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Sample records for centrosome affects growth

  1. Ouabain affects cell migration via Na,K-ATPase-p130cas and via nucleus-centrosome association.

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    Young Ou

    Full Text Available Na,K-ATPase is a membrane protein that catalyzes ATP to maintain transmembrane sodium and potassium gradients. In addition, Na,K-ATPase also acts as a signal-transducing receptor for cardiotonic steroids such as ouabain and activates a number of signalling pathways. Several studies report that ouabain affects cell migration. Here we used ouabain at concentrations far below those required to block Na,K-ATPase pump activity and show that it significantly reduced RPE cell migration through two mechanisms. It causes dephosphorylation of a 130 kD protein, which we identify as p130cas. Src is involved, because Src inhibitors, but not inhibitors of other kinases tested, caused a similar reduction in p130cas phosphorylation and ouabain increased the association of Na,K-ATPase and Src. Knockdown of p130cas by siRNA reduced cell migration. Unexpectedly, ouabain induced separation of nucleus and centrosome, also leading to a block in cell migration. Inhibitor and siRNA experiments show that this effect is mediated by ERK1,2. This is the first report showing that ouabain can regulate cell migration by affecting nucleus-centrosome association.

  2. Using Cell Culture Models of Centrosome Amplification to Study Centrosome Clustering in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Mijung

    2016-01-01

    The link between centrosome amplification and cancer has been recognized for more than a century, raising many key questions about the biology of both normal and cancer cells. In particular, the presence of extra centrosomes imposes a great challenge to a dividing cell by increasing the likelihood of catastrophic multipolar divisions. Only recently have we begun to understand how cancer cells successfully divide by clustering their extra centrosomes for bipolar division. Several hurdles to dissecting centrosome clustering include limitations in the methodologies used to quantify centrosome amplification, and the lack of appropriate cell culture models. Here, we describe how to accurately assess centrosome number and create isogenic cell lines with or without centrosome amplification. We then describe how imaging of cell division in these cell culture models leads to identification of the molecular machinery uniquely required for cells with extra centrosomes. These approaches have led to the identification of molecular targets for selective cancer therapeutics that can kill cancer cells with extra centrosomes without affecting normal cells with two centrosomes. We further anticipate that the approaches described here will be broadly applicable for studying the causes and consequences of centrosome amplification in a variety of contexts across cancer pathophysiology, such as cell migration and metastasis.

  3. Exposure to bisphenol A correlates with early-onset prostate cancer and promotes centrosome amplification and anchorage-independent growth in vitro.

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    Pheruza Tarapore

    Full Text Available Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA is ubiquitous. Animal studies found that BPA contributes to development of prostate cancer, but human data are scarce. Our study examined the association between urinary BPA levels and Prostate cancer and assessed the effects of BPA on induction of centrosome abnormalities as an underlying mechanism promoting prostate carcinogenesis. The study, involving 60 urology patients, found higher levels of urinary BPA (creatinine-adjusted in Prostate cancer patients (5.74 µg/g [95% CI; 2.63, 12.51] than in non-Prostate cancer patients (1.43 µg/g [95% CI; 0.70, 2.88] (p = 0.012. The difference was even more significant in patients <65 years old. A trend toward a negative association between urinary BPA and serum PSA was observed in Prostate cancer patients but not in non-Prostate cancer patients. In vitro studies examined centrosomal abnormalities, microtubule nucleation, and anchorage-independent growth in four Prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, C4-2, 22Rv1, PC-3 and two immortalized normal prostate epithelial cell lines (NPrEC and RWPE-1. Exposure to low doses (0.01-100 nM of BPA increased the percentage of cells with centrosome amplification two- to eight-fold. Dose responses either peaked or reached the plateaus with 0.1 nM BPA exposure. This low dose also promoted microtubule nucleation and regrowth at centrosomes in RWPE-1 and enhanced anchorage-independent growth in C4-2. These findings suggest that urinary BPA level is an independent prognostic marker in Prostate cancer and that BPA exposure may lower serum PSA levels in Prostate cancer patients. Moreover, disruption of the centrosome duplication cycle by low-dose BPA may contribute to neoplastic transformation of the prostate.

  4. GF-15, a Novel Inhibitor of Centrosomal Clustering, Suppresses Tumor Cell Growth In Vitro and In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raab, Marc S.; Breitkreutz, Iris; Anderhub, Simon

    2012-01-01

    with supernumerary centrosomes to undergo multipolar mitoses resulting in apoptotic cell death. Here, we describe the characterization of the novel small molecule GF-15, a derivative of griseofulvin, as a potent inhibitor of centrosomal clustering in malignant cells. At concentrations where GF-15 had no significant...... impact on tubulin polymerization, spindle tension was markedly reduced in mitotic cells upon exposure to GF-15. Moreover, isogenic cells with conditional centrosome amplification were more sensitive to GF-15 than parental controls. In a wide array of tumor cell lines, mean inhibitory concentrations (IC50...

  5. A centrosome-autonomous signal that involves centriole disengagement permits centrosome duplication in G2 phase after DNA damage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2010-11-15

    DNA damage can induce centrosome overduplication in a manner that requires G2-to-M checkpoint function, suggesting that genotoxic stress can decouple the centrosome and chromosome cycles. How this happens is unclear. Using live-cell imaging of cells that express fluorescently tagged NEDD1\\/GCP-WD and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, we found that ionizing radiation (IR)-induced centrosome amplification can occur outside S phase. Analysis of synchronized populations showed that significantly more centrosome amplification occurred after irradiation of G2-enriched populations compared with G1-enriched or asynchronous cells, consistent with G2 phase centrosome amplification. Irradiated and control populations of G2 cells were then fused to test whether centrosome overduplication is allowed through a diffusible stimulatory signal, or the loss of a duplication-inhibiting signal. Irradiated G2\\/irradiated G2 cell fusions showed significantly higher centrosome amplification levels than irradiated G2\\/unirradiated G2 fusions. Chicken-human cell fusions demonstrated that centrosome amplification was limited to the irradiated partner. Our finding that only the irradiated centrosome can duplicate supports a model where a centrosome-autonomous inhibitory signal is lost upon irradiation of G2 cells. We observed centriole disengagement after irradiation. Although overexpression of dominant-negative securin did not affect IR-induced centrosome amplification, Plk1 inhibition reduced radiation-induced amplification. Together, our data support centriole disengagement as a licensing signal for DNA damage-induced centrosome amplification.

  6. Evolutionary problems in centrosome and centriole biology.

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    Ross, L; Normark, B B

    2015-05-01

    Centrosomes have been an enigma to evolutionary biologists. Either they have been the subject of ill-founded speculation or they have been ignored. Here, we highlight evolutionary paradoxes and problems of centrosome and centriole evolution and seek to understand them in the light of recent advances in centrosome biology. Most evolutionary accounts of centrosome evolution have been based on the hypothesis that centrosomes are replicators, independent of the nucleus and cytoplasm. It is now clear, however, that this hypothesis is not tenable. Instead, centrosomes are formed de novo each cell division, with the presence of an old centrosome regulating, but not essential for, the assembly of a new one. Centrosomes are the microtubule-organizing centres of cells. They can potentially affect sensory and motor characters (as the basal body of cilia), as well as the movements of chromosomes during cell division. This latter role does not seem essential, however, except in male meiosis, and the reasons for this remain unclear. Although the centrosome is absent in some taxa, when it is present, its structure is extraordinarily conserved: in most taxa across eukaryotes, it does not appear to evolve at all. And yet a few insect groups display spectacular hypertrophy of the centrioles. We discuss how this might relate to the unusual reproductive system found in these insects. Finally, we discuss why the fate of centrosomes in sperm and early embryos might differ between different groups of animals. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Small organelle, big responsibility: the role of centrosomes in development and disease.

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    Chavali, Pavithra L; Pütz, Monika; Gergely, Fanni

    2014-09-05

    The centrosome, a key microtubule organizing centre, is composed of centrioles, embedded in a protein-rich matrix. Centrosomes control the internal spatial organization of somatic cells, and as such contribute to cell division, cell polarity and migration. Upon exiting the cell cycle, most cell types in the human body convert their centrioles into basal bodies, which drive the assembly of primary cilia, involved in sensing and signal transduction at the cell surface. Centrosomal genes are targeted by mutations in numerous human developmental disorders, ranging from diseases exclusively affecting brain development, through global growth failure syndromes to diverse pathologies associated with ciliary malfunction. Despite our much-improved understanding of centrosome function in cellular processes, we know remarkably little of its role in the organismal context, especially in mammals. In this review, we examine how centrosome dysfunction impacts on complex physiological processes and speculate on the challenges we face when applying knowledge generated from in vitro and in vivo model systems to human development. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibiting Crm1 causes the formation of excess acentriolar spindle poles containing NuMA and B23, but does not affect centrosome numbers.

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    Rousselet, Annie

    2009-09-14

    B23/nucleophosmin is present on spindle poles at metaphase. Migration of B23 to the poles is under the control of exportin Crm1. B23 at the centrosome plays a role in the control centrosome duplication. h-Tert-RPE1 cells blocked in prometaphase with low doses of Nocodazol showed a progression to mitosis if Crm1 exportin was inhibited. Under these conditions, the formation of accessory poles containing gamma-tubulin, NuMA (nuclear-mitotic-apparatus) and B23 was induced at metaphase. No effect on centrosome number was observed. In quiescent h-Tert-RPE1 cells, when Crm1 was active, B23 was not detected at the centrosome as well as B23-mutants reported to block centrosome duplication. In addition, the modification of B23 nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling showed no effect on centrosome duplication. Inhibition of Crm1 in early metaphase favours the formation of supplementary acentriolar spindle poles. B23 and NuMA are present at these poles that ultimately focus around the centrosome. Inhibition of Crm1 at metaphase has no effect on the control of centrosome numbers.

  9. Centrosome Amplification Increases Single-Cell Branching in Post-mitotic Cells.

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    Ricolo, Delia; Deligiannaki, Myrto; Casanova, Jordi; Araújo, Sofia J

    2016-10-24

    Centrosome amplification is a hallmark of cancer, although we are still far from understanding how this process affects tumorigenesis [1, 2]. Besides the contribution of supernumerary centrosomes to mitotic defects, their biological effects in the post-mitotic cell are not well known. Here, we exploit the effects of centrosome amplification in post-mitotic cells during single-cell branching. We show that Drosophila tracheal cells with extra centrosomes branch more than wild-type cells. We found that mutations in Rca1 and CycA affect subcellular branching, causing tracheal tip cells to form more than one subcellular lumen. We show that Rca1 and CycA post-mitotic cells have supernumerary centrosomes and that other mutant conditions that increase centrosome number also show excess of subcellular lumen branching. Furthermore, we show that de novo lumen formation is impaired in mutant embryos with fewer centrioles. The data presented here define a requirement for the centrosome as a microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) for the initiation of subcellular lumen formation. We propose that centrosomes are necessary to drive subcellular lumen formation. In addition, centrosome amplification increases single-cell branching, a process parallel to capillary sprouting in blood vessels [3]. These results shed new light on how centrosomes can contribute to pathology independently of mitotic defects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Licensing of yeast centrosome duplication requires phosphoregulation of sfi1.

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    Jennifer S Avena

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Duplication of centrosomes once per cell cycle is essential for bipolar spindle formation and genome maintenance and is controlled in part by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks. Our study identifies Sfi1, a conserved component of centrosomes, as the first Cdk substrate required to restrict centrosome duplication to once per cell cycle. We found that reducing Cdk1 phosphorylation by changing Sfi1 phosphorylation sites to nonphosphorylatable residues leads to defects in separation of duplicated spindle pole bodies (SPBs, yeast centrosomes and to inappropriate SPB reduplication during mitosis. These cells also display defects in bipolar spindle assembly, chromosome segregation, and growth. Our findings lead to a model whereby phosphoregulation of Sfi1 by Cdk1 has the dual function of promoting SPB separation for spindle formation and preventing premature SPB duplication. In addition, we provide evidence that the protein phosphatase Cdc14 has the converse role of activating licensing, likely via dephosphorylation of Sfi1.

  11. ATX-2, the C. elegans Ortholog of Human Ataxin-2, Regulates Centrosome Size and Microtubule Dynamics.

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    Stubenvoll, Michael D; Medley, Jeffrey C; Irwin, Miranda; Song, Mi Hye

    2016-09-01

    Centrosomes are critical sites for orchestrating microtubule dynamics, and exhibit dynamic changes in size during the cell cycle. As cells progress to mitosis, centrosomes recruit more microtubules (MT) to form mitotic bipolar spindles that ensure proper chromosome segregation. We report a new role for ATX-2, a C. elegans ortholog of Human Ataxin-2, in regulating centrosome size and MT dynamics. ATX-2, an RNA-binding protein, forms a complex with SZY-20 in an RNA-independent fashion. Depleting ATX-2 results in embryonic lethality and cytokinesis failure, and restores centrosome duplication to zyg-1 mutants. In this pathway, SZY-20 promotes ATX-2 abundance, which inversely correlates with centrosome size. Centrosomes depleted of ATX-2 exhibit elevated levels of centrosome factors (ZYG-1, SPD-5, γ-Tubulin), increasing MT nucleating activity but impeding MT growth. We show that ATX-2 influences MT behavior through γ-Tubulin at the centrosome. Our data suggest that RNA-binding proteins play an active role in controlling MT dynamics and provide insight into the control of proper centrosome size and MT dynamics.

  12. ATX-2, the C. elegans Ortholog of Human Ataxin-2, Regulates Centrosome Size and Microtubule Dynamics.

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    Michael D Stubenvoll

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Centrosomes are critical sites for orchestrating microtubule dynamics, and exhibit dynamic changes in size during the cell cycle. As cells progress to mitosis, centrosomes recruit more microtubules (MT to form mitotic bipolar spindles that ensure proper chromosome segregation. We report a new role for ATX-2, a C. elegans ortholog of Human Ataxin-2, in regulating centrosome size and MT dynamics. ATX-2, an RNA-binding protein, forms a complex with SZY-20 in an RNA-independent fashion. Depleting ATX-2 results in embryonic lethality and cytokinesis failure, and restores centrosome duplication to zyg-1 mutants. In this pathway, SZY-20 promotes ATX-2 abundance, which inversely correlates with centrosome size. Centrosomes depleted of ATX-2 exhibit elevated levels of centrosome factors (ZYG-1, SPD-5, γ-Tubulin, increasing MT nucleating activity but impeding MT growth. We show that ATX-2 influences MT behavior through γ-Tubulin at the centrosome. Our data suggest that RNA-binding proteins play an active role in controlling MT dynamics and provide insight into the control of proper centrosome size and MT dynamics.

  13. Centrosome Dysfunction Contributes To Chromosome Instability, Chromoanagenesis And Genome Reprograming In Cancer.

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    German A Pihan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The unique ability of centrosomes to nucleate and organize microtubules makes them unrivaled conductors of important interphase processes, such as intracellular payload traffic, cell polarity, cell locomotion, and organization of the immunologic synapse. But it is in mitosis that centrosomes loom large, for they orchestrate, with clockmaker’s precision, the assembly and functioning of the mitotic spindle, ensuring the equal partitioning of the replicated genome into daughter cells. Centrosome dysfunction is inextricably linked to aneuploidy and chromosome instability, both hallmarks of cancer cells. Several aspects of centrosome function in normal and cancer cells have been molecularly characterized during the last two decades, greatly enhancing our mechanistic understanding of this tiny organelle. Whether centrosome defects alone can cause cancer, remains unanswered. Until recently, the aggregate of the evidence had suggested that centrosome dysfunction, by deregulating the fidelity of chromosome segregation, promotes and accelerates the characteristic Darwinian evolution of the cancer genome enabled by increased mutational load and/or decreased DNA repair. Very recent experimental work has shown that missegreated chromosomes resulting from centrosome dysfunction may experience extensive DNA damage, suggesting additional dimensions to the role of centrosomes in cancer. Centrosome dysfunction is particularly prevalent in tumors in which the genome has undergone extensive structural rearrangements and chromosome domain reshuffling. Ongoing gene reshuffling reprograms the genome for continuous growth, survival, and evasion of the immune system. Manipulation of molecular networks controlling centrosome function may soon become a viable target for specific therapeutic intervention in cancer, particularly since normal cells, which lack centrosome alterations, may be spared the toxicity of such therapies.

  14. Molecular Basis of Genomic Instability in Breast Cancer: Regulation of the Centrosome Duplication Cycle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Du, Jian

    2003-01-01

    Alteration in the expression and activity of the centrosomal kinase in breast cancers, Aurora-A/STK15, affect genomic stability, disrupt the fidelity of centrsome duplication, and induce cellular transformation...

  15. Centrosome structure and function is altered by chloral hydrate and diazepam during the first reproductive cell cycles in sea urchin eggs

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    Schatten, H.; Chakrabarti, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the mode of action of the tranquillizers chloral hydrate and diazepam during fertilization and mitosis of the first reproductive cell cycles in sea urchin eggs. Most striking effects of these drugs are the alteration of centrosomal material and the abnormal microtubule configurations during exposure and after recovery from the drugs. This finding is utilized to study the mechanisms of centrosome compaction and decompaction and the dynamic configurational changes of centrosomal material and its interactions with microtubules. When 0.1% chloral hydrate or 350-750 microM diazepam is applied at specific phases during the first cell cycle of sea urchin eggs, expanded centrosomal material compacts at distinct regions and super-compacts into dense spheres while microtubules disassemble. When eggs are treated before pronuclear fusion, centrosomal material aggregates around each of the two pronuclei while microtubules disappear. Upon recovery, atypical asters oftentimes with multiple foci are formed from centrosomal material surrounding the pronuclei which indicates that the drugs have affected centrosomal material and prevent it from functioning normally. Electron microscopy and immunofluorescence studies with antibodies that routinely stain centrosomes in sea urchin eggs (4D2; and Ah-6) depict centrosomal material that is altered when compared to control cells. This centrosomal material is not able to reform normal microtubule patterns upon recovery but will form multiple asters around the two pronuclei. When cells are treated with 0.1% chloral hydrate or 350-750 microM diazepam during mitosis, the bipolar centrosomal material becomes compacted and aggregates into multiple dense spheres while spindle and polar microtubules disassemble. With increased incubation time, the smaller dense centrosome particles aggregate into bigger and fewer spheres. Upon recovery, unusual irregular microtubule configurations are formed from centrosomes that have lost their

  16. LRRC45 Is a Centrosome Linker Component Required for Centrosome Cohesion

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    Runsheng He

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During interphase, centrosomes are connected by a proteinaceous linker between the proximal ends of the centrioles, which is important for the centrosomes to function as a single microtubule-organizing center. However, the composition and regulation of centrosomal linker remain largely unknown. Here, we show that LRRC45 is a centrosome linker that localizes at the proximal ends of the centrioles and forms fiber-like structures between them. Depletion of LRRC45 results in centrosome splitting during interphase. Moreover, LRRC45 interacts with both C-Nap1 and rootletin and is phosphorylated by Nek2A at S661 during mitosis. After phosphorylation, both LRRC45 centrosomal localization and fiber-like structures are significantly reduced, which subsequently leads to centrosome separation. Thus, LRRC45 is a critical component of the proteinaceous linker between two centrioles and is required for centrosome cohesion.

  17. Same but different: pleiotropy in centrosome-related microcephaly.

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    O'Neill, Ryan S; Schoborg, Todd A; Rusan, Nasser M

    2018-02-01

    An intimate link between centrosome function and neurogenesis is revealed by the identification of many genes with centrosome-associated functions that are mutated in microcephaly disorders. Consistent with the major role of the centrosome in mitosis, mutations in these centrosome-related microcephaly (CRM) genes are thought to affect neurogenesis by depleting the pool of neural progenitor cells, primarily through apoptosis as a consequence of mitotic failure or premature differentiation as a consequence of cell cycle delay and randomization of spindle orientation. However, as suggested by the wide range of microcephaly phenotypes and the multifunctional nature of many CRM proteins, this picture of CRM gene function is incomplete. Here, we explore several examples of CRM genes pointing to additional functions that contribute to microcephaly, including regulation of cell cycle signaling, actin cytoskeleton, and Hippo pathway proteins, as well as functions in postmitotic neurons and glia. As these examples are likely just the tip of the iceberg, further exploration of the roles of microcephaly-related genes are certain to reveal additional unforeseen functions important for neurodevelopment. © 2018 O‘Neill et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  18. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of an Allosteric Inhibitor of HSET that Targets Cancer Cells with Supernumerary Centrosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Ciorsdaidh A.; Richards, Frances M.; Bender, Andreas; Bond, Peter J.; Korb, Oliver; Kern, Oliver; Riddick, Michelle; Owen, Paul; Myers, Rebecca M.; Raff, Jordan; Gergely, Fanni; Jodrell, Duncan I.; Ley, Steven V.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Centrosomes associate with spindle poles; thus, the presence of two centrosomes promotes bipolar spindle assembly in normal cells. Cancer cells often contain supernumerary centrosomes, and to avoid multipolar mitosis and cell death, these are clustered into two poles by the microtubule motor protein HSET. We report the discovery of an allosteric inhibitor of HSET, CW069, which we designed using a methodology on an interface of chemistry and biology. Using this approach, we explored millions of compounds in silico and utilized convergent syntheses. Only compound CW069 showed marked activity against HSET in vitro. The inhibitor induced multipolar mitoses only in cells containing supernumerary centrosomes. CW069 therefore constitutes a valuable tool for probing HSET function and, by reducing the growth of cells containing supernumerary centrosomes, paves the way for new cancer therapeutics. PMID:24210220

  19. p53 Dependent Centrosome Clustering Prevents Multipolar Mitosis in Tetraploid Cells

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    Yi, Qiyi; Zhao, Xiaoyu; Huang, Yun; Ma, Tieliang; Zhang, Yingyin; Hou, Heli; Cooke, Howard J.; Yang, Da-Qing; Wu, Mian; Shi, Qinghua

    2011-01-01

    Background p53 abnormality and aneuploidy often coexist in human tumors, and tetraploidy is considered as an intermediate between normal diploidy and aneuploidy. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether and how p53 influences the transformation from tetraploidy to aneuploidy. Principal Findings Live cell imaging was performed to determine the fates and mitotic behaviors of several human and mouse tetraploid cells with different p53 status, and centrosome and spindle immunostaining was used to investigate centrosome behaviors. We found that p53 dominant-negative mutation, point mutation, or knockout led to a 2∼ 33-fold increase of multipolar mitosis in N/TERT1, 3T3 and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), while mitotic entry and cell death were not significantly affected. In p53-/- tetraploid MEFs, the ability of centrosome clustering was compromised, while centrosome inactivation was not affected. Suppression of RhoA/ROCK activity by specific inhibitors in p53-/- tetraploid MEFs enhanced centrosome clustering, decreased multipolar mitosis from 38% to 20% and 16% for RhoA and ROCK, respectively, while expression of constitutively active RhoA in p53+/+ tetraploid 3T3 cells increased the frequency of multipolar mitosis from 15% to 35%. Conclusions p53 could not prevent tetraploid cells entering mitosis or induce tetraploid cell death. However, p53 abnormality impaired centrosome clustering and lead to multipolar mitosis in tetraploid cells by modulating the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. PMID:22076149

  20. Centrosome loss in the evolution of planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimzadeh, Juliette; Wong, Mei Lie; Downhour, Diane Miller; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro; Marshall, Wallace F

    2012-01-27

    The centrosome, a cytoplasmic organelle formed by cylinder-shaped centrioles surrounded by a microtubule-organizing matrix, is a hallmark of animal cells. The centrosome is conserved and essential for the development of all animal species described so far. Here, we show that planarians, and possibly other flatworms, lack centrosomes. In planarians, centrioles are only assembled in terminally differentiating ciliated cells through the acentriolar pathway to trigger the assembly of cilia. We identified a large set of conserved proteins required for centriole assembly in animals and note centrosome protein families that are missing from the planarian genome. Our study uncovers the molecular architecture and evolution of the animal centrosome and emphasizes the plasticity of animal cell biology and development.

  1. The centrosomal linker and microtubules provide dual levels of spatial coordination of centrosomes.

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    Marko Panic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The centrosome is the principal microtubule organizing center in most animal cells. It consists of a pair of centrioles surrounded by pericentriolar material. The centrosome, like DNA, duplicates exactly once per cell cycle. During interphase duplicated centrosomes remain closely linked by a proteinaceous linker. This centrosomal linker is composed of rootletin filaments that are anchored to the centrioles via the protein C-Nap1. At the onset of mitosis the linker is dissolved by Nek2A kinase to support the formation of the bipolar mitotic spindle. The importance of the centrosomal linker for cell function during interphase awaits characterization. Here we assessed the phenotype of human RPE1 C-Nap1 knockout (KO cells. The absence of the linker led to a modest increase in the average centrosome separation from 1 to 2.5 μm. This small impact on the degree of separation is indicative of a second level of spatial organization of centrosomes. Microtubule depolymerisation or stabilization in C-Nap1 KO cells dramatically increased the inter-centrosomal separation (> 8 μm. Thus, microtubules position centrosomes relatively close to one another in the absence of linker function. C-Nap1 KO cells had a Golgi organization defect with a two-fold expansion of the area occupied by the Golgi. When the centrosomes of C-Nap1 KO cells showed considerable separation, two spatially distinct Golgi stacks could be observed. Furthermore, migration of C-Nap1 KO cells was slower than their wild type RPE1 counterparts. These data show that the spatial organization of centrosomes is modulated by a combination of centrosomal cohesion and microtubule forces. Furthermore a modest increase in centrosome separation has major impact on Golgi organization and cell migration.

  2. How does political instability affect economic growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Aisen, Ari; Veiga, Francisco José

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically determine the effects of political instability on economic growth. Using the system-GMM estimator for linear dynamic panel data models on a sample covering up to 169 countries, and 5-year periods from 1960 to 2004, we find that higher degrees of political instability are associated with lower growth rates of GDP per capita. Regarding the channels of transmission, we find that political instability adversely affects growth by lowering the rates of pr...

  3. The Centrosome, a Multitalented Renaissance Organelle.

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    Vertii, Anastassiia; Hehnly, Heidi; Doxsey, Stephen

    2016-12-01

    The centrosome acts as a microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) from the G 1 to G 2 phases of the cell cycle; it can mature into a spindle pole during mitosis and/or transition into a cilium by elongating microtubules (MTs) from the basal body on cell differentiation or cell cycle arrest. New studies hint that the centrosome functions in more than MT organization. For instance, it has recently been shown that a specific substructure of the centrosome-the mother centriole appendages-are required for the recycling of endosomes back to the plasma membrane. This alone could have important implications for a renaissance in our understanding of the development of primary cilia, endosome recycling, and the immune response. Here, we review newly identified roles for the centrosome in directing membrane traffic, the immunological synapse, and the stress response. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  4. GABARAP activates ULK1 and traffics from the centrosome dependent on Golgi partners WAC and GOLGA2/GM130.

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    Joachim, Justin; Tooze, Sharon A

    2016-05-03

    WAC and GOLGA2/GM130 are 2 Golgi proteins that affect autophagy; however, their mechanism of action was unknown. We have shown that WAC binding to GOLGA2 at the Golgi displaces GABARAP from GOLGA2 to allow the maintenance of a nonlipidated centrosomal GABARAP pool. Centrosomal GABARAP can traffic to autophagic structures during starvation. In addition GABARAP specifically promotes ULK1 activation and this is independent of GABARAP lipidation but likely requires a LIR-mediated GABARAP-ULK1 interaction.

  5. GABARAP activates ULK1 and traffics from the centrosome dependent on Golgi partners WAC and GOLGA2/GM130

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim, Justin; Tooze, Sharon A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT WAC and GOLGA2/GM130 are 2 Golgi proteins that affect autophagy; however, their mechanism of action was unknown. We have shown that WAC binding to GOLGA2 at the Golgi displaces GABARAP from GOLGA2 to allow the maintenance of a nonlipidated centrosomal GABARAP pool. Centrosomal GABARAP can traffic to autophagic structures during starvation. In addition GABARAP specifically promotes ULK1 activation and this is independent of GABARAP lipidation but likely requires a LIR-mediated GABARAP...

  6. Pten regulates spindle pole movement through Dlg1-mediated recruitment of Eg5 to centrosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ree, Janine H; Nam, Hyun-Ja; Jeganathan, Karthik B; Kanakkanthara, Arun; van Deursen, Jan M

    2016-07-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homologue (Pten) suppresses neoplastic growth by negatively regulating PI(3)K signalling through its phosphatase activity. To gain insight into the actions of non-catalytic Pten domains in normal physiological processes and tumorigenesis, we engineered mice lacking the PDZ-binding domain (PDZ-BD). Here, we show that the PDZ-BD regulates centrosome movement and that its heterozygous or homozygous deletion promotes aneuploidy and tumour formation. We found that Pten is recruited to pre-mitotic centrosomes in a Plk1-dependent fashion to create a docking site for protein complexes containing the PDZ-domain-containing protein Dlg1 (also known as Sap97) and Eg5 (also known as Kif11), a kinesin essential for centrosome movement and bipolar spindle formation. Docking of Dlg1-Eg5 complexes to Pten depended on Eg5 phosphorylation by the Nek9-Nek6 mitotic kinase cascade and Cdk1. PDZ-BD deletion or Dlg1 ablation impaired loading of Eg5 onto centrosomes and spindle pole motility, yielding asymmetrical spindles that are prone to chromosome missegregation. Collectively, these data demonstrate that Pten, through the Dlg1-binding ability of its PDZ-BD, accumulates phosphorylated Eg5 at duplicated centrosomes to establish symmetrical bipolar spindles that properly segregate chromosomes, and suggest that this function contributes to tumour suppression.

  7. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of griseofulvin analogues as inhibitors of centrosomal clustering in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnest, Mads H; Rebacz, Blanka; Markworth, Lene; Terp, Anette H; Larsen, Thomas O; Krämer, Alwin; Clausen, Mads H

    2009-05-28

    Griseofulvin was identified as an inhibitor of centrosomal clustering in a recently developed assay. Centrosomal clustering is an important cellular event that enables bipolar mitosis for cancer cell lines harboring supernumerary centrosomes. We report herein the synthesis and SAR of 34 griseofulvin analogues as inhibitors of centrosomal clustering. The variations in the griseofulvin structure cover five positions, namely the 4, 5, 2', 3', and 4' positions. Modification of the 4 and 5 positions affords inactive molecules. The enol ether must be at the 2' position, and the 4' position needs to be sp(2) hybridized. The most active analogues were the 2'-benzyloxy and 2'-(4-methylbenzyloxy) analogues as well as the oxime of the former with a 25-fold increase of activity compared to griseofulvin. Comparison of the results obtained in this work with prior reported growth inhibition data for dermatophytic fungi showed both similarities and differences.

  8. High LET Radiation Amplifies Centrosome Overduplication Through a Pathway of γ-Tubulin Monoubiquitination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Mikio [Department of Genome Repair Dynamics, Radiation Biology Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Hirayama, Ryoichi [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Komatsu, Kenshi, E-mail: komatsu@house.rbc.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Genome Repair Dynamics, Radiation Biology Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation induces centrosome overduplication, leading to mitotic catastrophe and tumorigenesis. Because mitotic catastrophe is one of the major tumor cell killing factors in high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation therapy and long-term survivors from such treatment have a potential risk of secondary tumors, we investigated LET dependence of radiation-induced centrosome overduplication and the underlying mechanism. Methods and Materials: Carbon and iron ion beams (13-200 keV/μm) and γ-rays (0.5 keV/μm) were used as radiation sources. To count centrosomes after IR exposure, human U2OS and mouse NIH3T3 cells were immunostained with antibodies of γ-tubulin and centrin 2. Similarly, Nbs1-, Brca1-, Ku70-, and DNA-PKcs-deficient mouse cells and their counterpart wild-type cells were used for measurement of centrosome overduplication. Results: The number of excess centrosome-containing cells at interphase and the resulting multipolar spindle at mitosis were amplified with increased LET, reaching a maximum level of 100 keV/μm, followed by sharp decrease in frequency. Interestingly, Ku70 and DNA-PKcs deficiencies marginally affected the induction of centrosome overduplication, whereas the cell killings were significantly enhanced. This was in contrast to observation that high LET radiation significantly enhanced frequencies of centrosome overduplication in Nbs1- and Brca1-deficient cells. Because NBS1/BRCA1 is implicated in monoubiquitination of γ-tubulin, we subsequently tested whether it is affected by high LET radiation. As a result, monoubiquitination of γ-tubulin was abolished in 48 to 72 hours after exposure to high LET radiation, although γ-ray exposure slightly decreased it 48 hours postirradiation and was restored to a normal level at 72 hours. Conclusions: High LET radiation significantly reduces NBS1/BRCA1-mediated monoubiquitination of γ-tubulin and amplifies centrosome overduplication with a peak at 100 keV/μm. In contrast, Ku70 and DNA

  9. Activation of maternal centrosomes in unfertilized sea urchin eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, H.; Walter, M.; Biessmann, H.; Schatten, G.

    1992-01-01

    Centrosomes are undetectable in unfertilized sea urchin eggs, and normally the sperm introduces the cell's microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) at fertilization. However, artificial activation or parthenogenesis triggers microtubule assembly in the unfertilized egg, and this study explores the reappearance and behavior of the maternal centrosome. During activation with A23187 or ammonia, microtubules appear first at the cortex; centrosomal antigen is detected diffusely throughout the entire cytoplasm. Later, the centrosome becomes more distinct and organizes a radial microtubule shell, and eventually a compact centrosome at the egg center organizes a monaster. In these activated eggs, centrosomes undergo cycles of compaction and decompaction in synchrony with the chromatin, which also undergoes cycles of condensation and decondensation. Parthenogenetic activation with heavy water (50% D2O) or the microtubule-stabilizing drug taxol (10 microM) induces numerous centrosomal foci in the unfertilized sea urchin egg. Within 15 min after incubation in D2O, numerous fine centrosomal foci are detected, and they organize a connected network of numerous asters which fill the entire egg. Taxol induces over 100 centrosomal foci by 15 min after treatment, which organize a corresponding number of asters. The centrosomal material in either D2O- or taxol-treated eggs aggregates with time to form fewer but denser foci, resulting in fewer and larger asters. Fertilization of eggs pretreated with either D2O or taxol shows that the paternal centrosome is dominant over the maternal centrosome. The centrosomal material gradually becomes associated with the enlarged sperm aster. These experiments demonstrate that maternal centrosomal material is present in the unfertilized egg, likely as dispersed undetectable material, which can be activated without paternal contributions. At fertilization, paternal centrosomes become dominant over the maternal centrosomal material.

  10. How Does Social Trust Affect Economic Growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Social capital in the form of generalized trust has been shown to be a determinant of economic growth in a number of studies. Other studies have explored other consequences of trust, such as its effects on governance, corruption, education and investment. This paper connects the two strands...... of literature by estimating the effects of trust on growth through a set of potential transmission mechanisms directly. It does so by modelling the process using a three-stage least squares estimator on a sample of countries for which a full data set is available. The results indicate that trust affects...

  11. Role of mitotic motors, dynein and kinesin, in the induction of abnormal centrosome integrity and multipolar spindles in cultured V79 cells exposed to dimethylarsinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Takafumi

    2002-01-29

    The role of microtubule-based motors in the induction of abnormal centrosome integrity by dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) was investigated with the use of monastrol, a specific inhibitor of mitotic kinesin, and vanadate, an inhibitor of dynein ATPase. Cytoplasmic dynein co-localized with multiple foci of gamma-tubulin in mitotic cells arrested by DMAA. Disruption of microtubules caused dispersion of dynein while multiple foci of gamma-tubulin were coalesced to a single dot. Vanadate also caused dispersion of dynein, which had been co-localized with multiple foci of gamma-tubulin by DMAA, without affecting spindle organization. However, the dispersion of dynein did not prohibit the induction of abnormal centrosome integrity by DMAA. Inhibition of mitotic kinesin by monastrol resulted in monoastral cells with non-migrated centrosomes in the cell center. Monastrol, when applied to mitotic cells with abnormal centrosome integrity, rapidly reduced the incidence of cells with the centrosome abnormality. Moreover, monastrol completely inhibited reorganization of abnormal centrosomes that had been coalesced to a single dot by microtubule disruption. These results suggest that abnormal centrosome integrity caused by DMAA is not simply due to dispersion of fragments of microtubule-organizing centers, but is dependent on the action of kinesin. In addition, the results suggest that kinesin plays a role not only in the induction of mitotic centrosome abnormality, but also in maintenance.

  12. Does Political Ideology Affect Economic Growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper asks the question whether political ideology affects economic growth. Voters may demand inefficient levels of redistribution and government intervention, and they may care too little for aspects that really matter for the economy. Their norms and perceptions of society might, via...... their political ideology, affect economic performance. The paper presents evidence suggesting that rightwing societies have grown faster in the last decades than other democratic societies. Further analysis suggests that these societies develop better legal systems and less government intervention, which in turn...

  13. Targeting TAO Kinases Using a New Inhibitor Compound Delays Mitosis and Induces Mitotic Cell Death in Centrosome Amplified Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Chuay-Yeng; Giacomini, Caterina; Reyes-Corral, Marta; Olmos, Yolanda; Tavares, Ignatius A; Marson, Charles M; Linardopoulos, Spiros; Tutt, Andrew N; Morris, Jonathan D H

    2017-11-01

    Thousand-and-one amino acid kinases (TAOK) 1 and 2 are activated catalytically during mitosis and can contribute to mitotic cell rounding and spindle positioning. Here, we characterize a compound that inhibits TAOK1 and TAOK2 activity with IC 50 values of 11 to 15 nmol/L, is ATP-competitive, and targets these kinases selectively. TAOK inhibition or depletion in centrosome-amplified SKBR3 or BT549 breast cancer cell models increases the mitotic population, the percentages of mitotic cells displaying amplified centrosomes and multipolar spindles, induces cell death, and inhibits cell growth. In contrast, nontumorigenic and dividing bipolar MCF-10A breast cells appear less dependent on TAOK activity and can complete mitosis and proliferate in the presence of the TAOK inhibitor. We demonstrate that TAOK1 and TAOK2 localize to the cytoplasm and centrosomes respectively during mitosis. Live cell imaging shows that the TAOK inhibitor prolongs the duration of mitosis in SKBR3 cells, increases mitotic cell death, and reduces the percentages of cells exiting mitosis, whereas MCF-10A cells continue to divide and proliferate. Over 80% of breast cancer tissues display supernumerary centrosomes, and tumor cells frequently cluster extra centrosomes to avoid multipolar mitoses and associated cell death. Consequently, drugs that stimulate centrosome declustering and induce multipolarity are likely to target dividing centrosome-amplified cancer cells preferentially, while sparing normal bipolar cells. Our results demonstrate that TAOK inhibition can enhance centrosome declustering and mitotic catastrophe in cancer cells, and these proteins may therefore offer novel therapeutic targets suitable for drug inhibition and the potential treatment of breast cancers, where supernumerary centrosomes occur. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(11); 2410-21. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Centrosome/Cell cycle uncoupling and elimination in the endoreduplicating intestinal cells of C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yu; Roy, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The centrosome cycle is most often coordinated with mitotic cell division through the activity of various essential cell cycle regulators, consequently ensuring that the centriole is duplicated once, and only once, per cell cycle. However, this coupling can be altered in specific developmental contexts; for example, multi-ciliated cells generate hundreds of centrioles without any S-phase requirement for their biogenesis, while Drosophila follicle cells eliminate their centrosomes as they begin to endoreduplicate. In order to better understand how the centrosome cycle and the cell cycle are coordinated in a developmental context we use the endoreduplicating intestinal cell lineage of C. elegans to address how novel variations of the cell cycle impact this important process. In C. elegans, the larval intestinal cells undergo one nuclear division without subsequent cytokinesis, followed by four endocycles that are characterized by successive rounds of S-phase. We monitored the levels of centriolar/centrosomal markers and found that centrosomes lose their pericentriolar material following the nuclear division that occurs during the L1 stage and is thereafter never re-gained. The centrioles then become refractory to S phase regulators that would normally promote duplication during the first endocycle, after which they are eliminated during the L2 stage. Furthermore, we show that SPD-2 plays a central role in the numeral regulation of centrioles as a potential target of CDK activity. On the other hand, the phosphorylation on SPD-2 by Polo-like kinase, the transcriptional regulation of genes that affect centriole biogenesis, and the ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathway, contribute collectively to the final elimination of the centrioles during the L2 stage.

  15. Centrosome/Cell cycle uncoupling and elimination in the endoreduplicating intestinal cells of C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lu

    Full Text Available The centrosome cycle is most often coordinated with mitotic cell division through the activity of various essential cell cycle regulators, consequently ensuring that the centriole is duplicated once, and only once, per cell cycle. However, this coupling can be altered in specific developmental contexts; for example, multi-ciliated cells generate hundreds of centrioles without any S-phase requirement for their biogenesis, while Drosophila follicle cells eliminate their centrosomes as they begin to endoreduplicate. In order to better understand how the centrosome cycle and the cell cycle are coordinated in a developmental context we use the endoreduplicating intestinal cell lineage of C. elegans to address how novel variations of the cell cycle impact this important process. In C. elegans, the larval intestinal cells undergo one nuclear division without subsequent cytokinesis, followed by four endocycles that are characterized by successive rounds of S-phase. We monitored the levels of centriolar/centrosomal markers and found that centrosomes lose their pericentriolar material following the nuclear division that occurs during the L1 stage and is thereafter never re-gained. The centrioles then become refractory to S phase regulators that would normally promote duplication during the first endocycle, after which they are eliminated during the L2 stage. Furthermore, we show that SPD-2 plays a central role in the numeral regulation of centrioles as a potential target of CDK activity. On the other hand, the phosphorylation on SPD-2 by Polo-like kinase, the transcriptional regulation of genes that affect centriole biogenesis, and the ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathway, contribute collectively to the final elimination of the centrioles during the L2 stage.

  16. Centrosome – a promising anti-cancer target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera-Rivera Y

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yainyrette Rivera-Rivera, Harold I Saavedra Department of Pharmacology, Ponce Health Sciences University-School of Medicine, Ponce Research Institute, Ponce, Puerto Rico Abstract: The centrosome, an organelle discovered >100 years ago, is the main microtubule-organizing center in mammalian organisms. The centrosome is composed of a pair of centrioles surrounded by the pericentriolar material (PMC and plays a major role in the regulation of cell cycle transitions (G1-S, G2-M, and metaphase-anaphase, ensuring the normality of cell division. Hundreds of proteins found in the centrosome exert a variety of roles, including microtubule dynamics, nucleation, and kinetochore–microtubule attachments that allow correct chromosome alignment and segregation. Errors in these processes lead to structural (shape, size, number, position, and composition, functional (abnormal microtubule nucleation and disorganized spindles, and numerical (centrosome amplification [CA] centrosome aberrations causing aneuploidy and genomic instability. Compelling data demonstrate that centrosomes are implicated in cancer, because there are important oncogenic and tumor suppressor proteins that are localized in this organelle and drive centrosome aberrations. Centrosome defects have been found in pre-neoplasias and tumors from breast, ovaries, prostate, head and neck, lung, liver, and bladder among many others. Several drugs/compounds against centrosomal proteins have shown promising results. Other drugs have higher toxicity with modest or no benefits, and there are more recently developed agents being tested in clinical trials. All of this emerging evidence suggests that targeting centrosome aberrations may be a future avenue for therapeutic intervention in cancer research. Keywords: centrosomes, cell cycle, mitosis, CA, CIN, cancer therapy

  17. Centrosome and microtubule instability in aging Drosophila cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, H.; Chakrabarti, A.; Hedrick, J.

    1999-01-01

    Several cytoskeletal changes are associated with aging which includes alterations in muscle structure leading to muscular atrophy, and weakening of the microtubule network which affects cellular secretion and maintenance of cell shape. Weakening of the microtubule network during meiosis in aging oocytes can result in aneuploidy or trisomic zygotes with increasing maternal age. Imbalances of cytoskeletal organization can lead to disease such as Alzheimer's, muscular disorders, and cancer. Because many cytoskeletal diseases are related to age we investigated the effects of aging on microtubule organization in cell cultures of the Drosophila cell model system (Schneider S-1 and Kc23 cell lines). This cell model is increasingly being used as an alternative system to mammalian cell cultures. Drosophila cells are amenable to genetic manipulations and can be used to identify and manipulate genes which are involved in the aging processes. Immunofluorescence, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy were employed for the analysis of microtubule organizing centers (centrosomes) and microtubules at various times after subculturing cells in fresh medium. Our results reveal that centrosomes and the microtubule network becomes significantly affected in aging cells after 5 days of subculture. At 5-14 days of subculture, 1% abnormal out of 3% mitoses were noted which were clearly distinguishable from freshly subcultured control cells in which 3% of cells undergo normal mitosis with bipolar configurations. Microtubules are also affected in the midbody during cell division. The midbody in aging cells becomes up to 10 times longer when compared with midbodies in freshly subcultured cells. During interphase, microtubules are often disrupted and disorganized, which may indicate improper function related to transport of cell organelles along microtubules. These results are likely to help explain some cytoskeletal disorders and diseases related to aging.

  18. Towards a molecular architecture of the centrosome in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlon-Guyot, Juliette; Francia, Maria E; Dubremetz, Jean-François; Daher, Wassim

    2017-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis. The pathogenicity of this unicellular parasite is tightly linked to its ability to efficiently proliferate within its host. Tachyzoites, the fast dividing form of the parasite, divide by endodyogeny. This process involves a single round of DNA replication, closed nuclear mitosis, and assembly of two daughter cells within a mother. The successful completion of endodyogeny relies on the temporal and spatial coordination of a plethora of simultaneous events. It has been shown that the Toxoplasma centrosome serves as signaling hub which nucleates spindle microtubules during mitosis and organizes the scaffolding of daughter cells components during cytokinesis. In addition, the centrosome is essential for inheriting both the apicoplast (a chloroplast-like organelle) and the Golgi apparatus. A growing body of evidence supports the notion that the T. gondii centrosome diverges in protein composition, structure and organization from its counterparts in higher eukaryotes making it an attractive source of potentially druggable targets. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on T. gondii centrosomal proteins and extend the putative centrosomal protein repertoire by in silico identification of mammalian centrosomal protein orthologs. We propose a working model for the organization and architecture of the centrosome in Toxoplasma parasites. Experimental validation of our proposed model will uncover how each predicted protein translates into the biology of centrosome, cytokinesis, karyokinesis, and organelle inheritance in Toxoplasma parasites. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Loss and Rebirth of the Animal Microtubule Organizing Center: How Maternal Expression of Centrosomal Proteins Cooperates with the Sperm Centriole in Zygotic Centrosome Reformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Daigo; Wittbrodt, Joachim; Gruss, Oliver J

    2018-03-09

    Centrosomes are the main microtubule organizing centers in animal cells. In particular during embryogenesis, they ensure faithful spindle formation and proper cell divisions. As metazoan centrosomes are eliminated during oogenesis, they have to be reassembled upon fertilization. Most metazoans use the sperm centrioles as templates for new centrosome biogenesis while the egg's cytoplasm re-prepares all components for on-going centrosome duplication in rapidly dividing embryonic cells. We discuss our knowledge and the experimental challenges to analyze zygotic centrosome reformation, which requires genetic experiments to enable scrutinizing respective male and female contributions. Male and female knockout animals and mRNA injection to mimic maternal expression of centrosomal proteins could point a way to the systematic molecular dissection of the process. The most recent data suggest that timely expression of centrosome components in oocytes is the key to zygotic centrosome reformation that uses male sperm as coordinators for de novo centrosome production. © 2018 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Cold-treated centrosome: isolation of centrosomes from mitotic sea urchin eggs, production of an anticentrosomal antibody, and novel ultrastructural imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Coffe, C; Coffe, G; Schatten, H; Mazia, D; Schatten, G

    1996-01-01

    A novel isolation of centrosomes is described and it was used to both generate a centrosome-specific monoclonal antibody and to image with high-resolution low-voltage scanning electron microscopy the surface details of the isolated centrosome. At first mitotic prometaphase, sea urchin zygotes are chilled on ice overnight. While most of the microtubules disassemble, the mitotic centrosomes collapse into aggregated masses. These centrosomes have been isolated, and used to generate a monoclonal antibody, designated 4D2, which is reactive with interphase and mitotic centrosomes. 4D2 staining of centrosomes is similar, but not identical, to that of other centrosomal antibodies like Ah6 and 5051. Centrosomal material is detected as a compact sphere after cold treatment; upon recovery the sphere expands and undergoes the shape changes previously described [Mazia et al., 1987: J. Cell Biol. 105:206a] to eventually reorganize a normal mitotic apparatus.

  1. Dynein Transmits Polarized Actomyosin Cortical Flows to Promote Centrosome Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro De Simone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The two centrosomes present at the onset of mitosis must separate in a timely and accurate fashion to ensure proper bipolar spindle assembly. The minus-end-directed motor dynein plays a pivotal role in centrosome separation, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive, particularly regarding how dynein coordinates this process in space and time. We addressed these questions in the one-cell C. elegans embryo, using a combination of 3D time-lapse microscopy and computational modeling. Our analysis reveals that centrosome separation is powered by the joint action of dynein at the nuclear envelope and at the cell cortex. Strikingly, we demonstrate that dynein at the cell cortex acts as a force-transmitting device that harnesses polarized actomyosin cortical flows initiated by the centrosomes earlier in the cell cycle. This mechanism elegantly couples cell polarization with centrosome separation, thus ensuring faithful cell division.

  2. Centrosome polarization in T cells: a task for formins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eAndrés-Delgado

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available T-cell antigen receptor (TCR engagement triggers the rapid reorientation of the centrosome, which is associated with the secretory machinery, towards the immunological synapse (IS for polarized protein trafficking. Recent evidence indicates that upon TCR triggering the INF2 formin, together with the formins DIA1 and FMNL1, promotes the formation of a specialized array of stable detyrosinated MTs that breaks the symmetrical organization of the T-cell microtubule (MT cytoskeleton. The detyrosinated MT array and TCR-induced tyrosine phosphorylation should coincide for centrosome polarization. We propose that the pushing forces produced by the detyrosinated MT array, which modify the position of the centrosome, in concert with Src kinase dependent TCR signaling, which provide the reference frame with respect to which the centrosome reorients, result in the repositioning of the centrosome to the IS.

  3. How Does Social Trust Affect Economic Growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    This paper connects two strands of the literature on social trust by estimating the effects of trust on growth through a set of potential transmission mechanisms directly. It does so by modelling the process using a three-stage least squares estimator on a sample of countries for which a full data...

  4. Does uncertainty affect economic growth? An empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.; Bo, H.; Sterken, E.

    1999-01-01

    Does Uncertainty Affect Economic Growth? An Empirical Analysis. This paper investigates the effect of uncertainty on economic growth, We construct measures of export uncertainty, government policy uncertainty and price uncertainty to augment a growth model, and using econometric techniques we test

  5. Centrosome-Based Mechanisms, Prognostics and Therapeutics in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doxsey, Stephen J

    2007-01-01

    .... Our results show that the centrosome protein pericentrin is present at the midbody, a structure involved in the final stage of cell division called cytokinesis, where it anchors PKA, PKB/Akt and PKC...

  6. Structure and non-structure of centrosomal proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena G Dos Santos

    Full Text Available Here we perform a large-scale study of the structural properties and the expression of proteins that constitute the human Centrosome. Centrosomal proteins tend to be larger than generic human proteins (control set, since their genes contain in average more exons (20.3 versus 14.6. They are rich in predicted disordered regions, which cover 57% of their length, compared to 39% in the general human proteome. They also contain several regions that are dually predicted to be disordered and coiled-coil at the same time: 55 proteins (15% contain disordered and coiled-coil fragments that cover more than 20% of their length. Helices prevail over strands in regions homologous to known structures (47% predicted helical residues against 17% predicted as strands, and even more in the whole centrosomal proteome (52% against 7%, while for control human proteins 34.5% of the residues are predicted as helical and 12.8% are predicted as strands. This difference is mainly due to residues predicted as disordered and helical (30% in centrosomal and 9.4% in control proteins, which may correspond to alpha-helix forming molecular recognition features (α-MoRFs. We performed expression assays for 120 full-length centrosomal proteins and 72 domain constructs that we have predicted to be globular. These full-length proteins are often insoluble: Only 39 out of 120 expressed proteins (32% and 19 out of 72 domains (26% were soluble. We built or retrieved structural models for 277 out of 361 human proteins whose centrosomal localization has been experimentally verified. We could not find any suitable structural template with more than 20% sequence identity for 84 centrosomal proteins (23%, for which around 74% of the residues are predicted to be disordered or coiled-coils. The three-dimensional models that we built are available at http://ub.cbm.uam.es/centrosome/models/index.php.

  7. Microtubules are organized independently of the centrosome in Drosophila neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Michelle M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The best-studied arrangement of microtubules is that organized by the centrosome, a cloud of microtubule nucleating and anchoring proteins is clustered around centrioles. However, noncentrosomal microtubule arrays are common in many differentiated cells, including neurons. Although microtubules are not anchored at neuronal centrosomes, it remains unclear whether the centrosome plays a role in organizing neuronal microtubules. We use Drosophila as a model system to determine whether centrosomal microtubule nucleation is important in mature neurons. Results In developing and mature neurons, centrioles were not surrounded by the core nucleation protein γ-tubulin. This suggests that the centrioles do not organize functional centrosomes in Drosophila neurons in vivo. Consistent with this idea, centriole position was not correlated with a specific region of the cell body in neurons, and growing microtubules did not cluster around the centriole, even after axon severing when the number of growing plus ends is dramatically increased. To determine whether the centrosome was required for microtubule organization in mature neurons, we used two approaches. First, we used DSas-4 centriole duplication mutants. In these mutants, centrioles were present in many larval sensory neurons, but they were not fully functional. Despite reduced centriole function, microtubule orientation was normal in axons and dendrites. Second, we used laser ablation to eliminate the centriole, and again found that microtubule polarity in axons and dendrites was normal, even 3 days after treatment. Conclusion We conclude that the centrosome is not a major site of microtubule nucleation in Drosophila neurons, and is not required for maintenance of neuronal microtubule organization in these cells.

  8. Axin localizes to mitotic spindles and centrosomes in mitotic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Shi-Mun; Choi, Eun-Jin; Song, Ki-Joon; Kim, Sewoon; Seo, Eunjeong; Jho, Eek-Hoon; Kee, Sun-Ho

    2009-01-01

    Wnt signaling plays critical roles in cell proliferation and carcinogenesis. In addition, numerous recent studies have shown that various Wnt signaling components are involved in mitosis and chromosomal instability. However, the role of Axin, a negative regulator of Wnt signaling, in mitosis has remained unclear. Using monoclonal antibodies against Axin, we found that Axin localizes to the centrosome and along mitotic spindles. This localization was suppressed by siRNA specific for Aurora A kinase and by Aurora kinase inhibitor. Interestingly, Axin over-expression altered the subcellular distribution of Plk1 and of phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3β) without producing any notable changes in cellular phenotype. In the presence of Aurora kinase inhibitor, Axin over-expression induced the formation of cleavage furrow-like structures and of prominent astral microtubules lacking midbody formation in a subset of cells. Our results suggest that Axin modulates distribution of Axin-associated proteins such as Plk1 and GSK3β in an expression level-dependent manner and these interactions affect the mitotic process, including cytokinesis under certain conditions, such as in the presence of Aurora kinase inhibitor

  9. Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.; Steenstrup, L.D.

    2002-01-01

    and the trace metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on yellow color formation, metabolite production and mold growth. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important factor affecting yellow color formation was pH. The most pronounced formation of yellow color, supported by highest amount of colored metabolites......, appeared at low pH (pH 4). Mold growth was not correlated to the yellow color formation. Salt concentration was the most important factor affecting mold growth and length of lag phase. Production of secondary metabolites was strongly influenced by both pH and salt concentration. The screening results were......Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg...

  10. Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.; Steenstrup, L.D.

    2002-01-01

    Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg...... and the trace metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on yellow color formation, metabolite production and mold growth. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important factor affecting yellow color formation was pH. The most pronounced formation of yellow color, supported by highest amount of colored metabolites......, appeared at low pH (pH 4). Mold growth was not correlated to the yellow color formation. Salt concentration was the most important factor affecting mold growth and length of lag phase. Production of secondary metabolites was strongly influenced by both pH and salt concentration. The screening results were...

  11. Classical cadherins control nucleus and centrosome position and cell polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupin, Isabelle; Camand, Emeline; Etienne-Manneville, Sandrine

    2009-06-01

    Control of cell polarity is crucial during tissue morphogenesis and renewal, and depends on spatial cues provided by the extracellular environment. Using micropatterned substrates to impose reproducible cell-cell interactions, we show that in the absence of other polarizing cues, cell-cell contacts are the main regulator of nucleus and centrosome positioning, and intracellular polarized organization. In a variety of cell types, including astrocytes, epithelial cells, and endothelial cells, calcium-dependent cadherin-mediated cell-cell interactions induce nucleus and centrosome off-centering toward cell-cell contacts, and promote orientation of the nucleus-centrosome axis toward free cell edges. Nucleus and centrosome off-centering is controlled by N-cadherin through the regulation of cell interactions with the extracellular matrix, whereas the orientation of the nucleus-centrosome axis is determined by the geometry of N-cadherin-mediated contacts. Our results demonstrate that in addition to the specific function of E-cadherin in regulating baso-apical epithelial polarity, classical cadherins control cell polarization in otherwise nonpolarized cells.

  12. RPL41, a Small Ribosomal Peptide Deregulated in Tumors, Is Essential for Mitosis and Centrosome Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Wang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ribosomal large subunit protein RPL41 is a basic (positively charged peptide consisting of only 25 amino acids. An antisense-based functional screening revealed that the down-regulation of RPL41 led to an anchorage-independent growth of NIH3T3 cells in soft agar plates. RPL41 depletion with gene-specific small interfering RNA also resulted in malignant transformation of NIH3T3 cells including increased tumor growth in mice. RPL41 deletion was detected in 59% of tumor cell lines by fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses and RPL41 down-regulation in 75% of primary breast cancers by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. These studies suggest a tumor suppression role for RPL41. By mass spectrometry, RPL41 was associated with several cytoskeleton components including tubulin β, γ, and myosin IIA, which was confirmed by Western blot analysis on both cellular lysis and individually in vitro-expressed proteins. RPL41 also bound directly to polymerized tubulins. Cells overexpressing a GFP-RPL41 were resistant to nocodazole-induced microtubule depolymerization. A synthetic RPL41 induced cellular α-tubulin acetylation and G2/M cell cycle arrest. These results indicate a stabilizing role of RPL41 on microtubule. Microtubule spindles are essential for chromosome segregation during mitosis. Cells with RPL41 knock-down showed abnormal spindles, frequent failure of cytokinesis, and formation of polynuclear cells. In interphase cells, RPL41-depleted cells had premature splitting of centrosome. Our results provide evidence that RPL41 is a microtubule-associated protein essential for functional spindles and for the integrity of centrosome and that the abnormal mitosis and disrupted centrosome associated with the RPL41 down-regulation may be related to malignant transformation.

  13. Phosphorylation of the centrosomal protein, Cep169, by Cdk1 promotes its dissociation from centrosomes in mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yusuke; Inoue, Yoko; Taniyama, Yuki; Tanaka, Sayori; Terada, Yasuhiko

    2015-12-25

    Cep169 is a centrosomal protein conserved among vertebrates. In our previous reports, we showed that mammalian Cep169 interacts and collaborates with CDK5RAP2 to regulate microtubule (MT) dynamics and stabilization. Although Cep169 is required for MT regulation, its precise cellular function remains largely elusive. Here we show that Cep169 associates with centrosomes during interphase, but dissociates from these structures from the onset of mitosis, although CDK5RAP2 (Cep215) is continuously located at the centrosomes throughout cell cycle. Interestingly, treatment with purvalanol A, a Cdk1 inhibitor, nearly completely blocked the dissociation of Cep169 from centrosomes during mitosis. In addition, mass spectrometry analyses identified 7 phosphorylated residues of Cep169 corresponding to consensus phosphorylation sequence for Cdk1. These data suggest that the dissociation of Cep169 from centrosomes is controlled by Cdk1/Cyclin B during mitosis, and that Cep169 might regulate MT dynamics of mitotic spindle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. CENTROSOMES AND MICROTUBULES DURING MEIOSIS IN THE MUSHROOM BOLETUS RUBINELLUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, David J.

    1971-01-01

    The double centrosome in the basidium of Boletus rubinellus has been observed in three planes with the electron microscope at interphase preceding nuclear fusion, at prophase I, and at interphase I. It is composed of two components connected by a band-shaped middle part. At anaphase I a single, enlarged centrosome is found at the spindle pole, which is attached to the cell membrane. Microtubules mainly oriented parallel to the longitudinal axis of the basidium are present at prefusion, prophase I and interphase I. Cytoplasmic microtubules are absent when the spindle is present. The relationship of the centrosome in B. rubinellus to that in other organisms and the role of the cytoplasmic microtubules are discussed. PMID:4329156

  15. Centrosome isolation and analysis by mass spectrometry-based proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lis; Schrøder, Jacob Morville; Larsen, Katja M

    2013-01-01

    Centrioles are microtubule-based scaffolds that are essential for the formation of centrosomes, cilia, and flagella with important functions throughout the cell cycle, in physiology and during development. The ability to purify centriole-containing organelles on a large scale, combined with advan......Centrioles are microtubule-based scaffolds that are essential for the formation of centrosomes, cilia, and flagella with important functions throughout the cell cycle, in physiology and during development. The ability to purify centriole-containing organelles on a large scale, combined...... with advances in protein identification using mass spectrometry-based proteomics, have revealed multiple centriole-associated proteins that are conserved during evolution in eukaryotes. Despite these advances, the molecular basis for the plethora of processes coordinated by cilia and centrosomes is not fully...

  16. Non-genetic factors affecting growth performance and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science ... This study was based on 20 079 and 12 169 growth and 5 406 and 2 533 carcass data collected on performance tested pigs between 1990 and 2008 from Large White and Landrace breeds ... Herd of origin, year of testing and their interaction significantly affected all traits.

  17. How Stock Markets Development Affect Endogenous Growth Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeb Masoud

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper can bedescribed as a significant exploratory study that will provide a significantcontribution to knowledge to consider crucial issues which need to be barriersto understanding or a temptation/ requirement to judge some practices as‘better’ than others for stock market development effective approach andimplement successful stock market performance and economic growth. Recentanalysis of the link between financial development and growth, gained frominsights acquired as a result of using the technique of endogenous growthmodels, has illustrated that growth without exogenous technical progress andthat growth rates could be related to technology, income distribution andinstitutional arrangements. This provides the theoretical background thatempirical studies have lacked; illustrating that financial intermediationaffects the level of economic growth. Resulting models have provided newimpetus to empirical research of the effects of financial development. Thebirth of the new endogenous growth theory has facilitated the development ofimproved growth models where the long-term rate could be affected by a numberof elements. These included technology, education and health policies in theprocess of economic development, capital accumulation, government policies andinstitutional activities in the role of financial development in economicgrowth.

  18. Germ Cell-less Promotes Centrosome Segregation to Induce Germ Cell Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy A. Lerit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The primordial germ cells (PGCs specified during embryogenesis serve as progenitors to the adult germline stem cells. In Drosophila, the proper specification and formation of PGCs require both centrosomes and germ plasm, which contains the germline determinants. Centrosomes are microtubule (MT-organizing centers that ensure the faithful segregation of germ plasm into PGCs. To date, mechanisms that modulate centrosome behavior to engineer PGC development have remained elusive. Only one germ plasm component, Germ cell-less (Gcl, is known to play a role in PGC formation. Here, we show that Gcl engineers PGC formation by regulating centrosome dynamics. Loss of gcl leads to aberrant centrosome separation and elaboration of the astral MT network, resulting in inefficient germ plasm segregation and aborted PGC cellularization. Importantly, compromising centrosome separation alone is sufficient to mimic the gcl loss-of-function phenotypes. We conclude Gcl functions as a key regulator of centrosome separation required for proper PGC development.

  19. Does Misaligned Currency Affect Economic Growth? – Evidence from Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonći Svilokos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to measure the currency misalignment of the Croatian kuna and to reveal whether it affects economic growth for the period 2001 (Q1 to 2013 (Q3. The estimate relies on recent cointegration techniques, VAR models and Granger causality tests. The findings show that there are two misalignment sub-periods for the Croatian kuna: undervaluation in the period from 2000Q1 to 2007Q4 and overvaluation in the period from 2008Q1 to 2013Q3. The evidence reveals that for the whole sample period, the Granger causality goes from misalignments (MISA to GDP growth under the 10 percent significance level. However, for the two sub-periods no evidence of Granger causality from MISA to GDP growth or vice versa is found. The research also reveals that the currency misalignments in the observed period are relatively small.

  20. Factors Affecting Post-Service Wage Growth for Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    block number) FIELD GROUP SUBGROUP National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY I, veterans, local unemployment 19. ABSTRACT (continue on reverse if...ings in these two years was the local unemployment rate. It was also discovered that the determinants of earnings in 1982 differed significantly...analyzes factors affecting the post-service -arnings and wage growth of veterans. The 1979-1987 National Longitudi-’nal Survey of Youth was tlbe

  1. Differential Signature of the Centrosomal MARK4 Isoforms in Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Magnani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 4 (MARK4 is a serine-threonine kinase expressed in two spliced isoforms, MARK4L and MARK4S, of which MARK4L is a candidate for a role in neoplastic transformation. Methods: We performed mutation analysis to identify sequence alterations possibly affecting MARK4 expression. We then investigated the MARK4L and MARK4S expression profile in 21 glioma cell lines and 36 tissues of different malignancy grades, glioblastoma-derived cancer stem cells (GBM CSCs and mouse neural stem cells (NSCs by real-time PCR, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. We also analyzed the sub-cellular localisation of MARK4 isoforms in glioma and normal cell lines by immunofluorescence. Results: Mutation analysis rules out sequence variations as the cause of the altered MARK4 expression in glioma. Expression profiling confirms that MARK4L is the predominant isoform, whereas MARK4S levels are significantly decreased in comparison and show an inverse correlation with tumour grade. A high MARK4L/MARK4S ratio also characterizes undifferentiated cells, such as GBM CSCs and NSCs. Accordingly, only MARK4L is expressed in brain neurogenic regions. Moreover, while both MARK4 isoforms are localised to the centrosome and midbody in glioma and normal cells, the L isoform exhibits an additional nucleolar localisation in tumour cells. Conclusions: The observed switch towards MARK4L suggests that the balance between the MARK4 isoforms is carefully guarded during neural differentiation but may be subverted in gliomagenesis. Moreover, the MARK4L nucleolar localisation in tumour cells features this MARK4 isoform as a nucleolus-associated tumour marker.

  2. Factors affecting growth of foodborne pathogens on minimally processed apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, Isabel; Abadias, Maribel; Anguera, Marina; Oliveira, Marcia; Viñas, Inmaculada

    2010-02-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria innocua increased by more than 2 log(10) units over a 24 h period on fresh-cut 'Golden Delicious' apple plugs stored at 25 and 20 degrees C. L. innocua reached the same final population level at 10 degrees C meanwhile E. coli and Salmonella only increased 1.3 log(10) units after 6 days. Only L. innocua was able to grow at 5 degrees C. No significant differences were observed between the growth of foodborne pathogens on fresh-cut 'Golden Delicious', 'Granny Smith' and 'Shampion' apples stored at 25 and 5 degrees C. The treatment of 'Golden Delicious' and 'Granny Smith' apple plugs with the antioxidants, ascorbic acid (2%) and NatureSeal (6%), did not affect pathogen growth. The effect of passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the growth of E. coli, Salmonella and L. innocua on 'Golden Delicious' apple slices was also tested. There were no significant differences in growth of pathogens in MAP conditions compared with air packaging of 'Golden Delicious' apple plugs, but the growth of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms was inhibited. These results highlight the importance of avoiding contamination of fresh-cut fruit with foodborne pathogens and the maintenance of the cold chain during storage until consumption.

