" - that promise to send the world capitalist geo-economy in a radically differentdevelopmental direction as US hegemony wanes. Arrighi 's assessment of these contradictionscompel him to make a provocative suggestion: in all likelihood, no singular concentration of stateand economic power possesses the territorial scale or the organizational capacities required tolead the global system through another round of restructuring and expansion. Properly framed,this illuminating insight could serve as the starting point for a theoretical exploration of thesocio-ecological constraints to global capitalist reproduction, but such is a journey (mostly nottaken by Arrighi in The Long Twentieth Century. In fact, to the degree that he subsequentlycontemplates the prospect of a China-centered reconstitution of the world geo-economy, Arrighimarginalizes the question of global systemic contradictions altogether.

  10. Discrimination Against Floating Migrants in China:Take Rural-to-Urban Migrants in Beijing As An Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄煜茜; 蔡行健; 厉惠萱

    2014-01-01

    This essay firstly examines the destiny of rural-to-urban migrants in Beijing, the capital of China. Relying on data collected from representative survey, the essay then provides the demographic profile of rural migrants. Then the essay specifically conducts a series of statistical analysis. The final results demon-strate that although contributing enormous growth to the Beijing economy, the floating population is still discriminated and segre-gated. By providing the severe consequences that may arise from the existing discrimination issues, this essay calls on the instant measurements to protect the social equality and justice.

  11. Characteristics of atmospheric organic and elemental carbon aerosols in urban Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Dongsheng; Zhang, Junke; He, Jun; Wang, Xiaoju; Pang, Bo; Liu, Zirui; Wang, Lili; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-01-01

    Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in PM2.5 were measured hourly with a semicontinuous thermal-optical analyzer in urban Beijing, China, from Mar 1, 2013 to Feb 28, 2014. The annual mean concentrations of OC and EC in Beijing were 14.0 ± 11.7 and 4.1 ± 3.2 μg/m3, respectively. The concentrations observed in this study were lower than those of other reports over the past ten years; however, the concentrations were higher than those reported from most of the megacities in North America and Europe. These findings suggest that OC and EC remained at high levels despite the implementation of strict control measures to improve air quality. The OC and EC concentrations exhibited strong seasonality, with high values in the autumn and winter but low values in the spring and summer in Beijing. The diurnal OC and EC cycles were characterized by higher values at night and in the morning because of primary emissions, accumulations and low boundary-layer heights. Due to increasing photochemical activity, a well-defined OC peak was observed at approximately noon. The OC and EC concentrations followed typical lognormal patterns in which more than 75% of the OC samples had concentrations between 0.9 and 18.0 μg/m3 and 75% of the EC samples had concentrations between 0.4 and 5.6 μg/m3. An EC tracer method and combined EC tracer and K+ mass balance methods were used to estimate the contributions from secondary formation and biomass burning, respectively. High secondary organic carbon (SOC) concentrations were found in the autumn and winter due to low temperatures, which are favorable for the absorption and condensation of semi-volatile organic compounds on existing particles. High correlations were found between the estimated SOC in PM2.5 and the observed OOA (oxidized organic aerosol) in PM1; thus, the method proved to be effective and reliable. The annual average OCBiomass burning (OCbb) contribution to the total OC concentration was 18.4%, suggesting that biomass

  12. Use of satellite imagery to assess the trophic state of Miyun Reservoir, Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhengjun, Wang; Jianming, Hong; Guisen, Du

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this research is to explore an appropriate way of monitoring and assessing water quality by satellite remote sensing techniques in the Miyun reservoir of Beijing, China. Two scene Thematic Mapper images in May and October of 2003 were acquired and simultaneous in situ measurements, sampling and analysis were conducted. Statistical analysis indicates that satellite-based normalized ratio vegetation index (NRVI) and in situ measured water chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentration have very high correlation. Two linear regression models with high determination coefficients were constructed for NRVI and Chl-a of sample points. According to the modified trophic state index map, water quality in the western section of Miyun reservoir was consistently higher than in the eastern section during the two months tested. The trophic grade of the eastern reservoir remained mesotrophic with a tendency for eutrophication. PMID:18155332

  13. Longitudinal study on infants' temperament and physical development in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yu-hua; Ji, Cheng-ye; Shan, Jin-ping

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this longitudinal study is to explore the relationship between temperament and physical development among infants in Beijing, China. A total of 1117 term, normal and singleton infants were followed regularly for 12 months. Body weight and horizontal length were measured at 42 days and monthly from the third to twelfth month of their lives. Infants' temperament was assessed using the revised Chinese infants' temperament scale when the infants were 6 months. There was a significant difference on temperament dimensions between infants' genders (P temperaments (easy and intermediate) were heavier than those with negative temperaments (difficult and slow to warm up) (P temperament categories (P temperament category and parents' weight and height.

  14. Source of Personal Exposure to PM2.5 among College Students in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiaorong; Zhu, Xianlei; Li, Xiang; Hui, Fan; Fu, Xianqiang; Zhang, Qiangbin

    2015-04-01

    The health risk from exposure to airborne particles arouses increasing public concern in Beijing, a megacity in China, where concentration of PM2.5 frequently exceeds the guideline values of World Health Organization (WHO). To investigate daily exposure to PM2.5, a personal exposure study was conducted for college students. The purpose of this study was to measure the daily PM2.5 personal exposures of students, to quantify the contributions of various microenvironments to personal exposure since students spend more than 85% of their time indoors, and to apportion the contributions of PM2.5 indoors origin and outdoor origin. In this work, a total of 320 paired indoor and outdoor PM2.5 samples were collected at eight types of microenvironments in both China University of Petroleum (suburban area) and Tsinghua University (urban area). The microenvironments were selected based on the time-activity diary finished by 1500 students from both universities. Simultaneously, the air exchange rate was measured in each microenvironment. PM2.5, elements, inorganic ions and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the samples were determined. The peak concentrations were observed in dinning halls, whereas PM2.5 in dormitories was the largest contributor to personal exposure because students spend more than half of a day there. Furthermore, source apportionment by positive matrix factorization (PMF) will be carried out to understand the source of personal exposure to PM2.5. Especially, efforts will be put on determing the contributions of primary combustion, secondary sulfate and organics, secondary nitrate, and mechanically generated PM, which present different infiltration behavior and are indoor PM2.5 of ambient origin, with help of air exchange rate data. The results would be benefit for refining the understanding of the contribution of PM2.5 of ambient (outdoor) origin to the daily PM2.5 personal exposures. Acknowledgments:This study has been funded by Beijing Municipal Commission

  15. Impacts of climate change on spring flower tourism in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanjiong

    2016-04-01

    The beauty of blooming flowers causes spring to be one of the most picturesque and pleasant seasons in which to travel. However, the blooming time of plant species are very sensitive to small changes in climate. Therefore, recent climate change may shift flowering time and, as a result, may affect timing of spring tourism for tourists. In order to prove this assumption, we gathered data of first flowering date and end of flowering date (1963-2014) for 49 common ornamental plants in Beijing, China. In addition, we used the number of messages (2010-2014) posted on Sina Weibo (one of the most popular microblogs sites in China, in use by well over 30% of internet users, with a market penetration similar to the United States' Twitter) to indicate the tourist numbers of five scenic spots in Beijing. These spots are most famous places for seeing spring flowers, including the Summer Palace, Yuyuantan Park, Beijing Botanical Garden, Jingshan Park, Dadu City Wall Relics Park. The results showed that the number of species in flower starts to increase in early spring and peaks in middle spring, and then begins to decrease from late spring. The date when the number of species in flower peaks can be defined as best date of spring flower tourism, because on this day people can see blooming flowers of most plant species. The best date of spring flower tourism varied from March 31 to May 1 among years with a mean of April 20. At above scenic spots characterized by the beauty of blooming flowers, tourist numbers also had a peak value during spring. Furthermore, peak time of tourist numbers derived from Weibo varied among different years and was related to best date of spring flower tour derived from phenological data. This suggests that the time of spring outing for tourists is remarkably attracted by flowering phenology. From 1963 to 2014, the best date of spring flower tour became earlier at a rate of 1.6 days decade-1, but the duration for spring flower tour (defined as width at

  16. O3, SO2, NO2, and UVB measurements in Beijing and Baseline Station of northwestern part of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Song; Zhou, Xiuji; Zhang, Xiachun

    1994-01-01

    A MKII Brewer ozone spectrometer was used in Beijing from Oct. 1990 to June 1991 to measure O3, SO2 and UVB radiation. And since Nov. 1991 a new MKIV Brewer spectrometer, which can take the measurements of O3, SO2, NO2 and UVB radiation, has been set up in Beijing. The MKII Brewer spectrometer was moved to Qinghai baseline station which is on the Qinghai-tibetean plateau in the northwestern part of China. Both the data in Beijing and Qinghai baseline station has been analyzed and some results will be shown here along with the ozone profiles botained through the Umkehr program given by AES of Canada for the Brewer ozone spectrometer.

  17. An Examination of the Impact of Air from China on Air Quality in Hokkaido, Japan Before, During, and After the Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, G. A.; Akimoto, H.; Kanaya, Y.; Takigawa, M.; Hirokawa, J.; Hasebe, F.; Fujiwara, M.; Ishida, K.; Miyagawa, K.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Celarier, E.; Krotkov, N.; Christensen, S.; Kellams, N.; Lehmann, B.; Pietrzak, T. G.

    2009-05-01

    During July through September 2008 pollution controls in China associated with the Beijing Olympics led to a decrease of emissions of about 30%, as observed by NASA's OMI instrument on the Aura satellite. Pollution from China has an impact on air quality throughout East Asia. In this presentation, we examine specifically the impact of China's pollution on Hokkaido, Japan through the use of Aura satellite data (2004 - 2008), ozonesonde data (2000 - 2008), and data from air quality surface monitors (2000 - 2008). We also examine the year-to-year variability in meteorological flow regimes through trajectory model simulations of transport to Japan from the areas around Beijing and Shanghai, China and around Seoul, South Korea in order to apportion remote sources of pollution. These simulations indicate that while August 2008 experienced less frequent incursions of air from Beijing than previous years, at least one pollution event in Hokkaido in early August can be linked to the Beijing area.

  18. A GIS technology based potential eco-risk assessment of metals in urban soils in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological risks of heavy metals in urban soils were evaluated using Beijing, China as an example. Cadmium, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Ni contents of 233 surface soils sampled by 1 min latitude × 1 min longitude grid were used to identify their spatial distribution patterns and potential emission sources. Throughout the city, longer the duration of urbanization greater was the accumulations of heavy metals especially, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. The soil Zn mainly came from the wears of vehicular tires. Point source emissions of heavy metals were few and far in the downwind south–east quadrant of Beijing. The calculated risk indices showed potential median eco-risks in the ancient central city. No potential high eco-risk due to soil-borne heavy metals was found. The potential medium eco-risk areas in Beijing would expand from the initial 24 to 110 km2 if soil pH were to reduce by 0.5 units in anticipation. - Highlights: ► Longer the time of urbanization, greater heavy metal accumulations were in the soils. ► Point source emissions of heavy metals are few in Beijing urban areas. ► The Zn enrichments in urban soils were caused by vehicle tires wearing. ► No high eco-risk areas were observed in Beijing. ► The decrease of soil pH will cause the expansion of medium eco-risk areas in Beijing. - Spatial distributions and potential eco-risks of soil-borne heavy metals in Beijing.

  19. Strategy on China's Security-oriented Disaster Reduction in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Lei

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a study of strategies on the construction of China's scientific and caltural capacities for security-oriented disaster reduction from a cross-disciplinary perspective and based on an analysis of the causes of disasters and accidents in China in the 20th century and a prediction of the disaster situation in the 21st century.

  20. China Overseas Plaza A Masterpiece to Beijing Presented by China Overseas Property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A sea of changes have taken place in China since the country adopted the reform and opening-up policy 30 years ago. The legend of China Overseas Holdings Limited was also created during the 30-year pursuit of economic revival.

  1. The Competitiveness of China in the 21st Century: Analysing China's Human Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáková, Markéta

    2015-01-01

    The diploma thesis aims to discourse how China´s competitiveness has developed in the 21st century, with a special focus on human capital as one of the key factors of production that greatly fosters competitive advantage. The first chapter builds up a theoretical framework for the research part of the thesis. It reviews the concepts of competitiveness, Michael Porter´s diamond, and the theory of human capital. The second chapter examines trends and challenges of China´s competitive advantage ...

  2. Some Observations on Cultural Opposites in Contemporary China: Kunming and Beijing Twenty Years Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Vučinić-Nešković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the cultural opposites observed in various segments of Chinese culture during the author's three stays in China over a period of twenty years. The first and second stay, in 1986 and 1989 respectively, coincided with the initial period of the implementation of modernization reforms in China, when their results were just beginning to be felt. The third stay was in 2009, towards the end of the third decade of reform implementation, at the time of an already developed marketoriented communism. The paper's main thesis is that most of the phenomena observed in present-day urban China can be assigned to opposite categories, namely Chinese-Western and traditional- contemporary. Cultural opposites have been observed in the sphere of tourism and the behavior of both Chinese and foreign visitors, in the use of Chinese and English in notices and signs in public places, and in the promotion of traditional and modern architecture. In addition, they have been noted in the presentation of arts and crafts and industrial products, in the manner of consumption of hot drinks, and in the combining of Chinese and foreign cuisine. They are also evident in a Beijing Opera performance adapted both to the modern Chinese and to foreigners, and in the traditional Chinese exercises and western dances performed in public parks. In conclusion, the paper suggests that the process of establishing connections between China and the West is being carried on in a moderate and controlled way. In the globalization process cultural opposites coexist and merge, imparting new features to Chinese culture.

  3. Bright and Not-So-Bright Prospects for Women in Physics in China-Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling-An; Yang, Zhongqin; Ma, Wanyun

    2009-04-01

    Science in China-Beijing is enjoying a healthy increase in funding year by year, so the prospects for physicists are also bright. However, employment discrimination against women, formerly unthinkable, is becoming more and more explicit as the country evolves toward a market economy. Some recruitment notices bluntly state that only men will be considered, or impose restrictions upon potential female candidates. Female associate professors in many institutions are forced to retire at age 55, compared with 60 for men. This double-pinching discrimination against both younger and older women threatens to lead to a "pincer" effect, more serious than the "scissors" effect. Indeed, the ratio of senior-level women physicists in general has dropped significantly in recent years in China. Ironically, the number of female students applying for graduate studies is on the rise, as it is becoming increasingly difficult for them to compete with men in the job market with just an undergraduate degree. The Chinese Physical Society has made certain efforts to promote the image of women physicists, but it will take time and effort to reverse the trend.

  4. Organochlorine pesticide residuals in chickens and eggs at a poultry farm in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, S. [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Geosciences and Center for Applied Environmental Research, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64110-2499 (United States)], E-mail: taos@urban.pku.edu.cn; Liu, W.X.; Li, X.Q.; Zhou, D.X.; Li, X.; Yang, Y.F.; Yue, D.P. [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Coveney, R.M. [Department of Geosciences and Center for Applied Environmental Research, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64110-2499 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Chicken organs, animal feed, droppings, and ambient air were sampled at a farm in Beijing to determine the concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and metabolites (DDTs). Mean fresh weight concentrations of HCHs and DDTs were 0.122 {+-} 0.061 ng/g and 0.051 {+-} 0.038 ng/g in the muscles. These values are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those reported in China in 1980. Contaminated feed was the main source of HCHs and DDTs. Only 12.8% of HCH and 3.3% of DDT of the amount consumed were excreted. Accumulated quantities of HCHs and DDTs increased during growth. However, concentrations of HCHs and DDTs did not increase because of dilution from rapid growth. Based on the observed residual levels in mature chicken and the average diet of residents of China, the contributions from chicken and egg consumption to per capita daily intake of HCHs and DDTs were 487% and 88% of those of fish consumption. - Ingestion of chicken and eggs is an important pathway of HCHs and DDTs exposure.

  5. Report of recombinant norovirus GII.g/GII.12 in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowei Sang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Norovirus (NoV has been recognized as the most important cause of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis affecting all age group people in the world. Genetic recombination is a common occurance in RNA viruses and many recombinant NoV strains have been described since it was first reported in 1997. However, the knowledge of recombinant NoV in China is extremely limited. METHODS: A total of 685 stool specimens were tested for NoV infection from the acute gastroenteritis patients who visited one general hospital in Beijing from April 2009 to November 2011. The virus recombination was identified by constructing phylogenetic trees of two genes, further SimPlot and the maximum chi-square analysis. RESULTS: The overall positive rate was 9.6% (66/685. GII.4 New Orleans 2009 and GII.4 2006b variants were the dominant genotype. Four GII.g/GII.12 and one GII.12/GII.3 recombinant strains were confirmed, and all derived from adult outpatients. The predictive recombination point occurred at the open reading frame (ORF1/ORF2 overlap. CONCLUSIONS: The GII.g ORF1/GII.12ORF2 recombinant has been reported in several countries and it was the first report of this recombinant in China.

  6. The Value of Clean Air in China: Evidence from Beijing and Shanghai

    OpenAIRE

    Jijun Tan; Jinhua Zhao

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) of Beijing and Shanghai residents for improving the air quality of the two cities from their levels prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games to the level achieved during the Olympics. The data are obtained from a contingent valuation study conducted through face-to-face interviews in June 2008 in Beijing and Shanghai prior to the Beijing Olympics, during which time there was intensive debate about Beijing¡¯s air quality. Residents in both cities are wil...

  7. National Identity in China – Contribution from the Beijing Olympic Games? A Survey among Residents of Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoping Ying; Arnulf Kolstad; Yiyin Yang

    2013-01-01

    This article is dealing with the consequences of Beijing 2000 Olympic Games for the host city population and focuses primarily on three areas of expectations and impact: (1) On China’s international reputation; (2) On enhancing national pride, social and national identity, and (3) On the impact on the “individual self” and how BOG may give personal benefits. To separate the consequences in this way, between the impact on “international”, “national,” and “personal” matters, is particularly int...

  8. Spatial-Temporal Variations of Water Quality and Its Relationship to Land Use and Land Cover in Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang Chen; Weiqi Zhou; Steward T. A. Pickett; Weifeng Li; Lijian Han

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization with intense land use and land cover (LULC) change and explosive population growth has a great impact on water quality. The relationship between LULC characteristics and water quality provides important information for non-point sources (NPS) pollution management. In this study, we first quantified the spatial-temporal patterns of five water quality variables in four watersheds with different levels of urbanization in Beijing, China. We then examined the effects of LULC on ...

  9. Concentrations, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wentao; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Xue, Miao; Zhao, Jingyu; Zhang, Na; Wang, Rong; Cao, Jun; Tao, Shu

    2010-01-01

    The concentrations, profiles, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 40 surface soil samples collected from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China in 2007, and all sampling sites were far from industrial areas, roadsides and other pollution sources, and across a range of soil types in remote, rural villages and urban areas. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 31.6 to 1475.0 ng/g, with an arithmetic average of 336...

  10. Beijing International Fashion Brand Promotion Week Opened

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Under the support of China National Garment Association,Beijing Municipal Bureau of Industrial Development, France Advanced Fashion Institute, Fashion Beijing Expo Organizing Committee and Beijing Fashion Textile Industry Association organized 2006 Autumn & Winter Beijing International Fashion Brand Promotion Week in Beijing Asia Hotel from September 20 to 23.

  11. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in dairy cattle in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuhuang; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhenjie; Li, Junqiang; Wang, Chenrong; Zhao, Jinfeng; Hu, Suhui; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Ming

    2016-03-30

    822 fecal samples from cattle in six areas of Beijing were examined with microscopy for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts. The overall infection rates for Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis were 2.55% and 1.09%, respectively. Cryptosporidium was only detected in calves and heifers, whereas G. duodenalis was found in all age groups. Cryptosporidium spp. were characterized with a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and DNA sequence analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. Two Cryptosporidium species were identified: Cryptosporidium parvum (n=12) and Cryptosporidium andersoni (n=9). Six C. parvum isolates were successfully subtyped with the gp60 gene and three subtypes were detected: IIdA19G1 (n=1), IIdA17G1 (n=1), and IIdA15G1 (n=4). Subtype IIdA17G1 is reported for the first time in cattle worldwide. Nine G. duodenalis isolates were analyzed by sequencing the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene, and only G. duodenalis assemblage E was identified. Therefore, the predominance of C. parvum detected in calves was identical to that found in the Xinjiang Uyghur and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Regions, but differed considerably from that in Henan, Heilongjiang, and Shannxi Provinces. In contrast, the predominance of G. duodenalis assemblage E was more or less similar to its predominance in other areas of China or countries. Our findings confirm the unique character of the C. parvum IId subtypes in China. More systematic studies are required to better understand the transmission of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis in cattle in China.

  12. Control costs, enhance quality, and increase revenue in three top general public hospitals in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lue-Ping Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With market-oriented economic and health-care reform, public hospitals in China have received unprecedented pressures from governmental regulations, public opinions, and financial demands. To adapt the changing environment and keep pace of modernizing healthcare delivery system, public hospitals in China are expanding clinical services and improving delivery efficiency, while controlling costs. Recent experiences are valuable lessons for guiding future healthcare reform. Here we carefully study three teaching hospitals, to exemplify their experiences during this period. METHODS: We performed a systematic analysis on hospitalization costs, health-care quality and delivery efficiencies from 2006 to 2010 in three teaching hospitals in Beijing, China. The analysis measured temporal changes of inpatient cost per stay (CPS, cost per day (CPD, inpatient mortality rate (IMR, and length of stay (LOS, using a generalized additive model. FINDINGS: There were 651,559 hospitalizations during the period analyzed. Averaged CPS was stable over time, while averaged CPD steadily increased by 41.7% (P<0.001, from CNY 1,531 in 2006 to CNY 2,169 in 2010. The increasing CPD seemed synchronous with the steady rising of the national annual income per capita. Surgical cost was the main contributor to the temporal change of CPD, while medicine and examination costs tended to be stable over time. From 2006 and 2010, IMR decreased by 36%, while LOS reduced by 25%. Increasing hospitalizations with higher costs, along with an overall stable CPS, reduced IMR, and shorter LOS, appear to be the major characteristics of these three hospitals at present. INTERPRETATIONS: These three teaching hospitals have gained some success in controlling costs, improving cares, adopting modern medical technologies, and increasing hospital revenues. Effective hospital governance and physicians' professional capacity plus government regulations and supervisions may have played a role

  13. Ministerial Presentation: Holy See. Intervention of Monsignor Michael W. Banach, Permanent Representative of the Holy See to the International Atomic Energy Agency [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I have the honour to deliver this Statement in the name of His Excellency Archbishop Dominique Mamberti, Secretary for the Holy See's Relations with States. At the outset, allow me to express my gratitude to the competent Authorities of the People's Republic of China, the Chinese Atomic Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency for their organization of what is developing into a most fascinating Conference. The participants in this Conference might be interested in knowing that the Holy See is a Founding Member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The constantly increasing world-wide demand for energy requires a serious reflection on the role of nuclear energy. The reflections that follow are offered as the Holy See's contribution, based on its specific nature, to the discussions on nuclear energy in the 21st Century. It is well known that nuclear technology presents not only risks, but also great opportunities for humanity. In this perspective, while it is important to recognize the inalienable right of States 'to develop research, production and use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes without discrimination' (Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Article IV.1), it is equally important to recognize that this right is not absolute. It is subject to the condition of an effective process of disarmament and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. It is, above all, a right in relation to that of each other State. Each State is called to follow the ways of development and the common good of peoples and not national power, be it economic or military. A wise energy policy necessarily leads to the development of peoples - a development that is respectful of the natural environment, as a good in itself and as a good from which life and human health also depend, and ever mindful of the most disadvantaged populations (Pope Benedict XVI, Angelus Address, July 29, 2007). As affirmed by the United Nations Declaration on the Right to

  14. Beijing- the Forming of a Polycentric Megacity

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Zhi; Kong, Chen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Last century witnessed the increase of metropolitan regions and much attention has been paid on them. The concept of megacity appeared during the development process of metropolitan regions. Due to the rapid urbanisation and the population explosion in China, there are three main megacities which have great influence on the national economy. In this thesis, we choose one of the main megacities - Beijing megacity, as our case and the research question is how to strengthen the polycent...

  15. Modeling of urban heat island and its impacts on thermal circulations in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Wang, Tijian; Xie, Min; Zhuang, Bingliang; Li, Shu; Han, Yong; Cheng, Nianliang

    2016-08-01

    Through regulating the land-atmosphere energy balance, urbanization plays an important role in modifying local circulations and cross-border transport of air pollutants. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) metropolitan area in northern China is frequently influenced by complex atmospheric thermal circulations due to its special topography and geographic position. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model combined with remote sensing is used to explore the urbanization impacts on local circulations in the BTH region. The urban heat island (UHI) effect generated around Beijing and Tianjin shows complex interactions with local thermal circulations. Due to the combined effects of UHI and topography, the UHI circulation around Beijing and valley breeze at the southern slopes of Yan Mountain are coupled together to reinforce each other. At the coastal cities, the increased land/sea temperature gradient considerably accelerates the sea breeze along Bohai Bay and moves the sea breeze front further inland to reach as far as Beijing. This study may lay a foundation for the better understanding of air pollutant dispersion on complex terrain.

  16. Master Cup 2011: The 2nd Master Cup International Illustration Biennial, Master Illustrators Federation, Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Mumberson, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Master Illustrators Federation, Beijing Ziteng Gallery with joint hosts Beijing Yingbao Printmaking House, Beijing Cartoon Centre, Caijing Visual Arts Center, Sachen Publishing House and Red Man Art International. International cartoon and illustration biennial with theme Noah's Ark: New World, New Age, New Hope. World entry winner, best work prize for illustration, honorary prize, excellent prize and selected prize. Best work is awarded a medal and a cash prize. Prize judges: Duchhuan Xia, C...

  17. Seismic Hazard and Risk Assessments for Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan, China, Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, F.; Wang, Z.; Liu, J.

    2011-01-01

    Seismic hazard and risk in the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan, China, area were estimated from 500-year intensity observations. First, we digitized the intensity observations (maps) using ArcGIS with a cell size of 0.1 ?? 0.1??. Second, we performed a statistical analysis on the digitized intensity data, determined an average b value (0.39), and derived the intensity-frequency relationship (hazard curve) for each cell. Finally, based on a Poisson model for earthquake occurrence, we calculated seismic risk in terms of a probability of I ??? 7, 8, or 9 in 50 years. We also calculated the corresponding 10 percent probability of exceedance of these intensities in 50 years. The advantages of assessing seismic hazard and risk from intensity records are that (1) fewer assumptions (i. e., earthquake source and ground motion attenuation) are made, and (2) site-effect is included. Our study shows that the area has high seismic hazard and risk. Our study also suggests that current design peak ground acceleration or intensity for the area may not be adequate. ?? 2010 Birkh??user / Springer Basel AG.

  18. Evaluation of ecosystem health for regional development in the southwestern Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuehua LIU; Shuang ZHANG; Haoyang XU; Xiaoming SHAO

    2008-01-01

    Ecosystem health assessment is one of the most important issues in regional ecological quality and safety studies. It also has a great significance to ecological conser-vation and regional development. This study focused on assessing the health status of forest, agriculture and urban ecosystems in the southwestern Beijing, China, including the Fangshan and Fengtai Districts. Based on field surveys and data collection, an assessment index system containing the vigor, organization and resilience factors was developed to measure the ecosystem health. Each index was scored from 1 to 5, representing five levels that contribute to the whole ecosystem health. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method was used to measure the weights of each index and three factors, and thus an overall score for a certain ecosystem was calculated. The results show that the forest ecosystem in the Fangshan District had higher health value than the Fengtai District, while the urban eco-system had a slightly lower value in the Fangshan District than the Fengtai District. Both districts show lower resili-ence values in forest and urban ecosystems. Maintaining the ecosystem health will definitely benefit the long-term development of two districts. This study suggested that an approach for assessing the regional ecosystem health could be further developed to address spatial and synergy rela-tionships between ecosystems and the three health factors.

  19. Spatial pattern of impervious surfaces and their impacts on land surface temperature in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Rong-bo; OUYANG Zhi-yun; ZHENG Hua; LI Wei-feng; SCHIENKE Erich W; WANG Xiao-ke

    2007-01-01

    Land surface temperature (LST), which is heavily influenced by urban surface structures, is a significant parameter in urban environmental analysis. This study examined the effect impervious surfaces (IS) spatial patterns have on LST in Beijing, China. A classification and regression tree model (CART) was adopted to estimate IS as a continuous variable using Landsat images from two seasons combined with QuickBird. LST was retrieved from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) image to examine the relationships between IS and LST. The results revealed that CART was capable of consistently predicting LST with acceptable accuracy (correlation coefficient of 0.94 and the average error of 8.59%). Spatial patterns of IS exhibited changing gradients across the various urban-rural transects, with LST values showing a concentric shape that increased as you moved from the outskirts towards the downtown areas.Transect analysis also indicated that the changes in both IS and LST patterns were similar at various resolution levels, which suggests a distinct linear relationship between them. Results of correlation analysis further showed that IS tended to be positively correlated with LST, and that the correlation coefficients increased from 0.807 to 0.925 with increases in IS pixel size. The findings identified in this study provide a theoretical basis for improving urban planning efforts to lessen urban temperatures and thus dampen urban heat island effects.

  20. Characteristics of Non-Point Source Pollution in the Watershed of Miyun Reservoir, Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓燕; 王一峋; 李庭芳; 贺伟; 胡秋菊; 张弘芬

    2002-01-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus are the major nutrients to cause eutrophication to degrade water quality of the Miyun Reservoir, a very important drinking water source of Beijing, China, and they are mainly from non-point sources. The watershed in Miyun County was selected as the study region with a total area of 1400 km2. Four typical monitoring catchments and two experimental units were used to monitor the precipitation, runoff, sediment yield and pollutant loading related to various land uses in the meantime. The results show that the total nutrient loss amounts of TN and TP are 898.07 t/a, and 40.70 t/a, respectively, in which nutrients N and P carried by runoff are 91.3 % and 77.3 %, respectively. There is relatively heavier soil erosion in the northern mountain area whereas the main nutrient loss occurs near the northeast edge of the reservoir. Different land uses would influence the loss amounts of non-point source pollutants. The amount of nutrient loss from the agricultural land per unit is highest, that from forestry comes next and that from grassland is lowest. However, due to the variability of land use areas, agricultural land contributes a lot to TP and forestry lands to TN.

  1. Carbon storages in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuping Liu

    Full Text Available Afforestation is a mitigation option to reduce the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as well as the predicted high possibility of climate change. In this paper, vegetation survey data, statistical database, National Forest Resource Inventory database, and allometric equations were used to estimate carbon density (carbon mass per hectare and carbon storage, and identify the size and spatial distribution of forest carbon sinks in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China. From 2001 to the end of 2010, the forest areas increased more than 2.3 million ha, and total carbon storage in forest ecosystems was 173.02 Tg C, of which 82.80 percent was contained in soil in the top 0-100 cm layer. Younger forests have a large potential for enhancing carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems than older ones. Regarding future afforestation efforts, it will be more effective to increase forest area and vegetation carbon density through selection of appropriate tree species and stand structure according to local climate and soil conditions, and application of proper forest management including land-shaping, artificial tending and fencing plantations. It would be also important to protect the organic carbon in surface soils during forest management.

  2. Accessibility of Catering Service Venues and Adolescent Drinking in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Lu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the association between accessibility of catering service venues and adolescents’ alcohol use over the previous 30 days. The data were collected from cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2014, 2223 students at 27 high schools in Chaoyang and Xicheng districts, Beijing using self-administered questionnaires to collect the adolescents information on socio-demographic characteristics and recent alcohol experiences. The accessibility of, and proximity to, catering service venues were summarized by weights, which were calculated by multiplication of the type-weight and the distance-weight. All sampled schools were categorized into three subgroups (low, middle, and high geographic density based on the tertile of nearby catering service venues, and a multi-level logistic regression analysis was performed to explore variance between the school levels. Considering the setting characteristics, the catering service venues weighted value was found to account for 8.6% of the school level variance of adolescent alcohol use. The odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of drinking over the past 30-days among adolescents with medium and high accessibility of catering service venues were 1.17 (0.86, 1.57 and 1.47 (1.06, 2.02, respectively (p < 0.001 for trend test. This study addressed a gap in the adolescent drinking influence by the catering service venues around schools in China. Results suggest that the greater accessibility of catering service venues around schools is associated with a growing risk of recent drinking.

  3. Radon Concentrations in Drinking Water in Beijing City, China and Contribution to Radiation Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Yun Wu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 222Rn concentrations in drinking water samples from Beijing City, China, were determined based on a simple method for the continuous monitoring of radon using a radon-in-air monitor coupled to an air-water exchanger. A total of 89 water samples were sampled and analyzed for their 222Rn content. The observed radon levels ranged from detection limit up to 49 Bq/L. The calculated arithmetic and geometric means of radon concentrations in all measured samples were equal to 5.87 and 4.63 Bq/L, respectively. The average annual effective dose from ingestion of radon in drinking water was 2.78 μSv, and that of inhalation of water-borne radon was 28.5 μSv. It is concluded that it is not the ingestion of waterborne radon, but inhalation of the radon escaping from water that is a substantial part of the radiological hazard. Radon in water is a big concern for public health, especially for consumers who directly use well water with very high radon concentration.

  4. Perceptions of Different Stakeholders on Reclaimed Water Reuse: The Case of Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Public involvement is critical to the successful implementation of reclaimed water reuse programs. Based on the participatory research method, we studied the attitudes of the stakeholders who are involved in reclaimed water reuse in Beijing, China. Results showed that the general public’s knowledge on water resources was poor, while their awareness on reclaimed water reuse was high. The general public showed a strong acceptance of non-contact and non-potable reclaimed water reuse, but their acceptance of the three major water reuse types of river water supplement, park water supplement, and agriculture irrigation was not high. The beneficial use of reclaimed water was admired by water resource managers, industrial sectors, and researchers, and these stakeholders strongly supported the advancement of reclaimed water reuse. However, some of the stakeholders showed concerns about the potential risks from reclaimed wastewater reuse. Among them, risks from waste water treatment facilities were the biggest concern. Stakeholders’ perception of reclaimed water was influenced by their social-economic attributes. This study will enrich the current survey findings on public perception of reclaimed water reuse, particularly in developing countries.

  5. Radon concentrations in drinking water in Beijing City, China and contribution to radiation dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Yun; Ma, Yong-Zhong; Cui, Hong-Xing; Liu, Jian-Xiang; Sun, Ya-Ru; Shang, Bing; Su, Xu

    2014-10-27

    (222)Rn concentrations in drinking water samples from Beijing City, China, were determined based on a simple method for the continuous monitoring of radon using a radon-in-air monitor coupled to an air-water exchanger. A total of 89 water samples were sampled and analyzed for their (222)Rn content. The observed radon levels ranged from detection limit up to 49 Bq/L. The calculated arithmetic and geometric means of radon concentrations in all measured samples were equal to 5.87 and 4.63 Bq/L, respectively. The average annual effective dose from ingestion of radon in drinking water was 2.78 μSv, and that of inhalation of water-borne radon was 28.5 μSv. It is concluded that it is not the ingestion of waterborne radon, but inhalation of the radon escaping from water that is a substantial part of the radiological hazard. Radon in water is a big concern for public health, especially for consumers who directly use well water with very high radon concentration.

  6. Characterization of the chemical composition of PM2.5 emitted from on-road China III and China IV diesel trucks in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bobo; Shen, Xianbao; Cao, Xinyue; Yao, Zhiliang; Wu, Yunong

    2016-05-01

    The composition of diesel exhaust fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is of growing interest because of its impacts on health and climatic factors and its application in source apportionment and aerosol modeling. We characterized the detailed chemical composition of the PM2.5, including the organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble ions (WSIs), and elemental contents, emitted from China III and China IV diesel trucks (nine each) based on real-world measurements in Beijing using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). Carbonaceous compounds were the dominant components (totaling approximately 87%) of the PM2.5, similar to the results (greater than 80% of the PM2.5) of our previous study of on-road China III diesel trucks. In general, the amounts of individual component groups (carbonaceous compounds, WSIs, and elements) and PM2.5 emissions for China IV diesel trucks were lower than those of China III diesel trucks of the same size, except for the WSIs and elements for the light- and medium-duty diesel trucks. The EC/OC mass ratios were strongly dependent on the emission standards, and the ratios of China IV diesel trucks were higher than those of China III diesel trucks of the same size. The chemical species in the PM2.5 were significantly affected by the driving conditions. Overall, the emission factors (EFs) of the PM2.5 and OC under non-highway (NHW) driving conditions were higher than those under highway (HW) driving conditions, and the EC/OC mass ratios presented an increasing trend, with decreasing OC/PM2.5 and increasing EC/PM2.5 from NHW to HW driving conditions; similar trends were reported in our previous study. In addition, Pearson's correlation coefficients among the PM2.5 species were analyzed to determine the relationships among the various chemical components. PMID:26897401

  7. Sources and Processes Affecting Fine Particulate Matter Pollution over North China: An Adjoint Analysis of the Beijing APEC Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Shao, Jingyuan; Lu, Xiao; Zhao, Yuanhong; Hu, Yongyun; Henze, Daven K; Liao, Hong; Gong, Sunling; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-08-16

    The stringent emission controls during the APEC 2014 (the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Summit; November 5-11, 2014) offer a unique opportunity to quantify factors affecting fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution over North China. Here we apply a four-dimensional variational data assimilation system using the adjoint model of GEOS-Chem to address this issue. Hourly surface measurements of PM2.5 and SO2 for October 15-November 14, 2014 are assimilated into the model to optimize daily aerosol primary and precursor emissions over North China. Measured PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing average 50.3 μg m(-3) during APEC, 43% lower than the mean concentration (88.2 μg m(-3)) for the whole period including APEC. Model results attribute about half of the reduction to meteorology due to active cold surge occurrences during APEC. Assimilation of surface measurements largely reduces the model biases and estimates 6%-30% lower aerosol emissions in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region during APEC than in late October. We further demonstrate that high PM2.5 events in Beijing during this period can be occasionally contributed by natural mineral dust, but more events show large sensitivities to inorganic aerosol sources, particularly emissions of ammonia (NH3) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) reflecting strong formation of aerosol nitrate in the fall season. PMID:27434821

  8. Water Sources and Their Protection from the Impact of Microbial Contamination in Rural Areas of Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial contamination of drinking water is a major public health problem in rural China. To explore bacterial contamination in rural areas of Beijing and identify possible causes of bacteria in drinking water samples, water samples were collected from wells in ten rural districts of Beijing, China. Total bacterial count, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking water were then determined and water source and wellhead protection were investigated. The bacterial contamination in drinking water was serious in areas north of Beijing, with the total bacterial count, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in some water samples reaching 88,000 CFU/mL, 1,600 MPN/100 mL and 1,600 MPN/100 mL, respectively. Water source types, well depth, whether the well was adequately sealed and housed, and whether wellhead is above or below ground were the main factors influencing bacterial contamination levels in drinking water. The bacterial contamination was serious in the water of shallow wells and wells that were not closed, had no well housing or had a wellhead below ground level. The contamination sources around wells, including village dry toilets and livestock farms, were well correlated with bacterial contamination. Total bacterial counts were affected by proximity to sewage ditches and polluting industries, however, proximity to landfills did not influence the microbial indicators.

  9. Effects of meteorology and secondary particle formation on visibility during heavy haze events in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Quan, Jiannong; Tie, Xuexi; Li, Xia; Liu, Quan; Gao, Yang; Zhao, Delong

    2015-01-01

    The causes of haze formation in Beijing, China were analyzed based on a comprehensive measurement, including PBL (planetary boundary layer), aerosol composition and concentrations, and several important meteorological parameters such as visibility, RH (relative humidity), and wind speed/direction. The measurement was conducted in an urban location from Nov. 16, 2012 to Jan. 15, 2013. During the period, the visibility varied from >20 km to less than a kilometer, with a minimum visibility of 667 m, causing 16 haze occurrences. During the haze occurrences, the wind speeds were less than 1m/s, and the concentrations of PM2.5 (particle matter with radius less than 2.5 μm) were often exceeded 200 μg/m(3). The correlation between PM2.5 concentration and visibility under different RH values shows that visibility was exponentially decreased with the increase of PM2.5 concentrations when RH was less than 80%. However, when RH was higher than 80%, the relationship was no longer to follow the exponentially decreasing trend, and the visibility maintained in very low values, even with low PM2.5 concentrations. Under this condition, the hygroscopic growth of particles played important roles, and a large amount of water vapor acted as particle matter (PM) for the reduction of visibility. The variations of meteorological parameters (RH, PBL heights, and WS (wind speed)), chemical species in gas-phase (CO, O3, SO2, and NOx), and gas-phase to particle-phase conversions under different visibility ranges were analyzed. The results show that from high visibility (>20 km) to low visibility (<2 km), the averaged PBL decreased from 1.24 km to 0.53 km; wind speeds reduced from 1m/s to 0.5m/s; and CO increased from 0.5 ppmv to 4.0 ppmv, suggesting that weaker transport/diffusion caused the haze occurrences. This study also found that the formation of SPM (secondary particle matter) was accelerated in the haze events. The conversions between SO2 and SO4 as well as NOx to NO3(-) increased

  10. School-Based Primary School Sexuality Education for Migrant Children in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenli; Su, Yufen

    2014-01-01

    In May 2007, Beijing Normal University launched a programme of school-based sexuality education for migrant children in Xingzhi Primary School in Beijing. Over the past seven years, the project team has developed a school-based sexuality education curriculum using the "International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education" published by…

  11. Strategies for Improving Housing Security System in China:A Case Study on Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Since China’s transformation to a market economy, residential segregation has become increasingly serious in Beijing. This paper analyses the problems of "affordable housing" and "low-rent housing" schemes of Beijing and makes suggestions on diminishing the residential segregation of the city by improving the Housing Security System.

  12. Comparison of Air Pollution in Metropolises in China (Beijing) and Japan (Osaka and Nagoya) on the Basis of the Levels of Contaminants and Mutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Souleymane; Minami, Hiroki; Abe, Maho; Furukawa, Nami; Ono, Ryo; Hasei, Tomohiro; Toriba, Akira; Tang, Ning; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Funasaka, Kunihiro; Asakawa, Daichi; Ikemori, Fumikazu; Watanabe, Masanari; Honda, Naoko; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Watanabe, Tetsushi

    2016-01-01

    Public concern regarding the transport of air pollutants from mainland East Asia to the leeward area by the prevailing westerlies in spring and winter monsoon has been growing in recent years. We collected total suspended particle (TSP) in Beijing, a metropolis of China located windward of Japan, in spring (late February 2011-May 2011) and in winter (November 2012-early February 2013), then analyzed metals, ions, and organic compounds and mutagenicity, and compared the pollution levels with samples collected at two Japanese metropolises (Osaka and Nagoya) during the same periods. The medians of concentration of TSP and other factors in Beijing were much larger than those in the Japanese metropolises. Especially, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were remarkably high in Beijing in winter, and the median of total PAHs concentration in Beijing was 62-63 times larger than that in the Japanese sites. The mutagenicity of TSP from Beijing toward Salmonella typhimurium YG1024, with and without a mammalian metabolic system (S9 mix), was 13-25 times higher than that from the Japanese sites in winter. These results suggest that air pollution levels in Beijing are very high compared with those at the two Japanese metropolises we evaluated. The diagnostic ratios of PAHs and nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) suggest that the major sources of PAHs and NPAHs in Beijing are different from those at the two Japanese sites in winter, and that the major source in Beijing is coal/biomass combustion.

  13. Land cover dynamics of different topographic conditions in Beijing,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiaopu; TANG Zhiyao; CUI Haiting; FANG Jingyun

    2007-01-01

    Topographic conditions play an important role in controlling land cover dynamic processes.In this study,remotely sensed data and the geographic information system were applied to analyze the changes in land cover along topographic gradients from 1978 to 2001 in Beijing,a rapidly urbanized mega city in China.The study was based on five periods of land cover maps derived from remotely sensed data:Landsat MSS for 1978,Landsat TM for 1984,"1992,1996 and 2001,and the digital elevation model (DEM) derived from 1:250,000 topographic map.The whole area was divided into ten land cover types:conifer forest,broadleaf forest,mixed forest,shrub,brushwood,meadow,farmland,built-up,water body and bare land.The results are summarized as follows.(1) Shrub,forest,farmland and builtup consist of the main land cover types of the Beijing area.The most significant land cover change from 1978 to 2001 was the decrease of the farmland and expansion of the builtup area.Farmland decreased from 6354 to 3813 km2 in the 23 years,while the built-up area increased from 421 to 2642 km2.Meanwhile,the coverage of forest increased from 17.2% to 24.7% of the total area.The conversion matrix analysis indicated that the transformation of farmland to the built-up area was the most significant process and afforestation was the primary cause of the replacement of shrub to forest.(2) Topographic conditions are of great importance to the distribution of land cover types and the process of land cover changes.Elevation has an intensive impact on the distribution of land cover types.The area below 100 m mostly consists of farmland and built-up areas,while the area above 100 m is mainly covered by shrub and forest.Shrub has the maximum frequency in areas between 100 and 1000 m,while forest has dominance in areas above 800 m.According to the analysis of land cover changes in different ranges of elevation,the greatest change below 100 m was the process of urbanization.The process of the main land cover change

  14. Landscape practices and representations in eighteenth-century Dongchuan, Southwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Fei

    2012-01-01

    My doctorial thesis, entitled ‘Landscape Practices and Representations in Dongchuan, Southwest Eighteenth-Century China’, focuses on the interdisciplinary study of landscape, space and architecture in Southwest eighteenth-century China. Through intensive archival research and contemporary ethnographic fieldwork I demonstrate that despite the Qing Empire’s remaking of the indigenous landscape in the eighteenth century, indigenous concepts of landscape and space have survived to the present in ...

  15. “The Olympic Torch Burns, and Great Suspicion Blazes” – China Narratives in the German Media during the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Poerner

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the description of China in leading German daily and weekly newspapers during the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. On the basis of a brief outline of the main China narratives in German media since the 1950s, this paper analyses China-related articles which were published during the period August 8-15, 2008. It argues that reports on China are mostly based on well established German notions of China and centre around the image of a despotic and/or dangerous China. Theref...

  16. 1999 Beijing Music Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    THE Beijing Music Festival has been a labour of love for conductor Yu Long since he began the event in 1998. For Beijing, the ancient capital of China, to have its own music festival on the international level, has been the long cherished wish of Yu Long, chief organizer of the Beijing Music Festival. In recent years he settled in Hong Kong and worked as the conductor of many excellent philharmonic orchestras from

  17. The Perspective Theory of Zong Bing in the 5th Century of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuKeming; ZuoHongshan

    2003-01-01

    A brief historical introduction of researches on perspective in ancient China is presented,this paper studied and discussed the perspective theory or Zong Bing (宗炳) in the 5th century of China, including Zong Bing and this An introduction to Landscape Painting, and its mathematical basis, drawing ideas of Zong Bing as well.

  18. The Three Gorges Dam of China: Technology to Bridge Two Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahby, Wafeek S.

    2003-01-01

    Some of the most sophisticated 20th-century technologies have been applied to build the largest hydroelectric dam in the world, the Three Gorges Dam Project (TGDP) of China. The author administered a study abroad course in China from May 27 to June 10, 2000, to study the massive project as it approached the halfway mark of its second and most…

  19. Multilevel Modelling with Spatial Interaction Effects with Application to an Emerging Land Market in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanpeng Dong

    Full Text Available This paper develops a methodology for extending multilevel modelling to incorporate spatial interaction effects. The motivation is that classic multilevel models are not specifically spatial. Lower level units may be nested into higher level ones based on a geographical hierarchy (or a membership structure--for example, census zones into regions but the actual locations of the units and the distances between them are not directly considered: what matters is the groupings but not how close together any two units are within those groupings. As a consequence, spatial interaction effects are neither modelled nor measured, confounding group effects (understood as some sort of contextual effect that acts 'top down' upon members of a group with proximity effects (some sort of joint dependency that emerges between neighbours. To deal with this, we incorporate spatial simultaneous autoregressive processes into both the outcome variable and the higher level residuals. To assess the performance of the proposed method and the classic multilevel model, a series of Monte Carlo simulations are conducted. The results show that the proposed method performs well in retrieving the true model parameters whereas the classic multilevel model provides biased and inefficient parameter estimation in the presence of spatial interactions. An important implication of the study is to be cautious of an apparent neighbourhood effect in terms of both its magnitude and statistical significance if spatial interaction effects at a lower level are suspected. Applying the new approach to a two-level land price data set for Beijing, China, we find significant spatial interactions at both the land parcel and district levels.

