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Sample records for centrifugo deslizante pcd

  1. Toxic waste treatment with sliding centrifugal plasma reactor; Tratamiento de residuos toxicos con reactores de plasma centrifugo deslizante (PCD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, J.; Pacheco, M.; Valdivia, R.; Ramos, F.; Duran, M.; Hidalgo, M.; Cruz, A.; Martinez, J. C.; Martinez, R.; De la Cruz, S.; Flores, T.; Vidal, E.; Escobar, S. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Garduno, M.; Garcia, M.; Portillo, J.; Torres, C.; Estrada, N.; Velazquez, S.; Vasquez, C. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Instituto Tecnologico s/n, Ex-Rancho la Virgen, Metepec 52140, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The aim is to develop technology for hazardous waste treatment, including the building and putting into operation of a prototype based on a sliding centrifugal plasma technology to demonstrate its ability to degradation taking in account the existing environmental standards. (Author)

  2. Estudio de Algoritmos 2-Deslizantes Aplicados al Control de Pilas de Combustible

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Kunusch; Paul F. Puleston; Miguel A. Mayosky

    2008-01-01

    Resumen: En este trabajo se hace un estudio comparativo de tres diferentes técnicas de control por modo deslizante de segundo orden, aplicadas al problema específico del control de respiración de una pila de combustible PEM. Los algoritmos diseñados se contrastan por simulación utilizando el modelo completo del sistema, poniendo particular énfasis en la respuesta transitoria y la robustez frente a perturbaciones. Palabras clave: Pilas de Combustible, Control no lineal, Modo Deslizante

  3. Estudio de Algoritmos 2-Deslizantes Aplicados al Control de Pilas de Combustible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Kunusch

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este trabajo se hace un estudio comparativo de tres diferentes técnicas de control por modo deslizante de segundo orden, aplicadas al problema específico del control de respiración de una pila de combustible PEM. Los algoritmos diseñados se contrastan por simulación utilizando el modelo completo del sistema, poniendo particular énfasis en la respuesta transitoria y la robustez frente a perturbaciones. Palabras clave: Pilas de Combustible, Control no lineal, Modo Deslizante

  4. Controlador en Modo Deslizante para Sistemas Fotovoltaicos Conectados a la Red Eléctrica

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    D. Arcos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el análisis, modelamiento y diseño de un lazo de control para sistemas fotovoltaicos (PV conectados a la red eléctrica. Se aborda el modelado de un panel fotovoltaico; el diseño de un convertidor elevador (Boost y su lazo de control mediante un controlador proporcional-integral PI de corriente y un controlador en modo deslizante; y finalmente el diseño de un inversor DC-AC de una fase. Se realiza una descripción de la dinámica del convertidor Boost y de las ecuaciones para el diseño del controlador en modo deslizante y del inversor de una sola fase. El sistema propuesto ha sido simulado utilizando las herramientas de la librería SimPowerSystems de Matlab/Simulink.

  5. Control mediante modos deslizantes en tiempo discreto para el seguimiento de trayectorias de un robot móvil1

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    P.A. Niño-Suárez

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este trabajo se presenta una estrategia de control en tiempo discreto para el seguimiento de trayectorias de un robot móvil tipo (2,0 controlado remotamente. La estrategia de control se desarrolló mediante un enfoque de modos deslizantes, considerando el modelo discreto exacto del vehículo en el cual se incluyen los efectos del retardo de transporte causado por la propagación de las señales sobre una red de comunicación. El esquema de control garantiza el seguimiento de trayectorias predeterminadas obteniéndose convergencia asintótica de los errores de seguimiento. La estrategia propuesta es evaluada mediante una serie de resultados por simulación. Palabras clave: Robot móvil, retardos de transporte, control en tiempo discreto, modos deslizantes

  6. UN NUEVO ENFOQUE DEL CONTROL POR MODO DESLIZANTE PARA SISTEMAS MULTIVARIABLES

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    Rafael Angel Orellana Prato

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta el diseño de un sistema de control por modo deslizante (SMCr basado en alimentación adelantada (feedforward aplicado a un sistema multivariable, sintonizado para especificaciones de la respuesta transitoria, usando modelos de primer orden más tiempo muerto (POMTM. Como caso de estudio se presenta el modelo multivariable de dos entradas y dos salidas de una columna de destilación Wood and Berry, la cual presenta un alto índice de interacción. Las pruebas demostraron que la estrategia de control propuesta mejora el desempeño de un sistema de control multivariable ante cambios en los valores de referencia y rechazo a las perturbaciones, sin embargo, el tiempo de establecimiento de las variables controladas aumenta producto de dinámica considerada en el desacoplamiento. Se comprobó que en sistemas con alta interacción las señales de control tienen cambios más suaves lo que indica menor desgaste en los elementos finales de control.

  7. Control por Modos Deslizantes y Planitud Diferencial de un Convertidor de CD/CD Boost: Resultados Experimentales

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    R. Silva-Ortigoza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este trabajo se presenta el control del convertidor de potencia de CD a CD Boost. En este sistema existen dos problemas de control, a saber; la regulación alrededor de un punto de equilibrio y la de seguimiento de trayectoria del voltaje de salida. Nosotros enfocamos nuestra atención al segundo problema de control. Debido a las propiedades de fase que satisface este convertidor, para realizar la tarea de seguimiento de trayectoria se diseña un controlador indirecto basado en modos deslizantes en combinación con planitud diferencial, el cual permite el seguimiento de trayectoria de la variable de fase no mínima (voltaje basado en el seguimiento de trayectoria de la variable de fase mínima (corriente. La síntesis de este controlador se realiza con la ayuda de una tarjeta de adquisición de datos National Instruments™ PCI-6025E junto con el software de aplicación MATLAB®-Simulink®. Se aplica este controlador al prototipo del convertidor Boost desarrollado y se obtienen resultados experimentales satisfactorios. Palabras clave: Control Indirecto, Convertidor de CD/CD Boost, Modos Deslizantes, Planitud Diferencial, Seguimiento de Trayectoria

  8. Estabilidad para un control borroso en modo deslizante aplicado a un robot paralelo neumático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo J. Prieto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Se presenta un controlador borroso tipo Mamdani basado en técnicas en modo deslizante para el posicionamiento de un robot paralelo neumático de dos grados de libertad (2 GDL. Es probado que el sistema es asintóticamente estable en el sentido de Lyapunov y se presentan resultados numéricos y experimentales. Ma's aún, el controlador diseñado puede ser aplicado en control de trayectoria al ser retroalimentadas la velocidad y la aceleración del sistema. Se presentan adema's resultados satisfactorios obtenidos en forma experimental para el caso de seguimiento de trayectoria. Abstract: In this paper is reported a Mamdani type fuzzy controller based on sliding mode techniques applied to the regulation of a 2 DOF pneumatic parallel robot. Is is proved that the system is stable in Lyapunov sense, and numerical and experimental results are reported. Moreover, the designed controller can be applied to tracking control if speed and acceleration from the system are feedbacked. Also are reported satisfactory experimental results for the tracking case. Palabras clave: Control borroso, Control de robot, Estabilidad de Lyapunov, Modos deslizantes., Keywords: Fuzzy control, Robot control, Lyapunov stability, Sliding mode.

  9. Suppression of PCD-related genes affects salt tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahieldin, Ahmed; Alqarni, Dhafer A M; Atef, Ahmed; Gadalla, Nour O; Al-matary, Mohammed; Edris, Sherif; Al-Kordy, Magdy A; Makki, Rania M; Al-Doss, Abdullah A; Sabir, Jamal S M; Mutwakil, Mohammed H Z; El-Domyati, Fotouh M

    2016-01-01

    This work aims at examining a natural exciting phenomenon suggesting that suppression of genes inducing programmed cell death (PCD) might confer tolerance against abiotic stresses in plants. PCD-related genes were induced in tobacco under oxalic acid (OA) treatment (20 mM), and plant cells were characterized to confirm the incidence of PCD. The results indicated that PCD was triggered 24 h after the exposure to OA. Then, RNAs were extracted from tobacco cells 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h after treatment for deep sequencing. RNA-Seq analyses were done with a special emphasis to clusters whose PCD-related genes were upregulated after 2 h of OA exposure. Accordingly, 23 tobacco PCD-related genes were knocked down via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), whereas our results indicated the influence of five of them on inducing or suppressing PCD. Knockout T-DNA insertion mutants of these five genes in Arabidopsis were tested under salt stress (0, 100, 150, and 200 mM NaCl), and the results indicated that a mutant of an antiapoptotic gene, namely Bax Inhibitor-1 (BI-1), whose VIGS induced PCD in tobacco, was salt sensitive, while a mutant of an apoptotic gene, namely mildew resistance locus O (Mlo), whose VIGS suppressed PCD, was salt tolerant as compared to the WT (Col) control. These data support our hypothesis that retarding PCD-inducing genes can result in higher levels of salt tolerance, while retarding PCD-suppressing genes can result in lower levels of salt tolerance in plants. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Density-Gradient Mediated Band Extraction of Leukocytes from Whole Blood Using Centrifugo-Pneumatic Siphon Valving on Centrifugal Microfluidic Discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Sinéad M.; Kilcawley, Niamh A.; Early, Philip L.; Glynn, Macdara T.; Ducrée, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Here we present retrieval of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by density-gradient medium based centrifugation for subsequent analysis of the leukocytes on an integrated microfluidic “Lab-on-a-Disc” cartridge. Isolation of white blood cells constitutes a critical sample preparation step for many bioassays. Centrifugo-pneumatic siphon valves are particularly suited for blood processing as they function without need of surface treatment and are ‘low-pass’, i.e., holding at high centrifugation speeds and opening upon reduction of the spin rate. Both ‘hydrostatically’ and ‘hydrodynamically’ triggered centrifugo-pneumatic siphon valving schemes are presented. Firstly, the geometry of the pneumatic chamber of hydrostatically primed centrifugo-pneumatic siphon valves is optimised to enable smooth and uniform layering of blood on top of the density-gradient medium; this feature proves to be key for efficient Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell extraction. A theoretical analysis of hydrostatically primed valves is also presented which determines the optimum priming pressure for the individual valves. Next, ‘dual siphon’ configurations for both hydrostatically and hydrodynamically primed centrifugo-pneumatic siphon valves are introduced; here plasma and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells are extracted through a distinct siphon valve. This work represents a first step towards enabling on disc multi-parameter analysis. Finally, the efficiency of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells extraction in these structures is characterised using a simplified design. A microfluidic mechanism, which we termed phase switching, is identified which affects the efficiency of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell extraction. PMID:27167376

  11. Centrifugo-pneumatic multi-liquid aliquoting - parallel aliquoting and combination of multiple liquids in centrifugal microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwemmer, F; Hutzenlaub, T; Buselmeier, D; Paust, N; von Stetten, F; Mark, D; Zengerle, R; Kosse, D

    2015-08-07

    The generation of mixtures with precisely metered volumes is essential for reproducible automation of laboratory workflows. Splitting a given liquid into well-defined metered sub-volumes, the so-called aliquoting, has been frequently demonstrated on centrifugal microfluidics. However, so far no solution exists for assays that require simultaneous aliquoting of multiple, different liquids and the subsequent pairwise combination of aliquots with full fluidic separation before combination. Here, we introduce the centrifugo-pneumatic multi-liquid aliquoting designed for parallel aliquoting and pairwise combination of multiple liquids. All pumping and aliquoting steps are based on a combination of centrifugal forces and pneumatic forces. The pneumatic forces are thereby provided intrinsically by centrifugal transport of the assay liquids into dead end chambers to compress the enclosed air. As an example, we demonstrate simultaneous aliquoting of 1.) a common assay reagent into twenty 5 μl aliquots and 2.) five different sample liquids, each into four aliquots of 5 μl. Subsequently, the reagent and sample aliquots are simultaneously transported and combined into twenty collection chambers. All coefficients of variation for metered volumes were between 0.4%-1.0% for intra-run variations and 0.5%-1.2% for inter-run variations. The aliquoting structure is compatible to common assay reagents with a wide range of liquid and material properties, demonstrated here for contact angles between 20° and 60°, densities between 789 and 1855 kg m(-3) and viscosities between 0.89 and 4.1 mPa s. The centrifugo-pneumatic multi-liquid aliquoting is implemented as a passive fluidic structure into a single fluidic layer. Fabrication is compatible to scalable fabrication technologies such as injection molding or thermoforming and does not require any additional fabrication steps such as hydrophilic or hydrophobic coatings or integration of active valves.

  12. Estimativa do coeficiente de reaeração da água em canal raso de fundo deslizante

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    Flávia Martins de Queiroz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O coeficiente de reaeração, K2, é a variável de maior influência na autodepuração de corpos hídricos; portanto, estimativas confiáveis são de suma importância. As previsões de K2, por meio de equações, em condições de escoamento raso são, geralmente, superestimadas. Por isso, neste trabalho, os objetivos foram estudar a reoxigenação da água limpa em canal hidráulico de fundo deslizante, com pequenas profundidades de água e diferentes velocidades de escoamento, inferir sobre as principais variáveis hidrodinâmicas intervenientes no processo e, com base nelas, propor equação de estimativa de K2. Com a concentração de oxigênio na água ao longo do tempo, estimou-se K2. Inferiu-se, dos resultados, que as variáveis velocidade média (V e velocidade de corte (u*, profundidade (H, números de Froude (Fr e de Reynolds (R, declividade (S e fator de forma (ff afetaram K2, e a melhor equação foi a que incluiu as três últimas variáveis.

  13. Application of the comet assay in studies of programmed cell death (PCD in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Charzyńska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death (PCD in plants is an intensively investigated process. One of the main characteristics of PCD in both animal and plant organisms is the non-random, internucleosomal fragmentation of nuclear DNA, usually analysed using total DNA gel electrophoresis or TUNEL method. In this paper we present application of the "comet assay" (Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis for detection of nDNA degradation in studies of PCD during plant life cycle. We analyzed three types of tissue: anther tapetum, endosperm and mesophyll which were prepared in different ways to obtain a suspension of viable cells (without cell walls. The comet assay gives a possibility of examination of the nDNA degradation in individual cell. This method is significant for studies of the plant tissue differentiation and senescence especially in the cases when it is not possible to isolate large number of cells at the same developmental stage.

  14. The relationship between vacuolation and initiation of PCD in rice (Oryza sativa) aleurone cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Zhang, Heting; Deng, Xiaojiang; Liu, Jing; Chen, Huiping

    2017-01-01

    Vacuole fusion is a necessary process for the establishment of a large central vacuole, which is the central location of various hydrolytic enzymes and other factors involved in death at the beginning of plant programmed cell death (PCD). In our report, the fusion of vacuoles has been presented in two ways: i) small vacuoles coalesce to form larger vacuoles through membrane fusion, and ii) larger vacuoles combine with small vacuoles when small vacuoles embed into larger vacuoles. Regardless of how fusion occurs, a large central vacuole is formed in rice (Oryza sativa) aleurone cells. Along with the development of vacuolation, the rupture of the large central vacuole leads to the loss of the intact plasma membrane and the degradation of the nucleus, resulting in cell death. Stabilizing or disrupting the structure of actin filaments (AFs) inhibits or promotes the fusion of vacuoles, which delays or induces PCD. In addition, the inhibitors of the vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) and cathepsin B (CathB) block the occurrence of the large central vacuole and delay the progression of PCD in rice aleurone layers. Overall, our findings provide further evidence for the rupture of the large central vacuole triggering the PCD in aleruone layers.

  15. Construcción de silos con encofrados deslizantes - Santa Cruz de Tenerife – España

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    Barrios Martínez, M.

    1976-10-01

    Full Text Available These cereal and oil-cake silos are made up of 10 exterior cylindrical cells, with an inner diameter of 6 m and a height of 31.88 m. The cells are joined together by means of walls whereby four additional octagonal cells are created. Out of these, three are subdivided into four cells and the fourth forms the central silo. Below this unit there is a corridor for the emptying of the silos. The work has been carried out with a travelling form with the following characteristics: mixed with regard to shape and materials; stiff, since the top platforms are connected; and it has a constant cross-section as the dimensions of the silos remain the same throughout the whole height. The form was lifted by means of elevation devices, controlled by a centralized hydraulic mechanism. In view of the characteristics of the travelling form, the concrete used ¡n the work had to fulfill several very special conditions, notably different from these applying to the concrete that is normally used for fixed forms. For this reason, it was submitted to a great number of studies and tests until the requirements had been met. The construction was finished in record time: in the first place, because a detailed programme had been worked out in advance, consisting of a diagram of bars and preference network and secondly, because continuous concreting was applied with day and night shifts, whebery the foreseen two and a half months for finishing the silos were reduced to 12 days.Estos silos, destinados a almacenamiento de cereales y borujo, están formados por 10 celdas exteriores cilíndricas, de 6 m de diámetro interior y 31,88 m de altura, que se unen entre sí por medio de muros, dando lugar a cuatro celdas adicionales de forma octogonal. De éstas, tres están subdivididas en cuatro interceldas, quedando la cuarta como silo central. Debajo del conjunto se ha dispuesto una galería para el vaciado de los silos. La obra se ha realizado con un encofrado deslizante

  16. Flavonoids and darkness lower PCD in senescing Vitis vinifera suspension cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Alberto; Petrussa, Elisa; Patui, Sonia; Zancani, Marco; Peresson, Carlo; Casolo, Valentino; Vianello, Angelo; Braidot, Enrico

    2016-10-26

    Senescence is a key developmental process occurring during the life cycle of plants that can be induced also by environmental conditions, such as starvation and/or darkness. During senescence, strict control of genes regulates ordered degradation and dismantling events, the most remarkable of which are genetically programmed cell death (PCD) and, in most cases, an upregulation of flavonoid biosynthesis in the presence of light. Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that play multiple essential roles in development, reproduction and defence of plants, partly due to their well-known antioxidant properties, which could affect also the same cell death machinery. To understand further the effect of endogenously-produced flavonoids and their interplay with different environment (light or dark) conditions, two portions (red and green) of a senescing grapevine callus were used to obtain suspension cell cultures. Red Suspension cell Cultures (RSC) and Green Suspension cell Cultures (GSC) were finally grown under either dark or light conditions for 6 days. Darkness enhanced cell death (mainly necrosis) in suspension cell culture, when compared to those grown under light condition. Furthermore, RSC with high flavonoid content showed a higher viability compared to GSC and were more protected toward PCD, in accordance to their high content in flavonoids, which might quench ROS, thus limiting the relative signalling cascade. Conversely, PCD was mainly occurring in GSC and further increased by light, as it was shown by cytochrome c release and TUNEL assays. Endogenous flavonoids were shown to be good candidates for exploiting an efficient protection against oxidative stress and PCD induction. Light seemed to be an important environmental factor able to induce PCD, especially in GSC, which lacking of flavonoids were not capable of preventing oxidative damage and signalling leading to senescence.

  17. Robust control decentralized by sliding ways of electrical of power multi-machines systems; Control robusto descentralizado por modos deslizantes de sistemas electricos de potencia multimaquinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta Avila, Hector

    2008-09-15

    electrica. El controlador debe ser robusto ante variaciones parametricas que se pueden presentar por incertidumbre en los modelos, envejecimiento de los componentes de los generadores y algunas otras causas fisicas. Otro factor a considerar es que los modelos de sistemas multimaquinas son de alto orden, por lo cual se dificulta el diseno de controladores y la implementacion de los mismos en el sistema. Entonces, es conveniente disenar controles descentralizados que puede facilitar la tarea de diseno e implementacion de los mismos. Este trabajo propone tres nuevas tecnicas robustas para sistemas no lineales. La primera esta basada en la metodologia de control por bloques y modos deslizantes integrales; esta combinacion permite aplicar modos deslizantes integrales en cada bloque del sistema, rechazando las perturbaciones existentes en cada bloque. La segunda tecnica propone el diseno de una variedad deslizante a partir del modelo hamiltoniano de sistemas no lineales, misma que sera utilizada para un control por modos deslizantes. La tercera tecnica propone la aplicacion de modos deslizantes en cada bloque de un sistema no lineal controlable por bloques, mediante la utilizacion de la funcion de Lyapunov de ese bloque. Posteriormente se disenan cuatro esquemas de control descentralizado para sistemas electricos de potencia multimaquinas. Los cuatro esquemas propuestos son robustos ante las perturbaciones mencionadas. Ademas, estos controladores se pueden implementar en cualquier sistema electrico de potencia con n generadores, m lineas y k cargas.

  18. [Research on medical instrument information integration technology based on IHE PCD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianli; Liao, Yun; Yang, Yongyong

    2014-06-01

    Integrating medical instruments with medical information systems becomes more and more important in healthcare industry. To make medical instruments without standard communication interface possess the capability of interoperating and sharing information with medical information systems, we developed a medical instrument integration gateway based on Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise Patient Care Device (IHE PCD) integration profiles in this research. The core component is an integration engine which is implemented according to integration profiles and Health Level Seven (HL7) messages defined in IHE PCD. Working with instrument specific Javascripts, the engine transforms medical instrument data into HL7 ORU message. This research enables medical instruments to interoperate and exchange medical data with information systems in a standardized way, and is valuable for medical instrument integration, especially for traditional instruments.

  19. Machinability of Al-SiC metal matrix composites using WC, PCD and MCD inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beristain, J.; Gonzalo, O.; Sanda, A.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work is the study of the machinability of aluminium-silicon carbide Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) in turning operations. The cutting tools used were hard metal (WC) with and without coating, different grades and geometries of Poly-Crystalline Diamond (PCD) and Mono-Crystalline Diamond (MCD). The work piece material was AMC225xe, composed of aluminium-copper alloy AA 2124 and 25% wt of SiC, being the size of the SiC particles around 3 {mu}m. Experiments were conducted at various cutting speeds and cutting parameters in facing finishing operations, measuring the surface roughness, cutting forces and tool wear. The worn surface of the cutting tool was examined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). It was observed that the Built Up Edge (BUE) and stuck material is higher in the MCD tools than in the PCD tools. The BUE acts as a protective layer against abrasive wear of the tool. (Author)

  20. A discreet control of sliding ways of an induction motor; Control discreto de modos deslizantes de un motor de induccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera Dominguez, Jorge

    2001-12-15

    A control of sliding ways in discreet time for non-linear discreet systems is designed, also the technique of the control by histograms for non-linear discreet systems was developed, and an observer of reduced order was developed for non-linear electromechanical discreet systems. All these techniques are applied to a non-linear discreet model of an induction motor that was found here, that posses electrical and mechanical dynamics, in which the load pair is considered an unknown disturbance. With complete measurements of the states are satisfied the pursuing of the rotor velocity and the amplitude of the magnetic flux of the rotor, where the unknown load does not affect the velocity regulation. Next, an observer of reduced order is implemented where the velocity and current measurements are employed to consider the load pair and the flows that are very difficult to measure. The proposed method has a design and stability procedure of direct analyses, conserving a simple structure of the control law. The simulations predict that the system is robust with respect to several types of load pairs. The responses of velocity and amplitude of the rotor flow and the entrance references evolved very well. These references have a linear dynamics of second order with time constants that can be chosen by the motor user. The practical aspects for a future digital implementation of the control law are considered, including the velocity and currents sensors, the preparation of signals, the transformation of the current in the frame of stationary reference, PWM and inverter modules, which were seen in detail. The experimental results are left as a future work. [Spanish] Se disena un control de modos deslizantes en tiempo discreto para sistemas discretos no lineales, tambien se desarrollo la tecnica del control por bloques para sistemas discretos no lineales, y un observador de orden reducido fue desarrollado para sistemas discretos electromecanicos no lineales. Todas estas tecnicas

  1. Validation of a health-related quality of life instrument for primary ciliary dyskinesia (QOL-PCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behan, Laura; Leigh, Margaret W; Dell, Sharon D; Dunn Galvin, Audrey; Quittner, Alexandra L; Lucas, Jane S

    2017-09-01

    Quality of life (QOL)-primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is the first disease-specific, health-related QOL instrument for PCD. Psychometric validation of QOL-PCD assesses the performance of this measure in adults, including its reliability, validity and responsiveness to change. Seventy-two adults (mean (range) age: 33 years (18-79 years); mean (range) FEV 1 % predicted: 68 (26-115)) with PCD completed the 49-item QOL-PCD and generic QOL measures: Short-Form 36 Health Survey, Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 20 (SNOT-20) and St George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ)-C. Thirty-five participants repeated QOL-PCD 10-14 days later to measure stability or reproducibility of the measure. Multitrait analysis was used to evaluate how the items loaded on 10 hypothesised scales: physical, emotional, role and social functioning, treatment burden, vitality, health perceptions, upper respiratory symptoms, lower respiratory symptoms and ears and hearing symptoms. This analysis of item-to-total correlations led to 9 items being dropped; the validated measure now comprises 40 items. Each scale had excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α: 0.74 to 0.94). Two-week test-retest demonstrated stability for all scales (intraclass coefficients 0.73 to 0.96). Significant correlations were obtained between QOL-PCD scores and age and FEV 1 . Strong relationships were also found between QOL-PCD scales and similar constructs on generic questionnaires, for example, lower respiratory symptoms and SGRQ-C (r=0.72, pmeasures of different constructs. QOL-PCD has demonstrated good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent and divergent validity. QOL-PCD offers a promising tool for evaluating new therapies and for measuring symptoms, functioning and QOL during routine care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. The retraction of the protoplast during PCD is an active, and interruptible, calcium-flux driven process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacprzyk, Joanna; Brogan, Niall P; Daly, Cara T; Doyle, Siamsa M; Diamond, Mark; Molony, Elizabeth M; McCabe, Paul F

    2017-07-01

    The protoplast retracts during apoptosis-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD) and, if this retraction is an active component of AL-PCD, it should be used as a defining feature for this type of programmed cell death. We used an array of pharmacological and genetic tools to test if the rates of protoplast retraction in cells undergoing AL-PCD can be modulated. Disturbing calcium flux signalling, ATP synthesis and mitochondrial permeability transition all inhibited protoplast retraction and often also the execution of the death programme. Protoplast retraction can precede loss of plasma membrane integrity and cell death can be interrupted after the protoplast retraction had already occurred. Blocking calcium influx inhibited the protoplast retraction, reduced DNA fragmentation and delayed death induced by AL-PCD associated stresses. At higher levels of stress, where cell death occurs without protoplast retraction, blocking calcium flux had no effect on the death process. The results therefore strongly suggest that retraction of the protoplast is an active biological process dependent on an early Ca 2+ -mediated trigger rather than cellular disintegration due to plasma membrane damage. Therefore this morphologically distinct cell type is a quantifiable feature, and consequently, reporter of AL-PCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Centrifugo-Magnetophoretic Purification of CD4+ Cells from Whole Blood Toward Future HIV/AIDS Point-of-Care Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Macdara; Kirby, Daniel; Chung, Danielle; Kinahan, David J; Kijanka, Gregor; Ducrée, Jens

    2014-06-01

    In medical diagnostics, detection of cells exhibiting specific phenotypes constitutes a paramount challenge. Detection technology must ensure efficient isolation of (often rare) targets while eliminating nontarget background cells. Technologies exist for such investigations, but many require high levels of expertise, expense, and multistep protocols. Increasing automation, miniaturization, and availability of such technologies is an aim of microfluidic lab-on-a-chip strategies. To this end, we present an integrated, dual-force cellular separation strategy using centrifugo-magnetophoresis. Whole blood spiked with target cells is incubated with (super-)paramagnetic microparticles that specifically bind phenotypic markers on target cells. Under rotation, all cells sediment into a chamber located opposite a co-rotating magnet. Unbound cells follow the radial vector, but under the additional attraction of the lateral magnetic field, bead-bound target cells are deflected to a designated reservoir. This multiforce separation is continuous and low loss. We demonstrate separation efficiently up to 92% for cells expressing the HIV/AIDS relevant epitope (CD4) from whole blood. Such highly selective separation systems may be deployed for accurate diagnostic cell isolations from biological samples such as blood. Furthermore, this high efficiency is delivered in a cheap and simple device, thus making it an attractive option for future deployment in resource-limited settings. © 2013 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  4. Predictors of Percutaneous Catheter Drainage (PCD) after Abdominal Paracentesis Drainage (APD) in Patients with Moderately Severe or Severe Acute Pancreatitis along with Fluid Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-hui; Wang, Tao; Yan, Hong-tao; Chen, Tao; Xu, Chuan; Ye, Ping; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Zheng-cai; Tang, Li-jun

    2015-01-01

    Aims Although we previously demonstrated abdominal paracentesis drainage (APD) preceding percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) as the central step for treating patients with moderately severe (MSAP) or severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), the predictors leading to PCD after APD have not been studied. Methods Consecutive patients with MSAP or SAP were recruited between June 2011 and June 2013. As a step-up approach, all patients initially received medical management, later underwent ultrasound-guided APD before PCD, if necessary, followed by endoscopic necrosectomy through the path formed by PCD. APD primarily targeted fluid in the abdominal or pelvic cavities, whereas PCD aimed at (peri)pancreatic fluid. Results Of the 92 enrolled patients, 40 were managed with APD alone and 52 received PCD after APD (14 required necrosectomy after initial PCD). The overall mortality was 6.5%. Univariate analysis showed that among the 20 selected parameters, 13 factors significantly affected PCD intervention after APD. Multivariate analysis revealed that infected (peri)pancreatic collections (P = -0.001), maximum extent of necrosis of more than 30% of the pancreas (P = -0.024), size of the largest necrotic peri(pancreatic) collection (P = -0.007), and reduction of (peri)pancreatic fluid collections by collections, a largest necrotic peri(pancreatic) collection of more than 100 ml, and reduction of (peri)pancreatic fluid collections by <50% after APD could effectively predict the need for PCD in the early course of the disease. PMID:25659143

  5. Construcción de un pavimento rígido con máquina de encofrado deslizante en la autopista París-Lyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Meseguer, Álvaro

    1963-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the construction of a mass concrete pavement, carried out with the aid of a Gunter-Zimmermann sliding formwork, manufactured in the United States. This device guides itself automatically by means of an electronic control, and does the following set of operations simultaneously: it spreads the concrete over the whole width of the pavement (7.5 ms; vibrates it; shapes it and gives it the final thickness with the aid of the sliding formwork; it provides a longitudinal cut, which serves as a dilation joint; fills this joint with plastic material; places connecting reinforcements across the joint, half way down the depth of the pavement; and smoothes out the final surface. The author refers to the final surface finish; discusses the sawing of the transversal joints, various tests and checks, and the possibilities and limitations of this constructional procedure. He finishes by enumerating some general inferences on this method of road construction.Se describe la ejecución de un pavimento de hormigón en masa con la máquina de encofrado deslizante Gunter-Zimmerman, de fabricación norteamericana. Esta máquina, que se guía automáticamente por medio de contactos electrónicos, realiza, sin solución de continuidad, las siguientes operaciones: reparte el hormigón a todo ancho (7,50 m, lo vibra, le da forma y espesor definitivos en su encofrado deslizante, ejecuta una ranura longitudinal que actúa de junta, rellena esa ranura con una cinta de plástico, introduce unas armaduras de cosido de la junta a medio espesor de la losa e iguala la superficie final. Después de referirse al acabado superficial, al curado, a la ejecución por aserrado de juntas transversales y a diversos ensayos y comprobaciones, analiza el autor las posibilidades y limitaciones de este procedimiento, llegando a las conclusiones que aparecen al final del texto.

  6. Optical system to study temperature influenced chemical and mechanical changes to the PCD structure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masina, B

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available .csir.co.za An optical system to study temperature influenced chemical and mechanical changes to the PCD structure Bathusile Masina and Andrew Forbes SAIP 2010: Applied and Industrial Physics 1 October 2010 © CSIR 2010 Slide 2 It is acknowledged that temperature... re (K el vi n) Minutes © CSIR 2010 Slide 15 -0.008 -0.006 -0.004 -0.002 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 N or m al iz ed T em pe ra tu re r (m) At steady state we predict a gradient temperature...

  7. Plataforma virtual de péndulo sobre carro deslizante para la enseñanza del control automático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rodriguez D

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta el desarrollo de un sistema de plataforma virtual para la enseñanza del control automático basado en el péndulo invertido sobre carro deslizante, el cual se desarrolla herramientas didácticas sobre un prototipo virtual, simulando el modelo no lineal en matlab y presentado en un entorno amigable basado en easy-java. Para el diseño de los controladores, se tienen en cuenta dos aspectos principales como los son el “swing up” (llevar el péndulo a posición vertical y el balanceo (mantener el péndulo en la posición vertical. La interfaz al usuario busca facilitar el aprendizaje de los conceptos básicos de un sistema de control automático para estudiantes de pregrado y posgrado, buscando minimizar costos y tiempo en la enseñanza e implementación de sistemas de control.

  8. DISEÑO E IMPLEMENTACIÓN DE UN CONTROL DUAL POR MODOS DESLIZANTES PARA UN CONVERTIDOR BUCK CD-CA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Ayala Taco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo muestra un análisis orientado a la propuesta de diseño e implementaciónde un doble controlador en modo deslizante para un convertidor Buck CD-CA. Se planteanlas superficies de deslizamiento candidatas de acuerdo con las exigencias de la aplicación y,mediante una lógica de activación de las llaves semiconductoras (MOSFET, se obtiene un controlindependiente en la amplitud de la tensión para el semiciclo positivo y negativo de la onda desalida en CA, con el objetivo de lograr a voluntad un nivel de CD introducido en la señal de alterna.Se ingresan perturbaciones de tensión en la entrada del convertidor y se producen variacionesen la carga con el objetivo de probar la robustez del sistema de control propuesto. El controlse implementa en un microcontrolador AVR Atmega164PA y se prueba de manera práctica.Finalmente, se expone una comparación de los resultados obtenidos de manera experimentalcon las simulaciones realizadas en SCILAB5.

  9. Energy saving avoiding the centrifugal motor-compressors air vents discharge to the surrounding atmosphere; Ahorro de energia evitando venteo de aire a la atmosfera en motocompresores centrifugos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Alex [Compressor Controls Corporation, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The motor-compressors are a key part of the industrial processes. The reliability and efficient operation of a compressor is critical. The surge phenomenon is a threat in the reliability of a compressor and therefore for the process. Surge, in a centrifugal compressor is defined as a dramatic flow and pressure drop, including back-flow. This is always a significant process disturbance. Continuous surge results into costly process shutdowns and mechanical damages. To prevent surge, and control the discharge pressure with simple or obsolete controls it is needed to vent air to the surrounding atmosphere. This form of control is very inefficient and costly. An advanced control with leading technology, besides providing an economical value preventing surge damages, offers substantial energy saving reducing or eliminating the venting of air to the atmosphere. [Espanol] Los motocompresores son un aparte clave de los procesos industriales. La confiable y eficiente operacion de un compresor es critica. El fenomeno de surge es una amenaza a la confiabilidad de un compresor y por lo tanto del proceso. El surge en un compresor centrifugo es definido como una dramatica caida de flujo y presion, incluyendo flujo inverso. Esto es siempre un significante disturbio del proceso. El surge continuo resulta en costosos paros de proceso y danos mecanicos. Para prevenir el surge y controlar la presion de descarga con controles simples u obsoletos, es necesario ventear aire a la atmosfera. Esta forma de control es muy ineficiente y costosa. Un control avanzado con tecnologia de punta ademas de proveer valor economico previniendo danos por surge, provee sustanciales ahorros de energia reduciendo o eliminando el venteo de aire a la atmosfera.

  10. Energy saving avoiding the centrifugal motor-compressors air vents discharge to the surrounding atmosphere; Ahorro de energia evitando venteo de aire a la atmosfera en motocompresores centrifugos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Alex [Compressor Controls Corporation, Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The motor-compressors are a key part of the industrial processes. The reliability and efficient operation of a compressor is critical. The surge phenomenon is a threat in the reliability of a compressor and therefore for the process. Surge, in a centrifugal compressor is defined as a dramatic flow and pressure drop, including back-flow. This is always a significant process disturbance. Continuous surge results into costly process shutdowns and mechanical damages. To prevent surge, and control the discharge pressure with simple or obsolete controls it is needed to vent air to the surrounding atmosphere. This form of control is very inefficient and costly. An advanced control with leading technology, besides providing an economical value preventing surge damages, offers substantial energy saving reducing or eliminating the venting of air to the atmosphere. [Espanol] Los motocompresores son un aparte clave de los procesos industriales. La confiable y eficiente operacion de un compresor es critica. El fenomeno de surge es una amenaza a la confiabilidad de un compresor y por lo tanto del proceso. El surge en un compresor centrifugo es definido como una dramatica caida de flujo y presion, incluyendo flujo inverso. Esto es siempre un significante disturbio del proceso. El surge continuo resulta en costosos paros de proceso y danos mecanicos. Para prevenir el surge y controlar la presion de descarga con controles simples u obsoletos, es necesario ventear aire a la atmosfera. Esta forma de control es muy ineficiente y costosa. Un control avanzado con tecnologia de punta ademas de proveer valor economico previniendo danos por surge, provee sustanciales ahorros de energia reduciendo o eliminando el venteo de aire a la atmosfera.

  11. Fate of nuclear material during subsequent steps of the kinetin-induced PCD in apical parts of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedling roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaźmierczak, Andrzej; Soboska, Kamila

    2018-07-01

    In animals during apoptosis, the best examined type of programmed cell death (PCD), three main phases are distinguished: (i) specification (signaling), (ii) killing and (iii) execution one. It has bean postulated that plant PCD also involves three subsequent phases: (i) transmission of death signals to cells (signaling), (ii) initiation of killing processes and (iii) destruction of cells. One of the most important hallmarks of animal and plant PCD are those regarding nucleus, not thoroughly studied in plants so far. To study kinetin-induced PCD (Kin-PCD) in the context of nuclear material faith, 2-cm apical parts of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedling roots were used. Applied assays involving spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence and white light microscopy allowed to examine metabolic and cytomorphologic hallmarks such as changes in DNA content, ssDNA formation and activity of acidic and basic nucleases (DNases and RNases) as well as malformations and fragmentation of nucleoli and nuclei. The obtained results concerning the PCD hallmarks and influence of ZnSO 4 on Kin-PCD allowed us to confirmed presence of specification/signaling, killing and execution/degradation phases of the process and broaden the knowledge about processes affecting nuclei during PCD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Tapetal-Delayed Programmed Cell Death (PCD and Oxidative Stress-Induced Male Sterility of Aegilops uniaristata Cytoplasm in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zihan Liu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS plays a crucial role in the utilization of hybrid vigor. Pollen development is often accompanied by oxidative metabolism responses and tapetal programmed cell death (PCD, and deficiency in these processes could lead to male sterility. Aegilops uniaristata cytoplasmic male sterility (Mu-CMS wheat is a novel male-sterile line in wheat, which possess important potential in hybrid wheat breeding. However, its CMS mechanisms remain poorly understood. In our study, U87B1-706A, with the Aegilops uniaristata cytoplasm, and the maintainer line 706B were used to explore the abortive reason. Compared with 706B, histological analysis and PCD detection of the anther demonstrated that U87B1-706A appeared as delayed tapetal PCD as well as a disorganized organelle phenotype in the early uninucleate stage. Subsequently, a shrunken microspore and disordered exine structure were exhibited in the late uninucleate stage. While the activities of antioxidase increased markedly, the nonenzymatic antioxidant contents declined obviously following overacummulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS during pollen development in U87B1-706A. Real-time quantitative PCR testified that the transcript levels of the superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX genes, encoding pivotal antioxidant enzymes, were up-regulated in early pollen development. Therefore, we deduce excess ROS as a signal may be related to the increased expression levels of enzyme genes, thereby breaking the antioxidative system balance, resulting in delayed tapetal PCD initiation, which finally led to pollen abortion and male sterility in U87B1-706A. These results provide evidence to further explore the mechanisms of abortive pollen in CMS wheat.

  13. Comparison and Analysis of ISO/IEEE 11073, IHE PCD-01, and HL7 FHIR Messages for Personal Health Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungkee; Do, Hyoungho

    2018-01-01

    Increasing use of medical devices outside of healthcare facilities inevitably requires connectivity and interoperability between medical devices and healthcare information systems. To this end, standards have been developed and used to provide interoperability between personal health devices (PHDs) and external systems. ISO/IEEE 11073 standards and IHE PCD-01 standard messages have been used the most in the exchange of observation data of health devices. Recently, transmitting observation data using the HL7 FHIR standard has been devised in the name of DoF (Devices on FHIR) and adopted very fast. We compare and analyze these standards and suggest that which standard will work best at the different environments of device usage. We generated each message/resource of the three standards for observed vital signs from blood pressure monitor and thermometer. Then, the size, the contents, and the exchange processes of these messages are compared and analyzed. ISO/IEEE 11073 standard message has the smallest data size, but it has no ability to contain the key information, patient information. On the other hand, PCD-01 messages and FHIR standards have the fields for patient information. HL7 DoF standards provide reusing of information unit known as resource, and it is relatively easy to parse DoF messages since it uses widely known XML and JSON. ISO/IEEE 11073 standards are suitable for devices having very small computing power. IHE PCD-01 and HL7 DoF messages can be used for the devices that need to be connected to hospital information systems that require patient information. When information reuse is frequent, DoF is advantageous over PCD-01.

  14. Mutation-related differences in exploratory, spatial and depressive-like behavior in pcd and Lurcher cerebellar mutant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eTuma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum is not only essential for motor coordination but is also involved in cognitive and affective processes. These functions of the cerebellum and mechanisms of their disorders in cerebellar injury are not completely understood. There is a wide spectrum of cerebellar mutant mice which are used as models of hereditary cerebellar degenerations. Nevertheless, they differ in pathogenesis of manifestation of the particular mutation and also in the strain background. The aim of this work was to compare spatial navigation, learning and memory in pcd and Lurcher mice, two of the most frequently used cerebellar mutants. The mice were tested in the open field for exploration behavior, in the Morris water maze with visible as well as reversal hidden platform tasks and in the forced swimming test for motivation assessment. Lurcher mice showed different space exploration activity in the open field and a lower tendency to depressive-like behavior in the forced swimming test compared with pcd mice. Severe deficit of spatial navigation was shown in both cerebellar mutants. However, the overall performance of Lurcher mice was better than that of pcd mutants. Lurcher mice showed the ability of visual guidance despite difficulties with the direct swim towards a goal. In the probe trial test, Lurcher mice preferred the visible platform rather than the more recent localization of the hidden goal.

  15. Criteria for the greater rehabilitation of a centrifugal compressor rotor of a process plant; Criterios para la rehabilitacion mayor de un rotor de compresor centrifugo de planta de proceso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertin, Galo; Felix, Jorge A.; Quijano, Octavio [Especialistas en Turbopartes, S.A. de C.V., Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    In this paper are included the main criteria to consider in the greater rehabilitation of a centrifugal compressor rotor, that has as an aim to count on a reliable rotor, fulfilling with the original design of the equipment and with norms and international standards. Also, the main causes of damage that occur in the rotors of this type in the process plants are presented. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se incluyen los principales criterios a considerar en la rehabilitacion mayor de un rotor de compresor centrifugo, que tienen como finalidad contar con un rotor confiable, cumpliendo con el diseno original del equipo y con normas y estandares internacionales. Asi mismo, se presentan las principales causas de dano que ocurren en los rotores de este tipo en las plantas de proceso.

  16. Experimental Study of Tool Wear and Grinding Forces During BK-7 Glass Micro-grinding with Modified PCD Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap, A.; Sahoo, P.; Patra, K.; Dyakonov, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    This study focuses on the improvement in grinding performance of BK-7 glass using polycrystalline diamond micro-tool. Micro-tools are modified using wire EDM and performance of modified tools is compared with that of as received tool. Tool wear of different types of tools are observed. To quantify the tool wear, a method based on weight loss of tool is introduced in this study. Modified tools significantly reduce tool wear in comparison to the normal tool. Grinding forces increase with machining time due to tool wear. However, modified tools produce lesser forces thus can improve life of the PCD micro-grinding tool.

  17. Regulation of Biofilm Formation by Hfq is Influenced by Presence of Plasmid pCD1 in Yersinia Pestis Biovar Microtus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiying Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis synthesizes the attached biofilms in the flea gut to promotethe flea-borne transmission of this deadly pathogen. Bellows et al. reported that the posttranscriptional regulator Hfq inhibites biofilm formation in apCD1− derivative of Y. pestis CO92, however, we found that Hfq stimulates biofilm production in a microtus strain of Y. pestis with the typical plasmids, including pCD1. When we cured pCD1 from this strain, the biofilm phenotype was in accordance with that reported by Bellows et al., indicating that the unknown pCD1-associated factors modulating the regulatory pathways of Y. pestis biofilm formation. Further gene regulation experiments using relevant pCD1+ Y. pestis strains disclose that Hfq positively regulates the expression of hmsHFRS and hmsT encoding a diguanylate cyclase while negatively regulates the expression of hmsP encoding the sole phosphodiesterase. However, Hfq has no regulatory effect on the expression of hmsCDE at the mRNA and protein levels. Our results suggest that we should be cautious to make conclusion from results based on the pCD1-cured Y. pestis.

  18. The Development of Open Water-lubricated Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD) Thrust Bearings for Use in Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Energy Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooley, Craig, H.; Khonsari, Michael,, M; Lingwall, Brent

    2012-11-28

    Polycrstalline diamond (PCD) bearings were designed, fabricated and tested for marine-hydro-kinetic (MHK) application. Bearing efficiency and life were evaluated using the US Synthetic bearing test facility. Three iterations of design, build and test were conducted to arrive at the best bearing design. In addition life testing that simulated the starting and stopping and the loading of real MHK applications were performed. Results showed polycrystalline diamond bearings are well suited for MHK applications and that diamond bearing technology is TRL4 ready. Based on life tests results bearing life is estimated to be at least 11.5 years. A calculation method for evaluating the performance of diamond bearings of round geometry was also investigated and developed. Finally, as part of this effort test bearings were supplied free of charge to the University of Alaska for further evaluation. The University of Alaska test program will subject the diamond bearings to sediment laden lubricating fluid.

  19. Design and development of PCD micro straight edge end mills for micro/nano machining of hard and brittle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Xiang; Wang, Zhigang; Yamazaki, Kazuo; Nakamoto, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges for mechanical micro/nano milling is the design and fabrication of high precision and high efficiency micro milling tools. Commercially available micro milling tools are either too expensive (around several hundred US dollars) or simply made from downsizing of macro milling tools, which is sometimes not appropriate for the specific micro/nano milling requirements. So the design and fabrication of custom micro milling tools are necessary. In this paper, a micro straight edge endmill (SEE) is designed. Static and dynamic FEM analyses have been done for the SEEs with different rake angles trying to identify their stiffness and natural frequencies. By wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM), the SEEs made of polycrystalline diamond (PCD) with three different rake angles have been fabricated. The evaluation milling on tungsten carbide (WC) and silicon wafer have processed on a nano milling center. Experimental results show the SEEs have a good ability to simultaneously micro/nano milling of both the side and bottom surfaces with submicron surface roughness, and the SEE has high accuracy for large aspect ratio thin wall machining. The milling experiments on silicon wafer have successfully demonstrated that ductile mode machining was achieved and the coolant played an important role in silicon wafer milling

  20. Control activo de vibraciones en estructuras tipo edificio sometidas a sismos utilizando múltiple retroalimentación positiva de la posición y modos deslizantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Enríquez-Zárate

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo considera el análisis estructural y dinámico de un a estructura tipo edificio de tres pisos con un absorbedor de v ibraciones pasivo/activo. La base de la estructura se perturba con un gene rador de vibraciones, proporcionando fuerzas de excitación y ru ido emulando transporte terrestre, trenes subterráneos y sismos, c omunes en la Ciudad de México. Se considera un registro sísmico real de magnitud 8.1Mw, conteniendo algunas frecuencias resonantes de l a estructura. La estructura mecánica se modela con la metodolog ía de Euler-Lagrange y se valida con técnicas de análisis modal exper imental. El esquema de control activo se diseña para atenuar la respuesta vibratoria del sistema, ocasionada por las fuerzas armónicas qu e actúan en la base, empleando múltiple retroalimentación posit iva de la posición y control por modos deslizantes para mejorar la robust ez del sistema en lazo cerrado y atenuar tres modos de vibració n. Resultados en simulación y experimentales describen el desempeñ o del sistema completo.

  1. High-Sensitive Two-Layer Photoresistors Based on p-Cd x Hg1- x Te with a Converted Near-Surface Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismailov, N. D.; Talipov, N. Kh.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    The results of an experimental study of photoelectric characteristics of two-layer photoresistors based on p-Cd x Hg1- x Te (x = 0.24-0.28) with a thin near-surface layer of n-type obtained by treatment in atmospheric gas plasma are presented. It is shown that the presence of a potential barrier between the p- and n-regions causes high photosensitivity and speed of operation of such photoresistors at T = 77 K

  2. High-Sensitive Two-Layer Photoresistors Based on p-Cd x Hg1-x Te with a Converted Near-Surface Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismailov, N. D.; Talipov, N. Kh.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    The results of an experimental study of photoelectric characteristics of two-layer photoresistors based on p-Cd x Hg1-x Te (x = 0.24-0.28) with a thin near-surface layer of n-type obtained by treatment in atmospheric gas plasma are presented. It is shown that the presence of a potential barrier between the p- and n-regions causes high photosensitivity and speed of operation of such photoresistors at T = 77 K

  3. Exogenous Trehalose Largely Alleviates Ionic Unbalance, ROS Burst and PCD Occurrence Induced by High Salinity in Arabidopsis Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eYang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose (Tre has been reported to play a critical role in plant response to salinity and the involved mechanisms remain to be investigated in detail. Here, the putative roles of Tre in regulation of ionic balance, cellular redox state, cell death were studied in Arabidopsis under high salt condition. Our results found that the salt-induced restrictions on both vegetative and reproductive growth in salt-stressed plants were largely alleviated by exogenous supply with Tre. The microprobe analysis of ionic dynamics in the leaf and stem of florescence highlighted the Tre ability to retain K and K/Na ratio in plant tissues to improve salt tolerance. The flow cytometric (FCM assay of cellular levels of ROS (reactive oxygen species and PCD (programmed cell death displayed that Tre was able to antagonized salt-induced damages in redox state and cell death and sucrose did not play the same role with Tre. By comparing ionic distribution in leaf and IS (inflorescence stem, we found that Tre was able to restrict Na transportation to IS from leaves since that the ratio of Na accumulation in leaves relative to IS was largely improved due to Tre. The marked decrease of Na ion and improved sucrose level in IS might account for the promoted floral growth when Tre was included in the saline solution. At the same time, endogenous soluble sugars and antioxidant enzyme activities in the salt-stressed plants were also elevated by Tre to counteract high salt stress. We concluded that Tre could improve Arabidopsis salt resistance with respect to biomass accumulation and floral transition in the means of regulating plant redox state, cell death and ionic distribution.

  4. Involvements of PCD and changes in gene expression profile during self-pruning of spring shoots in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Zhi; Zhao, Kun; Ai, Xiao-Yan; Hu, Chun-Gen

    2014-10-13

    Citrus shoot tips abscise at an anatomically distinct abscission zone (AZ) that separates the top part of the shoots into basal and apical portions (citrus self-pruning). Cell separation occurs only at the AZ, which suggests its cells have distinctive molecular regulation. Although several studies have looked into the morphological aspects of self-pruning process, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, the hallmarks of programmed cell death (PCD) were identified by TUNEL experiments, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and histochemical staining for reactive oxygen species (ROS) during self-pruning of the spring shoots in sweet orange. Our results indicated that PCD occurred systematically and progressively and may play an important role in the control of self-pruning of citrus. Microarray analysis was used to examine transcriptome changes at three stages of self-pruning, and 1,378 differentially expressed genes were identified. Some genes were related to PCD, while others were associated with cell wall biosynthesis or metabolism. These results strongly suggest that abscission layers activate both catabolic and anabolic wall modification pathways during the self-pruning process. In addition, a strong correlation was observed between self-pruning and the expression of hormone-related genes. Self-pruning plays an important role in citrus floral bud initiation. Therefore, several key flowering homologs of Arabidopsis and tomato shoot apical meristem (SAM) activity genes were investigated in sweet orange by real-time PCR and in situ hybridization, and the results indicated that these genes were preferentially expressed in SAM as well as axillary meristem. Based on these findings, a model for sweet orange spring shoot self-pruning is proposed, which will enable us to better understand the mechanism of self-pruning and abscission.

  5. Molecular and enzymatic characterization of two enzymes BmPCD and BmDHPR involving in the regeneration pathway of tetrahydrobiopterin from the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentian; Gong, Meixia; Shu, Rui; Li, Xin; Gao, Junshan; Meng, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor of aromatic amino acid hydroxylases and nitric oxide synthase so that BH4 plays a key role in many biological processes. BH4 deficiency is associated with numerous metabolic syndromes and neuropsychological disorders. BH4 concentration in mammals is maintained through a de novo synthesis pathway and a regeneration pathway. Previous studies showed that the de novo pathway of BH4 is similar between insects and mammals. However, knowledge about the regeneration pathway of BH4 (RPB) is very limited in insects. Several mutants in the silkworm Bombyx mori have been approved to be associated with BH4 deficiency, which are good models to research on the RPB in insects. In this study, homologous genes encoding two enzymes, pterin-4a-carbinolamine dehydratase (PCD) and dihydropteridine reductase (DHPR) involving in RPB have been cloned and identified from B. mori. Enzymatic activity of DHPR was found in the fat body of wild type silkworm larvae. Together with the transcription profiles, it was indicated that BmPcd and BmDhpr might normally act in the RPB of B. mori and the expression of BmDhpr was activated in the brain and sexual glands while BmPcd was expressed in a wider special pattern when the de novo pathway of BH4 was lacked in lemon. Biochemical analyses showed that the recombinant BmDHPR exhibited high enzymatic activity and more suitable parameters to the coenzyme of NADH in vitro. The results in this report give new information about the RPB in B. mori and help in better understanding insect BH4 biosynthetic networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Microcomputer based sliding regime discrete control for synchronous AC motors Control discreto por microordenador basado en regímenes deslizantes para motores de corriente alterna síncronos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Palomar–Lever

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic ideas to design discrete algorithms used to calculate unmeasured mechanical or electrical variables, in order to control electrical motors in mechanical systems are presented. The main point of the paper is to simplify the algorithms by using a linear discrete time model without any variable limitations and to reduce the computing capacity requirements of the controller. Limited references, based on the discrete sliding mode for the exception of the influences of variable limitations, are proposed and designed. The main advantage of the controller presented in this paper is that a large control error does not bestow any problems. In such a case, the system always works in an area without the limitations. Original observation algorithms of both position and rotational velocity for exterior permanent magnet synchronous motors are designed. A computer simulation was performed and the results are presented, showing high dynamic accuracy.Se presentan las ideas básicas para diseñar algoritmos discretos para calcular las variables mecánicas o eléctricas, no medidas sino estimadas, para controlar motores eléctricos en sistemas mecánicos. El objetivo principal de este artículo es simplificar los algoritmos usando un modelo de tiempo discreto lineal sin ninguna limitación en las variables y reducir los requisitos de capacidad informática del controlador. Las referencias limitadas, basadas en el modo deslizante discreto para la excepción de las influencias de limitaciones de las variables, se proponen y diseñan. La ventaja principal del controlador presentada en este artículo es que un error de control grande no causa ningún problema. En dicho caso, el sistema trabaja siempre en un área sin limitaciones. Se diseñan los algoritmos de la observación originales de la posición y de la velocidad rotatoria para el imán permanente exterior de motores síncronos. Se llevó a cabo una simulación en computadora y se presentan los

  7. Performance Evaluation of PCD Insert 1600 Grade on Turning of Al 6061 Reinforced with 7.5% ZrB2 Metal Matrix Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum matrix composite is the innovation of high performance material technology and it has superior interfacial integrity and thermodynamic stability between the matrix and reinforcement. Making the engineering components from this composite material require subsequent machining operations. This paper presents the detailed experimental investigation of the machining behaviour in turning of Al 6061-7.5% ZrB2 Metal Matrix Composite (MMC by using Poly Crystalline Diamond (PCD insert of 1600 grade. The effect of ZrB2 reinforcement particles on machinability behaviour need to be studied. It is concluded that the feed rate has great influence on surface roughness and depth of cut has great influence on cutting force. The confirmation experiment indicates that there is a good agreement between the estimated value and experimental Value. Tool wear study also carried out for time duration of 15 minutes.

  8. Plasma extraction by centrifugo-pneumatically induced gating of flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Robert; Ducrée, Jens; Reis, Nuno; Da Fonseca, João Garcia

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel valving mechanism to implement plasma extraction from whole blood on a centrifugal microfluidic ‘lab-on-a-disc’ platform. The new scheme is based on pressure-induced deflection of a liquid membrane which gates the centrifugally driven flow through a microfluidic structure. Compared to conventional concepts such as capillary burst valves, siphons or sacrificial materials, the valving structure presented here is represented by a compact, small-footprint design which obviates the need for (local) surface functionalization or hybrid materials integration, thus significantly reducing the complexity (and hence cost) of manufacture. As a pilot study of this new centrifugal flow control element, we demonstrate here the efficient separation of metered plasma from whole blood. While the flow is stopped, blood is separated into plasma and its cellular constituents by centrifugally induced sedimentation. After completion, the flow resumes by elevating the spinning frequency, providing up to 80% of the original plasma content to an overflow chamber within a short, 2 min interval. The amount of residual cells in the plasma amounts to less than 20 cells μl −1 . (paper)

  9. O gestor e a PcD: reflexões sobre aprendizagens e competências na construção da diversidade nas organizações The disabled person (dp and the manager: reflections on learning and competencies in the construction of diversity in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Serrano

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo estudar a experiência de gestores na inclusão de pessoas com deficiência PcDs em suas equipes. A intenção foi identificar e analisar os processos de aprendizagem e as competências desenvolvidas pelos gestores para lidar com o universo da PcD, a partir dos modelos teóricos de Sandberg 2000 , Cheetham e Chivers 1996, 2005 e Cox e Baele 1997 . Seguindo os pressupostos do paradigma interpretativista e do estudo qualitativo básico MERRIAM, 2002 , foram analisadas as experiências de inclusão de seis gestores e seis PcDs a eles subordinadas, com deficiências moderadas a severas, em cinco empresas paulistas, multinacionais, dos segmentos editorial, energia, tecnologia diesel, agronegócios e automotivo. O principal instrumento de coleta de dados foi entrevistas em profundidade, complementadas por análise documental e observações diretas. A análise dos dados revelou que, para os gestores, o ato de incluir está mais relacionado à questão da justiça social do que à ideia de empoderamento da PcD. Tal interpretação os levou a priorizar o desenvolvimento de dois tipos de competências: comportamentais e de éticas e valores. O principal processo de aprendizagem identificado para o desenvolvimento dessas competências foi o experiencial, o que levou os gestores a revisar seus conceitos, questionar e modificar suas crenças e, em consequência dessa reflexão, repensar sua forma de gerenciar. Os resultados pretendem contribuir para a discussão sobre o tema a partir de uma nova perspectiva: o gestor como agente de inclusão.This research aimed to study the experience of managers in the inclusion of persons with disabilities (DP in their teams. The intention was to identify and analyze the processes of learning and skills developed by managers to deal with the universe of DP, based on theoretical models of Sandberg (2000, Cheetham and Chivers (1996, 2005 and Cox and Baele (1997. Following the assumptions of

  10. Aventuras da Significação: Bakhtin e Eco à procura do signo deslizante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Ivan Keske

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work operatons on the possibility of articulation between the conception of enunciation context introduced by Bakhtin and Voloshinov (1997 and the notion of text produced by Umberto Eco (1986. With this goal in mind, a dialogue between some elements presented by both Bakhtin and Voloshinov (1997 and Eco (1986 will be attempted, in order to re-adress the issue of transformation of textual meaning caused by change in enunciation context. From the intertext process and from context influence emerge different narratives which interlace themselves to compose the multiplicity of tissues that complete, collide, confront and veil themselves for the establishing, construction and updating of one or several meanings.

  11. Baking Powder Actuated Centrifugo-Pneumatic Valving for Automation of Multi-Step Bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Kinahan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a new flow control method for centrifugal microfluidic systems; CO2 is released from on-board stored baking powder upon contact with an ancillary liquid. The elevated pressure generated drives the sample into a dead-end pneumatic chamber sealed by a dissolvable film (DF. This liquid incursion wets and dissolves the DF, thus opening the valve. The activation pressure of the DF valve can be tuned by the geometry of the channel upstream of the DF membrane. Through pneumatic coupling with properly dimensioned disc architecture, we established serial cascading of valves, even at a constant spin rate. Similarly, we demonstrate sequential actuation of valves by dividing the disc into a number of distinct pneumatic chambers (separated by DF membranes. Opening these DFs, typically through arrival of a liquid to that location on a disc, permits pressurization of these chambers. This barrier-based scheme provides robust and strictly ordered valve actuation, which is demonstrated by the automation of a multi-step/multi-reagent DNA-based hybridization assay.

  12. Fluidic automation of nitrate and nitrite bioassays in whole blood by dissolvable-film based centrifugo-pneumatic actuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwankire, Charles E.; Chan, Di-Sien S.; Gaughran, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the full centrifugal microfluidic integration and automation of all liquid handling steps of a 7-step fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (FLISA) for quantifying nitrate and nitrite levels in whole blood within about 15 min. The assay protocol encompasses the extraction...

  13. BACT analysis under the Clean Air Act's PCD program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simms, P.; Walke, J. [National Resources Development Council, Washington, DC (United States)

    2006-11-15

    Before a company may build a new major industrial source of air pollution, or make modifications to an existing major source in the USA it must apply for and receive a Clean Air Act (CAA) Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit. State environmental agencies typically issue such permits, either under state law or by exercising delegated authority to implement the federal PSD program. To fully comply with the CAA, the emissions limits identified as BACT must incorporate consideration of more than just add-on emissions control technology, they must also reflect appropriate considerations of fuel quality (e.g. low-sulfur coal) and process changes (e.g. advanced combustion techniques) as a means of controlling emissions, and must consider the other environmental and public welfare benefits of the identified emissions control options. Several states including New Mexico and Illinois have already determined that innovated technologies, such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), must be considered in connection with the BACT analysis for new coal-fired power plants. Even the notion that BACT is categorically limited in scope to the general type of facility proposed is contrary to EPA precedent. For example, the Environmental Appeals Board (EAB) has explained that permitting authorities retain the discretion under the definition of BACT to require dramatically different facility designs (e.g. a natural gas plant instead of a coal-fired power plant). The best advice for any permit applicant is to include in the BACT analysis a careful and honest examination of better performing alternative processes and/or innovative combustion techniques and to aggressively pursue such options wherever feasible. 17 refs.

  14. Sixth NASA Glenn Research Center Propulsion Control and Diagnostics (PCD) Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S. (Compiler)

    2018-01-01

    The Intelligent Control and Autonomy Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center hosted the Sixth Propulsion Control and Diagnostics Workshop on August 22-24, 2017. The objectives of this workshop were to disseminate information about research being performed in support of NASA Aeronautics programs; get feedback from peers on the research; and identify opportunities for collaboration. There were presentations and posters by NASA researchers, Department of Defense representatives, and engine manufacturers on aspects of turbine engine modeling, control, and diagnostics.

  15. Surface Quality of Staggered PCD End Mill in Milling of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Machined surface quality determines the reliability, wear resistance and service life of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP workpieces. In this work, the formation mechanism of the surface topography and the machining defects of CFRPs are proposed, and the influence of milling parameters and fiber cutting angles on the surface quality of CFRPs is obtained, which can provide a reference for extended tool life and good surface quality. Trimming and slot milling tests of unidirectional CFRP laminates are performed. The surface roughness of the machined surface is measured, and the influence of milling parameters on the surface roughness is analyzed. A regression model for the surface roughness of CFRP milling is established. A significance test of the regression model is conducted. The machined surface topography of milling CFRP unidirectional laminates with different fiber orientations is analyzed, and the effect of fiber cutting angle on the surface topography of the machined surface is presented by using a digital super depth-of-field microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM. To study the influence of fiber cutting angle on machining defects, the machined topography under different fiber orientations is analyzed. The slot milling defects and their formation mechanism under different fiber cutting angles are investigated.

  16. Identification and characterization of novel defence and PCD signalling components in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Wenjun

    rescued syp121 syp122 ssdx (suppressor of syntaxin-related death) lines were collected. SSD genes are typically required for pathogen defence. In this PhD project, using some of these triple mutant lines, SSD6 and SSD12 were identified to be novel genes by Mutmap and complementation test. SSD6 encode...... a large protein with at least six domains with predicted functions, and mutations in five of these showed that they are important for the lesion mimic phenotype of syp121 syp122. Subcellular localization showed SSD6 to function on the ER. In the project, a split-GFP Gateway vector system was developed...... for topology studies of membrane proteins, and SSD6 was found to be an ER membrane-anchored cytosolic protein. The position of SSD6 in the defence signalling network was studied using syp121 syp122 ssd6 ssdy quadruple mutants, which suggested that SSD6 is not involved in any known signalling pathway. All...