  3. The role of centrosomal Nlp in the control of mitotic progression and tumourigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Zhan, Q

    2011-05-10

    The human centrosomal ninein-like protein (Nlp) is a new member of the γ-tubulin complexes binding proteins (GTBPs) that is essential for proper execution of various mitotic events. The primary function of Nlp is to promote microtubule nucleation that contributes to centrosome maturation, spindle formation and chromosome segregation. Its subcellular localisation and protein stability are regulated by several crucial mitotic kinases, such as Plk1, Nek2, Cdc2 and Aurora B. Several lines of evidence have linked Nlp to human cancer. Deregulation of Nlp in cell models results in aberrant spindle, chromosomal missegregation and multinulei, and induces chromosomal instability and renders cells tumourigenic. Overexpression of Nlp induces anchorage-independent growth and immortalised primary cell transformation. In addition, we first demonstrate that the expression of Nlp is elevated primarily due to NLP gene amplification in human breast cancer and lung carcinoma. Consistently, transgenic mice overexpressing Nlp display spontaneous tumours in breast, ovary and testicle, and show rapid onset of radiation-induced lymphoma, indicating that Nlp is involved in tumourigenesis. This review summarises our current knowledge of physiological roles of Nlp, with an emphasis on its potentials in tumourigenesis.

  4. Increased centrosome amplification in aged stem cells of the Drosophila midgut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joung-Sun; Pyo, Jung-Hoon; Na, Hyun-Jin; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Kim, Young-Shin [Department of Molecular Biology, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Arking, Robert, E-mail: aa2210@wayne.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Yoo, Mi-Ae, E-mail: mayoo@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Biology, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • Increased centrosome amplification in ISCs of aged Drosophila midguts. • Increased centrosome amplification in ISCs of oxidative stressed Drosophila midguts. • Increased centrosome amplification in ISCs by overexpression of PVR, EGFR, and AKT. • Supernumerary centrosomes can be responsible for abnormal ISC polyploid cells. • Supernumerary centrosomes can be a useful marker for aging stem cells. - Abstract: Age-related changes in long-lived tissue-resident stem cells may be tightly linked to aging and age-related diseases such as cancer. Centrosomes play key roles in cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Supernumerary centrosomes are known to be an early event in tumorigenesis and senescence. However, the age-related changes of centrosome duplication in tissue-resident stem cells in vivo remain unknown. Here, using anti-γ-tubulin and anti-PH3, we analyzed mitotic intestinal stem cells with supernumerary centrosomes in the adult Drosophila midgut, which may be a versatile model system for stem cell biology. The results showed increased centrosome amplification in intestinal stem cells of aged and oxidatively stressed Drosophila midguts. Increased centrosome amplification was detected by overexpression of PVR, EGFR, and AKT in intestinal stem cells/enteroblasts, known to mimic age-related changes including hyperproliferation of intestinal stem cells and hyperplasia in the midgut. Our data show the first direct evidence for the age-related increase of centrosome amplification in intestinal stem cells and suggest that the Drosophila midgut is an excellent model for studying molecular mechanisms underlying centrosome amplification in aging adult stem cells in vivo.

  5. Tillering affected by sowing density and growth regulators in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Luiz Fioreze

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tillering capacity of wheat is highly influenced by environmental conditions and management practices. This research had as objective to evaluate tiller emission, survival and contribution to grain final yield affected by increasing sowing densities and growth regulators application in wheat. The experiment was conducted under completely randomized block design, with subdivided plots and four replications. Treatments consisted of four plant densities (30, 50, 70 and 90 plants m-1 combined with the application of growth regulators [control, (IBA+GA+KT, Trinexapac-Ethyl and (IBA+GA+KT + Trinexapac- Ethyl]. Tiller emission, contribution to dry matter accumulation and grain yield, survival and yield potential in relation to the main stem were evaluated, as well as yield components and grain final yield. The application plant growth regulators did not affect tiller emission or any other yield parameters related to the main stem. Increasing plant densities reduced tiller emission and dry matter accumulation, which led to lower tiller contribution and yield potential. Reduced plant densities increased grain yield due to higher grain number and mass per ear, making up for lower number of ears per area.

  6. PHD1 links cell-cycle progression to oxygen sensing through hydroxylation of the centrosomal protein Cep192.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Sandra C; Bensaddek, Dalila; Ortmann, Brian; Maure, Jean-Francois; Mudie, Sharon; Blow, J Julian; Lamond, Angus I; Swedlow, Jason R; Rocha, Sonia

    2013-08-26

    PHD1 belongs to the family of prolyl-4-hydroxylases (PHDs) that is responsible for posttranslational modification of prolines on specific target proteins. Because PHD activity is sensitive to oxygen levels and certain byproducts of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, PHDs act as sensors of the cell's metabolic state. Here, we identify PHD1 as a critical molecular link between oxygen sensing and cell-cycle control. We show that PHD1 function is required for centrosome duplication and maturation through modification of the critical centrosome component Cep192. Importantly, PHD1 is also required for primary cilia formation. Cep192 is hydroxylated by PHD1 on proline residue 1717. This hydroxylation is required for binding of the E3 ubiquitin ligase SCF(Skp2), which ubiquitinates Cep192, targeting it for proteasomal degradation. By modulating Cep192 levels, PHD1 thereby affects the processes of centriole duplication and centrosome maturation and contributes to the regulation of cell-cycle progression. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Polo-like kinase 1 regulates Nlp, a centrosome protein involved in microtubule nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casenghi, Martina; Meraldi, Patrick; Weinhart, Ulrike; Duncan, Peter I; Körner, Roman; Nigg, Erich A

    2003-07-01

    In animal cells, most microtubules are nucleated at centrosomes. At the onset of mitosis, centrosomes undergo a structural reorganization, termed maturation, which leads to increased microtubule nucleation activity. Centrosome maturation is regulated by several kinases, including Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1). Here, we identify a centrosomal Plk1 substrate, termed Nlp (ninein-like protein), whose properties suggest an important role in microtubule organization. Nlp interacts with two components of the gamma-tubulin ring complex and stimulates microtubule nucleation. Plk1 phosphorylates Nlp and disrupts both its centrosome association and its gamma-tubulin interaction. Overexpression of an Nlp mutant lacking Plk1 phosphorylation sites severely disturbs mitotic spindle formation. We propose that Nlp plays an important role in microtubule organization during interphase, and that the activation of Plk1 at the onset of mitosis triggers the displacement of Nlp from the centrosome, allowing the establishment of a mitotic scaffold with enhanced microtubule nucleation activity.

  8. Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship of Griseofulvin Analogues as Inhibitors of Centrosomal Clustering in Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnest, Mads Holger; Rebacz, Blanka; Markworth, Lene

    2009-01-01

    Griseofulvin was identified as an inhibitor of centrosomal clustering in a recently developed assay. Centrosomal clustering is an important cellular event that enables bipolar mitosis for cancer cell lines harboring supernumerary centrosomes. We report herein the synthesis and SAR of 34 griseoful......Griseofulvin was identified as an inhibitor of centrosomal clustering in a recently developed assay. Centrosomal clustering is an important cellular event that enables bipolar mitosis for cancer cell lines harboring supernumerary centrosomes. We report herein the synthesis and SAR of 34...

  9. Lichen secondary metabolites affect growth of Physcomitrella patens by allelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goga, Michal; Antreich, Sebastian J; Bačkor, Martin; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Lang, Ingeborg

    2017-05-01

    Lichen secondary metabolites can function as allelochemicals and affect the development and growth of neighboring bryophytes, fungi, vascular plants, microorganisms, and even other lichens. Lichen overgrowth on bryophytes is frequently observed in nature even though mosses grow faster than lichens, but there is still little information on the interactions between lichens and bryophytes.In the present study, we used extracts from six lichen thalli containing secondary metabolites like usnic acid, protocetraric acid, atranorin, lecanoric acid, nortistic acid, and thamnolic acid. To observe the influence of these metabolites on bryophytes, the moss Physcomitrella patens was cultivated for 5 weeks under laboratory conditions and treated with lichen extracts. Toxicity of natural mixtures of secondary metabolites was tested at three selected doses (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 %). When the mixture contained substantial amounts of usnic acid, we observed growth inhibition of protonemata and reduced development of gametophores. Significant differences in cell lengths and widths were also noticed. Furthermore, usnic acid had a strong effect on cell division in protonemata suggesting a strong impact on the early stages of bryophyte development by allelochemicals contained in the lichen secondary metabolites.Biological activities of lichen secondary metabolites were confirmed in several studies such as antiviral, antibacterial, antitumor, antiherbivore, antioxidant, antipyretic, and analgetic action or photoprotection. This work aimed to expand the knowledge on allelopathic effects on bryophyte growth.

  10. Proteomic characterization of the human centrosome by protein correlation profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens S; Wilkinson, Christopher J; Mayor, Thibault

    2003-01-01

    The centrosome is the major microtubule-organizing centre of animal cells and through its influence on the cytoskeleton is involved in cell shape, polarity and motility. It also has a crucial function in cell division because it determines the poles of the mitotic spindle that segregates duplicated...... chromosomes between dividing cells. Despite the importance of this organelle to cell biology and more than 100 years of study, many aspects of its function remain enigmatic and its structure and composition are still largely unknown. We performed a mass-spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of human...... components and identified 41 likely candidates as well as the vast majority of the known centrosomal proteins in a large background of nonspecific proteins. Protein correlation profiling permits the analysis of any multiprotein complex that can be enriched by fractionation but not purified to homogeneity....

  11. Regulated assembly of a supramolecular centrosome scaffold in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodruff, J. B.; Wueseke, O.; Viscardi, V.

    2015-01-01

    The centrosome organizes microtubule arrays within animal cells and comprises two centrioles surrounded by an amorphous protein mass called the pericentriolar material (PCM). Despite the importance of centrosomes as microtubule-organizing centers, the mechanism and regulation of PCM assembly...... are not well understood. In Caenorhabditis elegans, PCM assembly requires the coiled-coil protein SPD-5. We found that recombinant SPD-5 could polymerize to form micrometer-sized porous networks in vitro. Network assembly was accelerated by two conserved regulators that control PCM assembly in vivo, Polo......-like kinase-1 and SPD-2/Cep192. Only the assembled SPD-5 networks, and not unassembled SPD-5 protein, functioned as a scaffold for other PCM proteins. Thus, PCM size and binding capacity emerge from the regulated polymerization of one coiled-coil protein to form a porous network....

  12. Phenolphthalein induces centrosome amplification and tubulin depolymerization in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Pamela L; Rubitski, Elizabeth E; Spellman, Richard A; Schuler, Maik J

    2013-06-01

    Aneuploidy is a major cause of human reproductive failure and plays a large role in cancer. Phenolphthalein (PHT) induces tumors in rodents but its primary mechanism does not seem to be DNA damage. In heterozygous TSG-p53(®) mice, PHT induces lymphomas and also micronuclei (MN), many containing kinetochores (K), implying chromosome loss (aneuploidy). The induction of aneuploidy would be compatible with the loss of the normal p53 gene seen in the lymphomas. In this study, we confirm PHT's aneugenicity and determine the aneugenic mechanism of PHT by combining traditional genetic toxicology assays with image and flow cytometry methods. The data revealed that PHT induces tubulin polymerization abnormalities and deregulates the centrosome duplication cycle causing centrosome amplification. We also show that one of the consequences of these events is apoptosis. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

    The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period

  14. Family poverty affects the rate of human infant brain growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie L Hanson

    Full Text Available Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n = 77. In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain growth as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain growth were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES, with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of growth during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems.

  15. Actin and Arp2/3 localize at the centrosome of interphase cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, Thomas; Vandekerckhove, Joel; Gettemans, Jan, E-mail: jan.gettemans@vib-ugent.be

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Actin was detected at the centrosome with the anti-actin antibody 1C7 that recognizes antiparallel ('lower dimer') actin dimers. {yields} Centrosomal actin was found in interphase but not mitotic MDA-MB-231 cells. {yields} Neither the anti-actin antibody C4 that binds to globular, monomer actin, nor the anti-actin antibody 2G2 that recognizes the nuclear conformation of actin detect actin at the centrosome. {yields} The Arp2/3 complex transiently localizes at the pericentriolar matrix but not at the centrioles of interphase HEK 293T cells. -- Abstract: Although many actin binding proteins such as cortactin and the Arp2/3 activator WASH localize at the centrosome, the presence and conformation of actin at the centrosome has remained elusive. Here, we report the localization of actin at the centrosome in interphase but not in mitotic MDA-MB-231 cells. Centrosomal actin was detected with the anti-actin antibody 1C7 that recognizes antiparallel ('lower dimer') actin dimers. In addition, we report the transient presence of the Arp2/3 complex at the pericentriolar matrix but not at the centrioles of interphase HEK 293T cells. Overexpression of an Arp2/3 component resulted in expansion of the pericentriolar matrix and selective accumulation of the Arp2/3 component in the pericentriolar matrix. Altogether, we hypothesize that the centrosome transiently recruits Arp2/3 to perform processes such as centrosome separation prior to mitotic entry, whereas the observed constitutive centrosomal actin staining in interphase cells reinforces the current model of actin-based centrosome reorientation toward the leading edge in migrating cells.

  16. Does the water reuse affect the fish growth, welfare quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štěpán Lang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fish production in aquaculture is growing from year to year. However capacities of current aquaculture facilities are limited. So the need of intensification of old facilities and building new intensive facilities is obvious. The high intensity of fish culture generates some questions. Could water reuse affect fish growth, welfare, health or quality of final product? A lot of research was performed for this issue but just a few works compared water reuse systems (RAS versus flow thru systems (FTS. A problem with CO2 oversaturation was solved by shallow diffusers. Fin erosion seems to be a problem of high stocking density and system hygienic but it is not related directly to water reuse. A few papers were written about biochemical blood stress markers but it was mostly aimed to acute crowding or changes were found at extreme stocking densities over 124 kg.m3 for rainbow trout and 70 kg.m3 for sea bass. The fish are able to accustom to increased noise produced by RAS equipment very fast so it don’t affect fish negatively. There wasn’t found any prove of main water reuse to fish influence in the available literature. All results indicates that if the ecological parameters are kept in natural range for the fish reared in RAS, there is no negative effect of water reuse on fish.

  17. Hsp70 protects mitotic cells against heat-induced centrosome damage and division abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, HMJ; Kampinga, HH; Sibon, OCM

    The effect of heat shock on centrosomes has been mainly studied in interphase cells. Centrosomes play a key role in proper segregation of DNA during mitosis. However, the direct effect and consequences of heat shock on mitotic cells and a possible cellular defense system against proteotoxic stress

  18. Centrosomes split in the presence of impaired DNA integrity during mitosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, HMJ; Lemstra, W; Blaauw, EH; van Cappellen, GWA; Kampinga, HH; Sibon, OCM

    A well-established function of centrosomes is their role in accomplishing a successful mitosis that gives rise to a pair of identical daughter cells. We recently showed that DNA replication defects and DNA damage in Drosophila embryos trigger centrosomal changes, but it remained unclear whether

  19. GAS2L1 Is a Centriole-Associated Protein Required for Centrosome Dynamics and Disjunction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Au, F.K.; Jia, Y.; Jiang, K.; Grigoriev, I.S.; Hau, B.K.; Shen, Y.; Du, S.; Akhmanova, A.S.; Qi, R.Z.

    2017-01-01

    Mitotic spindle formation and chromosome segregation require timely separation of the two duplicated centrosomes, and this process is initiated in late G2 by centrosome disjunction. Here we report that GAS2L1, a microtubule- and actin-binding protein, associates with the proximal end of mature

  20. Disjunction of conjoined twins: Cdk1, Cdh1 and separation of centrosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surana Uttam

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Accurate transmission of chromosomes from parent to progeny cell requires assembly of a bipolar spindle. Centrosomes (spindle pole body in yeast are critical for the biogenesis of this complex mitotic apparatus since they confer bipolarity on the spindle and serve as the site of microtubule polymerization. In each division cycle, the centrosome is duplicated and the sister-centrosomes move away from each other, forming the two poles of the spindle. While the structure and the duplication of centrosomes have been investigated extensively, the understanding of the control of their segregation remains scant. Recent findings are beginning to yield insights into the regulation of centrosome segregation in yeast and its link to the mitotic kinase.

  1. Can the centrosome be a marker for DNA ploidy in breast cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita A Sakr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of DNA ploidy in genomic instability of cancer cells and prognosis has been described in a number of studies. The role of the centrosome in cell cycle has also been reported. Aim: In this study, we aimed to investigate the correlation between the centrosome and DNA ploidy in breast cancer in a search for a cytologic predictive and prognostic marker. Materials and Methods: Cell prints were prepared from cell culture of mesothelial cells, fibroblast cell line MRC5 and breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and T47D. Indirect immunofluorescence was used with anti-γ-tubulin and centrosomes were quantified using a fluorescence microscope. DNA ploidy was scored with the DNA index analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: The normal mesothelial cells (94% of the cells with one detected centrosome and MRC5 diploid cells (68% with two centrosomes were used as quality controls. A correlation between the number of centrosomes and DNA ploidy was found in MCF7 cell lines (64% of the cells with a number of centrosomes ≥ 3. It was not observed in invasive breast cancer samples; however, the frequency of cells with centrosomes ≥ 3 was found to be slightly higher in DNA aneuploid samples than in DNA diploid samples (15% vs 13.3%. Conclusion: Quantification of centrosome appears to be correlated to DNA ploidy in breast cancer cell lines and slightly associated to DNA aneuploidy in invasive breast cancer. Studies analyzing a larger number of samples as well as morphological abnormalities of the centrosome are needed.

  2. β-catenin at the centrosome: discrete pools of β-catenin communicate during mitosis and may co-ordinate centrosome functions and cell cycle progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbom, Bertrade C; Nelson, W James; Barth, Angela

    2013-09-01

    Beta-catenin is a multifunctional protein with critical roles in cell-cell adhesion, Wnt-signaling and the centrosome cycle. Whereas the roles of β-catenin in cell-cell adhesion and Wnt-signaling have been studied extensively, the mechanism(s) involving β-catenin in centrosome functions are poorly understood. β-Catenin localizes to centrosomes and promotes mitotic progression. NIMA-related protein kinase 2 (Nek2), which stimulates centrosome separation, binds to and phosphorylates β-catenin. β-Catenin interacting proteins involved in Wnt signaling such as adenomatous polyposis coli, Axin, and GSK3β, are also localized at centrosomes and play roles in promoting mitotic progression. Additionally, proteins associated with cell-cell adhesion sites, such as dynein, regulate mitotic spindle positioning. These roles of proteins at the cell cortex and Wnt signaling that involve β-catenin indicate a cross-talk between different sub-cellular sites in the cell at mitosis, and that different pools of β-catenin may co-ordinate centrosome functions and cell cycle progression. © 2013 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Human Embryonic Stem Cells Suffer from Centrosomal Amplification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holubcová, Z.; Matula, P.; Sedláčková, M.; Vinarský, Vladimír; Doležalová, Dáša; Bárta, Tomáš; Dvořák, Petr; Hampl, Aleš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2011), s. 46-56 ISSN 1066-5099 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/09/2044 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0538; GA MŠk(CZ) 2B06052; EU FP6 project ESTOOLS(XE) LSHG-CT-2006-018739 Program:1M Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : human embryonic stem cells * centrosome * chromosome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.781, year: 2011

  4. Congenital heart disease affects cerebral size but not brain growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortinau, Cynthia; Inder, Terrie; Lambeth, Jennifer; Wallendorf, Michael; Finucane, Kirsten; Beca, John

    2012-10-01

    Infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) have delayed brain maturation and alterations in brain volume. Brain metrics is a simple measurement technique that can be used to evaluate brain growth. This study used brain metrics to test the hypothesis that alterations in brain size persist at 3 months of age and that infants with CHD have slower rates of brain growth than control infants. Fifty-seven infants with CHD underwent serial brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To evaluate brain growth across the first 3 months of life, brain metrics were undertaken using 19 tissue and fluid spaces shown on MRIs performed before surgery and again at 3 months of age. Before surgery, infants with CHD have smaller frontal, parietal, cerebellar, and brain stem measures (p < 0.001). At 3 months of age, alterations persisted in all measures except the cerebellum. There was no difference between control and CHD infants in brain growth. However, the cerebellum trended toward greater growth in infants with CHD. Somatic growth was the primary factor that related to brain growth. Presence of focal white matter lesions before and after surgery did not relate to alterations in brain size or growth. Although infants with CHD have persistent alterations in brain size at 3 months of age, rates of brain growth are similar to that of healthy term infants. Somatic growth was the primary predictor of brain growth, emphasizing the importance of optimal weight gain in this population.

  5. FancJ regulates interstrand crosslinker induced centrosome amplification through the activation of polo-like kinase 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiu Zou

    2013-08-01

    DNA damage response (DDR and the centrosome cycle are two of the most critical processes for maintaining a stable genome in animals. Sporadic evidence suggests a connection between these two processes. Here, we report our findings that six Fanconi Anemia (FA proteins, including FancI and FancJ, localize to the centrosome. Intriguingly, we found that the localization of FancJ to the mother centrosome is stimulated by a DNA interstrand crosslinker, Mitomycin C (MMC. We further show that, in addition to its role in interstrand crosslinking (ICL repair, FancJ also regulates the normal centrosome cycle as well as ICL induced centrosome amplification by activating the polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1. We have uncovered a novel function of FancJ in centrosome biogenesis and established centrosome amplification as an integral part of the ICL response.

  6. Aurora B interaction of centrosomal Nlp regulates cytokinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jie; Jin, Shunqian; Li, Jia; Zhan, Qimin

    2010-12-17

    Cytokinesis is a fundamental cellular process, which ensures equal abscission and fosters diploid progenies. Aberrant cytokinesis may result in genomic instability and cell transformation. However, the underlying regulatory machinery of cytokinesis is largely undefined. Here, we demonstrate that Nlp (Ninein-like protein), a recently identified BRCA1-associated centrosomal protein that is required for centrosomes maturation at interphase and spindle formation in mitosis, also contributes to the accomplishment of cytokinesis. Through immunofluorescent analysis, Nlp is found to localize at midbody during cytokinesis. Depletion of endogenous Nlp triggers aborted division and subsequently leads to multinucleated phenotypes. Nlp can be recruited by Aurora B to the midbody apparatus via their physical association at the late stage of mitosis. Disruption of their interaction induces aborted cytokinesis. Importantly, Nlp is characterized as a novel substrate of Aurora B and can be phosphorylated by Aurora B. The specific phosphorylation sites are mapped at Ser-185, Ser-448, and Ser-585. The phosphorylation at Ser-448 and Ser-585 is likely required for Nlp association with Aurora B and localization at midbody. Meanwhile, the phosphorylation at Ser-185 is vital to Nlp protein stability. Disruptions of these phosphorylation sites abolish cytokinesis and lead to chromosomal instability. Collectively, these observations demonstrate that regulation of Nlp by Aurora B is critical for the completion of cytokinesis, providing novel insights into understanding the machinery of cell cycle progression.

  7. Aurora B Interaction of Centrosomal Nlp Regulates Cytokinesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jie; Jin, Shunqian; Li, Jia; Zhan, Qimin

    2010-01-01

    Cytokinesis is a fundamental cellular process, which ensures equal abscission and fosters diploid progenies. Aberrant cytokinesis may result in genomic instability and cell transformation. However, the underlying regulatory machinery of cytokinesis is largely undefined. Here, we demonstrate that Nlp (Ninein-like protein), a recently identified BRCA1-associated centrosomal protein that is required for centrosomes maturation at interphase and spindle formation in mitosis, also contributes to the accomplishment of cytokinesis. Through immunofluorescent analysis, Nlp is found to localize at midbody during cytokinesis. Depletion of endogenous Nlp triggers aborted division and subsequently leads to multinucleated phenotypes. Nlp can be recruited by Aurora B to the midbody apparatus via their physical association at the late stage of mitosis. Disruption of their interaction induces aborted cytokinesis. Importantly, Nlp is characterized as a novel substrate of Aurora B and can be phosphorylated by Aurora B. The specific phosphorylation sites are mapped at Ser-185, Ser-448, and Ser-585. The phosphorylation at Ser-448 and Ser-585 is likely required for Nlp association with Aurora B and localization at midbody. Meanwhile, the phosphorylation at Ser-185 is vital to Nlp protein stability. Disruptions of these phosphorylation sites abolish cytokinesis and lead to chromosomal instability. Collectively, these observations demonstrate that regulation of Nlp by Aurora B is critical for the completion of cytokinesis, providing novel insights into understanding the machinery of cell cycle progression. PMID:20864540

  8. Growth and Yield Parameters of Sorghum Genotypes as Affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... stem injection artificial inoculation technique on the growth and yield parameters of one hundred and four sorghum genotypes against head smut. The trial was laid on a randomized complete block design with two replications. Results obtained on the growth parameters which includes plant height, number of leaves and ...

  9. Organizational Career Growth, Affective Occupational Commitment and Turnover Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Qingxiong; McElroy, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Survey data, collected from the People's Republic of China, were used to test Weng's (2010) four facet model of career growth and to examine its effect on occupational commitment and turnover intentions. Weng conceptualized career growth as consisting of four factors: career goal progress, professional ability development, promotion speed, and…

  10. Substrate affects growth and yield of shiitake mushroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... from all of the trees with equal ratio or rice straw to determine growth and fruiting characteristics. Cultivation on Jackfruit resulted in significantly faster mycelial growth compared to other substrates. With respect to fructification, culture on Jackfruit produced the first pinhead (primordium) earlier compared to other substrates.

  11. Stock size affects early growth of a loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. South; Al Lyons; Russ Pohl

    2015-01-01

    For decades, forest researchers in the South have known that early gains in survival and growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) can be achieved by planting large-diameter seedlings (South 1993; Wakeley 1949). For P. radiata, increasing size of planting stock also increases early growth of both seedlings (Mason and others 1996) and cuttings (South and others 2005)....

  12. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Senecio jacobaea affect fungal growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, W.H.G.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the growth-reducing effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from Senecio jacobaea on nine plant-associated fungi (five strains of Fusarium oxysporum, two of F. sambucinum, and two of Trichoderma sp). Fungal growth was monitored on water agar media containing different concentrations

  13. Environmental Crack Growth Behavior Affected by Thickness/Geometry Constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawski, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    This article gives a short review on the effects of thickness/constraint and environment on crack growth behavior under cyclic and static loadings. Fatigue crack growth data taken from the literature, corresponding to different environments, ranging from vacuum to air and NaCl solution for a number of alloys and different specimens geometries are presented and analyzed. Reported results indicate that for relatively inert material/environment systems, there is a weak thickness/constraint effect on fatigue crack growth behavior. On the other hand, for corrosive material/environment systems, there is a significant thickness/constraint effect on crack growth rate behavior under both cyclic and static loadings. Some implications related to crack growth modeling are suggested.

  14. A genome-wide RNAi screen to dissect centriole duplication and centrosome maturation in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Dobbelaere

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Centrosomes comprise a pair of centrioles surrounded by an amorphous pericentriolar material (PCM. Here, we have performed a microscopy-based genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi screen in Drosophila cells to identify proteins required for centriole duplication and mitotic PCM recruitment. We analysed 92% of the Drosophila genome (13,059 genes and identified 32 genes involved in centrosome function. An extensive series of secondary screens classified these genes into four categories: (1 nine are required for centriole duplication, (2 11 are required for centrosome maturation, (3 nine are required for both functions, and (4 three genes regulate centrosome separation. These 32 hits include several new centrosomal components, some of which have human homologs. In addition, we find that the individual depletion of only two proteins, Polo and Centrosomin (Cnn can completely block centrosome maturation. Cnn is phosphorylated during mitosis in a Polo-dependent manner, suggesting that the Polo-dependent phosphorylation of Cnn initiates centrosome maturation in flies.

  15. Sld5 Ensures Centrosomal Resistance to Congression Forces by Preserving Centriolar Satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Devi, Raksha; Ghosh, Tanushree; Khan, Md Muntaz; Kumar, Praveen; Priyanka; Kar, Ananya; Sharma, Aparna; Varshney, Akhil; Kumar, Vipin; Saxena, Sandeep

    2018-01-15

    The migration of chromosomes during mitosis is mediated primarily by kinesins that bind to the chromosomes and move along the microtubules, exerting pulling and pushing forces on the centrosomes. We report that a DNA replication protein, Sld5, localizes to the centrosomes, resisting the microtubular pulling forces experienced during chromosome congression. In the absence of Sld5, centriolar satellites, which normally cluster around the centrosomes, are dissipated throughout the cytoplasm, resulting in the loss of their known function of recruiting the centrosomal protein, pericentrin. We observed that Sld5-deficient centrosomes lacking pericentrin were unable to endure the CENP-E- and Kid-mediated microtubular forces that converge on the centrosomes during chromosome congression, resulting in monocentriolar and acentriolar spindle poles. The minus-end-directed kinesin-14 motor protein, HSET, sustains the traction forces that mediate centrosomal fragmentation in Sld5-depleted cells. Thus, we report that a DNA replication protein has an as yet unknown function of ensuring spindle pole resistance to traction forces exerted during chromosome congression. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Do Corruption and Social Trust affect Economic Growth? A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serritzlew, Søren; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2014-01-01

    Two separate literatures suggest that corruption and social trust, respectively, are related to economic growth, although the strengths of the relationships, and the direction of causality, are still debated. In this paper, we review these literatures and evaluate the evidence for causal effects...... of corruption and trust on economic growth, and discuss how corruption and trust are interrelated. The reviews show that absence of corruption and high levels of social trust foster economic growth. The literatures also indicate that corruption has a causal effect on social trust, while the opposite effect...... is more uncertain. In the conclusion, we offer the suggestion that fighting corruption may yield a “double dividend”, as reduced corruption is likely to have both direct and indirect effects on growth....

  17. Gastric luminal epidermal growth factor is affected by diet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , L Mapele, K 0 Awotedu ... This study looked at the associations between intragastric epidermal growth factor level, diet and ... Department of Surgery, Gloucestershire Royal Hospital, UK. AM Sammon MD, FRCS. December 2004, Vol. 94, No.

  18. The responses of cancer cells to PLK1 inhibitors reveal a novel protective role for p53 in maintaining centrosome separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Linda; Farzan, Raed; Ali, Simak; Buluwela, Laki; Saurin, Adrian T; Meek, David W

    2017-11-23

    Polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1) plays a major role in driving mitotic events, including centrosome disjunction and separation, and is frequently over-expressed in human cancers. PLK1 inhibition is a promising therapeutic strategy and works by arresting cells in mitosis due to monopolar spindles. The p53 tumour suppressor protein is a short-lived transcription factor that can inhibit the growth, or stimulate the death, of developing cancer cells. Curiously, although p53 normally acts in an anti-cancer capacity, it can offer significant protection against inhibitors of PLK1, but the events underpinning this effect are not known. Here, we show that functional p53 reduces the sensitivity to PLK1 inhibitors by permitting centrosome separation to occur, allowing cells to traverse mitosis and re-enter cycle with a normal complement of 2N chromosomes. Protection entails the activation of p53 through the DNA damage-response enzymes, ATM and ATR, and requires the phosphorylation of p53 at the key regulatory site, Ser15. These data highlight a previously unrecognised link between p53, PLK1 and centrosome separation that has therapeutic implications for the use of PLK1 inhibitors in the clinic.

  19. How wind affects growth in treeline Picea abies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašpar, J.; Hošek, Jiří; Treml, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 2 (2017), s. 1-12 ISSN 1664-2201 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : height increment * picea abies * radial growth * thigmomorphogenesis * tree rings Subject RIV: GK - Forestry OBOR OECD: Forestry Impact factor: 2.281, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs00035-017-0186-x.pdf

  20. Grass defoliation affecting survival and growth of seedlings of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted, one in the field and the other in the greenhouse, to investigate the effects of the intensity and frequency of grass defoliation on the survival and growth of Acacia karroo seedlings. In the greenhouse, seedlings growing with heavily clipped grasses had higher biomass production than those ...

  1. Does raking basal duff affect tree growth rates or mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin Noonan-Wright; Sharon M. Hood; Danny R. Cluck

    2010-01-01

    Mortality and reduced growth rates due to raking accumulated basal duff were evaluated for old, large-diameter ponderosa and Jeffrey pine trees on the Lassen National Forest, California. No fire treatments were included to isolate the effect of raking from fire. Trees were monitored annually for 5 years after the raking treatment for mortality and then cored to measure...

  2. Gastric luminal epidermal growth factor is affected by diet | Iputo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Diet is an area of major interest to those investigating the causes of cancer of the oesophagus in the Transkei. This study looked at the associations between intragastric epidermal growth factor level, diet and intragastric pH. Setting and subjects. A dietary survey was co-ordinated with studies of gastric luminal ...

  3. growth and yield parameters of sorghum genotypes as affected

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. Field trial was conducted at Bayero University, Kano research farm with the aim of determining the effect of stem injection artificial inoculation technique on the growth and yield parameters of one hundred and four sorghum genotypes against head smut. The trial was laid on a randomized complete block design ...

  4. Water stress affects the germination, emergence, and growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of water deficit stress on the germination, emergence and seedling growth of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] using Completely Randomised Block Design in four replications. Five sorghum cultivars (Jigurti, Gambella 1107, Meko, 76 T1 #23 and P9403) were ...

  5. Low light availability affects leaf gas exchange, growth and survival ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The values of dark respiration rate (Rd) and photosynthetic compensation irradiance (Ic) were sufficiently low for a positive carbon balance. Notwithstanding, the interpretation of results of microclimate variables together with leaf gas exchange and growth variables indicated that seedlings at all sites were in a suboptimal ...

  6. Shade periodicity affects growth of container grown dogwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Container-grown dogwoods rank third in the US in nursery sales of ornamental trees. However, Dogwoods are a challenging crop to produce in container culture, especially when bare root liners are used as the initial transplant into containers due unacceptable levels of mortality and poor growth. This...

  7. Molecular basis of the STIL coiled coil oligomerization explains its requirement for de-novo formation of centrosomes in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Ahuvit; Amartely, Hadar; Rabinowicz, Noa; Shamir, Mai; Friedler, Assaf; Izraeli, Shai

    2016-04-14

    The STIL protein is essential for centriole replication and for the non-templated, de novo centriole biogenesis that is required for mammalian embryogenesis. Here we performed quantitative biophysical and structural analysis of the central short coiled coil domain (CCD) of STIL that is critical for its function. Using biophysical, biochemical and cell biology approaches, we identified the specific residues in the CCD that mediate the oligomerization, centrosomal localization and protein interactions of STIL. We characterized the structural properties of the coiled coil peptide using circular dichroism spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography. We identified two regions in this domain, containing eight hydrophobic residues, which mediate the coiled coil oligomerization. Mutations in these residues destabilized the coiled coil thermodynamically but in most cases did not affect its secondary structure. Reconstituting mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking endogenous Stil, we show that STIL oligomerization mediated by these residues is not only important for the centrosomal functions of STIL during the canonical duplication process but also for de-novo formation of centrosomes.

  8. Drosophila parthenogenesis: A tool to decipher centrosomal vs acentrosomal spindle assembly pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riparbelli, Maria Giovanna; Callaini, Giuliano

    2008-01-01

    Development of unfertilized eggs in the parthenogenetic strain K23-O-im of Drosophila mercatorum requires the stochastic interactions of self-assembled centrosomes with the female chromatin. In a portion of the unfertilized eggs that do not assemble centrosomes, microtubules organize a bipolar anastral mitotic spindle around the chromatin like the one formed during the first female meiosis, suggesting that similar pathways may be operative. In the cytoplasm of eggs in which centrosomes do form, monastral and biastral spindles are found. Analysis by laser scanning confocal microscopy suggests that these spindles are derived from the stochastic interaction of astral microtubules directly with kinetochore regions or indirectly with kinetochore microtubules. Our findings are consistent with the idea that mitotic spindle assembly requires both acentrosomal and centrosomal pathways, strengthening the hypothesis that astral microtubules can dictate the organization of the spindle by capturing kinetochore microtubules

  9. A Novel Role of Human Holliday Junction Resolvase GEN1 in the Maintenance of Centrosome Integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, M.; Danielsen, Jannie Michaela Rendtlew; Wei, L.-Z.

    2012-01-01

    The maintenance of genomic stability requires accurate genome replication, repair of DNA damage, and the precise segregation of chromosomes in mitosis. GEN1 possesses Holliday junction resolvase activity in vitro and presumably functions in homology driven repair of DNA double strand breaks....... However, little is currently known about the cellular functions of human GEN1. In the present study we demonstrate that GEN1 is a novel centrosome associated protein and we characterize the various phenotypes associated with GEN1 deficiency. We identify an N-terminal centrosome localization signal in GEN1......, which is required and sufficient for centrosome localization. We report that GEN1 depletion results in aberrant centrosome numbers associated with the formation of multiple spindle poles in mitosis, an increased number of cells with multi-nuclei, increased apoptosis and an elevated level of spontaneous...

  10. The Role of Oncogene/Tumor Suppressor Interaction with the Centrosome Protein Pericentrin in Prostate Tumorigenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Chun-Ting

    2006-01-01

    .... We believe that these changes may be a result of defects in the centrosome, an essential organelle that organizes spindle poles during mitosis and has important roles in cell proliferation, cell...

  11. The Role of Oncogene/Tumor Suppressor Interaction with the Centrosome Protein Pericentrin in Prostate Tumorigenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Chun-Ting

    2007-01-01

    .... We believe that these changes may be a result of defects in the centrosome an essential organelle that organizes spindle poles during mitosis and has important roles in cell proliferation cell...

  12. Centrosome Hypertrophy Induced by p53 Mutations Leads to Tumor Aneuploidy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    coordination of centrosome reproduction with nuclear events of the cell cycle in the sea urchin zygote. Journal of Cell Biology 1998, 140:1417-1426 13. Yu...437 42. Callaini G, Marchini D: Abnormal centrosomes in cold-treated Drosophila embryos . Experimental Cell Research 1989, 184:367-374 43. Baron AT...Suman VJ, Nemeth E, Salisbury JL: The pericentriolar lattice of PtK2 cells exhibits temperature and calcium -modulated behavior. Journal of Cell Science

  13. Novel asymmetrically localizing components of human centrosomes identified by complementary proteomics methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lis; Vanselow, Katja; Skogs, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Centrosomes in animal cells are dynamic organelles with a proteinaceous matrix of pericentriolar material assembled around a pair of centrioles. They organize the microtubule cytoskeleton and the mitotic spindle apparatus. Mature centrioles are essential for biogenesis of primary cilia that mediate...... by identifying a novel set of five proteins preferentially associated with mother or daughter centrioles, comprising genes implicated in cell polarity. Pulsed labelling demonstrates a remarkable variation in the stability of centrosomal protein complexes. These spatiotemporal proteomics data provide leads...

  14. Genetic And Environmental Factors Affecting Growth Traits Of Goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance of 194 kids of Sahel (S), Red Sokoto (RS) and West African Dwarf (WAD) breeds of goats from birth to 9 months of age was studied. Effect of breed was significant (p<0.001) with S (2.07kg – 13.49kg) breed being heavier than RS (1.81kg – 13.77kg) and WAD (1.42KG – 8.63 kg) though they were ...

  15. Organic matter loading affects lodgepole pine seedling growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaohua; Li, Qinglin; Waterhouse, M J; Armleder, H M

    2012-06-01

    Organic matter plays important roles in returning nutrients to the soil, maintaining forest productivity and creating habitats in forest ecosystems. Forest biomass is in increasing demand for energy production, and organic matter has been considered as a potential supply. Thus, an important management question is how much organic matter should be retained after forest harvesting to maintain forest productivity. To address this question, an experimental trial was established in 1996 to evaluate the responses of lodgepole pine seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments. Four organic matter loading treatments were randomly assigned to each of four homogeneous pine sites: removal of all organic matter on the forest floor, organic matter loading quantity similar to whole-tree-harvesting residuals left on site, organic matter loading quantity similar to stem-only-harvesting residuals, and organic matter loading quantity more similar to what would be found in disease- or insect-killed stands. Our 10-year data showed that height and diameter had 29 and 35 % increase, respectively, comparing the treatment with the most organic matter loading to the treatment with the least organic matter loading. The positive response of seedling growth to organic matter loading may be associated with nutrients and/or microclimate change caused by organic matter, and requires further study. The dynamic response of seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments highlights the importance of long-term studies. Implications of those results on organic matter management are discussed in the context of forest productivity sustainability.

  16. Does Foreign Direct Investment Affect Green Growth? Evidence from China’s Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Shujing Yue; Yang Yang; Yaoyu Hu

    2016-01-01

    Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) not only affects the economic growth but also affects the environmental protection of the host country. With China’s background of pursuing green growth, we need to consider the performance of FDI from the economic and environmental benefit aspects. On this basis, using slacks-based measure directional distance function (SBMDDF) to build up green growth efficiency, economic efficiency and environmental efficiency indexes, empirical research on FDI in 104 Chines...

  17. Direct Microtubule-Binding by Myosin-10 Orients Centrosomes toward Retraction Fibers and Subcortical Actin Clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Mijung; Bagonis, Maria; Danuser, Gaudenz; Pellman, David

    2015-08-10

    Positioning of centrosomes is vital for cell division and development. In metazoan cells, spindle positioning is controlled by a dynamic pool of subcortical actin that organizes in response to the position of retraction fibers. These actin "clouds" are proposed to generate pulling forces on centrosomes and mediate spindle orientation. However, the motors that pull astral microtubules toward these actin structures are not known. Here, we report that the unconventional myosin, Myo10, couples actin-dependent forces from retraction fibers and subcortical actin clouds to centrosomes. Myo10-mediated centrosome positioning requires its direct microtubule binding. Computational image analysis of large microtubule populations reveals a direct effect of Myo10 on microtubule dynamics and microtubule-cortex interactions. Myo10's role in centrosome positioning is distinct from, but overlaps with, that of dynein. Thus, Myo10 plays a key role in integrating the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons to position centrosomes and mitotic spindles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Coiled-Coil Proteins Facilitated the Functional Expansion of the Centrosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Michael; Hyman, Anthony A.; Beyer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Repurposing existing proteins for new cellular functions is recognized as a main mechanism of evolutionary innovation, but its role in organelle evolution is unclear. Here, we explore the mechanisms that led to the evolution of the centrosome, an ancestral eukaryotic organelle that expanded its functional repertoire through the course of evolution. We developed a refined sequence alignment technique that is more sensitive to coiled coil proteins, which are abundant in the centrosome. For proteins with high coiled-coil content, our algorithm identified 17% more reciprocal best hits than BLAST. Analyzing 108 eukaryotic genomes, we traced the evolutionary history of centrosome proteins. In order to assess how these proteins formed the centrosome and adopted new functions, we computationally emulated evolution by iteratively removing the most recently evolved proteins from the centrosomal protein interaction network. Coiled-coil proteins that first appeared in the animal–fungi ancestor act as scaffolds and recruit ancestral eukaryotic proteins such as kinases and phosphatases to the centrosome. This process created a signaling hub that is crucial for multicellular development. Our results demonstrate how ancient proteins can be co-opted to different cellular localizations, thereby becoming involved in novel functions. PMID:24901223

  19. Simultaneous Aurora-A/STK15 overexpression and centrosome amplification induce chromosomal instability in tumour cells with a MIN phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentini, Laura; Amato, Angela; Schillaci, Tiziana; Di Leonardo, Aldo

    2007-01-01

    Genetic instability is a hallmark of tumours and preneoplastic lesions. The predominant form of genome instability in human cancer is chromosome instability (CIN). CIN is characterized by chromosomal aberrations, gains or losses of whole chromosomes (aneuploidy), and it is often associated with centrosome amplification. Centrosomes control cell division by forming a bipolar mitotic spindle and play an essential role in the maintenance of chromosomal stability. However, whether centrosome amplification could directly cause aneuploidy is not fully established. Also, alterations in genes required for mitotic progression could be involved in CIN. A major candidate is represented by Aurora-A/STK15 that associates with centrosomes and is overexpressed in several types of human tumour. Centrosome amplification were induced by hydroxyurea treatment and visualized by immunofluorescence microscopy. Aurora-A/STK15 ectopic expression was achieved by retroviral infection and puromycin selection in HCT116 tumour cells. Effects of Aurora-A/STK15 depletion on centrosome status and ploidy were determined by Aurora-A/STK15 transcriptional silencing by RNA interference. Changes in the expression levels of some mitotic genes were determined by Real time RT-PCR. We investigated whether amplification of centrosomes and overexpression of Aurora-A/STK15 induce CIN using as a model system a colon carcinoma cell line (HCT116). We found that in HCT116 cells, chromosomally stable and near diploid cells harbouring a MIN phenotype, centrosome amplification induced by hydroxyurea treatment is neither maintained nor induces aneuploidy. On the contrary, ectopic overexpression of Aurora-A/STK15 induced supernumerary centrosomes and aneuploidy. Aurora-A/STK15 transcriptional silencing by RNA interference in cells ectopically overexpressing this kinase promptly decreased cell numbers with supernumerary centrosomes and aneuploidy. Our results show that centrosome amplification alone is not sufficient

  20. Nickel and ocean warming affect scleractinian coral growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscéré, T; Lorrain, A; Rodolfo-Metalpa, R; Gilbert, A; Wright, A; Devissi, C; Peignon, C; Farman, R; Duvieilbourg, E; Payri, C; Houlbrèque, F

    2017-07-15

    The sensitivity of corals and their Symbiodinium to warming has been extensively documented; however very few studies considered that anthropogenic inputs such as metal pollution have already an impact on many fringing reefs. Thus, today, nickel releases are common in coastal ecosystems. In this study, two major reef-building species Acropora muricata and Pocillopora damicornis were exposed in situ to ambient and moderate nickel concentrations on a short-term period (1h) using benthic chamber experiments. Simultaneously, we tested in laboratory conditions the combined effects of a chronic exposure (8weeks) to moderate nickel concentrations and ocean warming on A. muricata. The in situ experiment highlighted that nickel enrichment, at ambient temperature, stimulated by 27 to 47% the calcification rates of both species but not their photosynthetic performances. In contrast, an exposure to higher nickel concentration, in combination with elevated temperature simulated in aquaria, severely depressed by 30% the growth of A. muricata. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Critical Importance of Protein 4.1 in Centrosome and Mitiotic Spindle Aberrations in Breast Cancer Pathogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krauss, Sharon W

    2005-01-01

    Important pathological hallmarks of many breast cancers include centrosome amplification, spindle pole defects leading to aberrant chromosome segregation, altered nucleoskeletal proteins and perturbed cytokinesis...

  2. Metformin inhibits age-related centrosome amplification in Drosophila midgut stem cells through AKT/TOR pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyun-Jin; Park, Joung-Sun; Pyo, Jung-Hoon; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Kim, Young-Shin; Arking, Robert; Yoo, Mi-Ae

    2015-07-01

    We delineated the mechanism regulating the inhibition of centrosome amplification by metformin in Drosophila intestinal stem cells (ISCs). Age-related changes in tissue-resident stem cells may be closely associated with tissue aging and age-related diseases, such as cancer. Centrosome amplification is a hallmark of cancers. Our recent work showed that Drosophila ISCs are an excellent model for stem cell studies evaluating age-related increase in centrosome amplification. Here, we showed that metformin, a recognized anti-cancer drug, inhibits age- and oxidative stress-induced centrosome amplification in ISCs. Furthermore, we revealed that this effect is mediated via down-regulation of AKT/target of rapamycin (TOR) activity, suggesting that metformin prevents centrosome amplification by inhibiting the TOR signaling pathway. Additionally, AKT/TOR signaling hyperactivation and metformin treatment indicated a strong correlation between DNA damage accumulation and centrosome amplification in ISCs, suggesting that DNA damage might mediate centrosome amplification. Our study reveals the beneficial and protective effects of metformin on centrosome amplification via AKT/TOR signaling modulation. We identified a new target for the inhibition of age- and oxidative stress-induced centrosome amplification. We propose that the Drosophila ISCs may be an excellent model system for in vivo studies evaluating the effects of anti-cancer drugs on tissue-resident stem cell aging. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Platelet-rich plasma affects bacterial growth in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Erminia; Filardo, Giuseppe; Canella, Valentina; Berlingeri, Andrea; Bielli, Alessandra; Cattini, Luca; Landini, Maria Paola; Kon, Elizaveta; Marcacci, Maurilio; Facchini, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), a blood derivative rich in platelets, is a relatively new technique used in tissue regeneration and engineering. The increased quantity of platelets makes this formulation of considerable value for their role in tissue healing and microbicidal activity. This activity was investigated against five of the most important strains involved in nosocomial infections (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus faecalis) to understand the prophylactic role of pure (P)-PRP. Microbicidal proteins released from activated P-PRP platelets were also determined. The microbicidal activity of P-PRP and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) was evaluated on different concentrations of the five bacterial strains incubated for 1, 2, 4 and 18 h and plated on agar for 18-24 h. P-PRP and PPP-released microbicidal proteins were evaluated by means of multiplex bead-based immunoassays. P-PRP and PPP inhibited bacterial growth for up to 2 h of incubation. The effect of P-PRP was significantly higher than that of PPP, mainly at the low seeding concentrations and/or shorter incubation times, depending on the bacterial strain. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-3, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-5 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand-1 were the molecules mostly related to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis inhibition. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were less influenced. The present results show that P-PRP might supply an early protection against bacterial contaminations during surgical interventions because the inhibitory activity is already evident from the first hour of treatment, which suggests that physiological molecules supplied in loco might be important in the time frame needed for the activation of the innate immune response. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Growth of ponderosa pine seedlings as affected by air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, B.; Anderson, P. D.; Houpis, J. L. J.; Helms, J. A.

    The effect of air pollution on seedling survival and competitive ability is important to natural and artificial regeneration of forest trees. Although biochemical and physiological processes are sensitive indicators of pollution stress, the cumulative effects of air pollutants on seedling vigor and competitive ability may be assessed directly from whole-plant growth characteristics such as diameter, height, and photosynthetic area. A few studies that have examined intraspecific variation in seedling response to air pollution indicate that genotypic differences are important in assessing potential effects of air pollution on forest regeneration. Here, we studied the effects of acid rain (no-rain, pH 5.1 rain, pH 3.0 rain) and ozone (filtered, ambient, twice-ambient) in the field on height, diameter, volume, the height:diameter ratio, maximum needle length, and time to reach maximum needle length in seedlings of three families of ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws). Seedling diameter, height, volume, and height:diameter ratio related significantly to their pre-treatment values. Twice-ambient ozone decreased seedling diameter compared with ozone-filtered air. A significant family-by-ozone interaction was detected for seedling height, as the height of only one of the three families was decreased by twice-ambient ozone compared with the ambient level. Seedling diameter was larger and the height:diameter ratio was smaller under pH 3.0 rain compared to either the no-rain or the pH 5.1-rain treatment. This suggests greater seedling vigor, perhaps due to a foliar fertilization effect of the pH 3.0 rain.

  5. Mustard gas surrogate, 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide (2-CEES), induces centrosome amplification and aneuploidy in human and mouse cells : 2-CEES induces centrosome amplification and chromosome instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Richard A; Behrens, Elizabeth; Zinn, Ashtyn; Duncheon, Christian; Lamkin, Thomas J

    2014-08-01

    Mustard gas is a simple molecule with a deadly past. First used as a chemical weapon in World War I, its simple formulation has raised concerns over its use by terrorist organizations and unstable governments. Mustard gas is a powerful vesicant and alkylating agent that causes painful blisters on epithelial surfaces and increases the incidence of cancer in those exposed. The mechanism of mustard gas toxicity and tumorigenesis is not well understood but is thought to be mediated by its ability to induce oxidative stress and DNA damage. Interestingly, several proteins that have been shown to either be targets of mustard gas or mediate mustard gas toxicity have also been shown to regulate centrosome duplication. Centrosomes are small nonmembrane-bound organelles that direct the segregation of chromosomes during mitosis through the formation of the bipolar mitotic spindle. Cells with more or less than two centrosomes during mitosis can segregate their chromosomes unequally, resulting in chromosome instability, a common phenotype of cancer cells. In our studies, we show that subtoxic levels of 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide (2-CEES), a mustard gas analog, induce centrosome amplification and chromosome instability in cells, which may hasten the mutation rate necessary for tumorigenesis. These data may explain why those exposed to mustard gas exhibit higher incidences of cancer than unexposed individuals of the same cohort.

  6. Some factors that will affect the next generation of forest growth models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leary, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses several types of factors that affect the form and referents of future growth models. These include philosophical, scientific, technological, educational, and organizational factors. Each factor is presented individually

  7. Functional expression of the plant alternative oxidase affects growth of the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affourtit, C.; Albury, M.S.; Krab, K.; Moore, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the extent to which functional expression of the plant alternative oxidase (from Sauromatum guttatum) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe affects yeast growth. When cells are cultured on glycerol, the maximum specific growth rate is decreased from 0.13 to 0.11 h

  8. Breed effect and non-genetic factors affecting growth performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GLM) procedure of SAS to determine the effects of breed, parity, sex, type of birth, season of birth and year of birth on the growth of lambs. Breed and sex significantly (P<0.05) affected body weights at all ages. Pre and post-weaning growth rates ...

  9. Using sea urchin gametes and zygotes to investigate centrosome duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluder, Greenfield

    2016-01-01

    Centriole structure and function in the sea urchin zygote parallel those in mammalian somatic cells. Here, I briefly introduce the properties and attributes of the sea urchin system that make it an attractive platform for the study of centrosome and centriole duplication. These attributes apply to all echinoderms readily available from commercial suppliers: sea urchins, sand dollars, and starfish. I list some of the practical aspects of the system that make it a cost- and time-effective system for experimental work and then list properties that are a "tool kit" that can be used to conduct studies that would not be practical, or in some cases not possible, with mammalian somatic cells. Since centrioles organize and localize the pericentriolar material that nucleates the astral arrays of microtubules (Bobinnec et al. in J Cell Biol 143(6):1575-1589, 1998), the pattern of aster duplication over several cell cycles can be used as a reliable measure for centriole duplication (Sluder and Rieder in J Cell Biol 100(3):887-896, 1985). Descriptions of the methods my laboratory has used to handle and image echinoderm zygotes are reviewed in Sluder et al. (Methods Cell Biol 61:439-472, 1999). Also included is a bibliography of papers that describe additional methods.

  10. Inhibition of Nek2 contributes to failure of centrosome separation after DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, L.; Cerniglia, G.J.; Nigg, E.A.; Yen, T.J.; Muschel, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Centrosome separation is initiated during G2 leading to bipolar spindle formation later in mitosis. Radiation results in a block in G2. Here we show that centrosomal separation is inhibited during a DNA damage induced G2 arrest. The damaged cells failed to activate Nek2, a kinase that is required for centrosome separation. Radiation results in the activation of checkpoint pathways that lead to the inhibition of cdk1 raising the question of whether the inhibition of nek2 kinase is a downstream event of the inhibition of cdk1. However nek2 kinase is activated during G2 prior to the activation of cdk1 excluding this possibility. Inhibition of centrosomal separation either by ionizing radiation or by siRNA against Nek2 had an unexpected consequence, that of multinucleate cell formation. These studies define a previously unreported DNA damage response of inhibition of centrosome separation mechanistically linked to Nek2. The accumulation of multinucleated cells after radiation may result from defects of cytokinesis and may contribute mechanistically to cell death after radiation

  11. Nuclei of non-muscle cells bind centrosome proteins upon fusion with differentiating myoblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Fant

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In differentiating myoblasts, the microtubule network is reorganized from a centrosome-bound, radial array into parallel fibres, aligned along the long axis of the cell. Concomitantly, proteins of the centrosome relocalize from the pericentriolar material to the outer surface of the nucleus. The mechanisms that govern this relocalization are largely unknown.In this study, we perform experiments in vitro and in cell culture indicating that microtubule nucleation at the centrosome is reduced during myoblast differentiation, while nucleation at the nuclear surface increases. We show in heterologous cell fusion experiments, between cultures of differentiating mouse myoblasts and human cells of non-muscular origin, that nuclei from non-muscle cells recruit centrosome proteins once fused with the differentiating myoblasts. This recruitment still occurs in the presence of cycloheximide and thus appears to be independent of new protein biosynthesis.Altogether, our data suggest that nuclei of undifferentiated cells have the dormant potential to bind centrosome proteins, and that this potential becomes activated during myoblast differentiation.

  12. Phosphorylation of DEPDC1 at Ser110 is required to maintain centrosome organization during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Ito, Satoko; Hyodo, Toshinori; Asano-Inami, Eri; Yuan, Hong; Senga, Takeshi

    2017-09-15

    DEPDC1 (DEP domain containing 1) is overexpressed in multiple cancers and is associated with cell cycle progression. In this report, we have investigated the expression, localization, phosphorylation and function of DEPDC1 during mitosis. DEPDC1 has two isoforms (isoform a and isoform b), and both of them are increased in mitosis and degraded once cells exit mitosis. DEPDC1a is localized to the centrosome in metaphase, whereas DEPDC1b is localized to the entire cell cortex during mitosis. DEPDC1a, but not DEPDC1b, was required for the integrity of centrosome and organization of the bipolar spindle. Mass spectrometry and biochemical analyses revealed phosphorylation of DEPDC1 at Ser110. The phosphorylation of Ser110 is essential for localization of DEPDC1a to the centrosome. Consistently, non-phosphorylation mutants of DEPDC1a did not rescue disruption of centrosome organization by depletion of endogenous DEPDC1. Our results show a novel role for DEPDC1 in maintaining centrosome integrity during mitosis for the accurate distribution of chromosomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Intensity-based signal separation algorithm for accuratequantification of clustered centrosomes in tissue sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleisch, Markus C.; Maxell, Christopher A.; Kuper, Claudia K.; Brown, Erika T.; Parvin, Bahram; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary-Helen; Costes,Sylvain V.

    2006-03-08

    Centrosomes are small organelles that organize the mitoticspindle during cell division and are also involved in cell shape andpolarity. Within epithelial tumors, such as breast cancer, and somehematological tumors, centrosome abnormalities (CA) are common, occurearly in disease etiology, and correlate with chromosomal instability anddisease stage. In situ quantification of CA by optical microscopy ishampered by overlap and clustering of these organelles, which appear asfocal structures. CA has been frequently associated with Tp53 status inpremalignant lesions and tumors. Here we describe an approach toaccurately quantify centrosomes in tissue sections and tumors.Considering proliferation and baseline amplification rate the resultingpopulation based ratio of centrosomes per nucleus allow the approximationof the proportion of cells with CA. Using this technique we show that20-30 percent of cells have amplified centrosomes in Tp53 null mammarytumors. Combining fluorescence detection, deconvolution microscopy and amathematical algorithm applied to a maximum intensity projection we showthat this approach is superior to traditional investigator based visualanalysis or threshold-based techniques.

  14. Laser irradiation of centrosomes in newt eosinophils: evidence of centriole role in motility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koonce, M.P.; Cloney, R.A.; Berns, M.W.

    1984-06-01

    Newt eosinophils are motile granulated leukocytes that uniquely display a highly visible centrosomal area. Electron microscope and tubulin antibody fluorescence confirms the presence of centrioles, pericentriolar material, and radiating microtubules within this visible area. Actin antibodies intensely stain the advancing cell edges and tail but only weakly stain pseudopods being withdrawn into the cell. Randomly activated eosinophils follow a roughly consistent direction with an average rate of 22.5 ..mu..m/min. The position of the centrosome is always located between the trailing cell nucleus and advancing cell edge. If the cell extends more than one pseudopod, the one closest to or containing the centrosome is always the one in which motility continues. Laser irradiation of the visible centrosomal area resulted in rapid cell rounding. After several minutes following irradiation, most cells flattened and movement continued. However, postirradiation motility was uncoordinated and directionless, and the rate decreased to an average of 14.5 ..mu..m/min. Electron microscopy and tubulin immunofluorescence indicated that an initial disorganization of microtubules resulted from the laser microirradiations. After several minutes, organized microtubules reappeared, but the centrioles appeared increasingly damaged. The irregularities in motility due to irradiation are probably related to the damaged centrioles. The results presented in this paper suggest that the centrosome is an important structure in controlling the rate and direction of newt eosinophil motility.

  15. Excess free histone H3 localizes to centrosomes for proteasome-mediated degradation during mitosis in metazoans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Candice L; Graves, Hillary K; Wason, Arpit; Hawkins, Reva; Gopalakrishnan, Jay; Schumacher, Jill; Tyler, Jessica K

    2016-08-17

    The cell tightly controls histone protein levels in order to achieve proper packaging of the genome into chromatin, while avoiding the deleterious consequences of excess free histones. Our accompanying study has shown that a histone modification that loosens the intrinsic structure of the nucleosome, phosphorylation of histone H3 on threonine 118 (H3 T118ph), exists on centromeres and chromosome arms during mitosis. Here, we show that H3 T118ph localizes to centrosomes in humans, flies, and worms during all stages of mitosis. H3 abundance at the centrosome increased upon proteasome inhibition, suggesting that excess free histone H3 localizes to centrosomes for degradation during mitosis. In agreement, we find ubiquitinated H3 specifically during mitosis and within purified centrosomes. These results suggest that targeting of histone H3 to the centrosome for proteasome-mediated degradation is a novel pathway for controlling histone supply, specifically during mitosis.

  16. BRCA1 interaction of centrosomal protein Nlp is required for successful mitotic progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shunqian; Gao, Hua; Mazzacurati, Lucia; Wang, Yang; Fan, Wenhong; Chen, Qiang; Yu, Wei; Wang, Mingrong; Zhu, Xueliang; Zhang, Chuanmao; Zhan, Qimin

    2009-08-21

    Breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 is implicated in the control of mitotic progression, although the underlying mechanism(s) remains to be further defined. Deficiency of BRCA1 function leads to disrupted mitotic machinery and genomic instability. Here, we show that BRCA1 physically interacts and colocalizes with Nlp, an important molecule involved in centrosome maturation and spindle formation. Interestingly, Nlp centrosomal localization and its protein stability are regulated by normal cellular BRCA1 function because cells containing BRCA1 mutations or silenced for endogenous BRCA1 exhibit disrupted Nlp colocalization to centrosomes and enhanced Nlp degradation. Its is likely that the BRCA1 regulation of Nlp stability involves Plk1 suppression. Inhibition of endogenous Nlp via the small interfering RNA approach results in aberrant spindle formation, aborted chromosomal segregation, and aneuploidy, which mimic the phenotypes of disrupted BRCA1. Thus, BRCA1 interaction of Nlp might be required for the successful mitotic progression, and abnormalities of Nlp lead to genomic instability.

  17. Conserved TCP domain of Sas-4/CPAP is essential for pericentriolar material tethering during centrosome biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiangdong; Gooi, Li Ming; Wason, Arpit; Gabriel, Elke; Mehrjardi, Narges Zare; Yang, Qian; Zhang, Xingrun; Debec, Alain; Basiri, Marcus L.; Avidor-Reiss, Tomer; Pozniakovsky, Andrei; Poser, Ina; Šarić, Tomo; Hyman, Anthony A.; Li, Haitao; Gopalakrishnan, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Pericentriolar material (PCM) recruitment to centrioles forms a key step in centrosome biogenesis. Deregulation of this process leads to centrosome aberrations causing disorders, one of which is autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH), a neurodevelopmental disorder where brain size is reduced. During PCM recruitment, the conserved centrosomal protein Sas-4/CPAP/MCPH6, known to play a role in centriole formation, acts as a scaffold for cytoplasmic PCM complexes to bind and then tethers them to centrioles to form functional centrosomes. To understand Sas-4’s tethering role, we determined the crystal structure of its T complex protein 10 (TCP) domain displaying a solvent-exposed single-layer of β-sheets fold. This unique feature of the TCP domain suggests that it could provide an “extended surface-like” platform to tether the Sas-4–PCM scaffold to a centriole. Functional studies in Drosophila, human cells, and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells were used to test this hypothesis, where point mutations within the 9–10th β-strands (β9–10 mutants including a MCPH-associated mutation) perturbed PCM tethering while allowing Sas-4/CPAP to scaffold cytoplasmic PCM complexes. Specifically, the Sas-4 β9–10 mutants displayed perturbed interactions with Ana2, a centrosome duplication factor, and Bld-10, a centriole microtubule-binding protein, suggesting a role for the β9–10 surface in mediating protein–protein interactions for efficient Sas-4–PCM scaffold centriole tethering. Hence, we provide possible insights into how centrosomal protein defects result in human MCPH and how Sas-4 proteins act as a vehicle to tether PCM complexes to centrioles independent of its well-known role in centriole duplication. PMID:24385583

  18. Postnatal nutritional restriction affects growth and immune function of piglets with intra-uterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang; Liu, Yan; Yan, Chuan; Peng, Xie; Xu, Qin; Xuan, Yue; Han, Fei; Tian, Gang; Fang, Zhengfeng; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Zhang, Keying; Chen, Daiwen; Wu, De; Che, Lianqiang

    2015-07-14

    Postnatal rapid growth by excess intake of nutrients has been associated with an increased susceptibility to diseases in neonates with intra-uterine growth restricted (IUGR). The aim of the present study was to determine whether postnatal nutritional restriction could improve intestinal development and immune function of neonates with IUGR using piglets as model. A total of twelve pairs of normal-birth weight (NBW) and IUGR piglets (7 d old) were randomly assigned to receive adequate nutrient intake or restricted nutrient intake (RNI) by artificially liquid feeding for a period of 21 d. Blood samples and intestinal tissues were collected at necropsy and were analysed for morphology, digestive enzyme activities, immune cells and expression of innate immunity-related genes. The results indicated that both IUGR and postnatal nutritional restriction delayed the growth rate during the sucking period. Irrespective of nutrient intake, piglets with IUGR had a significantly lower villous height and crypt depth in the ileum than the NBW piglets. Moreover, IUGR decreased alkaline phosphatase activity while enhanced lactase activity in the jejunum and mRNA expressions of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) in the ileum of piglets. Irrespective of body weight, RNI significantly decreased the number and/or percentage of peripheral leucocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes of piglets, whereas the percentage of neutrophils and the ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ were increased. Furthermore, RNI markedly enhanced the mRNA expression of TLR-9 and DNMT1, but decreased the expression of NOD2 and TRAF-6 in the ileum of piglets. In summary, postnatal nutritional restriction led to abnormal cellular and innate immune response, as well as delayed the growth and intestinal development of IUGR piglets.