  20. Distribution of Vascular Plant Species Richness Along an Elevational Gradient in the Dongling Mountains, Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Quantifying spatial patterns of species richness and determining the processes that give rise to these patterns are core problems In blodlveralty theory. The aim of the present paper was to more accurately detect patterns of vascular species richness at different scales along altitudinal gradients in order to further our understanding of biodlverslty patterns and to facilitate studies on relationships between biodiversity and environmental factors. Species richness patterns of total vascular plants species, including trees, shrubs, and herbs, were measured along an altitudinal gradient on one transect on a shady slope in the Dongling Mountains, near Beijing,China. Direct gradient analysis, regression analysis, and geostatistics were applied to describe the spatial patterns of species richness. We found that total vascular species richness did not exhibit a linear pattern of change with altitude, although species groups with different ecological features showed strong elevational patterns different from total species richness. In addition to total vascular plants, analysis of trees, shrubs, and herbs demonstrated remarkable hierarchical structures of species richness with altitude (i.e. patchy structures at small scales and gradients at large scales). Species richness for trees and shrubs had similar spatial characteristics at different scales, but differed from herbs. These results indicated that species groups with similar ecological features exhibit similar biodlveraity patterns with altitude, and studies of biodiversity based on species groups with similar ecological properties or life forms would advance our understanding of variations in species diversity. Furthermore, the gradients or trends appeared to be due mainly to local variations in species richness means with altitude. We also found that the range of spatial scale dependencies of species richness for total vascular plants, trees, shrubs, and herbs was relatively large. Thus, to detect the

  1. Carbon budgets of three temperate forest ecosystems in Dongling Mt.,Beijing,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There is a general agreement that forest ecosystems in the Northern Hemisphere function as signifi-cant sinks for atmospheric CO2; however, their magnitude and distribution remain large uncertainties. In this paper, we report the carbon (C) stock and its change of vegetation, forest floor detritus, and mineral soil, annual net biomass increment and litterfall production, and respiration of vegetation and soils between 1992 to 1994, for three temperate forest ecosystems, birch (Betula platyphylla) forest, oak (Quercus liaotungensis) forest and pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation in Mt. Dongling, Beijing, China. We then evaluate the C budgets of these forest ecosystems. Our results indicated that total C density (organic C per hectare) of these forests ranged from 250 to 300 t C ha-1, of which 35―54 t C ha-1 from vegetation biomass C and 209―244 t C ha-1 from soil organic C (1 m depth, including forest floor detritus). Biomass C of all three forests showed a net increase, with 1.33―3.55 t C ha-1 a-1 during the study period. Litterfall production, vegetation autotrophic respiration, and soil heterotrophic respira-tion were estimated at 1.63―2.34, 2.19―6.93, and 1.81―3.49 t C ha-1 a-1, respectively. Ecosystem gross primary production fluctuated between 5.39 and 12.82 t C ha-1 a-1, about half of which (46%―59%, 3.20―5.89 t C ha-1 a-1) was converted to net primary production. Our results suggested that pine forest fixed C of 4.08 t ha-1 a-1, whereas secondary forests (birch and oak forest) were nearly in balance in CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and ecosystems.

  2. Carbon budgets of three temperate forest ecosystems in Dongling Mt., Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG JingYun; LIU GuoHua; ZHU Biao; WANG XiaoKe; LIU ShaoHui

    2007-01-01

    There is a general agreement that forest ecosystems in the Northern Hemisphere function as significant sinks for atmospheric CO2; however, their magnitude and distribution remain large uncertainties. In this paper, we report the carbon (C) stock and its change of vegetation, forest floor detritus, and mineral soil, annual net biomass increment and litterfall production, and respiration of vegetation and soils between 1992 to 1994, for three temperate forest ecosystems, birch (Betula platyphylla) forest, oak (Quercus liaotungensis) forest and pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation in Mt. Dongling, Beijing, China. We then evaluate the C budgets of these forest ecosystems. Our results indicated that total C density (organic C per hectare) of these forests ranged from 250 to 300 t C ha-1, of which 35―54 t C ha-1 from vegetation biomass C and 209―244 t C ha-1 from soil organic C (1 m depth, including forest floor detritus). Biomass C of all three forests showed a net increase, with 1.33―3.55 t C ha-1 a-1 during the study period. Litterfall production, vegetation autotrophic respiration, and soil heterotrophic respiration were estimated at 1.63―2.34, 2.19―6.93, and 1.81―3.49 t C ha-1 a-1, respectively. Ecosystem gross primary production fluctuated between 5.39 and 12.82 t C ha-1 a-1, about half of which (46%―59%, 3.20―5.89 t C ha-1 a-1) was converted to net primary production. Our results suggested that pine forest fixed C of 4.08 t ha-1 a-1, whereas secondary forests (birch and oak forest) were nearly in balance in CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and ecosystems.

  3. Impact of anthropogenic aerosols on regional climate change in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, B.; Liou, K. N.; He, C.; Lee, W. L.; Gu, Y.; Li, Q.; Leung, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols affect regional climate significantly through radiative (direct and semi-direct) and indirect effects, but the magnitude of these effects over megacities are subject to large uncertainty. In this study, we evaluated the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on regional climate change in Beijing, China using the online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry Model (WRF/Chem) with the Fu-Liou-Gu radiation scheme and a spatial resolution of 4km. We further updated this radiation scheme with a geometric-optics surface-wave (GOS) approach for the computation of light absorption and scattering by black carbon (BC) particles in which aggregation shape and internal mixing properties are accounted for. In addition, we incorporated in WRF/Chem a 3D radiative transfer parameterization in conjunction with high-resolution digital data for city buildings and landscape to improve the simulation of boundary-layer, surface solar fluxes and associated sensible/latent heat fluxes. Preliminary simulated meteorological parameters, fine particles (PM2.5) and their chemical components agree well with observational data in terms of both magnitude and spatio-temporal variations. The effects of anthropogenic aerosols, including BC, on radiative forcing, surface temperature, wind speed, humidity, cloud water path, and precipitation are quantified on the basis of simulation results. With several preliminary sensitivity runs, we found that meteorological parameters and aerosol radiative effects simulated with the incorporation of improved BC absorption and 3-D radiation parameterizations deviate substantially from simulation results using the conventional homogeneous/core-shell configuration for BC and the plane-parallel model for radiative transfer. Understanding of the aerosol effects on regional climate change over megacities must consider the complex shape and mixing state of aerosol aggregates and 3D radiative transfer effects over city landscape.

  4. An air quality forecasting system in Beijing - Application to the study of dust storm events in China in May 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qijie Zhang; Benoit Laurent; Fanny Velay-Lasry; Richard Ngo; Claude Derognat; Béatrice Marticorena; Armand Albergel

    2012-01-01

    An air pollution forecast system,ARIA Regional,was implemented in 2007-2008 at the Beijing Municipality Environmental Monitoring Center,providing daily forecast of main pollutant concentrations.The chemistry-transport model CHIMERE was coupled with the dust emission model MB95 for restituting dust storm events in springtime so as to improve forecast results.Dust storm events were sporadic but could be extremely intense and then control air quality indexes close to the source areas but also far in the Beijing area.A dust episode having occurred at the end of May 2008 was analyzed in this article,and its impact of particulate matter on the Chinese air pollution index (API) was evaluated.Following our estimation,about 23 Tg of dust were emitted from source areas in Mongolia and in the Inner Mongolia of China,transporting towards southeast.This episode of dust storm influenced a large part of North China and East China,and also South Korea.The model result was then evaluated using satellite observations and in situ data.The simulated daily concentrations of total suspended particulate at 6:00 UTC had a similar spatial pattern with respect to OMI satellite aerosol index.Temporal evolution of dust plume was evaluated by comparing dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) calculated from the simulations with AOD derived from MODIS satellite products.Finally,the comparison of reported Chinese API in Beijing with API calculated from the simulation including dust emissions had showed the significant improvement of the model results taking into account mineral dust correctly.

  5. The Latin words for "China" along the Centuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michele; Ferrero

    2012-01-01

    <正>In 1667 the German Jesuit Athanasius Kircher published China Illustrata,considered at the time as an encyclopedia about China. The full title is China monumentis qua sacris qua profanis,nec non variis naturae et artis spectaculis,aliarumque rerum memorabilium argumentis illustrata,auspiciis Leopoldi primi. Although he personally never went to China he was very interested in the Middle Kingdom,as he was interested in almost

  6. Prediction of carbon exchanges between China terrestrial ecosystem and atmosphere in 21st century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI JinJun; HUANG Mei; LI KeRang

    2008-01-01

    The projected changes in carbon exchange between China terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere and vegetation and soil carbon storage during the 21st century were investigated using an atmos-phere-vegetation interaction model (AVIM2). The results show that in the coming 100 a, for SRES B2 scenario and constant atmospheric CO2 concentration, the net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystem in China will be decreased slowly, and vegetation and soil carbon storage as well as net ecosystem productivity (NEP) will also be decreased. The carbon sink for China terrestrial ecosystem in the beginning of the 20th century will become totally a carbon source by the year of 2020, while for B2 scenario and changing atmospheric CO2 concentration, NPP for China will increase continuously from 2.94 GtC.a-1 by the end of the 20th century to 3.99 GtC.a-1 by the end of the 21st century, and vegetation and soil carbon storage will increase to 110.3 GtC. NEP in China will keep rising during the first and middle periods of the 21st century, and reach the peak around 2050s, then will decrease gradually and approach to zero by the end of the 21st century.

  7. Prediction of carbon exchanges between China terrestrial ecosystem and atmosphere in 21st century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The projected changes in carbon exchange between China terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere and vegetation and soil carbon storage during the 21st century were investigated using an atmos-phere-vegetation interaction model (AVIM2). The results show that in the coming 100 a, for SRES B2 scenario and constant atmospheric CO2 concentration, the net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystem in China will be decreased slowly, and vegetation and soil carbon storage as well as net ecosystem productivity (NEP) will also be decreased. The carbon sink for China terrestrial ecosystem in the beginning of the 20th century will become totally a carbon source by the year of 2020, while for B2 scenario and changing atmospheric CO2 concentration, NPP for China will increase continuously from 2.94 GtC·a?1 by the end of the 20th century to 3.99 GtC·a?1 by the end of the 21st century, and vegetation and soil carbon storage will increase to 110.3 GtC. NEP in China will keep rising during the first and middle periods of the 21st century, and reach the peak around 2050s, then will decrease gradually and approach to zero by the end of the 21st century.

  8. Willingness to Use the Oral Fluid HIV Rapid Test among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yunan Xu; Zheng Zhang; Dongliang Li; Yingjie Liu; Stephen W Pan; Xiao Qi; Bo Wang; Fengji Luo; Dong Xiao; Yiming Shao; Yuhua Ruan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early detection of HIV infection enables timely care and treatment. However, many men who have sex with men (MSM) remain unaware of their HIV status because they do not or are unable to access HIV testing services. Oral fluid HIV rapid tests have the potential to increase HIV testing. This study is the first to evaluate willingness to use the oral fluid test among MSM in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Beijing from July to October, 2012. Data were collecte...

  9. Abundance and Community Structure of Bacteria on Asian Dust Particles Collected in Beijing, China, during the Asian Dust Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Baba, Takashi; Ichijo, Tomoaki; Himezawa, Yuka; Enoki, Kanami; Saraya, Makoto; Li, Pin-Fang; Nasu, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 180 t/km(2) of Asian dust particles are estimated to fall annually on Beijing, China, and there is significant concern about the influence of microbes transported by Asian dust events on human health and downwind ecosystems. In this study, we collected Asian dust particles in Beijing, and analyzed the bacterial communities on these particles by culture-independent methods. Bacterial cells on Asian dust particles were visualized first by laser scanning microscopy, which demonstrated that Asian dust particles carry bacterial cells to Beijing. Bacterial abundance, as determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), was 10(8) to 10(9) cells/g, a value about 10 times higher than that in Asian dust source soils. Inter-seasonal variability of bacterial community structures among Asian dust samples, as compared by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), was low during the Asian dust season. Several viable bacteria, including intestinal bacteria, were found in Asian dust samples by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Clone library analysis targeting 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences demonstrated that bacterial phylogenetic diversity was high in the dust samples, and most of these were environmental bacteria distributed in soil and air. The dominant species in the clone library was Segetibacter aerophilus (Bacteroidetes), which was first isolated from an Asian dust sample collected in Korea. Our results also indicate the possibility of a change in the bacterial community structure during transportation and increases in desiccation-tolerant bacteria such as Firmicutes.

  10. Compensatory Mutations of Rifampin Resistance Are Associated with Transmission of Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Genotype Strains in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin-Jing; Jiao, Wei-Wei; Yin, Qing-Qin; Xu, Fang; Li, Jie-Qiong; Sun, Lin; Xiao, Jing; Li, Ying-Jia; Mokrousov, Igor; Huang, Hai-Rong; Shen, A-Dong

    2016-05-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis can acquire resistance to rifampin (RIF) through mutations in the rpoB gene. This is usually accompanied by a fitness cost, which, however, can be mitigated by secondary mutations in the rpoA or rpoC gene. This study aimed to identify rpoA and rpoC mutations in clinical M. tuberculosis isolates in northern China in order to clarify their role in the transmission of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). The study collection included 332 RIF-resistant and 178 RIF-susceptible isolates. The majority of isolates belonged to the Beijing genotype (95.3%, 486/510 isolates), and no mutation was found in rpoA or rpoC of the non-Beijing genotype strains. Among the Beijing genotype strains, 27.8% (89/320) of RIF-resistant isolates harbored nonsynonymous mutations in the rpoA (n = 6) or rpoC (n = 83) gene. The proportion of rpoC mutations was significantly higher in new cases (P = 0.023) and in strains with the rpoB S531L mutation (P variable-number tandem-repeat clustering (P = 0.016). In summary, we believe that these findings indirectly suggest an epistatic interaction of particular mutations related to RIF resistance and strain fitness and, consequently, the role of such mutations in the spread of MDR M. tuberculosis strains. PMID:26902762

  11. Numerical analysis to determine the impact of land subsidence on high-speed railway routes in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, C.; Yang, Y.; Tian, F.; Luo, Y.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-11-01

    More than 10 high-speed railway routes with top speeds of 300 km h-1 are expected to be operational from Beijing by the year 2020. However, the safety of these routes is affected by the occurrence of land subsidence. This paper focuses on the Beijing-Tianjin Intercity High-Speed Railway (BTR), the first high-speed railway in China, to analyze the operational safety of high-speed railway routes by analyzing both regional land subsidence and local differential subsidence caused by groundwater drawing. The Beijing construction stratum is mainly composed of cohesive soil, and the BTR has a maximum accumulative subsidence of > 800 mm and a maximum subsidence rate of > 80 mm a-1. In this paper, finite-element software ABAQUS is used to analyze groundwater drawdown and land subsidence caused by local water drawing, and its effect on the bearing capacity of railway bridge pile foundations and the orbit concrete supporting course. The analysis provides a technical basis for developing prevention and control engineering measures against land subsidence so as to guarantee the safe operation of these high-speed railway routes.

  12. Spatial distribution, temporal variation and risks of parabens and their chlorinated derivatives in urban surface water in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenhui; Gao, Lihong; Shi, Yali; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Jiemin; Cai, Yaqi

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of 13 target compounds, including eight parabens, four chlorinated parabens and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), were detected in surface water samples at 35 sampling sites in the Beijing River system, China. The surface water samples were collected from the main rivers and lakes in the urban area monthly from July 2013 to June 2014 (except the frozen period). Laboratory analyses revealed that parabens were ubiquitous in the surface water of Beijing. PHBA was the predominant compound in the surface water samples, with the average concentration of 239ngL(-1), followed by the total amount of chlorinated parabens (average 50.1ng/L) and parabens (average 44.3ng/L). It is noteworthy that octylparaben with longer chain was firstly detected in the surface water. Significant difference was observed for paraben concentrations from different sampling sites, and the highest level of parabens was found in the Xiaotaihou River, which was mainly due to the untreated sewage discharge. Seasonal variation of target compounds in the urban surface water was also studied, and parabens exhibited a different temporal variation from chlorinated derivatives. A combination of factors including high residual chlorine level and water temperature as well as intense ultraviolet radiation might enhance the persistence of chlorinated parabens in chlorinated water during the wet season. Risk assessment showed that parabens and their chlorinated derivatives are not likely to produce biological effects on aquatic ecosystems at current levels in the surface water of Beijing.

  13. Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of heavy metals in street dusts from different functional areas in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xin; Gao, Bo; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Huaidong; Lu, Jin

    2015-02-01

    Street dusts from Heavy Density Traffic Area, Residential Area, Educational Area and Tourism Area in Beijing, China, were collected to study the distribution, accumulation and health risk assessment of heavy metals. Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb concentrations were in higher concentrations in these four locations than in the local soil background. In comparison with the concentrations of selected metals in other cities, the concentrations of heavy metals in Beijing were generally at moderate or low levels. Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations in the Tourism Area were the highest among four different areas in Beijing. A pollution assessment by Geoaccumulation Index showed that the pollution level for the heavy metals is in the following order: Cd>Pb>Zn>Cu>Cr>Ni. The Cd levels can be considered "heavily contaminated" status. The health risk assessment model that was employed to calculate human exposure indicated that both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of selected metals in street dusts were generally in the low range, except for the carcinogenic risk from Cr for children. PMID:25463870

  14. Air quality of Beijing (China) and Delhi (India) and impact on Human Health and Climate in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, S.; Singh, R. P.; Wu, Y.; Wu, C.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution has been estimated to represent a significant fraction of the total mortality attributable to 26 risk factors assessed by the World Health Organization global burden of disease project. Delhi is distributed over 1484 km2 with population density of 11297/km2 (as in 2011) and surrounded by highly industrialized National Capital region (NCR) with population density of 1050/km2. Beijing covers an area of 16,800 km2, with population density of 1300/km2 (upto 2014). It is located at the foothills of Yan Mountains and Taihang Mountains, in the North China Plain. Both these cities suffer with poor air quality and are severely affected by dense haze, fog and smog during summer and winter seasons. Earlier studies in developing countries have concentrated on limited air quality parameters. Detailed results from trace gases (O3, NO, NO2, and CO) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) in two Asian megacities, Delhi (India) and Beijing (China), will be presented. Trace gases and particulate matter in Beijing were collected at 31 sites during 2013-2014. The measurements in Delhi were carried out at 8 sites during October 2010 - March 2013. The annual average of PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO, NO2, and CO over Delhi in 2013 is 199 ug/m3, 123 ug/m3, 25.6 ppb, 21.5 ppb, 15.8 ppb, 1.7 ppb, respectively. The annual average of PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO2, CO, and SO2 over Beijing is 113 ug/m3, 85 ug/m3, 51 ug/m3, 46 ug/m3, 1.3 mg/m3, 23 ug/m3, respectively. The annual and seasonal variations of trace gases and particulate matter in Beijing and Delhi are also analyzed, as well as spatial changes of air pollution in these two cities. A comparative analysis in these two cities and the sources of pollution and their impact on human health and Asian climate will be discussed.

  15. Serum neutralizing activities from a Beijing homosexual male cohort infected with different subtypes of HIV-1 in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingshun Zhang

    Full Text Available Protective antibodies play a critical role in an effective HIV vaccine; however, eliciting antibodies to block infection by viruses from diverse genetic subtypes remains a major challenge. As the world's most populous country, China has been under the threat of at least three major subtypes of circulating HIV-1 viruses. Understanding the cross reactivity and specificities of serum antibody responses that mediate broad neutralization of the virus in HIV-1 infected Chinese patients will provide valuable information for the design of vaccines to prevent HIV-1 transmission in China. Sera from a cohort of homosexual men, who have been managed by a major HIV clinical center in Beijing, China, were analyzed for cross-sectional neutralizing activities against pseudotyped viruses expressing Env antigens of the major subtype viruses (AE, BC and B subtypes circulating in China. Neutralizing activities in infected patients' blood were most capable of neutralizing viruses in the homologous subtype; however, a subset of blood samples was able to achieve broad neutralizing activities across different subtypes. Such cross neutralizing activity took 1-2 years to develop and CD4 binding site antibodies were critical components in these blood samples. Our study confirmed the presence of broadly neutralizing sera in China's HIV-1 patient population. Understanding the specificity and breadth of these neutralizing activities can guide efforts for the development of HIV vaccines against major HIV-1 viruses in China.

  16. Estimation of PM10 in the traffic-related atmosphere for three road types in Beijing and Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Li, Jiong; Cheng, Xiang; Lun, Xiaoxiu; Sun, Dezhi; Wang, Xingzu

    2014-01-01

    The levels of roadside PM10 in Beijing, China, were investigated in 2011 and 2012 on a seasonal basis to estimate the population exposure to particulates for three road types. The measurements of PM10 were also conducted in the southern Chinese megacity of Guangzhou for comparison purposes. The results showed that roadside PM10 in Beijing correlated strongly with the PM10 background in the urban atmosphere. The levels of PM10 in street canyons were markedly higher than those along the open roads and in crossroad areas because of limited ventilation. An elevation of PM10 was observed in April, which was possibly due to the sand storms that frequently occur in the spring. Based on these observations, roadside PM10 in Beijing could have multiple origins and was to some extent dispersion-governed. In Guangzhou, the roadside PM10 did not closely relate to the background values. The PM10 pollution was greatly affected by local traffic conditions. The simulation of PM10 for different road types was completed during the study period using the Motor Vehicle Emissions Factor Model (MOBILE6.2) as an emission model and the California Line Source Dispersion Model (CALINE4) and Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) as dispersion models. The MOBILE6.2/CALINE4 software package was demonstrated to be sufficient for the simulation of PM10 in the open roads and crossroad areas in both Beijing and Guangzhou, and the simulation results of roadside PM10 in the street canyons by the MOBILE6.2/OSPM package were in close agreement with those of the measurements.

  17. Spatial variability of organochlorine pesticides (DDTs and HCHs) in surface soils from the alluvial region of Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-yan; GAO Ru-tai; HUANG Yuan-fang; JIA Xiao-hong; JIANG Shu-ren

    2007-01-01

    The spatial variability in the concentrations of 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) in surface soils was studied on the basis of the analysis of 131 soil samples collected from the surface layer (0-20 cm depth) of the alluvial region of Beijing, China. The concentrations of total HCHs (including α-, β-, γ-, and δ-isomers) and total DDTs (i ncluding p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, and o,p'-DDT) in the surface soils tested were in the range from nondetectable to 31.72 μg/kg dry soil, with a mean value of 0.91, and from nondetectable to 5910.83 μg/kg dry soil, with a mean value of 32.13,respectively. It was observed that concentrations of HCHs in all soil samples and concentrations of DDTs in 112 soil samples were much lower than the first grade (50 μg/kg) permitted in "Environment quality standard for soils in China (GB15618-1995)". This suggests that the pollution due to organochlorine pesticides was generally not significant in the farmland soils in the Beijing alluvial region. In this study, the spatial distribution and trend of HCHs and DDTs were analyzed using Geostatistical Analyst and GS+(513).Spatial distribution indicated how these pesticides had been applied in the past. Trend analysis showed that the concentrations of HCHs,DDTs, and their related metabolites followed an obvious distribution trend in the surface soils from the alluvial region of Beijing.

  18. Impact of Heat Wave Definitions on the Added Effect of Heat Waves on Cardiovascular Mortality in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentan Dong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Heat waves are associated with increased mortality, however, few studies have examined the added effect of heat waves. Moreover, there is limited evidence for the influence of different heat wave definitions (HWs on cardiovascular mortality in Beijing, the capital of China. The aim of this study was to find the best HW definitions for cardiovascular mortality, and we examined the effect modification by an individual characteristic on cardiovascular mortality in Beijing, a typical northern city in China. We applied a Poisson generalized additive approach to estimate the differences in cardiovascular mortality during heat waves (using 12 HWs compared with non-heat-wave days in Beijing from 2006 to 2009. We also validated the model fit by checking the residuals to ensure that the autocorrelation was successfully removed. In addition, the effect modifications by individual characteristics were explored in different HWs. Our results showed that the associations between heat waves and cardiovascular mortality differed from different HWs. HWs using the 93th percentile of the daily average temperature (27.7 °C and a duration ≥5 days had the greatest risk, with an increase of 18% (95% confidence interval (CI: 6%, 31% in the overall population, 24% (95% CI: 10%, 39% in an older group (ages ≥65 years, and 22% (95% CI: 3%, 44% in a female group. The added effect of heat waves was apparent after 5 consecutive heat wave days for the overall population and the older group. Females and the elderly were at higher risk than males and younger subjects (ages <65 years. Our findings suggest that heat wave definitions play a significant role in the relationship between heat wave and cardiovascular mortality. Using a suitable definition may have implications for designing local heat early warning systems and protecting the susceptible populations during heat waves.

  19. The characteristic of heat wave effects on coronary heart disease mortality in Beijing, China: a time series study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxing Tian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence for the impacts of heat waves on coronary heart disease (CHD mortality in Beijing, capital city of China. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to find a best heat wave definition for CHD mortality; and explore the characteristic of heat wave effects on CHD in Beijing, China. METHODS: We obtained daily data on weather and CHD mortality in Beijing for years 2000-2011. A quasi-Poisson regression model was used to assess the short-term impact of heat waves on CHD mortality in hot season (May-September, while controlling for relative humidity, day of the week, long-term trend and season. We compared 18 heat wave definitions by combining heat wave thresholds (87.5(th, 90.0(th, 92.5(th, 95(th, 97.5(th, and 99(th percentile of daily mean temperature with different duration days (≥ 2 to ≥ 4 days, using Akaike information criterion for quasi-Poisson. We examined whether heat wave effects on CHD mortality were modified by heat wave duration and timing. RESULTS: Heat wave definition using 97.5(th percentile of daily mean temperature (30.5 °C and duration ≥ 2 days produced the best model fit. Based on this heat wave definition, we found that men and elderly were sensitive to the first heat waves of the season, while women and young were sensitive to the second heat waves. In general, the longer duration of heat waves increased the risks of CHD mortality more than shorter duration for elderly. The first two days of heat waves had the highest impact on CHD mortality. Women and elderly were at higher risks than men and young when exposed to heat waves, but the effect differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Heat waves had significant impact on CHD mortality. This finding may have implications for policy making towards protecting human health from heat waves.

  20. GHG emission control and solid waste management for megacities with inexact inputs: A case study in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This study advances an integrated MSW management model under inexact input information. • The model can minimize net system cost and mitigate GHG emissions. • The model is particularly developed for the city of Beijing, China. • It reduces system cost by [45, 61]% and mitigates GHG emissions by [141, 179]%. • It could provide implications to megacities regarding GHG emissions control. - Abstract: This study advances an integrated MSW management model under inexact input information for the city of Beijing, China. The model is capable of simultaneously generating MSW management policies, performing GHG emission control, and addressing system uncertainty. Results suggest that: (1) a management strategy with minimal system cost can be obtained even when suspension of certain facilities becomes unavoidable through specific increments of the remaining ones; (2) expansion of facilities depends only on actual needs, rather than enabling the full usage of existing facilities, although it may prove to be a costly proposition; (3) adjustment of waste-stream diversion ratio directly leads to a change in GHG emissions from different disposal facilities. Results are also obtained from the comparison of the model with a conventional one without GHG emissions consideration. It is indicated that (1) the model would reduce the net system cost by [45, 61]% (i.e., [3173, 3520] million dollars) and mitigate GHG emissions by [141, 179]% (i.e., [76, 81] million tons); (2) increased waste would be diverted to integrated waste management facilities to prevent overmuch CH4 emission from the landfills

  1. Characteristic and potential sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins and dibenzofurans in agricultural soils in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Li, Chaoqin; Chen, Zuosheng; Cai, Zongwei

    2014-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed in 25 background and 80 agricultural soil samples collected from 21 sites in Beijing, China. The levels of PCDD/Fs in the north agricultural soils were low (0.15-0.58 ng international toxic equivalent quantity [I-TEQ]/kg), which were comparable with those of the background soils (0.091-0.35 ng I-TEQ/kg). In the southern agricultural soils, however, concentrations were several times higher (0.27-3.3 ng I-TEQ/kg). Comparison of PCDD/Fs congener compositions between possible sources and samples indicated that agricultural soils in Beijing had not been contaminated by the 3 main PCDD/F contamination sources in China--ferrous and nonferrous metal, waste incineration, and power generation. They had, however, been slightly contaminated by the impurities of some organochlorine pesticides, such as sodium pentachlorophenate, and by open burning of biomass, vehicle exhaust, atmospheric deposition, sediment, and sewage sludge. These results have been supported by the principal components analysis.

  2. GHG emission control and solid waste management for megacities with inexact inputs: A case study in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hongwei, E-mail: luhw@ncepu.edu.cn; Sun, Shichao; Ren, Lixia; He, Li

    2015-03-02

    Highlights: • This study advances an integrated MSW management model under inexact input information. • The model can minimize net system cost and mitigate GHG emissions. • The model is particularly developed for the city of Beijing, China. • It reduces system cost by [45, 61]% and mitigates GHG emissions by [141, 179]%. • It could provide implications to megacities regarding GHG emissions control. - Abstract: This study advances an integrated MSW management model under inexact input information for the city of Beijing, China. The model is capable of simultaneously generating MSW management policies, performing GHG emission control, and addressing system uncertainty. Results suggest that: (1) a management strategy with minimal system cost can be obtained even when suspension of certain facilities becomes unavoidable through specific increments of the remaining ones; (2) expansion of facilities depends only on actual needs, rather than enabling the full usage of existing facilities, although it may prove to be a costly proposition; (3) adjustment of waste-stream diversion ratio directly leads to a change in GHG emissions from different disposal facilities. Results are also obtained from the comparison of the model with a conventional one without GHG emissions consideration. It is indicated that (1) the model would reduce the net system cost by [45, 61]% (i.e., [3173, 3520] million dollars) and mitigate GHG emissions by [141, 179]% (i.e., [76, 81] million tons); (2) increased waste would be diverted to integrated waste management facilities to prevent overmuch CH{sub 4} emission from the landfills.

  3. The Long Twentieth Century and Barriers to China's Hegemonic Accession

    OpenAIRE

    John Gulick

    2015-01-01

    Giovanni Arrighi's The Long Twentieth Century is an almost unfathomably ambitious andcomplex work. Its monumentality derives from Arrighi 's conviction that the best way to handicapthe possible futures of the world capitalist geo-economy is to analyze the structural evolution ofthis global system, an evolution spanning more than five centuries; the genius of the work rests inthe distinctive approach that Arrighi takes. At the core of his approach is the identification ofthose long-term trends...

  4. Joint Exhibition of Women Painters from Beijing and Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Hong Kong’s return to China is another supreme symbol of peace and dignity. Celebrating this historical occasion, Beijing Women Painters’ Association and Hong Kong Contemporary Women Painters’ Association held a joint exhibition in Beijing, providing women painters from Hong Kong and the mainland an opportunity to learn from each other. Over more than a century time has brought great changes to the world. The Chinese women’s profound love and pursuit of a unified culture for the Chinese nation makes their arts all the more splendid.

  5. Spatial distribution of aerosol pollution based on MODIS data over Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With the help of regression analysis, the relationships were detected between aAerosol's contribution to apparent reflectance (ACR) derived from MoDerate Resdution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board Terra and hourly PM10 mass concentration measured at 30 ground-based locations in Beijing for the August of 2003 and 2004. It was shown that there was a good correlation between the ACR and PM10 (linear correlation coefficient, R=0.56). On the basis of this relationship, spatial distribution and possible soureces of PM10 derived from MODIS were analyzed and two frequently heavily-polluted regions were found, namely downtown of the city and the district near Xishan Mountain. These two regions coincidently are also urban heat island centers. The foundings of this paper will be greatly useful for environmental monitoring and urban planning for Beijing, especially for the 2008 Olympic game to be held in Beijing.

  6. Prevalence and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome among adults in Beijing, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Gang; de Courten, Maximilian; Jiao, Shufang;

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome using a large representative sample in Beijing. Data from a total of 16442 adults (6489 men and 9953 women) aged > or =18 years from a survey of behavioral risk factors for chronic diseases in Beijing, in 2005, was a.......7% in women) and 16.2% (16.1% in men and 16.6% in women), respectively. The metabolic syndrome was higher in semi-urban areas and associated with higher rates of hypertension, central obesity, salt intake and smoking....

  7. China's iGeneration - Cinema and Moving Image Culture for the Twenty-First Century

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Matthew D.; Wagner, Keith B.; Yu, Tianqui; Vulpiani, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Collection of essays on twenty-first century Chinese cinema and moving image culture. This innovative collection of essays on twenty-first century Chinese cinema and moving image culture features contributions from an international community of scholars, critics, and practitioners. Taken together, their perspectives make a compelling case that the past decade has witnessed a radical transformation of conventional notions of cinema. Following China's accession to the WTO in 2001, personal ...

  8. Drought assessment and trends analysis from 20th century to 21st century over China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, X. L.; Ren, L. L.; Tong, R.; Liu, Y.; Cheng, X. R.; S. H. Jiang; Yuan, F.

    2015-01-01

    Droughts are becoming the most expensive natural disasters in China and have exerted serious impacts on local economic development and ecological environment. The fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) provides a unique opportunity to assess scientific understanding of climate variability and change over a range of historical and future period. In this study, fine-resolution multimodel climate projections over China are developed based on 7 CMIP5 cl...

  9. Evaluation of the summer precipitation over China simulated by BCC_CSM model with different horizontal resolutions during the recent half century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Mengyun; Huang, Anning; Zhao, Yong; Zhou, Yang; Yang, Ben; Wu, Haomin

    2015-05-01

    The performance of Beijing Climate Center climate system model with different horizontal resolutions (BCC_CSM1.1 with coarse resolution and BCC_CSM1.1 m with fine resolution) in simulating the summer precipitation over China during the recent half century is evaluated, and the possible underlying physical mechanisms related to the model biases are also further analyzed and discussed. Results show that increasing horizontal resolution does improve the summer precipitation simulation over most part of China especially in western China due to the more realistic description of the topography. However, the summer precipitation amount (PA) over eastern China characterized by monsoonal climates is much more underestimated in the finer resolution model. It is also noted that the improvement (deterioration) of the summer PA over western (eastern) China in BCC_CSM1.1 m model is mainly due to the better (worse) simulation of the moderate and heavy precipitation relative to BCC_CSM1.1 model. In addition, increasing model horizontal resolution can significantly improve the convective precipitation simulation especially over western China but shows very limited improvement in the large-scale precipitation simulation. The much more underestimated summer PA over eastern China in BCC_CSM1.1 m model relative to BCC_CSM1.1 model is due to the significantly reduced positive biases of the convective PA but few changes in the negative biases of the large-scale PA. Further mechanism analysis suggests that both the underestimated land-sea thermal contrast and the overestimated Western Pacific subtropical high result in much less northeastward water vapor transport and summer PA over eastern China in BCC_CSM1.1 m model than in BCC_CSM1.1 model.

  10. Changing Urban Form and Transport CO2 Emissions: An Empirical Analysis of Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjing Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Decentralization development and changing urban form will increase the mobility and contribute to global CO2 emissions, in particular for developing countries which are experiencing rapid economic growth and urban expansion. In this paper, an integrated analytical framework, which can quantify the impact of changing urban form on commuting CO2 emissions, is presented. This framework simultaneously considers two emission dependent factors, commuting demand and modal share based on the concept of excess commuting and accessibility analysis, and ensures its applicability to other cities where the detailed individual travel data is not available. A case study of Beijing from 2000 to 2009 is used to illustrate this framework. The findings suggest that changing urban form in Beijing did have a significant impact on commuting CO2 emission increase. Changing to a more decentralized urban form in Beijing had a larger impact on commuting distance and increased usage of cars, which resulted in a significant rise in CO2 emissions. There is a larger space and an urgent need for commuting CO2 emission reduction, in 2009 in Beijing, by planning and by strategic measures in order to promote sustainable transport.

  11. Imaging Land Subsidence Induced by Groundwater Extraction in Beijing (China Using Satellite Radar Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Beijing is one of the most water-stressed cities in the world. Due to over-exploitation of groundwater, the Beijing region has been suffering from land subsidence since 1935. In this study, the Small Baseline InSAR technique has been employed to process Envisat ASAR images acquired between 2003 and 2010 and TerraSAR-X stripmap images collected from 2010 to 2011 to investigate land subsidence in the Beijing region. The maximum subsidence is seen in the eastern part of Beijing with a rate greater than 100 mm/year. Comparisons between InSAR and GPS derived subsidence rates show an RMS difference of 2.94 mm/year with a mean of 2.41 ± 1.84 mm/year. In addition, a high correlation was observed between InSAR subsidence rate maps derived from two different datasets (i.e., Envisat and TerraSAR-X. These demonstrate once again that InSAR is a powerful tool for monitoring land subsidence. InSAR derived subsidence rate maps have allowed for a comprehensive spatio-temporal analysis to identify the main triggering factors of land subsidence. Some interesting relationships in terms of land subsidence were found with groundwater level, active faults, accumulated soft soil thickness and different aquifer types. Furthermore, a relationship with the distances to pumping wells was also recognized in this work.

  12. Commuter exposure to particulate matter and particle-bound PAHs in three transportation modes in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to fine and ultrafine particles as well as particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by commuters in three transportation modes (walking, subway and bus) were examined in December 2011 in Beijing, China. During the study period, real-time measured median PM2.5 mass concentration (PMC) for walking, riding buses and taking the subway were 26.7, 32.9 and 56.9 μg m−3, respectively, and particle number concentrations (PNC) were 1.1 × 104, 1.0 × 104 and 2.2 × 104 cm−3. Commuters were exposed to higher PNC in air-conditioned buses and aboveground-railway, but higher PMC in underground-subway compared to aboveground-railway. PNC in roadway modes (bus and walking) peaked at noon, but was lower during traffic rush hours, negatively correlated with PMC. Toxic potential of particulate-PAHs estimated based on benzo(a)pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQs) showed that walking pedestrians were subjected to higher BaP TEQs than bus (2.7-fold) and subway (3.6-fold) commuters, though the highest PMC and PNC were observed in subway. - Highlights: • The highest PNC and PM2.5 occurred around noon and late rush hours, respectively. • Higher PM2.5 and PNC, but lower PAHs and BaP TEQ were found in Beijing subway. • Traffic congestion, roadside cooking, and construction evidently enhanced roadway PM. • Ventilation and air-conditioning system impact PM level in bus and subway cabins. - Higher PMC and PNC, but lower particulate PAHs and BaP TEQ were found in Beijing subway. PNC and PMC in on-roadway modes were peaked around noon and late rush hours, respectively

  13. Cassini Growth of Population Between Two Metropolitan Cities——A Case Study of Beijing-Tianjin Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Yueguang; YANG Wei; MA Qiang; XUE Song

    2009-01-01

    The existing models of population distribution often focus on the region with a single city or even multiple centers, and lack the detailed explorations of the common and special type of urbanization areas with two centers. Taking Beijing-Tianjin region of China, which is a distinct dual-nuclei metropolitan area in the world, as an example and choosing Landsat-5 TM image in 2005, population, etc. As the data, this paper devotes to comprehending and illus-trating a model of Cassini growth of population between the two metropolitan cities through the research of spatial population distribution pattern, aided with RS and GIS techniques. Main technical processes include Kriging interpola-tion of the population data and character simulation of the Cassini ovals. According to the calculation of a/b, a key characteristic index of Cassini growth model, the spatial structures of population distribution were given. When a/b1,it is a curve with two separated loops with a population density more than 3000 persons/km2. When a/b=1, it is a lem-niscate curve with a population density about 3000 persons/km2. When 1(√2), there is an oval-shaped convex curve with a population density less than 500 persons/km2. The results show that owing to the combined action and influence of the regional dual-nuclei, the population distribution of Beijing-Tianjin region is in accord with Cassini model significantly. There-fore, there is Cassini growth of population between the two metropolitan cities in Beijing-Tianjin region. In addition,the process of Cassini growth has extraordinarily instructive significance for judging the development stages of the dual-nuclei metropolitan areas.

  14. Modeling the feedback between aerosol and boundary layer processes: a case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yucong; Liu, Shuhua; Zheng, Yijia; Wang, Shu

    2016-02-01

    Rapid development has led to frequent haze in Beijing. With mountains and sea surrounding Beijing, the pollution is found to be influenced by the mountain-plain breeze and sea-land breeze in complex ways. Meanwhile, the presence of aerosols may affect the surface energy balance and impact these boundary layer (BL) processes. The effects of BL processes on aerosol pollution and the feedback between aerosol and BL processes are not yet clearly understood. Thus, the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the possible effects and feedbacks during a haze episode on 23 September 2011. Influenced by the onshore prevailing wind, sea-breeze, and upslope breeze, about 45% of surface particulate matter (PM)2.5 in Beijing are found to be contributed by its neighbor cities through regional transport. In the afternoon, the development of upslope breeze suppresses the growth of BL in Beijing by imposing a relatively low thermal stable layer above the BL, which exacerbates the pollution. Two kinds of feedback during the daytime are revealed as follows: (1) as the aerosols absorb and scatter the solar radiation, the surface net radiation and sensible heat flux are decreased, while BL temperature is increased, resulting in a more stable and shallower BL, which leads to a higher surface PM2.5 concentration in the morning and (2) in the afternoon, as the presence of aerosols increases the BL temperature over plains, the upslope breeze is weakened, and the boundary layer height (BLH) over Beijing is heightened, resulting in the decrease of the surface PM2.5 concentration there.

  15. Aging Will Amplify the Heat-related Mortality Risk under a Changing Climate: Projection for the Elderly in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Zhou, Maigeng; Liang, Xudong; Ban, Jie; Sun, Qinghua; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2016-06-01

    An aging population could substantially enhance the burden of heat-related health risks in a warming climate because of their higher susceptibility to extreme heat health effects. Here, we project heat-related mortality for adults 65 years and older in Beijing China across 31 downscaled climate models and 2 representative concentration pathways (RCPs) in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s. Under a scenario of medium population and RCP8.5, by the 2080s, Beijing is projected to experience 14,401 heat-related deaths per year for elderly individuals, which is a 264.9% increase compared with the 1980s. These impacts could be moderated through adaptation. In the 2080s, even with the 30% and 50% adaptation rate assumed in our study, the increase in heat-related death is approximately 7.4 times and 1.3 times larger than in the 1980s respectively under a scenario of high population and RCP8.5. These findings could assist countries in establishing public health intervention policies for the dual problems of climate change and aging population. Examples could include ensuring facilities with large elderly populations are protected from extreme heat (for example through back-up power supplies and/or passive cooling) and using databases and community networks to ensure the home-bound elderly are safe during extreme heat events.

  16. Contribution of additives Cu to its accumulation in pig feces: study in Beijing and Fuxin of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan-xia; LI Wei; WU Juan; XU Li-chao; SU Qiu-hong; XIONG Xiong

    2007-01-01

    Massive amounts of pig manure are produced by intensive pig farm in China, and the composition of pig manure has changed much due to the use of feed additives. However, little is known about the exact Cu (copper) feed as additives or present as contaminants in pig feed and the residues in feces. One hundred and thirty-seven feeds and one hundred and forty-two fecal samples from 48 pig farms were collected in Beijing and Fuxin cities in 1999 and 2005, respectively. The concentrations of Cu were in the range of 6.86-395.19 mg/kg in the feed samples, and the mean values were in the order of weaner> grower-finisher> sow's feeds. The high concentrations over EU recommendations implied that excessive levels of Cu are fed on many pig farms in Beijing and Fuxin. Cu was also present in high concentrations in feces, and concentrations were highly variable. Cu concentrations in the feces from grower-finisher and weaner pigs were significantly greater than feces of sows. The super-intensive and small-scale farms had higher levels of Cu in feces than the middle farms. Cu concentrations in pig feces were approximately 5-times greater than in pig feeds. Feed management in grower-finisher pigs on super-intensive and small-scale pig farms is needed to reduce high Cu concentrations in feces and risks to soil contamination while feces are land-applied.

  17. Impact of a new reimbursement program on hepatitis B antiviral medication cost and utilization in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Qiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a significant clinical and financial burden for chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients. In Beijing, China, partial reimbursement on antiviral agents was first implemented for the treatment of CHB patients in July 1, 2011. AIMS: In this study, we describe the medical cost and utilization rates of antiviral therapy for CHB patients to explore the impact of the new partial reimbursement policy on the medical care cost, the composition, and antivirals utilization. METHODS: Clinical and claims data of a retrospective cohort of 92,776 outpatients and 2,774 inpatients with non-cirrhotic CHB were retrieved and analyzed from You'an Hospital, Beijing between February 14, 2008 and December 31, 2012. The propensity score matching was used to adjust factors associated with the annual total cost, including age, gender, medical insurance type and treatment indicator. RESULTS: Compared to patients who paid out-of-pocket, medical cost, especially antiviral costs increased greater among patients with medical insurance after July 1, 2011, the start date of reimbursement policy. Outpatients with medical insurance had 16% more antiviral utilization; usage increased 3% among those who paid out-of-pocket after the new partial reimbursement policy was implemented. CONCLUSIONS: Direct medical costs and antiviral utilization rates of CHB patients with medical insurance were higher than those from paid out-of-pocket payments, even after adjusting for inflation and other factors. Thus, a new partial reimbursement program may positively optimize the cost and standardization of antiviral treatment.

  18. Spatial and temporal variations in NO(2) distributions over Beijing, China measured by imaging differential optical absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanlim; Kim, Young J; Jung, Jinsang; Lee, Chulkyu; Heue, Klaus-Peter; Platt, Ulrich; Hu, Min; Zhu, Tong

    2009-04-01

    During the CAREBEIJING campaign in 2006, imaging differential optical absorption spectroscopy (I-DOAS) measurements were made from 08:00 to 16:00 on September 9 and 10 over Beijing, China. Detailed images of the near-surface NO(2) differential slant column density (DSCD) distribution over Beijing were obtained. Images with less than a 30-min temporal resolution showed both horizontal and vertical variations in NO(2) distributions. For DSCD to mixing ratio conversion, path length along the lines of I-DOAS lines of sight was estimated using the light-extinction coefficient and Angstrom exponent data obtained by a transmissometer and a sunphotometer, respectively. Mixing ratios measured by an in-situ NO(2) analyzer were compared with those estimated by the I-DOAS instrument. The obtained temporal and spatial variations in NO(2) distributions measured by I-DOAS for the two days are interpreted with consideration of the locations of the major NO(x) sources and local wind conditions. I-DOAS measurements have been applied in this study for estimating NO(2) distribution over an urban area with multiple and distributed emission sources. Results are obtained for estimated temporal and spatial NO(2) distributions over the urban atmosphere; demonstrating the capability of the I-DOAS technique. We discuss in this paper the use of I-DOAS measurements to estimate the NO(2) distribution over an urban area with multiple distributed emission sources. PMID:19111964

  19. Aging Will Amplify the Heat-Related Mortality Risk Under a Changing Climate: Projection for the Elderly in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Zhou, Maigeng; Liang, Xudong; Ban, Jie; Sun, Qinghua; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2016-01-01

    An aging population could substantially enhance the burden of heat-related health risks in a warming climate because of their higher susceptibility to extreme heat health effects. Here, we project heatrelated mortality for adults 65 years and older in Beijing China across 31 downscaled climate models and 2 representative concentration pathways (RCPs) in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s. Under a scenario of medium population and RCP8.5, by the 2080s, Beijing is projected to experience 14,401 heat-related deaths per year for elderly individuals, which is a 264.9% increase compared with the 1980s. These impacts could be moderated through adaptation. In the 2080s, even with the 30% and 50% adaptation rate assumed in our study, the increase in heat-related death is approximately 7.4 times and 1.3 times larger than in the 1980s respectively under a scenario of high population and RCP8.5. These findings could assist countries in establishing public health intervention policies for the dual problems of climate change and aging population. Examples could include ensuring facilities with large elderly populations are protected from extreme heat (for example through back-up power supplies and/or passive cooling) and using databases and community networks to ensure the home-bound elderly are safe during extreme heat events.

  20. Writing Chinese art history in early twentieth-century China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Hui

    2010-01-01

    My dissertation argues that Chinese scholars of the 1920s and ’30s (re)interpreted the traditions of Chinese art in order to build a modern field of Chinese art history. These scholars faced with challenges such as China’s internal needs to develop, her indirect and direct encounters with Wester

  1. CO2 and its correlation with CO at a rural site near Beijing: implications for combustion efficiency in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ma

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Although China has surpassed the United States as the world's largest carbon dioxide emitter, in situ measurements of atmospheric CO2 have been sparse in China. This paper analyzes hourly CO2 and its correlation with CO at Miyun, a rural site near Beijing, over a period of 51 months (Dec 2004 through Feb 2009. The CO2-CO correlation analysis evaluated separately for each hour of the day provides useful information with statistical significance even in the growing season. We found that the intercept, representing the initial condition imposed by global distribution of CO2 with influence of photosynthesis and respiration, exhibits diurnal cycles differing by season. The background CO2 (CO2,b derived from Miyun observations is comparable to CO2 observed at a Mongolian background station to the northwest. Annual growth of overall mean CO2 at Miyun is estimated at 2.7 ppm yr−1 while that of CO2,b is only 1.7 ppm yr−1 similar to the mean growth rate at northern mid-latitude background stations. This suggests a relatively faster increase in the regional CO2 sources in China than the global average, consistent with bottom-up studies of CO2 emissions. For air masses with trajectories through the northern China boundary layer, mean winter CO2/CO correlation slopes (dCO2/dCO increased by 2.8 ± 0.9 ppmv/ppmv or 11% from 2005–2006 to 2007–2008, with CO2 increasing by 1.8 ppmv. The increase in dCO2/dCO indicates improvement in overall combustion efficiency over northern China after winter 2007, attributed to pollution reduction measures associated with the 2008 Beijing Olympics. The observed CO2/CO ratio at Miyun is 25% higher than the bottom-up CO2/CO emission ratio, suggesting a contribution of respired CO2 from urban residents as well as agricultural soils and livestock in the observations and uncertainty in the emission estimates.