  17. Computer simulating for oil fields with artificial elevation method by electrical submersible pump; Simulacao computacional para pocos de petroleo com metodo de elevacao artificial por bombeio centrifugo submerso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Evellyne da Silva; Maitelli, Andre Laurindo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Costa, Rutacio de Oliveira [PETROBRAS S.A., Natal, RN (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio RN/CE; Barbosa, Tiago de Souza [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Computacao

    2008-07-01

    The architecture heterogeneities and petrophysical properties of carbonate reservoirs result from a combination of platform morphology, related depositional environments, relative sea level changes and diagenetic events. The reservoir layering built for static and dynamic modelling purposes should reflect the key heterogeneities (depositional or diagenetic) which govern the fluid flow patterns. The layering needs to be adapted to the goal of the modelling, ranging from full field computations of hydrocarbon volumes, to sector-based fine-scale simulations to test the recovery improvement. This paper illustrates various reservoir layering types, including schemes dominated by depositional architecture, and those more driven by the diagenetic overprint. The examples include carbonate platform reservoirs from different stratigraphic settings (Tertiary, Cretaceous, Jurassic and Permian) and different regions (Europe, Africa and Middle East areas). This review shows how significant stratigraphic surfaces (such as sequence boundaries or maximum flooding) with their associated facies shifts, can be often considered as key markers to constrain the reservoir layering. Conversely, how diagenesis (dolomitization and karst development), resulting in units with particular poroperm characteristics, may significantly overprint the primary reservoir architecture by generating flow units which cross-cut depositional sequences. To demonstrate how diagenetic processes can create reservoir bodies with geometries that cross-cut the depositional fabric, different types of dolomitization and karst development are illustrated. (author)

  18. Cell wall integrity, genotoxic injury and PCD dynamics in alfalfa saponin-treated white poplar cells highlight a complex link between molecule structure and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparella, Stefania; Tava, Aldo; Avato, Pinarosa; Biazzi, Elisa; Macovei, Anca; Biggiogera, Marco; Carbonera, Daniela; Balestrazzi, Alma

    2015-03-01

    In the present work, eleven saponins and three sapogenins purified from Medicago sativa were tested for their cytotoxicity against highly proliferating white poplar (Populus alba L.) cell suspension cultures. After preliminary screening, four saponins with different structural features in terms of aglycone moieties and sugar chains (saponin 3, a bidesmoside of hederagenin; saponins 4 and 5, monodesmoside and bidesmoside of medicagenic acid respectively, and saponin 10, a bidesmoside of zanhic acid) and different cytotoxicity were selected and used for further investigation on their structure-activity relationship. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analyses provided for the first time evidence of the effects exerted by saponins on plant cell wall integrity. Exposure to saponin 3 and saponin 10 resulted into disorganization of the outer wall layer and the effect was even more pronounced in white poplar cells treated with the two medicagenic acid derivatives, saponins 4 and 5. Oxidative burst and nitric oxide accumulation were common hallmarks of the response of white poplar cells to saponins. When DNA damage accumulation and DNA repair profiles were evaluated by Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis, induction of single and double strand breaks followed by effective repair was observed within 24h. The reported data are discussed in view of the current issues dealing with saponin structure-activity relationship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of the potential ambient degradation and in the Hydrographic Basin of Pequeno River in São José dos Pinhais/PR, by the PCD - Physical Conservationist Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Mendes CHUEH

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at applying the methodology of Physical- Conservationist Diagnosis (FCD, and from this methodology and from some adaptations we want to demonstrate the results obtained in the quantitative analysis of the potential of degradation of natural resources from the hydrographic basin of “Rio Pequeno” (Pequeno River. The area of the study is located in São José dos Pinhais/PR; this basin is located in the border of the expansion from Metropolitan Area of Curitiba (MAC - and has the conflict between the possibilities and the occupation needs and soil use.

  20. Test Report for MSFC Test No. 83-2: Pressure scaled water impact test of a 12.5 inch diameter model of the Space Shuttle solid rocket booster filament wound case and external TVC PCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Water impact tests using a 12.5 inch diameter model representing a 8.56 percent scale of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster configuration were conducted. The two primary objectives of this SRB scale model water impact test program were: 1. Obtain cavity collapse applied pressure distributions for the 8.56 percent rigid body scale model FWC pressure magnitudes as a function of full-scale initial impact conditions at vertical velocities from 65 to 85 ft/sec, horizontal velocities from 0 to 45 ft/sec, and angles from -10 to +10 degrees. 2. Obtain rigid body applied pressures on the TVC pod and aft skirt internal stiffener rings at initial impact and cavity collapse loading events. In addition, nozzle loads were measured. Full scale vertical velocities of 65 to 85 ft/sec, horizontal velocities of 0 to 45 ft/sec, and impact angles from -10 to +10 degrees simulated.

  1. Social innovation for People-Centred Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars; P.K., Shajahan

    2013-01-01

    Social innovation is closely related to the people-centred development (PCD) framework of knowledge production. The discussion of PCD in this chapter particularly expands on the feature of empowerment and socio-political mobilization of people in social innovation...

  2. Chloroplasts activity and PAP-signaling regulate programmed cell death in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Bruggeman, Quentin; Mazubert, Christelle; Prunier, Florence; Lugan, Raphael; Chan, Kai Xun; Phua, Su Yin; Pogson, Barry J.; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja; Delarue, Marianne; Benhamed, Moussa; Bergounioux, Catherine; Raynaud, Cé cile

    2016-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a crucial process both for plant development and responses to biotic and abiotic stress. There is accumulating evidence that chloroplasts may play a central role during plant PCD as for mitochondria in animal cells

  3. 78 FR 70320 - Certain Mobile Handset Devices and Related Touch Keyboard Software; Commission Determination Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-864] Certain Mobile Handset Devices and Related Touch Keyboard Software; Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination... and Personal Communications Devices, LLC (``PCD'') of Hauppauge, New York as respondents. PCD has been...

  4. Programmed cell death in trypanosomatids and other unicellular organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrabant, Alain; Lee, Nancy; Bertholet, Sylvie; Duncan, Robert; Nakhasi, Hira L

    2003-03-01

    In multicellular organisms, cellular growth and development can be controlled by programmed cell death (PCD), which is defined by a sequence of regulated events. However, PCD is thought to have evolved not only to regulate growth and development in multicellular organisms but also to have a functional role in the biology of unicellular organisms. In protozoan parasites and in other unicellular organisms, features of PCD similar to those in multicellular organisms have been reported, suggesting some commonality in the PCD pathway between unicellular and multicellular organisms. However, more extensive studies are needed to fully characterise the PCD pathway and to define the factors that control PCD in the unicellular organisms. The understanding of the PCD pathway in unicellular organisms could delineate the evolutionary origin of this pathway. Further characterisation of the PCD pathway in the unicellular parasites could provide information regarding their pathogenesis, which could be exploited to target new drugs to limit their growth and treat the disease they cause.

  5. Criterios de evaluación para la enseñanza de la geografía, la historia y las ciencias sociales, según el modelo de principios científico-didácticos (P.C.D.)

    OpenAIRE

    García Ruiz, Antonio Luis; Muñoz-Bandera, Juan Francisco

    2013-01-01

    En este artículo los autores nos presentan nuevos criterios de evaluación para la enseñanza de la Geografía, la Historia y las Ciencias Sociales; con el fin de que el alumnado adquiera una formación más integral y completa en la que tienen cabida la dimensión práctica, epistemológica y ético-filosófica. Para ello separan los conceptos de los hechos, porque poseen naturalezas distintas, y añaden los contenidos de carácter reflexivo, que serían los equivalentes a las correlaciones internas de l...

  6. The zinc finger protein ZAT11 modulates paraquat-induced programmed cell death in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Kamran; Sujeeth, Neerakkal; Gechev, Tsanko S.; Hille, Jacques

    Plants use programmed cell death (PCD) as a tool in their growth and development. PCD is also involved in defense against different kinds of stresses including pathogen attack. In both types of PCD, reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role. ROS is not only a toxic by-product but also

  7. Morphological classification of plant cell deaths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Beers, E.P.; Dangl, J.L.; Franklin-Tong, V.E.; Woltering, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an integral part of plant development and of responses to abiotic stress or pathogens. Although the morphology of plant PCD is, in some cases, well characterised and molecular mechanisms controlling plant PCD are beginning to emerge, there is still confusion about the

  8. The polyadenylation factor subunit CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR30: A key factor of programmed cell death and a regulator of immunity in arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Bruggeman, Quentin; Garmier, Marie; De Bont, Linda; Soubigou-Taconnat, Ludivine; Mazubert, Christelle; Benhamed, Moussa; Raynaud, Cé cile; Bergounioux, Catherine; Delarue, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    striking features of mips1 is the light-dependent formation of lesions on leaves due to salicylic acid (SA)-dependent PCD, revealing roles for myoinositol or inositol derivatives in the regulation of PCD. Here, we identified a regulator of plant PCD

  9. Option-4 algorithm for Florida pocket depth probe: reduction in the variance of site-specific probeable crevice depth measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, H J; Rogers, P; Johnson, N W; Slaney, R

    1999-08-01

    Clinical periodontal measurement is plagued by many sources of error which result in aberrant values (outliers). This study sets out to compare probeable crevice depth measurements (PCD) selected by the option-4 algorithm against those recorded with a conventional double-pass method and to quantify any reduction in site-specific PCD variances. A single clinician recorded full-mouth PCD at 1 visit in 32 subjects (mean age 45.5 years) with moderately advanced chronic adult periodontitis. PCD was recorded over 2 passes at 6 sites per tooth with the Florida Pocket Depth Probes, a 3rd generation probe. The option-4 algorithm compared the 1st pass site-specific PCD value (PCD1) to the 2nd pass site-specific PCD value (PCD2) and, if the difference between these values was >1.00 mm, allowed the recording of a maximum of 2 further measurements (3rd and 4th pass measurements PCD3 and PCD4): 4 site-specific measure-meets were considered to be the maximum subject and tissue tolerance. The algorithm selected the 1st 2 measurements whose difference was difference Y) (Y=[(A-B)/A]X 100) and a 75% reduction in the median site-specific variance of PCD1/PCD2.

  10. Comparative genomics of phylogenetically diverse unicellular eukaryotes provide new insights into the genetic basis for the evolution of the programmed cell death machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelcu, Aurora M

    2009-03-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) represents a significant component of normal growth and development in multicellular organisms. Recently, PCD-like processes have been reported in single-celled eukaryotes, implying that some components of the PCD machinery existed early in eukaryotic evolution. This study provides a comparative analysis of PCD-related sequences across more than 50 unicellular genera from four eukaryotic supergroups: Unikonts, Excavata, Chromalveolata, and Plantae. A complex set of PCD-related sequences that correspond to domains or proteins associated with all main functional classes--from ligands and receptors to executors of PCD--was found in many unicellular lineages. Several PCD domains and proteins previously thought to be restricted to animals or land plants are also present in unicellular species. Noteworthy, the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae--used as an experimental model system for PCD research, has a rather reduced set of PCD-related sequences relative to other unicellular species. The phylogenetic distribution of the PCD-related sequences identified in unicellular lineages suggests that the genetic basis for the evolution of the complex PCD machinery present in extant multicellular lineages has been established early in the evolution of eukaryotes. The shaping of the PCD machinery in multicellular lineages involved the duplication, co-option, recruitment, and shuffling of domains already present in their unicellular ancestors.

  11. Plant programmed cell death, ethylene and flower senescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, E.J.; Jong, de A.; Hoeberichts, F.A.; Iakimova, E.T.; Kapchina, V.

    2005-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) applies to cell death that is part of the normal life of multicellular organisms. PCD is found throughout the animal and plant kingdoms; it is an active process in which a cell suicide pathway is activated resulting in controlled disassembly of the cell. Most cases of PCD

  12. Primary Carnitine Deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jan; Hougaard, David M; Sandhu, Noreen

    2017-01-01

    Primary carnitine deficiency (PCD) causes low levels of carnitine in patients potentially leading to metabolic and cardiac symptoms. Newborn screening for PCD is now routine in many countries by measuring carnitine levels in infants. In this study we report Apgar scores, length and weight...... scores, length and weight compared to controls. Newborns with PCD and newborns born to mothers with PCD had significantly lower levels of free carnitine (fC0) than controls. Screening algorithms focusing only on fC0 had a high rate of detection of newborns with PCD. Sample collection 4-9 days after birth...

  13. Culture of primary ciliary dyskinesia epithelial cells at air-liquid interface can alter ciliary phenotype but remains a robust and informative diagnostic aid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Hirst

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD requires the analysis of ciliary function and ultrastructure. Diagnosis can be complicated by secondary effects on cilia such as damage during sampling, local inflammation or recent infection. To differentiate primary from secondary abnormalities, re-analysis of cilia following culture and re-differentiation of epithelial cells at an air-liquid interface (ALI aids the diagnosis of PCD. However changes in ciliary beat pattern of cilia following epithelial cell culture has previously been described, which has brought the robustness of this method into question. This is the first systematic study to evaluate ALI culture as an aid to diagnosis of PCD in the light of these concerns.We retrospectively studied changes associated with ALI-culture in 158 subjects referred for diagnostic testing at two PCD centres. Ciliated nasal epithelium (PCD n = 54; non-PCD n  111 was analysed by high-speed digital video microscopy and transmission electron microscopy before and after culture.Ciliary function was abnormal before and after culture in all subjects with PCD; 21 PCD subjects had a combination of static and uncoordinated twitching cilia, which became completely static following culture, a further 9 demonstrated a decreased ciliary beat frequency after culture. In subjects without PCD, secondary ciliary dyskinesia was reduced.The change to ciliary phenotype in PCD samples following cell culture does not affect the diagnosis, and in certain cases can assist the ability to identify PCD cilia.

  14. The role of mitochondria in yeast programmed cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guaragnella, Nicoletta; Ždralević, Maša; Antonacci, Lucia; Passarella, Salvatore; Marra, Ersilia; Giannattasio, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian apoptosis and yeast programmed cell death (PCD) share a variety of features including reactive oxygen species production, protease activity and a major role played by mitochondria. In view of this, and of the distinctive characteristics differentiating yeast and multicellular organism PCD, the mitochondrial contribution to cell death in the genetically tractable yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been intensively investigated. In this mini-review we report whether and how yeast mitochondrial function and proteins belonging to oxidative phosphorylation, protein trafficking into and out of mitochondria, and mitochondrial dynamics, play a role in PCD. Since in PCD many processes take place over time, emphasis will be placed on an experimental model based on acetic acid-induced PCD (AA-PCD) which has the unique feature of having been investigated as a function of time. As will be described there are at least two AA-PCD pathways each with a multifaceted role played by mitochondrial components, in particular by cytochrome c.

  15. The root hair assay facilitates the use of genetic and pharmacological tools in order to dissect multiple signalling pathways that lead to programmed cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kacprzyk

    Full Text Available The activation of programmed cell death (PCD is often a result of complex signalling pathways whose relationship and intersection are not well understood. We recently described a PCD root hair assay and proposed that it could be used to rapidly screen genetic or pharmacological modulators of PCD. To further assess the applicability of the root hair assay for studying multiple signalling pathways leading to PCD activation we have investigated the crosstalk between salicylic acid, autophagy and apoptosis-like PCD (AL-PCD in Arabidopsis thaliana. The root hair assay was used to determine rates of AL-PCD induced by a panel of cell death inducing treatments in wild type plants treated with chemical modulators of salicylic acid synthesis or autophagy, and in genetic lines defective in autophagy or salicylic acid signalling. The assay demonstrated that PCD induced by exogenous salicylic acid or fumonisin B1 displayed a requirement for salicylic acid signalling and was partially dependent on the salicylic acid signal transducer NPR1. Autophagy deficiency resulted in an increase in the rates of AL-PCD induced by salicylic acid and fumonisin B1, but not by gibberellic acid or abiotic stress. The phenylalanine ammonia lyase-dependent salicylic acid synthesis pathway contributed only to death induced by salicylic acid and fumonisin B1. 3-Methyladenine, which is commonly used as an inhibitor of autophagy, appeared to influence PCD induction in all treatments suggesting a possible secondary, non-autophagic, effect on a core component of the plant PCD pathway. The results suggest that salicylic acid signalling is negatively regulated by autophagy during salicylic acid and mycotoxin-induced AL-PCD. However, this crosstalk does not appear to be directly involved in PCD induced by gibberellic acid or abiotic stress. This study demonstrates that the root hair assay is an effective tool for relatively rapid investigation of complex signalling pathways leading to

  16. Risk Factors for the Need of Surgical Necrosectomy After Percutaneous Catheter Drainage in the Management of Infection Secondary to Necrotizing Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Liang; Wang, Gang; Li, Le; Li, Yi-Long; Hu, Ji-Sheng; Zhang, Guang-Quan; Chen, Hong-Ze; Chen, Hua; Kong, Rui; Bai, Xue-Wei; Sun, Bei

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the need of surgical necrosectomy after percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) for infected necrotizing pancreatitis. The clinical data of documented/suspected patients who were treated with a step-up approach were extracted and analyzed. Of the 329 patients enrolled, the initial PCD was performed at 12 (interquartile range, 9-15) days since onset and 35.3% were cured by PCD alone. In the pre-PCD model, mean computed tomographic (CT) density of necrotic fluid collection (NFC; P the initial PCD were independent risk factors, and a combination of the previously mentioned 2 factors produced an area under the curve of 0.775. In the post-PCD model, mean CT density of NFC (P = 0.041), MOF (P = 0.002), and serum procalcitonin level (P = 0.035) 3 days after the initial PCD were independent risk factors, and a combination of these previously mentioned factors produced an area under the curve of 0.642. Both mean CT density of NFC and MOF are independent pre- and post-PCD risk factors for the need of necrosectomy after PCD. Post-PCD serum procalcitonin level might be a respondent factor that is correlated with the necessity of necrosectomy.

  17. Abdominal wall healing in incisional hernia using different biomaterials in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Letícia Gomes Aramayo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate abdominal wound healing using specific biomaterials in incisional hernias. METHODS: Incisional hernias were produced in 40 rabbits, after that they were reoperated with or without the use of meshes: PREMILENE® (PPL, ULTRAPRO® (UP, PROCEED® (PCD or repairing without mesh (TRANSPALB. After 30 days a macroscopic and microscopic study of the part withdrawn from the abdominal wall was performed. RESULTS: Macroscopic: adhesion Area: PPL> UP and PCD (p = 0.031. Vascularization: PPL> UP and PCD (p = 0.001. PPL groups (p = 0.032 and PCD (p PPL, UP and TRANSPALB (p = 0.010; eosinophils: PPL> UP, and TRANSPALB PCD (p = 0.010; granulation tissue: PPL and PCD> UP and TRANSPALB (p TRANSPALB (p UP (p = 0.009 and TRANSPALB (p TRANSPALB (p PCD and TRANSPALB (p <0.001. CONCLUSION: All types of meshes caused the formation of adhesions. The UP and PCD groups showed lower area and vascularization of the adhesions. The PPL and PCD groups showed higher meshes shrinkage and there was a predominance of acute inflammatory process in the PCD group.

  18. Diseño mecánico de un sistema de compuerta hidrodinámica aplicada en una planta de tratamiento de aguas servidas en la ciudad de Guayaquil

    OpenAIRE

    Zhunio Gonzalez, Manuel David; Helguero Gonzales, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    El presente trabajo desarrolla el diseño de un sistema de compuerta hidrodinámica deslizante utilizada para controlar y regular la descarga de agua dentro de una Planta de Tratamiento de aguas servidas en la ciudad de Guayaquil. Controlar el flujo de agua permite realizar trabajos de mantenimiento preventivo de los equipos instalados en los canales de acceso o realizar trabajos de emergencia sin tener que parar el bombeo en estos casos. Primeramente mencionamos el alcance de...

  19. 10 conference and Latin American turbomachinery exhibition; 10 congreso y exposicion latinoamericana de turbomaquinaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    This conference was done to promote the exchange of experiences among specialists, users, manufactures and research institutions in the field of the turbomachinery. To spread the last researches and developments focus to the design and maintenance of steam, gas and hydraulic turbines, axial compressors and centrifugal pumps, fans, electric motors, auxiliary equipment and cogeneration. [Spanish] Este congreso se realizo con el fin de promover el intercambio de experiencias entre especialistas, usuarios, fabricantes e institutos de investigacion en el campo de la turbomaquinaria. Divulgar las ultimas investigaciones y desarrollos enfocados al diseno y mantenimiento de turbinas de vapor, de gas e hidraulicas, compresores axiales y centrifugos, bombas, ventiladores, motores electricos, equipos auxiliares y cogeneracion.

  20. On Programmed Cell Death in Plasmodium falciparum: Status Quo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewaldt Engelbrecht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflicting arguments and results exist regarding the occurrence and phenotype of programmed cell death (PCD in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Inconsistencies relate mainly to the number and type of PCD markers assessed and the different methodologies used in the studies. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge and empirical evidence for PCD in the intraerythrocytic stages of P. falciparum. We consider possible reasons for discrepancies in the data and offer suggestions towards more standardised investigation methods in this field. Furthermore, we present genomic evidence for PCD machinery in P. falciparum. We discuss the potential adaptive or nonadaptive role of PCD in the parasite life cycle and its possible exploitation in the development of novel drug targets. Lastly, we pose pertinent unanswered questions concerning the PCD phenomenon in P. falciparum to provide future direction.

  1. On Programmed Cell Death in Plasmodium falciparum: Status Quo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Dewaldt; Durand, Pierre Marcel; Coetzer, Thérèsa Louise

    2012-01-01

    Conflicting arguments and results exist regarding the occurrence and phenotype of programmed cell death (PCD) in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Inconsistencies relate mainly to the number and type of PCD markers assessed and the different methodologies used in the studies. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge and empirical evidence for PCD in the intraerythrocytic stages of P. falciparum. We consider possible reasons for discrepancies in the data and offer suggestions towards more standardised investigation methods in this field. Furthermore, we present genomic evidence for PCD machinery in P. falciparum. We discuss the potential adaptive or nonadaptive role of PCD in the parasite life cycle and its possible exploitation in the development of novel drug targets. Lastly, we pose pertinent unanswered questions concerning the PCD phenomenon in P. falciparum to provide future direction. PMID:22287973

  2. Experimental evaluation of the stability of goat's cervical spine after percutaneous cervical diskectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Zhongli; Zhou Yicheng; Wang Chengyuan; Hong Cheng; Liu Hanqiao; Zhang Jiangfan; Ding Hui; Feng Dingyi

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the stability of the goat's cervical spine after PCD (percutaneous cervical diskectomy). Methods: Ten adult goats were studied. Seven had PCD at C 3-4 , and three at C 4-5 . The cervical spine of the goat was studied with MR using axial, corona land sagittal images and with anteroposterior and lateral radiographs before and after PCD. The height of the disk, the disk space angle and dislocation were measured respectively before and after PCD. The data were examined by t-test. Results: The disk space (7 cases, 70%) became narrow obviously, and hyperostosis (5 cases, 50%) disk bulging (4 cases, 40%) appeared after PCD, but there was no obvious dislocation or angulation between the adjacent vertebral bodies. Conclusions: The stability of the goat's cervical spine is not affected after PCD. Indicating that this might also hold true for human cervical spine

  3. Thin polycrystalline diamond films protecting zirconium alloys surfaces: From technology to layer analysis and application in nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashcheulov, P. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Czech Republic v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Škoda, R.; Škarohlíd, J. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technická 4, Prague 6, CZ-160 07 (Czech Republic); Taylor, A.; Fekete, L.; Fendrych, F. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Czech Republic v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Vega, R.; Shao, L. [Texas A& M University, Department of Nuclear Engineering TAMU-3133, College Station, TX TX 77843 (United States); Kalvoda, L.; Vratislav, S. [Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, CZ-115 19, Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Cháb, V.; Horáková, K.; Kůsová, K.; Klimša, L.; Kopeček, J. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Czech Republic v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Sajdl, P.; Macák, J. [University of Chemistry and Technology, Power Engineering Department, Technická 3, Prague 6, CZ-166 28 (Czech Republic); Johnson, S. [Nuclear Fuel Division, Westinghouse Electric Company, 5801 Bluff Road, Hopkins, SC 29209 (United States); Kratochvílová, I., E-mail: krat@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Czech Republic v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, CZ-115 19, Prague 1 (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • In this work we showed that films prepared by MW-LA-PECVD technology can be used as anticorrosion protective layer for Zircaloy2 nuclear fuel claddings at elevated temperatures (950 °C) when α phase of zirconium changes to β phase (more opened for oxygen/hydrogen diffusion). Quality of PCD films was examined by Raman spectroscopy, XPS, SEM, AFM and SIMS analysis. • The polycrystalline diamond films were of high quality - without defects and contaminations. After hot steam oxidation (950 °C) a high level of structural integrity of PCD layer was observed. Both sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} C phases were present in the protective PCD layer. Higher resistance and a lower degree of impedance dispersion was found in the hot steam oxidized PCD coated Zircaloy2 samples, which may suggest better protection of the Zircaloy2 surface. The PCD layer blocks the hydrogen diffusion into the Zircaloy2 surface thus protecting the material from degradation. • Hot steam oxidation tests confirmed that PCD coated Zircaloy2 surfaces were effectively protected against corrosion. Presented results demonstrate that the PCD anticorrosion protection can significantly prolong service life of Zircaloy2 nuclear fuel claddings in nuclear reactors even at elevated temperatures. - Abstract: Zirconium alloys can be effectively protected against corrosion by polycrystalline diamond (PCD) layers grown in microwave plasma enhanced linear antenna chemical vapor deposition apparatus. Standard and hot steam oxidized PCD layers grown on Zircaloy2 surfaces were examined and the specific impact of polycrystalline Zr substrate surface on PCD layer properties was investigated. It was found that the presence of the PCD coating blocks hydrogen diffusion into the Zircaloy2 surface and protects Zircaloy2 material from degradation. PCD anticorrosion protection of Zircaloy2 can significantly prolong life of Zircaloy2 material in nuclear reactors even at temperatures above Zr

  4. Postcoital Dysphoria: Prevalence and Psychological Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Schweitzer, PhD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The findings confirm that PCD is under‐recognized and under‐researched. There appears to be no relationship between PCD and intimacy in close relationships. Further research is necessary to understand the subjective experience of PCD and to inform the development of a reliable measure. Schweitzer RD, O'Brien J, and Burri A. Postcoital dysphoria: Prevalence and psychological correlates. Sex Med 2015;3:229–237.

  5. Management of Post-Traumatic Phlegmasia Cerulea Dolens via Right-to-Left Femoral Vein to Femoral Vein Bypass (Palma Procedure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Anahita; Heller, Jennifer; Lee, Cheong

    2017-11-01

    Phlegmasia cerulea dolens (PCD) is a rare condition resulting from venous occlusion that impairs arterial flow. We report a rare case of post-traumatic PCD after ligation of the iliac vein with successful treatment by right-to-left femoral vein to femoral vein bypass using left great saphenous vein (Palma procedure). The clinical presentation, diagnostic process, and approach to management along with a literature review on the operative management of PCD are presented in this case report.

  6. La Coherencia de Políticas para el Desarrollo en los ámbitos subestatales. Reflexiones a la luz del caso del País Vasco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unceta, K.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The debate on Policy Coherence for Development (PCD has mostly been associated to States. However, the growing importance acquired by local and regional governments in promoting development and cooperation policies, and the need of a multilevel governance to meet the challenges of development, emphasize the interest of analysing the PCD from a wider perspective including the sub-state level. Considering these issues, this paper focuses on the study of the PCD in the Basque Country, based on a research study carried out about this subject. As a conclusion, relevant considerations that may be interesting to promote the analysis on PCD at sub-state level are pointed out.

  7. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Brothers of Charity Services Galway, Galway

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Casey, Jillian P

    2015-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by abnormal ciliary motion and impaired mucociliary clearance, leading to recurrent respiratory infections, sinusitis, otitis media and male infertility. Some patients also have laterality defects. We recently reported the identification of three disease-causing PCD genes in the Irish Traveller population; RSPH4A, DYX1C1 and CCNO. We have since assessed an additional Irish Traveller family with a complex phenotype involving PCD who did not have any of the previously identified PCD mutations.

  8. Differential protection by wildtype vs. organelle-specific Bcl-2 suggests a combined requirement of both the ER and mitochondria in ceramide-mediated caspase-independent programmed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belka Claus

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Programmed cell death (PCD is essential for development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms and can occur by caspase-dependent apoptosis or alternatively, by caspase-independent PCD (ciPCD. Bcl-2, a central regulator of apoptosis, localizes to both mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Whereas a function of mitochondrial and ER-specific Bcl-2 in apoptosis has been established in multiple studies, corresponding data for ciPCD do not exist. Methods We utilized Bcl-2 constructs specifically localizing to mitochondria (Bcl-2 ActA, the ER (Bcl-2 cb5, both (Bcl-2 WT or the cytosol/nucleus (Bcl-2 ΔTM and determined their protective effect on ceramide-mediated ciPCD in transiently and stably transfected Jurkat cells. Expression of the constructs was verified by immunoblots. Ceramide-mediated ciPCD was induced by treatment with human recombinant tumor necrosis factor and determined by flow cytometric measurement of propidium iodide uptake as well as by optical analysis of cell morphology. Results Only wildtype Bcl-2 had the ability to efficiently protect from ceramide-mediated ciPCD, whereas expression of Bcl-2 solely at mitochondria, the ER, or the cytosol/nucleus did not prevent ceramide-mediated ciPCD. Conclusion Our data suggest a combined requirement for both mitochondria and the ER in the induction and the signaling pathways of ciPCD mediated by ceramide.

  9. Reduced anaerobic and aerobic performance in children with primary ciliary dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Senem; Inal-Ince, Deniz; Cakmak, Aslihan; Emiralioglu, Nagehan; Calik-Kutukcu, Ebru; Saglam, Melda; Vardar-Yagli, Naciye; Ozcelik, Hayriye Ugur; Sonbahar-Ulu, Hazal; Bozdemir-Ozel, Cemile; Kiper, Nural; Arikan, Hulya

    2018-05-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) restricts lifestyle and increases morbidity. The aim of the study was to investigate anaerobic and aerobic performance in children with PCD and their healthy counterparts. Thirty-one children with PCD and 29 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were studied. Pulmonary function, hand grip strength (HGS), quadriceps strength (QMS), physical activity, anaerobic capacity (muscle power sprint test), and aerobic performance (modified shuttle walk test (MSWT)) were determined. Pulmonary function, HGS, QMS, mean anaerobic power (MAP), and MSWT distance in PCD were significantly lower than those of healthy subjects (p aerobic performance is impaired in PCD from the early stages. Age determines anaerobic performance. Gender is the determinant of aerobic performance. Whether skeletal muscle characteristics and sex-related changes in body composition affect anaerobic and aerobic capacity in PCD children warrants further study. What is Known: • Exercise performance is determined by anaerobic and aerobic power. • Few studies have shown that PCD patients have lower aerobic performance which is associated with impaired lung function. What is New: • The present research indicated that both anaerobic and aerobic exercise capacity determined using field testing is impaired in PCD from the early stages. • Anaerobic capacity was found to be independently associated with age in PCD. Higher aerobic performance is independently associated with male gender.

  10. Differential protection by wildtype vs. organelle-specific Bcl-2 suggests a combined requirement of both the ER and mitochondria in ceramide-mediated caspase-independent programmed cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deerberg, Andrea; Sosna, Justyna; Thon, Lutz; Belka, Claus; Adam, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is essential for development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms and can occur by caspase-dependent apoptosis or alternatively, by caspase-independent PCD (ciPCD). Bcl-2, a central regulator of apoptosis, localizes to both mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Whereas a function of mitochondrial and ER-specific Bcl-2 in apoptosis has been established in multiple studies, corresponding data for ciPCD do not exist. We utilized Bcl-2 constructs specifically localizing to mitochondria (Bcl-2 ActA), the ER (Bcl-2 cb5), both (Bcl-2 WT) or the cytosol/nucleus (Bcl-2 ΔTM) and determined their protective effect on ceramide-mediated ciPCD in transiently and stably transfected Jurkat cells. Expression of the constructs was verified by immunoblots. Ceramide-mediated ciPCD was induced by treatment with human recombinant tumor necrosis factor and determined by flow cytometric measurement of propidium iodide uptake as well as by optical analysis of cell morphology. Only wildtype Bcl-2 had the ability to efficiently protect from ceramide-mediated ciPCD, whereas expression of Bcl-2 solely at mitochondria, the ER, or the cytosol/nucleus did not prevent ceramide-mediated ciPCD. Our data suggest a combined requirement for both mitochondria and the ER in the induction and the signaling pathways of ciPCD mediated by ceramide

  11. The bacterial cell cycle checkpoint protein Obg and its role in programmed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liselot Dewachter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of programmed cell death (PCD, in which cells initiate their own demise, is not restricted to multicellular organisms. Unicellular organisms, both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, also possess pathways that mediate PCD. We recently identified a PCD mechanism in Escherichia coli that is triggered by a mutant isoform of the essential GTPase ObgE (Obg of E. coli. Importantly, the PCD pathway mediated by mutant Obg (Obg* differs fundamentally from other previously described bacterial PCD pathways and thus constitutes a new mode of PCD. ObgE was previously proposed to act as a cell cycle checkpoint protein able to halt cell division. The implication of ObgE in the regulation of PCD further increases the similarity between this protein and eukaryotic cell cycle regulators that are capable of doing both. Moreover, since Obg is conserved in eukaryotes, the elucidation of this cell death mechanism might contribute to the understanding of PCD in higher organisms. Additionally, if Obg*-mediated PCD is conserved among different bacterial species, it will be a prime target for the development of innovative antibacterials that artificially induce this pathway.

  12. A case report of primary ciliary dyskinesia, laterality defects and developmental delay caused by the co-existence of a single gene and chromosome disorder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Casey, Jillian P

    2015-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by abnormal ciliary motion and impaired mucociliary clearance, leading to recurrent respiratory infections, sinusitis, otitis media and male infertility. Some patients also have laterality defects. We recently reported the identification of three disease-causing PCD genes in the Irish Traveller population; RSPH4A, DYX1C1 and CCNO. We have since assessed an additional Irish Traveller family with a complex phenotype involving PCD who did not have any of the previously identified PCD mutations.

  13. An in vivo root hair assay for determining rates of apoptotic-like programmed cell death in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogg Bridget V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Arabidopsis thaliana we demonstrate that dying root hairs provide an easy and rapid in vivo model for the morphological identification of apoptotic-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD in plants. The model described here is transferable between species, can be used to investigate rates of AL-PCD in response to various treatments and to identify modulation of AL-PCD rates in mutant/transgenic plant lines facilitating rapid screening of mutant populations in order to identify genes involved in AL-PCD regulation.

  14. A basic study on lesion detectability for hot spot imaging of positron emitters with dedicated PET and positron coincidence gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hong; Inoue, Tomio; Tian, Mei; Alyafei, Saleh; Oriuchi, Noboru; Khan, Nasim; Endo, Keigo; Li Sijin

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the correlations of detectability and the semi-quantification for hot spot imaging with positron emitters in positron emission tomography (PET) and with a positron coincidence detection system (PCD). Phantom study results for the measurement of the lesion-to-background (L/B) ratio ranged from 2.0 to 30.3, and detectability for hot spot lesion of PET and PCD were performed to correspond to clinical conditions. The detectability and semi-quantitative evaluation of hot spots from 4.4 mm to 36.9 mm in diameter were performed from the PET and PCD images. There were strong correlations between the L/B ratios derived from PET and PCD hot spot images and actual L/B ratios; but the L/B ratio derived from PET was higher than that from PCD with a significant difference of 10% to 54.8%. The detectability of hot spot imaging of PCD was lower than that of PET at 64.8% (PCD) versus 77.8% (PET). Even the actual L/B ratio was 8.0, hot spots more than 10.6 mm in diameter could be clearly identified with PCD imaging. The same identification could be achieved with PET imaging even when the actual L/B ratio was 4.0. This detailed investigation indicated that FDG PCD yielded results comparable to FDG PET on visual analysis and semi-quantitative analysis in detecting hot spots in phantoms, but semi-quantitative analysis of the L/B ratio with FDG PCD was inferior to that with FDG PET and the detectability of PCD in smaller hot spots was significantly poor. (author)

  15. [Impact of postoperative cognitive decline in quality of life: a prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Joana; Moreira, Joana; Moreira, Adriano; Santos, Alice; Abelha, Fernando J

    Regardless the progress in perioperative care postoperative cognitive decline (PCD) has been accepted unequivocally as a significant and frequent complication of surgery in older patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of postoperative cognitive decline and its influence on quality of life three months after surgery. Observational, prospective study in a Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) in patients aged above 45 years, after elective major surgery. Cognitive function was assessed with Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA); Quality of life (QoL) was assessed using SF-36 Health Survey (SF-36). Assessments were performed preoperatively (T0) and 3 months after surgery (T3). Forty-one patients were studied. The incidence of PCD 3 months after surgery was 24%. At T3 MOCA scores were lower in patients with PCD (median 20 vs. 25, p=0.009). When comparing the median scores for each of SF-36 domains, there were no differences between patients with and without PCD. In patients with PCD, and comparing each of SF-36 domains obtained before and three months after surgery, had similar scores for every of the 8 SF-36 areas while patients without PCD had better scores for six domains. At T3 patients with PCD presented with higher levels of dependency in personal activities of daily living (ADL). Three months after surgery patients without PCD had significant improvement in MOCA scores. Patients with PCD obtained no increase in SF-36 scores but patients without PCD improved in almost all SF-36 domains. Patients with PCD presented higher rates of dependency in personal ADL after surgery. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  16. Differential diagnosis of plasma cell dyscrasias in rheumatological practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Vasilyev

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion. Many clinical and laboratory manifestations of primary PCD and RD are similar and only the absence of classical laboratory markers of autoimmune disease, as well as the presence of serum monoclonal immunoglobulins and urinary Bence Jones protein suggest the presence of PCD, both primary PCDs and those with RD.

  17. Differential diagnosis of plasma cell dyscrasias in rheumatological practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Vasilyev

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion. Many clinical and laboratory manifestations of primary PCD and RD are similar and only the absence of classical laboratory markers of autoimmune disease, as well as the presence of serum monoclonal immunoglobulins and urinary Bence Jones protein suggest the presence of PCD, both primary PCDs and those with RD.

  18. Self-consuming innate immunity in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofius, Daniel; Mundy, John; Petersen, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) associated with the pathogen-induced hypersensitive response (HR) is a hallmark of plant innate immunity. HR PCD is triggered upon recognition of pathogen effector molecules by host immune receptors either directly or indirectly via effector modulation of host targets...

  19. Long-term outcome of Tunisian children with primary ciliary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is rare. Its diagnosis requires experienced specialists and expensive infrastructure. Its prognosis is variable. Objective: To study the long-term outcome of PCD in Tunisian children with ciliary ultra-structure defects detected by electron microscope. Methods: Covering a period of ...

  20. A longitudinal evaluation of hearing and ventilation tube insertion in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Nicolai; Alanin, Mikkel Christian; von Buchwald, Christian

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal recessive genetic disease, which primarily manifests with oto-sino-pulmonary symptoms. Otitis media with effusion (OME) is common from early childhood. The existing literature on OME management in PCD is conflicting. The goals of the ...

  1. Characterization of the programmed cell death induced by metabolic products of Alternaria alternata in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dan-Dan; Jia, Yu-Jiao; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Zhang, Li-Tao; Zhang, Zi-Shan; Xue, Zhong-Cai; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2011-02-01

    Alternaria alternata has received considerable attention in current literature and most of the studies are focused on its pathogenic effects on plant chloroplasts, but little is known about the characteristics of programmed cell death (PCD) induced by metabolic products (MP) of A. alternata, the effects of the MP on mitochondrial respiration and its relation to PCD. The purpose of this study was to explore the mechanism of MP-induced PCD in non-green tobacco BY-2 cells and to explore the role of mitochondrial inhibitory processes in the PCD of tobacco BY-2 cells. MP treatment led to significant cell death that was proven to be PCD by the concurrent cytoplasm shrinkage, chromatin condensation and DNA laddering observed in the cells. Moreover, MP treatment resulted in the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), rapid ATP depletion and a respiratory decline in the tobacco BY-2 cells. It was concluded that the direct inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), alternative pathway (AOX) capacity and catalase (CAT) activity by the MP might be the main contributors to the MP-induced ROS burst observed in tobacco BY-2 cells. The addition of adenosine together with the MP significantly inhibited ATP depletion without preventing PCD; however, when the cells were treated with the MP plus CAT, ROS overproduction was blocked and PCD did not occur. The data presented here demonstrate that the ROS burst played an important role in MP-induced PCD in the tobacco BY-2 cells.

  2. Screening for primary creatine deficiencies in French patients with unexplained neurological symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheillan, D.; Curt, M.J.; Briand, G.; Salomons, G.S.; Mention-Mulliez, K.; Dobbelaere, D.; Cuisset, J.M.; Lion-Francois, L.; Portes, V.D.; Chabli, A.; Valayannopoulos, V.; Benoist, J.F.; Pinard, J.M.; Simard, G.; Douay, O.; Deiva, K.; Afenjar, A.; Heron, D.; Rivier, F.; Chabrol, B.; Prieur, F.; Cartault, F.; Pitelet, G.; Goldenberg, A.; Bekri, S.; Gerard, M.; Delorme, R.; Tardieu, M.; Porchet, N.; Vianey-Saban, C.; Vamecq, J.

    2012-01-01

    A population of patients with unexplained neurological symptoms from six major French university hospitals was screened over a 28-month period for primary creatine disorder (PCD). Urine guanidinoacetate (GAA) and creatine:creatinine ratios were measured in a cohort of 6,353 subjects to identify PCD

  3. Metabolic anatomy of paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, N.E.; Posner, J.B.; Sidtis, J.J.; Moeller, J.R.; Strother, S.C.; Dhawan, V.; Rottenberg, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Eleven patients with acquired cerebellar degeneration (10 of whom had paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration [PCD]) were evaluated using neuropsychological tests and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose/positron emission tomography to (1) quantify motor, cognitive, and metabolic abnormalities; (2) determine if characteristic alterations in the regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRGlc) are associated with PCD; and (3) correlate behavioral and metabolic measures of disease severity. Eighteen volunteer subjects served as normal controls. Although some PCD neuropsychological test scores were abnormal, these results could not, in general, be dissociated from the effects of dysarthria and ataxia. rCMRGlc was reduced in patients with PCD (versus normal control subjects) in all regions except the brainstem. Analysis of patient and control rCMRGlc data using a mathematical model of regional metabolic interactions revealed two metabolic pattern descriptors, SSF1 and SSF2, which distinguished patients with PCD from normal control subjects; SSF2, which described a metabolic coupling between cerebellum, cuneus, and posterior temporal, lateral frontal, and paracentral cortex, correlated with quantitative indices of cerebellar dysfunction. Our inability to document substantial intellectual impairment in 7 of 10 patients with PCD contrasts with the 50% incidence of dementia in PCD reported by previous investigators. Widespread reductions in PCD rCMRGlc may result from the loss of cerebellar efferents to thalamus and forebrain structures, a reverse cerebellar diaschisis

  4. Primary carnitine deficiency and pivalic acid exposure causing encephalopathy and fatal cardiac events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jan; Nielsen, Olav W; Lund, Allan M

    2013-01-01

    Several episodes of sudden death among young Faroese individuals have been associated with primary carnitine deficiency (PCD). Patients suffering from PCD have low carnitine levels and can present with metabolic and/or cardiac complications. Pivalic acid exposure decreases carnitine levels...

  5. Development of a High Efficiency Compressor/Expander for an Air Cycle Air Conditioning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-15

    bearing, lb PHUB - Hub pressure (initial guess), psia RLG - Rotor length 1 ’B-2 RPM - Rotational speed, RPM R - Gas constant, lb -ft/lb - R CP - Specific...Compressor discharge port pressure ratio (PCD/PC2).:- CDP - Compressor pressure change, PCD-PCl PHUB - Pressure in compressor hub (acting on base of vanes

  6. Modular Algorithm Testbed Suite (MATS): A Software Framework for Automatic Target Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    NAVAL SURFACE WARFARE CENTER PANAMA CITY DIVISION PANAMA CITY, FL 32407-7001 TECHNICAL REPORT NSWC PCD TR-2017-004 MODULAR ...31-01-2017 Technical Modular Algorithm Testbed Suite (MATS): A Software Framework for Automatic Target Recognition DR...flexible platform to facilitate the development and testing of ATR algorithms. To that end, NSWC PCD has created the Modular Algorithm Testbed Suite

  7. Morphological classification of plant cell deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, W G; Beers, E P; Dangl, J L; Franklin-Tong, V E; Gallois, P; Hara-Nishimura, I; Jones, A M; Kawai-Yamada, M; Lam, E; Mundy, J; Mur, L A J; Petersen, M; Smertenko, A; Taliansky, M; Van Breusegem, F; Wolpert, T; Woltering, E; Zhivotovsky, B; Bozhkov, P V

    2011-08-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an integral part of plant development and of responses to abiotic stress or pathogens. Although the morphology of plant PCD is, in some cases, well characterised and molecular mechanisms controlling plant PCD are beginning to emerge, there is still confusion about the classification of PCD in plants. Here we suggest a classification based on morphological criteria. According to this classification, the use of the term 'apoptosis' is not justified in plants, but at least two classes of PCD can be distinguished: vacuolar cell death and necrosis. During vacuolar cell death, the cell contents are removed by a combination of autophagy-like process and release of hydrolases from collapsed lytic vacuoles. Necrosis is characterised by early rupture of the plasma membrane, shrinkage of the protoplast and absence of vacuolar cell death features. Vacuolar cell death is common during tissue and organ formation and elimination, whereas necrosis is typically found under abiotic stress. Some examples of plant PCD cannot be ascribed to either major class and are therefore classified as separate modalities. These are PCD associated with the hypersensitive response to biotrophic pathogens, which can express features of both necrosis and vacuolar cell death, PCD in starchy cereal endosperm and during self-incompatibility. The present classification is not static, but will be subject to further revision, especially when specific biochemical pathways are better defined.

  8. Radiation-induced apoptosis in thymocytes as determined by flow cytometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Xu; Zhang Yingchun; Liu Shuzheng

    1995-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD), or apoptosis, is a conceptually different way of cell death from necrosis. PCD plays an important role in immunologic regulation, PCD in thymocytes was analyzed by flow cytometry following in vitro X-irradiation. It was found that culturing of thymocytes could induce PCD which showed a time dependent increase. Four hours after culturing, 16% of thymocytes was found in the Ao region (PCD is shown in the Ao region of the histogram of flow cytometry). PCD in thymocytes showed a time dependent increase after 2.0 Gy X-irradiation, being significantly higher than that in the control at the same culturing time. 24 hours after X-irradiation in vitro, it was found that with doses below 100 mGy PCD was not significantly different from the control at the same culturing time. But when the doses were above 100 mGy, PCD showed a dose dependent increase, being significantly higher than that of the control at the same culturing time. These results are important in the understanding of the biological effects of low dose radiation

  9. Detecting feigned postconcussional and posttraumatic stress symptoms with the structured inventory of malingered symptomatology (SIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Adam C; Gfeller, Jeffrey; Emmert, Natalie; Lammert, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    The Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology (SIMS) is a standalone symptom validity test (SVT) designed as a screening measure to detect a variety of exaggerated psychological symptoms. A number of studies have explored the accuracy of the SIMS in litigious and clinical populations, yet few have examined the validity of the SIMS in detecting feigned symptoms of postconcussional disorder (PCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study examined the sensitivity of the SIMS in detecting undergraduate simulators (N = 78) feigning symptoms of PCD, PTSD, and the comorbid presentation of both PCD and PTSD symptomatologies. Overall, the SIMS Total score produced the highest sensitivities for the PCD symptoms and PCD+PTSD symptoms groups (.89 and .85, respectively), and to a lesser extent, the PTSD symptoms group (.69). The Affective Disorders (AF) subscale was most sensitive to the PTSD symptoms group compared to the PCD and PCD+PTSD symptoms groups. Additional sensitivity values are presented and examined at multiple scale cutoff scores. These findings support the use of the SIMS as a SVT screening measure for PCD and PTSD symptom exaggeration in neuropsychological assessment.

  10. Knockout of Arabidopsis accelerated-cell-death11 encoding a sphingosine transfer protein causes activation of programmed cell death and defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Peter; Petersen, Morten; Pike, Helen M

    2002-01-01

    by avirulent pathogens. Global transcriptional changes during programmed cell death (PCD) and defense activation in acd11 were monitored by cDNA microarray hybridization. The PCD and defense pathways activated in acd11 are salicylic acid (SA) dependent, but do not require intact jasmonic acid or ethylene...

  11. Involvement of Arabidopsis Hexokinase1 in Cell Death Mediated by Myo -Inositol Accumulation

    KAUST Repository

    Bruggeman, Quentin; Prunier, Florence; Mazubert, Christelle; de Bont, Linda; Garmier, Marie; Lugan, Raphaë l; Benhamed, Moussa; Bergounioux, Catherine; Raynaud, Cé cile; Delarue, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    of myo-inositol (MI) synthesis. One of the most striking features of mips1 is the light-dependent formation of lesions on leaves due to salicylic acid (SA)-dependent PCD. Here, we identified a suppressor of PCD by screening for mutations that abolish

  12. Multicenter analysis of body mass index, lung function, and sputum microbiology in primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglione, Marco; Bush, Andrew; Nielsen, Kim G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No studies longitudinally, simultaneously assessed body mass index (BMI) and spirometry in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). METHODS: We determined BMI and spirometry in 158 PCD children and adolescents from London, UK (n = 75), Naples, Italy (n = 23) and Copenhagen, Denmark (n = 60) ...

  13. The BRI1-associated kinase 1, BAK1, has a brassinolide-independent role in plant cell-death control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemmerling, B.; Schwedt, A.; Rodriguez, P.; Mazzotta, S.; Frank, M.; Abu Qamar, S.; Mengiste, T.; Betsuyaku, S.; Parker, J.E.; Müssig, C.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Albrecht, C.; Vries, de S.C.; Hirt, H.; Nürnberger, T.

    2007-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a common host response to microbial infection [1-3]. In plants, PCD is associated with immunity to biotrophic pathogens, but it can also promote disease upon infection by necrotrophic pathogens [4]. Therefore, plant cell-suicide programs must be strictly controlled.

  14. Cisplatin triggers apoptotic or nonapoptotic cell death in Fanconi anemia lymphoblasts in a concentration-dependent manner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrer, M; Izeboud, T; Ferreira, CG; Span, SW; Giaccone, G; Kruyt, FAE

    2003-01-01

    Cells derived from Fanconi anemia (FA) patients are hypersensitive for cross-linking agents, such as cisplatin, that are potent inducers of programmed cell death (PCD). Here, we studied cisplatin hypersensitivity in FA in relation to the mechanism of PCD in lymphoblastoid cells representing FA

  15. Programmed Cell Death and Postharvest Deterioration of Horticultural Produce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, E.J.; Iakimova, E.T.

    2010-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a process where cells or tissues are broken down in an orderly and predictable manner, whereby nutrients are re-used by other cells, tissues or plant parts. The process of (petal) senescence shows many similarities to autophagic PCD in animal cells including a massive

  16. Lace plant ethylene receptors, AmERS1a and AmERS1c, regulate ethylene-induced programmed cell death during leaf morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantong, Gaolathe; Evans, Rodger; Gunawardena, Arunika H L A N

    2015-10-01

    The lace plant, Aponogeton madagascariensis, is an aquatic monocot that forms perforations in its leaves as part of normal leaf development. Perforation formation occurs through developmentally regulated programmed cell death (PCD). The molecular basis of PCD regulation in the lace plant is unknown, however ethylene has been shown to play a significant role. In this study, we examined the role of ethylene receptors during perforation formation. We isolated three lace plant ethylene receptors AmERS1a, AmERS1b and AmERS1c. Using quantitative PCR, we examined their transcript levels at seven stages of leaf development. Through laser-capture microscopy, transcript levels were also determined in cells undergoing PCD and cells not undergoing PCD (NPCD cells). AmERS1a transcript levels were significantly lower in window stage leaves (in which perforation formation and PCD are occurring) as compared to all other leaf developmental stages. AmERS1a and AmERS1c (the most abundant among the three receptors) had the highest transcript levels in mature stage leaves, where PCD is not occurring. Their transcript levels decreased significantly during senescence-associated PCD. AmERS1c had significantly higher transcript levels in NPCD compared to PCD cells. Despite being significantly low in window stage leaves, AmERS1a transcripts were not differentially expressed between PCD and NPCD cells. The results suggested that ethylene receptors negatively regulate ethylene-controlled PCD in the lace plant. A combination of ethylene and receptor levels determines cell fate during perforation formation and leaf senescence. A new model for ethylene emission and receptor expression during lace plant perforation formation and senescence is proposed.

  17. Cyclosporine-resistant, Rab27a-independent Mobilization of Intracellular Preformed CD40L Mediates Antigen-specific T Cell Help In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koguchi, Yoshinobu; Gardell, Jennifer L.; Thauland, Timothy J.; Parker, David C.

    2011-01-01

    CD40L is critically important for the initiation and maintenance of adaptive immune responses. It is generally thought that CD40L expression in CD4+ T cells is regulated transcriptionally and made from new mRNA following antigen recognition. However, recent studies with two-photon microscopy revealed that the majority of cognate interactions between effector CD4+ T cells and APCs are too short for de novo synthesis of CD40L. Given that effector and memory CD4+ T cells store preformed CD40L (pCD40L) in lysosomal compartments and that pCD40L comes to the cell surface within minutes of antigenic stimulation, we and others have proposed that pCD40L might mediate T cell-dependent activation of cognate APCs during brief encounters in vivo. However, it has not been shown that this relatively small amount of pCD40L is sufficient to activate APCs, owing to the difficulty of separating the effects of pCD40L from those of de novo CD40L and other cytokines in vitro. Here we show that pCD40L surface mobilization is resistant to cyclosporine or FK506 treatment, while de novo CD40L and cytokine expression are completely inhibited. These drugs thus provide a tool to dissect the role of pCD40L in APC activation. We find that pCD40L mediates selective activation of cognate but not bystander APCs in vitro and that mobilization of pCD40L does not depend on Rab27a, which is required for mobilization of lytic granules. Therefore, effector CD4+ T cells deliver pCD40L specifically to APCs on the same time scale as the lethal hit of CTLs but with distinct molecular machinery. PMID:21677130

  18. Measurement of apoptosis by SCAN©, a system for counting and analysis of fluorescently labelled nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neta Shlezinger

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis-like programmed cell death (A-PCD is a universal process common to all types of eukaryotic organisms. Because A-PCD-associated processes are conserved, it is possible to define A-PCD by a standard set of markers. Many of the popular methods to measure A-PCD make use of fluorescent ligands that change in intensity or cellular localization during A-PCD. In single cell organisms, it is possible to quantify levels of A-PCD by scoring the number of apoptotic cells using flow cytometry instruments. In a multicellular organism, quantification of A-PCD is more problematic due to the complex nature of the tissue. The situation is further complicated in filamentous fungi, in which nuclei are divided between compartments, each containing a number of nuclei, which can also migrate between the compartments. We developed SCAN©, a System for Counting and Analysis of Nuclei, and used it to measure A-PCD according to two markers – chromatin condensation and DNA strand breaks. The package includes three modules designed for counting the number of nuclei in multi-nucleated domains, scoring the relative number of nuclei with condensed chromatin, and calculating the relative number of nuclei with DNA strand breaks. The method provides equal or better results compared with manual counting, the analysis is fast and can be applied on large data sets. While we demonstrated the utility of the software for measurement of A-PCD in fungi, the method is readily adopted for measurement of A-PCD in other types of multicellular specimens.

  19. Diseño e implementación de un sistema de control de vuelo para un vehículo aéreo no tripulado tipo cuadricóptero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Mauricio Lara Sosa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: La industria aeroespacial ha tenido bastante auge y así mismo el desarrollo y aplicación a los sistemas autónomos, propiciando desarrollos importantes en su implementación, y sistemas de control. Método: En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo y la implementación de un vehículo aéreo no tripulado, tipo quadricóptero, se inicia con el análisis matemático de los sistemas de vehículos aéreos encontrando el modelo dinámico; el modelado del prototipo se basa en las ecuaciones Euler LaGrange. Posteriormente, se realiza el diseño de la estructura y el desarrollo de los sistemas de control basado en modos deslizantes; se aplica la ley de control basada en modos deslizantes en el sistema implementado que utiliza solamente información de pitch, roll y elevación. Resultados: Se implementó un prototipo de vehículo aéreo no tripulado tipo quadricóptero, y se implementó el sistema de control, donde se obtuvo un adecuado seguimiento de la referencia. Conclusiones: La adecuada selección de los elementos para la implementación del prototipo permite poder implementar diferentes estrategias de control, para este caso demostrando el adecuado trabajo de los modos deslizantes para la estabilización en dos ejes del quadricóptero.

  20. Observación de la fracción de agua líquida en pilas de combustible tipo PEM de cátodo abierto

    OpenAIRE

    Luna, Julio; Costa Castelló, Ramón

    2017-01-01

    En este trabajo se diseña un observador no-lineal basado en modos deslizantes para la estimación de la fracción de agua líquida en una pila de combustible tipo PEM de cátodo abierto. La pila de combustible se modela con dos estados dinámicos: la temperatura de la pila y la saturación de agua líquida. La estrategia de observación se valida en simulación mediante un ciclo de conducción ARTEMIS.

  1. Estudo comparativo dos traçados cefalometricos entre os planos de camper, plano oclusal de nobilo e plano oclusal natural, lado esquerdo e direito

    OpenAIRE

    Deise Luciane Paiva Oliveira

    2000-01-01

    Resumo: Na construção de próteses totais e pistas deslizantes de Nóbilo são utilizados como referência para o plano Dclusal , o ponto anterior, ângulo entre os Incisivos Centrais Superiores e as papilas retromolares. Após mais de 20 anos de experiência clínica com excelentes resultados, esse trabalho objetiva determinar as correlações entre os planos de Camper e o plano oclusal de Nóbilo, entre o plano de Camper e o plano oclusal Natural, entre o plano de Nóbilo e o plano oclusal Natural veri...

  2. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous catheter drainage of primary and secondary iliopsoas abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantasdemir, M.; Kara, B.; Cebi, D.; Selcuk, N.D.; Numan, F.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To report our experience with computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) of iliopsoas abscesses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-two iliopsoas abscesses in 21 patients (11 women, 10 men) aged between 18 and 66 years (mean 36 years) were treated with PCD. Abdominal CT demonstrated the iliopsoas abscesses, which were definitively determined by Gram staining and aspirate cultures. Twenty of the 22 iliopsoas abscesses were primary and two were secondary. All PCD procedures were performed under local anaesthesia using a single-step trocar technique (n=19) or Seldinger technique (n=3). RESULTS: PCD was an effective treatment in 21 out of the 22 iliopsoas abscesses. Recurrence was seen in three abscesses as minimal residual collections. Two of them resolved spontaneously with anti-tuberculous regimen. One required percutaneous needle aspiration. The procedure failed in a diabetic patient with a secondary abscess, who died due to sepsis. The length of time that catheters remained in place ranged from 21 to 75 days (mean 59.7 days). Complications included catheter dislocation in four abscesses, which required removal of dislocated catheters and indwelling new ones. CONCLUSION: CT-guided PCD is a safe and effective front-line treatment of iliopsoas abscesses. Surgery should be reserved for failure of PCD and presence of contraindications to PCD

  3. Programmes of cell death and autolysis in tracheary elements: when a suicidal cell arranges its own corpse removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamez, Sacha; Tuominen, Hannele

    2014-03-01

    Tracheary element (TE) differentiation represents a unique system to study plant developmental programmed cell death (PCD). TE PCD occurs after deposition of the secondary cell walls when an unknown signal induces tonoplast rupture and the arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. TE PCD is tightly followed by autolysis of the protoplast and partial hydrolysis of the primary cell walls. This review integrates TE differentiation, programmed cell death (PCD), and autolysis in a biological and evolutionary context. The collective evidence from the evolutionary and molecular studies suggests that TE differentiation consists primarily of a programme for cell death and autolysis under the direct control of the transcriptional master switches VASCULAR NAC DOMAIN 6 (VND6) and VND7. In this scenario, secondary cell walls represent a later innovation to improve the water transport capacity of TEs which necessitates transcriptional regulators downstream of VND6 and VND7. One of the most fascinating features of TEs is that they need to prepare their own corpse removal by expression and accumulation of hydrolases that are released from the vacuole after TE cell death. Therefore, TE differentiation involves, in addition to PCD, a programmed autolysis which is initiated before cell death and executed post-mortem. It has recently become clear that TE PCD and autolysis are separate processes with separate molecular regulation. Therefore, the importance of distinguishing between the cell death programme per se and autolysis in all plant PCD research and of careful description of the morphological, biochemical, and molecular sequences in each of these processes, is advocated.

  4. The Cysteine Protease CEP1, a Key Executor Involved in Tapetal Programmed Cell Death, Regulates Pollen Development in Arabidopsis[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan; Liu, Di; Lv, Xiaomeng; Wang, Ying; Xun, Zhili; Liu, Zhixiong; Li, Fenglan; Lu, Hai

    2014-01-01

    Tapetal programmed cell death (PCD) is a prerequisite for pollen grain development in angiosperms, and cysteine proteases are the most ubiquitous hydrolases involved in plant PCD. We identified a papain-like cysteine protease, CEP1, which is involved in tapetal PCD and pollen development in Arabidopsis thaliana. CEP1 is expressed specifically in the tapetum from stages 5 to 11 of anther development. The CEP1 protein first appears as a proenzyme in precursor protease vesicles and is then transported to the vacuole and transformed into the mature enzyme before rupture of the vacuole. cep1 mutants exhibited aborted tapetal PCD and decreased pollen fertility with abnormal pollen exine. A transcriptomic analysis revealed that 872 genes showed significantly altered expression in the cep1 mutants, and most of them are important for tapetal cell wall organization, tapetal secretory structure formation, and pollen development. CEP1 overexpression caused premature tapetal PCD and pollen infertility. ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR analyses confirmed that the CEP1 expression level showed a strong relationship to the degree of tapetal PCD and pollen fertility. Our results reveal that CEP1 is a crucial executor during tapetal PCD and that proper CEP1 expression is necessary for timely degeneration of tapetal cells and functional pollen formation. PMID:25035401

  5. The cysteine protease CEP1, a key executor involved in tapetal programmed cell death, regulates pollen development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan; Liu, Di; Lv, Xiaomeng; Wang, Ying; Xun, Zhili; Liu, Zhixiong; Li, Fenglan; Lu, Hai

    2014-07-01

    Tapetal programmed cell death (PCD) is a prerequisite for pollen grain development in angiosperms, and cysteine proteases are the most ubiquitous hydrolases involved in plant PCD. We identified a papain-like cysteine protease, CEP1, which is involved in tapetal PCD and pollen development in Arabidopsis thaliana. CEP1 is expressed specifically in the tapetum from stages 5 to 11 of anther development. The CEP1 protein first appears as a proenzyme in precursor protease vesicles and is then transported to the vacuole and transformed into the mature enzyme before rupture of the vacuole. cep1 mutants exhibited aborted tapetal PCD and decreased pollen fertility with abnormal pollen exine. A transcriptomic analysis revealed that 872 genes showed significantly altered expression in the cep1 mutants, and most of them are important for tapetal cell wall organization, tapetal secretory structure formation, and pollen development. CEP1 overexpression caused premature tapetal PCD and pollen infertility. ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR analyses confirmed that the CEP1 expression level showed a strong relationship to the degree of tapetal PCD and pollen fertility. Our results reveal that CEP1 is a crucial executor during tapetal PCD and that proper CEP1 expression is necessary for timely degeneration of tapetal cells and functional pollen formation. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  6. The operative management of children with complex perianal Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Natashia M; King, Sebastian K; Elkadri, Abdul; Walters, Thomas; Fish, Joel; Langer, Jacob C

    2016-12-01

    Perianal Crohn's disease (PCD) can affect both quality of life and psychological wellbeing. A subset of pediatric patients with complex PCD require surgical intervention, although appropriate timing and treatment regimens remain unclear. This study aimed to describe a large pediatric cohort in a tertiary center to determine the range of surgical management in children with complex PCD. A retrospective review of children requiring operative intervention for PCD over 13 years (2002-2014) was performed. PCD was divided into simple and complex based on the type of surgical procedure, and the two groups were compared. The 57 children were divided into two groups: the simple group (N=43) underwent abscess drainage ± seton insertion alone, and the complex group (N=14) underwent loop ileostomy ± more extensive surgery. In the complex group, females were more predominant (57% of complex vs 30% of simple), and the average age at diagnosis was lower. Anti-TNF therapy was utilized in 79.1% of simple and 100% of complex PCD. All 14 complex patients underwent a defunctioning ileostomy, with 7 requiring further operations (subtotal colectomy=4, proctocolectomy ± anal sparing=5, plastic surgery reconstruction with perineal flap/graft=4). Complex PCD represents a small but challenging subset of patients in which major surgical intervention may be necessary to alleviate the symptoms of this debilitating condition. retrospective case study with no control group - level IV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Juvenile hormone counteracts the bHLH-PAS transcription factors MET and GCE to prevent caspase-dependent programmed cell death in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Sheng, Zhentao; Liu, Hanhan; Wen, Di; He, Qianyu; Wang, Sheng; Shao, Wei; Jiang, Rong-Jing; An, Shiheng; Sun, Yaning; Bendena, William G; Wang, Jian; Gilbert, Lawrence I; Wilson, Thomas G; Song, Qisheng; Li, Sheng

    2009-06-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates many developmental and physiological events in insects, but its molecular mechanism remains conjectural. Here we report that genetic ablation of the corpus allatum cells of the Drosophila ring gland (the JH source) resulted in JH deficiency, pupal lethality and precocious and enhanced programmed cell death (PCD) of the larval fat body. In the fat body of the JH-deficient animals, Dronc and Drice, two caspase genes that are crucial for PCD induced by the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), were significantly upregulated. These results demonstrated that JH antagonizes 20E-induced PCD by restricting the mRNA levels of Dronc and Drice. The antagonizing effect of JH on 20E-induced PCD in the fat body was further confirmed in the JH-deficient animals by 20E treatment and RNA interference of the 20E receptor EcR. Moreover, MET and GCE, the bHLH-PAS transcription factors involved in JH action, were shown to induce PCD by upregulating Dronc and Drice. In the Met- and gce-deficient animals, Dronc and Drice were downregulated, whereas in the Met-overexpression fat body, Dronc and Drice were significantly upregulated leading to precocious and enhanced PCD, and this upregulation could be suppressed by application of the JH agonist methoprene. For the first time, we demonstrate that JH counteracts MET and GCE to prevent caspase-dependent PCD in controlling fat body remodeling and larval-pupal metamorphosis in Drosophila.