  19. Timing of growth hormone treatment affects trabecular bone microarchitecture and mineralization in growth hormone deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Erika; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Morck, Douglas W; Boyd, Steven K

    2010-08-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is essential in the development of bone mass, and a growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in childhood is frequently treated with daily injections of GH. It is not clear what effect GHD and its treatment has on bone. It was hypothesized that GHD would result in impaired microarchitecture, and an early onset of treatment would result in a better recovery than late onset. Growth hormone deficient homozygous (lit/lit) mice of both sexes were divided into two treatment groups receiving daily injections of GH, starting at an early (21 days of age) or a late time point (35 days of age, corresponding to the end of puberty). A group of heterozygous mice with normal levels of growth hormone served as controls. In vivo micro-computed tomography scans of the fourth lumbar vertebra were obtained at five time points between 21 and 60 days of age, and trabecular morphology and volumetric BMD were analyzed to determine the effects of GH on bone microarchitecture. Early GH treatment led to significant improvements in bone volume ratio (p=0.006), tissue mineral density (p=0.005), and structure model index (p=0.004) by the study endpoint (day 60), with no detected change in trabecular thickness. Trabecular number increased and trabecular separation decreased in GHD mice regardless of treatment compared to heterozygous mice. This suggests fundamental differences in the structure of trabecular bone in GHD and GH treated mice, reflected by an increased number of thinner trabeculae in these mice compared to heterozygous controls. There were no significant differences between the late treatment group and GHD mice except for connectivity density. Taken together, these results indicate that bone responds to GH treatment initiated before puberty but not to treatment commencing post-puberty, and that GH treatment does not rescue the structure of trabecular bone to that of heterozygous controls. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Microinjection techniques for studying centrosome function in Drosophila melanogaster syncytial embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conduit, Paul T; Hayward, Daniel; Wakefield, James G

    2015-01-01

    Microinjection is a powerful technique that can be used to study protein function. Early Drosophila embryos are particularly amenable to microinjection due to their large size and their single cell status. Here, we report methods to microinject these embryos with various reagents to study the function of proteins at centrosomes and centrosome function more generally. Although precise details vary between laboratories, many aspects of the process are conserved. We describe the process from setting up a fly cage to imaging the injected embryos on a spinning disk confocal microscope and use specific examples to highlight the potency of this technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Function of donor cell centrosome in intraspecies and interspecies nuclear transfer embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Zhisheng; Zhang Gang; Meng Xiaoqian; Zhang Yanling; Chen Dayuan; Schatten, Heide; Sun Qingyuan

    2005-01-01

    Centrosomes, the main microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) in most animal cells, are important for many cellular activities such as assembly of the mitotic spindle, establishment of cell polarity, and cell movement. In nuclear transfer (NT), MTOCs that are located at the poles of the meiotic spindle are removed from the recipient oocyte, while the centrosome of the donor cell is introduced. We used mouse MII oocytes as recipients, mouse fibroblasts, rat fibroblasts, or pig granulosa cells as donor cells to construct intraspecies and interspecies nuclear transfer embryos in order to observe centrosome dynamics and functions. Three antibodies against centrin, γ-tubulin, and NuMA, respectively, were used to stain the centrosome. Centrin was not detected either at the poles of transient spindles or at the poles of first mitotic spindles. γ-tubulin translocated into the two poles of the transient spindles, while no accumulated γ-tubulin aggregates were detected in the area adjacent to the two pseudo-pronuclei. At first mitotic metaphase, γ-tubulin was translocated to the spindle poles. The distribution of γ-tubulin was similar in mouse intraspecies and rat-mouse interspecies embryos. The NuMA antibody that we used can recognize porcine but not murine NuMA protein, so it was used to trace the NuMA protein of donor cell in reconstructed embryos. In the pig-mouse interspecies reconstructed embryos, NuMA concentrated between the disarrayed chromosomes soon after activation and translocated to the transient spindle poles. NuMA then immigrated into pseudo-pronuclei. After pseudo-pronuclear envelope breakdown, NuMA was located between the chromosomes and then translocated to the spindle poles of first mitotic metaphase. γ-tubulin antibody microinjection resulted in spindle disorganization and retardation of the first cell division. NuMA antibody microinjection also resulted in spindle disorganization. Our findings indicate that (1) the donor cell centrosome, defined as

  2. Does Foreign Direct Investment Affect Green Growth? Evidence from China’s Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujing Yue

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Foreign Direct Investment (FDI not only affects the economic growth but also affects the environmental protection of the host country. With China’s background of pursuing green growth, we need to consider the performance of FDI from the economic and environmental benefit aspects. On this basis, using slacks-based measure directional distance function (SBMDDF to build up green growth efficiency, economic efficiency and environmental efficiency indexes, empirical research on FDI in 104 Chinese cities from 2004 to 2011 has shown that: (1 Different cities have differences in their green growth efficiency. Shenzhen city is always efficient in green economic growth. (2 Overall, FDI is positive on Chinese cities’ green growth. (3 When the green growth efficiency is broken down into economic efficiency and environmental efficiency, FDI promotes China’s economic green growth through both environmental benefits and economic benefits. (4 The effect of FDI differs in different sectors. FDI in the emission-intensive sector promotes green efficiency mainly through the improvement of economic efficiency. FDI in the non-emission-intensive sector promotes economic efficiency, environmental efficiency and green efficiency.

  3. Exogenous growth factors do not affect the development of individually cultured murine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Jason R; Greene-Ermisch, Alison F; Schoolcraft, William B; Krisher, Rebecca L

    2017-12-21

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of multiple growth factors on the development of individually cultured murine embryos. Embryos produced by in vitro fertilization using in vitro (IVM) or in vivo (IVO) matured oocytes from three strains of mice (CF1, Swiss Webster, B6D2F1) were cultured individually (10 μl) in the absence (control) or presence of growth factors (paf, epidermal growth factor [EGF], insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1], and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]). Blastocyst formation, hatching, and blastocyst cell numbers (trophectoderm, inner cell mass, and total) were evaluated on days 4 and 5 of culture. Post-hatching development of CF1 IVO embryos was also evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The presence of growth factors did not improve the proportion of embryos forming blastocysts or initiating hatching for any of the types of embryos tested. The only significant (P embryos that formed blastocysts by day 5 in CF1 IVM embryos. The presence of growth factors also did not affect blastocyst cell numbers. For CF1 IVO embryos, the presence of growth factors during culture did not affect the proportion of embryos that attached to fibronectin-coated dishes, the size of the resulting outgrowths, or in vivo development following transfer. Combinations of paf, EGF, GM-CSF, and IGF-1 did not improve development of murine embryos cultured individually in a sequential medium containing a defined protein source.

  4. SUMO2/3 modification of activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) controls its dynamic translocation at the centrosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yunsheng; Gaither, Kari; Kim, Eugene; Liu, Edward; Hu, Ming; Lengel, Kathy; Qian, Dongmeng; Xu, Yidi; Wang, Bin; Knipprath, Henning; Liu, David X

    2018-02-23

    Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) is a member of the ATF/cAMP response element-binding protein family of transcription factors. ATF5 regulates stress responses and cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation and also plays a role in viral infections, cancer, diabetes, schizophrenia, and the olfactory system. Moreover, it was found to also have a critical cell cycle-dependent structural function at the centrosome. However, the mechanism that controls the localization of ATF5 at the centrosome is unclear. Here we report that ATF5 is small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) 2/3-modified at a conserved SUMO-targeting consensus site in various types of mammalian cells. We found that SUMOylation of ATF5 is elevated in the G 1 phase of the cell cycle and diminished in the G 2 /M phase. ATF5 SUMOylation disrupted the interaction of ATF5 with several centrosomal proteins and dislodged ATF5 from the centrosome at the end of the M phase. Of note, blockade of ATF5 SUMOylation deregulated the centrosome cycle, impeded ATF5 translocation from the centrosome, and caused genomic instability and G 2 /M arrest in HeLa cells. Our results indicate that ATF5 SUMOylation is an essential mechanism that regulates ATF5 localization and function at the centrosome. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Silencing of E2F3 suppresses tumor growth of Her2+ breast cancer cells by restricting mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Miyoung; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela; Saavedra, Harold I

    2015-11-10

    The E2F transcriptional activators E2F1, E2F2 and E2F3a regulate many important cellular processes, including DNA replication, apoptosis and centrosome duplication. Previously, we demonstrated that silencing E2F1 or E2F3 suppresses centrosome amplification (CA) and chromosome instability (CIN) in Her2+ breast cancer cells without markedly altering proliferation. However, it is unknown whether and how silencing a single E2F activator, E2F3, affects malignancy of human breast cancer cells. Thus, we injected HCC1954 Her2+ breast cancer cells silenced for E2F3 into mammary fat pads of immunodeficient mice and demonstrated that loss of E2F3 retards tumor growth. Surprisingly, silencing of E2F3 led to significant reductions in mitotic indices relative to vector controls, while the percentage of cells undergoing S phase were not affected. Nek2 is a mitotic kinase commonly upregulated in breast cancers and a critical regulator of Cdk4- or E2F-mediated CA. In this report, we found that Nek2 overexpression rescued back the CA caused by silencing of shE2F3. However, the effects of Nek2 overexpression in affecting tumor growth rates of shE2F3 and shE2F3; GFP cells were inconclusive. Taken together, our results indicate that E2F3 silencing decreases mammary tumor growth by reducing percentage of cells undergoing mitosis.

  6. Centrosome-declustering drugs mediate a two-pronged attack on interphase and mitosis in supercentrosomal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannu, V; Rida, P C G; Celik, B; Turaga, R C; Ogden, A; Cantuaria, G; Gopalakrishnan, J; Aneja, R

    2014-11-20

    Classical anti-mitotic drugs have failed to translate their preclinical efficacy into clinical response in human trials. Their clinical failure has challenged the notion that tumor cells divide frequently at rates comparable to those of cancer cells in vitro and in xenograft models. Given the preponderance of interphase cells in clinical tumors, we asked whether targeting amplified centrosomes, which cancer cells carefully preserve in a tightly clustered conformation throughout interphase, presents a superior chemotherapeutic strategy that sabotages interphase-specific cellular activities, such as migration. Herein we have utilized supercentrosomal N1E-115 murine neuroblastoma cells as a test-bed to study interphase centrosome declustering induced by putative declustering agents, such as Reduced-9-bromonoscapine (RedBr-Nos), Griseofulvin and PJ-34. We found tight 'supercentrosomal' clusters in the interphase and mitosis of ~80% of patients' tumor cells with excess centrosomes. RedBr-Nos was the strongest declustering agent with a declustering index of 0.36 and completely dispersed interphase centrosome clusters in N1E-115 cells. Interphase centrosome declustering caused inhibition of neurite formation, impairment of cell polarization and Golgi organization, disrupted cellular protrusions and focal adhesion contacts-factors that are crucial prerequisites for directional migration. Thus our data illustrate an interphase-specific potential anti-migratory role of centrosome-declustering agents in addition to their previously acknowledged ability to induce spindle multipolarity and mitotic catastrophe. Centrosome-declustering agents counter centrosome clustering to inhibit directional cell migration in interphase cells and set up multipolar mitotic catastrophe, suggesting that disbanding the nuclear-centrosome-Golgi axis is a potential anti-metastasis strategy.

  7. Historical roots of centrosome research: discovery of Boveri's microscope slides in Würzburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Boveri's visionary monograph ‘Ueber die Natur der Centrosomen’ (On the nature of centrosomes) in 1900 was founded primarily on microscopic observations of cleaving eggs of sea urchins and the roundworm parasite Ascaris. As Boveri wrote in the introductory paragraph, his interests were less about morphological aspects of centrosomes, but rather aimed at an understanding of their physiological role during cell division. The remarkable transition from observations of tiny dot-like structures in fixed and sectioned material to a unified theory of centrosome function (which in essence still holds true today) cannot be fully appreciated without examining Boveri's starting material, the histological specimens. It was generally assumed that the microscope slides were lost during the bombing of the Zoological Institute in Würzburg at the end of WWII. Here, I describe the discovery of a number of Boveri's original microscope slides with serial sections of early sea urchin and Ascaris embryos, stained by Heidenhain's iron haematoxylin method. Some slides bear handwritten notes and sketches by Boveri. Evidence is presented that the newly discovered slides are part of the original material used by Boveri for his seminal centrosome monograph. PMID:25047623

  8. Historical roots of centrosome research: discovery of Boveri's microscope slides in Würzburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Ulrich

    2014-09-05

    Boveri's visionary monograph 'Ueber die Natur der Centrosomen' (On the nature of centrosomes) in 1900 was founded primarily on microscopic observations of cleaving eggs of sea urchins and the roundworm parasite Ascaris. As Boveri wrote in the introductory paragraph, his interests were less about morphological aspects of centrosomes, but rather aimed at an understanding of their physiological role during cell division. The remarkable transition from observations of tiny dot-like structures in fixed and sectioned material to a unified theory of centrosome function (which in essence still holds true today) cannot be fully appreciated without examining Boveri's starting material, the histological specimens. It was generally assumed that the microscope slides were lost during the bombing of the Zoological Institute in Würzburg at the end of WWII. Here, I describe the discovery of a number of Boveri's original microscope slides with serial sections of early sea urchin and Ascaris embryos, stained by Heidenhain's iron haematoxylin method. Some slides bear handwritten notes and sketches by Boveri. Evidence is presented that the newly discovered slides are part of the original material used by Boveri for his seminal centrosome monograph. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. De novo formation of centrosomes in vertebrate cells arrested during S phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khodjakov, A; Rieder, CL; Sluder, G; Cassels, G; Sibon, O; Wang, CL

    2002-01-01

    The centrosome usually replicates in a semiconservative fashion, i.e., new centrioles form in association with preexisting "maternal" centrioles. De novo formation of centrioles has been reported for a few highly specialized cell types but it has not been seen in vertebrate somatic cells. We find

  10. Downregulation of Protein 4.1R impairs centrosome function,bipolar spindle organization and anaphase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, Jeffrey R.; Go, Minjoung M.; Bahmanyar, S.; Barth,A.I.M.; Krauss, Sharon Wald

    2006-03-17

    Centrosomes nucleate and organize interphase MTs and areinstrumental in the assembly of the mitotic bipolar spindle. Here wereport that two members of the multifunctional protein 4.1 family havedistinct distributions at centrosomes. Protein 4.1R localizes to maturecentrioles whereas 4.1G is a component of the pericentriolar matrixsurrounding centrioles. To selectively probe 4.1R function, we used RNAinterference-mediated depletion of 4.1R without decreasing 4.1Gexpression. 4.1R downregulation reduces MT anchoring and organization atinterphase and impairs centrosome separation during prometaphase.Metaphase chromosomes fail to properly condense/align and spindleorganization is aberrant. Notably 4.1R depletion causes mislocalizationof its binding partner NuMA (Nuclear Mitotic Apparatus Protein),essential for spindle pole focusing, and disrupts ninein. Duringanaphase/telophase, 4.1R-depleted cells have lagging chromosomes andaberrant MT bridges. Our data provide functional evidence that 4.1R makescrucial contributions to centrosome integrity and to mitotic spindlestructure enabling mitosis and anaphase to proceed with the coordinatedprecision required to avoid pathological events.

  11. Breed effect and non-genetic factors affecting growth performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-07-30

    Jul 30, 2013 ... Choice of breeds for improving the output from sheep should depend on the .... Table 1: Least squares means (+SE) and tests of significance of factors affecting body weight of sheep in Katsina,. Nigeria. Growth Traits (kg) .... provision of food and other requirements for animals. These changes in lambs ...

  12. Temperature and salinity affect the germination and growth of Silybum marianum Gaertn and Avena fatua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashmir, S.; Khan, M. A.; Shad, A.

    2016-01-01

    Two troublesome weeds like Silybum marianum and Avena fatua were exposed to different levels of temperature and salinity. Laboratory based experimented were conducted in the Department of Weed Science, The University of Agriculture Peshawar during 2015. Sterilized seeds of S. marianum and A. fatua were placed in petri-dishes in a growth chamber. The temperature levels studied were 15, 25 and 40 degree C while the NaCl concentrations were 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mM. Data revealed that germination and growth related traits responded differently to different levels of temperature and salinity. Optimum temperature (25 degree C) resulted in higher germination and growth of both the weed species. While highest temperature used (40 degree C) or lower temperature (15 degree C) resulted in poor germination and growth of S. marianum and A. fatua. Salinity level up to 100 mM did not affect the seed germination of S. marianum and A. fatua. NaCl concentration above 100 mM significantly decreased germination and ceased the germination of both the weeds at 600 mM. Like germination, the growth related variables were also decreased at very low or very high temperature and higher concentrations of NaCl. It is concluded that temperature and NaCl can affect establishment, growth and seed production potential of S. marianum and A. fatua. (author)

  13. Increased separase activity and occurrence of centrosome aberrations concur with transformation of MDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppenthal, Sabrina; Kleiner, Helga; Nolte, Florian; Fabarius, Alice; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Nowak, Daniel; Seifarth, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    ESPL1/separase, a cysteine endopeptidase, is a key player in centrosome duplication and mitotic sister chromatid separation. Aberrant expression and/or altered separase proteolytic activity are associated with centrosome amplification, aneuploidy, tumorigenesis and disease progression. Since centrosome alterations are a common and early detectable feature in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and cytogenetic aberrations play an important role in disease risk stratification, we examined separase activity on single cell level in 67 bone marrow samples obtained from patients with MDS, secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML), de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and healthy controls by a flow cytometric separase activity assay. The separase activity distribution (SAD) value, a calculated measure for the occurrence of cells with prominent separase activity within the analyzed sample, was tested for correlation with the centrosome, karyotype and gene mutation status. We found higher SAD values in bone marrow cells of sAML patients than in corresponding cells of MDS patients. This concurred with an increased incidence of aberrant centrosome phenotypes in sAML vs. MDS samples. No correlation was found between SAD values and the karyotype/gene mutation status. During follow-up of four MDS patients we observed increasing SAD values after transformation to sAML, in two patients SAD values decreased during azacitidine therapy. Cell culture experiments employing MDS-L cells as an in vitro model of MDS revealed that treatment with rigosertib, a PLK1 inhibitor and therapeutic drug known to induce G2/M arrest, results in decreased SAD values. In conclusion, the appearance of cells with unusual high separase activity levels, as indicated by increased SAD values, concurs with the transformation of MDS to sAML and may reflect separase dysregulation potentially contributing to clonal evolution during MDS progression. Separase activity measurement may therefore be useful as a

  14. Cdc2/cyclin B1 regulates centrosomal Nlp proteolysis and subcellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuelian; Jin, Shunqian; Song, Yongmei; Zhan, Qimin

    2010-11-01

    The formation of proper mitotic spindles is required for appropriate chromosome segregation during cell division. Aberrant spindle formation often causes aneuploidy and results in tumorigenesis. However, the underlying mechanism of regulating spindle formation and chromosome separation remains to be further defined. Centrosomal Nlp (ninein-like protein) is a recently characterized BRCA1-regulated centrosomal protein and plays an important role in centrosome maturation and spindle formation. In this study, we show that Nlp can be phosphorylated by cell cycle protein kinase Cdc2/cyclin B1. The phosphorylation sites of Nlp are mapped at Ser185 and Ser589. Interestingly, the Cdc2/cyclin B1 phosphorylation site Ser185 of Nlp is required for its recognition by PLK1, which enable Nlp depart from centrosomes to allow the establishment of a mitotic scaffold at the onset of mitosis . PLK1 fails to dissociate the Nlp mutant lacking Ser185 from centrosome, suggesting that Cdc2/cyclin B1 might serve as a primary kinase of PLK1 in regulating Nlp subcellular localization. However, the phosphorylation at the site Ser589 by Cdc2/cyclin B1 plays an important role in Nlp protein stability probably due to its effect on protein degradation. Furthermore, we show that deregulated expression or subcellular localization of Nlp lead to multinuclei in cells, indicating that scheduled levels of Nlp and proper subcellular localization of Nlp are critical for successful completion of normal cell mitosis, These findings demonstrate that Cdc2/cyclin B1 is a key regulator in maintaining appropriate degradation and subcellular localization of Nlp, providing novel insights into understanding on the role of Cdc2/cyclin B1 in mitotic progression.

  15. The Dimensions Affecting Investment Resulting Stabilized Economic Growth in Bangladesh: Perception Analysis of Investors and Bankers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Mohammad Saiful

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to identify the impact of some assumed dimensions as vital reasons for investment sluggishness in Bangladesh resulting stabilized GDP growth rate around 6 percent over last decade in spite of having some favorable microeconomic and macroeconomic indicators such as controlled inflation rate, huge foreign exchange reserve, export growth etc. The study is descriptive in nature where correlation, regression and trend analysis have been conducted from the data of primary and secondary sources. The result of the analysis shows that mainly five important dimensions of investment sluggishness named high lending interest rate, corruption in public and private organizations, political unrest, inadequate power generation and supply and infrastructure problem are significantly affecting investment sluggishness in Bangladesh resulting stabilized GDP growth rate. At the end of the research paper, some measures have been recommended to overcome the obstacles of investment growth.

  16. Centrosomal Nlp is an oncogenic protein that is gene-amplified in human tumors and causes spontaneous tumorigenesis in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Shujuan; Liu, Rong; Wang, Yang; Song, Yongmei; Zuo, Lihui; Xue, Liyan; Lu, Ning; Hou, Ning; Wang, Mingrong; Yang, Xiao; Zhan, Qimin

    2010-02-01

    Disruption of mitotic events contributes greatly to genomic instability and results in mutator phenotypes. Indeed, abnormalities of mitotic components are closely associated with malignant transformation and tumorigenesis. Here we show that ninein-like protein (Nlp), a recently identified BRCA1-associated centrosomal protein involved in microtubule nucleation and spindle formation, is an oncogenic protein. Nlp was found to be overexpressed in approximately 80% of human breast and lung carcinomas analyzed. In human lung cancers, this deregulated expression was associated with NLP gene amplification. Further analysis revealed that Nlp exhibited strong oncogenic properties; for example, it conferred to NIH3T3 rodent fibroblasts the capacity for anchorage-independent growth in vitro and tumor formation in nude mice. Consistent with these data, transgenic mice overexpressing Nlp displayed spontaneous tumorigenesis in the breast, ovary, and testicle within 60 weeks. In addition, Nlp overexpression induced more rapid onset of radiation-induced lymphoma. Furthermore, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from Nlp transgenic mice showed centrosome amplification, suggesting that Nlp overexpression mimics BRCA1 loss. These findings demonstrate that Nlp abnormalities may contribute to genomic instability and tumorigenesis and suggest that Nlp might serve as a potential biomarker for clinical diagnosis and therapeutic target.

  17. Fusarium oxysporum volatiles enhance plant growth via affecting auxin transport and signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios eBitas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs have well-documented roles in plant-plant communication and directing animal behavior. In this study, we examine the less understood roles of VOCs in plant-fungal relationships. Phylogenetically and ecologically diverse strains of Fusarium oxysporum, a fungal species complex that often resides in the rhizosphere of assorted plants, produce volatile compounds that augment shoot and root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco. Growth responses of A. thaliana hormone signaling mutants and expression patterns of a GUS reporter gene under the auxin-responsive DR5 promoter supported the involvement of auxin signaling in F. oxysporum volatile-mediated growth enhancement. In addition, 1-naphthylthalamic acid, an inhibitor of auxin efflux, negated F. oxysporum volatile-mediated growth enhancement in both plants. Comparison of the profiles of volatile compounds produced by F. oxysporum strains that differentially affected plant growth suggests that the relative compositions of both growth inhibitory and stimulatory compounds may determine the degree of plant growth enhancement. Volatile-mediated signaling between fungi and plants may represent a potentially conserved, yet mostly overlooked, mechanism underpinning plant-fungus interactions and fungal niche adaption.

  18. Do soil fertilization and forest canopy foliage affect the growth and photosynthesis of Amazonian saplings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilvanda dos Santos Magalhães

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Most Amazonian soils are highly weathered and poor in nutrients. Therefore, photosynthesis and plant growth should positively respond to the addition of mineral nutrients. Surprisingly, no study has been carried out in situ in the central Amazon to address this issue for juvenile trees. The objective of this study was to determine how photosynthetic rates and growth of tree saplings respond to the addition of mineral nutrients, to the variation in leaf area index of the forest canopy, and to changes in soil water content associated with rainfall seasonality. We assessed the effect of adding a slow-release fertilizer. We determined plant growth from 2010 to 2012 and gas exchange in the wet and dry season of 2012. Rainfall seasonality led to variations in soil water content, but it did not affect sapling growth or leaf gas exchange parameters. Although soil amendment increased phosphorus content by 60 %, neither plant growth nor the photosynthetic parameters were influenced by the addition of mineral nutrients. However, photosynthetic rates and growth of saplings decreased as the forest canopy became denser. Even when Amazonian soils are poor in nutrients, photosynthesis and sapling growth are more responsive to slight variations in light availability in the forest understory than to the availability of nutrients. Therefore, the response of saplings to future increases in atmospheric [CO2] will not be limited by the availability of mineral nutrients in the soil.

  19. Androgen and taxol cause cell type-specific alterations of centrosome and DNA organization in androgen-responsive LNCaP and androgen-independent DU145 prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, H.; Ripple, M.; Balczon, R.; Weindruch, R.; Chakrabarti, A.; Taylor, M.; Hueser, C. N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the effects of androgen and taxol on the androgen-responsive LNCaP and androgen-independent DU145 prostate cancer cell lines. Cells were treated for 48 and 72 h with 0.05-1 nM of the synthetic androgen R1881 and with 100 nM taxol. Treatment of LNCaP cells with 0.05 nM R1881 led to increased cell proliferation, whereas treatment with 1 nM R1881 resulted in inhibited cell division, DNA cycle arrest, and altered centrosome organization. After treatment with 1 nM R1881, chromatin became clustered, nuclear envelopes convoluted, and mitochondria accumulated around the nucleus. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies to centrosomes showed altered centrosome structure. Although centrosomes were closely associated with the nucleus in untreated cells, they dispersed into the cytoplasm after treatment with 1 nM R1881. Microtubules were only faintly detected in 1 nM R1881-treated LNCaP cells. The effects of taxol included microtubule bundling and altered mitochondria morphology, but not DNA organization. As expected, the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line DU145 was not affected by R1881. Treatment with taxol resulted in bundling of microtubules in both cell lines. Additional taxol effects were seen in DU145 cells with micronucleation of DNA, an indication of apoptosis. Simultaneous treatment with R1881 and taxol had no additional effects on LNCaP or DU145 cells. These results suggest that LNCaP and DU145 prostate cancer cells show differences not only in androgen responsiveness but in sensitivity to taxol as well. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Dynactin binding to tyrosinated microtubules promotes centrosome centration in C. elegans by enhancing dynein-mediated organelle transport

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Daniel J.; Duro, Joana; Prevo, Bram; Cheerambathur, Dhanya K.; Carvalho, Ana X.; Gassmann, Reto

    2017-01-01

    Author summary Animal cells rely on molecular motor proteins to distribute intracellular components and organize their cytoplasmic content. The motor cytoplasmic dynein 1 (dynein) uses microtubule filaments as tracks to transport cargo from the cell periphery to the cell center, where the microtubule minus ends are embedded at the centrosome. Conversely, when dynein is anchored at the cell cortex or on organelles in the cytoplasm, the motor can pull on microtubules to position centrosomes wit...

  1. TRINEXAPAC-ETHYL AFFECTS GROWTH AND GAS EXCHANGE OF UPLAND RICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RITA DE CASSIA FÉLIX ALVAREZ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A major problem affecting some upland rice cultivars is the increase in plant size when subjected to high doses of nitrogen fertilizer, leading to high levels of lodging. A method to reduce the height of upland rice, and therefore lodging, would be to use plant growth regulators. However, little information exists on the effect of these regulators on plant physiological processes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of trinexapac-ethyl application in upland rice via analysis of growth and gas exchange. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions using the BRS Primavera cultivar. A completely randomized design with eight replications was used. Treatments were carried out with and without the application of the plant growth regulator, and plants were subject to two-stage assessments in which physiological and gas-exchange indices were measured. The use of trinexapac-ethyl improved the growth of rice plants from the flowering to the physiological maturity stage, resulting in higher values of leaf area ratio, specific leaf area, and leaf matter ratio in treated plants. At the same time, it provided smaller reduction in net CO2 assimilation at the physiological maturity stage. Thus, net/apparent assimilation rate did not change after the application of growth regulator, but relative growth rate decreased in these treated plants. These results indicate the occurrence of self-shading in rice plants induced by what might be a supra-optimum trinexapac-ethyl concentration.

  2. Color of illumination during growth affects LHCII chiral macroaggregates in pea plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussakovsky, Eugene E; Shahak, Yosepha; Schroeder, Dana F

    2007-02-01

    To determine whether the color of illumination under which plants are grown, affects the structure of photosynthetic antennae, pea plants were grown under either blue-enriched, red-enriched, or white light. Carotenoid content of isolated chloroplasts was found to be insensitive to the color of illumination during growth, while chlorophyll a/b ratio in chloroplasts isolated from young illuminated leaves showed susceptibility to color. Color of illumination affects the LHCII chiral macroaggregates in intact leaves and isolated chloroplasts, providing light-induced alteration of the handedness of the LHCII chiral macroaggregate, as measured with circular dichroism and circularly polarized luminescence. The susceptibility of handedness to current illumination (red light excitation of chlorophyll fluorescence) is dependent on the color under which the plants were grown, and was maximal for the red-enriched illumination. We propose the existence of a long-term (growth period) color memory, which influences the susceptibility of the handedness of LHCII chiral macroaggregates to current light.

  3. Continuous polo-like kinase 1 activity regulates diffusion to maintain centrosome self-organization during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahen, Robert; Jeyasekharan, Anand D; Barry, Nicholas P; Venkitaraman, Ashok R

    2011-05-31

    Whether mitotic structures like the centrosome can self-organize from the regulated mobility of their dynamic protein components remains unclear. Here, we combine fluorescence spectroscopy and chemical genetics to study in living cells the diffusion of polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), an enzyme critical for centrosome maturation at the onset of mitosis. The cytoplasmic diffusion of a functional EGFP-PLK1 fusion correlates inversely with known changes in its enzymatic activity during the cell cycle. Specific EGFP-PLK1 inhibition using chemical genetics enhances mobility, as do point mutations inactivating the polo-box or kinase domains responsible for substrate recognition and catalysis. Spatial mapping of EGFP-PLK1 diffusion across living cells, using raster image correlation spectroscopy and line scanning, detects regions of low mobility in centrosomes. These regions exhibit characteristics of increased transient recursive EGFP-PLK1 binding, distinct from the diffusion of stable EGFP-PLK1-containing complexes in the cytoplasm. Chemical genetic suppression of mitotic EGFP-PLK1 activity, even after centrosome maturation, causes defects in centrosome structure, which recover when activity is restored. Our findings imply that continuous PLK1 activity during mitosis maintains centrosome self-organization by a mechanism dependent on its reaction and diffusion, suggesting a model for the formation of stable mitotic structures using dynamic protein kinases.

  4. Continuous polo-like kinase 1 activity regulates diffusion to maintain centrosome self-organization during mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahen, Robert; Jeyasekharan, Anand D.; Barry, Nicholas P.; Venkitaraman, Ashok R.

    2011-01-01

    Whether mitotic structures like the centrosome can self-organize from the regulated mobility of their dynamic protein components remains unclear. Here, we combine fluorescence spectroscopy and chemical genetics to study in living cells the diffusion of polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), an enzyme critical for centrosome maturation at the onset of mitosis. The cytoplasmic diffusion of a functional EGFP-PLK1 fusion correlates inversely with known changes in its enzymatic activity during the cell cycle. Specific EGFP-PLK1 inhibition using chemical genetics enhances mobility, as do point mutations inactivating the polo-box or kinase domains responsible for substrate recognition and catalysis. Spatial mapping of EGFP-PLK1 diffusion across living cells, using raster image correlation spectroscopy and line scanning, detects regions of low mobility in centrosomes. These regions exhibit characteristics of increased transient recursive EGFP-PLK1 binding, distinct from the diffusion of stable EGFP-PLK1–containing complexes in the cytoplasm. Chemical genetic suppression of mitotic EGFP-PLK1 activity, even after centrosome maturation, causes defects in centrosome structure, which recover when activity is restored. Our findings imply that continuous PLK1 activity during mitosis maintains centrosome self-organization by a mechanism dependent on its reaction and diffusion, suggesting a model for the formation of stable mitotic structures using dynamic protein kinases. PMID:21576470

  5. From meiosis to mitosis - the sperm centrosome defines the kinetics of spindle assembly after fertilization in Xenopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazza, Tommaso; Peset, Isabel; Vernos, Isabelle

    2016-07-01

    Bipolar spindle assembly in the vertebrate oocyte relies on a self-organization chromosome-dependent pathway. Upon fertilization, the male gamete provides a centrosome, and the first and subsequent embryonic divisions occur in the presence of duplicated centrosomes that act as dominant microtubule organizing centres (MTOCs). The transition from meiosis to embryonic mitosis involves a necessary adaptation to integrate the dominant chromosome-dependent pathway with the centrosomes to form the bipolar spindle. Here, we took advantage of the Xenopus laevis egg extract system to mimic in vitro the assembly of the first embryonic spindle and investigate the respective contributions of the centrosome and the chromosome-dependent pathway to the kinetics of the spindle bipolarization. We found that centrosomes control the transition from the meiotic to the mitotic spindle assembly mechanism. By defining the kinetics of spindle bipolarization, the centrosomes ensure their own positioning to each spindle pole and thereby their essential correct inheritance to the two first daughter cells of the embryo for the development of a healthy organism. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Macronutrient content of plant-based food affects growth of a carnivorous arthropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Shawn M; Holway, David A; Suarez, Andrew V; Eubanks, Micky D

    2011-02-01

    Many arthropods engage in mutualisms in which they consume plant-based foods including nectar, extrafloral nectar, and honeydew. However, relatively little is known about the manner in which the specific macronutrients in these plant-based resources affect growth, especially for carnivorous arthropods. Using a combination of laboratory and field experiments, we tested (1) how plant-based foods, together with ad libitum insect prey, affect the growth of a carnivorous ant, Solenopsis invicta, and (2) which macronutrients in these resources (i.e., carbohydrates, amino acids, or both) contribute to higher colony growth. Access to honeydew increased the production of workers and brood in experimental colonies. This growth effect appeared to be due to carbohydrates alone as colonies provided with the carbohydrate component of artificial extrafloral nectar had greater worker and brood production compared to colonies deprived of carbohydrates. Surprisingly, amino acids only had a slight interactive effect on the proportion of a colony composed of brood and negatively affected worker survival. Diet choice in the laboratory and field matched performance in the laboratory with high recruitment to carbohydrate baits and only slight recruitment to amino acids. The strong, positive effects of carbohydrates on colony growth and the low cost of producing this macronutrient for plants and hemipterans may have aided the evolution of food-for-protection mutualisms and help explain why these interactions are so common in ants. In addition, greater access to plant-based resources in the introduced range of S. invicta may help to explain the high densities achieved by this species throughout the southeastern United States.

  7. Growth rate and medium composition strongly affect folate content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortmo, Sofia; Patring, Johan; Andlid, Thomas

    2008-03-31

    Folate content in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was monitored during aerobic batch fermentation in synthetic growth medium, yeast peptone dextrose medium, and a molasses based medium. During growth in the synthetic medium large differences in intracellular folate content was observed at different phases. Specific folate levels, expressed per unit biomass, were highest during respiro-fermentative growth (120 microg/g) and decreased during the respiratory and stationary phases. Thus, the physiological state of the cells clearly affects the folate content. This was confirmed in chemostat cultures where total intracellular folate content increased linearly with increasing growth rate (r(2)=0.998), indicating high growth rate i.e. respiro-fermentative growth to be most favourable to obtain high specific folate content. In complex media however, much lower folate content (15-40 microg/g) was found throughout the batch growth. Only minor growth-phase related differences were detected. This shows the impact of cultivation medium on folate content in yeast. To further investigate which components that influence folate content, batch experiments in synthetic medium with addition of specific components were performed. Adding a raw mixture of peptides and amino acids (peptone) decreased folate levels extensively (90%) whereas adding amino acids one-by-one only had minor effects on the intracellular folate content. Furthermore, supplementing synthetic medium with pABA, folate or nucleotides did not change the intracellular folate content. This work constitutes the first steps towards an optimised process for production of natural folates for fortification purposes, as well as an effort to gain fundamental understanding of folate requirements in yeast in relation to environmental conditions.

  8. Density affects gametophyte growth and sexual expression of Osmunda cinnamomea (Osmundaceae: Pteridophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yao-moan; Chou, Hsueh-mei; Chiou, Wen-liang

    2004-08-01

    To understand how gametophyte densities affect the sexual expression and sizes of Osmunda cinnamomea and to provide information on the density of growth needed to favour successful reproduction, fresh spores were sown at various densities and subsequent gametophyte growth was studied. Spores were sown and cultured in the laboratory. Subsequent gameophytes at different population densities were sampled and their sexual expression and sizes were recorded. One-year-old multispore cultures of the fern O. cinnamomea demonstrated that population density affected gametophyte growth and sexual expression. As density increased, gametophytes became significantly smaller and more slender. Female and asexual gametophytes dominated in populations of low and high densities, respectively. At intermediate population densities, hermaphroditic and male gametophytes were dominant. Female gametophytes were larger than gametophytes of all other types. Hermaphroditic gametophytes were larger than male gametophytes, which were larger than asexual gametophytes. Large gametophytes were wide-cordate, whereas smaller ones tended to be narrow-spathulate. Gametophyte size of O. cinnamomea is negatively related to the population density, which significantly affects gametophytes' sexual expression. The presence of unisexual and bisexual gametophytes at intermediate densities indicates that both intergametophytic and intragametophytic selfing may occur.

  9. Rearing Tenebrio molitor in BLSS: Dietary fiber affects larval growth, development, and respiration characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leyuan; Stasiak, Michael; Li, Liang; Xie, Beizhen; Fu, Yuming; Gidzinski, Danuta; Dixon, Mike; Liu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Rearing of yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) will provide good animal nutrition for astronauts in a bioregenerative life support system. In this study, growth and biomass conversion data of T. molitor larvae were tested for calculating the stoichiometric equation of its growth. Result of a respiratory quotient test proved the validity of the equation. Fiber had the most reduction in mass during T. molitor‧s consumption, and thus it is speculated that fiber is an important factor affecting larval growth of T. molitor. In order to further confirm this hypothesis and find out a proper feed fiber content, T. molitor larvae were fed on diets with 4 levels of fiber. Larval growth, development and respiration in each group were compared and analyzed. Results showed that crude-fiber content of 5% had a significant promoting effect on larvae in early instars, and is beneficial for pupa eclosion. When fed on feed of 5-10% crude-fiber, larvae in later instars reached optimal levels in growth, development and respiration. Therefore, we suggest that crude fiber content in feed can be controlled within 5-10%, and with the consideration of food palatability, a crude fiber of 5% is advisable.

  10. Ozone affects gas exchange, growth and reproductive development in Brassica campestris (Wisconsin fast plants).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, V J; Stewart, C A; Roberts, J A; Black, C R

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to ozone (O(3)) may affect vegetative and reproductive development, although the consequences for yield depend on the effectiveness of the compensatory processes induced. This study examined the impact on reproductive development of exposing Brassica campestris (Wisconsin Fast Plants) to ozone during vegetative growth. Plants were exposed to 70 ppb ozone for 2 d during late vegetative growth or 10 d spanning most of the vegetative phase. Effects on gas exchange, vegetative growth, reproductive development and seed yield were determined. Impacts on gas exchange and foliar injury were related to pre-exposure stomatal conductance. Exposure for 2 d had no effect on growth or reproductive characteristics, whereas 10-d exposure reduced vegetative growth and reproductive site number on the terminal raceme. Mature seed number and weight per pod and per plant were unaffected because seed abortion was reduced. The observation that mature seed yield per plant was unaffected by exposure during the vegetative phase, despite adverse effects on physiological, vegetative and reproductive processes, shows that indeterminate species such as B. campestris possess sufficient compensatory flexibility to avoid reductions in seed production.

  11. Epstein–Barr virus particles induce centrosome amplification and chromosomal instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumilov, Anatoliy; Tsai, Ming-Han; Schlosser, Yvonne T.; Kratz, Anne-Sophie; Bernhardt, Katharina; Fink, Susanne; Mizani, Tuba; Lin, Xiaochen; Jauch, Anna; Mautner, Josef; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Feederle, Regina; Hoffmann, Ingrid; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Infections with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) are associated with cancer development, and EBV lytic replication (the process that generates virus progeny) is a strong risk factor for some cancer types. Here we report that EBV infection of B-lymphocytes (in vitro and in a mouse model) leads to an increased rate of centrosome amplification, associated with chromosomal instability. This effect can be reproduced with virus-like particles devoid of EBV DNA, but not with defective virus-like particles that cannot infect host cells. Viral protein BNRF1 induces centrosome amplification, and BNRF1-deficient viruses largely lose this property. These findings identify a new mechanism by which EBV particles can induce chromosomal instability without establishing a chronic infection, thereby conferring a risk for development of tumours that do not necessarily carry the viral genome. PMID:28186092

  12. Plasmid Transfer of Plasminogen K1-5 Reduces Subcutaneous Hepatoma Growth by Affecting Inflammatory Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea A. Koch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that plasminogen K1-5 (PlgK1-5 directly affects tumour cells and inflammation. Therefore, we analysed if PlgK1-5 has immediate effects on hepatoma cells and inflammatory factors in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, effects of plasmid encoding PlgK1-5 (pK1-5 on Hepa129, Hepa1-6, and HuH7 cell viability, apoptosis, and proliferation as well as VEGF and TNF-alpha expression and STAT3-phosphorylation were investigated. In vivo, tumour growth, proliferation, vessel density, and effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha expression were examined following treatment with pK1-5. In vivo, pK1-5 halved cell viability; cell death was increased by up to 15% compared to the corresponding controls. Proliferation was not affected. VEGF, TNF-alpha, and STAT3-phosphorylation were affected following treatment with pK1-5. In vivo, ten days after treatment initiation, pK1-5 reduced subcutaneous tumour growth by 32% and mitosis by up to 77% compared to the controls. Vessel density was reduced by 50%. TNF-alpha levels in tumour and liver tissue were increased, whereas VEGF levels in tumours and livers were reduced after pK1-5 treatment. Taken together, plasmid gene transfer of PlgK1-5 inhibits hepatoma (cell growth not only by reducing vessel density but also by inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, and triggering inflammation.

  13. Response to long-term growth hormone therapy in patients affected by RASopathies and growth hormone deficiency: Patterns of growth, puberty and final height data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburrino, Federica; Gibertoni, Dino; Rossi, Cesare; Scarano, Emanuela; Perri, Annamaria; Montanari, Francesca; Fantini, Maria Pia; Pession, Andrea; Tartaglia, Marco; Mazzanti, Laura

    2015-11-01

    RASopathies are developmental disorders caused by heterozygous germline mutations in genes encoding proteins in the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway. Reduced growth is a common feature. Several studies generated data on growth, final height (FH), and height velocity (HV) after growth hormone (GH) treatment in patients with these disorders, particularly in Noonan syndrome, the most common RASopathy. These studies, however, refer to heterogeneous cohorts in terms of molecular information, GH status, age at start and length of therapy, and GH dosage. This work reports growth data in 88 patients affected by RASopathies with molecularly confirmed diagnosis, together with statistics on body proportions, pubertal pattern, and FH in 33, including 16 treated with GH therapy for proven GH deficiency. Thirty-three patients showed GH deficiency after pharmacological tests, and were GH-treated for an average period of 6.8 ± 4.8 years. Before starting therapy, HV was -2.6 ± 1.3 SDS, and mean basal IGF1 levels were -2.0 ± 1.1 SDS. Long-term GH therapy, starting early during childhood, resulted in a positive height response compared with untreated patients (1.3 SDS in terms of height-gain), normalizing FH for Ranke standards but not for general population and Target Height. Pubertal timing negatively affected pubertal growth spurt and FH, with IGF1 standardized score increased from -2.43 to -0.27 SDS. During GH treatment, no significant change in bone age velocity, body proportions, or cardiovascular function was observed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Centrosomes in the zebrafish (Danio rerio: a review including the related basal body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessman Charles A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ever since Edouard Van Beneden and Theodor Boveri first formally described the centrosome in the late 1800s, it has captivated cell biologists. The name clearly indicated its central importance to cell functioning, even to these early investigators. We now know of its role as a major microtubule-organizing center (MTOC and of its dynamic roles in cell division, vesicle trafficking and for its relative, the basal body, ciliogenesis. While centrosomes are found in most animal cells, notably it is absent in most oocytes and higher plant cells. Nevertheless, it appears that critical components of the centrosome act as MTOCs in these cells as well. The zebrafish has emerged as an exciting and promising new model organism, primarily due to the pioneering efforts of George Streisinger to use zebrafish in genetic studies and due to Christiane Nusslein-Volhard, Wolfgang Driever and their teams of collaborators, who applied forward genetics to elicit a large number of mutant lines. The transparency and rapid external development of the embryo allow for experiments not easily done in other vertebrates. The ease of producing transgenic lines, often with the use of fluorescent reporters, and gene knockdowns with antisense morpholinos further contributes to the appeal of the model as an experimental system. The added advantage of high-throughput screening of small-molecule libraries, as well as the ease of mass rearing together with low cost, makes the zebrafish a true frontrunner as a model vertebrate organism. The zebrafish has a body plan shared by all vertebrates, including humans. This conservation of body plan provides added significance to the existing lines of zebrafish as human disease models and adds an impetus to the ongoing efforts to develop new models. In this review, the current state of knowledge about the centrosome in the zebrafish model is explored. Also, studies on the related basal body in zebrafish and their relationship to

  15. Centrosome Hypertrophy Induced by p53 Mutations Leads to Tumor Aneuploidy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    nuclear events of the cell cycle in the bodies in tumors displaying apocrine metaplasia, Cen- sea urchin zygote. J Cell Biol 1996, 140:1417-1426 trosome...Images were analyzed and printed as maximum projections. Spindle morphology was scored as normal ’bipolar’ if less than 1% aberrant spindles were...Centrosome function was determined using a quantitative assay for microtubule nucleation and mitotic spindle morphology . The three cell lines can be

  16. Differential expression of centrosomal proteins at different stages of human glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Fang-Yi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-grade gliomas have poor prognosis, requiring aggressive treatment. The aim of this study is to explore mitotic and centrosomal dysregulation in gliomas, which may provide novel targets for treatment. Methods A case-control study was performed using 34 resected gliomas, which were separated into low- and high-grade groups. Normal human brain tissue was used as a control. Using immunohistochemical analysis, immunofluorescent microscopy, and RT-PCR, detection of centrins 1 and 2, γ-tubulin, hNinein, Aurora A, and Aurora B, expression was performed. Analysis of the GBM8401 glioma cell line was also undertaken to complement the in vivo studies. Results In high-grade gliomas, the cells had greater than two very brightly staining centrioles within large, atypical nuclei, and moderate-to-strong Aurora A staining. Comparing with normal human brain tissue, most of the mRNAs expression in gliomas for centrosomal structural proteins, including centrin 3, γ-tubulin, and hNinein isoforms 1, 2, 5 and 6, Aurora A and Aurora B were elevated. The significant different expression was observed between high- and low-grade glioma in both γ-tubulin and Aurora A mRNA s. In the high-grade glioma group, 78.6% of the samples had higher than normal expression of γ-tubulin mRNA, which was significantly higher than in the low-grade glioma group (18.2%, p Conclusions Markers for mitotic dysregulation, such as supernumerary centrosomes and altered expression of centrosome-related mRNA and proteins were more frequently detected in higher grade gliomas. Therefore, these results are clinically useful for glioma staging as well as the development of novel treatments strategies.

  17. NuMA: a nuclear protein involved in mitotic centrosome function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, C

    2000-06-01

    Nuclear mitotic apparatus protein, NuMA, is an abundant 240 kDa protein with microtubule (MT) binding capacity via its carboxyl terminal region. Structurally, it has been shown to be a double-strand coiled-coil that has a high potential to form filamentous polymers. During interphase, NuMA locates within the nucleus but rapidly redistributes to the separating centrosomes during early mitosis. Xenopus NuMA associates with MT minus end-directed motor cytoplasmic dynein and its motility-activating complex dynactin at mitotic centrosomal regions. This NuMA-motor complex binds the free ends of MTs, converging and tethering spindle MT ends to the poles. A similar scenario appears to be true in higher vertebrates as well. As a mitotic centrosomal component, NuMA is essential for the organization and stabilization of spindle poles from early mitosis until at least the onset of anaphase. The cell cycle-dependent distribution and function of NuMA is regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, and p34/CDC2 activity is important to the mitotic role of NuMA. This review summarizes data about the structural features and mitotic function of NuMA with particular emphasis on the newly discovered NuMA-motor complex in spindle organization. Furthermore, NuMA may represent a large group of proteins whose mitotic function is sequestered in the nucleus during interphase. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. A bacterium targets maternally inherited centrosomes to kill males in Nasonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferree, Patrick M; Avery, Amanda; Azpurua, Jorge; Wilkes, Timothy; Werren, John H

    2008-09-23

    Male killing is caused by diverse microbial taxa in a wide range of arthropods. This phenomenon poses important challenges to understanding the dynamics of sex ratios and host-pathogen interactions. However, the mechanisms of male killing are largely unknown. Evidence from one case in Drosophila suggests that bacteria can target components of the male-specific sex-determination pathway. Here, we investigated male killing by the bacterium Arsenophonus nasoniae in the haplo-diploid wasp Nasonia vitripennis, in which females develop as diploids from fertilized eggs and males develop parthenogenetically as haploids from unfertilized eggs. We found that Arsenophonus inhibits the formation of maternal centrosomes, organelles required specifically for early male embryonic development, resulting in unorganized mitotic spindles and developmental arrest well before the establishment of somatic sexual identity. Consistent with these results, rescue of Arsenophonus-induced male lethality was achieved by fertilization with sperm bearing the supernumerary chromosome paternal sex ratio (PSR), which destroys the paternal genome but bypasses the need for maternal centrosomes by allowing transmission of the sperm-derived centrosome into the egg. These findings reveal a novel mechanism of male killing in Nasonia, demonstrating that bacteria have evolved different mechanisms for inducing male killing in the Arthropods.

  19. BRCA1 Interaction of Centrosomal Protein Nlp Is Required for Successful Mitotic Progression*♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shunqian; Gao, Hua; Mazzacurati, Lucia; Wang, Yang; Fan, Wenhong; Chen, Qiang; Yu, Wei; Wang, Mingrong; Zhu, Xueliang; Zhang, Chuanmao; Zhan, Qimin

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 is implicated in the control of mitotic progression, although the underlying mechanism(s) remains to be further defined. Deficiency of BRCA1 function leads to disrupted mitotic machinery and genomic instability. Here, we show that BRCA1 physically interacts and colocalizes with Nlp, an important molecule involved in centrosome maturation and spindle formation. Interestingly, Nlp centrosomal localization and its protein stability are regulated by normal cellular BRCA1 function because cells containing BRCA1 mutations or silenced for endogenous BRCA1 exhibit disrupted Nlp colocalization to centrosomes and enhanced Nlp degradation. Its is likely that the BRCA1 regulation of Nlp stability involves Plk1 suppression. Inhibition of endogenous Nlp via the small interfering RNA approach results in aberrant spindle formation, aborted chromosomal segregation, and aneuploidy, which mimic the phenotypes of disrupted BRCA1. Thus, BRCA1 interaction of Nlp might be required for the successful mitotic progression, and abnormalities of Nlp lead to genomic instability. PMID:19509300

  20. Crack growth rates of irradiated austenitic stainless steel weld heat affected zone in BWR environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, O. K.; Alexandreanu, B.; Gruber, E. E.; Daum, R. S.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2006-01-31

    Austenitic stainless steels (SSs) are used extensively as structural alloys in the internal components of reactor pressure vessels because of their superior fracture toughness. However, exposure to high levels of neutron irradiation for extended periods can exacerbate the corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of these steels by affecting the material microchemistry, material microstructure, and water chemistry. Experimental data are presented on crack growth rates of the heat affected zone (HAZ) in Types 304L and 304 SS weld specimens before and after they were irradiated to a fluence of 5.0 x 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV) ({approx} 0.75 dpa) at {approx}288 C. Crack growth tests were conducted under cycling loading and long hold time trapezoidal loading in simulated boiling water reactor environments on Type 304L SS HAZ of the H5 weld from the Grand Gulf reactor core shroud and on Type 304 SS HAZ of a laboratory-prepared weld. The effects of material composition, irradiation, and water chemistry on growth rates are discussed.

  1. Yield components in wheat affected by sowing density and growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Luiz Fioreze

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Improvement on yield potential of plants by crop management is the main research challenge due to the growing of food demand worldwide. The objective of this work was to study physiological and morphological traits and its relationship with yield components and yield of wheat as affected by sowing densities and plant growth regulators. The experimental design was a split-plot design with four replications. The plots were consisted by four sowing densities (30, 50 70 and 90 plants m-1 and the subplots were consisted by plant growth regulators [control, (IBA+GA+KT, Trinexapac-Ethyl e (IBA+GA+KT + Trinexapac-Ethyl]. Dry matter accumulation, plant height, source-sink distance, gas exchange and yield were determined. Trinexapac-Ethyl application resulted in decreasing of plant height, source-sink distance and flag leaf length; however, the grain yield was not affected. The number of plants per unit area affected dry matter accumulation. Higher dry matter accumulation showed direct relationship with yield and yield components in lower plant densities.

  2. The Tzs protein and exogenous cytokinin affect virulence gene expression and bacterial growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hau-Hsuan; Yang, Fong-Jhih; Cheng, Tun-Fang; Chen, Yi-Chun; Lee, Ying-Ling; Tsai, Yun-Long; Lai, Erh-Min

    2013-09-01

    The soil phytopathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease in a wide range of plant species. The neoplastic growth at the infection sites is caused by transferring, integrating, and expressing transfer DNA (T-DNA) from A. tumefaciens into plant cells. A trans-zeatin synthesizing (tzs) gene is located in the nopaline-type tumor-inducing plasmid and causes trans-zeatin production in A. tumefaciens. Similar to known virulence (Vir) proteins that are induced by the vir gene inducer acetosyringone (AS) at acidic pH 5.5, Tzs protein is highly induced by AS under this growth condition but also constitutively expressed and moderately upregulated by AS at neutral pH 7.0. We found that the promoter activities and protein levels of several AS-induced vir genes increased in the tzs deletion mutant, a mutant with decreased tumorigenesis and transient transformation efficiencies, in Arabidopsis roots. During AS induction and infection of Arabidopsis roots, the tzs deletion mutant conferred impaired growth, which could be rescued by genetic complementation and supplementing exogenous cytokinin. Exogenous cytokinin also repressed vir promoter activities and Vir protein accumulation in both the wild-type and tzs mutant bacteria with AS induction. Thus, the tzs gene or its product, cytokinin, may be involved in regulating AS-induced vir gene expression and, therefore, affect bacterial growth and virulence during A. tumefaciens infection.

  3. Opioid and nicotine receptors affect growth regulation of human lung cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maneckjee, R.; Minna, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Using specific radioactively-labeled ligands, the authors find that lung cancer cell lines of diverse histologic types express multiple, high-affinity membrane receptors for μ, δ, and κ opioid agonists and for nicotine and α-bungarotoxin. These receptors are biologically active because cAMP levels decreased in lung cancer cells after opioid and nicotine application. Nicotine at concentrations found in the blood of smokers had no effect on in vitro lung cancer cell growth, whereas μ, δ, and κ opioid agonists at low concentrations inhibited lung cancer growth in vitro. They also found that lung cancer cells expressed various combinations of immunoreactive opioid peptides (β-endorphin, enkephalin, or dynorphin), suggesting the participation of opioids in a negative autocrine loop or tumor-suppressing system. Due to the almost universal exposure of patients with lung cancer to nicotine, they tested whether nicotine affected the response of lung cancer cell growth to opioids and found that nicotine at concentrations of 100-200 nM partially or totally reversed opioid-induced growth inhibition in 9/14 lung cancer cell lines. These in vitro results for lung cancer cells suggest that opioids could function as part of a tumor suppressor system and that nicotine can function to circumvent this system in the pathogenesis of lung cancer

  4. Warming and neighbor removal affect white spruce seedling growth differently above and below treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Kyoko; Bret-Harte, M Syndonia

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to be pronounced towards higher latitudes and altitudes. Warming triggers treeline and vegetation shifts, which may aggravate interspecific competition and affect biodiversity. This research tested the effects of a warming climate, habitat type, and neighboring plant competition on the establishment and growth of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) seedlings in a subarctic mountain region. P. glauca seedlings were planted in June 2010 under 4 different treatments (high/control temperatures, with/without competition) in 3 habitats (alpine ridge above treeline/tundra near treeline /forest below treeline habitats). After two growing seasons in 2011, growth, photosynthesis and foliar C and N data were obtained from a total of 156, one-and-a-half year old seedlings that had survived. Elevated temperatures increased growth and photosynthetic rates above and near treeline, but decreased them below treeline. Competition was increased by elevated temperatures in all habitat types. Our results suggest that increasing temperatures will have positive effects on the growth of P. glauca seedlings at the locations where P. glauca is expected to expand its habitat, but increasing temperatures may have negative effects on seedlings growing in mature forests. Due to interspecific competition, possibly belowground competition, the upslope expansion of treelines may not be as fast in the future as it was the last fifty years.

  5. Opioid and nicotine receptors affect growth regulation of human lung cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maneckjee, R.; Minna, J.D. (National Cancer Institute-Navy Medical Oncology Branch, Bethesda, MD (USA) Uniformed Services Univ. of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Using specific radioactively-labeled ligands, the authors find that lung cancer cell lines of diverse histologic types express multiple, high-affinity membrane receptors for {mu}, {delta}, and {kappa} opioid agonists and for nicotine and {alpha}-bungarotoxin. These receptors are biologically active because cAMP levels decreased in lung cancer cells after opioid and nicotine application. Nicotine at concentrations found in the blood of smokers had no effect on in vitro lung cancer cell growth, whereas {mu}, {delta}, and {kappa} opioid agonists at low concentrations inhibited lung cancer growth in vitro. They also found that lung cancer cells expressed various combinations of immunoreactive opioid peptides ({beta}-endorphin, enkephalin, or dynorphin), suggesting the participation of opioids in a negative autocrine loop or tumor-suppressing system. Due to the almost universal exposure of patients with lung cancer to nicotine, they tested whether nicotine affected the response of lung cancer cell growth to opioids and found that nicotine at concentrations of 100-200 nM partially or totally reversed opioid-induced growth inhibition in 9/14 lung cancer cell lines. These in vitro results for lung cancer cells suggest that opioids could function as part of a tumor suppressor system and that nicotine can function to circumvent this system in the pathogenesis of lung cancer.

  6. Apple dwarfing rootstocks and interstocks affect the type of growth units produced during the annual growth cycle: precocious transition to flowering affects the composition and vigour of annual shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleznyova, Alla N; Tustin, D Stuart; Thorp, T Grant

    2008-04-01

    Precocious flowering in apple trees is often associated with a smaller tree size. The hypothesis was tested that floral evocation in axillary buds, induced by dwarfing rootstocks, reduces the vigour of annual shoots developing from these buds compared with shoots developing from vegetative buds. The experimental system provided a wide range of possible tree vigour using 'Royal Gala' scions and M.9 (dwarfing) and MM.106 (non-dwarfing) as rootstocks and interstocks. Second-year annual shoots were divided into growth units corresponding to periods (flushes) of growth namely, vegetative spur, extension growth unit, uninterrupted growth unit, floral growth unit (bourse) and extended bourse. The differences between the floral and vegetative shoots were quantified by the constituent growth units produced. The dwarfing influence was expressed, firstly, in reduced proportions of shoots that contained at least one extension growth unit and secondly, in reduced proportions of bicyclic shoots (containing two extension growth units) and shoots with an uninterrupted growth unit. In treatments where floral shoots were present, they were markedly less vigorous than vegetative shoots with respect to both measures. In treatments with M.9 rootstock, vegetative and floral shoots produced on average 0.52 and 0.17 extension growth units, compared with 0.77 extension growth units per shoot in the MM.106 rootstock treatment. Remarkably, the number of nodes per extension growth unit was not affected by the rootstock/interstock treatments. These results showed that rootstocks/interstocks affect the type of growth units produced during the annual growth cycle, reducing the number of extension growth units, thus affecting the composition and vigour of annual shoots. This effect is particularly amplified by the transition to flowering induced by dwarfing rootstocks. The division of annual shoot into growth units will also be useful for measuring and modelling effects of age on apple tree

  7. Harvest residue and competing vegetation affect soil moisture, soil temperature, N availability, and Douglas-fir seedling growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott D. Roberts; Constance A. Harrington; Thomas A. Terry

    2005-01-01

    Decisions made during stand regeneration that affect subsequent levels of competing vegetation and residual biomass can have important short-term consequences for early stand growth, and may affect long-term site productivity. Competing vegetation clearly affects the availability of site resources such as soil moisture and nutrients. Harvest residues can also impact...

  8. Comparison of the aneugenic properties of nocodazole, paclitaxel and griseofulvin in vitro. Centrosome defects and alterations in protein expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharaki, Polyxeni; Stephanou, Georgia; Demopoulos, Nikos A

    2013-09-01

    We have comparatively investigated the aneugenic activity of two anticancer drugs, nocodazole (NOC) and paclitaxel (PTX), and the antifungal griseofulvin with promising role in cancer treatment (GF), which affect microtubule dynamics in different ways. The comparison was achieved in HFFF2 human fibroblasts, MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and C2C12 mouse myoblasts, and focused on three issues: (i) induction of chromosome delay by estimation of MN frequency using CREST analysis; (ii) disturbance of spindle organization with Aurora-A/β-tubulin immunofluorescence; and (iii) alterations in the expression of Aurora-A, β- and γ-tubulin by western blotting. They induced chromosome delay, provoked metaphase arrest and promoted microtubule disorganization, reflecting their common characteristic of generating aneuploidy. In particular, NOC induced mainly monopolar metaphases, although PTX induced only multipolar metaphases. GF generated different types of abnormal metaphases, exhibiting cell specificity. Additionally, NOC decreased the expression of Aurora-A and β-tubulin, while the opposite held true for PTX and GF. γ-Tubulin expression was not modulated owing to NOC treatment, whereas PTX and GF increased γ-tubulin expression. Our findings throw a light on the manifestation of the aneugenicity of the studied compounds through centrosome proliferation/separation and protein expression, reflecting their different effects on microtubule dynamics. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Spatial environmental heterogeneity affects plant growth and thermal performance on a green roof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckland-Nicks, Michael; Heim, Amy; Lundholm, Jeremy, E-mail: jlundholm@smu.ca

    2016-05-15

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services, including stormwater retention and reductions in heat transfer through the roof. Microclimates, as well as designed features of green roofs, such as substrate and vegetation, affect the magnitude of these services. Many green roofs are partially shaded by surrounding buildings, but the effects of this within-roof spatial environmental heterogeneity on thermal performance and other ecosystem services have not been examined. We quantified the effects of spatial heterogeneity in solar radiation, substrate depth and other variables affected by these drivers on vegetation and ecosystem services in an extensive green roof. Spatial heterogeneity in substrate depth and insolation were correlated with differential growth, survival and flowering in two focal plant species. These effects were likely driven by the resulting spatial heterogeneity in substrate temperature and moisture content. Thermal performance (indicated by heat flux and substrate temperature) was influenced by spatial heterogeneity in vegetation cover and substrate depth. Areas with less insolation were cooler in summer and had greater substrate moisture, leading to more favorable conditions for plant growth and survival. Spatial variation in substrate moisture (7%–26% volumetric moisture content) and temperature (21 °C–36 °C) during hot sunny conditions in summer could cause large differences in stormwater retention and heat flux within a single green roof. Shaded areas promote smaller heat fluxes through the roof, leading to energy savings, but lower evapotranspiration in these areas should reduce stormwater retention capacity. Spatial heterogeneity can thus result in trade-offs between different ecosystem services. The effects of these spatial heterogeneities are likely widespread in green roofs. Structures that provide shelter from sun and wind may be productively utilized to design higher functioning green roofs and increase biodiversity by providing habitat

  10. Spatial environmental heterogeneity affects plant growth and thermal performance on a green roof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckland-Nicks, Michael; Heim, Amy; Lundholm, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services, including stormwater retention and reductions in heat transfer through the roof. Microclimates, as well as designed features of green roofs, such as substrate and vegetation, affect the magnitude of these services. Many green roofs are partially shaded by surrounding buildings, but the effects of this within-roof spatial environmental heterogeneity on thermal performance and other ecosystem services have not been examined. We quantified the effects of spatial heterogeneity in solar radiation, substrate depth and other variables affected by these drivers on vegetation and ecosystem services in an extensive green roof. Spatial heterogeneity in substrate depth and insolation were correlated with differential growth, survival and flowering in two focal plant species. These effects were likely driven by the resulting spatial heterogeneity in substrate temperature and moisture content. Thermal performance (indicated by heat flux and substrate temperature) was influenced by spatial heterogeneity in vegetation cover and substrate depth. Areas with less insolation were cooler in summer and had greater substrate moisture, leading to more favorable conditions for plant growth and survival. Spatial variation in substrate moisture (7%–26% volumetric moisture content) and temperature (21 °C–36 °C) during hot sunny conditions in summer could cause large differences in stormwater retention and heat flux within a single green roof. Shaded areas promote smaller heat fluxes through the roof, leading to energy savings, but lower evapotranspiration in these areas should reduce stormwater retention capacity. Spatial heterogeneity can thus result in trade-offs between different ecosystem services. The effects of these spatial heterogeneities are likely widespread in green roofs. Structures that provide shelter from sun and wind may be productively utilized to design higher functioning green roofs and increase biodiversity by providing habitat

  11. RABL6A, a Novel RAB-Like Protein, Controls Centrosome Amplification and Chromosome Instability in Primary Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Hagen, Jussara; Muniz, Viviane P.; Smith, Tarik; Coombs, Gary S.; Eischen, Christine M.; Mackie, Duncan I.; Roman, David L.; Van Rheeden, Richard; Darbro, Benjamin; Tompkins, Van S.; Quelle, Dawn E.

    2013-01-01

    RABL6A (RAB-like 6 isoform A) is a novel protein that was originally identified based on its association with the Alternative Reading Frame (ARF) tumor suppressor. ARF acts through multiple p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways to prevent cancer. How RABL6A functions, to what extent it depends on ARF and p53 activity, and its importance in normal cell biology are entirely unknown. We examined the biological consequences of RABL6A silencing in primary mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) that express or lack ARF, p53 or both proteins. We found that RABL6A depletion caused centrosome amplification, aneuploidy and multinucleation in MEFs regardless of ARF and p53 status. The centrosome amplification in RABL6A depleted p53−/− MEFs resulted from centrosome reduplication via Cdk2-mediated hyperphosphorylation of nucleophosmin (NPM) at threonine-199. Thus, RABL6A prevents centrosome amplification through an ARF/p53-independent mechanism that restricts NPM-T199 phosphorylation. These findings demonstrate an essential role for RABL6A in centrosome regulation and maintenance of chromosome stability in non-transformed cells, key processes that ensure genomic integrity and prevent tumorigenesis. PMID:24282525

  12. Breakage or uprooting: How tree death type affects hillslope processes in old-growth temperate forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šamonil, Pavel; Daněk, Pavel; Adam, Dušan; Phillips, Jonathan D.

    2017-12-01

    Tree breakage and uprooting are two possible scenarios of tree death that have differing effects on hillslope processes. In this study we aimed to (i) reveal the long-term structure of the biomechanical effects of trees (BETs) in relation to their radial growth and tree death types in four old-growth temperate forests in four different elevation settings with an altitudinal gradient of 152-1105 m a.s.l., (ii) quantify affected areas and soil volumes associated with the studied BETs in reserves, and (iii) derive a general model of the role of BETs in hillslope processes in central European temperate forests. We analyzed the individual dynamics of circa 55,000 trees in an area of 161 ha within four old-growth forests over 3-4 decades. Basal tree censuses established in all sites in the 1970s and repeated tree censuses in the 1990s and 2000s provided detailed information about the radial growth of each tree of DBH ≥ 10 cm as well as about types of tree death. We focused on the quantification of: (i) surviving still-living trees, (ii) new recruits, (iii) standing dead trees, (iv) uprooted trees, and (v) broken trees. Frequencies of phenomena were related to affected areas and volumes of soil using individual statistical models. The elevation contrasts were a significant factor in the structure of BETs. Differences between sites increased from frequencies of events through affected areas to volumes of soil associated with BETs. An average 2.7 m3 ha-1 year-1 was associated with all BETs of the living and dying trees in lowlands, while there was an average of 7.8 m3 ha-1 year-1 in the highest mountain site. Differences were caused mainly by the effects of dying trees. BETs associated with dead trees were 7-8 times larger in the mountains. Effects of dying trees and particularly treethrows represented about 70% of all BETs at both mountain sites, while it was 58% at the highland site and only 32% at the lowland site. Our results show a more significant role of BETs in

  13. L-carnosine affects the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a metabolism-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Stephanie P; Bill, Roslyn M; Hipkiss, Alan R

    2012-01-01

    The dipeptide L-carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) has been described as enigmatic: it inhibits growth of cancer cells but delays senescence in cultured human fibroblasts and extends the lifespan of male fruit flies. In an attempt to understand these observations, the effects of L-carnosine on the model eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were examined on account of its unique metabolic properties; S. cerevisiae can respire aerobically, but like some tumor cells, it can also exhibit a metabolism in which aerobic respiration is down regulated. L-Carnosine exhibited both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on yeast cells, dependent upon the carbon source in the growth medium. When yeast cells were not reliant on oxidative phosphorylation for energy generation (e.g. when grown on a fermentable carbon source such as 2% glucose), 10-30 mM L-carnosine slowed growth rates in a dose-dependent manner and increased cell death by up to 17%. In contrast, in media containing a non-fermentable carbon source in which yeast are dependent on aerobic respiration (e.g. 2% glycerol), L-carnosine did not provoke cell death. This latter observation was confirmed in the respiratory yeast, Pichia pastoris. Moreover, when deletion strains in the yeast nutrient-sensing pathway were treated with L-carnosine, the cells showed resistance to its inhibitory effects. These findings suggest that L-carnosine affects cells in a metabolism-dependent manner and provide a rationale for its effects on different cell types.