  2. CO2 and its correlation with CO at a rural site near Beijing: implications for combustion efficiency in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Munger, J. W.; Xu, S.; McElroy, M. B.; Hao, J.; Nielsen, C. P.; Ma, H.

    2010-09-01

    Although China has surpassed the United States as the world's largest carbon dioxide emitter, in situ measurements of atmospheric CO2 have been sparse in China. This paper analyzes hourly CO2 and its correlation with CO at Miyun, a rural site near Beijing, over a period of 51 months (Dec 2004 through Feb 2009). The CO2-CO correlation analysis evaluated separately for each hour of the day provides useful information with statistical significance even in the growing season. We found that the intercept, representing the initial condition imposed by global distribution of CO2 with influence of photosynthesis and respiration, exhibits diurnal cycles differing by season. The background CO2 (CO2,b) derived from Miyun observations is comparable to CO2 observed at a Mongolian background station to the northwest. Annual growth of overall mean CO2 at Miyun is estimated at 2.7 ppm yr-1 while that of CO2,b is only 1.7 ppm yr-1 similar to the mean growth rate at northern mid-latitude background stations. This suggests a relatively faster increase in the regional CO2 sources in China than the global average, consistent with bottom-up studies of CO2 emissions. For air masses with trajectories through the northern China boundary layer, mean winter CO2/CO correlation slopes (dCO2/dCO) increased by 2.8 ± 0.9 ppmv/ppmv or 11% from 2005-2006 to 2007-2008, with CO2 increasing by 1.8 ppmv. The increase in dCO2/dCO indicates improvement in overall combustion efficiency over northern China after winter 2007, attributed to pollution reduction measures associated with the 2008 Beijing Olympics. The observed CO2/CO ratio at Miyun is 25% higher than the bottom-up CO2/CO emission ratio, suggesting a contribution of respired CO2 from urban residents as well as agricultural soils and livestock in the observations and uncertainty in the emission estimates.

  3. Missionaries and Tonic Sol-fa Music Pedagogy in 19th-Century China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southcott, Jane E.; Lee, Angela Hao-Chun

    2008-01-01

    In the 19th century, Christian missionaries in China, as elsewhere, used the Tonic Sol-fa method of music instruction to aid their evangelizing. This system was designed to improve congregational singing in churches, Sunday schools and missions. The London Missionary Society and other evangelical groups employed the method. These missionaries took…

  4. Sex Education in Modern and Contemporary China: Interrupted Debates across the Last Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresu, Alessandra

    2009-01-01

    Since the late 1980s sex education has been widely promoted in the PRC, but this is not the first time in China's modern history that attempts to develop sex education have been made. The present essay traces the development of sex education debates over the last century, identifying the historical, political and social contexts in which they…

  5. Spatial-Temporal Variations of Water Quality and Its Relationship to Land Use and Land Cover in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Zhou, Weiqi; Pickett, Steward T A; Li, Weifeng; Han, Lijian

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization with intense land use and land cover (LULC) change and explosive population growth has a great impact on water quality. The relationship between LULC characteristics and water quality provides important information for non-point sources (NPS) pollution management. In this study, we first quantified the spatial-temporal patterns of five water quality variables in four watersheds with different levels of urbanization in Beijing, China. We then examined the effects of LULC on water quality across different scales, using Pearson correlation analysis, redundancy analysis, and multiple regressions. The results showed that water quality was improved over the sampled years but with no significant difference (p > 0.05). However, water quality was significantly different among nonurban and both exurban and urban sites (p pollution in urban areas. PMID:27128934

  6. Environmental impact assessment of solid waste management in Beijing City, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yan; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Lu, Wenjing;

    2011-01-01

    The environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management in Beijing City were evaluated using a life-cycle-based model, EASEWASTE, to take into account waste generation, collection, transportation, treatment/disposal technologies, and savings obtained by energy and material recovery....... The current system, mainly involving the use of landfills, has manifested significant adverse environmental impacts caused by methane emissions from landfills and many other emissions from transfer stations. A short-term future scenario, where some of the landfills (which soon will reach their capacity...... because of rising amount of waste in Beijing City) are substituted by incinerators with energy recovery, would not result in significant environmental improvement. This is primarily because of the low calorific value of mixed waste, and it is likely that the incinerators would require significant amounts...

  7. Characterization of land subsidence induced by groundwater withdrawals in Wenyu River alluvial fan, Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Luo, Y.; Yang, Y.; Tian, F.; Zhou, Y.; Tian, M.-Z.

    2015-11-01

    The Beijing plain area has suffered from severe land subsidence owing to groundwater overdraft. A major example is the Wenyu River alluvial fan in the Beijing plain area. This area has experienced as much as 10 m of land subsidence through 2000s. An integrated subsidence-monitoring program, including borehole extensometer and multilayer monitoring of groundwater, has been designed to meet the needs of monitoring land subsidence in this region. This work has allowed us to characterize land subsidence and understand the mechanical properties of the strata. The analysis results show the development of the land subsidence in this area is consistent with water-level change. The major strata contributing to compression deformation are Mid-Pleistocene stratum which contributed around 70 % of total subsidence. The shallow stratum and deep stratum show elastic mechanical behavior the intermediate stratum exhibit elastic-plastic mechanical behavior.

  8. Completeness of nutrient declarations and the average nutritional composition of pre-packaged foods in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liping; Neal, Bruce; Dunford, Elizabeth; Ma, Guansheng; Wu, Jason H Y; Crino, Michelle; Trevena, Helen

    2016-12-01

    Increasing consumption of pre-packaged foods is likely an important driver of diet-related diseases in China. From January 2013 it became mandatory to provide a standardised nutrient declaration on pre-packaged foods in China. We collected data on pre-packaged foods from large chain supermarkets in Beijing in 2013, examined the completeness of the nutrient declaration of core required nutrients and summarised the average nutritional composition of 14 different major food groups. We also illustrated the potential use of the data by comparing sodium levels. Photos of 14,279 pre-packaged foods were collected from 16 chain supermarkets in Beijing. Data for 11,489 products were included in the evaluation of nutrient declarations and data for 10,048 in the summary analysis of average nutritional composition. Compliant nutrient declarations were displayed by 87% of products with 88% of foods displaying data for each of energy, protein, total fat, carbohydrate and sodium. Nutrients not required by the Chinese regulation were infrequently reported: saturated fat (12%), trans fat (17%) and sugars (11%). Mean sodium levels were higher in Chinese products compared to UK products for 8 of 11 major food categories, often markedly so (e.g. 1417 mg/100 g vs. 304 mg/100 g for convenience foods). There has been substantial uptake of the recently introduced Chinese nutrition labelling regulation which should help consumers to choose healthier foods. As the comparison against corresponding data about sodium from the United Kingdom shows, the nutrient data can also be used to identify broader opportunities for improvement of the food supply.

  9. Completeness of nutrient declarations and the average nutritional composition of pre-packaged foods in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liping; Neal, Bruce; Dunford, Elizabeth; Ma, Guansheng; Wu, Jason H Y; Crino, Michelle; Trevena, Helen

    2016-12-01

    Increasing consumption of pre-packaged foods is likely an important driver of diet-related diseases in China. From January 2013 it became mandatory to provide a standardised nutrient declaration on pre-packaged foods in China. We collected data on pre-packaged foods from large chain supermarkets in Beijing in 2013, examined the completeness of the nutrient declaration of core required nutrients and summarised the average nutritional composition of 14 different major food groups. We also illustrated the potential use of the data by comparing sodium levels. Photos of 14,279 pre-packaged foods were collected from 16 chain supermarkets in Beijing. Data for 11,489 products were included in the evaluation of nutrient declarations and data for 10,048 in the summary analysis of average nutritional composition. Compliant nutrient declarations were displayed by 87% of products with 88% of foods displaying data for each of energy, protein, total fat, carbohydrate and sodium. Nutrients not required by the Chinese regulation were infrequently reported: saturated fat (12%), trans fat (17%) and sugars (11%). Mean sodium levels were higher in Chinese products compared to UK products for 8 of 11 major food categories, often markedly so (e.g. 1417 mg/100 g vs. 304 mg/100 g for convenience foods). There has been substantial uptake of the recently introduced Chinese nutrition labelling regulation which should help consumers to choose healthier foods. As the comparison against corresponding data about sodium from the United Kingdom shows, the nutrient data can also be used to identify broader opportunities for improvement of the food supply. PMID:27570732

  10. Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection Decision Tree Analysis of Risk Factors for Infant Anemia in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Ye; Zhi-Hua Chen; Jie Chen; Fang Liu; Yong Zhang; Qin-Ying Fan; Lin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Background:In the past decades,studies on infant anemia have mainly focused on rural areas of China.With the increasing heterogeneity of population in recent years,available information on infant anemia is inconclusive in large cities of China,especially with comparison between native residents and floating population.This population-based cross-sectional study was implemented to determine the anemic status of infants as well as the risk factors in a representative downtown area of Beijing.Methods:As useful methods to build a predictive model,Chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) decision tree analysis and logistic regression analysis were introduced to explore risk factors of infant anemia.A total of 1091 infants aged 6-12 months together with their parents/caregivers living at Heping Avenue Subdistrict of Beijing were surveyed from January 1,2013 to December 31,2014.Results:The prevalence of anemia was 12.60% with a range of 3.47%-40.00% in different subgroup characteristics.The CHAID decision tree model has demonstrated multilevel interaction among risk factors through stepwise pathways to detect anemia.Besides the three predictors identified by logistic regression model including maternal anemia during pregnancy,exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months,and floating population,CHAID decision tree analysis also identified the fourth risk factor,the matemal educational level,with higher overall classification accuracy and larger area below the receiver operating characteristic curve.Conclusions:The infant anemic status in metropolis is complex and should be carefully considered by the basic health care practitioners.CHAID decision tree analysis has demonstrated a better performance in hierarchical analysis of population with great heterogeneity.Risk factors identified by this study might be meaningful in the early detection and prompt treatment of infant anemia in large cities.

  11. Endotoxin contamination and control in surface water sources and a drinking water treatment plant in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Zhang; Wenjun, Liu; Wen, Sun; Minglu, Zhang; Lingjia, Qian; Cuiping, Li; Fang, Tian

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, endotoxin contamination was determined in treated water following each unit of a drinking water treatment plant (WTP) in Beijing, China and its source water (SW) from a long water diversion channel (Shijiazhuang-Beijing) originating from four reservoirs in Hebei province, China. The total-endotoxin activities in SW ranged from 21 to 41 EU/ml at five selected cross sections of the diversion channel. The total-endotoxin in raw water of the WTP ranged from 11 to 16 EU/ml due to dilution and pretreatment during water transportation from Tuancheng Lake to the WTP, and finished water of the WTP ranged from 4 to 10 EU/ml, showing a 49% decrease following the full-scale treatment process at the WTP. Compared with the 31% removal of free-endotoxin, the WTP removed up to 71% of bound-endotoxin in raw water. The traditional treatment processes (coagulation, sedimentation and filtration) in the WTP removed substantial amounts of total-endotoxin (up to 63%), while endotoxin activities increased after granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption and chlorination. The total-endotoxin in the actual water was composed of free-endotoxin and bound-endotoxin (endotoxin aggregates, bacteria-bound endotoxins and particle-attached endotoxins). The endotoxin aggregates, bacteria-bound endotoxins and particle-attached endotoxins co-exist as suspended particles in water, and only the bacteria-bound endotoxins were correlated with bacterial cells suspended in water. The particle distribution of endotoxin aggregates in ultrapure water was also tested and the results showed that the majority (64-89%) of endotoxin aggregates had diameters water following each unit of the WTP processes and its SW from reservoirs are discussed and compared with regard to bacterial cell counts and particle characteristics, which were dependent, to a certain extent, on different flow rates and turbulence of the water environments.

  12. Spatial Patterns and Temporal Variability of Drought in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Areas in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wanyuan Cai; Yuhu Zhang; Qiuhua Chen; Yunjun Yao

    2015-01-01

    Drought identification and assessment are essential for regional water resources management. In this paper, the spatiotemporal characteristics of drought were evaluated based on monthly precipitation data from 33 synoptic stations during the period of 1960–2010. The percent of normal precipitation was applied to illustrate the driest years in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan areas (BTHMA) (1965, 1997, and 2002). The modified Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) was applied to capture the drou...

  13. Effects of rigorous emission controls on reducing ambient volatile organic compounds in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wu, Rongrong; Li, Yaqi; Hao, Yufang; Xie, Shaodong; Zeng, Liming

    2016-07-01

    102 volatile organic compound (VOC) species were measured online using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector (GC-MS/FID) at an urban site in Beijing in 11 August to 3 September 2015, when a series of rigorous air quality control measures were implemented in Beijing city and neighbouring provinces. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to identify emission sources from 1h averaged values of VOC data. Based on the online VOC data and the PMF analysis results, the effectiveness of different control measures were investigated. The PMF results were compared with an emission inventory data. Results show that the rigorous air quality restrictions implemented were successful. The averaged ambient VOC mixing ratios during the emission control period and non-control period were 27.53 and 45.42ppbv, respectively. The mixing ratios of total VOC during the control period were reduced by 40%. Alkanes were the most abundant chemical group in the two periods, followed by oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs). Almost all quantified VOC species decreased during the control period. Tracers of industrial sources and vehicle exhaust reduced most, including some halocarbons, esters and aromatics. Eight sources were resolved by online PMF analysis for ambient VOCs in Beijing. Contributions of those sources varied significantly during the control and non-control period. Compared with the values before control, contributions of vehicle-related sources were most reduced, followed by solvent utilization. Reductions of vehicle-related sources, solvent utilization, secondary formation, fuel combustion, and biogenic were responsible for 65%, 19%, 10%, 5%, and 1% of the reductions in ambient VOCs. Both PMF results and emission inventory data indicated that the control measure on traffic was very effective in reducing ambient VOCs in Beijing, with the emission reductions of about 50%. PMID:27039059

  14. Long-Term Land Subsidence Monitoring of Beijing (China Using the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Advanced techniques of multi-temporal InSAR (MT-InSAR represent a valuable tool in ground subsidence studies allowing remote investigation of the behavior of mass movements in long time intervals by using large datasets of SAR images covering the same area and acquired at different epochs. Beijing is susceptible to subsidence, producing undesirable environmental impacts and affecting dense population. Excessive groundwater withdrawal is thought to be the primary cause of land subsidence, and rapid urbanization and economic development, mass construction of skyscrapers, highways and underground engineering facilities (e.g., subway are also contributing factors. In this paper, a spatial–temporal analysis of the land subsidence in Beijing was performed using one of the MT-InSAR techniques, referred to as Small Baseline Subset (SBAS. This technique allows monitoring the temporal evolution of a deformation phenomenon, via the generation of mean deformation velocity maps and displacement time series from a data set of acquired SAR images. 52 C-band ENVISAT ASAR images acquired from June 2003 to August 2010 were used to produce a linear deformation rate map and to derive time series of ground deformation. The results show that there are three large subsidence funnels within this study area, which separately located in Balizhuang-Dajiaoting in Chaoyang district, Wangjing-Laiguangying Chaoyang district, Gaoliying Shunyi district. The maximum settlement center is Wangsiying-Tongzhou along the Beijing express; the subsidence velocity exceeds 110 mm/y in the LOS direction. In particular, we compared the achieved results with leveling measurements that are assumed as reference. The estimated long-term subsidence results obtained by SBAS approach agree well with the development of the over-exploitation of ground water, indicating that SBAS techniques is adequate for the retrieval of land subsidence in Beijing from multi-temporal SAR data.

  15. Who benefits most from influenza vaccination policy: a study among the elderly in Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tongtong; Lv, Min; Lei, Trudy; Wu, Jiang; Pang, Xinghuo; Deng, Ying; Xie, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Influenza continues to have a major impact on vulnerable populations worldwide, particularly among the elderly (≥60 years of age). Vaccination for targeted groups is recommended by the WHO as the most effective way to control influenza infections. Since 2009, the Beijing municipal government has provided influenza vaccination to the elderly at no out-of-pocket cost to reduce influenza threats and improve related health equality. The study aims to evaluate the equality of the policy...

  16. The impact of periodic air pollution peaks in Beijing on air quality governance in China

    OpenAIRE

    Schwabe, Julian; Hassler, Markus

    2016-01-01

    During the month of January 2013, Beijing suffered air pollution of unprecedented intensity. This event, which was named “airpocalypse” in international media, was followed by vibrant media reporting and public discussion on the topic and prompted the central government to issue unusually ambitious measures to contain air pollution more effectively. This paper explores the impact of the airpocalypse on China’s air quality governance by conducting a qualitative analysis of pollution control po...

  17. Urban Metabolism Based on Emergy and Slack Based Model: A Case Study of Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Tao; CAI Jianming; XU Hui; DENG Yu; NIU Fangqu; YANG Zhenshan; DU Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    The key to studying urban sustainable development depends on quantifying stores,efficiencies of urban metabolisms and capturing urban metabolisms' mechanisms.This paper builds up the metabolic emergy account and quantifies some important concepts of emergy stores.Emphasis is placed on the urban metabolic model based on the slack based model (SBM) method to measure urban metabolic efficiencies.Urban metabolic mechanisms are discussed by using the regression method.By integrating these models,this paper analyzes the urban metabolic development in Beijing from 2001 to 2010.We conclude that the metabolic emergy stores of Beijing increased significantly from 2001 to 2010,with the emergy imported accotmting for most of the increase.The metabolic efficiencies in Beijing have improved since the 2008 Olympic Games.The population,economic growth,industrial structures,and environmental governance positively affect the overall urban metabolism,while the land expansion,urbanization and environmentally technical levels hinder the improving of urban metabolic efficiencies.The SBM metabolic method and the regression model based on the emergy analysis provide insights into the urban metabolic efficiencies and the mechanism.They can promote to integrate such concepts into their sustainability analyses and policy decisions.

  18. Urban-Induced Mechanisms for an Extreme Rainfall Event in Beijing China: A Satellite Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menglin S. Jin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Using 1 km satellite remote sensing observations, this paper examines the clouds, aerosols, water vapor and surface skin temperature over Beijing to understand the possible urban system contributions to the extreme rainfall event on 21 July 2012 (i.e., 721 event. Remote sensing measurements, with the advantage of high spatial resolution and coverage, reveal three key urban-related mechanisms: (a the urban heat island effect (UHI resulted in strong surface convection and high level cloud cover over Beijing; (b urban aerosol amount peaked before the rainfall, which “seeded” the clouds and invigorated precipitation; and (c urban tall buildings provided additional lift for the air mass and provided heat at the underlying boundary to keep the rainfall system alive for a long duration precipitation (>10 hours. With the existing rainfall system moving from the northwest and abundant water vapor was transported from the southeast into Beijing, the urban canyon-lifting, aerosol, and UHI effects all enhanced this extreme rainfall event. This work proves that urban system is responsible, at least partly, for urban rainfall extremes and thus should be considered for urban extreme rainfall prediction in the future.

  19. Source apportionment and health risk assessment of trace metals in surface soils of Beijing metropolitan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyang; Teng, Yanguo; Lu, Sijin; Wang, Yeyao; Wu, Jin; Wang, Jinsheng

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the exposure risks of trace metals in contamination soils and apportioning their sources are the basic preconditions for soil pollution prevention and control. In this study, a detailed investigation was conducted to assess the health risks of trace metals in surface soils of Beijing which is one of the most populated cities in the world and to apportion their potential sources. The data set of metals for 12 elements in 240 soil samples was collected. Pollution index and enrichment factor were used to identify the general contamination characteristic of soil metals. The probabilistic risk model was employed for health risk assessment, and a chemometrics technique, multivariate curve resolution-weighted alternating least squares (MCR-WALS), was applied to apportion sources. Results suggested that the soils in Beijing metropolitan region were contaminated by Hg, Cd, Cu, As, and Pb in varying degree, lying in the moderate pollution level. As a whole, the health risks posed by soil metals were acceptable or close to tolerable. Comparatively speaking, children and adult females were the relatively vulnerable populations for the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks, respectively. Atmospheric deposition, fertilizers and agrochemicals, and natural source were apportioned as the potential sources determining the contents of trace metals in soils of Beijing area with contributions of 15.5%-16.4%, 5.9%-7.7% and 76.0%-78.6%, respectively.

  20. Heavy metals in urban soils with various types of land use in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xinghui; Chen, Xi; Liu, Ruimin; Liu, Hong

    2011-02-28

    Heavy metal concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were investigated for 127 urban soil samples collected from business area (BA), classical garden (CG), culture and education area (CEA), public green space (PGS), residential area (RA) and roadside area (RSA) in Beijing. The distribution of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn was mainly affected by anthropogenic sources, with their mean concentrations much higher than the background values of Beijing, while Cr and Ni were from natural sources. Among the 6 types of land use, the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in CG were significantly higher than those in the other 5 types of land use (ptypes of land use except CG, the mean concentration of Cd in RSA was significantly higher than those in BA, CEA, PGS and RA (p<0.05), suggesting Cd was mainly from traffic sources. The distribution maps revealed that the concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn showed decreasing trends from the center to the suburb of Beijing, they increased with the age of the urban area.

  1. An integrated MM5-CMAQ modeling approach for assessing trans-boundary PM 10 contribution to the host city of 2008 Olympic summer games—Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. S.; Cheng, S. Y.; Liu, L.; Chen, T.; Guo, X. R.

    In this paper, an integrated MM5-CMAQ modeling approach was employed to investigate the PM 10 air pollution issue in Beijing, China, with a focus on assessing pollution contributions from surrounding provinces. A 2-level-nested grid domain with spatial resolutions of 36 and 12 km was designed for the study region. Seven monitoring stations across Beijing municipality were selected to provide hourly PM 10 measurement data. The months of January, April, July and October in 2002 were taken as target periods for model performance evaluation. Five emission scenarios were designed and run in order to quantitatively assess the trans-boundary PM 10 contributions. The results show that, while Beijing needs to take positive steps to reduce its own pollution emissions, much effort should also be placed on demanding more pollution reduction and better environmental performance from surrounding provinces.

  2. First Forum on China-Africa Local Government Cooperation Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The First Forum on China-Africa Local Government Cooperation was held at the China National Convention Center from August 27 to 28. Vice Premier Li Keqiang spoke at the opening ceremony to over 1,700 local government officials and entrepreneurs from China and more than 40 African countries and related international organizations, while State Councilor Dai Bingguo addressed the closing ceremony.Two important sub-forums, the China-Africa Local Government

  3. Opening Remarks at Press Conference in Beijing, China, July 17, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jim Yong

    2015-01-01

    These remarks delivered by Jim Yong Kim, President of the World Bank Group, discuss the Chinese economy, China's global role in development, and the latest report on health care reform. He appreciated China, that remains the largest contributor to world growth since the global financial crisis. He talks about the progress made by China in several reforms, including lower credit growth, better regulation ...

  4. 21 October 2008 - LHC Inauguration - IHEP Beijing representative Prof. Chen, People's Republic of China, welcomed by CERN Director-General R. Aymar, CERN Chief Scientific Officer J. Engelen and CERN Financial Officer S. Lettow.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Photo Service

    2008-01-01

    21 October 2008 - LHC Inauguration - IHEP Beijing representative Prof. Chen, People's Republic of China, welcomed by CERN Director-General R. Aymar, CERN Chief Scientific Officer J. Engelen and CERN Financial Officer S. Lettow.

  5. 北京发现悬铃木方翅网蝽为害%The first discovery of the sycamore lace bug Corythucha ciliata in Beijing,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞国跃; 王合; 朱晓清; 冯术快; 卢绪利

    2014-01-01

    The sycamore lace bug Corythucha ciliata was first observed with low population at a park in Huairou District,Beijing in August 2012.However,it broken out in Changping District,Beijing,with heavy infestation on Platanus × acerifolia in 2013.Beijing is the northernmost distribution record of C .ciliata in China.The lace bug obviously could overwinter in Beijing and causes damage.The present paper records its occurrence in Beijing, provides with their color pictures.%2012年8月在北京怀柔的二球悬铃木上初次发现了外来入侵物种-悬铃木方翅网蝽(Corythucha ciliata ),但数量较少,未造成明显危害;2013年在北京昌平再度发现悬铃木方翅网蝽为害,且种群数量极大。北京发现的悬铃木方翅网蝽是该入侵物种在我国的最北分布记录。本文记述了悬铃木方翅网蝽在北京的为害现状,并提供了彩色图片。

  6. Atmospheric Fossil Fuel CO2 Traced by Δ(14)C in Beijing and Xiamen, China: Temporal Variations, Inland/Coastal Differences and Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhenchuan; Zhou, Weijian; Wu, Shugang; Cheng, Peng; Lu, Xuefeng; Xiong, Xiaohu; Du, Hua; Fu, Yunchong; Wang, Gehui

    2016-06-01

    One year of atmospheric Δ(14)CO2 were observed in 2014 in the inland city of Beijing and coastal city of Xiamen, China, to trace temporal CO2ff variations and to determine the factors influencing them. The average CO2ff concentrations at the sampling sites in Beijing and Xiamen were 39.7 ± 36.1 ppm and 13.6 ± 12.3 ppm, respectively. These contributed 75.2 ± 14.6% and 59.1 ± 26.8% to their respective annual ΔCO2 offsets over background CO2 concentrations. Significantly (p < 0.05) high CO2ff values were observed in winter in Beijing. We did not find any significant differences in CO2ff values between weekdays and weekends. Diurnal CO2ff variations were plainly evident, with high values between midnight and 4:00, and during morning and afternoon rush hours. The sampling site in the inland city of Beijing displayed much higher CO2ff inputs and overall temporal variations than the site in the coastal city of Xiamen. The variations of CO2ff at both sites were controlled by a combination of emission sources, topography, and atmospheric dispersion. In particular, diurnal observations at the urban site in Beijing showed that CO2ff was easily accumulated under the southeast wind conditions. PMID:27171980

  7. Political elites and China's search of modernity in twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lemus Delgado

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between the foundation, consolidation and reinvention of the political elite in the People's Republic of China and the search to modernization from an historical perspective. To do this, this article proposes that modernity is a political project that has been an important ideological justification. This justification allowed that Chinese Communist Party took the political power. Also, the project of modernization has favored the reinvention of the political elite. The contribution of this paper is to present this process and the particular characteristics of Chinese history. In conclusion, this paper suggests that the search to modernization has been a constitutive element with deep historical roots.

  8. New Development of China Shipping Industry in the New Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Distinguished Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen,Today I am very delighted to attend the 12th China International Maritime Technology Forum in Shanghai, communicate the development and trend of maritime transport and related industries, and discuss the policies and measures on promotion of sustainable and healthy development of maritime transport industry together with every friend in maritime transport sector from home and abroad. I hope the Forum will be of a complete success.Nowadays, with the continuous deepening of economic globalization and trade

  9. The consumption and recycling collection system of PET bottles: a case study of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2014-06-01

    After studying the recycling collection system of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles worldwide, the authors conducted an intercept survey in Beijing. Two separate questionnaires were issued, one questionnaire to PET bottle consumers and one to PET bottle recyclers. In this study, consumers are defined as people that consume PET-bottled beverages in their daily life. Recyclers were defined as those involved in the collection and recycling of PET bottles. These include scavengers, itinerant waste buyers, small community waste-buying depots, medium/large redemption depots, and recycling companies. In total, 580 surveys were completed, including 461 by consumers and 119 by recyclers. The authors found that consumption of PET bottles in Beijing was nearly 100,000 tonnes in 2012. Age, occupation, gender, and education were identified as significant factors linked to PET-bottled beverage consumption, while income was not a significant factor. 90% Of post-consumed PET bottles were collected by informal collectors (i.e., scavengers and itinerant waste buyers). The survey also found that nearly all PET bottles were reprocessed by small factories that were not designed with pollution control equipment, which allows them to offer higher prices for waste recyclable bottles. As Beijing is trying to build a formal recycling collection system for recyclables, subsidies should be given to the formal recycling sector rather than being charged land use fees, and attention should also be given to informal recyclers that make their living from the collection of recyclables. Informal and formal sectors may work together by employing the scavengers and itinerant waste buyers for the formal sectors. In addition to the recycling of PET bottles, concern should also be allocated to reduce consumption, especially among young people, as they, compared to other groups, have a stronger demand for PET-bottled beverages and will be the main body of society.

  10. Validation of emission inventories by measurements of ambient volatile organic compounds in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs is essential for ground-level ozone and secondary organic aerosols (SOA abatement measures. We made measurements at 28 sites and online observations at an urban site in Beijing from July 2009 to January 2012. From these we determined the spatial and temporal distributions of VOCs, estimated their annual emission strengths based on their emission ratios relative to CO, and quantified the relative contributions of various sources using the chemical mass balance (CMB model. The results from ambient measurements were compared with existing emission inventories to evaluate the spatial distribution, species-specific emissions, and source structure of VOCs. The measured VOC distributions revealed a hotspot in the southern suburban area of Beijing, whereas current emission inventories suggested that VOC emissions were concentrated in downtown areas. Compared with results derived from ambient measurements, the annual inventoried emissions of oxygenated VOC (OVOC species and C2–C4 alkanes might be underestimated, while the emissions of styrene and 1,3-butadiene might be overestimated by current inventories. Source apportionment using the CMB model identified vehicular exhaust as the most important VOC source, contributing 46%, in good agreement with the 40–51% assumed by emission inventories. However, the relative contribution of solvent and paint usage obtained from the CMB model was only 5%, significantly lower than the values reported by emission inventories (14–32%. Meanwhile, the relative contribution of industrial processes calculated using the CMB model was 17%, slightly higher than that in emission inventories. These results suggested that VOCs emission strengths in southern suburban area of Beijing, annual emissions of alkenes and OVOCs, and the contributions of solvent and paint usage and industrial processes in current inventories, all require significant revision.

  11. Concentrations and patterns of polychlorinated naphthalenes in urban air in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lingnan; Zhang, Lifei; Yan, Yan; Dong, Liang; Huang, Yeru; Li, Xiaoxiu

    2016-11-01

    Air samples were collected, using a high-volume air sampler, at an urban site in Beijing from April 2014 to March 2015. The polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) concentration in the atmosphere in each season was determined. The total PCN (total target tri- to octachloronaphthalene congeners) concentrations were 1.99-19.0 pg/m(3), and the mean was 7.20 pg/m(3). The PCN concentrations were higher in fall than summer, indicating that the concentrations varied significantly over time. The trichloronaphthalene homolog was the predominant PCN homolog in all four seasons. The PCN toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations were 0.42-6.89 fg/m(3), and the mean was 1.74 fg/m(3). The CN-66/67 and CN-73 congeners were the predominant contributors to the TEQ concentrations. The mean seasonal TEQ concentration decreased in the order fall (3.18 fg/m(3)) > winter (1.41 fg/m(3)) > summer (1.11 fg/m(3)) > spring (1.03 fg/m(3)). The TEQ concentrations and the PCN concentrations did not follow the same seasonal trends, but the highest TEQ and PCN concentrations were both found in fall. Correlation analysis, ratio analysis, and principal component analysis were used to investigate the sources of PCNs to the Beijing atmosphere. The results suggested that combustion processes may be the main sources of PCNs to the Beijing atmosphere.

  12. Distribution and sources of oxygenated non-hydrocarbons in topsoil of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihuan; Wan, Tiantian; Peng, Xuyang; He, Guangxiu; Liu, Yu; Zeng, Li

    2016-08-01

    The oxygenated non-hydrocarbon compounds are widely distributed in soil. To investigate the distribution and origin of these compounds in topsoil of Beijing, their contents and compositions were measured in topsoil from 62 sites in Beijing. The research results showed that oxygenated non-hydrocarbons were composed primarily of C6∼C28 n-fatty acids, C12∼C28 n-fatty alcohols, n-fatty acid methyl esters, phthalates, sterols, and dehydroabietic acid in the topsoil of Beijing. The contents and compositions of these compounds varied with the sampling site. The concentrations of n-fatty acids and phthalate esters were the highest at all sites, followed by sterols, n-fatty acid methyl esters, fatty alcohols, and dehydroabietic acid in order. The n-fatty acids had a main peak of C16, followed by C18. An odd or even carbon number predominance was not observed in the low-molecular-weight n-fatty acids, indicating a fossil fuel or organic matter source. However, some high-molecular-weight n-fatty acids with an even carbon predominance may derive from a biomass. The n-fatty alcohols showed a main peak of C22 and were predominated by an even carbon number, suggesting plant, microbial, or other natural origins. Phthalates, including diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), and dimethylphthalate (DMP), were detected. The content of phthalate esters was higher in the samples collected from dense human activity areas. The concentrations of DBP, DEHP, and DIBP were relatively high, indicating an anthropogenic source. The sterols (predominantly β-sitosterol) originated from biological sources, especially plants. The n-fatty acid methyl esters and dehydroabietic acid in topsoil showed apparent even carbon predominance with the former mainly derived from microorganisms or plants and the latter from cork combustion products. PMID:27172982

  13. Mask-wearing and respiratory infection in healthcare workers in Beijing, China

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    Peng Yang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine rates of mask-wearing, of respiratory infection and the factors associated with mask-wearing and of respiratory infection in healthcare workers (HCWs in Beijing during the winter of 2007/2008. METHODS: We conducted a survey of 400 HCWs working in eight hospitals in Beijing by face to face interview using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: We found that 280/400 (70.0% of HCWs were compliant with mask-wearing while in contact with patients. Respiratory infection occurred in 238/400 (59.5% subjects from November, 2007 through February, 2008. Respiratory infection was higher among females (odds ratio [OR], 2.00 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.16-3.49] and staff working in larger hospitals (OR, 1.72 [95% CI, 1.092.72], but was lower among subjects with seasonal influenza vaccination (OR, 0.46 [95% CI, 0.280.76], wearing medical masks (reference: cotton-yarn; OR, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.39-0.91] or with good mask-wearing adherence (OR, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.37-0.98]. The risk of respiratory infection of HCWs working in low risk areas was similar to that of HCWs in high risk area. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that female HCWs and staffs working in larger hospitals are the focus of prevention and control of respiratory infection in Beijing hospitals. Mask-wearing and seasonal influenza vaccination are protective for respiratory infection in HCWs; the protective efficacy of medical masks is better than that of cotton yarn ones; respiratory infection of HCWs working in low risk areas should also be given attention.

  14. Influences of characteristic meteorological conditions on atmospheric carbonyls in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaobing; Mu, Yujing; Lee, Xinqing; Zhang, Yujie; Xu, Zhu

    2009-08-01

    Atmospheric pollutants are controlled not only by their production rates but also by meteorological conditions. The influences of dust storm, sauna weather (haze with high temperature and high humidity), wet precipitation and wind speed on atmospheric carbonyls in Beijing were investigated. During a severe dust episode (April 17, 2006), the mixing ratios of carbonyls were significantly elevated to 13-27 ppbV from 7 to 13 ppbV in the previous non-dust days (April 15 and 16) with the increasing extents of 38-154%. The accumulating effect and the lower photolysis rate in the dust day may be responsible for the increases of carbonyls' levels. Additionally, the contribution from heterogeneous reactions occurring on dust particles to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde cannot be ruled out. During the period of typical sauna weather, the concentrations of atmospheric carbonyls increased to 18-60 ppbV from 10 to 17 ppbV before the sauna days. The air mass over Beijing during the sauna days was controlled by a subtropical anticyclone and the boundary layer became quite stable, which was beneficial to the rapid accumulation of air pollutants including carbonyls. Wet precipitation was found to be an effective removal process to the atmospheric carbonyls. After one-hour of rain in summer, the total concentrations of atmospheric carbonyls decreased to less than half of that before the rainfall. The similar temporal varying patterns of carbonyls and inorganic ions in rainwater indicated that carbonyls were mainly washed out from the atmosphere into rainwater as inorganic ions were. Strong wind could evidently dilute atmospheric carbonyls and a negative correlation was found between wind speeds and the concentrations of carbonyls in spring in Beijing.

  15. Respiratory infections associated with enterovirus D68 from 2011 to 2015 in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiegang; Li, Aihua; Chen, Meng; Wu, Jiang; Huang, Fang

    2016-09-01

    Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is an emergent viral pathogen associated with mild to severe respiratory infections. In this study, we describe respiratory infections associated with EV-D68 in Beijing over a 4 year period. Total nucleic acid was extracted from 7,945 clinical specimens collected between January 5, 2011 and July 30, 2015 in Beijing and used for detecting EV-D68 and other enteroviruses by real-time PCR. Overall, 555/7,945 (6.99%) specimens were enterovirus positive: 12/7,945 (0.2%) specimens were EV-D68 positive. Of these patients, 11 were pediatric patients and 1 was a 76-year-old man. The main symptoms for the 12 EV-D68 positive patients were fever (10/12, 83.3%) and cough (6/12, 50%). Ten EV-D68 infection cases were identified in autumn or winter season. The phylogenetic relationships of the 12 EV-D68 viral strains with other strains were analyzed based on the sequences of viral protein 1(VP1). The EV-D68 strains from 2011 to 2013 belonged to groups 1 or 3, while all strains in 2014 were clustered into group 1 together with the strains circulating in the USA. In conclusion, EV-D68 played a role in respiratory infections in Beijing during this period. In addition, the most common EV-D68 strain detected was similar to that circulating in the USA in 2014. J. Med. Virol. 88:1529-1534, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26896830

  16. Improvements in China's Food Additive Laws-Fermented Flour Paste Additive in Beijing Roast Duck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianglian; Zhao Xin

    2008-01-01

    About half of the food safety incidents in 2005 and 2006 were related to food additives. Early in 2007,the main problem for administrative enforcement is the issue of food additives.This paper analyzes one such incident:the fermented flour paste incident in Beijing roast duck that occurred in early 2007.We put forward suggested ways to perfect the legal system regarding Chinese food additives by focusing on legal and management mechanisms.This includes optimizing higher-level laws for food additives,improving the standards system,cultivating the appropriate concepts,implementing preventive measures,and facilitating routine law enforcement.

  17. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in soils and vegetables from wastewater irrigated area, Beijing-Tianjin city cluster, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanchun Wang; Min Qiao; Yunxia Liu; Yongguan Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The possible health risks of heavy metals contamination to local population through food chain were evaluated in Beijing and Tianjin city cluster,China,where have a long history of sewage irrigation.The transfer factors (TF) for heavy metals from soil to vegetables for six elements including Cu,Zn,Pb,Cr,As and Cd were calculated and the pollution load indexes (PLI) were also assessed.Results indicate that only Cd exceeded the maximum acceptable limit in these sites.So far,the heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetables were all below the permissible limits set by the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China and World Health Organization.The transfer factors of six heavy metals showed the trend as Cd > Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cr,which were dependent on the vegetable species.The estimated dietary intakes of Cu,Zn,Pb,Cr,As and Cd were far below the tolerable limits and the target hazard quotient (THQ) values were less than 1,which suggested that the health risks of heavy metals exposure through consuming vegetables were generally assumed to be safe.

  18. Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consumption of food crops contaminated with heavy metals is a major food chain route for human exposure. We studied the health risks of heavy metals in contaminated food crops irrigated with wastewater. Results indicate that there is a substantial buildup of heavy metals in wastewater-irrigated soils, collected from Beijing, China. Heavy metal concentrations in plants grown in wastewater-irrigated soils were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.001) than in plants grown in the reference soil, and exceeded the permissible limits set by the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) in China and the World Health Organization (WHO). Furthermore, this study highlights that both adults and children consuming food crops grown in wastewater-irrigated soils ingest significant amount of the metals studied. However, health risk index values of less than 1 indicate a relative absence of health risks associated with the ingestion of contaminated vegetables. - Long-term wastewater irrigation leads to buildup of heavy metals in soils and food crops

  19. Is resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus? A register review in Beijing, China

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    Fengling Mi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: China has a high burden of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB and diabetes mellitus (DM. Objective: The objectives of this study were to determine the following in patients with culture-confirmed TB: 1 demographic characteristics and disease patterns in relation to the presence or absence of type 2 diabetes and 2 presence or absence of drug resistance to isoniazid (INH, rifampicin (RMP or both in relation to duration of diabetes and control of diabetes. Design: This is a cross-sectional and retrospective study involving record reviews. Results: There were 621 patients with culture-positive TB, of whom 187 (30% had previously known or new type 2 diabetes. In those with diabetes, there was a significantly higher proportion of males, persons aged ≥35 years and patients registered with new TB (p<0.05. Prevalence of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB was 6.2% in new patients (N=422 and 62.3% in previously treated patients (N=199, with no significant differences between those with and without diabetes. In patients with diabetes, there was no association of drug resistance with diabetes duration or disease control [assessed by fasting blood glucose (FBG at 1 week]. Conclusion: A high proportion of patients with TB in a tertiary health facility, Beijing, China, had diabetes, but there was no association between type 2 diabetes and drug-resistant TB. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  20. Accumulation and distribution characteristics of platinum group elements in roadside dusts in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Yu, Yanke; Zhou, Huaidong; Lu, Jin

    2012-06-01

    The concentrations, distribution, and accumulation of platinum group elements (PGEs) were investigated in roadside dusts collected in four different foundational areas in Beijing during February to May 2010. The results showed that PGE levels in all samples were above the average upper crust values, with mean concentrations of 57.5 ng · g(-1) Pd, 28.2 ng · g(-1) Pt, and 9.8 ng · g(-1) Rh, respectively. Palladium concentration has increased rapidly in recent years. The rank of PGE levels in four different functional regions for roadside dusts was: heavy density traffic area > residential area > educational area > tourism area. Palladium, Pt, and Rh concentrations in dusts showed strong positive correlations, indicating a common traffic-related source of these metals. Meanwhile, PGEs in these samples were not correlated with other traffic-related metals except for Cr. The average PGE ratios of road dusts from Beijing were consistent with those in Germany and Western Australia, but lower than those in the United States and Mexico, indicating that various catalyst productions were used in different countries. In addition, grain-size partitioning of PGEs in dusts indicated that concentrations of PGEs differed from one particle size to another. The coarse fraction had higher PGE concentrations than the fine fraction in roadside dusts. These results showed that autocatalyst PGE contamination estimates in the environment would be significantly underestimated if only a fine-grain size fraction (<0.063 mm) is analyzed. PMID:22505271

  1. Monitoring land subsidence rates with permanent scatterers SAR interferometry: a case study of Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jun; Li, Xiaojuan; Yu, Jie; Wang, Yanbing; Wan, Yanyan; An, Zhihui

    2015-12-01

    The ground subsidence phenomenon is more serious in Beijing, large-scale land subsidence seriously threats to urban planning and construction and the safety of residents. In order to study the subsidence condition, it is necessary to monitor land subsidence. Choosing 28 scenes Envisat ASAR images covering Beijing city from December 2003 to March 2009, permanent scatterer SAR interferometry (PSI) technique was applied to obtained time series land subsidence information. Then the trend characteristics and factors of subsidence were analyzed, comparing land subsidence result with the groundwater data and geological structure data. Comparison between the PSI-derived subsidence rates and leveling data obtained shows that the result of PSI is agreed with the leveling data. The results indicate that the PSI technique is capable of providing high-level accuracy subsidence information. The results show that:(1) The deformation rates derived PSI ranging from -45.80 to 4.36mm/a;(2) In the study area, the serious subsidence areas distribute in Chaoyang District, Shunyi District, Tongzhou District and Pinggu District;(3) The subsidence tends to become more and more concentrated in 6 years from 2003 to 2009.

  2. Levels, sources and health risks of carbonyls and BTEX in the ambient air of Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yujie Zhang; Yujing Mu; Junfeng Liu; Abdelwahid Mellouki

    2012-01-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of carbonyls and BTEX (benzene,toluene,ethylbenzene,m,p-xylene and o-xylene) were measured simultaneously at a same sampling site in Beijing from September 2008 to August 2010.The average concentrations of the total measured carbonyls during autumn,winter,spring,and summer were 37.7,31.3,39.7,50.5 μg/m3,respectively,and maximal values for their diurnal variations usually happened at noontime.In contrast to carbonyls,the average concentrations of the total measured BTEX during the four seasons were 27.2,31.9,23.2,19.1 μg/m3,respectively,and minimal values for their diurnal variations always occurred in the early afternoon.The average concentration for carbonyls increased about 24% from September 2008-August 2009 to September 2009-August 2010,for BTEX,increased about 15%.Integrated life time cancer risks for three carcinogens (benzene,formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) in Beijing exceeded the value of 1E-06,and the hazard quotient (HQ) of non-cancer risk of exposure to formaldehyde exceeded unity.

  3. Scenario Simulation and the Prediction of Land Use and Land Cover Change in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiran Han

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Land use and land cover (LULC models are essential for analyzing LULC change and predicting land use requirements and are valuable for guiding reasonable land use planning and management. However, each LULC model has its own advantages and constraints. In this paper, we explore the characteristics of LULC change and simulate future land use demand by combining a CLUE-S model with a Markov model to deal with some shortcomings of existing LULC models. Using Beijing as a case study, we describe the related driving factors from land-adaptive variables, regional spatial variables and socio-economic variables and then simulate future land use scenarios from 2010 to 2020, which include a development scenario (natural development and rapid development and protection scenarios (ecological and cultivated land protection. The results indicate good consistency between predicted results and actual land use situations according to a Kappa statistic. The conversion of cultivated land to urban built-up land will form the primary features of LULC change in the future. The prediction for land use demand shows the differences under different scenarios. At higher elevations, the geographical environment limits the expansion of urban built-up land, but the conversion of cultivated land to built-up land in mountainous areas will be more prevalent by 2020; Beijing, however, still faces the most pressure in terms of ecological and cultivated land protection.

  4. Comparison of Hourly PM2.5 Observations Between Urban and Suburban Areas in Beijing, China

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    Ling Yao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hourly PM2.5 observations collected at 12 stations over a 1-year period are used to identify variations between urban and suburban areas in Beijing. The data demonstrates a unique monthly variation form, as compared with other major cities. Urban areas suffer higher PM2.5 concentration (about 92 μg/m3 than suburban areas (about 77 μg/m3, and the average PM2.5 concentration in cold season (about 105 μg/m3 is higher than warm season (about 78 μg/m3. Hourly PM2.5 observations exhibit distinct seasonal, diurnal and day-of-week variations. The diurnal variation of PM2.5 is observed with higher concentration at night and lower value at daytime, and the cumulative growth of nighttime (22:00 p.m. in winter PM2.5 concentration maybe due to the atmospheric stability. Moreover, annual average PM2.5 concentrations are about 18 μg/m3 higher on weekends than weekdays, consistent with driving restrictions on weekdays. Additionally, the nighttime peak in weekdays (21:00 p.m. is one hour later than weekends (20:00 p.m. which also shows the evidence of human activity. These observed facts indicate that the variations of PM2.5 concentration between urban and suburban areas in Beijing are influenced by complex meteorological factors and human activities.

  5. [Distribution and sources of oxygen and sulfur heterocyclic aromatic compounds in surface soil of Beijing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guang-Xiu; Zhang, Zhi-Huan; Peng, Xu-Yang; Zhu, Lei; Lu, Ling

    2011-11-01

    62 surface soil samples were collected from different environmental function zones in Beijing. Sulfur and oxygen heterocyclic aromatic compounds were detected by GC/MS. The objectives of this study were to identify the composition and distribution of these compounds, and discuss their sources. The results showed that the oxygen and sulfur heterocyclic aromatic compounds in the surface soils mainly contained dibenzofuran, methyl- and C2-dibenzofuran series, dibenzothiophene, methyl-, C2- and C3-dibenzothiophene series and benzonaphthothiophene series. The composition and distribution of the oxygen and sulfur heterocyclic aromatic compounds in the surface soil samples varied in the different environmental function zones, of which some factories and the urban area received oxygen and sulfur heterocyclic aromatic compounds most seriously. In Beijing, the degree of contamination by oxygen and sulfur heterocyclic aromatic compounds in the north surface soil was higher than that in the south. There were preferable linear correlations between the concentration of dibenzofuran series and fluorene series, as well as the concentration of dibenzothiophene series and dibenzofuran series. The oxygen and sulfur heterocyclic aromatic compounds in the surface soil were mainly derived from combustion products of oil and coal and direct input of mineral oil, etc. There were some variations in pollution sources of different environmental function zones.

  6. Characteristics of soil seed bank in plantation forest in the rocky mountain region of Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zeng-hui; YANG Yang; LENG Ping-sheng; DOU De-quan; ZHANG Bo; HOU Bing-fei

    2013-01-01

    We investigated characteristics (scales and composition) of soil seed banks at eight study sites in the rocky mountain region of Beijing by seed identification and germination monitoring.We also surveyed the vegetation communities at the eight study sites to explore the role of soil seed banks in vegetation restoration.The storage capacity of soil seed banks at the eight sites ranked from 766.26 to 2461.92 seedsm-2.A total of 23 plant species were found in soil seed banks,of which 63-80%of seeds were herbs in various soil layers and 60% of seeds were located in the soil layer at 0-5 cm depth.Biodiversity indices indicated clear differences in species diversity of soil seed banks among different plant communities.The species composition of aboveground vegetation showed low similarity with that based on soil seed banks.In the aboveground plant community,the afforestation tree species showed high importance values.The plant species originating from soil seed banks represented natural regeneration,which also showed relatively high importance values.This study suggests that in the rocky mountain region of Beijing the soil seed banks played a key role in the transformation from pure plantation forest to near-natural forest,promoting natural ecological processes,and the role of the seed banks in vegetation restoration was important to the improvement of ecological restoration methods.