  8. Accurate facade feature extraction method for buildings from three-dimensional point cloud data considering structural information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongzhi; Ma, Yuqing; Zhu, A.-xing; Zhao, Hui; Liao, Lixia

    2018-05-01

    Facade features represent segmentations of building surfaces and can serve as a building framework. Extracting facade features from three-dimensional (3D) point cloud data (3D PCD) is an efficient method for 3D building modeling. By combining the advantages of 3D PCD and two-dimensional optical images, this study describes the creation of a highly accurate building facade feature extraction method from 3D PCD with a focus on structural information. The new extraction method involves three major steps: image feature extraction, exploration of the mapping method between the image features and 3D PCD, and optimization of the initial 3D PCD facade features considering structural information. Results show that the new method can extract the 3D PCD facade features of buildings more accurately and continuously. The new method is validated using a case study. In addition, the effectiveness of the new method is demonstrated by comparing it with the range image-extraction method and the optical image-extraction method in the absence of structural information. The 3D PCD facade features extracted by the new method can be applied in many fields, such as 3D building modeling and building information modeling.

  9. Evaluation of conventional imaging performance in a research whole-body CT system with a photon-counting detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Zhicong; Leng, Shuai; Li, Zhoubo; Chen, Baiyu; Yu, Lifeng; McCollough, Cynthia H; Jorgensen, Steven M; Ritman, Erik L; Gutjahr, Ralf; Kappler, Steffen; Halaweish, Ahmed F

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the conventional imaging performance of a research whole-body photon-counting CT system and investigated its feasibility for imaging using clinically realistic levels of x-ray photon flux. This research system was built on the platform of a 2nd generation dual-source CT system: one source coupled to an energy integrating detector (EID) and the other coupled to a photon-counting detector (PCD). Phantom studies were conducted to measure CT number accuracy and uniformity for water, CT number energy dependency for high-Z materials, spatial resolution, noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio. The results from the EID and PCD subsystems were compared. The impact of high photon flux, such as pulse pile-up, was assessed by studying the noise-to-tube-current relationship using a neonate water phantom and high x-ray photon flux. Finally, clinical feasibility of the PCD subsystem was investigated using anthropomorphic phantoms, a cadaveric head, and a whole-body cadaver, which were scanned at dose levels equivalent to or higher than those used clinically. Phantom measurements demonstrated that the PCD subsystem provided comparable image quality to the EID subsystem, except that the PCD subsystem provided slightly better longitudinal spatial resolution and about 25% improvement in contrast-to-noise ratio for iodine. The impact of high photon flux was found to be negligible for the PCD subsystem: only subtle high-flux effects were noticed for tube currents higher than 300 mA in images of the neonate water phantom. Results of the anthropomorphic phantom and cadaver scans demonstrated comparable image quality between the EID and PCD subsystems. There were no noticeable ring, streaking, or cupping/capping artifacts in the PCD images. In addition, the PCD subsystem provided spectral information. Our experiments demonstrated that the research whole-body photon-counting CT system is capable of providing clinical image quality at clinically realistic levels of x

  10. Evaluation of conventional imaging performance in a research whole-body CT system with a photon-counting detector array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhicong; Leng, Shuai; Jorgensen, Steven M; Li, Zhoubo; Gutjahr, Ralf; Chen, Baiyu; Halaweish, Ahmed F; Kappler, Steffen; Yu, Lifeng; Ritman, Erik L; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2016-02-21

    This study evaluated the conventional imaging performance of a research whole-body photon-counting CT system and investigated its feasibility for imaging using clinically realistic levels of x-ray photon flux. This research system was built on the platform of a 2nd generation dual-source CT system: one source coupled to an energy integrating detector (EID) and the other coupled to a photon-counting detector (PCD). Phantom studies were conducted to measure CT number accuracy and uniformity for water, CT number energy dependency for high-Z materials, spatial resolution, noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio. The results from the EID and PCD subsystems were compared. The impact of high photon flux, such as pulse pile-up, was assessed by studying the noise-to-tube-current relationship using a neonate water phantom and high x-ray photon flux. Finally, clinical feasibility of the PCD subsystem was investigated using anthropomorphic phantoms, a cadaveric head, and a whole-body cadaver, which were scanned at dose levels equivalent to or higher than those used clinically. Phantom measurements demonstrated that the PCD subsystem provided comparable image quality to the EID subsystem, except that the PCD subsystem provided slightly better longitudinal spatial resolution and about 25% improvement in contrast-to-noise ratio for iodine. The impact of high photon flux was found to be negligible for the PCD subsystem: only subtle high-flux effects were noticed for tube currents higher than 300 mA in images of the neonate water phantom. Results of the anthropomorphic phantom and cadaver scans demonstrated comparable image quality between the EID and PCD subsystems. There were no noticeable ring, streaking, or cupping/capping artifacts in the PCD images. In addition, the PCD subsystem provided spectral information. Our experiments demonstrated that the research whole-body photon-counting CT system is capable of providing clinical image quality at clinically realistic levels of x

  11. No evidence of cholesteatoma in untreated otitis media with effusion in children with primary ciliary dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedia, Reshma; Ahmed, Jahangir; Navaratnam, Annakan; Harcourt, Jonny

    2018-02-01

    Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) describes a group of inherited disorders that result in abnormal ciliary motion leading to mucous stasis. Clinical features include almost universally otitis media with effusion (OME), particularly in infants. PCD patients provide us with a cohort of patients with OME that is not treated with ventilatory tube (VT) insertion as these have been shown to result in frequent complications including chronic otorrhoea, early extrusion and persistent perforation without significant improvement to hearing in the long term. This cohort was used to investigate whether children with PCD and OME not treated with VT were predisposed to cholesteatoma formation in the setting of a paediatric quaternary referral centre. A retrospective chart review was performed of all the children attending a multi-disciplinary PCD clinic at a national quaternary referral centre with a diagnosis of OME. We reviewed otoscopic findings, and audiometry and tympanometry results. We assessed the children in four groups: Watchful waiting, hearing aids, VT, and VT and hearing aids. One-hundred-and-one of 107 patients included in the study had a diagnosis of otitis media with effusion. No child with OME and PCD was diagnosed with a cholesteatoma during the follow up period. The only children who had insertion of a ventilatory tube were those who had the procedure prior to the formal diagnosis of PCD. We found a significant complication rate in the children with VT insertion. Hearing improved over time. The prevalence of retraction pockets in untreated OME was 1.72% (3 out of 174 ears). In children with PCD, OME is an almost universal finding in younger children, but not in adolescents. The study supports the current preference to avoid VT insertion in children with PCD as it confers a significantly higher rate of complications. No cases of cholesteatoma were found in this cohort of PCD children with OME managed without VTs. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B

  12. Dopamine-induced programmed cell death is associated with cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation in snail salivary gland cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirger, Zsolt; Rácz, Boglárka; Kiss, Tibor

    2009-02-01

    PCD (programmed cell death) is a common mechanism to remove unwanted and excessive cells from organisms. In several exocrine cell types, PCD mode of release of secretory products has been reported. The molecular mechanism of the release, however, is largely unknown. Our aim was to study the molecular mechanism of saliva release from cystic cells, the specific cell type of snail SGs (salivary glands). SG cells in active feeding animals revealed multiple morphological changes characteristic of PCD. Nerve stimulation and DA (dopamine) increased the number of TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling)-positive cells both in inactive and feeding animals. The DA-induced PCD was prevented by TEA (tetraethylammonium chloride) and eticlopride, emphasizing the role of K channels and D2 receptors in the PCD of cystic cells. DA enhanced cyto-c (cytochrome c) translocation into the cytosol and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin prevented it, suggesting apoptosome formation and ceramide involvement in the PCD linking of the surface DA receptor to mitochondria. Western blot analysis revealed that the release of cyto-c was under the control of Bcl-2 and Bad. DA also increased the active caspase-3 in gland cells while D2 receptor antagonists and TEA attenuated it. Our results provide evidence for a type of transmitter-mediated pathway that regulates the PCD of secretory cells in a mitochondrial-caspase-dependent manner. The activation of specific molecules, such as K channels, DA receptors, cyto-c, ceramide, Bcl-2 proteins and caspase-3, but not caspase-8, was demonstrated in cells involved in the DA-induced PCD, suggesting that PCD is a physiological method for the release of saliva from SG cells.

  13. Contribution of cellular autolysis to tissular functions during plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamez, Sacha; Tuominen, Hannele

    2017-02-01

    Plant development requires specific cells to be eliminated in a predictable and genetically regulated manner referred to as programmed cell death (PCD). However, the target cells do not merely die but they also undergo autolysis to degrade their cellular corpses. Recent progress in understanding developmental cell elimination suggests that distinct proteins execute PCD sensu stricto and autolysis. In addition, cell death alone and cell dismantlement can fulfill different functions. Hence, it appears biologically meaningful to distinguish between the modules of PCD and autolysis during plant development. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Lung structure and function similarities between primary ciliary dyskinesia and mild cystic fibrosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Marco; Montella, Silvia; Mollica, Carmine; Carnovale, Vincenzo; Iacotucci, Paola; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Tosco, Antonella; Cervasio, Mariarosaria; Raia, Valeria; Santamaria, Francesca

    2017-04-12

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and cystic fibrosis (CF) are increasingly compared. There are no chest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) comparative studies of PCD and CF. We assessed clinical, functional, microbiological and MRI findings in PCD and mild CF patients in order to evaluate different expression of lung disease. Twenty PCD (15.1 years) and 20 CF subjects with mild respiratory impairment (16 years, 70% with pancreatic insufficiency) underwent MRI, spirometry, and sputum cultures when clinically stable. MRI was scored using the modified Helbich system. PCD was diagnosed later than CF (9.9 versus 0.6 years, p = 0.03), despite earlier symptoms (0.1 versus 0.6 years, p = 0.02). In the year preceding the study, patients from both groups underwent two systemic antibiotic courses (p = 0.48). MRI total scores were 11.6 ± 0.7 and 9.1 ± 1 in PCD and CF, respectively. FEV 1 and FVC Z-scores were -1.75 (range, -4.6-0.7) and -0.6 (-3.9-1.8) in PCD, and -0.9 (range, -5.4-2.3) and -0.3 (-3.4-2.5) in CF, respectively. No difference was found between lung function or structure, despite a higher MRI subscore of collapse/consolidation in PCD versus CF (1.6 ± 0.1 and 0.6 ± 0.2, p < 0.001). These findings were confirmed after data-control for diagnostic delay. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were more frequent in CF than in PCD (p = 0.05 and p = 0.003, respectively). MRI is a valuable radiation-free tool for comparative PCD and CF lung disease assessment. Patients with PCD may exhibit similar MRI and lung function changes as CF subjects with mild pulmonary disease. Delay in PCD diagnosis is unlikely the only determinant of similarities.

  15. A multi-wavelength (u.v. to visible) laser system for early detection of oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najda, S. P.; Perlin, P.; Leszczyński, M.; Slight, T. J.; Meredith, W.; Schemmann, M.; Moseley, H.; Woods, J. A.; Valentine, R.; Kalra, S.; Mossey, P.; Theaker, E.; Macluskey, M.; Mimnagh, G.; Mimnagh, W.

    2015-03-01

    A multi-wavelength (360nm - 440nm), real-time Photonic Cancer Detector (PCD) optical system based on GaN semiconductor laser technology is outlined. A proof of concept using blue laser technology for early detection of cancer has already been tested and proven for esophageal cancer. This concept is expanded to consider a wider range of wavelengths and the PCD will initially be used for early diagnosis of oral cancers. The PCD creates an image of the oral cavity (broad field white light detection) and maps within the oral cavity any suspicious lesions with high sensitivity using a narrow field tunable detector.

  16. The Construction of the Multi- and intercultural citizenship in people with disabilities: Interpretation from subject sociology, social semiotic and cultural materialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Betancourt Zárate

    2015-07-01

    made of the CRDi of the visual and cognitive PCD that integrate social organizations. This article emphasizes the discourse of the PCD, seen as social actors (CRDi from which one verifies the possibility of the PCD to act as subjects starting with three analytical categories: identification of the breaking away (from rationality and identity, affirmation of oneself and liberation (from the recognition of capacities, autonomy, and liberation from dependency, for example and recognition of the other as subject (special protection, affection, suffering and pain, aspects that allow the creation of meaningful communities.

  17. Determination of surface recombination velocity and bulk lifetime in detector grade silicon and germanium crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derhacobian, N.; Fine, P.; Walton, J.T.; Wong, Y.K.; Rossington, C.S.; Luke, P.N.

    1993-10-01

    Utility of a noncontact photoconductive decay (PCD) technique is demonstrated in measuring bulk lifetime, τ B , and surface recombination velocity, S, in detector grade silicon and germanium crystals. We show that the simple analytical equations which relate the observed effective lifetimes in PCD transients to τ B and S have a limited range of applicability. The noncontact PCD technique is used to determine the effect of several surface treatments on the observed effective lifetimes in Si and Ge. A degradation of the effective lifetime in Si is reported as result of the growth of a thin layer of native oxide at room temperature under atmospheric conditions

  18. Inducible cell death in plant immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofius, Daniel; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I; Jones, Jonathan D G

    2006-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) occurs during vegetative and reproductive plant growth, as typified by autumnal leaf senescence and the terminal differentiation of the endosperm of cereals which provide our major source of food. PCD also occurs in response to environmental stress and pathogen attack......, and these inducible PCD forms are intensively studied due their experimental tractability. In general, evidence exists for plant cell death pathways which have similarities to the apoptotic, autophagic and necrotic forms described in yeast and metazoans. Recent research aiming to understand these pathways...

  19. Monitoring programmed cell death of living plant tissues in microfluidics using electrochemical and optical techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina; Heiskanen, Arto; Svensson, Birte

    Programmed cell death (PCD) in plants can influence the outcome of yield and quality of crops through its important role in seed germination and the defence process against pathogens. The main scope of the project is to apply microfluidic cell culture for the measurement of electrochemically......, since it is known that reactive oxygen species, which are affected by changes in the redox activity of the cells3, are involved in PCD in plants, but the relationship between and mechanisms behind ROS and PCD is only poorly understood in plant cells4. Recently, it has been shown, using optical detection...

  20. Study protocol, rationale and recruitment in a European multi-centre randomized controlled trial to determine the efficacy and safety of azithromycin maintenance therapy for 6 months in primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobbernagel, Helene Elgaard; Buchvald, Frederik F; Haarman, Eric G

    2016-01-01

    maintenance therapy in PCD. METHODS: The BESTCILIA trial is a European multi-centre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study. The intervention is tablets of azithromycin 250/500 mg according to body weight or placebo administered three times a week for 6 months. Subjects...... prescribed in other chronic respiratory disorders. Furthermore, the trial will utilize the Lung clearance index and new, PCD-specific quality of life instruments as outcome measures for PCD. Recruitment is hampered by frequent occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, exacerbations at enrolment...

  1. Morphological classification of plant cell deaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Doorn, W.G.; Beers, E.P.; Dangl, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    , which can express features of both necrosis and vacuolar cell death, PCD in starchy cereal endosperm and during self-incompatibility. The present classification is not static, but will be subject to further revision, especially when specific biochemical pathways are better defined....... the classification of PCD in plants. Here we suggest a classification based on morphological criteria. According to this classification, the use of the term 'apoptosis' is not justified in plants, but at least two classes of PCD can be distinguished: vacuolar cell death and necrosis. During vacuolar cell death...

  2. Automation of Silica Bead-based Nucleic Acid Extraction on a Centrifugal Lab-on-a-Disc Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinahan, David J; Mangwanya, Faith; Garvey, Robert; Chung, Danielle WY; Lipinski, Artur; Julius, Lourdes AN; King, Damien; Mohammadi, Mehdi; Mishra, Rohit; Al-Ofi, May; Miyazaki, Celina; Ducrée, Jens

    2016-01-01

    We describe a centrifugal microfluidic ‘Lab-on-a-Disc’ (LoaD) technology for DNA purification towards eventual integration into a Sample-to-Answer platform for detection of the pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 from food samples. For this application, we use a novel microfluidic architecture which combines ‘event-triggered’ dissolvable film (DF) valves with a reaction chamber gated by a centrifugo-pneumatic siphon valve (CPSV). This architecture permits comprehensive flow control by simple changes in the speed of the platform innate spindle motor. Even before method optimisation, characterisation by DNA fluorescence reveals an extraction efficiency of 58%, which is close to commercial spin columns. (paper)

  3. Application of photoconductivity decay and photocurrent generation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ... (PCD) and photocurrent generation (PCG) methods are simple and low cost methods of ... flection based detection of the change in photoconductivity .... 2.2 Photoconductivity decay behaviour .... con solar cell of known spectral response. 4.

  4. Simultaneous sinus and lung infections in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanin, Mikkel Christian; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Aanaes, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The sinuses should be considered as a bacterial reservoir and a target for surgery and antibiotic treatment in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). The observed decrease in serum precipitating antibodies (precipitins) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa may indicate a beneficial...

  5. Longitudinal study of lung function in a cohort of primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellerman, A; Bisgaard, H

    1997-01-01

    Patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) have pronounced stasis of their respiratory secretions and therefore recurrent lower airway infections, which raises concerns for the development of lung function. Twenty four patients with PCD have been studied prospectively with a standardized regime...... patients entering as children (forced vital capacity (FVC) 70 versus 85% predicted; forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 59 versus 72% pred). The lung damage did not relate to the type of ciliary dyskinesia. During the subsequent surveillance of the groups for a median of 14 and 7 yrs...... in our clinic for 2-16 yrs with clinic visits, including spirometry 2-4 times per year, daily physiotherapy and monthly sputum cultures with subsequent specific antibiotic treatment. Lung function was significantly lower in the 12 PCD patients entering the cohort as adults when compared to the PCD...

  6. Aerobic fitness in children and young adults with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Astrid Hellerup; Green, Kent; Buchvald, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although aerobic fitness is regarded as an overall prognostic measure of morbidity and mortality, its evaluation in the chronic progressive sinopulmonary disease primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) has been infrequently and inconsistently reported. Here we assessed peak oxygen uptake (VO2...... multiple breath inert gas washout (N2 MBW) were assessed in a cross-sectional, single-occasion study of clinically stable children and young adults with PCD. We used a questionnaire including self-reported physical limitations in everyday life or in vigorous activities, and estimation of weekly hours...... patients. CONCLUSION: One-third of PCD patients exhibited substantially lower aerobic fitness than healthy subjects. Aerobic fitness correlated with FEV1, DLCO/VA and self-reported complaints of limitations in vigorous physical activity. These findings are most likely explained by PCD pulmonary disease...

  7. Search Results | Page 6 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Filter by type .... This book describes and analyzes protracted conflicts in the Great Lakes Region of Africa. In doing ... The evaluation of the IDRC funded Peace, Conflict and Development Program (PCD) projects "Building Peace and Security ...

  8. Search Results | Page 22 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Filter by type .... This book describes and analyzes protracted conflicts in the Great Lakes Region of Africa. In doing ... The evaluation of the IDRC funded Peace, Conflict and Development Program (PCD) projects "Building Peace and Security ...

  9. Search Results | Page 24 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Filter by type .... Evaluation of Peace, Conflict and Development (PCD) research support in countries and regions affected by violent conflict ... This book describes and analyzes protracted conflicts in the Great Lakes Region of Africa. In doing ...

  10. R. Strauss: Symphonia domestica, Op. 53 / David Nice

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nice, David

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "R. Strauss: Symphonia domestica, Op. 53. National Youth Orchestra of Great Britain / Christopher Seaman. Pickwick IMP Classics CD PCD 1080; Selected comparisons: SNO, Järvi (3/88) Chandos CHAN 8572"

  11. Programmed Cell Death and Caspase Functions During Neural Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yoshifumi; Miura, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a fundamental component of nervous system development. PCD serves as the mechanism for quantitative matching of the number of projecting neurons and their target cells through direct competition for neurotrophic factors in the vertebrate peripheral nervous system. In addition, PCD plays roles in regulating neural cell numbers, canceling developmental errors or noise, and tissue remodeling processes. These findings are mainly derived from genetic studies that prevent cells from dying by apoptosis, which is a major form of PCD and is executed by activation of evolutionarily conserved cysteine protease caspases. Recent studies suggest that caspase activation can be coordinated in time and space at multiple levels, which might underlie nonapoptotic roles of caspases in neural development in addition to apoptotic roles. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An international registry for primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Claudius; Lablans, Martin; Ataian, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder leading to chronic upper and lower airway disease. Fundamental data on epidemiology, clinical presentation, course and treatment strategies are lacking in PCD. We have established an international PCD registry to realise...... an unmet need for an international platform to systematically collect data on incidence, clinical presentation, treatment and disease course.The registry was launched in January 2014. We used internet technology to ensure easy online access using a web browser under www.pcdregistry.eu. Data from 201...... methods in addition to classical clinical symptoms. Preliminary analysis of lung function data demonstrated a mean annual decline of percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s of 0.59% (95% CI 0.98-0.22).Here, we present the development of an international PCD registry as a new promising tool...

  13. Detection of programmed cell death in plant embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filonova, Lada H; Suárez, María F; Bozhkov, Peter V

    2008-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an integral part of embryogenesis. In plant embryos, PCD functions during terminal differentiation and elimination of the temporary organ, suspensor, as well as during establishment of provascular system. Embryo abortion is another example of embryonic PCD activated at pathological situations and in polyembryonic seeds. Recent studies identified the sequence of cytological events leading to cellular self-destruction in plant embryos. As in most if not all the developmental cell deaths in plants, embryonic PCD is hallmarked by autophagic degradation of the cytoplasm and nuclear disassembly that includes breakdown of the nuclear envelope and DNA fragmentation. The optimized setup of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) allows the routine in situ analysis of nuclear DNA fragmentation in plant embryos. This chapter provides step-by-step procedure of how to process embryos for TUNEL and how to combine TUNEL with immunolocalization of the protein of interest.

  14. Only in dying, life: programmed cell death during plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hautegem, Tom; Waters, Andrew J; Goodrich, Justin; Nowack, Moritz K

    2015-02-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a fundamental process of life. During the evolution of multicellular organisms, the actively controlled demise of cells has been recruited to fulfil a multitude of functions in development, differentiation, tissue homeostasis, and immune systems. In this review we discuss some of the multiple cases of PCD that occur as integral parts of plant development in a remarkable variety of cell types, tissues, and organs. Although research in the last decade has discovered a number of PCD regulators, mediators, and executers, we are still only beginning to understand the mechanistic complexity that tightly controls preparation, initiation, and execution of PCD as a process that is indispensable for successful vegetative and reproductive development of plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermal characterization of polycrystalline diamond thin film heat spreaders grown on GaN HEMTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Ramaneti, Rajesh; Anaya, Julian; Korneychuk, Svetlana; Derluyn, Joff; Sun, Huarui; Pomeroy, James; Verbeeck, Johan; Haenen, Ken; Kuball, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) was grown onto high-k dielectric passivated AlGaN/GaN-on-Si high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures, with film thicknesses ranging from 155 to 1000 nm. Transient thermoreflectance results were combined with device thermal simulations to investigate the heat spreading benefit of the diamond layer. The observed thermal conductivity (κDia) of PCD films is one-to-two orders of magnitude lower than that of bulk PCD and exhibits a strong layer thickness dependence, which is attributed to the grain size evolution. The films exhibit a weak temperature dependence of κDia in the measured 25-225 °C range. Device simulation using the experimental κDia and thermal boundary resistance values predicts at best a 15% reduction in peak temperature when the source-drain opening of a passivated AlGaN/GaN-on-Si HEMT is overgrown with PCD.

  16. Sociobiology of the budding yeast

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-15

    Mar 15, 2014 ... The organisms taking part in social behaviours can be divided into actors ... behaviour that have been classified as social. .... tory strains on solid agar media. ..... scenario, PCD is beneficial for the young cells where effective.

  17. Research on electrodischarge drilling of polycrystalline diamond with increased gap voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczypiec, Sebastian; Bizoń, Wojciech; Żyra, Agnieszka

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of the machining characteristics of polycrystalline diamond (PCD). Machining of PCD by conventional technologies is not an effective solution. Due to presence of cobalt this material can be machined by application of electrical discharges. On the other side, electrical conductivity of PCD is on the limit of electrodischarge machining (EDM) possibilities. Proposed paper reports experimental investigation on electrodischarge drilling of PCD samples. The test were carried out with application on of high-voltage (up to 550 V) pulse power unit for two kinds of dielectrics: carbon based (Exxsol D80) and de-ionized water. As output parameters machining accuracy (side gap), material removal rate were selected. Also, based on SEM photographs and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis, a qualitative evaluation of the obtained results was presented.

  18. Monitoring programmed cell death of living plant tissues in microfluidics using electrochemical and optical techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina; Zor, Kinga; Heiskanen, Arto

    such as redox activity, O2 and H2O2 concentration, pH, cell viability and release of target enzymes such as α-amylase. We have optimised an intracellular, whole-cell redox activity assay[3] that detects changes in redox activity in barley aleurone layer during PCD. The assay uses a double mediator......This project focuses on developing and applying a tissue culture system with electrochemical and optical detection techniques for tissue culture of barley aleurone layer to increase understanding of the underlying mechanisms of programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. The major advantage......-system to electrochemically measure redox activity via changes in the NADP:NADPH ratio. Experiments show that redox activity changes depend on phytohormone activation or inactivation of aleurone layer metabolism and subsequent PCD. We have also successfully detected PCD induced by phytohormones in barley aleurone layer using...

  19. [Experimental study on carcinogenesis by human papillomavirus type 8 E7 gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, T

    1994-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) 5 and HPV8 are often detected in skin cancers developed in patients suffering from epidermodysplasia verruciformis, as well as in skin cancers developed in immunosuppressed patients. In the present study, in order to examine the transforming activity of the HPV8E7 gene, the HPV8E7 and HPV8E6/E7 genes were cloned into the expression vector (pcD2-Y), under the SV40 enhancer/promoter to construct pcD2-8E7 and pcD2-8E6/E7, respectively. The E7 and E6/E7 genes of genital high-risk HPV16 were also cloned into pcD2-Y to construct pcD2-16E7 and pcD2-16E6/E7, respectively. They were tested for their ability to collaboratively transform primary rat embryo fibroblasts (REFs) with activated H-ras gene. Transfection experiments of REFs having an activated H-ras gene revealed that pcD2-8E7, as well as pcD2-16E7 and pcD2-16E6/E7, induced transformation of cells in G418-resistant colonies at efficiencies of 11.9%, 43.0% and 53.0%, respectively. Transformed cell lines induced by activated H-ras gene and pcD2-8E7 or pcD2-16E7 were named 8RE and 16RE cell lines, respectively. Tumor induction in syngeneic newborn rats by injected the 8RE cells was higher than that of the 16RE cells. In cytological and histological examination, the 8RE cell lines and their induced tumors were different from the 16RE cell lines and their induced tumors. The 8RE cell lines showed the characteristic transformation with efficient growth ability on plastic and colony formation in 0.3% soft agar. These results support the hypothesis that the HPV8E7 gene plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of skin cancers.

  20. Contribution of cellular autolysis to tissular functions during plant development

    OpenAIRE

    Escamez, Sacha; Tuominen, Hannele

    2017-01-01

    Plant development requires specific cells to be eliminated in a predictable and genetically regulated manner referred to as programmed cell death (PCD). However, the target cells do not merely die but they also undergo autolysis to degrade their cellular corpses. Recent progress in understanding developmental cell elimination suggests that distinct proteins execute PCD sensu stricto and autolysis. In addition, cell death alone and cell dismantlement can fulfill different functions. Hence, it ...

  1. MO-FG-CAMPUS-IeP1-02: Dose Reduction in Contrast-Enhanced Digital Mammography Using a Photon-Counting Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Kang, S; Eom, J [Konyang University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Photon-counting detectors (PCDs) allow multi-energy X-ray imaging without additional exposures and spectral overlap. This capability results in the improvement of accuracy of material decomposition for dual-energy X-ray imaging and the reduction of radiation dose. In this study, the PCD-based contrast-enhanced dual-energy mammography (CEDM) was compared with the conventional CDEM in terms of radiation dose, image quality and accuracy of material decomposition. Methods: A dual-energy model was designed by using Beer-Lambert’s law and rational inverse fitting function for decomposing materials from a polychromatic X-ray source. A cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)-based PCD, which has five energy thresholds, and iodine solutions included in a 3D half-cylindrical phantom, which composed of 50% glandular and 50% adipose tissues, were simulated by using a Monte Carlo simulation tool. The low- and high-energy images were obtained in accordance with the clinical exposure conditions for the conventional CDEM. Energy bins of 20–33 and 34–50 keV were defined from X-ray energy spectra simulated at 50 kVp with different dose levels for implementing the PCD-based CDEM. The dual-energy mammographic techniques were compared by means of absorbed dose, noise property and normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE). Results: Comparing to the conventional CEDM, the iodine solutions were clearly decomposed for the PCD-based CEDM. Although the radiation dose for the PCD-based CDEM was lower than that for the conventional CEDM, the PCD-based CDEM improved the noise property and accuracy of decomposition images. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the PCD-based CDEM allows the quantitative material decomposition, and reduces radiation dose in comparison with the conventional CDEM. Therefore, the PCD-based CDEM is able to provide useful information for detecting breast tumor and enhancing diagnostic accuracy in mammography.

  2. Outcome of percutaneous continuous drainage of psoas abscess: A clinically guided technique

    OpenAIRE

    Bharat R Dave; Ranganatha Babu Kurupati; Dipak Shah; Devanand Degulamadi; Nitu Borgohain; Ajay Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Percutaneous aspiration of abscesses under ultrasonography (USG) and computer tomography (CT) scan has been well described. With recurrence rate reported as high as 66%. The open drainage and percutaneous continuous drainage (PCD) has reduced the recurrence rate. The disadvantage of PCD under CT is radiation hazard and problems of asepsis. Hence a technique of clinically guided percutaneous continuous drainage of the psoas abscess without real-time imaging overcomes these problems...

  3. Are U.S. Schools Filling the Gap With Programs that Promote Weight Stigma?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-12-21

    In this edition of PCD Sound Bites, author Erica Kenney, ScD, answers questions about her study, which looked at how frequently U.S. schools used evidence-based obesity prevention programs and how often schools implement programs that may unintentionally worsen weight stigma among students.  Created: 12/21/2017 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/21/2017.

  4. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin P Clark

    Full Text Available Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID. In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM. Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with

  5. Value of transmission electron microscopy for primary ciliary dyskinesia diagnosis in the era of molecular medicine: Genetic defects with normal and non-diagnostic ciliary ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Adam J; Leigh, Margaret W

    2017-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetic disorder causing chronic oto-sino-pulmonary disease. No single diagnostic test will detect all PCD cases. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of respiratory cilia was previously considered the gold standard diagnostic test for PCD, but 30% of all PCD cases have either normal ciliary ultrastructure or subtle changes which are non-diagnostic. These cases are identified through alternate diagnostic tests, including nasal nitric oxide measurement, high-speed videomicroscopy analysis, immunofluorescent staining of axonemal proteins, and/or mutation analysis of various PCD causing genes. Autosomal recessive mutations in DNAH11 and HYDIN produce normal TEM ciliary ultrastructure, while mutations in genes encoding for radial spoke head proteins result in some cross-sections with non-diagnostic alterations in the central apparatus interspersed with normal ciliary cross-sections. Mutations in nexin link and dynein regulatory complex genes lead to a collection of different ciliary ultrastructures; mutations in CCDC65, CCDC164, and GAS8 produce normal ciliary ultrastructure, while mutations in CCDC39 and CCDC40 cause absent inner dynein arms and microtubule disorganization in some ciliary cross-sections. Mutations in CCNO and MCIDAS cause near complete absence of respiratory cilia due to defects in generation of multiple cellular basal bodies; however, the scant cilia generated may have normal ultrastructure. Lastly, a syndromic form of PCD with retinal degeneration results in normal ciliary ultrastructure through mutations in the RPGR gene. Clinicians must be aware of these genetic causes of PCD resulting in non-diagnostic TEM ciliary ultrastructure and refrain from using TEM of respiratory cilia as a test to rule out PCD.

  6. Development of maternal seed tissue in barley is mediated by regulated cell expansion and cell disintegration and coordinated with endosperm growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchuk, Volodymyr; Weier, Diana; Radchuk, Ruslana; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2011-01-01

    After fertilization, filial grain organs are surrounded by the maternal nucellus embedded within the integuments and pericarp. Rapid early endosperm growth must be coordinated with maternal tissue development. Parameters of maternal tissue growth and development were analysed during early endosperm formation. In the pericarp, cell proliferation is accomplished around the time of fertilization, followed by cell elongation predominantly in longitudinal directions. The rapid cell expansion coincides with endosperm cellularization. Distribution of TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling)-positive nuclei reveals distinct patterns starting in the nucellus at anthesis and followed later by the inner cell rows of the pericarp, then spreading to the whole pericarp. The pattern suggests timely and spatially regulated programmed cell death (PCD) processes in maternal seed tissues. When the endosperm is coenocytic, PCD events are only observed within the nucellus. Thereby, remobilization of nucellar storage compounds by PCD could nourish the early developing endosperm when functional interconnections are absent between maternal and filial seed organs. Specific proteases promote PCD events. Characterization of the barley vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) gene family identified seven gene members specifically expressed in the developing grain. HvVPE2a (known as nucellain) together with closely similar HvVPE2b and HvVPE2d might be involved in nucellar PCD. HvVPE4 is strongly cell specific for pericarp parenchyma. Correlative evidence suggests that HvVPE4 plays a role in PCD events in the pericarp. Possible functions of PCD in the maternal tissues imply a potential nutritive role or the relief of a physical restraint for endosperm growth. PCD could also activate post-phloem transport functions.

  7. BTB-BACK Domain Protein POB1 Suppresses Immune Cell Death by Targeting Ubiquitin E3 ligase PUB17 for Degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Orosa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypersensitive response programmed cell death (HR-PCD is a critical feature in plant immunity required for pathogen restriction and prevention of disease development. The precise control of this process is paramount to cell survival and an effective immune response. The discovery of new components that function to suppress HR-PCD will be instrumental in understanding the regulation of this fundamental mechanism. Here we report the identification and characterisation of a BTB domain E3 ligase protein, POB1, that functions to suppress HR-PCD triggered by evolutionarily diverse pathogens. Nicotiana benthamiana and tobacco plants with reduced POB1 activity show accelerated HR-PCD whilst those with increased POB1 levels show attenuated HR-PCD. We demonstrate that POB1 dimerization and nuclear localization are vital for its function in HR-PCD suppression. Using protein-protein interaction assays, we identify the Plant U-Box E3 ligase PUB17, a well established positive regulator of plant innate immunity, as a target for POB1-mediated proteasomal degradation. Using confocal imaging and in planta immunoprecipitation assays we show that POB1 interacts with PUB17 in the nucleus and stimulates its degradation. Mutated versions of POB1 that show reduced interaction with PUB17 fail to suppress HR-PCD, indicating that POB1-mediated degradation of PUB17 U-box E3 ligase is an important step for negative regulation of specific immune pathways in plants. Our data reveals a new mechanism for BTB domain proteins in suppressing HR-PCD in plant innate immune responses.

  8. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Darin P.

    2017-01-01

    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  9. Beneficial effects of gluten free diet in potential coeliac disease in adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperatore, Nicola; Tortora, Raffaella; De Palma, Giovanni Domenico; Capone, Pietro; Gerbino, Nicolò; Donetto, Sara; Testa, Anna; Caporaso, Nicola; Rispo, Antonio

    2017-08-01

    To date, potential coeliac disease (PCD) occurring in adults remains an almost unexplored condition. To explore the prognostic role of Marsh grade in adult PCD patients, and to evaluate the effects of gluten-containing diet (GCD) in asymptomatic PCD patients. We retrospectively evaluated all consecutive adult PCD patients followed-up for at least 6 years. Patients were divided into: Group A (patients with Marsh 0 histology) and Group B (Marsh 1 patients). Symptomatic patients were started gluten-free diet (GFD), while asymptomatic subjects were kept on GCD and were followed-up. 56 PCD patients were enrolled (21 in Group A and 35 in Group B). Forty-three patients were symptomatic and started GFD. Of these, none of 15 patients in Group A and 8 of 28 patients in Group B developed immune-mediated disorders (IMD) during follow-up (P=0.03; OR=4.2). The 13 asymptomatic PCD patients were kept on GCD. During the follow-up, 9 patients developed CD-related symptoms, 6 villous atrophy and 8 IMD. At the end, patients kept on GCD were at higher risk of developing IMD than those following a GFD (61% vs 18%, P=0.03, OR=3.3). Although PCD with normal mucosa seems to be a milder disease, the continuation of GCD places patients at a high risk of developing villous atrophy and IMD compared to commencement of GFD. Adult PCD patients should start GFD even if not symptomatic. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative analysis of perioperative complications between a multicenter prospective cervical deformity database and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passias, Peter G; Horn, Samantha R; Jalai, Cyrus M; Poorman, Gregory; Bono, Olivia J; Ramchandran, Subaraman; Smith, Justin S; Scheer, Justin K; Sciubba, Daniel M; Hamilton, D Kojo; Mundis, Gregory; Oh, Cheongeun; Klineberg, Eric O; Lafage, Virginie; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Ames, Christopher P

    2017-11-01

    Complication rates for adult cervical deformity are poorly characterized given the complexity and heterogeneity of cases. To compare perioperative complication rates following adult cervical deformity corrective surgery between a prospective multicenter database for patients with cervical deformity (PCD) and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Retrospective review of prospective databases. A total of 11,501 adult patients with cervical deformity (11,379 patients from the NIS and 122 patients from the PCD database). Perioperative medical and surgical complications. The NIS was queried (2001-2013) for cervical deformity discharges for patients ≥18 years undergoing cervical fusions using International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) coding. Patients ≥18 years from the PCD database (2013-2015) were selected. Equivalent complications were identified and rates were compared. Bonferroni correction (pdatabases. A total of 11,379 patients from the NIS database and 122 patiens from the PCD database were identified. Patients from the PCD database were older (62.49 vs. 55.15, pdatabase. The PCD database had an increased risk of reporting overall complications than the NIS (odds ratio: 2.81, confidence interval: 1.81-4.38). Only device-related complications were greater in the NIS (7.1% vs. 1.1%, p=.007). Patients from the PCD database displayed higher rates of the following complications: peripheral vascular (0.8% vs. 0.1%, p=.001), gastrointestinal (GI) (2.5% vs. 0.2%, pdatabases (p>.004). Based on surgicalapproach, the PCD reported higher GI and neurologic complication rates for combined anterior-posterior procedures (pdatabase revealed higher overall and individual complication rates and higher data granularity. The nationwide database may underestimate complications of patients with adult cervical deformity (ACD) particularly in regard to perioperative surgical details owing to coding and deformity generalizations. The surgeon-maintained database

  11. The release of cytochrome c and the regulation of the programmed cell death progress in the endosperm of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under waterlogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yuan-Hong; Mao, Fang-Fang; Zhou, Zhu-Qing; Liu, Dong-Cheng; Min-Yu; Deng, Xiang-Yi; Li, Ji-Wei; Mei, Fang-Zhu

    2018-05-02

    It has been shown in mammalian systems that the mitochondria can play a key role in the regulation of apoptosis by releasing intermembrane proteins (such as cytochrome c) into the cytosol. Cytochrome c released from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm activates proteolytic enzyme cascades, leading to specific nuclear DNA degradation and cell death. This pathway is considered to be one of the important regulatory mechanisms of apoptosis. Previous studies have shown that endosperm cell development in wheat undergoes specialized programmed cell death (PCD) and that waterlogging stress accelerates the PCD process; however, little is known regarding the associated molecular mechanism. In this study, changes in mitochondrial structure, the release of cytochrome c, and gene expression were studied in the endosperm cells of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar "huamai 8" during PCD under different waterlogging durations. The results showed that waterlogging aggravated the degradation of mitochondrial structure, increased the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), resulting in the advancement of the endosperm PCD process. In situ localization and western blotting of cytochrome c indicated that with the development of the endosperm cell, cytochrome c was gradually released from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm, and waterlogging stress led to an advancement and increase in the release of cytochrome c. In addition, waterlogging stress resulted in the increased expression of the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) and adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), suggesting that the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) may be involved in endosperm PCD under waterlogging stress. The MPTP inhibitor cyclosporine A effectively suppressed cell death and cytochrome c release during wheat endosperm PCD. Our results indicate that the mitochondria play important roles in the PCD of endosperm cells and that

  12. Programmed cell death promotes male sterility in the functional dioecious Opuntia stenopetala (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Orozco-Arroyo, Gregorio; Cruz-García, Felipe; García-Campusano, Florencia; Alfaro, Isabel; Vázquez-Santana, Sonia

    2013-09-01

    The sexual separation in dioecious species has interested biologists for decades; however, the cellular mechanism leading to unisexuality has been poorly understood. In this study, the cellular changes that lead to male sterility in the functionally dioecious cactus, Opuntia stenopetala, are described. The spatial and temporal patterns of programmed cell death (PCD) were determined in the anthers of male and female flowers using scanning electron microscopy analysis and histological observations, focusing attention on the transition from bisexual to unisexual development. In addition, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling assays were used as an indicator of DNA fragmentation to corroborate PCD. PCD was detected in anthers of both female and male flowers, but their patterns differed in time and space. Functionally male individuals developed viable pollen, and normal development involved PCD on each layer of the anther wall, which occurred progressively from the inner (tapetum) to the outer layer (epidermis). Conversely, functional female individuals aborted anthers by premature and displaced PCD. In anthers of female flowers, the first signs of PCD, such as a nucleus with irregular shape, fragmented and condensed chromatin, high vacuolization and condensed cytoplasm, occurred at the microspore mother cell stage. Later these features were observed simultaneously in all anther wall layers, connective tissue and filament. Neither pollen formation nor anther dehiscence was detected in female flowers of O. stenopetala due to total anther disruption. Temporal and spatial changes in the patterns of PCD are responsible for male sterility of female flowers in O. stenopetala. Male fertility requires the co-ordination of different events, which, when altered, can lead to male sterility and to functionally unisexual individuals. PCD could be a widespread mechanism in the determination of functionally dioecious species.

  13. Initial results from a prototype whole-body photon-counting computed tomography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z; Leng, S; Jorgensen, S M; Li, Z; Gutjahr, R; Chen, B; Duan, X; Halaweish, A F; Yu, L; Ritman, E L; McCollough, C H

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) with energy-discriminating capabilities presents exciting opportunities for increased dose efficiency and improved material decomposition analyses. However, due to constraints imposed by the inability of photon-counting detectors (PCD) to respond accurately at high photon flux, to date there has been no clinical application of PCD-CT. Recently, our lab installed a research prototype system consisting of two x-ray sources and two corresponding detectors, one using an energy-integrating detector (EID) and the other using a PCD. In this work, we report the first third-party evaluation of this prototype CT system using both phantoms and a cadaver head. The phantom studies demonstrated several promising characteristics of the PCD sub-system, including improved longitudinal spatial resolution and reduced beam hardening artifacts, relative to the EID sub-system. More importantly, we found that the PCD sub-system offers excellent pulse pileup control in cases of x-ray flux up to 550 mA at 140 kV, which corresponds to approximately 2.5×10 11 photons per cm 2 per second. In an anthropomorphic phantom and a cadaver head, the PCD sub-system provided image quality comparable to the EID sub-system for the same dose level. Our results demonstrate the potential of the prototype system to produce clinically-acceptable images in vivo .

  14. Reassessing apoptosis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Martin; Williams, Brett; Li, Yurong; de Figueiredo, Paul; Wolpert, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Cell death can be driven by a genetically programmed signalling pathway known as programmed cell death (PCD). In plants, PCD occurs during development as well as in response to environmental and biotic stimuli. Our understanding of PCD regulation in plants has advanced significantly over the past two decades; however, the molecular machinery responsible for driving the system remains elusive. Thus, whether conserved PCD regulatory mechanisms include plant apoptosis remains enigmatic. Animal apoptotic regulators, including Bcl-2 family members, have not been identified in plants but expression of such regulators can trigger or suppress plant PCD. Moreover, plants exhibit nearly all of the biochemical and morphological features of apoptosis. One difference between plant and animal PCD is the absence of phagocytosis in plants. Evidence is emerging that the vacuole may be key to removal of unwanted plant cells, and may carry out functions that are analogous to animal phagocytosis. Here, we provide context for the argument that apoptotic-like cell death occurs in plants.

  15. Metal stress induces programmed cell death in aquatic fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, Maria-Manuel; Almeida, Bruno; Ludovico, Paula; Cassio, Fernanda

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic hyphomycetes are a group of fungi that play a key role in organic matter turnover in both clean and metal-polluted streams. We examined the ability of Cu or Zn to induce programmed cell death (PCD) in three aquatic hyphomycete species through the evaluation of typical apoptotic markers, namely reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, caspase-like activity, nuclear morphological alterations, and the occurrence of DNA strand breaks assessed by TUNEL assay. The exposure to both metals induced apoptotic events in all tested aquatic fungi. The most tolerant fungi either to Zn (Varicosporium elodeae) or Cu (Heliscussubmersus) exhibited higher levels of PCD markers, suggesting that PCD processes might be linked to fungal resistance/tolerance to metal stress. Moreover, different patterns of apoptotic markers were found, namely a PCD process independent of ROS accumulation in V. elodeae exposed to Cu, or independent of caspase-like activity in Flagellospora curta exposed to Zn, or even without the occurrence of DNA strand breaks in F. curta exposed to Cu. This suggests that a multiplicity of PCD pathways might be operating in aquatic hyphomycetes. The occurrence of a tightly regulated cell death pathway, such as PCD, in aquatic hyphomycetes under metal stress might be a part of the mechanisms underlying fungal acclimation in metal-polluted streams, because it would allow the rapid removal of unwanted or damaged cells sparing nutrients and space for the fittest ones.

  16. Function of endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase in innate immunity-mediated programmed cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaohong; Caplan, Jeffrey; Mamillapalli, Padmavathi; Czymmek, Kirk; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P

    2010-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) initiated at the pathogen-infected sites during the plant innate immune response is thought to prevent the development of disease. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of an ER-localized type IIB Ca2+-ATPase (NbCA1) that function as a regulator of PCD. Silencing of NbCA1 accelerates viral immune receptor N- and fungal-immune receptor Cf9-mediated PCD, as well as non-host pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and the general elicitor cryptogein-induced cell death. The accelerated PCD rescues loss-of-resistance phenotype of Rar1, HSP90-silenced plants, but not SGT1-silenced plants. Using a genetically encoded calcium sensor, we show that downregulation of NbCA1 results in the modulation of intracellular calcium signalling in response to cryptogein elicitor. We further show that NbCAM1 and NbrbohB function as downstream calcium decoders in N-immune receptor-mediated PCD. Our results indicate that ER-Ca2+-ATPase is a component of the calcium efflux pathway that controls PCD during an innate immune response. PMID:20075858

  17. Rapid diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia: cell culture and soft computing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifferi, Massimo; Bush, Andrew; Montemurro, Francesca; Pioggia, Giovanni; Piras, Martina; Tartarisco, Gennaro; Di Cicco, Maria; Chinellato, Iolanda; Cangiotti, Angela M; Boner, Attilio L

    2013-04-01

    Diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) sometimes requires repeated nasal brushing to exclude secondary ciliary alterations. Our aim was to evaluate whether the use of a new method of nasal epithelial cell culture can speed PCD diagnosis in doubtful cases and to identify which are the most informative parameters by means of a multilayer artificial neural network (ANN). A cross-sectional study was performed in patients with suspected PCD. All patients underwent nasal brushing for ciliary motion analysis, ultrastructural assessment and evaluation of ciliary function after ciliogenesis in culture by ANN. 151 subjects were studied. A diagnostic suspension cell culture was obtained in 117 nasal brushings. A diagnosis of PCD was made in 36 subjects (29 of whom were children). In nine out of the 36 patients the diagnosis was made only after a second brushing, because of equivocal results of both tests at first examination. In each of these subjects diagnosis of PCD was confirmed by cell culture results. Cell culture in suspension evaluated by means of ANN allows the separation of PCD from secondary ciliary dyskinesia patients after only 5 days of culture and allows diagnosis to be reached in doubtful cases, thus avoiding the necessity of a second sample.

  18. Interplay between autophagy and programmed cell death in mammalian neural stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Min Chung

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian neural stem cells (NSCs are of particular interestbecause of their role in brain development and function. Recentfindings suggest the intimate involvement of programmed celldeath (PCD in the turnover of NSCs. However, the underlyingmechanisms of PCD are largely unknown. Although apoptosis isthe best-defined form of PCD, accumulating evidence hasrevealed a wide spectrum of PCD encompassing apoptosis,autophagic cell death (ACD and necrosis. This mini-reviewaims to illustrate a unique regulation of PCD in NSCs. Theresults of our recent studies on autophagic death of adulthippocampal neural stem (HCN cells are also discussed. HCNcell death following insulin withdrawal clearly provides areliable model that can be used to analyze the molecularmechanisms of ACD in the larger context of PCD. Moreresearch efforts are needed to increase our understanding of themolecular basis of NSC turnover under degenerating conditions,such as aging, stress and neurological diseases. Efforts aimed atprotecting and harnessing endogenous NSCs will offer novelopportunities for the development of new therapeutic strategiesfor neuropathologies. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(8: 383-390

  19. WE-FG-207B-07: Feasibility of Low Dose Lung Cancer Screening with a Whole-Body Photon Counting CT: First Human Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symons, R; Cork, T; Folio, L; Bluemke, D; Pourmorteza, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using a whole-body photon counting detector (PCD) CT scanner for low dose lung cancer screening compared to a conventional energy integrating detector (EID) system. Methods: Radiation dose-matched EID and PCD scans of the COPDGene 2 phantom and 2 human volunteers were acquired. Phantom images were acquired at different radiation dose levels (CTDIvol: 3.0, 1.5, and 0.75 mGy) and different tube voltages (120, 100, and 80 kVp), while human images were acquired at vendor recommended low-dose lung cancer screening settings. EID and PCD images were compared for quantitative Hounsfield unit accuracy, noise levels, and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) for detection of ground-glass nodules (GGNs) and emphysema. Results: The PCD Hounsfield unit accuracy was better for water at all scan parameters, and for lung, GGN and emphysema equivalent regions of interest (ROIs) at 1.5 and 0.75 mGy. PCD attenuation accuracy was more consistent for all scan parameters (all P<0.01), while Hounsfield units for lung, GGN and emphysema ROIs changed significantly for EID with decreasing dose (all P<0.001). PCD showed lower noise levels at the lowest dose setting at 120, 100 and 80 kVp (15.2±0.3 vs 15.8±0.2, P=0.03; 16.1±0.3 vs 18.0±0.4, P=0.003; and 16.1±0.3 vs 17.9±0.3, P=0.001, respectively), resulting in superior CNR for the detection of GGNs and emphysema at 100 and 80 kVp. Significantly lower PCD noise levels were confirmed in volunteer images. Conclusion: PCD provided better Hounsfield unit accuracy for lung, ground-glass, and emphysema-equivalent foams at 1.5 and 0.75 mGy with less variability than EID. Additionally, PCD showed less noise, and higher CNR at 0.75 mGy for both 100 and 80 kVp. PCD technology may help reduce radiation exposure in lung cancer screening while maintaining diagnostic quality.

  20. WE-FG-207B-07: Feasibility of Low Dose Lung Cancer Screening with a Whole-Body Photon Counting CT: First Human Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symons, R; Cork, T; Folio, L; Bluemke, D; Pourmorteza, A [National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using a whole-body photon counting detector (PCD) CT scanner for low dose lung cancer screening compared to a conventional energy integrating detector (EID) system. Methods: Radiation dose-matched EID and PCD scans of the COPDGene 2 phantom and 2 human volunteers were acquired. Phantom images were acquired at different radiation dose levels (CTDIvol: 3.0, 1.5, and 0.75 mGy) and different tube voltages (120, 100, and 80 kVp), while human images were acquired at vendor recommended low-dose lung cancer screening settings. EID and PCD images were compared for quantitative Hounsfield unit accuracy, noise levels, and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) for detection of ground-glass nodules (GGNs) and emphysema. Results: The PCD Hounsfield unit accuracy was better for water at all scan parameters, and for lung, GGN and emphysema equivalent regions of interest (ROIs) at 1.5 and 0.75 mGy. PCD attenuation accuracy was more consistent for all scan parameters (all P<0.01), while Hounsfield units for lung, GGN and emphysema ROIs changed significantly for EID with decreasing dose (all P<0.001). PCD showed lower noise levels at the lowest dose setting at 120, 100 and 80 kVp (15.2±0.3 vs 15.8±0.2, P=0.03; 16.1±0.3 vs 18.0±0.4, P=0.003; and 16.1±0.3 vs 17.9±0.3, P=0.001, respectively), resulting in superior CNR for the detection of GGNs and emphysema at 100 and 80 kVp. Significantly lower PCD noise levels were confirmed in volunteer images. Conclusion: PCD provided better Hounsfield unit accuracy for lung, ground-glass, and emphysema-equivalent foams at 1.5 and 0.75 mGy with less variability than EID. Additionally, PCD showed less noise, and higher CNR at 0.75 mGy for both 100 and 80 kVp. PCD technology may help reduce radiation exposure in lung cancer screening while maintaining diagnostic quality.

  1. Long-Lived Triplet Excited States of Bent-Shaped Pentacene Dimers by Intramolecular Singlet Fission.

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    Sakuma, Takao; Sakai, Hayato; Araki, Yasuyuki; Mori, Tadashi; Wada, Takehiko; Tkachenko, Nikolai V; Hasobe, Taku

    2016-03-24

    Intramolecular singlet fission (ISF) is a promising photophysical process to construct more efficient light energy conversion systems as one excited singlet state converts into two excited triplet states. Herein we synthesized and evaluated bent-shaped pentacene dimers as a prototype of ISF to reveal intrinsic characters of triplet states (e.g., lifetimes of triplet excited states). In this study, meta-phenylene-bridged TIPS-pentacene dimer (PcD-3Ph) and 2,2'-bipheynyl bridged TIPS-pentacene dimer (PcD-Biph) were newly synthesized as bent-shaped dimers. In the steady-state spectroscopy, absorption and emission bands of these dimers were fully characterized, suggesting the appropriate degree of electronic coupling between pentacene moieties in these dimers. In addition, the electrochemical measurements were also performed to check the electronic interaction between two pentacene moieties. Whereas the successive two oxidation peaks owing to the delocalization were observed in a directly linked-pentacene dimer (PcD) by a single bond, the cyclic voltammograms in PcD-Biph and PcD-3Ph implied the weaker interaction compared to that of p-phenylene-bridged TIPS-pentacene dimer (PcD-4Ph) and PcD. The femtosecond and nanosecond transient absorption spectra clearly revealed the slower ISF process in bent-shaped pentacene dimers (PcD-Biph and PcD-3Ph), more notably, the slower relaxation of the excited triplet states in PcD-Biph and PcD-3Ph. Namely, the quantum yields of triplet states (ΦT) by ISF approximately remain constant (ca. 180-200%) in all dimer systems, whereas the lifetimes of the triplet excited states became much longer (up to 360 ns) in PcD-Biph as compared to PcD-4Ph (15 ns). Additionally, the lifetimes of the corresponding triplet states in PcD-Biph and PcD-3Ph were sufficiently affected by solvent viscosity. In particular, the lifetimes of PcD-Biph triplet state in THF/paraffin (1.0 μs) increased up to approximately three times as compared to that in THF

  2. Heme oxygenase-1 delays gibberellin-induced programmed cell death of rice aleurone layers subjected to drought stress by interacting with nitric oxide

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    Huangming eWu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cereal aleurone layers undergo a gibberellin (GA-regulated process of programmed cell death (PCD following germination. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is known as a rate-liming enzyme in the degradation of heme to biliverdin IXα (BV, carbon monoxide (CO, and free iron ions (Fe2+. It is a critical component in plant development and adaptation to environment stresses. Our previous studies confirmed that HO-1 inducer hematin (Ht promotes the germination of rice seeds in drought (20% polyethylene glycol-6000, PEG conditions, but the corresponding effects of HO-1 on the alleviation of germination-triggered PCD in GA-treated rice aleurone layers remain unknown. The present study has determined that GA co-treated with PEG results in lower HO-1 transcript levels and HO activity, which in turn results in the development of vacuoles in aleurone cells, followed by PCD. The pharmacology approach illustrated that up- or down-regulated HO-1 gene expression and HO activity delayed or accelerated GA-induced PCD. Furthermore, the application of the HO-1 inducer hematin and nitric oxide (NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP not only activated HO-1 gene expression, HO activity, and endogenous NO content, but also blocked GA-induced rapid vacuolation and accelerated aleurone layers PCD under drought stress. However, both HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX and NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl0-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline-l-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO reserved the effects of hematin and SNP on rice aleurone layer PCD under drought stress by down-regulating endogenous HO-1 and NO, respectively. The inducible effects of hematin and SNP on HO-1 gene expression, HO activity, and NO content were blocked by cPTIO. Together, these results clearly suggest that HO-1 is involved in the alleviation of GA-induced PCD of drought-triggered rice aleurone layers by associating with NO.

  3. Nitric oxide modulates cadmium influx during cadmium-induced programmed cell death in tobacco BY-2 cells.

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    Ma, Wenwen; Xu, Wenzhong; Xu, Hua; Chen, Yanshan; He, Zhenyan; Ma, Mi

    2010-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a bioactive gas and functions as a signaling molecule in plants exposed to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses including cadmium (Cd(2+)). Cd(2+) is a non-essential and toxic heavy metal, which has been reported to induce programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. Here, we investigated the role of NO in Cd(2+)-induced PCD in tobacco BY-2 cells (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Bright Yellow 2). In this work, BY-2 cells exposed to 150 microM CdCl(2) underwent PCD with TUNEL-positive nuclei, significant chromatin condensation and the increasing expression of a PCD-related gene Hsr203J. Accompanied with the occurring of PCD, the production of NO increased significantly. The supplement of NO by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) had accelerated the PCD, whereas the NO synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) and NO-specific scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) alleviated this toxicity. To investigate the mechanism by which NO exerted its function, Cd(2+) concentration was measured subsequently. SNP led more Cd(2+) content than Cd(2+) treatment alone. By contrast, the prevention of NO by L-NAME decreased Cd(2+) accumulation. Using the scanning ion-selective electrode technique, we analyzed the pattern and rate of Cd(2+) fluxes. This analysis revealed the promotion of Cd(2+) influxes into cells by application of SNP, while L-NAME and cPTIO reduced the rate of Cd(2+) uptake or even resulted in net Cd(2+) efflux. Based on these founding, we concluded that NO played a positive role in CdCl(2)-induced PCD by modulating Cd(2+) uptake and thus promoting Cd(2+) accumulation in BY-2 cells.

  4. Mitochondrial proteomics of the acetic acid – induced programmed cell death response in a highly tolerant Zygosaccharomyces bailii – derived hybrid strain

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    Joana F Guerreiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Very high concentrations of acetic acid at low pH induce programmed cell death (PCD in both the experimental model Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in Zygosaccharomyces bailii, the latter being considered the most problematic acidic food spoilage yeast due to its remarkable intrinsic resistance to this food preservative. However, while the mechanisms underlying S. cerevisiae PCD induced by acetic acid have been previously examined, the corresponding molecular players remain largely unknown in Z. bailii. Also, the reason why acetic acid concentrations known to be necrotic for S. cerevisiae induce PCD with an apoptotic phenotype in Z. bailii remains to be elucidated. In this study, a 2-DE-based expression mitochondrial proteomic analysis was explored to obtain new insights into the mechanisms involved in PCD in the Z. bailii derived hybrid strain ISA1307. This allowed the quantitative assessment of expression of protein species derived from each of the parental strains, with special emphasis on the processes taking place in the mitochondria known to play a key role in acetic acid – induced PCD. A marked decrease in the content of proteins involved in mitochondrial metabolism, in particular, in respiratory metabolism (Cor1, Rip1, Lpd1, Lat1 and Pdb1, with a concomitant increase in the abundance of proteins involved in fermentation (Pdc1, Ald4, Dld3 was registered. Other differentially expressed identified proteins also suggest the involvement of the oxidative stress response, protein translation, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism, among other processes, in the PCD response. Overall, the results strengthen the emerging concept of the importance of metabolic regulation of yeast PCD.

  5. Oxidative Stress and Aberrant Programmed Cell Death Are Associated With Pollen Abortion in Isonuclear Alloplasmic Male-Sterile Wheat

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    Zihan Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility is crucial for the utilization of hybrid heterosis and it possibly occurs in parallel with tapetal programmed cell death (PCD and oxidative metabolism responses. However, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie pollen abortion in wheat. Therefore, we obtained two isonuclear alloplasmic male sterile lines (IAMSLs with Aegilops kotschyi and Ae. juvenalis cytoplasm. Compared with the maintainer line, cytochemical analyses of the anthers demonstrated that the IAMSLs exhibited anomalous tapetal PCD and organelles, with premature PCD in K87B1-706A and delayed PCD in Ju87B1-706A. We also found that the dynamic trends in reactive oxygen species (ROS were consistent in these two IAMSLs during anther development and they were potentially associated with the initiation of tapetal PCD. In addition, the activities of ROS-scavenging enzymes increased rapidly, whereas non-enzymatic antioxidants were downregulated together with excess ROS production in IAMSLs. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase genes, which encode important antioxidant enzymes, were significantly upregulated during early pollen development. Thus, we inferred that excessive ROS and the abnormal transcript levels of antioxidant enzyme genes disrupted the balance of the antioxidant system and the presence of excess ROS may have been related to aberrant tapetal PCD progression, thereby affecting the development of microspores and ultimately causing male sterility. These relationships between the mechanism of PCD and ROS metabolism provide new insights into the mechanisms responsible for abortive pollen in wheat.