  14. Sodic soil properties and sunflower growth as affected by byproducts of flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinman; Bai, Zhongke; Yang, Peiling

    2012-01-01

    The main component of the byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD) is CaSO(4), which can be used to improve sodic soils. The effects of BFGD on sodic soil properties and sunflower growth were studied in a pot experiment. The experiment consisted of eight treatments, at four BFGD rates (0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 t ha(-1)) and two leaching levels (750 and 1200 m(3) ha(-1)). The germination rate and yield of the sunflower increased, and the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), pH and total dissolved salts (TDS) in the soils decreased after the byproducts were applied. Excessive BFGD also affected sunflower germination and growth, and leaching improved reclamation efficiency. The physical and chemical properties of the reclaimed soils were best when the byproducts were applied at 7.5 t ha(-1) and water was supplied at 1200 m(3)·ha(-1). Under these conditions, the soil pH, ESP, and TDS decreased from 9.2, 63.5 and 0.65% to 7.8, 2.8 and 0.06%, and the germination rate and yield per sunflower reached 90% and 36.4 g, respectively. Salinity should be controlled by leaching when sodic soils are reclaimed with BFGD as sunflower growth is very sensitive to salinity during its seedling stage.

  15. Sodic soil properties and sunflower growth as affected by byproducts of flue gas desulfurization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinman Wang

    Full Text Available The main component of the byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD is CaSO(4, which can be used to improve sodic soils. The effects of BFGD on sodic soil properties and sunflower growth were studied in a pot experiment. The experiment consisted of eight treatments, at four BFGD rates (0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 t ha(-1 and two leaching levels (750 and 1200 m(3 ha(-1. The germination rate and yield of the sunflower increased, and the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP, pH and total dissolved salts (TDS in the soils decreased after the byproducts were applied. Excessive BFGD also affected sunflower germination and growth, and leaching improved reclamation efficiency. The physical and chemical properties of the reclaimed soils were best when the byproducts were applied at 7.5 t ha(-1 and water was supplied at 1200 m(3·ha(-1. Under these conditions, the soil pH, ESP, and TDS decreased from 9.2, 63.5 and 0.65% to 7.8, 2.8 and 0.06%, and the germination rate and yield per sunflower reached 90% and 36.4 g, respectively. Salinity should be controlled by leaching when sodic soils are reclaimed with BFGD as sunflower growth is very sensitive to salinity during its seedling stage.

  16. Austenite grain growth and microstructure control in simulated heat affected zones of microalloyed HSLA steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lei [Department of Machine Tools and Factory Management, Technical University of Berlin, Pascalstraße 8 – 9, 10587, Berlin (Germany); Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205, Berlin (Germany); Kannengiesser, Thomas [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205, Berlin (Germany); Institute of Materials and Joining Technology, Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Universitetsplatz 2, 39106, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2014-09-08

    The roles of microalloying niobium, titanium and vanadium for controlling austenite grain growth, microstructure evolution and hardness were investigated at different simulated heat affected zones (HAZ) for high strength low alloy (HSLA) S690QL steel. High resolution FEG-SEM has been used to characterize fine bainitic ferrite, martensite and nanosized second phases at simulated coarse and fine grain HAZs. It was found that for Ti bearing steel (Ti/N ratio is 2) austenite grain had the slowest growth rate due to the presence of most stable TiN. The fine cuboidal particles promoted intragranular acicular ferrite (IGF) formation. Nb bearing steel exhibited relatively weaker grain growth retardation compared with titanium bearing steels and a mixed microstructure of bainite and martensite was present for all simulated HAZs. IGF existed at coarse grain HAZ of Ti+V bearing steel but it was totally replaced by bainite at fine grain HAZs. Hardness result was closely related to the morphology of bainitic ferrite, intragranular ferrite and second phases within ferrite. The microstructure and hardness results of different simulated HAZs were in good agreement with welded experimental results.

  17. Streptomycin affects the growth and photochemical activity of the alga Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; García, Roberto Velasco; Gómez-Juárez, Evelyn Alicia; Salcedo-Álvarez, Martha Ofelia; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2016-10-01

    Antibiotics are increasingly being used in human and veterinary medicine, as well as pest control in agriculture. Recently, their emergence in the aquatic environment has become a global concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of streptomycin on growth and photosynthetic activity of Chlorella vulgaris after 72h exposure. We found that growth, photosynthetic activity and the content of the D1 protein of photosystem II decreased. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence emission shows a reduction in the energy transfer between the antenna complex and reaction center. Also the activity of the oxygen evolution complex and electron flow between QA and QB were significantly reduced; in contrast, we found an increase in the reduction rate of the acceptor side of photosystem I. The foregoing can be attributed to the inhibition of the synthesis of the D1 protein and perhaps other coded chloroplast proteins that are part of the electron transport chain which are essential for the transformation of solar energy in the photosystems. We conclude that micromolar concentrations of streptomycin can affect growth and photosynthetic activity of Chlorella vulgaris. The accumulation of antibiotics in the environment can become an ecological problem for primary producers in the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The subcellular localization of IGFBP5 affects its cell growth and migration functions in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkiprik, Mustafa; Hu, Limei; Sahin, Aysegul; Hao, Xishan; Zhang, Wei

    2009-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) has been shown to be associated with breast cancer metastasis in clinical marker studies. However, a major difficulty in understanding how IGFBP5 functions in this capacity is the paradoxical observation that ectopic overexpression of IGFBP5 in breast cancer cell lines results in suppressed cellular proliferation. In cancer tissues, IGFBP5 resides mainly in the cytoplasm; however, in transfected cells, IGFBP5 is mainly located in the nucleus. We hypothesized that subcellular localization of IGFBP5 affects its functions in host cells. To test this hypothesis, we generated wild-type and mutant IGFBP5 expression constructs. The mutation occurs within the nuclear localization sequence (NLS) of the protein and is generated by site-directed mutagenesis using the wild-type IGFBP5 expression construct as a template. Next, we transfected each expression construct into MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells to establish stable clones overexpressing either wild-type or mutant IGFBP5. Functional analysis revealed that cells overexpressing wild-type IGFBP5 had significantly lower cell growth rate and motility than the vector-transfected cells, whereas cells overexpressing mutant IGFBP5 demonstrated a significantly higher ability to proliferate and migrate. To illustrate the subcellular localization of the proteins, we generated wild-type and mutant IGFBP5-pDsRed fluorescence fusion constructs. Fluorescence microscopy imaging revealed that mutation of the NLS in IGFBP5 switched the accumulation of IGFBP5 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of the protein. Together, these findings imply that the mutant form of IGFBP5 increases proliferation and motility of breast cancer cells and that mutation of the NLS in IGFBP5 results in localization of IGFBP5 in the cytoplasm, suggesting that subcellular localization of IGFBP5 affects its cell growth and migration functions in the breast cancer cells

  19. Growth of Fagus sylvatica saplings in an old-growth forest as affected by soil and light conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponge, J.F.; Ferdy, J.B. [Museum National d`Histoire Naturelle, Brunoy (France). Lab. d`Ecologie Generale

    1997-12-01

    Studies were conducted on 41 five yr-old common beech (Fagus sylvatica) saplings collected in an old-growth beech wood (Fontainbleau forest, biological reserve of La Tillaie, France), under varying humus and light conditions, following gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillar injuries. Aerial and subterranean parts of each sapling were described by means of 34 parameters and environmental conditions at the microsite, where each sapling was excavated, were characterized by 23 parameters. The development of beech saplings is strongly affected by microsite conditions. An increase in sapling size was associated with darkness of the A-horizon, typical of zones with poor mineralization of organic matter. Light conditions were more important in influencing the development of the root system than that of the aerial parts. Rooting depth was shallower and rate of mycorrhiza development by the black ascomycete Cenococcum geophilum was lower in microsites receiving incident light during the morning than in those never receiving incident light during this period. Results are discussed in the frame of survival of young beech individuals in varying environmental conditions, when submitted to competition by other vegetation and adverse climate conditions 41 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs

  20. The PAM-1 aminopeptidase regulates centrosome positioning to ensure anterior-posterior axis specification in one-cell C. elegans embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Samantha M; Marshall, Sara L; Jaeger, Eva C; Greene, Pauline E; Brady, Lauren K; Isaac, R Elwyn; Schrandt, Jennifer C; Brooks, Darren R; Lyczak, Rebecca

    2010-08-15

    In the one-cell Caenorhabditis elegans embryo, the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis is established when the sperm donated centrosome contacts the posterior cortex. While this contact appears to be essential for axis polarization, little is known about the mechanisms governing centrosome positioning during this process. pam-1 encodes a puromycin sensitive aminopeptidase that regulates centrosome positioning in the early embryo. Previously we showed that pam-1 mutants fail to polarize the A-P axis. Here we show that PAM-1 can be found in mature sperm and in cytoplasm throughout early embryogenesis where it concentrates around mitotic centrosomes and chromosomes. We provide further evidence that PAM-1 acts early in the polarization process by showing that PAR-1 and PAR-6 do not localize appropriately in pam-1 mutants. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that PAM-1's role in polarity establishment is to ensure centrosome contact with the posterior cortex. We inactivated the microtubule motor dynein, DHC-1, in pam-1 mutants, in an attempt to prevent centrosome movement from the cortex and restore anterior-posterior polarity. When this was done, the aberrant centrosome movements of pam-1 mutants were not observed and anterior-posterior polarity was properly established, with proper localization of cortical and cytoplasmic determinants. We conclude that PAM-1's role in axis polarization is to prevent premature movement of the centrosome from the posterior cortex, ensuring proper axis establishment in the embryo. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The presence of centrioles and centrosomes in ovarian mature cystic teratoma cells suggests human parthenotes developed in vitro can differentiate into mature cells without a sperm centriole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bo Yon, E-mail: boyonlee@gmail.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Sang Woo; Kim, Young Sun; Kim, Seung Bo [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sperm centriole is the progenitor of centrosomes in all somatic cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Centrioles and centrosomes exist in parthenogenetic ovarian teratoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Without a sperm centriole, parthenogenetic oocytes produce centrioles and centrosomes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Parthenogenetic human oocytes can develop and differentiate into mature cells. -- Abstract: In most animals, somatic cell centrosomes are inherited from the centriole of the fertilizing spermatozoa. The oocyte centriole degenerates during oogenesis, and completely disappears in metaphase II. Therefore, the embryos generated by in vitro parthenogenesis are supposed to develop without any centrioles. Exceptional acentriolar and/or acentrosomal developments are possible in mice and in some experimental cells; however, in most animals, the full developmental potential of parthenogenetic cells in vitro and the fate of their centrioles/centrosomes are not clearly understood. To predict the future of in vitro human parthenogenesis, we explored the centrioles/centrosomes in ovarian mature cystic teratoma cells by immunofluorescent staining and transmission electron microscopy. We confirmed the presence of centrioles and centrosomes in these well-known parthenogenetic ovarian tumor cells. Our findings clearly demonstrate that, even without a sperm centriole, parthenotes that develop from activated oocytes can produce their own centrioles/centrosomes, and can even develop into the well-differentiated mature tissue.

  2. Casein kinase II is required for proper cell division and acts as a negative regulator of centrosome duplication in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Medley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Centrosomes are the primary microtubule-organizing centers that orchestrate microtubule dynamics during the cell cycle. The correct number of centrosomes is pivotal for establishing bipolar mitotic spindles that ensure accurate segregation of chromosomes. Thus, centrioles must duplicate once per cell cycle, one daughter per mother centriole, the process of which requires highly coordinated actions among core factors and modulators. Protein phosphorylation is shown to regulate the stability, localization and activity of centrosome proteins. Here, we report the function of Casein kinase II (CK2 in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. The catalytic subunit (KIN-3/CK2α of CK2 localizes to nuclei, centrosomes and midbodies. Inactivating CK2 leads to cell division defects, including chromosome missegregation, cytokinesis failure and aberrant centrosome behavior. Furthermore, depletion or inhibiting kinase activity of CK2 results in elevated ZYG-1 levels at centrosomes, restoring centrosome duplication and embryonic viability to zyg-1 mutants. Our data suggest that CK2 functions in cell division and negatively regulates centrosome duplication in a kinase-dependent manner.

  3. Analysis of the non-genetic factors affecting the growth of Segureño sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa M. Lupi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of non-genetic factors on the growth behaviour of Segureña sheep breed. Growth related data (early weaning weight, late weaning weight and weight at 80 days of age were taken from 59,704 lambs belonging to historical data from National Association of Segureño Sheep Breeders (ANCOS during a period of 11 years. Statistical analyses were performed by using the multifactorial analysis of variance of IBM SPSS Statistics v.19 software. The model included non-genetic factors – lamb sex (S, birth season (N, herd (H, birth year (A and birth type (P – as main effects, the dam’s age at lambing and the lamb’s age when weighed as covariables, and the interactions between these factors. Results showed that all weights at developmental stages were significantly (P<0.001 affected by all factors, except for A and the covariable age of dams at lambing on lambs aged 80 days. Double interactions H×A, H×P and H×N were significant (P<0.001 for all variables, as well as the triple interaction H×A×P. Non-genetic factors have a very important role in the development and growth of the Segureña sheep breed, at different ages or growth stages, therefore a correction is necessary to increase the accuracy of direct selection on lamb weight at early weaning, late weaning and at slaughtering (80 days of age.

  4. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo-Zhu; Liu, Zheng-Yuan; Luo, Fang-Li; Lei, Guang-Chun; Li, Hong-Li

    2016-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii) and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions.

  5. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo-Zhu Wang

    Full Text Available Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions.

  6. Reduction in DNA topoisomerase I level affects growth, phenotype and nucleoid architecture of Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Wareed; Menon, Shruti; Karthik, Pullela V; Nagaraja, Valakunja

    2015-02-01

    The steady-state negative supercoiling of eubacterial genomes is maintained by the action of DNA topoisomerases. Topoisomerase distribution varies in different species of mycobacteria. While Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) contains a single type I (TopoI) and a single type II (Gyrase) enzyme, Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm) and other members harbour additional relaxases. TopoI is essential for Mtb survival. However, the necessity of TopoI or other relaxases in Msm has not been investigated. To recognize the importance of TopoI for growth, physiology and gene expression of Msm, we have developed a conditional knock-down strain of TopoI in Msm. The TopoI-depleted strain exhibited extremely slow growth and drastic changes in phenotypic characteristics. The cessation of growth indicates the essential requirement of the enzyme for the organism in spite of having additional DNA relaxation enzymes in the cell. Notably, the imbalance in TopoI level led to the altered expression of topology modulatory proteins, resulting in a diffused nucleoid architecture. Proteomic and transcript analysis of the mutant indicated reduced expression of the genes involved in central metabolic pathways and core DNA transaction processes. RNA polymerase (RNAP) distribution on the transcription units was affected in the TopoI-depleted cells, suggesting global alteration in transcription. The study thus highlights the essential requirement of TopoI in the maintenance of cellular phenotype, growth characteristics and gene expression in mycobacteria. A decrease in TopoI level led to altered RNAP occupancy and impaired transcription elongation, causing severe downstream effects. © 2015 The Authors.

  7. Electric fields generated by synchronized oscillations of microtubules, centrosomes and chromosomes regulate the dynamics of mitosis and meiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yue

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Super-macromolecular complexes play many important roles in eukaryotic cells. Classical structural biological studies focus on their complicated molecular structures, physical interactions and biochemical modifications. Recent advances concerning intracellular electric fields generated by cell organelles and super-macromolecular complexes shed new light on the mechanisms that govern the dynamics of mitosis and meiosis. In this review we synthesize this knowledge to provide an integrated theoretical model of these cellular events. We suggest that the electric fields generated by synchronized oscillation of microtubules, centrosomes, and chromatin fibers facilitate several events during mitosis and meiosis, including centrosome trafficking, chromosome congression in mitosis and synapsis between homologous chromosomes in meiosis. These intracellular electric fields are generated under energy excitation through the synchronized electric oscillations of the dipolar structures of microtubules, centrosomes and chromosomes, three of the super-macromolecular complexes within an animal cell.

  8. Differential expression of centrosome regulators in Her2+ breast cancer cells versus non-tumorigenic MCF10A cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Young; Marina, Mihaela; King, Jamie L; Saavedra, Harold I

    2014-01-01

    Centrosome amplification (CA) amongst particular breast cancer subtypes (Her2+ subtype) is associated with genomic instability and aggressive tumor phenotypes. However, changes in signaling pathways associated with centrosome biology have not been fully explored in subtype specific models. Novel centrosome regulatory genes that are selectively altered in Her2+ breast cancer cells are of interest in discerning why CA is more prevalent in this subtype. To determine centrosome/cell cycle genes that are altered in Her2+ cells that display CA (HCC1954) versus non-tumorigenic cells (MCF10A), we carried out a gene microarray. Expression differences were validated by real-time PCR and Western blotting. After the microarray validation, we pursued a panel of upregulated and downregulated genes based on novelty/relevance to centrosome duplication. Functional experiments measuring CA and BrdU incorporation were completed after genetic manipulation of targets (TTK, SGOL1, MDM2 and SFRP1). Amongst genes that were downregulated in HCC1954 cells, knockdown of MDM2 and SFRP1 in MCF10A cells did not consistently induce CA or impaired BrdU incorporation. Conversely, amongst upregulated genes in HCC1954 cells, knockdown of SGOL1 and TTK decreased CA in breast cancer cells, while BrdU incorporation was only altered by SGOL1 knockdown. We also explored the Kaplan Meier Plot resource and noted that MDM2 and SFRP1 are positively associated with relapse free survival in all breast cancer subtypes, while TTK is negatively correlated with overall survival of Luminal A patients. Based on this functional screen, we conclude that SGOL1 and TTK are important modulators of centrosome function in a breast cancer specific model.

  9. Angelman syndrome protein UBE3A interacts with primary microcephaly protein ASPM, localizes to centrosomes and regulates chromosome segregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Singhmar

    Full Text Available Many proteins associated with the phenotype microcephaly have been localized to the centrosome or linked to it functionally. All the seven autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH proteins localize at the centrosome. Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II protein PCNT and Seckel syndrome (also characterized by severe microcephaly protein ATR are also centrosomal proteins. All of the above findings show the importance of centrosomal proteins as the key players in neurogenesis and brain development. However, the exact mechanism as to how the loss-of-function of these proteins leads to microcephaly remains to be elucidated. To gain insight into the function of the most commonly mutated MCPH gene ASPM, we used the yeast two-hybrid technique to screen a human fetal brain cDNA library with an ASPM bait. The analysis identified Angelman syndrome gene product UBE3A as an ASPM interactor. Like ASPM, UBE3A also localizes to the centrosome. The identification of UBE3A as an ASPM interactor is not surprising as more than 80% of Angelman syndrome patients have microcephaly. However, unlike in MCPH, microcephaly is postnatal in Angelman syndrome patients. Our results show that UBE3A is a cell cycle regulated protein and its level peaks in mitosis. The shRNA knockdown of UBE3A in HEK293 cells led to many mitotic abnormalities including chromosome missegregation, abnormal cytokinesis and apoptosis. Thus our study links Angelman syndrome protein UBE3A to ASPM, centrosome and mitosis for the first time. We suggest that a defective chromosome segregation mechanism is responsible for the development of microcephaly in Angelman syndrome.

  10. Angelman syndrome protein UBE3A interacts with primary microcephaly protein ASPM, localizes to centrosomes and regulates chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhmar, Pooja; Kumar, Arun

    2011-01-01

    Many proteins associated with the phenotype microcephaly have been localized to the centrosome or linked to it functionally. All the seven autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) proteins localize at the centrosome. Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II protein PCNT and Seckel syndrome (also characterized by severe microcephaly) protein ATR are also centrosomal proteins. All of the above findings show the importance of centrosomal proteins as the key players in neurogenesis and brain development. However, the exact mechanism as to how the loss-of-function of these proteins leads to microcephaly remains to be elucidated. To gain insight into the function of the most commonly mutated MCPH gene ASPM, we used the yeast two-hybrid technique to screen a human fetal brain cDNA library with an ASPM bait. The analysis identified Angelman syndrome gene product UBE3A as an ASPM interactor. Like ASPM, UBE3A also localizes to the centrosome. The identification of UBE3A as an ASPM interactor is not surprising as more than 80% of Angelman syndrome patients have microcephaly. However, unlike in MCPH, microcephaly is postnatal in Angelman syndrome patients. Our results show that UBE3A is a cell cycle regulated protein and its level peaks in mitosis. The shRNA knockdown of UBE3A in HEK293 cells led to many mitotic abnormalities including chromosome missegregation, abnormal cytokinesis and apoptosis. Thus our study links Angelman syndrome protein UBE3A to ASPM, centrosome and mitosis for the first time. We suggest that a defective chromosome segregation mechanism is responsible for the development of microcephaly in Angelman syndrome.

  11. 3D-structured illumination microscopy provides novel insight into architecture of human centrosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina F. Sonnen

    2012-08-01

    Centrioles are essential for the formation of cilia and flagella. They also form the core of the centrosome, which organizes microtubule arrays important for cell shape, polarity, motility and division. Here, we have used super-resolution 3D-structured illumination microscopy to analyse the spatial relationship of 18 centriole and pericentriolar matrix (PCM components of human centrosomes at different cell cycle stages. During mitosis, PCM proteins formed extended networks with interspersed γ-Tubulin. During interphase, most proteins were arranged at specific distances from the walls of centrioles, resulting in ring staining, often with discernible density masses. Through use of site-specific antibodies, we found the C-terminus of Cep152 to be closer to centrioles than the N-terminus, illustrating the power of 3D-SIM to study protein disposition. Appendage proteins showed rings with multiple density masses, and the number of these masses was strongly reduced during mitosis. At the proximal end of centrioles, Sas-6 formed a dot at the site of daughter centriole assembly, consistent with its role in cartwheel formation. Plk4 and STIL co-localized with Sas-6, but Cep135 was associated mostly with mother centrioles. Remarkably, Plk4 formed a dot on the surface of the mother centriole before Sas-6 staining became detectable, indicating that Plk4 constitutes an early marker for the site of nascent centriole formation. Our study provides novel insights into the architecture of human centrosomes and illustrates the power of super-resolution microscopy in revealing the relative localization of centriole and PCM proteins in unprecedented detail.

  12. Does overhead irrigation with salt affect growth, yield, and phenolic content of lentil plants?

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    Giannakoula Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Overhead irrigation of lentil plants with salt (100 mM NaCl did not have any significant impact on plant growth, while chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm were affected. Under such poor irrigation water quality, the malondialdehyde content in leaves was increased due to the lipid peroxidation of membranes. In seeds, the total phenolic content (TPC was correlated to their total antioxidant capacity (TAC. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS detection showed that flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, rutin, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid and resveratrol appear to be the compounds with the greatest influence on the TAC values. Catechin is the most abundant phenolic compound in lentil seeds. Overhead irrigation with salt reduced the concentration of almost all phenolic compounds analyzed from lentil seed extracts.

  13. Che-1 affects cell growth by interfering with the recruitment of HDAC1 by Rb.

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    Bruno, Tiziana; De Angelis, Roberta; De Nicola, Francesca; Barbato, Christian; Di Padova, Monica; Corbi, Nicoletta; Libri, Valentina; Benassi, Barbara; Mattei, Elisabetta; Chersi, Alberto; Soddu, Silvia; Floridi, Aristide; Passananti, Claudio; Fanciulli, Maurizio

    2002-11-01

    DNA tumor virus oncoproteins bind and inactivate Rb by interfering with the Rb/HDAC1 interaction. Che-1 is a recently identified human Rb binding protein that inhibits the Rb growth suppressing function. Here we show that Che-1 contacts the Rb pocket region and competes with HDAC1 for Rb binding site, removing HDAC1 from the Rb/E2F complex in vitro and from the E2F target promoters in vivo. Che-1 overexpression activates DNA synthesis in quiescent NIH-3T3 cells through HDAC1 displacement. Consistently, Che-1-specific RNA interference affects E2F activity and cell proliferation in human fibroblasts but not in the pocket protein-defective 293 cells. These findings indicate the existence of a pathway of Rb regulation supporting Che-1 as the cellular counterpart of DNA tumor virus oncoproteins.

  14. The protective function of personal growth initiative among a genocide-affected population in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackie, Laura E R; Jayawickreme, Eranda; Forgeard, Marie J C; Jayawickreme, Nuwan

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the extent to which individual differences in personal growth initiative (PGI) were associated with lower reports of functional impairment of daily activities among a genocide-affected population in Rwanda. PGI measures an individual's motivation to develop as a person and the extent to which he or she is active in setting goals that work toward achieving self-improvement. We found that PGI was negatively associated with functional impairment when controlling for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and other demographic factors. Our results suggest that PGI may constitute an important mindset for facilitating adaptive functioning in the aftermath of adversity and in the midst of psychological distress, and as such they might have practical applications for the development of intervention programs. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Spatial environmental heterogeneity affects plant growth and thermal performance on a green roof.

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    Buckland-Nicks, Michael; Heim, Amy; Lundholm, Jeremy

    2016-05-15

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services, including stormwater retention and reductions in heat transfer through the roof. Microclimates, as well as designed features of green roofs, such as substrate and vegetation, affect the magnitude of these services. Many green roofs are partially shaded by surrounding buildings, but the effects of this within-roof spatial environmental heterogeneity on thermal performance and other ecosystem services have not been examined. We quantified the effects of spatial heterogeneity in solar radiation, substrate depth and other variables affected by these drivers on vegetation and ecosystem services in an extensive green roof. Spatial heterogeneity in substrate depth and insolation were correlated with differential growth, survival and flowering in two focal plant species. These effects were likely driven by the resulting spatial heterogeneity in substrate temperature and moisture content. Thermal performance (indicated by heat flux and substrate temperature) was influenced by spatial heterogeneity in vegetation cover and substrate depth. Areas with less insolation were cooler in summer and had greater substrate moisture, leading to more favorable conditions for plant growth and survival. Spatial variation in substrate moisture (7%-26% volumetric moisture content) and temperature (21°C-36°C) during hot sunny conditions in summer could cause large differences in stormwater retention and heat flux within a single green roof. Shaded areas promote smaller heat fluxes through the roof, leading to energy savings, but lower evapotranspiration in these areas should reduce stormwater retention capacity. Spatial heterogeneity can thus result in trade-offs between different ecosystem services. The effects of these spatial heterogeneities are likely widespread in green roofs. Structures that provide shelter from sun and wind may be productively utilized to design higher functioning green roofs and increase biodiversity by providing habitat

  16. Growth and Cropping of Two Pear Cultivars as Affected by the Type of Nursery Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosna Ireneusz Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2001–2012 next to Wrocław (southwestern Poland. The purpose of this research was to assess the influence of type of nursery trees of pear cvs ‘Carola’ and ‘Dicolor’ budded on quince S1 rootstock on growth and cropping, as well as fruit quality of two pear cultivars. The trees were planted in the spring of 2001 in 4 replications with 5 trees per plot. Trees were planted in rows with spacing 1.2 × 3.5 m (2381 trees per hectare. Three types of nursery trees, all without feathers, were planted: two-year-old (3 years in a nursery, one-year-old maidens (2 years in a nursery and annual grafts (only 1 year in a nursery. Tree canopies were formed as a spindle and were trained in the Güttingen-V system. Until the twelfth year after planting, growth and yield were significantly affected by the type of nursery trees. One-year-old maidens were characterized by the strongest vigor in orchard, while pears planted as two-year-old trees grew rather weak (especially with ‘Dicolor’ cv.. Planting two-year-old trees didn’t have any clear positive influence on tree cropping in the orchard. The final results of the study proved that trees planted as annual grafts, irrespective of cultivar, yielded significantly worse. The type of nursery trees had no clear influence on mean fruit weight.

  17. An ultraviolet B condition that affects growth and defense in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbussche, Filip; Yu, Na; Li, Weidong; Vanhaelewyn, Lucas; Hamshou, Mohamad; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Smagghe, Guy

    2018-03-01

    Ultraviolet B light (UV-B, 280-315 nm) is the shortest wavelength of the solar spectrum reaching the surface of the Earth. It has profound effects on plants, ranging from growth regulation to severe metabolic changes. Low level UV-B mainly causes photomorphogenic effects while higher levels can induce stress, yet these effects tend to overlap. Here we identified a condition that allows growth reduction without obvious detrimental stress in wild type Arabidopsis rosette plants. This condition was used to study the effects of a daily UV-B dose on plant characteristics of UV-B adapted plants in detail. Exploration of the transcriptome of developing leaves indicated downregulation of genes involved in stomata formation by UV-B, while at the same time genes involved in photoprotective pigment biosynthesis were upregulated. These findings correspond with a decreased stomatal density and increased UV-B absorbing pigments. Gene ontology analysis revealed upregulation of defense related genes and meta-analysis showed substantial overlap of the UV-B regulated transcriptome with transcriptomes of salicylate and jasmonate treated as well as herbivore exposed plants. Feeding experiments showed that caterpillars of Spodoptera littoralis are directly affected by UV-B, while performance of the aphid Myzus persicae is diminished by a plant mediated process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Auxins affected ginsenoside production and growth of hairy roots in Panax hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washida, Daisuke; Shimomura, Koichiro; Takido, Michio; Kitanaka, Susumu

    2004-05-01

    Hairy roots of interspecific hybrid ginseng (Panax ginseng x P. quinquefolium), induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC 15834, grew well in B5 liquid media supplemented with 2.5 microM auxins (3-indole butyric acid (IBA), 1-naphtaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 3-indoleacetic acid (IAA)). The hairy roots cultured in B5 liquid medium supplemented with 2.5 microM IBA showed best growth (6.39 g fresh weight per a flask, at week 8). The highest content of the total ginsenosides was 1.63% as dry weight at week 8 when cultured with 2.5 microM NAA. The different auxins affected the numbers and lateral branching roots. Especially, 2.5 microM IBA promoted the lateral root formation (43.7+/-4.0 roots, at week 8), and 2.5 microM NAA promoted the lateral root growth (45.3+/-5.6 mm, at week 8). The growth and ginsenosides production of 8-week old hairy roots cultured in B5 liquid media supplemented with IBA and NAA combinations were also investigated. Hairy roots produced higher amounts of ginsenosides in B5 liquid media supplemented with 0.5-1.0 microM IBA and NAA combinations than that cultured in B5 liquid media supplemented with only IBA and NAA. The highest yield of ginsenoside was obtained when cultured with 0.5 microM IBA and 1.0 microM IBA combination (6.38 mg per a flask, at week 8).

  19. L-carnosine affects the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a metabolism-dependent manner.

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    Stephanie P Cartwright

    Full Text Available The dipeptide L-carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine has been described as enigmatic: it inhibits growth of cancer cells but delays senescence in cultured human fibroblasts and extends the lifespan of male fruit flies. In an attempt to understand these observations, the effects of L-carnosine on the model eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were examined on account of its unique metabolic properties; S. cerevisiae can respire aerobically, but like some tumor cells, it can also exhibit a metabolism in which aerobic respiration is down regulated. L-Carnosine exhibited both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on yeast cells, dependent upon the carbon source in the growth medium. When yeast cells were not reliant on oxidative phosphorylation for energy generation (e.g. when grown on a fermentable carbon source such as 2% glucose, 10-30 mM L-carnosine slowed growth rates in a dose-dependent manner and increased cell death by up to 17%. In contrast, in media containing a non-fermentable carbon source in which yeast are dependent on aerobic respiration (e.g. 2% glycerol, L-carnosine did not provoke cell death. This latter observation was confirmed in the respiratory yeast, Pichia pastoris. Moreover, when deletion strains in the yeast nutrient-sensing pathway were treated with L-carnosine, the cells showed resistance to its inhibitory effects. These findings suggest that L-carnosine affects cells in a metabolism-dependent manner and provide a rationale for its effects on different cell types.

  20. Cadmium affects muscle type development and axon growth in zebrafish embryonic somitogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen Chow, Elly Suk; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2003-05-01

    We have previously reported that exposure to cadmium during zebrafish embryonic development caused morphological malformations of organs and ectopic expression of genes involved in regulating developmental process. One of the most common developmental defects observed was altered axial curvature resulting from defects in the myotomes of the somites. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of cadmium-induced toxicity in zebrafish somitogenesis. We showed that the critical period of exposure was the gastrulation period, which actually preceded the formation of the first morphologically distinct somites. The somites thus formed lost the typical chevron V-shape and are packed disorderly. The myogenic lineage commitment of the axial mesodermal cells was not affected, as the myogenic regulatory transcription factors were expressed normally. There were, however, losses of fast and slow muscle fibers in the myotomes. The innervation of the muscle blocks by spinal motoneurons is an important process of the somitogenesis. Both primary and secondary motoneurons appear to form normally while the axon growth is affected in cadmium-treated embryos. The notochord, which is essential in the patterning of the somites and the central nervous system, showed abnormal morphological features and failed to extend to the tail region. Taken together, it appears that cadmium exposure led to abnormal somite patterning of the muscle fibers and defects in axonogenesis.

  1. Lateral septum growth hormone secretagogue receptor affects food intake and motivation for sucrose reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Sarah J; Wall, Kaylee D; Medina, Nelson D; Maske, Calyn B; Williams, Diana L

    2018-03-28

    The hormone ghrelin promotes eating and is widely considered to be a hunger signal. Ghrelin receptors, growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHSRs), are found in a number of specific regions throughout the brain, including the lateral septum (LS), an area not traditionally associated with the control of feeding. Here we investigated whether GHSRs in the LS play a role in the control of food intake. We examined the feeding effects of ghrelin and the GHSR antagonists ([D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 and JMV 2959), at doses subthreshold for effect when delivered to the lateral ventricle. Intra-LS ghrelin significantly increased chow intake during the mid-light phase, suggesting that pharmacologic activation of LS GHSRs promotes feeding. Conversely, GHSR antagonist delivered to the LS shortly before dark onset significantly reduced chow intake. These data support the hypothesis that exogenous and endogenous stimulation of GHSRs in the LS influence feeding. Ghrelin is known to affect motivation for food, and the dorsal subdivision of LS (dLS) has been shown to play a role in motivation. Thus, we investigated the role of dLS GHSRs in motivation for food reward by examining operant responding for sucrose on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. Intra-dLS ghrelin increased PR responding for sucrose, while blockade of LS GHSRs did not affect responding in either a fed or fasted state. Together these findings for the first time substantiate the LS as a site of action for ghrelin signaling in the control of food intake.

  2. Individual heterogeneity and offspring sex affect the growth-reproduction trade-off in a mammal with indeterminate growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélin, Uriel; Wilson, Michelle E; Cripps, Jemma; Coulson, Graeme; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Reproduction can lead to a trade-off with growth, particularly when individuals reproduce before completing body growth. Kangaroos have indeterminate growth and may always face this trade-off. We combined an experimental manipulation of reproductive effort and multi-year monitoring of a large sample size of marked individuals in two populations of eastern grey kangaroos to test the predictions (1) that reproduction decreases skeletal growth and mass gain and (2) that mass loss leads to reproductive failure. We also tested if sex-allocation strategies influenced these trade-offs. Experimental reproductive suppression revealed negative effects of reproduction on mass gain and leg growth from 1 year to the next. Unmanipulated females, however, showed a positive correlation between number of days lactating and leg growth over periods of 2 years and longer, suggesting that over the long term, reproductive costs were masked by individual heterogeneity in resource acquisition. Mass gain was necessary for reproductive success the subsequent year. Although mothers of daughters generally lost more mass than females nursing sons, mothers in poor condition experienced greater mass gain and arm growth if they had daughters than if they had sons. The strong links between individual mass changes and reproduction suggest that reproductive tactics are strongly resource-dependent.

  3. Control of GABARAP-mediated autophagy by the Golgi complex, centrosome and centriolar satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, Justin; Tooze, Sharon A

    2018-01-01

    Within minutes of induction of autophagy by amino-acid starvation in mammalian cells, multiple autophagosomes form throughout the cell cytoplasm. During their formation, the autophagosomes sequester cytoplasmic material and deliver it to lysosomes for degradation. How these organelles can be so rapidly formed and how their formation is acutely regulated are major questions in the autophagy field. Protein and lipid trafficking from diverse cell compartments contribute membrane to, or regulate the formation of the autophagosome. In addition, recruitment of Atg8 (in yeast), and the ATG8-family members (in mammalian cells) to autophagosomes is required for efficient autophagy. Recently, it was discovered that the centrosome and centriolar satellites regulate autophagosome formation by delivery of an ATG8-family member, GABARAP, to the forming autophagosome membrane, the phagophore. We propose that GABARAP regulates phagophore expansion by activating the ULK complex, the amino-acid controlled initiator complex. This finding reveals a previously unknown link between the centrosome, centriolar satellites and autophagy. © 2017 Société Française des Microscopies and Société de Biologie Cellulaire de France. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A phthalimide derivative that inhibits centrosomal clustering is effective on multiple myeloma.

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    Hirokazu Shiheido

    Full Text Available Despite the introduction of newly developed drugs such as lenalidomide and bortezomib, patients with multiple myeloma are still difficult to treat and have a poor prognosis. In order to find novel drugs that are effective for multiple myeloma, we tested the antitumor activity of 29 phthalimide derivatives against several multiple myeloma cell lines. Among these derivatives, 2-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl-5-amino-1H-isoindole-1,3- dione (TC11 was found to be a potent inhibitor of tumor cell proliferation and an inducer of apoptosis via activation of caspase-3, 8 and 9. This compound also showed in vivo activity against multiple myeloma cell line KMS34 tumor xenografts in ICR/SCID mice. By means of mRNA display selection on a microfluidic chip, the target protein of TC11 was identified as nucleophosmin 1 (NPM. Binding of TC11 and NPM monomer was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance. Immunofluorescence and NPM knockdown studies in HeLa cells suggested that TC11 inhibits centrosomal clustering by inhibiting the centrosomal-regulatory function of NPM, thereby inducing multipolar mitotic cells, which undergo apoptosis. NPM may become a novel target for development of antitumor drugs active against multiple myeloma.

  5. Phosphatase PP2A and microtubule-mediated pulling forces disassemble centrosomes during mitotic exit

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    Stephen J. Enos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Centrosomes are microtubule-nucleating organelles that facilitate chromosome segregation and cell division in metazoans. Centrosomes comprise centrioles that organize a micron-scale mass of protein called pericentriolar material (PCM from which microtubules nucleate. During each cell cycle, PCM accumulates around centrioles through phosphorylation-mediated assembly of PCM scaffold proteins. During mitotic exit, PCM swiftly disassembles by an unknown mechanism. Here, we used Caenorhabditis elegans embryos to determine the mechanism and importance of PCM disassembly in dividing cells. We found that the phosphatase PP2A and its regulatory subunit SUR-6 (PP2ASUR-6, together with cortically directed microtubule pulling forces, actively disassemble PCM. In embryos depleted of these activities, ∼25% of PCM persisted from one cell cycle into the next. Purified PP2ASUR-6 could dephosphorylate the major PCM scaffold protein SPD-5 in vitro. Our data suggest that PCM disassembly occurs through a combination of dephosphorylation of PCM components and force-driven fragmentation of the PCM scaffold.

  6. Growth of non-Saccharomyces yeasts affects nutrient availability for Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Karina; Boido, Eduardo; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Carrau, Francisco

    2012-07-02

    Yeast produces numerous secondary metabolites during fermentation that impact final wine quality. Although it is widely recognized that growth of diverse non-Saccharomyces (NS) yeast can positively affect flavor complexity during Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine fermentation, the inability to control spontaneous or co-fermentation processes by NS yeast has restricted their use in winemaking. We selected two NS yeasts from our Uruguayan native collection to study NS-S. cerevisiae interactions during wine fermentation. The selected strains of Hanseniaspora vineae and Metschnikowia pulcherrima had different yeast assimilable nitrogen consumption profiles and had different effects on S. cerevisiae fermentation and growth kinetics. Studies in which we varied inoculum size and using either simultaneous or sequential inoculation of NS yeast and S. cerevisiae suggested that competition for nutrients had a significant effect on fermentation kinetics. Sluggish fermentations were more pronounced when S. cerevisiae was inoculated 24h after the initial stage of fermentation with a NS strain compared to co-inoculation. Monitoring strain populations using differential WL nutrient agar medium and fermentation kinetics of mixed cultures allowed for a better understanding of strain interactions and nutrient addition effects. Limitation of nutrient availability for S. cerevisiae was shown to result in stuck fermentations as well as to reduce sensory desirability of the resulting wine. Addition of diammonium phosphate (DAP) and a vitamin mix to a defined medium allowed for a comparison of nutrient competition between strains. Addition of DAP and the vitamin mix was most effective in preventing stuck fermentations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Growth and Yield Performance of Banana (Musa acuminate L. as Affected by Different Farm Manures

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    Brenda C. Panelo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at the Integrated Sustainable Agri-Techno Demo Farm (ISATDF of the Pangasinan State University, Sta. Maria Campus, Sta. Maria, Pangasinan from October 15, 2013 to August 18, 2014 with a duration of 308 days. This study aimed to determine the growth and yield performance of banana (Musa acuminata L. as affected by different farm manures. Specifically, it attempted to: (1 determine the effect of different farm manures on the growth and yield performance of banana; and to (2 determine the cost and return of the different farm manures. The experiment was laid out using the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was used to evaluate the differences between treatments using F-test at 5 and 1 percent levels of significance and the Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT was used to evaluate the differences among treatment means. The treatments used were the following: T1 - chicken manure, T2 - cow manure, T3 - goat manure, and T4 - hog manure. The results revealed that the application of chicken manure recorded the tallest plants (5.27 cm, most number of suckers (340. The application of chicken manure and goat manure significantly increased the mid-trunk diameter (25.63cm and (25.62 cm; finger length (14.33 cm and (13.13 cm; finger diameter (3.60 cm each; and weight of fruits (450kgs each. Net income and return on investment (ROI were also influenced by chicken manure and goat manure. Application of chicken manure and goat manure significantly enhanced the yield quality attributes and income of banana compared to the other sources of organic manure

  8. Factors affecting the course of body and kidney growth in infants with urolithiasis: A critical long-term evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarica, Kemal; Narter, Fatma; Sabuncu, Kubilay; Akca, Ahmet; Can, Utku; Buz, Ayse; Sarica, H Nese; Eryildirim, Bilal

    2016-12-30

    To investigate the possible effects of dietary, patient and stone related factors on the clinical course of the stone disease as well as the body and renal growth status of the infants. A total of 50 children with an history of stone disease during infancy period were studied. Patient (anatomical abnormalities, urinary tract infection - UTI, associated morbidities), stone (obstruction, UTI and required interventions) and lastly dietary (duration of sole breast feeding, formula feeding) related factors which may affect the clinical course of the disease were all evaluated for their effects on the body and renal growth during long-term follow-up. Mean age of the children was 2.40 ± 2.65 years. Our findings demonstrated that infants receiving longer period of breast feeding without formula addition seemed to have a higher rate of normal growth percentile values when compared with the other children. Again, higher frequency of UTI and stone attacks affected the growth status of the infants in a remarkable manner than the other cases. Our findings also demonstrated that thorough a close follow-up and appropriately taken measures; the possible growth retardation as well as renal growth problems could be avoided in children beginning to suffer from stone disease during infancy period. Duration of breast feeding, frequency of UTI, number of stone attacks and stone removal procedures are crucial factors for the clinical course of stone disease in infants that may affect the body as well as kidney growth during long-term follow-up.

  9. Chinese herbal medicine for miscarriage affects decidual micro-environment and fetal growth.

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    Piao, L; Chen, C-P; Yeh, C-C; Basar, M; Masch, R; Cheng, Y C; Lockwood, C J; Schatz, F; Huang, S J

    2015-05-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction complicates 5-10% of pregnancies. This study aims to test the hypothesis that Chinese herbal formula, JLFC01, affects pregnancy and fetal development by modulating the pro-inflammatory decidual micro-environment. Human decidua from gestational age-matched elective terminations or incomplete/missed abortion was immunostained using anti-CD68 + anti-CD86 or anti-CD163 antibodies. qRT-PCR and Luminex assay measured the effects of JLFC01 on IL-1β- or TNF-α-induced cytokine expression in first trimester decidual cells and on an established spontaneous abortion/intrauterine growth restriction (SA/IUGR)-prone mouse placentae. The effect of JLFC01 on human endometrial endothelial cell angiogenesis was evaluated by average area, length and numbers of branching points of tube formation. Food intake, litter size, fetal weight, placental weight and resorption rate were recorded in SA/IUGR-prone mouse treated with JLFC01. qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry assessed the expression of mouse placental IGF-I and IGF-IR. In spontaneous abortion, numbers of decidual macrophages expressing CD86 and CD163 are increased and decreased, respectively. JLFC01 reduces IL-1β- or TNF-α-induced GM-CSF, M-CSF, C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2), interferon-γ-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), CCL5 and IL-8 production in first trimester decidual cells. JLFC01 suppresses the activity of IL-1β- or TNF-α-treated first trimester decidual cells in enhancing macrophage-inhibited angiogenesis. In SA/IUGR-prone mice, JLFC01 increases maternal food intake, litter size, fetal and placental weight, and reduces fetal resorption rate. JLFC01 induces IGF-I and IGF-IR expression and inhibits M-CSF, CCL2, CCL5, CCL11, CCL3 and G-CSF expression in the placentae. JLFC01 improves gestation by inhibiting decidual inflammation, enhancing angiogenesis and promoting fetal growth. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency is affected by calibrators used in GH immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meazza, C; Albertini, R; Pagani, S; Sessa, N; Laarej, K; Falcone, R; Bozzola, E; Calcaterra, V; Bozzola, M

    2012-11-01

    Growth hormone (GH) values vary among immunoassays depending on different factors, such as the assay method used, specificity of antibodies, matrix difference between standards and samples, and interference with endogenous GH binding proteins (GHBPs). We evaluated whether the use of different calibrators for GH measurement may affect GH values and, consequently, the formulation of GH deficiency (GHD) diagnosis in children. Twenty-three short children (5 F, 18 M; age 11.4±3.1 years), with the clinical characteristics of GHD (height:  -2.3±0.5 SDS; height velocity  -2.3±1.5 SDS; IGF-I  -1.2±0.9 SDS), underwent GH stimulation tests to confirm the clinical diagnosis of GHD. Serum GH values were measured with Immulite 2000, using 2 different calibrators, IS 98/574, a recombinant 22 kDa molecule of more than 95% purity, and IS 80/505, of pituitary origin and resembling a variety of GH isoforms. We found blunted GH secretion in 20 subjects with the Immulite assay using the IS 98/574 GH as a calibrator, confirming the diagnosis of GHD. Subsequently, using IS 80/505 GH as a calibrator, in the same samples only 14 children showed reduced GH levels. The total cost for the first year of GH therapy of patients diagnosed with IS 98/574 as a calibrator was higher than that for patients diagnosed with IS 80/505 as a calibrator. These data confirm that GH values may depend on different calibrators used in the GH assay, affecting the formulation of GHD diagnosis and the consequent decision to start GH treatment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. The connections of Wnt pathway components with cell cycle and centrosome: side effects or a hidden logic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryja, Vítězslav; Červenka, Igor; Čajánek, Lukáš

    2017-12-01

    Wnt signaling cascade has developed together with multicellularity to orchestrate the development and homeostasis of complex structures. Wnt pathway components - such as β-catenin, Dishevelled (DVL), Lrp6, and Axin-- are often dedicated proteins that emerged in evolution together with the Wnt signaling cascade and are believed to function primarily in the Wnt cascade. It is interesting to see that in recent literature many of these proteins are connected with cellular functions that are more ancient and not limited to multicellular organisms - such as cell cycle regulation, centrosome biology, or cell division. In this review, we summarize the recent literature describing this crosstalk. Specifically, we attempt to find the answers to the following questions: Is the response to Wnt ligands regulated by the cell cycle? Is the centrosome and/or cilium required to activate the Wnt pathway? How do Wnt pathway components regulate the centrosomal cycle and cilia formation and function? We critically review the evidence that describes how these connections are regulated and how they help to integrate cell-to-cell communication with the cell and the centrosomal cycle in order to achieve a fine-tuned, physiological response.

  12. Stabilization of Cartwheel-less Centrioles for Duplication Requires CEP295-Mediated Centriole-to-Centrosome Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisse Izquierdo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate centrioles lose their geometric scaffold, the cartwheel, during mitosis, concurrently with gaining the ability to recruit the pericentriolar material (PCM and thereby function as the centrosome. Cartwheel removal has recently been implicated in centriole duplication, but whether “cartwheel-less” centrioles are intrinsically stable or must be maintained through other modifications remains unclear. Here, we identify a newborn centriole-enriched protein, KIAA1731/CEP295, specifically mediating centriole-to-centrosome conversion but dispensable for cartwheel removal. In the absence of CEP295, centrioles form in the S/G2 phase and lose their associated cartwheel in mitosis but cannot be converted to centrosomes, uncoupling the two events. Strikingly, centrioles devoid of both the PCM and the cartwheel progressively lose centriolar components, whereas centrioles associating with either the cartwheel or PCM alone can exist stably. Thus, cartwheel removal can have grave repercussions to centriole stability, and centriole-to-centrosome conversion mediated by CEP295 must occur in parallel to maintain cartwheel-less centrioles for duplication.

  13. Phosphorylation of Nlp by Plk1 negatively regulates its dynein-dynactin-dependent targeting to the centrosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casenghi, Martina; Barr, Francis A; Nigg, Erich A

    2005-11-01

    When cells enter mitosis the microtubule (MT) network undergoes a profound rearrangement, in part due to alterations in the MT nucleating and anchoring properties of the centrosome. Ninein and the ninein-like protein (Nlp) are centrosomal proteins involved in MT organisation in interphase cells. We show that the overexpression of these two proteins induces the fragmentation of the Golgi, and causes lysosomes to disperse toward the cell periphery. The ability of Nlp and ninein to perturb the cytoplasmic distribution of these organelles depends on their ability to interact with the dynein-dynactin motor complex. Our data also indicate that dynactin is required for the targeting of Nlp and ninein to the centrosome. Furthermore, phosphorylation of Nlp by the polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) negatively regulates its association with dynactin. These findings uncover a mechanism through which Plk1 helps to coordinate changes in MT organisation with cell cycle progression, by controlling the dynein-dynactin-dependent transport of centrosomal proteins.

  14. Maternal Stress Affects Fetal Growth but Not Developmental Instability in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Bots

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Developmental instability (DI, often measured by fluctuating asymmetry (FA or the frequency of phenodeviants (fPD, is thought to increase with stress. However, specifically for stressors of maternal origin, evidence of such negative associations with DI is scarce. Whereas effects of maternal stress on DI have predominately been examined retroactively in humans, very little is known from experiments with well-defined stress levels in animal model systems. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of maternal exposure to three doses (plus a control of a toxic compound affecting maternal condition on DI of their offspring in rabbits. Presence of maternal stress induced by the treatment was confirmed by a decrease in food consumption and weight gain of gravid females in the medium and high dose. Major abnormalities and mortality were unaffected by dose, suggesting the lack of toxic effects of the compound on the offspring. In spite of string maternal stress, offspring FA did not increase with dose. The treatment did lead to elevated fPD, but most were transient, reflecting growth retardation. Furthermore, a consistent association between fPD and FA was absent. These findings indicate that DI is not increased by maternal stress in this animal model.

  15. Pre-Analytical Parameters Affecting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Measurement in Plasma: Identifying Confounders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M Walz

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A is intensively investigated in various medical fields. However, comparing VEGF-A measurements is difficult because sample acquisition and pre-analytic procedures differ between studies. We therefore investigated which variables act as confounders of VEGF-A measurements.Following a standardized protocol, blood was taken at three clinical sites from six healthy participants (one male and one female participant at each center twice one week apart. The following pre-analytical parameters were varied in order to analyze their impact on VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant (EDTA vs. PECT / CTAD, cannula (butterfly vs. neonatal, type of centrifuge (swing-out vs. fixed-angle, time before and after centrifugation, filling level (completely filled vs. half-filled tubes and analyzing method (ELISA vs. multiplex bead array. Additionally, intrapersonal variations over time and sex differences were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear regression model.The following parameters were identified as statistically significant independent confounders of VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant, centrifuge, analyzing method and sex of the proband. The following parameters were no significant confounders in our data set: intrapersonal variation over one week, cannula, time before and after centrifugation and filling level of collection tubes.VEGF-A measurement results can be affected significantly by the identified pre-analytical parameters. We recommend the use of CTAD anticoagulant, a standardized type of centrifuge and one central laboratory using the same analyzing method for all samples.

  16. Adenylate kinase I does not affect cellular growth characteristics under normal and metabolic stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Wieke; Oerlemans, Frank; Wieringa, Bé

    2004-07-01

    Adenylate kinase (AK)-catalyzed phosphotransfer is essential in the maintenance of cellular energetic economy in cells of fully differentiated tissues with highly variable energy demand, such as muscle and brain. To investigate if AK isoenzymes have a comparable function in the energy-demand management of proliferating cells, AK1 and AK1beta were expressed in mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells and in human colon carcinoma SW480 cells. Glucose deprivation, galactose feeding, and metabolic inhibitor tests revealed a differential energy dependency for these two cell lines. N2a cells showed a faster proliferation rate and strongest coupling to mitochondrial activity, SW480 proliferation was more dependent on glycolysis. Despite these differences, ectopic expression of AK1 or AK1beta did not affect their growth characteristics under normal conditions. Also, no differential effects were seen under metabolic stress upon treatment with mitochondrial and glycolytic inhibitors in in vitro culture or in solid tumors grown in vivo. Although many intimate connections have been revealed between cell death and metabolism, our results suggest that AK1- or AK1beta-mediated high-energy phosphoryl transfer is not a modulating factor in the survival of tumor cells during episodes of metabolic crisis.

  17. Pre-Analytical Parameters Affecting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Measurement in Plasma: Identifying Confounders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Johanna M; Boehringer, Daniel; Deissler, Heidrun L; Faerber, Lothar; Goepfert, Jens C; Heiduschka, Peter; Kleeberger, Susannah M; Klettner, Alexa; Krohne, Tim U; Schneiderhan-Marra, Nicole; Ziemssen, Focke; Stahl, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is intensively investigated in various medical fields. However, comparing VEGF-A measurements is difficult because sample acquisition and pre-analytic procedures differ between studies. We therefore investigated which variables act as confounders of VEGF-A measurements. Following a standardized protocol, blood was taken at three clinical sites from six healthy participants (one male and one female participant at each center) twice one week apart. The following pre-analytical parameters were varied in order to analyze their impact on VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant (EDTA vs. PECT / CTAD), cannula (butterfly vs. neonatal), type of centrifuge (swing-out vs. fixed-angle), time before and after centrifugation, filling level (completely filled vs. half-filled tubes) and analyzing method (ELISA vs. multiplex bead array). Additionally, intrapersonal variations over time and sex differences were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear regression model. The following parameters were identified as statistically significant independent confounders of VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant, centrifuge, analyzing method and sex of the proband. The following parameters were no significant confounders in our data set: intrapersonal variation over one week, cannula, time before and after centrifugation and filling level of collection tubes. VEGF-A measurement results can be affected significantly by the identified pre-analytical parameters. We recommend the use of CTAD anticoagulant, a standardized type of centrifuge and one central laboratory using the same analyzing method for all samples.

  18. Identification of main issues affecting the growth of graduates’ small and medium enterprises (SMES in Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hety Budiyanti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available After the economic crises hit Indonesia in 1997 and 2008 and contributed to downfall of a large number of big businesses in various industries. However, the small and medium enterprises (SMEs sector has managed to survive from the crisis by showing a significant growth and rising contribution to the economy of Indonesia. Yogyakarta which is known as a city of student has acknowledged the important role of SMEs sector to improve the economic activity of the region and push the income of the people. Rising paradigm at universities and colleges in Yogyakarta about creating entrepreneurship from their graduates has contributed to the rise of graduates’ business in this place. The aim of the paper is to take a fresh look into graduate’ entrepreneurship on SMEs’ scale and competences in Yogyakarta. This paper focuses on a detailed study into the entrepreneurial activities of graduates in Yogyakarta and principally examines issues affecting their business development. Seven main issues were investigated: business establishment; location; premises (size, cost, tenure; concerns; advice utilization; education and training; and support requirements. The sample of the study was assembled from the ministry of department industry and KADIN Yogyakarta branch as formal sources. Other sample sources considered are entrepreneurship associations such as Konsultan Pengembangan Ide dan Usaha ARN of Yogyakarta. Data collecting methods used in this paper are in depth interviews and structured and semi structured questionnaires. Research method will relied mostly on ethnographic techniques.

  19. Targeting of beta-arrestin2 to the centrosome and primary cilium: role in cell proliferation control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahi Molla-Herman

    Full Text Available The primary cilium is a sensory organelle generated from the centrosome in quiescent cells and found at the surface of most cell types, from where it controls important physiological processes. Specific sets of membrane proteins involved in sensing the extracellular milieu are concentrated within cilia, including G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs. Most GPCRs are regulated by beta-arrestins, betaarr1 and betaarr2, which control both their signalling and endocytosis, suggesting that betaarrs may also function at primary cilium.In cycling cells, betaarr2 was observed at the centrosome, at the proximal region of the centrioles, in a microtubule independent manner. However, betaarr2 did not appear to be involved in classical centrosome-associated functions. In quiescent cells, both in vitro and in vivo, betaarr2 was found at the basal body and axoneme of primary cilia. Interestingly, betaarr2 was found to interact and colocalize with 14-3-3 proteins and Kif3A, two proteins known to be involved in ciliogenesis and intraciliary transport. In addition, as suggested for other centrosome or cilia-associated proteins, betaarrs appear to control cell cycle progression. Indeed, cells lacking betaarr2 were unable to properly respond to serum starvation and formed less primary cilia in these conditions.Our results show that betaarr2 is localized to the centrosome in cycling cells and to the primary cilium in quiescent cells, a feature shared with other proteins known to be involved in ciliogenesis or primary cilium function. Within cilia, betaarr2 may participate in the signaling of cilia-associated GPCRs and, therefore, in the sensory functions of this cell "antenna".

  20. Root-zone temperature and water availability affect early root growth of planted longleaf pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Sword

    1995-01-01

    Longleaf pine seedlings from three seed sources were exposed to three root-zone temperatures and three levels of water availability for 28 days. Root growth declined as temperature and water availability decreased. Root growth differed by seed source. Results suggest that subtle changes in the regeneration environment may influence early root growth of longleaf pine...

  1. Ethylene is differentially regulated during sugar beet germination and affects early root growth in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abts, Willem; Van de Poel, Bram; Vandenbussche, Bert; De Proft, Maurice P

    2014-10-01

    By integrating molecular, biochemical, and physiological data, ethylene biosynthesis in sugar beet was shown to be differentially regulated, affecting root elongation in a concentration-dependent manner. There is a close relation between ethylene production and seedling growth of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), yet the exact function of ethylene during this early developmental stage is still unclear. While ethylene is mostly considered to be a root growth inhibitor, we found that external 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) regulates root growth in sugar beet in a concentration-dependent manner: low concentrations stimulate root growth while high concentrations inhibit root growth. These results reveal that ethylene action during root elongation is strongly concentration dependent. Furthermore our detailed study of ethylene biosynthesis kinetics revealed a very strict gene regulation pattern of ACC synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO), in which ACS is the rate liming step during sugar beet seedling development.

  2. Crop growth, light utilization and yield of relay intercropped cotton as affected by plant density and a plant growth regulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, L.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, X.; Liu, S.; Werf, van der W.; Zhang, S.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Li, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Modern cotton cultivation requires high plant densities and compact plants. Here we study planting density and growth regulator effects on plant structure and production of cotton when the cotton is grown in a relay intercrop with wheat, a cultivation system that is widespread in China. Field

  3. ROS production induced by BRAF inhibitor treatment rewires metabolic processes affecting cell growth of melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesi, Giulia; Walbrecq, Geoffroy; Zimmer, Andreas; Kreis, Stephanie; Haan, Claude

    2017-06-08

    Most melanoma patients with BRAF V600E positive tumors respond well to a combination of BRAF kinase and MEK inhibitors. However, some patients are intrinsically resistant while the majority of patients eventually develop drug resistance to the treatment. For patients insufficiently responding to BRAF and MEK inhibitors, there is an ongoing need for new treatment targets. Cellular metabolism is such a promising new target line: mutant BRAF V600E has been shown to affect the metabolism. Time course experiments and a series of western blots were performed in a panel of BRAF V600E and BRAF WT /NRAS mut human melanoma cells, which were incubated with BRAF and MEK1 kinase inhibitors. siRNA approaches were used to investigate the metabolic players involved. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by confocal microscopy and AZD7545, an inhibitor targeting PDKs (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase) was tested. We show that inhibition of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway induces phosphorylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase PDH-E1α subunit in BRAF V600E and in BRAF WT /NRAS mut harboring cells. Inhibition of BRAF, MEK1 and siRNA knock-down of ERK1/2 mediated phosphorylation of PDH. siRNA-mediated knock-down of all PDKs or the use of DCA (a pan-PDK inhibitor) abolished PDH-E1α phosphorylation. BRAF inhibitor treatment also induced the upregulation of ROS, concomitantly with the induction of PDH phosphorylation. Suppression of ROS by MitoQ suppressed PDH-E1α phosphorylation, strongly suggesting that ROS mediate the activation of PDKs. Interestingly, the inhibition of PDK1 with AZD7545 specifically suppressed growth of BRAF-mutant and BRAF inhibitor resistant melanoma cells. In BRAF V600E and BRAF WT /NRAS mut melanoma cells, the increased production of ROS upon inhibition of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway, is responsible for activating PDKs, which in turn phosphorylate and inactivate PDH. As part of a possible salvage pathway, the tricarboxylic acid cycle is inhibited leading to

  4. Teacher-student interpersonal relationships do change and affect academic motivation: a multilevel growth curve modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulana, Ridwan; Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Bosker, Roel

    2014-09-01

    Research has shown that the teacher-student interpersonal relationship (TSIR) is important for student motivation. Although TSIR has received a growing interest, there are only few studies that focus on changes and links between TSIR and student academic motivation in a longitudinal fashion in non-Western contexts. This study investigated changes in TSIR and links with academic motivation as perceived by first-grade secondary school students in Indonesia. TSIR was studied from the perspective of interpersonal behaviour in terms of Influence and Proximity. Students' academic motivation was studied from the perspective of self-determination theory. A total of 504 first-grade secondary school students of 16 mathematics and English classes participated in the study. Surveys were administered in five waves throughout the school year. Multilevel growth curve modelling was applied. Contrary to the (limited) general research findings from Western contexts, we found that the quality of TSIR (student perceptions) increased over time. The increase was slightly more pronounced for Proximity than for Influence. In accordance with the findings for the Western countries, the level of students' controlled motivation increased, while that of autonomous motivation decreased over time. However, the negative change in autonomous motivation was less pronounced. As in Western countries, TSIR was longitudinally linked with academic motivation, in particular, with autonomous motivation. Evidence is found that TSIR can change in a favourable way, and this positively affects student motivation. Future research could benefit from unravelling the influences of cultures on changes in TSIR in broader contexts. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  5. IVF culture medium affects human intrauterine growth as early as the second trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Ewka C M; Van Montfoort, Aafke P A; Smits, Luc J M; Menheere, Paul P C A; Evers, Johannes L H; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G; Peeters, Louis L; Coumans, Audrey B; Dumoulin, John C M

    2013-08-01

    When does a difference in human intrauterine growth of singletons conceived after IVF and embryo culture in two different culture media appear? Differences in fetal development after culture of embryos in one of two IVF media were apparent as early as the second trimester of pregnancy. Abnormal fetal growth patterns are a major risk factor for the development of chronic diseases in adult life. Previously, we have shown that the medium used for culturing embryos during the first few days after fertilization significantly affects the birthweight of the resulting human singletons. The exact onset of this growth difference was unknown. In this retrospective cohort study, all 294 singleton live births after fresh embryo transfer in the period July 2003 to December 2006 were included. These embryos originated from IVF treatments that were part of a previously described clinical trial. Embryos were allocated to culture in either Vitrolife or Cook commercially available sequential culture media. We analysed ultrasound examinations at 8 (n = 290), 12 (n = 83) and 20 weeks' (n = 206) gestation and used first-trimester serum markers [pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free β-hCG]. Differences between study groups were tested by the Student's t-test, χ(2) test or Fisher's exact test, and linear multivariable regression analysis to adjust for possible confounders (for example, parity, gestational age at the time of ultrasound and fetal gender). A total of 294 singleton pregnancies (Vitrolife group nVL = 168, Cook group: nC = 126) from 294 couples were included. At 8 weeks' gestation, there was no difference between crown-rump length-based and ovum retrieval-based gestational age (ΔGA) (nVL = 163, nC = 122, adjusted mean difference, -0.04 days, P = 0.84). A total of 83 women underwent first-trimester screening at 12 weeks' gestation (nVL = 45, nC = 38). ΔGA, nuchal translucency (multiples of median, MoM) and PAPP-A (MoM) did not differ between the study

  6. Energy composition of diet affects muscle fiber recruitment, body composition, and growth trajectory in rainbow trout (Oncorhnychus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy composition of diet affects muscle fiber recruitment, body composition, and growth trajectory in rainbow trout (Oncorhnychus mykiss) The cost and scarcity of key ingredients for aquaculture feed formulation call for a wise use of resources, especially dietary proteins and energy. For years t...

  7. Factors affecting quality and health promoting compounds during growth and postharvest life of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correia, Sofia; Schouten, Rob; Silva, Ana P.; Gonçalves, Berta

    2017-01-01

    Sweet cherries are attractive fruits due to their taste, color, nutritional value, and beneficial health effects. Sweet cherry is a highly perishable fruit and all quality attributes and the level of health promoting compounds are affected by growth conditions, picking, packing, transport, and

  8. Rac1-dependent recruitment of PAK2 to G 2 phase centrosomes and their roles in the regulation of mitotic entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Martin; Schelle, Ilona; Brakebusch, Cord Herbert

    2014-01-01

    -GTPases Rac/Cdc42. In this study, Rac1 (but not RhoA or Cdc42) is presented to associate with the centrosomes from early G 2 phase until prometaphase in a cell cycle-dependent fashion, as evidenced by western blot analysis of prepared centrosomes and by immunolabeling. PAK associates with the G 2/M......-phase centrosomes in a Rac1-dependent fashion. Furthermore, specific inhibition of Rac1 by C. difficile toxinB-catalyzed glucosylation or by knockout results in inhibited activation of PAK1/2, Aurora A, and the CyclinB/Cdk1 complex in late G 2 phase/prophase and delayed mitotic entry. Inhibition of PAK activation...... at late G 2-phase centrosomes caused by Rac1 inactivation coincides with impeded activation of Aurora A and the CyclinB/Cdk1 complex and delayed mitotic entry....

  9. Critical challenges affecting Islamic banking growth in India using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)

    OpenAIRE

    Mosab I. Tabash

    2017-01-01

    The banking sector plays a vital role in growth-supporting factor for economic growth in the world’s fastest-growing economies like India. Recently, Islamic banking has become an increasingly popular method for alleviating poverty, financial inclusion and economic development around the world. Its importance is highly needed in developing and emerging countries such as India. The main purpose of the paper is to identify and prioritize the critical impeding factors for Islamic banking growth i...

  10. Does warming affect growth rate and biomass production of shrubs in the High Arctic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campioli, Matteo; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Albert, Kristian Rost

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have assessed directly the impact of warming on plant growth and biomass production in the High Arctic. Here, we aimed to investigate the impact of 7 years of warming (open greenhouses) on the aboveground relative growth rate (RGR) of Cassiope tetragona and Salix arctica in North...... the secondary growth of old stem segments of Cassiope formed before the treatment began. The increase in Cassiope RGR was associated with an increase in gross photosynthetic uptake, branching and C concentration in old green tissues. Overall, the different growth measures consistently indicated that temperature...