  7. The deformation behavior of soil mass in the subsidence region of Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, F.; Liu, J.-R.; Luo, Y.; Zhu, L.; Yang, Y.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Land subsidence induced by excessive groundwater withdrawal has been a major environmental and geological problem in the Beijing plain area. The monitoring network of land subsidence in Beijing has been established since 2002 and has covered the entire plain area by the end of 2008. Based on data from extensometers and groundwater observation wells, this paper establishes curves of variations over time for both soil mass deformation and water levels and the relationship between soil mass deformation and water level. In addition, an analysis of deformation behavior is carried out for soil mass with various lithologies at different depths depending on the corresponding water level. Finally, the deformation behavior of soil mass is generalized into five categories. The conclusions include: (i) the current rate of deformation of the shallow soil mass is slowing, and most of the mid-deep and deep soil mass continue to compress at a more rapid speed; (ii) the sand strata behaves elastically, while the clay soil mass at different depths is usually characterized by elastic-plastic and creep deformation, which can be considered as visco-elastoplastic.

  8. Reproductive and family planning history, knowledge, and needs: A community survey of low-income women in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østbye Truls

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reproductive health status of China's low-income urban women is believed to be poor. Therefore, understanding their reproductive history and needs and improving services provision is very important. However, few studies have been done to assess reproductive health status, knowledge and needs in this low-income population. The purpose of this study is to broadly assess reproductive and family planning history, knowledge and health needs among low income urban women with an aim to informing health services interventions. Methods 1642 low-income women age 18–49 from Haidian district, Beijing were selected. All were interviewed via a standardized questionnaire in 2006. Results Most women reported at least one pregnancy and delivery (97.7%, 98.3%. Deliveries in hospitals (97.3% by medical personnel (98.5% were commonplace, as was receipt of antenatal care (86.0%. Nearly half had at least one abortion, with most (56.0% performed in district hospitals, by physicians (95.6%, and paid for out-of-pocket (64.4%. Almost all (97.4% used contraception, typically IUDs or condoms. Reproductive knowledge was limited. Health needs emphasized by the participants included popularizing reproductive health information, being able to discuss their reproductive health concerns, free reproductive health insurance, examination and treatment. Conclusion Among poor urban women in Beijing, antenatal care and contraceptive use were common. However, abortions were also common. Knowledge about reproductive health was limited. There is a need for better reproductive health education, free medical care and social support.

  9. Gaseous air pollution and emergency hospital visits for hypertension in Beijing, China: a time-stratified case-crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yanshen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of epidemiological studies have been conducted to research the adverse effects of air pollution on mortality and morbidity. Hypertension is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. However, few previous studies have examined the relationship between gaseous air pollution and morbidity for hypertension. Methods Daily data on emergency hospital visits (EHVs for hypertension were collected from the Peking University Third Hospital. Daily data on gaseous air pollutants (sulfur dioxide (SO2 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10 were collected from the Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center. A time-stratified case-crossover design was conducted to evaluate the relationship between urban gaseous air pollution and EHVs for hypertension. Temperature and relative humidity were controlled for. Results In the single air pollutant models, a 10 μg/m3 increase in SO2 and NO2 were significantly associated with EHVs for hypertension. The odds ratios (ORs were 1.037 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.004-1.071 for SO2 at lag 0 day, and 1.101 (95% CI: 1.038-1.168 for NO2 at lag 3 day. After controlling for PM10, the ORs associated with SO2 and NO2 were 1.025 (95% CI: 0.987-1.065 and 1.114 (95% CI: 1.037-1.195, respectively. Conclusion Elevated urban gaseous air pollution was associated with increased EHVs for hypertension in Beijing, China.

  10. Particle hygroscopicity and its link to chemical composition in the urban atmosphere of Beijing, China, during summertime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z. J.; Zheng, J.; Shang, D. J.; Du, Z. F.; Wu, Y. S.; Zeng, L. M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Hu, M.

    2016-02-01

    Simultaneous measurements of particle number size distribution, particle hygroscopic properties, and size-resolved chemical composition were made during the summer of 2014 in Beijing, China. During the measurement period, the mean hygroscopicity parameters (κs) of 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 nm particles were respectively 0.16 ± 0.07, 0.19 ± 0.06, 0.22 ± 0.06, 0.26 ± 0.07, and 0.28 ± 0.10, showing an increasing trend with increasing particle size. Such size dependency of particle hygroscopicity was similar to that of the inorganic mass fraction in PM1. The hydrophilic mode (hygroscopic growth factor, HGF > 1.2) was more prominent in growth factor probability density distributions and its dominance of hydrophilic mode became more pronounced with increasing particle size. When PM2.5 mass concentration was greater than 50 μg m-3, the fractions of the hydrophilic mode for 150, 250, and 350 nm particles increased towards 1 as PM2.5 mass concentration increased. This indicates that aged particles dominated during severe pollution periods in the atmosphere of Beijing. Particle hygroscopic growth can be well predicted using high-time-resolution size-resolved chemical composition derived from aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements using the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) mixing rule. The organic hygroscopicity parameter (κorg) showed a positive correlation with the oxygen to carbon ratio. During the new particle formation event associated with strongly active photochemistry, the hygroscopic growth factor or κ of newly formed particles is greater than for particles with the same sizes not during new particle formation (NPF) periods. A quick transformation from external mixture to internal mixture for pre-existing particles (for example, 250 nm particles) was observed. Such transformations may modify the state of the mixture of pre-existing particles and thus modify properties such as the light absorption coefficient and cloud condensation nuclei activation.

  11. Monetary Valuation of PM10-Related Health Risks in Beijing China: The Necessity for PM10 Pollution Indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hao; Xu, Linyu; Cai, Yanpeng

    2015-08-01

    Severe health risks caused by PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm) pollution have induced inevitable economic losses and have rendered pressure on the sustainable development of society as a whole. In China, with the "Polluters Pay Principle", polluters should pay for the pollution they have caused, but how much they should pay remains an intractable problem for policy makers. This paper integrated an epidemiological exposure-response model with economics methods, including the Amended Human Capital (AHC) approach and the Cost of Illness (COI) method, to value the economic loss of PM10-related health risks in 16 districts and also 4 functional zones in Beijing from 2008 to 2012. The results show that from 2008 to 2012 the estimated annual deaths caused by PM10 in Beijing are around 56,000, 58,000, 63,000, 61,000 and 59,000, respectively, while the economic losses related to health damage increased from around 23 to 31 billion dollars that PM10 polluters should pay for pollution victims between 2008 and 2012. It is illustrated that not only PM10 concentration but also many other social economic factors influence PM10-related health economic losses, which makes health economic losses show a time lag discrepancy compared with the decline of PM10 concentration. In conclusion, health economic loss evaluation is imperative in the pollution indemnity system establishment and should be considered for the urban planning and policy making to control the burgeoning PM10 health economic loss. PMID:26308020

  12. Monetary Valuation of PM10-Related Health Risks in Beijing China: The Necessity for PM10 Pollution Indemnity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Severe health risks caused by PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm pollution have induced inevitable economic losses and have rendered pressure on the sustainable development of society as a whole. In China, with the “Polluters Pay Principle”, polluters should pay for the pollution they have caused, but how much they should pay remains an intractable problem for policy makers. This paper integrated an epidemiological exposure-response model with economics methods, including the Amended Human Capital (AHC approach and the Cost of Illness (COI method, to value the economic loss of PM10-related health risks in 16 districts and also 4 functional zones in Beijing from 2008 to 2012. The results show that from 2008 to 2012 the estimated annual deaths caused by PM10 in Beijing are around 56,000, 58,000, 63,000, 61,000 and 59,000, respectively, while the economic losses related to health damage increased from around 23 to 31 billion dollars that PM10 polluters should pay for pollution victims between 2008 and 2012. It is illustrated that not only PM10 concentration but also many other social economic factors influence PM10-related health economic losses, which makes health economic losses show a time lag discrepancy compared with the decline of PM10 concentration. In conclusion, health economic loss evaluation is imperative in the pollution indemnity system establishment and should be considered for the urban planning and policy making to control the burgeoning PM10 health economic loss.

  13. Characterization of human metapneumovirus from pediatric patients with acute respiratory infections in a 4-year period in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ru-nan; QIAN Yuan; ZHAO Lin-qing; DENG Jie; SUN Yu; WANG Fang; LIAO Bin; LI Yan; HUANG Rong-yan

    2011-01-01

    Background Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was discovered by scientists in the Netherlands as a novel respiratory virus in 2001 and had been found in children with acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI) in China. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of hMPV infection in children in Beijing and the genotypes of the circulating virus by the surveillance during a four-consecutive-year period.Methods Clinical specimens collected from children with ARTI from January 2006 to December 2009 were tested for hMPV by RT-PCR using primers targeting the matrix (M) gene, followed by genotyping of hMPV directly from positive samples by diplex PCR with primers for glycoprotein (G) genes. Sequence analysis was used for genotyping of those un-typable samples. Common respiratory viruses in these clinical specimens were tested by virus isolation and antigen detection, in addition to hMPV detection.Results Of 4730 tested specimens, 191 (4.0%) were positive for hMPV and 62.8% of 191 were identified as genotype A. The positive rate of hMPV from hospitalized patients was higher than that from outpatients each year. Most of hMPV positive children were under five years old. The peak of hMPV activity mostly occurred in late spring and overlapped with or followed that of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and followed by parainfluenza virus 3. Of hMPV infected cases,68.6% were lower respiratory tract infection, among which 79.4% were hospitalized, and upper respiratory tract infection was diagnosed for 31.4% of hMPV infected children. The 9.4% of hMPV positive samples were found to co-exist with other respiratory viruses.Conclusions hMPV was an important pathogen for ARTI in pediatric patients, especially those under five years old.Both genotypes A and B circulated simultaneously in Beijing.

  14. Forum on "China Auto Industry and ASEAN Market" to be held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    According to the economic process stipulated in the " China--ASEAN Framework of Overall Economic Cooperation", by 2005,the total trade volume between China and ASEAN is expected to top US$100 billion. In the face of such a large and potential market, how shall the fast-de

  15. Benefit Evaluation on Land Comprehensive Consolidation in the Small Towns —A Case of Daxing District, Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Cui-hong; LI Hong; Jia, Jin-song

    2010-01-01

    Taking Daxing District, Beijing, China as a example, benefit evaluation index system of small-town land comprehensive consolidation is established from four aspects of resource benefit, economic benefit, social benefit and ecological benefit. Weight of evaluation index is determined by analytic hierarchy process. After the standardized treatment on the original value index, comprehensive index method is adopted to evaluate the land comprehensive consolidation benefits in 14 towns of Daxing Di...

  16. Summer monsoon moisture variability over China and Mongolia during the past four centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinbao; Cook, Edward R.; Chen, Fahu; Davi, Nicole; D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Gou, Xiaohua; Wright, Wiliam E.; Fang, Keyan; Jin, Liya; Shi, Jiangfeng; Yang, Tao

    2009-11-01

    A great impediment of Asian monsoon (AM) climate studies is the general lack of long-term observations of large-scale monsoon variability. Here we present a well-verified reconstruction of temporal changes in the dominant summer moisture pattern over China and Mongolia (CM), based on a network of tree-ring chronologies (1600-1991). The reconstruction reveals significant changes in the large-scale AM over the past four centuries, which coincide with dramatic episodes in Chinese history over the period of record. These episodes include the fall of the Ming Dynasty (AD 1644) and the catastrophic famine during China's Great Leap Forward (1958-1961). Overall, the reconstructed AM strength corresponds well with Northern Hemisphere temperature proxies over the past four centuries. Yet, this relationship has broken down in recent decades, raising the possibility that the major driving force of monsoon dynamics has shifted from natural to anthropogenic in nature.

  17. An air quality forecasting system in Beijing--application to the study of dust storm events in China in May 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qijie; Laurent, Benoit; Velay-Lasry, Fanny; Ngo, Richard; Derognat, Claude; Marticorena, Béatrice; Albergel, Armand

    2012-01-01

    An air pollution forecast system, ARIA Regional, was implemented in 2007-2008 at the Beijing Municipality Environmental Monitoring Center, providing daily forecast of main pollutant concentrations. The chemistry-transport model CHIMERE was coupled with the dust emission model MB95 for restituting dust storm events in springtime so as to improve forecast results. Dust storm events were sporadic but could be extremely intense and then control air quality indexes close to the source areas but also far in the Beijing area. A dust episode having occurred at the end of May 2008 was analyzed in this article, and its impact of particulate matter on the Chinese air pollution index (API) was evaluated. Following our estimation, about 23 Tg of dust were emitted from source areas in Mongolia and in the Inner Mongolia of China, transporting towards southeast. This episode of dust storm influenced a large part of North China and East China, and also South Korea. The model result was then evaluated using satellite observations and in situ data. The simulated daily concentrations of total suspended particulate at 6:00 UTC had a similar spatial pattern with respect to OMI satellite aerosol index. Temporal evolution of dust plume was evaluated by comparing dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) calculated from the simulations with AOD derived from MODIS satellite products. Finally, the comparison of reported Chinese API in Beijing with API calculated from the simulation including dust emissions had showed the significant improvement of the model results taking into account mineral dust correctly. PMID:22783620

  18. Contraceptive knowledge, attitudes and behavior about sexuality among college students in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hong; WANG Xiao-ye; YE Fang; GU Hai-hua; ZENG Xiao-pei lily; WANG Yan

    2012-01-01

    Background Sexual and reproductive health among adolescents have become increasingly important and aroused international concerns.In this study,we investigate sexual knowledge,attitudes,sexual behaviors,the unwanted pregnancy and the abortion rate and to explore related determinants among college students in Beijing.Methods This study is based on a cross-sectional survey of college students' knowledge,attitudes and behavior.Multistage cluster sampling was used to select subjects in Beijing.The self-questionnaire designed by our research group including general information,knowledge,attitude and behavior about sexuality was used to collect information.A total of 2003 questionnaires were collected from June to July 2010.Results The data showed that most of the college students lacked knowledge about reproductive health.Only 17.9% of the respondents knew the appropriate time of abortion.Data also showed that the respondents had high-risk attitude about sex,58.7% could accept premarital sex,and 29.7% had negative attitude towards contraception.Moreover,sexual activity of the respondents was active.Data showed that 18.5% of the respondents had had sexual activities.Significantly more boys than girls had sex (X2=73.374,P <0.001 ).Among the boys and girls who reported sexual history,43.1% of the boys had impregnated girlfriend and 49.3% of the girls among those people who have sex had unwanted pregnancies.Logistic regression analysis showed that the variables the gender (OR=3.12,95% Cl:2.39-4.11 ),grade (OR=1.78,95%CI:1.40-2.26),specialty (OR=1.35,95% CI:1.12-1.74),family situation (OR=1.66,95% CI:1.15-2.38),score of knowledge (OR=0.74,95% CI:0.58-0.95) and attitude to sex activity (OR=0.09,95% CI:0.04-0.22) had a significant effect on having sexual behavior.Conclusions College students lack knowledge and methods to avoid risky sexual behaviors in Beijing.College students have high-risk sexual attitude and behaviors.Therefore,suitable and

  19. Five-year record of atmospheric precipitation chemistry in urban Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F.; Tan, J.; Shi, Z. B.; Cai, Y.; He, K.; Ma, Y.; Duan, F.; Okuda, T.; Tanaka, S.; Chen, G.

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the chemical characteristics of precipitation in the polluted urban atmosphere in Beijing and possible mechanisms influencing their variations, a total of 131 event-based precipitation samples were collected from March 2001 to August 2005. The concentrations of major ions in the samples were analyzed by using ion chromatography. Intermediate pH (6.1-7.3) was recorded in approximately two-thirds of the precipitation samples and acidic pH (4.2-5.6) in only 16% of the samples. However, the precipitation acidity was on the growth track and the process was likely being accelerated. SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, and Ca2+ were the most abundant ions in the precipitations, with their single volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration all above 100 μeq l-1. The two major anions and two major cations accounted for more than 80% of total anionic and cationic mass, respectively. The VWM SO42- concentration decreased by 13% compared to that during 1995-1998, much less than the 58% reduction in the annual average SO2 concentration from 1998 to 2005 in Beijing. What seems more counterintuitive is that the VWM NO3- concentration nearly doubled over the period although the annual average NO2 concentration decreased by 5% from 1998 to 2005. These results imply that the conversion of gaseous precursors to acid compounds and/or the regional transport were reinforced over the decade. The average ratio of neutralizing potential to acidifying potential (i.e. NP/AP) was as high as 1.2 but experienced an evident decline trend. This was mainly ascribed to reduced input of NH4+ and Ca2+ and increased input of NO3-. Furthermore, the equivalent mass ratio of NO3- to non-sea-salt SO42- presented an increasing trend over the study period, suggesting that the contribution of NO3- to the precipitation acidity increased in recent years. However, the mean ratio was only 0.37 ± 0.11 in the study period, which is significantly lower than those reported in some metropolitan areas in developed

  20. Income Gap Widens in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The income gap between the highest-and lowestincome groups in Beijing, China's capital city, grew to 4:1 in 2004, up from 3:1 in 2003, according to a sampling survey of 2,000 urban households conducted by the Beijing Municipal Statistics Bureau.Among the most important factors affecting income levels were education and profession, the survey indicated.

  1. Characterization of new particle and secondary aerosol formation during summertime in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y. M. (Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry, Centre for Atmosphere Watch and Services, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing (China); Graduate Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)); Zhang, X. Y.; Sun, J. Y.; Lin, W. L.; Shen, X. J. (Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry, Centre for Atmosphere Watch and Services, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing (China)), e-mail: xiaoye@cams.cma.gov.cn; Gong, S. L. (Air Quality Research Div., Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, Toronto (Canada)); Yang, S. (State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Inst. of Atmospheric Physics, CAS, Beijing (China))

    2011-07-15

    Size-resolved aerosol number and mass concentrations and the mixing ratios of O{sub 3} and various trace gases were continuously measured at an urban station before and during the Beijing Olympic and Paralympic Games (5 June to 22 September, 2008). 23 new particle formation (NPF) events were identified; these usually were associated with changes in wind direction and/or rising concentrations of gas-phase precursors or after precipitation events. Most of the NPF events started in the morning and continued to noon as particles in the nucleation mode grew into the Aitken mode. From noon to midnight, the aerosols grew into the accumulation mode through condensation and coagulation. Ozone showed a gradual rise starting around 10:00 local time, reached its peak around 15:00 and then declined as the organics increased. The dominant new particle species were organics (40-75% of PM{sub 1}) and sulphate; nitrate and ammonium were more minor contributors

  2. Factors associated with myopia in school children in China: the Beijing childhood eye study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Sheng You

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess factors associated with myopia in school children in rural and urban parts of Greater Beijing. METHODS: The Beijing Pedriatic Eye Study was a population-based cross-sectional study, in which one school of each level (primary, junior high, senior high was randomly selected from nine randomly selected districts out of 18 districts of Greater Beijing. The children underwent non-cylcoplegic refractometry and their parents an interview. RESULTS: Of 16,771 eligible students, 15,066 (89.8% children (7,769 (51.6% girls participated, with 8,860 (58.8% participants living in the rural region. Mean age was 13.2±3.4 years (range:7-18 years. In multivariate analysis, prevalence of myopia (defined as ≤-1.00 diopters was associated with higher age (Odds ratio(OR:1.37; 95% confidence interval(CI:1.35,1.39, female gender (OR:1.35;95%CI:1.25,1.47, key school type (OR:0.77;95%CI: 0.70,0.85, higher family income (OR:1.04;95%CI:1.01,1.07, parental myopia (OR:1.46;95%CI:1.40,1.53, dim reading illumination (OR:0.93;95%CI: 0.88,0.98, longer daily studying duration (OR:1.10;95%CI:1.06,1.15, shorter duration of watching television (or computer (OR:0.93;95%CI:0.89,0.97, higher self-reported protein intake (OR:0.94;95%CI:0.90,0.99, feeling well about life and status (OR:0.93;95%CI:0.89,0.98, and feeling tired or dizzy (OR:0.94;95%CI:0.91,0.97. Prevalence of high myopia (defined as ≤-6.00 diopters was associated with higher age (OR:1.43;95%CI:1.38, 1.48, key school type (OR:0.61;95%CI:0.49,0.74, family income (OR:1.07;95%CI:1.02,1.13, parental myopia (OR:1.65;95%CI:1.54,1.76, dim reading illumination (OR:0.86;95%CI:0.77,0.96, less rest during studying (OR:1.18;95%CI:1.10,1.27, feeling well about life and studying (OR:0.88;95%CI: 0.81,0.96 and feeling dizzy or tired (OR:0.93;95%CI:0.87,0.99. Prevalence of high myopia (defined as ≤-8.00 diopters was significantly associated with higher age (OR:1.39;95%CI:1.31,1.48;, key school type (OR:0.61;95%CI:0

  3. Characterization of submicron particles during biomass burning and coal combustion periods in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J K; Cheng, M T; Ji, D S; Liu, Z R; Hu, B; Sun, Y; Wang, Y S

    2016-08-15

    An Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed along with other observation instruments to measure the characteristics of PM1 (particulate matter with a vacuum aerodynamic diameter of ≤1μm) during the biomass burning period (October 1 to 27; BBP) and the coal combustion period (December 10 to 31; CCP) in Beijing in 2014. The average PM1 mass concentrations during the BBP and CCP were 82.3 and 37.5μgm(-3), respectively. Nitrate, ammonium and other pollutants emitted by the burning processes, especially coal combustion, increased significantly in association with increased pollution levels. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to a unified high-resolution mass spectra database of organic species with NO(+) and NO2(+) ions to discover the relationships between organic and inorganic species. One inorganic factor was identified in both periods, and another five and four distinct organic factors were identified in the BBP and CCP, respectively. Secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) accounted for 55% of the total organic aerosols (OAs) during the BBP, which is higher than the proportion during the CCP (oxygenated OA, 40%). The organic nitrate and inorganic nitrate were first successfully separated through the PMF analysis based on the HR-ToF-AMS observations in Beijing, and organic nitrate components accounted for 21% and 18% of the total nitrate mass during the BBP and CCP, respectively. Although the PM1 mass concentration during the CCP was much lower than in the BBP, the average concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the CCP (107.3±171.6ngm(-3)) was ~5 times higher than that in the BBP (21.9±21.7ngm(-3)). PMID:27110992

  4. Mixing layer height and its implications for air pollution over Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guiqian; Zhang, Jinqiang; Zhu, Xiaowan; Song, Tao; Münkel, Christoph; Hu, Bo; Schäfer, Klaus; Liu, Zirui; Zhang, Junke; Wang, Lili; Xin, Jinyuan; Suppan, Peter; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-03-01

    The mixing layer is an important meteorological factor that affects air pollution. In this study, the atmospheric mixing layer height (MLH) was observed in Beijing from July 2009 to December 2012 using a ceilometer. By comparison with radiosonde data, we found that the ceilometer underestimates the MLH under conditions of neutral stratification caused by strong winds, whereas it overestimates the MLH when sand-dust is crossing. Using meteorological, PM2.5, and PM10 observational data, we screened the observed MLH automatically; the ceilometer observations were fairly consistent with the radiosondes, with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.9. Further analysis indicated that the MLH is low in autumn and winter and high in spring and summer in Beijing. There is a significant correlation between the sensible heat flux and MLH, and the diurnal cycle of the MLH in summer is also affected by the circulation of mountainous plain winds. Using visibility as an index to classify the degree of air pollution, we found that the variation in the sensible heat and buoyancy term in turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) is insignificant when visibility decreases from 10 to 5 km, but the reduction of shear term in TKE is near 70 %. When visibility decreases from 5 to 1 km, the variation of the shear term in TKE is insignificant, but the decrease in the sensible heat and buoyancy term in TKE is approximately 60 %. Although the correlation between the daily variation of the MLH and visibility is very poor, the correlation between them is significantly enhanced when the relative humidity increases beyond 80 %. This indicates that humidity-related physicochemical processes is the primary source of atmospheric particles under heavy pollution and that the dissipation of atmospheric particles mainly depends on the MLH. The presented results of the atmospheric mixing layer provide useful empirical information for improving meteorological and atmospheric chemistry models and the forecasting

  5. Estimation of demand response to energy price signals in energy consumption behaviour in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Demand response to energy price signals in energy consumption in Beijing is studied. • The electricity price is of great importance to Beijing’s energy market stability. • Industrial sectors have a large electricity self-elasticity and cross-elasticity. • When consuming electricity, customers pay more attention to natural gas price. • Analysis of demand response to energy price can provide guidance to energy policies. - Abstract: The energy price system in Beijing has not fully exploited customers’ price elasticity, and has a negative impact on achieving the goals of energy saving. This paper analyses the response behaviours of different customers to typical energy prices. As for electricity self-elasticity, the range of the primary, secondary, tertiary industry and residents are −0.026 to −0.033, −0.045 to −0.059, −0.035 to −0.047 and −0.024 to −0.032, respectively. As regards self-elasticity on coal, the range of the primary, secondary, tertiary industry and residents are −0.030 to −0.037, −0.066 to −0.093, −0.055 to −0.072 and −0.034 to −0.051, respectively. The self-elasticities on oil and natural gas are very weak. As for cross-elasticity, when consuming electricity and oil, customers mainly focus on the prices of natural gas, which are 0.185 and 0.112. When consuming coal and natural gas, customers are concerned about the electricity prices, and their cross-elasticities are 0.03 and 0.36, respectively. The estimation of demand response to energy price signals in energy consumption behaviours can provide a decision support for formulating rational energy price policies

  6. Factors associated with household transmission of pandemic (H1N1 2009 among self-quarantined patients in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daitao Zhang

    Full Text Available As the pandemic (H1N1 2009 progressed, the Ministry of Health of China advised cases with mild symptoms to remain home for isolation and observation, which may have increased the risk for infection among other household members. Describing the transmission characteristics of this novel virus is indispensable to effectively controlling the spread of disease; thus, the aim of this study was to assess risk factors associated with household transmission of pandemic H1N1 from self-quarantined patients in Beijing, the capital city of China. A 1:2 case-control study with 54 case households and 108 control households was conducted between August 1 and September 30, 2009 in Beijing. Cases were households with a self-quarantined index patient and a secondary case, while controls were households with a self-quarantined index patient and a close contact. Controls were also matched to cases for sex and age of index case-patient. A structured interview guide was used to collect the data. Conditional logistical models were employed to estimate Odds Ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results indicated that higher education level (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.22-0.83, sharing room with an index case-patient (OR 3.29; 95%CI 1.23-8.78, daily room ventilation (OR 0.28; 95%CI 0.08-0.93, and hand washing ≥ 3/d (OR 0.71; 95%CI 0.48-0.94 were related to the household transmission of pandemic H1N1 from self-quarantined patients. These results highlight that health education, as well as the quarantine of the index case-patient immediately after infection, frequent hand hygiene, and ventilation are critical to mitigating household spread of pandemic H1N1 virus and minimizing its impact. Household contacts should be educated to promote these in-home practices to contain transmission, particularly when household members are quarantined at home.

  7. Rolling-element bearings in China: From ancient times to the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lie; Li, Ang

    2016-03-01

    The development of rolling-element bearings in China has spanned a long period. Based on several typical and important cases, the present article reconstructs the history of rolling-element bearings in China by dividing it into four stages according to the various characteristics of the bearings. The first stage represents the origin of rolling bearings in China, which remains controversial because of several suspected races and cages that were likely the components of bearings more than a millennium ago. At the second stage, a type of simple roller bearing was used for astronomical instruments not later than the 13th century based on clear philological and physical evidence. A similar bearing was also applied to an abridged armillary in the 17th century. Another type of spherical thrust bearings with rolling elements, which is a key component of a traditional Chinese windmill, could support a rotating shaft that moves rotationally and at an angle. At the third stage, the Chinese began studying and using the so-called Europeanstyle bearing since the 17th century. Moreover, over the last 100 years, the modern rolling bearing industry was gradually established in China, particularly because of the technology transfer from the Soviet Union in the 1950s. At the fourth stage, the Chinese government initiated the relatively rapid development of bearing technology. The government launched the "bearing movement" from the 1950s to the 1960s to establish the modern bearing industry and to promote rolling bearings as replacement for traditional sliding bearings. Furthermore, a number of large professional factories and institutions in China have continually introduced advanced technology and equipment. At present, these companies and institutions play a significant role in the international bearing industry.

  8. Heat-Related Mortality Projections for Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disease Under the Changing Climate in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Ban, Jie; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Huang, Ganlin; Sun, Qinghua; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2015-01-01

    Because heat-related health effects tend to become more serious at higher temperatures, there is an urgent need to determine the mortality projection of specific heat-sensitive diseases to provide more detailed information regarding the variation of the sensitivity of such diseases. In this study, the specific mortality of cardiovascular and respiratory disease in Beijing was initially projected under five different global-scale General Circulation Models (GCMs) and two Representative Concentration Pathways scenarios (RCPs) in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s compared to the 1980s. Multi-model ensembles indicated cardiovascular mortality could increase by an average percentage of 18.4 percent, 47.8 percent, and 69.0 percent in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s under RCP 4.5, respectively, and by 16.6 percent, 73.8 percent and 134 percent in different decades respectively, under RCP 8.5 compared to the baseline range. The same increasing pattern was also observed in respiratory mortality. The heat-related deaths under the RCP 8.5 scenario were found to reach a higher number and to increase more rapidly during the 21st century compared to the RCP4.5 scenario, especially in the 2050s and the 2080s. The projection results show potential trends in cause-specific mortality in the context of climate change, and provide support for public health interventions tailored to specific climate-related future health risks.

  9. Prehospital road traffic injuries among the elderly in Beijing, China:data from the Beijing Emergency Medical Center, 2004-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Shuai; ZHANG Jin-jun; ZHANG Pei-xun; YIN Xiao-feng; KOU Yu-hui; WANG Yan-hua; WANG Zhen-wei

    2013-01-01

    Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a worldwide issue associated with increasing development and motorization.However,statistical studies do not include any analyses of Beijing's geriatric population.Using data from the Beijing Emergency Medical Center,we present the main characteristics of traffic injuries involving the elderly in Beijing.We also provide objective information for those concerned with the safety of traffic systems and the prevention of traffic injuries.Methods In a longitudinal,retrospective study,data were collected on 1706 victims aged 65 years and older who sustained traffic injuries in Beijing between 2004 and 2010.Personal information,time of injury event,emergency care response time,road user type,striking vehicle type,injury site,and severity of injury were analyzed using x2 tests and Logistic regression analysis.Results The annual rate of traffic injuries was 21.80 per 100 000 elderly people in Beijing,and the morbidity rate decreased from 2004 to 2010 (P <0.001).The mean age was (72.92±5.67) years,and 911 (53.40%) of the victims were male.The majority of victims sustained head and lower limb injuries and were classified as being of medium severity.Traffic collisions occurred most frequently in the daytime excluding rush hours; these collisions included being hit by a car (85.64%) and pedestrian victim injuries (79.19%).Our statistical analysis found three factors for injury severity:abdominal injuries (P <0.001),number of injury sites (P=0.027),and head injuries (P=0.034).The decline in traffic injuries is due to a decrease in victims aged 65-74 years and pedestrians; the severity of RTIs also decreased.Conclusions This study highlights the declining trend in traffic injuries among older adults in Beijing.However,traffic injuries remain a serious public health problem for the elderly and effective measures are required to reduce their incidence.

  10. Intensive pig production and manure management in Beijing, North China Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza Huaitalla, Roxana

    2014-01-01

    China, at the forefront of the livestock revolution, has experienced a more industrialized change, with an increment of the large livestock farms and of the decoupling between the livestock and arable land. Meat production in China is dominated by pork, which comprises approximately 50% of worldwide pig production. The description of the pig husbandry and manure management systems in the large animal operations of the NCP is not widely available. In order to describe the status quo o...

  11. Beijing International Sculpture Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Inauguration of the 2002 Beijing International Urban Sculptural Art Exhibition also saw the opening of the Beijing International Sculpture Park on Yuquan Road, Beijing. The park houses 140 statues.This exhibition is aimed at promoting exchanges and cooperation among sculptors across the world, integrating urban sculpture into everyday life, and encouraging innovation in this sector. It is expected to bring inspiration to Beijing as regards new concepts in urban construction, through exchanges with other nations. This exhibition constitutes interaction between the public and art, and dialogue between China and the world.The works on display are Beijing’s latest attraction, and add a touch of modernity to this ancient city. Some are to be placed in sports stadiums during the 2008 Olympics.

  12. Fourth Beijing Human Rights Forum Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUR STAFF REPORTER

    2012-01-01

    The Fourth Beijing Forum on Human Rights was held in Beijing from September 21-23,2011.Jointly sponsored by the China Society for Human Rights Studies and the China Human Rights Development Foundation,the forum was centered on the theme of "Cultural Tradition,Concept of Values and Human Rights." Attending were nearly 100senior human rights officials,specialists and scholars from 26 countries and regions as well as the United Nations and other international organizations.

  13. Why Overseas Moguls Choose Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIJINGXIA

    2003-01-01

    TODAY,China is an area of strategic significance to tofreign businesses.World IT giants like Bill Gates,Scott McNealy,and Michael Dell all formulated their individual development strategies after visiting China.Gates is soon to invest substantially in establishing a Chinese base,McNealy is jockeying for a bigger piece of the Chinese market,and Michael Dell has expressed his intention to make China a crucial link within his global strategy.These facts confirm China's position within transnational corporate global strategy.To date,a total 20 transnational corporations have chosen Beijing as their regional headquarters,and among the top 500 transnational corporations,160 have invested in Beijing.What is it about Beijing that so draws international investors?And what impression do they have of Beijing?

  14. Selenium level in the environment and the population of Zhoukoudian area, Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to detect the selenium level in the environment and the population of Zhoukoudian area, Beijing, and to discuss the influence of various factors on serum selenium level. The soil, drinking water, and foodstuff samples and venous blood samples of 401 individuals were obtained to determine the selenium level by gas chromatograph equipped with a 63Ni electron capture detector (ECD). The selenium level was 0.210 ± 0.013 μg/g in soil, 0.017 μg/L ± 0.002 in drinking water, 0.034 ± 0.002 μg/g in rice, and 0.034 ± 0.012 μg/g in wheat flour. This index showed that the Zhoukoudian area of Beijing was a moderate or marginal level selenium ecological landscape. The mean serum selenium level of the population was 75.01 ± 28.35 μg/L, ranging between 35.2 and 160.4 μg/L. A total of 279 (69.6%) individuals exhibited serum selenium level below 80 μg/L, which is the lowest threshold for the activity of glutathione peroxidases (GPx) in vivo. A total of 35 (8.5%) individuals exhibited serum selenium level below 45 μg/L. It is widely recommended that below this value (45 μg/L) there is an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum selenium level was positively associated with body mass index (β = 0.137; P = 0.011), serum total cholesterol TC (β = 0.785; P = 0.000), however, negatively associated with systolic blood pressure (β = - 0.172; P = 0.023), serum triglyceride (β = - 0.170; P = 0.007), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (β = - 0.121; P = 0.027), and low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (β = - 0.568; P = 0.027)

  15. Mixing layer height and the implications for air pollution over Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The mixing layer is an important meteorological factor that affects atmospheric pollution. A study of atmospheric pollution in the Beijing area was performed from July 2009 to December 2012, using a ceilometer, to observe and study the atmospheric mixing layer height (MLH. Based on a comparison and validation of multiple types of data, we evaluated the quality of the MLH data as observed by the ceilometer and found that the ceilometer underestimates MLH during neutral stratification caused by strong winds, whereas it overestimates MLH during dust crossing. By combining conventional meteorological data and PM2.5 and PM10 observational data, we screened the observational results for the MLH, and the ceilometer observations were fairly consistent with the meteorological radiosonde profile results. The correlation coefficient is more than 0.9, and the effective rate of acquired data is near 80 %. Further analysis of the variation in the MLH indicates that the MLH in the Beijing area exhibits the feature of being low in autumn and winter and being high in spring and summer. There is a significant correlation between the variation in the MLH and the sensible heat flux, whereas the diurnal variation in the mixing layer during summer is affected by the circulation of mountainous plain winds. By applying visibility as the index for the classification of atmospheric pollution degree, it is found that in comparison with a clear day, the variation of sensible heat and buoyancy term in turbulent kinetic energy (TKE of a slight haze day is insignificant, but the reduction of shear term in TKE is near 70 % when visibility decreased from 10 to 5 km; in comparison with the slight haze day, the variation of shear term in TKE of medium and heavy haze days is insignificant, but the declination of sensible heat and buoyancy term in TKE are about 60 % when visibility decreased from 5 to 1 km. Although the correlation between the daily variation of MLH and visibility

  16. Five-year record of atmospheric precipitation chemistry in urban Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation samples on an event basis were collected from March 2001 through August 2005 at an urban location in Beijing. Ionic species in the samples were measured with ion chromatography to understand the long-term changes in the precipitation chemistry and their causes. Most precipitation samples had an intermediate pH (6.1–7.3 and 16% were acidic. As the major ions, SO42− plus NO3, and NH4+ plus Ca2+ comprised more than 80% of anionic and cationic mass, respectively. Different from their more or less reductions of gaseous precursors, the counterintuitive features of much less than expected decrease in SO42− levels and unexpected increase in NO3 concentrations in the precipitations are likely due to the combination of enhanced conversion of gaseous precursors to acid compounds, and increased regional transport. The average ratio of neutralizing to acidifying potential (i.e. NP/AP was as high as 1.2 but it exhibited a significant decline pattern, indicative of a long-term increasing trend in the acidifying potential of the wet depositions. This is mainly ascribed to reduced input of two major alkaline agents – NH4+ and Ca2+ – over increased input of a minor alkaline agent – Mg2+ – according to the magnitudes of their neutralization factors. The equivalent mass ratio of NO3 to nss-SO42− presented an evident increasing trend with a still low mean value of 0.37 ± 0.11. This indicates that the relative contribution of NO3 to the wet deposition acidity was strengthened in recent years while the precipitation acidity in Beijing was still overwhelmingly from sulfur but not nitrogen.

  17. Ambient particulate air pollution and circulating antioxidant enzymes: A repeated-measure study in healthy adults in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaowei; Wang, Bin; Yang, Di; Wei, Hongying; Li, Hongyu; Pan, Lu; Huang, Jing; Wang, Xin; Qin, Yu; Zheng, Chanjuan; Shima, Masayuki; Deng, Furong; Guo, Xinbiao

    2016-01-01

    The association of systemic antioxidant activity with ambient air pollution has been unclear. A panel of 40 healthy college students underwent repeated blood collection for 12 occasions under three exposure scenarios before and after relocating from a suburban area to an urban area in Beijing, China in 2010-2011. We measured various air pollutants including fine particles (PM2.5) and determined circulating levels of antioxidant enzymes extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) in the laboratory. An interquartile range increase of 63.4 μg/m(3) at 3-d PM2.5 moving average was associated with a 6.3% (95% CI: 0.6, 12.4) increase in EC-SOD and a 5.5% (95% CI: 1.3, 9.8) increase in GPX1. Several PM2.5 chemical constituents, including negative ions (nitrate and chloride) and metals (e.g., iron and strontium), were consistently associated with increases in EC-SOD and GPX1. Our results support activation of circulating antioxidant enzymes following exposure to particulate air pollution.

  18. Study of the distribution of non-point source pollution in the watershed of the Miyun Reservoir, Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Li, T; Xu, A; He, W

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus are major nutrients to cause eutrophication to degrade the water quality of the Miyun Reservoir, a very important drinking water source of Beijing in China. These are mainly from non-point sources. The watershed in Miyun County is selected as the study region with a total area of 1400 km2. Four typical monitoring catchments and two experimental units were used to monitor the precipitation, runoff, sediment yield and pollutant loading related to various land uses in the meantime. The results show that the total nutrient loss amount of TN and TP is 898.07 t/a, and 40.70 t/a, respectively, in which nutrient N and P carried by runoff is 91.3% and 77.3%, respectively. There is relatively heavier soil erosion at the northern mountain area whereas the main nutrient loss occurs near the northeast rim of the reservoir. Different land uses influence the loss of non-point source pollutants. The amount of nutrient loss from agricultural land per unit is the highest, nutrient loss from forestry is the second highest and that from grassland is the lowest. However, due to the variability of land use areas, agricultural land contributes the greatest amount of TP and forestry lands the greatest amount of TN. PMID:11724492

  19. Knowledge and Skills of Sexual Abuse Prevention: A Study on School-Aged Children in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yichen; Chen, Jingqi; Yu, Buyi

    2016-01-01

    To examine the level of child sexual abuse prevention knowledge and skills in a sample of school-aged children, a total of 559 children from first to fifth grade were recruited from one primary school in Beijing, China. Participants were asked to finish a questionnaire surveying their knowledge and skills of child sexual abuse prevention. Results showed that accurate rate of knowledge on child sexual abuse prevention were between 44.0% and 80.0%. Percentage of participants having applied the self-protection skills of "saying 'no,'" "going away," and "telling adults" properly in hypothetical situations was 57.4%, 28.3%, and 48.3%, respectively. Third-to-fifth graders had a better performance than first-to-second graders, and girls performed better than boys. Findings suggest that Chinese school-aged children are in need of knowledge and skills related to child sexual abuse prevention, and education programs should be developed as soon as possible. PMID:27561123

  20. Sexual Stigma, Coping Styles, and Psychological Distress: A Longitudinal Study of Men Who Have Sex With Men in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Steward, Wayne T; Miège, Pierre; Hudes, Esther; Gregorich, Steven E

    2016-08-01

    The direct link between stigma against sexual minorities and psychological distress is well established. However, few studies have examined the potential mediating roles of avoidant and social support coping in the relationships between internalized and anticipated stigma associated with homosexuality and depressive symptoms and anxiety among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). We recruited a longitudinal sample of 493 MSM in Beijing, China from 2011 to 2012. Participants completed computer-based questionnaires at baseline, 6, and 12 months. We found significant indirect effects of anticipated MSM stigma on symptoms of both depression and anxiety via avoidant coping: anticipated MSM stigma at baseline was significantly associated with avoidant coping (B = 0.523, p < 0.001) at 6 months and, conditional on anticipated MSM stigma, avoidant coping had a significant positive effect on depressive symptoms and anxiety at 12 months (B = 0.069, p = 0.001 and B = 0.071, p = 0.014). In contrast, no significant indirect effects of anticipated MSM stigma on either psychological distress outcome via social support coping were found. No significant indirect effects of internalized MSM stigma via either avoidant or social support coping were found. These results underscore the need for interventions that address anticipations of stigma and the use of avoidant coping techniques to manage such anticipations. PMID:26679303

  1. Benefit Evaluation on Land Comprehensive Consolidation in the Small Towns——A Case of Daxing District,Beijing,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Taking Daxing District,Beijing,China as a example,benefit evaluation index system of small-town land comprehensive consolidation isestablished from four aspects of resource benefit,economic benefit,social benefit and ecological benefit.Weight of evaluation index is determinedby analytic hierarchy process.After the standardized treatment on the original value index,comprehensive index method is adopted to evaluate theland comprehensive consolidation benefits in 14 towns of Daxing District in the year 2005,combining with the index weight determined by analytic hi-erarchy process.Evaluation result shows that areas having significant effects are Yizhuang Town,Xihongmen Town,Yinghai Town,and JiugongTown,which are concentrated in rural-urban continuum with significant location advantages and good economic and infrastructure status.Areashaving good effects are Changziying Town,Huangcun Town,Panggezhuang Town,Beizangcun Town,and Yufa Town,which are located alongYongding River,with abundant farmland resources and good ecological environment.Areas having general effects are Weishan Town,QingyundianTown,and Anding Town,with insignificant location advantages.Areas with no significant effects are Lixian Town and Caiyu Town,with relativelypoor location,resource,and economic development status.

  2. Woody species diversity in forest plantations in a mountainous region of Beijing, China: effects of sampling scale and species selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Zhang

    Full Text Available The role of forest plantations in biodiversity conservation has gained more attention in recent years. However, most work on evaluating the diversity of forest plantations focuses only on one spatial scale; thus, we examined the effects of sampling scale on diversity in forest plantations. We designed a hierarchical sampling strategy to collect data on woody species diversity in planted pine (Pinus tabuliformis Carr., planted larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr., and natural secondary deciduous broadleaf forests in a mountainous region of Beijing, China. Additive diversity partition analysis showed that, compared to natural forests, the planted pine forests had a different woody species diversity partitioning pattern at multi-scales (except the Simpson diversity in the regeneration layer, while the larch plantations did not show multi-scale diversity partitioning patterns that were obviously different from those in the natural secondary broadleaf forest. Compare to the natural secondary broadleaf forests, the effects of planted pine forests on woody species diversity are dependent on the sampling scale and layers selected for analysis. Diversity in the planted larch forest, however, was not significantly different from that in the natural forest for all diversity components at all sampling levels. Our work demonstrated that the species selected for afforestation and the sampling scales selected for data analysis alter the conclusions on the levels of diversity supported by plantations. We suggest that a wide range of scales should be considered in the evaluation of the role of forest plantations on biodiversity conservation.

  3. Trophic transfer of mercury and methylmercury in an aquatic ecosystem impacted by municipal sewage effluents in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jianjie; Wang, Yawei; Zhou, Qunfang; Jiang, Guibin

    2010-01-01

    Gaobeidian Lake, located in Beijing, China, serves as a recipient lake for effluents from a large municipal sewage treatment plant (MSTP). In order to evaluate the effects of discharging MSTP effluent on the mercury contamination of the local aquatic ecosystem, sediment cores, water, plankton, fish, and turtle samples were collected from Gaobeidian Lake for mercury speciation analysis. High concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg) were detected in sediment cores (5.24-17.0 microg/g dry weight (dw), average: 10.1 microg/g). The ratio of methylmercury (MeHg) to T-Hg was less than 0.3% in sediments and ranged from 35% to 76% in biota samples. The highest level of T-Hg and MeHg were found in aquatic bryophyte and crucian carp (3673 and 437 ng/g dw, respectively). The relative contents of MeHg were significantly correlated with trophic levels (R2 = 0.5506, p < 0.001), which confirmed that MeHg can be bio-transferred and biomagnified via food chain in this aquatic ecosystem.

  4. GHG emission control and solid waste management for megacities with inexact inputs: a case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongwei; Sun, Shichao; Ren, Lixia; He, Li

    2015-03-01

    This study advances an integrated MSW management model under inexact input information for the city of Beijing, China. The model is capable of simultaneously generating MSW management policies, performing GHG emission control, and addressing system uncertainty. Results suggest that: (1) a management strategy with minimal system cost can be obtained even when suspension of certain facilities becomes unavoidable through specific increments of the remaining ones; (2) expansion of facilities depends only on actual needs, rather than enabling the full usage of existing facilities, although it may prove to be a costly proposition; (3) adjustment of waste-stream diversion ratio directly leads to a change in GHG emissions from different disposal facilities. Results are also obtained from the comparison of the model with a conventional one without GHG emissions consideration. It is indicated that (1) the model would reduce the net system cost by [45, 61]% (i.e., [3173, 3520] million dollars) and mitigate GHG emissions by [141, 179]% (i.e., [76, 81] million tons); (2) increased waste would be diverted to integrated waste management facilities to prevent overmuch CH4 emission from the landfills.

  5. A preliminary risk assessment of potential exposure to naturally occurring estrogens from Beijing (China) market milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Mi, Xiaoxia; Yuan, Yuwei; Chen, Gang; Ren, Li; Wang, Kaiqiang; Zhu, Dan; Qian, Yongzhong

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of the natural steroid hormones estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2), 17β-estradiol (βE2) and estriol (E3) in 38 commercial milk samples obtained from markets in Beijing, China. Liquid Chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed to determine estrogens levels. The concentrations of E1, αE2, βE2 and E3 in different milk products varied from 0-146.12 ng/L, 0-70.12 ng/L, 0-31.85 ng/L to 0-2.18 ng/L, respectively. We compared exposures to estrogens through milk consumption with acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and threshold for toxicological concern (TTC) to determine whether estrogen intakes from milk consumption are larger or smaller than the toxicity-based benchmarks. The combined margin of safety MOS (MOST) for total estrogens are about 72-99, 118-161, 539-1104, for 2-4, 4-7 year-old residential children, and adults, respectively. The lowest MOST for children of 2-4 years old result from comparing total of estrogens with the lowest TTC value (0.15 μg/person/day) (MOS=3.5). The MOS values suggest that the individual and total estrogens that may present in milk are not causing a health risk for the local residents, including young children.