  6. A percutaneous drainage protocol for severe and moderately severe acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Motokazu; Sonntag, David P; Flint, Greggory S; Boyce, Cody J; Kirkham, John C; Harris, Tyler J; Carr, Sean M; Nelson, Brent D; Barton, Joshua G; Traverso, L William

    2015-11-01

    According to the revised Atlanta classification, severe and moderately severe acute pancreatitis (AP) includes patients with pancreatic and peripancreatic collections with or without organ failure. These collections suggest the presence of pancreatic juice leakage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) protocol designed to control leakage and decrease disease severity. Among 663 patients with clinical AP, 122 were classified as moderately severe or severe AP (all had collections). The computed tomography severity index (CTSI) score was calculated. The indication for PCD was based on progressive clinical signs and symptoms. Drain patency, position, and need for additional drainage sites were assessed using CT scans and drain studies initially every 3 days using a proactive protocol. Drain fluid was examined for amylase concentration and microbiological culture. Clinicopathological variables for patients with and without PCD were compared. Since there was no mortality, we used prolonged drainage time to measure the success of PCD. Within the group treated with PCD, variables that resulted in prolonged drainage time were analyzed. PCD was used in 47/122 (39 %) patients of which 33/47 (70 %) had necrosis. PCD cases had a median CTSI of 8 and were classified as moderately severe AP (57 %) and severe AP (43 %). Inhospital mortality was zero. Surgical necrosectomy was not required for patients with necrosis. Independent risk factors for prolonged drainage time were persistent organ failure >48 h (P = 0.001), CTSI 8-10 (P = 0.038), prolonged duration of amylase-rich fluid in drains (P drainage fluid resulting in a mortality rate of zero.

  7. Defining the Most Appropriate Delivery Mode in Women with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulon, Arthur; Dupas, Jean-Louis; Sabbagh, Charles; Chevreau, Julien; Rebibo, Lionel; Brazier, Franck; Bouguen, Guillaume; Gondry, Jean; Fumery, Mathurin

    2017-05-01

    High cesarean section (CS) rates are observed in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but limited data are available to support this decision. We conducted a comprehensive review to evaluate the most appropriate mode of delivery in women with IBD according to disease phenotype and activity, as well as surgical history. We searched MEDLINE (source PubMed) and international conference abstracts, and included all studies that evaluated digestive outcome after delivery in patients with IBD. A total of 41 articles or abstracts were screened, and 18 studies were considered in this review, with sample sizes ranging from 4 to 229 patients and follow-up ranging from 2 months to 7.7 years. Pooled CS rates in patients without Perianal Crohn's disease (PCD), healed PCD or active PCD, were 27%, 43%, and 46%, respectively. Regarding the median rate of new PCD (3.0% [IQR, 1.5-11.5] versus 6.5% [0-19.7]) or PCD recurrence (13.5% [3.2-32.7] versus 45% [0-58]), no increase was observed in patients with vaginal delivery compared to CS, but for patients with an active disease, worsening of symptoms was noted in two-thirds of cases. Episiotomy, perianal tears, and instrumental delivery did not influence the incidence of PCD. In patients with ileal pouch anal anastomosis, uncomplicated vaginal delivery seemed to moderately influence pouch function, with no significant difference in terms of overall continence, daytime, or night-time stool frequency, or incontinence. However, these parameters seemed negatively impacted by a complicated vaginal delivery. New long-term data from well-designed studies are needed, but our review suggests that systematic CS in patients suffering from IBD should probably be limited to women at risk of perineal tears and obstetric injuries, with an active PCD, or with ileal pouch anal anastomosis.

  8. Use of 8-methoxypsoralen and long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation for decontamination of platelet concentrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corash, Laurence; Lin, Lily; Wiesehahn, Gary; Cimino, George

    1992-06-01

    Transmission of viral diseases through blood products remains a problem in transfusion medicine. A number of methods have been developed to inactivate viral pathogens in plasma and plasma fractions, including: dry heating, wet heating, solvent-detergent treatment, and immunoaffinity purification. While some of these methods successfully inactivate pathogenic viruses, inactivation may be incomplete or result in damage to labile plasma proteins and cells. We have developed a photochemical decontamination system (PCD) for platelet concentrates (PC) utilizing treatment with long wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UVA, 320 - 400 nm) and 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP). This system is capable of inactivating 25 - 30 logs/hr of bacteria E. coli or S. aureus, 6 logs/hr of bacteriophage fd, 0.9 log/hr of bacteriophage R17 and 1.1 logs/hr of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in PC. Immediately following 6 hrs of PCD treatment, platelet integrity and function of PCD treated and control PC were equivalent. After overnight storage PCD treated and control PC platelet properties were equal, but there was a slight reduction in TXB-2 production of PCD treated PC compared to controls. Following PCD treatment, PC were stored for 48 to 96 hrs. Platelet counts, morphology scores, extracellular LDH levels, aggregation response, dense body (db) content, and alpha granule ((alpha) g) content of PCD treated and control PC were comparable. We assessed the ability of the PCD technique to inactivate intracellular and extracellular virus, quantified the degree of DNA adduct formation in contaminating lymphocytes, and measured the inhibition of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) mediated amplification of intracellular DNA. High titers of cell-free murine cytomegalovirus added to human platelet concentrates (final concentration 106) were inactivated by PCD within 30 min. Cat renal fibroblasts infected at high levels with feline rhinotracheitis virus (FeRTV) were seeded into PC followed by PCD treatment with

  9. Active vibration control of vehicle suspension systems using sliding modes, differential flatness and generalized proportional-integral control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Chávez Conde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un enfoque de diseño de esquemas de control activo robusto para sistemas de suspensión de vehículos, usando técnicas de control Proporcional-Integral Generalizado, modos deslizantes y planitud diferencial, para atenuar vibraciones indeseables inducidas por perturbaciones de terreno irregular. Se proponen dos esquemas de control: uno de ellos emplea mediciones de posición y de velocidad y el otro requiere únicamente mediciones de posición. Se propone la reconstrucción integral de las derivadas de la salida plana para evitar el uso de sensores de velocidad y de aceleración, así como la información de perturbaciones de terreno desconocidas.

  10. Fracturas perimplante de fémur tratadas con clavo retrógrado: reporte de un caso y descripción de la técnica quirúrgica.

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    Pablo Ariel Slullitel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Existe un riesgo tácito de fractura peri-implante de fémur en pacientes con antecedente de fractura pertrocantérica de fémur tratados con tornillos deslizantes de cadera (TDC debido al aumento de la expectativa de vida y a las múltiples comorbilidades. Diversas opciones terapéuticas son posibles dependiendo de si se mantiene la osteosíntesis previa o no. Dada la baja prevalencia de estas fracturas, no existe consenso en la bibliografía actual sobre el tratamiento ideal. El objetivo de este trabajo es reportar un caso y describir la técnica quirúrgica de enclavado endomedular retrógrado para el tratamiento de fracturas peri-implante debajo de un TDC.

  11. Rheumatic masks of plasma cell dyscrasias

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    Vladimir Ivanovich Vasilyev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to consider clinical practice problems in the differential diagnosis of different types of plasma cell dyscrasias (PCD. Subjects and methods. Fourteen patients (8 men and 6 women aged 52±12 years, in whom rheumatic diseases (RD were ruled out and who were diagnosed as having primary PCD: different types of myeloma in 7 patients, myeloma + AL-amyloidosis in 2, AL-amyloidosis in 3, and Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia in 2, were examined. Results and discussion. The most common maldiagnosed RDs in patients with PCD were seronegative rheumatoid arthritis (RA, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren’s disease, and different forms of vasculitis. The most frequent masks of RD were kidney (78% and osteoarticular system (64% lesions, vascular disorders (36%, peripheral polyneuropathies (36%, and enlarged salivary glands with xerostomia (28.5%. Serum and urine immunochemical study should be performed in all patients who have clinical manifestations of seropositive RA, spondyloarthritis, intensive bone pain syndrome, ulceronecrotic vasculitis, enlarged submandibular salivary glands with macroglossia in the absence of markers of autoimmune disease for the timely diagnosis of PCD and the exclusion of RD. The paper estimates the sensitivity and specificity of main methods used to diagnose different types of PCD.

  12. Vacuolar and cytoskeletal dynamics during elicitor-induced programmed cell death in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Takumi; Kadota, Yasuhiro; Goh, Tatsuaki; Hayashi, Teruyuki; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Sano, Toshio; Hasezawa, Seiichiro; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki

    2008-09-01

    Responses of plant cells to environmental stresses often involve morphological changes, differentiation and redistribution of various organelles and cytoskeletal network. Tobacco BY-2 cells provide excellent model system for in vivo imaging of these intracellular events. Treatment of the cell cycle-synchronized BY-2 cells with a proteinaceous oomycete elicitor, cryptogein, induces highly synchronous programmed cell death (PCD) and provide a model system to characterize vacuolar and cytoskeletal dynamics during the PCD. Sequential observation revealed dynamic reorganization of the vacuole and actin microfilaments during the execution of the PCD. We further characterized the effects cryptogein on mitotic microtubule organization in cell cycle-synchronized cells. Cryptogein treatment at S phase inhibited formation of the preprophase band, a cortical microtubule band that predicts the cell division site. Cortical microtubules kept their random orientation till their disruption that gradually occurred during the execution of the PCD twelve hours after the cryptogein treatment. Possible molecular mechanisms and physiological roles of the dynamic behavior of the organelles and cytoskeletal network in the pathogenic signal-induced PCD are discussed.

  13. The breakdown of the cytokine network subsequent to human immunodeficiency virus infection

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    M. Clerici

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The acquired immunodeflciency syndrome (AIDS is a clinically multifaceted disease induced by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. HIV infection results in a complex pattern of immunologic alterations that leads to the development of AIDS in the majority of HIV seropositive (HIV+ individuals. The reduction in CD4 T lymphocyte counts is the hallmark of HIV infection; nevertheless, long before the reduction in CD4 counts reaches critical levels, a series of profound and complex defects that impair the function of CD4 T lymphocytes can be detected. Thus, HIV infection is characterized by quantitative and qualitative defects affecting CD4 T lymphocytes. It was suggested recently that programmed cell death (PCD is an important mechanism leading to CD4 depletion in HIV infection, and that susceptibility of peripheral lymphocytes to PCD is differentially regulated by diverse cytokines. Thus, type 1 cytokines would protect CD4 lymphocytes against PCD, whereas type 2 cytokines would not protect against, and could augment, PCD. We suggest that the qualitative alterations of the immune response provoke the CD4 depletion characteristic of HIV disease via type 2 cytokinemediated augmentation of PCD, and are therefore ultimately responsible for the progression of HIV infection. Finally, we summarize recent data showing that three correlates of disease progression: emergence of HIV strains with syncitium-inducing ability (SI, type 1-to-type 2 cytokine shift, and CD4 depletion, are significantly associated, suggesting a complex interconnected virologic-immunologic pathogenesis of HIV infection.

  14. An automatic optosensing device for the simultaneous determination of resveratrol and piceid in wines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina-Garcia, Lucia; Ruiz-Medina, Antonio [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas s/n, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Fernandez-de Cordova, Maria Luisa, E-mail: mferna@ujaen.es [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas s/n, 23071 Jaen (Spain)

    2011-03-18

    For the first time, a spectrofluorimetric method is reported for the simultaneous determination of resveratrol (RVT) and piceid (PCD), two stilbenes showing diverse interesting physiological and biochemical attributes, as well as a wide range of health benefits ranging from cardioprotection to chemoprevention. The method makes use of a multicommutated flow-through optosensor in which the resolution of RVT and PCD is accomplished by means the sequential arrival of their photoproducts, on-line generated by UV-irradiation, to the detection area. This is possible due to the different kinetic behaviour of these latter on a solid support (C{sub 18} silica gel) filling a minicolumn placed before the detector. The measurement in solid-phase of the photochemically induced fluorescence of the photoproducts ({lambda}{sub ex}: 257 nm/{lambda}{sub em}: 382 nm) is used as analytical signal for monitoring both compounds. The method has been applied to the analysis of RVT and PCD in wines and requires a previous solid-phase extraction (SPE) using Bakerbond C{sub 18} cartridges. This pretreatment and the use of a solid-support in both the minicolumn and the flow-cell of the detector allow the determination of RVT and PCD by external calibration. Detection limits (DLs) are 9.3 and 12.6 ng mL{sup -1} for RVT and PCD, respectively. Commercial red and white wine samples have been analysed and the results obtained have been satisfactorily validated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  15. Comparison of image uniformity with photon counting and conventional scintillation single-photon emission computed tomography system: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Chul; Lee, Young Jin [Dept. of Radiological Science, Eulji University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Joung; Kim, Kyuseok; Lee, Min Hee [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To avoid imaging artifacts and interpretation mistakes, an improvement of the uniformity in gamma camera systems is a very important point. We can expect excellent uniformity using cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) photon counting detector (PCD) because of the direct conversion of the gamma rays energy into electrons. In addition, the uniformity performance such as integral uniformity (IU), differential uniformity (DU), scatter fraction (SF), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) varies according to the energy window setting. In this study, we compared a PCD and conventional scintillation detector with respect to the energy windows (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) using a {sup 99m}Tc gamma source with a Geant4 Application for Tomography Emission simulation tool. The gamma camera systems used in this work are a CZT PCD and NaI(Tl) conventional scintillation detector with a 1-mm thickness. According to the results, although the IU and DU results were improved with the energy window, the SF and CNR results deteriorated with the energy window. In particular, the uniformity for the PCD was higher than that of the conventional scintillation detector in all cases. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that the uniformity of the CZT PCD was higher than that of the conventional scintillation detector.

  16. Detection of Defective Sensors in Phased Array Using Compressed Sensing and Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

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    Shafqat Ullah Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A compressed sensing based array diagnosis technique has been presented. This technique starts from collecting the measurements of the far-field pattern. The system linking the difference between the field measured using the healthy reference array and the field radiated by the array under test is solved using a genetic algorithm (GA, parallel coordinate descent (PCD algorithm, and then a hybridized GA with PCD algorithm. These algorithms are applied for fully and partially defective antenna arrays. The simulation results indicate that the proposed hybrid algorithm outperforms in terms of localization of element failure with a small number of measurements. In the proposed algorithm, the slow and early convergence of GA has been avoided by combining it with PCD algorithm. It has been shown that the hybrid GA-PCD algorithm provides an accurate diagnosis of fully and partially defective sensors as compared to GA or PCD alone. Different simulations have been provided to validate the performance of the designed algorithms in diversified scenarios.

  17. Heat stress induces different forms of cell death in sea anemones and their endosymbiotic algae depending on temperature and duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, S R; Thomason, J C; Le Tissier, M D A; Bythell, J C

    2004-11-01

    Bleaching of reef building corals and other symbiotic cnidarians due to the loss of their dinoflagellate algal symbionts (=zooxanthellae), and/or their photosynthetic pigments, is a common sign of environmental stress. Mass bleaching events are becoming an increasingly important cause of mortality and reef degradation on a global scale, linked by many to global climate change. However, the cellular mechanisms of stress-induced bleaching remain largely unresolved. In this study, the frequency of apoptosis-like and necrosis-like cell death was determined in the symbiotic sea anemone Aiptasia sp. using criteria that had previously been validated for this symbiosis as indicators of programmed cell death (PCD) and necrosis. Results indicate that PCD and necrosis occur simultaneously in both host tissues and zooxanthellae subject to environmentally relevant doses of heat stress. Frequency of PCD in the anemone endoderm increased within minutes of treatment. Peak rates of apoptosis-like cell death in the host were coincident with the timing of loss of zooxanthellae during bleaching. The proportion of apoptosis-like host cells subsequently declined while cell necrosis increased. In the zooxanthellae, both apoptosis-like and necrosis-like activity increased throughout the duration of the experiment (6 days), dependent on temperature dose. A stress-mediated PCD pathway is an important part of the thermal stress response in the sea anemone symbiosis and this study suggests that PCD may play different roles in different components of the symbiosis during bleaching.

  18. Programmed Cell Death, Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen and p53 Expression in Mouse Colon Mucosa during Diet-Induced Tumorigenesis

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    Mauro Risio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Western‐style diets (WDs trigger and sustain the early phases of tumorigenesis in mouse colon, and when continued throughout the life span lead to the development of dysplastic crypts. In order to evaluate the roles both of cell proliferation and programmed cell death (PCD in WD‐induced tumorigenesis, immunohistochemical detection of proliferating nuclear antigen (PCNA, in situ end labeling (TUNEL of DNA breaks, and p53 protein were carried out in mouse colonic mucosa during prolonged feeding of two WDs. PCNA Labeling Index of colonic crypts was significantly higher in WD‐treated animals than in controls only at the beginning of the nutritional study, the gap rapidly bridged by increased cell proliferation spontaneously occurring in the colonic mucosa during aging. A transient early homeostatic activation of PCD at the base of the crypt also was observed in WD groups. No changes in PCD were seen in the upper third of the crypt or in surface epithelium throughout the study, indicating that PCD in that colonic crypt segment produces a constant flux of cell loss, uninfluenced by homeostatic fluctuations. A major finding was an irreversible, progressive, age‐related decline of PCD at the crypt base in both control and treated animals that occurred during the second half of the rodents  life span. p53 protein was not immunohistochemically detected, suggesting that neither overexpression of wild‐type nor mutated forms of the protein are involved in the above mentioned changes.

  19. iTRAQ Mitoproteome Analysis Reveals Mechanisms of Programmed Cell Death in Arabidopsis thaliana Induced by Ochratoxin A

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    Yan Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is one of the most common and dangerous mycotoxins in the world. Previous work indicated that OTA could elicit spontaneous HR-like lesions formation Arabidopsis thaliana, reactive oxygen species (ROS play an important role in OTA toxicity, and their major endogenous source is mitochondria. However, there has been no evidence as to whether OTA induces directly PCD in plants until now. In this study, the presence of OTA in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves triggered accelerated respiration, increased production of mitochondrial ROS, the opening of ROS-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition pores and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential as well as the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. There were 42 and 43 significantly differentially expressed proteins identified in response to exposure to OTA for 8 and 24 h, respectively, according to iTRAQ analysis. These proteins were mainly involved in perturbation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, interfering with ATP synthesis and inducing PCD. Digital gene expression data at transcriptional level was consistent with the cell death induced by OTA being PCD. These results indicated that mitochondrial dysfunction was a prerequisite for OTA-induced PCD and the initiation and execution of PCD via a mitochondrial-mediated pathway.

  20. ROS-mediated abiotic stress-induced programmed cell death in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselin ePetrov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available During the course of their ontogenesis, plants are continuously exposed to a large variety of abiotic stress factors which can damage tissues and jeopardize the survival of the organism unless properly countered. While animals can simply escape and thus evade stressors, plants as sessile organisms have developed complex strategies to withstand them. When the intensity of a detrimental factor is high, one of the defense programs employed by plants is the induction of programmed cell death (PCD. This is an active, genetically controlled process which is initiated to isolate and remove damaged tissues thereby ensuring the survival of the organism. The mechanism of PCD induction usually includes an increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS which are utilized as mediators of the stress signal. Abiotic stress-induced PCD is not only a process of fundamental biological importance, but also of considerable interest to agricultural practice as it has the potential to significantly influence crop yield. Therefore, numerous scientific enterprises have focused on elucidating the mechanisms leading to and controlling PCD in response to adverse conditions in plants. This knowledge may help to develop novel strategies to obtain more resilient crop varieties with improved tolerance and enhanced productivity. The aim of the present review is to summarize the recent advances in research on ROS-induced PCD related to abiotic stress and the role of the organelles in the process.

  1. Comparative evaluation of effect of rotary and reciprocating single-file systems on pericervical dentin: A cone-beam computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinge, Priyanka Ramdas; Patil, Jayaprakash

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the effect of one shape, Neolix rotary single-file systems and WaveOne, Reciproc reciprocating single-file systems on pericervical dentin (PCD) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A total of 40 freshly extracted mandibular premolars were collected and divided into two groups, namely, Group A - Rotary: A 1 - Neolix and A 2 - OneShape and Group B - Reciprocating: B 1 - WaveOne and B 2 - Reciproc. Preoperative scans of each were taken followed by conventional access cavity preparation and working length determination with 10-k file. Instrumentation of the canal was done according to the respective file system, and postinstrumentation CBCT scans of teeth were obtained. 90 μm thick slices were obtained 4 mm apical and coronal to the cementoenamel junction. The PCD thickness was calculated as the shortest distance from the canal outline to the closest adjacent root surface, which was measured in four surfaces, i.e., facial, lingual, mesial, and distal for all the groups in the two obtained scans. There was no significant difference found between rotary single-file systems and reciprocating single-file systems in their effect on PCD, but in Group B 2 , there was most significant loss of tooth structure in the mesial, lingual, and distal surface ( P file system removes more PCD as compared to other experimental groups, whereas Neolix single file system had the least effect on PCD.

  2. Primary ciliary dyskinesia-causing mutations in Amish and Mennonite communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkol, Thomas W; Puffenberger, Erik G; Lie, Hauw; Helms, Cynthia; Strauss, Kevin A; Bowcock, Anne; Carson, John L; Hazucha, Milan; Morton, D Holmes; Patel, Anand C; Leigh, Margaret W; Knowles, Michael R; Zariwala, Maimoona A

    2013-08-01

    To determine whether individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) from unrelated Amish and Mennonite families harbor a single and unique founder mutation. Subjects from Amish and Mennonite communities in several states were enrolled in the study. All subjects were clinically characterized, and nasal nitric oxide levels were measured. Nasal epithelial scrapings were collected from several subjects for ciliary ultrastructural analyses. DNA was isolated from patients with PCD and their unaffected first- and second-degree relatives. Genome-wide homozygosity mapping, linkage analyses, targeted mutation analyses, and exome sequencing were performed. All subjects from Old-Order Amish communities from Pennsylvania were homozygous for a nonsense mutant DNAH5 allele, c.4348C>T (p.Q1450X). Two affected siblings from an unrelated Mennonite family in Arkansas were homozygous for the same nonsense DNAH5 mutation. Children with PCD from an Amish family from Wisconsin had biallelic DNAH5 mutations, c.4348C>T (p.Q1450X) and c.10815delT (p.P3606HfsX23), and mutations in other genes associated with PCD were also identified in this community. The Amish and Mennonite subjects from geographically dispersed and socially isolated communities had the same founder DNAH5 mutation, owing to the common heritage of these populations. However, disease-causing mutations in other PCD-associated genes were also found in affected individuals in these communities, illustrating the genetic heterogeneity in this consanguineous population. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Yeast as a model for the identification of novel survival-promoting compounds applicable to treat degenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbandt, Sara; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) plays an important role in development and normal metabolic functioning of organisms. Excessive cell death is the cause of many degenerative diseases, like neurodegenerative disorders and Wilson's disease, for which current therapies remain insufficient. Current therapies are mainly focused on decreasing the disease symptoms following cell death, rather than blocking the cell death process itself. The latter can be obtained by either decreasing the presence of the toxic trigger (like protein aggregation in case of many commonly known neurodegenerative diseases) or by blocking death-inducing signaling cascade(s). Given the high conservation in PCD processes between yeast and mammalian cells, in this review, we will focus on yeast as a model organism to study PCD-related diseases as well as on its use for drug discovery purposes. More specifically, we will provide a comprehensive overview of new compounds, which were identified in yeast-based drug screens, that either decrease the amount of toxic trigger or inhibit PCD signaling cascades under PCD-inducing conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential effects of treatment with UV-light (365 nm) and 8-methoxypsoralen on chromosomes of healthy persons and psoriatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeber, G.; Kittler, L.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP, 5 x 10 -5 M), near UV-light of 365 nm wavelength (UVA, 1.5 J/cm 2 ) and the combination of both (PUVA treatment) were studied on lymphocytes in vitro taken from healthy persons and patients with psoriasis vulgaris and psoriasis arthritis (psoriasis arthropathica). Chromosomes isolated from cell nuclei were visualized by means of Giemsa staining technique and analyzed for induction of chromosomal defects, i.e. premature centromere division (PCD), major coiling (MC), and formation of gaps and fragile sites. Exposure of nonpsoriatic lymphocytes to 8-MOP, UVA or PUVA increased the rate of PCD or MC generation. In experiments with psoriatic lymphocytes a much weaker effect was found, with a moderate increase of PCD and MC after UVA or PUVA treatment in the case of psoriasis vulgaris, and of MC after UVA treatment of psoriasis arthritis. On the average the number of chromosomes per metaphase plate displaying PCD did not exceed 10. No indication was obtained for the preference of certain chromosome groups or the appearance of 'fragile sites'. Under all experimental conditions the number of chromosome gaps ranged in the order of their spontaneous induction. The findings suggest PCD and MC investigations as possible sensitive tools for diagnosing latent psoriasis and for refined analysis of psoriatic cells or chromosomes. (author)

  5. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: a report from ATS 2001, May 18–23, San Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noone Peadar G

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD is a genetic disorder of abnormal ciliary structure and function that leads to defective mucociliary clearance, resulting in oto-sino-pulmonary disease, and infertility. The disease is currently under intense investigation by a number of research groups worldwide. At the recent American Thoracic Society meeting in San Francisco in May 2001, two sessions focused on PCD; a symposium session on May 21 with several featured expert speakers was followed by a mini-symposium on Tuesday May 22, with one featured speaker and presentation of nine abstracts covering a range of research topics. Mattias Salathe (University of Miami, USA and Stephen Brody (Washington University, St Louis, USA chaired the symposium session. Presentations focused on the clinical spectrum of PCD, the genetics of PCD, a proteomics approach to detail the structure of cilia, the role of cilia in the embryology of situs laterality, and airway epithelial cell biology. The mini-symposium was chaired by Peadar Noone (University of North Carolina, USA and Malcolm King (University of Alberta, USA and included presentations on the use of PCD as a human disease model, accurate definition of the phenotype using clinical and cell biologic markers, and molecular studies. The latter reports ranged from isolation of a protein involved in ciliary structure and function to genetic studies using linkage analysis and the candidate gene approach. Clinicians and scientists alike displayed considerable interest at both sessions, and there were several lively question–answer sessions.

  6. Essential role of grim-led programmed cell death for the establishment of corazonin-producing peptidergic nervous system during embryogenesis and metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyunghee Lee

    2013-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, combinatorial activities of four death genes, head involution defective (hid, reaper (rpr, grim, and sickle (skl, have been known to play crucial roles in the developmentally regulated programmed cell death (PCD of various tissues. However, different expression patterns of the death genes also suggest distinct functions played by each. During early metamorphosis, a great number of larval neurons unfit for adult life style are removed by PCD. Among them are eight pairs of corazonin-expressing larval peptidergic neurons in the ventral nerve cord (vCrz. To reveal death genes responsible for the PCD of vCrz neurons, we examined extant and recently available mutations as well as RNA interference that disrupt functions of single or multiple death genes. We found grim as a chief proapoptotic gene and skl and rpr as minor ones. The function of grim is also required for PCD of the mitotic sibling cells of the vCrz neuronal precursors (EW3-sib during embryonic neurogenesis. An intergenic region between grim and rpr, which, it has been suggested, may enhance expression of three death genes in embryonic neuroblasts, appears to play a role for the vCrz PCD, but not for the EW3-sib cell death. The death of vCrz neurons and EW3-sib is triggered by ecdysone and the Notch signaling pathway, respectively, suggesting distinct regulatory mechanisms of grim expression in a cell- and developmental stage-specific manner.

  7. Whole-Exome Sequencing Identified a Novel Compound Heterozygous Mutation of LRRC6 in a Chinese Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD is a clinical rare peculiar disorder, mainly featured by respiratory infection, tympanitis, nasosinusitis, and male infertility. Previous study demonstrated it is an autosomal recessive disease and by 2017 almost 40 pathologic genes have been identified. Among them are the leucine-rich repeat- (LRR- containing 6 (LRRC6 codes for a 463-amino-acid cytoplasmic protein, expressed distinctively in motile cilia cells, including the testis cells and the respiratory epithelial cells. In this study, we applied whole-exome sequencing combined with PCD-known genes filtering to explore the genetic lesion of a PCD patient. A novel compound heterozygous mutation in LRRC6 (c.183T>G/p.N61K; c.179-1G>A was identified and coseparated in this family. The missense mutation (c.183T>G/p.N61K may lead to a substitution of asparagine by lysine at position 61 in exon 3 of LRRC6. The splice site mutation (c.179-1G>A may cause a premature stop codon in exon 4 and decrease the mRNA levels of LRRC6. Both mutations were not present in our 200 local controls, dbSNP, and 1000 genomes. Three bioinformatics programs also predicted that both mutations are deleterious. Our study not only further supported the importance of LRRC6 in PCD, but also expanded the spectrum of LRRC6 mutations and will contribute to the genetic diagnosis and counseling of PCD patients.

  8. An automatic optosensing device for the simultaneous determination of resveratrol and piceid in wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina-Garcia, Lucia; Ruiz-Medina, Antonio; Fernandez-de Cordova, Maria Luisa

    2011-01-01

    For the first time, a spectrofluorimetric method is reported for the simultaneous determination of resveratrol (RVT) and piceid (PCD), two stilbenes showing diverse interesting physiological and biochemical attributes, as well as a wide range of health benefits ranging from cardioprotection to chemoprevention. The method makes use of a multicommutated flow-through optosensor in which the resolution of RVT and PCD is accomplished by means the sequential arrival of their photoproducts, on-line generated by UV-irradiation, to the detection area. This is possible due to the different kinetic behaviour of these latter on a solid support (C 18 silica gel) filling a minicolumn placed before the detector. The measurement in solid-phase of the photochemically induced fluorescence of the photoproducts (λ ex : 257 nm/λ em : 382 nm) is used as analytical signal for monitoring both compounds. The method has been applied to the analysis of RVT and PCD in wines and requires a previous solid-phase extraction (SPE) using Bakerbond C 18 cartridges. This pretreatment and the use of a solid-support in both the minicolumn and the flow-cell of the detector allow the determination of RVT and PCD by external calibration. Detection limits (DLs) are 9.3 and 12.6 ng mL -1 for RVT and PCD, respectively. Commercial red and white wine samples have been analysed and the results obtained have been satisfactorily validated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  9. Peroxynitrite mediates programmed cell death both in papillar cells and in self-incompatible pollen in the olive (Olea europaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Irene; Romero-Puertas, María C.; Rodríguez-Serrano, María; Sandalio, Luisa M.; Olmedilla, Adela

    2012-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) has been found to be induced after pollination both in papillar cells and in self-incompatible pollen in the olive (Olea europaea L.). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) are known to be produced in the pistil and pollen during pollination but their contribution to PCD has so far remained elusive. The possible role of ROS and NO was investigated in olive pollen–pistil interaction during free and controlled pollination and it was found that bidirectional interaction appears to exist between the pollen and the stigma, which seems to regulate ROS and NO production. Biochemical evidence strongly suggesting that both O2˙− and NO are essential for triggering PCD in self-incompatibility processes was also obtained. It was observed for the first time that peroxynitrite, a powerful oxidizing and nitrating agent generated during a rapid reaction between O2˙− and NO, is produced during pollination and that this is related to an increase in protein nitration which, in turn, is strongly associated with PCD. It may be concluded that peroxynitrite mediates PCD during pollen–pistil interaction in Olea europaea L. both in self-incompatible pollen and papillar cells. PMID:22140239

  10. SA and ROS are involved in methyl salicylate-induced programmed cell death in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Li Juan; Chen, Wen Li

    2011-07-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a genetically encoded, active process that results in the death of individual cells, tissues, or whole organs, which plays an important role in the life cycles of plants and animals. Previous studies show that methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a defense signal molecular associated with systemic acquired resistance and hypersensitive reaction; however, whether MeSA can induce PCD in plant is still unknown. The morphological changes of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts exposed to MeSA were observed under fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and the induction of PCD was clearly distinguished by intense perinuclear chromatin margination, condensation of nuclear chromatin and DNA laddering after 3-h exposure of 100 μM MeSA. Our results also showed that salicylic acid (SA) was involved in MeSA-induced PCD by using a transgenic nahG Arabidopsis thaliana line, and the process was mediated by reactive oxygen species, which functioned with SA by making an amplification loop. Our study showed that MeSA could induce PCD in plant cell for the first time.

  11. Simulación de un algoritmo para controlar el nivel en tolva ante alimentación discontinua de caña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Garelli

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Los actuales métodos de control del transporte y preparación de la materia prima provocan graves problemas de discontinuidad en la alimentación al tren de molinos de caña en la industria azucarera en Cuba. La introducción masiva de la tecnología de convertidores de frecuencia para el control de velocidad de motores asincrónicos permite proponer la utilización de la velocidad de las esteras como variable manipulada para el control del nivel de la tolva. Este trabajo presenta una variante de control por velocidad considerando la altura del colchón de caña en la estera elevadora como una perturbación multiplicativa a la entrada de la planta. Se propone un algoritmo de adaptación de set-point por modo deslizante para limitar los transitorios en el nivel de caña en tolva provocados por las fluctuaciones en la alimentación de caña. El método propuesto requiere realimentar únicamente variables accesibles y es robusto ante cambios en la densidad de caña y/o ruido de medición. Su implementación es extremadamente sencilla para lazos de control por velocidad tipo PID. Palabras Clave: molienda de caña de azúcar, estera transportadora, molinos de caña, control PID, control de velocidad, modo deslizante, set-point adaptivo

  12. Hand-held tidal breathing nasal nitric oxide measurement--a promising targeted case-finding tool for the diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marthin, June Kehlet; Nielsen, Kim Gjerum

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nasal nitric oxide (nNO) measurement is an established first line test in the work-up for primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Tidal breathing nNO (TB-nNO) measurements require minimal cooperation and are potentially useful even in young children. Hand-held NO devices are becoming...... increasingly widespread for asthma management. Therefore, we chose to assess whether hand-held TB-nNO measurements reliably discriminate between PCD, and Healthy Subjects (HS) and included Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients as a disease control group known to have intermediate nNO levels. METHODS: In this cross...... sectional, single centre, single occasion, proof-of-concept study in children and adults with PCD and CF, and in HS we compared feasibility, success rates, discriminatory capacity, repeatability and agreement between a hand-held electrochemical device equipped with a nNO software application sampling...

  13. Roles of autophagy in male reproductive development in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru eHanamata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy, a major catabolic pathway in eukaryotic cells, is essential in development, maintenance of cellular homeostasis, immunity and programmed cell death (PCD in multicellular organisms. In plant cells, autophagy plays roles in recycling of proteins and metabolites including lipids, and is involved in many physiological processes such as abiotic and biotic stress responses. However, its roles during reproductive development had remained poorly understood. Quantitative live cell imaging techniques for the autophagic flux and genetic studies in several plant species have recently revealed significant roles of autophagy in developmental processes, regulation of PCD and lipid metabolism. We here review the novel roles of autophagic fluxes in plant cells, and discuss their possible significance in PCD and metabolic regulation, with particular focus on male reproductive development during the pollen maturation.

  14. Programmed cell death and cell extrusion in rat duodenum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauser, Kirsten; Larsson, Lars-Inge

    2005-01-01

    The small intestinal epithelium is continously renewed through a balance between cell division and cell loss. How this balance is achieved is uncertain. Thus, it is unknown to what extent programmed cell death (PCD) contributes to intestinal epithelial cell loss. We have used a battery...... of techniques detecting the events associated with PCD in order to better understand its role in the turnover of the intestinal epithelium, including modified double- and triple-staining techniques for simultaneously detecting multiple markers of PCD in individual cells. Only a partial correlation between TUNEL...... positivity for DNA fragmentation, c-jun phosphorylation on serine-63, positivity for activated caspase-3 and apoptotic morphology was observed. Our results show that DNA fragmentation does not invariable correlate to activation of caspase-3. Moreover, many cells were found to activate caspase-3 early...

  15. Heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of p-toluenesulfonic acid using concentrated solar radiation in slurry photoreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamble, Sanjay P.; Sawant, Sudhir B.; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the photocatalytic degradation (PCD) of p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TSA) in batch reactor using concentrated solar radiation was investigated. The effect of the various operating parameters such as initial concentration of substrate, catalyst loading, solution pH and types of ions on photocatalytic degradation has been studied in a batch reactor to derive the optimum conditions. The rate of photocatalytic degradation was found to be maximum at the self pH (pH 3.34) of p-TSA. It was also observed that in the presence of anions and cations, the rate of PCD decreases drastically. The kinetics of photocatalytic degradation of p-TSA was studied. The PCD of p-TSA was also carried at these optimized conditions in a bench scale slurry bubble column reactor using concentrated solar radiation

  16. Daunomycin accumulation and induction of programmed cell death in rat hair follicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Masashi; Larsson, Lars-Inge; Hougaard, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The anthracycline antibiotic daunomycin (DM) is useful for the treatment of leukemia but has side-effects such as alopecia. Using immunocytochemistry, we show that, after a single i.v. injection, DM accumulates in the nuclei of matrix cells and in the outer root sheath of hair follicles. DM......-positive matrix cells are detectable up to 48 h after injection and exhibit a characteristic granular morphology, which is not observed in saline-injected controls. TUNEL-staining has revealed that DM injection induces programmed cell death (PCD) in rat hair follicles. Cells undergoing PCD are detectable as late...... (PCD type 2). Interestingly, little, if any, DM accumulation or apoptosis has been detected in the dermal hair papillae. This may have a bearing on potential regeneration of the hair follicles. Thus, DM accumulates in a characteristic pattern in hair follicles. This accumulation is associated...

  17. Internalisation of uncross-linked rituximab is not essential for the induction of caspase-independent killing in Burkitt lymphoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turzanski, Julie; Daniels, Ian; Haynes, Andrew P

    2008-08-01

    Characterising the mechanisms underpinning caspase-independent programmed cell death (CI-PCD) induction by uncross-linked rituximab in B-cells may positively impact upon the treatment of disease states in which the classical apoptotic pathway is disabled. The necessity of rituximab internalisation for CI-PCD induction was investigated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy in human BL cell lines with (e.g. Mutu I) and without (Mutu III) susceptibility to rituximab-induced killing. Flow cytometry demonstrated small, significant and similar amounts of rituximab internalisation by Mutu I cells after 1, 2, 4 and 24 h (p internalisation (p = 0.02, n = 5 and p = 0.0002, n = 6, respectively) in Mutu I cells, but confocal microscopy showed no correlation between internalised rituximab and phosphatidylserine exposure. We conclude that rituximab internalisation is not essential for CI-PCD induction in BL cell lines.

  18. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: clinical and genetic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D’Auria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD is a rare, genetically heterogeneous disease, characterized by ciliary disfunction and impaired mucociliary clearance, resulting in a range of clinical manifestations such as chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, chronic rhino-sinusitis, chronic otitis media, situs viscerum inversus in almost 40-50% of cases and male infertility. The triad situs viscerum inversus, bronchiectasis and sinusitis is known as Kartagener syndrome. Up to now little is known about genetic, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of primary motile ciliary diseases in children: for this reason, diagnosis is generally delayed and almost all treatments for PCD are not based on randomized studies but extrapolated from cystic fibrosis guidelines. The aim of this review is to propose to pediatricians a summary of current clinical and diagnostic evidence to obtain better knoledwge of this condition. The earlier diagnosis and the right treatment are both crucial to improve the prognosis of PCD.

  19. Lazarus1, a DUF300 Protein, Contributes to Programmed Cell Death Associated with Arabidopsis acd11 and the Hypersensitive Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinovsky, F.G.; Brodersen, P.; Fiil, B.K.

    2010-01-01

    ) mutant exhibits HR-like accelerated cell death, and cell death execution in acd11 shares genetic requirements for HR execution triggered by one subclass of R proteins. Methodology/Principal Findings: To identify genes required for this PCD pathway, we conducted a genetic screen for suppressors of acd11......Background: Programmed cell death (PCD) is a necessary part of the life of multi-cellular organisms. A type of plant PCD is the defensive hypersensitive response (HR) elicited via recognition of a pathogen by host resistance (R) proteins. The lethal, recessive accelerated cell death 11 (acd11......, here called lazarus (laz) mutants. In addition to known suppressors of R protein-mediated HR, we isolated 13 novel complementation groups of dominant and recessive laz mutants. Here we describe laz1, which encodes a protein with a domain of unknown function (DUF300), and demonstrate that LAZ1...

  20. Diamond as a scaffold for bone growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kate; Palamara, Joseph; Judge, Roy; Greentree, Andrew D

    2013-04-01

    Diamond is an attractive material for biomedical implants. In this work, we investigate its capacity as a bone scaffold. It is well established that the bioactivity of a material can be evaluated by examining its capacity to form apatite-like calcium phosphate phases on its surface when exposed to simulated body fluid. Accordingly, polycrystalline diamond (PCD) and ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) deposited by microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition were exposed to simulated body fluid and assessed for apatite growth when compared to the bulk silicon. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that both UNCD and PCD are capable of acting as a bone scaffold. The composition of deposited apatite suggests that UNCD and PCD are suitable for in vivo implantation with UNCD possible favoured in applications where rapid osseointegration is essential.

  1. Autophagic components contribute to hypersensitive cell death in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofius, Daniel; Schultz-Larsen, Torsten; Joensen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Autophagy has been implicated as a prosurvival mechanism to restrict programmed cell death (PCD) associated with the pathogen-triggered hypersensitive response (HR) during plant innate immunity. This model is based on the observation that HR lesions spread in plants with reduced autophagy gene...... expression. Here, we examined receptor-mediated HR PCD responses in autophagy-deficient Arabidopsis knockout mutants (atg), and show that infection-induced lesions are contained in atg mutants. We also provide evidence that HR cell death initiated via Toll/Interleukin-1 (TIR)-type immune receptors through...... the defense regulator EDS1 is suppressed in atg mutants. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PCD triggered by coiled-coil (CC)-type immune receptors via NDR1 is either autophagy-independent or engages autophagic components with cathepsins and other unidentified cell death mediators. Thus, autophagic cell death...

  2. Programmed cell death in Leishmania: biochemical evidence and role in parasite infectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivas eGannavaram

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Demonstration of features of a programmed cell death (PCD pathway in protozoan parasites initiated a great deal of interest and debate in the field of molecular parasitology. Several of the markers typical of mammalian apoptosis have been shown in Leishmania which suggested the existence of an apoptosis like death in these organisms. However studies to elucidate the down stream events associated with phosphotidyl serine exposure, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release and caspase-like activities in cells undergoing such cell death remain an ongoing challenge. Recent advances in genome sequencing, chemical biology should help solve some of these challenges. Leishmania genetic mutants that lack putative regulators/effectors of PCD pathway should not only help demonstrate the mechanisms of PCD but also provide tools to better understand the putative role for this pathway in population control and in the establishment of a successful infection of the host.

  3. Validation of assistive technology for the visually impaired in the prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Giselly Oseni Laurentino Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    à indiscutÃvel a relevÃncia da temÃtica de orientaÃÃo à Pessoa com DeficiÃncia (PcD) visual quanto à prevenÃÃo das DoenÃas Sexualmente TransmissÃveis (DST). Se as DST representam um risco Ãs pessoas sem deficiÃncia, para as PcD, os riscos podem se tornar ampliados. Para essa populaÃÃo, dispÃe-se da Tecnologia Assistiva (TA), a qual se constitui de materiais, mÃtodos e processos adaptados Ãs suas necessidades. O crescente nÃmero de ferramentas computacionais direcionadas para a PcD permite a i...

  4. Apoptosis in Trypanosomatids: Evolutionary and phylogenetic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello A. Barcinski

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death (PCD or apoptosis, an active process of cell death, plays a central role in normal tissue development and organogenesis, as well as in the pathogenesis of different diseases. Although it occurs in diverse cells and tissues under the influence of a remarkable variety of inducing agents, the resultant ultrastructural and biochemical changes are extremely monotonous, indicating the existence of a common biological mechanism underlying its occurrence. It is generally accepted that a developmental program leading to cell death cannot be advantageous to unicellular organisms and that PCD appeared in evolution to fulfill the organizational needs of multicellular life. However, the recent description of apoptotic death occurring in three different species of pathogenic kinetoplastids suggests that the evolutionary origin of PCD precedes the appearence of multicellular organisms. The present study proposes that a population of pathogenic Trypanosomatids is socially organized and that PCD is a prerequisite for this organization and for the fulfillment of the demands of a heteroxenic lifestyle. This proposal includes possible roles for PCD in the development of the parasite in the insect vector and/or in its mammalian host and suggests experimental strategies to localize the evolutionary origin of PCD within the kinetoplastids.A morte celular programada (PCD ou apoptose, um processo ativo de morte celular, desempenha um papel fundamental no desenvolvimento tecidual normal e na organogênese, assim como na patogênese de diferentes doenças. Embora este processo ocorra em uma gama variada de diferentes células e tecidos, sob a influência dos mais diversos agentes indutores, a resultante morfológica e bioquímica do processo é extremamente monótona, sugerindo que um mecanismo único opere em todas as situações. Era consensualmente aceito que um programa de morte programada não poderia ser vantajoso para organismos unicelulares e

  5. Determination of oxyfluorfen herbicide and oxyfluorfen amine residues in garbanzo beans by liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, M; Miles, C J

    1991-01-01

    Oxyfluorfen and oxyfluorfen amine were determined by liquid chromatography (LC) with ultraviolet (UV) and photoconductivity detection (PCD). A simple extraction procedure acceptably recovered both analytes from garbanzo beans over a wide range of fortifications (0.05 to 20 ppm) (83 +/- 4 for oxyfluorfen; 85 +/- 4 for oxyfluorfen amine). Percent recoveries decreased slightly as the fortification level decreased. Both analytes could be determined simultaneously at a concentration greater than 0.2 ppm in garbanzo beans. Detection limits were 3 ng for oxyfluorfen and 100 ng for oxyfluorfen amine using LC/UV, and 12 ng for both oxyfluorfen and oxyfluorfen amine with LC/PCD. Different knitted reaction coils and photoreactors were evaluated. Photoproduct yields and identification were determined by ion chromatography. The LC/PCD method measures oxyfluorfen and oxyfluorfen amine separately and has a shorter analysis time, while the standard method using gas chromatography measures total residues and is more sensitive.

  6. Heat shock protein 70 inhibits shrinkage-induced programmed cell death via mechanisms independent of effects on cell volume-regulatory membrane transport proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nylandsted, J; Jäättelä, M; Hoffmann, E K

    2004-01-01

    Cell shrinkage is a ubiquitous feature of programmed cell death (PCD), but whether it is an obligatory signalling event in PCD is unclear. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) potently counteracts PCD in many cells, by mechanisms that are incompletely understood. In the present investigation, we found...... that severe hypertonic stress greatly diminished the viability of murine fibrosarcoma cells (WEHI-902) and immortalized murine embryonic fibroblasts (iMEFs). This effect was attenuated markedly by Hsp70 over-expression. To determine whether the protective effect of Hsp70 was mediated via an effect on volume...... regulatory ion transport, we compared regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and increase (RVI) in control WEHI-902 cells and after increasing Hsp70 levels by heat shock or over-expression (WEHI-912). Hsp70 levels affected neither RVD, RVI nor the relative contributions of the Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger (NHE1) and Na...

  7. Clinical value of measurement of pulmonary radioaerosol mucociliary clearance in the work up of primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Mathias; Nielsen, Kim Gjerum; Mortensen, Jann

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate and define the general clinical applicability and impact of pulmonary radioaerosol mucociliary clearance (PRMC) on the work up of patients suspected of having primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). In addition, we wanted to evaluate the accuracy of the reference values...... primarily to results from nasal ciliary function testing, to electron microscopic (EM) examination of the ultrastructure of the cilia, and to the final clinical diagnosis. RESULTS: Of the 239 patients, 27 ended up with a final clinical diagnosis of definitive PCD. No patients with a PRMC test...... of the entire lung. Its greatest strength is its ability to reject a suspected PCD diagnosis with great certainty. In our material, this accounted for 2/3 of referred patients. In addition, the test has a high rate of conclusive results. According to our analyses, reference equations on children would benefit...

  8. Performance characterisation of a passive cavitation detector optimised for subharmonic periodic shock waves from acoustic cavitation in MHz and sub-MHz ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Kristoffer; Song, Jae Hee; Prentice, Paul

    2018-05-01

    We describe the design, construction and characterisation of a broadband passive cavitation detector, with the specific aim of detecting low frequency components of periodic shock waves, with high sensitivity. A finite element model is used to guide selection of matching and backing layers for the shock wave passive cavitation detector (swPCD), and the performance is evaluated against a commercially available device. Validation of the model, and characterisation of the swPCD is achieved through experimental detection of laser-plasma bubble collapse shock waves. The final swPCD design is 20 dB more sensitive to the subharmonic component, from acoustic cavitation driven at 220 kHz, than the comparable commercial device. This work may be significant for monitoring cavitation in medical applications, where sensitive detection is critical, and higher frequencies are more readily absorbed by tissue. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of commercially available pneumatic compression on muscle glycogen recovery after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Nathan A; Cuddy, John S; Hailes, Walter S; Dumke, Charles L; Ruby, Brent C

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pneumatic compression pants on postexercise glycogen resynthesis. Active male subjects (n = 10) completed 2 trials consisting of a 90-minute glycogen depleting ride, followed by 4 hours of recovery with either a pneumatic compression device (PCD) or passive recovery (PR) in a random counterbalanced order. A carbohydrate beverage (1.8 g·kg bodyweight) was provided at 0 and 2 hours after exercise. Muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were obtained immediately and 4 hours after exercise for glycogen analyses. Blood samples were collected throughout recovery to measure glucose and insulin. Eight fingerstick blood samples for lactate were collected in the last 20 minutes of the exercise period and during the initial portion of the recovery period. Heart rate was monitored throughout the trial. During the PCD trial, subjects recovered using a commercially available recovery device (NormaTec PCD) operational at 0-60 and 120-180 minutes into recovery period. The same PCD was worn during the PR trial but was not turned on to create pulsatile pressures. There was no difference in muscle glycogen resynthesis during the recovery period (6.9 ± 0.8 and 6.9 ± 0.5 mmol·kg wet wt·h for the PR and PCD trials, respectively). Blood glucose, insulin, and lactate concentrations changed with respect to time but were not different between trials (p > 0.05). The use of PCD did not alter the rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis, blood lactate, or blood glucose and insulin concentrations associated with a postexercise oral glucose load.

  10. Outcome of percutaneous continuous drainage of psoas abscess: A clinically guided technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Bharat R; Kurupati, Ranganatha Babu; Shah, Dipak; Degulamadi, Devanand; Borgohain, Nitu; Krishnan, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous aspiration of abscesses under ultrasonography (USG) and computer tomography (CT) scan has been well described. With recurrence rate reported as high as 66%. The open drainage and percutaneous continuous drainage (PCD) has reduced the recurrence rate. The disadvantage of PCD under CT is radiation hazard and problems of asepsis. Hence a technique of clinically guided percutaneous continuous drainage of the psoas abscess without real-time imaging overcomes these problems. We describe clinically guided PCD of psoas abscess and its outcome. Twenty-nine patients with dorsolumbar spondylodiscitis without gross neural deficit with psoas abscess of size >5 cm were selected for PCD. It was done as a day care procedure under local anesthesia. Sequentially, aspiration followed by guide pin-guided trocar and catheter insertion was done without image guidance. Culture sensitivity was done and chemotherapy initiated and catheter kept till the drainage was drainage and ODI (Oswestry Disability Index) score at 2 years. PCD was successful in all cases. Back and radicular pain improved in all cases. Average procedure time was 24.30 minutes, drain output was 234.40 ml, and the drainage duration was 7.90 days. One patient required surgical stabilisation due to progression of the spondylodiscitis resulting in instability inspite of successful drainage of abscess. Problems with the procedure were noticed in six patients. Multiple attempts (n = 2), persistent discharge (n = 1) for 2 weeks, blocked catheter (n = 2) and catheter pull out (n = 1) occurred with no effect on the outcome. The average ODI score improved from 62.47 to 5.51 at 2 years. Clinically guided PCD is an efficient, safe and easy procedure in drainage of psoas abscess.

  11. Outcome of percutaneous continuous drainage of psoas abscess: A clinically guided technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat R Dave

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Percutaneous aspiration of abscesses under ultrasonography (USG and computer tomography (CT scan has been well described. With recurrence rate reported as high as 66%. The open drainage and percutaneous continuous drainage (PCD has reduced the recurrence rate. The disadvantage of PCD under CT is radiation hazard and problems of asepsis. Hence a technique of clinically guided percutaneous continuous drainage of the psoas abscess without real-time imaging overcomes these problems. We describe clinically guided PCD of psoas abscess and its outcome. Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine patients with dorsolumbar spondylodiscitis without gross neural deficit with psoas abscess of size >5 cm were selected for PCD. It was done as a day care procedure under local anesthesia. Sequentially, aspiration followed by guide pin-guided trocar and catheter insertion was done without image guidance. Culture sensitivity was done and chemotherapy initiated and catheter kept till the drainage was <10 ml for 48 hours. Outcome assessment was done with relief of pain, successful abscess drainage and ODI (Oswestry Disability Index score at 2 years. Results: PCD was successful in all cases. Back and radicular pain improved in all cases. Average procedure time was 24.30 minutes, drain output was 234.40 ml, and the drainage duration was 7.90 days. One patient required surgical stabilisation due to progression of the spondylodiscitis resulting in instability inspite of successful drainage of abscess. Problems with the procedure were noticed in six patients. Multiple attempts ( n = 2, persistent discharge ( n = 1 for 2 weeks, blocked catheter ( n = 2 and catheter pull out ( n = 1 occurred with no effect on the outcome. The average ODI score improved from 62.47 to 5.51 at 2 years. Conclusions: Clinically guided PCD is an efficient, safe and easy procedure in drainage of psoas abscess.

  12. Milling Machinability of TiC Particle and TiB Whisker Hybrid Reinforced Titanium Matrix Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan Haixiang; Xu Jiuhua; Su Honghua; Ge Yingfei; Liang Xinghui

    2017-01-01

    The milling machinabilities of titanium matrix composites were comprehensively evaluated to provide a theoretical basis for cutting parameter determination.Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) tools with different grain sizes and geometries,and carbide tools with and without coatings were used in the experiments.Milling forces,milling temperatures,tool lifetimes,tool wear,and machined surface integrities were investigated.The PCD tool required a primary cutting force 15 % smaller than that of the carbide tool,while the uncoated carbide tool required a primary cutting force 10% higher than that of the TiAlN-coated tool.A cutting force of 300 N per millimeter of the cutting edge (300 N/mm) was measured.This caused excessive tool chipping.The cutting temperature of the PCD tool was 20%-30% lower than that of the carbide tool,while that of the TiAlN-coated tool was 12% lower than that of the uncoated carbide tool.The cutting temperatures produced when using water-based cooling and minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) were reduced by 100 ℃ and 200 ℃,compared with those recorded with dry cutting,respectively.In general,the PCD tool lifetimes were 2-3 times longer than the carbide tool lifetimes.The roughness Ra of the machined surface was less than 0.6μm,and the depth of the machined surface hardened layer was in the range of 0.15-0.25 mm for all of the PCD tools before a flank wear land of 0.2 mm was reached.The PCD tool with a 0.8 mm tool nose radius,0° rake angle,10° flank angle,and grain size of (30+2)μm exhibited the best cutting performance.For this specific tool,a lifetime of 16 min can be expected.

  13. Impact of anti-charge sharing on the zero-frequency detective quantum efficiency of CdTe-based photon counting detector system: cascaded systems analysis and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xu; Zhang, Ran; Chen, Guang-Hong; Li, Ke

    2018-05-01

    Inter-pixel communication and anti-charge sharing (ACS) technologies have been introduced to photon counting detector (PCD) systems to address the undesirable charge sharing problem. In addition to improving the energy resolution of PCD, ACS may also influence other aspects of PCD performance such as detector multiplicity (i.e. the number of pixels triggered by each interacted photon) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). In this work, a theoretical model was developed to address how ACS impacts the multiplicity and zero-frequency DQE [DQE(0)] of PCD systems. The work focused on cadmium telluride (CdTe)-based PCD that often involves the generation and transport of K-fluorescence photons. Under the parallel cascaded systems analysis framework, the theory takes both photoelectric and scattering effects into account, and it also considers both the reabsorption and escape of photons. In a new theoretical treatment of ACS, it was considered as a modified version of the conventional single pixel (i.e. non-ACS) mode, but with reduced charge spreading distance and K-fluorescence travel distance. The proposed theoretical model does not require prior knowledge of the detailed ACS implementation method for each specific PCD, and its parameters can be experimentally determined using a radioisotope without invoking any Monte-Carlo simulation. After determining the model parameters, independent validation experiments were performed using a diagnostic x-ray tube and four different polychromatic beams (from 50 to 120 kVp). Both the theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that ACS increased the first and second moments of multiplicity for a majority of the x-ray energy and threshold levels tested, except when the threshold level was much lower than the x-ray energy level. However, ACS always improved DQE(0) at all energy and threshold levels tested.

  14. Utility of the Mild Brain Injury Atypical Symptoms Scale to detect symptom exaggeration: an analogue simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rael T; Edmed, Shannon L; Sullivan, Karen A; French, Louis M; Cooper, Douglas B

    2013-01-01

    Brief self-report symptom checklists are often used to screen for postconcussional disorder (PCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and are highly susceptible to symptom exaggeration. This study examined the utility of the five-item Mild Brain Injury Atypical Symptoms Scale (mBIAS) designed for use with the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) and the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C). Participants were 85 Australian undergraduate students who completed a battery of self-report measures under one of three experimental conditions: control (i.e., honest responding, n = 24), feign PCD (n = 29), and feign PTSD (n = 32). Measures were the mBIAS, NSI, PCL-C, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), and the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology (SIMS). Participants instructed to feign PTSD and PCD had significantly higher scores on the mBIAS, NSI, PCL-C, and MMPI-2-RF than did controls. Few differences were found between the feign PCD and feign PTSD groups, with the exception of scores on the NSI (feign PCD > feign PTSD) and PCL-C (feign PTSD > feign PCD). Optimal cutoff scores on the mBIAS of ≥8 and ≥6 were found to reflect "probable exaggeration" (sensitivity = .34; specificity = 1.0; positive predictive power, PPP = 1.0; negative predictive power, NPP = .74) and "possible exaggeration" (sensitivity = .72; specificity = .88; PPP = .76; NPP = .85), respectively. Findings provide preliminary support for the use of the mBIAS as a tool to detect symptom exaggeration when administering the NSI and PCL-C.

  15. Standard versus rapid food reintroduction after exclusive enteral nutritional therapy in paediatric Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiman, Abi; Mutalib, Mohamed; Moylan, Alexander; Morgan, Natalie; Crespi, Daniel; Furman, Mark; Kader, Ajmal

    2014-03-01

    In paediatric Crohn's disease (PCD), 6-8 weeks of exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is effective in 60-80% cases. EEN is followed by gradual food reintroduction over variable (1-5 weeks) periods. Currently, there is no recommended duration or method for food reintroduction. The rationale for slow reintroduction is unclear and may be because of concerns about food intolerance or to maintain longer remission. The aims of this study were as follows: to compare relapse rates following standard and rapid reintroduction of food after EEN in PCD and to determine the duration of maintained remission in two groups of PCD patients. Two groups with PCD were compared: group A received standard food reintroduction over 5 weeks and group B received rapid reintroduction over 3 days. Data were collected over two consecutive time periods: group A (2005-2009) and group B (2009-2011). Only patients with a new diagnosis of PCD were included. Those with strictures and those on steroids or biologicals during EEN were excluded. The minimum duration of follow-up was 1 year. Group A included 20 patients and group B included 19 patients. In these groups, EEN led to clinical remission in 80% of the patients in group A and in 76% of the patients in group B. At 6 months, one-third of the patients from each group had developed relapse and a year after EEN, 50% of the patients in group A and 47% of the patients in group B developed relapse. Time to first relapse was 188 days (group A) and 136 days (group B). None of these results were statistically significant. In PCD, rapid food reintroduction following 6-week EEN is safe and equally effective as longer food reintroduction. We propose that a rapid food reintroduction schedule be recommended as the most tolerable approach for food reintroduction. Relapse rate and duration of remission are uninfluenced by the type of food reintroduction.

  16. A role for programmed cell death in the microbial loop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica V Orellana

    Full Text Available The microbial loop is the conventional model by which nutrients and minerals are recycled in aquatic eco-systems. Biochemical pathways in different organisms become metabolically inter-connected such that nutrients are utilized, processed, released and re-utilized by others. The result is that unrelated individuals end up impacting each others' fitness directly through their metabolic activities. This study focused on the impact of programmed cell death (PCD on a population's growth as well as its role in the exchange of carbon between two naturally co-occurring halophilic organisms. Flow cytometric, biochemical, ¹⁴C radioisotope tracing assays, and global transcriptomic analyses show that organic algal photosynthate released by Dunalliela salina cells undergoing PCD complements the nutritional needs of other non-PCD D. salina cells. This occurs in vitro in a carbon limited environment and enhances the growth of the population. In addition, a co-occurring heterotroph Halobacterium salinarum re-mineralizes the carbon providing elemental nutrients for the mixoheterotrophic chlorophyte. The significance of this is uncertain and the archaeon can also subsist entirely on the lysate of apoptotic algae. PCD is now well established in unicellular organisms; however its ecological relevance has been difficult to decipher. In this study we found that PCD in D. salina causes the release of organic nutrients such as glycerol, which can be used by others in the population as well as a co-occurring halophilic archaeon. H. salinarum also re-mineralizes the dissolved material promoting algal growth. PCD in D. salina was the mechanism for the flow of dissolved photosynthate between unrelated organisms. Ironically, programmed death plays a central role in an organism's own population growth and in the exchange of nutrients in the microbial loop.

  17. Crosstalks between myo-inositol metabolism, programmed cell death and basal immunity in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Hong Meng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although it is a crucial cellular process required for both normal development and to face stress conditions, the control of programmed cell death in plants is not fully understood. We previously reported the isolation of ATXR5 and ATXR6, two PCNA-binding proteins that could be involved in the regulation of cell cycle or cell death. A yeast two-hybrid screen using ATXR5 as bait captured AtIPS1, an enzyme which catalyses the committed step of myo-inositol (MI biosynthesis. atips1 mutants form spontaneous lesions on leaves, raising the possibility that MI metabolism may play a role in the control of PCD in plants. In this work, we have characterised atips1 mutants to gain insight regarding the role of MI in PCD regulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: - lesion formation in atips1 mutants depends of light intensity, is due to PCD as evidenced by TUNEL labelling of nuclei, and is regulated by phytohormones such as salicylic acid - MI and galactinol are the only metabolites whose accumulation is significantly reduced in the mutant, and supplementation of the mutant with these compounds is sufficient to prevent PCD - the transcriptome profile of the mutant is extremely similar to that of lesion mimic mutants such as cpr5, or wild-type plants infected with pathogens. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our results provide strong evidence for the role of MI or MI derivatives in the regulation of PCD. Interestingly, there are three isoforms of IPS in Arabidopsis, but AtIPS1 is the only one harbouring a nuclear localisation sequence, suggesting that nuclear pools of MI may play a specific role in PCD regulation and opening new research prospects regarding the role of MI in the prevention of tumorigenesis. Nevertheless, the significance of the interaction between AtIPS1 and ATXR5 remains to be established.

  18. Respiratory manifestations in 38 patients with Alström syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerwinkle, Caroline; Marshall, Jan D; Bryant, Joy; Gahl, William A; Olivier, Kenneth N; Gunay-Aygun, Meral

    2017-04-01

    Alström syndrome (AS) is a rare, multi-system condition characterized by retinal degeneration, sensorineural hearing loss, obesity, insulin-resistant diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, cardiomyopathy, hepatorenal disease, and recurrent respiratory infections. It belongs to a group of genetic disorders known as primary ciliopathies, which includes autosomal dominant and recessive polycystic kidney diseases, as well as Joubert and Bardet-Biedl syndromes. Prior studies have suggested phenotypic overlap between primary ciliopathies affecting the non-motile, sensory cilia, and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a motile ciliopathy characterized by respiratory tract disease. We describe the burden of oto-sino-pulmonary disease in 38 individuals with AS and examines the degree of clinical overlap between PCD and AS. Evaluation at the NIH Clinical Center included clinical examination, chest imaging, and clinical history surveys, as well as measurement of nasal nitric oxide (nNO) in nine patients. Recurrent otitis media was ubiquitous in the AS cohort (92%) with 50% requiring pressure equalization tube placement. A history of bronchitis/pneumonia and sinusitis was reported in 61% and 50% of individuals, respectively. PCD-characterizing symptoms (laterality defects, unexplained neonatal respiratory distress, year-round nasal congestion, and wet cough) were far less prevalent in the AS cohort compared to PCD, and the average nNO production in the AS cohort was 232 ± 57.1 nl/min compared to a cut-off of <77 nl/min for PCD. These data suggest that the oto-sino-respiratory complications in AS are prominent enough to warrant increased clinical attention, but significantly impaired respiratory cilia function as seen in PCD is unlikely in AS. (www.clinicaltrials.gov, trial NCT00068224) Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:487-493. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Senescence and programmed cell death in plants: polyamine action mediated by transglutaminase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano eDel Duca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on polyamines in plants laps a long way of about 50 years and many roles have been discovered for these aliphatic cations. Polyamines regulate cell division, differentiation, organogenesis, reproduction, dormancy-break and senescence, homeostatic adjustments in response to external stimuli and stresses. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms of their multiple activities are still matter of research. Polyamines are present in free and bound forms and interact with several important cell molecules; some of these interactions may occur by covalent linkages catalyzed by transglutaminase, giving rise to ‘cationisation’ or cross-links among specific proteins. Senescence and PCD can be delayed by polyamines; in order to re-interpret some of these effects and to obtain new insights into their molecular mechanisms, their conjugation has been revised here. The transglutaminase-mediated interactions between proteins and polyamines are the main target of this review. After an introduction on the characteristics of this enzyme, on its catalysis and role in PCD in animals, the plant senescence and PCD models in which TGase has been studied, are presented: the corolla of naturally senescing or excised flowers, the leaves senescing, either excised or not, the pollen during self-incompatible pollination, the hypersensitive response and the tuber storage parenchyma during dormancy release. In all the models examined, transglutaminase appears to be involved by a similar molecular mechanism as described during apoptosis in animal cells, even though several substrates are different. Its effect is probably related to the type of PCD, but mostly to the substrate to be modified in order to achieve the specific PCD program. As a cross-linker of polyamines and proteins, transglutaminase is an important factor involved in multiple, sometimes controversial, roles of polyamines during senescence and PCD.