  11. Identification of a new protein in the centrosome-like "atractophore" of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricheux, Geneviève; Coffe, Gérard; Brugerolle, Guy

    2007-06-01

    The human parasite Trichomonas vaginalis has specific structural bodies, atractophores, associated at one end to the kinetosomes and at the other to the spindle during division. A monoclonal antibody specific for a component of this structure was obtained. It recognizes a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 477 kDa. Sequence analysis of this protein shows that P477 belongs to the family of large coiled-coil proteins, sharing a highly versatile protein folding motif adaptable to many biological functions. P477-might act as an anchor to localize cellular activities and components to the golgi centrosomal region. It may represent a new class of structural proteins, since similar proteins were found in many protozoans.

  12. Overexpression of centrosomal protein Nlp confers breast carcinoma resistance to paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weihong; Song, Yongmei; Xu, Binghe; Zhan, Qimin

    2012-02-01

    Nlp (ninein-like protein), an important molecule involved in centrosome maturation and spindle formation, plays an important role in tumorigenesis and its abnormal expression was recently observed in human breast and lung cancers. In this study, the correlation between overexpression of Nlp and paclitaxel chemosensitivity was investigated to explore the mechanisms of resistance to paclitaxel and to understand the effect of Nlp upon apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic agents. Nlp expression vector was stably transfected into breast cancer MCF-7 cells. With Nlp overexpression, the survival rates, cell cycle distributions and apoptosis were analyzed in transfected MCF-7 cells by MTT test and FCM approach. The immunofluorescent assay was employed to detect the changes of microtubule after paclitaxel treatment. Immunoblotting analysis was used to examine expression of centrosomal proteins and apoptosis associated proteins. Subsequently, Nlp expression was retrospectively examined with 55 breast cancer samples derived from paclitaxel treated patients. Interestingly, the survival rates of MCF-7 cells with Nlp overexpressing were higher than that of control after paclitaxel treatment. Nlp overexpression promoted G2-M arrest and attenuated apoptosis induced by paclitaxel, which was coupled with elevated Bcl-2 protein. Nlp expression significantly lessened the microtubule polymerization and bundling elicited by paclitaxel attributing to alteration on the structure or dynamics of β-tubulin but not on its expression. The breast cancer patients with high expression of Nlp were likely resistant to the treatment of paclitaxel, as the response rate in Nlp negative patients was 62.5%, whereas was 58.3 and 15.8% in Nlp (+) and Nlp (++) patients respectively (p = 0.015). Nlp expression was positive correlated with those of Plk1 and PCNA. These findings provide insights into more rational chemotherapeutic regimens in clinical practice, and more effective approaches might be

  13. Casein kinase II is required for proper cell division and acts as a negative regulator of centrosome duplication in C aenorhabditis elegans embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Medley, Jeffrey C.; Kabara, Megan M.; Stubenvoll, Michael D.; DeMeyer, Lauren E.; Song, Mi Hye

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Centrosomes are the primary microtubule-organizing centers that orchestrate microtubule dynamics during the cell cycle. The correct number of centrosomes is pivotal for establishing bipolar mitotic spindles that ensure accurate segregation of chromosomes. Thus, centrioles must duplicate once per cell cycle, one daughter per mother centriole, the process of which requires highly coordinated actions among core factors and modulators. Protein phosphorylation is shown to regulate the sta...

  14. Factors affecting the course of body and kidney growth in infants with urolithiasis: A critical long-term evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Sarica

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the possible effects of dietary, patient and stone related factors on the clinical course of the stone disease as well as the body and renal growth status of the infants. Patients and Methods: A total of 50 children with an history of stone disease during infancy period were studied. Patient (anatomical abnormalities, urinary tract infection - UTI, associated morbidities, stone (obstruction, UTI and required interventions and lastly dietary (duration of sole breast feeding, formula feeding related factors which may affect the clinical course of the disease were all evaluated for their effects on the body and renal growth during long-term follow-up. Results: Mean age of the children was 2.40 ± 2.65 years. Our findings demonstrated that infants receiving longer period of breast feeding without formula addition seemed to have a higher rate of normal growth percentile values when compared with the other children. Again, higher frequency of UTI and stone attacks affected the growth status of the infants in a remarkable manner than the other cases. Our findings also demonstrated that thorough a close follow-up and appropriately taken measures; the possible growth retardation as well as renal growth problems could be avoided in children beginning to suffer from stone disease during infancy period. Conclusions: Duration of breast feeding, frequency of UTI, number of stone attacks and stone removal procedures are crucial factors for the clinical course of stone disease in infants that may affect the body as well as kidney growth during long-term follow-up.

  15. Long-term monitoring of climatic and nutritional affects on tree growth in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Yarie; K. Van Cleve

    2010-01-01

    The comparative analysis of a large set of long-term fertilization and thinning studies in the major forest types of interior Alaska is summarized. Results indicate that nutrient limitations may only occur during the early spring growth period, after which moisture availability is the primary control of tree growth on warm sites. The temperature dynamics of both air...

  16. Numerical study of how creep and progressive stiffening affect the growth stress formation in trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Dahlblom, O.; Johansson, M.

    2010-01-01

    and they are highly influenced by climate, biologic and material related factors. To increase the knowledge of the stress formation a finite element model was created to study how the growth stresses develop during the tree growth. The model is an axisymmetric general plane strain model where material for all new...

  17. Soil-Site Factors Affecting Southern Upland Oak Managment and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John K. Francis

    1980-01-01

    Soil supplies trees with physical support, moisture, oxygen, and nutrients. Amount of moisture most limits tree growth; and soil and topographic factors such as texture and aspect, which influence available soil moisture. are most useful in predicting growth. Equations that include soil and topographic variables can be used to predict site index. Foresters can also...

  18. Growth and dry-mass partitioning in tomato as affected by phosphorus nutrition and light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de C.C.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Boogaard, van den R.; Lambers, H.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the effects of phosphorus (P) and light on the physiological and morphological components of growth of young tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Capita). The importance of dry-mass partitioning and starch accumulation in explaining the effects of P limitation on growth was

  19. Survey of naturally and conventionally cured commercial frankfurters, ham, and bacon for physio-chemical characteristics that affect bacterial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gary A; Jackson-Davis, Armitra L; Schrader, Kohl D; Xi, Yuan; Kulchaiyawat, Charlwit; Sebranek, Joseph G; Dickson, James S

    2012-12-01

    Natural and organic food regulations preclude the use of sodium nitrite/nitrate and other antimicrobials for processed meat products. Consequently, processors have begun to use natural nitrate/nitrite sources, such as celery juice/powder, sea salt, and turbinado sugar, to manufacture natural and organic products with cured meat characteristics but without sodium nitrite. The objective of this study was to compare physio-chemical characteristics that affect Clostridium perfringens and Listeria monocytogenes growth in naturally cured and traditionally cured commercial frankfurters, hams, and bacon. Correlations of specific product characteristics to pathogen growth varied between products and pathogens, though water activity, salt concentration, and product composition (moisture, protein and fat) were common intrinsic factors correlated to pathogen growth across products. Other frequently correlated traits were related to curing reactions such as % cured pigment. Residual nitrite and nitrate were significantly correlated to C. perfringens growth but only for the ham products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. How do Economic Growth Asymmetry and Inflation Expectations Affect Fisher Hypothesis and Fama’s Proxy Hypothesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Ming Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the threshold panel data model, this study employs the quarterly panel data of 38 countries between 1981 and 2014 to test whether economic growth asymmetry, expected inflation, and unexpected inflation affect the Fisher hypothesis and Fama’s proxy hypothesis. The empirical results show the following: (1 When real economic growth rate is greater than the threshold (-0.009, Fisher hypothesis is supported. (2 When real economic growth rate is less than the threshold (-0.009, two scenarios hold true: before real variables are included, Fisher hypothesis is rejected; and when real variables are included, real economic growth is negative, inflation is expected, and thus, Fama’s hypothesis is supported.

  1. How do Labor Market Institutions affect the Link between Growth and Unemployment: the case of the European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langot, François

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes how the frictions in the labor market simultaneously affect the economic growth and the long run unemployment. To this goal, we develop a schumpeterian model of endogenous growth: agents have the choice between employment and R and D activities. Unemployment is caused by the wage-setting behavior of unions. We show that: (i Increases in the labor costs or in the power of trade unions lead to higher unemployment and lower economic growth. (ii Efficient bargain allows to increase employment, at the price of a lower growth rate. These theoretical predictions are consistent with the insights from our empirical analysis based on 183 European Regions, between 1980-2003

  2. Small doses, big troubles: modeling growth dynamics of organisms affecting microalgal production cultures in closed photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forehead, Hugh I; O'Kelly, Charles J

    2013-02-01

    The destruction of mass cultures of microalgae by biological contamination of culture medium is a pervasive and expensive problem, in industry and research. A mathematical model has been formulated that attempts to explain contaminant growth dynamics in closed photobioreactors (PBRs). The model simulates an initial growth phase without PBR dilution, followed by a production phase in which culture is intermittently removed. Contaminants can be introduced at any of these stages. The model shows how exponential growth from low initial inocula can lead to "explosive" growth in the population of contaminants, appearing days to weeks after inoculation. Principal influences are contaminant growth rate, PBR dilution rate, and the size of initial contaminant inoculum. Predictions corresponded closely with observed behavior of two contaminants, Uronema sp. and Neoparamoeba sp., found in operating PBRs. A simple, cheap and effective protocol was developed for short-term prediction of contamination in PBRs, using microscopy and archived samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. PKA and PDE4D3 anchoring to AKAP9 provides distinct regulation of cAMP signals at the centrosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrin, Anna; Monterisi, Stefania; Stangherlin, Alessandra; Zoccarato, Anna; Koschinski, Andreas; Surdo, Nicoletta C.; Mongillo, Marco; Sawa, Akira; Jordanides, Niove E.; Mountford, Joanne C.

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the protein kinase A (PKA)–regulated phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4D3 binds to A kinase–anchoring proteins (AKAPs). One such protein, AKAP9, localizes to the centrosome. In this paper, we investigate whether a PKA–PDE4D3–AKAP9 complex can generate spatial compartmentalization of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling at the centrosome. Real-time imaging of fluorescence resonance energy transfer reporters shows that centrosomal PDE4D3 modulated a dynamic microdomain within which cAMP concentration selectively changed over the cell cycle. AKAP9-anchored, centrosomal PKA showed a reduced activation threshold as a consequence of increased autophosphorylation of its regulatory subunit at S114. Finally, disruption of the centrosomal cAMP microdomain by local displacement of PDE4D3 impaired cell cycle progression as a result of accumulation of cells in prophase. Our findings describe a novel mechanism of PKA activity regulation that relies on binding to AKAPs and consequent modulation of the enzyme activation threshold rather than on overall changes in cAMP levels. Further, we provide for the first time direct evidence that control of cell cycle progression relies on unique regulation of centrosomal cAMP/PKA signals. PMID:22908311

  4. Culture media profoundly affect Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis growth, adhesion and biofilm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasekera, Manjula M; Wijesinghe, Gayan K; Jayarathna, Thilini A; Gunasekara, Chinthika P; Fernando, Neluka; Kottegoda, Nilwala; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-11-01

    As there are sparse data on the impact of growth media on the phenomenon of biofilm development for Candida we evaluated the efficacy of three culture media on growth, adhesion and biofilm formation of two pathogenic yeasts, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. The planktonic phase yeast growth, either as monocultures or mixed cultures, in sabouraud dextrose broth (SDB), yeast nitrogen base (YNB), and RPMI 1640 was compared, and adhesion as well as biofilm formation were monitored using MTT and crystal violet (CV) assays and scanning electron microscopy. Planktonic cells of C. albicans, C. tropicalis and their 1:1 co-culture showed maximal growth in SDB. C. albicans/C. tropicalis adhesion was significantly facilitated in RPMI 1640 although the YNB elicited the maximum growth for C. tropicalis. Similarly, the biofilm growth was uniformly higher for both species in RPMI 1640, and C. tropicalis was the slower biofilm former in all three media. Scanning electron microscopy images tended to confirm the results of MTT and CV assay. Taken together, our data indicate that researchers should pay heed to the choice of laboratory culture media when comparing relative planktonic/biofilm growth of Candida. There is also a need for standardisation of biofilm development media so as to facilitate cross comparisons between laboratories.

  5. Growth indices of winter wheat as affected by irrigation regimes under Iran conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazy, Hamid Dehghanzadeh; Poor, Mohammad Reza Khajeh; Abad, Hossain Heidari Sharif; Soleimani, Ali

    2007-12-15

    An experiment was conducted during 2004-2006 at the Agricultural Research Station, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, Iran. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of irrigation regimes on growth indices of three bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes. A split plot layout with a randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Irrigation treatments (irrigation after 70 (I1), 90 (I2) and 110 (I3) mm cumulative evaporation from class A evaporation pan) were considered as the main plot and three wheat genotypes (Mahdavy, Ghods and Roshan-Backcross) as subplots. The I1 and I2 did not differ significantly for all growth indices, total dry matter and grain yield. Delay in irrigation from the I2 to I3 significantly reduced growth indices, total dry matter and grain yield. Trend of changes in Leaf Area Index (LAI), Total Dry Matter (TDM), Net Assimilation Rate (NAR) and Crop Growth Rate (CGR) were similar in the I1 and the I2. In all samplings, delay in irrigation from the I2 to I3 reduced all growth indices. The trend of changes in crop growth rate was more similar to leaf area index, than to net assimilation rate. Genotypes were not significantly different in respect to growth indices. The results indicate that irrigation after 90 mm cumulative evaporation from class A evaporation pan might be suitable for winter wheat production under conditions similar to this experiment where irrigation water during spring is not abundant.

  6. Inoculation density is affecting growth conditions of Listeria monocytogenes on fresh cut lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManamon, Oisin; Scollard, Johann; Schmalenberger, Achim

    2017-11-27

    Listeria monocytogenes is a particular risk for the ready-to-eat food sector because of its ability to grow in various environmental conditions. In the literature, growth and survival of L. monocytogenes on food is tested using inoculation densities ranging from less than 10 2 to over 10 5  CFU g -1 . Inoculation densities on food have been rarely tested as a factor for growth. In this study, inoculation densities from 10 2 to 10 5 of L. monocytogenes were tested on iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in modified atmospheres and air in model packages at 4 and 8 °C to identify any potential inoculation density effects. On days 0, 2, 5 and 7, L. monocytogenes was extracted from the lettuce surface and enumerated via selective media. The resulting growth curves identified a significant inoculation density effect at 4 and 8 °C with significantly higher amounts of growth (1-2 logs) when lettuce was inoculated at 10 2  CFU g -1 as opposed to 10 4 and 10 5  CFU g -1 . In contrast, the use of different atmospheres had limited influence on growth of L. monocytogenes. In conclusion, greater emphasis on inoculation density of L. monocytogenes should be taken in inoculation experiments when confirmation of growth or the efficacies of growth inhibiting treatments are tested on ready-to-eat food such as lettuce.

  7. Does Democratic Institutions and Foreign Direct Investment Affect Economic Growth? Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan O. Ozekhome

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A reciprocally re-enforcing relationship exists between institutions, foreign direct investment and economic growth. Sound institutional framework which supports foreign direct investment is significant for driving rapid Economic growth. An important factor that has undermined rapid and sustained economic growth is the weak institutional structure, decrepit state capacity and low level of foreign direct investment in Nigeria. Democratic structures reflected in the rule of law, effectiveness and predictability of the judiciary and enforceability of contracts proceedings is imperative for accelerating economic growth. Employing the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM estimation techniques on annual time series data covering the period from 1981 to 2015, the relationship between these variables was empirically investigated. The empirical findings reveal that democratic institutions and foreign direct investment are significant variables influencing economic growth in Nigeria. In particular, the results, using Nigerian data, show that weak institutions have a destabilizing impact on growth. The impact of FDI on the other hand is found to be positive and significant. Therefore, sound institutional framework, as well as appropriate and consistent macroeconomic policies that encourage foreign direct investment to propel rapid economic growth in Nigeria needs to be put in place.

  8. Mortality affects adaptive allocation to growth and reproduction: field evidence from a guild of body snatchers

    OpenAIRE

    Hechinger Ryan F

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The probability of being killed by external factors (extrinsic mortality) should influence how individuals allocate limited resources to the competing processes of growth and reproduction. Increased extrinsic mortality should select for decreased allocation to growth and for increased reproductive effort. This study presents perhaps the first clear cross-species test of this hypothesis, capitalizing on the unique properties offered by a diverse guild of parasitic castrator...

  9. Mortality affects adaptive allocation to growth and reproduction: field evidence from a guild of body snatchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechinger, Ryan F

    2010-05-07

    The probability of being killed by external factors (extrinsic mortality) should influence how individuals allocate limited resources to the competing processes of growth and reproduction. Increased extrinsic mortality should select for decreased allocation to growth and for increased reproductive effort. This study presents perhaps the first clear cross-species test of this hypothesis, capitalizing on the unique properties offered by a diverse guild of parasitic castrators (body snatchers). I quantify growth, reproductive effort, and expected extrinsic mortality for several species that, despite being different species, use the same species' phenotype for growth and survival. These are eight trematode parasitic castrators-the individuals of which infect and take over the bodies of the same host species-and their uninfected host, the California horn snail. As predicted, across species, growth decreased with increased extrinsic mortality, while reproductive effort increased with increased extrinsic mortality. The trematode parasitic castrator species (operating stolen host bodies) that were more likely to be killed by dominant species allocated less to growth and relatively more to current reproduction than did species with greater life expectancies. Both genders of uninfected snails fit into the patterns observed for the parasitic castrator species, allocating as much to growth and to current reproduction as expected given their probability of reproductive death (castration by trematode parasites). Additionally, species differences appeared to represent species-specific adaptations, not general plastic responses to local mortality risk. Broadly, this research illustrates that parasitic castrator guilds can allow unique comparative tests discerning the forces promoting adaptive evolution. The specific findings of this study support the hypothesis that extrinsic mortality influences species differences in growth and reproduction.

  10. How Will Global Environmental Changes Affect the Growth of Alien Plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jujie Jia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Global environmental changes can create novel habitats, promoting the growth of alien plants that often exhibit broad environmental tolerance and high phenotypic plasticity. However, the mechanisms underlying these growth promotory effects are unknown at present. Here, we conducted a phylogenetically controlled meta-analysis using data from 111 published studies encompassing the responses of 129 alien plants to global warming, increased precipitation, N deposition, and CO2 enrichment. We compared the differences in the responses of alien plants to the four global environmental change factors across six categories of functional traits between woody and non-woody life forms as well as C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways. Our results showed that all four global change factors promote alien plant growth. Warming had a more positive effect on C4 than C3 plants. Although the effects of the four factors on the functional traits of alien plants were variable, plant growth was mainly promoted via an increase in growth rate and size. Our data suggest that potential future global environmental changes could further facilitate alien plant growth.

  11. The use of 32P to study root growth of soybean as affected by soil compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, Elsje L.; Sisworo, Widjang H.; Syaukat, Sri Harti; Wemay, Johannis; Haryanto

    1996-01-01

    Two greenhouse and two field experiments have been conducted to study the effect of soil compaction on root and plant growth of soybean, by using 32 P in the form of carrier free KH 2 32 PO 4 solution. In the greenhouse experiment it was clearly shown that by increasing soil compaction the growth of roots and shoots was increasingly inhibited. The growth of roots was expressed in √% arcsin converted from 32 P activity (counts per minute, cpm) in the shoots and 32 P activity in the shoots (cpm) without convertion. Plant growth was expressed in plant height, number of leaves, dry weight of pods and shoots. In the field experiment, it was shown distinctively that root growth in the 15 cm soil depth was inhibited whith the increase of soil compaction. Similar with the greenhouse experiments the of plants of roots was expressed in cpm 32 P of roots, shoots, and pods, while, the growth of plants was expressed in plant height, number of pods, and dry weight of pods, seeds, and stover. (author). 19 refs, 4 tabs, 6 figs

  12. The Microtubule-Associated Protein MAP18 Affects ROP2 GTPase Activity during Root Hair Growth1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Erfang; Zheng, Mingzhi; Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Ming; Fu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Establishment and maintenance of the polar site are important for root hair tip growth. We previously reported that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN18 (MAP18) functions in controlling the direction of pollen tube growth and root hair elongation. Additionally, the Rop GTPase ROP2 was reported as a positive regulator of both root hair initiation and tip growth in Arabidopsis. Both loss of function of ROP2 and knockdown of MAP18 lead to a decrease in root hair length, whereas overexpression of either MAP18 or ROP2 causes multiple tips or a branching hair phenotype. However, it is unclear whether MAP18 and ROP2 coordinately regulate root hair growth. In this study, we demonstrate that MAP18 and ROP2 interact genetically and functionally. MAP18 interacts physically with ROP2 in vitro and in vivo and preferentially binds to the inactive form of the ROP2 protein. MAP18 promotes ROP2 activity during root hair tip growth. Further investigation revealed that MAP18 competes with RhoGTPase GDP DISSOCIATION INHIBITOR1/SUPERCENTIPEDE1 for binding to ROP2, in turn affecting the localization of active ROP2 in the plasma membrane of the root hair tip. These results reveal a novel function of MAP18 in the regulation of ROP2 activation during root hair growth. PMID:28314794

  13. Does the presence of vesicoureteral reflux affect in vitro uropathogenic E. coli growth rate in urine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Alper; Karaman, Meral; Alaygut, Demet; Çamlar, Seçil Arslansoyu; Türkmen, Mehmet; Kavukçu, Salih

    2016-02-01

    Uroepithelial molecules like uroplakins are involved both in the development of urinary tract and in colonization, attachment and invasion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Uroplakin disorders are also associated with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). We hypothesized that urine contents, as well as urinary flow, may be altered in VUR, and aimed to determine whether in vitro UPEC growth is increased in urine from the refluxing systems. Children evaluated by voiding cystourethrography for UTI were enrolled. Groups 1 and 2 included children with and without VUR, respectively. Sterile urine samples were obtained from all patients, and 2 × 10(2) cfu/mL UPEC suspension was inoculated into these samples. After incubation for 24 h, colony counts were assessed. Both groups were compared for UPEC growth and colony counts. Forty-two urine samples were included (21 in each group). UPEC was cultured in 9 (43 %) and 3 (14 %) samples in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p = 0.040, OR 4.5). Colony counts were similar in both groups (log x; 2.36 ± 0.25 vs. 2.37 ± 0.12, p = 0.923). Inoculation of 2 × 10(2) cfu UPEC resulted in growth in almost half of the urine samples from refluxing systems, while UPEC growth was inhibited in most urine samples from non-refluxing systems suggesting that urine contents in refluxing units change in such a way that UPEC growth is facilitated.

  14. Insulin Like Growth Factor System: How Does it Affect Neonatal Anthropometry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Kacar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study aims to clarify the role of insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3, ghrelin, and insulin in fetal growth. Material and Method: Based on Turkish standards, 14 newborns were defined as small for gestational age (SGA, 33 newborns were described as appropriate for gestational age (AGA, and 13 newborns were identified as large for gestational age (LGA. IGF-1, IGFBP-3, ghrelin, and insulin levels were measured in umbilical cord and maternal serum. Results: The LGA group had significantly higher levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-3, ghrelin, and insulin in umbilical cord and maternal serum than the SGA group. Umbilical cord and maternal serum levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 correlated significantly and positively with body weight, body length, head circumference, and abdominal circumference of the neonates. Discussion: Based on the findings of the present study, it may be postulated that insulin like growth factor system has a role in fetal growth.

  15. Growth and Physiological Performance of Aerobic and Lowland Rice as Affected by Water Stress at Selected Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadzariah Kamarul Zaman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic rice technology is still new in Malaysia, and information regarding MARDI Aerob 1 (MA1, the first local aerobic rice variety, is still lacking. Therefore, comparative studies were carried out to determine the physiological performance of aerobic rice variety MA1 and lowland rice variety MR253 under water stress given at the panicle initiation, flowering and ripening stages. This experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design. Stomatal conductance (gs, chlorophyll a fluorescence (Fv/Fm, leaf relative water content (leaf RWC, and soil moisture content (SMC as well as yield component parameters such as panicle number, grain yield and 100-grain weight were measured. Results revealed that gs and leaf RWC for both varieties decreased with depletion of SMC. The correlation study between the physiological parameters and SMC indicated that Fv/Fm was not affected by water stress, regardless of varieties. The yield components (panicle number, grain yield and 100-grain weight for both varieties greatly decreased when water stress was imposed at the panicle initiation stage. This study showed that the panicle initiation period was the most sensitive stage to water stress that contributed to a substantial reduction in yield for both varieties. Under the aerobic condition (control, MR253 produced higher panicle number, 100-grain weight and yield than MA1. Although MR253 is bred for lowland, it is well adapted to aerobic condition.

  16. Final Report: "Collaborative Project. Understanding the Chemical Processes That Affect Growth Rates of Freshly Nucleated Particles"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, James N. [NCAR, Boulder, CO (United States); McMurry, Peter H. [NCAR, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-11-12

    This final technical report describes our research activities that have, as the ultimate goal, the development of a model that explains growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The research activities, which combine field observations with laboratory experiments, explore the relationship between concentrations of gas-phase species that contribute to growth and the rates at which those species are taken up. We also describe measurements of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles in a variety of locales, as well as properties (especially hygroscopicity) that influence their effects on climate. Our measurements include a self-organized, DOE-ARM funded project at the Southern Great Plains site, the New Particle Formation Study (NPFS), which took place during spring 2013. NPFS data are available to the research community on the ARM data archive, providing a unique suite observations of trace gas and aerosols that are associated with the formation and growth of atmospheric aerosol particles.

  17. Talpid3-binding centrosomal protein Cep120 is required for centriole duplication and proliferation of cerebellar granule neuron progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanqing Wu

    Full Text Available Granule neuron progenitors (GNPs are the most abundant neuronal type in the cerebellum. GNP proliferation and thus cerebellar development require Sonic hedgehog (Shh secreted from Purkinje cells. Shh signaling occurs in primary cilia originating from the mother centriole. Centrioles replicate only once during a typical cell cycle and are responsible for mitotic spindle assembly and organization. Recent studies have linked cilia function to cerebellar morphogenesis, but the role of centriole duplication in cerebellar development is not known. Here we show that centrosomal protein Cep120 is asymmetrically localized to the daughter centriole through its interaction with Talpid3 (Ta3, another centrosomal protein. Cep120 null mutant mice die in early gestation with abnormal heart looping. Inactivation of Cep120 in the central nervous system leads to both hydrocephalus, due to the loss of cilia on ependymal cells, and severe cerebellar hypoplasia, due to the failed proliferation of GNPs. The mutant GNPs lack Hedgehog pathway activity. Cell biological studies show that the loss of Cep120 results in failed centriole duplication and consequently ciliogenesis, which together underlie Cep120 mutant cerebellar hypoplasia. Thus, our study for the first time links a centrosomal protein necessary for centriole duplication to cerebellar morphogenesis.

  18. Transcriptional program of ciliated epithelial cells reveals new cilium and centrosome components and links to human disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona A Hoh

    Full Text Available Defects in the centrosome and cilium are associated with a set of human diseases having diverse phenotypes. To further characterize the components that define the function of these organelles we determined the transcriptional profile of multiciliated tracheal epithelial cells. Cultures of mouse tracheal epithelial cells undergoing differentiation in vitro were derived from mice expressing GFP from the ciliated-cell specific FOXJ1 promoter (FOXJ1:GFP. The transcriptional profile of ciliating GFP+ cells from these cultures was defined at an early and a late time point during differentiation and was refined by subtraction of the profile of the non-ciliated GFP- cells. We identified 649 genes upregulated early, when most cells were forming basal bodies, and 73 genes genes upregulated late, when most cells were fully ciliated. Most, but not all, of known centrosome proteins are transcriptionally upregulated early, particularly Plk4, a master regulator of centriole formation. We found that three genes associated with human disease states, Mdm1, Mlf1, and Dyx1c1, are upregulated during ciliogenesis and localize to centrioles and cilia. This transcriptome for mammalian multiciliated epithelial cells identifies new candidate centrosome and cilia proteins, highlights similarities between components of motile and primary cilia, and identifies new links between cilia proteins and human disease.

  19. Mould Growth and Aflatoxin Accumulation Affected by Newly Synthesized Derivative of Coumarine Treatment of Maize Hybrid

    OpenAIRE

    Lejla Duraković; Mihaela Blažinkov; Branka Šeol; Alma Tudić; Frane Delaš; Marijan Bošnjak; Sanja Sikora; Andrea Skelin; Katarina Huić-Babić; Zijad Duraković

    2014-01-01

    The effect of newly synthesized derivative of 11-hydroxy-7-imino-7H-7a, 12-diazabenzo/α/anthracen-6-one, on growth and aflatoxin B1 and G1 (AFB1 and AFG1) accumulation by toxigenic mould Aspergillus fl avus ATCC 26949 was studied on a solid substrate (maize grains) to determine the possible use of this compound as a mean of controlling aflatoxin accumulation. Experiments were carried out in a stationary culture at temperature of 28oC during 21 days. The growth of mould was monitored by ...

  20. Elevated pressure of carbon dioxide affects growth of thermophilic Petrotoga sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Jana; Gniese, Claudia; Schippers, Axel; Schlömann, Michael; Krüger, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is considered a promising new technology which reduces carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and thereby decelerates global warming. During CCS, carbon dioxide is captured from emission sources (e.g. fossil fuel power plants or other industries), pressurised, and finally stored in deep geological formations, such as former gas or oil reservoirs as well as saline aquifers. However, with CCS being a very young technology, there are a number of unknown factors that need to be investigated before declaring CCS as being safe. Our research investigates the effect of high carbon dioxide concentrations and pressures on an indigenous microorganism that colonises a potential storage site. Growth experiments were conducted using the thermophilic thiosulphate-reducing bacterium Petrotoga sp., isolated from formation water of the gas reservoir Schneeren (Lower Saxony, Germany), situated in the Northern German Plain. Growth (OD600) was monitored over one growth cycle (10 days) at different carbon dioxide concentrations (50%, 100%, and 150% in the gas phase), and was compared to control cultures grown with 20% carbon dioxide. An additional growth experiment was performed over a period of 145 days with repeated subcultivation steps in order to detect long-term effects of carbon dioxide. Cultivation over 10 days at 50% and 100% carbon dioxide slightly reduced cell growth. In contrast, long-term cultivation at 150% carbon dioxide reduced cell growth and finally led to cell death. This suggested a more pronounced effect of carbon dioxide at prolonged cultivation and stresses the need for a closer consideration of long-term effects. Experiments with supercritical carbon dioxide at 100 bar completely inhibited growth of freshly inoculated cultures and also caused a rapid decrease of growth of a pre-grown culture. This demonstrated that supercritical carbon dioxide had a sterilising effect on cells. This effect was not observed in control cultures

  1. Collaborative Project: Understanding the Chemical Processes tat Affect Growth rates of Freshly Nucleated Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurry, Peter [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Smuth, James [University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2015-11-12

    This final technical report describes our research activities that have, as the ultimate goal, the development of a model that explains growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The research activities, which combine field observations with laboratory experiments, explore the relationship between concentrations of gas-phase species that contribute to growth and the rates at which those species are taken up. We also describe measurements of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles in a variety of locales, as well as properties (especially hygroscopicity) that influence their effects on climate.

  2. Polo-like kinase phosphorylation determines Caenorhabditis elegans centrosome size and density by biasing SPD-5 toward an assembly-competent conformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Wueseke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Centrosomes are major microtubule-organizing centers composed of centrioles surrounded by an extensive proteinacious layer called the pericentriolar material (PCM. In Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, the mitotic PCM expands by Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK-1 phosphorylation-accelerated assembly of SPD-5 molecules into supramolecular scaffolds. However, how PLK-1 phosphorylation regulates SPD-5 assembly is not known. We found that a mutant version of SPD-5 that is insensitive to PLK-1 phosphorylation (SPD-54A could localize to PCM but was unable to rescue the reduction in PCM size and density when wild-type SPD-5 levels were decreased. In vitro, purified SPD-54A self-assembled into functional supramolecular scaffolds over long time scales, suggesting that phosphorylation only controls the rate of SPD-5 scaffold assembly. Furthermore, the SPD-5 scaffold, once assembled, remained intact and supported microtubule nucleation in the absence of PLK-1 activity in vivo. We conclude that PLK-1 is required for rapid assembly of the PCM scaffold but not for scaffold maintenance or function. Based on this idea, we developed a theoretical model that adequately predicted PCM growth rates in different mutant conditions in vivo. We propose that PLK-1 phosphorylation-dependent conversion of SPD-5 into an assembly-competent form underlies PCM formation in vivo and that the rate of this conversion determines final PCM size and density.

  3. Growth and yield of the sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L.) as affected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three different training systems (Spanish bush, Spindle bush and "V") were compared. The smaller vegetative growth, expressed as trunk crosssectional area (TCSA) was recorded in Spanish bush (34.68 cm2) when compared to Spindle bush (40.11 cm2) and "V" (40.82 cm2). The largest cumulative yield per hectare was ...

  4. Intrauterine Cannabis Exposure Affects Fetal Growth Trajectories: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study examined the relation between maternal cannabis use…

  5. Cultivation in different growth media affects the expression of the cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental factors may greatly influence the expression of cell surface components of bacterial pathogens. Few studies have described the effect of growth conditions on the cell surface hydrophobicity of bacterial isolates of certain Gramnegative and Gram-positive bacteria. The present study describes the effects of ...

  6. Development and growth potential of axillary buds in roses as affected by bud age.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis-van Acker, C.A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of axillary bud age on the development and potential for growth of the bud into a shoot was studied in roses. Age of the buds occupying a similar position on the plant varied from 'subtending leaf just unfolded' up to 1 year later. With increasing age of the axillary bud its dry mass,

  7. Soil CO2 concentration does not affect growth or root respiration in bean or citrus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.; Nielsen, K.F.; Eissenstat, D.M.; Lynch, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Contrasting effects of soil CO2 concentration on root respiration rates during short-term CO2 exposure, and on plant growth during long-term CO2 exposure, have been reported, Here we examine the effects of both short-and long-term exposure to soil CO2 on the root respiration of intact plants and on

  8. Preliminary evaluation of environmental variables affecting diameter growth of individual hardwoods in the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Henry McNab; F. Thomas Lloyd

    2001-01-01

    The value of environmental variables as measures of site quality for individual tree growth models was determined for 12 common species of eastern hardwoods in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. Periodic diameter increment was modeled as a function of size, competition and environmental variables for 1,381 trees in even-aged stands of mixed-species. Resulting species...

  9. Factors Affecting the Growth and Usage of a Student Mental Health Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaranto, Ernesto A.; Wepman, Barry J.

    1978-01-01

    The five-year growth of an active Student Mental Health Service (SMHS) in an urban academic health center is described. The function of SMHS is limited strictly to therapeutic and consultative services for the students and operates as an outpatient treatment facility using a standard 12-session goal-oriented treatment plan. (LBH)

  10. The Ketogenic Diet Does Not Affect Growth of Hedgehog Pathway Medulloblastoma in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Mai T; Wehrli, Suzanne; Dang, Chi V; Curran, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The altered metabolism of cancer cells has long been viewed as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. In particular, brain tumors often display heightened glycolysis, even in the presence of oxygen. A subset of medulloblastoma, the most prevalent malignant brain tumor in children, arises as a consequence of activating mutations in the Hedgehog (HH) pathway, which has been shown to promote aerobic glycolysis. Therefore, we hypothesized that a low carbohydrate, high fat ketogenic diet would suppress tumor growth in a genetically engineered mouse model of medulloblastoma. However, we found that the ketogenic diet did not slow the growth of spontaneous tumors or allograft flank tumors, and it did not exhibit synergy with a small molecule inhibitor of Smoothened. Serum insulin was significantly reduced in mice fed the ketogenic diet, but no alteration in PI3 kinase activity was observed. These findings indicate that while the ketogenic diet may be effective in inhibiting growth of other tumor types, it does not slow the growth of HH-medulloblastoma in mice.

  11. Model of cancer growth affected by irradiation. Effect of fluctuating intensity of the dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudowska-Nowak, E.

    1984-01-01

    The behaviour of a biological model system which describes the growth of a cancer cell population in the presence of external irradiation is studied. The effect of randomly fluctuating source of radiation is analysed and its influence on cancer cell extinction is presented. The main stress is put on the biological significance of random fluctuations which seem to favour rejection of a tumor. (author)

  12. Factors affecting the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on minimally processed fresh endive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, F; Nguyen-the, C; Abreu da Silva, A

    1995-06-01

    The influence of various factors on the fate of Listeria monocytogenes on cut leaves of broad-leaved endive has been studied. Factors considered were temperature, characteristics of the leaves (age, quantity and quality of the epiphytic microflora) and characteristics of the L. monocytogenes inoculum (concentration, strain). The increases in numbers of L. monocytogenes were lower than those of the aerobic mesophilic microflora at 3 degrees, 6 degrees, 10 degrees and 20 degrees C. Doubling times of the populations of L. monocytogenes were in the same order of magnitude as those of aerobic bacteria at 10 degrees and 20 degrees C, but longer at 3 degrees and 6 degrees C. There were positive significant correlations between growth of L. monocytogenes and populations of aerobic bacteria, and between growth of L. monocytogenes and extent of spoilage on the leaves. Of 225 bacteria isolated from the leaves, 84% were identified as fluorescent pseudomonads; there was no difference in the species isolated from leaves that showed a low growth of L. monocytogenes and leaves that showed a high growth of L. monocytogenes. Populations of L. monocytogenes increased faster during the first 2 and 4 d of storage at 10 degrees C on leaves inoculated with 10-10(3) cfu g-1 than on leaves inoculated with about 10(5) cfu g-1, but the population reached after 7 d was lower. The behaviour of L. monocytogenes was similar among the three strains tested.

  13. Potting Media Affect Growth and Disease Development of Container-Grown Southern Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. Pawuk

    1981-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) and shortleaf pine (P. echinata Mill.) seedlings grew best in equal parts of peat and vermiculite with a low pH. Seedlings grew better in shredded pine cone media than pine bark media. Growth increased when soil or vermiculite was added to cone or bark chips. Commercial bark-vermiculite...

  14. Intrauterine Cannabis Exposure Affects Fetal Growth Trajectories: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marroun, H. el; Tiemeier, H.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Brink, W. van den; Huizink, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study

  15. Intrauterine cannabis exposure affects fetal growth trajectories: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study examined the

  16. Intrauterine cannabis exposure affects fetal growth trajectories: the generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Marroun, H.; Tiemeier, H.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; van den Brink, W.; Huizink, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study

  17. Size distribution in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) affects feeding behaviour but not growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matos Martins, de C.I.; Aanyu, M.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of size distribution on growth performance and feeding behaviour in juveniles of African catfish. Two thousand sibling fish were grown for 8 weeks until the start of the experiment. Afterwards fish were individually weighed, manually selected and

  18. Does pollen limitation affect population growth of the endangered Dracocephalum austriacum L.?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Castro, Sílvia; Dostálek, Tomáš; van der Meer, S.; Oostermeijer, G.; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2015), s. 105-116 ISSN 1438-3896 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-10850P; GA ČR GAP505/10/0593 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Dracocephalum austriacum * pollination ecology * population growth rate Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.698, year: 2015

  19. Does Year Round Schooling Affect the Outcome and Growth of California's API Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Amery D.; Stone, Jake E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined whether year round schooling (YRS) in California had an effect upon the outcome and growth of schools' Academic Performance Index (API) scores. While many previous studies had examined the connection between YRS and academic achievement, most had lacked the statistical rigour required to provide reliable interpretations. As a…

  20. The Ketogenic Diet Does Not Affect Growth of Hedgehog Pathway Medulloblastoma in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Mai T.; Wehrli, Suzanne; Dang, Chi V.; Curran, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The altered metabolism of cancer cells has long been viewed as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. In particular, brain tumors often display heightened glycolysis, even in the presence of oxygen. A subset of medulloblastoma, the most prevalent malignant brain tumor in children, arises as a consequence of activating mutations in the Hedgehog (HH) pathway, which has been shown to promote aerobic glycolysis. Therefore, we hypothesized that a low carbohydrate, high fat ketogenic diet would suppress tumor growth in a genetically engineered mouse model of medulloblastoma. However, we found that the ketogenic diet did not slow the growth of spontaneous tumors or allograft flank tumors, and it did not exhibit synergy with a small molecule inhibitor of Smoothened. Serum insulin was significantly reduced in mice fed the ketogenic diet, but no alteration in PI3 kinase activity was observed. These findings indicate that while the ketogenic diet may be effective in inhibiting growth of other tumor types, it does not slow the growth of HH-medulloblastoma in mice. PMID:26192445

  1. How maternal malnutrition affects linear growth and development in the offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal malnutrition is common in the developing world and has detrimental effects on both the mother and infant. Pre-pregnancy nutritional status and weight gain during pregnancy are positively related to fetal growth and development. Internationally, there is no agreement on the method of diagnos...

  2. NATURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SOIL AFFECTING THE GROWTH OF AREN PLANT (Arenga pinnata (Wurmb. Merr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosi Widarawati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aren plant (Arenga pinnata can produce industrial raw materials. Almost all parts of palm trees can be utilized, namely young and old leaves, young endosperms, stems, stem bunches of flowers, roots, and fibers. Sugar leaves used for the roof of the house or hut. Young endosperms are used for fleas as a mixture of food or drink. Stem aren tree can be taken flour for the manufacture of palm flour. The main problem is the unclear growth of aren trees caused by soil characteristics in various places. The objectives of the study were to: 1 understanding the effect of land characteristic on the growth of aren trees; 2 look for various growth characters of aren plants at different altitudes. The study was conducted by survey and observation. Location was selected by purposive sampling, i.e. areas with altitude ( 700 m ASL. The results showed differences results. Aren plant cultivation techniques that include the way of nursery, maintenance and post harvest management not implemented in Kulonprogo region, especially Ngargosari village, Pagerharjo, and Nglinggo. There is influence of altitude factors of place, soil type, morphology, physiology, and biochemistry to growth and aren products.

  3. Growth and nutrient uptake of maize plants as affected by elemental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of elemental sulfur (S0) combined with or without N fertilizer on the growth and nutrient uptake such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn) by maize plants grown in sandy calcareous soils. Elemental S at rates of 0, 1, 5 and 10 t ...

  4. The Ketogenic Diet Does Not Affect Growth of Hedgehog Pathway Medulloblastoma in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai T Dang

    Full Text Available The altered metabolism of cancer cells has long been viewed as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. In particular, brain tumors often display heightened glycolysis, even in the presence of oxygen. A subset of medulloblastoma, the most prevalent malignant brain tumor in children, arises as a consequence of activating mutations in the Hedgehog (HH pathway, which has been shown to promote aerobic glycolysis. Therefore, we hypothesized that a low carbohydrate, high fat ketogenic diet would suppress tumor growth in a genetically engineered mouse model of medulloblastoma. However, we found that the ketogenic diet did not slow the growth of spontaneous tumors or allograft flank tumors, and it did not exhibit synergy with a small molecule inhibitor of Smoothened. Serum insulin was significantly reduced in mice fed the ketogenic diet, but no alteration in PI3 kinase activity was observed. These findings indicate that while the ketogenic diet may be effective in inhibiting growth of other tumor types, it does not slow the growth of HH-medulloblastoma in mice.

  5. Wheat phenological development and growth studies as affected by drought and late season high temperature stress under arid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zahid eIhsan

    2016-06-01

    yield depicted the highest value (0.58-0.71 at 60-75 DAS. So the major contribution of these growth indices towards grain yield was at the start of reproductive phase. It’s clear that booting and grain filing are the most sensitive growth stages that are severely affected by both, drought and delay in plantation.

  6. Dietary supplementation of probiotics affects growth, immune response and disease resistance of Cyprinus carpio fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akhil; Gupta, Paromita; Dhawan, Asha

    2014-12-01

    The effects of dietary Bacillus coagulans (MTCC 9872), Bacillus licheniformis (MTCC 6824) and Paenibacillus polymyxa (MTCC 122) supplementation on growth performance, non-specific immunity and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila infection were evaluated in common carp, Cyprinus carpio fry. Laboratory maintained B. coagulans, B. licheniformis and P. polymyxa were used to study antagonistic activity against fish pathogenic bacteria by agar well diffusion assay. Healthy fish fry were challenged by this bacterium for determination of its safety. Fish were fed for 80 days with control basal diet (B0) and experimental diets containing B. coagulans (B1), B. licheniformis (B2) and P. polymyxa (B3) at 10(9) CFU/g diet. Fish fry (mean weight 0.329 ± 0.01 g) were fed these diets and growth performance, various non-specific immune parameters and disease resistance study were conducted at 80 days post-feeding. The antagonism study showed inhibition zone against A. hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi. All the probiotic bacterial strains were harmless to fish fry as neither mortality nor morbidities were observed of the challenge. The growth-promoting influences of probiotic supplemented dietary treatments were observed with fish fry and the optimum survival, growth and feed utilization were obtained with P. polymyxa (B3) supplemented diet. Study of different non-specific innate immunological parameters viz. lysozyme activity, respiratory burst assay and myeloperoxidase content showed significant (p fry fed B3 diet at 10(9) CFU/g. The challenge test showed dietary supplementation of B. coagulans, B. licheniformis and P. polymyxa significantly (p fry against bacterial challenge. These results collectively suggests that P. polymyxa is a potential probiotic species and can be used in aquaculture to improve growth, feed utilization, non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of fry common carp, C. carpio. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Patchy distributions of competitors affect the growth of a clonal plant when the competitor density is high.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xue

    Full Text Available Environments are patchy in not only abiotic factors but also biotic ones. Many studies have examined effects of spatial heterogeneity in abiotic factors such as light, water and nutrients on the growth of clonal plants, but few have tested those in biotic factors. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine how patchy distributions of competitors affect the growth of a rhizomatous wetland plant Bolboschoenus planiculmis and whether such effects depend on the density of the competitors. We grew one ramet of B. planiculmis in the center of each of the experimental boxes without competitors (Schoenoplectus triqueter, with a homogeneous distribution of the competitors of low or high density, and with a patchy distribution of the competitors of low or high density. The presence of competitors markedly decreased the growth (biomass, number of ramets, number of tubers and rhizome length of the B. planiculmis clones. When the density of the competitors was low, the growth of B. planiculmis did not differ significantly between the competitor patches and competitor-free patches. However, when the density of the competitors was high, the growth of B. planiculmis was significantly higher in the competitor-free patches than in the competitor patches. Therefore, B. planiculmis can respond to patchy distributions of competitors by placing more ramets in competition-free patches when the density of competitors is high, but cannot do so when the density of competitors is low.

  8. Predation risk affects growth and reproduction of an invasive snail and its lethal effect depends on prey size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Martín, Pablo R.; Zhang, Chunxia

    2017-01-01

    The behavior of invasive species under predation risk has been studied extensively, but their growth and reproductive responses have rarely been investigated. We conducted experiments with juveniles and adults of the invasive freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata, and we observed changes in growth and reproduction in response to predation risk from a caged predator (Trachemys scripta elegans). P. canaliculata produced eggs earlier in the presence of predators and injured conspecifics compared with the control group (no risk), although the total number of egg masses laid by per female was exceeded by that of the controls after 15 days. Egg hatching success noticeably decreased under predation risk, and the incubation period was significantly prolonged; however, the oviposition height of the snails was not affected. A lethal effect of predation risk was detected in juvenile snails but not in adults. The growth of juvenile P. canaliculata was inhibited under predation risk, probably due to a reduction in food intake. Adult females exhibited a greater reduction in growth under predation risk than males, which likely resulted in part from the high reproductive investment of females in egg laying. These results indicate that P. canaliculata snails under predation risk face a trade-off between predator avoidance and growth and reproduction, where the lethal effect of predation risk is linked to the size of the prey. PMID:29136660

  9. Predation risk affects growth and reproduction of an invasive snail and its lethal effect depends on prey size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guo

    Full Text Available The behavior of invasive species under predation risk has been studied extensively, but their growth and reproductive responses have rarely been investigated. We conducted experiments with juveniles and adults of the invasive freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata, and we observed changes in growth and reproduction in response to predation risk from a caged predator (Trachemys scripta elegans. P. canaliculata produced eggs earlier in the presence of predators and injured conspecifics compared with the control group (no risk, although the total number of egg masses laid by per female was exceeded by that of the controls after 15 days. Egg hatching success noticeably decreased under predation risk, and the incubation period was significantly prolonged; however, the oviposition height of the snails was not affected. A lethal effect of predation risk was detected in juvenile snails but not in adults. The growth of juvenile P. canaliculata was inhibited under predation risk, probably due to a reduction in food intake. Adult females exhibited a greater reduction in growth under predation risk than males, which likely resulted in part from the high reproductive investment of females in egg laying. These results indicate that P. canaliculata snails under predation risk face a trade-off between predator avoidance and growth and reproduction, where the lethal effect of predation risk is linked to the size of the prey.

  10. Effects of emotion regulation and general self-efficacy on posttraumatic growth in Chinese cancer survivors: assessing the mediating effect of positive affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongju; Peng, Li; Tang, Tang; Chen, Long; Li, Min; Wang, Tao

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, there have been increasing concerns about the existence of posttraumatic growth as a result of the struggle with cancer. The present study examined several potential predictors of posttraumatic growth and the mediating role of positive affect among Chinese cancer survivors. Two hundred thirty cancer survivors recruited from two Chinese hospitals completed self-report measures of perceived posttraumatic growth, emotion regulation, positive and negative affect, and general self-efficacy. Correlation analysis, hierarchical linear regression analysis, and Sobel test were used for data analysis. Our findings revealed that perceived level of posttraumatic growth was associated with greater positive affect, more effective emotion regulation, and higher level of general self-efficacy. No significant correlation could be found between negative affect and perceived posttraumatic growth. In addition, positive affect partially mediated the effects of expressive revealing and general self-efficacy on perceived posttraumatic growth while totally mediating the relationship between expressive suppression and perceived posttraumatic growth. Positive affect, expressive revealing, and general self-efficacy are important predictors of perceived posttraumatic growth among cancer survivors. Our findings also suggested that the effects of emotion regulation and general self-efficacy upon perceived posttraumatic growth may be closely related to the level of positive affect. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Measuring the Affective and Cognitive Growth of Regularly Admitted and Developmental Studies Students Using the "Learning and Study Strategies Inventory" (LASSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nist, Sherrie L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the utility and predictive validity of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) as a means of measuring college students' cognitive and affective growth following a study strategies course. Finds cognitive and affective growth in both regularly admitted and developmental studies students. Finds that LASSI cannot yet be used…

  12. How the growth rate of host cells affects cancer risk in a deterministic way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draghi, Clément; Viger, Louise; Denis, Fabrice; Letellier, Christophe

    2017-09-01

    It is well known that cancers are significantly more often encountered in some tissues than in other ones. In this paper, by using a deterministic model describing the interactions between host, effector immune and tumor cells at the tissue level, we show that this can be explained by the dependency of tumor growth on parameter values characterizing the type as well as the state of the tissue considered due to the "way of life" (environmental factors, food consumption, drinking or smoking habits, etc.). Our approach is purely deterministic and, consequently, the strong correlation (r = 0.99) between the number of detectable growing tumors and the growth rate of cells from the nesting tissue can be explained without evoking random mutation arising during DNA replications in nonmalignant cells or "bad luck". Strategies to limit the mortality induced by cancer could therefore be well based on improving the way of life, that is, by better preserving the tissue where mutant cells randomly arise.

  13. Cell phone radiations affect early growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through biochemical alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ved Parkash; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The indiscriminate use of wireless technologies, particularly of cell phones, has increased the health risks among living organisms including plants. We investigated the impact of cell phone electromagentic field (EMF) radiations (power density, 8.55 microW cm(-2)) on germination, early growth, proteins and carbohydrate contents, and activities of some enzymes in Vigna radiata. Cell phone EMF radiations significantly reduced the seedling length and dry weight of V radiata after exposure for 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h. Furthermore, the contents of proteins and carbohydrates were reduced in EMF-exposed plants. However, the activities of proteases, alpha-amylases, beta-amylases, polyphenol oxidases, and peroxidases were enhanced in EMF-exposed radicles indicating their role in providing protection against EMF-induced stress. The study concludes that cell phone EMFs impair early growth of V radiata seedlings by inducing biochemical changes.

  14. Seedling growth of maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines affected by seed treatment with pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Tamindžić, Gordana D.; Nikolić, Zorica T.; Savić, Jasna Ž.; Milošević, Dragana N.; Petrović, Gordana R.; Ivanović, Dragana D.; Ignjatov, Maja V.

    2016-01-01

    Seed treatment is a common way of fungicide and insecticide use nowadays, since this way of pesticide application can provide the best protection in the vicinity of the future plant. The aim of research was to evaluate the effects of different seed treatments on germination and seedling growth in three maize inbred lines. The research included the seed treatment with several combinations of a fungicide Maxim XL 035-FS (a.i. metalaxil-M + fludioxonil) and ne...

  15. Inoculation affects nitrogen balances of composts and growth, yield and microflora of Phaseolus beans

    OpenAIRE

    Sangakkara, Dr Ravi; Weerasekera, Mr Danesh; Attanayake, Mr K B; Attanayake, Ms A M U

    2008-01-01

    The impact of organic matter and two types of inoculums on composting and subsequent growth of common beans was evaluated under tropical field conditions. The composts were made of commonly available organic matter with different C:N ratios, and inoculums consisting of cattle manure slurry, Effective Micro organisms or a mixture of both were added. The mixture of cattle manure and Effective Microorganisms increased N availability and reduced C: N ratios of compost than when applied individu...

  16. Induced plasmon mutations affecting the growth habit of peanuts, A. hypogaea L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, A.; Ashri, A.

    1978-01-01

    The effectiveness of the acridines ethidium bromide (EB) and acriflavine in inducing plasmon mutations was compared with the alkylating agents ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) and diethyl sulphate and to γ-rays. The growth habit (trailing versus bunch) of peanuts (A. hypogaea), controlled by genic-cytoplasmic interactions, was utilized. Breeding tests distinguishing nuclear from plasmon mutations were developed and are described in detail. Plasmon mutations were induced, but there were differences in mutation yields between the cultivars and the mutagens. (Auth.)

  17. Duration and intensity of shade differentially affects mycorrhizal growth- and phosphorus uptake responses of Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konvalinková, Tereza; Püschel, David; Janoušková, Martina; Gryndler, Milan; Jansa, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Plant and fungal partners in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis trade mineral nutrients for carbon, with the outcome of this relationship for plant growth and nutrition being highly context-dependent and changing with the availability of resources as well as with the specific requirements of the different partners. Here we studied how the model legume Medicago truncatula, inoculated or not with a mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis, responded to a gradient of light intensities applied over different periods of time, in terms of growth, phosphorus nutrition and the levels of root colonization by the mycorrhizal fungus. Short-term (6 d) shading, depending on its intensity, resulted in a rapid decline of phosphorus uptake to the shoots of mycorrhizal plants and simultaneous accumulation of phosphorus in the roots (most likely in the fungal tissues), as compared to the non-mycorrhizal controls. There was, however, no significant change in the levels of mycorrhizal colonization of roots due to short-term shading. Long-term (38 d) shading, depending on its intensity, provoked a multitude of plant compensatory mechanisms, which were further boosted by the mycorrhizal symbiosis. Mycorrhizal growth- and phosphorus uptake benefits, however, vanished at 10% of the full light intensity applied over a long-term. Levels of root colonization by the mycorrhizal fungus were significantly reduced by long-term shading. Our results indicate that even short periods of shade could have important consequences for the functioning of mycorrhizal symbiosis in terms of phosphorus transfer between the fungus and the plants, without any apparent changes in root colonization parameters or mycorrhizal growth response, and call for more focused research on temporal dynamics of mycorrhizal functioning under changing environmental conditions.

  18. Nutrient availability affects pigment production but not growth in lichens of biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, M.A.; Koch, G.W.; Belnap, J.; Johnson, N.C.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research suggests that micronutrients such as Mn may limit growth of slow-growing biological soil crusts (BSCs) in some of the drylands of the world. These soil surface communities contribute strongly to arid ecosystem function and are easily degraded, creating a need for new restoration tools. The possibility that Mn fertilization could be used as a restoration tool for BSCs has not been tested previously. We used microcosms in a controlled greenhouse setting to investigate the hypothesis that Mn may limit photosynthesis and consequently growth in Collema tenax, a dominant N-fixing lichen found in BSCs worldwide. We found no evidence to support our hypothesis; furthermore, addition of other nutrients (primarily P, K, and Zn) had a suppressive effect on gross photosynthesis (P = 0.05). We also monitored the growth and physiological status of our microcosms and found that other nutrients increased the production of scytonemin, an important sunscreen pigment, but only when not added with Mn (P = 0.01). A structural equation model indicated that this effect was independent of any photosynthesis-related variable. We propose two alternative hypotheses to account for this pattern: (1) Mn suppresses processes needed to produce scytonemin; and (2) Mn is required to suppress scytonemin production at low light, when it is an unnecessary photosynthate sink. Although Mn fertilization does not appear likely to increase photosynthesis or growth of Collema, it could have a role in survivorship during environmentally stressful periods due to modification of scytonemin production. Thus, Mn enrichment should be studied further for its potential to facilitate BSC rehabilitation. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The strawberry gene FaGAST affects plant growth through inhibition of cell elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, José I; Amaya, Iraida; Castillejo, Cristina; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F; Quesada, Miguel A; Botella, Miguel A; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2006-01-01

    The strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) FaGAST gene encodes a small protein with 12 cysteine residues conserved in the C-terminal region similar to a group of proteins identified in other species with diverse assigned functions such as cell division, elongation, or elongation arrest. This gene is expressed in the fruit receptacle, with two peaks during ripening at the white and the red-ripe stages, both coincident with an arrest in the growth pattern. Expression is also high in the roots but confined to the cells at the end of the elongation zone. Exogenous application of gibberellin increased the transcript level of the FaGAST gene in strawberry fruits. Ectopic expression of FaGAST in transgenic Fragaria vesca under the control of the CaMV-35S promoter caused both delayed growth of the plant and fruits with reduced size. The same growth defect was observed in Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing FaGAST. In addition, the transgenic plants exhibited late flowering and low sensitivity to exogenous gibberellin. Taken together, the expression pattern, the regulation by gibberellin, and the transgenic phenotypes point to a role for FaGAST in arresting cell elongation during strawberry fruit ripening.

  20. Different growing conditions affect nutrient content, fruit yield and growth in strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirsory, L.; Demirsoy, H.; Balci, G.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of organic and conventional growing on contents of some nutrient elements, nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), potassium (K), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn), yield and some growth parameters such as leaf area, petiole length, petiole diameter, crown number, crow n diameter, leaf, root dry weight in 'Sweet Charlie' and 'Camarosa' strawberry cultivars. This study consisted of two strawberry cultivars ('Camarosa' and 'Sweet Charlie'), two growing systems (organic and conventional growing) and two different mulches (black and floating sheet). There was significant difference among treatments in terms of P, K, and Mn content in root and Fe content in leaf and yield and some growth parameters. The best treatment in terms of yield and growth parameters was conventional growing with black plastic in 'Camarosa' while the best treatments were organic growing with floating sheet and black plastic in 'Sweet Charlie' in terms of P, K in root and organic growing with floating sheet in 'Sweet Charlie' in terms of Fe in leaf. (author)

  1. Candida albicans survival, growth and biofilm formation are differently affected by mouthwashes: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulone, Simona; Malavasi, Giulia; Ardizzoni, Andrea; Orsi, Carlotta Francesca; Peppoloni, Samuele; Neglia, Rachele Giovanna; Blasi, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common cause of oral mycoses. The aim of the present study was to investigate in vitro the susceptibility of C. albicans to mouthwashes, in terms of growth, survival and biofilm formation. Candida albicans, laboratory strain SC5314, and 7 commercial mouthwashes were employed: 3 with 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate; 1 with 0.06% chlorhexidine digluconate and 250 ppm F- sodium fluoride; 3 with fluorine-containing molecules. None of the mouthwashes contained ethanol in their formulations. The anti-Candida effects of the mouthwashes were assessed by disk diffusion, crystal violet and XTT assays. By using five protocols combining different dilutions and contact times the mouthwashes were tested against: 1) C. albicans growth; 2) biofilm formation; 3) survival of fungal cells in early, developing and mature Candida biofilm. Chlorhexidine digluconate-containing mouthwashes consistently exhibited the highest anti-Candida activity, irrespective of the protocols employed. Fungal growth, biofilm formation and survival of Candida cells within biofilm were impaired, the effects strictly depending on both the dilution employed and the time of contact. These in vitro studies provide evidence that mouthwashes exert anti-Candida activity against both planktonic and biofilm fungal structures, but to a different extent depending on their composition. This suggests special caution in the choice of mouthwashes for oral hygiene, whether aimed at prevention or treatment of oral candidiasis.

  2. Proline Activity and Growth of Oil Palm affected by Aluminium Toxicity and Silica as Ameliorant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa Khoiriyah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to investigate the effects of silica (Si as an ameliorant on the proline compound concentration and the growth response of oil palm exposed to aluminum toxicity. The research was arranged in a complete randomized block design with 8 blocks as replications. The first factor was Al toxicity which consisted of two levels as without and with Al toxicity. Al toxicity treatment was applied by giving 300 ppm of Al concentrate along with watering activity regularly. The second factor was the application of silica which consisted of four levels as 0, 32, 64 g/plant. Proline and growth activities of leaf area, plant height, number of leaves, and dry weight were observed in the research. The data subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA at 5% test level. If the result of ANOVA showed significant differences among treatments, then the data would have been analyzed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT at 5% test level. The results of the research provide information that Al toxicity increases proline compound in the plant tissues and decreases leaf area, plant height, number of leaves, and dry weight of Oil Palm. Applying Si at the level of 64 g/plant could increase proline concentrate and dry weight of oil palm exposed to A1 toxicity. Proline compound in the plant tissues did not have any correlation with the growth of oil palm. Thus, this case indicated that proline was a product and not a plant tolerant mechanism of Al toxicity.

  3. Complex inter-Kingdom interactions: carnivorous plants affect growth of an aquatic vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Jon M; Riley, Alex W

    2017-05-01

    Coexistence of organisms in nature is more likely when phenotypic similarities of individuals are reduced. Despite the lack of similarity, distantly related taxa still compete intensely for shared resources. No larger difference between organisms that share a common prey could exist than between carnivorous plants and animals. However, few studies have considered inter-Kingdom competition among carnivorous plants and animals. In order to evaluate interactions between a carnivorous plant (greater bladderwort, Utricularia vulgaris) and a vertebrate (bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus) on a shared prey (zooplankton), we conducted a mesocosm experiment. We deployed two levels of bladderwort presence (functional and crushed) and measured bluegill responses (survival and growth). Zooplankton abundance was reduced the greatest in bluegill and functional bladderwort treatments. Bluegill survival did not differ among treatments, but growth was greatest with crushed bladderwort. Thus, bluegill growth was facilitated by reducing interference competition in the presence of crushed bladderwort. The facilitating effect was dampened, however, when functional bladderwort removed a shared prey. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to experimentally demonstrate interactions between a carnivorous plant and a fish. Our data suggest that carnivorous plants may actively promote or reduce animal co-occurrence from some ecosystems via facilitation or competition. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  4. Insights into embryo defenses of the invasive apple snail Pomacea canaliculata: egg mass ingestion affects rat intestine morphology and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreon, Marcos S; Fernández, Patricia E; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Heras, Horacio

    2014-06-01

    The spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata is expanding the rat lungworm disease beyond its native range. Their toxic eggs have virtually no predators and unusual defenses including a neurotoxic lectin and a proteinase inhibitor, presumably advertised by a warning coloration. We explored the effect of egg perivitellin fluid (PVF) ingestion on the rat small intestine morphology and physiology. Through a combination of biochemical, histochemical, histopathological, scanning electron microscopy, cell culture and feeding experiments, we analyzed intestinal morphology, growth rate, hemaglutinating activity, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation after oral administration of PVF to rats. PVF adversely affects small intestine metabolism and morphology and consequently the standard growth rate, presumably by lectin-like proteins, as suggested by PVF hemaglutinating activity and its cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell culture. Short-term effects of ingested PVF were studied in growing rats. PVF-supplemented diet induced the appearance of shorter and wider villi as well as fused villi. This was associated with changes in glycoconjugate expression, increased cell proliferation at crypt base, and hypertrophic mucosal growth. This resulted in a decreased absorptive surface after 3 days of treatment and a diminished rat growth rate that reverted to normal after the fourth day of treatment. Longer exposure to PVF induced a time-dependent lengthening of the small intestine while switching to a control diet restored intestine length and morphology after 4 days. Ingestion of PVF rapidly limits the ability of potential predators to absorb nutrients by inducing large, reversible changes in intestinal morphology and growth rate. The occurrence of toxins that affect intestinal morphology and absorption is a strategy against predation not recognized among animals before. Remarkably, this defense is rather similar to the toxic effect of plant antipredator strategies. This defense

  5. Insights into embryo defenses of the invasive apple snail Pomacea canaliculata: egg mass ingestion affects rat intestine morphology and growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos S Dreon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata is expanding the rat lungworm disease beyond its native range. Their toxic eggs have virtually no predators and unusual defenses including a neurotoxic lectin and a proteinase inhibitor, presumably advertised by a warning coloration. We explored the effect of egg perivitellin fluid (PVF ingestion on the rat small intestine morphology and physiology.Through a combination of biochemical, histochemical, histopathological, scanning electron microscopy, cell culture and feeding experiments, we analyzed intestinal morphology, growth rate, hemaglutinating activity, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation after oral administration of PVF to rats. PVF adversely affects small intestine metabolism and morphology and consequently the standard growth rate, presumably by lectin-like proteins, as suggested by PVF hemaglutinating activity and its cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell culture. Short-term effects of ingested PVF were studied in growing rats. PVF-supplemented diet induced the appearance of shorter and wider villi as well as fused villi. This was associated with changes in glycoconjugate expression, increased cell proliferation at crypt base, and hypertrophic mucosal growth. This resulted in a decreased absorptive surface after 3 days of treatment and a diminished rat growth rate that reverted to normal after the fourth day of treatment. Longer exposure to PVF induced a time-dependent lengthening of the small intestine while switching to a control diet restored intestine length and morphology after 4 days.Ingestion of PVF rapidly limits the ability of potential predators to absorb nutrients by inducing large, reversible changes in intestinal morphology and growth rate. The occurrence of toxins that affect intestinal morphology and absorption is a strategy against predation not recognized among animals before. Remarkably, this defense is rather similar to the toxic effect of plant antipredator strategies

  6. Factors affecting estimates of size at age and growth in grey triggerfish Balistes capriscus from the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, R J; Patterson, W F; Fioramonti, C L; Pacicco, A E

    2018-02-01

    Growth zones in dorsal spines of grey triggerfish Balistes capriscus from the northern Gulf of Mexico were utilized to estimate growth and examine factors that may affect estimates of size at age. Age was estimated from dorsal-spine sections of 4687 individuals sampled from U.S. waters during 2003-2013, including both fishery-independent (n = 1312) and fishery-dependent (n = 3375) samples. Ninety-six per cent (n = 4498) of these sections were deemed suitable for ageing; average per cent error between two independent readers was 10·8%. Fork length (L F ) ranged from 65 to 697 mm and age estimates from 0 to 14 years. Both sex and sample source (fishery-independent v. recreational) significantly affected estimated size at age for 2-6 year-old fish. Data were pooled between sources to fit sex-specific von Bertalanffy growth functions. Results for the female model were L ∞  = 387 mm L F , k = 0·52 year -1 and t 0  = 0·01 year, while for males L ∞  = 405 mm L F , k = 0·55 year -1 and t 0  = 0·02 year. These results were significantly different between sexes and indicate clear sexual dimorphism. Thus, growth should be modelled separately by sex when examining population parameters or conducting stock assessment modelling. The positive bias in estimates of size at age computed for recreational v. fishery-independent samples also has clear implications for stock assessment as growth functions computed with fishery-dependent samples would tend to overestimate stock productivity. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Microtubules Growth Rate Alteration in Human Endothelial Cells

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    Irina B. Alieva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand how microtubules contribute to the dynamic reorganization of the endothelial cell (EC cytoskeleton, we established an EC model expressing EB3-GFP, a protein that marks microtubule plus-ends. Using this model, we were able to measure microtubule growth rate at the centrosome region and near the cell periphery of a single human EC and in the EC monolayer. We demonstrate that the majority of microtubules in EC are dynamic, the growth rate of their plus-ends is highest in the internal cytoplasm, in the region of the centrosome. Growth rate of microtubule plus-ends decreases from the cell center toward the periphery. Our data suggest the existing mechanism(s of local regulation of microtubule plus-ends growth in EC. Microtubule growth rate in the internal cytoplasm of EC in the monolayer is lower than that of single EC suggesting the regulatory effect of cell-cell contacts. Centrosomal microtubule growth rate distribution in single EC indicated the presence of two subpopulations of microtubules with “normal” (similar to those in monolayer EC and “fast” (three times as much growth rates. Our results indicate functional interactions between cell-cell contacts and microtubules.