  6. Medication use patterns, health care resource utilization, and economic burden for patients with major depressive disorder in Beijing, People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ling Zhang,1–4 Yun Chen,5 Li Yue,5 Qingjing Liu,6 William Montgomery,7 Lihua Zhi,5 Wanqi Wang51Mood Disorders Center, Beijing Anding Hospital, Capital Medical University, 2China Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, 3China Center of Depression, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, 4Department of Psychiatry, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 5Medical Department, Lilly Suzhou Pharmaceutical Company, Ltd, Shanghai, 6Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research, Beijing Brainpower Pharma Consulting Co, Ltd, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 7Medical Department, Eli Lilly Australia Pty, Ltd, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaObjective: The objective of the study was to investigate medication usage patterns, health care resource utilization, and direct medical costs of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD in Beijing, People’s Republic of China.Methods: Data were extracted from a random sample of the Beijing Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance database. Patients aged ≥18 years, with ≥1 primary diagnosis of MDD and 12-month continuous enrollment after their first observed MDD diagnosis between 2012 and 2013 were identified. Those with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or cancer during the analysis period were excluded.Results: In total 8,484 patients, with mean age of 57.2 years, were included and 63% were female. The top three commonly observed comorbidities were hypertension (70.9%, anxiety disorder (68.6%, and coronary heart disease (65.1%. Furthermore, 71.4% of patients were treated with antidepressant medications, including 60.5% of patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, followed by noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants (9.0% and serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (8.3%. The proportions of patients who discontinued their initial antidepressant within the first and second months after the index date were 45.4% and 77.0%, respectively. Concomitant

  7. Analysis of drug resistance determinants in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from a tertiary-care hospital in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rates of multidrug-resistant (MDR, extensively drug-resistant (XDR and pandrug-resistant (PDR isolates among Enterobacteriaceae isolates, particularly Klebsiella pneumoniae, have risen substantially worldwide. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To better understand the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance in K. pneumoniae, we analyzed the drug resistance determinants for K. pneumoniae isolates collected from the 306 Hospital, a tertiary-care hospital in Beijing, China, for the period of September 1, 2010-October 31, 2011. Drug susceptibility testing, PCR amplification and sequencing of the drug resistance determinants were performed. Conjugation experiments were conducted to examine the natural ability of drug resistance to disseminate among Enterobacteriaceae strains using a sodium azide-resistant Escherichia coli J53 strain as a recipient. Among the 223 consecutive non-repetitive K. pneumoniae isolates included in this study, 101 (45.3% were extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs positive. The rates of MDR, XDR, and PDR isolates were 61.4% (n = 137, 22.0% (n = 49, and 1.8% (n = 4, respectively. Among the tested drug resistance-associated genes, the following ones were detected at relatively high rates bla(CTX-M-10 (80, 35.9%, aacC2 (73, 32.7%, dhfr (62, 27.8%, qnrS (58, 26.0%, aacA4 (57, 25.6%, aadA1 (56, 25.1%. Results from conjugation experiments indicate that many of the drug resistance genes were transmissible. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data give a "snapshot" of the complex genetic background responsible for drug resistance in K. pneumoniae in China and demonstrate that a high degree of awareness and monitoring of those drug resistance determinants are urgently needed in order to better control the emergence and transmission of drug-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates in hospital settings.

  8. Research on the elderly housing in China : a case study on "Beijing Sun City Living Community"

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Yan; 龔妍

    2014-01-01

    Population aging becomes a serious social problem when the society develops into a certain stage, and it has a close relationship with the national economy and people’s livelihood, as well as the future of a country. Also, the improvement of medical level and social welfare help people prolong their life expectancy. As a developing country, which includes nearly 1/4 population of the world, China also faces the severe aging problem. After the establishment of People’s Republic of China, t...

  9. “The Olympic Torch Burns, and Great Suspicion Blazes” – China Narratives in the German Media during the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing 2008 „Das olympische Feuer brennt. Und mit ihm lodert das Misstrauen“ – Die Chinaberichterstattung während der Olympischen Sommerspiele in Beijing 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Poerner

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the description of China in leading German daily and weekly newspapers during the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. On the basis of a brief outline of the main China narratives in German media since the 1950s, this paper analyses China-related articles which were published during the period August 8-15, 2008. It argues that reports on China are mostly based on well established German notions of China and centre around the image of a despotic and/or dangerous China. Theref...

  10. Coordinating world scientific pulsing, escalating China's innovative waving——Contact: Nobel Prize Laureates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Top-level forum on - "Scientific Frontier and China's Opportunities in the 21st Century" was held by NSFC in Beijing to commemorate the 20th birthday of NSFC. The forum was located on the topics of the scientific frontiers in the 21st century science, science foundation to promote fundamental research, and China's opportunities. Their in-depth discussions will influence future fundamental research in China and strengthen Chinese multi-lateral research ties.

  11. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in surface soils from college school yards in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaofei; WANG Dianzhong; QIN Xiaofei; XU Xiaobai

    2008-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been a major environmental issue, attracting much scientific concern because of their nature of toxicity, persistence, and endocrine disrupting effects. Soil samples were collected from ten college school yards in Beijing in 2006 and analyzed to determine fifteen OCPs. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were found to be the main pollutants, accounting for 93.70% of total OCPs, followed by hexachlorohexanes (HCHs) (2.25%) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (1.82%). Content of chlordanes (CHLs), heptachlors (HEPTs), and endosulfans comprised 0.51%, 1.05%, and 0.79% of fifteen OCPs, respectively. The preliminary pollution assessment indicated that DDTs have caused high OCPs levels in some schools. Source identification showed that HCHs in soils were originated from an old mixed source of technical HCHs and lindsne. And DDTs were mainly from mixed use of technical DDTs and dicofol containing DDT impurities. According to GB 15618-1995 (guidelines of Chinese environmental quality standards for soils), HCHs and DDTs levels might be categorized as little and low polluting pesticides. This study indicated that the environmental quality of college school yards with large green land were not as good as was expected and there existed potential exposure risk of college population to OCPs.

  12. Simulating the transfer and fate of hexachlorocyclohexane in recent 50 years in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Hongying; LIANG Tao; TAO Shu

    2005-01-01

    Taking Beijing as a study area, a dynamic fugacity model was used to simulate the transfer and fate of technical HCHs according to the physic-chemical properties of the studying environment and HCH isomers. Dynamic changes of the transfer fluxes and concentrations of HCH isomers during 1952―2003 were simulated and the model results suggest good agreement between the calculated and measured concentrations of HCH isomers. During 1952―1983, the average input and output amount of HCHs through agricultural application and degradation are 130 t and 150 t respectively. The dominant transfer processes of HCHs in the study area are air-soil deposition, soil erosion and soil-air diffusion, transfer fluxes of these processes are 80 t·a-1, 16 t·a-1 and 11 t·a-1, which account for 92% of total transfer fluxes of HCHs isomers. There were approximately 253t HCHs in all environmental compartments of the study area during this period and 97% of which existed in soil compartment. Air and water advection became the dominant input sources of HCHs after 1984 when the application of technical HCHs was prohibited, concentration of HCHs quickly descended to a quite low level in several years. Total amount of HCHs isomers remaining in the study area environment now is less than 5% that before 1983, and this percentage may descend to 0.5% after 20 years by prediction.

  13. The impact of periodic air pollution peaks in Beijing on air quality governance in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwabe, Julian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During the month of January 2013, Beijing suffered air pollution of unprecedented intensity. This event, which was named “airpocalypse” in international media, was followed by vibrant media reporting and public discussion on the topic and prompted the central government to issue unusually ambitious measures to contain air pollution more effectively. This paper explores the impact of the airpocalypse on China’s air quality governance by conducting a qualitative analysis of pollution control policies that followed the airpocalypse and concludes that this event of heavy air pollution was indeed impactful in causing the issuance of stricter national targets for pollution control as well as increased public awareness. In combination with the newly amended environmental protection law, these aspects put local governments under intense pressure to address air pollution more effectively. However, the changes caused by the airpocalypse were not revolutionary in a sense that it led to major structural reforms of government institutions and their interrelationships. The case of the airpocalypse demonstrates that single disruptive events of heavy pollution can cause a recalibration of policy priorities. In this context, the role of “disruptive events” may be worthwhile of more systematic research in order to understand their potential impact on institutional environments.

  14. Effect of landscape pattern on insect species density within urban green spaces in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhimin; Li, Xiaoma; Zhou, Weiqi; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2015-01-01

    Urban green space is an important refuge of biodiversity in urban areas. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the relationship between the landscape pattern of green spaces and biodiversity to mitigate the negative effects of urbanization. In this study, we collected insects from 45 green patches in Beijing during July 2012 using suction sampling. The green patches were dominated by managed lawns, mixed with scattered trees and shrubs. We examined the effects of landscape pattern on insect species density using hierarchical partitioning analysis and partial least squares regression. The results of the hierarchical partitioning analysis indicated that five explanatory variables, i.e., patch area (with 19.9% independent effects), connectivity (13.9%), distance to nearest patch (13.8%), diversity for patch types (11.0%), and patch shape (8.3%), significantly contributed to insect species density. With the partial least squares regression model, we found species density was negatively related to patch area, shape, connectivity, diversity for patch types and proportion of impervious surface at the significance level of p species density was found in green patches with an area species density. However, increasing compactness (low-edge) of patch shape and landscape composition did have the expected effect. Therefore, it is recommended that the composition of the surrounding landscape should be considered simultaneously with planned improvements in local habitat quality. PMID:25793897

  15. Spatial Distribution, Sources Apportionment and Health Risk of Metals in Topsoil in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chunyuan; Zhao, Wenji; Zhang, Qianzhong; Yu, Xue; Zheng, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Jiayin; Lv, Ming

    2016-07-20

    In order to acquire the pollution feature and regularities of distribution of metals in the topsoil within the sixth ring road in Beijing, a total of 46 soil samples were collected, and the concentrations of twelve elements (Nickel, Ni, Lithium, Li, Vanadium, V, Cobalt, Co, Barium, Ba, Strontium, Sr, Chrome, Cr, Molybdenum, Mo, Copper, Cu, Cadmium, Cd, Zinc, Zn, Lead, Pb) were analyzed. Geostatistics and multivariate statistics were conducted to identify spatial distribution characteristics and sources. In addition, the health risk of the analyzed heavy metals to humans (adult) was evaluated by an U.S. Environmental Protection Agency health risk assessment model. The results indicate that these metals have notable variation in spatial scale. The concentration of Cr was high in the west and low in the east, while that of Mo was high in the north and low in the south. High concentrations of Cu, Cd, Zn, and Pb were found in the central part of the city. The average enrichment degree of Cd is 5.94, reaching the standard of significant enrichment. The accumulation of Cr, Mo, Cu, Cd, Zn, and Pb is influenced by anthropogenic activity, including vehicle exhaustion, coal burning, and industrial processes. Health risk assessment shows that both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of selected heavy metals are within the safety standard and the rank of the carcinogenic risk of the four heavy metals is Cr > Co > Ni > Cd.

  16. Spatial Distribution, Sources Apportionment and Health Risk of Metals in Topsoil in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyuan Sun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to acquire the pollution feature and regularities of distribution of metals in the topsoil within the sixth ring road in Beijing, a total of 46 soil samples were collected, and the concentrations of twelve elements (Nickel, Ni, Lithium, Li, Vanadium, V, Cobalt, Co, Barium, Ba, Strontium, Sr, Chrome, Cr, Molybdenum, Mo, Copper, Cu, Cadmium, Cd, Zinc, Zn, Lead, Pb were analyzed. Geostatistics and multivariate statistics were conducted to identify spatial distribution characteristics and sources. In addition, the health risk of the analyzed heavy metals to humans (adult was evaluated by an U.S. Environmental Protection Agency health risk assessment model. The results indicate that these metals have notable variation in spatial scale. The concentration of Cr was high in the west and low in the east, while that of Mo was high in the north and low in the south. High concentrations of Cu, Cd, Zn, and Pb were found in the central part of the city. The average enrichment degree of Cd is 5.94, reaching the standard of significant enrichment. The accumulation of Cr, Mo, Cu, Cd, Zn, and Pb is influenced by anthropogenic activity, including vehicle exhaustion, coal burning, and industrial processes. Health risk assessment shows that both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of selected heavy metals are within the safety standard and the rank of the carcinogenic risk of the four heavy metals is Cr > Co > Ni > Cd.

  17. Response of forestland soil water content to heavy rainfall on Beijing Mountain, northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianbo Jia; Xinxiao Yu; Yitao Li

    2016-01-01

    Continuous recording of precipitation and soil water content (SWC), especially during long periods of tor-rential rainfall, has proven challenging. Over a 16 h period spanning 21–22 July, 2012, Beijing experienced historic rainfall that totaled 164.4 mm. We used large lysimeter technology in four forested plots to record precipitation and variation in SWC at 10-min intervals to quantify the response of forestland SWC to heavy rainfall in a semi-arid area. Mean, maximum and minimum rainfall intensities were 23.4, 46.8 and 12.0 mm/h, respectively. Rainfall was concentrated in 2–6 mm bursts that accounted for 67.32%of the total rainfall event. Soil moisture conditions in this region are strongly dependent on patterns of precipitation. Water infiltration into 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 and 160 cm soil layers required 1, 5, 20, 37, 46, 52 and 61 mm of precipitation, respectively, and to fully saturate these soil layers required 80, 120, 140, 150, 180, 200 and 220 mm of precipitation, respectively.

  18. Response of aerosol composition to different emission scenarios in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Sun, Yele; Du, Wei; Wang, Qingqing; Chen, Chen; Han, Tingting; Lin, Jian; Zhao, Jian; Xu, Weiqi; Gao, Jian; Li, Jie; Fu, Pingqing; Wang, Zifa; Han, Yongxiang

    2016-11-15

    Understanding the response of aerosol chemistry to different emission scenarios is of great importance for air pollution mitigating strategies in megacities. Here we investigate the variations in air pollutants under three different emission scenarios, i.e., heating season, spring festival holiday and non-heating season using aerosol composition and gaseous measurements from 2 February to 1 April 2015 along with source apportionment and FLEXPART analysis in Beijing. Our results showed substantially different aerosol composition among three emission scenarios that is primarily caused by different emission sources. All aerosol and gas species showed ubiquitously higher concentrations in heating season than non-heating season with the largest enhancement for fossil OA (FOA) and chloride. On average, the particulate matter (PM) level in winter heating season can be enhanced by 70% due to coal combustion emissions. In contrast, cooking aerosols and traffic related species showed significant reductions as a response of reduced anthropogenic activities during the spring festival holiday, sulfate and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) however even increased due to enhanced aqueous-phase production. Such compensating effects resulted in small changes in PM levels for haze episodes during the holiday period despite reduced anthropogenic emissions. Our results have significant implications that local emission controls during winter severe pollution episodes can reduce primary aerosols substantially, but the mitigating effects can be significantly suppressed by enhanced secondary formation under stagnant meteorological conditions. PMID:27425439

  19. Effects of Dietary Intervention on Hyperlipidemia in Eight Communities of Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING XIAO; ZHEN-TAO ZHANG; JUN-BO WANG; WEN-LI ZHU; YAO ZHAO; SHAO-FANG YAN; YONG LI

    2003-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of community-based dietary intervention on hyperlipidemia.Methods A total of 180 hyperlipidemia individuals with TG>2.26 mmol@L-1 ( 200 mg@dL-1 ) and/orTC>5.72 mmol@L-1 (220 mg@dL-1) were selected from 428 eligible subjects in eight communities ofBeijing. They were randomly divided into intervention group (n=108) and control group (n=72).Dietary intervention was provided for the intervention group for 6 months. Information on dietaryintakes, physical examinations and blood samples was collected. Serum lipids were assayed atbaseline and endpoint of the study period. Results Respective decrease in dietary intake of totalcalories, fat, cholesterol and cooking oil by 13.62%, 24.75%, 24.40%, and 22.43%, in the interventiongroup was observed. The percentages of total calories from fat, carbohydrate and protein appeared tobe desirable after study. Reduced body weight and BMI were also observed. There was a respective5.61% and 7.06 % decrease in total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in theintervention group, while no significant changes were found in the control group. ConclusionsCommunity-based dietary intervention can effectively improve dietary patterns, control body weight,and decrease the levels of total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  20. Episode-Based Evolution Pattern Analysis of Haze Pollution: Method Development and Results from Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guangjie; Duan, Fengkui; Ma, Yongliang; Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Tao; Kimoto, Takashi; Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang; He, Kebin

    2016-05-01

    Haze episodes occurred in Beijing repeatedly in 2013, resulting in 189 polluted days. These episodes differed in terms of sources, formation processes, and chemical composition and thus required different control policies. Therefore, an overview of the similarities and differences among these episodes is needed. For this purpose, we conducted one-year online observations and developed a program that can simultaneously divide haze episodes and identify their shapes. A total of 73 episodes were identified, and their shapes were linked with synoptic conditions. Pure-haze events dominated in wintertime, whereas mixed haze-dust (PM2.5/PM10 haze-fog (Aerosol Water/PM2.5 ∼ 0.3) events dominated in spring and summer-autumn, respectively. For all types, increase of ratio of PM2.5 in PM10 was typically achieved before PM2.5 reached ∼150 μg/m(3). In all PM2.5 species observed, organic matter (OM) was always the most abundant component (18-60%), but it was rarely the driving factor: its relative contribution usually decreased as the pollution level increased. The only OM-driven episode observed was associated with intensive biomass-burning activities. In comparison, haze evolution generally coincided with increasing sulfur and nitrogen oxidation ratios (SOR and NOR), indicating the enhanced production of secondary inorganic species. Applicability of these conclusions required further tests with simultaneously multisite observations.

  1. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiulin; Zhao, Wenji; Gong, Zhaoning; Zhao, Wenhui; Tang, Tao

    2015-09-22

    Fine particulate matter has become the premier air pollutant of Beijing in recent years, enormously impacting the environmental quality of the city and the health of the residents. Fine particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0~0.3 μm, 0.3~0.5 μm, and 0.5~1.0 μm, from the yeasr 2007 to 2012, were monitored, and the hospital data about respiratory diseases during the same period was gathered and calculated. Then the correlation between respiratory health and fine particles was studied by spatial analysis and grey correlation analysis. The results showed that the aerial fine particulate matter pollution was mainly distributed in the Zizhuyuan sub-district office. There was a certain association between respiratory health and fine particles. Outpatients with respiratory system disease in this study area were mostly located in the southeastern regions (Balizhuang sub-district office, Ganjiakou sub-district office, Wanshoulu sub-district office, and Yongdinglu sub-district office) and east-central regions (Zizhuyuan sub-district office and Shuangyushu sub-district office) of the study area. Correspondingly, PM₁ (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1.0 um) concentrations in these regions were higher than those in any other regions. Grey correlation analysis results showed that the correlation degree of the fine particle concentration with the number of outpatients is high, and the smaller fine particles had more obvious effects on respiratory system disease than larger particles.

  2. [Occurrence and fate of phthalates in wastewater treatment plants in Beijing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-Qi; Liu, Yun-Xia

    2013-04-01

    Three waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in Beijing were selected as cases to study the occurrence and fate of phthalates. Contents of di-methyl phthalate (DMP), di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), di-butyl phthalate (DBP), butyl-benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-octyl phthalate (DOP) and di-(2-ehtylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in influent, effluent of secondary setting tank and excess sludge in those WWTPs were determined. The mean concentration of DMP, DEP, DBP and DEHP are 0.98, 0.21 x 10(2), 0.27 x 10(2) and 0.15 x 10(2) microg x L(-1) respectively. BBP and DOP were not found in those WWTPs. Only DBP and DEHP were detected in dewatered sludge with mean concentration of 0.37 microg x kg(-1) and 0.31 x 10(3) microg x kg(-1) DW. The removal efficiency of DMP, DEP, DBP and DEHP varied from 68.3% -82.6%, 94.5% - 98.2%, 74.7% -95.0% and 90.5% -90.7% respectively. The main removal mechanism should be biodegradation and volatilization to the air. Higher concentration of DBP and DEHP in effluent and dewatered sludge should be concerned.

  3. Trends of surface humidity and temperature during 1951-2012 in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Q.; Xu, Z.; Peng, D.; Yang, X.; Yang, G.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, two datasets, a long time series (1951-2012) of daily surface observations at one meteorological station and a shorter time series (1979-2012) of three-hourly data with 0.1°×0.1° spatial resolution were analysed by using non-parametric methods to identify annual and seasonal variations in surface humidity and temperature. The results reveal that: (1) saturation water vapour pressure increased exponentially with temperature. Actual daily values at Beijing Meteorological Station are very close to the theoretical values estimated by using the simplified Clausius-Clapeyron equation, but with seasonal variations. (2) For both long- and short-term data, clear increasing tendencies of annual saturation specific humidity and temperature are found. Decreasing and drying trends were detected for winter. (3) The annual relative humidity showed a decreasing trend except for some suburban areas, somehow related to the lower temperature and increased specific humidity in those areas. (4) Regional changes in topography and elevation likely influenced trends in surface humidity, while local land use showed little effect on it.

  4. Public protests against the Beijing-Shenyang high-speed railway in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Guizhen; Mol, Arthur P.J.; Lu, Yonglong

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid expansion of the high-speed railway infrastructure in China, conflicts arise between the interests of local citizens living along the planned tracks and the national interests of governmental authorities and project developers. This paper addresses questions of why and how Chinese

  5. Willingness to use the oral fluid HIV rapid test among men who have sex with men in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunan Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early detection of HIV infection enables timely care and treatment. However, many men who have sex with men (MSM remain unaware of their HIV status because they do not or are unable to access HIV testing services. Oral fluid HIV rapid tests have the potential to increase HIV testing. This study is the first to evaluate willingness to use the oral fluid test among MSM in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Beijing from July to October, 2012. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaires. RESULTS: Of 262 who participated in the survey, 223(85.1% reported that they were willing to use the oral fluid HIV rapid test. Willingness to use the oral fluid test was associated with higher education (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 2.40, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.13-5.10, lack of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI with male partners in the past one month (AOR: 2.38; 95% 95%CI: 1.15-4.95, having taken more than 4 HIV tests (AOR: 3.54; 95%CI:1.52-8.28, and having ever heard of the oral fluid HIV rapid test from gay friends or gay organizations (AOR: 3.24, 95%CI: 1.40-7.51. Among those who expressed willingness to use the oral fluid HIV rapid test, the median amount of money they were willing to pay was 8 dollars. Among the 39 participants who were unwilling to use the oral fluid test, 79.5% (31/39 expressed concerns about the accuracy of the oral fluid HIV rapid test results and 17.9%(7/39 reported that they were not familiar with the oral fluid test and did not know how to use such a test. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of MSM in Beijing appear to be willing to use the oral fluid HIV rapid test. Appropriate cost and education measures could help improve acceptance of the oral fluid test.

  6. Chemical apportionment of aerosol optical properties during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tingting; Xu, Weiqi; Chen, Chen; Liu, Xingang; Wang, Qingqing; Li, Jie; Zhao, Xiujuan; Du, Wei; Wang, Zifa; Sun, Yele

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Beijing, China, using the highly time-resolved measurements by a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer and a cavity attenuated phase shift extinction monitor. The average (±σ) extinction coefficient (bext) and absorption coefficient (bap) were 186.5 (±184.5) M m-1 and 23.3 (±21.9) M m-1 during APEC, which were decreased by 63% and 56%, respectively, compared to those before APEC primarily due to strict emission controls. The aerosol composition and size distributions showed substantial changes during APEC; as a response, the mass scattering efficiency (MSE) of PM1 was decreased from 4.7 m2 g-1 to 3.5 m2 g-1. Comparatively, the average single-scattering albedo (SSA) remained relatively unchanged, illustrating the synchronous reductions of bext and bap during APEC. MSE and SSA were found to increase as function of the oxidation degree of organic aerosol (OA), indicating a change of aerosol optical properties during the aging processes. The empirical relationships between chemical composition and particle extinction were established using a multiple linear regression model. Our results showed the largest contribution of ammonium nitrate to particle extinction, accounting for 35.1% and 29.3% before and during APEC, respectively. This result highlights the important role of ammonium nitrate in the formation of severe haze pollution during this study period. We also observed very different optical properties of primary and secondary aerosol. Owing to emission controls in Beijing and surrounding regions and also partly the influences of meteorological changes, the average bext of secondary aerosol during APEC was decreased by 71% from 372.3 M m-1 to 108.5 M m-1, whereas that of primary aerosol mainly from cooking, traffic, and biomass burning emissions showed a smaller reduction from 136.7 M m-1 to 71.3 M m-1. As a result

  7. Projected Changes in Kppen Climate Types in the 21st Century over China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Ying; GAO Xue-Jie; WU Jia

    2012-01-01

    Future changes in the climate regimes over China as measured by the Kppen climate classification are reported in this paper. The analysis is based on a high-resolution climate change simulation conducted by a regional climate model (the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) RegCM3) driven by the global model of Center for Climate System Research (CCSR)/National Institute for Environment Studies (NIES)/Frontier Research Center for Global Change (FRCGC) MIROC3.2_hires (the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate) under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario. Validation of the model performances is presented first. The results show that RegCM3 reproduces the present-day distribution of the Kppen climate types well. Significant changes of the types are found in the future over China, following the simulated warming and precipitation changes. In southern China, the change is characterized by the replacement of subtropical humid (Cr) by subtropical winter-dry (Cw). A pronounced decrease of the cold climate types is found over China, e.g., tundra (Ft) over the Tibetan Plateau and sub-arctic continental (Ec) over northeast China. The changes are usually greater in the end compared with the middle of the 21st century.

  8. Sectoral roles in greenhouse gas emissions and policy implications for energy utilization and carbon emissions trading: a case study of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jianping; Lei, Yalin; Xu, Qun; Wang, Xibo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a decomposition and emissions matrix is developed to identify the roles (giver or taker) played by the sectors in the greenhouse gas emissions for the economy of Beijing in China. Our results indicate that services were the most important emitter if we consider the total (direct and indirect) emissions. In addition to Construction, Scientific studies and technical services and Finance sectors of services were the largest takers. They have a large role in boosting greenhouse gas emissions throughout the economy of Beijing. As the basis and supporter of production activities, the electricity production and the transportation sectors were the greatest givers. More emphasis should be placed on using clean energy and carbon capture and storage technologies to reduce emissions within these sectors. Based on the roles played by these sectors in greenhouse gas emissions, some policy implications were proposed for energy utilization and carbon emissions trading.

  9. Sectoral roles in greenhouse gas emissions and policy implications for energy utilization and carbon emissions trading: a case study of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jianping; Lei, Yalin; Xu, Qun; Wang, Xibo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a decomposition and emissions matrix is developed to identify the roles (giver or taker) played by the sectors in the greenhouse gas emissions for the economy of Beijing in China. Our results indicate that services were the most important emitter if we consider the total (direct and indirect) emissions. In addition to Construction, Scientific studies and technical services and Finance sectors of services were the largest takers. They have a large role in boosting greenhouse gas emissions throughout the economy of Beijing. As the basis and supporter of production activities, the electricity production and the transportation sectors were the greatest givers. More emphasis should be placed on using clean energy and carbon capture and storage technologies to reduce emissions within these sectors. Based on the roles played by these sectors in greenhouse gas emissions, some policy implications were proposed for energy utilization and carbon emissions trading. PMID:27547661

  10. Projected Risk of Flooding Disaster over China in 21st Century Based on CMIP5 Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rouke; Xu, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Based on the simulations from CMIP5 models, using climate indices which have high correlation with historical disaster data, and in combination with terrain elevation data and the socio-economic data, to project the flooding disaster risk, the vulnerability of flooding hazard affected body and the risk of flooding hazard respectively during the near term(2015-2039), medium term(2045-2069) and long term(2075-2099) under RCP8.5. According to the IPCC AR5 WGII, we used risk evaluation model of disaster: R=E*H*V. R on behalf of disaster risk index. H, E and V express risk, exposure and vulnerability respectively. The results show that the extreme flooding disaster risk will gradually increase during different terms in the future, and regions with high risk level of flooding hazard are might mainly located in southeastern and eastern China. Under the RCP8.5 greenhouse gas emissions scenario, the high risk of flooding disaster in future might mainly appear in eastern part of Sichuan, most of North China, and major of East China. Compared with the baseline period,21st century forward, although the occurrence of floods area changes little, the regional strong risk will increase during the end of the 21st century. Due to the coarse resolution of climate models and the methodology for determining weight coefficients, large uncertainty still exists in the projection of the flooding disaster risk.

  11. Beijing in Pictures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With a history of more than 3,000 years, Beijing is famousfor its architectural styles, and is regarded as the city with themost diversified construction in China. Its ancient charm can beseen in its unique imperial palaces, courtyards and hutongs. The

  12. An integrated material metabolism model for stocks of urban road system in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhen; Hu, Dan; Zhang, Fuhua; Huang, Guolong; Xiao, Qiang

    2014-02-01

    Rapid urbanization has greatly altered the urban metabolism of material and energy. As a significant part of the infrastructure, urban roads are being rapidly developed worldwide. Quantitative analysis of metabolic processes on urban road systems, especially the scale, composition and spatial distribution of their stocks, could help to assess the resource appropriation and potential environmental impacts, as well as improve urban metabolism models. In this paper, an integrated model, which covered all types of roads, intersection structures and ancillary facilities, was built for calculating the material stocks of urban road systems. Based on a bottom-up method, the total stocks were disassembled into a number of stock parts rather than obtained by input-output data, which provided an approach promoting data availability and inner structure understanding. The combination with GIS enabled the model to tackle the complex structures of road networks and avoid double counting. In the case study of Beijing, the following results are shown: 1) The total stocks for the entire road system reached 159 million tons, of which nearly 80% was stored in roads, and 20% in ancillary facilities. 2) Macadam was the largest stock (111 million tons), while stone mastic asphalt, polyurethane plastics, and atactic polypropylene accounted for smaller components of the overall system. 3) The stock per unit area of pedestrian overcrossing was higher than that of the other stock units in the entire system, and its steel stocks reached 0.49 t/m(2), which was 10 times as high as that in interchanges. 4) The high stock areas were mainly distributed in ring-shaped and radial expressways, as well as in major interchanges. 5) Expressways and arterials were excessively emphasized, while minor roads were relatively ignored. However, the variation of cross-sectional thickness in branches and neighborhood roads will have a significant impact on the scale of material stocks in the entire road system.

  13. Effect of landscape pattern on insect species density within urban green spaces in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Su

    Full Text Available Urban green space is an important refuge of biodiversity in urban areas. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the relationship between the landscape pattern of green spaces and biodiversity to mitigate the negative effects of urbanization. In this study, we collected insects from 45 green patches in Beijing during July 2012 using suction sampling. The green patches were dominated by managed lawns, mixed with scattered trees and shrubs. We examined the effects of landscape pattern on insect species density using hierarchical partitioning analysis and partial least squares regression. The results of the hierarchical partitioning analysis indicated that five explanatory variables, i.e., patch area (with 19.9% independent effects, connectivity (13.9%, distance to nearest patch (13.8%, diversity for patch types (11.0%, and patch shape (8.3%, significantly contributed to insect species density. With the partial least squares regression model, we found species density was negatively related to patch area, shape, connectivity, diversity for patch types and proportion of impervious surface at the significance level of p < 0.05 and positively related to proportion of vegetated land. Regression tree analysis further showed that the highest species density was found in green patches with an area <500 m2. Our results indicated that improvement in habitat quality, such as patch area and connectivity that are typically thought to be important for conservation, did not actually increase species density. However, increasing compactness (low-edge of patch shape and landscape composition did have the expected effect. Therefore, it is recommended that the composition of the surrounding landscape should be considered simultaneously with planned improvements in local habitat quality.

  14. Estimate of Boundary-Layer Depth Over Beijing, China, Using Doppler Lidar Data During SURF-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meng; Gao, Zhiqiu; Miao, Shiguang; Chen, Fei; LeMone, Margaret A.; Li, Ju; Hu, Fei; Wang, Linlin

    2016-09-01

    Planetary boundary-layer (PBL) structure was investigated using observations from a Doppler lidar and the 325-m Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) meteorological tower in the centre of Beijing during the summer 2015 Study of Urban-impacts on Rainfall and Fog/haze (SURF-2015) field campaign. Using six fair-weather days of lidar and tower data under clear to cloudy skies, we evaluate the ability of the Doppler lidar to probe the urban boundary-layer structure, and then propose a composite method for estimating the diurnal cycle of the PBL depth using the Doppler lidar. For the convective boundary layer (CBL), a threshold method using vertical velocity variance (σ _w^2 >0.1 m2s^{-2}) is used, since it provides more reliable CBL depths than a conventional maximum wind-shear method. The nocturnal boundary-layer (NBL) depth is defined as the height at which σ _w^2 decreases to 10 % of its near-surface maximum minus a background variance. The PBL depths determined by combining these methods have average values ranging from ≈ 270 to ≈ 1500 m for the six days, with the greatest maximum depths associated with clear skies. Release of stored and anthropogenic heat contributes to the maintenance of turbulence until late evening, keeping the NBL near-neutral and deeper at night than would be expected over a natural surface. The NBL typically becomes more shallow with time, but grows in the presence of low-level nocturnal jets. While current results are promising, data over a broader range of conditions are needed to fully develop our PBL-depth algorithms.

  15. An integrated material metabolism model for stocks of urban road system in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhen; Hu, Dan; Zhang, Fuhua; Huang, Guolong; Xiao, Qiang

    2014-02-01

    Rapid urbanization has greatly altered the urban metabolism of material and energy. As a significant part of the infrastructure, urban roads are being rapidly developed worldwide. Quantitative analysis of metabolic processes on urban road systems, especially the scale, composition and spatial distribution of their stocks, could help to assess the resource appropriation and potential environmental impacts, as well as improve urban metabolism models. In this paper, an integrated model, which covered all types of roads, intersection structures and ancillary facilities, was built for calculating the material stocks of urban road systems. Based on a bottom-up method, the total stocks were disassembled into a number of stock parts rather than obtained by input-output data, which provided an approach promoting data availability and inner structure understanding. The combination with GIS enabled the model to tackle the complex structures of road networks and avoid double counting. In the case study of Beijing, the following results are shown: 1) The total stocks for the entire road system reached 159 million tons, of which nearly 80% was stored in roads, and 20% in ancillary facilities. 2) Macadam was the largest stock (111 million tons), while stone mastic asphalt, polyurethane plastics, and atactic polypropylene accounted for smaller components of the overall system. 3) The stock per unit area of pedestrian overcrossing was higher than that of the other stock units in the entire system, and its steel stocks reached 0.49 t/m(2), which was 10 times as high as that in interchanges. 4) The high stock areas were mainly distributed in ring-shaped and radial expressways, as well as in major interchanges. 5) Expressways and arterials were excessively emphasized, while minor roads were relatively ignored. However, the variation of cross-sectional thickness in branches and neighborhood roads will have a significant impact on the scale of material stocks in the entire road system

  16. Research about the Control of Geological Structure on Karst Groundwater system in Zhangfang, Beijing,China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, X.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonate formations are intensively distributed throughout Zhangfang, fangshan, in West Mountain area in Beijing. Karst groundwater exits among the geological fracture network which is characterized by the different arrangements and levels in different types of fracture networks and structures. The influence of the tectonic environment on the dynamic change rule and the enrichment regulation of karst system is significant for the exploitation and protection of karst groundwater resources. From the control function of fault and fracture point of view, based on the developmental and distribution pattern of multi-episodic tectonism, this study analyzed fractures in the three-fold structural units characterized by NE-NW and NS trends and discussed the influence of multi-episodic tectonism on the groundwater flow system and rich water zones. The results showed that the geological fracture underwent two episodes of tectonism, thrusting nappe in the Jurassic and extension in the Cretaceous. The overprint of two episodes resulted in a number of faults with high hydraulic conductivity, which serve as conduits. The superiority joints groups are in the NE and NW directions, with conjugated characteristics. The high-angle or vertical dips directly benefit infiltration. The fractures in the intersection areas have formed groundwater runoff channels and strong space, controlling water-rich zones such as Baidai, Ganchi-Changgou and Gaozhuang-Shiwo. Magmatic rock and the aquiclude also contribute to the rich water zones and the location of springs, all of which have important significance for water supply. Keywords: system of Karst groundwater, geological structure, fracture network, hydrogeological flow field, Zhangfang karst area

  17. Averaging period effects on the turbulent flux and transport efficiency during haze pollution in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaofeng; Yang, Ting; Sun, Yele

    2015-08-01

    Based on observations at the heights of 140 and 280 m on the Beijing 325-m meteorological tower, this study presents an assessment of the averaging period effects on eddy-covariance measurements of the momentum/scalar flux and transport efficiency during wintertime haze pollution. The study period, namely from January 6 to February 28 2013, is divided into different episodes of particulate pollution, as featured by varied amounts of the turbulent exchange and conditions of the atmospheric stability. Overall, turbulent fluxes of the momentum and scalars (heat, water vapor, and CO2) increase with the averaging period, namely from 5, 15, and 30 up to 60 min, an outcome most evident during the `transient' episodes (each lasting for 2-3 days, i.e., preceded and followed by clean-air days with mean concentrations of PM1 less than 40 μg m-3). The conventional choice of 30 min is deemed to be appropriate for calculating the momentum flux and its transport efficiency. By comparison, scalar fluxes and their transport efficiencies appear more sensitive to the choice of an averaging period, particularly at the upper level (i.e., 280 m). It is presupposed that, for urban environments, calculating the momentum and scalar fluxes could invoke separate averaging periods, rather than relying on a single prescription (e.g., 30 min). Furthermore, certain characteristics of urban turbulence are found less sensitive to the choice of an averaging period, such as the relationship between the heat-to-momentum transport efficiency and the local stability parameter.

  18. Characteristics of heavy aerosol pollution during the 2012-2013 winter in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Jiannong; Tie, Xuexi; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Quan; Li, Xia; Gao, Yang; Zhao, Delong

    2014-05-01

    A comprehensive measurement was carried out to analyze the heavy haze events during 2012-2013 winter in Beijing. The measured variables include some important meteorological parameters, such wind directions, wind speeds, relative humidity (RH), planetary boundary layer (PBL), solar radiation, and visibility. The aerosol composition and concentrations (including particular matters (PM2.5), nitrate (NO3), sulfate (SO4), ammonium (NH4)) as well as their gas-phase precursors (including nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2)) were analyzed during the period between Nov. 16, 2012 and Jan. 15, 2013. The results show that the hourly mean concentrations of PM2.5 often exceeded 200 μg/m3, with a maximum concentration of 600 μg/m3 on Jan. 13, 2013. The relative humidity was increased during the haze events, indicating that both aerosol concentrations and RH had important effect on the reduction of visibility, causing the occurrence of the haze events. Because the wind speeds were generally low (less than 1 m/s) during the haze event, the vertical dispersion and the PBL heights were very important factors for causing the strong variability of aerosol concentrations. This study also finds that under the lower visibility condition, the conversion from the gas-phase of NOx and SO2 to the particle phase of NO3 and SO4 were higher than the values under the higher visibility condition. Because the lower visibility condition was corresponding to the lower photochemical activity than the higher visibility condition, the higher conversion from gas phase to particle phase in the lower visibility condition indicated that there was important heterogeneous formation of NO3 and SO4 during the heavy haze events.

  19. GCMs-based spatiotemporal evolution of climate extremes during the 21st century in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Yongqin David; Singh, Vijay P.

    2013-10-01

    Changes in the hydrological cycle being caused by human-induced global warming are triggering variations in observed spatiotemporal distributions of precipitation and temperature extremes, and hence in droughts and floods across China. Evaluation of future climate extremes based on General Circulation Models (GCMs) outputs will be of great importance in scientific management of water resources and agricultural activities. In this study, five precipitation extreme and five temperature extreme indices are defined. This study analyzes daily precipitation and temperature data for 1960-2005 from 529 stations in China and outputs of GCMs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) and Phase 5 (CMIP5). Downscaling methods, based on QQ-plot and transfer functions, are used to downscale GCMs outputs to the site scale. Performances of GCMs in simulating climate extremes were evaluated using the Taylor diagram. Results showed that: (1) the multimodel CMIP5 ensemble performs the best in simulating observed extreme conditions; (2) precipitation processes are intensifying with increased frequency and intensity across entire China. The southwest China, however, is dominated by lengthening maximum consecutive dry days and also more heavy precipitation extremes; (3) warming processes continue with increasing warm nights, decreasing frost days, and lengthening heat waves during the 21st century; (4) changes in precipitation and temperature extremes exhibit larger changing magnitudes under RCP85 scenario; (5) for the evolution of changes in extremes, in most cases, the spatial pattern keeps the same, even though changing rates vary. In some cases, area with specific changing properties extends or shrinks gradually. The directions of trends may alter during the evolution; and (6) changes under RCP85 become more and more pronounced as time elapses. Under the peak-and-decline RCP26, changes in some cases do not decrease correspondingly during 2070-2099 even though the

  20. The possible contribution of the periodic emissions from farmers' activities in the North China Plain to atmospheric water-soluble ions in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengfei; Zhang, Chenglong; Mu, Yujing; Liu, Chengtang; Xue, Chaoyang; Ye, Can; Liu, Junfeng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Hongxing

    2016-08-01

    The North China Plain (NCP), which includes Beijing, is currently suffering from severe haze events due to a high pollution level of PM2.5. To mitigate the serious pollution problem, identification of the sources of PM2.5 is urgently needed for the effective control measures. Daily samples of PM2.5 were collected in Beijing city and in a rural area in Baoding, Hebei Province through the year of 2014, and the seasonal variation of water-soluble ions (WSIs) in PM2.5 was comprehensively analysed to determine their possible sources. The results indicated that the periodic emissions from farmers' activities made a significant contribution to the atmospheric WSIs in Beijing. The relatively high concentration of K+ in winter and autumn at the two sampling sites confirmed that crop straw burning contributed to atmospheric K+ in Beijing. The remarkable elevation of Cl- at the two sampling sites as well as the evident increase of the Cl- / K+ ratio and the Cl- proportion in WSIs during the winter in Beijing could be ascribed to coal combustion for heating by farmers. The unusually high ratio of Cl- to Na+ in summer, the obviously high concentrations of Cl- in the rural sampling site and the elevation of Cl- proportion in WSIs in Beijing during the maize fertilization could be explained by the use of the prevailing fertilizer of NH4Cl in the vast area of NCP. The abnormally high concentrations of Ca2+ at the two sampling sites and the elevation of Ca2+ proportion during the period of the maize harvest and soil ploughing in Beijing provided convincing evidence that the intensive agricultural activities in autumn contributed to the regional mineral dust. The most serious pollution episodes in autumn were coincident with significant elevation of Ca2+, indicating that the mineral dust emission from the harvest and soil ploughing not only increased the atmospheric concentrations of the primary pollutants, but also greatly accelerated formation of sulfate and nitrate through

  1. Weekly cycle of magnetic characteristics of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHI, M.; Wu, H.; Zhang, S.; Li, H.; Yang, T.

    2013-12-01

    In urban areas,fine particle matter with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 um and 10 um (PM2.5-10), and 2.5 um (PM2.5), as an important source of urban particulate matter (PM) pollutants, have significant negative effects on health, atmospheric visibility and climate. PM has increasingly become a significant index of indicating the atmospheric pollution of city. In recent years, Beijing, China has been listed as one of the most serious air pollution city in the world. In order to investigate the sources of air pollutants, a total of 283 pairs of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 samples were collected daily from July, 2010 to June, 2011 in Beijing. Mineral magnetic properties and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were measured to verify the magnetic materials. Magnetic measures for PM indicated that the major magnetic phase was coarse-grained magnetite-like material. The χlf, χarm, SIRM and χarm/SIRM series of the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 show seasonal dependences: high values in winter and low values in summer. In additional the parameters analyzed by Time-series methods show a strong cycle about 7 days above 95% confidence level. Weekly cycle of magnetic characteristics of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 show different pattern: the concentration of magnetic particles in PM2.5-10 show high values in mid-week, and particle sizes is steady, while the concentration of magnetic particles in PM2.5 show reverse a weekly cycle pattern, and particle sizes is smaller in the mid-week.Microscopy analyses reveal basically three morphologies of magnetic grains: aggregate, spherules and angular particles. The ultrafine carbonaceous particles which tend to form complex clusters and chain-like structures, most likely come from coal burning and motor vehicle exhaust. Spherical particles in PM2.5 are dominantly composed of Fe, O and C, grain-diameters of particles range from 0.3 to 2 um. Angular particles of Fe

  2. Inflammatory bowel disease in the 21(st) century in China: turning challenges into opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qin; Xue, Lin Yun

    2012-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been an international hot spot for research for a long period of time. In China, the prevalence of IBD is rapidly increasing in recent years, mimicking the same fast growing footsteps of the developed world. Chinese literature of the 20(th) century shows that the total number of IBD cases increased by approximately 2.5-fold over the previous decade, in particular a 15.7-fold in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Articles on basic research have increased 4.3-fold, with a particular 9.9-fold increase on immunological mechanisms. The predominantly Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) related clinical trials implied tendency to use a combination of Western Medicine and TCM in the management of Chinese IBD patients. IBD research and collaborations overseas have been markedly promoted since the Chinese Organization for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (COIBD) was founded at the beginning of the 21(st) century. From the second decade of the century onwards, we need to focus on the research hot spots to catch up with the rapid advances worldwide. Big challenges and present achievements provide us with great opportunities for further developments of the study on IBD. The development of some novel target pathogenic factors of the disease will provide us with more effective roll for modern management and optimistic treatment of IBD during this century. PMID:22435503

  3. Atmospheric mercury concentration and chemical speciation at a rural site in Beijing, China: implications of mercury emission sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuous measurements of atmospheric mercury concentration and speciation play a key role in identifying mercury sources and its behavior in the atmosphere. In this study, speciated atmospheric mercury including gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, reactive gaseous mercury (RGM and particle-bound mercury (PBM were continuously measured at Miyun, a rural site in Beijing, China, from December 2008 to November 2009. The average GEM, RGM and PBM concentrations were found to be 3.22 ± 1.74, 10.1 ± 18.8 and 98.2 ± 112.7 pg m−3, respectively, about 2–20 times higher than the background concentration of the Northern Hemisphere. The results indicated that atmospheric mercury concentrations in northern China were highly affected by anthropogenic emissions. The atmospheric mercury showed obvious seasonal variations, with the highest seasonal average GEM concentration in summer (3.48 ng m−3 and the lowest value in winter (2.66 ng m−3. In autumn and winter a diurnal variation of GEM was observed, with peak levels in the late afternoon till midnight. Most of the high RGM concentration values occurred in the afternoon of all seasons due to the higher oxidation. The PBM concentration was higher in early morning of all seasons because of the the temperature inversion that increases in depth as the night proceeds. The ratio of GEM to CO indicates that residential boilers play an important role in the elevation of GEM in winter. The ratio of RGM to O3 could be an indicator of the contribution of local primary sources. The ratio of PBM to PM2.5 reveals that the air mass from the east and southwest of the site in spring and summer carries more atmospheric mercury. The HYSPLIT back-trajectory analysis indicated that the monitoring site is affected by local, regional and interregional sources simultaneously during heavy pollution episodes. The results from the potential source contribution function (PSCF model indicate that the atmospheric transport

  4. Northern Economic Hub:Beijing or Tianjin?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The government says Tianjin, today's market suggests Beijing and some academics say the "or" is all wrong Beijing and Tianjin, the two largest cities in north China, are going through catharsis. According to the re-planning of the State Council, Beijing should shed its role as north China's economic center, and Tianjin should grow into being just that. Tianjin has long been viewed as an important economic center, but not the cen

  5. The Gaze or the Groove? Emerging Themes from the "New Meanings and Pathways: Community Dance and Dance Education Symposium" in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Nicholas; Buck, Ralph; Martin, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Established in 1954 and drawing heavily on dance conservatory models from Russia, the Beijing Dance Academy (BDA) has become a predominant influence on dance education in East Asia. As it addresses the artistic, cultural and educational needs of China into the twenty-first century, the BDA is now negotiating a new terrain and seeking new…

  6. Building biophysics in mid-century China: the University of Science and Technology of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Yi Lai Christine

    2015-01-01

    Biophysics has been either an independent discipline or an element of another discipline in the United States, but it has always been recognized as a stand-alone discipline in the People's Republic of China (PRC) since 1949. To inquire into this apparent divergence, this paper investigates the formational history of biophysics in China by examining the early institutional history of one of the best-known and prestigious science and technology universities in the PRC, the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC). By showing how the university and its biophysics program co-evolved with national priorities from the school's founding in 1958 to the eve of the Cultural Revolution in 1966, the purpose of this paper is to assess the development of a scientific discipline in the context of national demands and institutional politics. Specific materials for analysis include the school's admission policies, curricula, students' dissertations, and research program. To further contextualize the institutional setting of Chinese biophysics, this paper begins with a general history of proto-biophysical institutions in China during the Nationalist-Communist transitional years. This paper could be of interest to historians wanting to know more about the origin of the biophysics profession in China, and in particular how research areas that constitute biophysics changed in tandem with socio-political contingencies. PMID:25564431

  7. [Perspectives in researches on grassland ecology for the early 21st century in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Cunzhu; Zhu, Tingcheng; Wang, Deli; Lü, Xinlong

    2002-06-01

    Grassland degeneration is a prominent problem in China. More in-depth studies should be carried out on the key problem--grassland degeneration for Chinese grassland ecologists in the early 21st century. Some hot research fields were restoration ecology, interface ecology, grazing ecology, health diagnoses and evaluation for grasslands. Among them, restoration ecology was the foundation for restoring degenerative grasslands; interface ecology involved with the point of contact for analyzing degenerative grasslands; grazing ecology was the effective way to control degenerative grasslands; diagnoses of grassland health benefited accurately appraising degenerative levels of grasslands; and evaluation for grassland was also considered as an estimation on services and benefits of grassland ecosystems.