  20. Gastric diffuse large B cell lymphoma presenting as para neoplastic cerebellar degeneration: Case report and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmaiah, K.C.; Viveka, B.K.; Kumar, N.A.; Saini, M.L.; Sinha, S.; Saini, K.S.

    2013-01-01

    Para neoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) is a type of para neoplastic neurological disorder (PND) that is associated with many solid tumors, Hodgkins lymphoma (HL) and very rarely with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We report a case of PCD associated with gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in a patient who presented with acute onset of giddiness and double vision and had complete remission of the gastric lesion and marked improvement of cerebellar syndrome with rituximab-based combination chemotherapy. A brief review of the literature is also presented.

  1. Proteasen in pflanzlichen Organellen

    OpenAIRE

    Helm, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Der Programmierte Zelltod (PCD) ist essentiell für die Entwicklung der Pflanze, im Speziellen für den Abbau nicht mehr benötigter Gewebe zur Rückführung von Nährstoffen an die weiterlebenden Teile der Pflanze. Ricinus (R. communis) speichert Öl und Eiweiß in einem lebenden Endosperm, das die Kotyledonen umgibt. Die Speicherstoffe werden während der Keimung mobilisiert und den Kotyledonen zugeführt. Der PCD des Endosperm-Gewebes wird eingeleitet, sobald dieser Transfer abgeschlossen ist. Ein s...

  2. Carnitine levels in 26,462 individuals from the nationwide screening program for primary carnitine deficiency in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jan; Nielsen, Olav W; Janzen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary carnitine deficiency (PCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation and has been associated to episodes of sudden death in the Faroe Islands. Data are presented from the nationwide population based Faroese screening program to find people with low carnitine...... levels indicating PCD. METHODS: Whole blood samples from dried blood spots were analysed by tandem mass spectrometry with and without butylation. Genetic analyses were performed in all people with non-butylated free carnitine (fC0) below 7 μmol/L. RESULTS: 55 % (n = 26,462) of the entire population...

  3. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder in Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration: Improvement with Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Thiago Cardoso; Fernandes do Prado, Lucila Bizari; do Prado, Gilmar Fernandes; Povoas Barsottini, Orlando Graziani; Pedroso, José Luiz

    2016-01-01

    To report two female patients with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) related to breast cancer that presented with rapid eye movement-sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and improved sleep symptoms with immunotherapy. The two patients were evaluated through clinical scale and polysomnography before and after therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin. RBD was successfully treated with immunotherapy in both patients. Score on the RBD screening questionnaire dropped from 10 to 1 or 0, allied with the normalization of polysomnographic findings. A marked improvement in RBD after immunotherapy in PCD raises the hypothesis that secondary RBD may be an immune-mediated sleep disorder. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  4. "Promises and Betrayals": A Radio Novella Focused on Chronic Disease Education

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-02

    The occurrence of diabetes and other chronic diseases among the Hispanic community living in the United States continues to increase. In this podcast, the authors of an article published in CDC’s Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD) describe how they used a unique entertainment education model to develop a Spanish-language radio novella aimed at reducing the risk factors for chronic diseases among this population.  Created: 8/2/2012 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/2/2012.

  5. Isotopic evaluation of nasal mucociliary transport in patients with chronic respiratory symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opazo, C.; Troncoso, M.; Quilodran, C.; Lizama, V.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: There are a large number of patients with chronic respiratory symptoms especially in pediatric population in whom it would be important to rule out primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) by electron microscopic examination of cilia obtained from respiratory mucosal biopsies, an expensive and not widely available procedure. Our purpose was to evaluate the role of the radioisotopic mucociliary transport measurement on selecting patients for nasal or tracheobronchial biopsy. Methods: The velocity of nasal mucociliary transport (VNMT) was measured in 100 patients, aged 2m-39y, mean 9 yo, from feb-1999 until feb-2002. Ten were healthy controls. The others had chronic o recurrent respiratory symptoms. The procedure consisted to place a 99m Tc-MAA droplet in one nostril by direct vision and follows its course using a gammacamera-computer system in order to calculate its speed expressed in mm/min. Sedation was needed in the vast majority of children below 4 yo. Values below 3 mm/min were repeated to ensure an accurate result. All cases having VNMT below 2,5 mm/min underwent nasal mucosal biopsy. In some patients with VNMT above 2,5 mm/min, nasal mucosal biopsy was also done based on other considerations. Patients were classified in three groups. Those having respiratory symptoms and no biopsy done (CRRS.NB); patients with respiratory symptoms and PCD diagnosed by biopsy (CRRS.PCD.B (+)); healthy controls. Results: Al cases with CRRS. PCD.B(+) had VNMT below 2.4 mm/min with a mean significantly different from those in CRRS.NB and healthy controls. There were no overlapping between the VNMT highest value in patients having CRRS. PCD.B(+) and the lowest VNMT in CRRS.NB or healthy controls. The results are similar to those published by other centers. Conclusions: The radioisotopic method to measure VNMT is feasible, inexpensive and relatively easy to perform. As PCD has important differences in prognosis and treatment from other conditions with similar symptoms, it is

  6. The coiled-coil domain containing protein CCDC40 is essential for motile cilia function and left-right axis formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker-Heck, Anita; Zohn, Irene E; Okabe, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent infections of the respiratory tract associated with the abnormal function of motile cilia. Approximately half of individuals with PCD also have alterations in the left-right...... organization of their internal organ positioning, including situs inversus and situs ambiguous (Kartagener's syndrome). Here, we identify an uncharacterized coiled-coil domain containing a protein, CCDC40, essential for correct left-right patterning in mouse, zebrafish and human. In mouse and zebrafish, Ccdc40...

  7. Sinus bacteriology in patients with cystic fibrosis or primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Maria E.; Alanin, Mikkel C.; Grønhøj, Christian

    2017-01-01

    flora in the sinuses and nasal cavities of patients with CF or PCD.  Methods: A number of medical literature data bases were systematically searched between January 1960 and July 2016. We applied the following inclusion criteria: a minimum of one case of PCD (or Kartagener syndrome) or CF...... are aspirated to and colonize the lungs according to the theory of the united (unified) airways. Whereas the pattern of bacterial flora in the lower airways has been extensively studied, the upper airways have drawn limited attention.  Objective: Our aim was to review the literature that reported bacterial...

  8. Pulsed corona discharge: the role of ozone and hydroxyl radical in aqueous pollutants oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, S; Panorel, I C; Kornev, I; Hatakka, H; Kallas, J

    2013-01-01

    Ozone and hydroxyl radical are the most active oxidizing species in water treated with gas-phase pulsed corona discharge (PCD). The ratio of the species dependent on the gas phase composition and treated water contact surface was the objective for the experimental research undertaken for aqueous phenol (fast reaction) and oxalic acid (slow reaction) solutions. The experiments were carried out in the reactor, where aqueous solutions showered between electrodes were treated with 100-ns pulses of 20 kV voltage and 400 A current amplitude. The role of ozone increased with increasing oxygen concentration and the oxidation reaction rate. The PCD treatment showed energy efficiency surpassing that of conventional ozonation.

  9. Comparação das habilidades auditivas e visuais em paralíticos cerebrais diplégicos

    OpenAIRE

    Dionísia Aparecida Cusin Lamônica; Cora Sofia Takaya Paiva; Deisiane Marcos Message; Jamile Cazarin Lozano; Plínio Marcos Pinto Ferraz

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo comparar o desempenho das habilidades psicolinguísticas auditivas e visuais de crianças com PC-D. Métodos participaram dez crianças com PC-D, classificados por meio da escala Gross Motor Function Measure System (GMFMS), de idade entre quatro anos e um mês a cinco anos e seis meses. A avaliação fonoaudiológica constou de entrevista com responsável, análise de prontuário e aplicação dos subtestes auditivos e visuais do ...

  10. Clinical care of children with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Jane S; Alanin, Mikkel Christian; Collins, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare heterogeneous disorder, usually inherited as an autosomal recessive condition but X-linked inheritance is also described. Abnormal ciliary function in childhood leads to neonatal respiratory distress in term infants, persistent wet cough...... is inappropriate since differences in pathophysiology, morbidity and prognosis risk treatment failure and lack of adherence. Areas covered: Review authors searched PubMed and Cochrane databases for publications relating to management of children with PCD. Because of the paucity of data, we emphasise the need...

  11. Dispersion induced power fading for radio frequency signals and its application for fast online PMD and CD monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, G.; Shum, P.

    2007-06-01

    We derive the expressions for the power fading including first-order polarization mode dispersion (PMD), chromatic dispersion, chirp parameter as well as polarization-dependent chromatic dispersion (PCD), which is dependent on the angle of precession of output state of polarization around the PMD vector. From the expression for radio frequency (RF) signals power fading, we get the average power fading for chromatic dispersion, chirp parameter, first-order PMD and PCD for both double sideband (DSB) modulation and single sideband (SSB) modulation. We also demonstrate a fast PMD and chromatic dispersion monitoring technology with reduced polarization-dependent gain. The measured results agree well with theoretical analysis.

  12. Application of controlled release technology to uranium mill tailings stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    A trifluralin (herbicide) releasing device was developed with a theoretical effective lifetime in excess of 100 years. When placed in a layer in soil, the PCD system will prevent root penetration through that layer without harming the overlying vegetation. Equilibrium concentrations of trifluralin in soil can be adjusted (along with the theoretical life of the device) to suit specific needs. The present system was designed specifically to protect the asphalt layer or clay/aggregate barriers on uranium mill tailings piles; PCD devices composed of pellets could also be implanted over burial sites for radioactive and/or toxic materials, preventing translocation of those materials to plant shoots, and thence into the biosphere

  13. Preoperative assessment of pleural adhesion by Four-Dimensional Ultra-Low-Dose Computed Tomography (4D-ULDCT) with Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction using Three-Dimensional processing (AIDR-3D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masayuki; Nagatani, Yukihiro; Oshio, Yasuhiko; Nitta, Norihisa; Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Tsukagoshi, Shinsuke; Ushio, Noritoshi; Mayumi, Masayuki; Kimoto, Tatsuya; Igarashi, Tomoyuki; Yoshigoe, Makoto; Iwai, Kyohei; Tanaka, Koki; Sato, Shigetaka; Sonoda, Akinaga; Otani, Hideji; Murata, Kiyoshi; Hanaoka, Jun

    2018-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of Four-Dimensional Ultra-Low-Dose Computed Tomography (4D-ULDCT) for distinguishing pleural aspects with localized pleural adhesion (LPA) from those without. Twenty-seven patients underwent 4D-ULDCT during a single respiration with a 16cm-coverage of the body axis. The presence and severity of LPA was confirmed by their intraoperative thoracoscopic findings. A point on the pleura and a corresponding point on the outer edge of the costal bone were placed in identical axial planes at end-inspiration. The distance of the two points (PCD), traced by automatic tracking functions respectively, was calculated at each respiratory phase. The maximal and average change amounts in PCD (PCD MCA and PCD ACA ) were compared among 110 measurement points (MPs) without LPA, 16MPs with mild LPA and 10MPs with severe LPA in upper lung field cranial to the bronchial bifurcation (ULF), and 150MPs without LPA, 17MPs with mild LPA and 9MPs with severe LPA in lower lung field caudal to the bronchial bifurcation (LLF) using the Mann-Whitney U test. In the LLF, PCD ACA as well as PCD MCA demonstrated a significant difference among non-LPA, mild LPA and severe LPA (18.1±9.2, 12.3±6.2 and 5.0±3.3mm) (p<0.05). Also in the ULF, PCD ACA showed a significant difference among three conditions (9.2±5.5, 5.7±2.8 and 2.2±0.4mm, respectively) (p<0.05), whereas PCD MCA for mild LPA was similar to that for non-LPA (12.3±5.9 and 17.5±11.0mm). Four D-ULDCT could be a useful non-invasive preoperative assessment modality for the detection of the presence or severity of LPA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Designing and modeling a centrifugal microfluidic device to separate target blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamloo, Amir; Selahi, AmirAli; Madadelahi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to design a novel and efficient portable lab-on-a-CD (LOCD) microfluidic device for separation of specific cells (target cells) using magnetic beads. In this study the results are shown for neutrophils as target cells. However, other kinds of target cells can be separated in a similar approach. The designed microfluidics can be utilized as a point of care system for neutrophil detection. This microfluidic system employs centrifugal and magnetic forces for separation. After model validation by the experimental data in the literature (that may be used as a design tool for developing centrifugo-magnetophoretic devices), two models are presented for separation of target cells using magnetic beads. The first model consists of one container in the inlet section and two containers in the outlets. Initially, the inlet container is filled with diluted blood sample which is a mixture of red blood cells (RBCs) plus neutrophils which are attached to Magnetic beads. It is shown that by using centrifugal and magnetic forces, this model can separate all neutrophils with recovery factor of ∼100%. In the second model, due to excess of magnetic beads in usual experimental analysis (to ensure that all target cells are attached to them) the geometry is improved by adding a third outlet for these free magnetic beads. It is shown that at angular velocity of 45 rad s −1 , recovery factor of 100% is achievable for RBCs, free magnetic beads and neutrophils as target cells. (paper)

  15. Designing and modeling a centrifugal microfluidic device to separate target blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, Amir; Selahi, AmirAli; Madadelahi, Masoud

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study is to design a novel and efficient portable lab-on-a-CD (LOCD) microfluidic device for separation of specific cells (target cells) using magnetic beads. In this study the results are shown for neutrophils as target cells. However, other kinds of target cells can be separated in a similar approach. The designed microfluidics can be utilized as a point of care system for neutrophil detection. This microfluidic system employs centrifugal and magnetic forces for separation. After model validation by the experimental data in the literature (that may be used as a design tool for developing centrifugo-magnetophoretic devices), two models are presented for separation of target cells using magnetic beads. The first model consists of one container in the inlet section and two containers in the outlets. Initially, the inlet container is filled with diluted blood sample which is a mixture of red blood cells (RBCs) plus neutrophils which are attached to Magnetic beads. It is shown that by using centrifugal and magnetic forces, this model can separate all neutrophils with recovery factor of ~100%. In the second model, due to excess of magnetic beads in usual experimental analysis (to ensure that all target cells are attached to them) the geometry is improved by adding a third outlet for these free magnetic beads. It is shown that at angular velocity of 45 rad s-1, recovery factor of 100% is achievable for RBCs, free magnetic beads and neutrophils as target cells.

  16. Gambiense Sleeping Sickness In The Abraka Region Of Delta State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gambiense Sleeping Sickness In The Abraka Region Of Delta State, Nigeria: Passive Case Detection (Pcd) At The Baptist Medical Centre (BMC) Eku 1999 – 2004. ... The highest prevalence of infection was among patients aged between 26-35 years with 35.6% infection rate, 23.3 percent was recorded among those aged ...

  17. Hydrogen Peroxide-induced Cell Death in Arabidopsis : Transcriptional and Mutant Analysis Reveals a Role of an Oxoglutarate-dependent Dioxygenase Gene in the Cell Death Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gechev, Tsanko S.; Minkov, Ivan N.; Hille, Jacques

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is a major regulator of plant programmed cell death (PCD) but little is known about the downstream genes from the H2O2-signaling network that mediate the cell death. To address this question, a novel system for studying H2O2-induced programmed cell death in Arabidopsis thaliana was

  18. An extensive microarray analysis of AAL-toxin-induced cell death in Arabidopsis thaliana brings new insights into the complexity of programmed cell death in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gechev, T.S.; Gadjev, I.Z.; Hille, J.

    2004-01-01

    A T-DNA knockout of the Arabidopsis homologue of the tomato disease resistance gene Asc was obtained. The asc gene renders plants sensitive to programmed cell death (PCD) triggered by the fungal AAL toxin. To obtain more insights into the nature of AAL-toxin-induced cell death and to identify genes

  19. Vacuolar processing enzyme in plant programmed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki eHatsugai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE is a cysteine proteinase originally identified as the proteinase responsible for the maturation and activation of vacuolar proteins in plants, and it is known to be an orthologue of animal asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP/VPE/legumain. VPE has been shown to exhibit enzymatic properties similar to that of caspase 1, which is a cysteine protease that mediates the programmed cell death (PCD pathway in animals. Although there is limited sequence identity between VPE and caspase 1, their predicted three-dimensional structures revealed that the essential amino-acid residues for these enzymes form similar pockets for the substrate peptide YVAD. In contrast to the cytosolic localization of caspases, VPE is localized in vacuoles. VPE provokes vacuolar rupture, initiating the proteolytic cascade leading to PCD in the plant immune response. It has become apparent that the VPE-dependent PCD pathway is involved not only in the immune response, but also in the responses to a variety of stress inducers and in the development of various tissues. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the contribution of VPE to plant PCD and its role in vacuole-mediated cell death, and it also compares VPE with the animal cell death executor caspase 1.

  20. Mutations in ZMYND10, a gene essential for proper axonemal assembly of inner and outer dynein arms in humans and flies, cause primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Daniel J; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Shoemark, Amelia

    2013-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a ciliopathy characterized by airway disease, infertility, and laterality defects, often caused by dual loss of the inner dynein arms (IDAs) and outer dynein arms (ODAs), which power cilia and flagella beating. Using whole-exome and candidate-gene Sanger resequ...

  1. Deciphering early events involved in hyperosmotic stress-induced programmed cell death in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monetti, Emanuela; Kadono, Takashi; Tran, Daniel; Azzarello, Elisa; Arbelet-Bonnin, Delphine; Biligui, Bernadette; Briand, Joël; Kawano, Tomonori; Mancuso, Stefano; Bouteau, François

    2014-03-01

    Hyperosmotic stresses represent one of the major constraints that adversely affect plants growth, development, and productivity. In this study, the focus was on early responses to hyperosmotic stress- (NaCl and sorbitol) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]cyt) increase, ion fluxes, and mitochondrial potential variations, and on their links in pathways leading to programmed cell death (PCD). By using BY-2 tobacco cells, it was shown that both NaCl- and sorbitol-induced PCD seemed to be dependent on superoxide anion (O2·(-)) generation by NADPH-oxidase. In the case of NaCl, an early influx of sodium through non-selective cation channels participates in the development of PCD through mitochondrial dysfunction and NADPH-oxidase-dependent O2·(-) generation. This supports the hypothesis of different pathways in NaCl- and sorbitol-induced cell death. Surprisingly, other shared early responses, such as [Ca(2+)]cyt increase and singlet oxygen production, do not seem to be involved in PCD.

  2. Sulfated lentinan induced mitochondrial dysfunction leads to programmed cell death of tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Wang, Yaofeng; Shen, Lili; Qian, Yumei; Yang, Jinguang; Wang, Fenglong

    2017-04-01

    Sulphated lentinan (sLTN) is known to act as a resistance inducer by causing programmed cell death (PCD) in tobacco suspension cells. However, the underlying mechanism of this effect is largely unknown. Using tobacco BY-2 cell model, morphological and biochemical studies revealed that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to sLNT induced PCD. Cell viability, and HO/PI fluorescence imaging and TUNEL assays confirmed a typical cell death process caused by sLNT. Acetylsalicylic acid (an ROS scavenger), diphenylene iodonium (an inhibitor of NADPH oxidases) and protonophore carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl hydrazone (a protonophore and an uncoupler of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation) inhibited sLNT-induced H 2 O 2 generation and cell death, suggesting that ROS generation linked, at least partly, to a mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase-like activation. This conclusion was further confirmed by double-stained cells with the mitochondria-specific marker MitoTracker RedCMXRos and the ROS probe H 2 DCFDA. Moreover, the sLNT-induced PCD of BY-2 cells required cellular metabolism as up-regulation of the AOX family gene transcripts and induction of the SA biosynthesis, the TCA cycle, and miETC related genes were observed. It is concluded that mitochondria play an essential role in the signaling pathway of sLNT-induced ROS generation, which possibly provided new insight into the sLNT-mediated antiviral response, including PCD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Severe wear behaviour of alumina balls sliding against diamond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wear and friction data were recorded for microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition (MWCVD) grown PCD coatings of four different types, out of which two ... CSIR–Central Glass & Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata 700032, India; Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur 713209, India ...

  4. CCDC39 is required for assembly of inner dynein arms and the dynein regulatory complex and for normal ciliary motility in humans and dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merveille, Anne-Christine; Davis, Erica E; Becker-Heck, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an inherited disorder characterized by recurrent infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract, reduced fertility in males and situs inversus in about 50% of affected individuals (Kartagener syndrome). It is caused by motility defects in the respiratory c...

  5. Consequences of Inadequate Physical Activity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-03-27

    Listen as CDC Epidemiologist Susan Carlson, PhD, talks about her research, which estimates the percentage of US deaths attributed to inadequate levels of physical activity.  Created: 3/27/2018 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/27/2018.

  6. Mouse embryonic stem cells undergo charontosis, a novel programmed cell death pathway dependent upon cathepsins, p53, and EndoG, in response to etoposide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichy, Elisia D; Stephan, Zachary A; Osterburg, Andrew; Noel, Greg; Stambrook, Peter J

    2013-05-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are hypersensitive to many DNA damaging agents and can rapidly undergo cell death or cell differentiation following exposure. Treatment of mouse ESCs (mESCs) with etoposide (ETO), a topoisomerase II poison, followed by a recovery period resulted in massive cell death with characteristics of a programmed cell death pathway (PCD). While cell death was both caspase- and necroptosis-independent, it was partially dependent on the activity of lysosomal proteases. A role for autophagy in the cell death process was eliminated, suggesting that ETO induces a novel PCD pathway in mESCs. Inhibition of p53 either as a transcription factor by pifithrin α or in its mitochondrial role by pifithrin μ significantly reduced ESC death levels. Finally, EndoG was newly identified as a protease participating in the DNA fragmentation observed during ETO-induced PCD. We coined the term charontosis after Charon, the ferryman of the dead in Greek mythology, to refer to the PCD signaling events induced by ETO in mESCs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. ZMYND10 is mutated in primary ciliary dyskinesia and interacts with LRRC6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zariwala, Maimoona A; Gee, Heon Yung; Kurkowiak, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Defects of motile cilia cause primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), characterized by recurrent respiratory infections and male infertility. Using whole-exome resequencing and high-throughput mutation analysis, we identified recessive biallelic mutations in ZMYND10 in 14 families and mutations in the ...

  8. Tightly Controlled Expression of bHLH142 Is Essential for Timely Tapetal Programmed Cell Death and Pollen Development in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swee-Suak Ko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Male sterility is important for hybrid seed production. Pollen development is regulated by a complex network. We previously showed that knockout of bHLH142 in rice (Oryza sativa causes pollen sterility by interrupting tapetal programmed cell death (PCD and bHLH142 coordinates with TDR to modulate the expression of EAT1. In this study, we demonstrated that overexpression of bHLH142 (OE142 under the control of the ubiquitin promoter also leads to male sterility in rice by triggering the premature onset of PCD. Protein of bHLH142 was found to accumulate specifically in the OE142 anthers. Overexpression of bHLH142 induced early expression of several key regulatory transcription factors in pollen development. In particular, the upregulation of EAT1 at the early stage of pollen development promoted premature PCD in the OE142 anthers, while its downregulation at the late stage impaired pollen development by suppressing genes involved in pollen wall biosynthesis, ROS scavenging and PCD. Collectively, these events led to male sterility in OE142. Analyses of related mutants further revealed the hierarchy of the pollen development regulatory gene network. Thus, the findings of this study advance our understanding of the central role played by bHLH142 in the regulatory network leading to pollen development in rice and how overexpression of its expression affects pollen development. Exploitation of this novel functionality of bHLH142 may confer a big advantage to hybrid seed production.

  9. An uncommon manifestation of paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration in a patient with high grade urothelial, carcinoma with squamous differentiation: A case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yaofeng; Chen, Shouzhen; Chen, Songyu; Song, Jing; Chen, Fan; Guo, Hu; Shang, Zhenhua; Wang, Yong; Zhou, Changkuo; Shi, Benkang

    2016-01-01

    Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are rare disorders associated with malignant tumours, which are triggered by autoimmune reactions. Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) is the PNS type most commonly associated with ovarian and breast cancer. Two bladder cancers manifesting in PCD were previously reported. However, the cancers in these cases had poor outcomes. Here, we present a 68-year old man with history of high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. The patient suffered from persistent cerebellar ataxia accompanied by bladder cancer recurrence five months after transurethral resection of the bladder tumour (TURBt). Laboratory screening for the specific antibodies of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes revealed no positive results. Symptoms were not remitted after a 7-day-course of high-dose glucocorticoid therapy. To our surprise, the patient recovered fully after laparoscopic radical cystectomy. Postoperative pathology revealed that surgical specimens were urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. The patient remained asymptomatic and there was no evidence of recurrence after the followup period of 11 months. To our knowledge, this is the third report of PCD in a patient with bladder cancer. This case showed that tumour resection cured the PCD. To assist clinical evaluation and management, literature regarding basic PNS characteristics and bladder cancers was reviewed

  10. Sulfur dioxide alleviates programmed cell death in barley aleurone by acting as an antioxidant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha-Sha Wang

    Full Text Available Sulfur dioxide (SO2, a gaseous signaling molecule in animal cells, has recently been found to play a physiological role in plants. Here we studied the role of SO2 in gibberellic acid (GA3-induced programmed cell death (PCD in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. aleurone layers. The application of the SO2 donor (NaHSO3/Na2SO3, 1:3 M/M effectively alleviated PCD in barley aleurone layers in a dose-dependent manner with an optimal concentration of 50 μM. Further investigations showed that SO2 reduced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, superoxide anion (⋅O2- and malondialdehyde (MDA in aleurone layers. Moreover, the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, glutathione reductase (GR and guaiacol peroxidase (POD were enhanced by SO2 donor treatment. Meanwhile, lipoxygenase (LOX activity was attenuated by SO2 donor treatment. Furthermore, an induction of endogenous H2S and NO were also observed in SO2-treated aleurone layers, suggesting interactions of SO2 with other well-known signaling molecules. Taken together, we show that SO2 negatively regulated PCD by acting as an antioxidant to scavenge excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS generated during PCD.

  11. Physiological, molecular and ultrastructural analyses during ripening and over-ripening of banana (Musa spp., AAA group, Cavendish sub-group) fruit suggest characteristics of programmed cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Sánchez, Maricruz; Huber, Donald J; Vallejos, C Eduardo; Kelley, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a part of plant development that has been studied for petal senescence and vegetative tissue but has not been thoroughly investigated for fleshy fruits. The purpose of this research was to examine ripening and over-ripening in banana fruit to determine if there were processes in common to previously described PCD. Loss of cellular integrity (over 40%) and development of senescence related dark spot (SRDS) occurred after day 8 in banana peel. Nuclease and protease activity in the peel increased during ripening starting from day 2, and decreased during over-ripening. The highest activity was for proteases and nucleases with apparent molecular weights of 86 kDa and 27 kDa, respectively. Images of SRDS showed shrinkage of the upper layers of cells, visually suggesting cell death. Decrease of electron dense areas was evident in TEM micrographs of nuclei. This study shows for the first time that ripening and over-ripening of banana peel share physiological and molecular processes previously described in plant PCD. SRDS could represent a morphotype of PCD that characterizes a structural and biochemical failure in the upper layers of the peel, thereafter spreading to lower and adjacent layers of cells. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. A tomato metacaspase gene is upregulated during programmed cell death in Botrytis cinerea-infected leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeberichts, F.A.; Have, ten A.; Woltering, E.J.

    2003-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) in plant cells is often accompanied by biochemical and morphological hallmarks similar to those of animal apoptosis. However, orthologs of animal caspases, cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteases that constitute the core component of animal apoptosis, have not yet been

  13. Improving Healthy Eating Through Social Marketing

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast features Emily Liu, a freshman at the University of Pennsylvania and one of the winners of PCD's 2017 Student Research Paper Contest. Emily answers questions about her winning research and what impact her study has on obesity prevention and public health.

  14. Early Onset Childhood Obesity and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast features Lorena Pacheco, a doctoral student at the University of California San Diego and one of the winners of PCD's 2017 Student Research Paper Contest. Lorena answers questions about her winning research, which focuses on the relationship between early onset obesity as a risk factor for increased metabolic syndrome in Chilean children.

  15. The Use of Compañeros in Childhood Obesity Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast features Katie Arlinghaus, a doctoral student at the University of Houston and one of the winners of PCD's 2017 Student Research Paper Contest. Katie answers questions about her winning research and what impact her study has on childhood obesity prevention and public health, particularly for the Hispanic community.

  16. Detecting Diabetic Blindness in Low-Income Mexican Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast features Kenny Mendoza-Herrera, a former graduate student at the National Institute of Public Health of Mexico and one of the winners of PCD's 2017 Student Research Paper Contest. Kenny answers questions about his winning research and what impact his study has on the prevention of diabetic blindness and public health, particularly for Mexican adults.

  17. Geographical Overlapping of Obesity, Heart Disease, and Type 2 Diabetes

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast features Kayla Smurthwaite, an undergraduate student at Australian National University in Canberra, Australia, and one of the winners of PCD's 2017 Student Research Paper Contest. Kayla answers questions about her winning research and what impact her study has on chronic disease prevention and public health.

  18. Are U.S. Schools Filling the Gap With Programs that Promote Weight Stigma?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this edition of PCD Sound Bites, author Erica Kenney, ScD, answers questions about her study, which looked at how frequently U.S. schools used evidence-based obesity prevention programs and how often schools implement programs that may unintentionally worsen weight stigma among students.

  19. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (CTD) and protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (PCD) are bacterial non-heme iron enzymes, which catalyse the oxidative cleavage of catechols to cis, cis-muconic acids with the incorporation of molecular oxygen via a mechanism involving a high-spin ferric centre. The iron(III) complexes of tripodal ...

  20. X-linked primary ciliary dyskinesia due to mutations in the cytoplasmic axonemal dynein assembly factor PIH1D3.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olcese, C.; Patel, M.P.; Shoemark, A.; Kiviluoto, S.; Legendre, M.; Williams, H.J.; Vaughan, C.K.; Hayward, J.; Goldenberg, A.; Emes, R.D.; Munye, M.M.; Dyer, L.; Cahill, T.; Bevillard, J.; Gehrig, C.; Guipponi, M.; Chantot, S.; Duquesnoy, P.; Thomas, L.; Jeanson, L.; Copin, B.; Tamalet, A.; Thauvin-Robinet, C.; Papon, J.F.; Garin, A.; Pin, I.; Vera, G.; Aurora, P.; Fassad, M.R.; Jenkins, L.; Boustred, C.; Cullup, T.; Dixon, M.; Onoufriadis, A.; Bush, A.; Chung, E.M.; Antonarakis, S.E.; Loebinger, M.R.; Wilson, R.; Armengot, M.; Escudier, E.; Hogg, C.; Amselem, S.; Sun, Z.; Bartoloni, L.; Blouin, J.L.; Mitchison, H.M.; Schmidts, M.; et al.,

    2017-01-01

    By moving essential body fluids and molecules, motile cilia and flagella govern respiratory mucociliary clearance, laterality determination and the transport of gametes and cerebrospinal fluid. Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder frequently caused by non-assembly of

  1. Expression of the Arabidopsis high-affinity hexose transporter STP13 correlates with programmed cell death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Morten Helge Hauberg; Nour-Eldin, Hussam H; Brodersen, Peter

    2006-01-01

    GFP expression only in the vascular tissue in emerging petals under non-stressed conditions. Quantitative PCR and the pSTP13-GFP plants show induction of STP13 in programmed cell death (PCD) obtained by treatments with the fungal toxin fumonisin B1 and the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. A role for STP...

  2. Inhibition of apoptic cell death induced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tabaci and mycotoxin fumonisin B1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakimova, E.T.; Batchvorova, R.; Kapchina, V.; Popov, T.; Atanassov, A.; Woltering, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of programmed cell death (PCD) inhibitors on lesion formation and biochemical events in transgenic (ttr line) and non-transgenic (Nevrokop 1164) tobacco infected with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci was tested. Programmed cell death in tomato cell culture was induced by Fumonisin B1 (FUM)

  3. Involvement of phospholipase D-related signal transduction in chemical-induced programmed cell death in tomato cell cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakimova, E.T.; Michaeli, R.; Woltering, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) and its product phosphatidic acid (PA) are incorporated in a complex metabolic network in which the individual PLD isoforms are suggested to regulate specific developmental and stress responses, including plant programmed cell death (PCD). Despite the accumulating knowledge,

  4. Signal transduction events in aluminum-induced cell death in tomato suspension cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakimova, E.T.; Kapchina-Toteva, V.M.; Woltering, E.J.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, some of the signal transduction events involved in AlCl3-induced cell death in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) suspension cells were elucidated. Cells treated with 100 ¿M AlCl3 showed typical features of programmed cell death (PCD) such as nuclear and cytoplasmic condensation.

  5. NBCn1 and NHE1 expression and activity in DeltaNErbB2 receptor-expressing MCF-7 breast cancer cells: contributions to pHi regulation and chemotherapy resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, G; Jensen, M B F; Bødtkjer, Ebbe

    2010-01-01

    cells to cisplatin-induced programmed cell death (PCD) in a caspase-, cathepsin-, and reactive oxygen species-dependent manner. NHE1 inhibition augmented cisplatin-induced caspase activity and lysosomal membrane permeability followed by cysteine cathepsin release. In contrast, NBCn1 inhibition...

  6. Reptin/Ruvbl2 is a Lrrc6/Seahorse interactor essential for cilia motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lu; Yuan, Shiaulou; Cao, Ying; Kallakuri, Sowjanya; Li, Yuanyuan; Kishimoto, Norihito; DiBella, Linda; Sun, Zhaoxia

    2013-07-30

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by defective cilia motility. The identified PCD genes account for about half of PCD incidences and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We demonstrate that Reptin/Ruvbl2, a protein known to be involved in epigenetic and transcriptional regulation, is essential for cilia motility in zebrafish. We further show that Reptin directly interacts with the PCD protein Lrrc6/Seahorse and this interaction is critical for the in vivo function of Lrrc6/Seahorse in zebrafish. Moreover, whereas the expression levels of multiple dynein arm components remain unchanged or become elevated, the density of axonemal dynein arms is reduced in reptin(hi2394) mutants. Furthermore, Reptin is highly enriched in the cytosol and colocalizes with Lrrc6/Seahorse. Combined, these results suggest that the Reptin-Lrrc6/Seahorse complex is involved in dynein arm formation. We also show that although the DNA damage response is induced in reptin(hi2394) mutants, it remains unchanged in cilia biogenesis mutants and lrrc6/seahorse mutants, suggesting that increased DNA damage response is not intrinsic to ciliary defects and that in vertebrate development, Reptin functions in multiple processes, both cilia specific and cilia independent.

  7. Long-term clearance from small airways in subjects with ciliary dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjelte Lena

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate if long-term clearance from small airways is dependent on normal ciliary function. Six young adults with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD inhaled 111 Indium labelled Teflon particles of 4.2 μm geometric and 6.2 μm aerodynamic diameter with an extremely slow inhalation flow, 0.05 L/s. The inhalation method deposits particles mainly in the small conducting airways. Lung retention was measured immediately after inhalation and at four occasions up to 21 days after inhalation. Results were compared with data from ten healthy controls. For additional comparison three of the PCD subjects also inhaled the test particles with normal inhalation flow, 0.5 L/s, providing a more central deposition. The lung retention at 24 h in % of lung deposition (Ret24 was higher (p 24 with slow inhalation flow was 73.9 ± 1.9 % compared to 68.9 ± 7.5 % with normal inhalation flow in the three PCD subjects exposed twice. During day 7–21 the three PCD subjects exposed twice cleared 9 % with normal flow, probably representing predominantly alveolar clearance, compared to 19 % with slow inhalation flow, probably representing mainly small airway clearance. This study shows that despite ciliary dysfunction, clearance continues in the small airways beyond 24 h. There are apparently additional clearance mechanisms present in the small airways.

  8. CT-guided radiolabelled aerosol studies for assessing pulmonary impairment in children with bronchiectasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pifferi, M.; Baldini, M.; Caramella, D.; Bartolozzi, C.; Di Mauro, M.; Cangiotti, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether CT-guided mucociliary clearance studies allow differentiation between bronchiectasis associated with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and those unrelated to congenital or genetically transmitted defects. Materials and methods. Fifteen children aged 4-18 years with a CT diagnosis of bronchiectasis were included in the study. Six had PCD, while in nine cases no congenital disorder was demonstrated. Results. CT showed bronchiectasis in 26 (29 %) of 90 lung regions. Radiolabelled aerosol studies were conducted globally for each lung and on the regions affected by bronchiectasis. Global half-time of activity (t 1/2 ) values of patients with PCD were significantly higher (P 1/2 values. Patients with bronchiectasis unrelated to congenital disorders showed significantly higher regional t 1/2 values in the affected regions with respect to the corresponding global pulmonary t 1/2 (P < 0.06). Conclusions. The combination of morphological CT information with functional data concerning the clearance of radiolabelled aerosol adds to our understanding of pulmonary impairment in children with bronchiectasis. In particular, regional studies allow the recognition of different mucociliary clearance patterns in bronchiectasis associated with PCD and those unrelated to congenital or genetically transmitted defects. (orig.)

  9. Drosophila female-specific Ilp7 motoneurons are generated by Fruitless-dependent cell death in males and by a double-assurance survival role for Transformer in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Sarah Rose C; Castellanos, Monica C; Baillie, Katherine E; Lian, Tianshun; Allan, Douglas W

    2018-01-08

    Female-specific Ilp7 neuropeptide-expressing motoneurons (FS-Ilp7 motoneurons) are required in Drosophila for oviduct function in egg laying. Here, we uncover cellular and genetic mechanisms underlying their female-specific generation. We demonstrate that programmed cell death (PCD) eliminates FS-Ilp7 motoneurons in males, and that this requires male-specific splicing of the sex-determination gene fruitless ( fru ) into the Fru MC isoform. However, in females, fru alleles that only generate Fru M isoforms failed to kill FS-Ilp7 motoneurons. This blockade of Fru M -dependent PCD was not attributable to doublesex gene function but to a non-canonical role for transformer ( tra ), a gene encoding the RNA splicing activator that regulates female-specific splicing of fru and dsx transcripts. In both sexes, we show that Tra prevents PCD even when the Fru M isoform is expressed. In addition, we found that Fru MC eliminated FS-Ilp7 motoneurons in both sexes, but only when Tra was absent. Thus, Fru MC -dependent PCD eliminates female-specific neurons in males, and Tra plays a double-assurance function in females to establish and reinforce the decision to generate female-specific neurons. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. A self-lysis pathway that enhances the virulence of a pathogenic bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Kirsty A; Dolben, Emily L; LeRoux, Michele; Kambara, Tracy K; Ramsey, Kathryn M; Kirkpatrick, Robin L; Mougous, Joseph D; Hogan, Deborah A; Dove, Simon L

    2015-07-07

    In mammalian cells, programmed cell death (PCD) plays important roles in development, in the removal of damaged cells, and in fighting bacterial infections. Although widespread among multicellular organisms, there are relatively few documented instances of PCD in bacteria. Here we describe a potential PCD pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa that enhances the ability of the bacterium to cause disease in a lung infection model. Activation of the system can occur in a subset of cells in response to DNA damage through cleavage of an essential transcription regulator we call AlpR. Cleavage of AlpR triggers a cell lysis program through de-repression of the alpA gene, which encodes a positive regulator that activates expression of the alpBCDE lysis cassette. Although this is lethal to the individual cell in which it occurs, we find it benefits the population as a whole during infection of a mammalian host. Thus, host and pathogen each may use PCD as a survival-promoting strategy. We suggest that activation of the Alp cell lysis pathway is a disease-enhancing response to bacterial DNA damage inflicted by the host immune system.

  11. CCDC103 mutations cause primary ciliary dyskinesia by disrupting assembly of ciliary dynein arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizzi, Jennifer R.; Becker-Heck, Anita; Castleman, Victoria H.; Al-Mutairi, Dalal; Liu, Yan; Loges, Niki T.; Pathak, Narendra; Austin-Tse, Christina; Sheridan, Eamonn; Schmidts, Miriam; Olbrich, Heike; Werner, Claudius; Häffner, Karsten; Hellman, Nathan; Chodhari, Rahul; Gupta, Amar; Kramer-Zucker, Albrecht; Olale, Felix; Burdine, Rebecca D.; Schier, Alexander F.; O’Callaghan, Christopher; Chung, Eddie MK; Reinhardt, Richard; Mitchison, Hannah M.; King, Stephen M.; Omran, Heymut; Drummond, Iain A.

    2012-01-01

    Cilia are essential for fertilization, respiratory clearance, cerebrospinal fluid circulation, and to establish laterality1. Cilia motility defects cause Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD, MIM 242650), a disorder affecting 1:15-30,000 births. Cilia motility requires the assembly of multisubunit dynein arms that drive cilia bending2. Despite progress in understanding the genetic basis of PCD, mutations remain to be identified for several PCD linked loci3. Here we show that the zebrafish cilia paralysis mutant schmalhanstn222 (smh) mutant encodes the coiled-coil domain containing 103 protein (Ccdc103), a foxj1a regulated gene. Screening 146 unrelated PCD families identified patients in six families with reduced outer dynein arms, carrying mutations in CCDC103. Dynein arm assembly in smh mutant zebrafish was rescued by wild-type but not mutant human CCDC103. Chlamydomonas Ccdc103 functions as a tightly bound, axoneme-associated protein. The results identify Ccdc103 as a novel dynein arm attachment factor that when mutated causes Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia. PMID:22581229

  12. Direct endoscopic necrosectomy versus step-up approach for walled-off pancreatic necrosis: comparison of clinical outcome and health care utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nitin; Conwell, Darwin L; Thompson, Christopher C

    2014-11-01

    Infected walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN) is a complication of acute pancreatitis requiring intervention. Surgery is associated with considerable morbidity. Percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD), initial therapy in the step-up approach, minimizes complications. Direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) has demonstrated safety and efficacy. We compared outcome and health care utilization of DEN versus step-up approach. This was a matched cohort study using a prospective registry. Twelve consecutive DEN patients were matched with 12 step-up approach patients. Outcomes were clinical resolution after primary therapeutic modality, new organ failure, mortality, endocrine or exocrine insufficiency, length of stay, and health care utilization. Clinical resolution in 11 of 12 patients after DEN versus 3 of 12 step-up approach patients after PCD (P endocrine insufficiency, and shorter length of stay (P < 0.05). Health care utilization was lower after DEN by 5.2:1 (P < 0.01). Direct endoscopic necrosectomy may be superior to step-up approach for WOPN with suspected or established infection. Primary PCD generally delayed definitive therapy. Given the higher efficacy, shorter length of stay, and lower health care utilization, DEN could be the first-line therapy for WOPN, with primary PCD for inaccessible or immature collections.

  13. Dual-contrast agent photon-counting computed tomography of the heart: initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Rolf; Cork, Tyler E; Lakshmanan, Manu N; Evers, Robert; Davies-Venn, Cynthia; Rice, Kelly A; Thomas, Marvin L; Liu, Chia-Ying; Kappler, Steffen; Ulzheimer, Stefan; Sandfort, Veit; Bluemke, David A; Pourmorteza, Amir

    2017-08-01

    To determine the feasibility of dual-contrast agent imaging of the heart using photon-counting detector (PCD) computed tomography (CT) to simultaneously assess both first-pass and late enhancement of the myocardium. An occlusion-reperfusion canine model of myocardial infarction was used. Gadolinium-based contrast was injected 10 min prior to PCD CT. Iodinated contrast was infused immediately prior to PCD CT, thus capturing late gadolinium enhancement as well as first-pass iodine enhancement. Gadolinium and iodine maps were calculated using a linear material decomposition technique and compared to single-energy (conventional) images. PCD images were compared to in vivo and ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histology. For infarct versus remote myocardium, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was maximal on late enhancement gadolinium maps (CNR 9.0 ± 0.8, 6.6 ± 0.7, and 0.4 ± 0.4, p contrast agent cardiac imaging is feasible with photon-counting detector CT. These initial proof-of-concept results may provide incentives to develop new k-edge contrast agents, to investigate possible interactions between multiple simultaneously administered contrast agents, and to ultimately bring them to clinical practice.

  14. Material decomposition and virtual non-contrast imaging in photon counting computed tomography: an animal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutjahr, R.; Polster, C.; Kappler, S.; Pietsch, H.; Jost, G.; Hahn, K.; Schöck, F.; Sedlmair, M.; Allmendinger, T.; Schmidt, B.; Krauss, B.; Flohr, T. G.

    2016-03-01

    The energy resolving capabilities of Photon Counting Detectors (PCD) in Computed Tomography (CT) facilitate energy-sensitive measurements. The provided image-information can be processed with Dual Energy and Multi Energy algorithms. A research PCD-CT firstly allows acquiring images with a close to clinical configuration of both the X-ray tube and the CT-detector. In this study, two algorithms (Material Decomposition and Virtual Non-Contrast-imaging (VNC)) are applied on a data set acquired from an anesthetized rabbit scanned using the PCD-CT system. Two contrast agents (CA) are applied: A gadolinium (Gd) based CA used to enhance contrasts for vascular imaging, and xenon (Xe) and air as a CA used to evaluate local ventilation of the animal's lung. Four different images are generated: a) A VNC image, suppressing any traces of the injected Gd imitating a native scan, b) a VNC image with a Gd-image as an overlay, where contrast enhancements in the vascular system are highlighted using colored labels, c) another VNC image with a Xe-image as an overlay, and d) a 3D rendered image of the animal's lung, filled with Xe, indicating local ventilation characteristics. All images are generated from two images based on energy bin information. It is shown that a modified version of a commercially available dual energy software framework is capable of providing images with diagnostic value obtained from the research PCD-CT system.

  15. Polychromatic Iterative Statistical Material Image Reconstruction for Photon-Counting Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Weidinger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a dedicated statistical algorithm to perform a direct reconstruction of material-decomposed images from data acquired with photon-counting detectors (PCDs in computed tomography. It is based on local approximations (surrogates of the negative logarithmic Poisson probability function. Exploiting the convexity of this function allows for parallel updates of all image pixels. Parallel updates can compensate for the rather slow convergence that is intrinsic to statistical algorithms. We investigate the accuracy of the algorithm for ideal photon-counting detectors. Complementarily, we apply the algorithm to simulation data of a realistic PCD with its spectral resolution limited by K-escape, charge sharing, and pulse-pileup. For data from both an ideal and realistic PCD, the proposed algorithm is able to correct beam-hardening artifacts and quantitatively determine the material fractions of the chosen basis materials. Via regularization we were able to achieve a reduction of image noise for the realistic PCD that is up to 90% lower compared to material images form a linear, image-based material decomposition using FBP images. Additionally, we find a dependence of the algorithms convergence speed on the threshold selection within the PCD.

  16. The comparison of detection methods of asymptomatic malaria in hypoendemic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, L.; Panggabean, M.; Panggabean, Y. C.

    2018-03-01

    Malaria is still a problem that disrupts public health in North Sumatera. Late diagnosis will increase the chances of increased morbidity and mortality due to malaria. The early detection of asymptomatic malaria is one of the best efforts to reduce the transmission of the disease. Early detection is certainly must be done on suspect patients who have no malaria complaints. Passive Case Detection (PCD) methods seem hard to find asymptomatic malaria. This study was conducted to compare ACD (Active Case Detection) and PCD methods in asymptomatic malaria detection in the hypoendemic areas of malaria. ACD method is done by going to the sample based on secondary data. Meanwhile, PCD is done on samples that come to health services. Samples were taken randomly and diagnosis was confirmed by microscopic examination with 3% Giemsa staining, as gold standard of malaria diagnostics. There was a significant difference between ACD and PCD detection methods (p = 0.034), where ACD method was seen superior in detecting malaria patients in all categories, such as: clinical malaria (65.2%), asymptomatic malaria (65.1%) and submicroscopic malaria (58.5%). ACD detection methods are superior in detecting malaria sufferers, especially asymptomatic malaria sufferers.

  17. Dioxinen en planaire PCB's in voeding. Gehalten in voedingsprodukten en inname door de Nederlandse bevolking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem AKD; Theelen RMC; Slob W; van Wijnen JH

    1991-01-01

    A study has been performed on (the variation of) the exposure to dioxins and related compounds of the Dutch polution. The study included the measurement of PCDD, PCDF and (planar) PCD levels in selected categories of the total diet and the calculation of the average human intake of dioxins by foor

  18. The Morphing Waldo: An Adaptive User Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Colby Chambers

    2001-01-01

    Performance Centered Design (PCD) offers an alternative to the old methodology of software development. The author suggests one design possibility that could be used to create a more universally satisfying interface for existing applications, an adaptive mini-program that "sits" between the larger application and the user. Potential…

  19. Long-term outcome of Tunisian children with primary ciliary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the long-term outcome of PCD in Tunisian children with ciliary ultra-structure defects detected by electron .... The middle lobe was as much affected as the right up- .... distress syndrome (ARDS) after one and four years of.

  20. Programmed cell death in the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium mediates carbon and nitrogen export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Zeev, Edo; Avishay, Itamar; Bidle, Kay D; Berman-Frank, Ilana

    2013-01-01

    The extent of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) export to the deep ocean depends upon the efficacy of the biological pump that transports primary production to depth, thereby preventing its recycling in the upper photic zone. The dinitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic) Trichodesmium spp. contributes significantly to oceanic C and N cycling by forming extensive blooms in nutrient-poor tropical and subtropical regions. These massive blooms generally collapse several days after forming, but the cellular mechanism responsible, along with the magnitude of associated C and N export processes, are as yet unknown. Here, we used a custom-made, 2-m high water column to simulate a natural bloom and to specifically test and quantify whether the programmed cell death (PCD) of Trichodesmium mechanistically regulates increased vertical flux of C and N. Our findings demonstrate that extremely rapid development and abrupt, PCD-induced demise (within 2–3 days) of Trichodesmium blooms lead to greatly elevated excretions of transparent exopolymers and a massive downward pulse of particulate organic matter. Our results mechanistically link autocatalytic PCD and bloom collapse to quantitative C and N export fluxes, suggesting that PCD may have an impact on the biological pump efficiency in the oceans. PMID:23887173

  1. To die or not to die? Lessons from lesion mimic mutants

    KAUST Repository

    Bruggeman, Quentin

    2015-01-30

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a ubiquitous genetically regulated process consisting in an activation of finely controlled signaling pathways that lead to cellular suicide. Although some aspects of PCD control appear evolutionary conserved between plants, animals and fungi, the extent of conservation remains controversial. Over the last decades, identification and characterization of several lesion mimic mutants (LMM) has been a powerful tool in the quest to unravel PCD pathways in plants. Thanks to progress in molecular genetics, mutations causing the phenotype of a large number of LMM and their related suppressors were mapped, and the identification of the mutated genes shed light on major pathways in the onset of plant PCD such as (i) the involvements of chloroplasts and light energy, (ii) the roles of sphingolipids and fatty acids, (iii) a signal perception at the plasma membrane that requires efficient membrane trafficking, (iv) secondary messengers such as ion fluxes and ROS and (v) the control of gene expression as the last integrator of the signaling pathways.

  2. A SNARE-protein has opposing functions in penetration resistance and defence signalling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ziguo; Feechan, Angela; Pedersen, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    Penetration resistance is often the first line of defence against fungal pathogens. Subsequently induced defences are mediated by the programmed cell death (PCD) reaction pathway and the salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signalling pathways. We previously demonstrated...

  3. Spatio-temporal appearance of α-amylase and limit dextrinase in barley aleurone layer in response to gibberellic acid, abscisic acid and salicylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahpiri, Azar; Talaei, Nasim; Finnie, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Release of LD was found to differ from that of amylase and was suggested to depend on programmed cell death (PCD). Despite detection of intracellular amylase in untreated aleurone layers or aleurone layers treated with ABA or SA, α-amylase was not released from these samples. Nevertheless, the re...

  4. Machinability of glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with the study of machinability of GFRP composite tubes of different fiber orientation angle vary from 300 to 900. Machining studies were carried out on an all geared lathe using three different cutting tools: namely Carbide (K-20), Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) and Poly-Crystalline Diamond (PCD). Experiments ...

  5. Transcriptome and proteome analyses and the role of atypical calpain protein and autophagy in the spliced leader silencing pathway in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Ronen; Egarmina, Katarina; Voloshin, Konstantin; Waldman Ben-Asher, Hiba; Carmi, Shai; Eliaz, Dror; Drori, Yaron; Michaeli, Shulamit

    2016-10-01

    Under persistent ER stress, Trypanosoma brucei parasites induce the spliced leader silencing (SLS) pathway. In SLS, transcription of the SL RNA gene, the SL donor to all mRNAs, is extinguished, arresting trans-splicing and leading to programmed cell death (PCD). In this study, we investigated the transcriptome following silencing of SEC63, a factor essential for protein translocation across the ER membrane, and whose silencing induces SLS. The proteome of SEC63-silenced cells was analyzed with an emphasis on SLS-specific alterations in protein expression, and modifications that do not directly result from perturbations in trans-splicing. One such protein identified is an atypical calpain SKCRP7.1/7.2. Co-silencing of SKCRP7.1/7.2 and SEC63 eliminated SLS induction due its role in translocating the PK3 kinase. This kinase initiates SLS by migrating to the nucleus and phosphorylating TRF4 leading to shut-off of SL RNA transcription. Thus, SKCRP7.1 is involved in SLS signaling and the accompanying PCD. The role of autophagy in SLS was also investigated; eliminating autophagy through VPS34 or ATG7 silencing demonstrated that autophagy is not essential for SLS induction, but is associated with PCD. Thus, this study identified factors that are used by the parasite to cope with ER stress and to induce SLS and PCD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Development of a silicon calorimeter for dosimetry applications in a water-moderated reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePriest, Kendall Russell; King, Donald Bryan; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Luker, Spencer Michael; Keltner, Ned R.; Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Griffin, Patrick Joseph

    2005-01-01

    High fidelity active dosimetry in the mixed neutron/gamma field of a research reactor is a very complex issue. For passive dosimetry applications, the use of activation foils addresses the neutron environment while the use of low neutron response CaF 2 :Mn thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) addresses the gamma environment. While radiation-hardened diamond photoconducting detectors (PCD) have been developed that provide a very precise fast response (picosecond) dosimeter and can provide a time-dependent profile for the radiation environment, the mixed field response of the PCD is still uncertain and this interferes with the calibration of the PCD response. In order to address the research reactor experimenter's need for a dosimeter that reports silicon dose and dose rate at a test location during a pulsed reactor operation, a silicon calorimeter has been developed. This dosimeter can be used by itself to provide a dose in rad(Si) up to a point in a reactor pulsed operation, or, in conjunction with the diamond PCD, to provide a dose rate. This paper reports on the development, testing, and validation of this silicon calorimeter for applications in water-moderated research reactors.

  7. Structural and conformational variants of human beta2-microglobulin characterized by capillary electrophoresis and complementary separation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Niels H H; Rovatti, Luca; Nissen, Mogens H

    2003-01-01

    The small (Mr = 11729) serum protein beta2-microglobulin is prone to precipitate as amyloid in a protein conformational disorder (PCD) that occurs in a significant number of patients on chronic hemodialysis. Analyses by capillary electrophoresis (CE) were undertaken to study beta2-microglobulin...

  8. Evolution of apoptosis-like programmed cell death in unicellular protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczanowski, Szymon; Sajid, Mohammed; Reece, Sarah E

    2011-03-25

    Apoptosis-like programmed cell death (PCD) has recently been described in multiple taxa of unicellular protists, including the protozoan parasites Plasmodium, Trypanosoma and Leishmania. Apoptosis-like PCD in protozoan parasites shares a number of morphological features with programmed cell death in multicellular organisms. However, both the evolutionary explanations and mechanisms involved in parasite PCD are poorly understood. Explaining why unicellular organisms appear to undergo 'suicide' is a challenge for evolutionary biology and uncovering death executors and pathways is a challenge for molecular and cell biology. Bioinformatics has the potential to integrate these approaches by revealing homologies in the PCD machinery of diverse taxa and evaluating their evolutionary trajectories. As the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis in model organisms are well characterised, and recent data suggest similar mechanisms operate in protozoan parasites, key questions can now be addressed. These questions include: which elements of apoptosis machinery appear to be shared between protozoan parasites and multicellular taxa and, have these mechanisms arisen through convergent or divergent evolution? We use bioinformatics to address these questions and our analyses suggest that apoptosis mechanisms in protozoan parasites and other taxa have diverged during their evolution, that some apoptosis factors are shared across taxa whilst others have been replaced by proteins with similar biochemical activities.

  9. Bacteriology and treatment of infections in the upper and lower airways in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanin, Mikkel Christian

    2017-01-01

    The respiratory tract is lined with motile cilia that transport respiratory mucus. Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a chronic genetic disease caused by mutations in genes responsible for ciliary structure and function. Non-functional airway cilia impair the mucociliary clearance (MCC), causing...

  10. Involvement of Programmed Cell Death in Neurotoxicity of Metallic Nanoparticles: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bin; Zhou, Ting; Liu, Jia; Shao, LongQuan

    2016-11-01

    The widespread application of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) or NP-based products has increased the risk of exposure to NPs in humans. The brain is an important organ that is more susceptible to exogenous stimuli. Moreover, any impairment to the brain is irreversible. Recently, several in vivo studies have found that metallic NPs can be absorbed into the animal body and then translocated into the brain, mainly through the blood-brain barrier and olfactory pathway after systemic administration. Furthermore, metallic NPs can cross the placental barrier to accumulate in the fetal brain, causing developmental neurotoxicity on exposure during pregnancy. Therefore, metallic NPs become a big threat to the brain. However, the mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs remain unclear. Programmed cell death (PCD), which is different from necrosis, is defined as active cell death and is regulated by certain genes. PCD can be mainly classified into apoptosis, autophagy, necroptosis, and pyroptosis. It is involved in brain development, neurodegenerative disorders, psychiatric disorders, and brain injury. Given the pivotal role of PCD in neurological functions, we reviewed relevant articles and tried to summarize the recent advances and future perspectives of PCD involvement in the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs, with the purpose of comprehensively understanding the neurotoxic mechanisms of NPs.

  11. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mößeler, Anne; Vagt, Sandra; Beyerbach, Martin; Kamphues, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI), enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n = 3) or without (n = 3) pancreatic duct ligation (PL) were used to estimate the rate of praecaecal disappearance (pcD) of starch. Different botanical sources of starch (rice, amaranth, potato, and pea) were fed either raw or cooked. In the controls (C), there was an almost complete pcD (>92%) except for potato starch (61.5%) which was significantly lower. In PL pcD of raw starch was significantly lower for all sources of starch except for amaranth (87.9%). Thermal processing increased pcD in PL, reaching values of C for starch from rice, potato, and pea. This study clearly underlines the need for precise specification of starch used for patients with specific dietetic needs like PEI. Data should be generated in suitable animal models or patients as tests in healthy individuals would not have given similar conclusions.

  12. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mößeler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI, enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n=3 or without (n=3 pancreatic duct ligation (PL were used to estimate the rate of praecaecal disappearance (pcD of starch. Different botanical sources of starch (rice, amaranth, potato, and pea were fed either raw or cooked. In the controls (C, there was an almost complete pcD (>92% except for potato starch (61.5% which was significantly lower. In PL pcD of raw starch was significantly lower for all sources of starch except for amaranth (87.9%. Thermal processing increased pcD in PL, reaching values of C for starch from rice, potato, and pea. This study clearly underlines the need for precise specification of starch used for patients with specific dietetic needs like PEI. Data should be generated in suitable animal models or patients as tests in healthy individuals would not have given similar conclusions.

  13. To die or not to die? Lessons from lesion mimic mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin eBruggeman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death (PCD is a ubiquitous genetically regulated process consisting in an activation of finely controlled signaling pathways that lead to cellular suicide. Although some aspects of PCD control appear evolutionary conserved between plants, animals and fungi, the extent of conservation remains controversial. Over the last decades, identification and characterization of several lesion mimic mutants (LMM has been a powerful tool in the quest to unravel PCD pathways in plants. Thanks to progress in molecular genetics, mutations causing the phenotype of a large number of LMM and their related suppressors were mapped, and the identification of the mutated genes shed light on major pathways in the onset of plant PCD such as (i the involvements of chloroplasts and light energy, (ii the roles of sphingolipids and fatty acids, (iii a signal perception at the plasma membrane that requires efficient membrane trafficking, (iv secondary messengers such as ion fluxes and ROS and (v the control of gene expression as the last integrator of the signaling pathways.

  14. Chloroplasts activity and PAP-signaling regulate programmed cell death in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Bruggeman, Quentin

    2016-01-09

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a crucial process both for plant development and responses to biotic and abiotic stress. There is accumulating evidence that chloroplasts may play a central role during plant PCD as for mitochondria in animal cells, but it is still unclear whether they participate in PCD onset, execution, or both. To tackle this question, we have analyzed the contribution of chloroplast function to the cell death phenotype of the myoinositol phosphate synthase1 (mips1) mutant that forms spontaneous lesions in a light-dependent manner. We show that photosynthetically active chloroplasts are required for PCD to occur in mips1, but this process is independent of the redox state of the chloroplast. Systematic genetic analyses with retrograde signaling mutants reveal that 3’-phosphoadenosine 5’-phosphate, a chloroplast retrograde signal that modulates nuclear gene expression in response to stress, can inhibit cell death and compromises plant innate immunity via inhibition of the RNA-processing 5’-3’ exoribonucleases. Our results provide evidence for the role of chloroplast-derived signal and RNA metabolism in the control of cell death and biotic stress response. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Apoptosis in plants : does it exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, E.J.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2005-01-01

    Programmed cell death is an essential part of the live of any organism; it shapes the body and organs and plays an important role in the response to adverse environmental conditions and attack by a variety of pathogenic organisms. The mechanisms by which PCD is executed are diverse. In animal cells

  16. Hypersensitive cell death in plants : its mechanisms and role in plant defense against pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakimova, E.T.; Michalczuk, L.; Woltering, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    This review is a recent update in the understanding of the hypersensitive response (HR) of plants with special consideration to the physiological and biochemical determinants in different model systems. Hypersensitive response is reviewed as a form of programmed cell death (PCD) representing one of

  17. Toxin- and cadmium-induced cell death events in tomato suspension cells resemble features of hypersensitive response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakimova, E.T.; Woltering, E.J.; Yordanova, Z.P.

    2007-01-01

    Elicitors of different origin (fumonisin B1, fungal toxin), camptothecin (alkaloid from Camptotheca acuminata), mastoparan (wasp venom) and the heavy metal (cadmium) were tested for their ability to induce programmed cell death (PCD) in a model system of tomato cell culture, line MsK8. By employing

  18. A case of Kartagener syndrome with rhinolalia clausa | Raoufi | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kartagener syndrome is an autosomal recessive genetic ciliary disorder comprising of a classic triad of sinusitis, situs inversus and bronchiectasis. It's the one of primary ciliary dyskinesia disorders with manifestations present from childhood. Most patients of PCD have situs inversus. We present a case of 18 year-old women ...