  8. Reciprocal Interactions between Multiple Myeloma Cells and Osteoprogenitor Cells Affect Bone Formation and Tumor Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Multiple Myeloma, Blood Cancer , Hematological Malignancy , Bone Metastasis, 3D Model, In vitro, silk scaffolds, osteogenic microRNAs...platform to study cancer -bone interactions. Keywords Multiple Myeloma, Blood Cancer , Hematological Malignancy , Bone Metastasis, 3D Model, In vitro...Affect Bone Formation and Tumor Growth” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Michaela Reagan CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Inc

  9. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaling, E.; Papazian, S.; Poelman, E.H.; Holopainen, J.K.; Albrectsen, B.R.; Blande, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under

  10. The Garlic Allelochemical Diallyl Disulfide Affects Tomato Root Growth by Influencing Cell Division, Phytohormone Balance and Expansin Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Tang, Xiangwei

    2016-01-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a volatile organosulfur compound derived from garlic (Allium sativum L.), and it is known as an allelochemical responsible for the strong allelopathic potential of garlic. The anticancer properties of DADS have been studied in experimental animals and various types of cancer cells, but to date, little is known about its mode of action as an allelochemical at the cytological level. The current research presents further studies on the effects of DADS on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seed germination, root growth, mitotic index, and cell size in root meristem, as well as the phytohormone levels and expression profile of auxin biosynthesis genes (FZYs), auxin transport genes (SlPINs), and expansin genes (EXPs) in tomato root. The results showed a biphasic, dose-dependent effect on tomato seed germination and root growth under different DADS concentrations. Lower concentrations (0.01-0.62 mM) of DADS significantly promoted root growth, whereas higher levels (6.20-20.67 mM) showed inhibitory effects. Cytological observations showed that the cell length of root meristem was increased and that the mitotic activity of meristematic cells in seedling root tips was enhanced at lower concentrations of DADS. In contrast, DADS at higher concentrations inhibited root growth by affecting both the length and division activity of meristematic cells. However, the cell width of the root meristem was not affected. Additionally, DADS increased the IAA and ZR contents of seedling roots in a dose-dependent manner. The influence on IAA content may be mediated by the up-regulation of FZYs and PINs. Further investigation into the underlying mechanism revealed that the expression levels of tomato EXPs were significantly affected by DADS. The expression levels of EXPB2 and beta-expansin precursor were increased after 3 d, and those of EXP1, EXPB3 and EXLB1 were increased after 5 d of DADS treatment (0.41 mM). This result suggests that tomato root growth may be

  11. Griseofulvin inhibits the growth of adrenocortical cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramann, E L; Willenberg, H S; Hildebrandt, B; Müller-Mattheis, V; Schott, M; Scherbaum, W A; Haase, M

    2013-04-01

    Supernumerary centrosomes and aneuploidy are associated with a malignant phenotype of tumor cells. Centrosomal clustering is a mechanism used by cancer cells with supernumerary centrosomes to solve the threatening problem of multipolar spindles. Griseofulvin is an antifungal substance that interferes with the microtubule apparatus and inhibits centrosomal clustering. It has also been demonstrated that griseofulvin inhibits the growth of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. However, it is not yet known whether treatment with griseofulvin inhibits growth of adrenocortical tumor cells. We studied the viability and antiproliferative effects of griseofulvin on cultured NCI-H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells using Wst-1-, BrdUrd-, and [³H]-thymidine assays. For the detection of apoptosis we used a caspase 3/7 cleavage assay and light microscopy techniques. We observed that incubation with griseofulvin for 24-48 h leads to a decrease in the viability and proliferation of NCI-H295R cells in a dose-dependent manner. Significant effects could be observed after incubation with griseofulvin as measured by Wst-1-, BrdUrd-, and [³H]dT- uptake assays. Apoptosis of NCI-H295R cells was increased in a dose-dependent manner up to 4.5-fold after incubation with griseofulvin 40 μM for 24 h as shown by caspase 3/7 cleavage assay and light microscopy. With regard to new treatment strategies for adrenocortical cancer, griseofulvin, and possibly other agents, which interfere with the microtubule apparatus and inhibit centrosomal clustering, may turn out to be interesting targets for further research. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Growth hormone transgenesis affects osmoregulation and energy metabolism in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Daniela Volcan; de Martinez Gaspar Martins, Camila; de Azevedo Figueiredo, Márcio; Lanes, Carlos Frederico Ceccon; Bianchini, Adalto; Marins, Luis Fernando

    2013-02-01

    Growth hormone (GH) transgenic fish are at a critical step for possible approval for commercialization. Since this hormone is related to salinity tolerance in fish, our main goal was to verify whether the osmoregulatory capacity of the stenohaline zebrafish (Danio rerio) would be modified by GH-transgenesis. For this, we transferred GH-transgenic zebrafish (T) from freshwater to 11 ppt salinity and analyzed survival as well as relative changes in gene expression. Results show an increased mortality in T versus non-transgenic (NT) fish, suggesting an impaired mechanism of osmotic acclimation in T. The salinity effect on expression of genes related to osmoregulation, the somatotropic axis and energy metabolism was evaluated in gills and liver of T and NT. Genes coding for Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, H(+)-ATPase, plasma carbonic anhydrase and cytosolic carbonic anhydrase were up-regulated in gills of transgenics in freshwater. The growth hormone receptor gene was down-regulated in gills and liver of both NT and T exposed to 11 ppt salinity, while insulin-like growth factor-1 was down-regulated in liver of NT and in gills of T exposed to 11 ppt salinity. In transgenics, all osmoregulation-related genes and the citrate synthase gene were down-regulated in gills of fish exposed to 11 ppt salinity, while lactate dehydrogenase expression was up-regulated in liver. Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity was higher in gills of T exposed to 11 ppt salinity as well as the whole body content of Na(+). Increased ATP content was observed in gills of both NT and T exposed to 11 ppt salinity, being statistically higher in T than NT. Taking altogether, these findings support the hypothesis that GH-transgenesis increases Na(+) import capacity and energetic demand, promoting an unfavorable osmotic and energetic physiological status and making this transgenic fish intolerant of hyperosmotic environments.

  13. Intraspecies Volatile Interactions Affect Growth Rates and Exometabolomes in Aspergillus oryzae KCCM 60345.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Digar; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2018-02-28

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are increasingly been recognized as the chemical mediators of mold interactions, shaping their community dynamics, growth, and metabolism. Herein, we selectively examined the time-correlated (0 D-11 D, where D = incubation days) effects of intraspecies VOC-mediated interactions (VMI) on Aspergillus oryzae KCCM 60345 (S1), following co-cultivation with partner strain A. oryzae KACC 44967 (S2), in a specially designed twin plate assembly. The comparative evaluation of S1 VMI (S1 subjected to VMI with S2) and its control (S1 Con ) showed a notable disparity in their radial growth (S1 VMI S1 Con ) at 3-5 D, amylase activity (S1 VMI S1 Con ) at 3 D. Furthermore, we observed a distinct clustering pattern for gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry datasets from 5 D extracts of S1 VMI and S1 Con in principle component analysis (PC1: 30.85%; PC2: 10.31%) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) (PLS1: 30.77; PLS2: 10.15%). Overall, 43 significantly discriminant metabolites were determined for engendering the metabolic variance based on the PLS-DA model (VIP > 0.7, p S1 Con ) at 5 D, organic acids (S1 VMI > S1 Con ) at 5 D, and kojic acid (S1 VMI < S1 Con ) at 5-7 D were observed. Examining the headspace VOCs shared between S1 and S2 in the twin plate for 5 D incubated samples, we observed the relatively higher abundance of C-8 VOCs (1-octen-3-ol, (5Z)-octa-1,5-dien-3-ol, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-ol acetate) having known semiochemical functions. The present study potentially illuminates the effects of VMI on commercially important A. oryzae's growth and biochemical phenotypes with subtle details of altered metabolomes.

  14. Chlormequat chloride and ethephon affect growth and yield formation of conventional, naked and dwarf oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. PELTONEN-SAINIO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Department of Plant Production, PO Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland. Current address: MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Plant Production Research, FIN-31600 Jokioinen, Finland. e-mail: pirjo.peltonen-sainio@mtt.fi Plant growth regulators (PGRs are not usually applied to oat (Avena sativa L. crops. This study was designed to test whether the antigibberellin chlormequat chloride (CCC and ethylene-releasing ethephon sprayed on to oat foliage represent potential agents for manipulation of yield formation under northern growing conditions. Effects of these PGRs on yield components and tiller growth and productivity were examined in detail. This study included a long-strawed landrace, a modern standard height cultivar, two naked (A. sativa ssp. nuda L. and two dwarf oats. Field experiments were conducted at Viikki Experimental Farm, University of Helsinki, in 1995 and 1996. Chlormequat chloride was sprayed at the two-node stage and ethephon when the flag leaf ligule was just visible on the main shoot. Various traits characterizing growth and yield formation were assessed. Chlormequat chloride increased grain yield by 0% to 13% depending on cultivar and year, while ethephon most often decreased it by up to 17%. No lodging occurred and the recorded increase in grain yield of CCC treated plants was not therefore due to prevention of lodging. However, CCC treatment resulted in more panicles per square meter and in 1995 tillers contributed more to grain yield. Ethephon treated plants had less grains per main shoot panicle, lower panicle filling rate (PFR and parallel decreased harvest index (HI. Stem elongation of dwarf oat was enhanced by CCC, in contrast to that of conventional and naked cultivars.;

  15. Early kit mortality and growth in farmed mink are affected by litter size rather than nest climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, T M; Malmkvist, J

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the effects of nest box climate on early mink kit mortality and growth. We hypothesised that litters in warm nest boxes experience less hypothermia-induced mortality and higher growth rates during the 1st week of life. This study included data from 749, 1-year-old breeding dams with access to nesting materials. Kits were weighed on days 1 and 7, dead kits were collected daily from birth until day 7 after birth, and nest climate was measured continuously from days 1 to 6. We tested the influences of the following daily temperature (T) and humidity (H) parameters on the number of live-born kit deaths and kit growth: T mean, T min, T max, T var (fluctuation) and H mean. The nest microclimate experienced by the kits was buffered against the ambient climate, with higher temperatures and reduced climate fluctuation. Most (77.0%) live-born kit deaths in the 1st week occurred on days 0 and 1. Seven of 15 climate parameters on days 1 to 3 had significant effects on live-born kit mortality. However, conflicting effects among days, marginal effects and late effects indicated that climate was not the primary cause of kit mortality. Five of 30 climate parameters had significant effects on kit growth. Few and conflicting effects indicated that the climate effect on growth was negligible. One exception was that large nest temperature fluctuations on day 1 were associated with reduced deaths of live-born kit (P<0.001) and increased kit growth (P=0.003). Litter size affected kit vitality; larger total litter size at birth was associated with greater risks of kit death (P<0.001) and reduced growth (P<0.001). The number of living kits in litters had the opposite effect, as kits in large liveborn litters had a reduced risk of death (P<0.001) and those with large mean litter size on days 1 to 7 had increased growth (P=0.026). Nest box temperature had little effect on early kit survival and growth, which could be due to dams' additional maternal behaviour. Therefore, we

  16. Sodic Soil Properties and Sunflower Growth as Affected by Byproducts of Flue Gas Desulfurization

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jinman; Bai, Zhongke; Yang, Peiling

    2012-01-01

    The main component of the byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD) is CaSO(4), which can be used to improve sodic soils. The effects of BFGD on sodic soil properties and sunflower growth were studied in a pot experiment. The experiment consisted of eight treatments, at four BFGD rates (0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 t ha(-1)) and two leaching levels (750 and 1200 m(3) ha(-1)). The germination rate and yield of the sunflower increased, and the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), pH and total disso...

  17. Lichen physiological traits and growth forms affect communities of associated invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhorst, Stef; Asplund, Johan; Kardol, Paul; Wardle, David A

    2015-09-01

    While there has been much interest in the relationships between traits of primary producers and composition of associated invertebrate consumer communities, our knowledge is largely based on studies from vascular plants, while other types of functionally important producers, such as lichens, have rarely been considered. To address how physiological traits of lichens drive community composition of invertebrates, we collected thalli from 27 lichen species from southern Norway and quantified the communities of associated springtails, mites, and nematodes. For each lichen species, we measured key physiological thallus traits and determined whether invertebrate communities were correlated with these traits. We also explored whether invertebrate communities differed among lichen groups, categorized according to nitrogen-fixing ability, growth form, and substratum. Lichen traits explained up to 39% of the variation in abundances of major invertebrate groups. For many invertebrate groups, abundance was positively correlated with lichen N and P concentrations, N:P ratio, and the percentage of water content on saturation (WC), but had few relationships with concentrations of carbon-based secondary compounds. Diversity and taxonomic richness of invertebrate groups were sometimes also correlated with lichen N and N:P ratios. Nitrogen-fixing lichens showed higher abundance and diversity of some invertebrate groups than did non-N-fixing lichens. However, this emerged in part because most N-fixing lichens have a foliose growth form that benefits invertebrates, through, improving the microclimate, independently of N concentration. Furthermore, invertebrate communities associated with terricolous lichens were determined more by their close proximity to the soil invertebrate pool than by lichen traits. Overall, our results reveal that differences between lichen species have a large impact on the invertebrate communities that live among the thalli. Different invertebrate groups show

  18. Deiodinase knockdown during early zebrafish development affects growth, development, energy metabolism, motility and phototransduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enise Bagci

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1 and type 2 (D2 increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3 decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray, biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO and knockdown of D3 (D3MO both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct

  19. Deiodinase knockdown during early zebrafish development affects growth, development, energy metabolism, motility and phototransduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagci, Enise; Heijlen, Marjolein; Vergauwen, Lucia; Hagenaars, An; Houbrechts, Anne M; Esguerra, Camila V; Blust, Ronny; Darras, Veerle M; Knapen, Dries

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1) and type 2 (D2) increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3) decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray), biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO) knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO) and knockdown of D3 (D3MO) both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle) development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct TH balance

  20. The centrosome protein NEDD1 as a potential pharmacological target to induce cell cycle arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etievant Chantal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NEDD1 is a protein that binds to the gamma-tubulin ring complex, a multiprotein complex at the centrosome and at the mitotic spindle that mediates the nucleation of microtubules. Results We show that NEDD1 is expressed at comparable levels in a variety of tumor-derived cell lines and untransformed cells. We demonstrate that silencing of NEDD1 expression by treatment with siRNA has differential effects on cells, depending on their status of p53 expression: p53-positive cells arrest in G1, whereas p53-negative cells arrest in mitosis with predominantly aberrant monopolar spindles. However, both p53-positive and -negative cells arrest in mitosis if treated with low doses of siRNA against NEDD1 combined with low doses of the inhibitor BI2536 against the mitotic kinase Plk1. Simultaneous reduction of NEDD1 levels and inhibition of Plk1 act in a synergistic manner, by potentiating the anti-mitotic activity of each treatment. Conclusion We propose that NEDD1 may be a promising target for controlling cell proliferation, in particular if targeted in combination with Plk1 inhibitors.

  1. Cep169, a Novel Microtubule Plus-End-Tracking Centrosomal Protein, Binds to CDK5RAP2 and Regulates Microtubule Stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Mori

    Full Text Available The centrosomal protein, CDK5RAP2, is a microcephaly protein that regulates centrosomal maturation by recruitment of a γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC onto centrosomes. In this report, we identified a novel human centrosomal protein, Cep169, as a binding partner of CDK5RAP2, a member of microtubule plus-end-tracking proteins (+TIPs. Cep169 interacts directly with CDK5RAP2 through CM1, an evolutionarily conserved domain, and colocalizes at the pericentriolar matrix (PCM around centrioles with CDK5RAP2. In addition, Cep169 interacts with EB1 through SxIP-motif responsible for EB1 binding, and colocalizes with CDK5RAP2 at the microtubule plus-end. EB1-binding-deficient Cep169 abolishes EB1 interaction and microtubule plus-end attachment, indicating Cep169 as a novel member of +TIPs. We further show that ectopic expression of either Cep169 or CDK5RAP2 induces microtubule bundling and acetylation in U2OS cells, and depletion of Cep169 induces microtubule depolymerization in HeLa cells, although Cep169 is not required for assembly of γ-tubulin onto centrosome by CDK5RAP2. These results show that Cep169 targets microtubule tips and regulates stability of microtubules with CDK5RAP2.

  2. Presymbiotic growth and sporal morphology are affected in the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita cured of its endobacteria.

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    Lumini, Erica; Bianciotto, Valeria; Jargeat, Patricia; Novero, Mara; Salvioli, Alessandra; Faccio, Antonella; Bécard, Guillaume; Bonfante, Paola

    2007-07-01

    Some arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi contain endocellular bacteria. In Gigaspora margarita BEG 34, a homogenous population of beta-Proteobacteria is hosted inside the fungal spore. The bacteria, named Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum, are vertically transmitted through fungal spore generations. Here we report how a protocol based on repeated passages through single-spore inocula caused dilution of the initial bacterial population eventually leading to cured spores. Spores of this line had a distinct phenotype regarding cytoplasm organization, vacuole morphology, cell wall organization, lipid bodies and pigment granules. The absence of bacteria severely affected presymbiotic fungal growth such as hyphal elongation and branching after root exudate treatment, suggesting that Ca. Glomeribacter gigasporarum is important for optimal development of its fungal host. Under laboratory conditions, the cured fungus could be propagated, i.e. could form mycorrhizae and sporulate, and can therefore be considered as a stable variant of the wild type. The results demonstrated that - at least for the G. margarita BEG 34 isolate - the absence of endobacteria affects the spore phenotype of the fungal host, and causes delays in the growth of germinating mycelium, possibly affecting its ecological fitness. This cured line is the first manipulated and stable isolate of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus.

  3. GROWTH, YIELD AND POSTHARVEST QUALITY OF WAX APPLE AS AFFECTED BY NAPHTHALENE ACETIC ACID APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD MONERUZZAMAN KHANDAKER

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of this study represent the first report of the effect of Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA on the pre and post harvest quality of wax apple fruit. The wax apple trees were spray treated with 0, 5, 10 and 20 mg L-1 NAA under field conditions during 2008 to 2011. The experiments were carried out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD with six replications. Leaf chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic yield, net photosynthetic rate, drymatter content of leaves and total soluble solids and K+content of wax apple fruits were significantly increased after treatments with 10 mg L-1. Polygalacturonase activity significantly decreased with NAA treatments. The application of 5 mg L-1 NAA increased 27% more bud and reduced 42% less fruit drop compared to the control. In addition, higher protein and phosphate synthase activity of leaves, fruit set, fruit growth, larger fruit size and yield were recorded in NAA treated plants. In storage, treated fruits exhibited higher TSS and firmness and less weight loss, browning, titratable acidity, respiration and ethylene production than the control. It is concluded that spraying with 5 and 10 mg L-1 NAA once a week under field conditions produced better fruit growth and yield of the wax apple and maintained better fruit quality in postharvest storage.

  4. A near-null magnetic field affects cryptochrome-related hypocotyl growth and flowering in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunxiao; Yin, Xiao; Lv, Yan; Wu, Changzhe; Zhang, Yuxia; Song, Tao

    2012-03-01

    The blue light receptor, cryptochrome, has been suggested to act as a magnetoreceptor based on the proposition that photochemical reactions are involved in sensing the geomagnetic field. But the effects of the geomagnetic field on cryptochrome remain unclear. Although the functions of cryptochrome have been well demonstrated for Arabidopsis, the effect of the geomagnetic field on the growth of Arabidopsis and its mechanism of action are poorly understood. We eliminated the local geomagnetic field to grow Arabidopsis in a near-null magnetic field and found that the inhibition of Arabidopsis hypocotyl growth by white light was weakened, and flowering time was delayed. The expressions of three cryptochrome-signaling-related genes, PHYB, CO and FT also changed; the transcript level of PHYB was elevated ca. 40%, and that of CO and FT was reduced ca. 40% and 50%, respectively. These data suggest that the effects of a near-null magnetic field on Arabidopsis are cryptochrome-related, which may be revealed by a modification of the active state of cryptochrome and the subsequent signaling cascade.

  5. Melatonin affects the growth and cadmium accumulation of Malachium aquaticum and Galinsoga parviflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Lin, Lijin; Xie, Yongdong; Liu, Ji; Sun, Guochao; Li, Huanxiu; Liao, Ming'an; Wang, Zhihui; Liang, Dong; Xia, Hui; Wang, Xun; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Zejing; Huang, Zhi; He, Zhongqun; Tu, Lihua

    2018-03-21

    Phytoremediation technology has become one of the main techniques for remediating soils polluted by heavy metals because it does not damage the environment, but heavy metal-tolerant plants have the disadvantages of low biomass and slow growth. A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of melatonin (Mel) on growth and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the Cd accumulator Malachium aquaticum and hyperaccumulator Galinsoga parviflora by spraying different concentrations of Mel on them. The results showed that shoot biomass, photosynthetic pigment content and antioxidant enzyme activity were increased in both species after Mel was sprayed on their leaves. Mel reduced the Cd content in shoots of M. aquaticum and increased it in those of G. parviflora. In general, Cd accumulation was greatest in M. aquaticum when Mel was 200 μmol L -1 (120.71 μg plant -1 , increased by 15.97% than control) and in G. parviflora when Mel was 100 μmol L -1 (132.40 μg plant -1 , increased by 68.30% than control). Our results suggest it is feasible to improve the remediation efficiency of lightly Cd-contaminated soil by spraying G. parviflora with100 μmol L -1 Mel.

  6. Parental education and family income affect birthweight, early longitudinal growth and body mass index development differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramsved, Rebecka; Regber, Susann; Novak, Daniel; Mehlig, Kirsten; Lissner, Lauren; Mårild, Staffan

    2018-01-07

    This study investigated the effects of two parental socio-economic characteristics, education and income, on growth and risk of obesity in children from birth to 8 years of age. Longitudinal growth data and national register-based information on socio-economic characteristics were available for 3,030 Swedish children. The development of body mass index (BMI) and height was compared in groups dichotomised by parental education and income. Low parental education was associated with a higher BMI from 4 years of age, independent of income, immigrant background, maternal BMI and smoking during pregnancy. Low family income was associated with a lower birthweight, but did not independently predict BMI development. At 8 years of age, children from less educated families had a three times higher risk of obesity, independent of parental income. Children whose parents had fewer years of education but high income had significantly higher height than all other children. Parental education protected against childhood obesity, even after adjusting for income and other important parental characteristics. Income-related differences in height, despite similar BMIs, raise questions about body composition and metabolic risk profiles. The dominant role of education underscores the value of health literacy initiatives for the parents of young children. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles affect the growth and microRNA expression of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Taylor P; Burklew, Caitlin E; Zhang, Baohong

    2014-03-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is one of the most widely used pigments in the world. Due to its heavy use in industry and daily life, such as food additives, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and paints, many residues are released into the environment and currently TiO(2) nanoparticles are considered an emerging environmental contaminant. Although several studies have shown the effect of TiO(2) nanoparticles on a wide range of organisms including bacteria, algae, plankton, fish, mice, and rats, little research has been performed on land plants. In this study, we investigated the effect of TiO(2) nanoparticles on the growth, development, and gene expression of tobacco, an important economic and agricultural crop in the southeastern USA as well as around the world. We found that TiO(2) nanoparticles significantly inhibited the germination rates, root lengths, and biomasses of tobacco seedlings after 3 weeks of exposure to 0.1, 1, 2.5, and 5 % TiO(2) nanoparticles and that overall growth and development of the tobacco seedlings significantly decreased as TiO(2) nanoparticle concentrations increased. Overall, tobacco roots were the most sensitive to TiO(2) nanoparticle exposure. Nano-TiO(2) also significantly influenced the expression profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs), a recently discovered class of small endogenous noncoding RNAs (∼20-22 nt) that are considered important gene regulators and have been shown to play an important role in plant development as well as plant tolerance to abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, cold, and heavy metal. Low concentrations (0.1 and 1 %) of TiO(2) nanoparticles dramatically induced miRNA expression in tobacco seedlings with miR395 and miR399 exhibiting the greatest fold changes of 285-fold and 143-fold, respectively. The results of this study show that TiO(2) nanoparticles have a negative impact on tobacco growth and development and that miRNAs may play an important role in tobacco response to heavy metals/nanoparticles by regulating

  8. A distinct endosomal Ca2+/Mn2+ pump affects root growth through the secretory process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiyan; Chanroj, Salil; Wu, Zhongyi; Romanowsky, Shawn M; Harper, Jeffrey F; Sze, Heven

    2008-08-01

    Ca(2+) is required for protein processing, sorting, and secretion in eukaryotic cells, although the particular roles of the transporters involved in the secretory system of plants are obscure. One endomembrane-type Ca-ATPase from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), AtECA3, diverges from AtECA1, AtECA2, and AtECA4 in protein sequence; yet, AtECA3 appears similar in transport activity to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-bound AtECA1. Expression of AtECA3 in a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mutant defective in its endogenous Ca(2+) pumps conferred the ability to grow on Ca(2+)-depleted medium and tolerance to toxic levels of Mn(2+). A green fluorescent protein-tagged AtECA3 was functionally competent and localized to intracellular membranes of yeast, suggesting that Ca(2+) and Mn(2+) loading into internal compartment(s) enhanced yeast proliferation. In mesophyll protoplasts, AtECA3-green fluorescent protein associated with a subpopulation of endosome/prevacuolar compartments based on partial colocalization with the Ara7 marker. Interestingly, three independent eca3 T-DNA disruption mutants showed severe reduction in root growth normally stimulated by 3 mm Ca(2+), indicating that AtECA3 function cannot be replaced by an ER-associated AtECA1. Furthermore, root growth of mutants is sensitive to 50 microm Mn(2+), indicating that AtECA3 is also important for the detoxification of excess Mn(2+). Curiously, Ateca3 mutant roots produced 65% more apoplastic protein than wild-type roots, as monitored by peroxidase activity, suggesting that the secretory process was altered. Together, these results demonstrate that the role of AtECA3 is distinct from that of the more abundant ER AtECA1. AtECA3 supports Ca(2+)-stimulated root growth and the detoxification of high Mn(2+), possibly through activities mediated by post-Golgi compartments that coordinate membrane traffic and sorting of materials to the vacuole and the cell wall.

  9. Inoculum levels of Meloidogyne hispanica and M. javanica affect nematode reproduction, and growth of tomato genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M.N. MALEITA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of three inoculum levels (2,500, 5,000 and 10,000 eggs/plant on the reproduction of Meloidogyne hispanica and M. javanica isolates and growth of the susceptible tomato genotypes Easypeel and Moneymaker, and genotypes Motelle and VFnt-Cherr, which possess the Mi-gene, at 25±2°C. sixty days after inoculation, roots were assessed for gall index (Gi, reproduction factor (Rf=final/initial population density and reproduction index (RI=Rf in the Mi-gene tomato plants/Rf in tomato Easypeel × 100. shoot and root lengths and fresh and dry root and shoot weights were also recorded. both species of Meloidogyne reproduced at all inoculum levels on all four tomato genotypes (4≤GI≤5 and 3.44≤Rf≤317.30. The M. javanica isolate, obtained from an infected potato field, was identified as natural and partially virulent to the Mi-gene (3.71≤RI≤20.19. This emphasizes the need for new sources of resistance to root-knot nematodes and for testing Mi-tomato plants for their susceptibility to local populations. Reproduction of M. javanica and M. hispanica on the resistant Motelle and VFNT-Cherr was significantly less than on the susceptible Easypeel and Moneymaker. VFNT-Cherr was more resistant than Motelle, which suggest an influence of the genetic background of the plants on the nematode response. For Easypeel and Moneymaker, there was a trend of decreased plant growth parameters with increasing inoculum level, irrespective of the nematode species, due to damage caused by the increasing number of nematodes that invaded plant roots. However, these values on Motelle and VFnt-Cherr remained relatively stable regarding shoot and total shoot plus root dry weight. the reproductive rate of M. javanica was greater than that of M. hispanica on all four genotypes tested, and tomato plants inoculated with M. hispanica had greater growth parameters. the resistance response of the Mi-tomato plants was independent

  10. Human cytomegalovirus infant infection adversely affects growth and development in maternally HIV-exposed and unexposed infants in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gompels, U A; Larke, N; Sanz-Ramos, M; Bates, M; Musonda, K; Manno, D; Siame, J; Monze, M; Filteau, S

    2012-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) coinfections have been shown to increase infant morbidity, mortality, and AIDS progression. In HIV-endemic regions, maternal HIV-exposed but HIV-uninfected infants, which is the majority of children affected by HIV, also show poor growth and increased morbidity. Although nutrition has been examined, the effects of HCMV infection have not been evaluated. We studied the effects of HCMV infection on the growth, development, and health of maternally HIV-exposed and unexposed infants in Zambia. Infants were examined in a cohort recruited to a trial of micronutrient-fortified complementary foods. HIV-infected mothers and infants had received perinatal antiretroviral therapy to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission. Growth, development, and morbidity were analyzed by linear regression analyses in relation to maternal HIV exposure and HCMV infection, as screened by sera DNA for viremia at 6 months of age and by antibody for infection at 18 months. All HCMV-seropositive infants had decreased length-for-age by 18 months compared with seronegative infants (standard deviation [z]-score difference: -0.44 [95% confidence interval {CI}, -.72 to -.17]; P = .002). In HIV-exposed infants, those who were HCMV positive compared with those who were negative, also had reduced head size (mean z-score difference: -0.72 [95% CI, -1.23 to -.22]; P = .01) and lower psychomotor development (Bayley test score difference: -4.1 [95% CI, -7.8 to -.5]; P = .03). HIV-exposed, HCMV-viremic infants were more commonly referred for hospital treatment than HCMV-negative infants. The effects of HCMV were unaffected by micronutrient fortification. HCMV affects child growth, development, and morbidity of African infants, particularly in those maternally exposed to HIV. HCMV is therefore a risk factor for child health in this region.

  11. Factors affecting the growth of Didymosphenia geminata in New Zealand rivers: Flow, bed disturbance, nutrients, light, and seasonal dynamics. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullis, J. D.; Gillis, C.; Drummond, J. D.; Garcia, T.; Kilroy, C.; Larned, S.; Hassan, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Didymosphenia geminata (didymo) was introduced into a New Zealand river in 2004, and since then has dramatically spread to cover the beds of many rivers with extremely dense and extensive mats. Successful management is hampered by the fact that much is still unknown about the factors affecting the growth of this nuisance species. We synthesized available data on the distribution of D. geminata in New Zealand rivers to determine how physical and chemical system conditions (flow, bed disturbance, nutrients, and light) affect the growth and persistence of this organism. Here we assess results from bi-weekly surveys performed over a full year on two rivers where didymo was first observed in New Zealand; the Oreti and Mararoa. We used the data to test the hypotheses that the development of thick, dense mats requires high light levels but is inversely proportional to nutrient levels, and that mat persistence is controlled by the frequency of flow events that produce bed sediment transport. Observed regrowth between disturbance events was found to be inversely correlated with nutrient availability. The seasonal availability of light did not correlate with variations in growth rate, but this did not account for specific characteristics of the different sites such as aspect, shading, flow depth and turbidity that will all impact on the amount of available light reaching the streambed. The results clearly indicate that the time-history of flow and nutrient levels is critical to evaluating the growth and persistence of D. geminata and that additional site specific information is necessary to determine the role of bed stability and the amount of available light reaching the streambed.

  12. microRNA 21-mediated suppression of Sprouty1 by Pokemon affects liver cancer cell growth and proliferation.

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    Jin, Xiu-Li; Sun, Qin-Sheng; Liu, Feng; Yang, Hong-Wei; Liu, Min; Liu, Hong-Xia; Xu, Wei; Jiang, Yu-Yang

    2013-07-01

    Transcriptional repressor Pokemon is a critical factor in embryogenesis, development, cell proliferation, differentiation, and oncogenesis, thus behaving as an oncogene. Oncomine database suggests a potential correlation between the expressions of Pokemon and Sprouty1. This study investigated the regulatory role of Pokemon in Sprouty1 expression and the effect on liver cancer cell growth and proliferation, revealing a novel miR-21-mediated regulatory circuit. In normal (HL-7702) and cancer (QGY-7703) liver cell lines, Sprouty1 expression is inversely correlated with Pokemon levels. Targeted expression or siRNA-mediated silencing showed that Pokemon is a repressor of Sprouty1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels, but Pokemon cannot affect the promoter activity of Sprouty1. Sprouty1 is a target of miR-21 and interestingly, we found that miR-21 is up-regulated by Pokemon in liver cancer cells. Luciferase reporter assays showed that Pokemon up-regulated miR-21 transcription in a dose-dependent manner, and ChIP assay exhibited a direct binding of Pokemon to the miR-21 promoter at -747 to -399 bp. Site-directed mutagenesis of the GC boxes at -684 to -679 bp and -652 to -647 bp of miR-21 promoter abolished the regulatory activity by Pokemon. Furthermore, we found that the modulation of Pokemon and miR-21 expression affected the growth and proliferation of liver cancer cells QGY-7703. In summary, our findings demonstrate that Pokemon suppresses Sprouty1 expression through a miR-21-mediated mechanism, affecting the growth and proliferation of liver cancer cells. This study recognized miR-21 and Sprouty1 as novel targets of the Pokemon regulatory network. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Growth and development of moringa (Moringa oleifera L. stem cuttings as affected by diameter magnitude, growth media, and indole-3-butyric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsuddeen Rufai

    2016-12-01

    chlorophyll content were found to be non-significantly (P>0.05 influenced. The MB growth media was observed to significantly affect the plant height, percentage root number, and root length as compared to the M growth media. For a successful vegetative propagation and subsequent domestication, the MB growth media coupled with a higher stem diameter size are recommended.

  14. Dynamics of plant nutrient uptake as affected by biopore-associated root growth in arable subsoil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Eusun; Kautz, Timo; Huang, Ning

    2017-01-01

    carried out for investigation on following barley and canola roots. Shoot biomass production, nutrient uptake and final yield of the following crops were determined throughout the growth seasons. Results: Higher shares of large or small-sized bipoores were observed after chicory (23 %) or tall fescue (20...... %) precrops, respectively. On average root diameter and root dry mass of following crops were greater by 11 and 15 % after chicory than tall fescue. At anthesis chicory-barley treatment accumulated 10 % more K in comparison to tall fescue-barley treatment. P uptake of canola was greater (7 %) after tall...... and crop species. Development of direct methods that can quantify biopore-root-shoot processes, detailed investigation on drilosphere, root phenotyping for detection of the genetic variation in response to biopore systems have to be followed in the future....

  15. Wheat Phenological Development and Growth Studies As Affected by Drought and Late Season High Temperature Stress under Arid Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan, Muhammad Z; El-Nakhlawy, Fathy S; Ismail, Saleh M; Fahad, Shah; Daur, Ihsanullah

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential for adaptability and tolerance of wheat genotypes (G) to an arid environment. We examined the influence of drought stress (DS) (100, 75, and 50% field capacity), planting times (PT) (16-November, 01-December, 16-December and 01-January), and G (Yocoro Rojo, FKAU-10, Faisalabad-08, and Galaxy L-7096) on phenological development, growth indices, grain yield, and water use efficiency of drip-irrigated wheat. Development measured at five phenological growth stages (GS) (tillering, jointing, booting, heading, and maturity) and growth indices 30, 45, 60, and 75 days after sowing (DAS) were also correlated with final grain yield. Tillering occurred earlier in DS plots, to a maximum of 31 days. Days to complete 50% heading and physiological crop maturity were the most susceptible GS that denoted 31-72% reduction in number of days to complete these GS at severe DS. Wheat G grown with severe DS had the shortest grain filling duration. Genotype Fsd-08 presented greater adaptability to studied arid climate and recorded 31, 35, and 38% longer grain filling period as compared with rest of the G at 100-50% field capacity respectively. December sowing mitigated the drought and delayed planting effects by producing superior growth and yield (2162 kg ha(-1)) at severe DS. Genotypes Fsd-08 and L-7096 attained the minimum plant height (36 cm) and the shortest growth cycle (76 days) for January planting with 50% field capacity. At severe DS leaf area index, dry matter accumulation, crop growth rate and net assimilation rate were decreased by 67, 57, 34, and 38% as compared to non-stressed plots. Genotypes Fsd-08 and F-10 were the superior ones and secured 14-17% higher grain yield than genotype YR for severely stressed plots. The correlation between crop growth indices and grain yield depicted the highest value (0.58-0.71) at 60-75 DAS. So the major contribution of these growth indices toward grain yield was at the start of reproductive phase. It

  16. Estrogen Receptor β Agonists Differentially Affect the Growth of Human Melanoma Cell Lines.

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    Monica Marzagalli

    Full Text Available Cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive malignancy; its incidence is increasing worldwide and its prognosis remains poor. Clinical observations indicate that estrogen receptor β (ERβ is expressed in melanoma tissues and its expression decreases with tumor progression, suggesting its tumor suppressive function. These experiments were performed to investigate the effects of ERβ activation on melanoma cell growth.Protein expression was analyzed by Western blot and immunofluorescence assays. Cell proliferation was assessed by counting the cells by hemocytometer. ERβ transcriptional activity was evaluated by gene reporter assay. Global DNA methylation was analyzed by restriction enzyme assay and ERβ isoforms were identified by qRT-PCR. We demonstrated that ERβ is expressed in a panel of human melanoma cell lines (BLM, WM115, A375, WM1552. In BLM (NRAS-mutant cells, ERβ agonists significantly and specifically inhibited cell proliferation. ERβ activation triggered its cytoplasmic-to-nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity. Moreover, the antiproliferative activity of ERβ agonists was associated with an altered expression of G1-S transition-related proteins. In these cells, global DNA was found to be hypomethylated when compared to normal melanocytes; this DNA hypomethylation status was reverted by ERβ activation. ERβ agonists also decreased the proliferation of WM115 (BRAF V600D-mutant cells, while they failed to reduce the growth of A375 and WM1552 (BRAF V600E-mutant cells. Finally, we could observe that ERβ isoforms are expressed at different levels in the various cell lines. Specific oncogenic mutations or differential expression of receptor isoforms might be responsible for the different responses of cell lines to ERβ agonists.Our results demonstrate that ERβ is expressed in melanoma cell lines and that ERβ agonists differentially regulate the proliferation of these cells. These data confirm the notion that melanoma is a

  17. Water availability and population origin affect the expression of the tradeoff between reproduction and growth in Plantago coronopus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. F.; Garcia, M. B.; Ehlers, B. K.

    2013-01-01

    temperature and precipitation. We found that water availability affected the expression of the tradeoff (both phenotypic and genetic) between reproduction and growth, being most accentuated under dry condition. However, populations responded very differently to water treatments. Plants from annual populations...... showed a similar response to drought condition with little variation among maternal families, suggesting a history of selection favouring genotypes with high allocation to reproduction when water availability is low. Plants from annual populations also expressed the highest level of plasticity...... water availability even among geographically close populations....

  18. Soft tissue and it’s affect on craniofacial growth and the dentition

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    Mansjur Nasir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue dysfunction, mouth breathing, tongue thrusting, incorrect swallowing and other myofunctional habits effect on malocclusion, poor facial development and relapse also Temporo Mandibular Joint (TMJ Disorder as well. How the dynamics of form and function affect the dentition, skeletal structures and the face. Soft tissues control dental position and should be considered in conjunction with any treatment. Treatment of soft tissue dysfunction will stable the result the orthodontic treatment. Diagnosis and treatment of soft tissue dysfunction is the responsibility of the General Dentist and Pedodontist and Orthodontist as well.

  19. Markers of bone metabolism are affected by renal function and growth hormone therapy in children with chronic kidney disease.

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    Anke Doyon

    Full Text Available The extent and relevance of altered bone metabolism for statural growth in children with chronic kidney disease is controversial. We analyzed the impact of renal dysfunction and recombinant growth hormone therapy on a panel of serum markers of bone metabolism in a large pediatric chronic kidney disease cohort.Bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b, sclerostin and C-terminal FGF-23 (cFGF23 normalized for age and sex were analyzed in 556 children aged 6-18 years with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR of 10-60 ml/min/1.73 m2. 41 children receiving recombinant growth hormone therapy were compared to an untreated matched control group.Standardized levels of BAP, TRAP5b and cFGF-23 were increased whereas sclerostin was reduced. BAP was correlated positively and cFGF-23 inversely with eGFR. Intact serum parathormone was an independent positive predictor of BAP and TRAP5b and negatively associated with sclerostin. BAP and TRAP5B were negatively affected by increased C-reactive protein levels. In children receiving recombinant growth hormone, BAP was higher and TRAP5b lower than in untreated controls. Sclerostin levels were in the normal range and higher than in untreated controls. Serum sclerostin and cFGF-23 independently predicted height standard deviation score, and BAP and TRAP5b the prospective change in height standard deviation score.Markers of bone metabolism indicate a high-bone turnover state in children with chronic kidney disease. Growth hormone induces an osteoanabolic pattern and normalizes osteocyte activity. The osteocyte markers cFGF23 and sclerostin are associated with standardized height, and the markers of bone turnover predict height velocity.

  20. How does growth temperature affect cadmium toxicity measured on different life history traits in the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørhave, Nils J; Spurgeon, David; Svendsen, Claus; Cedergreen, Nina

    2012-04-01

    Environmental factors, in particular temperature, have been shown to affect the toxicity of chemicals. In the present study the authors exposed the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to five concentrations of Cd (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mg Cd/L agar) at four constant temperatures (11, 15, 18, and 21°C) and monitored survival and reproduction on a daily basis. Data were incorporated in a population matrix model to determine the population growth rate (PGR). An additional experiment at 15 and 20°C and 0, 1, 5, and 10 mg Cd/L was performed to include growth measurements in order to relate changes in reproduction to resource allocations between investments in growth and reproduction. The impacts of Cd on PGR increased with increasing temperature, shifting the median effective concentration (EC50) for PGR from 11.6 ± 5.4 and 9.2 ± 1.3 at 11°C and 15°C, to 2.1 ± 0.1 and 1.7 ± 0.4 at 18°C and 21°C. Cadmium and temperature decreased growth rates, but Cd also increased maturation times and decreased final body size. It is hypothesized that Cd toxicity leads to a decrease in nutrient assimilation and that this "chemical anorexia" is more severe at high temperatures, where energy demands for growth and reproduction are the highest. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  1. Markers of bone metabolism are affected by renal function and growth hormone therapy in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, Anke; Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane; Bayazit, Aysun Karabay; Canpolat, Nur; Duzova, Ali; Sözeri, Betül; Bacchetta, Justine; Balat, Ayse; Büscher, Anja; Candan, Cengiz; Cakar, Nilgun; Donmez, Osman; Dusek, Jiri; Heckel, Martina; Klaus, Günter; Mir, Sevgi; Özcelik, Gül; Sever, Lale; Shroff, Rukshana; Vidal, Enrico; Wühl, Elke; Gondan, Matthias; Melk, Anette; Querfeld, Uwe; Haffner, Dieter; Schaefer, Franz

    2015-01-01

    The extent and relevance of altered bone metabolism for statural growth in children with chronic kidney disease is controversial. We analyzed the impact of renal dysfunction and recombinant growth hormone therapy on a panel of serum markers of bone metabolism in a large pediatric chronic kidney disease cohort. Bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b), sclerostin and C-terminal FGF-23 (cFGF23) normalized for age and sex were analyzed in 556 children aged 6-18 years with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 10-60 ml/min/1.73 m2. 41 children receiving recombinant growth hormone therapy were compared to an untreated matched control group. Standardized levels of BAP, TRAP5b and cFGF-23 were increased whereas sclerostin was reduced. BAP was correlated positively and cFGF-23 inversely with eGFR. Intact serum parathormone was an independent positive predictor of BAP and TRAP5b and negatively associated with sclerostin. BAP and TRAP5B were negatively affected by increased C-reactive protein levels. In children receiving recombinant growth hormone, BAP was higher and TRAP5b lower than in untreated controls. Sclerostin levels were in the normal range and higher than in untreated controls. Serum sclerostin and cFGF-23 independently predicted height standard deviation score, and BAP and TRAP5b the prospective change in height standard deviation score. Markers of bone metabolism indicate a high-bone turnover state in children with chronic kidney disease. Growth hormone induces an osteoanabolic pattern and normalizes osteocyte activity. The osteocyte markers cFGF23 and sclerostin are associated with standardized height, and the markers of bone turnover predict height velocity.

  2. TrkAIII Promotes Microtubule Nucleation and Assembly at the Centrosome in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells, Contributing to an Undifferentiated Anaplastic Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Antonietta R.; Di Ianni, Natalia; Cappabianca, Lucia; Ruggeri, Pierdomenico; Ragone, Marzia; Ianni, Giulia; Gulino, Alberto; Mackay, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    The alternative TrkAIII splice variant is expressed by advanced stage human neuroblastomas (NBs) and exhibits oncogenic activity in NB models. In the present study, employing stable transfected cell lines and assays of indirect immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, Western blotting, microtubule regrowth, tubulin kinase, and tubulin polymerisation, we report that TrkAIII binds α-tubulin and promotes MT nucleation and assembly at the centrosome. This effect depends upon spontaneous TrkAIII activity, TrkAIII localisation to the centrosome and pericentrosomal area, and the capacity of TrkAIII to bind, phosphorylate, and polymerise tubulin. We propose that this novel role for TrkAIII contributes to MT involvement in the promotion and maintenance of an undifferentiated anaplastic NB cell morphology by restricting and augmenting MT nucleation and assembly at the centrosomal MTOC. PMID:23841091

  3. TrkAIII Promotes Microtubule Nucleation and Assembly at the Centrosome in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells, Contributing to an Undifferentiated Anaplastic Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta R. Farina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The alternative TrkAIII splice variant is expressed by advanced stage human neuroblastomas (NBs and exhibits oncogenic activity in NB models. In the present study, employing stable transfected cell lines and assays of indirect immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, Western blotting, microtubule regrowth, tubulin kinase, and tubulin polymerisation, we report that TrkAIII binds α-tubulin and promotes MT nucleation and assembly at the centrosome. This effect depends upon spontaneous TrkAIII activity, TrkAIII localisation to the centrosome and pericentrosomal area, and the capacity of TrkAIII to bind, phosphorylate, and polymerise tubulin. We propose that this novel role for TrkAIII contributes to MT involvement in the promotion and maintenance of an undifferentiated anaplastic NB cell morphology by restricting and augmenting MT nucleation and assembly at the centrosomal MTOC.

  4. Inhibition of Bmp signaling affects growth and differentiation in the anagen hair follicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulessa, H; Turk, G; Hogan, B L

    2000-12-15

    Growth and differentiation of postnatal hair follicles are controlled by reciprocal interactions between the dermal papilla and the surrounding epidermal hair precursors. The molecular nature of these interactions is largely unknown, but they are likely to involve several families of signaling molecules, including Fgfs, Wnts and Bmps. To analyze the function of Bmp signaling in postnatal hair development, we have generated transgenic mice expressing the Bmp inhibitor, Noggin, under the control of the proximal Msx2 promoter, which drives expression in proliferating hair matrix cells and differentiating hair precursor cells. Differentiation of the hair shaft but not the inner root sheath is severely impaired in Msx2-Noggin transgenic mice. In addition to hair keratins, the expression of several transcription factors implicated in hair development, including Foxn1 and Hoxc13, is severely reduced in the transgenic hair follicles. Proliferating cells, which are normally restricted to the hair matrix surrounding the dermal papilla, are found in the precortex and hair shaft region. These results identify Bmps as key regulators of the genetic program controlling hair shaft differentiation in postnatal hair follicles.

  5. Factors Affecting the Growth of Women-Operated Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs in Ethiopia

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    Fesseha Mulu Gebremariam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study employed secondary sources to identify factors that challenge the growth of the women-operated Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs in Ethiopia. MSEs play an important role in creating employment opportunities mainly for the urban youth and women, serve as an engine to transform economies from agricultural-led to industrial-led, and are considered the best mechanisms by which citizens accumulate capital and empower women economically. However, in developing countries like Ethiopia, female entrepreneurs are facing various challenges in their day-to-day lives just because of their gender. Financial problems, lack of managerial and entrepreneurial skills, workplace and marketing problems, inadequacy of infrastructural facilities, unpredictable supply of raw materials are among the problems they face. In order to alleviate the situation, the Government of Ethiopia should provide female entrepreneurs with access to credit, supply them with a place to work, create a market link for MSEs with raw material suppliers, medium and large firms, make capacity-building training available to improve their business management skills, and provide information on market opportunities and appropriate/improved technologies.

  6. Feeder Cell Type Affects the Growth of In Vitro Cultured Bovine Trophoblast Cells

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    Islam M. Saadeldin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Trophectoderm cells are the foremost embryonic cells to differentiate with prospective stem-cell properties. In the current study, we aimed at improving the current approach for trophoblast culture by using granulosa cells as feeders. Porcine granulosa cells (PGCs compared to the conventional mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs were used to grow trophectoderm cells from hatched bovine blastocysts. Isolated trophectoderm cells were monitored and displayed characteristic epithelial/cuboidal morphology. The isolated trophectoderm cells expressed mRNA of homeobox protein (CDX2, cytokeratin-8 (KRT8, and interferon tau (IFNT. The expression level was higher on PGCs compared to MEFs throughout the study. In addition, primary trophectoderm cell colonies grew faster on PGCs, with a doubling time of approximately 48 hrs, compared to MEFs. PGCs feeders produced a fair amount of 17β-estradiol and progesterone. We speculated that the supplementation of sex steroids and still-unknown factors during the trophoblasts coculture on PGCs have helped to have better trophectoderm cell’s growth than on MEFs. This is the first time to use PGCs as feeders to culture trophectoderm cells and it proved superior to MEFs. We propose PGCs as alternative feeders for long-term culture of bovine trophectoderm cells. This model will potentially benefit studies on the early trophoblast and embryonic development in bovines.

  7. Saharan Dust Deposition May Affect Phytoplankton Growth in the Mediterranean Sea at Ecological Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallisai, Rachele; Peters, Francesc; Volpe, Gianluca; Basart, Sara; Baldasano, José Maria

    2014-01-01

    The surface waters of the Mediterranean Sea are extremely poor in the nutrients necessary for plankton growth. At the same time, the Mediterranean Sea borders with the largest and most active desert areas in the world and the atmosphere over the basin is subject to frequent injections of mineral dust particles. We describe statistical correlations between dust deposition over the Mediterranean Sea and surface chlorophyll concentrations at ecological time scales. Aerosol deposition of Saharan origin may explain 1 to 10% (average 5%) of seasonally detrended chlorophyll variability in the low nutrient-low chlorophyll Mediterranean. Most of the statistically significant correlations are positive with main effects in spring over the Eastern and Central Mediterranean, conforming to a view of dust events fueling needed nutrients to the planktonic community. Some areas show negative effects of dust deposition on chlorophyll, coinciding with regions under a large influence of aerosols from European origin. The influence of dust deposition on chlorophyll dynamics may become larger in future scenarios of increased aridity and shallowing of the mixed layer. PMID:25333783

  8. Factors affecting the grain growth of austenite in low alloy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.D.; Storer, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The performance of steels is linked to the metallurgical transformations which occur during manufacture. Clearly then the optimization of a fabrication procedure must be based on fundamental relationships linking specific thermal treatments with transformation behaviour. Optimized manufacture of thick-section, multipass welds is therefore particularly complex since the thermal cycles associated with fusion welding result in the formation of heterogeneous microstructures. Moreover, these transformations will take place under rapid heating and cooling conditions so that standard data based on equilibrium behaviour may not be directly relevant. The present study is part of an integrated research programme aimed at establishing the basic microstructural relationships required to optimize the manufacture and performance of weldments. Work to date demonstrates that utilization of a computer controlled Gleeble simulation system allows a wider range of heating and cooling rates to be applied than is possible with traditional heat treatment techniques. Additional advantages of this system include precise control of time at peak temperature and uniform temperatures within a defined work zone. Results presented for a CrMoV creep resistant low alloy steel indicate that grain growth behaviour in the range 955-1390 C can be related to the time at peak temperature. The effect of this transformation behaviour on weldment behaviour is discussed. (orig.)

  9. Paclitaxel and trastuzumab treatment affects insulin growth factor I expression in breast cancer cell lines

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    Yu-Xian Qian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common type of cancers and second primary cause of death among women. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1 signaling pathway plays a vital role in cancer cell survival, proliferation, chemotaxis and angiogenesis. In this study, the effect of combination of two drugs, paclitaxel and trastuzumab on IGF signaling and cell cycle arrest in breast cancer cell lines, T47D and Hs0578T were explored. The interaction of paclitaxel and trastuzumab on IGF-1 signaling pathway was studied with IGF-1 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002. The protein expression of IGF signaling molecules were reduced in the drug treated cancer cells. LY294002 and IGF-1 with paclitaxel and trastuzumab treatment inhibited phosphorylated Akt. During G0/G1 phase, cell cycle arrest and accumulation of apoptotic cells were observed in drug treated cancer cells. The synergistic effect of paclitaxel and trastuzumab decreased the multiplication of breast cancer cells by altering the expression of IGF-I signaling molecules. This combination proves to be one of the useful methods to treat breast cancer.

  10. Diet and weaning age affect the growth and condition of Dover sole (Solea solea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of diet type (frozen Artemia biomass and two inert diets: micro-bound [MB] and micro-extruded [ME] and two weaning ages (early weaning and late weaning, 50 and 64 days after hatching, respectively were studied in Solea solea larvae. The experiment lasted 56 and 42 days for early and late weaning, respectively. The mortality results showed the highest values for late weaning (39% in the Artemia treatment. No significant differences in mortality were observed between the inert diets. The final dry weight values were higher for late weaning than for early weaning. At both weaning ages, fish receiving the same treatments had similar tendencies for dry weight and standard length. Fish fed with MB presented significantly higher dry weight and standard length, followed by ME, while the lowest values at both weaning ages were recorded for the Artemia treatment. Similar amounts of highly unsaturated fatty acid fractions among the inert diets were reflected by the absence of significant differences in the susceptibility to oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances testing; however, significant differences were found in carbohydrate, protein and lipid contents of whole-body homogenates for both early and late weaning. At the end of the experiment no significant differences in biochemical contents were observed between the two inert diets. The results of this study suggest that weaning starting on day 50 (early weaning, using a good quality inert diet, leads to higher survival, growth and fish condition.

  11. Rooting, growth, and color mutation of poinsettias affected by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Kyung; Kim, Won Hee; Kim, Seung Tae; Kang, Si Yong

    2010-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of gamma-radiation on the rooting, growth, and color mutation in poinsettia. Using 10 poinsettia varieties ('Lollipop', 'Little Peace', 'Happy Day', 'Early Bird', 'Pixy Red', 'Happy Time', 'Heidi', 'Red Bell', 'Clara', and 'Scarlet') bred by National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, 100 Gy of gamma ray was irradiated at the stage of callused cuttings. Four weeks after sticking cuttings in the rooting media, 8 cultivars showed 100% of root formation, but 'Early Bird' rooted 24.4% and even died off during the cutting propagation. After planting rooted cuttings, survival rate until flowering time varied among irradiated cultivars. While 'Pixy Red' and 'Heidi' survived about 98%, 'Clara', 'Happy Day', and 'Early Bird' survived lesser than 30%. All irradiated plants showed remarkably shorter plant height, lesser branch numbers than non-irradiated control plants. Thirty color mutants were obtained among 281 plants survived until flowering time. Nine were complete color mutated branches, whereas 21 mutants were partially color mutated bracts and transitional leaves. Color patterns mutated by 100 Gy of gamma ray were divided into pink, hot pink, light red and spotted (pink spots with red main color). Pink mutants were commonly obtained. Complete color mutants were discovered from 4 plants of 'Pixy Red', 2 plants of 'Red Bell' and 3 plants of Lollipop

  12. Body composition estimation using skinfolds in children with and without health conditions affecting growth and body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Danielle; Weber, David; Leonard, Mary B.; Magge, Sheela N.; Kelly, Andrea; Stallings, Virginia A.; Pipan, Mary; Stettler, Nicolas; Zemel, Babette S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Body composition prediction equations using skinfolds are useful alternatives to advanced techniques, but their utility across diverse pediatric populations is unknown. Aim To evaluate published and new prediction equations across diverse samples of children with health conditions affecting growth and body composition. Subjects and Methods Anthropometric and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) body composition measures were obtained in children with Down syndrome (n=59), Crohn disease (n=128), steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (n=67), and a healthy reference group (n=835). Published body composition equations were evaluated. New equations were developed for ages 3 to 21y using the healthy reference sample and validated in other groups and national survey data. Results Fat mass [FM], fat-free mass [FFM] and percent body fat [%BF]) from published equations were highly correlated with DXA-derived measures (r=0.71 to 0.98), but with poor agreement (mean difference: 2.4kg, −1.9kg, and 6.3% for FM, FFM and %BF). New equations produced similar correlations (r=0.85 to 1.0) with improved agreement for the reference group (0.2kg, 0.4kg, and 0.0% for FM, FFM and %BF, respectively), and in sub-groups. Conclusions New body composition prediction equations show excellent agreement with DXA, and improve body composition estimation in healthy children and those with selected conditions affecting growth. PMID:27121656

  13. Institutional childcare and the affective deficiency syndrome: consequences on growth, nutrition and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Hoyos, A; Augustin-Morales, M C; Ruíz-Cosano, C; Molina-Carballo, A; Fernández-García, J M; Galdó-Munoz, G

    2001-11-01

    It is generally accepted that, in the face of certain family and social circumstances, a minor may need to be taken into care within an institution, a course of action that provides, at least, an alternative to the risks of abandonment and life "on the street". Nevertheless, the reality of life in childcare centres can lead to children undergoing an additional trauma after escaping the miserable situation of the family home. After the advances made in recent years (economic, healthcare, social, legal, etc.), it has been suggested that the institutionalization of a minor, as a rule, does not in itself represent a negative factor for the child's wellbeing. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied two groups of children in care. The first group comprised 101 children being cared for in a large traditional institution during 1986. The second group was composed of 66 children studied in 1996, resident in a smaller, charitable institution, providing a more family-like atmosphere. Growth evaluation methods were applied, including anthropometry (weight, height, weight/height ratio, body mass index, Rorer index and weight index), nutrition (skin folds, body density, percentage of body fat and weight of the fat) and development (psychometry: Boehm test, CMMS, Raven and EIT). The data were analyzed by means of the Student's t-test. The most important result obtained was the demonstration that the second group of children presented results that were clearly higher in nearly all the studied variables, thus showing that institutionalization in itself does not have a negative influence on child development.

  14. Growth Hormone (GH) and Rehabilitation Promoted Distal Innervation in a Child Affected by Caudal Regression Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devesa, Jesús; Alonso, Alba; López, Natalia; García, José; Puell, Carlos I; Pablos, Tamara; Devesa, Pablo

    2017-01-23

    Caudal regression syndrome (CRS) is a malformation occurring during the fetal period and mainly characterized by an incomplete development of the spinal cord (SC), which is often accompanied by other developmental anomalies. We studied a 9-month old child with CRS who presented interruption of the SC at the L2-L3 level, sacral agenesis, a lack of innervation of the inferior limbs (flaccid paraplegia), and neurogenic bladder and bowel. Given the known positive effects of growth hormone (GH) on neural stem cells (NSCs), we treated him with GH and rehabilitation, trying to induce recovery from the aforementioned sequelae. The Gross Motor Function Test (GMFM)-88 test score was 12.31%. After a blood analysis, GH treatment (0.3 mg/day, 5 days/week, during 3 months and then 15 days without GH) and rehabilitation commenced. This protocol was followed for 5 years, the last GH dose being 1 mg/day. Blood analysis and physical exams were performed every 3 months initially and then every 6 months. Six months after commencing the treatment the GMFM-88 score increased to 39.48%. Responses to sensitive stimuli appeared in most of the territories explored; 18 months later sensitive innervation was complete and the patient moved all muscles over the knees and controlled his sphincters. Three years later he began to walk with crutches, there was plantar flexion, and the GMFM-88 score was 78.48%. In summary, GH plus rehabilitation may be useful for innervating distal areas below the level of the incomplete spinal cord in CRS. It is likely that GH acted on the ependymal SC NSCs, as the hormone does in the neurogenic niches of the brain, and rehabilitation helped to achieve practically full functionality.

  15. Analysis of algae growth mechanism and water bloom prediction under the effect of multi-affecting factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Wang, Xiaoyi; Jin, Xuebo; Xu, Jiping; Zhang, Huiyan; Yu, Jiabin; Sun, Qian; Gao, Chong; Wang, Lingbin

    2017-03-01

    The formation process of algae is described inaccurately and water blooms are predicted with a low precision by current methods. In this paper, chemical mechanism of algae growth is analyzed, and a correlation analysis of chlorophyll-a and algal density is conducted by chemical measurement. Taking into account the influence of multi-factors on algae growth and water blooms, the comprehensive prediction method combined with multivariate time series and intelligent model is put forward in this paper. Firstly, through the process of photosynthesis, the main factors that affect the reproduction of the algae are analyzed. A compensation prediction method of multivariate time series analysis based on neural network and Support Vector Machine has been put forward which is combined with Kernel Principal Component Analysis to deal with dimension reduction of the influence factors of blooms. Then, Genetic Algorithm is applied to improve the generalization ability of the BP network and Least Squares Support Vector Machine. Experimental results show that this method could better compensate the prediction model of multivariate time series analysis which is an effective way to improve the description accuracy of algae growth and prediction precision of water blooms.

  16. Centrosome clustering and cyclin D1 gene amplification in double minutes are common events in chromosomal unstable bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, Javier del; Prat, Esther; Ponsa, Immaculada; Lloreta, Josep; Gelabert, Antoni; Algaba, Ferran; Camps, Jordi; Miró, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Aneuploidy, centrosome abnormalities and gene amplification are hallmarks of chromosome instability (CIN) in cancer. Yet there are no studies of the in vivo behavior of these phenomena within the same bladder tumor. Twenty-one paraffin-embedded bladder tumors were analyzed by conventional comparative genome hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a cyclin D1 gene (CCND1)/centromere 11 dual-color probe. Immunofluorescent staining of α, β and γ tubulin was also performed. Based on the CIN index, defined as the percentage of cells not displaying the modal number for chromosome 11, tumors were classified as CIN-negative and CIN-positive. Fourteen out of 21 tumors were considered CIN-positive. All T1G3 tumors were included in the CIN-positive group whereas the majority of Ta samples were classified as CIN-negative tumors. Centrosome clustering was observed in six out of 12 CIN-positive tumors analyzed. CCND1 amplification in homogeneously staining regions was present in six out of 14 CIN-positive tumors; three of them also showed amplification of this gene in double minutes. Complex in vivo behavior of CCND1 amplicon in bladder tumor cells has been demonstrated by accurate FISH analysis on paraffin-embedded tumors. Positive correlation between high heterogeneity, centrosome abnormalities and CCND1 amplification was found in T1G3 bladder carcinomas. This is the first study to provide insights into the coexistence of CCND1 amplification in homogeneously staining regions and double minutes in primary bladder tumors. It is noteworthy that those patients whose tumors showed double minutes had a significantly shorter overall survival rate (p < 0.001)

  17. Cdc14 phosphatase directs centrosome re-duplication at the meiosis I to meiosis II transition in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Colette; Zou, Juan; Rappsilber, Juri; Marston, Adele L

    2017-01-05

    Background Gametes are generated through a specialized cell division called meiosis, in which ploidy is reduced by half because two consecutive rounds of chromosome segregation, meiosis I and meiosis II, occur without intervening DNA replication. This contrasts with the mitotic cell cycle where DNA replication and chromosome segregation alternate to maintain the same ploidy. At the end of mitosis, CDKs are inactivated. This low CDK state in late mitosis/G1 allows for critical preparatory events for DNA replication and centrosome/spindle pole body (SPB) duplication. However, their execution is inhibited until S phase, where further preparatory events are also prevented. This "licensing" ensures that both the chromosomes and the centrosomes/SPBs replicate exactly once per cell cycle, thereby maintaining constant ploidy. Crucially, between meiosis I and meiosis II, centrosomes/SPBs must be re-licensed, but DNA re-replication must be avoided. In budding yeast, the Cdc14 protein phosphatase triggers CDK down regulation to promote exit from mitosis. Cdc14 also regulates the meiosis I to meiosis II transition, though its mode of action has remained unclear. Methods Fluorescence and electron microscopy was combined with proteomics to probe SPB duplication in cells with inactive or hyperactive Cdc14. Results We demonstrate that Cdc14 ensures two successive nuclear divisions by re-licensing SPBs at the meiosis I to meiosis II transition. We show that Cdc14 is asymmetrically enriched on a single SPB during anaphase I and provide evidence that this enrichment promotes SPB re-duplication. Cells with impaired Cdc14 activity fail to promote extension of the SPB half-bridge, the initial step in morphogenesis of a new SPB. Conversely, cells with hyper-active Cdc14 duplicate SPBs, but fail to induce their separation. Conclusion Our findings implicate reversal of key CDK-dependent phosphorylations in the differential licensing of cyclical events at the meiosis I to meiosis I

  18. Luminal epithelium in endometrial fragments affects their vascularization, growth and morphological development into endometriosis-like lesions in mice

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    Dilu Feng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In endometriosis research, endometriosis-like lesions are usually induced in rodents by transplantation of isolated endometrial tissue fragments to ectopic sites. In the present study, we investigated whether this approach is affected by the cellular composition of the grafts. For this purpose, endometrial tissue fragments covered with luminal epithelium (LE+ and without luminal epithelium (LE− were transplanted from transgenic green-fluorescent-protein-positive (GFP+ donor mice into the dorsal skinfold chamber of GFP− wild-type recipient animals to analyze their vascularization, growth and morphology by means of repetitive intravital fluorescence microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry during a 14-day observation period. LE− fragments developed into typical endometriosis-like lesions with cyst-like dilated endometrial glands and a well-vascularized endometrial stroma. In contrast, LE+ fragments exhibited a polypoid morphology and a significantly reduced blood perfusion after engraftment, because the luminal epithelium prevented the vascular interconnection with the microvasculature of the surrounding host tissue. This was associated with a markedly decreased growth rate of LE+ lesions compared with LE− lesions. In addition, we found that many GFP+ microvessels grew outside the LE− lesions and developed interconnections to the host microvasculature, indicating that inosculation is an important mechanism in the vascularization process of endometriosis-like lesions. Our findings demonstrate that the luminal epithelium crucially affects the vascularization, growth and morphology of endometriosis-like lesions. Therefore, it is of major importance to standardize the cellular composition of endometrial grafts in order to increase the validity and reliability of pre-clinical rodent studies in endometriosis research.