  8. Beijing-Outstanding Advantages to Develop ABP Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Geographical advantage. Beijing is the capital city of China,the center of politics, culture, science and technology, information and international communication. The national macro-decision making and regulatory sectors are located in Beijing. At the same time, the transportation volume of aviation and railway has been listed No. 1 in China.No other city can compare to Beijing.

  9. Virus profile in children with acute respiratory infections with various severities in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Runan; Song Qinwei; Qian Yuan; Zhao Linqing; Deng Jie; Wang Fang; Sun Yu

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is one of the most common infectious diseases in infants and young children globally.This study aimed to determine the virus profile in children with ARI presenting with different severities.Methods Clinical specimens collected from children with ARI in Beijing from September 2010 to March 2011 were investigated for 18 respiratory viruses using an xTAG Respiratory Viral Panel Fast (RVP Fast) assay.The Pearson chisquare analysis was used to identify statistical significance.Results Of 270 cases from three groups of ARI patients,including Out-patients,In-patients and patients in the intensive care unit (ICU),viruses were detected in 176 (65.2%) specimens with the RVP Fast assay.The viral detection rate from the Out-patients group (50.0%) was significantly lower than that from the In-patients (71.1%) and ICU-patients (74.4%) groups.The virus distribution was different between the Out-patients group and the other hospitalized groups,while the virus detection rate and distribution characteristics were similar between the In-patients and ICU-patients groups.The coinfection rates of the Out-patients group,the In-patients group,and the ICU-patients group were 15.6%,50.0% and 35.8%,respectively.In addition to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and adenovirus (ADV),human rhinovirus (HRV) was frequently detected from children with serious illnesses,followed by human metapneumovirus (hMPV),human bocavirus (HBoV) and coronaviruses.Parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3) was detected in children with lower respiratory illness,but rarely from those with serious illnesses in the ICU-patient group.Conclusion In addition to so-called common respiratory viruses,virus detection in children with ARI should include those thoucht to be uncommon respiratory viruses,especially when there are severe ARI-related clinical illnesses.

  10. Impacts of land use change and climate variations on annual inflow into Miyun Reservoir, Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J. K.; Sun, G.; Li, W. H.; Yu, X. X.; Zhang, C.; Gong, Y. B.; Tu, L. H.

    2015-08-01

    Miyun reservoir, the only surface water source for Beijing city, has experienced water supply decline in recent decades. Previous studies suggest that both land use change and climate contributes the changes of water supply in this critical watershed. However, the specific causes of the decline in Miyun reservoir are debatable in a non-stationary climate in the past four decades. The central objective of this study was to quantify the separate and collective contributions of land use change and climate variability to the decreasing inflow into Miyun reservoir during 1961-2008. Different from previous studies, this work objectively identified breakpoints by analyzing the long-term historical hydrometeorology and land cover records. To effectively study the different impacts of the climate variation and land cover change during different sub-periods, annual water balance model (AWB), climate elasticity model (CEM), and rainfall-runoff model (RRM) were employed to conduct attribution analysis synthetically. We found a significant decrease in annual streamflow (p 0.1) during 1961-2008. Combined with historical records, we identified two breakpoints as in 1983 and 1999 for the period 1961-2008 by the sequential Mann-Kendall Test and Double Mass Curve. Climate variability alone did not explain the decrease in inflow to Miyun reservoir. Reduction of water yield was closely related to increase in evapotranspiration rates due to the expansion of forestlands and reduction in cropland and grassland, and was likely exacerbated by increased water consumption for domestic and industrial uses in the basin. Our study found that the contribution to the observed streamflow decline from land use change fell from 64-92 % during 1984-1999 to 36-58 % during 2000-2008, whereas the contribution from climate variation climbed from 8-36 % during the 1984-1999 to 42-64 % during 2000-2008. Model uncertainty analysis further demonstrated that climate warming played a dominant role in

  11. Projections of Wind Changes for 21st Century in China by Three Regional Climate Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ying; LUO Yong; ZHAO Zongci; SHI Ying; XU Yinlong; ZHU Jinhong

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the capability of three regional climate models(RCMs),i.e.,RegCM3(the International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model),PRECIS(Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies)and CMM5(the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University-the National Center for Atmospheric Research of USA,NCAR Mesoscale Model)to simulate the near-surface-layer winds(10 m above surface)all over China in the late 20th century.Results suggest that like global climate models(GCMs),these RCMs have the certain capability of imitating the distribution of mean wind speed and fail to simulate the greatly weakening wind trends for the past 50 years in the country.However,RCMs especially RegCM3 have the better capability than that of GCMs to simulate the distribution and change feature of mean wind speed.In view of their merits,these RCMs were used to project the variability of near-surface-layer winds over China for the 21st century.The results show that 1)summer mean wind speed for 2020-2029 will be lower compared to those in 1990-1999 in most area of China; 2)annual and winter mean wind speed for 2081-2100 will be lower than those of 1971-1990 in the whole China; and 3)the changes of summer mean wind speed for 2081-2100 are uncertain.As a result,although climate models are absolutely necessary for projecting climate change to come,there are great uncertainties in projections,especially for wind speed,and these issues need to be further explored.

  12. Ecosystem vulnerability of China under B2 climate scenario in the 21st century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU ShaoHong; DAI ErFu; HUANG Mei; SHAO XueMei; LI ShuangCheng; TAO Bo

    2007-01-01

    This paper applies climate change scenarios in China based on the SRES assumptions with the help of RCMs projections by PRECIS (providing regional climates for impacts studies) system introduced to China from.he Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research at a high-resolution (50 kmx50 km)over China.This research focuses on B2 scenario of SRES.A biogeochemical model "Atmosphere Vegetation Integrated Model (AV1M2)" was applied to simulating ecosystem status in the 21st century.Then vulnerability of ecosystems was assessed based on a set of index of mainly net primary production (NPP) of vegetation.Results show that climate change would affect ecosystem of China severely and there would be a worse trend with the lapse of time.The regions where having vulnerable ecological background would have heavier impacts while some regions with better ecological background would also receive serious impacts.Extreme climate even would bring about worse impact on the ecosystems.Open shrub and desert steppe would be the two most affected types.When the extreme events happen,vulnerable ecosystem would extend to part of defoliate broad-leaved forest,woody grassland and evergreen conifer forest.Climate change would not always be negative.It could be of some benefit to cold region during the near-term.However,in view of mid-term to long-term negative impact on ecosystem vulnerability would be enormously.

  13. Network Governance and the Making of Brazil's Foreign Policy Towards China in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Driven by China's increasing global influence, China-Brazil relations have deepened significantly in the 21st century; for Brazil, this bilateral relationship has become one of the most important aspects of its foreign relations. This article aims at analysing how Brazil's foreign policy towards China was made and implemented during the eight years of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva's presidency, and the first four years of Dilma Rousseff's presidency. While scholars agree that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs did not exclusively dominate this policy, little is known about which state and non-state actors were involved, how and why they interacted, and how their interactions influenced policy choices. The article starts by identifying the actors that played a significant role in formulating Brazil's China policy. Next, drawing on the concept of network governance, it explores the processes and mechanisms that governed the interactions among them. It concludes with an assessment of the democratic quality of this policy area.

  14. A GIS-based study on non-point source pollutant distribution around Miyun Reservoir Watershed, Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; wang, y; cai, x; wang, x

    2001-12-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus, coming mainly from non-point sources (NPS), are major nutrients to cause eutrophication to degrade water quality of Miyun Reservoir, the only one surface drinking water source of Beijing, China. The spatial nature of the NPS pollution problem necessitates the use of a geographic information system (GIS) to manipulate, retrieve, and display the large volumes of spatial data. Based on the relevant data which range from meteorological and hydrological data to land use, fertilizer and pesticide usage, and even livestock raising information, the database of NPS of Shixia Catchment in Miyun Reservoir watershed were established. Using GIS, abstracting attribute data, digitizing, editing, coordinate transferring and generating the digital elevation model (DEM) could be finished. A total of four land use scenarios were modeled to evaluate various land management strategies on sediment and nutrient loading from catchment. The results suggest that high nutrient loads are associated with village, which has unsuitable livestock raising. Different land use influences intensively the loss of pollutants, especially slope tilling in agricultural land. The amount of nutrient loss from the agricultural land per unit is the highest, that from forestry is the secondary and that from grassland is the lowest. However, due to the variability of land use areas, agricultural land contributes the greatest effort to TP and forestry lands to TN. The loss amount of pollutant in flood season is nearly 60% of annual loss amount. The amount of nutrient loss from hill areas is larger than that from mountain areas. Pattern of non-point source pollution in Miyun County is showed that near the north and east boundary of the Reservoir is the heaviest area. It is indicated that nutrient loss is correlated with people density, fertilizer usage and soil erosion.

  15. Impact of urbanization on rainfall-runoff processes: case study in the Liangshui River Basin in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zongxue; Zhao, Gang

    2016-05-01

    China is undergoing rapid urbanization during the past decades. For example, the proportion of urban population in Beijing has increased from 57.6 % in 1980 to 86.3 % in 2013. Rapid urbanization has an adverse impact on the urban rainfall-runoff processes, which may result in the increase of urban flood risk. In the present study, the major purpose is to investigate the impact of land use/cover change on hydrological processes. The intensive human activities, such as the increase of impervious area, changes of river network morphology, construction of drainage system and water transfer, were considered in this study. Landsat TM images were adopted to monitor urbanization process based on Urban Land-use Index (ULI). The SWMM model considering different urbanized scenarios and anthropogenic disturbance was developed. The measured streamflow data was used for model calibration and validation. Precipitation with different return periods was taken as model input to analyse the changes of flood characteristics under different urbanized scenarios. The results indicated that SWMM provided a good estimation for storms under different urbanized scenarios. The volume of surface runoff after urbanization was 3.5 times greater than that before urbanization; the coefficient of runoff changed from 0.12 to 0.41, and the ratio of infiltration decreased from 88 to 60 %. After urbanization, the time of overland flow concentration increased while the time of river concentration decreased; the peak time did not show much difference in this study. It was found that the peak flow of 20-year return-period after urbanization is greater than that of 100-year return-period before urbanization. The amplification effect of urbanization on flood is significant, resulting in an increase of the flooding risk. These effects are especially noticeable for extreme precipitation. The results in this study will provide technical support for the planning and management of urban storm water and the

  16. Use of a culture independent method to analyze the diversity of soil fungi surrounding Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing region of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yu; Wang, Shouxian; Yin, Yonggang;

    2012-01-01

    habitat to facilitate its large-scale cultivation. A culture-independent molecular approach—a powerful technology for microbiological ecology studies—was used to investigate the diversity of soil fungal communities in samples surrounding C. rutilus from the Beijing region of China. Metagenomic DNA was...... isolated from soil samples collected around C. rutilus, and an internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene library was constructed. Subsequently, polymerase chain reaction products were digested with HinfI, HaeIII, MspI, TaqI, or MboI. Clones were selected and sequenced based on their restriction fragment...

  17. Study on Current Levels of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior among Middle School Students in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Duan

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine current levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in middle school students on the basis of grade, sex, student attitudes toward physical education, and residence location.In 2013, a cross-sectional study of 1793 students aged 12 to 15 years was conducted across eight middle schools in Beijing, China. Four schools were selected from an urban district and another four schools were from a suburban district. Physical activity and sedentary behavior data were collected using the commonly used school-based Chinese version of the China Health and Nutrition Survey.The mean age of sampled students was 13.3 ± 1.0 years; 51.5% were boys. Approximately 76.6% of students reported having three 45-minute physical education classes every week. A total of 35.6% students spent ≥ 1 h/day performing moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA during school, and 34.9% spent ≥ 1 h/day in MVPA outside school time. Approximately half (49.7% of the students engaged in reading, writing, or drawing for ≥ 2 h/day, and 42.9% reported screen time for ≥ 2 h/day. Although boys spent more time engaged in physical activity than girls did, they also spent more time exhibiting sedentary behavior. Each 10-unit increase in attitudes toward physical education was associated with an increased odds of 1.15 (95%CI: 1.09-1.20 for spending more than 1 h/day on MVPA. Students in suburban schools reported engaging in physical activity less when compared with those in urban schools.The majority of our students did not meet the current physical activity recommendations, and about half of the students spent excessive time engaging in sedentary behaviors. Findings from this study highlight a positive association between student attitudes toward physical education and physical activity. Studies are needed to further explore the role of student attitudes toward physical education in promoting physical activity among Chinese students.

  18. Comparative Study of Three Commonly Used Methods for Hospital Efficiency Analysis in Beijing Tertiary Public Hospitals, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Chao Xu; Jian Zheng; Zi-Jun Zhou; Chuan-Kun Zhou; Yang Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tertiary hospitals serve as the medical service center within the region and play an important role in the medical and health service system.They are also the key targets of public hospital reform in the new era in China.Through the reform of health system, the public hospital efficiency has changed remarkably.Therefore, this study aimed to provide some advice for efficiency assessment of public hospitals in China by comparing and analyzing the consistency of results obtained by three commonly used methods for examining hospital efficiency, that is, ratio analysis (RA), stochastic frontier analysis (SFA), and data envelopment analysis (DEA).Methods: The theoretical basis, operational processes, and the application status ofRA, SFA, and DEA were learned through literature analysis.Then, the empirical analysis was conducted based on measured data from 51 tertiary public hospitals in Beijing from 2009 to 2011.Results: The average values of hospital efficiency calculated by SFA with index screening and principal component analysis (PCA) results and those calculated by DEA with index screening results were relatively stable.The efficiency of specialized hospitals was higher than that of general hospitals and that of traditional Chinese medicine hospitals.The results obtained by SFA with index screening results and the results obtained by SFA with PCA results showed a relatively high correlation (r-value in 2009, 2010, and 2011 were 0.869, 0.753, and 0.842, respectively, P < 0.01).The correlation between results obtained by DEA with index screening results and PCA results and results obtained by other methods showed statistical significance, but the correlation between results obtained by DEA with index screening results and PCA results was lower than that between results obtained by SFA with index screening results and PCA results.Conclusions: RA is not suitable for multi-index evaluation of hospital efficiency.In the given conditions, SFA is a stable

  19. Survey and rapid detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae in clinical samples targeting the rcsA gene in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derong eDong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is a wide-spread nosocomial pathogen. A rapid and sensitive molecular method for the detection of K. pneumoniae in clinical samples is needed to guide therapeutic treatment. In this study, we first described a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP method for the rapid detection of capsular polysaccharide synthesis regulating gene rcsA from K. pneumoniae in clinical samples by using two methods including real-time turbidity monitoring and fluorescence detection to assess the reaction. Then dissemination of K. pneumoniae strains was investigated from ICU patients in three top hospitals in Beijing, China. The results showed that the detection limit of the LAMP method was 0.115 pg/µl DNA within 60 min under isothermal conditions (61°C, a 100-fold increase in sensitivity compared with conventional PCR. All 30 non- K. pneumoniae strains tested were negative for LAMP detection, indicating the high specificity of the LAMP reaction. To evaluate the application of the LAMP assay to clinical diagnosis, of 110 clinical sputum samples collected from ICU patients with clinically suspected multi-resistant infections in China, a total of 32 K. pneumoniae isolates were identified for LAMP-based surveillance of rcsA. All isolates belonged to nine different K. pneumoniae multilocus sequence typing (MLST groups. Strikingly, of the 32 K. pneumoniae strains, 18 contained the Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC-encoding gene blaKPC-2 and had high resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Moreover, K. pneumoniae WJ-64 was discovered to contain blaKPC-2 and blaNDM-1 genes simultaneously in the isolate. Our data showed the high prevalence of blaKPC-2 among K. pneumoniae and co-occurrence of many resistant genes in the clinical strains signal a rapid and continuing evolution of K. pneumoniae. In conclusion, we have developed a rapid and sensitive visual K. pneumoniae detection LAMP assay, which could be a useful tool for clinical screening

  20. Variations in the Quality of Care at Large Public Hospitals in Beijing, China: A Condition-Based Outcome Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Xu

    Full Text Available Public hospitals deliver over ninety percent of all outpatient and inpatient services in China. Their quality is graded into three levels (A, B, and C largely based on structural resources, but empirical evidence on the quality of process and outcome of care is extremely scarce. As expectations for quality care rise with higher living standards and cost of care, such evidence is urgently needed and vital to improve care and to inform future health reforms.We compiled and analyzed a multicenter database of over 4 million inpatient discharge summary records to provide a comprehensive assessment of the level and variations in clinical outcomes of hospitalization at 39 tertiary hospitals in Beijing. We assessed six outcome measures of clinical quality: in-hospital mortality rates (RSMR for AMI, stroke, pneumonia and CABG, post-procedural complication rate (RS-CR, and failure-to-rescue rate (RS-FTR. The measures were adjusted for pre-admission patient case-mix using indirect standardization method with hierarchical linear mixed models.We found good overall quality with large variations by hospital and condition (mean/range, in %: RSMR-AMI: 6.23 (2.37-14.48, RSMR-stroke: 4.18 (3.58-4.44, RSMR-pneumonia: 7.78 (7.20-8.59, RSMR-CABG: 1.93 (1.55-2.23, RS-CR: 11.38 (9.9-12.88, and RS-FTR: 6.41 (5.17-7.58. Hospital grade was not significantly associated with any risk-adjusted outcome measures.Going to a higher grade public hospital does not always lead to better patient outcome because hospital grade only contains information about hospital structural resources. A hospital report card with some outcome measures of quality would provide valuable information to patients in choosing providers, and for regulators to identify gaps in health care quality. Reducing the variations in clinical practice and patient outcome should be a focus for policy makers in the next round of health sector reforms in China.

  1. Survey and rapid detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae in clinical samples targeting the rcsA gene in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Derong; Liu, Wei; Li, Huan; Wang, Yufei; Li, Xinran; Zou, Dayang; Yang, Zhan; Huang, Simo; Zhou, Dongsheng; Huang, Liuyu; Yuan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a wide-spread nosocomial pathogen. A rapid and sensitive molecular method for the detection of K. pneumoniae in clinical samples is needed to guide therapeutic treatment. In this study, we first described a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the rapid detection of capsular polysaccharide synthesis regulating gene rcsA from K. pneumoniaein clinical samples by using two methods including real-time turbidity monitoring and fluorescence detection to assess the reaction. Then dissemination of K. pneumoniae strains was investigated from ICU patients in three top hospitals in Beijing, China. The results showed that the detection limit of the LAMP method was 0.115 pg/μl DNA within 60 min under isothermal conditions (61°C), a 100-fold increase in sensitivity compared with conventional PCR. All 30 non- K. pneumoniae strains tested were negative for LAMP detection, indicating the high specificity of the LAMP reaction. To evaluate the application of the LAMP assay to clinical diagnosis, of 110 clinical sputum samples collected from ICU patients with clinically suspected multi-resistant infections in China, a total of 32 K. pneumoniae isolates were identified for LAMP-based surveillance of rcsA. All isolates belonged to nine different K. pneumoniae multilocus sequence typing (MLST) groups. Strikingly, of the 32 K. pneumoniae strains, 18 contained the Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC)-encoding gene bla KPC-2 and had high resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Moreover, K. pneumoniae WJ-64 was discovered to contain bla KPC-2 and bla NDM-1genes simultaneously in the isolate. Our data showed the high prevalence of bla KPC-2 among K. pneumoniae and co-occurrence of many resistant genes in the clinical strains signal a rapid and continuing evolution of K. pneumoniae. In conclusion, we have developed a rapid and sensitive visual K. pneumoniae detection LAMP assay, which could be a useful tool for clinical screening, on

  2. A study on environmental pollution monitoring and occupational health in the capital iron and steel company, Beijing, China, using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmosphere pollution in some Chinese cities is becoming more and more serious with the industrial development in the past decades. The airborne particulate concentration in Beijing, the Capital of China, far exceeds the allowable level set by the Chinese government and by the related international organizations. The main contribution source for the Beijing atmospheric particulate is the Capital Iron and Steel Company, which constitutes 55% of total air-borne particulate in Beijing. In the framework of this CRP organized by IAEA, we select this company as a target workplace. The INAA (instrumental neutron activation analysis), PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission analysis), SRXRF (synchronous radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry) and other related techniques will be applied to determine the concentrations of some target elements, e.g. heavy metal and toxic elements, in environmental samples (including airborne particulate, soil and plants) and human samples (including head hair, urine and blood) collected from this company, its surrounding region and a non-polluted region as a control. The activity completed at the first year and the working plan for next year is outlined in this report. Other related information will be dealt with as well. (author)

  3. Long-term variation of black carbon and PM2.5 in Beijing, China with respect to meteorological conditions and governmental measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Schleicher, Nina; Fricker, Mathieu; Cen, Kuang; Liu, Xiu-Li; Kaminski, Uwe; Yu, Yang; Wu, Xue-Fang; Norra, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Black carbon (BC) and PM2.5 were studied for nine years from 2005 to 2013 in the Beijing urban area. The overall weekly average mass concentrations of BC and PM2.5 were 4.3 and 66.8 μg/m³. PM2.5 annual means of the nine years are around 2 times of the standard (GB3095-2012) in China, and are 5-7 times higher than the WHO standard. The Beijing Olympic Games in 2008 was a milestone to mitigate aerosol pollution. Temporal distribution of BC shows a distinct declining trend, and annual mean mass concentrations of PM2.5 after 2008 were lower than those before 2008 but increased from 2011 to 2013. Wind rose plots show that high BC concentrations are usually associated with low wind speed of northeastern or southwestern winds, generally causing poor visibility. Governmental mitigation measures such as traffic restriction despite increased motor vehicle numbers and gasoline consumption and industry relocation with declining consumption of coal and coke were successful in reducing BC emissions. Annual mean of BC was reduced by 38% in 2013 compared to 2005. However, BC contamination in Beijing is still severe when compared to other urban areas around the world. PMID:26854696

  4. CNPC Becomes a Partner of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Beijing Organizing Committee for the 2008 Olympic Games (BOCOG) signed an agreement with China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) at Diaoyutai State Guesthouse in the afternoon of May 30,making CNPC an official partner of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games.

  5. STONETECH 2007 BEIJING Held At International Exhibition Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On March 4-7, the 14th China International Stone Processing Machinery,Equipment and Products Exhibition (STONETECH 2007 BEIJING) was held in all exhibition halls of Beijing International Exhibition Center.

  6. [A historical survey of diphtheria in the Western World, China and Japan. Part II: Modern age (from sixteenth century to the beginning of nineteenth century)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, A

    1996-09-01

    In Europe and North America, literatures on diphtheritic diseases was increasing from sixteenth to eighteenth century. In New England of North America, diphtheria and scarlet fever occurred epidemically in mingled form from 1735 to the succeeding year. Thereafter, many physicians in Europe and America treated patients of diphtheria and had different opinions about the nature of croup and diphtheria. In China, its own clinical medicine progressed extraordinarily during the modern age. Laryngeal specialists appeared and wrote special monographs about the pharynx and larynx. A physician wrote about "epidemic exanthem", which the author presumes to be a complicated form of scarlet fever and diphtheria. In Japan, diphtheria occurred in sporadic form usually, and in epidemic form occasionally. Japanese physicians studied medicine from China since the ancient age, and also introduced European medicine through the Netherlands in the eighteenth century. So Japanese physicians learned knowledge about throat diseases and diphtheria from Chinese and European medicine. PMID:11619318

  7. Characteristics of Non—Point Source Pollution in the Watershed of Miyun Reservoir,Beijing,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓燕; 贺伟; 等

    2002-01-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus are the major nutrients to cause eutrophication to degrade water quality of the Miyun Reservoir,a very important drinking water source of Bijing,China,and they are mainly from non-point sources.The watershed in Miyun County was selected as the study region with a totoal area of 1400km2.Four typical monitoring catchments and two experimental units were used to monitor the precipitation,runoff,sediment yield and pollutant loading related to various land uses in the meantime.The results show that the total nutrient loss amounts of TN and TP are 898.07t/a,and 40.70t/a,respectively,in which nutrients N and P carried by runoff are 91.3% and 77.3%,respectively.There is relatively heavier soil eroson in the northern mountain area whereas the main nutrient loss occurs near the northeast edge of the reservoir.Different land uses would influence the loss amounts of non-point source pollutants.The amount of nutrient loss from the agricultural land per unit is highest,that from forestry comes next that from grassland is lowest.However,due to the variability of land use areas,agricultural land contributes a lot to TP and forestry lands to TN.

  8. Size-resolved measurement of the mixing state of soot in the megacity Beijing, China: diurnal cycle, aging and parameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. F. Cheng

    2011-12-01

    the estimated emission intensities, actual turnover rates of soot (kex → in up to 20% h−1 were derived, which showed a pronounced diurnal cycle peaking around noon time. This result confirms that (soot particles are undergoing fast aging/coating with the existing high levels of condensable vapors in the megacity Beijing. (5 Diurnal cycles of Fin were different between Aitken and accumulation mode particles, which could be explained by the faster size shift of smaller particles in the Aitken mode.

    To improve the Fin prediction in regional/global models, we suggest parameterizing Fin by an air mass aging indicator, i.e., Fin = a + bx, where a and b are empirical coefficients determined from observations, and x is the value of an air mass age indicator. At the Yufa site in the North China Plain, fitted coefficients (a, b were determined as (0.57, 0.21, (0.47, 0.21, and (0.52, 0.0088 for x (indicators as [NOz]/[NOy], [E]/[X] ([ethylbenzene]/[m,p-xylene] and ([IM] + [OM]/[EC] ([inorganic + organic matter]/elemental carbon], respectively. Such a parameterization consumes little additional computing time, but yields a more realistic description of Fin.

  9. Size-resolved measurement of the mixing state of soot in the megacity Beijing, China: diurnal cycle, aging and parameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. F. Cheng

    2012-05-01

    intensities, actual turnover rates of soot (kex → in up to 20% h−1 were derived, which showed a pronounced diurnal cycle peaking around noon time. This result confirms that (soot particles are undergoing fast aging/coating with the existing high levels of condensable vapors in the megacity Beijing. (5 Diurnal cycles of Fin were different between Aitken and accumulation mode particles, which could be explained by the faster growth of smaller Aitken mode particles into larger size bins.

    To improve the Fin prediction in regional/global models, we suggest parameterizing Fin by an air mass aging indicator, i.e., Fin = a + bx, where a and b are empirical coefficients determined from observations, and x is the value of an air mass age indicator. At the Yufa site in the North China Plain, fitted coefficients (a, b were determined as (0.57, 0.21, (0.47, 0.21, and (0.52, 0.0088 for x (indicators as [NOz]/[NOy], [E]/[X] ([ethylbenzene]/[m,p-xylene] and ([IM] + [OM]/[EC] ([inorganic + organic matter]/[elemental carbon], respectively. Such a parameterization consumes little additional computing time, but yields a more realistic description of Fin compared with the simple treatment of soot mixing state in regional/global models.

  10. Childhood asthma in Beijing, China: A population-based case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, T.Z.; Niu, S.R.; Lu, B.Y.; Fan, X.E.; Sun, F.Y.; Wang, J.P.; Zhang, Y.W.; Zhang, B.; Owens, P.; Hao, L.Y.; Li, Y.D.; Leaderer, B. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Epidemiology & Public Health

    2002-11-15

    A population-based case-control study was conducted in Shunyi County, People's Republic of China, in January 1999 and March 2001 to investigate the risk factors for childhood asthma. An increased risk of childhood asthma was associated with smoking by relatives in front of the mother while she was pregnant with the child (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 1.6) and with smoking by relatives in front of the child (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9). The risk increased with the increasing number of smokers and the total minutes of smoking by relatives in front of both the child and the mother while she was pregnant with the child. An increased risk was observed for use of coal for heating (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9). Those who reported using coal for cooking without ventilation also had an increased risk (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.5). An increased risk was observed for those who reported having molds or fungi on the ceilings of their houses (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.9) or inside the child's room (OR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.2). An increased risk was also found for those having both a dog and a cat as pets (OR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.3) or for finding both cockroaches and rats inside their houses (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.8).

  11. Current Status & Development Trend of VSAT Market in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Nutu

    2006-01-01

    @@ 1. General Status of VSAT Market Development in China 1)Development History Development in China The history of the application of satellite communication in China is not too long and it was dated from the early seventies of the 20th century. In 1973, approved by Chinese government,Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications purchased satellite earth equipment from foreign country and constructed 3 stations in Shanghai and Beijing.

  12. Multi-site time series analysis of acute effects of multiple air pollutants on respiratory mortality: a population-based study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Cao, Yang; Li, Wenjing; Li, Runkui; Wang, Meng; Wu, Zhenglai; Xu, Qun

    2015-03-01

    In large cities in China, the traffic-related air pollution has become the focus of attention, and its adverse effects on health have raised public concerns. We conducted a study to quantify the association between exposure to three major traffic-related pollutants - particulate matter respiratory mortality in Beijing, China at a daily spatiotemporal resolution. We used the generalized additive models (GAM) with natural splines and principal component regression method to associate air pollutants with daily respiratory mortality, covariates and confounders. The GAM analysis adjusting for the collinearity among pollutants indicated that PM10, CO and NO2 had significant effects on daily respiratory mortality in Beijing. An interquartile range increase in 2-day moving averages concentrations of day 0 and day 1 of PM10, CO and NO2 corresponded to 0.99 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.30, 1.67], 0.89 (95% CI: 0.27, 1.51) and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.29, 1.61) percent increase in daily respiratory mortality, respectively. The effects were varied across the districts. The strongest effects were found in two rural districts and one suburban district but significant in only one district. In conclusion, high level of several traffic-related air pollutants is associated with an increased risk of respiratory mortality in Beijing over a short-time period. The high risk found in rural areas suggests a potential susceptible sub-population with undiagnosed respiratory diseases in these areas. Although the rural areas have relatively lower air pollution levels, they deserve more attention to respiratory disease prevention and air pollution reduction.

  13. Beijing Paralympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Paralympics is an important milestone for Beijing as it continues to steadily progress toward fulfilling its promise of delivering Paralympic Games equally as important and splendid as the Olympic Games.Scheduled for September 6--17,the Beijing Paralympics will see 20 sports con- tested——more than any Games in Paralympic history.

  14. BEIJING BARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Cappuccino Bar Cappuccino Bar, at the intersection of Dongzhimenwai Dajie and Sanlitun Beijie, Beijing's most vibrant nightlife area, is a hot new destination for European food lovers. With its perfect combination of both energy and tranquility, and surrounded by diplomatic compounds, it is conveniently located near other Beijing destinations including Lady Street

  15. A Visualization Approach to Air Pollution Data Exploration—A Case Study of Air Quality Index (PM2.5 in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, frequent occurrences of significant air pollution events in China have routinely caused panic and are a major topic of discussion by the public and air pollution experts in government and academia. Therefore, this study proposed an efficient visualization method to represent directly, quickly, and clearly the spatio-temporal information contained in air pollution data. Data quality check and cleansing during a preliminary visual analysis is presented in tabular form, heat matrix, or line chart, upon which hypotheses can be deduced. Further visualizations were designed to verify the hypotheses and obtain useful findings. This method was tested and validated in a year-long case study of the air quality index (AQI of PM2.5 in Beijing, China. We found that PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 may be emitted by the same sources, and strong winds may accelerate the spread of pollutants. The average concentration of PM2.5 in Beijing was greater than the AQI value of 50 over the six-year study period. Furthermore, arable lands exhibited considerably higher concentrations of air pollutants than vegetation-covered areas. The findings of this study showed that our visualization method is intuitive and reliable through data quality checking and information sharing with multi-perspective air pollution graphs. This method allows the data to be easily understood by the public and inspire or aid further studies in other fields.

  16. Ambient temperature enhanced acute cardiovascular-respiratory mortality effects of PM2.5 in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Ma, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Canjun; Shang, Yu

    2015-12-01

    Studies have shown that temperature could modify the effect of ambient fine particles on mortality risk. In assessing air pollution effects, temperature is usually considered as a confounder. However, ambient temperature can alter people's physiological response to air pollution and might "modify" the impact of air pollution on health outcomes. This study investigated the interaction between daily PM2.5 and daily mean temperature in Beijing, China, using data for the period 2005-2009. Bivariate PM2.5-temperature response surfaces and temperature-stratified generalized additive model (GAM) were applied to study the effect of PM2.5 on cardiovascular, respiratory mortality, and total non-accidental mortality across different temperature levels. We found that low temperature could significantly enhance the effect of PM2.5 on cardiovascular mortality. For an increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 concentration in the lowest temperature range (-9.7˜2.6 °C), the relative risk (RR) of cardiovascular mortality increased 1.27 % (95 % CI 0.38˜2.17 %), which was higher than that of the whole temperature range (0.59 %, 95 % CI 0.22-1.16 %). The largest effect of PM2.5 on respiratory mortality appeared in the high temperature range. For an increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 concentration, RR of respiratory mortality increased 1.70 % (95 % CI 0.92˜3.33 %) in the highest level (23.50˜31.80 °C). For the total non-accidental mortality, significant associations appeared only in low temperature levels (-9.7˜2.6 °C): for an increase of 10 μg/m3 in current day PM2.5 concentration, RR increased 1.27 % (95 % CI 0.46˜2.00 %) in the lowest temperature level. No lag effect was observed. The results suggest that in air pollution mortality time series studies, the possibility of an interaction between air pollution and temperature should be considered.

  17. Reduced mass absorption cross section of black carbon under an extremely polluted condition in southern suburb of Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Hua, Y.; Jiang, J.; Zhao, B.; Xing, J.; Jiang, S.; Cai, R.; Hao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC), as one of the most important climate-warming agent, has been the focus of extensive studies in recent years. Mass absorption cross section (MAC) is a key parameter to assess the radiative forcing by linking the mass concentration with the radiation effect. In this study, we conducted a two-month field campaign in Beijing, the capital city of China, in a October and November, a period that severe PM2.5 pollution occurred. PM2.5 offline samples were collected daily onto quartz fiber filters by a Partisol 2300 Speciation Sampler. Size-segregated aerosol samples of the size ranged from 0.056 - 10 µm with 11 bins were collected onto quartz fiber filters by a cascade impactor developed by National Chiao Tung University (NCTU). A DRI Model 2001 thermal/optical carbon analyzer were used to analyze the samples. The MAC of BC is measured by a thermal-optical carbon analyzer. In contrast to previous studies, we found that after "shadow effect" has been corrected, the MAC is reduced from 14 m2/g to 5 m2/g with the increase of BC concentrations. There was no significant correlation between MAC with secondary inorganic aerosols. Such unexpected reduction in MAC of BC is possibly associated with the microphysical property of BC modulated under serious pollution condition. The study of size-segregated species concentrations shows that the size distribution of BC is unimodal, with the peak around 0.56-1.8 µm. The results also show the proportion of BC larger than 0.56 µm is significant increased. Additionally, "soot superaggregate", as distinct from conventional sub-micron aggregates, was found in the bins of BC with size ranged from 1 to1.8 µm. Such high carbon aerosol proportion and large BC size distribution suggests that emissions from residential biomass burning is dominant during this episode. This study suggests that the optical property for BC from different emission sectors should be considered in the estimation of radiative forcing.

  18. Succession, Development and Innovation of the Master Plan of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正> The Master Plan of Beijing (2004 - 2020),approved in January 2005 by the State Council, is an important strategic, holistic and comprehensive plan for Beijing to face the new century, to realize the stra-tegic proposition of"New Beijing, Great Olympics", and to fully push forward the harmonious and sustainable development of economy, society, population, resources and environment.

  19. Spatial Database of Geological Survey Extent in 20th Century in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Quanming; Ye Tianzhu; Fang Yiping; Chen Jianguo; Li Shuyu; Zhang Daquan

    2003-01-01

    During the whole 20th century in China, especially the latest 50 years, we have gotten much geological information about geological mapping, geophysics, geochemistry, mineral exploration,remote sensing, environmental geology, hydrogeoiogy, engineering geology and oceanic geology etc. by our geologists and explorers. All the information has been accumulated and can be used as a decisionmaking foundation for the future plan of geological survey. The spatial database of geological survey extents has been established by using computer technology. The database contained all kinds of exploration sections and collected about 160 000 records in this database. This paper introduces the data construction, contents and applying system of this database, and trys to let people know what kinds of geological survey were finished, when the exploration were carried out, and how and where you can get this information.

  20. Long-term real-time measurements of aerosol particle composition in Beijing, China: seasonal variations, meteorological effects, and source analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High concentrations of fine particles (PM2.5 are frequently observed during all seasons in Beijing, China, leading to severe air pollution and human health problems in this megacity. In this study, we conducted real-time measurements of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1 species (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, chloride, and organics in Beijing using an Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor for 1 year, from July 2011 to June 2012. This is the first long-term, highly time-resolved (~ 15 min measurement of fine particle composition in China. The seasonal average (± 1σ mass concentration of NR-PM1 ranged from 52 (± 49 μg m−3 in the spring season to 62 (± 49 μg m−3 in the summer season, with organics being the major fraction (40–51%, followed by nitrate (17–25% and sulfate (12–17%. Organics and chloride showed pronounced seasonal variations, with much higher concentrations in winter than in the other seasons, due to enhanced coal combustion emissions. Although the seasonal variations of secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA = sulfate + nitrate + ammonium concentrations were not significant, higher contributions of SIA were observed in summer (57–61% than in winter (43–46%, indicating that secondary aerosol production is a more important process than primary emissions in summer. Organics presented pronounced diurnal cycles that were similar among all seasons, whereas the diurnal variations of nitrate were mainly due to the competition between photochemical production and gas–particle partitioning. Our data also indicate that high concentrations of NR-PM1 (> 60 μg m−3 are usually associated with high ambient relative humidity (RH (> 50% and that severe particulate pollution is characterized by different aerosol composition in different seasons. All NR-PM1 species showed evident concentration gradients as a function of wind direction, generally with higher values associated with wind from the south, southeast or east. This

  1. Long-term real-time measurements of aerosol particle composition in Beijing, China: seasonal variations, meteorological effects, and source analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y. L.; Wang, Z. F.; Du, W.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, Q. Q.; Fu, P. Q.; Pan, X. L.; Li, J.; Jayne, J.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-09-01

    High concentrations of fine particles (PM2.5) are frequently observed during all seasons in Beijing, China, leading to severe air pollution and human health problems in this megacity. In this study, we conducted real-time measurements of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) species (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, chloride, and organics) in Beijing using an Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor for 1 year, from July 2011 to June 2012. This is the first long-term, highly time-resolved (~ 15 min) measurement of fine particle composition in China. The seasonal average (±1σ) mass concentration of NR-PM1 ranged from 52 (±49) μg m-3 in the spring season to 62 (±49) μg m-3 in the summer season, with organics being the major fraction (40-51 %), followed by nitrate (17-25 %) and sulfate (12-17 %). Organics and chloride showed pronounced seasonal variations, with much higher concentrations in winter than in the other seasons, due to enhanced coal combustion emissions. Although the seasonal variations of secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA, i.e., sulfate + nitrate + ammonium) concentrations were not significant, higher contributions of SIA were observed in summer (57-61 %) than in winter (43-46 %), indicating that secondary aerosol production is a more important process than primary emissions in summer. Organics presented pronounced diurnal cycles that were similar among all seasons, whereas the diurnal variations of nitrate were mainly due to the competition between photochemical production and gas-particle partitioning. Our data also indicate that high concentrations of NR-PM1 (> 60 μg m-3) are usually associated with high ambient relative humidity (RH) (> 50 %) and that severe particulate pollution is characterized by different aerosol composition in different seasons. All NR-PM1 species showed evident concentration gradients as a function of wind direction, generally with higher values associated with wind from the south, southeast or east. This was consistent

  2. “The Olympic Torch Burns, and Great Suspicion Blazes” – China Narratives in the German Media during the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing 2008 „Das olympische Feuer brennt. Und mit ihm lodert das Misstrauen“ – Die Chinaberichterstattung während der Olympischen Sommerspiele in Beijing 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Poerner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the description of China in leading German daily and weekly newspapers during the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. On the basis of a brief outline of the main China narratives in German media since the 1950s, this paper analyses China-related articles which were published during the period August 8-15, 2008. It argues that reports on China are mostly based on well established German notions of China and centre around the image of a despotic and/or dangerous China. Therefore, they primarily refer back to the source culture and contain little information of value regarding the target culture. Der Autor untersucht die China-Darstellung in führenden deutschen Tages- und Wochenzeitungen während der Sommer-Olympiade 2008 in Peking.

  3. Beijing Tsinghua Solar Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing Tsinghua Solar Ltd. is backed by Tsinghua University, one of the most prestigious universities in China. Tsinghua Solar invented "graded Al-N/Al selective coating," which is the key technology of all-glass evacuated solar collector tubes. The company owns the independent intellectual property rights over the key technology of all-glass vacuum solar water heaters. The registered capital of the company is 153.5 mil-

  4. International Order in the 21st Century and China's Foreign Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Liru; Fu Mengzi; Yuan Peng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Dramatic changes have occurred in the post-Cold War world strategic configuration and international order with their replacements burgeoning. This confronts nations, big powers in particular, with new strategic choices. Indeed unfolding before us is a contention among them for seizing the initiative in the emerging international landscape in the 21st century.Thus how to correctly assess and respond to these changes for pursuing a reasonable strategy and selecting a right policy option is not only a matter of primary concern for the academic community, but also a major foreign policy task before a rapidly growing China. For this, a symposium on this theme was recently sponsored by the Editorial Department of Contemporary International Relations to solicit from a dozen or so Beijingbased well-known scholars and experts for their views on and policy suggestions for such issues as the current overall strategic picture, global configuration, trends of the international order and the strategic environment facing China. Excerpts of their major views are as follows.

  5. The impact of transportation control measures on emission reductions during the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Wu, Ye; Yang, Liu; Fu, Lixin; He, Kebin; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming; Chen, Jinchuan; Li, Chunyan

    2010-01-01

    Traffic congestion and air pollution were two major challenges for the planners of the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing. The Beijing municipal government implemented a package of temporary transportation control measures during the event. In this paper, we report the results of a recent research project that investigated the effects of these measures on urban motor vehicle emissions in Beijing. Bottom-up methodology has been used to develop grid-based emission inventories with micro-scale vehicle activities and speed-dependent emission factors. The urban traffic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM 10) during the 2008 Olympics were reduced by 55.5%, 56.8%, 45.7% and 51.6%, respectively, as compared to the grid-based emission inventory before the Olympics. Emission intensity was derived from curbside air quality monitoring at the North 4th Ring Road site, located about 7 km from the National Stadium. Comparison between the emission intensity before and during the 2008 Olympics shows a reduction of 44.5% and 49.0% in daily CO and NO x emission from motor vehicles. The results suggest that reasonable traffic system improvement strategies along with vehicle technology improvements can contribute to controlling total motor vehicle emissions in Beijing after the Olympic Games.

  6. Strive to Be a Powerhouse in China's S&T Development——2010 Annual Meeting of CAS in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The 2010 annual conference of CAS opened on January 25 in Beijing.The three-day meeting reviewed the work of CAS over the past year and made arrangements for its tasks in the year ahead,with a focus on planning for the 12th five-year period (2011-2015) and the initiation of Innovation 2020 on a trial basis.

  7. Variation in surface air temperature of China during the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, Willie; Dutta, Koushik; Legates, David R.; Velasco, Victor; Zhang, Weijia

    2011-10-01

    The 20th century surface air temperature (SAT) records of China from various sources are analyzed using data which include the recently released Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project dataset. Two key features of the Chinese records are confirmed: (1) significant 1920s and 1940s warming in the temperature records, and (2) evidence for a persistent multidecadal modulation of the Chinese surface temperature records in co-variations with both incoming solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere as well as the modulated solar radiation reaching ground surface. New evidence is presented for this Sun-climate link for the instrumental record from 1880 to 2002. Additionally, two non-local physical aspects of solar radiation-induced modulation of the Chinese SAT record are documented and discussed.Teleconnections that provide a persistent and systematic modulation of the temperature response of the Tibetan Plateau and/or the tropospheric air column above the Eurasian continent (e.g., 30°N-70°N; 0°-120°E) are described. These teleconnections may originate from the solar irradiance-Arctic-North Atlantic overturning circulation mechanism proposed by Soon (2009). Also considered is the modulation of large-scale land-sea thermal contrasts both in terms of meridional and zonal gradients between the subtropical western Pacific and mid-latitude North Pacific and the continental landmass of China. The Circum-global teleconnection (CGT) pattern of summer circulation of Ding and Wang (2005) provides a physical framework for study of the Sun-climate connection over East Asia. Our results highlight the importance of solar radiation reaching the ground and the concomitant importance of changes in atmospheric transparency or cloudiness or both in motivating a true physical explanation of any Sun-climate connection. We conclude that ground surface solar radiation is an important modulating factor for Chinese SAT changes on multidecadal to centennial timescales. Therefore, a

  8. Radiocarbon-derived source apportionment of fine carbonaceous aerosols before, during, and after the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junwen; Mo, Yangzhi; Li, Jun; Liu, Di; Shen, Chengde; Ding, Ping; Jiang, Haoyu; Cheng, Zhineng; Zhang, Xiangyun; Tian, Chongguo; Chen, Yingjun; Zhang, Gan

    2016-04-01

    The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit took place in Beijing, China, 5-11 November 2014, during which numerous measures were performed to control the air pollution, and consequently, the sky of Beijing was so clean that the public called it "APEC blue." The concentrations before, during, and after the APEC summit are 14.4 ± 6.81 µg C/m3, 6.66 ± 2.99 µg C/m3, and 32.3 ± 10.6 µg C/m3, respectively, for organic carbon (OC), and 2.27 ± 1.17 µg C/m3, 0.76 ± 0.52 µg C/m3, and 4.99 ± 1.74 µg C/m3, respectively, for elemental carbon (EC). We quantify the contributions of fossil and nonfossil sources to the OC and EC using radiocarbon. Results show that the contribution of nonfossil sources is 56 ± 1% (before APEC), 61 ± 1% (during APEC), and 48 ± 1% (after APEC), respectively, for OC, and 36 ± 4% (before APEC), 46 ± 1% (during APEC), and 33 ± 4% (after APEC), respectively, for EC. Comparing to the period before APEC, 70% and 60% of fossil EC and OC and 60% and 50% of nonfossil EC and OC are reduced, respectively, implying that the control on the nonfossil sources has considerable contribution to the good air quality in Beijing. Both EC and OC mass loadings during the APEC summit would have increased by 60% if the biomass-burning activities were not taken into account for control. In such a case, the atmospheric visibility would decrease 20% at least and the blue sky thereby would likely not have been visible during the summit.

  9. Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of primary air pollutants emissions from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yifeng; Tian, Hezhong; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhen; Wang, Junling; Nie, Lei; Pan, Tao; Zhou, Junrui; Hua, Shenbing; Wang, Yong; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2016-06-01

    Coal-fired combustion is recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of atmospheric compounds in Beijing, causing heavy air pollution events and associated deterioration in visibility. Obtaining an accurate understanding of the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of emissions from coal-fired industrial combustion is essential for predicting air quality changes and evaluating the effectiveness of current control measures. In this study, an integrated emission inventory of primary air pollutants emitted from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing is developed for the period of 2007-2013 using a technology-based approach. Future emission trends are projected through 2030 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. Our analysis shows that there is a general downward trend in primary air pollutants emissions because of the implementation of stricter local emission standards and the promotion by the Beijing municipal government of converting from coal-fired industrial boilers to gas-fired boilers. However, the ratio of coal consumed by industrial boilers to total coal consumption has been increasing, raising concerns about the further improvement of air quality in Beijing. Our estimates indicate that the total emissions of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, CO and VOCs from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing in 2013 are approximately 19,242 t, 13,345 t, 26,615 t, 22,965 t, 63,779 t and 1406 t, respectively. Under the current environmental policies and relevant energy savings and emission control plans, it may be possible to reduce NOx and other air pollutant emissions by 94% and 90% by 2030, respectively, if advanced flue gas purification technologies are implemented and coal is replaced with natural gas in the majority of existing boilers. PMID:27023281

  10. Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of primary air pollutants emissions from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yifeng; Tian, Hezhong; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhen; Wang, Junling; Nie, Lei; Pan, Tao; Zhou, Junrui; Hua, Shenbing; Wang, Yong; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2016-06-01

    Coal-fired combustion is recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of atmospheric compounds in Beijing, causing heavy air pollution events and associated deterioration in visibility. Obtaining an accurate understanding of the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of emissions from coal-fired industrial combustion is essential for predicting air quality changes and evaluating the effectiveness of current control measures. In this study, an integrated emission inventory of primary air pollutants emitted from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing is developed for the period of 2007-2013 using a technology-based approach. Future emission trends are projected through 2030 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. Our analysis shows that there is a general downward trend in primary air pollutants emissions because of the implementation of stricter local emission standards and the promotion by the Beijing municipal government of converting from coal-fired industrial boilers to gas-fired boilers. However, the ratio of coal consumed by industrial boilers to total coal consumption has been increasing, raising concerns about the further improvement of air quality in Beijing. Our estimates indicate that the total emissions of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, CO and VOCs from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing in 2013 are approximately 19,242 t, 13,345 t, 26,615 t, 22,965 t, 63,779 t and 1406 t, respectively. Under the current environmental policies and relevant energy savings and emission control plans, it may be possible to reduce NOx and other air pollutant emissions by 94% and 90% by 2030, respectively, if advanced flue gas purification technologies are implemented and coal is replaced with natural gas in the majority of existing boilers.