  19. Intracellular energy depletion triggers programmed cell death during petal senescence in tulip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, A K; Ishikawa, Takayuki; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Sawa, Y; Shibata, H

    2008-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) in petals provides a model system to study the molecular aspects of organ senescence. In this study, the very early triggering signal for PCD during the senescence process from young green buds to 14-d-old petals of Tulipa gesneriana was determined. The opening and closing movement of petals of intact plants increased for the first 3 d and then gradually decreased. DNA degradation and cytochrome c (Cyt c) release were clearly observed in 6-d-old flowers. Oxidative stress or ethylene production can be excluded as the early signal for petal PCD. In contrast, ATP was dramatically depleted after the first day of flower opening. Sucrose supplementation to cut flowers maintained their ATP levels and the movement ability for a longer time than in those kept in water. The onset of DNA degradation, Cyt c release, and petal senescence was also delayed by sucrose supplementation to cut flowers. These results suggest that intracellular energy depletion, rather than oxidative stress or ethylene production, may be the very early signal to trigger PCD in tulip petals.

  20. The Role of Programmed Cell Death Regulator LSD1 in Nematode-Induced Syncytium Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszkiewicz, Mateusz; Sobczak, Miroslaw; Cabrera, Javier; Escobar, Carolina; Karpiński, Stanislaw; Filipecki, Marcin

    2018-01-01

    Cyst-forming plant-parasitic nematodes are common pests of many crops. They inject secretions into host cells to induce the developmental and metabolic reprogramming that leads to the formation of a syncytium, which is the sole food source for growing nematodes. As in other host-parasite models, avirulence leads to rapid and local programmed cell death (PCD) known as the hypersensitive response (HR), whereas in the case of virulence, PCD is still observed but is limited to only some cells. Several regulators of PCD were analyzed to understand the role of PCD in compatible plant–nematode interactions. Thus, Arabidopsis plants carrying recessive mutations in LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 (LSD1) family genes were subjected to nematode infection assays with juveniles of Heterodera schachtii. LSD1 is a negative and conditional regulator of PCD, and fewer and smaller syncytia were induced in the roots of lsd1 mutants than in wild-type Col-0 plants. Mutation in LSD ONE LIKE2 (LOL2) revealed a pattern of susceptibility to H. schachtii antagonistic to lsd1. Syncytia induced on lsd1 roots compared to Col0 showed significantly retarded growth, modified cell wall structure, increased vesiculation, and some myelin-like bodies present at 7 and 12 days post-infection. To place these data in a wider context, RNA-sequencing analysis of infected and uninfected roots was conducted. During nematode infection, the number of transcripts with changed expression in lsd1 was approximately three times smaller than in wild-type plants (1440 vs. 4206 differentially expressed genes, respectively). LSD1-dependent PCD in roots is thus a highly regulated process in compatible plant–nematode interactions. Two genes identified in this analysis, coding for AUTOPHAGY-RELATED PROTEIN 8F and 8H were down-regulated in syncytia in the presence of LSD1 and showed an increased susceptibility to nematode infection contrasting with lsd1 phenotype. Our data indicate that molecular regulators belonging to the

  1. Estudo do reaproveitamento do cimento Portland de alta resistência inicial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. de Araújo Jr.

    Full Text Available Resumo Devido aos impactos ambientais gerados pela construção civil, muitos pesquisadores têm estudado os resíduos de construção e demolição. É possível encontrar na literatura científica trabalhos focados na pasta de cimento endurecido. Neste estudo, pasta de cimento Portland hidratada (PCH preparada a partir de cimento Portland CP V-ARI (CP-V foi desidratada via tratamento térmico a 700 °C (700-PCD e a 900 °C (900-PCD, sendo em seguida reidratada. A estrutura e microestrutura durante hidratação, desidratação e reidratação foram investigadas. Para a caracterização das mudanças morfológicas, difração de raios X, espectroscopia no infravermelho com transformada de Fourier e microscopia eletrônica de varredura foram utilizadas. A análise termogravimétrica foi utilizada para estudar as etapas de desidratação da pasta de cimento hidratada original. O estudo de desidratação da PCH mostrou que a 700 e 900 °C os novos nesossilicatos e CaO estão claramente presentes nas amostras. Durante a reidratação das amostras de 700-PCD e o 900-PCD, ocorreram reidratação parcial e carbonatação. Corpos de prova a partir de CP-V e 0%, 2%, 10%, 40% e 60% de pó de cimento desidratado (PCD foram preparados. Corpos de prova preparados com até 40% de PCD apresentaram propriedades semelhantes, quando comparado com corpos de prova de pasta de cimento puro preparados com CP-V, enquanto adições de 60% de PCD resultaram em um decréscimo da resistência à compressão.

  2. The Role of Programmed Cell Death Regulator LSD1 in Nematode-Induced Syncytium Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Matuszkiewicz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyst-forming plant-parasitic nematodes are common pests of many crops. They inject secretions into host cells to induce the developmental and metabolic reprogramming that leads to the formation of a syncytium, which is the sole food source for growing nematodes. As in other host-parasite models, avirulence leads to rapid and local programmed cell death (PCD known as the hypersensitive response (HR, whereas in the case of virulence, PCD is still observed but is limited to only some cells. Several regulators of PCD were analyzed to understand the role of PCD in compatible plant–nematode interactions. Thus, Arabidopsis plants carrying recessive mutations in LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 (LSD1 family genes were subjected to nematode infection assays with juveniles of Heterodera schachtii. LSD1 is a negative and conditional regulator of PCD, and fewer and smaller syncytia were induced in the roots of lsd1 mutants than in wild-type Col-0 plants. Mutation in LSD ONE LIKE2 (LOL2 revealed a pattern of susceptibility to H. schachtii antagonistic to lsd1. Syncytia induced on lsd1 roots compared to Col0 showed significantly retarded growth, modified cell wall structure, increased vesiculation, and some myelin-like bodies present at 7 and 12 days post-infection. To place these data in a wider context, RNA-sequencing analysis of infected and uninfected roots was conducted. During nematode infection, the number of transcripts with changed expression in lsd1 was approximately three times smaller than in wild-type plants (1440 vs. 4206 differentially expressed genes, respectively. LSD1-dependent PCD in roots is thus a highly regulated process in compatible plant–nematode interactions. Two genes identified in this analysis, coding for AUTOPHAGY-RELATED PROTEIN 8F and 8H were down-regulated in syncytia in the presence of LSD1 and showed an increased susceptibility to nematode infection contrasting with lsd1 phenotype. Our data indicate that molecular regulators

  3. Structure and Function of the Catalytic Domain of the Dihydrolipoyl Acetyltransferase Component in Escherichia coli Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjie; Nemeria, Natalia S.; Chandrasekhar, Krishnamoorthy; Kumaran, Sowmini; Arjunan, Palaniappa; Reynolds, Shelley; Calero, Guillermo; Brukh, Roman; Kakalis, Lazaros; Furey, William; Jordan, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) catalyzing conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA comprises three components: E1p, E2p, and E3. The E2p is the five-domain core component, consisting of three tandem lipoyl domains (LDs), a peripheral subunit binding domain (PSBD), and a catalytic domain (E2pCD). Herein are reported the following. 1) The x-ray structure of E2pCD revealed both intra- and intertrimer interactions, similar to those reported for other E2pCDs. 2) Reconstitution of recombinant LD and E2pCD with E1p and E3p into PDHc could maintain at least 6.4% activity (NADH production), confirming the functional competence of the E2pCD and active center coupling among E1p, LD, E2pCD, and E3 even in the absence of PSBD and of a covalent link between domains within E2p. 3) Direct acetyl transfer between LD and coenzyme A catalyzed by E2pCD was observed with a rate constant of 199 s−1, comparable with the rate of NADH production in the PDHc reaction. Hence, neither reductive acetylation of E2p nor acetyl transfer within E2p is rate-limiting. 4) An unprecedented finding is that although no interaction could be detected between E1p and E2pCD by itself, a domain-induced interaction was identified on E1p active centers upon assembly with E2p and C-terminally truncated E2p proteins by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. The inclusion of each additional domain of E2p strengthened the interaction with E1p, and the interaction was strongest with intact E2p. E2p domain-induced changes at the E1p active site were also manifested by the appearance of a circular dichroism band characteristic of the canonical 4′-aminopyrimidine tautomer of bound thiamin diphosphate (AP). PMID:24742683

  4. Structure and function of the catalytic domain of the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase component in Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjie; Nemeria, Natalia S; Chandrasekhar, Krishnamoorthy; Kumaran, Sowmini; Arjunan, Palaniappa; Reynolds, Shelley; Calero, Guillermo; Brukh, Roman; Kakalis, Lazaros; Furey, William; Jordan, Frank

    2014-05-30

    The Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) catalyzing conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA comprises three components: E1p, E2p, and E3. The E2p is the five-domain core component, consisting of three tandem lipoyl domains (LDs), a peripheral subunit binding domain (PSBD), and a catalytic domain (E2pCD). Herein are reported the following. 1) The x-ray structure of E2pCD revealed both intra- and intertrimer interactions, similar to those reported for other E2pCDs. 2) Reconstitution of recombinant LD and E2pCD with E1p and E3p into PDHc could maintain at least 6.4% activity (NADH production), confirming the functional competence of the E2pCD and active center coupling among E1p, LD, E2pCD, and E3 even in the absence of PSBD and of a covalent link between domains within E2p. 3) Direct acetyl transfer between LD and coenzyme A catalyzed by E2pCD was observed with a rate constant of 199 s(-1), comparable with the rate of NADH production in the PDHc reaction. Hence, neither reductive acetylation of E2p nor acetyl transfer within E2p is rate-limiting. 4) An unprecedented finding is that although no interaction could be detected between E1p and E2pCD by itself, a domain-induced interaction was identified on E1p active centers upon assembly with E2p and C-terminally truncated E2p proteins by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. The inclusion of each additional domain of E2p strengthened the interaction with E1p, and the interaction was strongest with intact E2p. E2p domain-induced changes at the E1p active site were also manifested by the appearance of a circular dichroism band characteristic of the canonical 4'-aminopyrimidine tautomer of bound thiamin diphosphate (AP). © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Caspase inhibitors affect the kinetics and dimensions of tracheary elements in xylogenic Zinnia (Zinnia elegans cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schel Jan HN

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The xylem vascular system is composed of fused dead, hollow cells called tracheary elements (TEs that originate through trans-differentiation of root and shoot cambium cells. TEs undergo autolysis as they differentiate and mature. The final stage of the formation of TEs in plants is the death of the involved cells, a process showing some similarities to programmed cell death (PCD in animal systems. Plant proteases with functional similarity to proteases involved in mammalian apoptotic cell death (caspases are suggested as an integral part of the core mechanism of most PCD responses in plants, but participation of plant caspase-like proteases in TE PCD has not yet been documented. Results Confocal microscopic images revealed the consecutive stages of TE formation in Zinnia cells during trans-differentiation. Application of the caspase inhibitors Z-Asp-CH2-DCB, Ac-YVAD-CMK and Ac-DEVD-CHO affected the kinetics of formation and the dimensions of the TEs resulting in a significant delay of TE formation, production of larger TEs and in elimination of the 'two-wave' pattern of TE production. DNA breakdown and appearance of TUNEL-positive nuclei was observed in xylogenic cultures and this was suppressed in the presence of caspase inhibitors. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge this is the first report showing that caspase inhibitors can modulate the process of trans-differentiation in Zinnia xylogenic cell cultures. As caspase inhibitors are closely associated with cell death inhibition in a variety of plant systems, this suggests that the altered TE formation results from suppression of PCD. The findings presented here are a first step towards the use of appropriate PCD signalling modulators or related molecular genetic strategies to improve the hydraulic properties of xylem vessels in favour of the quality and shelf life of plants or plant parts.

  6. Anhydrobiosis and programmed cell death in plants: Commonalities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Singh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Anhydrobiosis is an adaptive strategy of certain organisms or specialised propagules to survive in the absence of water while programmed cell death (PCD is a finely tuned cellular process of the selective elimination of targeted cell during developmental programme and perturbed biotic and abiotic conditions. Particularly during water stress both the strategies serve single purpose i.e., survival indicating PCD may also function as an adaptive process under certain conditions. During stress conditions PCD cause targeted cells death in order to keep the homeostatic balance required for the organism survival, whereas anhydrobiosis suspends cellular metabolic functions mimicking a state similar to death until reestablishment of the favourable conditions. Anhydrobiosis is commonly observed among organisms that have ability to revive their metabolism on rehydration after removal of all or almost all cellular water without damage. This feature is widely represented in terrestrial cyanobacteria and bryophytes where it is very common in both vegetative and reproductive stages of life-cycle. In the course of evolution, with the development of advanced vascular system in higher plants, anhydrobiosis was gradually lost from the vegetative phase of life-cycle. Though it is retained in resurrection plants that primarily belong to thallophytes and a small group of vascular angiosperm, it can be mostly found restricted in orthodox seeds of higher plants. On the contrary, PCD is a common process in all eukaryotes from unicellular to multicellular organisms including higher plants and mammals. In this review we discuss physiological and biochemical commonalities and differences between anhydrobiosis and PCD.

  7. Apoptotic-like programmed cell death in fungi: the benefits in filamentous species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neta eShlezinger

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies conducted in the early 1990's showed for the first time that Saccahromyces cerevisiae can undergo cell death with hallmarks of animal apoptosis. These findings came as a surprise, since suicide machinery was unexpected in unicellular organisms. Today, apoptosis in yeast is well documented. Apoptotic death of yeast cells has been described under various conditions and S. cerevisiae homologues of human apoptotic genes have been identified and characterized. These studies also revealed fundamental differences between yeast and animal apoptosis; in S. cerevisiae apoptosis is mainly associated with ageing and stress adaptation, unlike animal apoptosis, which is essential for proper development. Further, many apoptosis regulatory genes are either missing, or highly divergent in S. cerevisiae. Therefore, in this review we will use the term apoptosis-like programmed cell death (PCD instead of apoptosis. Despite these significant differences, S. cerevisiae has been instrumental in promoting the study of heterologous apoptotic proteins, particularly from human. Work in fungi other than S. cerevisiae revealed differences in the manifestation of PCD in single cell (yeasts and multi-cellular (filamentous species. Such differences may reflect the higher complexity level of filamentous species, and hence the involvement of PCD in a wider range of processes and life styles. It is also expected that differences might be found in the apoptosis apparatus of yeast and filamentous species. In this review we focus on aspects of PCD that are unique or can be better studied in filamentous species. We will highlight the similarities and differences of the PCD machinery between yeast and filamentous species and show the value of using S. cerevisiae along with filamentous species to study apoptosis.

  8. Enhancement of oxygen vacancies and solar photocatalytic activity of zinc oxide by incorporation of nonmetal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Ashokrao B.; Patil, Kashinath R.; Pardeshi, Satish K.

    2011-01-01

    B-doped ZnO and N-doped ZnO powders have been synthesized by mechanochemical method and characterized by TG–DTA, XRD, SEM–EDX, XPS, UV–visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. X-ray diffraction data suggests the hexagonal wurtzite structure for modified ZnO crystallites and the incorporation of nonmetal expands the lattice constants of ZnO. The room temperature PL spectra suggest more number of oxygen vacancies exist in nonmetal-doped ZnO than that of undoped zinc oxide. XPS analysis shows the substitution of some of the O atoms of ZnO by nonmetal atoms. Solar photocatalytic activity of B-doped ZnO, N-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO was compared by means of oxidative photocatalytic degradation (PCD) of Bisphenol A (BPA). B-doped ZnO showed better solar PCD efficiency as compare to N-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO. The PCD of BPA follows first order reaction kinetics. The detail mechanism of PCD of Bisphenol A was proposed with the identification of intermediates such as hydroquinone, benzene-1,2,4-triol and 4-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl) phenol. - Graphical Abstract: B-doped ZnO and N-doped ZnO synthesized by mechanochemical method were characterized by various techniques. Solar photocatalytic degradation of Bisphenol-A is in the order of B-ZnO>N-ZnO>ZnO. Highlights: ► B-doped ZnO and N-doped ZnO powders have been synthesized by mechanochemical method. ► PL spectra suggest oxygen vacancies are in order of B-doped ZnO>N-doped ZnO>ZnO. ► Solar PCD efficiency is in order of B-doped ZnO>N-doped ZnO>ZnO for Bisphenol A.

  9. Analysis of competing risk parameters in irradiated prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, R.; Mayer, E.; Langsenlehner, U.; Hackl, A.; Pummer, K.; Quehenberger, F.; Feigl, G.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Retrospective competing risk analysis of prognostic factors in definitive-irradiated prostate cancer patients. Patients and Methods: Data of 652 patients were analyzed according to three age subgroups ( 75 years; Table 1). Pre-RT PSA values (median 13.4 ng/ml) were available for 340 patients. Adjuvant hormone therapy (n = 261) consisted either of orchiectomy (n = 151) or LHRH agonist with/without antiandrogen therapy or, in the early years, diethystilbestrol. Neoadjuvant hormone therapy (n = 31) using LHRH agonists was given 6 months before and during radiotherapy. Results: Biochemical failure was observed in 69/.340 patients, 5 years after biochemical failure, 64.9% of them also had failed clinically. The cumulative incidence of local failure (LF) and distant metastases (DM) was 9.4% and 37.2%, respectively; LF and DM at the same time were seen in 18.2%. On multivariate analysis (Tables 2 and 3), advanced stage (relative risk [RR] 4.54), pre-RT PSA > 20 ng/ml (RR 2.79) and poorly differentiated tumors (RR 2.96) were significant predictors of biochemical failure. Advanced stage increased the risk of LF (RR 2.18), DM (RR 3.66), and prostate cancer death (PCD; RR 4.30). Hormone therapy decreased the risk of biochemical failure (RR 0.67), DM (RR 0.59), and PCD (RR 0.60) without reaching statistical significance. Median follow-up was 7.6 years. Conclusion: Risk of biochemical failure was predicted by pre-RT PSA, stage, and grade; in patients with biochemical failure, the cumulative incidence of death from intercurrent diseases and PCD was 25.0% and 29.2% after 5 years, respectively. The risk of DM and PCD was predicted by stage and grade. Higher age (> 75 years) decreased the relative risk of LF, DM, and PCD significantly. (orig.)

  10. Immunohistochemical analysis of IgA expression differentiates IgG4-related disease from plasma cell-type Castleman disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Akihiro; Igawa, Takuro; Takeuchi, Mai; Gion, Yuka; Yoshino, Tadashi; Sato, Yasuharu

    2017-03-01

    Plasma cell-type Castleman disease (PCD) is often encountered when differentiating IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Given that serum IgA is often elevated in Castleman disease, we investigated whether IgA expression levels in histological specimens can be used to differentiate between the two diseases. Lymph node lesions obtained from 12 IgG4-RD and 11 PCD patients were analysed by immunohistochemistry with anti-IgG, -IgG4, and -IgA antibodies. In addition to all 12 cases of IgG4-RD, 8/11 cases (72.7 %) of PCD also met the diagnostic criteria of IgG4-RD (serum IgG4 ≥135 mg/dl and IgG4/IgG-positive cells ≥40 %). IgA-positive cells were sparsely and densely distributed in IgG4-RD and PCD cases, respectively. The median number of IgA-positive cells ± SD in all 12 cases of IgG4-RD was 31 ± 37 cells per three high-powered fields (3HPFs) (range 4-118 cells/3HPFs). In contrast, the median number of IgA-positive cells, which was significantly higher in all 11 cases of PCD, was 303 ± 238 cells/3HPFs (range 74-737 cells/3HPFs) (P IgG4-RD.

  11. The polyadenylation factor subunit CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR30: A key factor of programmed cell death and a regulator of immunity in arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Bruggeman, Quentin

    2014-04-04

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is essential for several aspects of plant life, including development and stress responses. Indeed, incompatible plant-pathogen interactions are well known to induce the hypersensitive response, a localized cell death. Mutational analyses have identified several key PCD components, and we recently identified the mips1 mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which is deficient for the key enzyme catalyzing the limiting step of myoinositol synthesis. One of the most striking features of mips1 is the light-dependent formation of lesions on leaves due to salicylic acid (SA)-dependent PCD, revealing roles for myoinositol or inositol derivatives in the regulation of PCD. Here, we identified a regulator of plant PCD by screening for mutants that display transcriptomic profiles opposing that of the mips1 mutant. Our screen identified the oxt6 mutant, which has been described previously as being tolerant to oxidative stress. In the oxt6 mutant, a transfer DNA is inserted in the CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR30 (CPSF30) gene, which encodes a polyadenylation factor subunit homolog. We show that CPSF30 is required for lesion formation in mips1 via SA-dependent signaling, that the prodeath function of CPSF30 is not mediated by changes in the glutathione status, and that CPSF30 activity is required for Pseudomonas syringae resistance. We also show that the oxt6 mutation suppresses cell death in other lesion-mimic mutants, including lesion-simulating disease1, mitogen-activated protein kinase4, constitutive expressor of pathogenesis-related genes5, and catalase2, suggesting that CPSF30 and, thus, the control of messenger RNA 3′ end processing, through the regulation of SA production, is a key component of plant immune responses. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  12. Occupational protein contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaud, Annick; Poreaux, Claire; Penven, Emmanuelle; Waton, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is generally caused by haptens but can also be induced by proteins causing mainly immunological contact urticaria (ICU); chronic hand eczema in the context of protein contact dermatitis (PCD). In a monocentric retrospective study, from our database, only 31 (0.41%) of patients with contact dermatitis had positive skin tests with proteins: 22 had occupational PCD, 3 had non-occupational PCD, 5 occupational ICU and 1 cook had a neutrophilic fixed food eruption (NFFE) due to fish. From these results and analysis of literature, the characteristics of PCD can be summarized as follows. It is a chronic eczematous dermatitis, possibly exacerbated by work, suggestive if associated with inflammatory perionyxix and immediate erythema with pruritis, to be investigated when the patient resumes work after a period of interruption. Prick tests with the suspected protein-containing material are essential, as patch tests have negative results. In case of multisensitisation revealed by prick tests, it is advisable to analyse IgE against recombinant allergens. A history of atopy, found in 56 to 68% of the patients, has to be checked for. Most of the cases are observed among food-handlers but PCD can also be due to non-edible plants, latex, hydrolysed proteins or animal proteins. Occupational exposure to proteins can thus lead to the development of ICU. Reflecting hypersensitivity to very low concentrations of allergens, investigating ICU therefore requires caution and prick tests should be performed with a diluted form of the causative protein-containing product. Causes are food, especially fruit peel, non-edible plants, cosmetic products, latex, animals.

  13. 99mTc-DTPA Pulmonary Clearance in Normals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Soo Kyo; Yang, Woo Jin; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1994-01-01

    Pulmonary clearance of 99m Tc-DTPA(PCD) has been used for the measurement of pulmonary epithelial permeability. It has been reported to be increased not only in variety of pulmonary diseases including ARDS, interstitial fibrosis, and smokers, but also in normal subjects on positive end expiratory pressure respirator, or after exercise. It was also noted that decrease of pulmonary blood flow due to pulmonary arterial obstruction results in delayed PCD. Normal range of PCD varies with institutes. We prospectively measured PCD in 17 normals (5 males and 12 females) consisted of staffs and trainees in the department of radiology of Kangnam St, Marys hospital using original Bark Nebulizer (India). Age ranged from 32 to 43 years. 370 MBq of 99m Tc-DTPA was inhaled in supine position and supine posterior images were subsequently obtained with 1 min/frame, 64 X 64 matrix and word mode for 30 min. Regions of interest. Were set on each lung, whole lungs, and upper, middle and lower thirds of right lung, respectively. Best fit regression curve was obtained by least square method from initial 7 min after peak activity on each curve and time for half clearance of maximum activity (tl/2) was calculated. Mean tl/2 was 51 ± 11.2 min for whole lung. There was no significant difference between tl/ 2 of right and left lungs. Initial uptake was higher in the lower third and tl/2 was shorter in the lower third than in the upper third(P<0.05). We reviewed several reports on PCD and compared our data with the others. In this study, faster clearance in the lower third may be due to the position imaged with or the environment the subjects belong to, and further investigation is under way.

  14. Apoptotic-like programed cell death in fungi: the benefits in filamentous species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlezinger, Neta; Goldfinger, Nir; Sharon, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Studies conducted in the early 1990s showed for the first time that Saccharomyces cerevisiae can undergo cell death with hallmarks of animal apoptosis. These findings came as a surprise, since suicide machinery was unexpected in unicellular organisms. Today, apoptosis in yeast is well-documented. Apoptotic death of yeast cells has been described under various conditions and S. cerevisiae homologs of human apoptotic genes have been identified and characterized. These studies also revealed fundamental differences between yeast and animal apoptosis; in S. cerevisiae apoptosis is mainly associated with aging and stress adaptation, unlike animal apoptosis, which is essential for proper development. Further, many apoptosis regulatory genes are either missing, or highly divergent in S. cerevisiae. Therefore, in this review we will use the term apoptosis-like programed cell death (PCD) instead of apoptosis. Despite these significant differences, S. cerevisiae has been instrumental in promoting the study of heterologous apoptotic proteins, particularly from human. Work in fungi other than S. cerevisiae revealed differences in the manifestation of PCD in single cell (yeasts) and multicellular (filamentous) species. Such differences may reflect the higher complexity level of filamentous species, and hence the involvement of PCD in a wider range of processes and life styles. It is also expected that differences might be found in the apoptosis apparatus of yeast and filamentous species. In this review we focus on aspects of PCD that are unique or can be better studied in filamentous species. We will highlight the similarities and differences of the PCD machinery between yeast and filamentous species and show the value of using S. cerevisiae along with filamentous species to study apoptosis.

  15. Soman-induced convulsions: The neuropathology revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baille, Valerie; Clarke, Peter G.H.; Brochier, Guy; Dorandeu, Frederic; Verna, Jean-Marc; Four, Elise; Lallement, Guy; Carpentier, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The organophosphorus compound soman, an irreversible inhibitor of cholinesterases, produces seizure activity and related brain damage. Studies using various biochemical markers of programmed cell death (PCD) suggested that soman-induced cell damage in the brain was apoptotic rather than necrotic. However, it has recently become clear that not all PCD is apoptotic, and the unequivocal demonstration of apoptosis requires ultrastructural examination. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to reinvestigate the damage produced in the brains of mice sacrificed at various times within the first 24 h or at 7 days after a convulsive dose of soman. Classical histology and ultrastructural examination were performed. The immunohistochemical expression of proteins (p53, Bax) involved in PCD, DNA fragmentation (TUNEL method at light and electron microscopy levels) and the glial reaction were also explored. Our study confirms that the severity of lesions depended on the duration of convulsions and shows that cerebral changes were still occurring as late as 7 days after the onset of long-lasting convulsions. Our observations also establish that there was a large variety of ultrastructurally distinct types of cell damage, including hybrid forms between apoptosis and necrosis, but that pure apoptosis was very rare. A prominent expression of p53 and Bax proteins was detected indicating that PCD mechanisms were certainly involved in the morphologically diverse forms of cell death. Since purely apoptotic cells were very rare, these protein expressions were presumably involved either in nonapoptotic cell death mechanisms or in apoptotic mechanisms occurring in parallel with nonapoptotic ones. Moreover, evidence for DNA fragmentation by the TUNEL method was found in apoptotic but also in numerous other morphotypes of cell damage. Therefore, TUNEL-positivity and the expression of PCD-related proteins, in the absence of ultrastructural confirmation, were here shown not to provide

  16. Apoptotic-like programed cell death in fungi: the benefits in filamentous species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlezinger, Neta; Goldfinger, Nir; Sharon, Amir, E-mail: amirsh@ex.tau.ac.il [Department of Molecular Biology and Ecology of Plants, Tel Aviv University,, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2012-08-07

    Studies conducted in the early 1990s showed for the first time that Saccharomyces cerevisiae can undergo cell death with hallmarks of animal apoptosis. These findings came as a surprise, since suicide machinery was unexpected in unicellular organisms. Today, apoptosis in yeast is well-documented. Apoptotic death of yeast cells has been described under various conditions and S. cerevisiae homologs of human apoptotic genes have been identified and characterized. These studies also revealed fundamental differences between yeast and animal apoptosis; in S. cerevisiae apoptosis is mainly associated with aging and stress adaptation, unlike animal apoptosis, which is essential for proper development. Further, many apoptosis regulatory genes are either missing, or highly divergent in S. cerevisiae. Therefore, in this review we will use the term apoptosis-like programed cell death (PCD) instead of apoptosis. Despite these significant differences, S. cerevisiae has been instrumental in promoting the study of heterologous apoptotic proteins, particularly from human. Work in fungi other than S. cerevisiae revealed differences in the manifestation of PCD in single cell (yeasts) and multicellular (filamentous) species. Such differences may reflect the higher complexity level of filamentous species, and hence the involvement of PCD in a wider range of processes and life styles. It is also expected that differences might be found in the apoptosis apparatus of yeast and filamentous species. In this review we focus on aspects of PCD that are unique or can be better studied in filamentous species. We will highlight the similarities and differences of the PCD machinery between yeast and filamentous species and show the value of using S. cerevisiae along with filamentous species to study apoptosis.

  17. Cascaded systems analysis of photon counting detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Zbijewski, W; Gang, G; Stayman, J W; Taguchi, K; Lundqvist, M; Fredenberg, E; Carrino, J A; Siewerdsen, J H

    2014-10-01

    Photon counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology with applications in spectral and low-dose radiographic and tomographic imaging. This paper develops an analytical model of PCD imaging performance, including the system gain, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). A cascaded systems analysis model describing the propagation of quanta through the imaging chain was developed. The model was validated in comparison to the physical performance of a silicon-strip PCD implemented on an experimental imaging bench. The signal response, MTF, and NPS were measured and compared to theory as a function of exposure conditions (70 kVp, 1-7 mA), detector threshold, and readout mode (i.e., the option for coincidence detection). The model sheds new light on the dependence of spatial resolution, charge sharing, and additive noise effects on threshold selection and was used to investigate the factors governing PCD performance, including the fundamental advantages and limitations of PCDs in comparison to energy-integrating detectors (EIDs) in the linear regime for which pulse pileup can be ignored. The detector exhibited highly linear mean signal response across the system operating range and agreed well with theoretical prediction, as did the system MTF and NPS. The DQE analyzed as a function of kilovolt (peak), exposure, detector threshold, and readout mode revealed important considerations for system optimization. The model also demonstrated the important implications of false counts from both additive electronic noise and charge sharing and highlighted the system design and operational parameters that most affect detector performance in the presence of such factors: for example, increasing the detector threshold from 0 to 100 (arbitrary units of pulse height threshold roughly equivalent to 0.5 and 6 keV energy threshold, respectively), increased the f50 (spatial-frequency at which the MTF falls to a value of

  18. Apoptotic pathways as regulators of recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauny, S.S.; Kronenberg, A.; Liu, W.-C.

    2003-01-01

    Apoptosis, or programmed cell death (PCD), is a fundamental process that protects organismal integrity. In earlier work, we demonstrated that over-expression of either of two anti-apoptotic members of the BCL-2 family (BCL-2 or BCL-X L could elevate the frequency of radiation-induced mutations at the autosomal TK1 locus in human TK6 lymphoblasts that express wild-type TP53. Ectopic expression of BCL-X L also elevated the frequencies of double-strand break-induced gene conversion. The purpose of this study is to determine if BCL-2 family proteins promote radiation mutagenesis indirectly through their suppression of PCD, or whether the 'pro-mutagenic' function of these proteins can be separated from their anti-apoptotic function. We developed stable transfectants of TK6 cells that express a mutated form of BCL-X L with a single amino acid substitution in the BH1 domain that is known to interfere with the ability to suppress PCD (BCL-X L gly159ala). We also developed stable transfectants of TK6 cells that express a dominant negative caspase-9 that suppresses PCD. The results to date indicate that the mutated form of BCL-X L (gly159ala) does not suppress x-ray-induced PCD in TK6 cells, but it elevates radiation-induced TK1 mutant frequencies to the same extent as high level expression of wild-type BCL-X L . These data suggest that the anti-apoptotic function of BCL-2 family proteins is not required to elevate radiation mutagenesis. Separate experiments using TK6 cells that express a dominant negative caspase-9 indicate that this protein inhibits x-ray-induced PCD but TK1 mutant frequencies are not elevated. Taken together, the results suggest there is a separate function of BCL-2 family proteins that elevates radiation-induced mutagenesis independent of the well-known anti-apoptotic effect of these proteins of importance in human carcinogenesis

  19. Post column derivatisation analyses review. Is post-column derivatisation incompatible with modern HPLC columns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew; Pravadali-Cekic, Sercan; Dennis, Gary R; Shalliker, R Andrew

    2015-08-19

    Post Column derivatisation (PCD) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography or ultra-high performance liquid chromatography is a powerful tool in the modern analytical laboratory, or at least it should be. One drawback with PCD techniques is the extra post-column dead volume due to reaction coils used to enable adequate reaction time and the mixing of reagents which causes peak broadening, hence a loss of separation power. This loss of efficiency is counter-productive to modern HPLC technologies, -such as UHPLC. We reviewed 87 PCD methods published from 2009 to 2014. We restricted our review to methods published between 2009 and 2014, because we were interested in the uptake of PCD methods in UHPLC environments. Our review focused on a range of system parameters including: column dimensions, stationary phase and particle size, as well as the geometry of the reaction loop. The most commonly used column in the methods investigated was not in fact a modern UHPLC version with sub-2-micron, (or even sub-3-micron) particles, but rather, work-house columns, such as, 250 × 4.6 mm i.d. columns packed with 5 μm C18 particles. Reaction loops were varied, even within the same type of analysis, but the majority of methods employed loop systems with volumes greater than 500 μL. A second part of this review illustrated briefly the effect of dead volume on column performance. The experiment evaluated the change in resolution and separation efficiency of some weak to moderately retained solutes on a 250 × 4.6 mm i.d. column packed with 5 μm particles. The data showed that reaction loops beyond 100 μL resulted in a very serious loss of performance. Our study concluded that practitioners of PCD methods largely avoid the use of UHPLC-type column formats, so yes, very much, PCD is incompatible with the modern HPLC column. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Cascaded systems analysis of photon counting detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Zbijewski, W.; Gang, G.; Stayman, J. W.; Taguchi, K.; Carrino, J. A.; Lundqvist, M.; Fredenberg, E.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Photon counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology with applications in spectral and low-dose radiographic and tomographic imaging. This paper develops an analytical model of PCD imaging performance, including the system gain, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Methods: A cascaded systems analysis model describing the propagation of quanta through the imaging chain was developed. The model was validated in comparison to the physical performance of a silicon-strip PCD implemented on an experimental imaging bench. The signal response, MTF, and NPS were measured and compared to theory as a function of exposure conditions (70 kVp, 1–7 mA), detector threshold, and readout mode (i.e., the option for coincidence detection). The model sheds new light on the dependence of spatial resolution, charge sharing, and additive noise effects on threshold selection and was used to investigate the factors governing PCD performance, including the fundamental advantages and limitations of PCDs in comparison to energy-integrating detectors (EIDs) in the linear regime for which pulse pileup can be ignored. Results: The detector exhibited highly linear mean signal response across the system operating range and agreed well with theoretical prediction, as did the system MTF and NPS. The DQE analyzed as a function of kilovolt (peak), exposure, detector threshold, and readout mode revealed important considerations for system optimization. The model also demonstrated the important implications of false counts from both additive electronic noise and charge sharing and highlighted the system design and operational parameters that most affect detector performance in the presence of such factors: for example, increasing the detector threshold from 0 to 100 (arbitrary units of pulse height threshold roughly equivalent to 0.5 and 6 keV energy threshold, respectively), increased the f 50 (spatial-frequency at

  1. Cascaded systems analysis of photon counting detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.; Zbijewski, W.; Gang, G.; Stayman, J. W. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Taguchi, K.; Carrino, J. A. [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Lundqvist, M.; Fredenberg, E. [Philips Healthcare, Solna 171 41 (Sweden); Siewerdsen, J. H., E-mail: jeff.siewerdsen@jhu.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Photon counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology with applications in spectral and low-dose radiographic and tomographic imaging. This paper develops an analytical model of PCD imaging performance, including the system gain, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Methods: A cascaded systems analysis model describing the propagation of quanta through the imaging chain was developed. The model was validated in comparison to the physical performance of a silicon-strip PCD implemented on an experimental imaging bench. The signal response, MTF, and NPS were measured and compared to theory as a function of exposure conditions (70 kVp, 1–7 mA), detector threshold, and readout mode (i.e., the option for coincidence detection). The model sheds new light on the dependence of spatial resolution, charge sharing, and additive noise effects on threshold selection and was used to investigate the factors governing PCD performance, including the fundamental advantages and limitations of PCDs in comparison to energy-integrating detectors (EIDs) in the linear regime for which pulse pileup can be ignored. Results: The detector exhibited highly linear mean signal response across the system operating range and agreed well with theoretical prediction, as did the system MTF and NPS. The DQE analyzed as a function of kilovolt (peak), exposure, detector threshold, and readout mode revealed important considerations for system optimization. The model also demonstrated the important implications of false counts from both additive electronic noise and charge sharing and highlighted the system design and operational parameters that most affect detector performance in the presence of such factors: for example, increasing the detector threshold from 0 to 100 (arbitrary units of pulse height threshold roughly equivalent to 0.5 and 6 keV energy threshold, respectively), increased the f{sub 50} (spatial

  2. Airway ciliary dysfunction and respiratory symptoms in patients with transposition of the great arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Maliha; Bais, Abha; Tian, Xin; Devine, William; Lee, Dong Ming; Yau, Cyrus; Sonnenberg, Daniel; Beerman, Lee; Khalifa, Omar; Lo, Cecilia W

    2018-01-01

    Our prior work on congenital heart disease (CHD) with heterotaxy, a birth defect involving randomized left-right patterning, has shown an association of a high prevalence of airway ciliary dysfunction (CD; 18/43 or 42%) with increased respiratory symptoms. Furthermore, heterotaxy patients with ciliary dysfunction were shown to have more postsurgical pulmonary morbidities. These findings are likely a reflection of the common role of motile cilia in both airway clearance and left-right patterning. As CHD comprising transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is commonly thought to involve disturbance of left-right patterning, especially L-TGA with left-right ventricular inversion, we hypothesize CHD patients with transposition of great arteries (TGA) may have high prevalence of airway CD with increased respiratory symptoms. We recruited 75 CHD patients with isolated TGA, 28% L and 72% D-TGA. Patients were assessed using two tests typically used for evaluating airway ciliary dysfunction in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a recessive sinopulmonary disease caused by respiratory ciliary dysfunction. This entailed the measurement of nasal nitric oxide (nNO), which is typically low with PCD. We also obtained nasal scrapes and conducted videomicroscopy to assess respiratory ciliary motion (CM). We observed low nNO in 29% of the patients, and abnormal CM in 57%, with 22% showing both low nNO and abnormal CM. No difference was observed for the prevalence of either low nNO or abnormal ciliary motion between patients with D vs. L-TGA. Respiratory symptoms were increased with abnormal CM, but not low nNO. Sequencing analysis showed no compound heterozygous or homozygous mutations in 39 genes known to cause PCD, nor in CFTR, gene causing cystic fibrosis. As both are recessive disorders, these results indicate TGA patients with ciliary dysfunction do not have PCD or cystic fibrosis (which can cause low nNO or abnormal ciliary motion). TGA patients have high

  3. A supramolecular ''Double-cable'' structure with a 129{sub 44} helix in a columnar porphyrin-C{sub 60} dyad and its application in polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chien-Lung [College of Polymer Science and Polymer Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, OH (United States); Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Wen-Bin; Sun, Hao-Jan; Van Horn, Ryan M.; Kulkarni, Rahul R.; Tsai, Chi-Chun; Gong, Xiong; Cheng, Stephen Z.D. [College of Polymer Science and Polymer Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, OH (United States); Hsu, Chain-Shu [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lotz, Bernard [Institut Charles Sadron, Strasbourg (France)

    2012-11-15

    A novel porphyrin-C{sub 60} dyad (PCD1) is designed and synthesized to investigate and manipulate the supramolecular structure where geometrically isotropic [such as [60]fullerene (C{sub 60})] and anisotropic [such as porphyrin (Por)] units coexist. It is observed that PCD1 possesses an enantiomeric phase behavior. The melting temperature of the stable PCD1 thermotropic phase is 160 C with a latent heat ({Delta}H) of 18.5 kJ mol{sup -1}. The phase formation is majorly driven by the cooperative intermolecular Por-Por and C{sub 60}-C{sub 60} interactions. Structural analysis reveals that this stable phase possesses a supramolecular ''double-cable'' structure with one p-type Por core columnar channel and three helical n-type C{sub 60} peripheral channels. These ''double-cable'' columns further pack into a hexagonal lattice with a = b = 4.65 nm, c = 41.3 nm, {alpha} = {beta} = 90 , and {gamma} = 120 . The column repeat unit is determined to possess a 129{sub 44} helix. With both donor (D; Pro) and acceptor (A; C{sub 60}) units having their own connecting channels as well as the large D/A interface within the supramolecular ''double-cable'' structure, PCD1 has photogenerated carriers with longer lifetimes compared to the conventional electron acceptor [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester. A phase-separated columnar morphology is observed in a bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) material made by the physical blend of a low band-gap conjugated polymer, poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta [2,1-b;3,4-b']-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothia-diazole)] (PCPDTBT), and PCD1. With a specific phase structure in the solid state and in the blend, PCD1 is shown to be a promising candidate as a new electron acceptor in high performance BHJ polymer solar cells. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Untangling the Roles of Anti-Apoptosis in Regulating Programmed Cell Death using Humanized Yeast Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapp, Caitlin; Portt, Liam; Khoury, Chamel; Sheibani, Sara; Eid, Rawan; Greenwood, Matthew; Vali, Hojatollah; Mandato, Craig A.; Greenwood, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Genetically programmed cell death (PCD) mechanisms, including apoptosis, are important for the survival of metazoans since it allows, among things, the removal of damaged cells that interfere with normal function. Cell death due to PCD is observed in normal processes such as aging and in a number of pathophysiologies including hypoxia (common causes of heart attacks and strokes) and subsequent tissue reperfusion. Conversely, the loss of normal apoptotic responses is associated with the development of tumors. So far, limited success in preventing unwanted PCD has been reported with current therapeutic approaches despite the fact that inhibitors of key apoptotic inducers such as caspases have been developed. Alternative approaches have focused on mimicking anti-apoptotic processes observed in cells displaying increased resistance to apoptotic stimuli. Hormesis and pre-conditioning are commonly observed cellular strategies where sub-lethal levels of pro-apoptotic stimuli lead to increased resistance to higher or lethal levels of stress. Increased expression of anti-apoptotic sequences is a common mechanism mediating these protective effects. The relevance of the latter observation is exemplified by the observation that transgenic mice overexpressing anti-apoptotic genes show significant reductions in tissue damage following ischemia. Thus strategies aimed at increasing the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, using gene therapy or cell penetrating recombinant proteins are being evaluated as novel therapeutics to decrease cell death following acute periods of cell death inducing stress. In spite of its functional and therapeutic importance, more is known regarding the processes involved in apoptosis than anti-apoptosis. The genetically tractable yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has emerged as an exceptional model to study multiple aspects of PCD including the mitochondrial mediated apoptosis observed in metazoans. To increase our knowledge of the process of anti

  5. Condensation system with seawater in the Royal Solaris Hotel of Cancun; Sistema de condensacion con agua salada en el hotel Royal Solaris de Cancun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero, Juan F.; Hernandez A, David [Celsol, S.A. de C.V., Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    estudio tecnico, durante el mes de septiembre de 1998, en las instalaciones de Villas Solaris, S.A. de C.V., especificamente en el Hotel Royal Solaris, torres Royal y Caribe, se encontraron importantes oportunidades de ahorro, mismas que fueron evaluadas tecnica y economicamente para poder presentar a Villa Solaris, S.A. de C.V., un proyecto de Ahorro de Energia altamente rentable que permita obtener grandes beneficios economicos, un mejor servicio para los huespedes y un importante paso para la reduccion de los gastos operativos (energeticos), que garantizara la futura competitividad del hotel en la zona. La base de las oportunidades de ahorro es la sustitucion de los equipos de aire acondicionado, puesto que los instalados en el Hotel, son equipos muy deficientes (piston en Torre Caribe) o que por normas ecologicas internacionales quedaran obsoletos en poco tiempo (centrifugos R-11 Torre Royal). Ademas se centralizo en un solo sitio el area de maquinas de servicio del Hotel. La medida de sustitucion de los sistemas de aire acondicionado, contemplo el instalar equipos centrifugos de alta eficiencia (0.65kW/Ton a plena carga) enfriados con agua salada, que es un recurso muy abundante en la zona y no representa costo alguno para el Hotel. El resto del calor de las maquinas de refrigeracion se contempla utilizar para precalentar el agua de servicio y el agua de alberca mediante equipos de intercambio de calor. Para llegar a las temperaturas optimas deseadas se aprovecho la instalacion de sistemas termosolares que ya existe en el Hotel. Al implementar este sistema global, se elimino la utilizacion de torres de enfriamiento que era el equipo que enfria el agua de condensacion de los equipos de aire acondicionado. Ademas se elimino la utilizacion de las calderas de vapor que hacian la funcion de calentar el agua de servicios, por lo que se genero un ahorro de combustible importante.

  6. Delimitación de zonas susceptibles a filtraciones en el túnel Serones-Salida Guaro del Trasvase Este-Oeste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Otaño-Noguel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La existencia de flujos de agua subterránea en un macizo rocoso muy agrietado, unido a un relieve favorable al escurrimiento superficial, facilita la infiltración del agua hacia el interior de los túneles, laboreados al nivel del manto freático o por debajo de éste, en el Trasvase Este-Oeste que se construye en la provincia de Holguín, Cuba. Como consecuencia, se producen inundaciones arciales y derrumbes por la pérdida de resistencia de las rocas o por el lavado del relleno de las grietas. Para adoptar medidas correctoras que aumenten la seguridad de las excavaciones y garanticen una mayor estabilidad de las obras es necesaria la delimitación de las áreas susceptibles a inundaciones y derrumbes por infiltración del agua. Mediante la combinación de métodos geomecánicos de análisis de macizos, estudios hidrogeológicos y cartografía digital se delimitaron, para el túnel Serones-Salida Guaro, cuatro zonas muy susceptibles por infiltración atendiendo a su alta permeabilidad (más de 10 m/día y a su ubicación en la intersección de dos sistemas de fallas donde han ocurrido movimientos rumbo-deslizantes.

  7. Maximum power point tracking in PV systems based on adaptive control and sliding mode control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Andrea Ortiz-Valencia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas fotovoltaicos (PV son comúnmente controlados utilizando estructuras PI o PID, las cuales no pueden asegurar estabilidad global y un tiempo de establecimiento constante. Por esto, los algoritmos de optimización, e.g. Perturbar y Observar (P&O, son diseñados utilizando el tiempo de establecimiento más alto en el rango de operación, lo cual produce una búsqueda lenta del punto de máxima potencia (MPP para gran parte del rango de operación, introduciendo pérdidas dinámicas de potencia al sistema. Este artículo propone combinar un controlador adaptativo y un controlador de corriente por modos deslizantes (SMCC para garantizar estabilidad global y un tiempo de establecimiento constante para cualquier condición de operación, lo que permite incrementar la potencia generada en comparación con controladores PI y PID. El SMCC permite mitigar las perturbaciones del sistema y garantizar estabilidad global, mientras que el controlador adaptativo define la referencia del SMCC para asegurar un tiempo de estabilización constante. El diseño de la nueva estructura de control se soporta con análisis matemáticos y simulaciones realizadas en Matlab® para validar la robustez del sistema.

  8. Optimum geometry for boiler soot blowers nozzles; Geometria optima de toberas para deshollinadores de caldera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza Garza, Jesus; Garcia Tinoco, Guillermo J; Martinez Flores, Jose Oscar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    For boiler soot blowing converging-diverging nozzles are employed, whose function is to convert thermal energy of a gas into kinetic energy to remove the deposits that adhere to the heat exchanger surfaces. In this paper are described the experimental equipment and the methods for flow, dynamic pressure, discharge velocity and air expansion factor calculation in each nozzle, as a function of its design geometry, utilizing air from a five stage centrifugal compressor. The graphic analysis of the results, concludes that the most efficient nozzles are not the ones than develop the greatest velocity, but the ones of highest dynamic pressure at the outlet. The nozzle geometry that allows obtaining the maximum dynamic air pressure at the discharge is A{sub 2}/A{sub g}=1.3676 [Espanol] Para el deshollinado de calderas se utilizan las toberas convergentes-divergentes, cuya funcion es convertir la energia termica de un gas en energia cinetica para remover los depositos que se adhieren a las superficies de intercambio de calor. En este trabajo se describen el equipo experimental y los metodos de calculo para flujo, presion dinamica, velocidad a la descarga y factor de expansion del aire en cada tobera, como funcion de su geometria de diseno. Durante la experimentacion se evaluaron siete disenos diferentes de toberas, empleando aire de un compresor centrifugo de cinco etapas. Del analisis grafico de los resultados, se concluye que las toberas mas eficientes no son las que desarrollan mayor velocidad sino las de mayor presion dinamica de la salida. La geometria de tobera que permite obtener la maxima presion dinamica del aire a la descarga es A{sub 2}/A{sub g} = 1.3676.

  9. Optimum geometry for boiler soot blowers nozzles; Geometria optima de toberas para deshollinadores de caldera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza Garza, Jesus; Garcia Tinoco, Guillermo J.; Martinez Flores, Jose Oscar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    For boiler soot blowing converging-diverging nozzles are employed, whose function is to convert thermal energy of a gas into kinetic energy to remove the deposits that adhere to the heat exchanger surfaces. In this paper are described the experimental equipment and the methods for flow, dynamic pressure, discharge velocity and air expansion factor calculation in each nozzle, as a function of its design geometry, utilizing air from a five stage centrifugal compressor. The graphic analysis of the results, concludes that the most efficient nozzles are not the ones than develop the greatest velocity, but the ones of highest dynamic pressure at the outlet. The nozzle geometry that allows obtaining the maximum dynamic air pressure at the discharge is A{sub 2}/A{sub g}=1.3676 [Espanol] Para el deshollinado de calderas se utilizan las toberas convergentes-divergentes, cuya funcion es convertir la energia termica de un gas en energia cinetica para remover los depositos que se adhieren a las superficies de intercambio de calor. En este trabajo se describen el equipo experimental y los metodos de calculo para flujo, presion dinamica, velocidad a la descarga y factor de expansion del aire en cada tobera, como funcion de su geometria de diseno. Durante la experimentacion se evaluaron siete disenos diferentes de toberas, empleando aire de un compresor centrifugo de cinco etapas. Del analisis grafico de los resultados, se concluye que las toberas mas eficientes no son las que desarrollan mayor velocidad sino las de mayor presion dinamica de la salida. La geometria de tobera que permite obtener la maxima presion dinamica del aire a la descarga es A{sub 2}/A{sub g} = 1.3676.

  10. Il significato di centralità. Tecniche di densificazione dello spazio costruito / The meaning of centrality. Technique of densifying built space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Strina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Il presente articolo indaga il termine centralità urbana, una delle parole chiave della ricerca Spinner 2013 Progettare il costruito: nuovi modelli a qualità integrata per la città compatta, in corso dal 2012. L’architettura si è spesso confrontata col significato di centralità urbana interpretandolo a seconda delle dinamiche evolutive che, via via, hanno guidato le scelte progettuali di sviluppo urbano. Il termine centralità è da intendersi nell'accezione di tipologia architettonica ma in primis nell'accezione simbolica di effetto comunitario, aggregativo e, in conclusione, di luogo. Essa si concretizza in un sistema insediativo complesso che conforma uno spazio di tipo centrifugo e allo stesso tempo centripeto, introverso e estroverso, capace di custodire in se la memoria del contesto di appartenenza da cui ha attinto i propri caratteri formali e, al contempo, costruire una memoria identitaria della comunità che lo abita e che lo abiterà. / This article investigates the term urban centrality, one of the key words of the 2013 Spinner Research Project: Designing the built: new models of integrated quality for the compact city, ongoing since 2012. Architecture has often had to deal with the meaning of urban centrality, interpreting it according to the evolutive dynamics that have gradually come to guide planning choices in urban development. The term centrality is to be understood in the sense of architectural typology, but in primis in the symbolic sense of its effect on the community, aggregation, and ultimately, the place itself. It becomes concrete within a complex settlement system that shapes a space of a centrifugal and centripetal type, both introvert and extrovert, that can hoard the memory of the context of belonging from whose formal characteristics it has drawn and, at the same time, build an identity memory of the community that inhabits and will continue to inhabit it.

  11. Catalytic aided electrical discharge machining of polycrystalline diamond - parameter analysis of finishing condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haikal Ahmad, M. A.; Zulafif Rahim, M.; Fauzi, M. F. Mohd; Abdullah, Aslam; Omar, Z.; Ding, Songlin; Ismail, A. E.; Rasidi Ibrahim, M.

    2018-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) is regarded as among the hardest material in the world. Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) typically used to machine this material because of its non-contact process nature. This investigation was purposely done to compare the EDM performances of PCD when using normal electrode of copper (Cu) and newly proposed graphitization catalyst electrode of copper nickel (CuNi). Two level full factorial design of experiment with 4 center points technique was used to study the influence of main and interaction effects of the machining parameter namely; pulse-on, pulse-off, sparking current, and electrode materials (categorical factor). The paper shows interesting discovery in which the newly proposed electrode presented positive impact to the machining performance. With the same machining parameters of finishing, CuNi delivered more than 100% better in Ra and MRR than ordinary Cu electrode.

  12. Exhaled breath analysis using electronic nose in cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia patients with chronic pulmonary infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Odin; Paff, Tamara; Haarman, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    The current diagnostic work-up and monitoring of pulmonary infections may be perceived as invasive, is time consuming and expensive. In this explorative study, we investigated whether or not a non-invasive exhaled breath analysis using an electronic nose would discriminate between cystic fibrosis...... (CF) and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) with or without various well characterized chronic pulmonary infections. We recruited 64 patients with CF and 21 with PCD based on known chronic infection status. 21 healthy volunteers served as controls. An electronic nose was employed to analyze exhaled......, this method significantly discriminates CF patients suffering from a chronic pulmonary P. aeruginosa (PA) infection from CF patients without a chronic pulmonary infection. Further studies are needed for verification and to investigate the role of electronic nose technology in the very early diagnostic workup...

  13. A novel approach for studying programmed cell death in living plant tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina

    to traditional approaches. Future applications of this type of setup could be used for other types of plant tissues such as leaves or germinating embryos for studying the effects of e.g. biotic and abiotic stresses or for screening of compounds for biological effects. Due to the ease of use and many......Programmed cell death (PCD) is a highly regulated process in which cells are killed as part of developmental programmes or as defence mechanisms against pathogens, but the process is less well understood in plant cells compared to animal cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in PCD...... in plants, but the relationship between and mechanisms behind ROS and PCDhas not yet been fully elucidated due to the involvement of complex signalling networks. Elucidation of these mechanisms and signalling pathways will allow manipulation of cell death in plants, which could help to improve yield...

  14. Treatment of infected bulla with alcohol sclerosis combined with percutaneous catheter drainage: a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Young Min; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Chong Soo; Chung, Gyung Ho; Rhee, Yang Keen; Lee, Yong Chul; Sohn, Myung Hee; Choi, Ki Chul

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate effectiveness of alcohol sclerosis combined with percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) for treatment of infected bulla. Infected bulla in four consecutive patients were treated. In all patients, percutaneous catheter drainage of the bulla was performed. Instillation of sterile alcohol (99% ethanol) was carried out into the cavity of the bulla. Alcohol was left in the cavity for approximately 30 minutes in each session. Alcohol instillation was repeated according to the size of bulla. Patients were subsequently followed up with serial chest radiographs and CT scans. All patients showed significant improvement both clinically and radiologically. Disappearance of the bulla and reexpansion of surrounding lung parenchyma was observed in two patients and partial resolution (80% reduction in size) was seen in another two patients. Complications included mild chest pain during instillation of alcohol in all patients and delayed radiating shoulder pain in one patient. We provisionally conclude that intracavitary alcohol instillation combined with PCD is effective in the treatment of the infected bulla

  15. Programmed cell death during development of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) seed coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Nathália Bastos; Trindade, Fernanda Gomes; da Cunha, Maura; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Topping, Jennifer; Lindsey, Keith; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales

    2015-04-01

    The seed coat develops primarily from maternal tissues and comprises multiple cell layers at maturity, providing a metabolically dynamic interface between the developing embryo and the environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination of seeds. Seed coat development involves dramatic cellular changes, and the aim of this research was to investigate the role of programmed cell death (PCD) events during the development of seed coats of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. We demonstrate that cells of the developing cowpea seed coats undergo a programme of autolytic cell death, detected as cellular morphological changes in nuclei, mitochondria, chloroplasts and vacuoles, DNA fragmentation and oligonucleosome accumulation in the cytoplasm, and loss of membrane viability. We show for the first time that classes 6 and 8 caspase-like enzymes are active during seed coat development, and that these activities may be compartmentalized by translocation between vacuoles and cytoplasm during PCD events. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Prototypical consolidation demonstration project - Final fuel recommendation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piscitella, R.R.; Paskey, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Prototypical Consolidation Demonstration (PCD) Project will, in its final phase, conduct a demonstration of the equipment's ability to consolidate actual spent commercial fuel. Since budget and schedule limitations do not allow this demonstration to include all types of fuel assemblies, a selection process was utilized to identify the fuel types that would represent predominate fuel inventories and that would demonstrate the equipment's abilities. The Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies that were suggested for use in the PCD Project Hot Demonstration were Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) 15 x 15's, and Westinghouse (WE) 15 x 15's. The Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel suggested was the General Electric (GE) 8 x 8

  17. Distribution of E-cadherin and ß-catenin in relation to cell maturation and cell extrusion in rat and mouse small intestines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Lars-Inge

    2006-01-01

    of programmed cell death (PCD) in mouse small intestinal epithelium. We have studied if this also occurs in the intact rodent small intestine. Our results confirm that extruded cells are negatie for E-cadherin. However, loss of the E-cadherin-interacting protein ß-cetenin preceded both extrusion and loss of E......-cadherin. Thus, all extruded cells as well as all cells in the process of extrusion lacked staining for ß-catenin. Moreover, almost 80% of all cells undergoing programmed cell death, as detected by the TUNEL reaction, lacked ß-catenin whereas over 70% of such cells were positive for E-cadherin. However, most...... ells lacking ß-catenin did not display signs of PCD as detected by the TUNEL method or by staining for active caspase-3. Therefore, these results suggest that loss of ß-catenin precedes the onset of programmed cell death, loss of E-cadherin and extrusion from the villi....

  18. Endoplasmic reticulum involvement in yeast cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicanor Austriaco, O.

    2012-01-01

    Yeast cells undergo programed cell death (PCD) with characteristic markers associated with apoptosis in mammalian cells including chromatin breakage, nuclear fragmentation, reactive oxygen species generation, and metacaspase activation. Though significant research has focused on mitochondrial involvement in this phenomenon, more recent work with both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe has also implicated the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in yeast PCD. This minireview provides an overview of ER stress-associated cell death (ER-SAD) in yeast. It begins with a description of ER structure and function in yeast before moving to a discussion of ER-SAD in both mammalian and yeast cells. Three examples of yeast cell death associated with the ER will be highlighted here including inositol starvation, lipid toxicity, and the inhibition of N-glycosylation. It closes by suggesting ways to further examine the involvement of the ER in yeast cell death.

  19. On the generation of surface depressions in polishing polycrystalline diamond compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Fengzai; Chen, Yiqing; Zhang, Liangchi

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the surface depressions generated during the polishing of the (1 1 1) surfaces of polycrystalline diamond (PCD) compacts when using the dynamic friction polishing (DFP) method. It was found that surface depressions of six-sided faces along octahedral planes were the typical features created by the DFP. Although the size of the well-developed depressions can vary significantly, the rectilinear edges are always aligned with the directions. Pronounced {1 1 1} planar defects (i.e., twins) were revealed underneath a depression apex. The interception of the defect plane with the polished surface accounts for the generation of the aligned depressions and for the discernible asymmetry of the pyramidal faces with respect to the (1 1 1) plane. It was revealed that the attached debris layer on the PCD surfaces contained sp 2 -bounded amorphous carbon and nano-sized crystals. (paper)

  20. Anti-Yo Mediated Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration Associated with Pseudobulbar Affect in a Patient with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison N. Martin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD is a rare anti-Yo mediated paraneoplastic syndromes rarely that is infrequently associated with breast cancer. We present a case of a 52-year-old female presenting with diplopia, gait instability, dysarthria, dysphagia, nystagmus, and, most notably, new onset paroxysmal episodes of uncontrollable crying concerning for pseudobulbar affect (PBA. Serologic testing showed anti-Yo antibodies. The patient was found to have stage IIIA breast cancer as the inciting cause of the paraneoplastic syndrome. The patient was treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, modified radical mastectomy, adjuvant Herceptin, and pertuzumab. She was given IVIG for paraneoplastic syndrome, antidepressants, and dextromethorphan-quinidine (Nuedexta, the first FDA-approved therapy for PBA. With multimodality therapy, she demonstrated significant improvement in neurologic and mood symptoms associated with PCD and PBA.

  1. Evaluación de la calidad docente y promoción del profesorado (VII. Legislación universitaria española (e: modificación de la Ley Orgánica de Universidades. Profesorado contratado permanente (2004-2008 Evaluation of teaching and faculty promotion (VII. University Spanish legislation (e: modification of the Organic Law of Universities. Recruited staff with indefinite contract (2004-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Carreras

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La Ley Orgánica de Modificación de la Ley Orgánica de Universidades (LOMLOU, promulgada el año 2007, incluyó disposiciones referentes al profesorado contratado doctor (PCD que supusieron la consolidación de la vía laboral como alternativa a la vía funcionarial en la carrera universitaria. La Ley estableció que la contratación de los PCD sería de carácter indefinido y con dedicación a tiempo completo, determinó que dichos profesores tenían plena capacidad docente e investigadora, reconoció su condición de elegibles para los órganos unipersonales de gobierno (salvo para el cargo de rector, les atribuyó voto ponderado en la constitución del claustro universitario y en la elección de rector y, mediante modificación de la Ley General de Sanidad, determinó que podría establecerse vinculación de plazas asistenciales con plazas de PCD. Por lo que respecta a los requisitos para acceder a una plaza de PCD, la LOMLOU suprimió la necesidad de acreditar tres años de actividad docente e investigadora, establecida por la LOU, pero mantuvo como requisito una evaluación positiva por parte de un órgano externo (acreditación. En este artículo se analizan comparativamente los procesos de acreditación desarrollados por la Agencia Nacional de Evaluación de la Calidad y Acreditación (ANECA y por los órganos de evaluación establecidos por las diversas comunidades autónomas, así como los concursos de acceso a las plazas convocadas por las universidades. Además, se describen las características de las diversas figuras de PCD establecidas por las comunidades autónomas.The Organic Law of Modification of the Organic Law of Universities (LOMLOU, promulgated the year 2007, included referring dispositions to the recruited professors with doctorate qualification (PCDs that supposed the consolidation of the direct contracting way as alternative to the way functionarial in the academic career. The Law established that the contract of the

  2. Promesas y traiciones: una radionovela enfocada en la educación sobre enfermedades crónicas (Promises and Betrayals: A Radio Novella Focused on Chronic Disease Education)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-02

    Los casos de diabetes y de otras enfermedades crónicas en la comunidad hispana de los Estados Unidos siguen en aumento. En este Podcast, los autores de un artículo publicado en la revista Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD) de los CDC hablan en acerca de cómo usaron un innovador modelo educativo de entretenimiento para crear una radionovela en español con el objetivo de reducir los factores de riesgo de enfermedades crónicas en este sector de la población.  Created: 8/2/2012 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/2/2012.