  19. MeCP2 Affects Skeletal Muscle Growth and Morphology through Non Cell-Autonomous Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Conti

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT is an autism spectrum disorder mainly caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene and affecting roughly 1 out of 10.000 born girls. Symptoms range in severity and include stereotypical movement, lack of spoken language, seizures, ataxia and severe intellectual disability. Notably, muscle tone is generally abnormal in RTT girls and women and the Mecp2-null mouse model constitutively reflects this disease feature. We hypothesized that MeCP2 in muscle might physiologically contribute to its development and/or homeostasis, and conversely its defects in RTT might alter the tissue integrity or function. We show here that a disorganized architecture, with hypotrophic fibres and tissue fibrosis, characterizes skeletal muscles retrieved from Mecp2-null mice. Alterations of the IGF-1/Akt/mTOR pathway accompany the muscle phenotype. A conditional mouse model selectively depleted of Mecp2 in skeletal muscles is characterized by healthy muscles that are morphologically and molecularly indistinguishable from those of wild-type mice raising the possibility that hypotonia in RTT is mainly, if not exclusively, mediated by non-cell autonomous effects. Our results suggest that defects in paracrine/endocrine signaling and, in particular, in the GH/IGF axis appear as the major cause of the observed muscular defects. Remarkably, this is the first study describing the selective deletion of Mecp2 outside the brain. Similar future studies will permit to unambiguously define the direct impact of MeCP2 on tissue dysfunctions.

  20. Purification, isolation, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of the BTB domain of the centrosomal protein 190 from Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, K. M.; Nikolaeva, A. Yu.; Kachalova, G. S.; Bonchuk, A. N.; Popov, V. O.

    2017-11-01

    The spatial organization of the genome is controlled by a special class of architectural proteins, including proteins containing BTB domains that are able to dimerize or multimerize. The centrosomal protein 190 is one of such architectural proteins. The purification, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of the BTB domain of the centrosomal protein 190 are reported. The crystallization conditions were found by the vapor-diffusion technique. The crystals diffracted to 1.5 Å resolution and belonged to sp. gr. P3221. The structure was solved by the molecular replacement method. The structure refinement is currently underway.

  1. Stocking density affects the growth performance of broilers in a sex-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuowei, S; Yan, L; Yuan, L; Jiao, H; Song, Z; Guo, Y; Lin, H

    2011-07-01

    The effects of stocking density, sex, and dietary ME concentration on live performance, footpad burns, and leg weakness of broilers were investigated. A total of 876 male and 1,020 female 1-d-old chicks were placed in 24 pens to simulate final stocking density treatments of 26 kg (LSD; 10 males or 12 females/m(2)) and 42 kg (HSD; 16 males or 18 females/m(2)) of BW/m(2) floor space. Two series of experimental diets with a 150 kcal/kg difference in ME concentration (2,800, 2,900, and 3,000 or 2,950, 3,050, and 3,150 kcal of ME/kg) were compared in a 3-phase feeding program. The HSD treatment significantly decreased BW gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The HSD chickens consumed less feed by 35 d of age; thereafter, the reverse was true. Male chickens had significantly higher feed intake (FI), BW gain, and FCR compared with females. A significant interaction was found of stocking density and age for FI, BW gain, and FCR. Compared with LSD treatment, HSD broilers had a higher FI and a lower FCR from 36 to 42 d of age. Stocking density, sex, and age had a significant interaction for BW gain and FCR. Female broilers had worse BW gain and FCR when stocked at high density from 36 to 42 d of age. Stocking density had no significant influence on breast, thigh, or abdominal fat yield. Female broilers had significantly higher breast yield and abdominal fat. Male broilers and HSD treatment had high footpad burn and gait scores. A low ME diet increased footpad burn score but had no effect on gait score. The result indicated that stocking density had a more severe effect on the growth of male broilers before 35 d of age. Female broilers need more space than males at similar BW per square meter near marketing age. The incidence and severity of leg weakness are associated with sex, diet, and stocking density. This result suggests that the deteriorated effect of high stocking density is sex and age dependent.

  2. Divergence for residual feed intake of Holstein-Friesian cattle during growth did not affect production and reproduction during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, K A; Thomson, B P; Waghorn, G C

    2016-11-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between actual and predicted dry matter intake (DMI) of individual animals. Recent studies with Holstein-Friesian calves have identified an ~20% difference in RFI during growth (calf RFI) and these groups remained divergent in RFI during lactation. The objective of the experiment described here was to determine if cows selected for divergent RFI as calves differed in milk production, reproduction or in the profiles of BW and body condition score (BCS) change during lactation, when grazing pasture. The cows used in the experiment (n=126) had an RFI of -0.88 and +0.75 kg DM intake/day for growth as calves (efficient and inefficient calf RFI groups, respectively) and were intensively grazed at four stocking rates (SR) of 2.2, 2.6, 3.1 and 3.6 cows/ha on self-contained farmlets, over 3 years. Each SR treatment had equal number of cows identified as low and high calf RFI, with 24, 28, 34 and 40/11 ha farmlet. The cows divergent for calf RFI were randomly allocated to each SR. Although SR affected production, calf RFI group (low or high) did not affect milk production, reproduction, BW, BCS or changes in these parameters throughout lactation. The most efficient animals (low calf RFI) lost similar BW and BCS as the least efficient (high calf RFI) immediately post-calving, and regained similar BW and BCS before their next calving. These results indicate that selection for RFI as calves to increase efficiency of feed utilisation did not negatively affect farm productivity variables (milk production, BCS, BW and reproduction) as adults when managed under an intensive pastoral grazing system.

  3. Plant Products Affect Growth and Digestive Efficiency of Cultured Florida Pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) Fed Compounded Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Gregory P.; Reigh, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Costs of compounded diets containing fish meal as a primary protein source can be expected to rise as fish meal prices increase in response to static supply and growing demand. Alternatives to fish meal are needed to reduce production costs in many aquaculture enterprises. Some plant proteins are potential replacements for fish meal because of their amino acid composition, lower cost and wide availability. In this study, we measured utilization of soybean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) by Florida pompano fed compounded diets, to determine the efficacy of these products as fish meal replacements. We also calculated apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for canola meal (CM), corn gluten meal (CGM), and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), following typical methods for digestibility trials. Juvenile Florida pompano were fed fish-meal-free diets containing graded levels of SBM and SPC, and weight gain was compared to a control diet that contained SBM, SPC, and fish meal. Fish fed diets that contained 25–30 percent SBM in combination with 43–39 percent SPC had weight gain equivalent to fish fed the control diet with fish meal, while weight gain of fish fed other soy combinations was significantly less than that of the control group. Apparent crude protein digestibility of CGM was significantly higher than that of DDGS but not significantly different from CM. Apparent energy digestibility of DDGS was significantly lower than CGM but significantly higher than CM. Findings suggested that composition of the reference diet used in a digestibility trial affects the values of calculated ADCs, in addition to the chemical and physical attributes of the test ingredient. PMID:22536344

  4. Factors affecting growth of the spiny lobsters Panulirus gracilis and Panulirus inflatus (Decapoda: Palinuridae in Guerrero, México

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    Patricia Briones-Fourzán

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of sex, injuries, season and site on the growth of the spiny lobsters Panulirus gracilis, and P. inflatus, were studied through mark-recapture techniques in two sites with different ecological characteristics on the coast of Guerrero, México. Panulirus gracilis occurred in both sites, whereas P. inflatus occurred only in one site. All recaptured individuals were adults. Both species had similar intermolt periods, but P. gracilis had significantly higher growth rates (mm carapace length week -1 than P. inflatus as a result of a larger molt increment. Growth rates of males were higher than those of females in both species owing to larger molt increments and shorter intermolt periods in males. Injuries had no effect on growth rates in either species. Individuals of P. gracilis grew faster in site 1 than in site 2. Therefore, the effect of season on growth of P. gracilis was analyzed separately in each site. In site 2, growth rates of P. gracilis were similar in summer and in winter, whereas insite 1 both species had higher growth rates in winter than in summer. This could be due to spatial differences in processes related to changes in population density and food resources, which were documented in previous works. The overall results show that P. gracilis grows faster than P. inflatus, and that growth rates of both species are highly variable and are affected by environmental factors such as site and season, which should be taken into account when attempting to produce population growth curves for each species.Se analizaron, por medio de marcado-recaptura, los efectos del sexo, heridas, estación del año y localidad sobre el crecimiento de las langostas espinosas Panulirus gracilis Streets, 1871, y Panulirus inflatus (Bouvier, 1895 en dos localidades con diferentes características ecológicas en la costa de Guerrero, México. Panulirus gracilis se presentó en ambas localidades, mientras que P. inflatus sólo se encontró en una de

  5. Growth characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes as affected by a native microflora in cooked ham under refrigerated and temperature abuse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Cheng-An; Sheen, Shiowshuh

    2011-05-01

    This study examined the growth characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes as affected by a native microflora in cooked ham at refrigerated and abuse temperatures. A five-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes and a native microflora, consisting of Brochothrix spp., isolated from cooked meat were inoculated alone (monocultured) or co-inoculated (co-cultured) onto cooked ham slices. The growth characteristics, lag phase duration (LPD, h), growth rate (GR, log(10) cfu/h), and maximum population density (MPD, log(10) cfu/g), of L. monocytogenes and the native microflora in vacuum-packed ham slices stored at 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 °C for up to 5 weeks were determined. At 4-12 °C, the LPDs of co-cultured L. monocytogenes were not significantly different from those of monocultured L. monocytogenes in ham, indicating the LPDs of L. monocytogenes at 4-12 °C were not influenced by the presence of the native microflora. At 4-8 °C, the GRs of co-cultured L. monocytogenes (0.0114-0.0130 log(10) cfu/h) were statistically but marginally lower than those of monocultured L. monocytogenes (0.0132-0.0145 log(10) cfu/h), indicating the GRs of L. monocytogenes at 4-8 °C were reduced by the presence of the native microflora. The GRs of L. monocytogenes were reduced by 8-7% with the presence of the native microflora at 4-8 °C, whereas there was less influence of the native microflora on the GRs of L. monocytogenes at 10 and 12 °C. The MPDs of L. monocytogenes at 4-8 °C were also reduced by the presence of the native microflora. Data from this study provide additional information regarding the growth suppression of L. monocytogenes by the native microflora for assessing the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meat products. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Growth of Candida boidinii on methanol and the activity of methanol-degrading enzymes as affected from formaldehyde and methylformate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggelis, G; Margariti, N; Kralli, C; Flouri, F

    2000-06-23

    Formaldehyde and methylformate affect the growth of Candida boidinii on methanol and the activity of methanol-degrading enzymes. The presence of both intermediates in the feeding medium caused an increase in biomass yield and productivity and a decrease in the specific rate of methanol consumption. In the presence of formaldehyde, the activity of formaldehyde dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase was essentially increased, whereas the activity of methanol oxidase was decreased. On the contrary, the presence of methylformate caused an increase of the activity of methanol oxidase and a decrease of the activity of formaldehyde dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase. Interpretations concerning the yeast behavior in the presence of intermediate oxidation products were considered and discussed.

  7. Magnetic fields produced by power lines do not affect growth, serum melatonin, leukocytes and fledging success in wild kestrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Costantini, David; Lucini, Valeria; Antonucci, Giovanni; Nonno, Romolo; Polichetti, Alessandro

    2009-09-01

    Nesting on high voltage transmission line towers exposes birds to electric and magnetic fields for long periods. Nestlings are exposed from their development in ovo until fledging. This is a critical period for them because the quality of the developmental environment may affect their fitness at adulthood. We carried out a field study on Eurasian kestrels, Falco tinnunculus, to compare chicks from pairs nesting on high voltage power lines vs. those nesting in control sites in similar habitats. The magnetic field (MF) was measured in each nest-box and analysed in relation to growth curves, melatonin levels, leukocyte counts, and fledging success. None of the variables differed between exposed and control nestlings. Wing length (proxy of age) showed a negative covariation with serum melatonin concentration. Our findings suggest that exposure to MFs produced by high voltage power lines during the embryonic and post-hatching period (until fledging) does not have significant short-term physiological effects on kestrel nestlings.

  8. Temperature and water stress during conditioning and incubation phase affecting Orobanche crenata seed germination and radicle growth

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    JUAN eMORAL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic plant that is potentially devastating to crop yield of legume species. Soil temperature and humidity are known to affect seed germination, however, the extent of their influence on germination and radicle growth of those of O. crenata is largely unknown. In this work, we studied the effects of temperature, water potential (Ψt and the type of water stress (matric or osmotic on O. crenata seeds during conditioning and incubation periods. We found that seeds germinated between 5 and 30ºC during both periods, with a maximum around 20ºC. Germination increased with increasing Ψt from -1.2 to 0 MPa during conditioning and incubation periods. Likewise, seed germination increased logarithmically with length of conditioning period until 40 days. The impact of the type of water stress on seed germination was similar, although the radicle growth of seeds under osmotic stress was lower than under matric stress, what could explain the lowest infestation of Orobanche spp. in regions characterized by saline soil. The data in this study will be useful to forecast infection of host roots by O. crenata.

  9. Temperature and water stress during conditioning and incubation phase affecting Orobanche crenata seed germination and radicle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Juan; Lozano-Baena, María Dolores; Rubiales, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic plant that is potentially devastating to crop yield of legume species. Soil temperature and humidity are known to affect seed germination, however, the extent of their influence on germination and radicle growth of those of O. crenata is largely unknown. In this work, we studied the effects of temperature, water potential (Ψt) and the type of water stress (matric or osmotic) on O. crenata seeds during conditioning and incubation periods. We found that seeds germinated between 5 and 30°C during both periods, with a maximum around 20°C. Germination increased with increasing Ψt from -1.2 to 0 MPa during conditioning and incubation periods. Likewise, seed germination increased logarithmically with length of conditioning period until 40 days. The impact of the type of water stress on seed germination was similar, although the radicle growth of seeds under osmotic stress was lower than under matric stress, what could explain the lowest infestation of Orobanche sp. in regions characterized by saline soil. The data in this study will be useful to forecast infection of host roots by O. crenata.

  10. Tenascin-C enhances pancreatic cancer cell growth and motility and affects cell adhesion through activation of the integrin pathway.

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    Igor Paron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PDAC is characterized by an abundant fibrous tissue rich in Tenascin-C (TNC, a large ECM glycoprotein mainly synthesized by pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs. In human pancreatic tissues, TNC expression increases in the progression from low-grade precursor lesions to invasive cancer. Aim of this study was the functional characterization of the effects of TNC on biologic relevant properties of pancreatic cancer cells. METHODS: Proliferation, migration and adhesion assays were performed on pancreatic cancer cell lines treated with TNC or grown on a TNC-rich matrix. Stable transfectants expressing the large TNC splice variant were generated to test the effects of endogenous TNC. TNC-dependent integrin signaling was investigated by immunoblotting, immunofluorescence and pharmacological inhibition. RESULTS: Endogenous TNC promoted pancreatic cancer cell growth and migration. A TNC-rich matrix also enhanced migration as well as the adhesion to the uncoated growth surface of poorly differentiated cell lines. In contrast, adhesion to fibronectin was significantly decreased in the presence of TNC. The effects of TNC on cell adhesion were paralleled by changes in the activation state of paxillin and Akt. CONCLUSION: TNC affects proliferation, migration and adhesion of poorly differentiated pancreatic cancer cell lines and might therefore play a role in PDAC spreading and metastasis in vivo.

  11. Design of the health examination survey on early childhood physical growth in the Great East Japan Earthquake affected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Chida, Shoichi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ono, Atsushi; Kato, Noriko; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yamagata, Zentaro; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on preschool children's physical growth in the disaster-affected areas, the three medical universities in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures conducted a health examination survey on early childhood physical growth. The survey was conducted over a 3-year period to acquire data on children who were born in different years. Our targets were as follows: 1) children who were born between March 1, 2007 and August 31, 2007 and experienced the disaster at 43-48 months of age, 2) children who were born between March 1, 2009 and August 31, 2009 and experienced the disaster at 19-24 months of age, and 3) children who were born between June 1, 2010 and April 30, 2011 and were under 10 months of age or not born yet when the disaster occurred. We collected their health examination data from local governments in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures. We also collected data from Aomori, Akita, and Yamagata Prefectures to use as a control group. The survey items included birth information, anthropometric measurements, and methods of nutrition during infancy. Eighty municipalities from Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures and 21 from the control prefectures participated in the survey. As a result, we established three retrospective cohorts consisting of 13,886, 15,474, and 32,202 preschool children. The large datasets acquired for the present survey will provide valuable epidemiological evidence that should shed light on preschool children's physical growth in relation to the disaster. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Essential fats: how do they affect growth and development of infants and young children in developing countries? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Sandra L; Harika, Rajwinder K; Eilander, Ans; Osendarp, Saskia J M

    2011-10-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are known to play an essential role in the development of the brain and retina. Intakes in pregnancy and early life affect growth and cognitive performance later in childhood. However, total fat intake, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and DHA intakes are often low among pregnant and lactating women, infants and young children in developing countries. As breast milk is one of the best sources of ALA and DHA, breastfed infants are less likely to be at risk of insufficient intakes than those not breastfed. Enhancing intake of ALA through plant food products (soy beans and oil, canola oil, and foods containing these products such as lipid-based nutrient supplements) has been shown to be feasible. However, because of the low conversion rates of ALA to DHA, it may be more efficient to increase DHA status through increasing fish consumption or DHA fortification, but these approaches may be more costly. In addition, breastfeeding up to 2 years and beyond is recommended to ensure an adequate essential fat intake in early life. Data from developing countries have shown that a higher omega-3 fatty acid intake or supplementation during pregnancy may result in small improvements in birthweight, length and gestational age based on two randomized controlled trials and one cross-sectional study. More rigorous randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm this effect. Limited data from developing countries suggest that ALA or DHA supplementation during lactation and in infants may be beneficial for growth and development of young children 6-24 months of age in these settings. These benefits are more pronounced in undernourished children. However, there is no evidence for improvements in growth following omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in children >2 years of age. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Selection based on indirect genetic effects for growth, environmental enrichment and coping style affect the immune status of pigs.

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    Inonge Reimert

    Full Text Available Pigs living in intensive husbandry systems may experience both acute and chronic stress through standard management procedures and limitations in their physical and social environment, which may have implications for their immune status. Here, the effect of a new breeding method where pigs were selected on their heritable influence on their pen mates' growth, and environmental enrichment on the immune status of pigs was investigated. Hereto, 240 pigs with a relatively positive genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (+SBV and 240 pigs with a relatively negative genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (-SBV were housed in barren or straw-enriched pens from 4 to 23 weeks of age (n  =  80 pens in total. A blood sample was taken from the pigs before, three days after a 24 h regrouping test, and at week 22. In addition, effects of coping style, as assessed in a backtest, and gender were also investigated. Mainly, +SBV were found to have lower leukocyte, lymphocyte and haptoglobin concentrations than -SBV pigs. Enriched housed pigs had a lower neutrophil to lymphocyte (N:L ratio and lower haptoglobin concentrations, but had higher antibody titers specific for Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH than barren housed pigs. No interactions were found between SBV class and housing. Furthermore, pigs with a proactive coping style had higher alternative complement activity and, in the enriched pens, higher antibody titers specific for KLH than pigs with a reactive coping style. Lastly, females tended to have lower leukocyte, but higher haptoglobin concentrations than castrated males. Overall, these results suggest that +SBV pigs and enriched housed pigs were less affected by stress than -SBV and barren housed pigs, respectively. Moreover, immune activation might be differently organized in individuals with different coping styles and to a lesser extent in individuals of opposite genders.

  14. Growth Phase, Oxygen, Temperature and Starvation Affect the Development of Viable but Non-Culturable State of Vibrio cholerae

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    Bin eWu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractVibrio cholerae can enter into a viable but non-culturable (VBNC state in order to survive in unfavourable environments. In this study, we studied the roles of five physicochemical and microbiological factors or states, namely, different strains, growth phases, oxygen, temperature, and starvation, on the development of VBNC of V. cholerae in artificial sea water (ASW. Different strains of the organism, the growth phase, and oxygen levels affected the progress of VBNC development. It was found that the VBNC state was induced faster in V. cholerae serogroup O1 classical biotype strain O395 than in O1 El Tor biotype strains C6706 and N16961. When cells in different growth phases were used for VBNC induction, stationary-phase cells lost their culturability more quickly than exponential-phase cells, while induction of a totally non-culturable state took longer to achieve for stationary-phase cells in all three strains, suggesting that heterogeneity of cells should be considered. Aeration strongly accelerated the loss of culturability. During the development of the VBNC state, the culturable cell count under aeration conditions was almost 106-fold lower than under oxygen-limited conditions for all three strains. The other two factors, temperature and nutrients-rich environment, may prevent the induction of VBNC cells. At 22°C or 37°C in ASW, most of the cells rapidly died and the culturable cell count reduced from about 108 CFU/mL to 106–105 CFU/mL. The total cell counts showed that cells that lost viability were decomposed, and the viable cell counts were the same as culturable cell counts, indicating that the cells did not reach the VBNC state. VBNC state development was blocked when ASW was supplied with Luria-Bertani broth (LB, but it was not affected in ASW with M9, suggesting that specific nutrients in LB may prevent the development of VBNC state. These results revealed that the five factors evaluated in this study had different

  15. Intraspecific variation in seed size and light intensity affect seed germination and initial seedling growth of a tropical shrub

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    Aniele C. R. Veloso

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seed germination and seedling performance are affected by environmental factors and seed traits. In this study we investigated the effects of seed size and light intensity on germinability and seedling development of Copaifera oblongifolia. A total of 225 seeds were individually weighed and sown in three germination trays composed of 75 cells each. Each tray was placed in a different germination chamber with controlled photoperiod, temperature and light intensity. Seed size showed a positive relationship with time required for seed germination, and seeds exposed to high light intensity required more time to germinate. Seed size did not affect germination percentage, but seeds sown under high light intensity had a lower germination percentage than seeds sown under low light intensity and darkness. Seedling shoot mass showed a positive relationship with seeds mass, and seedlings grown in high light intensity had greater shoot mass than seedling growth in low light intensity and darkness. Thus, seed germinability of C. oblongifolia was higher in darkness while seedlings exhibited greater development under light. Looking to explain the ability of C. oblongifolia to colonize open/disturbed sites, it seems possible that plowing soil can bury seeds, thereby stimulating the germination of seeds present in the seed bank.

  16. Affective emotion increases heart rate variability and activates left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in post-traumatic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chuguang; Han, Jin; Zhang, Yuqing; Hannak, Walter; Dai, Yanyan; Liu, Zhengkui

    2017-11-30

    The present study evaluated the activities of heart rate variability (HRV) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in response to the presentation of affective pictures correlated with posttraumatic growth (PTG) among adults exposed to the Tianjin explosion incident. The participants who were directly involved in the Tianjin explosions were divided into control, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and PTG group according to the scores of PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version and PTG Inventory survey. All participants received exposure to affective images. Electrocardiogram recording took place during the process for the purpose of analyzing HRV. Meanwhile, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to measure DLPFC activity through hemodynamic response. Our results indicated that, while performing the negative and positive picture stimulating, PTG increased both in low and high frequency components of HRV compared with the control group, but PTSD was not observed in this phenomenon. Moreover, the fNIRS data revealed that PTG had an increased activation in the left DLPFC compared to the control in the condition of negative pictures stimulating, wheras PTSD showed a higher activation in the right DLPFC while receiving positive pictures stimulating. To our knowledge, this is the first study which provides the differences between PTSD and PTG in emotional regulation.

  17. Shaping the Development of Prejudice: Latent Growth Modeling of the Influence of Social Dominance Orientation on Outgroup Affect in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt, Christopher; Sidanius, Jim; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer

    2016-12-01

    Social dominance orientation (SDO) has been theorized as a stable, early-emerging trait influencing outgroup evaluations, a view supported by evidence from cross-sectional and two-wave longitudinal research. Yet, the limitations of identifying causal paths with cross-sectional and two-wave designs are increasingly being acknowledged. This article presents the first use of multi-wave data to test the over-time relationship between SDO and outgroup affect among young people. We use cross-lagged and latent growth modeling (LGM) of a three-wave data set employing Norwegian adolescents (over 2 years, N = 453) and a five-wave data set with American university students (over 4 years, N = 748). Overall, SDO exhibits high temporal rank-order stability and predicts changes in outgroup affect. This research represents the strongest test to date of SDO's role as a stable trait that influences the development of prejudice, while highlighting LGM as a valuable tool for social and political psychology. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  18. Bicaudal D2, dynein, and kinesin-1 associate with nuclear pore complexes and regulate centrosome and nuclear positioning during mitotic entry.

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    Daniël Splinter

    Full Text Available BICD2 is one of the two mammalian homologues of the Drosophila Bicaudal D, an evolutionarily conserved adaptor between microtubule motors and their cargo that was previously shown to link vesicles and mRNP complexes to the dynein motor. Here, we identified a G2-specific role for BICD2 in the relative positioning of the nucleus and centrosomes in dividing cells. By combining mass spectrometry, biochemical and cell biological approaches, we show that the nuclear pore complex (NPC component RanBP2 directly binds to BICD2 and recruits it to NPCs specifically in G2 phase of the cell cycle. BICD2, in turn, recruits dynein-dynactin to NPCs and as such is needed to keep centrosomes closely tethered to the nucleus prior to mitotic entry. When dynein function is suppressed by RNA interference-mediated depletion or antibody microinjection, centrosomes and nuclei are actively pushed apart in late G2 and we show that this is due to the action of kinesin-1. Surprisingly, depletion of BICD2 inhibits both dynein and kinesin-1-dependent movements of the nucleus and cytoplasmic NPCs, demonstrating that BICD2 is needed not only for the dynein function at the nuclear pores but also for the antagonistic activity of kinesin-1. Our study demonstrates that the nucleus is subject to opposing activities of dynein and kinesin-1 motors and that BICD2 contributes to nuclear and centrosomal positioning prior to mitotic entry through regulation of both dynein and kinesin-1.

  19. Factors Affecting Quality and Health Promoting Compounds during Growth and Postharvest Life of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.

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    Sofia Correia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherries are attractive fruits due to their taste, color, nutritional value, and beneficial health effects. Sweet cherry is a highly perishable fruit and all quality attributes and the level of health promoting compounds are affected by growth conditions, picking, packing, transport, and storage. During production, the correct combination of scion × rootstock will produce fruits with higher firmness, weight, sugars, vitamins, and phenolic compounds that boost the fruit antioxidant activity. Orchard management, such as applying drip irrigation and summer pruning, will increase fruit sugar levels and total phenolic content, while application of growth regulators can result in improved storability, increased red coloring, increased fruit size, and reduced cracking. Salicylic acid, oxalic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, and methyl salicylate are promising growth regulators as they also increase total phenolics, anthocyanins, and induce higher activity of antioxidant enzymes. These growth regulators are now also applied as fruit coatings that improve shelf-life with higher antioxidant enzyme activities and total phenolics. Optimizing storage and transport conditions, such as hydro cooling with added CaCl2, chain temperature and relative humidity control, are crucial for slowing down decay of quality attributes and increasing the antioxidant capacity. Application of controlled atmosphere during storage is successful in delaying quality attributes, but lowers ascorbic acid levels. The combination of low temperature storage in combination with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP is successful in reducing the incidence of fruit decay, while preserving taste attributes and stem color with a higher antioxidant capacity. A new trend in MAP is the use of biodegradable films such as micro-perforated polylactic acid film that combine significant retention of quality attributes, high consumer acceptability, and a reduced environmental footprint. Another trend

  20. Early weaning of calves after different dietary regimens affects later rumen development, growth, and carcass traits in Hanwoo cattle

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    Kondreddy Eswar Reddy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of different diets for early-weaned (EW calves on rumen development, and how this affects fat deposition in the longissimus dorsi of adult Korean Hanwoo beef cattle. Methods Three EW groups were established (each n = 12 in which two- week-old Hanwoo calves were fed for ten weeks with milk replacer+concentrate (T1, milk replacer+concentrate+ roughage (T2, or milk replacer+concentrate+30% starch (T3; a control group (n = 12 was weaned as normal. At six months, 5 calves of each group were slaughtered and their organs were assessed and rumen papillae growth rates were measured. The remaining calves (n = 7 in each group were raised to 20 months for further analysis. Results Twenty-month-old EW calves had a higher body weight (BW, backfat thickness (BF, longissimus dorsi muscle area (LMA and intramuscular fat (IMF than the control (p<0.05. Organ growth, rumen histology, and gene expression patterns in the 6-month-old calves were positively related to the development of marbling in the loin, as assessed by ultrasound analysis (p<0.05. In the group fed the starch-enriched diet (T3, higher BW, BF, LMA, and IMF were present. The IMF beef quality score of 20-month-old cattle was 1+ for the T2 and T3 diets and 1 for the T1 diet (p<0.05. Conclusion Papillae development was significantly greater in calves fed on high-concentrate diets and this may have resulted in the improved beef quality in the EW dietary groups compared to the control.

  1. Water availability and population origin affect the expression of the tradeoff between reproduction and growth in Plantago coronopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C F; García, M B; Ehlers, B K

    2013-05-01

    Investment in reproduction and growth represent a classic tradeoff with implication for life history evolution. The local environment can play a major role in the magnitude and evolutionary consequences of such a tradeoff. Here, we examined the investment in reproductive and vegetative tissue in 40 maternal half-sib families from four different populations of the herb Plantago coronopus growing in either a dry or wet greenhouse environment. Plants originated from populations with an annual or a perennial life form, with annuals prevailing in drier habitats with greater seasonal variation in both temperature and precipitation. We found that water availability affected the expression of the tradeoff (both phenotypic and genetic) between reproduction and growth, being most accentuated under dry condition. However, populations responded very differently to water treatments. Plants from annual populations showed a similar response to drought condition with little variation among maternal families, suggesting a history of selection favouring genotypes with high allocation to reproduction when water availability is low. Plants from annual populations also expressed the highest level of plasticity. For the perennial populations, one showed a large variation among maternal families in resource allocation and expressed significant negative genetic correlations between reproductive and vegetative biomass under drought. The other perennial population showed less variation in response to treatment and had trait values similar to those of the annuals, although it was significantly less plastic. We stress the importance of considering intraspecific variation in response to environmental change such as drought, as conspecific plants exhibited very different abilities and strategies to respond to high versus low water availability even among geographically close populations. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. [Changes in ingestive behavior during growth affects the functional maturation of temporomandibular joint nociceptive neurons of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiranuma, Maya

    2013-03-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) loading during development promotes its growth and maintains normal structure/function. Continuous change in diet consistency is related to development and maturation of the peripheral nervous system, including the nociceptive system. However, the functional modulation of TMJ-nociceptive neurons under different ingestive behavior is unclear. We fed growing rats a liquid diet to investigate the effects of low TMJ loading on the response properties of neurons in the trigeminal spinal tract subnucleus caudalis (Sp5C). Forty 2-week-old male rats were used. They were fed chow pellets (n = 20, C group) or a liquid diet (n = 20, LD group) soon after weaning. Firing activities of single sensory units in response to TMJ pressure stimuli were recorded at 4, 5, 7 and 9 weeks. In TMJ-nociceptive neurons, the firing threshold (FT) in the LD group was significantly lower than that in the C group at each recording age. The FT in the C group remained unchanged throughout the recording period, whereas that in the LD group was the highest at 4 weeks, and gradually decreased. On the other hand, the initial firing frequency (IFF) was significantly higher in the LD group than in the C group at each recording age. The IFF in the C group remained unchanged throughout the experimental period, whereas that in the LD group was at its lowest at 4 weeks, and gradually increased. Based on these findings, ingestive behavior that results from continuous changes in the physical consistency of the diet during growth may affect the functional maturation of TMJ-nociceptive neurons.

  3. A putative ATP/GTP binding protein affects Leishmania mexicana growth in insect vectors and vertebrate hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlaváčová, Jana; Zimmer, Sara L.; Butenko, Anzhelika; Podešvová, Lucie; Leštinová, Tereza; Lukeš, Julius; Kostygov, Alexei; Votýpka, Jan; Volf, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Background Leishmania virulence factors responsible for the complicated epidemiology of the various leishmaniases remain mainly unidentified. This study is a characterization of a gene previously identified as upregulated in two of three overlapping datasets containing putative factors important for Leishmania’s ability to establish mammalian intracellular infection and to colonize the gut of an insect vector. Methodology/Principal findings The investigated gene encodes ATP/GTP binding motif-containing protein related to Leishmania development 1 (ALD1), a cytosolic protein that contains a cryptic ATP/GTP binding P-loop. We compared differentiation, growth rates, and infective abilities of wild-type and ALD1 null mutant cell lines of L. mexicana. Loss of ALD1 results in retarded growth kinetics but not defects in differentiation in axenic culture. Similarly, when mice and the sand fly vector were infected with the ALD1 null mutant, the primary difference in infection and colonization phenotype relative to wild type was an inability to achieve maximal host pathogenicity. While ability of the ALD1 null mutant cells to infect macrophages in vitro was not affected, replication within macrophages was clearly curtailed. Conclusions/Significance L. mexicana ALD1, encoding a protein with no assigned functional domains or motifs, was identified utilizing multiple comparative analyses with the related and often experimentally overlooked monoxenous flagellates. We found that it plays a role in Leishmania infection and colonization in vitro and in vivo. Results suggest that ALD1 functions in L. mexicana’s general metabolic network, rather than function in specific aspect of virulence as anticipated from the compared datasets. This result validates our comparative genomics approach for finding relevant factors, yet highlights the importance of quality laboratory-based analysis of genes tagged by these methods. PMID:28742133

  4. Growth curve and diet density affect eating motivation, behavior, and body composition of broiler breeders during rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Los Mozos, J; García-Ruiz, A I; den Hartog, L A; Villamide, M J

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this work has been to assess the effect of diet density [control (CON) or 15% diluted (DIL)] and growth curve [recommended by the genetic line (RBW) or 15% heavier (HBW)] and their interaction on BW uniformity, feeding motivation, behavior, and body composition of broiler breeder pullets. A total of 3,000 one-day-old female breeders Ross 308, distributed in 20 pens, was randomly assigned to each treatment. Feed allowance was weekly adjusted to reach the desired BW. Feed was provided as pelleted (zero to 3 wk) and crumble (4 to 19 wk). Time eating was measured at 7, 11, and 19 weeks. A feeding rate test was performed after 11 weeks. Behavior was observed at 9 and 15 wk, by visual scan. At 6, 13, and 19 wk of age, one bird/pen was slaughtered for weighing different organs and analyzing the composition of empty whole bodies. Treatments did not affect BW uniformity; relative weights of the ovary, oviduct, or gizzard; or protein content of empty BW. Time eating varied with the growth curve at 19 wk (P Behavior was affected by the age and by the time of the d measured, but it did not change with the treatments. Birds spent most time pecking objects (50%), feeding (28%), and drinking (17%). Pullets fed DIL had 8% lower breast yield at different ages and higher empty digestive tracts at 6 weeks. Body composition varied with age; fat content increased from 12.7 to 15.9 to 19.8% for 6, 13, and 19 wk, respectively. The lowest body fat was observed for RBW pullets fed DIL (P = 0.003) at 19 weeks. Feeding DIL diets to HBW pullets could be done to increase the time spent eating and reduce their feeling of hunger without negative effects on body composition. However, its influence on behavior and BW uniformity was not proved. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  5. Factors Affecting the Growth and Production of Milk-Clotting Enzyme by Amylomyces rouxii in Rice Liquid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Jing Yu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Amylomyces rouxii is one of the main fungi usually coexisting with yeasts in Chinese yeast ball, the starter of chiu-niang, a traditional Chinese fermented product from rice. In the present study, growth and production of milk-clotting enzyme (MCE in gelatinous rice liquid culture of A. rouxii as influenced by waxy (gelatinous rice content in the medium (5–20 %, temperature (25–40 °C, cultivation time (1–6 days, shaking speeds (0–150 rpm and metal ions (Na+, K+, Zn2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Ca2+, Fe3+ and Al3+ were investigated. Results revealed that rice content in the medium, shaking speed, temperature and cultivation time all affected the mycelial propagation and the production of milk-clotting enzyme by A. rouxii in the rice liquid culture. The maximum milk-clotting enzyme activity of ca. 1.22 unit/mL of medium was observed in the 3-day static culture of test organism grown at 30 °C in the medium containing 20 % of gelatinous rice, while mycelial propagation increased with the increase of cultivation time and shaking speed. Furthermore, a significant increase (p<0.05 in the milk-clotting enzyme activity of ca. 1.90 unit/mL of medium, which was about 1.55-fold of the control, was observed when Al3+ was added to the rice liquid medium.

  6. Psychometric properties of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory for Children in Chilean population affected by the earthquake of 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrades, Mariela; García, Felipe E; Reyes-Reyes, Alejandro; Martínez-Arias, Rosario; Calonge, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines the psychometric properties of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory for Children in its brief version (PTGI-C-R; Kilmer et al., 2009), an inventory that measured positive personal changes that occur after experiencing a traumatic event. The PTGI-C-R was applied to 393 children from 10 to 15 years of age affected by the earthquake and tsunami in Chile February 27, 2010. The scale showed good internal consistency and discriminant validity in relation to an inventory of posttraumatic stress symptoms. It was also able to discriminate between children who had high exposure to the earthquake and children with mild or no exposure. Confirmatory factor analysis showed adequate goodness of fit for a 2-factor structure: general change and spiritual change. The PTGI-C-R also showed factorial invariance in groups of high and low exposure. These positive psychometric qualities indicate the utility of the instrument for use in children and adolescents exposed to natural disasters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. RNAi-mediated gene silencing of WsSGTL1 in W.somnifera affects growth and glycosylation pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saema, Syed; Rahman, Laiq ur; Niranjan, Abhishek; Ahmad, Iffat Zareen; Misra, Pratibha

    2015-01-01

    Sterol glycosyltransferases (SGTs) belong to family 1 of glycosyltransferases (GTs) and are enzymes responsible for synthesis of sterol–glucosides (SGs) in many organisms. WsSGTL1 is a SGT of Withania somnifera that has been found associated with plasma membranes. However its biological function in W.somnifera is largely unknown. In the present study, we have demonstrated through RNAi silencing of WsSGTL1 gene that it performs glycosylation of withanolides and sterols resulting in glycowithanolides and glycosylated sterols respectively, and affects the growth and development of transgenic W.somnifera. For this, RNAi construct (pFGC1008-WsSGTL1) was made and genetic transformation was done by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. HPLC analysis depicts the reduction of withanoside V (the glycowithanolide of W.somnifera) and a large increase of withanolides (majorly withaferin A) content. Also, a significant decrease in level of glycosylated sterols has been observed. Hence, the obtained data provides an insight into the biological function of WsSGTL1 gene in W.somnifera. PMID:26357855

  8. Factors Affecting Transport Sector CO(2) Emissions Growth in Latin American and Caribbean Countries : An LMDI Decomposition Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, A.; Timilsina, G. R.

    2009-01-01

    This study determines the factors responsible for the growth of transport sector CO(2) emissions in 20 Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries during the 1980-2005 period by decomposing the emissions growth into components associated with changes in fuel mix (FM), modal shift and economic growth, as well as changes in emission coefficients (EC) and transportation energy intensity (EI). The key finding of the study is that economic growth and the changes in transportation El are the princ...

  9. In vitro zygotic embryo culture of Pinus peuce Gris.: Optimization of culture conditions affecting germination and early seedling growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojičić Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports a protocol for the germination and early seedling growth of Pinus peuce Gris. using zygotic embryo culture. In order to overcome seed dormancy and optimize organogenesis, the effect of nutritional, plant growth regulatory and physical factors on in vitro germination and growth of isolated mature zygotic embryos of P. peuce were investigated.

  10. Human TREX2 components PCID2 and centrin 2, but not ENY2, have distinct functions in protein export and co-localize to the centrosome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Corey N.; Schmidt, Casey A.; Schramm, Nathaniel J. [Westminster College, Department of Biology, 319 South Market Street, New Wilmington, PA 16172 (United States); Gaylord, Michelle R. [Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California – San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, 0347, La Jolla, CA 92093-0347 (United States); Resendes, Karen K., E-mail: resendkk@westminster.edu [Westminster College, Department of Biology, 319 South Market Street, New Wilmington, PA 16172 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    TREX-2 is a five protein complex, conserved from yeast to humans, involved in linking mRNA transcription and export. The centrin 2 subunit of TREX-2 is also a component of the centrosome and is additionally involved in a distinctly different process of nuclear protein export. While centrin 2 is a known multifunctional protein, the roles of other human TREX-2 complex proteins other than mRNA export are not known. In this study, we found that human TREX-2 member PCID2 but not ENY2 is involved in some of the same cellular processes as those of centrin 2 apart from the classical TREX-2 function. PCID2 is present at the centrosome in a subset of HeLa cells and this localization is centrin 2 dependent. Furthermore, the presence of PCID2 at the centrosome is prevalent throughout the cell cycle as determined by co-staining with cyclins E, A and B. PCID2 but not ENY2 is also involved in protein export. Surprisingly, siRNA knockdown of PCID2 delayed the rate of nuclear protein export, a mechanism distinct from the effects of centrin 2, which when knocked down inhibits export. Finally we showed that co-depletion of centrin 2 and PCID2 leads to blocking rather than delaying nuclear protein export, indicating the dominance of the centrin 2 phenotype. Together these results represent the first discovery of specific novel functions for PCID2 other than mRNA export and suggest that components of the TREX-2 complex serve alternative shared roles in the regulation of nuclear transport and cell cycle progression. - Highlights: • TREX2 complex member PCID2 but not ENY2 localizes to the centrosome in HeLa cells. • Centrin 2 is required for the localization of PCID2 at the centrosome. • PCID2 is found at the centrosome in G1/S at a slightly higher rate than that in G2/M. • PCID2 but not ENY2 delays the rate of nuclear protein export. • Co-depletion of centrin 2 and PCID2 leads to blocking rather than delaying nuclear protein export.

  11. Prohibition of antibiotic growth promoters has affected the genomic profiles of Lactobacillus salivarius inhabiting the swine intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Yeong; Han, Geon Goo; Lee, Ho-Bin; Lee, Sang-Mok; Kang, Sang-Kee; Jin, Gwi-Deuk; Park, Jongbin; Chae, Byung Jo; Choi, Yo Han; Kim, Eun Bae; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2017-01-01

    After the introduction of a ban on the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) for livestock, the feeding environment, including the composition of animal intestinal microbiota, has changed rapidly. We hypothesized that the microbial genomes have also been affected by this legal prohibition, and investigated an important member of the swine gut microbiota, Lactobacillus salivarius, with a pan-genomic approach. Here, we isolated 21 L. salivarius strains composed of 6 strains isolated before the AGP prohibition (SBPs) and 15 strains isolated after the AGP prohibition (SAPs) at an interval of a decade, and the draft genomes were generated de novo. Several genomic differences between SBPs and SAPs were identified, although the number and function of antibiotic resistance genes were not different. SBPs showed larger genome size and a higher number of orthologs, as well as lower genetic diversity, than SAPs. SBPs had genes associated with the utilization of L-rhamnose and D-tagatose for energy production. Because these sugars are also used in exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis, we tried to identify differences in biofilm formation-associated genes. The genes for the production of EPSs and extracellular proteins were different in terms of amino acid sequences. Indeed, SAPs formed dense biofilm and survived better than SBPs in the swine intestinal environment. These results suggest that SAPs have evolved and adapted to protect themselves from new selection pressure of the swine intestinal microenvironment by forming dense biofilms, adopting a distinct antibiotic resistance strategy. This finding is particularly important to understand the evolutionary changes in host-microbe interaction and provide detailed insight for the development of effective probiotics for livestock.

  12. Fasting levels of growth hormone are associated with carotid intima media thickness but are not affected by fluvastatin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallengren, Erik; Almgren, Peter; Rosvall, Maria; Östling, Gerd; Persson, Margaretha; Bergmann, Andreas; Struck, Joachim; Engström, Gunnar; Hedblad, Bo; Melander, Olle

    2017-05-16

    Growth hormone (GH) has been linked to cardiovascular disease but the exact mechanism of this association is still unclear. We here test if the fasting levels of GH are cross-sectionally associated with carotid intima media thickness (IMT) and whether treatment with fluvastatin affects the fasting level of GH. We examined the association between GH and IMT in 4425 individuals (aged 46-68 years) included in the baseline examination (1991-1994) of the Malmö Diet and Cancer cardiovascular cohort (MDC-CC). From that cohort we then studied 472 individuals (aged 50-70 years) who also participated (1994-1999) in the β-Blocker Cholesterol-Lowering Asymptomatic Plaque Study (BCAPS), a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, single-center clinical trial. Using multivariate linear regression models we related the change in GH-levels at 12 months compared with baseline to treatment with 40 mg fluvastatin once daily. In MDC-CC fasting values of GH exhibited a positive cross-sectional relation to the IMT at the carotid bulb independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (p = 0.002). In a gender-stratified analysis the correlation were significant for males (p = 0.005), but not for females (p = 0.09). Treatment with fluvastatin was associated with a minor reduction in the fasting levels of hs-GH in males (p = 0.05) and a minor rise in the same levels among females (p = 0.05). We here demonstrate that higher fasting levels of GH are associated with thicker IMT in the carotid bulb in males. Treatment with fluvastatin for 12 months only had a minor, and probably not clinically relevant, effect on the fasting levels of hs-GH.

  13. Prohibition of antibiotic growth promoters has affected the genomic profiles of Lactobacillus salivarius inhabiting the swine intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Yeong Lee

    Full Text Available After the introduction of a ban on the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs for livestock, the feeding environment, including the composition of animal intestinal microbiota, has changed rapidly. We hypothesized that the microbial genomes have also been affected by this legal prohibition, and investigated an important member of the swine gut microbiota, Lactobacillus salivarius, with a pan-genomic approach. Here, we isolated 21 L. salivarius strains composed of 6 strains isolated before the AGP prohibition (SBPs and 15 strains isolated after the AGP prohibition (SAPs at an interval of a decade, and the draft genomes were generated de novo. Several genomic differences between SBPs and SAPs were identified, although the number and function of antibiotic resistance genes were not different. SBPs showed larger genome size and a higher number of orthologs, as well as lower genetic diversity, than SAPs. SBPs had genes associated with the utilization of L-rhamnose and D-tagatose for energy production. Because these sugars are also used in exopolysaccharide (EPS synthesis, we tried to identify differences in biofilm formation-associated genes. The genes for the production of EPSs and extracellular proteins were different in terms of amino acid sequences. Indeed, SAPs formed dense biofilm and survived better than SBPs in the swine intestinal environment. These results suggest that SAPs have evolved and adapted to protect themselves from new selection pressure of the swine intestinal microenvironment by forming dense biofilms, adopting a distinct antibiotic resistance strategy. This finding is particularly important to understand the evolutionary changes in host-microbe interaction and provide detailed insight for the development of effective probiotics for livestock.

  14. Vizantin inhibits bacterial adhesion without affecting bacterial growth and causes Streptococcus mutans biofilm to detach by altering its internal architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Shoji; Oda, Masataka; Domon, Hisanori; Ohsumi, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Yuki; Ohshima, Hayato; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Terao, Yutaka; Noiri, Yuichiro

    2016-11-11

    An ideal antibiofilm strategy is to control both in the quality and quantity of biofilm while maintaining the benefits derived from resident microflora. Vizantin, a recently developed immunostimulating compound, has also been found to have antibiofilm property. This study evaluated the influence on biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans in the presence of sulfated vizantin and biofilm development following bacterial adhesion on a hydroxyapatite disc coated with sulfated vizantin. Supplementation with sulfated vizantin up to 50 μM did not affect either bacterial growth or biofilm formation, whereas 50 μM sulfated vizantin caused the biofilm to readily detach from the surface. Sulfated vizantin at the concentration of 50 μM upregulated the expression of the gtfB and gtfC genes, but downregulated the expression of the gtfD gene, suggesting altered architecture in the biofilm. Biofilm development on the surface coated with sulfated vizantin was inhibited depending on the concentration, suggesting prevention from bacterial adhesion. Among eight genes related to bacterial adherence in S. mutans, expression of gtfB and gtfC was significantly upregulated, whereas the expression of gtfD, GbpA and GbpC was downregulated according to the concentration of vizantin, especially with 50 μM vizantin by 0.8-, 0.4-, and 0.4-fold, respectively. These findings suggest that sulfated vizantin may cause structural degradation as a result of changing gene regulation related to bacterial adhesion and glucan production of S. mutans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Early- versus Late-Onset Fetal Growth Restriction Differentially Affects the Development of the Fetal Sheep Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves de Alencar Rocha, Anna Karynna; Allison, Beth J; Yawno, Tamara; Polglase, Graeme R; Sutherland, Amy E; Malhotra, Atul; Jenkin, Graham; Castillo-Melendez, Margie; Miller, Suzanne L

    2017-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a common complication of pregnancy, principally caused by suboptimal placental function, and is associated with high rates of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Clinical studies suggest that the time of onset of placental insufficiency is an important contributor towards the neurodevelopmental impairments that are evident in children who had FGR. It is however currently unknown how early-onset and late-onset FGR differentially affect brain development. The aim of this study was to examine neuropathology in early-onset and late-onset FGR fetal sheep and to determine whether they differentially alter brain development. We induced placental insufficiency and FGR via single umbilical artery ligation at either 88 days (early-onset) or 105 days (late-onset) of fetal sheep gestation (term is approx. 147 days), reflecting a period of rapid white matter brain development. Fetal blood samples were collected for the first 10 days after surgery, and all fetuses were sacrificed at 125 days' gestation for brain collection and subsequent histopathology. Our results show that early-onset FGR fetuses became progressively hypoxic over the first 10 days after onset of placental insufficiency, whereas late-onset FGR fetuses were significantly hypoxic compared to controls from day 1 after onset of placental insufficiency (SaO2 46.7 ± 7.4 vs. 65.7 ± 3.9%, respectively, p = 0.03). Compared to control brains, early-onset FGR brains showed widespread white matter injury, with a reduction in both CNPase-positive and MBP-positive density of staining in the periventricular white matter (PVWM), subcortical white matter, intragyral white matter (IGWM), subventricular zone (SVZ), and external capsule (p brains with reactive astrogliosis (GFAP-positive) in the IGWM and cortex (p brain development that principally mediates altered brain development associated with FGR. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Cross-scale interactions affect tree growth and intrinsic water use efficiency and highlight the importance of spatial context in managing forests under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth J. Ruzicka; Klaus J. Puettmann; J. Renée Brooks

    2017-01-01

    Summary1. We investigated the potential of cross-scale interactions to affect the outcome of density reduction in a large-scale silvicultural experiment to better understand options for managing forests under climate change. 2. We measured tree growth and intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) based on stable carbon isotopes (δ...

  17. Cross-scale interactions affect tree growth and intrinsic water use efficiency and highlight the importance of spatial context in managing forests under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. We investigated the potential of cross-scale interactions to affect the outcome of density reduction in a large-scale silvicultural experiment. 2. We measured tree growth and intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) based on stable carbon isotopes (13C) to investigate the...

  18. Specific protein supplementation using soya, casein or whey differentially affects regional gut growth and luminal growth factor bioactivity in rats; implications for the treatment of gut injury and stimulating repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchbank, Tania; Mandir, Nikki; Calnan, Denis; Goodlad, Robert A; Podas, Theo; Playford, Raymond J

    2018-01-24

    Modulation of regional growth within specific segments of the bowel may have clinical value for several gastrointestinal conditions. We therefore examined the effects of different dietary protein sources on regional gut growth and luminal growth factor bioactivity as potential therapies. Rats were fed for 14 days on isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets comprising elemental diet (ED) alone (which is known to cause gut atrophy), ED supplemented with casein or whey or a soya protein-rich feed. Effects on regional gut growth and intraluminal growth factor activity were then determined. Despite calorie intake being similar in all groups, soya rich feed caused 20% extra total body weight gain. Stomach weight was highest on soya and casein diets. Soya enhanced diet caused greatest increase in small intestinal weight and preserved luminal growth factor activity at levels sufficient to increase proliferation in vitro. Regional small intestinal proliferation was highest in proximal segment in ED fed animals whereas distal small intestine proliferation was greater in soya fed animals. Colonic weight and proliferation throughout the colon was higher in animals receiving soya or whey supplemented feeds. We conclude that specific protein supplementation with either soya, casein or whey may be beneficial to rest or increase growth in different regions of the bowel through mechanisms that include differentially affecting luminal growth factor bioactivity. These results have implications for targeting specific regions of the bowel for conditions such as Crohn's disease and chemotherapy.

  19. Altering the expression of two chitin synthase genes differentially affects the growth and morphology of Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Christian; Hjort, C.M.; Hansen, K.

    2002-01-01

    was induced in the strain containing the p(niiA)-chsB construct, the strain displayed wild-type morphology on solid medium and at sub-maximum growth rates but the wild-type morphology was not fully restored during rapid growth in batch cultivation. The csmA disruption strain displayed morphological...

  20. Re-examining the role of Drosophila Sas-4 in centrosome assembly using two-colour-3D-SIM FRAP

    OpenAIRE

    Conduit, Paul T; Wainman, Alan; Novak, Zsofia A; Weil, Timothy T; Raff, Jordan W

    2015-01-01

    Centrosomes have many important functions and comprise a "mother" and “daughter” centriole surrounded by Pericentriolar Material (PCM). The mother centriole recruits and organises the PCM and templates the formation of the "daughter" centriole. It has been reported that several important Drosophila PCM-organising proteins are recruited to centrioles from the cytosol as part of large cytoplasmic "S-CAP" complexes that contain the centriole protein Sas-4. In a previous paper [1] we showed that ...

  1. Model of acetic acid-affected growth and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production by Cupriavidus necator DSM 545.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marudkla, Jaruwan; Lee, Wen-Chien; Wannawilai, Siwaporn; Chisti, Yusuf; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote

    2018-02-20

    Acetic acid, a potential growth inhibitor, commonly occurs in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. The growth of Cupriavidus necator DSM 545 and production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) by this bacterium in a glucose-based medium supplemented with various initial concentrations of acetic acid are reported. The bacterium could use both glucose and acetic acid to grow and produce PHB, but acetic acid inhibited growth once its initial concentration exceeded 0.5 g/L. As acetic acid is an unavoidable contaminant in hydrolysates used as sugar sources in commercial fermentations, a mathematical model was developed to describe its impact on growth and the production of PHB. The model was shown to satisfactorily apply to growth and PHB production data obtained in media made with acetic-acid-containing hydrolysates of Napier grass and oil palm trunk as carbon substrates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Early growth of Quercus castaneifolia (C.A. Meyer) seedlings as affected by weeding, shading and irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Javad; Tabari, Masoud; Daroodi, Hadi

    2007-08-01

    The influence of shading, irrigation and weeding on survival, growth and morphology of 1-year Quercus castaneifolia seedlings was studied in north of Iran. The seedlings were grown under eight treatments including full-light versus artificial shading, irrigation versus non-irrigation and weed presence versus weed removing at three replicates. At the end of the first growing season seedling survival in all treatments was 100%. Weed removing had positive effect on height, diameter growth, slenderness coefficient and leaf area of Q. castaneifolia. Irrigation enhanced diameter growth and leaf area and shading increased leaf area. Irrigation had no significant effect on plant growth where the weed was removed. In weed plots seedlings growth and leaf area were greater in shading than in full-light. The results indicated that for 1 year Q. castaneifolia seedlings, weeding, in contrast to irrigation, is an essential factor. Where the weed competition is a difficulty, plantation with higher stem length should be applied.

  3. Assessing Effects and interactions among key variables affecting the growth of mixotrophic microalgae: pH, inoculum volume, and growth medium composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, M T; Pinelo, M; Meyer, A S

    2014-01-01

    A 2(3) + 3 full factorial experimental design was used to evaluate growth rate and biomass productivity of four selected, high-biomass-yielding microalgae species,namely, Chlorella vulgaris (CV), Scenedesmus acutus (SA), Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CR), and Chlamydomonas debaryana (CD), in mixtures of growth medium (MWC) and wastewater at different proportions (from 20 to 50% of MWC) and at different pH (from 7 to 9). Multilinear regression analysis of the biomass productivity data showed that for SA and CD the biomass productivity was independent of the proportion of medium (MWC), while the growth of CV and CR slowed down in mixtures with high proportions of wastewater. However, the biomass productivity of SA was dependent on pH, while the growth of the other microalgae was independent of pH (7-9). When evaluating the influence of pH and proportion of medium, CD appeared most robust among the algae species, despite its lower biomass productivity. All the four species reduced 80-90% of the nitrate [Formula: see text] and 60-70% of the ammonia [Formula: see text] initially present in the wastewater:medium mixture, although the extent of the reduction was dependent on the initial [Formula: see text] ratio. Both SA and CV reduced ∼20-25% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) contained in the wastewater. This study shows the remarkable influence of certain variables that are often ignored in the search for optimal conditions of microalgal growth and also reveals the importance of considering interactions among growth variables in potential applications at large scale, particularly in the field of bioremediation.

  4. Microtubule-associated protein Mdp3 promotes breast cancer growth and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tala; Xie, Songbo; Sun, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaoou; Ran, Jie; Zhang, Linlin; Li, Dengwen; Liu, Min; Bao, Gang; Zhou, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women worldwide with a high mortality rate, and the identification of new biomarkers and targets for this disease is greatly needed. Here we present evidence that microtubule-associated protein (MAP) 7 domain-containing protein 3 (Mdp3) is highly expressed in clinical samples and cell lines of breast cancer. The expression of Mdp3 correlates with clinicopathological parameters indicating breast cancer malignancy. In addition, Mdp3 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and motility in vitro and stimulates breast cancer growth and metastasis in mice. Mechanistic studies reveal that γ-tubulin interacts with and recruits Mdp3 to the centrosome and that the centrosomal localization of Mdp3 is required for its activity to promote breast cancer cell proliferation and motility. These findings suggest a critical role for Mdp3 in the growth and metastasis of breast cancer and may have important implications for the management of this disease.

  5. Acute exposure to tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) affects growth and development of embryo-larval zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiran; Wu, Ding; Xu, Qinglong; Yu, Liqin; Liu, Chunsheng; Wang, Jianghua

    2017-10-01

    Tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), is used as a flame retardant worldwide. It is an additive in materials and can be easily discharged into the surrounding environment. There is evidence linking TBOEP exposure to abnormal development and growth in zebrafish embryos/larvae. Here, using zebrafish embryo as a model, we investigated toxicological effects on developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) caused by TBOEP at concentrations of 0, 20, 200, 1000, 2000μg/L starting from 2h post-fertilization (hpf). Our findings revealed that TBOEP exposure caused developmental toxicity, such as malformation, growth delay and decreased heart rate in zebrafish larvae. Correlation analysis indicated that inhibition of growth was possibly due to down-regulation of expression of genes related to the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF) axis. Furthermore, exposure to TBOEP significantly increased thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) in whole larvae. In addition, changed expression of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis was observed, indicating that perturbation of HPT axis might be responsible for the developmental damage and growth delay induced by TBOEP. The present study provides a new set of evidence that exposure of embryo-larval zebrafish to TBOEP can cause perturbation of GH/IGF axis and HPT axis, which could result in developmental impairment and growth inhibition. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Novel Microcephalic Primordial Dwarfism Disorder Associated with Variants in the Centrosomal Protein Ninein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dauber, Andrew; LaFranchi, Stephen H.; Maliga, Zoltan

    2012-01-01

    Context: Microcephalic primordial dwarfism (MPD) is a rare, severe form of human growth failure in which growth restriction is evident in utero and continues into postnatal life. Single causative gene defects have been identified in a number of patients with MPD, and all involve genes fundamental...

  7. Assessment of toxicity thresholds in aquatic environments: does benthic growth of diatoms affect their exposure and sensitivity to herbicides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larras, Floriane; Montuelle, Bernard; Bouchez, Agnès

    2013-10-01

    Benthic diatoms evolved in a biofilm structure, at the interface between water and substrata. Biofilms can adsorb toxicants, such as herbicides, but little is known about the exposure of biofilm organisms, such as benthic diatoms, to these adsorbed herbicides. We assessed the sensitivity of 11 benthic diatoms species to 6 herbicides under both planktonic and benthic conditions using single-species bioassays. The concentration that reduced the growth rate of the population by 10% (EC10) and 50% (EC50), respectively, varied depending on the species, the herbicides, and the growth forms involved. As a general trend, the more hydrophobic the herbicide, the more species were found to be sensitive under benthic growth conditions. Statistical differences (alphadiatoms. For metolachlor, terbutryn and irgarol, benthic thresholds derived from species sensitivity distributions were more protective than planktonic thresholds. For hydrophobic herbicides, deriving sensitivity thresholds from data obtained under benthic growth seems to offer a promising alternative. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Markers of bone metabolism are affected by renal function and growth hormone therapy in children with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doyon, Anke; Fischer, Dagmar Christiane; Bayazit, Aysun Karabay

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The extent and relevance of altered bone metabolism for statural growth in children with chronic kidney disease is controversial. We analyzed the impact of renal dysfunction and recombinant growth hormone therapy on a panel of serum markers of bone metabolism in a large pediatric...... turnover state in children with chronic kidney disease. Growth hormone induces an osteoanabolic pattern and normalizes osteocyte activity. The osteocyte markers cFGF23 and sclerostin are associated with standardized height, and the markers of bone turnover predict height velocity......./min/ 1.73m2. 41 children receiving recombinant growth hormone therapy were compared to an untreated matched control group. Results: Standardized levels of BAP, TRAP5b and cFGF-23 were increased whereas sclerostin was reduced. BAP was correlated positively and cFGF-23 inversely with eGFR. Intact serum...

  9. Growth and mortality of thinned knobcone x Monterey pine saplings affected by engraver beetles and a hard freeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    William W. Oliver

    1979-01-01

    Mortality and diameter growth loss were severe on study plots in a thinned plantation of 9-year-old trees. California five-spined engravers killed 15 percent of the trees and a hard freeze killed 20 percent of the survivors. Mortality was higher and subsequent diameter growth was lower in trees with most of their needles freeze-killed than in trees less severely...

  10. Stocking density affects the growth performance and metabolism of Amur sturgeon by regulating expression of genes in the GH/IGF axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuanyuan; Wen, Haishen; Li, Yun; Li, Jifang

    2017-07-01

    The effects of stocking density on the growth and metabolism of Amur sturgeon were assessed. Amur sturgeon were grown for 70 days at three different stocking densities (low stocking density, LSD: 5.5 kg/m3; medium stocking density, MSD: 8.0 kg/m3; and high stocking density, HSD: 11.0 kg/m3), and the biometric index, muscle composition, and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. In addition, pituitary, liver, and muscle samples were collected for gene cloning and expression analyses. After 70 days of growth, the fish maintained at HSD had significantly lower final body weight and specific growth rate, and a higher feed conversion ratio than those of the fish in the MSD and LSD groups. The HSD group had the lowest lipid and protein concentrations in serum and muscle. The serum cortisol concentration increased significantly in the HSD group, indicating that the stress-response system was activated in these fish. There was no change in the concentration of serum insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2), while the concentrations of serum growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) decreased in the HSD group. The full-length cDNAs of GH and IGF-2 genes (995-bp and 1 207-bp long, respectively), were cloned and analyzed. In the HSD group, the expressions of GH in the pituitary and growth hormone receptor (GHR) and IGF-1 in the liver were down-regulated at the end of the 70-day experiment. In the HSD group, the transcript level of IGF-2 significantly decreased in the liver, but did not change in muscle. Overall, our results indicated that a HSD negatively affects the growth performance and leads to changes in lipid and protein metabolism in Amur sturgeon. The down-regulated expression of genes related to the GH/IGF axis may be responsible for the poor growth performance of Amur sturgeon under crowding stress.

  11. The Populus Class III HD ZIP transcription factor POPCORONA affects cell differentiation during secondary growth of woody stems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Du

    Full Text Available The developmental mechanisms regulating cell differentiation and patterning during the secondary growth of woody tissues are poorly understood. Class III HD ZIP transcription factors are evolutionarily ancient and play fundamental roles in various aspects of plant development. Here we investigate the role of a Class III HD ZIP transcription factor, POPCORONA, during secondary growth of woody stems. Transgenic Populus (poplar trees expressing either a miRNA-resistant POPCORONA or a synthetic miRNA targeting POPCORONA were used to infer function of POPCORONA during secondary growth. Whole plant, histological, and gene expression changes were compared for transgenic and wild-type control plants. Synthetic miRNA knock down of POPCORONA results in abnormal lignification in cells of the pith, while overexpression of a miRNA-resistant POPCORONA results in delayed lignification of xylem and phloem fibers during secondary growth. POPCORONA misexpression also results in coordinated changes in expression of genes within a previously described transcriptional network regulating cell differentiation and cell wall biosynthesis, and hormone-related genes associated with fiber differentiation. POPCORONA illustrates another function of Class III HD ZIPs: regulating cell differentiation during secondary growth.

  12. The Populus Class III HD ZIP transcription factor POPCORONA affects cell differentiation during secondary growth of woody stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Miura, Eriko; Robischon, Marcel; Martinez, Ciera; Groover, Andrew

    2011-02-28

    The developmental mechanisms regulating cell differentiation and patterning during the secondary growth of woody tissues are poorly understood. Class III HD ZIP transcription factors are evolutionarily ancient and play fundamental roles in various aspects of plant development. Here we investigate the role of a Class III HD ZIP transcription factor, POPCORONA, during secondary growth of woody stems. Transgenic Populus (poplar) trees expressing either a miRNA-resistant POPCORONA or a synthetic miRNA targeting POPCORONA were used to infer function of POPCORONA during secondary growth. Whole plant, histological, and gene expression changes were compared for transgenic and wild-type control plants. Synthetic miRNA knock down of POPCORONA results in abnormal lignification in cells of the pith, while overexpression of a miRNA-resistant POPCORONA results in delayed lignification of xylem and phloem fibers during secondary growth. POPCORONA misexpression also results in coordinated changes in expression of genes within a previously described transcriptional network regulating cell differentiation and cell wall biosynthesis, and hormone-related genes associated with fiber differentiation. POPCORONA illustrates another function of Class III HD ZIPs: regulating cell differentiation during secondary growth.

  13. MES buffer affects Arabidopsis root apex zonation and root growth by suppressing superoxide generation in root apex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko eKagenishi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In plants, growth of roots and root hairs is regulated by the fine cellular control of pH and reactive oxygen species. MES, 2-(N-morpholinoethanesulfonic acid as one of the Good’s buffers has broadly been used for buffering medium, and it is thought to suit for plant growth with the concentration at 0.1% (w/v because the buffer capacity of MES ranging pH 5.5-7.0 (for Arabidopsis, pH 5.8. However, many reports have shown that, in nature, roots require different pH values on the surface of specific root apex zones, namely meristem, transition zone and elongation zone. Despite the fact that roots always grow on a media containing buffer molecule, little is known about impact of MES on root growth. Here, we have checked the effects of different concentrations of MES buffer using growing roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results show that 1% of MES significantly inhibited root growth, the number of root hairs and length of meristem, whereas 0.1% promoted root growth and root apex area (region spanning from the root tip up to the transition zone. Furthermore, superoxide generation in root apex disappeared at 1% of MES. These results suggest that MES disturbs normal root morphogenesis by changing the reactive oxygen species (ROS homeostasis in root apex.

  14. MES Buffer Affects Arabidopsis Root Apex Zonation and Root Growth by Suppressing Superoxide Generation in Root Apex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagenishi, Tomoko; Yokawa, Ken; Baluška, František

    2016-01-01

    In plants, growth of roots and root hairs is regulated by the fine cellular control of pH and reactive oxygen species (ROS). MES, 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid as one of the Good's buffers has broadly been used for buffering medium, and it is thought to suit for plant growth with the concentration at 0.1% (w/v) because the buffer capacity of MES ranging pH 5.5-7.0 (for Arabidopsis, pH 5.8). However, many reports have shown that, in nature, roots require different pH values on the surface of specific root apex zones, namely meristem, transition zone, and elongation zone. Despite the fact that roots always grow on a media containing buffer molecule, little is known about impact of MES on root growth. Here, we have checked the effects of different concentrations of MES buffer using growing roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results show that 1% of MES significantly inhibited root growth, the number of root hairs and length of meristem, whereas 0.1% promoted root growth and root apex area (region spanning from the root tip up to the transition zone). Furthermore, superoxide generation in root apex disappeared at 1% of MES. These results suggest that MES disturbs normal root morphogenesis by changing the ROS homeostasis in root apex.