  11. An empirical research on the influencing factors of regional CO2 emissions: Evidence from Beijing city, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We adapt STIRPAT model to regional context and conduct PLS regress analysis. ► Energy technology related patent is innovatively used to measure technical factors. ► Urbanization level has the greatest interpretative ability for CO2 emissions. ► We do not find evidence of Environmental Kuznets Curve in Beijing. ► Beijing should focus more on tertiary industry and residential energy consumption. -- Abstract: In order to further study the realization of carbon intensity target, find the key influencing factors of CO2 emissions, and explore the path of developing low-carbon economy, this paper empirically studied the influences of urbanization level, economic level, industry proportion, tertiary industry proportion, energy intensity and R and D output on CO2 emissions in Beijing using improved STIRPAT (stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology) model. The model is examined using partial least square regression. Results show that urbanization level, economic level and industry proportion positively influence the CO2 emissions, while tertiary industry proportion, energy intensity and R and D output negatively do. Urbanization level is the main driving factor of CO2 emissions, and tertiary industry proportion is the main inhibiting factor. In addition, along with the growth of per capita GDP, the increase of CO2 emissions does not follow the Environmental Kuznets Curve model. Based on these empirical findings and the specific circumstances of Beijing, we provide some policy recommendations on how to reduce carbon intensity. Beijing should pay more attention to tertiary industry and residential energy consumption for carbon emission reduction. It is necessary to establish a comprehensive evaluation index of social development. Investing more capital on carbon emission reduction science and technology, and promoting R and D output is also an efficient way to reduce CO2 emissions.

  12. Determination of selected pharmaceuticals in tap water and drinking water treatment plant by high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mei-Quan; Wang, Rong; Feng, Li; Zhang, Li-Qiu

    2015-02-01

    A simultaneous determination method of 14 multi-class pharmaceuticals using solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS/MS) was established to measure the occurrence and distribution of these pharmaceuticals in tap water and a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) in Beijing, China. Target compounds included seven anti-inflammatory drugs, two antibacterial drugs, two lipid regulation drugs, one antiepileptic drug, and one hormone. Limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantitation (LOQs) ranged from 0.01 to 1.80 ng/L and 0.05 to 3.00 ng/L, respectively. Intraday and inter-day precisions, recoveries of different matrices, and matrix effects were also investigated. Of the 14 pharmaceutical compounds selected, nine were identified in tap water of Beijing downtown with the concentration up to 38.24 ng/L (carbamazepine), and the concentration levels of detected pharmaceuticals in tap water (bezafibrate. Ibuprofen was found to be the highest concentration pharmaceutical during DWTP, up to 53.30 ng/L. DWTP shows a positive effect on the removal of most pharmaceuticals with 81.2-99.5 % removal efficiencies, followed by carbamazepine with 55.4 % removal efficiency, but it has no effect for removing ibuprofen and bezafibrate. PMID:25196960

  13. Dietary and inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and urinary excretion of monohydroxy metabolites – A controlled case study in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily dietary and inhalation exposures to 16 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and urinary excretion of 13 monohydroxy metabolites (OHPAHs) were monitored for 12 non-smoking university students in Beijing, China, during a controlled feeding experiment. The relationship between the urinary excretion of OHPAHs and the uptake of PAHs was investigated. The results suggest severe exposure of the subjects to PAHs via both dietary and inhalation pathways. Large increase of most urinary OHPAHs occurred after the ingestion of lamb kabob. Higher concentrations of OHPAHs were observed for female subjects, with the intakes of parent PAHs lower than those by males, likely due to the gender differences in metabolism. It appears that besides 1-PYR, metabolites of PHE could also be used as biomarkers to indicate the short-term dietary exposure to PAHs and urinary 3-BaA may serve as the biomarker for inhalation intake of high molecular weight PAHs. Highlights: • The dependence of urinary OHPAHs on PAH intake was explored. • Consumption of lamb kabob resulted in large increase of most urinary OHPAHs. • Gender differences in PAH metabolism was observed. • Urinary metabolites of PHE and PYR can be used as biomarkers for dietary PAH intake. • Urinary 3-BaA may serve as the indicator for the inhalation exposure to BaPeq. -- Severe exposure to PAHs via dietary and inhalation pathways indicated by the intake of parent PAHs as well as the urinary excretion of OHPAHs, was observed for students in Beijing

  14. Genetic characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus strains in Beijing, China and innate immune responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in persistently infected dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiao Gang; Song, Quan Jiang; Wu, Qiong; Liu, Ming Chao; Wang, Meng Ling; Wang, Jiu Feng

    2015-01-01

    To acquire epidemiological data on the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and identify cattle persistently infected (PI) with this virus, 4,327 samples from Holstein dairy cows were screened over a four-year period in Beijing, China. Eighteen BVD viruses were isolated, 12 from PI cattle. Based on genetic analysis of their 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), the 18 isolates were assigned to subgenotype BVDV-1m, 1a, 1d, 1q, and 1b. To investigate the innate immune responses in the peripheral-blood mononuclear cells of PI cattle, the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors, interferon-α (IFN-α), IFN-β, myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 1 (MX1), and interferon stimulatory gene 15 (ISG15) was assessed by qPCR. When compared with healthy cattle, the expression of TLR-7, IFN-α, and IFN-β mRNA was downregulated, but the expression of MX1 and ISG-15 mRNA was upregulated in PI cattle. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that the expression of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) and IRF-7 was lower in PI cattle than in healthy cattle. Thus, BVDV-1m and 1a are the predominant subgenotypes in the Beijing region, and the strains are highly divergent. Our findings also suggest that the TLR-7/IRF-7 signaling pathway plays a role in evasion of host restriction by BVDV.

  15. Self-Adaptive Revised Land Use Regression Models for Estimating PM2.5 Concentrations in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujin Hu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Heavy air pollution, especially fine particulate matter (PM2.5, poses serious challenges to environmental sustainability in Beijing. Epidemiological studies and the identification of measures for preventing serious air pollution both require accurate PM2.5 spatial distribution data. Land use regression (LUR models are promising for estimating the spatial distribution of PM2.5 at a high spatial resolution. However, typical LUR models have a limited sampling point explanation rate (SPER, i.e., the rate of the sampling points with reasonable predicted concentrations to the total number of sampling points and accuracy. Hence, self-adaptive revised LUR models are proposed in this paper for improving the SPER and accuracy of typical LUR models. The self-adaptive revised LUR model combines a typical LUR model with self-adaptive LUR model groups. The typical LUR model was used to estimate the PM2.5 concentrations, and the self-adaptive LUR model groups were constructed for all of the sampling points removed from the typical LUR model because they were beyond the prediction data range, which was from 60% of the minimum observation to 120% of the maximum observation. The final results were analyzed using three methods, including an accuracy analysis, and were compared with typical LUR model results and the spatial variations in Beijing. The accuracy satisfied the demands of the analysis, and the accuracies at the different monitoring sites indicated spatial variations in the accuracy of the self-adaptive revised LUR model. The accuracy was high in the central area and low in suburban areas. The comparison analysis showed that the self-adaptive LUR model increased the SPER from 75% to 90% and increased the accuracy (based on the root-mean-square error from 20.643 μg/m3 to 17.443 μg/m3 for the PM2.5 concentrations during the winter of 2014 in Beijing. The spatial variation analysis for Beijing showed that the PM2.5 concentrations were low in the north

  16. Will joint regional air pollution control be more cost-effective? An empirical study of China's Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Xu, Yuan; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2015-02-01

    By following an empirical approach, this study proves that joint regional air pollution control (JRAPC) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region will save the expense on air pollution control compared with a locally-based pollution control strategy. The evidences below were found. (A) Local pollutant concentration in some of the cities is significantly affected by emissions from their surrounding areas. (B) There is heterogeneity in the marginal pollutant concentration reduction cost among various districts as a result of the cities' varying contribution of unit emission reduction to the pollutant concentration reduction, and their diverse unit cost of emission reduction brought about by their different industry composition. The results imply that the cost-efficiency of air pollution control will be improved in China if the conventional locally based regime of air pollution control can shift to a regionally based one.

  17. Radioactive waste management practices and issues in developing countries. Proceedings of a seminar held in Beijing, China, 10-14 October 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is generated from the production of nuclear energy and from the use of radioactive materials in industrial applications, research and medicine. The importance of safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. While this programme is developing and various related Safety Series publications are becoming available, it is important to compare the existing national waste management regulations, organization, technologies and methods with internationally accepted requirements and practices. In response to the growing interest in this area, the IAEA, in co-operation with the Government of the People's Republic of China, held a Seminar on Radioactive Waste Management Practices and Issues in Developing Countries at Beijing from 10 to 14 October 1994. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Early Birds, Night Owls,and Tireless/Recurring Itinerants: An Exploratory Analysis of Extreme Transit Behaviors in Beijing, China

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Ying; Zhou, Jiangping; Chai, Yanwei

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to understand extreme public transit riders in Beijing using both traditional household survey and emerging new data sources such as Smart Card Data (SCD). We focus on four types of extreme transit behaviors: public transit riders who (1) travel significantly earlier than average riders (the 'early birds'); (2) ride in unusual late hours (the 'night owls'); and (3) commute in excessively long distance (the 'tireless itinerants'); (4) travel over frequently in a day (the 'recurring itinerants). SCD are used to identify the spatiotemporal patterns of these three extreme transit behaviors. In addition, household survey data are employed to supplement the socioeconomic background and provide a tentative profiling of extreme travelers. While the research findings are useful to guide urban governance and planning in Beijing, the methods developed in this paper can be applied to understand travel patterns elsewhere.

  19. CRF01_AE/B/C, a Novel Drug-Resistant HIV-1 Recombinant in Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Xin, Ruolei; Li, Zheng; Feng, Yi; Lu, Hongyan; Liao, Lingjie; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming; Xing, Hui

    2015-07-01

    We report a unique HIV-1 recombinant strain (URF) from an HIV-positive man who has sex with men (MSM) in Beijing, China. This virus genome has insertions and multiple drug-resistant mutations to both nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), as well as a complex intersubtype recombinant structure with 11 breakpoints. Phylogenetic analysis of the near full-length genome (NFLG) shows that this URF is comprised of gene regions originating from three circulating viral strains: CRF01_AE, subtype B, and subtype C. The parental CRF01_AE regions of the recombinant cluster with a previously described cluster 4 sublineage of CRF01_AE. The B regions of the recombinant cluster within the B (United States-European origin) subtype and the three subtype C regions cluster with a strain detected in China in 1998. The detection and characterization of this complex drug-resistant URF indicate an ongoing generation of recombinant strains among MSM, and will help to provide insight into our understanding of the dynamics and complexity of the HIV-1 epidemic in China. PMID:25962473

  20. The spatial and seasonal variability of the groundwater chemistry and quality in the exploited aquifer in the Daxing District, Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yuanzheng; Lei, Yan; Zhou, Jun; Li, Muzi; Wang, Jinsheng; Teng, Yanguo

    2015-02-01

    The aquifer in the Beijing Plain is intensively used as a primary source to meet the growing needs of the various sectors (drinking, agricultural, and industrial purposes). The analysis of groundwater chemical characteristics provides much important information useful in water resources management. To characterize the groundwater chemistry, reveal its spatial and seasonal variability, and determine its quality suitability for domestic and agricultural uses, a total of 200 groundwater samples were collected in June and October 2012 from 100 exploited wells in Daxing District, Beijing, China. All of the indices (39 items) listed in the Quality Standard for Groundwater of China (QSGC) as well as eight additional common parameters were tested and analyzed for all samples, based on which research target was achieved. The seasonal effect on the groundwater chemistry and quality was very slight, whereas the spatial changes were very obvious. The aquifer is mainly dominated by HCO3-Ca·Mg-type water. Of the 39 quality indices listed in QSGC, 28 indices of all of the samples for the 2 months can be classified into the excellent level, whereas the remaining 11 indices can be classified into different levels with the total hardness, NO3, NO2, and Fe being the worst, mainly distributed in the residential and industrial land. According to the general quality index, the groundwater can be classified from good to a relatively poor level, mainly from southeast to northwest. Furthermore, the relatively poor-level area in the northwest expands to the southeast more than in the past years, to which people should pay attention because this reverse spatial distribution relative to the natural law indicates an obvious, anthropogenic impact on the groundwater. In addition, the groundwater in this area is generally very suitable for irrigation year-round. Nevertheless, we recommend performing agricultural water-saving measures for the sustainable development of water and urbanization

  1. The economic benefits of rainwater-runoff reduction by urban green spaces: a case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Biao; Xie, Gaodi; Zhang, Canqiang; Zhang, Jing

    2012-06-15

    Urbanization involves the replacement of vegetated surfaces with impervious built surfaces, and it often results in an increase in the rate and volume of rainwater surface runoff. Urban green spaces play a positive role in rainwater-runoff reduction. However, few studies have explored the benefits of rainwater-runoff reduction by urban green spaces. Based on inventory data of urban green spaces in Beijing, the paper evaluated the economic benefits of rainwater-runoff reduction by urban green spaces, using the rainwater-runoff-coefficient method as well as the economic valuation methods. The results showed that, 2494 cubic meters of potential runoff was reduced per hectare of green area and a total volume of 154 million cubic meters rainwater was stored in these urban green spaces, which almost corresponds to the annual water needs of the urban ecological landscape in Beijing. The total economic benefit was 1.34 billion RMB in 2009 (RMB: Chinese currency, US$1=RMB6.83), which is equivalent to three-quarters of the maintenance cost of Beijing's green spaces; the value of rainwater-runoff reduction was 21.77 thousand RMB per hectare. In addition, the benefits in different districts and counties were ranked in the same order as urban green areas, and the average benefits per hectare of green space showed different trends, which may be related to the impervious surface index in different regions. This research will contribute to an understanding of the role that Beijing's green spaces play in rainwater regulation and in the creation and scientific management of urban green spaces. PMID:22366359

  2. Theoretical Investigation of the Performance of a Novel Loop Heat Pipe Solar Water Heating System for Use in Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO, Xudong; Wang, Zhangyuan; Tang, Qi

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A novel loop heat pipe (LHP) solar water heating system for typical apartment buildings in Beijing was designed to enable effective collection of solar heat, distance transport, and efficient conversion of solar heat into hot water. Taking consideration of the heat balances occurring in various parts of the loop, such as the solar absorber, heat pipe loop, heat exchanger and storage tank, a computer model was developed to investigate the thermal performance of the system. ...

  3. Creative Design Fulfills Brand and Fashion China Fashion Week A/W 2010-2011 Collection held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ March is a right party time for friends to get together to enjoy the smell of early spring.Moreover,people would like to take off the thick winter coat to showcase their colorful attitude towards the warm spring sunshine.Here,an annual fashion feast in Beijing not only could provide you a visual inspiration of trend,but also would tell you what's the most"in"factors in the coming season.

  4. Creative Design Fulfills Brand and Fashion China Fashion Week A/W 2010-2011 Collection held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    March is a right party time for friends to get together to enjoy the smell of early spring. Moreover, people would like to take off the thick winter coat to showcase their colorful attitude towards the warm spring sunshine. Here, an annual fashion feast in Beijing not only could provide you a visual inspiration of trend, but also would tell you what’s the most "in" factors in the coming season.

  5. Hydraulic model for multi-sources reclaimed water pipe network based on EPANET and its applications in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haifeng JIA; Wei WEI; Kunlun XIN

    2008-01-01

    Water shortage is one of the major water related problems for many cities in the world. The planning for utilization of reclaimed water has been or would be drafted in these cities. For using the reclaimed water soundly, Beijing planned to build a large scale reclaimed water pipe networks with multi-sources. In order to support the plan, the integrated hydraulic model of planning pipe network was developed based on EPANET supported by geographic information system (GIS). The complicated pipe network was divided into four weak conjunction subzones according to the distribution of reclaimed water plants and the elevation. It could provide a better solution for the problem of overhigh pressure in several regions of the network. Through the scenarios analy-sis in different subzones, some of the initial diameter of pipes in the network was adjusted. At last the pipe network planning scheme of reclaimed water was proposed. The proposed planning scheme could reach the balances between reclaimed water requirements and reclaimed water supplies, and provided a scientific basis for the reclaimed water utilization in Beijing. Now the scheme had been adopted by Beijing municipal government.

  6. Asian Employment Forum Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ From August 13 through 15,2007,the Asian Employment Forum sponsored by the International Labor Organization (ILO) and hosted by the Ministry of Labor and Social Security of China was held in Beijing.

  7. Seroprevalence of antibody against human bocavirus in Beijing, China%北京地区人群中人Boca病毒血清抗体的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵林清; 钱渊; 朱汝南; 邓洁; 王芳; 董慧瑾

    2008-01-01

    Objective To find out the importance of human bocavirus (HBoV) as an infectious agent for population in Beijing, China. Seroprevalence study was conducted by using expressed recombinant major capsid VP2 protein as an antigen.Methods Serum specimens collected from infants and children who visited the Children's Hospital Affiliated to the Capital Institute of Pediatrics for health check-up and adults visiting the Xuanwu Hospital, Beijing for diseases other than respiratory infections from April 1996 to March 1997 were used for the investigation. The major capsid protein VP2 from HBoV was expressed in E. coli strain BL21 (DE3) with the transformed PET30b vector inserted with full-length VP2 gene of HBoV and the specific antigenicity of this expressed protein was validated by previous study. Western blotting was used to detect specific IgG antibody against HBoV in collected serum specimens diluted to 1:200. Mock expressed protein was E. coli cells strain BL21 (DE3) with the transformed PET30b vector without insert. Anti-His monoclonal antibody and rabbit anti-HBoV VP2 polypeptides hyper-immune serum were used as positive control for antibody detection.Results Out of 677 serum specimens tested, 400 (59.1% ) were positive for HBoV by Western blotting. About 45.3% (34/75) of the newborns under 1 month of age had anti-HBoV antibodies, and antibody positive rates were decreased in age groups of 1 and 2 months (41.4% and 31.3%, respectively) then increased in the following ages from 6 months to 7 years old ( from 45.6% to 69.7% ). The antibody positive rates were maintained at a relatively constant level ( about 70% ) in the age groups from 7 years to 40 years of age and became lower ( 61.8% - 62. 8% ) in those over 50 years.Conclusions The high seroprevalence of antibody against recombinant HBoV VP2 protein and early age antibody acquisition indicate that HBoV has been circulating in population of Beijing, China as early as in 1996 and most of children had been exposed to

  8. Space Law Conference 2004 Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    pace Law Conference 2004 Iointly organized by International Institute of Space Law (IISL) and China Institute of Space Law (CISL) was held in Beijing, China on 26427 April 2004. The purpose of this conference is to increase knowledge and expertise relating to space law in China and the

  9. Historical change of heavy metals in urban soils of Nanjing, China during the past 20 centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gan-Lin; Yang, Feng-Gen; Zhao, Yu-Guo; Zhao, Wen-Jun; Yang, Jin-Ling; Gong, Zi-Tong

    2005-08-01

    Two typical areas, including once commercial and residential quarters of Nanjing, China, were studied by investigating soil properties especially heavy metals of soils in various cultural layers formed in different Chinese Dynasties. The age of the soil profiles was dated by both archaeological and 14C chronological methods. The results showed that urban soils in the old commercial/workshop quarter of Nanjing were generally contaminated by heavy metals Cu, Zn, Pb, but their concentration levels varied significantly among the cultural layers formed in different dynasties. The substantial increase of heavy metals appeared in three historical periods, i.e., South Dynasty (222-589 AD), the earlier Ming (1368-1644 AD) and the late Qing (1644-1912 AD) in one area. The tremendous input and storage of heavy metals in soils was explained by the primitive smelting and the strengthened metal processing activities, which might be due to the requirement of weapon making or other industries, in the changing social conditions of the corresponding periods. Soils in the once noble political, cultural centers did not show significant increase of heavy metals. The difference in the distribution pattern of heavy metals revealed the contrasting history of the site uses. The change of contaminant level in soils is believed to be a reflection of various human activities in the city during the past 20 centuries. PMID:15990171

  10. 萨特研究在中国%Sartre studies in China: From the new period to the new century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋学智; 许钧

    2007-01-01

    This essay,from four aspects of initiation study,author study,textual study and drama study,attempts to make a comprehensive,systematic and concise survey of the enormous research on Sartre and his existentialist literature done in China from the new period to the new century.Meanwhile,it also makes an objective analysis of the problems arising in the studying process,and offers constructive suggestions for future studies.

  11. Remembering Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ian Corbett

    2012-01-01

    Every General Assembly is remembered for something - in the past few years, Sydney for starting the International Year of Astronomy, Prague for Pluto, and Rio de Janeiro for the Strategic Plan. 1 thought that Beijing would be remembered for restructuring the Divisions and for the impressive progress we have made in implementing the Strategic Plan. But I was wrong! Above all, Beijing will be remembered for the unobtrusive but impeccable organization, the overwhelming generosity of our hosts, the smiling teams of volunteers, and the impressive CNCC.

  12. Developing skills for youth in the 21st century: The role of elite International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme schools in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ewan; Lee, Moosung

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing body of research suggesting that schools need to respond to changing social and economic dynamics by prioritising "21st-century skills". Proponents of this view, who have been termed "the 21st century skills movement", have called for greater emphasis on cognitive and non-cognitive skills development, alongside the learning of subject content and technical skills. This paper explores the potential of International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP) schools to respond to this mandate in China, one of the fastest-growing markets for International Baccalaureate® (IB) schools globally. The authors' research team undertook a multi-site case study of five elite IBDP schools in China. Their findings revealed confidence among interviewees that the IB educational philosophy was conducive to 21st-century skills development, especially through the provision of the three IBDP "Core Requirements", which are Creativity, Action, Service (CAS), Extended Essay (EE) and Theory of Knowledge (TOK). Despite this confidence, concerns remain about the implementation of the IB educational philosophy in the context of IBDP schools in China.

  13. ISPO BEIJING 2012- Growth Trend Continues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2012-01-01

    In the year of 2008, the Olympic Games were held in the city of Beijing for the first time in the country's history, marking the emergence of a new relationship between China and the sports industry, and resulting in a subsequent three years of fast developmenttowards an exciting sports business future. ISPO BEIJING 2012, which is scheduled to be held from February 22nd to 25th, 2012 at the China National Convention Center in Beijing, would once again offer the sports industrial fields a platform to seek their opportunities.

  14. Semi-volatile aerosols in Beijing (RP China): Characterization and influence on various PM2.5 measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During summer, the Beijing urban area meets contrasting meteorological conditions including warm and humid monsoon winds from the southeast bringing high levels of pollution, with PM2.5 mass concentrations often exceeding 100 μg/m3. The specific weather conditions and aerosol chemical composition observed at that time offer a unique opportunity to address the question of the contribution of semi-volatile material (SVM) in the continuous PM records available for the south East Asian urban regions. Different PM2.5 measurements were evaluated during a 3-week field campaign performed in Beijing downtown during the summer 2004, and consisting of a Rupprecht and Patashnik (R and P TEOM) (heating air sample at 50 degrees C), R and P TEOM-FDMS (enabling SVM measurement), optical GRIMM counter, and filter weighing. A good agreement was found between the different TEOM measurements during the campaign with the exception of the periods of high Relative Humidity (RH), which exhibited SVM levels (derived from PM2.5 loss in the TEOM heated at 50 degrees C) as high as 140 mu g/m(3). Continuous artefact-free PM2.5 nitrate measurements were performed simultaneously and showed a close relationship with the TEOM-derived SVM, accounting for half of this SVM. To better document the role of RH on SVM, estimates of liquid water content (LWC) in aerosols were derived from light scattering coefficient and integrated aerosol volume measurements performed in the field at different RH. LWC is shown to be related in a quantitative way to the levels of SVM and nitrate in aerosols, and thus is believed to play a major role in the gas-particle partitioning of semi-volatile species in Beijing aerosols. (authors)

  15. Nuclear energy in the 21st century. Address at Joint IAEA/CNNC seminar on 21st century nuclear energy development in China, 23 May 1997 Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The address discusses the following issues: the increasing demand for energy; the energy efficiency factor; the role of oil and gas; fossil fuels and environment; share of renewable in the future; evolution toward higher density energy sources; factors influencing the choice of the nuclear option; new generations of nuclear power plants; waste management; nuclear safety; strengthening safeguards; nuclear power and nuclear weapons

  16. Impacting Cultural Trends in Childcare and Older Adult Living Situations through Service Learning in Beijing, China Using An Interdisciplinary Design Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jeanneane Wood-Nartker

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased life expectancy and a low birth rate are accelerating a demographic shift in China. Many young people are leaving rural areas and moving to urban centers, while others are migrating out of the country to study or pursue careers. These changes are pushing China into an aging “boom” that is challenging smaller numbers of family members to provide care for an increasing number of older adults. In addition to family responses to the need for elder care, societal responses are emerging with regard to public care for older adults, as well as care solutions related to children. This international project sought to contribute to the development of insightful alternatives for families who are challenged to provide care for older adults and children, and are seeking high quality care situations through public avenues. To that end, a group of students were invited to engage in an interdisciplinary, immersive service-learning project to address these societal needs, which involved the design of a combined nursing home, adult day program, and child day care center to be located in Beijing. Students were able to: 1 participate in an interdisciplinary student project between interior designers from the U.S. and architectural students from Beijing that addressed the universal design needs of children and older adults, 2 immerse themselves in another culture while fostering a fresh model of civic engagement, 3 design using new cultural norms combined with historic elements such as Feng Shui and sustainability principles, and 4 see the impact of social and political/government policy on modern building practices. These outcomes were compared with the diverse experiences received by other CMU students throughout their university service-learning experiences to determine the impact on their education and their desire to participate in future service-learning activities. Before research was conducted, it was hypothesized that at least 75% of students

  17. Progress in China's climate change study in the 20th century%20世纪中国气候变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟盘茂; 巢清尘; 邹旭恺

    2004-01-01

    Studies on the 20th century climate change in China have revealed that under the background of global warming over the past century,climate in China has also experienced significant change with mean annual temperature increased by about 0.5 °C.More reliable results for the latter part of the 20th century indicate that the largest warming occurred in Northwest China,North China and Northeast China,and the warming in winter is most significant.Although no obvious increase or decrease trends were detected for mean precipitation over China in the past half century,regional differences are very distinct.In the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River,precipitation increased,while that in the Yellow River Basin markedly decreased.Studies suggest that climate change in China seems to be related not only with the internal factors such as ENSO,PDO,and the others,but also with the anthropogenic effects such as greenhouse gas emissions,and land use.The future climate change studies in China seem to be important in narrowing understanding the nature of China's climate change and its main causes,since it is significant for projection and for impact assessment of climate change in the future.

  18. Neon Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    One evening this spring, my friends and I were sitting in a small square near the finacial street, singing and dancing while awaiting the switching on of the neon lights. I recorded this exciting scene with my camera,simply'because it revealed the prosperity of Beijing and the energy of Chinese youth.

  19. BEIJING BOUND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Capital to one fifth of mankind and the fastest developing nation in history, Beijing is attracting a growing number of foreign residents drawn by interest and opportunity.The city is in thrall to incredibly rapid development that is altering its appearance and character.So what can the new arrivals expect?

  20. Farewell beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yuan

    2016-01-01

    For the lOth year in a row, Jiang Shaoxia made the 700 km journey back to Beijing from her hometown in central China'sHenan Province on February 13, right after the annual Spring Festival. But 2016 could mark the last year she makes the trek.

  1. Continua Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    From January 1 to March 30, 2008,Continua Beijing will host a solo exhibition of Italian contem- porary art master Michelangelo Pistoletto for the first time. Born in 1933,Michelangelo Pistoletto hehl his first solo exhi- hition in Dulin,Italy,and created a series of artworks named after painted objects.These artworks

  2. Hints of the early Jehol Biota: important dinosaur footprint assemblages from the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary Tuchengzi Formation in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lida; Zhang, Jianping; Lockley, Martin G; McCrea, Richard T; Klein, Hendrik; Alcalá, Luis; Buckley, Lisa G; Burns, Michael E; Kümmell, Susanna B; He, Qing

    2015-01-01

    New reports of dinosaur tracksites in the Tuchengzi Formation in the newly established Yanqing Global Geopark, Beijing, China, support previous inferences that the track assemblages from this formation are saurischian-dominated. More specifically, the assemblages appear theropod-dominated, with the majority of well-preserved tracks conforming to the Grallator type (sensus lato), thus representing relatively small trackmakers. Such ichnofaunas supplement the skeletal record from this unit that lacks theropods thus far, proving a larger diversity of dinosaur faunas in that region. Sauropods are represented by medium to large sized and narrow and wide-gauge groups, respectively. The latter correspond with earlier discoveries of titanosauriform skeletons in the same unit. Previous records of ornithischian tracks cannot be positively confirmed. Purported occurrences are re-evaluated here, the trackways and imprints, except of a single possible specimen, re-assigned to theropods. Palecologically the Tuchengzi ichnofauna is characteristic of semi-arid fluvio-lacustrine inland basins with Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous deposits in northern China that all show assemblages with abundant theropod and sauropod tracks and minor components of ornithopod, pterosaur and bird tracks.

  3. Hints of the early Jehol Biota: important dinosaur footprint assemblages from the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary Tuchengzi Formation in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Xing

    Full Text Available New reports of dinosaur tracksites in the Tuchengzi Formation in the newly established Yanqing Global Geopark, Beijing, China, support previous inferences that the track assemblages from this formation are saurischian-dominated. More specifically, the assemblages appear theropod-dominated, with the majority of well-preserved tracks conforming to the Grallator type (sensus lato, thus representing relatively small trackmakers. Such ichnofaunas supplement the skeletal record from this unit that lacks theropods thus far, proving a larger diversity of dinosaur faunas in that region. Sauropods are represented by medium to large sized and narrow and wide-gauge groups, respectively. The latter correspond with earlier discoveries of titanosauriform skeletons in the same unit. Previous records of ornithischian tracks cannot be positively confirmed. Purported occurrences are re-evaluated here, the trackways and imprints, except of a single possible specimen, re-assigned to theropods. Palecologically the Tuchengzi ichnofauna is characteristic of semi-arid fluvio-lacustrine inland basins with Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous deposits in northern China that all show assemblages with abundant theropod and sauropod tracks and minor components of ornithopod, pterosaur and bird tracks.

  4. Genomic characterization of two novel HIV-1 unique (CRF01_AE/B) recombinant forms among men who have sex with men in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Li, Jia; Feng, Yi; Kalish, Marcia L; Lu, Hongyan; Yin, Lu; Liao, Lingjie; Qian, Han-Zhu; Frost, Simon D W; Ruan, Yuhua; Vermund, Sten H; Shao, Yiming; Xing, Hui

    2015-09-01

    We report here two novel HIV-1 recombinant forms (CRF01_AE/B) isolated from two HIV-positive male subjects infected through homosexual contact in Beijing, China. Recombination contributes substantially to the genetic diversity of HIV-1, and is likely to occur in populations in which multiple subtypes circulate. Molecular epidemiological studies showed that subtype B, CRF01_AE, and CRF07_BC are currently cocirculating in parallel among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China, providing the opportunity for the emergence of new recombinants. Phylogenetic analysis of near full-length genome (NFLG) sequences showed that the unique recombinant forms (URFs) were composed of gene regions from CRF01_AE and subtype B. The CRF01_AE region of the recombinants clustered together with a previously described cluster 4 lineage of CRF01_AE. The B regions of both the recombinants clustered within the B strains. The two recombinants were quite similar with six breakpoints in common. These data highlight the importance of continuous surveillance of the dynamic change of HIV-1 subtypes and new recombinants among the MSM population. PMID:26058342

  5. Variations in dust event frequency over the past century reflected by ice-core and lacustrine records in north China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the variations of dust proxies in the Dunde, Malan and Chongce ice cores from the northern Tibetan Plateau and the Hongjiannao lacustrine sediment core from north Shaanxi Province, and found that they all showed a general decrease trend over the past century. Owing to the fact that all these ice cores and lacustrine core were retrieved from the margins and/or the leeward sides of the major areas of dust events in north China, their records could suggest that the dust event frequency in north China declined over the study period. This decrease trend might be attributed to increasing precipitation and weakening westerly. However, human activities have made the areal extent of desertification expand acceleratingly in north China. This status could make it possible that dust events would occur on a large spatial scale under the future climate change, which would be a big environmental issue we shall face.

  6. Serotypes, antibiotic susceptibilities, and multi-locus sequence type profiles of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates circulating in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    Full Text Available To investigate the serotypes, antibiotic susceptibilities, and multi-locus sequence type (MLST profiles of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae in Beijing to provide references for the prevention and treatment of S. agalactiae infections.All isolates were identified using the CAMP test and the latex-agglutination assay and serotyped using a Strep-B-Latex kit, after which they were assessed for antibiotic susceptibility, macrolide-resistance genes, and MLST profiles.In total, 56 S. agalactiae isolates were identified in 863 pregnant women (6.5%. Serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V were identified, among which types III (32.1%, Ia (17.9%, Ib (16.1%, and V (14.3% were the predominant serotypes. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin and ceftriaxone. The nonsusceptiblity rates measured for erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, telithromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, and levofloxacin were 85.7%, 92.9%, 98.2%, 30.4%, 73.2%, 91%, and 39.3%, respectively. We identified 14 sequence types (STs for the 56 isolates, among which ST19 (30.4% was predominant. The rate of fluoroquinolone resistance was higher in serotype III than in the other serotypes. Among the 44 erythromycin-resistant isolates, 32 (72.7% carried ermB.S. agalactiae isolates of the serotypes Ia, Ib, III, and V are common in Beijing. Among the S. agalactiae isolates, the macrolide and clindamycin resistance rates are extremely high. Most of the erythromycin-resistant isolates carry ermB.

  7. Lead and cadmium in leaves of deciduous trees in Beijing, China: Development of a metal accumulation index (MAI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yanju [Beijing Center for Physical and Chemical Analysis, Beijing 100089 (China) and Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)]. E-mail: liuyanju@hotmail.com; Zhu Yongguan [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Ding Hui [Beijing Center for Physical and Chemical Analysis, Beijing 100089 (China)

    2007-01-15

    Lead and cadmium uptake was investigated for common deciduous street trees in Beijing in this study. Species having Cd accumulation included Populus tomentosa, Sophora japonica and Catalpa speciosa. P. tomentosa had the highest ratios between leaf and soil Cd (0.848), followed by S. japonica (0.536), C. speciosa (0.493), Paulownia tomentosa (0.453) and Juglans regia (0.415). Pb levels were high in leaves of C. speciosa, J. regia and Pa. tomentosa. S. japonica had the highest ratio between leaf Pb and soil Pb (0.146), followed by Pa. tomentosa (0.143), Ginko biloba (0.103) and C. speciosa (0.095). A predictive foliar metal accumulation index (MAI) was developed and C. speciosa was calculated to have the highest MAI value (53.8). This suggests that C. speciosa would be a good choice for planting in areas of Beijing where soil contamination with Cd and Pb may be a problem. - Catalpa speciosa had the highest MAI value.

  8. Lead and cadmium in leaves of deciduous trees in Beijing, China: development of a metal accumulation index (MAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Ju; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Ding, Hui

    2007-01-01

    Lead and cadmium uptake was investigated for common deciduous street trees in Beijing in this study. Species having Cd accumulation included Populus tomentosa, Sophora japonica and Catalpa speciosa. P. tomentosa had the highest ratios between leaf and soil Cd (0.848), followed by S. japonica (0.536), C. speciosa (0.493), Paulownia tomentosa (0.453) and Juglans regia (0.415). Pb levels were high in leaves of C. speciosa, J. regia and Pa. tomentosa. S. japonica had the highest ratio between leaf Pb and soil Pb (0.146), followed by Pa. tomentosa (0.143), Ginko biloba (0.103) and C. speciosa (0.095). A predictive foliar metal accumulation index (MAI) was developed and C. speciosa was calculated to have the highest MAI value (53.8). This suggests that C. speciosa would be a good choice for planting in areas of Beijing where soil contamination with Cd and Pb may be a problem. PMID:16797111

  9. Lead and cadmium in leaves of deciduous trees in Beijing, China: Development of a metal accumulation index (MAI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead and cadmium uptake was investigated for common deciduous street trees in Beijing in this study. Species having Cd accumulation included Populus tomentosa, Sophora japonica and Catalpa speciosa. P. tomentosa had the highest ratios between leaf and soil Cd (0.848), followed by S. japonica (0.536), C. speciosa (0.493), Paulownia tomentosa (0.453) and Juglans regia (0.415). Pb levels were high in leaves of C. speciosa, J. regia and Pa. tomentosa. S. japonica had the highest ratio between leaf Pb and soil Pb (0.146), followed by Pa. tomentosa (0.143), Ginko biloba (0.103) and C. speciosa (0.095). A predictive foliar metal accumulation index (MAI) was developed and C. speciosa was calculated to have the highest MAI value (53.8). This suggests that C. speciosa would be a good choice for planting in areas of Beijing where soil contamination with Cd and Pb may be a problem. - Catalpa speciosa had the highest MAI value

  10. Spatio-temporal Patterns of Intra-urban Land Use Change in Beijing,China Between 1984 and 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Wenhui

    2012-01-01

    Urban internal structure is essential information for urban geography researchers and urban planners or managers.This research aims to examine the spatial structure changes of internal urban land use based on the interpreted datasets of 1984 and 2008.Spatio-temporal patterns of internal land use conversion and urban expansion are analyzed,and then dominant driving factors (e.g.,social economy,population growth and urban planning) were identified.The results indicate that Beijing's intra-urban layout has experienced tremendous adjustment from compact to disperse configure,otherwise its function objects have shifted from the major economic and industrial development before the 1990s to the combination with cultural,high-technological and inhabitable city at present.The dominant urban land use transformations include the relocation of industrial lands from core districts to suburban or other provinces,and the accelerating expansion of residential areas and green spaces for supplying the demand of housing and ecological protection.Although Beijing's urban planning has experienced three major adjustments and improvement since the 1980s,its optimization of urban internal patterns still remains a challenge.

  11. Smoking and Risk of All-cause Deaths in Younger and Older Adults: A Population-based Prospective Cohort Study Among Beijing Adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuibao; Yao, Chonghua; Di, Xuan; Yang, Xinchun; Dong, Lei; Xu, Li; Zheng, Meili

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. Few studies, however, have examined the modified effects of age on the association between smoking and all-cause mortality.In the current study, the authors estimated the association between smoking and age-specific mortality in adults from Beijing, China. This is a large community-based prospective cohort study comprising of 6209 Beijing adults (aged ≥40 years) studied for approximately 8 years (1991-1999). Hazard ratios (HRs) and attributable fractions associated with smoking were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for age, sex, alcohol intake, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, hypertension, and heart rate.The results showed, compared with nonsmokers, the multivariable-adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality were 2.7(95% confidence interval (CI):1.56-4.69) in young adult smokers (40-50 years) and 1.31 (95% CI: 1.13-1.52) in old smokers (>50 years); and the interaction term between smoking and age was significant (P = 0.026). Attributable fractions for all-cause mortality in young and old adults were 63% (95% CI: 41%-85%) and 24% (95% CI: 12%-36%), respectively. The authors estimated multivariate adjusted absolute risk (mortality) by Poisson regression and calculated risk differences and 95% CI by bootstrap estimation. Mortality differences (/10,000 person-years) were 15.99 (95% CI: 15.34-16.64) in the young and 74.61(68.57-80.65) in the old. Compared with current smokers, the HRs of all-cause deaths for former smokers in younger and older adults were 0.57 (95% CI: 0.23-1.42) and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.73-1.26), respectively.The results indicate smoking significantly increases the risks of all-cause mortality in both young and old Beijing adults from the relative and absolute risk perspectives. Smoking cessation could also reduce the excess risk of mortality caused by continuing smoking in younger adults compared with older individuals. PMID:26817876

  12. Social-Ecological Patterns of Soil Heavy Metals Based on a Self-Organizing Map (SOM: A Case Study in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binwu Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The regional management of trace elements in soils requires understanding the interaction between the natural system and human socio-economic activities. In this study, a social-ecological patterns of heavy metals (SEPHM approach was proposed to identify the heavy metal concentration patterns and processes in different ecoregions of Beijing (China based on a self-organizing map (SOM. Potential ecological risk index (RI values of Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, Cu, As, Cd and Pb were calculated for 1,018 surface soil samples. These data were averaged in accordance with 253 communities and/or towns, and compared with demographic, agriculture structure, geomorphology, climate, land use/cover, and soil-forming parent material to discover the SEPHM. Multivariate statistical techniques were further applied to interpret the control factors of each SEPHM. SOM application clustered the 253 towns into nine groups on the map size of 12 × 7 plane (quantization error 1.809; topographic error, 0.0079. The distribution characteristics and Spearman rank correlation coefficients of RIs were strongly associated with the population density, vegetation index, industrial and mining land percent and road density. The RIs were relatively high in which towns in a highly urbanized area with large human population density exist, while low RIs occurred in mountainous and high vegetation cover areas. The resulting dataset identifies the SEPHM of Beijing and links the apparent results of RIs to driving factors, thus serving as an excellent data source to inform policy makers for legislative and land management actions.

  13. Rapid detection of Acinetobacter baumannii and molecular epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant A.baumannii in two comprehensive hospitals of Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puyuan eLi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic pathogen associated with a variety of nosocomial infections. A rapid and sensitive molecular detection in clinical isolates is quite needed for the appropriate therapy and outbreak control of A. baumannii. Group 2 carbapenems have been considered the agents of choice for the treatment of multiple drug resistant A. baumannii. But the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB has been steadily increasing in recent years. Here, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for the rapid detection of A. baumannii in clinical samples by using high-specificity primers of the blaOXA-51 gene. Then we investigated the OXA-carbapenemases molecular epidemiology of A. baumannii isolates in 2 comprehensive hospitals in Beijing. The results showed that the LAMP assay could detect target DNA within 60 min at 65°C. The detection limit was 50 pg/μl, which was about 10-fold greater than that of PCR. Furthermore, this method could distinguish A. baumannii from the homologous A. nosocomialis and A. pittii. A total of 228 positive isolates were identified by this LAMP-based method for A. baumannii from 335 ICU patients with clinically suspected multi-resistant infections in 2 hospitals in Beijing. The rates of CRAB are on the rise and are slowly becoming a routine phenotype for A. baumannii. Among the CRABs, 92.3% harbored both the blaOXA-23 and blaOXA-51 genes. Thirty-three pulsotypes were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and the majority belonged to clone C. In conclusion, the LAMP method developed for detecting A. baumannii was faster and simpler than conventional PCR and has great potential for both point-of-care testing and basic research. We further demonstrated a high distribution of class D carbapenemase-encoding genes, mainly OXA-23, which presents an emerging threat in hospitals in China.

  14. In-hospital delay to primary angioplasty for patients with ST-elevated myocardial infarction between cardiac specialized hospitals and non-specialized hospitals in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUN Yi-wen; YANG Jin-gang; SONG Li; SUN Yi-hong; LU Chang-lin; YANG Yue-jin; HU Da-yi

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence indicates that early reperfusion therapy in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) reduces complications. This study was undertaken to compare the in-hospital delay to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) for patients with STEMI between specialized hospitals and non-specialized hospitals in Beijing, China. Methods Two specialized hospitals and fifteen non-specialized hospitals capable of performing PPCI were selected to participate in this study. A total of 308 patients, within 12 hours of the onset of symptoms and undergoing PPCI between November 1, 2005 and December 31, 2006 were enrolled. Data were collected by structured interview and review of medical records.Results The median in-hospital delay was 98 (interquartile range 105 to 180) minutes, and 16.9% of the patients were treated within 90 minutes. Total in-hospital delay and ECG-to-treatment decision-making time were longer in the non-specialized hospitals than in the cardiac specialized hospitals (147 minutes vs. 120 minutes, P<0.001; 55 minutes vs. 45 minutes, P=0.035). After controlling the confounding factors, the non-specialized hospitals were independently associated with an increased risk of being in the upper median of in-hospital delays.Conclusions There were substantial in-hospital delays between arrival at the hospital and the administration of PPCI for patients with STEMI in Beijing. Patients admitted to the cardiac specialized hospitals had a shorter in-hospital delay than those to the non-specialized hospitals because of a shorter time of ECG-to-treatment decision-making.

  15. Behavioral Risk Profile of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beijing, China: Results from a Cross-sectional Survey with Randomized Response Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Zhu Geng; Ge Gao; Yu-Hua Ruan; Ming-Run Yu; Yun-Hua Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Background:Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is spreading rapidly among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China.Anonymous questionnaires or direct interviews have been frequently used to study their behavior.The aim of the study was to describe the behavioral risk profile of the MSM in Beijing using the randomized response techniques (RRTs).Methods:A cross-sectional survey of sexual behavior among a sample of MSM was conducted in two HIV counseling and testing clinics in Beijing.The survey was carried out with an anonymous questionnaire containing sensitive questions on sexual behavior.To obtain the honest responses to the sensitive questions,three distinctive RRTs were used in the questionnaire:(1) Additive randomized response model for quantitative questions,(2) randomized response model for multiple choice questions,and (3) Simmons randomized response model for binomial questions.Formulae for the point estimate,variance,and confidence interval (CI) were provided for each specific model.Results:Using RRTs in a sample of 659 participants,the mean age at first homosexual encounter was estimated to be 21.7 years (95% CI:21.2-22.2),and each had sex with about three (2.9,95% CI:2.4-3.4) male partners on average in the past month.The estimated rate for consistent condom use was 56.4% (95% CI:50.1-62.8%).In addition,condom was estimated to be used among 80.0% (95% CI:74.1-85.9%) of the population during last anal sex with a male partner.Conclusions:Our study employed RRTs in a survey containing questions on sexual behavior among MSM,and the results showed that RRT might be a useful tool to obtain truthful feedback on sensitive information such as sexual behavior from the respondents,especially in traditional Chinese cultural settings.

  16. Efficiency of mitigation measures to reduce particulate air pollution--a case study during the Olympic Summer Games 2008 in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Nina; Norra, Stefan; Chen, Yizhen; Chai, Fahe; Wang, Shulan

    2012-06-15

    Atmospheric particles were studied before, during, and after the period of the Olympic Summer Games in Beijing, China, in August 2008 in order to investigate the efficiency of the mitigation measures implemented by the Chinese Government. Total suspended particles (TSP) and fine particles (PM(2.5) and PM(1)) were collected continuously from October 2007 to February 2009 and were analyzed in detail with regard to mass and element concentrations, water-soluble ions, and black carbon (BC). Mass as well as element concentrations during the Olympic air quality control period were lower than the respective concentrations during the time directly before and after the Olympic Games. The results showed that the applied aerosol source control measures, such as shutting down industries and reducing traffic, had a huge impact on the reduction of aerosol pollution in Beijing. However, the meteorological conditions, especially rainfall, certainly also contributed to the successful reduction of particulate air pollution. Coarse particles were reduced more efficiently than finer particles, which indicates that long-range transport of atmospheric particles is difficult to control and that presumably the established mitigation area was not large enough. The study further showed that elements from predominantly anthropogenic sources, such as S, Cu, As, Cd, and Pb, as well as BC, were reduced more efficiently during the Olympic Games than elements for which geogenic sources are more significant, such as Al, Fe, Rb or Sr. Furthermore, the mentioned anthropogenic element concentrations were reduced more in the finer PM(2.5) samples whereas geogenic ones were reduced stronger in TSP samples including the coarser fraction. Consequently, it can be assumed that the mitigation measures, as intended, were successful in reducing more toxic and health-relevant particles from anthropogenic sources. Firework displays, especially at the Opening Ceremony, could be identified as a special short

  17. The spatial distribution of fossil fuel CO2 traced by Δ(14)C in the leaves of gingko (Ginkgo biloba L.) in Beijing City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhenchuan; Zhou, Weijian; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Dongxia; Lu, Xuefeng; Cheng, Peng; Wu, Shugang; Xiong, Xiaohu; Du, Hua; Fu, Yunchong

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff ) information is an important reference for local government to formulate energy-saving and emission reduction in China. The CO2ff spatial distribution in Beijing City was traced by Δ(14)C in the leaves of gingko (Ginkgo biloba L.) from late March to September in 2009. The Δ(14)C values were in the range of -35.2 ± 2.8∼15.5 ± 3.2 ‰ (average 3.4 ± 11.8 ‰), with high values found at suburban sites (average 12.8 ± 3.1 ‰) and low values at road sites (average -8.4 ± 18.1 ‰). The CO2ff concentrations varied from 11.6 ± 3.7 to 32.5 ± 9.0 ppm, with an average of 16.4 ± 4.9 ppm. The CO2ff distribution in Beijing City showed spatial heterogeneity. CO2ff hotspots were found at road sites resulted from the emission from vehicles, while low CO2ff concentrations were found at suburban sites because of the less usage of fossil fuels. Additionally, CO2ff concentrations in the northwest area were generally higher than those in the southeast area due to the disadvantageous topography.