  3. Studying apoptotic cell death by flow cytometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormerod, Michael G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Programmed cell death (PCD) is of fundamental importance in the normal development of an animal and also in tumour biology and radiation biology. During PCD a sequence of changes occurs in cells giving rise to an apoptotic cascade of events. The main elements of this cascade are rapidly being elucidated. Flow cytometry has been used to follow many of these changes. It also has been used to quantify the number of apoptotic cells in a culture and, more recently, in clinical samples. In this review, the properties of apoptotic cells and the main feature of apoptotic cascade will be described. How flow cytometry can be used to follow changes during the apoptotic cascade will be discussed

  4. Stomatal and pavement cell density linked to leaf internal CO2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santrůček, Jiří; Vráblová, Martina; Simková, Marie; Hronková, Marie; Drtinová, Martina; Květoň, Jiří; Vrábl, Daniel; Kubásek, Jiří; Macková, Jana; Wiesnerová, Dana; Neuwithová, Jitka; Schreiber, Lukas

    2014-08-01

    Stomatal density (SD) generally decreases with rising atmospheric CO2 concentration, Ca. However, SD is also affected by light, air humidity and drought, all under systemic signalling from older leaves. This makes our understanding of how Ca controls SD incomplete. This study tested the hypotheses that SD is affected by the internal CO2 concentration of the leaf, Ci, rather than Ca, and that cotyledons, as the first plant assimilation organs, lack the systemic signal. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus), beech (Fagus sylvatica), arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and garden cress (Lepidium sativum) were grown under contrasting environmental conditions that affected Ci while Ca was kept constant. The SD, pavement cell density (PCD) and stomatal index (SI) responses to Ci in cotyledons and the first leaves of garden cress were compared. (13)C abundance (δ(13)C) in leaf dry matter was used to estimate the effective Ci during leaf development. The SD was estimated from leaf imprints. SD correlated negatively with Ci in leaves of all four species and under three different treatments (irradiance, abscisic acid and osmotic stress). PCD in arabidopsis and garden cress responded similarly, so that SI was largely unaffected. However, SD and PCD of cotyledons were insensitive to Ci, indicating an essential role for systemic signalling. It is proposed that Ci or a Ci-linked factor plays an important role in modulating SD and PCD during epidermis development and leaf expansion. The absence of a Ci-SD relationship in the cotyledons of garden cress indicates the key role of lower-insertion CO2 assimilation organs in signal perception and its long-distance transport. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Nano-TiO2-based photocatalytic disinfection of environmental surfaces contaminated by meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, S; Messano, G A

    2016-05-01

    Traditional cleaning and disinfection methods are inefficient for complete decontamination of hospital surfaces from meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Additional methods, such as nano-TiO2-based photocatalytic disinfection (PCD), could be helpful. To evaluate anti-MRSA activity of PCD on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surfaces in natural-like conditions. Two identical PVC surfaces were used, and nano-TiO2 was incorporated into one of them. The surfaces were contaminated with MRSA isolated from hospitalized patients using a mist sprayer to simulate the mode of environmental contamination caused by a carrier. MRSA cell density was assessed before contamination until 180min after contamination using Rodac plates. The differences between test and control surfaces in terms of MRSA density and log MRSA density reduction were assessed using parametric and non-parametric statistical tests. Five strains were tested, and each strain was tested five times. The highest median MRSA densities [46.3 and 43.1 colony-forming units (cfu)/cm(2) for control and test surfaces, respectively] were detected 45min after contamination. Median MRSA densities 180min after contamination were 10.1 and 0.7cfu/cm(2) for control and test surfaces, respectively (Pdisinfectant activity remained stable throughout the 25 testing occasions, despite between-test cleaning and disinfection. The anti-MRSA activity of PCD was compatible with the benchmark for surface hygiene in hospitals (surfaces. However, for clinical surfaces, PCD should be regarded as supplemental to conventional decontamination procedures, rather than an alternative. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Quality Assurance Assessment of the F-35 Lightning II Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    rivet flushness measurements; therefore, no test values were recorded and test verification could not be done. Without proper test set-ups and quality...quality, and reliability. Design and Development (7.3) We found that the electromagnetic interference (EMI) qualification for the PCD, EU, and DU did not... Electromagnetic Interference Characteristics of Subsystems and Equipment.” However, L-3 was performing testing in the range of 30 MHz to 18 GHz without

  7. Nutrition Recommendations for Foods Marketed to Children

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-25

    In this audio podcast, listen to Michigan State University authors Lorraine J. Weatherspoon, PhD, RD, and Elizabeth Taylor Quilliam, PhD, talk about the impact food advertising may have on children’s eating behaviors.  Created: 9/25/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/25/2013.

  8. The dual role of cyclin C connects stress regulated gene expression to mitochondrial dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Strich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Following exposure to cytotoxic agents, cellular damage is first recognized by a variety of sensor mechanisms. Thenceforth, the damage signal is transduced to the nucleus to install the correct gene expression program including the induction of genes whose products either detoxify destructive compounds or repair the damage they cause. Next, the stress signal is disseminated throughout the cell to effect the appropriate changes at organelles including the mitochondria. The mitochondria represent an important signaling platform for the stress response. An initial stress response of the mitochondria is extensive fragmentation. If the damage is prodigious, the mitochondria fragment (fission and lose their outer membrane integrity leading to the release of pro-apoptotic factors necessary for programmed cell death (PCD execution. As this complex biological process contains many moving parts, it must be exquisitely coordinated as the ultimate decision is life or death. The conserved C-type cyclin plays an important role in executing this molecular Rubicon by coupling changes in gene expression to mitochondrial fission and PCD. Cyclin C, along with its cyclin dependent kinase partner Cdk8, associates with the RNA polymerase holoenzyme to regulate transcription. In particular, cyclin C-Cdk8 repress many stress responsive genes. To relieve this repression, cyclin C is destroyed in cells exposed to pro-oxidants and other stressors. However, prior to its destruction, cyclin C, but not Cdk8, is released from its nuclear anchor (Med13, translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where it interacts with the fission machinery and is both necessary and sufficient to induce extensive mitochondria fragmentation. Furthermore, cytoplasmic cyclin C promotes PCD indicating that it mediates both mitochondrial fission and cell death pathways. This review will summarize the role cyclin C plays in regulating stress-responsive transcription. In addition, we will detail

  9. L'ONTOGENESI DEL SISTEMA OLFATTIVO E VISIVO DEI VERTEBRATI

    OpenAIRE

    Morgillo, Antonietta

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms of differentiation within the nervous system including proliferation and differentiation, migration cell growth and development of axonal and dendritic synaptic connections. Are fundamental processes that generate a remarkably complex neuronal and, to a large extent, still poorly understood. As drafted by the neurotrophic theory, another important process involved in determining the morphology and physiology of neural "programmed cell death (PCD) or apoptosis, which acts bo...

  10. Sinus surgery can improve quality of life, lung infections, and lung function in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanin, Mikkel Christian; Aanaes, Kasper; Hoiby, Niels

    2017-01-01

    patients (62%). Four patients with preoperative P. aeruginosa lung colonization (25%) had no regrowth during follow-up; 2 of these had P. aeruginosa sinusitis. Sinonasal symptoms were improved 12 months after ESS and we observed a trend toward better lung function after ESS. Conclusion We demonstrated...... an improvement in CRS-related symptoms after ESS and adjuvant therapy. In selected PCD patients, the suggested regimen may postpone chronic lung infection with P. aeruginosa and stabilize lung function....

  11. Stress Marker Signatures in Lesion Mimic Single and Double Mutants Identify a Crucial Leaf Age-Dependent Salicylic Acid Related Defense Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaurilind, Eve; Brosché, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Plants are exposed to abiotic and biotic stress conditions throughout their lifespans that activates various defense programs. Programmed cell death (PCD) is an extreme defense strategy the plant uses to manage unfavorable environments as well as during developmentally induced senescence. Here we investigated the role of leaf age on the regulation of defense gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Two lesion mimic mutants with misregulated cell death, catalase2 (cat2) and defense no death1 (dnd1) were used together with several double mutants to dissect signaling pathways regulating defense gene expression associated with cell death and leaf age. PCD marker genes showed leaf age dependent expression, with the highest expression in old leaves. The salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis mutant salicylic acid induction deficient2 (sid2) had reduced expression of PCD marker genes in the cat2 sid2 double mutant demonstrating the importance of SA biosynthesis in regulation of defense gene expression. While the auxin- and jasmonic acid (JA)- insensitive auxin resistant1 (axr1) double mutant cat2 axr1 also led to decreased expression of PCD markers; the expression of several marker genes for SA signaling (ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE 1, PR1 and PR2) were additionally decreased in cat2 axr1 compared to cat2. The reduced expression of these SA markers genes in cat2 axr1 implicates AXR1 as a regulator of SA signaling in addition to its known role in auxin and JA signaling. Overall, the current study reinforces the important role of SA signaling in regulation of leaf age-related transcript signatures.

  12. Assessing Tobacco Treatment Practices and Beliefs Among Clinicians

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-22

    Michael Celestin, Jr, MA, from the Louisiana Tobacco Control Initiative and Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, discusses his study conducted among health care staff to determine what they believe are the best ways to help patients quit smoking.  Created: 5/22/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/22/2014.

  13. High School Students’ Use of Sunscreen and Tanning Beds

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-20

    This podcast is an interview with Corey Basch, EdD, MPH, assistant professor in the Department of Public Health at William Paterson University. Dr. Basch discusses her study on high school students’ use of sunscreen and tanning beds between 2001 and 2011.  Created: 8/20/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/20/2014.

  14. Expression of proteinase inhibitor II proteins during floral development in Solanum americanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Suk-Fong; Chye, Mee-Len

    2004-10-01

    The heterologous expression of serine proteinase inhibitor II (PIN2) proteins confers insect resistance in transgenic plants, but little is known of their endogenous roles. We have cloned two cDNAs encoding Solanum americanum PIN2 proteins, SaPIN2a and SaPIN2b. SaPIN2a is highly expressed in stem, particularly in the phloem, suggesting it could possibly regulate proteolysis in the sieve elements. When SaPIN2a was expressed in transgenic lettuce, we observed an inhibition of endogenous trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like activities. Here, we demonstrate that both SaPIN2a and SaPIN2b are expressed in floral tissues that are destined to undergo developmental programmed cell death (PCD), suggesting possible endogenous roles in inhibiting trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like activities during flower development. Northern and western blot analyses revealed that SaPIN2a and SaPIN2b mRNAs and proteins show highest expression early in floral development. In situ hybridization analysis and immunolocalization on floral sections, localized SaPIN2a and SaPIN2b mRNAs and their proteins to tissues that would apparently undergo PCD: the ovules, the stylar transmitting tissue, the stigma and the vascular bundles. Detection of PCD in floral sections was achieved using terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) analysis. Examination of the mid-style before, and 1 day after, pollination revealed that high expression of SaPIN2a and SaPIN2b in the style was inversely correlated with PCD.

  15. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Caregivers of People with Disabilities in Processes of Social Inclusion in the Municipality Madrid, Cundinamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Camargo Rojas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The social inclusion of people with disabilities (PWD, dependent on many economic, social, political and cultural factors that affect their social development. One factor that generates greater social exclusion, corresponding to attitudinal barriers identified in the immediate environment. Objective: To identify knowledge, attitudes and practices of primary caregivers, about disability and care they provide to PcD linked to services Outpatient Gustavo Escallon Cayzedo of Santa Fe de Bogota Foundation (CAGEC, municipality of Madrid, Cundinamarca. Material and methods: Research with mixed approach, descriptive study aimed at caregivers of PcD, whom a semi-structured interview was applied. The quantitative analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and qualitative analysis was performed by generating an array of established and emerging categories. Results: economic and labor conditions affecting significantly the lives of caregivers, who spend more than 10 hours a day to care PcD, resulting in some symptoms of “caregiver syndrome” are evident. Most caregivers do not know the rights and duties of the population, and those who know they associate with the access to services. Participation is associated with assistance to certain activities, and not from his political notion. These skills relate to the practices of caregivers which are oriented on the biomedical model. Discussion: Being studied the conditions of the caregiver barriers, attitudes and support networks, observed how are you affecting your life project. Despite this, the activities of public and private entities are directed to the PcD, so the implementation of actions that promote the health of the caregiver is suggested.

  16. Communities Putting Prevention to Work: The Healthy Corner Store Initiative

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-07-18

    This podcast is an interview with Dr. Stephanie Jilcott Pitts, Associate Professor in the Department of Public Health at East Carolina University. Dr. Pitts answers questions about her study involving a healthy corner store initiative in North Carolina.  Created: 7/18/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 7/18/2013.

  17. Salmonella Typhimurium infection in the porcine intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauser, Kirsten; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Larsson, Lars-Inge

    2005-01-01

    The normal intestinal epithelium is renewed with a turnover rate of 3-5 days. During Salmonella infection increased cell loss is observed, possibly as a result of programmed cell death (PCD). We have, therefore, studied the effects of Salmonella Typhimurium infection on three elements involved...... in scattered epithelial cells and the number of positive cells increased with increasing times of exposure to Salmonella (P

  18. "Promises and Betrayals": A Radio Novella Focused on Chronic Disease Education

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The occurrence of diabetes and other chronic diseases among the Hispanic community living in the United States continues to increase. In this podcast, the authors of an article published in CDC’s Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD) describe how they used a unique entertainment education model to develop a Spanish-language radio novella aimed at reducing the risk factors for chronic diseases among this population.

  19. Increasing Access to Farmers Markets for Beneficiaries of Nutrition Assistance

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-10-22

    In this audio podcast, listen to author Kate Cole, MPH talk about her article on farmers markets and how acceptance of nutrition assistance could increase access to fruits and vegetables to those in low-income communities.  Created: 10/22/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/22/2013.

  20. Making Texas Restaurants Healthier for Children

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-30

    Sylvia Crixell, PhD, RD, Professor of Nutrition at Texas State University, discusses her study which details the success of a community-based program in Texas aimed at combatting childhood obesity by improving children’s menus in restaurants.  Created: 12/30/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/30/2014.

  1. Pulsed corona discharge for improving treatability of coking wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Preis, Sergei; Kornev, Iakov; Hu, Yun; Wei, Chao-Hai

    2018-02-01

    Coking wastewater (CW) contains toxic and macromolecular substances that inhibit biological treatment. The refractory compounds remaining in biologically treated coking wastewater (BTCW) provide chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color levels that make it unacceptable for reuse or disposal. Gas-phase pulsed corona discharge (PCD) utilizing mostly hydroxyl radicals and ozone as oxidants was applied to both raw coking wastewater (RCW) and BTCW wastewater as a supplemental treatment. The energy efficiency of COD, phenol, thiocyanate and cyanide degradation by PCD was the subject of the research. The cost-effective removal of intermediate oxidation products with addition of lime was also studied. The energy efficiency of oxidation was inversely proportional to the pulse repetition frequency: lower frequency allows more effective utilization of ozone at longer treatment times. Oxidative treatment of RCW showed the removal of phenol and thiocyanate at 800 pulses per second from 611 to 227mg/L and from 348 to 86mg/L, respectively, at 42kWh/m 3 delivered energy, with substantial improvement in the BOD 5 /COD ratio (from 0.14 to 0.43). The COD and color of BTCW were removed by 30% and 93%, respectively, at 20kWh/m 3 , showing energy efficiency for the PCD treatment exceeding that of conventional ozonation by a factor of 3-4. Application of lime appeared to be an effective supplement to the PCD treatment of RCW, degrading COD by about 28% at an energy input of 28kWh/m 3 and the lime dose of 3.0kg/m 3 . The improvement of RCW treatability is attributed to the degradation of toxic substances and fragmentation of macromolecular compounds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Pre-sporulation stages of Streptomyces differentiation: state-of-the-art and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagüe, Paula; López-García, Maria T.; Rioseras, Beatriz; Sánchez, Jesús; Manteca, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Streptomycetes comprise very important industrial bacteria, producing two-thirds of all clinically relevant secondary metabolites. They are mycelial microorganisms with complex developmental cycles that include programmed cell death (PCD) and sporulation. Industrial fermentations are usually performed in liquid cultures (large bioreactors), conditions in which Streptomyces strains generally do not sporulate, and it was traditionally assumed that there was no differentiation. In this work, we review the current knowledge on Streptomyces pre-sporulation stages of Streptomyces differentiation. PMID:23496097

  3. Frecuencia de discapacidad en estudiantes que presentan la prueba estandarizada de acceso a la educación superior (Saber 11 en Colombia y caracterización de su rendimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Padilla Muñoz

    2012-10-01

    Este estudio sugiere que son pocas las PCD que se presentan a la prueba Saber 11. No existe forma de evidenciar discapacidad cognitiva en la prueba.529.651 estudiantes presentaron la prueba por primera vez, de los cuales el 0,2% (842 afirmaron durante la inscripción tener algún tipo de discapacidad. Del total de PCD, el 35,0% presentó una discapacidad motora, el 34,9% presentó una discapacidad auditiva y requirieron intérprete en la prueba, 19,1% presentó una discapacidad visual y un 11,5% presentó discapacidad auditiva, pero no requirieron intérprete. La mayoría de sus puntajes están en categorización media, y, en promedio, las personas con discapacidad visual tuvieron resultados mejores en las áreas básicas al compararlos con otras discapacidades.Análisis secundario de tipo descriptivo de los resultados del examen nacional de acceso a la educación superior (prueba Saber 11, presentado por PCD en el año 2009. La certificación de discapacidades realizada previa al examen durante la inscripción a la prueba. Se describen las características de dicha población, junto con los puntajes en la prueba.Describir las características y el rendimiento en la prueba Saber 11 de las personas con discapacidad (PCD en 2009.El examen nacional de acceso a la educación superior en Colombia (prueba Saber 11, es obligatorio para obtener el título de bachiller y ha realizado adaptaciones que permiten evaluar a personas con discapacidad física, auditiva y visual.

  4. The Clinical Features and Predictive Risk Factors for Reoperation in Patients With Perianal Crohn Diseases; A Multi-Center Study of a Korean Inflammatory Bowel Disease Study Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Bum; Yoon, Seo-Gue; Park, Kyu Joo; Lee, Kang Young; Kim, Dae Dong; Yoon, Sang Nam

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Perianal lesions are common in Crohn disease, but their clinical course is unpredictable. Nevertheless, predicting the clinical course after surgery for perianal Crohn disease (PCD) is important because repeated operations may decrease patient's quality of life. The aim of this study was to predict the risk of reoperation in patients with PCD. Methods From September 1994 to February 2010, 377 patients with PCD were recruited in twelve major tertiary university-affiliated hospitals and two specialized colorectal hospitals in Korea. Data on the patient's demographics, clinical features, and surgical outcomes were analyzed. Results Among 377 patients, 227 patients were ultimately included in the study. Among the 227 patients, 64 patients underwent at least one reoperation. The median period of reoperation following the first perianal surgery was 94 months. Overall 3-year, 5-year, and 10-year cumulative rates of reoperation-free individuals were 68.8%, 61.2%, and 50.5%, respectively. In multivariate analysis (Cox-regression hazard model), reoperation was significantly correlated with an age of onset less than 20 years (hazard ratio [HR], 1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-3.48; P = 0.03), history of abdominal surgery (HR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.08-3.64; P = 0.03), and the type of surgery. Among types of surgery, fistulotomy or fistulectomy was associated with a decreased incidence of reoperation in comparison with incision and drainage (HR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.09-0.42; P < 0.001). Conclusion Young age of onset and a history of abdominal surgery were associated with a high risk of reoperation for PCD, and the risk of reoperation were relatively low in fistulotomy or fistulectomy procedures. PMID:26576395

  5. Treatment of RDX and/or HMX Using Mulch Biowalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Cornhusker Army Ammunition Plant (CHAAP), Holston Army Ammunition Plant (HSAAP), Iowa Army Ammunition Plant (IAAP), Fort Meade, PCD, Raritan Arsenal ...0.01% 1 ɘ.001% 0.1% * i. Presence of other remediation technologies in the immediate vicinity No 4 No Yes, active phytoremediation in Pink Water...Concentrations of geochemical parameters such as inorganic anions (i.e., sulfate and nitrate) and cations (i.e., ferrous iron and arsenic ) were

  6. Xylogenesis in zinnia (Zinnia elegans) cell cultures: unravelling the regulatory steps in a complex developmental programmed cell death event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakimova, Elena T; Woltering, Ernst J

    2017-04-01

    Physiological and molecular studies support the view that xylogenesis can largely be determined as a specific form of vacuolar programmed cell death (PCD). The studies in xylogenic zinnia cell culture have led to many breakthroughs in xylogenesis research and provided a background for investigations in other experimental models in vitro and in planta . This review discusses the most essential earlier and recent findings on the regulation of xylem elements differentiation and PCD in zinnia and other xylogenic systems. Xylogenesis (the formation of water conducting vascular tissue) is a paradigm of plant developmental PCD. The xylem vessels are composed of fused tracheary elements (TEs)-dead, hollow cells with patterned lignified secondary cell walls. They result from the differentiation of the procambium and cambium cells and undergo cell death to become functional post-mortem. The TE differentiation proceeds through a well-coordinated sequence of events in which differentiation and the programmed cellular demise are intimately connected. For years a classical experimental model for studies on xylogenesis was the xylogenic zinnia (Zinnia elegans) cell culture derived from leaf mesophyll cells that, upon induction by cytokinin and auxin, transdifferentiate into TEs. This cell system has been proven very efficient for investigations on the regulatory components of xylem differentiation which has led to many discoveries on the mechanisms of xylogenesis. The knowledge gained from this system has potentiated studies in other xylogenic cultures in vitro and in planta. The present review summarises the previous and latest findings on the hormonal and biochemical signalling, metabolic pathways and molecular and gene determinants underlying the regulation of xylem vessels differentiation in zinnia cell culture. Highlighted are breakthroughs achieved through the use of xylogenic systems from other species and newly introduced tools and analytical approaches to study the

  7. Promoting Physical Activity Among Overweight Young African American Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools.  Created: 1/15/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  8. Cell death in the unicellular green alga Micrasterias upon H2O2 induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darehshouri, Anza; Affenzeller, Matthias; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we investigate whether the unicellular green alga Micrasterias denticulata is capable of executing programmed cell death (PCD) upon experimental induction and by which morphological, molecular and physiological hallmarks it is characterized. This is particularly interesting as unicellular fresh water green algae growing in shallow bog ponds are exposed to extreme environmental conditions and the capability to perform PCD may provide an important strategy to guarantee survival of the population. The theoretically “immortal” alga Micrasterias is an ideal object for such investigations as it has served as a cell biological model system since many years and details on its growth properties, physiology and ultrastructure throughout the cell cycle are well known. Treatment with low concentrations of H2O2 known to induce PCD in other organisms resulted in severe ultrastructural changes of organelles as observed in TEM. These include deformation and partly disintegration of mitochondria, abnormal dilatation of cisternal rims of dictyosomes, the occurrence of multivesicular bodies, an increase in the number of ER compartments and slight condensation of chromatin. Additionally, a statistically significant increase in caspase-3-like activity could be detected which was abrogated by a caspase-3 inhibitor. Photosynthetic activity measured by fast chlorophyll fluorescence decreased as a consequence of H2O2 exposure whereas pigment composition, except of a reduction in carotenoids, was the same as in untreated controls. TUNEL positive staining and ladder-like degradation of DNA, both frequently regarded as PCD hallmark in higher plants could only be detected in dead Micrasterias cells. PMID:18950431

  9. A passive cold storage device economic model to evaluate selected immunization location scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Bryan A; Nourollahi, Sevnaz; Chen, Sheng-I; Brown, Shawn T; Claypool, Erin G; Connor, Diana L; Schmitz, Michelle M; Rajgopal, Jayant; Wateska, Angela R; Lee, Bruce Y

    2013-10-25

    The challenge of keeping vaccines cold at health posts given the unreliability of power sources in many low- and middle-income countries and the expense and maintenance requirements of solar refrigerators has motivated the development of passive cold storage devices (PCDs), containers that keep vaccines cold without using an active energy source. With different PCDs under development, manufacturers, policymakers and funders need guidance on how varying different PCD characteristics may affect the devices' cost and utility. We developed an economic spreadsheet model representing the lowest two levels of a typical Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) vaccine supply chain: a district store, the immunization locations that the district store serves, and the transport vehicles that operate between the district store and the immunization locations. The model compares the use of three vaccine storage device options [(1) portable PCDs, (2) stationary PCDs, or (3) solar refrigerators] and allows the user to vary different device (e.g., size and cost) and scenario characteristics (e.g., catchment area population size and vaccine schedule). For a sample set of select scenarios and equipment specification, we found the portable PCD to generally be better suited to populations of 5,000 or less. The stationary PCD replenished once per month can be a robust design especially with a 35L capacity and a cost of $2,500 or less. The solar device was generally a reasonable alternative for most of the scenarios explored if the cost was $2,100 or less (including installation). No one device type dominated over all explored circumstances. Therefore, the best device may vary from country-to-country and location-to-location within a country. This study introduces a quantitative model to help guide PCD development. Although our selected set of explored scenarios and device designs was not exhaustive, future explorations can further alter model input values to represent additional scenarios

  10. Local Health Departments’ Use of Twitter

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-02

    This podcast is an interview with Jenine K. Harris, PhD, from the Brown School at Washington University in St. Louis, MO, about local health departments’ use of Twitter to disseminate diabetes information.  Created: 5/2/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/2/2013.

  11. Emergency Medical Services Capacity for Prehospital Stroke Care

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-05

    In this audio podcast, lead author and Preventing Chronic Disease’s 2013 Student Research Contest Winner, Mehul D. Patel, talks about his article on stroke care and emergency medical services.  Created: 9/5/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/5/2013.

  12. Improving Healthy Eating Through Social Marketing

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-10-09

    This podcast features Emily Liu, a freshman at the University of Pennsylvania and one of the winners of PCD’s 2017 Student Research Paper Contest. Emily answers questions about her winning research and what impact her study has on obesity prevention and public health.  Created: 10/9/2017 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/9/2017.

  13. Geographical Overlapping of Obesity, Heart Disease, and Type 2 Diabetes

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-10-09

    This podcast features Kayla Smurthwaite, an undergraduate student at Australian National University in Canberra, Australia, and one of the winners of PCD’s 2017 Student Research Paper Contest. Kayla answers questions about her winning research and what impact her study has on chronic disease prevention and public health.  Created: 10/9/2017 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/9/2017.

  14. Bringing Bike Share to a Low-Income Community

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-14

    This podcast is an interview with Sarah Kretman Stewart, MPH, MEd, Healthy Living Minneapolis Project Specialist at the Minneapolis Health Department. In this program, Sarah talks about the impact a bike share program had on the low-income town of Near North, Minnesota.  Created: 8/14/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/14/2013.

  15. Defining and Measuring Chronic Conditions

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-20

    This podcast is an interview with Dr. Anand Parekh, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Deputy Assistant Secretary for Health, and Dr. Samuel Posner, Preventing Chronic Disease Editor in Chief, about the definition and burden of multiple chronic conditions in the United States.  Created: 5/20/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/20/2013.

  16. Influence of Fiber Orientation on Single-Point Cutting Fracture Behavior of Carbon-Fiber/Epoxy Prepreg Sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Yingying; An, Qinglong; Cai, Xiaojiang; Chen, Ming; Ming, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the influences of carbon fibers on the fracture mechanism of carbon fibers both in macroscopic view and microscopic view by using single-point flying cutting method. Cutting tools with three different materials were used in this research, namely, PCD (polycrystalline diamond) tool, CVD (chemical vapor deposition) diamond thin film coated carbide tool and uncoated carbide tool. The influence of fiber orientation on the cutting force and fracture to...

  17. Experiences in Performing Posterior Calvarial Distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Kevin; Lloyd, Mark; Evans, Martin; White, Nicholas; Nishikawa, Hiroshi; Rodrigues, Desiderio; Sharp, Melanie; Noons, Pete; Solanki, Guirish; Dover, Stephen

    2017-05-01

    The use of posterior calvarial distraction (PCD) for the management of craniosynostosis is well recognized. The advantages of using this technique include increased cranial volume, decreased intracranial pressure, relief of posterior fossa crowding, improved cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation at the cranio-cervical junction with cessation, and possible resolution of syrinx.The authors retrospectively review their first 50 patients who have undergone PCD under the senior author's care in our unit.The demographics, diagnoses, intraoperative approach with techniques in distractor placement and outcomes of each patient were obtained through an electronic craniofacial database and written patient records. Analysis of complication rates (bleeding, distraction problems, CSF leaks, and infection) was included.A total of 31 boys and 19 girls underwent the procedure between October 2006 and September 2015 with a median age was 17.7 months (range 4 months to 19 years). Of those 50 children, 34 of the cohort were proven to be syndromic by genetic testing.The median length of inpatient stay was 9.4 days (range 3-43 days). Average distraction distance was 24 mm.Complications including CSF leaks, bleeding, distractor problems, and severe complications (recorded in 3 patients) are discussed. Our overall complication rate was 50%.Favorable outcomes included resolution of Chiari, syrinx, and raised intracranial pressure in the majority of patients where distraction was successful.The authors recommend that PCD should be considered the primary treatment for increasing calvarial volume. The authors discuss our experiences and technical innovations over the past decade.

  18. EEG-distributed inverse solutions for a spherical head model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, J. J.; Fuentes, M. E.; Valdés, P. A.; Ohárriz, Y.

    1998-08-01

    The theoretical study of the minimum norm solution to the MEG inverse problem has been carried out in previous papers for the particular case of spherical symmetry. However, a similar study for the EEG is remarkably more difficult due to the very complicated nature of the expression relating the voltage differences on the scalp to the primary current density (PCD) even for this simple symmetry. This paper introduces the use of the electric lead field (ELF) on the dyadic formalism in the spherical coordinate system to overcome such a drawback using an expansion of the ELF in terms of longitudinal and orthogonal vector fields. This approach allows us to represent EEG Fourier coefficients on a 2-sphere in terms of a current multipole expansion. The choice of a suitable basis for the Hilbert space of the PCDs on the brain region allows the current multipole moments to be related by spatial transfer functions to the PCD spectral coefficients. Properties of the most used distributed inverse solutions are explored on the basis of these results. Also, a part of the ELF null space is completely characterized and those spherical components of the PCD which are possible silent candidates are discussed.

  19. Subcellular impact of sonoporation on plant cells: issues to be addressed in ultrasound-mediated gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Peng; Xu, Lin; Cai, Ping; Hu, Yaxin; Yu, Alfred C H

    2013-01-01

    Sonoporation (membrane perforation via ultrasonic cavitation) is known to be realizable in plant cells on a reversible basis. However, cell viability may concomitantly be affected over the process, and limited knowledge is now available on how such cytotoxic impact comes about. This work has investigated how sonoporation may affect plant cells at a subcellular level and in turn activate programmed cell death (PCD). Tobacco BY-2 cells were used as the plant model, and sonoporation was applied through a microbubble-mediated approach with 100:1 cell-to-bubble ratio, free-field peak rarefaction pressure of either 0.4 or 0.9 MPa, and 1 MHz ultrasound frequency (administered in pulsed standing-wave mode at 10% duty cycle, 1 kHz pulse repetition frequency, and 1 min duration). Fluoroscopy results showed that sonoporated tobacco cells may undergo plasma membrane depolarization and reactive oxygen species elevation (two cellular disruption events closely connected to PCD). It was also found that the mitochondria of sonoporated tobacco cells may lose their outer membrane potential over time (observed using confocal microscopy) and consequently release stores of cytochrome-c proteins (determined by Western Blotting) into the cytoplasm to activate PCD. These findings provide insight into the underlying mechanisms responsible for sonoporation-induced cytotoxicity in plant cells. They should be taken into account when using this membrane perforation approach for gene transfection applications in plant biotechnology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of transmission dose estimation algorithm for in vivo dosimetry in high energy radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hyong Geun; Shin, Kyo Chul; Hun, Soon Nyung; Woo, Hong Gyun; Ha, Sung Whan; Lee, Hyoung Koo

    2004-01-01

    In vivo dosimetry is very important for quality assurance purpose in high energy radiation treatment. Measurement of transmission dose is a new method of in vivo dosimetry which is noninvasive and easy for daily performance. This study is to develop a tumor dose estimation algorithm using measured transmission dose for open radiation field. For basic beam data, transmission dose was measured with various field size (FS) of square radiation field, phantom thickness (Tp), and phantom chamber distance (PCD) with a acrylic phantom for 6 MV and 10 MV X-ray. Source to chamber distance (SCD) was set to 150 cm. Measurement was conducted with a 0.6 cc Farmer type ion chamber. By using regression analysis of measured basic beam data, a transmission dose estimation algorithm was developed. Accuracy of the algorithm was tested with flat solid phantom with various thickness in various settings of rectangular fields and various PCD. In our developed algorithm, transmission dose was equated to quadratic function of log(A/P) (where A/P is area-perimeter ratio) and the coefficients of the quadratic functions were equated to tertiary functions of PCD. Our developed algorithm could estimate the radiation dose with the errors within ±0.5% for open square field, and with the errors within ±1.0% for open elongated radiation field. Developed algorithm could accurately estimate the transmission dose in open radiation fields with various treatment settings of high energy radiation treatment. (author)

  1. HEATR2 plays a conserved role in assembly of the ciliary motile apparatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine P Diggle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cilia are highly conserved microtubule-based structures that perform a variety of sensory and motility functions during development and adult homeostasis. In humans, defects specifically affecting motile cilia lead to chronic airway infections, infertility and laterality defects in the genetically heterogeneous disorder Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD. Using the comparatively simple Drosophila system, in which mechanosensory neurons possess modified motile cilia, we employed a recently elucidated cilia transcriptional RFX-FOX code to identify novel PCD candidate genes. Here, we report characterization of CG31320/HEATR2, which plays a conserved critical role in forming the axonemal dynein arms required for ciliary motility in both flies and humans. Inner and outer arm dyneins are absent from axonemes of CG31320 mutant flies and from PCD individuals with a novel splice-acceptor HEATR2 mutation. Functional conservation of closely arranged RFX-FOX binding sites upstream of HEATR2 orthologues may drive higher cytoplasmic expression of HEATR2 during early motile ciliogenesis. Immunoprecipitation reveals HEATR2 interacts with DNAI2, but not HSP70 or HSP90, distinguishing it from the client/chaperone functions described for other cytoplasmic proteins required for dynein arm assembly such as DNAAF1-4. These data implicate CG31320/HEATR2 in a growing intracellular pre-assembly and transport network that is necessary to deliver functional dynein machinery to the ciliary compartment for integration into the motile axoneme.

  2. Induction of non-apoptotic programmed cell death by oncogenic RAS in human epithelial cells and its suppression by MYC overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendo, Kasumi; Yugawa, Takashi; Nakahara, Tomomi; Ohno, Shin-Ichi; Goshima, Naoki; Arakawa, Hirofumi; Kiyono, Tohru

    2018-02-09

    Oncogenic mutations of RAS genes, found in about 30% of human cancers, are considered to play important roles in cancer development. However, oncogenic RAS can also induce senescence in mouse and human normal fibroblasts. In some cell lines, oncogenic RAS has been reported to induce non-apoptotic programed cell death (PCD). Here, we investigated effects of oncogenic RAS expression in several types of normal human epithelial cells. Oncogenic RAS but not wild-type RAS stimulated macropinocytosis with accumulation of large-phase lucent vacuoles in the cytoplasm, subsequently leading to cell death which was indistinguishable from a recently proposed new type of PCD, methuosis. A RAC1 inhibitor suppressed accumulation of macropinosomes and overexpression of MYC attenuated oncogenic RAS-induced such accumulation, cell cycle arrest and cell death. MYC suppression or rapamycin treatment in some cancer cell lines harbouring oncogenic mutations in RAS genes induced cell death with accumulation of macropinosomes. These results suggest that this type of non-apoptotic PCD is a tumour-suppressing mechanism acting against oncogenic RAS mutations in normal human epithelial cells, which can be overcome by MYC overexpression, raising the possibility that its induction might be a novel approach to treatment of RAS-mutated human cancers. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Comparison of tissue deterioration of ripening banana fruit (Musa spp., AAA group, Cavendish subgroup) under chilling and non-chilling temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Sánchez, Maricruz; Huber, Donald J; Vallejos, Carlos E

    2018-03-08

    In fleshy fruits, induced programmed cell death (PCD) has been observed in heat-treated tomato, and in ethylene-treated and low-temperature exposure in immature cucumber. No other fleshy fruit has been evaluated for chilling-injury-induced PCD, especially mature fruit with full ripening capacity. The purpose of this research was to identify and evaluate the presence of PCD processes during the development of low-temperature-induced physiopathy of banana fruit. Exposure of fruit to 5 °C for 4 days induced degradative processes similar to those occurring during ripening and overripening of non-chilled fruit. Nuclease from banana peel showed activity in both DNA substrates and RNA substrates. No exclusive low-temperature-induced proteases and nucleases were observed. DNA of chilled peel showed earlier signs of degradation and higher levels of DNA tailing during overripening. This study shows that exposure to low temperatures did not induce a pattern of degradative processes that differed from that occurring during ripening and overripening of non-chilled fruit. DNA showed earlier signs of degradation and higher levels of DNA tailing. Nuclease activity analysis showed bifunctionality in both chilled and non-chilled tissue and no chilling-exclusive protease and nuclease. Fleshy fruit might use their available resources on degradative processes and adjust them depending on environmental conditions. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Percutaneous catheter drainage of empyema and loculated pleural effusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Jung Gi; Park, Kyung Joo; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-08-15

    Closed thoracotomy by using a chest tube in cases of thoracic empyema is known to be an effective and popular way of treatment. However, it happens commonly that chest tube drainage is not appropriate because of either malpositioning of the tube or undesirable patient's general condition such as bleeding tendency or debilitation. We performed fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) in 14 cases of empyema and loculated pleural effusion and in 2 cases of lung abscess. In most of the patients, PCDs were performed because chest tube drainage was considered to be inappropriate or after failed chest tube drainage. In all patients, catheters were successfully placed into the fluid collections, which were drained effectively. Ten of the 11 febrile patient showed improvement of feverishness within 24 hours after PCD. 10 patients were cured without further treatment. Complications were few and minimal. We believe that the safety, effectiveness and good patients tolerance of PCD makes it an excellent alternative method of treatment in cases of empyema and loculated pleural effusion.

  5. Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography based on a photon-counting detector: quantitative accuracy and radiation dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungwan; Kang, Sooncheol; Eom, Jisoo

    2017-03-01

    Contrast-enhanced mammography has been used to demonstrate functional information about a breast tumor by injecting contrast agents. However, a conventional technique with a single exposure degrades the efficiency of tumor detection due to structure overlapping. Dual-energy techniques with energy-integrating detectors (EIDs) also cause an increase of radiation dose and an inaccuracy of material decomposition due to the limitations of EIDs. On the other hands, spectral mammography with photon-counting detectors (PCDs) is able to resolve the issues induced by the conventional technique and EIDs using their energy-discrimination capabilities. In this study, the contrast-enhanced spectral mammography based on a PCD was implemented by using a polychromatic dual-energy model, and the proposed technique was compared with the dual-energy technique with an EID in terms of quantitative accuracy and radiation dose. The results showed that the proposed technique improved the quantitative accuracy as well as reduced radiation dose comparing to the dual-energy technique with an EID. The quantitative accuracy of the contrast-enhanced spectral mammography based on a PCD was slightly improved as a function of radiation dose. Therefore, the contrast-enhanced spectral mammography based on a PCD is able to provide useful information for detecting breast tumors and improving diagnostic accuracy.

  6. Effectiveness of Fluoroscopic and US - Guided Percutaneous Catheter Drainage for Iliopsoas Abscess through the Anterolateral Transabdominal Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ho Cheol; Shin, Tae Beom; Park, Mee Jung; Kim, Ji Eun; Choi, Hye Young; Bae, Kyung Soo; Choi, Dae Seob; Na, Jae Boem; Jeong, Seong Hoon [Gyeongsang National University Hospital, College of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    We evaluated the effectiveness of performing fluoroscopic and ultrasonography guided percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) through the anterolateral transabdominal approach for treating iliopsoas abscess. From January 2008 to December 2009, fluoroscopic and US-guided PCD through the anterolateral transabdominal approach was performed on sixteen iliopsoas abscesses of fourteen patients (7 males and 7 females; mean age: 63 years; age range: 30-87 years). Six abscesses were on the right side and ten abscesses were on the left side. The location of the abscesses were the psoas muscle (n=7), the iliacus muscle (n=7) and the iliopsoas muscle (n=2). All the procedures were performed under fluoroscopy and US guidance in the angiography room. The clinical findings before and after the procedure, the duration of catheter insertion and the procedure-related complications were evaluated. 15 out of the 16 iliopsoas abscesses were effectively treated. The duration of catheter insertion was 5- 27 days (mean: 14.6) days. No patient had significant complications during or after drainage. One patient died of uncontrolled diabetes complications and shock on the 9th day after percutaneous catheter drainage. One recurrence was noted 5 months after removal of the catheter. This patient underwent aspiration and antibiotic treatment for this lesion and the patient improved. Fluoroscopic and US-guided PCD for iliopsoas abscess through the anterolateral transabdominal approach is an effective and safe procedure

  7. Applications of pixellated GaAs X-ray detectors in a synchrotron radiation beam

    CERN Document Server

    Watt, J; Campbell, M; Mathieson, K; Mikulec, B; O'Shea, V; Passmore, M S; Schwarz, C; Smith, K M; Whitehill, C

    2001-01-01

    Hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors are being investigated as imaging devices for radiography and synchrotron radiation beam applications. Based on previous work in the CERN RD19 and the UK IMPACT collaborations, a photon counting GaAs pixel detector (PCD) has been used in an X-ray powder diffraction experiment. The device consists of a 200 mu m thick SI-LEC GaAs detector patterned in a 64*64 array of 170 mu m pitch square pixels, bump-bonded to readout electronics operating in single photon counting mode. Intensity peaks in the powder diffraction pattern of KNbO/sub 3/ have been resolved and compared with results using the standard scintillator, and a PCD predecessor (the Omega 3). The PCD shows improved speed, dynamic range, 2-D information and comparable spatial resolution to the standard scintillator based systems. It also overcomes the severe dead time limitations of the Omega 3 by using a shutter based acquisition mode. A brief demonstration of the possibilities of the system for dental radiography and...

  8. Evaluation of single and double centrifugation tube methods for concentrating equine platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüelles, D; Carmona, J U; Pastor, J; Iborra, A; Viñals, L; Martínez, P; Bach, E; Prades, M

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate single and double centrifugation tube methods for concentrating equine platelets. Whole blood samples were collected from clinically normal horses and processed by use of single and double centrifugation tube methods to obtain four platelet concentrates (PCs): PC-A, PC-B, PC-C, and PC-D, which were analyzed using a flow cytometry hematology system for hemogram and additional platelet parameters (mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, mean platelet component concentration, mean platelet component distribution width). Concentrations of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta(1)) were determined in all the samples. Platelet concentrations for PC-A, PC-B, PC-C, and PC-D were 45%, 44%, 71%, and 21% higher, respectively, compared to the same values for citrated whole blood samples. TGF-beta(1) concentrations for PC-A, PC-B, PC-C, and PC-D were 38%, 44%, 44%, and 37% higher, respectively, compared to citrated whole blood sample values. In conclusion, the single and double centrifugation tube methods are reliable methods for concentrating equine platelets and for obtaining potentially therapeutic TGF-beta(1) levels.

  9. Programmed cell death in periodontitis: recent advances and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, B; Zhou, T; Yang, W L; Liu, J; Shao, L Q

    2017-07-01

    Periodontitis is a highly prevalent infectious disease, characterized by destruction of the periodontium, and is the main cause of tooth loss. Periodontitis is initiated by periodontal pathogens, while other risk factors including smoking, stress, and systemic diseases aggravate its progression. Periodontitis affects many people worldwide, but the molecular mechanisms by which pathogens and risk factors destroy the periodontium are unclear. Programmed cell death (PCD), different from necrosis, is an active cell death mediated by a cascade of gene expression events and can be mainly classified into apoptosis, autophagy, necroptosis, and pyroptosis. Although PCD is involved in many inflammatory diseases, its correlation with periodontitis is unclear. After reviewing the relevant published articles, we found that apoptosis has indeed been reported to play a role in periodontitis. However, the role of autophagy in periodontitis needs further verification. Additionally, implication of necroptosis or pyroptosis in periodontitis remains unknown. Therefore, we recommend future studies, which will unravel the pivotal role of PCD in periodontitis, allowing us to prevent, diagnose, and treat the disease, as well as predict its outcomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effects of pruning in Monterey pine plantations affected by Fusarium circinatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezos, D.; Lomba, J. M.; Martinez-Alvarez, P.; Fernandez, M.; Diez, J. J.

    2012-07-01

    Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg and O'Donnell (1998) is the causal agent of Pitch Canker Disease (PCD) in Pinus species, producing damage to the main trunk and lateral branches as well as causing branch dieback. The disease has been detected recently in northern Spain in Pinus spp. seedlings at nurseries and in Pinus radiata D. Don adult trees in plantations. Fusarium circinatum seems to require a wound to enter the tree, not only that as caused by insects but also that resulting from damage by humans, i.e. mechanical wounds. However, the effects of pruning on the infection process have yet to be studied. The aim of the present study was to know how the presence of mechanical damage caused by pruning affects PCD occurrence and severity in P. radiata plantations. Fifty P. radiata plots (pruned and unpruned) distributed throughout 16 sites affected by F. circinatum in the Cantabria region (northern Spain) were studied. Symptoms of PCD presence, such as dieback, oozing cankers and trunk deformation were evaluated in 25 trees per plot and related to pruning effect. A significant relationship between pruning and the number of cankers per tree was observed, concluding that wounds caused by pruning increase the chance of pathogen infection. Other trunk symptoms, such as the presence of resin outside the cankers, were also higher in pruned plots. These results should be taken into account for future management of Monterey Pine plantations. (Author) 36 refs.

  11. Proteases and caspase-like activity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Derek; Ramsdale, Mark

    2011-10-01

    A variety of proteases have been implicated in yeast PCD (programmed cell death) including the metacaspase Mca1 and the separase Esp1, the HtrA-like serine protease Nma111, the cathepsin-like serine carboxypeptideases and a range of vacuolar proteases. Proteasomal activity is also shown to have an important role in determining cell fate, with both pro- and anti-apoptotic roles. Caspase 3-, 6- and 8-like activities are detected upon stimulation of yeast PCD, but not all of this activity is associated with Mca1, implicating other proteases with caspase-like activity in the yeast cell death response. Global proteolytic events that accompany PCD are discussed alongside a consideration of the conservation of the death-related degradome (both at the level of substrate choice and cleavage site). The importance of both gain-of-function changes in the degradome as well as loss-of-function changes are highlighted. Better understanding of both death-related proteases and their substrates may facilitate the design of future antifungal drugs or the manipulation of industrial yeasts for commercial exploitation.

  12. Pulsed corona discharge oxidation of aqueous carbamazepine micropollutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajo, Petri; Krzymyk, Ewelina; Preis, Sergei; Kornev, Iakov; Kronberg, Leif; Louhi-Kultanen, Marjatta

    2016-08-01

    The anti-epileptic drug carbamazepine (CBZ) receives growing attention due to slow biodegradation and inherent accumulation in the aquatic environment. The application of a gas-phase pulsed corona discharge (PCD) was investigated to remove CBZ from synthetic solutions and spiked wastewater effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment facility. The treated water was showered between high voltage (HV) wires and grounded plate electrodes, to which ultra-short HV pulses were applied. CBZ was readily oxidized and 1-(2-benzaldehyde)-4-hydroquinazoline-2-one (BQM) and 1-(2-benzaldehyde)-4-hydro-quinazoline-2,4-dione (BQD) were identified as the most abundant primary transformation products, which, contrary to CBZ ozonation data available in the literature, were further easily oxidized with PCD: BQM and BQD attributed to only a minor portion of the target compound oxidized. In concentrations commonly found in wastewater treatment plant effluents (around 5 µg L(-1)), up to 97% reduction in CBZ concentration was achieved at mere 0.3 kW h m(-3) energy consumption, and over 99.9% was removed at 1 kW h m(-3). The PCD application proved to be efficient in the removal of both the parent substance and its known transformation products, even with the competing reactions in the complex composition of wastewater.

  13. Structure-properties relationships of novel poly(carbonate-co-amide) segmented copolymers with polyamide-6 as hard segments and polycarbonate as soft segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunyun; Kong, Weibo; Yuan, Ye; Zhou, Changlin; Cai, Xufu

    2018-04-01

    Novel poly(carbonate-co-amide) (PCA) block copolymers are prepared with polycarbonate diol (PCD) as soft segments, polyamide-6 (PA6) as hard segments and 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) as coupling agent through reactive processing. The reactive processing strategy is eco-friendly and resolve the incompatibility between polyamide segments and PCD segments in preparation processing. The chemical structure, crystalline properties, thermal properties, mechanical properties and water resistance were extensively studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermal gravity analysis (TGA), Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), tensile testing, water contact angle and water absorption, respectively. The as-prepared PCAs exhibit obvious microphase separation between the crystalline hard PA6 phase and amorphous PCD soft segments. Meanwhile, PCAs showed outstanding mechanical with the maximum tensile strength of 46.3 MPa and elongation at break of 909%. The contact angle and water absorption results indicate that PCAs demonstrate outstanding water resistance even though possess the hydrophilic surfaces. The TGA measurements prove that the thermal stability of PCA can satisfy the requirement of multiple-processing without decomposition.

  14. Megasporogenesis and programmed cell death in Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Alessio; Mosti, Stefano; Milocani, Eva; Tani, Gabriele; Di Falco, Pietro; Brighigna, Luigi

    2011-10-01

    The degeneration of three of four meiotic products is a very common process in the female gender of oogamous eukaryotes. In Tillandsia (and many other angiosperms), the surviving megaspore has a callose-free wall in chalazal position while the other three megaspores are completely embedded in callose. Therefore, nutrients and signals can reach more easily the functional megaspore from the nucellus through the chalazal pole with respect to the other megaspores. The abortion of three of four megaspores was already recognized as the result of a programmed cell death (PCD) process. We investigated the process to understand the modality of this specific type of PCD and its relationship to the asymmetric callose deposition around the tetrad. The decision on which of the four megaspores will be the supernumerary megaspores in angiosperms, and hence destined to undergo programmed cell death, appears to be linked to the callose layer deposition around the tetrad. During supernumerary megaspores degeneration, events leading to the deletion of the cells do not appear to belong to a single type of cell death. The first morphological signs are typical of autophagy, including the formation of autophagosomes. The TUNEL positivity and a change in morphology of mitochondria and chloroplasts indicate the passage to an apoptotic-like PCD phase, while the cellular remnants undergo a final process resembling at least partially (ER swelling) necrotic morphological syndromes, eventually leading to a mainly lipidic cell corpse still separated from the functional megaspore by a callose layer.

  15. Hearing loss in children with primary ciliary dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreicher, Kathryn L; Schopper, Heather K; Naik, Akash N; Hatch, Jonathan L; Meyer, Ted A

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the type and severity of hearing impairment in pediatric patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and relate these measures to patient demographics, treatment options, and other otologic factors. A retrospective analysis of children with a diagnosis of PCD, Kartagener's syndrome, or situs inversus in the AudGen Database was conducted. Audiograms were analyzed for type of hearing loss (HL), severity, laterality, and progression. Medical charts were reviewed to identify factors that influence severity and progression of hearing loss. 56 patients met inclusion criteria and 42 patients had HL. 66.6% had bilateral and 33.3% had unilateral loss (70 total ears with HL). Conductive hearing loss (CHL) was the most common type of HL, though 30% of children had some sensorineural component to their hearing loss. 92.9% of children with HL received at least one diagnosis of otitis media, but HL did not improve in the majority (77.8%) of ears in our study regardless of ear tube placement. Slight to mild CHL and all types of otitis media are prevalent among patients with PCD, and some of these children have sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). All patients diagnosed with situs inversus at birth should be evaluated by an otolaryngologist. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Composition of nasal airway surface liquid in cystic fibrosis and other airway diseases determined by X-ray microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanthanouvong, V; Kozlova, I; Johannesson, M; Nääs, E; Nordvall, S L; Dragomir, A; Roomans, G M

    2006-04-01

    The ionic composition of the airway surface liquid (ASL) in healthy individuals and in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) has been debated. Ion transport properties of the upper airway epithelium are similar to those of the lower airways and it is easier to collect nasal ASL from the nose. ASL was collected with ion exchange beads, and the elemental composition of nasal fluid was determined by X-ray microanalysis in healthy subjects, CF patients, CF heterozygotes, patients with rhinitis, and with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). In healthy subjects, the ionic concentrations were approximately isotonic. In CF patients, CF heterozygotes, rhinitis, and PCD patients, [Na] and [Cl] were significantly higher compared when compared with those in controls. [K] was significantly higher in CF and PCD patients compared with that in controls. Severely affected CF patients had higher ionic concentrations in their nasal ASL than in patients with mild or moderate symptoms. Female CF patients had higher levels of Na, Cl, and K than male patients. As higher salt concentrations in the ASL are also found in other patients with airway diseases involving chronic inflammation, it appears likely that inflammation-induced epithelial damage is important in determining the ionic composition of the ASL. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. The therapeutic CD38 monoclonal antibody daratumumab induces programmed cell death via fcg receptor-mediated cross-linking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overdijk, Marije B.; Jansen, J. H. Marco; Nederend, Maaike

    2016-01-01

    RIIb as well as activating FcgRs induce DARA cross-linking-mediated PCD. In conclusion, our in vitro and in vivo data show that FcgRmediated cross-linking of DARA induces PCD of CD38-expressing multiple myeloma tumor cells, which potentially contributes to the depth of response observed in DARA......Emerging evidence suggests that FcgR-mediated cross-linking of tumor-bound mAbs may induce signaling in tumor cells that contributes to their therapeutic activity. In this study, we show that daratumumab (DARA), a therapeutic human CD38 mAb with a broad-spectrum killing activity, is able to induce...... programmed cell death (PCD) of CD38+ multiple myeloma tumor cell lines when cross-linked in vitro by secondary Abs or via an FcgR. By comparing DARA efficacy in a syngeneic in vivo tumor model using FcRg-chain knockout or NOTAM mice carrying a signaling-inactive FcRg-chain, we found that the inhibitory Fcg...

  18. NH4+-NH3 removal from simulated wastewater using UV-TiO2 photocatalysis: effect of co-pollutants and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, M S; Selimuzzaman, S M; Al-Suwaiyan, M S

    2010-05-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the efficiency of titanium dioxide (TiO2) assisted photocatalytic degradation (PCD) process for the removal of ammonium-ammonia (NH4(+)-NH3) from the aqueous phase and in the presence of co-pollutants thiosulfate (S2O3(2-)) and p-cresol (C6H4CH3OH) under varying mixed conditions. For the NH4(+)-NH3 only PCD experiments, results showed higher NH4 -NH3 removal at pH 12 compared to pH 7 and 10. For the binary NH4(+)-NH3/S2O3(2-) studies the respective results indicated a significant lowering in NH4(+)-NH3 PCD in the presence of S2O32- at pH 7/12 whereas at pH 10 a marked increase in NH4(+)-NH3 removal transpired. A similar trend was noted for the p-cresol/NH4(+)-NH3 binary system. Comparing findings from the binary (NH4(+)-NH3/S2O3(2-) and p-cresol/NH4(+)-NH3) and tertiary (NH4(+)-NH3/S2O3(2-)/p-cresol) systems, at pH 10, showed fastest NH4(+)-NH3 removal transpiring for the tertiary system as compared to the binary systems, whereas both the binary systems indicated comparable NH4(+)-NH3 removal trends. The respective details have been discussed.

  19. Studies on nanosecond 532nm and 355nm and ultrafast 515nm and 532nm laser cutting super-hard materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Tao, Sha; Wang, Brian; Zhao, Jay

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, micro-processing of three kinds of super-hard materials of poly-crystal diamond (PCD)/tungsten-carbide (WC), CVD-diamond and cubic boron nitride (CNB) has been systematically studied using nanosecond laser (532nm and 355nm), and ultrafast laser (532nm and 515nm). Our purpose is to investigate a full laser micro-cutting solution to achieve a ready-to-use cutting tool insert (CTI). The results show a clean cut with little burns and recasting at edge. The cutting speed of 2-10mm/min depending on thickness was obtained. The laser ablation process was also studied by varying laser parameters (wavelength, pulse width, pulse energy, repetition rate) and tool path to improve cutting speed. Also, studies on material removal efficiency (MRE) of PCD/WC with 355nm-ns and 515nm-fs laser as a function of laser fluence show that 355nm-ns laser is able to achieve higher MRE for PCD and WC. Thus, ultrafast laser is not necessarily used for superhard material cutting. Instead, post-polishing with ultrafast laser can be used to clean cutting surface and improve smoothness.

  20. Apparent X-linked primary ciliary dyskinesia associated with retinitis pigmentosa and a hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyński, Maciej R; Dmeńska, Hanna; Witt, Michał

    2004-01-01

    Three brothers, one 10-year-old and a pair of 14-year-old dizygotic twins--expressed the classical, early-onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP) with typical ophthalmoscopic findings, night blindness, visual field constricted to 10 degrees and flat ERG response. All three brothers were also diagnosed with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and had recurrent respiratory infections, chronic sinusitis and bronchiectasis. In all of them, resection of the middle lobe of the right lung was performed. A similar clinical picture of coexisting RP and PCD was noted in the brother of the probands' mother. All probands displayed situs solitus. Consistent with the X-linked mode of RP inheritance, there were also three obligatory female carriers of the disorder in this family: the mother of the affected boys, her mother and a daughter of her brother. In all of them, retinitis pigmentosa "sine pigmento" was found with milder but clinically significant symptoms (mild night blindness, visual field constricted to 30 degrees, and scotopic and photopic ERG responses reduced to 30-60%). No extraocular symptoms were detected in any of the heterozygous female carriers. This family presents an example of two rare phenomena: X-linked dominant retinitis pigmentosa (with milder expression in females) and a rare combination of RP with recurrent respiratory infections due to PCD.

  1. Involvement of Arabidopsis Hexokinase1 in Cell Death Mediated by Myo -Inositol Accumulation

    KAUST Repository

    Bruggeman, Quentin

    2015-06-05

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is essential for several aspects of plant life, including development and stress responses. We recently identified the mips1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, which is deficient for the enzyme catalyzing the limiting step of myo-inositol (MI) synthesis. One of the most striking features of mips1 is the light-dependent formation of lesions on leaves due to salicylic acid (SA)-dependent PCD. Here, we identified a suppressor of PCD by screening for mutations that abolish the mips1 cell death phenotype. Our screen identified the hxk1 mutant, mutated in the gene encoding the hexokinase1 (HXK1) enzyme that catalyzes sugar phosphorylation and acts as a genuine glucose sensor. We show that HXK1 is required for lesion formation in mips1 due to alterations in MI content, via SA-dependant signaling. Using two catalytically inactive HXK1 mutants, we also show that hexokinase catalytic activity is necessary for the establishment of lesions in mips1. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed a restoration of the MI content in mips1 hxk1 that it is due to the activity of the MIPS2 isoform, while MIPS3 is not involved. Our work defines a pathway of HXK1-mediated cell death in plants and demonstrates that two MIPS enzymes act cooperatively under a particular metabolic status, highlighting a novel checkpoint of MI homeostasis in plants. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  2. Page Kidney in Wunderlich Syndrome Causing Acute Renal Failure and Urosepsis: Successful Timely Minimally Invasive Management of a Devastating Clinical Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayganapathy, Sundaramoorthy; Karthikeyan, Vilvapathy Senguttuvan; Mallya, Ashwin; Sreenivas, Jayaram

    2017-06-01

    Wunderlich Syndrome (WS) is an uncommon condition where acute onset of spontaneous bleeding occurs into the subcapsular and perirenal spaces. It can prove fatal if not recognized and treated aggressively at the appropriate time. A 32-year-old male diagnosed elsewhere as acute renal failure presented with tender left loin mass, fever and hypovolemic shock with serum creatinine 8.4 mg/dl. He was started on higher antibiotics and initiated on haemodialysis. Ultrasonogram (USG), Non-Contrast Computed Tomography (NCCT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) showed bilateral perirenal subcapsular haematomas - right 3.6 x 3.1 cm and left 10.3 x 10.3 cm compressing and displacing left kidney, fed by capsular branch of left renal artery on CT angiogram. Initial aspirate was bloody but he persisted to have febrile spikes, renal failure and urosepsis and he was managed conservatively. Repeat NCCT 10 days later revealed left perinephric abscess and Percutaneous Drainage (PCD) was done. Patient improved, serum creatinine stabilized at 2 mg/dl without haemodialysis and PCD was removed after two weeks. To conclude, bilateral idiopathic spontaneous retroperitoneal haemorrhage with renal failure is a rare presentation. This case highlights the need for high index of suspicion, the role of repeated imaging and successful minimally invasive management with timely PCD and supportive care.

  3. Comparative cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal aberrations and premature centromere division in persons exposed to radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovicic, D.; Rakic, B.; Vukov, T.; Pajic, J.; Milacic, S.; Kovacevic, R.; Stevanovic, M.; Drakulic, D.; Bukvic, N.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research was to determine the presence of correlation between the frequency of premature centromere division (PCD) and chromosomal aberrations (CA) in metaphases in persons professionally exposed to radionuclides. Biological dosimetry was performed by conventional cytogenetic technique. The presence of PCD was confirmed by Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The L1.84 probe (specific for centromeric region of chromosome 18) was used. The analysis included 50 subjects employed in the Clinical Center of Serbia (C) (the average age of 45.24 ± 1.18 and the average exposition time 17.96 ± 1.15) and 40 subjects in control group (K) (the average age of 44.40 ± 0.98 and the average years of employment 19.67 ± 0.98 years) which were not exposed to genotoxic agents in their workplaces. The results showed that frequencies of CA and PCD were statistically significantly higher in subjects exposed to radionuclides than in the control group (Mann-Whitney U test, P [sr

  4. Abnormal development of tapetum and microspores induced by chemical hybridization agent SQ-1 in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Song, Qilu; Zhang, Yingxin; Li, Zheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Ma, Shoucai; Wang, Junwei

    2015-01-01

    Chemical hybridization agent (CHA)-induced male sterility is an important tool in crop heterosis. To demonstrate that CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility is associated with abnormal tapetal and microspore development, the cytology of CHA-SQ-1-treated plant anthers at various developmental stages was studied by light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferasemediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay and DAPI staining. The results indicated that the SQ-1-treated plants underwent premature tapetal programmed cell death (PCD), which was initiated at the early-uninucleate stage of microspore development and continued until the tapetal cells were completely degraded; the process of microspore development was then blocked. Microspores with low-viability (fluorescein diacetate staining) were aborted. The study suggests that premature tapetal PCD is the main cause of pollen abortion. Furthermore, it determines the starting period and a key factor in CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility at the cell level, and provides cytological evidence to further study the mechanism between PCD and male sterility.

  5. Abnormal development of tapetum and microspores induced by chemical hybridization agent SQ-1 in wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuping Wang

    Full Text Available Chemical hybridization agent (CHA-induced male sterility is an important tool in crop heterosis. To demonstrate that CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility is associated with abnormal tapetal and microspore development, the cytology of CHA-SQ-1-treated plant anthers at various developmental stages was studied by light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferasemediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL assay and DAPI staining. The results indicated that the SQ-1-treated plants underwent premature tapetal programmed cell death (PCD, which was initiated at the early-uninucleate stage of microspore development and continued until the tapetal cells were completely degraded; the process of microspore development was then blocked. Microspores with low-viability (fluorescein diacetate staining were aborted. The study suggests that premature tapetal PCD is the main cause of pollen abortion. Furthermore, it determines the starting period and a key factor in CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility at the cell level, and provides cytological evidence to further study the mechanism between PCD and male sterility.

  6. Study of Subtropical Forestry Index Retrieval Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning and Hemispherical Photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to retrieve gap fraction, leaf inclination angle, and leaf area index (LAI of subtropical forestry canopy, here we acquired forestry detailed information by means of hemispherical photography, terrestrial laser scanning, and LAI-2200 plant canopy analyzer. Meanwhile, we presented a series of image processing and computer graphics algorithms that include image and point cloud data (PCD segmentation methods for branch and leaf classification and PCD features, such as normal vector, tangent plane extraction, and hemispherical projection method for PCD coordinate transformation. In addition, various forestry mathematical models were proposed to deduce forestry canopy indexes based on the radiation transfer model of Beer-Lambert law. Through the comparison of the experimental results on many plot samples, the terrestrial laser scanner- (TLS- based index estimation method obtains results similar to digital hemispherical photograph (HP and LAI-2200 plant canopy analyzer taken of the same stands and used for validation. It indicates that the TLS-based algorithm is able to capture the variability in LAI of forest stands with a range of densities, and there is a high chance to enhance TLS as a calibration tool for other devices.

  7. GASIFICATION TEST RUN TC06

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services, Inc.

    2003-08-01

    This report discusses test campaign TC06 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC06. Test run TC06 was started on July 4, 2001, and completed on September 24, 2001, with an interruption in service between July 25, 2001, and August 19, 2001, due to a filter element failure in the PCD caused by abnormal operating conditions while tuning the main air compressor. The reactor temperature was varied between 1,725 and 1,825 F at pressures from 190 to 230 psig. In TC06, 1,214 hours of solid circulation and 1,025 hours of coal feed were attained with 797 hours of coal feed after the filter element failure. Both reactor and PCD operations were stable during the test run with a stable baseline pressure drop. Due to its length and stability, the TC06 test run provided valuable data necessary to analyze long-term reactor operations and to identify necessary modifications to improve equipment and process performance as well as progressing the goal of many thousands of hours of filter element exposure.