  15. Nutrient limitation leads to penetrative growth into agar and affects aroma formation in Pichia fabianii, P. kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijswijck, Irma M H; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Wolkers-Rooijackers, Judith C M; Abee, Tjakko; Smid, Eddy J

    2015-01-01

    Among fermentative yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is most frequently used as a model organism, although other yeast species may have special features that make them interesting candidates to apply in food-fermentation processes. In this study, we used three yeast species isolated from fermented masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruit, S. cerevisiae 131, Pichia fabianii 65 and Pichia kudriavzevii 129, and determined the impact of nitrogen and/or glucose limitation on surface growth mode and the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All three species displayed significant changes in growth mode in all nutrient-limited conditions, signified by the formation of metafilaments or pseudohyphae. The timing of the transition was found to be species-specific. Transition in growth mode is suggested to be linked to the production of certain fusel alcohols, such as phenylethyl alcohol, which serve as quorum-sensing molecules. Interestingly, we did not observe concomitant increased production of phenylethyl alcohol and filamentous growth. Notably, a broader range of esters was found only for the Pichia spp. grown on nitrogen-limited agar for 21 days compared to nutrient-rich agar, and when grown on glucose- and glucose- plus nitrogen-limited agar. Our data suggest that for the Pichia spp., the formation of esters may play an important role in the switch in growth mode upon nitrogen limitation. Further biological or ecological implications of ester formation are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Early kit mortality and growth in farmed mink are affected by litter size rather than nest climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Toke Munk; Malmkvist, Jens

    2017-01-01

    growth. Few and conflicting effects indicated that the climate effect on growth was negligible. One exception was that large nest temperature fluctuations on day 1 were associated with reduced deaths of live-born kit (Pvitality; larger...... with access to nesting materials. Kits were weighed on days 1 and 7, dead kits were collected daily from birth until day 7 after birth, and nest climate was measured continuously from days 1 to 6. We tested the influences of the following daily temperature (T) and humidity (H) parameters on the number of live......-born kit deaths and kit growth: T mean, T min, T max, T var (fluctuation) and H mean. The nest microclimate experienced by the kits was buffered against the ambient climate, with higher temperatures and reduced climate fluctuation. Most (77.0%) live-born kit deaths in the 1st week occurred on days 0 and 1...

  17. PAT1 (SLC36A1) shows nuclear localization and affect growth of smooth muscle cells from rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne; Figueiredo-Larsen, Evan Manuel; Holm, René

    2014-01-01

    substrate, in A7r5 cells suggested an alternative role for PAT1 in SMCs than in transport. To shed light on the function of PAT1 in A7r5 cells, experiments with down regulation of the PAT1 level using a siRNA approach were conducted. The growth rates of the cells were evaluated and knock-down of PAT1 lead......The proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1) is a transporter of amino acids in small intestinal enterocytes. PAT1 is, however, also capable of regulating cell growth and sensing the availability of amino acids in other cell types. The aim of the present study was to investigate...... to induced cellular growth suggesting a role for PAT1 in regulating cellular proliferation of SMCs....

  18. Aspergillus niger mutants affected in conidial pigmentation do not have an increased susceptibility to water stress during growth at low water activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, F J J; Wösten, H A B; Dijksterhuis, J

    2018-03-01

    Aspergillus niger forms conidia that contain melanin in their cell wall. This black pigment has been shown to protect fungi against UV radiation, and experimental evidence has indicated that it also protects against drought and high salt concentrations. In this study, growth of A. niger was evaluated at low water activity (a w ) and after changes in relative humidity (RH). In addition, deletion strains of A. niger affected in the melanin synthesis pathway were compared. Germination of conidia of the wild-type and deletion strains was observed at 0·81 a w and germ tubes continued growth at a w  ≥ 0·83. Conidia and microcolonies of the different strains were incubated for 1 week at lowered RH (33-84%). Conidia of all strains germinated and formed colonies after exposure to RH ≥33% when transferred back to malt extract medium at a w 0·98. Conidia germinated and showed limited growth at 84% RH. Microcolonies of all strains did not survive an incubation of 1 week at RH ≤75%, but continued growth after exposure to 84% RH. Together, this is the first genetic evidence that melanin does not play a role during germination and radial extension of fungi at low water conditions. Aspergillus niger, a cosmopolitan fungus with melanized conidia, is used here as a model system for fungal growth at low water activity (a w ) and humidity dynamics. From this study it becomes clear that melanin, contrary to what has been suggested before, is not a key factor in survival and growth during situations that mimic indoor conditions. Indoor fungal growth can lead to cosmetic damage to building materials and health problems. This knowledge makes clear that novel ways to limit indoor fungal growth have to be based on interference with other cellular traits of fungi. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Population growth of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in honey bee colonies is affected by the number of foragers with mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Ahumada, Fabiana; Zazueta, Victor; Chambers, Mona; Hidalgo, Geoffrey; deJong, Emily Watkins

    2016-05-01

    Varroa mites are a serious pest of honey bees and the leading cause of colony losses. Varroa have relatively low reproductive rates, so populations should not increase rapidly, but often they do. Other factors might contribute to the growth of varroa populations including mite migration into colonies on foragers from other hives. We measured the proportion of foragers carrying mites on their bodies while entering and leaving hives, and determined its relationship to the growth of varroa populations in those hives at two apiary sites. We also compared the estimates of mite population growth with predictions from a varroa population dynamics model that generates estimates of mite population growth based on mite reproduction. Samples of capped brood and adult bees indicated that the proportion of brood cells infested with mites and adult bees with phoretic mites was low through the summer but increased sharply in the fall especially at site 1. The frequency of capturing foragers with mites on their bodies while entering or leaving hives also increased in the fall. The growth of varroa populations at both sites was not significantly related to our colony estimates of successful mite reproduction, but instead to the total number of foragers with mites (entering and leaving the colony). There were more foragers with mites at site 1 than site 2, and mite populations at site 1 were larger especially in the fall. The model accurately estimated phoretic mite populations and infested brood cells until November when predictions were much lower than those measured in colonies. The rapid growth of mite populations particularly in the fall being a product of mite migration rather than mite reproduction only is discussed.

  20. Aluminium Toxicity to Plants as Influenced by the Properties of the Root Growth Environment Affected by Other Co-Stressors: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siecińska, Joanna; Nosalewicz, Artur

    Aluminium toxicity to crops depends on the acidity of the soil and specific plant resistance. However, it is also strongly affected by other environmental factors that have to be considered to properly evaluate the resultant effects on plants. Observed weather perturbations and predicted climate changes will increase the probability of co-occurrence of aluminium toxicity and other abiotic stresses.In this review the mechanisms of plant-aluminium interactions are shown to be influenced by soil mineral nutrients, heavy metals, organic matter, oxidative stress and drought. Described effects of aluminium toxicity include: root growth inhibition, reduction in the uptake of mineral nutrients resulting from the inhibition of transport processes through ion channels; epigenetic changes to DNA resulting in gene silencing. Complex processes occurring in the rhizosphere are highlighted, including the role of soil organic matter and aluminium detoxification by mucilage.There is a considerable research gap in the understanding of root growth in the soil environment in the presence of toxic aluminium concentrations as affected by interactions with abiotic stressors. This knowledge is important for the selection of feasible methods aimed at the reduction of negative consequences of crop production in acidic soils affected by adverse growth environment.

  1. Upregulation of centrosomal protein 55 is associated with unfavorable prognosis and tumor invasion in epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weijing; Niu, Chunhao; He, Weiling; Hou, Teng; Sun, Xiaoying; Xu, Liqun; Zhang, Yanna

    2016-05-01

    Centrosomal protein 55 (CEP55) is a cell cycle regulator implicated in development of certain cancers. However, characteristics of CEP55 expression and its clinical/prognostic significance are unclear in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC). Therefore, we investigated the expression and clinicopathological significance of CEP55 in patients with EOC and its role in regulating invasion and metastasis of ovarian cell lines. CEP55 mRNA and protein expression levels were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Potential associations of CEP55 expression scores with clinical parameters and patient survival were evaluated. CEP55 function was investigated further using RNA interference, wound healing assay, transwell assay, immunofluorescence analysis, qRT-PCR, and Western blotting. CEP55 was significantly upregulated in ovarian cancer cell lines and lesions compared with normal cells and adjacent noncancerous ovarian tissues. In the 213 EOC samples, CEP55 protein levels were positively correlated with clinical stage (P ovarian cancer cells remarkably inhibited cellular motility and invasion. Aberrant CEP55 expression may predict unfavorable clinical outcomes in EOC patients and play an important role in regulating invasion in ovarian cancer cells. Thus, CEP55 may serve as a prognostic marker and therapeutic target for EOC.

  2. Dual-color 3D PALM/dSTORM imaging of centrosomal proteins using MicAO 3DSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouvel, Grégory; Jasaitis, Audrius; Sillibourne, James; Izeddin, Ignacio; El Beheiry, Mohamed; Levecq, Xavier; Dahan, Maxime; Bornens, Michel; Darzacq, Xavier

    2013-02-01

    The determination of 3-dimensional arrangement of subcellular assemblies has become a necessary requirement in cellular biology. Unfortunately, the size of most assemblies lies beyond the diffraction limit and therefore they cannot be visualized using conventional fluorescence microscopy techniques. Photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM) and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) enable the localization of fluorescent molecules with nanometric resolution. We used these microscopy methods together with MicAO 3D-SR - the first adaptive optics device which introduces the three-dimensional imaging capability for PALM/STORM. MicAO also corrects various types of aberrations induced by optical elements inside the microscope and by the biological sample. The correction of these aberrations almost doubles the number of detected photons, increasing the localization precision of PALM/STORM by 40%. At 1000 detected photons the localization precision of our setup is 8 nm in lateral and 16 nm in axial directions. The separate optimization performed for two different colors delivers superb imaging quality, as demonstrated by dual-color 3-dimentional imaging of two centrosomal proteins in HeLa cells.

  3. Genetic and environmental factors affecting growth of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juveniles: modelling spatial correlations between hapas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charo-Karisa, H.; Komen, J.; Rezk, M.A.; Reynolds, S.; Ponzoni, R.W.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the environmental and genetic effects on early growth of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, in hapa-in-earthen pond systems. In a pilot study, we grew swim-up fry with or without supplementary feed in hapas suspended in fertilized ponds at 5, 10, 15, and 20

  4. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell yield and growth characteristics are affected by the tissue-harvesting procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oedayrajsingh-Varma, M. J.; van Ham, S. M.; Knippenberg, M.; Helder, M. N.; Klein-Nulend, J.; Schouten, T. E.; Ritt, M. J. P. F.; van Milligen, F. J.

    2006-01-01

    Adipose tissue contains a stromal vascular fraction that can be easily isolated and provides a rich source of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC). These ASC are a potential source of cells for tissue engineering. We studied whether the yield and growth characteristics of ASC were

  5. The Populus Class III HD ZIP transcription factor POPCORONA affects cell differentiation during secondary growth of woody stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Du; Eriko Miura; Marcel Robischon; Ciera Martinez; Andrew Groover

    2011-01-01

    The developmental mechanisms regulating cell differentiation and patterning during the secondary growth of woody tissues are poorly understood. Class III HD ZIP transcription factors are evolutionarily ancient and play fundamental roles in various aspects of plant development. Here we investigate the role of a Class III HD ZIP transcription factor, ...

  6. Survival and growth of restored Piedmont riparian forests as affected by site preparation, planting stock, and planting aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelsea M. Curtis; W. Michael Aust; John R. Seiler; Brian D. Strahm

    2015-01-01

    Forest mitigation sites may have poor survival and growth of planted trees due to poor drainage, compacted soils, and lack of microtopography. The effects of five replications of five forestry mechanical site preparation techniques (Flat, Rip, Bed, Pit, and Mound), four regeneration sources (Direct seed, Bare root, Tubelings, and Gallon), and three planting aids (None...

  7. Factors affecting growth in infants with single ventricle physiology: a report from the Pediatric Heart Network Infant Single Ventricle Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard V; Zak, Victor; Ravishankar, Chitra; Altmann, Karen; Anderson, Jeffrey; Atz, Andrew M; Dunbar-Masterson, Carolyn; Ghanayem, Nancy; Lambert, Linda; Lurito, Karen; Medoff-Cooper, Barbara; Margossian, Renee; Pemberton, Victoria L; Russell, Jennifer; Stylianou, Mario; Hsu, Daphne

    2011-12-01

    To describe growth patterns in infants with single ventricle physiology and determine factors influencing growth. Data from 230 subjects enrolled in the Pediatric Heart Network Infant Single Ventricle Enalapril Trial were used to assess factors influencing change in weight-for-age z-score (z) from study enrollment (0.7 ± 0.4 months) to pre-superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC; 5.1 ± 1.8 months, period 1) and pre-SCPC to final study visit (14.1 ± 0.9 months, period 2). Predictor variables included patient characteristics, feeding regimen, clinical center, and medical factors during neonatal (period 1) and SCPC hospitalizations (period 2). Univariate regression analysis was performed, followed by backward stepwise regression and bootstrapping reliability to inform a final multivariable model. Weights were available for 197 of 230 subjects for period 1 and 173 of 197 subjects for period 2. For period 1, greater gestational age, younger age at study enrollment, tube feeding at neonatal hospitalization discharge, and clinical center were associated with a greater negative z (poorer growth) in multivariable modeling (adjusted R(2) = 0.39, P SCPC and greater daily caloric intake were associated with greater positive z (better growth; R(2) = 0.10, P = .002). Aggressive nutritional support and earlier SCPC are modifiable factors associated with a favorable change in weight-for-age z-score. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Altering the expression of two chitin synthase genes differentially affects the growth and morphology of Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Christian; Hjort, C.M.; Hansen, K.

    2002-01-01

    obtained for csmA indicated that it had high similarity to class V chitin synthases. chsB and csmA disruption strains and a strain in which chsB transcription was controlled were constructed using the nitrite reductase (niiA) promoter. The strains were examined during hyphal growth by Northern analysis...

  9. Substratum cavities affect growth-plasticity, allometry, movement and feeding rates in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, J C; Russell, M P

    2010-02-01

    We assessed the influence of rock cavities, or pits, on the growth dynamics and behavior of the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. In a paired-designed, laboratory experiment, sea urchins were assigned to sandstone blocks that were either 'Flat' or had a 'Pit' drilled into the center. At the start, both groups were approximately the same shape and size. In just 2 months, the shapes of the tests were significantly different between the two treatments, with the Pit urchins having an increased height:diameter profile. This result demonstrates the plastic nature of the sea urchin test and that, despite its apparent rigidity, it is capable of deforming during growth. In addition, the presence of pits modified behavior and food consumption as well as allometric growth of the test and Aristotle's lantern. Sea urchins on Pit sandstone blocks tended to stay in the cavities and not move about the flat areas, whereas individuals on Flat blocks changed position. Sea urchins in the Pit treatment consumed less food and had relatively larger demipyramids (the 'jaw' ossicle in Aristotle's lantern). These morphological and allometric changes occurred over a short time-period (8-20 weeks). We conclude that microhabitat is an important factor in controlling the behavior and growth dynamics of the bioeroding sea urchin S. purpuratus.

  10. How economic growth affects emissions? An investigation of the environmental Kuznets curve in Portuguese and Spanish economic activity sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho, Victor; Varum, Celeste; Madaleno, Mara

    2017-01-01

    It is a disquieting reality that increased economic growth for many years now in the Western world is at odds with environmental degradation. In this paper the relationship between economic growth and environmental variables is analyzed under two non-linear specifications, a quadratic and a cubic specification. The study is conducted for Portugal and Spain in the period 1975–2012, using data for 13 sectors. GVA is used as proxy for income, while energy use and carbon dioxide account for environmental degradation. There is evidence for an inverted U-shaped EKC. However, there are also other inverted N–shaped functions that explain the relationship between economic growth and emissions. Altogether, empirical results do indicate particular differences between Portuguese and Spanish sectors. The results are of interest not only for researchers but also for policy-makers. Political mitigation measures are also analyzed. - Highlights: • We study the EKC hypothesis using economic activity sectors in the Iberian Market. • There is evidence for a clear N-shaped EKC in Portugal. • Inverted N–shaped function explains the economic growth and emissions relationship. • Positive and significant effect of energy consumption in emissions for sectors. • Promote renewables substitution and tax benefits are urgent to accomplish goals.

  11. Environmental logistics performance indicators affecting per capita income and sectoral growth: evidence from a panel of selected global ranked logistics countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Syed Abdul Rehman; Qianli, Dong; SongBo, Wei; Zaman, Khalid; Zhang, Yu

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the long-run and causal relationship between environmental logistics performance indicators (ELPI) and growth-specific factors in a panel of 15 selected global ranked logistics countries over a period of 2007-2015. This study is exclusive as we utilized a number of LPI factors including logistics performance, logistics competence, and logistics infrastructure with mediation of sustainable factors, i.e., carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), fossil fuel, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in a region. The results show that the per capita income, industry, manufacturing, and service share to GDP is affected by CO 2 emissions and GHG emissions. Logistics competence and infrastructure promote economic growth and sectoral value added, while energy demand and FDI inflows both are prerequisite for sustainable agriculture in a region. The causal relationships confirm that more energy demand results in an increase in economic growth, industry value added, and the service sector (i.e., feedback hypothesis), while the sustainable supply chain system improves energy demand, FDI inflows, economic growth, and sectoral growth (i.e., conservation hypothesis) in a panel of countries.

  12. Pten regulates spindle pole movement through Dlg1-mediated recruitment of Eg5 to centrosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ree, J.H. van; Nam, H.J.; Jeganathan, K.B.; Kanakkanthara, A.; Deursen, J.M.A. van

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homologue (Pten) suppresses neoplastic growth by negatively regulating PI(3)K signalling through its phosphatase activity. To gain insight into the actions of non-catalytic Pten domains in normal physiological processes and tumorigenesis, we engineered mice lacking the

  13. Growth and some physiological parameters of four sugar beet (Beta vulgaris l.) cultivars as affected by salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavari-Nejad, R A; Najafi, F; Khavari-Nejad, S

    2008-05-15

    The comparative responses of certain biochemical and physiological characteristics to salinity were studied in 4 cultivars of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants. Eight weeks old plants were treated with NaCl at 0, 25 and 50 mM in nutrient solutions. Plants were grown under controlled environment and harvested after 3 weeks for measurements of biochemical and physiological parameters. Results showed that in 25 mM NaCl for cultivars of ET5 and C3-3, soluble sugars in leaves, photosynthetic rate and growth parameters were significantly increased as compared to those of other cultivars. In 50 mM NaCl photosynthetic rate and soluble sugars were significantly increased only in ET5 cultivar as compared with those of others. Results indicated that in 25 mM NaCl, ET5 cultivar showed high growth responses and tolerated to 50 mM NaCl.

  14. Tomato root growth and phosphorus absorption kinetics by tomato plants as affected by phosphorus concentration in nutrient solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes, P.C.R.; Barber, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the effects P concentrations in nutrient solution on root growth and on root physiological characteristics involved in P uptake by tomato Lycopersicon esculentum Mill plants, six seedlings were grown in nutrient solution at initial concentrations of 48.5, 97, 194 and 388 μMP until one day before harvest. They were then transferred to solutions with P at 20 μM and 30 μM, and the depletion curves and Michaelis-Menten parameters were determined. The conclusions were that as P supply increased and as the plant P contents are sufficient for maximum growth, the rate of P uptake tends to be lower. The results also indicate that total P uptake by tomato seedlings depends on the amount of root surface area exposed to P. (M.A.C.) [pt

  15. Growth hormone stimulates the collagen synthesis in human tendon and skeletal muscle without affecting myofibrillar protein synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doessing, Simon; Heinemeier, Katja; Holm, Lars

    2010-01-01

    matrix collagen synthesis in skeletal muscle and tendon, but without any effect upon myofibrillar protein synthesis. The results suggest that GH is more important in strengthening the matrix tissue than for muscle cell hypertrophy in adult human musculotendinous tissue.......In skeletal muscle and tendon the extracellular matrix confers important tensile properties and is crucially important for tissue regeneration after injury. Musculoskeletal tissue adaptation is influenced by mechanical loading, which modulates the availability of growth factors, including growth...... young individuals. rhGH administration caused an increase in serum GH, serum IGF-I, and IGF-I mRNA expression in tendon and muscle. Tendon collagen I mRNA expression and tendon collagen protein synthesis increased by 3.9-fold and 1.3-fold, respectively (P muscle collagen I m...

  16. The constitutive expression of the V gene of Parainfluenza virus 5 affects the growth properties of bovine herpesvirus 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Esmaile de Sales Lima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effect of the expression of Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5 V protein in bovine cells on the replication of Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5. Growth properties of BoHV-5 were evaluated in parental and PIV5 transfected cells. In one-step growth experiments, the BoHV-5 reached higher titers at earlier time points in the transfected cells when compared to the parental cells. The mean plaque size produced by the BoHV-5 in transfected cells was larger than the parental cells. This indicated that the expression of the PIV5 V gene facilitated the release and cell-to-cell spread of BoHV-5 in bovine cells.

  17. Eastern Baltic cod : Perspectives from existing data on processes affecting growth and survival of eggs and larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; St. John, Michael; Wieland, Kai

    1996-01-01

    may also contribute to variability in abundance estimates. The results of broad- scale zooplankton surveys suggest that the abundance and types of potential prey in the Baltic Sea are similar to those in other regions and perhaps suitable for moderate-to-fast larval growth. However, few systematic...... in one of these areas (Bornholm Basin) varies seasonally by at least 2 mo. Trends in egg and larval abundance over time are not obvious due to differences in gear type, sampling intensity, and survey timing relative to spawning dates. Interannual differences in larval transport away from spawning areas...... surveys have described food concentrations at appropriate scales for cod larvae, and the species composition of larval diets is unknown. Growth rates for Baltic cod larvae have not been measured and cannot be compared with rates in other areas or to variations in biotic and abiotic factors. Large gaps...

  18. Growth and Accumulation of Secondary Metabolites in Perilla as Affected by Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density and Electrical Conductivity of the Nutrient Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Lu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The global demand for medicinal plants is increasing. The quality of plants grown outdoors, however, is difficult to control. Myriad environmental factors influence plant growth and directly impact biosynthetic pathways, thus affecting the secondary metabolism of bioactive compounds. Plant factories use artificial lighting to increase the quality of medicinal plants and stabilize production. Photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD and electrical conductivity (EC of nutrient solutions are two important factors that substantially influence perilla (Perilla frutescens, Labiatae plant growth and quality. To identify suitable levels of PPFD and EC for perilla plants grown in a plant factory, the growth, photosynthesis, and accumulation of secondary metabolites in red and green perilla plants were measured at PPFD values of 100, 200, and 300 μmol m-2 s-1 in nutrient solutions with EC values of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 dS m-1. The results showed significant interactive effects between PPFD and EC for both the fresh and dry weights of green perilla, but not for red perilla. The fresh and dry weights of shoots and leafy areas were affected more by EC than by PPFD in green perilla, whereas they were affected more by PPFD than by EC in red perilla. Leaf net photosynthetic rates were increased as PPFD increased in both perilla varieties, regardless of EC. The perillaldehyde concentration (mg g-1 in red perilla was unaffected by the treatments, but accumulation in plants (mg per plant was significantly enhanced as the weight of dry leaves increased. Perillaldehyde concentrations in green perilla showed significant differences between combinations of the highest PPFD with the highest EC and the lowest PPFD with the lowest EC. Rosmarinic acid concentration (mg g-1 was increased in a combination of low EC and high PPFD conditions. Optimal cultivation conditions of red and green perilla in plant factory will be discussed in terms of plant growth and contents of

  19. Yield and crop growth of table potato affected by different split-N fertigation regimes in sandy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Plauborg, Finn; Liu, Fulai

    2018-01-01

    model)-based N fertilization method, as well as three irrigation levels. Results showed that prolonged N fertigation increased yield consistently but N fertigation should be carried out early so that shoot growth is optimized and prolonged N have sufficient time to take effect on tuber yield...... irrigation did not cause reduced soil water content, ratio vegetation index (RVI) and yield, but irrigation efficiency was increased significantly in 2013....

  20. Identification of differentially expressed genes affecting hair and cashmere growth in the Laiwu black goat by microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinshan; Li, Hegang; Liu, Kaidong; Zhang, Baoxun; Li, Peipei; He, Jianning; Cheng, Ming; De, Wei; Liu, Jifeng; Zhao, Yaofeng; Yang, Lihua; Liu, Nan

    2016-10-01

    Goats are an important source of fibers. In the present study microarray technology was used to investigate the potential genes primarily involved in hair and cashmere growth in the Laiwu black goat. A total of 655 genes differentially expressed in body (hair‑growing) and groin (hairless) skin were identified, and their potential association with hair and cashmere growth was analyzed. The majority of genes associated with hair growth regulation could be assigned to intracellular, intracellular organelle, membrane‑bound vesicle, cytoplasmic vesicle, pattern binding, heparin binding, polysaccharide binding, glycosaminoglycan binding and cytoplasmic membrane‑bound vesicle categories. Numerous genes upregulated in body compared with groin skin contained common motifs for nuclear factor 1A, Yi, E2 factor (E2F) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding (CREB)/CREBβ binding sites in their promoter region. The promoter region of certain genes downregulated in body compared with groin skin contained three common regions with LF‑A1, Yi, E2F, Collier/Olfactory‑1/early B‑cell factor 1, peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor α or U sites. Thus, the present study identified molecules in the cashmere‑bearing skin area of the Laiwu black goat, which may contribute to hair and cashmere traits.

  1. Alpha-Glucan, Water Dikinase 1 Affects Starch Metabolism and Storage Root Growth in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenzhi; He, Shutao; Naconsie, Maliwan; Ma, Qiuxiang; Zeeman, Samuel C; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Zhang, Peng

    2017-08-29

    Regulation of storage root development by source strength remains largely unknown. The cassava storage root delay (srd) T-DNA mutant postpones storage root development but manifests normal foliage growth as wild-type plants. The SRD gene was identified as an orthologue of α-glucan, water dikinase 1 (GWD1), whose expression is regulated under conditions of light/dark cycles in leaves and is associated with storage root development. The GWD1-RNAi cassava plants showed both retarded plant and storage root growth, as a result of starch excess phenotypes with reduced photosynthetic capacity and decreased levels of soluble saccharides in their leaves. These leaves contained starch granules having greatly increased amylose content and type C semi-crystalline structures with increased short chains that suggested storage starch. In storage roots of GWD1-RNAi lines, maltose content was dramatically decreased and starches with much lower phosphorylation levels showed a drastically reduced β-amylolytic rate. These results suggested that GWD1 regulates transient starch morphogenesis and storage root growth by decreasing photo-assimilation partitioning from the source to the sink and by starch mobilization in root crops.

  2. Growth Stage and Drying Methods Affect Essential Oil Content and Composition of Pickling Herb (Echinophora tenuifolia subsp. sibthorpiana Tutin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif ŞANLI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted during 2012 in order to determine the essential oil content and composition of Echinophora tenuifolia subsp. sibthorpiana Tutin. Plants were collected during rosette, vegetative growth, full flowering and fruit-ripening stages. Oil was extracted using Clavenger hydro-distillation apparatus from either fresh, shade dried or sun dried samples. Oil composition was determined with a GC/MS. Oil content of samples showed significant variation during the vegetative stages of development. Oil contents of fresh samples were found to be 0.76% at seedling stage whereas oil content has risen to 1.06% at seed set. The shade-dried samples had higher oil contents than the fresh and sun dried samples. The oil composition of pickling herb changed with drying method and growth stage. Throughout the growth stage of the plant, the oil was composed of 21 components and the main components were found to be α- phellandrene (47.43 - 66.39% and methyl eugenol (21.29 – 38.72%. While methyl eugenol content decreased during vegetation period for both fresh and dried samples, α-phellandrene level increased. Attention should be given to the collection time and drying method of pickling herb for different uses since vegetative stage and drying method influence oil content and composition.

  3. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) deficiency affects the germination, growth and fruit sugar content in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Xing; Yin, Yong-Gen; Sanuki, Atsuko; Fukuda, Naoya; Ezura, Hiroshi; Matsukura, Chiaki

    2015-11-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is a key regulatory enzyme and is utilized in the gluconeogenesis pathway in plants. Although, its catalytic and regulatory properties are quite well understood, there are uncertainties regarding its physiological role in many plants tissues such as the flesh of developing fruits. To further understand the function of PEPCK in fruits and other tissues, RNAi transgenic tomato plants in which SlPEPCK transcription was down-regulated by either CaMV 35S constitutive promoter or the fruit-specific E8 promoter were generated and characterized on the basis of their phenotypic and metabolic aspects. In the PEPCK-deficient lines, prominent growth suppression of germinated seedlings was observed and other vegetative suppression appeared during the early stage of plant growth in the 35S promoter-driven lines. In particular, root elongation was most obviously suppressed in the germinated seedlings, indicating that the gluconeogenesis pathway is involved in the root growth of seedlings. Regarding the primary metabolism in fruit, the soluble sugar content tended to decrease, whereas the malate content tended to increase in ripening fruits of the RNAi lines compared with the wild type. These results indicate that activation of the gluconeogenesis pathway from organic acids to sugars occurs during ripening but is suppressed by the knocking down of the PEPCK gene, suggesting that PEPCK participates in determining the sugar/acid ratio in ripening fruit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Dental implants three-dimensional position affected by late facial bone growth: follow-up of 12 to 15 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Ottoni

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The three-dimensional (3D position of the osseointegrated dental implants provides favorable esthetical results and preserves the surrounding soft and hard tissues architecture in a long term analysis. However, recent studies demonstrate that the continued growth at adult life can also be noticed on the craniofacial skeleton. Therefore, considerable change may occur interfering on the relationship between a fix structure, the implant, and the adjacent teeth, with the possibility of forward and downward movement, due to the craniofacial growth. The question is: how long the harmonic relationship, previously established between the crown supported implant and natural teeth, is going to maintain esthetically pleasant? This article is based on three cases of adult patients with ages varying from 38 to 60 years old, when implants were inserted, and afterwards these patients were followed up during 12 to 15 years. It has been concluded that the continued craniofacial growth can lead to an infraocclusion of the implants–supported crown and to diasthem, which may negatively impact on both the aesthetics and the chewing quality.

  5. Identification of intragenic mutations in the Hansenula polymorpha PEX6 gene that affect peroxisome biogenesis and methylotrophic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stasyk, OV; Nazarko, VY; Pochapinsky, OD; Nazarko, TY; Veenhuis, M; Sibirny, AA; Stasyk, Oleh V.; Nazarko, Volodymyr Y.; Pochapinsky, Olexiy D.; Nazarko, Taras Y.

    2003-01-01

    Two interacting AAA ATPases, Pex1p and Pex6p, are indispensable for peroxisome biogenesis in different organisms. Mutations affecting corresponding genes are the most common cause of the peroxisome biogenesis disorders in humans. By UV mutagenesis of the Hansenula polymorpha pex6 mutant, deficient

  6. How Age of Transplants from In Vitro Derived Potato Plantlets Affects Crop Growth and Seed Tuber Yield After Field Transplanting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommen, W.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In vitro produced plantlets are used in potato seed systems for production of minitubers under protected conditions or for production of transplants to be transplanted to the field. Three field experiments were carried out to analyse how transplant age (Age) affected the field performance. In the

  7. Overexpression of an Arabidopsis heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein gene, AtRNP1, affects plant growth and reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhenyu, E-mail: wzy72609@163.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Zhao, Xiuyang, E-mail: xiuzh@psb.vib-ugent.be [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Wang, Bing, E-mail: wangbing@ibcas.ac.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Liu, Erlong, E-mail: liuel14@lzu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Chen, Ni, E-mail: 63710156@qq.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Zhang, Wei, E-mail: wzhang1216@yahoo.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Bio-Energy Crops, School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Liu, Heng, E-mail: hengliu@lzu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China)

    2016-04-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) participate in diverse regulations of plant growth and environmental stress responses. In this work, an Arabidopsis hnRNP of unknown function, AtRNP1, was investigated. We found that AtRNP1 gene is highly expressed in rosette and cauline leaves, and slightly induced under drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. We performed homologous overexpression of AtRNP1 and found that the transgenic plants showed shortened root length and plant height, and accelerated flowering. In addition, the transgenic plants also showed reduced tolerance to drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. Further studies revealed that under both normal and stress conditions, the proline contents in the transgenic plants are markedly decreased, associated with reduced expression levels of a proline synthase gene and several stress-responsive genes. These results suggested that the overexpression of AtRNP1 negatively affects plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. - Highlights: • AtRNP1 is a widely expressed gene and its expression is slightly induced under abiotic stresses. • AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 affects plant growth. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses. • AtRNP1 overexpression plants show decreased proline accumulation and stress-responsive gene expressions.

  8. Does inter-plant variation in sprouting time affect the growth/reproduction trade-off and herbivory in a tropical tree species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcilio Fagundes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The timing of phenological events varies within and among populations, affecting the performance of individual plants differently. We evaluated the effects of relative variation in sprouting time on the display of reproductive events, vegetative growth and herbivory in Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae. A total of 93 trees of C. langsdorffii was monitored daily to determine their sprouting time. We collected ten terminal branches of each plant to evaluate vegetative growth, production of defense compounds and insect herbivore damage. The sprouting time for the studied population lasted 67 days. Variation in sprouting time did not affect the probability of plants to enter the reproductive stage. Plants that entered the reproductive stage showed greater vegetative biomass. Variation in sprouting time had a negative relationship with branch growth and a positive relationship with the number of leaflets. Leaf phenol concentration did not vary in relation to sprouting time or plant phenology, but herbivory was higher in plants that sprouted later. The relationships among plant sprouting time, vegetative development and display of reproductive stage in C. langsdorffii are discussed. The results of this study also suggest that early sprouting prior to the rainy season is a strategy used by C. langsdorffii to escape herbivores attacks.

  9. Overexpression of an Arabidopsis heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein gene, AtRNP1, affects plant growth and reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Xiuyang; Wang, Bing; Liu, Erlong; Chen, Ni; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) participate in diverse regulations of plant growth and environmental stress responses. In this work, an Arabidopsis hnRNP of unknown function, AtRNP1, was investigated. We found that AtRNP1 gene is highly expressed in rosette and cauline leaves, and slightly induced under drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. We performed homologous overexpression of AtRNP1 and found that the transgenic plants showed shortened root length and plant height, and accelerated flowering. In addition, the transgenic plants also showed reduced tolerance to drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. Further studies revealed that under both normal and stress conditions, the proline contents in the transgenic plants are markedly decreased, associated with reduced expression levels of a proline synthase gene and several stress-responsive genes. These results suggested that the overexpression of AtRNP1 negatively affects plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. - Highlights: • AtRNP1 is a widely expressed gene and its expression is slightly induced under abiotic stresses. • AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 affects plant growth. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses. • AtRNP1 overexpression plants show decreased proline accumulation and stress-responsive gene expressions.

  10. Diet Affects Muscle Quality and Growth Traits of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus: A Comparison Between Grass and Artificial Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghao Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fish muscle, the main edible parts with high protein level and low fat level, is consumed worldwide. Diet contributes greatly to fish growth performance and muscle quality. In order to elucidate the correlation between diet and muscle quality, the same batch of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus were divided into two groups and fed with either grass (Lolium perenne, Euphrasia pectinata and Sorghum sudanense or artificial feed, respectively. However, the different two diets didn't result in significant differences in all the detected water quality parameters (e.g., Tm, pH, DO, NH3/NH4+-N, NO3--N, NO2-, TN, TP, and TOC between the two experimental groups. After a 4-month culture period, various indexes and expression of myogenic regulatory factor (MRFs and their related genes were tested. The weight gain of the fish fed with artificial feed (AFG was nearly 40% higher than the fish fed with grass (GFG. Significantly higher alkaline phosphatase, total cholestrol, high density cholestrol and total protein were detected in GFG as compared to AFG. GFG also showed increased hardness, resilience and shear force in texture profile analysis, with significantly bigger and compact muscle fibers in histologic slices. The fat accumulation was most serious in the abdomen muscle of AFG. Additionally, the expression levels of MyoG, MyoD, IGF-1, and MSTNs were higher, whereas Myf-5, MRF4, and IGF-2 were lower in most positional muscles of GFG as compared to AFG. Overall, these results suggested that feeding grass could promote muscle growth and development by stimulating muscle fiber hypertrophy, as well as significantly enhance the expression of CoL1As. Feeding C. idellus with grass could also improve flesh quality by improving muscle characteristics, enhancing the production of collagen, meanthile, reducing fat accumulation and moisture in muscle, but at the cost of a slower growth.

  11. Drought stress release increased growth rate but did not affect levels of storage carbohydrates in Scots pine trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbeck, Leonie; Gessler, Arthur; Rigling, Andreas; Schaub, Marcus; Li, Mai-He

    2017-04-01

    For trees, energy storage in the form of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) plays an important role for survival and growth, especially during stress events such as drought. It is hypothesized, that tree individuals that experience long-term drought stress use up larger amounts of NSCs than trees that do not experience drought. Consequently, such drought-induced depletion might lead to a decrease in tree vigor and carbon starvation, a mechanism that is subject of intensive debates in recent literature. Hence, if carbon starvation is occurring during drought, drought stress release should again increase NSC concentrations. A long-term (13 years) irrigation experiment is being conducted in the Pfyn forest, the largest Pinus sylvestris dominated forest in Switzerland, located in the dry inner-Alpine Swiss Rhone valley (average precipitation 600 mm/year, with frequent dry spells). Water addition ( 600 mm/year) is executed every year during the growing season between April and October. Tree height, stem diameter and crown transparency are being measured since 2003. In February, July and October 2015, roots, stem sapwood and needles were harvested from 30 irrigated and 30 control trees and 5 different crown transparency classes. Shoot length, needle morphology, soluble sugars, starch concentrations, needle δ13C and δ15N were measured. Shoot and stem growth were higher in irrigated trees than in control trees. Growth decreased with increasing crown transparency in both treatments. Only in July, needle starch levels were higher in irrigated trees than in control trees but there was no treatment effect for wood and root starch concentrations. Tissue starch and sugar levels were negatively correlated with crown transparency, particularly in the roots (preduced NSC is related to reduced tree vigor under drought.

  12. Growth and yield of rain fed wheat as affected by different tillage system integrated with glyphosate herbicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Malik, M.A.; Khan, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    In rainfed areas, tillage is primarily done for moisture conservation and weed control. However, excessive tilling not only harms the soil health but also increases the cost of production. To find out the sustainable and economical tillage combination, response of wheat was studied under different tillage systems integrated with glyphosate herbicide through field experiments conducted at University Research Farm of Pir Mehr Ali Shah, Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan during 2012-2014 for two consecutive seasons. Principal component analysis proved that the plant height, biological yield, grain yield and harvest index of wheat were highest in treatment where one moldboard plowing was done followed by eight cultivations without using glyphosate in fallow period, which might be due to vigorous growth of wheat in this tillage system having enhanced root proliferation and moisture conservation, thus allowing plants to extract more nutrients and water from the deeper soil layers; whereas, the number of tillers per square meter, number of spikelets per spike, 1000 grain weight and number of grains per spike of wheat were maximum where one moldboard plowing was done followed by two applications of glyphosate herbicide in fallow period, which might be due to vigorous growth of wheat in this tillage system during 1st year of experiment when unexpected high rainfall was occurred during crop growth stage. Cluster analysis also categorized these two treatments into same category on the base of all agronomic parameters studied. The highest yield (3.5132 t ha-1) and (3.1242 t ha-1) was obtained from where one moldboard plowing was done following eight cultivations without using glyphosate followed by the treatment where one moldboard plowing was done following four cultivations without using glyphosate, respectively and were statistically at par with each other. Therefore one moldboard plowing following four cultivations is recommended for taking higher and

  13. Positional isomerism markedly affects the growth inhibition of colon cancer cells by NOSH-aspirin: COX inhibition and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, Federica; Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Kodela, Ravinder; Rao, Praveen P N; Kashfi, Khosrow

    2015-12-01

    We recently reported the synthesis of NOSH-aspirin, a novel hybrid that releases both nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). In NOSH-aspirin, the two moieties that release NO and H2S are covalently linked at the 1, 2 positions of acetyl salicylic acid, i.e. ortho-NOSH-aspirin (o-NOSH-aspirin). In the present study, we compared the effects of the positional isomers of NOSH-ASA (o-NOSH-aspirin, m-NOSH-aspirin and p-NOSH-aspirin) to that of aspirin on growth of HT-29 and HCT 15 colon cancer cells, belonging to the same histological subtype, but with different expression of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes; HT-29 express both COX-1 and COX-2, whereas HCT 15 is COX-null. We also analyzed the effect of these compounds on proliferation and apoptosis in HT-29 cells. Since the parent compound aspirin, inhibits both COX-1 and COX-2, we also evaluated the effects of these compounds on COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme activities and also performed modeling of the interactions between the positional isomers of NOSH-aspirin and COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. We observed that the three positional isomers of NOSH aspirin inhibited the growth of both colon cancer cell lines with IC50s in the nano-molar range. In particular in HT-29 cells the IC50s for growth inhibition were: o-NOSH-ASA, 0.04±0.011 µM; m-NOSH-ASA, 0.24±0.11 µM; p-NOSH-ASA, 0.46±0.17 µM; and in HCT 15 cells the IC50s for o-NOSH-ASA, m-NOSH-ASA, and p-NOSH-ASA were 0.062 ±0.006 µM, 0.092±0.004 µM, and 0.37±0.04 µM, respectively. The IC50 for aspirin in both cell lines was >5mM at 24h. The reduction of cell growth appeared to be mediated through inhibition of proliferation, and induction of apoptosis. All 3 positional isomers of NOSH-aspirin preferentially inhibited COX-1 over COX-2. These results suggest that the three positional isomers of NOSH-aspirin have the same biological actions, but that o-NOSH-ASA displayed the strongest anti-neoplastic potential. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  14. Reduced heart rate and cardiac output differentially affect angiogenesis, growth, and development in early chicken embryos (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branum, Sylvia R; Yamada-Fisher, Miho; Burggren, Warren

    2013-01-01

    An increase in both vascular circumferential tension and shear stress in the developing vasculature of the chicken embryo has been hypothesized to stimulate angiogenesis in the developing peripheral circulation chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). To test this hypothesis, angiogenesis in the CAM, development, and growth were measured in the early chicken embryo, following acute and chronic topical application of the purely bradycardic drug ZD7288. At hour 56, ZD7288 reduced heart rate (f(H)) by ~30% but had no significant effect on stroke volume (~0.19 ± 0.2 μL), collectively resulting in a significant fall in cardiac output (CO) from ~27 ± 3 to 18 ± 2 μL min(-1). Mean f(H) at 72 h of development was similarly significantly lowered by acute ZD7288 treatment (250 μM) to 128 ± 0.3 beats min(-1), compared with 174.5 ± 0.3 and 174.7 ± 0.8 beats min(-1) in control and Pannett-Compton (P-C) saline-treated embryos, respectively. Chronic dosing with ZD7288-and the attendant decreases in f(H) and CO-did not change eye diameter or cervical flexion (key indicators of development rate) at 120 h but significantly reduced overall growth (wet and dry body mass decreased by 20%). CAM vessel density index (reflecting angiogenesis) measured 200-400 μm from the umbilical stalk was not altered, but ZD7288 reduced vessel numbers-and therefore vessel density-by 13%-16% more distally (500-600 μm from umbilical stalk) in the CAM. In the ZD7288-treated embryos, a decrease in vessel length was found within the second branch order (~300-400 μm from the umbilical stock), while a decrease in vessel diameter was found closer to the umbilical stock, beginning in the first branch order (~200-300 μm). Paradoxically, chronic application of P-C saline also reduced peripheral CAM vessel density index at 500 and 600 μm by 13% and 7%, respectively, likely from washout of local angiogenic factors. In summary, decreased f(H) with reduced CO did not slow development rate but reduced embryonic

  15. Cdc14 phosphatase directs centrosome re-duplication at the meiosis I to meiosis II transition in budding yeast [version 2; referees: 3 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette Fox

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Gametes are generated through a specialized cell division called meiosis, in which ploidy is reduced by half because two consecutive rounds of chromosome segregation, meiosis I and meiosis II, occur without intervening DNA replication. This contrasts with the mitotic cell cycle where DNA replication and chromosome segregation alternate to maintain the same ploidy. At the end of mitosis, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs are inactivated. This low CDK state in late mitosis/G1 allows for critical preparatory events for DNA replication and centrosome/spindle pole body (SPB duplication. However, their execution is inhibited until S phase, where further preparatory events are also prevented. This “licensing” ensures that both the chromosomes and the centrosomes/SPBs replicate exactly once per cell cycle, thereby maintaining constant ploidy. Crucially, between meiosis I and meiosis II, centrosomes/SPBs must be re-licensed, but DNA re-replication must be avoided. In budding yeast, the Cdc14 protein phosphatase triggers CDK down regulation to promote exit from mitosis. Cdc14 also regulates the meiosis I to meiosis II transition, though its mode of action has remained unclear. Methods Fluorescence and electron microscopy was combined with proteomics to probe SPB duplication in cells with inactive or hyperactive Cdc14. Results We demonstrate that Cdc14 ensures two successive nuclear divisions by re-licensing SPBs at the meiosis I to meiosis II transition. We show that Cdc14 is asymmetrically enriched on a single SPB during anaphase I and provide evidence that this enrichment promotes SPB re-duplication. Cells with impaired Cdc14 activity fail to promote extension of the SPB half-bridge, the initial step in morphogenesis of a new SPB. Conversely, cells with hyper-active Cdc14 duplicate SPBs, but fail to induce their separation. Conclusion Our findings implicate reversal of key CDK-dependent phosphorylations in the differential licensing of

  16. Leaf extracts of Casearia sylvestris and Casearia decandra affect growth and production of ligninolytic enzymes in wood decay basidiomycetes

    OpenAIRE

    Bento, Thiara Siqueira; Torres, Luce Maria Brandão; Fialho, Mauricio Batista; Bononi, Vera Lúcia Ramos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT White-rot basidiomycetes are able to deteriorate wood products and be pathogenic to living trees, requiring, thus requiring control. The tropical flora is an important source of eco-friendly antifungal compounds; however, the knowledge on how leaf extracts affect the fungal physiology is limited. Therefore, in the present work we investigated the influence of ethanolic leaf extracts of Casearia sylvestris and C. decandra at 0.1 mg mL-1 on the production of ligninolytic enzymes by Tra...

  17. Investigation of Factors Affecting Aerobic and Respiratory Growth in the Oxygen-Tolerant Strain Lactobacillus casei N87.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco G Ianniello

    Full Text Available Aerobic and respiratory cultivations provide benefits for some lactic acid bacteria (LAB. Growth, metabolites, enzymatic activities (lactate dehydrogenase; pyruvate and NADH oxidases, NADH peroxidase; catalase, antioxidant capability and stress tolerance of Lactobacillus casei N87 were evaluated in anaerobic, aerobic and respiratory (aerobiosis with heme and menaquinone supplementation batch cultivations with different dissolved oxygen (DO concentrations. The expression of pox (pyruvate oxidase and cydABCD operon (cytochrome bd oxidase complex was quantified by quantitative Real Time polymerase chain reaction. Respiration increased biomass production compared to anaerobiosis and unsupplemented aerobiosis, and altered the central metabolism rerouting pyruvate away from lactate accumulation. All enzymatic activities, except lactate dehydrogenase, were higher in respiratory cultures, while unsupplemented aerobiosis with 60% of DO promoted H2O2 and free radical accumulation. Respiration improved the survival to oxidative and freeze-drying stresses, while significant numbers of dead, damaged and viable but not cultivable cells were found in unsupplemented aerobic cultures (60% DO. Analysis of gene expression suggested that the activation of aerobic and respiratory pathways occurred during the exponential growth phase, and that O2 and hemin induced, respectively, the transcription of pox and cydABCD genes. Respiratory cultivation might be a natural strategy to improve functional and technological properties of L. casei.

  18. Investigation of Factors Affecting Aerobic and Respiratory Growth in the Oxygen-Tolerant Strain Lactobacillus casei N87.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianniello, Rocco G; Zotta, Teresa; Matera, Attilio; Genovese, Francesco; Parente, Eugenio; Ricciardi, Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic and respiratory cultivations provide benefits for some lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Growth, metabolites, enzymatic activities (lactate dehydrogenase; pyruvate and NADH oxidases, NADH peroxidase; catalase), antioxidant capability and stress tolerance of Lactobacillus casei N87 were evaluated in anaerobic, aerobic and respiratory (aerobiosis with heme and menaquinone supplementation) batch cultivations with different dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. The expression of pox (pyruvate oxidase) and cydABCD operon (cytochrome bd oxidase complex) was quantified by quantitative Real Time polymerase chain reaction. Respiration increased biomass production compared to anaerobiosis and unsupplemented aerobiosis, and altered the central metabolism rerouting pyruvate away from lactate accumulation. All enzymatic activities, except lactate dehydrogenase, were higher in respiratory cultures, while unsupplemented aerobiosis with 60% of DO promoted H2O2 and free radical accumulation. Respiration improved the survival to oxidative and freeze-drying stresses, while significant numbers of dead, damaged and viable but not cultivable cells were found in unsupplemented aerobic cultures (60% DO). Analysis of gene expression suggested that the activation of aerobic and respiratory pathways occurred during the exponential growth phase, and that O2 and hemin induced, respectively, the transcription of pox and cydABCD genes. Respiratory cultivation might be a natural strategy to improve functional and technological properties of L. casei.

  19. Investigation of Factors Affecting Aerobic and Respiratory Growth in the Oxygen-Tolerant Strain Lactobacillus casei N87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianniello, Rocco G.; Matera, Attilio; Genovese, Francesco; Parente, Eugenio; Ricciardi, Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic and respiratory cultivations provide benefits for some lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Growth, metabolites, enzymatic activities (lactate dehydrogenase; pyruvate and NADH oxidases, NADH peroxidase; catalase), antioxidant capability and stress tolerance of Lactobacillus casei N87 were evaluated in anaerobic, aerobic and respiratory (aerobiosis with heme and menaquinone supplementation) batch cultivations with different dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. The expression of pox (pyruvate oxidase) and cydABCD operon (cytochrome bd oxidase complex) was quantified by quantitative Real Time polymerase chain reaction. Respiration increased biomass production compared to anaerobiosis and unsupplemented aerobiosis, and altered the central metabolism rerouting pyruvate away from lactate accumulation. All enzymatic activities, except lactate dehydrogenase, were higher in respiratory cultures, while unsupplemented aerobiosis with 60% of DO promoted H2O2 and free radical accumulation. Respiration improved the survival to oxidative and freeze-drying stresses, while significant numbers of dead, damaged and viable but not cultivable cells were found in unsupplemented aerobic cultures (60% DO). Analysis of gene expression suggested that the activation of aerobic and respiratory pathways occurred during the exponential growth phase, and that O2 and hemin induced, respectively, the transcription of pox and cydABCD genes. Respiratory cultivation might be a natural strategy to improve functional and technological properties of L. casei. PMID:27812097

  20. SIRT3-dependent GOT2 acetylation status affects the malate–aspartate NADH shuttle activity and pancreatic tumor growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Zhou, Lisha; Shi, Qian; Zhao, Yuzheng; Lin, Huaipeng; Zhang, Mengli; Zhao, Shimin; Yang, Yi; Ling, Zhi-Qiang; Guan, Kun-Liang; Xiong, Yue; Ye, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The malate–aspartate shuttle is indispensable for the net transfer of cytosolic NADH into mitochondria to maintain a high rate of glycolysis and to support rapid tumor cell growth. The malate–aspartate shuttle is operated by two pairs of enzymes that localize to the mitochondria and cytoplasm, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases (GOT), and malate dehydrogenases (MDH). Here, we show that mitochondrial GOT2 is acetylated and that deacetylation depends on mitochondrial SIRT3. We have identified that acetylation occurs at three lysine residues, K159, K185, and K404 (3K), and enhances the association between GOT2 and MDH2. The GOT2 acetylation at these three residues promotes the net transfer of cytosolic NADH into mitochondria and changes the mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ redox state to support ATP production. Additionally, GOT2 3K acetylation stimulates NADPH production to suppress ROS and to protect cells from oxidative damage. Moreover, GOT2 3K acetylation promotes pancreatic cell proliferation and tumor growth in vivo. Finally, we show that GOT2 K159 acetylation is increased in human pancreatic tumors, which correlates with reduced SIRT3 expression. Our study uncovers a previously unknown mechanism by which GOT2 acetylation stimulates the malate–aspartate NADH shuttle activity and oxidative protection. PMID:25755250

  1. SIRT3-dependent GOT2 acetylation status affects the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle activity and pancreatic tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Zhou, Lisha; Shi, Qian; Zhao, Yuzheng; Lin, Huaipeng; Zhang, Mengli; Zhao, Shimin; Yang, Yi; Ling, Zhi-Qiang; Guan, Kun-Liang; Xiong, Yue; Ye, Dan

    2015-04-15

    The malate-aspartate shuttle is indispensable for the net transfer of cytosolic NADH into mitochondria to maintain a high rate of glycolysis and to support rapid tumor cell growth. The malate-aspartate shuttle is operated by two pairs of enzymes that localize to the mitochondria and cytoplasm, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases (GOT), and malate dehydrogenases (MDH). Here, we show that mitochondrial GOT2 is acetylated and that deacetylation depends on mitochondrial SIRT3. We have identified that acetylation occurs at three lysine residues, K159, K185, and K404 (3K), and enhances the association between GOT2 and MDH2. The GOT2 acetylation at these three residues promotes the net transfer of cytosolic NADH into mitochondria and changes the mitochondrial NADH/NAD(+) redox state to support ATP production. Additionally, GOT2 3K acetylation stimulates NADPH production to suppress ROS and to protect cells from oxidative damage. Moreover, GOT2 3K acetylation promotes pancreatic cell proliferation and tumor growth in vivo. Finally, we show that GOT2 K159 acetylation is increased in human pancreatic tumors, which correlates with reduced SIRT3 expression. Our study uncovers a previously unknown mechanism by which GOT2 acetylation stimulates the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle activity and oxidative protection. © 2015 The Authors.

  2. Dietary available phosphorus affected growth performance, body composition, and hepatic antioxidant property of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qin; Wang, Chunfang; Xie, Congxin; Jin, Jiali; Huang, Yanqing

    2012-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was carried out with juvenile yellow catfish to study the effects of dietary available phosphorus (P) on growth performance, body composition, and hepatic antioxidant property. Six pellet diets were formulated to contain graded available P levels at 0.33, 0.56, 0.81, 1.15, 1.31, and 1.57% of dry matter, respectively. Triplicate tanks with each tank containing 60 juveniles (3.09 ± 0.03 g) were fed one of the six experimental diets for 8 weeks. Specific growth rate, feeding rate, and protein efficiency ratio were significantly higher at 0.81% dietary available P. Efficiency of P utilization distinctly decreased with increasing P level. Body lipid content significantly decreased while body ash and feces P content significantly increased with increasing P level. Quadratic regression analysis indicated that vertebrae P content was maximized at 1.21% dietary available P. Fish fed 1.57% dietary available P had highest activity of hepatic superoxide dismutase and catalase and malonaldehyde content. In conclusion, decreasing dietary available P increased P utilization efficiency and body lipid content while decreased vertebrae P content. Juvenile yellow catfish were subjected to oxidative damage under the condition of high dietary P content (1.57%), and the damage could not be eradicated by their own antioxidant defense system.

  3. Preliminary studies on growth and fresh weight of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) as affected by clay pot irrigation and spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakari, Abdul-Halim; Nyarko, George; Maalinyuur, Sheila

    2011-07-15

    An experiment (Completely Randomized Design) was set up to determine the effects of Clay Pot Sub-surface Irrigation (CPSI) and spacing on the growth and fresh weight of lettuce (Lactuca sativa). The treatments were: CPSI with spacing; 15 x 15 cm, 20 x 20 cm and 30 x 30 cm. Control treatments were Watering Can Irrigation (WCI) with the same spacing as above. Treatments were replicated three times given a total of 18 experimental units. Eighteen large enamel basins of 50/20 cm (diameter/height) were filled with good topsoil and a clay pot buried neck deep in each of the basins. Seedlings were planted in all the eighteen basins. Five Hundred mL of wastewater was applied daily to plants in each container having either clay pot or watering can treatment. Plant height increased from 2.50 to 4.25 cm within 6 Weeks after Transplanting (WAT) under CPSI and only increased from 2.14 to 2.99 cm under WCI. The CPSI also supported better leave growth and fresh weight. The fresh weight of lettuce increased almost two fold under 15 x 15 cm spacing compared to 20 x 20 and 30 x 30 cm.

  4. Predation, metabolic priming and early life-history rearing environment affect the swimming capabilities of growth hormone transgenic rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossin, Glenn T; Devlin, Robert H

    2017-08-01

    The period of first feeding, when young salmonid fishes emerge from natal stream beds, is one fraught with predation risk. Experiments conducted in semi-natural stream mesocosms have shown that growth hormone transgenic salmonids are at greater risk of predation than their non-transgenic siblings, due partly to the higher metabolic demands associated with transgenesis, which force risky foraging behaviours. This raises questions as to whether there are differences in the swim-performance of transgenic and non-transgenic fishes surviving predation experiments. We tested this hypothesis in wild-origin rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) that were reared from first feeding in semi-natural stream mesocosms characterized by complex hydrodynamics, the presence of predators and oligotrophic conditions. Using an open-flume raceway, we swam fish and measured their capacity for burst-swimming against a sustained flow. We found a significant genotype effect on burst-performance, with transgenic fish sustaining performance longer than their wild-type siblings, both in predator and predator-free stream segments. Importantly, this effect occurred before differences in growth were discernable. We also found that mesocosm-reared fish had greater burst-performance than fish reared in the controlled hatchery environment, despite the latter being unexposed to predators and having abundant food. Our results suggest a potential interaction between predation and metabolic priming, which leads to greater burst capacity in transgenic trout. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Integrated use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, biogas slurry and chemical nitrogen for sustainable production of maize under salt-affected conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Jamil, M.; Akhtar, F.U.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the most critical constraints hampering agricultural production throughout the world, including Pakistan. Some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have the ability to reduce the deleterious effect of salinity on plants due to the presence of ACC-deaminase enzyme along with some other mechanisms. The integrated use of organic, chemical and biofertilizers can reduce dependence on expensive chemical inputs. To sustain high crop yields without deterioration of soil fertility, it is important to work out optimal combination of chemical and biofertilizers, and manures in the cropping system. A pot trial was conducted to study the effect of integrated use of PGPR, chemical nitrogen, and biogas slurry for sustainable production of maize under salt-stressed conditions and for good soil health. Results showed that sole application of PGPR, chemical nitrogen and biogas slurry enhanced maize growth but their combined application was more effective. Maximum improvement in maize growth, yield, ionic concentration in leaves and nutrient concentration in grains was observed in the treatment where PGPR and biogas slurry was used in the presence of 100% recommended nitrogen as chemical fertilizer. It also improved the soil pH, ECe, and available N, P and K contents. It is concluded that integrated use of PGPR, biogas slurry and chemical nitrogen not only enhanced maize growth, yield and quality but also improved soil health. So, it may be evaluated under field conditions to get sustained yield of maize from salt-affected soils. (author)

  6. Fish oil supplementation from 9 to 18 months of age affects the insulin-like growth factor axis in a sex-specific manner in Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Harsløf, Laurine B. S.; Andersen, Anders D.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the effects of fish oil (FO) on infant growth, but little is known about the effects of FO and sex on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), the main regulator of growth in childhood. We explored whether FO v. sunflower oil (SO) supplementation from 9 to 18 months...... of age affected IGF-1 and its binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and whether the potential effects were sex specific. Danish infants (n 115) were randomly allocated to 5 ml/d FO (1·2 g/d n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA)) or SO. We measured growth, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and erythrocyte EPA, a biomarker of n-3 LCPUFA...... intake and status, at 9 and 18 months. Erythrocyte EPA increased strongly with FO compared with SO (Ppopulation, but a sex×group interaction (P=0·02). Baseline-adjusted IGF-1 at 18 months was 11·1 µg/l (95 % CI 0·4, 21·8;P=0...

  7. Mps1 (Monopolar Spindle 1) Protein Inhibition Affects Cellular Growth and Pro-Embryogenic Masses Morphology in Embryogenic Cultures of Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douétts-Peres, Jackellinne C; Cruz, Marco Antônio L; Reis, Ricardo S; Heringer, Angelo S; de Oliveira, Eduardo A G; Elbl, Paula M; Floh, Eny I S; Silveira, Vanildo; Santa-Catarina, Claudete

    2016-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis has been shown to be an efficient tool for studying processes based on cell growth and development. The fine regulation of the cell cycle is essential for proper embryo formation during the process of somatic embryogenesis. The aims of the present work were to identify and perform a structural and functional characterization of Mps1 and to analyze the effects of the inhibition of this protein on cellular growth and pro-embryogenic mass (PEM) morphology in embryogenic cultures of A. angustifolia. A single-copy Mps1 gene named AaMps1 was retrieved from the A. angustifolia transcriptome database, and through a mass spectrometry approach, AaMps1 was identified and quantified in embryogenic cultures. The Mps1 inhibitor SP600125 (10 μM) inhibited cellular growth and changed PEMs, and these effects were accompanied by a reduction in AaMps1 protein levels in embryogenic cultures. Our work has identified the Mps1 protein in a gymnosperm species for the first time, and we have shown that inhibiting Mps1 affects cellular growth and PEM differentiation during A. angustifolia somatic embryogenesis. These data will be useful for better understanding cell cycle control during somatic embryogenesis in plants.

  8. Differences in extreme low salinity timing and duration differentially affect eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) size class growth and mortality in Breton Sound, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPeyre, Megan K.; Eberline, Benjamin S.; Soniat, Thomas M.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how different life history stages are impacted by extreme or stochastic environmental variation is critical for predicting and modeling organism population dynamics. This project examined recruitment, growth, and mortality of seed (25–75 mm) and market (>75 mm) sized oysters along a salinity gradient over two years in Breton Sound, LA. In April 2010, management responses to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in extreme low salinity (25 °C) significantly and negatively impacted oyster recruitment, survival and growth in 2010, while low salinity (25 °C). With increasing management of our freshwater inputs to estuaries combined with predicted climate changes, how extreme events affect different life history stages is key to understanding variation in population demographics of commercially important species and predicting future populations.

  9. Factors affecting distribution of wood, detritus, and sediment in headwater streams draining managed young-growth red alder - Conifer forests in southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomi, T.; Johnson, A.C.; Deal, R.L.; Hennon, P.E.; Orlikowska, E.H.; Wipfli, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Factors (riparian stand condition, management regimes, and channel properties) affecting distributions of wood, detritus (leaves and branches), and sediment were examined in headwater streams draining young-growth red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) - conifer riparian forests (40 years old) remained in channels and provided sites for sediment and organic matter storage. Despite various alder-conifer mixtures and past harvesting effects, the abundance of large wood, fine wood, and detritus accumulations significantly decreased with increasing channel bank-full width (0.5-3.5 m) along relatively short channel distances (up to 700 m). Changes in wood, detritus, and sediment accumulations together with changes in riparian stand characteristics create spatial and temporal variability of in-channel conditions in headwater systems. A component of alder within young-growth riparian forests may benefit both wood production and biological recovery in disturbed headwater stream channels. ?? 2006 NRC.

  10. Embryogenic callus formation, growth and regeneration in callus and suspension cultures of Miscanthus x ogiformis Honda 'Giganteus' as affected by proline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger Bæksted; Krogstrup, Peter; Hansen, Jürgen

    1997-01-01

    to test the effect of proline in suspension cultures. The proline additions affected the formation of embryogenic callus and the growth of suspension cultures. Improvements depended on the proline concentration and the basal salts of the medium. Addition of 12.5 to 50 mM proline to callus induction medium...... with Murashige and Skoog salts increased embryogenic callus formation on shoot apices and leaf explants while proline had no effect on embryogenic callus formation in medium with N6 salts. Increased growth with increasing proline concentration was obtained in suspension aggregates grown in medium with N6 salts......The effects of proline additions to culture systems of Miscanthus x ogiformis Honda Giganteus' were investigated. Proline was added in concentrations of 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 or 300 mM to the callus induction and suspension culture media containing either Murashige and Skoog or N6 basal salts and 22...

  11. Expression of Cyclins A, E and Topoisomerase II α correlates with centrosome amplification and genomic instability and influences the reliability of cytometric S-phase determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laytragoon-Lewin Nongnit

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of normal cells through the cell cycle is meticulously regulated by checkpoints guaranteeing the exact replication of the genome during S-phase and its equal division at mitosis. A prerequisite for this achievement is synchronized DNA-replication and centrosome duplication. In this context the expression of cyclins A and E has been shown to play a principal role. Results Our results demonstrated a correlation between centrosome amplification, cell cycle fidelity and the level of mRNA and protein expression of cyclins A and E during the part of the cell cycle defined as G1-phase by means of DNA content based histogram analysis. It is shown that the normal diploid breast cell line HTB-125, the genomically relatively stable aneuploid breast cancer cell line MCF-7, and the genomically unstable aneuploid breast cancer cell line MDA-231 differ remarkably concerning both mRNA and protein expression of the two cyclins during G1-phase. In MDA-231 cells the expression of e.g. cyclin A mRNA was found to be ten times higher than in MCF-7 cells and about 500 times higher than in HTB-125 cells. Topoisomerase II α showed high mRNA expression in MDA compared to MCF-7 cells, but the difference in protein expression was small. Furthermore, we measured centrosome aberrations in 8.4% of the MDA-231 cells, and in only 1.3% of the more stable aneuploid cell line MCF-7. MDA cells showed 27% more incorporation of BrdU than reflected by S-phase determination with flow cytometric DNA content analysis, whereas these values were found to be of the same size in both HTB-125 and MCF-7 cells. Conclusions Our data indicate that the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-231, although both DNA-aneuploid, differ significantly regarding the degree of cell cycle disturbance and centrosome aberrations, which partly could explain the different genomic stability of the two cell lines. The results also question the reliability of cytometric DNA

  12. A Distinct Endosomal Ca2+/Mn2+ Pump Affects Root Growth through the Secretory Process1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiyan; Chanroj, Salil; Wu, Zhongyi; Romanowsky, Shawn M.; Harper, Jeffrey F.; Sze, Heven

    2008-01-01

    Ca2+ is required for protein processing, sorting, and secretion in eukaryotic cells, although the particular roles of the transporters involved in the secretory system of plants are obscure. One endomembrane-type Ca-ATPase from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), AtECA3, diverges from AtECA1, AtECA2, and AtECA4 in protein sequence; yet, AtECA3 appears similar in transport activity to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-bound AtECA1. Expression of AtECA3 in a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mutant defective in its endogenous Ca2+ pumps conferred the ability to grow on Ca2+-depleted medium and tolerance to toxic levels of Mn2+. A green fluorescent protein-tagged AtECA3 was functionally competent and localized to intracellular membranes of yeast, suggesting that Ca2+ and Mn2+ loading into internal compartment(s) enhanced yeast proliferation. In mesophyll protoplasts, AtECA3-green fluorescent protein associated with a subpopulation of endosome/prevacuolar compartments based on partial colocalization with the Ara7 marker. Interestingly, three independent eca3 T-DNA disruption mutants showed severe reduction in root growth normally stimulated by 3 mm Ca2+, indicating that AtECA3 function cannot be replaced by an ER-associated AtECA1. Furthermore, root growth of mutants is sensitive to 50 μm Mn2+, indicating that AtECA3 is also important for the detoxification of excess Mn2+. Curiously, Ateca3 mutant roots produced 65% more apoplastic protein than wild-type roots, as monitored by peroxidase activity, suggesting that the secretory process was altered. Together, these results demonstrate that the role of AtECA3 is distinct from that of the more abundant ER AtECA1. AtECA3 supports Ca2+-stimulated root growth and the detoxification of high Mn2+, possibly through activities mediated by post-Golgi compartments that coordinate membrane traffic and sorting of materials to the vacuole and the cell wall. PMID:18567829