  18. Determination of selected pharmaceuticals in tap water and drinking water treatment plant by high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mei-Quan; Wang, Rong; Feng, Li; Zhang, Li-Qiu

    2015-02-01

    A simultaneous determination method of 14 multi-class pharmaceuticals using solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS/MS) was established to measure the occurrence and distribution of these pharmaceuticals in tap water and a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) in Beijing, China. Target compounds included seven anti-inflammatory drugs, two antibacterial drugs, two lipid regulation drugs, one antiepileptic drug, and one hormone. Limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantitation (LOQs) ranged from 0.01 to 1.80 ng/L and 0.05 to 3.00 ng/L, respectively. Intraday and inter-day precisions, recoveries of different matrices, and matrix effects were also investigated. Of the 14 pharmaceutical compounds selected, nine were identified in tap water of Beijing downtown with the concentration up to 38.24 ng/L (carbamazepine), and the concentration levels of detected pharmaceuticals in tap water (water and finished water at the concentration ranged from 0.10 to 16.23 and 0.13 to 17.17 ng/L, respectively. Five compounds were detected most frequently in DWTP, namely antipyrine, carbamazepine, isopropylantipyrine, aminopyrine, and bezafibrate. Ibuprofen was found to be the highest concentration pharmaceutical during DWTP, up to 53.30 ng/L. DWTP shows a positive effect on the removal of most pharmaceuticals with 81.2-99.5 % removal efficiencies, followed by carbamazepine with 55.4 % removal efficiency, but it has no effect for removing ibuprofen and bezafibrate.

  19. The 9th Beijing Chitec,Platform for International High & New Technology Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The 9th China Beijing International High-tech Expo The 9th Chitec, Co-organized by The Ministry of Science and Technology, The Ministry of Commerce, The Ministry of Education, The Ministry of Information Industry, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade, State Intellectual Property office and Beijing Government, was held in Beijing from May 22 to May 27.

  20. Drought over China in the 21st Century: Results of RegCM3%Drought over China in the 21st Century: Results of RegCM3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ke; JIANG Da-Bang; MA Jian-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Based on 150-year simulations of a regional climate model, RegCM3, under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario, the effective drought index (EDI) is used to project the future drought change in China. During the baseline period 1986–2005, RegCM3 was found to reliably simulate the spatial pattern of drought over the country. Over the 21st century, the regionally averaged EDI should increase, corresponding to a decrease of drought, while the probability of extreme drought events should increase. Geographically, drought should clearly increase in Northeast China, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River valley, Southwest China, and southern Tibet but decrease in most parts of the rest of the country.

  1. Muddle or march: China and the 21st century Concert of Powers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhun Mao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concert of Powers has emerged as an attractive modality in global governance. As an emerging power, China must seriously take this template into account. This article seeks to analyze the incentives, possibilities, and uncertainties for China to participate in Concert with reference to China's history memory on Concert, China's intellectual endeavors, as well as China's evolving foreign preferences. It concludes that China is generally qualified and capable of being a key participant in Concert of Powers with increasing willingness. Yet, China's involvement depends on 1 if Concert template can overcome its own deficiencies; 2 if Concert have competitive advantages compared with other governance alternatives for China; and 3 if China can keep its momentum on both willingness and capacity in power transition.

  2. MSA in Beijing aerosol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Hui; WANG Ying; ZHUANG Guoshun

    2004-01-01

    Methane sulphonate (MSA) and sulfate (SO42-), the main oxidation products of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), are the target of atmospheric chemistry study, as sulfate aerosol would have important impact on the global climate change. It is widely believed that DMS is mainly emitted from phytoplankton production in marine boundary layer (MBL), and MSA is usually used as the tracer of non-sea-salt sulfate (nss- SO42-) in marine and coastal areas (MSA/SO42- = 1/18). Many observations of MSA were in marine and coastal aerosols. To our surprise, MSA was frequently (>60%) detected in Beijing TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 aerosols, even in the samples collected during the dust storm period. The concentrations of MSA were higher than those measured in marine aerosols. Factor analysis, correlation analysis and meteorology analysis indicated that there was no obvious marine influence on Beijing aerosols. DMS from terrestrial emissions and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) from industrial wastes could be the two possible precursors of MSA. Warm and low-pressure air masses and long time radiation were beneficial to the formation of MSA. Anthropogenic pollution from regional and local sources might be the dominant contributor to MSA in Beijing aerosol. This was the first report of MSA in aerosols collected in an inland site in China. This new finding would lead to the further study on the balance of sulfur in inland cities and its global biogeochemical cycle.

  3. Characteristics of concentrations and chemical compositions for PM2.5 in the region of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Z. Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the temporal and spatial variations of PM2.5 and its chemical compositions in the region of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH, PM2.5 samples were collected at four urban sites in Beijing (BJ, Tianjin (TJ, Shijiazhuang (SJZ, and Chengde (CD and one site at Shangdianzi (SDZ regional background station over four seasons from 2009 to 2010. The samples were weighted for mass concentrations and analyzed in laboratory for chemical profiles of 19 elements (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn, eight water-soluble ions (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl−, NO3−, and SO42−, and carbon fractions (OC and EC. The concentrations of PM2.5 and its major chemical species were season-dependent and showed spatially similar characteristics in the plain area of BTH. The average annual concentrations of PM2.5 were 71.8–191.2 μg m−3 at five sites, with more than 90 % sampling days exceeded 50 μg m−3 at BJ, TJ, and SJZ. PM2.5 pollution was most serious at SJZ, and the annual concentrations of PM2.5, secondary ions, OC, EC, and most of crustal elements were all highest. Due to stronger photochemical oxidation, the sum of concentrations of secondary ions (NH4+, NO3−, and SO42− was highest in the summer at SDZ, BJ, TJ, and CD. Analysis of electric charges of water-soluble ions indicated the existence of nitric acid or hydrochloric acid in PM2.5. For all five sites, the concentrations of OC, EC and also secondary organic carbon (SOC in the spring and summer were lower than those in the autumn and winter. Stable atmosphere and low temperatures appearing more frequently during autumn and winter facilitated the formation of SOC. The sums of crustal elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Ti, Ba, and Sr were higher in the spring and autumn owing to more days with blowing or floating dust. The concentrations of heavy metals were at higher levels in the BTH area by comparison with other studies. In Shijiazhuang and Chengde

  4. Characteristics and sources of submicron aerosols above the urban canopy (260 m) in Beijing, China, during the 2014 APEC summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Sun, Y. L.; Xu, W. Q.; Du, W.; Zhou, L. B.; Han, T. T.; Wang, Q. Q.; Fu, P. Q.; Wang, Z. F.; Gao, Z. Q.; Zhang, Q.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-11-01

    The megacity of Beijing has experienced frequent severe fine particle pollution during the last decade. Although the sources and formation mechanisms of aerosol particles have been extensively investigated on the basis of ground measurements, real-time characterization of aerosol particle composition and sources above the urban canopy in Beijing is rare. In this study, we conducted real-time measurements of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) composition at 260 m at the Beijing 325 m meteorological tower (BMT) from 10 October to 12 November 2014, by using an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) along with synchronous measurements of size-resolved NR-PM1 composition near ground level using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). The NR-PM1 composition above the urban canopy was dominated by organics (46 %), followed by nitrate (27 %) and sulfate (13 %). The high contribution of nitrate and high NO3- / SO42- mass ratios illustrates an important role of nitrate in particulate matter (PM) pollution during the study period. The organic aerosol (OA) was mainly composed of secondary OA (SOA), accounting for 61 % on an average. Different from that measured at the ground site, primary OA (POA) correlated moderately with SOA, likely suggesting a high contribution from regional transport above the urban canopy. The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit with strict emission controls provides a unique opportunity to study the impacts of emission controls on aerosol chemistry. All aerosol species were shown to have significant decreases of 40-80 % during APEC from those measured before APEC, suggesting that emission controls over regional scales substantially reduced PM levels. However, the bulk aerosol composition was relatively similar before and during APEC as a result of synergetic controls of aerosol precursors. In addition to emission controls, the routine circulations of mountain-valley breezes were also found to play

  5. Characteristics and sources of submicron aerosols above the urban canopy (260 m) in Beijing, China during 2014 APEC summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Sun, Y. L.; Xu, W. Q.; Du, W.; Zhou, L. B.; Han, T. T.; Wang, Q. Q.; Fu, P. Q.; Wang, Z. F.; Gao, Z. Q.; Zhang, Q.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-08-01

    The megacity of Beijing has experienced frequent severe fine particle pollution during the last decade. Although the sources and formation mechanisms of aerosol particles have been extensively investigated on the basis of ground measurements, real-time characterization of aerosol particle composition and sources above the urban canopy in Beijing is rare. In this study, we conducted real-time measurements of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) composition at 260 m at the 325 m Beijing Meteorological Tower (BMT) from 10 October to 12 November 2014, by using an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) along with synchronous measurements of size-resolved NR-PM1 composition at near ground level using a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). The NR-PM1 composition above the urban canopy was dominated by organics (46 %), followed by nitrate (27 %) and sulfate (13 %). The high contribution of nitrate and high NO3-/SO42- mass ratios illustrate an important role of nitrate in particulate matter (PM) pollution during the study period. The organic aerosol (OA) was mainly composed by secondary OA (SOA), accounting for 61 % on an average. Different from that measured at the ground site, primary OA (POA) correlated moderately with SOA, likely suggesting a high contribution from regional transport above the urban canopy. The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit with strict emission controls provides a unique opportunity to study the impacts of emission controls on aerosol chemistry. All aerosol species were shown to have significant decreases of 40-80 % during APEC from those measured before APEC, suggesting that emission controls over regional scales substantially reduced PM levels. However, the bulk aerosol composition was relatively similar before and during APEC as a result of synergetic controls of aerosol precursors such as SO2, NOx, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In addition to emission controls, the routine

  6. Characteristics and sources of submicron aerosols above the urban canopy (260 m in Beijing, China during 2014 APEC summit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The megacity of Beijing has experienced frequent severe fine particle pollution during the last decade. Although the sources and formation mechanisms of aerosol particles have been extensively investigated on the basis of ground measurements, real-time characterization of aerosol particle composition and sources above the urban canopy in Beijing is rare. In this study, we conducted real-time measurements of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1 composition at 260 m at the 325 m Beijing Meteorological Tower (BMT from 10 October to 12 November 2014, by using an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM along with synchronous measurements of size-resolved NR-PM1 composition at near ground level using a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR–ToF–AMS. The NR-PM1 composition above the urban canopy was dominated by organics (46 %, followed by nitrate (27 % and sulfate (13 %. The high contribution of nitrate and high NO3−/SO42− mass ratios illustrate an important role of nitrate in particulate matter (PM pollution during the study period. The organic aerosol (OA was mainly composed by secondary OA (SOA, accounting for 61 % on an average. Different from that measured at the ground site, primary OA (POA correlated moderately with SOA, likely suggesting a high contribution from regional transport above the urban canopy. The Asia–Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC summit with strict emission controls provides a unique opportunity to study the impacts of emission controls on aerosol chemistry. All aerosol species were shown to have significant decreases of 40–80 % during APEC from those measured before APEC, suggesting that emission controls over regional scales substantially reduced PM levels. However, the bulk aerosol composition was relatively similar before and during APEC as a result of synergetic controls of aerosol precursors such as SO2, NOx, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs. In addition to emission controls

  7. Determination of lead, cadmium, copper, and nickel in the tonghui river of beijing, china, by cloud point extraction-high resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ting; Zhao, Li-Jiao; Sun, Bo-Si; Zhong, Ru-Gang

    2013-11-01

    Heavy metal contamination of water has become an important problem in recent years. Most hazardous heavy metals exist in environmental water in trace or ultra-trace amounts, which requires establishing highly sensitive analytical methods. In this research, quantitative analyses were performed using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry combined with cloud point extraction (CPE) to determine Pb, Cd, Cu, and Ni levels in environmental surface water. By optimizing the CPE conditions, the enrichment factors were 29 for Pb, Cd, and Cu and 25 for Ni. The limits of detection (LOD) were 0.080, 0.010, 0.035, and 0.014 μg L for Pb, Cd, Cu, and Ni, respectively. The sensitivity of the method is comparable with those reported in previous investigations using various methods and improves outcome by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude compared with the LODs of the current national standard methods of China. Our method was used to determine Pb, Cd, Cu, and Ni in 55 water samples collected from the Tonghui River, which is the principal river in the urban area of Beijing, China. The results indicated that the distributions of the four heavy metals in the Tonghui River were related with the environments. The levels of Pb and Ni exhibit increasing trends along the river from upstream to downstream possibly due to the existence of some chemical factories in the downstream area. Lead, Cd, Cu, and Ni averaged 13.9, 0.8, 46.8, and 38.5%, respectively, of the total amount of the determined heavy metals. The levels of the four heavy metals conformed to the Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (Grade I) of China. This work provides a reliable quantitative method to determine trace-amount heavy metals in water, which lays a foundation for establishing standards and regulations for environmental water protection.

  8. Ecological evaluation of Beijing economy based on emergy indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, M. M.; Zhou, J. B.; Chen, B.; Yang, Z. F.; Ji, X.; Zhang, L. X.; Chen, G. Q.

    2009-05-01

    An integrated ecological evaluation of the Beijing economy was presented in the paper based on the emergy accounting with the data in 2004. Through calculating environmental and economic inputs within and outside the Beijing economy, this paper discusses the Beijing's resource structure, economic situation and trade status based on a series of emergy indicators. Through the comparison of the systematic indicators of Beijing with those of the selected Chinese cities, the general status of the Beijing economy in China is identified. The results also show that most indicators of Beijing are located at middle levels among the selected Chinese cities. Particularly, the environmental impacts, expressed by the ratio of waste to the renewable emergy, and the ratio of waste to the total emergy use, are 84.2 and 0.26, respectively in Beijing in 2004, which indicate that the Beijing economy is greatly reliant on the imported intensive fuels, goods and services with high empower density and environmental loading.

  9. The Days Hotel & Suites Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A Cultural Concept Located within striking distance of Beijing's booming Central Business District, the Days Hotel & Suites Beijing also offers easy access to the art of the imperial city. Adjacent to the Panjiayuan Flea Market, where curios and folk artworks of the ancient capital are bought and traded, it is a multi-function concept of fine dining and entertainment that taps into the cultural essence of China's storied past. In the entrance to the sizeable lobby of Regal Palace Chinese Cuisine House, a...

  10. Evolution process and sources of ambient volatile organic compounds during a severe haze event in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rongrong; Li, Jing; Hao, Yufang; Li, Yaqi; Zeng, Limin; Xie, Shaodong

    2016-08-01

    108 ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured continuously at a time resolution of an hour using an online gas chromatography-frame ionization detector/mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS) in October 2014 in Beijing, and positive matrix factorization (PMF) was performed with online data. The evolution process and causes for high levels of VOCs during a haze event were investigated through comprehensive analysis. Results show that mixing ratios of VOCs during the haze event (89.29 ppbv) were 2 to 5 times as that in non-haze days, There was a distinct accumulation process of VOCs at the beginning of the haze event, and the mixing ratios of VOCs maintained at the high levels until to the end of pollution when the mixing ratios of ambient VOCs recovered to the normal concentration levels in a few hours. Some reactive and toxic species increased remarkably as well, which indicates a potential health risk to the public in terms of VOCs. Eight sources were resolved by PMF, and results revealed gasoline exhaust was the largest contributor (32-46%) to the ambient VOCs in Beijing. Emissions of gasoline exhaust surged from 13.46 to 40.36 ppbv, with a similar variation pattern to total VOCs, indicating that high levels of VOCs were largely driven to by expanded vehicular emissions. Emissions of biomass burning also increased noticeably (from 2.32 to 11.12 ppbv), and backward trajectories analysis indicated regional transport of biomass burning emissions. Our findings suggested that extremely high levels of VOCs during the haze event was primarily attributed to vehicular emissions, biomass burning and regional transport, as well as stationary synoptic conditions. PMID:27093124

  11. Evolution process and sources of ambient volatile organic compounds during a severe haze event in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rongrong; Li, Jing; Hao, Yufang; Li, Yaqi; Zeng, Limin; Xie, Shaodong

    2016-08-01

    108 ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured continuously at a time resolution of an hour using an online gas chromatography-frame ionization detector/mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS) in October 2014 in Beijing, and positive matrix factorization (PMF) was performed with online data. The evolution process and causes for high levels of VOCs during a haze event were investigated through comprehensive analysis. Results show that mixing ratios of VOCs during the haze event (89.29 ppbv) were 2 to 5 times as that in non-haze days, There was a distinct accumulation process of VOCs at the beginning of the haze event, and the mixing ratios of VOCs maintained at the high levels until to the end of pollution when the mixing ratios of ambient VOCs recovered to the normal concentration levels in a few hours. Some reactive and toxic species increased remarkably as well, which indicates a potential health risk to the public in terms of VOCs. Eight sources were resolved by PMF, and results revealed gasoline exhaust was the largest contributor (32-46%) to the ambient VOCs in Beijing. Emissions of gasoline exhaust surged from 13.46 to 40.36 ppbv, with a similar variation pattern to total VOCs, indicating that high levels of VOCs were largely driven to by expanded vehicular emissions. Emissions of biomass burning also increased noticeably (from 2.32 to 11.12 ppbv), and backward trajectories analysis indicated regional transport of biomass burning emissions. Our findings suggested that extremely high levels of VOCs during the haze event was primarily attributed to vehicular emissions, biomass burning and regional transport, as well as stationary synoptic conditions.

  12. Chronic disease prevalence and care among the elderly in urban and rural Beijing, China - a 10/66 Dementia Research Group cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Renata

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Demographic ageing is occurring at an unprecedented rate in China. Chronic diseases and their disabling consequences will become much more common. Public policy has a strong urban bias, and older people living in rural areas may be especially vulnerable due to limited access to good quality healthcare, and low pension coverage. We aim to compare the sociodemographic and health characteristics, health service utilization, needs for care and informal care arrangements of representative samples of older people in two Beijing communities, urban Xicheng and rural Daxing. Methods A one-phase cross-sectional survey of all those aged 65 years and over was conducted in urban and rural catchment areas in Beijing, China. Assessments included questionnaires, a clinical interview, physical examination, and an informant interview. Prevalence of chronic diseases, self-reported impairments and risk behaviours was calculated adjusting for household clustering. Poisson working models were used to estimate the independent effect of rural versus urban residence, and to explore the predictors of health services utilization. Results We interviewed 1002 participants in rural Daxing, and 1160 in urban Xicheng. Those in Daxing were more likely to be younger, widowed, less educated, not receiving a pension, and reliant on family transfers. Chronic diseases were more common in Xicheng, when based on self-report rather than clinical assessment. Risk exposures were more common in Daxing. Rural older people were much less likely to access health services, controlling for age and health. Community health services were ineffective, particularly in Daxing, where fewer than 3% of those with hypertension were adequately controlled. In Daxing, care was provided by family, who had often given up work to do so. In Xicheng, 45% of those needing care were supported by paid caregivers. Caregiver strain was higher in Xicheng. Dementia was strongly associated with

  13. The common rs9939609 variant of the fat mass and obesity-associated gene is associated with obesity risk in children and adolescents of Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindpaintner Klaus

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous genome-wide association studies for type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes have confirmed that a common variant, rs9939609, in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO gene region is associated with body mass index (BMI in European children and adults. A significant association of the same risk allele has been described in Asian adult populations, but the results are conflicting. In addition, no replication studies have been conducted in children and adolescents of Asian ancestry. Methods A population-based survey was carried out among 3503 children and adolescents (6-18 years of age in Beijing, China, including 1229 obese and 2274 non-obese subjects. We investigated the association of rs9939609 with BMI and the risk of obesity. In addition, we tested the association of rs9939609 with weight, height, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, fat mass percentage, birth weight, blood pressure and related metabolic traits. Results We found significant associations of rs9939609 variant with weight, BMI, BMI standard deviation score (BMI-SDS, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and fat mass percentage in children and adolescents (p for trend = 3.29 × 10-5, 1.39 × 10-6, 3.76 × 10-6, 2.26 × 10-5, 1.94 × 10-5, and 9.75 × 10-5, respectively. No significant associations were detected with height, birth weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and related metabolic traits such as total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and fasting plasma glucose (all p > 0.05. Each additional copy of the rs9939609 A allele was associated with a BMI increase of 0.79 [95% Confidence interval (CI 0.47 to 1.10] kg/m2, equivalent to 0.25 (95%CI 0.14 to 0.35 BMI-SDS units. This rs9939609 variant is significantly associated with the risk of obesity under an additive model [Odds ratio (OR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.50] after adjusting for age and gender. Moreover, an interaction between the FTO rs9939609

  14. 北京市灰水足迹评价%Historical Trend of Grey Water Footprint of Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾昭; 刘俊国

    2013-01-01

    北京市属于重度资源型缺水地区,加上严重的水污染情况,使得水问题成为制约当地社会经济发展和生态安全的关键性因素.研究采用灰水足迹理念将北京市1995-2009年间不同部门产生的污染物以“稀释水”的形式进行量化.研究表明:①北京市2009年灰水足迹为49.5×108m3,约为北京当年水资源量的2.3倍;②生活部门的灰水足迹最大,农业部门次之,工业部门的灰水足迹最小;③北京市灰水足迹呈现逐年下降的趋势,农业、生活和工业部门的灰水足迹在1995-2009年间分别下降了45%、62%和93%;④虽然北京市灰水足迹逐年减小,水体水质却呈现逐年恶化的趋势,剩余灰水足迹(即灰水足迹与水资源的差值)累积值的增加,是北京市水质逐年恶化的直接原因.严格控制灰水足迹是实现水环境总体改善的重要途径.%Beijing is an international metropolis with serious shortage of water resources.Water scarcity in addition to serious water pollution has made water a major constraint for future socio economic development and ecological security.In this study,we use grey water footprint as an indicator to quantify the effects of water pollution on the amount of freshwater resources from agricultural,industrial and domestic sectors in Beijing during 1995-2009.These effects are presented as the volume of water that is needed to dilute the water pollutants.The results show that:1) Grey water footprint of Beijing in 2009 is 4.95 billion m3/a,about 2.3 times that of the total amount of water resources in the same year; 2) domestic sector has the largest grey water footprint,followed by agricultural.Industrial sector has the smallest grey water footprint; 3) the grey water footprint of Beijing has declined year by year.Since 1995,the grey water footprints of agricultural,industrial and domestic sectors have decreased by 45%,93% and 62%,respectively;and 4) although the grey water

  15. Estimation on the response of glaciers in China to the global warming in the 21st century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Glaciers in China can be categorized into 3 types, i.e. the maritime (temperate) type, sub-continental (sub-polar) type and extreme continental (polar) type, which take 22%, 46% and 32% of the total existing glacier area (59 406 km2) respectively. Researches indicate that glaciers of the three types show different response patterns to the global warming. Since the Maxima of the Little Ice Age (the 17th century), air temperature has risen at a magnitude of 1.3°C on average and the glacier area decreased corresponds to 20% of the present total glacier area in western China. It is estimated that air temperature rise in the 2030s, 2070s and 2100s will be of the order of 0.4-1.2, 1.2-2.7 and 2.1-4.0 K in western China. With these scenarios, glaciers in China will suffer from further shrinkage by 12%, 28% and 45% by the 2030s, 2070s and 2100s. The uncertainties may account for 30%-67% in 2100 in China.

  16. UNJAMMING BEIJING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Building a livable city may start with the development of a comfortable and efficient public transport system Commuters on Beijing’s city rail transport system received a gift from the Beijing Municipal Government on October 7,the last day of the seven-day National Day holiday. From the first working day on October 8,the price of a single unlimited length journey dropped from five yuan to two.The drop

  17. BEIJING RESTAURANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Mare in Beijing Mare draws its name from the Latin for "ocean," representing both the Southern European and Mediterranean influences on the cuisine of the restaurant as well as the beautiful and peaceful ambience the restaurant affords. Mare offers high-quality, specialized Spanish cuisine, served with care by the Spanish chef. "Tapas are particular dishes of Spain, and Mare promotes 30 kinds of tapas for customers to appreci-

  18. 20世纪中国气候变暖的归因分析%Progress in the Attribution of Climate Warming in China for the 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周天军; 赵宗慈

    2007-01-01

    Progress in the attribution of climate warming in China for the 20th century is summarized. Three sets of climate model experiments including both coupled and uncoupled runs have been used in the attribution analyses. Comparison of climate model results with the observations proves that in the 20th century, especially in the recent half century, climate warming in China is closely related to the increasing of the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, while sulfate aerosol should also have contributions. When both external forcing and natural forcing agents are prescribed, coupled climate models have better results in producing the observed variation of temperature in China. The role of oceanic forcing is also emphasized in the attribution analyses. The observed climate warming of China in the 1920s could not be reproduced in any set of climate model simulations.

  19. Touching the ''Pariah''. China's economic and strategic interests in the Caspian Crescent with special reference to Beijing's energy policy towards post-Pahlavi Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimar, Niclas D.

    2010-07-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration focuses on China's economic and strategic interests in the Caspian Crescent and the means by which the Peoples Republic of China seeks to enforce them. Most analysts, researches and Chinese officials rank the issue of the region's hydrocarbon resources equal to or even below other issues of interest such as border issues, regional stability and terrorism. But the facts previously stated raise questions about the particular role of energy in the overall context of China's interests in that region as well as the significance of Sino-Iranian relations for Beijing's regional goals. These goals give particular consideration to the Chinese government's blunt commitment to its ties with Pariah Indian despite pressure and criticism from the USA. Thereon, this study features three research objectives: (1) To outline China's economic and strategic interests in the Caspian Crescent and demonstrate they are dominated by Beijing's fundamental interest in oil and gas; (2) To demonstrate that Iran is China's key partner in the whole region around the Caspian Sea for the accomplishment of its interests in hydrocarbons and regional preponderance.

  20. Beijing Experimental Electronic Musicians on the Phenomenon of Commercialization and Tourism in the Contemporary Chinese Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matic Urbanija

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides opinions of some Beijing experimental electronic musicians about the situation of contemporary art in China and in the world, primarily about the background of the so called Christmas performance in Art District 798's gallery UCCA in Beijing. This was a sort of protest against destroying art with commercialization as the only measure of art gallery's success. The article first describes the situation of contemporary art in the world at the beginning of 21st century as it is described in Julian Stallabrass' book Art Incorporated. It can be deduced from the words of experimental electronic musicians in Beijing that the situation is similar in China. During the debate about the Christmas performance in UCCA gallery, a problem with galleries was emphasize. These became more similar to tourist venues than places for enriching one's thoughts and awareness about the world surrounding us, through artwork. Therefore, the Christmas performance tried to express this sentiment. It offered visitors a tourist show brought to the point of absurd. The employees and the leader of UCCA couldn't comprehend the symbolic meaning of this happening, which, symbolically, took place on Christmas, the most commercialized holiday in the West as well as in China.

  1. IFAN Workshop Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ IFAN, International Federation of Standards Users, was pleased to held its workshop on "Application of Standards in China and Beyond" connected with its annual members' assembly meeting on 25~26 October, 2006 in Beijing. The objective of the workshop is to use the opportunity of being in China to achieve a deeper level of understanding of Chinese and non-Chinese standards; to exchange views and information on the application of standards (Benefits and Challenges); and to study more profoundly the standardization and technical regulation system in China.

  2. Effects of anthropogenic aerosols on temperature changes in China during the twentieth century based on CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunxiang; Zhao, Tianbao; Ying, Kairan

    2016-08-01

    Using three models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), we compare the direct and other effects of anthropogenic aerosols on observed and simulated annual, winter, and summer temperature changes. Three regions, namely, arid-semiarid area, humid-semiarid area, and the whole of China, are studied. The temperature changes caused by other effects of anthropogenic aerosol (OE) are calculated from the difference between the anthropogenic aerosol forcing run (AA) and the anthropogenic aerosol direct effect forcing run (DE). When the combined effects are considered, a significant area-averaged cooling rate varies in the range of -0.86 to -0.76 °C per century throughout China. Meanwhile, the isolated direct and other effects lower the temperature nationwide by -0.66 to -0.55 °C per century, and -0.31 to -0.11 °C per century, respectively. From a nonlinear perspective, the aerosol-induced temperature experiences a cooling trend, with AA having the largest cooling trend changes both annually and in the summer, while DE has the greatest reduction in the winter. Additionally, the influence of OE cannot be detected in observed annual changes over the arid-semiarid area and the whole of China, while the others are clearly detectable in all cases. AA (DE, OE) reduces the observational temperature mainly over the humid-semihumid region, where the contribution to the observed warming ranges from -515.2 % (-298.7 %, -198.9 %) to -173.6 % (-130.3 %, -66.4 %).

  3. An Integrated Analysis of Dry-Wet Variability in Western China for the Last 4-5 Centuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Weihong; LIN Xiang

    2009-01-01

    The dry-wet variability in western China and its spatiotemporal structure during the last 4-5 centuries was examined using 24 climate proxies from sediments,ice cores,historical documents,and tree rings.Spatial patterns and temporal evolutions of dryness and wetness were not only extracted from the proxy data using rotated empirical orthogonal function (REOF) analysis for the last 4 centuries,but also for instrumental data in the last 40 years.The leading five REOF modes indicate that 5 dry-wet variation centers exist in western China.Moreover,long-term variability in dryness and wetness is seen on long (centennial) to short (inter-decadal) timescales.An out-of-phase relationship for the inter-decadal variation was observed between the Hetao-upper Yangtze River region and north Xinjiang,indicating influences on dry-wet variations of the East Asian summer monsoon and the westerly winds over the two regions,respectively.A particularly long dry spell was found in the central Tibetan Plateau in the 19th century.A predominance of wet decades in the last 4 centuries was found in the arid and Hetao regions.Three regional dry-wet series with annual resolution in north Xinjiang,the upper Yellow River valley,and the Hetao area were constructed for analyses of the last 500 years.Dry-wet oscillations with periodicities of 16,50,and 150 years in north Xinjiang,50 years in the upper Yellow River valley,and 70-80 years in the Hetao region were identified by wavelet analysis.In general,these periods correspond to large-scale oscillations found in the climate system,are mainly related to ocean-atmosphere interaction.

  4. Characteristics of concentrations and chemical compositions for PM2.5 in the region of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Zhao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the temporal and spatial variations of PM2.5 and its chemical compositions in the region of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH, PM2.5 samples were collected at four urban sites in Beijing (BJ, Tianjin (TJ, Shijiazhuang (SJZ, and Chengde (CD, and also one site at Shangdianzi (SDZ regional background station over four seasons from 2009 to 2010. The samples were weighted for mass concentrations and analyzed in the laboratory for chemical profiles of 19 elements (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn, eight water-soluble inorganic ions (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl−, NO3−, and SO42−, and carbon fractions (OC and EC. The concentrations of PM2.5 and its major chemical species were season dependent and showed spatially similar characteristics in the plain area of BTH. The average annual concentrations of PM2.5 were 71.8–191.2 μg m−3 at the five sites, with more than 90% of sampling days exceeding 50 μg m−3 at BJ, TJ, and SJZ. PM2.5 pollution was most serious at SJZ, and the annual concentrations of PM2.5, secondary inorganic ions, OC, EC, and most crustal elements were all highest. Due to stronger photochemical oxidation, the sum of concentrations of secondary inorganic ions (NH4+, NO3−, and SO42− was highest in the summer at SDZ, BJ, TJ, and CD. Analysis of electric charges of water-soluble inorganic ions indicated the existence of nitric acid or hydrochloric acid in PM2.5. For all five sites, the concentrations of OC, EC and also secondary organic carbon (SOC in the spring and summer were lower than those in the autumn and winter. SOC had more percentages of increase than primary organic carbon (POC during the winter. The sums of crustal elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Ti, Ba, and Sr were higher in the spring and autumn owing to more days with blowing or floating dust. The concentrations of heavy metals were at higher levels in the BTH area by comparison with other studies. In

  5. Singing Carmina Burana in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHONG

    2005-01-01

    IN 1803 a collection of 13th century stories, poems and songs, known as the Carmina Burana, was discovered in a Bavarian monastery. The celebrated German composer Carl Orff selected various pieces from it,and transformed them into his greatestwork. On March 4 this year, Hamburg's well-known Christianeum High School Choir enthralled young Beijing musicians with their performance of this classical music.

  6. Hygroscopic growth of urban aerosol particles in Beijing (China during wintertime: a comparison of three experimental methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Meier

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents hygroscopicity measurements of aerosol particles in the urban atmosphere of Beijing carried out in January 2005. Therefore, three different methods were used: 1 Combining Humidifying Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (H-DMPS and Twin Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (TDMPS measurements; 2 Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (H-TDMA technique; 3 Calculating hygroscopic growth factors on the basis of a solubility model quantified by Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI samples. Particle number size distributions from H-DMPS and TDMPS were evaluated to derive size-resolved descriptive hygroscopic growth factors (DHGF of 30–400 nm particles at relative humidities (RH of 55%, 77% and 90%. The atmospheric particles in Beijing were rather hydrophobic, with a maximum growth factor in the accumulation mode around 1.40 (±0.03 at 90% RH. The descriptive hygroscopic growth factors decreased significantly towards the lower measurement limit (1.04 (±0.15 at Dp=30 nm. A good agreement was found between the DHGFs and the H-TDMA-derived hygroscopic growth factors in the accumulation mode (100–400 nm, the DHGFs underestimated the values from the H-TDMA in the Aitken mode (<100 nm by up to 0.1 at 90% RH. The calculation of hygroscopic growth factors based on the measured chemical composition showed that different modes of combining the inorganic ions caused a variation in growth factor of 0.1 at 90% RH. The solubility model was able to reproduce the size-dependent trend in the growth factor found by the other methods. In two cases of ion-dominated aerosol, the composition-derived growth factors tended to agree (±0.05 or underestimate (up to 0.1 the values measured by the other two methods. In the case of the organic-dominated aerosol, the reverse was true, with an overestimation of up to 0.2. The results shed light on the real experimental and methodological uncertainties that are still

  7. Distribution and health risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in industrial site soils: A case study of urban renewal in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wenrui; WANG Rusong; ZHOU Chuanbin; LI Feng

    2009-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in a contaminated industrial site in southern Beijing, China to investigate theconcentrations and distribution of the organochlorine pesticides (α-, β-, γ-, δ-HCH, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and o,p'-DDT) in the profiles of soil, and a health risk assessment was carried out with CalTOX multimedia exposure model. Results showed that mean concentrations of total hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) and total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane isomers (DDXs) in soils ranged in 13.19-148.71 mg/kg, and 3.02-67.42 mg/kg, respectively. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) concentration peaked at the surface and declined in soil profile with depth and the amounts of HCHs in three profiles of soil were larger than DDXs. Composition analysis indicated that there was a trend of degradation of OCPs in the site, but the mean of HCHs and DDXs concentration were over the state warning standard limit (HCHs, 0.50 mg/kg; DDXs, 0.50 mg/kg). According to current land use development, health risk assessment with CalTOX and Monte Carlo analysis showed that health risks mainly came from two exposure pathways: dermal uptake and inhalation, and that the total risk values all exceeded the general acceptable health risk value (10-6). The sensitivity analysis indicated that five parameters significantly contributed to total risk.

  8. Economic-energy-industrial-environmental optimization (EEIEO) model for identification of optimal strategies - a case study of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Long, H. L.; Wan, J.; Jia, JL; Li, X.; Chu, CJ

    2016-08-01

    An economic-energy-industrial-environmental optimization (EEIEO) model is proposed for identification of optimal economic, industry, energy and environment strategies. The EEIEO model is applied to a real case of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, which is the important economic growth pole of northern China. The EEIEO model could fully consider the interaction between industrial, energy, urbanization and environment sector, and generate the optimized economic development, industrial restructuring, energy consumption and environment management schemes. This is first attempt to introduce economic, energy, industrial, urbanization and environmental sectors into an optimization framework, while sustainable energy and environment development pathways are explored through EEIEO model. The results suggest that: (i) the GDP of BTH region would increase about 73.80% over the planning horizon; (ii) the contribution of tertiary industry for BTH region's economic development would gradually increase from 54.00% in 2015 to 65.00% in 2030; (iii) the consumption of coal would decrease by 36%, and the natural gas would obviously increase by 97.70% over the planning horizon; and (iv) the SO2, smoke and dust emissions and CO2 would reduce by 30.20%, 35.30% and 4.50% from 2015 to 2030, respectively.

  9. Music and Social Hierarchy in Contemporary China-A Comparison of Beijing Opera Amateur Sessions and Rock Groups “Parties”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Catherine Capdeville

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses two forms of musical events in contemporary China: the ses-sions during which Beijing opera amateurs get together , and the “parties” which are organized by rock musicians .Through a comparative analysis of the structure of the two apparently different forms of musical events , the author notes that both events are more than just musical and artistic events in that they both share some of the qualities of being “rituals” in the anthropological sense.The author states that the action of “positioning”, i.e.the way in which participants find their place within the musical series , and “outsider integration”, i.e.the way strangers or outsiders are integrated into the musical event , are deeply linked as complementary parts of the structure that organizes the expression of the social relationships between the participants .This is a relationship that is inclusive , yet at the same time situates everyone within a hierarchy of posi-tions.

  10. Relationship between Ambient Fine Particles and Ventricular Repolarization Changes and Heart Rate Variability of Elderly People with Heart Disease in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Mei Mei; JIA Yu Ping; LI Guo Xing; LIU Li Qun; MO Yun Zheng; JIN Xiao Bin; PAN Xiao Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of particulate matters less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) on heart repolarization/depolarization and heart rate variability (HRV). Methods We conducted a panel study for elderly subjects with heart disease in Beijing from 2007 to 2008. PM2.5 was measured at a fixed station for 20 h continuously each day while electrocardiogram (ECG) indexes of 42 subjects were also recorded repeatedly. Meteorological data was obtained from the China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System. A mixed linear regression model was used to estimate the associations between PM2.5 and the ECG indexes. The model was adjusted for age, body mass index, sex, day of the week and meteorology. Results Significant adverse effects of PM2.5 on ECG indexes reflecting HRV were observed statistically and the strongest effect of PM2.5 on HRV was on lag 1 day in our study. However, there were no associations between PM2.5 and ECG indexes reflecting heart repolarization/depolarization. Additionally, the effects of PM2.5 on subjects with hypertension were larger than on the subjects without hypertension. Conclusion This study showed ambient PM2.5 could affect cardiac autonomic function of the elderly people with heart disease, and subjects with hypertension appeared to be more susceptive to the autonomic dysfunction induced by PM2.5.

  11. Occurrence, distribution, and potential influencing factors of sewage sludge components derived from nine full-scale wastewater treatment plants of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Li, Meiyan; Liu, Junxin; Qu, Jiuhui

    2016-07-01

    Millions of tons of waste activated sludge (WAS) produced from biological wastewater treatment processes cause severe adverse environmental consequences. A better understanding of WAS composition is thus very critical for sustainable sludge management. In this work, the occurrence and distribution of several fundamental sludge constituents were explored in WAS samples from nine full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of Beijing, China. Among all the components investigated, active heterotrophic biomass was dominant in the samples (up to 9478mg/L), followed by endogenous residues (6736mg/L), extracellular polymeric substances (2088mg/L), and intracellular storage products (464mg/L) among others. Moreover, significant differences (pdesign and operational parameters of WWTPs were studied using statistical methods. The findings indicated that the component fraction of sewage sludge depends more on wastewater treatment alternatives than on wastewater characteristics among other parameters. A principal component analysis was conducted, which further indicated that there was a greater proportion of residual inert biomass in the sludge produced by the combined system of the conventional anaerobic/anoxic/oxic process and a membrane bioreactor. Additionally, a much longer solids retention time was also found to influence the sludge composition and induce an increase in both endogenous inert residues and extracellular polymeric substances in the sludge. PMID:27372138

  12. A Survey of 42 Semi-Volatile Organic Contaminants in Groundwater along the Grand Canal from Hangzhou to Beijing, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The status of organic pollution in groundwater in eastern China along the Grand Canal from Hangzhou to Beijing was evaluated. Forty-two semi-volatile organic contaminants were analyzed, including 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, 12 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs and seven organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs. Among the detected contaminants, PAHs were the most widespread compounds. One PCB and six OCPs were detected in the groundwater samples, but none of the target OPPs was detected. The total concentration of the 16 PAHs ranged from 0.21 to 1006 ng/L, among which phenanthrene (271 ng/L and fluoranthene (233 ng/L were present at very high concentrations and naphthalene (32 positive detections in 50 samples and fluorene (28 detections in 50 samples were the most frequently detected. Benzo[a]pyrene equivalents indicated a high environmental risk related to PAHs in a few groundwater samples. To identify the possible sources of PAHs, three concentration ratios, low molecular weight PAHs/high molecular weight PAHs, anthracene/(anthracene + phenanthrene and fluoranthene/(fluoranthene + pyrene, were determined, that indicated that the PAHs mainly originated from mixed sources: pyrolytic and petrogenic sources with different ratios at different sites.

  13. A two-stage support-vector-regression optimization model for municipal solid waste management - a case study of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, C; Li, Y P; Huang, G H

    2011-12-01

    In this study, a two-stage support-vector-regression optimization model (TSOM) is developed for the planning of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the urban districts of Beijing, China. It represents a new effort to enhance the analysis accuracy in optimizing the MSW management system through coupling the support-vector-regression (SVR) model with an interval-parameter mixed integer linear programming (IMILP). The developed TSOM can not only predict the city's future waste generation amount, but also reflect dynamic, interactive, and uncertain characteristics of the MSW management system. Four kernel functions such as linear kernel, polynomial kernel, radial basis function, and multi-layer perception kernel are chosen based on three quantitative simulation performance criteria [i.e. prediction accuracy (PA), fitting accuracy (FA) and over all accuracy (OA)]. The SVR with polynomial kernel has accurate prediction performance for MSW generation rate, with all of the three quantitative simulation performance criteria being over 96%. Two cases are considered based on different waste management policies. The results are valuable for supporting the adjustment of the existing waste-allocation patterns to raise the city's waste diversion rate, as well as the capacity planning of waste management system to satisfy the city's increasing waste treatment/disposal demands.

  14. Occurrence, distribution, and potential influencing factors of sewage sludge components derived from nine full-scale wastewater treatment plants of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Li, Meiyan; Liu, Junxin; Qu, Jiuhui

    2016-07-01

    Millions of tons of waste activated sludge (WAS) produced from biological wastewater treatment processes cause severe adverse environmental consequences. A better understanding of WAS composition is thus very critical for sustainable sludge management. In this work, the occurrence and distribution of several fundamental sludge constituents were explored in WAS samples from nine full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of Beijing, China. Among all the components investigated, active heterotrophic biomass was dominant in the samples (up to 9478mg/L), followed by endogenous residues (6736mg/L), extracellular polymeric substances (2088mg/L), and intracellular storage products (464mg/L) among others. Moreover, significant differences (p<0.05) were observed in composition profiles of sludge samples among the studied WWTPs. To identify the potential parameters affecting the variable fractions of sludge components, wastewater source as well as design and operational parameters of WWTPs were studied using statistical methods. The findings indicated that the component fraction of sewage sludge depends more on wastewater treatment alternatives than on wastewater characteristics among other parameters. A principal component analysis was conducted, which further indicated that there was a greater proportion of residual inert biomass in the sludge produced by the combined system of the conventional anaerobic/anoxic/oxic process and a membrane bioreactor. Additionally, a much longer solids retention time was also found to influence the sludge composition and induce an increase in both endogenous inert residues and extracellular polymeric substances in the sludge.

  15. Impact of anthropogenic aerosols on summer precipitation in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration in China: Regional climate modeling using WRF-Chem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Feng, Jinming; Wu, Qizhong; Yan, Zhongwei

    2016-06-01

    The WRF model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) was employed to simulate the impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on summer precipitation over the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration in China. With the aid of a high-resolution gridded inventory of anthropogenic emissions of trace gases and aerosols, we conducted relatively long-term regional simulations, considering direct, semi-direct and indirect effects of the aerosols. Comparing the results of sensitivity experiments with and without emissions, it was found that anthropogenic aerosols tended to enhance summer precipitation over the metropolitan areas. Domain-averaged rainfall was increased throughout the day, except for the time around noon. Aerosols shifted the precipitation probability distribution from light or moderate to extreme rain. Further analysis showed that the anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing had a cooling effect at the land surface, but a warming effect in the atmosphere. However, enhanced convective strength and updrafts accompanied by water vapor increases and cyclone-like wind shear anomalies were found in the urban areas. These responses may originate from cloud microphysical effects of aerosols on convection, which were identified as the primary cause for the summer rainfall enhancement.

  16. Prediction CH4 Emissions from the Wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain of Northeastern China in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Guocheng; Lu, Yanyu; Yu, Lijun; Zhang, Ran

    2016-01-01

    The Sanjiang Plain has been experienced significant wetland loss due to expanded agricultural activities, and will be potentially restored by the China National Wetland Conservation Action Plan (NWCP) in future. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of future climate warming and wetland restoration on wetland CH4 emissions in northeast China. We used an atmosphere-vegetation interaction model (AVIM2) to drive a modified biogeophysical model (CH4MODwetland), and projected CH4 flux variations from the Sanjiang Plain wetlands under different Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios throughout the 21st century. Model validation showed that the regressions between the observed and simulated CH4 fluxes by the modified model produced an R2 of 0.49 with a slope of 0.87 (pclimate change and wetland restoration. Regional wetland restoration planning should be directed against different climate scenarios in order to suppress methane emissions. PMID:27409586

  17. Korean Children’s Delegation In Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Invited by the CPAFFC, a 26-member youth delega-tion from the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea visited Beijing from December 9 to 13, 2003.In 2002, British friend Eric Hotung set up the China-Korea (DPRK) Friendly Exchange Fund under the China Friendship Foundation for Peace and Development, which is earmarked for the

  18. [Regulation of four typical scenic recreational plantations to stand PM2.5 concentration in Beijing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-dan; Cao, Zhi-guo; Jia, Li-ming

    2015-11-01

    To study the variation of PM2.5 concentration in scenic recreational plantations and its response to meteorological factors, and to analyze the regulation effect of different stands on PM2.5 concentration, in the summer, autumn and winter of 2013, PM2.5 concentration and relevant meteorological factors in four typical scenic recreational plantations (Pinus armandii--Ginkgo biloba mixed plantation, Populus tomentosa--Fraxinus chinensi mixed plantation, Populus tomentosa pure plantation, multiple-species-layered mixed plantation) were simultaneously monitored, in Beijing Olympic Forest Park (the observation was conducted continuously for 28 days). The results showed that the daily variation of PM2.5 concentration in the four stands didn' t represent a unified pattern at different air pollution levels, but were basically consistent at the same pollution level. When the wind force was 0-2 grade, there was no significant difference among daily average PM2.5 concentrations [the average PM2.5 concentration during the observation period (9:00-15:00) ] in the four stands at each pollution level. Stand PM2.5 concentration was positively correlated to air relative humidity (P air temperature (P air relative humidity (P air temperature. The regulation effects of the four stands on PM2.5 concentration included both increasing and decreasing effects, and in this study, the critical value of air relative humidity was 67% when this regulation shifted.

  19. A grain-size record from Beijing region in Northern China: Late Quaternary paleoclimate oscillation in response to global change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guifang YANG; Zhiliang GE; Qing DAI; Jie CHENG; Gongming YIN; Lihong ZAN; Jingwei LIU

    2009-01-01

    Numerous samples taken from one core at the Beijing plain were utilized to characterize the paleocli-matic configuration of the study area and its possible relation to global control since the last interglaciation. We presented here a detailed grain-size record for the full length of Late Pleistocene, along with the optical simulated luminescence (OSL) dating. Our findings revealed that Late Pleistocene of the study area started approximately at 110 ka B.P. represented by the thick sediments of 31 m in Changping depression. Four sedimentary cycles were outlined in the core during Late Pleistocene, corresponding to marine isotope stage (MIS) 5 to 2. Controlled by regional geology and global climatic setting, eight paleoclimatic periods were identified simultaneously in the study area on the time scale of 104 year, with the warm and moist climate being found at 110- 96, 92- 76, 67- 56,and 28-18ka B.P.. The climatic instabilities on a millennial scale in Late Pleistocene were characterized largely by the occurrence of 6 strong Heinrich events shown by comparatively coarse groups. These variations correlate well with those documented in the GRIP Greenland and in the Northern Atlantic Ocean, though more complex features may exist on the long time scale.

  20. Spatial Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution for Soils in Peri-Urban Beijing, China Based on Fuzzy Set Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Man-Zhi; XU Fang-Ming; CHEN Jie; ZHANG Xue-Lei; CHEN Jing-Zhong

    2006-01-01

    Fuzzy classification combined with spatial prediction was used to assess the state of soil pollution in the peri-urban Beijing area. Total concentrations of As, Cr, Cd, Hg, and Pb were determined in 220 topsoil samples (0-20 cm) collected using a grid design in a study area of 2 600 km2. Heavy metal concentrations were grouped into three classes according to the optimum number of classes and fuzziness exponent using the fuzzy c-mean (FCM) algorithm. Membership values were interpolated using ordinary kriging. The polluted soils of the study area induced by the measured heavy metals were concentrated in the northwest corner and eastern part, especially the southeastern part close to the urban zone, whereas the soils free of pollution were mainly distributed in the southwestern part. The soils with potential risk of heavy metal pollution were located in isolated spots mainly in the northern part and southeastern corner of the study region. The FCM algorithm combined with geostatistical techniques, as compared to conventional single geostatistical kriging methods,could produce a prediction with a quantitative uncertainty evaluation and higher reliability. Successful prediction of soil pollution achieved with FCM algorithm in this study indicated that fuzzy set theory had great potential for use in other areas of soil science.