  8. Caffeine-Induced Premature Chromosome Condensation Results in the Apoptosis-Like Programmed Cell Death in Root Meristems of Vicia faba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Rybaczek

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that the activation of apoptosis-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD was a secondary result of caffeine (CF induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC in hydroxyurea-synchronized Vicia faba root meristem cells. Initiation of the apoptotic-like cell degradation pathway seemed to be the result of DNA damage generated by treatment with hydroxyurea (HU [double-stranded breaks (DSBs mostly] and co-treatment with HU/CF [single-stranded breaks (SSBs mainly]. A single chromosome comet assay was successfully used to study different types of DNA damage (neutral variant-DSBs versus alkaline-DSBs or SSBs. The immunocytochemical detection of H2AXS139Ph and PARP-2 were used as markers for DSBs and SSBs, respectively. Acridine orange and ethidium bromide (AO/EB were applied for quantitative immunofluorescence measurements of dead, dying and living cells. Apoptotic-type DNA fragmentation and positive TUNEL reaction finally proved that CF triggers AL-PCD in stressed V. faba root meristem cells. In addition, the results obtained under transmission electron microscopy (TEM further revealed apoptotic-like features at the ultrastructural level of PCC-type cells: (i extensive vacuolization; (ii abnormal chromatin condensation, its marginalization and concomitant degradation; (iii formation of autophagy-like vesicles (iv protoplast shrinkage (v fragmentation of cell nuclei and (vi extensive degeneration of the cells. The results obtained have been discussed with respect to the vacuolar/autolytic type of plant-specific AL-PCD.

  9. Barbados Insulin Matters (BIM) study: Perceptions on insulin initiation by primary care doctors in the Caribbean island of Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Charles Grafton; Taylor, Gordon; Atherley, Anique; Hambleton, Ian; Unwin, Nigel; Adams, Oswald Peter

    2017-04-01

    With regards to insulin initiation in Barbados we explored primary care doctor (PCD) perception, healthcare system factors and predictors of PCD reluctance to initiate insulin. PCDs completed a questionnaire based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and a reluctance to initiate insulin scale. Using linear regression, we explored the association between TPB domains and the reluctance to initiate insulin scale. Of 161 PCDs, 70% responded (75 private and 37 public sector). The majority felt initiating insulin was uncomplicated (68%) and there was benefit if used before complications developed (68%), but would not use it until absolutely necessary (58%). More private than public sector PCDs (p<0.05) thought that the healthcare system allowed enough flexibility of time for education (68 vs 38%) and initiating insulin was easy (63 vs 35%), but less thought system changes would help initiating insulin (42 vs 70%). Reasons for reluctance to initiate insulin included patient nonadherence (83%) and reluctance (63%). Only the attitudes and belief domain of the TPB was associated with the reluctance to initiate insulin scale (p<0.001). Interventions focusing on PCD attitudes and beliefs and restructuring services inclusive of the use of diabetes specialist nurses are required. Copyright © 2016 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ozone Sensitivity in Hybrid Poplar Correlates with Insensitivity to Both Salicylic Acid and Jasmonic Acid. The Role of Programmed Cell Death in Lesion Formation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Jennifer Riehl; Creelman, Robert A.; Eshita, Steven M.; Seskar, Mirjana; Mullet, John E.; Davis, Keith R.

    2000-01-01

    Our earlier studies demonstrated that the ozone-sensitive hybrid poplar clone NE-388 displays an attenuated level of ozone-, wound-, and phytopathogen-induced defense gene expression. To determine if this reduced gene activation involves signal transduction pathways dependent on salicylic acid (SA) and/or jasmonic acid (JA), we compared the responses of NE-388 and an ozone-tolerant clone, NE-245, to these signal molecules. JA levels increased in both clones in response to ozone, but only minimal increases in SA levels were measured for either clone. Treatment with SA and methyl jasmonate induced defense gene expression only in NE-245, indicating that NE-388 is insensitive to these signal molecules. DNA fragmentation, an indicator of programmed cell death (PCD), was detected in NE-245 treated with either ozone or an avirulent phytopathogen, but was not detected in NE-388. We conclude that these clones undergo two distinct mechanisms of ozone-induced lesion formation. In NE-388, lesions appear to be due to toxic cell death resulting from a limited ability to perceive and subsequently activate SA- and/or JA-mediated antioxidant defense responses. In NE-245, SA-dependent PCD precedes lesion formation via a process related to the PCD pathway activated by phytopathogenic bacteria. These results support the hypothesis that ozone triggers a hypersensitive response. PMID:10859179

  11. Ozone sensitivity in hybrid poplar correlates with insensitivity to both salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. The role of programmed cell death in lesion formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J R; Creelman, R A; Eshita, S M; Seskar, M; Mullet, J E; Davis, K R

    2000-06-01

    Our earlier studies demonstrated that the ozone-sensitive hybrid poplar clone NE-388 displays an attenuated level of ozone-, wound-, and phytopathogen-induced defense gene expression. To determine if this reduced gene activation involves signal transduction pathways dependent on salicylic acid (SA) and/or jasmonic acid (JA), we compared the responses of NE-388 and an ozone-tolerant clone, NE-245, to these signal molecules. JA levels increased in both clones in response to ozone, but only minimal increases in SA levels were measured for either clone. Treatment with SA and methyl jasmonate induced defense gene expression only in NE-245, indicating that NE-388 is insensitive to these signal molecules. DNA fragmentation, an indicator of programmed cell death (PCD), was detected in NE-245 treated with either ozone or an avirulent phytopathogen, but was not detected in NE-388. We conclude that these clones undergo two distinct mechanisms of ozone-induced lesion formation. In NE-388, lesions appear to be due to toxic cell death resulting from a limited ability to perceive and subsequently activate SA- and/or JA-mediated antioxidant defense responses. In NE-245, SA-dependent PCD precedes lesion formation via a process related to the PCD pathway activated by phytopathogenic bacteria. These results support the hypothesis that ozone triggers a hypersensitive response.

  12. Induction of cell death by tospoviral protein NSs and the motif critical for cell death does not control RNA silencing suppression activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajeet; Permar, Vipin; Jain, R K; Goswami, Suneha; Kumar, Ranjeet Ranjan; Canto, Tomas; Palukaitis, Peter; Praveen, Shelly

    2017-08-01

    Groundnut bud necrosis virus induces necrotic symptoms in different hosts. Previous studies showed reactive oxygen species-mediated programmed cell death (PCD) resulted in necrotic symptoms. Transgenic expression of viral protein NSs mimics viral symptoms. Here, we showed a role for NSs in influencing oxidative burst in the cell, by analyzing H 2 O 2 accumulation, activities of antioxidant enzymes and expression levels of vacuolar processing enzymes, H 2 O 2 -responsive microRNA 319a.2 plus its possible target metacaspase-8. The role of NSs in PCD, was shown using two NSs mutants: one in the Trp/GH3 motif (a homologue of pro-apototic domain) (NSs S189R ) and the other in a non-Trp/GH3 motif (NSs L172R ). Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) expressing NSs S189R enhanced the PCD response, but not TRV-NSs L172R , while RNA silencing suppression activity was lost in TRV-NSs L172R , but not in TRV-NSs S189R . Therefore, we propose dual roles of NSs in RNA silencing suppression and induction of cell death, controlled by different motifs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Primary ciliary dyskinesia in the paediatric population: range and severity of radiological findings in a cohort of patients receiving tertiary care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, K. [Department of Radiology, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Padley, S.P.G. [Department of Radiology, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.padley@ic.ac.uk; Goldstraw, E.J.; Kidd, S.J. [Department of Radiology, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Hogg, C.; Biggart, E.; Bush, A. [Department of Paediatric Respiratory Medicine, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    Aim: To investigate the clinical range and severity of radiological findings in a cohort of patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) receiving tertiary care. Materials and methods: The case notes and clinical test results of 89 children attending the paediatric respiratory disease clinic at our institution were retrospectively analysed. Demographic details including age at diagnosis and common presenting signs and symptoms were studied. Results of chest radiographs, microscopy, and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for quantification of lung damage were analysed. Results: In a cohort of 89 children with PCD, a presentation chest radiograph was available in 62% of patients (n = 55), with all but one demonstrating changes of bronchial wall thickening. HRCT of the lungs, available in 26 patients, were scored using the system described by Brody et al. analysing five specific features of lung disease, including bronchiectasis, mucus plugging, peribronchial thickening, parenchymal changes of consolidation, and ground-glass density, and focal air-trapping in each lobe. Peribronchial thickening was observed using HRCT in 25 patients, while 20 patients had bronchiectasis. Severity scores were highest for the middle and the lingular lobes. Conclusion: The radiographic findings of the largest reported cohort of patients with PCD are presented, with associated clinical findings. Dextrocardia remains the commonest finding on chest radiography. HRCT demonstrates peribronchial thickening and bronchiectasis, which is most marked in the lower zones. Radiological scoring techniques developed for assessment of cystic fibrosis can also be applied for the assessment of disease severity in this patient population.

  14. The fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol can inhibit plant apoptosis-like programmed cell death.

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    Mark Diamond

    Full Text Available The Fusarium genus of fungi is responsible for commercially devastating crop diseases and the contamination of cereals with harmful mycotoxins. Fusarium mycotoxins aid infection, establishment, and spread of the fungus within the host plant. We investigated the effects of the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON on the viability of Arabidopsis cells. Although it is known to trigger apoptosis in animal cells, DON treatment at low concentrations surprisingly did not kill these cells. On the contrary, we found that DON inhibited apoptosis-like programmed cell death (PCD in Arabidopsis cells subjected to abiotic stress treatment in a manner independent of mitochondrial cytochrome c release. This suggested that Fusarium may utilise mycotoxins to suppress plant apoptosis-like PCD. To test this, we infected Arabidopsis cells with a wild type and a DON-minus mutant strain of F. graminearum and found that only the DON producing strain could inhibit death induced by heat treatment. These results indicate that mycotoxins may be capable of disarming plant apoptosis-like PCD and thereby suggest a novel way that some fungi can influence plant cell fate.

  15. p53 dependent apoptotic cell death induces embryonic malformation in Carassius auratus under chronic hypoxia.

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    Paramita Banerjee Sawant

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is a global phenomenon affecting recruitment as well as the embryonic development of aquatic fauna. The present study depicts hypoxia induced disruption of the intrinsic pathway of programmed cell death (PCD, leading to embryonic malformation in the goldfish, Carrasius auratus. Constant hypoxia induced the early expression of pro-apoptotic/tumor suppressor p53 and concomitant expression of the cell death molecule, caspase-3, leading to high level of DNA damage and cell death in hypoxic embryos, as compared to normoxic ones. As a result, the former showed delayed 4 and 64 celled stages and a delay in appearance of epiboly stage. Expression of p53 efficiently switched off expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 during the initial 12 hours post fertilization (hpf and caused embryonic cell death. However, after 12 hours, simultaneous downregulation of p53 and Caspase-3 and exponential increase of Bcl-2, caused uncontrolled cell proliferation and prevented essential programmed cell death (PCD, ultimately resulting in significant (p<0.05 embryonic malformation up to 144 hpf. Evidences suggest that uncontrolled cell proliferation after 12 hpf may have been due to downregulation of p53 abundance, which in turn has an influence on upregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Therefore, we have been able to show for the first time and propose that hypoxia induced downregulation of p53 beyond 12 hpf, disrupts PCD and leads to failure in normal differentiation, causing malformation in gold fish embryos.

  16. Relational continuity with primary and secondary care doctors: a qualitative study of perceptions of users of the Catalan national health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waibel, Sina; Vargas, Ingrid; Coderch, Jordi; Vázquez, María-Luisa

    2018-04-10

    In the current context of increasingly fragmented healthcare systems where patients are seen by multiple doctors in different settings, patients' relational continuity with one doctor is regaining relevance; however little is known about relational continuity with specialists. The aim of this study is to explore perceptions of relational continuity with primary care and secondary care doctors, its influencing factors and consequences from the viewpoint of users of the Catalan national health system (Spain). We conducted a descriptive-interpretative qualitative study using a two-stage theoretical sample; (i) contexts: three healthcare areas in the Catalan national health system with differing characteristics; (ii) informants: users 18 years or older attended to at both care levels. Sample size (n = 49) was reached by saturation. Data were collected by individual semi-structured interviews, which were audio recorded and transcribed. A thematic content analysis was carried out segmenting data by study area, and leaving room for new categories to emerge from the data. Patients across the areas studied generally experienced consistency of primary care doctors (PCD), alongside some inconsistency of specialists. Consistency of specialists did not seem to be relevant to some patients when their clinical information was shared and used. Patients who experienced consistency and frequent visits with the same PCD or specialist described and valued having established an ongoing relationship characterised by personal trust and mutual accumulated knowledge. Identified consequences were diverse and included, for example, facilitated diagnosis or improved patient-doctor communication. The ascription to a PCD, a health system-related factor, facilitated relational continuity with the PCD, whereas organizational factors (for instance, the size of the primary care centre) favoured consistency of PCD and specialists. Doctor-related factors (for example, high technical competence or

  17. Pattern of peripapillary capillary density loss in ischemic optic neuropathy compared to that in primary open-angle glaucoma.

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    Masoud Aghsaei Fard

    Full Text Available Both non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG damage retinal ganglion cell axons, which are perfused by the radial peripapillary capillaries. To evaluate the pattern of ischemia, we compared peripapillary capillary density (PCD in NAION eyes to POAG eyes matched for visual field mean deviation and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness.31 chronic NAION (>6 months after the acute event and unaffected fellow eyes (31 subjects, 42 moderate and severe POAG eyes (27 subjects, and 77 control eyes (46 healthy subjects were imaged with a commercial optical coherence tomography angiography system (AngioVue, Avanti RTVue-XR, Optovue, CA at two academic institutions. Two concentric circles of diameters 1.95mm (inner and 3.45mm (outer were manually placed on images centered on the optic nerve head, producing an annular region-of-interest. Image analysis with major vessel removal was performed using a custom program. Whole-image, whole-annulus, and sectoral PCDs were measured.Whole-image and whole-annulus PCDs in NAION and moderate and severe POAG eyes were significantly decreased compared to unaffected fellow eyes and control eyes (all P<0.001. Superior and temporal PCD values were affected more than other sectors in both NAION and POAG groups compared to control group. Whole-image and whole-annulus PCDs were not statistically different between NAION and POAG eyes (both P = 0.99. However, of all peripapillary sectors, the inferior sector PCD value was less affected in POAG eyes compared to NAION eyes (P = 0.001. Univariate analysis results also revealed a significant positive correlation between superior and inferior PCDs and corresponding RNFL thicknesses. The inferior sector correlation was greater in POAG than NAION eyes.While the whole PCD values were not different in chronic NAION and POAG, the greater correlation of inferior PCD with corresponding RNFL sectors in POAG compared to NAION suggests greater

  18. A comparative study of three ternary complexes prepared in different mixing orders of siRNA/redox-responsive hyperbranched poly (amido amine/hyaluronic acid

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    Chen CJ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Jun Chen,1 Zhi-Xia Zhao,1 Jian-Cheng Wang,1 En-Yu Zhao,1 Ling-Yan Gao,1 Shu-Feng Zhou,2 Xiao-Yan Liu,1 Wan-Liang Lu,1 Qiang Zhang11State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Peking University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: In this study, a novel redox-responsive hyperbranched poly(amido amine (named PCD was synthesized and used as a cationic polymer to form a ternary complex with small interfering RNA (siRNA and hyaluronic acid (HA for siRNA delivery. Here, it is hypothesized that different mixing orders result in different assembly structures, which may affect the siRNA delivery efficiency. To investigate the effects of mixing orders on siRNA delivery efficiency in two human breast cancer cell lines, three ternary complexes with different mixing orders of siRNA/PCD/HA were prepared and characterized: mixing order I (initially prepared siRNA/PCD binary complex further coated by negatively charged HA, mixing order II (initially prepared HA/PCD binary complex further incubated with siRNA, and mixing order III (initially prepared siRNA/HA mixture further electrostatically compacted by positively charged PCD. With an optimized siRNA/PCD/HA charge ratio of 1/20/16, the particle sizes and zeta potentials of these ternary complexes were 124.8 nm and 27.3 mV (mixing order I, 147.5 nm and 29.9 mV (mixing order II, and 128.8 nm and 19.4 mV (mixing order III. Also, the effects on stability, cellular uptake, and gene silencing efficiency of siRNA formulated in ternary complexes with different mixing orders were investigated. The results showed that mixing orders I and III displayed better siRNA transfection and protection than mixing order II in human breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. More interesting, at the siRNA/PCD/HA charge ratio of 1/20/16, the

  19. d_21 system: un juego para ser habitado

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    Reyes, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available d21_system is a prototype for a convertible room built with compatible construction component systems. It consists in: 1- a catalogue of massproduced, fully equipped booths. 2- a bolted steel structure with identical and standardized staircase sections. 3- a wood structure comprising four different frames compatible with the steel structure. 4- three service systems with a fi xed layout where the booths, as well as lighting and all the electrical outlets needed, can be plugged in. 5- wheeled cabinets and sliding panels to divide different areas and uses. These "open meccanos" take their inspiration from the application of "open industrialization" processes. d21_system was set up, in just two weeks’ time, in the central courtyard at the Madrid fairgrounds for the CONSTRUTEC’04 event.d21_system es un prototipo de habitación transformable construido a base de S.3c (sistemas de construcción por componentes compatibles que consiste en: 1- un catalogo de cabinas producidas en serie. Totalmente equipadas2- una estructura de acero atornillada con sus tramos de escalera idénticos y normalizados3- una estructura de madera compuesta de 4 marcas distintas compatible con la estructura de acero4- tres redes de instalaciones capaces de enchufar- desenchufar en su trazado fi jo tanto las cabinas equipadas, como los focos y enchufes de corriente eléctrica que se necesiten5- armarios- rodantes y paneles deslizantes para dividir y separar las diferentes zonas de usos. La aplicación de los procesos pertenecientes a "la industrialización abierta" es lo que permite pensar en esta clase de "mecanos abiertos". d21_system fue montado en el patio central de IFEMA para el certamen CONSTRUTEC`o4 y se montó en tan sólo 15 días.

  20. Puente de Humber Gran Bretaña

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    Población Knappe, Eleuterio

    1981-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the building of the world's longest single- span hanging bridge (2,250 metres in the Humber estuary. The floor of this bridge, the main light of which Is 1,410 m, is formed by trapezoidal chestbeams made with 18 m long rigid sheets. This makes possible both economy of steel and a reduction In the dimensions of the cables, pylons and anchorage masses. The pylons, built of sliding formwork, consist of two 155 m high reinforced concrete hollow pillars.These pillars are joined by four horizontal struts. The construction of the Humber bridge allows the distances between both shores of the estuary to be cut and completes the motorway network in the area.

    Se describe en este artículo la construcción del puente colgado de tramo sencillo más largo del mundo (2.250 m en el estuario de Humber. El tablero de este puente, cuya luz principal es de 1.410 m, está formado por vigas-cajón trapezoidales realizadas mediante chapas rigidizadas de 18 m de longitud. De esta manera se obtiene una economía de acero así como una reducción en las dimensiones de los cables, pilonos y macizos de anclaje. Los pilonos, construidos con encofrado deslizante, se componen de dos pilares huecos de hormigón armado de 155 m de altura. Estos pilares están unidos por cuatro riostras horizontales. La construcción del puente de Humber permite acortar las distancias entre ambas orillas del estuario y completa la red de autopistas de la zona.

  1. Puente Öland

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    Skanska Cementgjüteriet, Empresa

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available The Öland bridge spans across the Kalmar strait, reaching from Möllstorpslage, on the island of Öland, to the island of N. Skallö; from here to the island of Svinö and then to Jutnabben, on the Swedish peninsula. It has 155 spans out of which 147 are small spans, two medium and six central, each one of them 130 m, with a total length of 6.070 m. The high arches have been constructed by the system of successive corbels and the low ones with a launching of big beams of reinforced concrete. Foundations on columns or poured on site in pneumatic emptied boxes, depending on the cases and piers of reinforced concrete, constructed by means of sliding formwork. The Construction Firm has been Skanska Cementgjuteriet, on account of the Government Administration.El puente de Öland salva el estrecho de Kalmar, partiendo de Möllstorpslage, en la isla de Öland, hasta la isla de N. Skallö; de aquí a la de Svinö y desde ésta hasta Jutnabben, en la península sueca. Tiene 155 vanos: 147 de luces pequeñas, 2 de luces medianas y 6 centrales, de 130 m cada una, con una longitud total de 6.070 m. Los arcos denominados altos se han realizado por el sistema de voladizos sucesivos, y los bajos, mediante lanzamiento de grandes vigas de hormigón armado. Cimientos sobre pilotes o vertidos in situ, en cajones vaciados neumáticamente, según los casos, y pilas de hormigón armado, construidas con auxilio de encofrados deslizantes. La Empresa constructora ha sido Skanska Cementgjuteriet, por cuenta de la Administración del Estado.

  2. Semiactive balancing control scheme in a rotor - bearing system supported on Mr. Dampers: design and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Navarro, Gerardo; Cabrera Amado, Alvaro [Cinvestav, IPN, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    This paper deals with the problem of semiactive balancing control of a rotor-bearing system, where one journal bearings is supported on two radial Magneto-Rheological (MR) dampers. The mathematical model of the rotor-bearing system results from an orthotropic Jeffcott-like model and the dynamics associated to the MR dampers, whose rheological properties depend on the current inputs. For control purposes we use the Choi-Lee-Park polynomial for the MR dampers, which is quite consistent with the tpical nonlinear and complex hysteresis behavior and also simplifies the physical implementation on an experimental setup. The semiactive control scheme for the unbalance reponse of the rotor-bearing system is synthesized using sliding-mode control techniques. Some numerical and experimental results are included to illustrate the dynamic performance and robustness of the overall system. [Spanish] En este trabajo se abora el problema de control semiactivo del desbalance en un sistema rotor-chumacera, donde una de las chumaceras convencionales se monta sobre una suspension con dos amortiguadores Magneto-Reologicos (MR) radiales. El modelo matematico del sistema rotorchumacera se obtiene de un modelo tipo Jefcott ortotropico y la dinamica de los amortiguadores MR, cuyas propiedades reologicas dependen de las corrientes electricas de alimentacion. Para propositos de control se emplea el modelo polinomial de Choi-Lee-Park para los dos amortiguadores MR, el cual es consistente con el tipico comportamiento no-lineal y de histeresis, permitiendo simplificar su implementacion fisica en una plataforma experimental. El esquema de control semiactivo de la respuesta al desbalance, en el sistema rotor-chumacera, se basa en las tecnicas de control por modos deslizantes. Se presentan algunos resultados de simulacion numerica y experimentos que utilizan el funcionamiento y robustez del sistema completo.

  3. Centro administrativo y de investigación de una compañía de seguros Viena – Austria

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    Hlaweniczka, Kurt

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available This building is shaped in the form of a cross, with ten towers, six of which are 70 m high and the other four 45 m high. The most outstanding feature is their slender Steel, water-filled columns supporting the floor construction. The columns, in their turn rest on cross beams placed on box trusses (caisson connecting the towers. The towers were built using sliding forms, while the box trusses were built using scaffold forms. Infra-red rays were used in different construction stages to achieve the fast curing of the concrete. The building contains, among other areas, an electronic data processing facility, a teaching hall, mess hall, lounge, etc.

    Este edificio tiene forma de una cruz, con diez torres, cuatro de ellas con una altura de 70 m y las otras seis con una altura de 45 m. Su rasgo más característico son unas columnas delgadas de acero llenas de agua, sobre las que se apoyan los forjados de las plantas. Estas columnas, a su vez, se apoyan sobre vigas transversales colocadas sobre las vigas-cajón que unen las torres. Las torres fueron realizadas mediante encofrados deslizantes, mientras las vigas-cajón lo fueron con cimbras. En diversas fases de la construcción se utilizaron rayos ¡infrarrojos para conseguir un endurecimiento rápido del hormigón. El edificio consta de una instalación de elaboración electrónica de datos, una sala de enseñanza, comedor, sala de estar, etc.

  4. PADRONIZAÇÃO DE EXCIPIENTES PARA MANIPULAÇÃO DE CÁPSULAS GELATINOSAS DURAS CONTENDO EXTRATO SECO DE VALERIANA (Valeriana officinalis, PRODUZIDAS NO PROJETO FARMÁCIA VIVA EM SOBRAL-CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Neudimar Bastos Costa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available O Projeto Farmácia Viva é o primeiro projeto de assistência social farmacêutica desenvolvido no Brasil baseado no emprego científico de plantas medicinais. Dentre as formulações padronizadas a partir de cápsulas gelatinosas duras, destacam-se as cápsulas contendo Extrato Seco de Valeriana. Para manipulação dessas cápsulas, é necessária uma quantidade adicional de excipientes, que possuem papel importante na qualidade, segurança e no desempenho do medicamento. O objetivo deste estudo é padronizar excipientes para formulação fitoterápica em cápsulas manipuladas no Projeto Farmácia Viva. A metodologia seguida foi por meio de análise bibliográfica sobre os variados excipientes e fitoterápicos e análise de bulas de medicamentos para posterior sugestão de padronização. Foram manipuladas 30 cápsulas e submetidas ao controle da qualidade, onde foram avaliados o peso médio, limite de variação, coeficiente de variação, desvio padrão e variação do conteúdo teórico das cápsulas. A formulação de Valeriana proposta teve como excipientes escolhidos o estearato de magnésio (0,5 % como lubrificante, o dióxido de silício coloidal (1,0 % como deslizante, o talco farmacêutico (1,0 % como adsorvente, o amido farmacêutico (73,0 % como um diluente hidrofóbico, lactose monohidratada (24,5 % como um diluente hidrofílico. Todos os resultados do controle da qualidade obtidos atenderam as especificações farmacopeicas.

  5. Nuevas tendencias metodológicas en la enseñanza del esquí: orientaciones didácticas para su iniciación en los centros educativos

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    Antonio Méndez-Giménez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo recoge una propuesta de iniciación al esquí alpino desde los centros educativos de primaria y secundaria a partir de unidades didácticas que fomenten la transferencia vertical. Precisamente, se sugiere una secuenciación de las tareas en la que los aprendizajes realizados en primer lugar puedan facilitar el aprendizaje posterior de tareas similares, pero más complejas. La primera fase pone el énfasis en la realización de actividades lúdicas con esquís autoconstruidos; después, se pasa a una fase de actividades de deslizamiento sobre patines en línea y monopatín, y finalmente, el proceso culmina con la experiencia práctica del esquí en la nieve. Las claves metodológicas son las siguientes: diseño de una unidad didáctica más larga que la tradicional, empleo del juego como recurso de búsqueda y de diversión, autoconstrucción del material, uso de estilos de enseñanza combinados (mediante la búsqueda cuando las condiciones sean favorables, y mediante instrucción directa, en situaciones de mayor riesgo, práctica de patinaje en línea y monopatín (como modalidades populares de transición que permiten experimentar el desplazamiento sobre objetos deslizantes, así como una organización flexible de los grupos.

  6. Discinesia ciliar primária: considerações sobre seis casos da síndrome de Kartagener Primary ciliary dyskinesia: considerations regarding six cases of Kartagener syndrome

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    Hugo Alejandro Vega Ortega

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A discinesia ciliar primária (DCP, anteriormente conhecida como síndrome dos cílios imóveis, é uma doença hereditária autossômica recessiva que inclui vários padrões de defeitos em sua ultra-estrutura ciliar. Sua forma clínica mais grave é a síndrome de Kartagener (SK, a qual é encontrada em 50% dos casos de DCP. A DCP causa deficiência ou mesmo estase no transporte de secreções em todo o trato respiratório, favorecendo a proliferação de vírus e bactérias. Sua incidência varia de 1:20.000 a 1:60.000. Como conseqüência, os pacientes apresentam infecções crônicas e repetidas desde a infância e geralmente são portadores de bronquite, pneumonia, hemoptise, sinusite e infertilidade. As bronquiectasias e outras infecções crônicas podem ser o resultado final das alterações irreversíveis dos brônquios, podendo progredir para cor pulmonale crônico e suas conseqüências. Somente a metade dos pacientes afetados pela DCP apresenta todos os sintomas, condição denominada SK completa; no restante, não ocorre situs inversus, condição denominada SK incompleta. O diagnóstico é feito com base no quadro clínico e confirmado por meio da microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. Como não há tratamento especifico para a DCP, recomenda-se que, tão logo seja feito o diagnóstico, as infecções secundárias sejam tratadas com antibióticos potentes e medidas profiláticas sejam adotadas. Neste trabalho, relatamos seis casos de DCP (cinco casos de SK completa e um caso de SK incompleta e revisamos a literatura sobre o assunto, tendo como foco os aspectos diagnósticos, terapêuticos e clínicos desta doença.Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD, previously known as immotile cilia syndrome, is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease that includes various patterns of ciliary ultrastructural defects. The most serious form is Kartagener syndrome (KS, which accounts for 50% of all cases of PCD. The incidence of PCD ranges from 1

  7. Photon Counting Computed Tomography With Dedicated Sharp Convolution Kernels: Tapping the Potential of a New Technology for Stent Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Spiczak, Jochen; Mannil, Manoj; Peters, Benjamin; Hickethier, Tilman; Baer, Matthias; Henning, André; Schmidt, Bernhard; Flohr, Thomas; Manka, Robert; Maintz, David; Alkadhi, Hatem

    2018-05-23

    The aims of this study were to assess the value of a dedicated sharp convolution kernel for photon counting detector (PCD) computed tomography (CT) for coronary stent imaging and to evaluate to which extent iterative reconstructions can compensate for potential increases in image noise. For this in vitro study, a phantom simulating coronary artery stenting was prepared. Eighteen different coronary stents were expanded in plastic tubes of 3 mm diameter. Tubes were filled with diluted contrast agent, sealed, and immersed in oil calibrated to an attenuation of -100 HU simulating epicardial fat. The phantom was scanned in a modified second generation 128-slice dual-source CT scanner (SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) equipped with both a conventional energy integrating detector and PCD. Image data were acquired using the PCD part of the scanner with 48 × 0.25 mm slices, a tube voltage of 100 kVp, and tube current-time product of 100 mAs. Images were reconstructed using a conventional convolution kernel for stent imaging with filtered back-projection (B46) and with sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) at level 3 (I463). For comparison, a dedicated sharp convolution kernel with filtered back-projection (D70) and SAFIRE level 3 (Q703) and level 5 (Q705) was used. The D70 and Q70 kernels were specifically designed for coronary stent imaging with PCD CT by optimizing the image modulation transfer function and the separation of contrast edges. Two independent, blinded readers evaluated subjective image quality (Likert scale 0-3, where 3 = excellent), in-stent diameter difference, in-stent attenuation difference, mathematically defined image sharpness, and noise of each reconstruction. Interreader reliability was calculated using Goodman and Kruskal's γ and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Differences in image quality were evaluated using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Differences in in-stent diameter difference, in

  8. Genetically determined patozoospermia. Literature review and research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Bragina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic factors (chromosomal aberrations and point mutations are the cause of infertility in 10–15 % of men with impaired fertility. Homogeneous structural and functional defects in the sperm or the total terato-, asthenozoospermia – rare cases of genetically determined male infertility, are autosomal recessive diseases. Currently, described 4 types of «syndromic» spermopatology. 1. Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD in men with total asthenozoospermia. Affects axoneme structures (microtubules, dynein arms, radial spokes. It identified more than 20 chromosomal loci responsible for the development of the PCD. 2. Dysplasia of the fibrous sheath of sperm tail in men with asthenozoospermia. The shortened and thickened sperm tail observed with disorganization of vertical columns and cross ribs of the fibrous sheath. Candidate genes – genes family ACAP. 3. Globozoospermia in men with teratozoospermia characterized by the presence of sperm with round heads, primary lack of acrosome and disorganization middle part of the flagellum. Found mutations or deletions of genes SPATA16, PICK1 and DPY19L2. 4. Syndrome decapitated spermatozoa in men with teratozoospermia (microcephaly. Abnormalities in the spermiogenesis development of connecting part jf the tail and proximal (morphologically normal centrioles.In 2012–2014 years we have studied the ultrastructure of 2267 semen samples of men with impaired fertility. Globozoospermia revealed in 7 patients, dysplasia of the fibrous sheath – 13, decapitated sperm – in one. PCD was revealed in 4 patients (lack of axoneme dynein arms was found in 1 patient, absence of axoneme radial spokes – in 3 patients.The problem of genetically determined patozoospermya must be taken into account when the assisted reproductive technologies practises. There are few cases of successful assisted reproductive technologies with sperm of these patients. We don»t know the etiological factors of syndromic spermopatologe, so

  9. Prevalencia y caracterización de la población en condición de discapacidad del municipio de Los Santos (Santander, Colombia, 2011

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    Martha Liliana Hijuelos Cárdenas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia y caracterizar la población en condición de discapacidad del municipio de Los Santos (Santander, Colombia, durante 2010 y 2011. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo aplicando el instrumento de registro "Encuesta a Personas con Discapacidad y su cuidador". Estudiantes de último año de fisioterapia y bacteriología de la Universidad de Santander (UDES, previamente entrenados, recogieron la información mediante entrevista. Se realizó un análisis estadístico descriptivo aplicando medidas de tendencia central y frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Resultados: Se encontraron 108 Personas con Discapacidad (PCD, la prevalencia de discapacidad de esta población fue de 1,3% (IC 95% 1,1-1,6, la vereda con mayor prevalencia fue Los Teres (9,4%; IC95% 5,1-15,5. De las 108 PCD, el 48% corresponde a género femenino y el 47,2% se encuentra entre 15 y 44 años. La estructura corporal con mayor deficiencia fue el sistema nervioso, con un 64,8%, y las actividades de demanda general fueron las más afectadas (57,4%. Los problemas con servicios, sistemas y políticas de transporte, seguro social, salud y educación constituyen el principal facilitador (57, 4%. Conclusión: La discapacidad como problema de salud pública afecta las actividades, participación y desempeño de las PCD, lo cual disminuye su desarrollo individual y sus oportunidades de integración a la sociedad.

  10. Multiple Modes of Cell Death Discovered in a Prokaryotic (Cyanobacterial Endosymbiont.

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    Weiwen Zheng

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death (PCD is a genetically-based cell death mechanism with vital roles in eukaryotes. Although there is limited consensus on similar death mode programs in prokaryotes, emerging evidence suggest that PCD events are operative. Here we present cell death events in a cyanobacterium living endophytically in the fern Azolla microphylla, suggestive of PCD. This symbiosis is characterized by some unique traits such as a synchronized development, a vertical transfer of the cyanobacterium between plant generations, and a highly eroding cyanobacterial genome. A combination of methods was used to identify cell death modes in the cyanobacterium. Light- and electron microscopy analyses showed that the proportion of cells undergoing cell death peaked at 53.6% (average 20% of the total cell population, depending on the cell type and host developmental stage. Biochemical markers used for early and late programmed cell death events related to apoptosis (Annexin V-EGFP and TUNEL staining assays, together with visualization of cytoskeleton alterations (FITC-phalloidin staining, showed that all cyanobacterial cell categories were affected by cell death. Transmission electron microscopy revealed four modes of cell death: apoptotic-like, autophagic-like, necrotic-like and autolytic-like. Abiotic stresses further enhanced cell death in a dose and time dependent manner. The data also suggest that dynamic changes in the peptidoglycan cell wall layer and in the cytoskeleton distribution patterns may act as markers for the various cell death modes. The presence of a metacaspase homolog (domain p20 further suggests that the death modes are genetically programmed. It is therefore concluded that multiple, likely genetically programmed, cell death modes exist in cyanobacteria, a finding that may be connected with the evolution of cell death in the plant kingdom.

  11. The CD147/MMP-2 signaling pathway may regulate early stage cardiac remodelling in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bowei; Zhou, Wanxing; Yang, Xiaorong; Zhou, Yuliang; Tan, Yongjing; Yuan, Congcong; Song, Yulan; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have reported that decreased matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is associated with early stage (age 8-16 weeks) ventricular remodelling in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). We hypothesized that inhibited CD147/MMP-2 signalling might down-regulate MMP-2 expression and augment remodelling in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Twenty-nine male SHR (8 weeks) were randomly assigned to SHR, CD147, and CD147+DOX groups. The control group included eight age-matched WKY rats. CD147 and CD147+DOX groups received recombinant human CD147 (600 ng/kg in 1.5 mL saline, weekly). The SHR and WKY groups received the vehicle. The CD147+DOX group also received doxycycline, an inhibitor of MMPs (daily, 30 mg/kg in 1.5 mL saline, iG). On day 56 echocardiography and left ventricular mass index (LVWI) measurements were collected and histological sections were stained for cell and collagen content. Myocardium MMP-2, TIMP-1, CD147, and collagens types I and III were estimated by western blot. CD147 and the ratio of MMP-2/TIMP-1 were lower in SHR than WKY rats (PCD147 rats showed CD147, MMP-2 and MMP-2/TIMP-1 were increased (PCD147 levels did not differ between CD147+DOX and CD147 groups, CVF, collagens type I and III and partial fiber breaks were more abundant in CD147+DOX (PCD147/MMP-2 pathway was associated with early stage cardiac remodelling, and CD147 supplementation may attenuate this response. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Evaluation of pulmonary disease using static lung volumes in primary ciliary dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifferi, Massimo; Bush, Andrew; Pioggia, Giovanni; Caramella, Davide; Tartarisco, Gennaro; Di Cicco, Maria; Zangani, Marta; Chinellato, Iolanda; Maggi, Fabrizio; Tezza, Giovanna; Macchia, Pierantonio; Boner, Attilio

    2012-11-01

    In primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) lung damage is usually evaluated by high-resolution CT (HRCT). To evaluate whether HRCT abnormalities and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection were better predicted by spirometry or plethysmography. A cross-sectional study performed in consecutive patients with PCD who underwent sputum culture, spirometry, plethysmography and HRCT within 48 h. Principal component analysis and soft computing were used for data evaluation. Fifty patients (26 children) were studied. P aeruginosa infection was found in 40% of the patients and bronchiectasis in 88%. There was a correlation between infection with P aeruginosa and extent of bronchiectasis (p=0.009; r =0.367) and air-trapping (p=0.03; r =0.315). Moreover, there was an association between infection with P aeruginosa and residual volume (RV) values >150% (p=0.04) and RV/total lung capacity (TLC) ratio >140% (p=0.001), but not between infection with P aeruginosa and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1))<80%, or forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of forced vital capacity (FVC) (FEF(25-75%))<70% or FEV(1)/FVC<70% (<80% in children). Severity of the total lung impairment on chest HRCT directly correlated with RV when expressed as per cent predicted (p=0.003; r =0.423), and RV/TLC (p<0.001; r =0.513) or when expressed as z scores (p=0.002, r =0.451 and p<0.001, r =0.536 respectively). Principal component analysis on plethysmographic but not on spirometry data allowed recognition of different severities of focal air trapping, atelectasis and extent of bronchiectasis. Plethysmography better predicts HRCT abnormalities than spirometry. Whether it might be a useful test to define populations of patients with PCD who should or should not have HRCT scans requires further longitudinal studies.

  13. Clinical and preclinical validation of the serum free light chain assay: identification of the critical difference for optimized clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Charlotte T; Münster, Anna-Marie; Nielsen, Lars; Pedersen, Per; Abildgaard, Niels

    2012-12-01

    The use of the assay for the measurements of free light chains in serum (sFLCs) is increasing. However, there are technical limitations that potentially affect the use in serial measurements. We need further knowledge on the standards of analytical precision, the utility of conventional population-based reference values and the critical difference (CD) between serial results required for significance. To answer these questions, the biological variation must be known. We determined the biological variation in healthy individuals and patients with plasma cell dyscrasia (PCD). We assessed the imprecision of the analysis in use from FreeLite™. We determined the reference interval (RI) in 170 healthy individuals. The biological variation is identical for healthy individuals and patients with PCD. The imprecision of the sFLC analysis cannot fulfil the desirable performance standards for a laboratory test, but are within the manufacturer's ±20% variation for quality control samples. RI showed a significant increase for κ FLC and κ/λ ratio with age, but not for λ. Critical difference was calculated to be 24% and 23% for κ and λ, respectively. We suggest the use of an age-dependent RI. When monitoring patients with PCD, their own former results are the best reference, and knowledge on CD is a valuable tool, which we describe for the first time. Also, it challenges the recently proposed International Myeloma Working Group 'paraprotein relapse criteria', recommending an increase of more than 25% in the involved FLC to indicate the need for initiation of retreatment. We recommend revision of this criterion. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Multiple Modes of Cell Death Discovered in a Prokaryotic (Cyanobacterial) Endosymbiont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weiwen; Rasmussen, Ulla; Zheng, Siping; Bao, Xiaodong; Chen, Bin; Gao, Yuan; Guan, Xiong; Larsson, John; Bergman, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a genetically-based cell death mechanism with vital roles in eukaryotes. Although there is limited consensus on similar death mode programs in prokaryotes, emerging evidence suggest that PCD events are operative. Here we present cell death events in a cyanobacterium living endophytically in the fern Azolla microphylla, suggestive of PCD. This symbiosis is characterized by some unique traits such as a synchronized development, a vertical transfer of the cyanobacterium between plant generations, and a highly eroding cyanobacterial genome. A combination of methods was used to identify cell death modes in the cyanobacterium. Light- and electron microscopy analyses showed that the proportion of cells undergoing cell death peaked at 53.6% (average 20%) of the total cell population, depending on the cell type and host developmental stage. Biochemical markers used for early and late programmed cell death events related to apoptosis (Annexin V-EGFP and TUNEL staining assays), together with visualization of cytoskeleton alterations (FITC-phalloidin staining), showed that all cyanobacterial cell categories were affected by cell death. Transmission electron microscopy revealed four modes of cell death: apoptotic-like, autophagic-like, necrotic-like and autolytic-like. Abiotic stresses further enhanced cell death in a dose and time dependent manner. The data also suggest that dynamic changes in the peptidoglycan cell wall layer and in the cytoskeleton distribution patterns may act as markers for the various cell death modes. The presence of a metacaspase homolog (domain p20) further suggests that the death modes are genetically programmed. It is therefore concluded that multiple, likely genetically programmed, cell death modes exist in cyanobacteria, a finding that may be connected with the evolution of cell death in the plant kingdom. PMID:23822984

  15. Mutation of Growth Arrest Specific 8 Reveals a Role in Motile Cilia Function and Human Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Wesley R; Malarkey, Erik B; Tritschler, Douglas; Bower, Raqual; Pasek, Raymond C; Porath, Jonathan D; Birket, Susan E; Saunier, Sophie; Antignac, Corinne; Knowles, Michael R; Leigh, Margaret W; Zariwala, Maimoona A; Challa, Anil K; Kesterson, Robert A; Rowe, Steven M; Drummond, Iain A; Parant, John M; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Porter, Mary E; Yoder, Bradley K; Berbari, Nicolas F

    2016-07-01

    Ciliopathies are genetic disorders arising from dysfunction of microtubule-based cellular appendages called cilia. Different cilia types possess distinct stereotypic microtubule doublet arrangements with non-motile or 'primary' cilia having a 9+0 and motile cilia have a 9+2 array of microtubule doublets. Primary cilia are critical sensory and signaling centers needed for normal mammalian development. Defects in their structure/function result in a spectrum of clinical and developmental pathologies including abnormal neural tube and limb patterning. Altered patterning phenotypes in the limb and neural tube are due to perturbations in the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. Motile cilia are important in fluid movement and defects in motility result in chronic respiratory infections, altered left-right asymmetry, and infertility. These features are the hallmarks of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD, OMIM 244400). While mutations in several genes are associated with PCD in patients and animal models, the genetic lesion in many cases is unknown. We assessed the in vivo functions of Growth Arrest Specific 8 (GAS8). GAS8 shares strong sequence similarity with the Chlamydomonas Nexin-Dynein Regulatory Complex (NDRC) protein 4 (DRC4) where it is needed for proper flagella motility. In mammalian cells, the GAS8 protein localizes not only to the microtubule axoneme of motile cilia, but also to the base of non-motile cilia. Gas8 was recently implicated in the Hh signaling pathway as a regulator of Smoothened trafficking into the cilium. Here, we generate the first mouse with a Gas8 mutation and show that it causes severe PCD phenotypes; however, there were no overt Hh pathway phenotypes. In addition, we identified two human patients with missense variants in Gas8. Rescue experiments in Chlamydomonas revealed a subtle defect in swim velocity compared to controls. Further experiments using CRISPR/Cas9 homology driven repair (HDR) to generate one of these human missense variants in

  16. Tipping the balance: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum secreted oxalic acid suppresses host defenses by manipulating the host redox environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Williams

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a necrotrophic ascomycete fungus with an extremely broad host range. This pathogen produces the non-specific phytotoxin and key pathogenicity factor, oxalic acid (OA. Our recent work indicated that this fungus and more specifically OA, can induce apoptotic-like programmed cell death (PCD in plant hosts, this induction of PCD and disease requires generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the host, a process triggered by fungal secreted OA. Conversely, during the initial stages of infection, OA also dampens the plant oxidative burst, an early host response generally associated with plant defense. This scenario presents a challenge regarding the mechanistic details of OA function; as OA both suppresses and induces host ROS during the compatible interaction. In the present study we generated transgenic plants expressing a redox-regulated GFP reporter. Results show that initially, Sclerotinia (via OA generates a reducing environment in host cells that suppress host defense responses including the oxidative burst and callose deposition, akin to compatible biotrophic pathogens. Once infection is established however, this necrotroph induces the generation of plant ROS leading to PCD of host tissue, the result of which is of direct benefit to the pathogen. In contrast, a non-pathogenic OA-deficient mutant failed to alter host redox status. The mutant produced hypersensitive response-like features following host inoculation, including ROS induction, callose formation, restricted growth and cell death. These results indicate active recognition of the mutant and further point to suppression of defenses by the wild type necrotrophic fungus. Chemical reduction of host cells with dithiothreitol (DTT or potassium oxalate (KOA restored the ability of this mutant to cause disease. Thus, Sclerotinia uses a novel strategy involving regulation of host redox status to establish infection. These results address a long-standing issue

  17. A theoretical formulation of the electrophysiological inverse problem on the sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Jorge J; Valdés, Pedro A; Tanabe, Kunio; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2006-04-07

    The construction of three-dimensional images of the primary current density (PCD) produced by neuronal activity is a problem of great current interest in the neuroimaging community, though being initially formulated in the 1970s. There exist even now enthusiastic debates about the authenticity of most of the inverse solutions proposed in the literature, in which low resolution electrical tomography (LORETA) is a focus of attention. However, in our opinion, the capabilities and limitations of the electro and magneto encephalographic techniques to determine PCD configurations have not been extensively explored from a theoretical framework, even for simple volume conductor models of the head. In this paper, the electrophysiological inverse problem for the spherical head model is cast in terms of reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHS) formalism, which allows us to identify the null spaces of the implicated linear integral operators and also to define their representers. The PCD are described in terms of a continuous basis for the RKHS, which explicitly separates the harmonic and non-harmonic components. The RKHS concept permits us to bring LORETA into the scope of the general smoothing splines theory. A particular way of calculating the general smoothing splines is illustrated, avoiding a brute force discretization prematurely. The Bayes information criterion is used to handle dissimilarities in the signal/noise ratios and physical dimensions of the measurement modalities, which could affect the estimation of the amount of smoothness required for that class of inverse solution to be well specified. In order to validate the proposed method, we have estimated the 3D spherical smoothing splines from two data sets: electric potentials obtained from a skull phantom and magnetic fields recorded from subjects performing an experiment of human faces recognition.

  18. ROBUST CYLINDER FITTING IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL POINT CLOUD DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nurunnabi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problems of cylinder fitting in laser scanning three-dimensional Point Cloud Data (PCD. Most existing methods require full cylinder data, do not study the presence of outliers, and are not statistically robust. But especially mobile laser scanning often has incomplete data, as street poles for example are only scanned from the road. Moreover, existence of outliers is common. Outliers may occur as random or systematic errors, and may be scattered and/or clustered. In this paper, we present a statistically robust cylinder fitting algorithm for PCD that combines Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA with robust regression. Robust principal components as obtained by RPCA allow estimating cylinder directions more accurately, and an existing efficient circle fitting algorithm following robust regression principles, properly fit cylinder. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed method on artificial and real PCD. Results show that the proposed method provides more accurate and robust results: (i in the presence of noise and high percentage of outliers, (ii for incomplete as well as complete data, (iii for small and large number of points, and (iv for different sizes of radius. On 1000 simulated quarter cylinders of 1m radius with 10% outliers a PCA based method fit cylinders with a radius of on average 3.63 meter (m; the proposed method on the other hand fit cylinders of on average 1.02 m radius. The algorithm has potential in applications such as fitting cylindrical (e.g., light and traffic poles, diameter at breast height estimation for trees, and building and bridge information modelling.

  19. The serine protease inhibitor TLCK attenuates intrinsic death pathways in neurons upstream of mitochondrial demise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuther, C; Ganjam, G K; Dolga, A M; Culmsee, C

    2014-11-01

    It is well-established that activation of proteases, such as caspases, calpains and cathepsins are essential components in signaling pathways of programmed cell death (PCD). Although these proteases have also been linked to mechanisms of neuronal cell death, they are dispensable in paradigms of intrinsic death pathways, e.g. induced by oxidative stress. However, emerging evidence implicated a particular role for serine proteases in mechanisms of PCD in neurons. Here, we investigated the role of trypsin-like serine proteases in a model of glutamate toxicity in HT-22 cells. In these cells glutamate induces oxytosis, a form of caspase-independent cell death that involves activation of the pro-apoptotic protein BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (Bid), leading to mitochondrial demise and ensuing cell death. In this model system, the trypsin-like serine protease inhibitor Nα-tosyl-l-lysine chloromethyl ketone hydrochloride (TLCK) inhibited mitochondrial damage and cell death. Mitochondrial morphology alterations, the impairment of the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP depletion were prevented and, moreover, lipid peroxidation induced by glutamate was completely abolished. Strikingly, truncated Bid-induced cell death was not affected by TLCK, suggesting a detrimental activity of serine proteases upstream of Bid activation and mitochondrial demise. In summary, this study demonstrates the protective effect of serine protease inhibition by TLCK against oxytosis-induced mitochondrial damage and cell death. These findings indicate that TLCK-sensitive serine proteases play a crucial role in cell death mechanisms upstream of mitochondrial demise and thus, may serve as therapeutic targets in diseases, where oxidative stress and intrinsic pathways of PCD mediate neuronal cell death.

  20. La capacidad del Congreso de los Diputados español para impulsar la incorporación del enfoque de Coherencia de Políticas para el Desarrollo (CPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-González, J.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The international community has approved the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development as a common roadmap to face the global challenges of poverty, inequity and the sustainable management of the planet’s natural resources. For this Agenda to succeed, all countries must adopt the Policy Coherence for Development (PCD approach as the guiding and crosscutting principle of all domestic and foreign policies during the next 15 years. National parliaments are going to be key players to urge Governments to make the ambitious and long-term commitments that the 2030 Agenda requires. Proyecto Avizor —a Spanish Parliament Monitoring Organization (PMO— has monitored the activity of the Spanish Parliament during the 2011-2016 period, analyzing the contribution that the parliamentarian activity has had to promote the Government’s commitment in the fight against global poverty, inequality and in favor of sustainable development and human rights. With the information provided by Proyecto Avizor, this article has aimed to find if, in the current Spanish political context, the political initiatives that will be needed to fulfill the 2030 Agenda’s goals, face extra obstacles and burdens during their approval procedures compared withthe rest of initiatives. The results of the analysis show that the inclusion of the PCD approach in a political initiative decreases its chances of being successfully processed at the Parliament. On the other hand, the analysis has found no evidences that a stronger presence of the PCD approach in the political mandates approved by theParliament hampers its chances of being accomplished by the Government.Being solidarity one of the values on which the European Union is founded, the European regional framework becomes the most suitable level to increase the effectiveness of European aid, assuming responsibility for coordination and management of policy coherence.

  1. Mutation of Growth Arrest Specific 8 Reveals a Role in Motile Cilia Function and Human Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley R Lewis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ciliopathies are genetic disorders arising from dysfunction of microtubule-based cellular appendages called cilia. Different cilia types possess distinct stereotypic microtubule doublet arrangements with non-motile or 'primary' cilia having a 9+0 and motile cilia have a 9+2 array of microtubule doublets. Primary cilia are critical sensory and signaling centers needed for normal mammalian development. Defects in their structure/function result in a spectrum of clinical and developmental pathologies including abnormal neural tube and limb patterning. Altered patterning phenotypes in the limb and neural tube are due to perturbations in the hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway. Motile cilia are important in fluid movement and defects in motility result in chronic respiratory infections, altered left-right asymmetry, and infertility. These features are the hallmarks of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD, OMIM 244400. While mutations in several genes are associated with PCD in patients and animal models, the genetic lesion in many cases is unknown. We assessed the in vivo functions of Growth Arrest Specific 8 (GAS8. GAS8 shares strong sequence similarity with the Chlamydomonas Nexin-Dynein Regulatory Complex (NDRC protein 4 (DRC4 where it is needed for proper flagella motility. In mammalian cells, the GAS8 protein localizes not only to the microtubule axoneme of motile cilia, but also to the base of non-motile cilia. Gas8 was recently implicated in the Hh signaling pathway as a regulator of Smoothened trafficking into the cilium. Here, we generate the first mouse with a Gas8 mutation and show that it causes severe PCD phenotypes; however, there were no overt Hh pathway phenotypes. In addition, we identified two human patients with missense variants in Gas8. Rescue experiments in Chlamydomonas revealed a subtle defect in swim velocity compared to controls. Further experiments using CRISPR/Cas9 homology driven repair (HDR to generate one of these human missense

  2. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Run TC08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2002-06-30

    This report discusses Test Campaign TC08 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed gasifier designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier in air- or oxygen-blown mode using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Gasifier was operated as a pressurized gasifier in air- and oxygen-blown modes during TC08. Test Run TC08 was started on June 9, 2002 and completed on June 29. Both gasifier and PCD operations were stable during the test run with a stable baseline pressure drop. The oxygen feed supply system worked well and the transition from air to oxygen blown was smooth. The gasifier temperature was varied between 1,710 and 1,770 F at pressures from 125 to 240 psig. The gasifier operates at lower pressure during oxygen-blown mode due to the supply pressure of the oxygen system. In TC08, 476 hours of solid circulation and 364 hours of coal feed were attained with 153 hours of pure oxygen feed. The gasifier and PCD operations were stable in both enriched air and 100 percent oxygen blown modes. The oxygen concentration was slowly increased during the first transition to full oxygen-blown operations. Subsequent transitions from air to oxygen blown could be completed in less than 15 minutes. Oxygen-blown operations produced the highest synthesis gas heating value to date, with a projected synthesis gas heating value averaging 175 Btu/scf. Carbon conversions averaged 93 percent, slightly lower than carbon conversions achieved during air-blown gasification.

  3. Comparative analysis of programmed cell death pathways in filamentous fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wortman Jennifer R

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fungi can undergo autophagic- or apoptotic-type programmed cell death (PCD on exposure to antifungal agents, developmental signals, and stress factors. Filamentous fungi can also exhibit a form of cell death called heterokaryon incompatibility (HI triggered by fusion between two genetically incompatible individuals. With the availability of recently sequenced genomes of Aspergillus fumigatus and several related species, we were able to define putative components of fungi-specific death pathways and the ancestral core apoptotic machinery shared by all fungi and metazoa. Results Phylogenetic profiling of HI-associated proteins from four Aspergilli and seven other fungal species revealed lineage-specific protein families, orphan genes, and core genes conserved across all fungi and metazoa. The Aspergilli-specific domain architectures include NACHT family NTPases, which may function as key integrators of stress and nutrient availability signals. They are often found fused to putative effector domains such as Pfs, SesB/LipA, and a newly identified domain, HET-s/LopB. Many putative HI inducers and mediators are specific to filamentous fungi and not found in unicellular yeasts. In addition to their role in HI, several of them appear to be involved in regulation of cell cycle, development and sexual differentiation. Finally, the Aspergilli possess many putative downstream components of the mammalian apoptotic machinery including several proteins not found in the model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion Our analysis identified more than 100 putative PCD associated genes in the Aspergilli, which may help expand the range of currently available treatments for aspergillosis and other invasive fungal diseases. The list includes species-specific protein families as well as conserved core components of the ancestral PCD machinery shared by fungi and metazoa.

  4. Nutritional and microbiological quality of commercial and homemade blenderized whole food enteral diets for home-based enteral nutritional therapy in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Maricy Machado Cavalca; Santos, Valdirene Francisca Neves; Bottoni, Andrea; Morais, Tania Beninga

    2018-02-01

    Serious nutritional and contamination risks may be involved in the preparation of blenderized tube-feeding diets and in the handling of commercial diets. Their nutritional and microbiological quality in home settings is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional and microbiological quality of commercial enteral and homemade blenderized whole foods diets intended to adult patients in home nutritional therapy. In a cross sectional study, 66 samples of commercial (CD) and noncommercial (NCD) enteral diets were collected at the homes of patients in home enteral nutritional therapy, 33 of each type. Commercial diets were either powder (PCD; n = 13) or liquid (LCD; n = 20). The samples were analyzed in laboratory to assess their nutritional and microbiological quality. Anthropometric data of mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) and triceps skinfold (TST) thickness were obtained from the patients' medical records. NCD presented significantly lower values for protein, fat, fiber, carbohydrate and energy while water content was significantly higher. PCD and LCD did not show any statistically significant differences between them. In the NCD, the values measured for macronutrients and energy corresponded to less than 50% of the prescribed values (except for fat). In CD, protein value was about 20% more than the prescribed value; fat and energy values corresponded to approximately 100% of the prescription, while carbohydrate corresponded to 92%. Regardless the type of the diet, prevalence of undernutrition was high in both groups though patients of the NCD presented a higher percentage. Samples of NCD complied significantly less with the microbiological standards; only 6.0% complied with the standard for coliform bacteria. Escherichia coli was detected in 10, 2, and 2 samples of NCD, PCD and LCD, respectively. Homemade blenderized enteral diets showed low values of energy and macronutrients, delivered less than 50% of the prescribed values and had

  5. Upper airway involvement in bronchiectasis is marked by early onset and allergic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Shteinberg

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of bronchiectasis with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS has been reported. However, apart from primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD and cystic fibrosis (CF, predisposing conditions have not been established. We aimed to define clinical and laboratory features that differentiate patients with bronchiectasis with upper airway symptoms (UASs and without PCD from patients without UASs. We reviewed charts of adults with bronchiectasis, excluding CF and PCD. UASs were defined as nasal discharge most days of the year, sinusitis or nasal polyps. Laboratory data included IgG, total IgE, blood eosinophils, sputum bacteriology and lung function. A radiologist blinded to UAS presence scored bronchiectasis (Reiff score and sino-nasal pathology (Lund–Mackay score. Of 197 patients, for the 70 (35% with UASs, symptoms started earlier (34±25 versus 46±24 years; p=0.001, disease duration was longer (median 24 versus 12 years; p=0.027, exacerbations were more frequent (median 3 versus 2 per year; p=0.14, and peripheral blood eosinophil (median 230 versus 200 μL−1; p=0.015 and total IgE (median 100 versus 42 IU·mL−1; p=0.085 levels were higher. The sinus computed tomography score was independently associated with exacerbations, with 1 point on the Lund–Mackay score associated with a 1.03-fold increase in the number of exacerbations per year (95% CI 1.0–1.05; p=0.004. These findings may implicate a higher disease burden in patients with UASs. We hypothesise that UASs precede and may in some cases lead to the development of bronchiectasis.

  6. Reconhecimento e construção da competência da pessoa com deficiência na organização em debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Cristine Beltrão

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, pretende-se analisar experiências de desenvolvimento de competências e reconhecimento profissional da pessoa com deficiência já inserida no contexto organizacional, considerando os principais atores envolvidos nesse processo. Trata-se de um estudo de caso qualitativo, realizado em uma multinacional farmacêutica, sediada no estado de São Paulo, em que se teve por objetivo descrever e discutir as práticas formais de desenvolvimento profissional da pessoa com deficiência (PcD adotadas por essa organização, bem como as experiências informais pelas quais passaram esses indivíduos na empresa em questão. Além disso, buscou-se analisar a articulação entre atores externos que estavam imbricados no processo de inclusão, a saber: o sindicato das indústrias farmacêuticas e uma organização não governamental (ONG especializada em PcDs. Os resultados problematizam a iniciativa de promover um processo de construção e desenvolvimento de competências por meio de experiências formais e informais, e mesmo de autodesenvolvimento, específicas para a PcD. Nesse sentido, a experiência em estudo revelou que nessa iniciativa prevaleceram as premissas acerca das limitações decorrentes das características biológicas dos indivíduos, já que as práticas de desenvolvimento nem sempre trabalharam sobre o potencial desses profissionais, que pouco avançaram, considerando-se as possibilidades que a organização oferece. Outro resultado relevante é que, embora a articulação entre empresa e agentes externos ocorra, não há um diálogo nem uma parceria efetiva que permita fazer avançar o processo de inclusão e de desenvolvimento desse grupo de profissionais. Ao final, procurou-se apresentar ainda elementos que permitam a reflexão sobre a condução de programas organizacionais voltados à PcD e suas implicações, que podem estar a serviço tanto da promoção como da manutenção do status quo da PcD na corporação.

  7. Ultrasonic treatment for microbiological control of water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broekman, S.; Pohlmann, O.; Beardwooden, E. S.; Cordemans de Meulenaer, E.

    2010-01-01

    A combination treatment of shear, micro-bubbles, and high-frequency low-power ultrasound introduced via side-stream treatment of industrial water systems has shown excellent results in controlling bacteria and algae; Through the physical, high-stress environment created by ultrasonic waves, sessile and planktonic biological populations, some of which may undergo programmed cell death (PCD), can be controlled. Additionally, the instability and reduction of biofilm have been observed in systems treated by ultrasound and may be attributed to starvation-stress and lack of available cross-linking cations in the biofilm. (authors)

  8. Ultrasonic treatment for microbiological control of water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekman, S.; Pohlmann, O.; Beardwooden, E. S.; Cordemans de Meulenaer, E. [Ashland Hercules Water Technologies, Krefeld (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    A combination treatment of shear, micro-bubbles, and high-frequency low-power ultrasound introduced via side-stream treatment of industrial water systems has shown excellent results in controlling bacteria and algae; Through the physical, high-stress environment created by ultrasonic waves, sessile and planktonic biological populations, some of which may undergo programmed cell death (PCD), can be controlled. Additionally, the instability and reduction of biofilm have been observed in systems treated by ultrasound and may be attributed to starvation-stress and lack of available cross-linking cations in the biofilm. (authors)

  9. Ventilation inhomogeneity in children with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Kent; Buchvald, Frederik F; Marthin, June Kehlet

    2012-01-01

    The lung clearance index (LCI) derived from the multiple breath inert gas washout (MBW) test reflects global ventilation distribution inhomogeneity. It is more sensitive than forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) for detecting abnormal airway function and correlates closely with structural lung...... damage in children with cystic fibrosis, which shares features with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Normalised phase III slope indices S(cond) and S(acin) reflect function of the small conducting and acinar airways, respectively. The involvement of the peripheral airways assessed by MBW tests has...

  10. A Biopsy-based 17-gene Genomic Prostate Score as a Predictor of Metastases and Prostate Cancer Death in Surgically Treated Men with Clinically Localized Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Lu, Ruixiao; Zhang, Nan; Quesenberry, Charles P; Shan, Jun; Han, Jeong S; Tsiatis, Athanasios C; Leimpeter, Amethyst D; Lawrence, H Jeffrey; Febbo, Phillip G; Presti, Joseph C

    2018-01-01

    A 17-gene biopsy-based reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay, which provides a Genomic Prostate Score (GPS-scale 0-100), has been validated as an independent predictor of adverse pathology and biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy (RP) in men with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PCa). To evaluate GPS as a predictor of PCa metastasis and PCa-specific death (PCD) in a large cohort of men with localized PCa and long-term follow-up. A retrospective study using a stratified cohort sampling design was performed in a cohort of men treated with RP within Kaiser Permanente Northern California. RNA from archival diagnostic biopsies was assayed to generate GPS results. We assessed the association between GPS and time to metastasis and PCD in prespecified uni- and multivariable statistical analyses, based on Cox proportional hazard models accounting for sampling weights. The final study population consisted of 279 men with low-, intermediate-, and high-risk PCa between 1995 and 2010 (median follow-up 9.8 yr), and included 64 PCD and 79 metastases. Valid GPS results were obtained for 259 (93%). In univariable analysis, GPS was strongly associated with time to PCD, hazard ratio (HR)/20 GPS units=3.23 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.84-5.65; pstrong independent predictor of long-term outcomes in clinically localized PCa in men treated with RP and may improve risk stratification for men with newly diagnosed disease. Many prostate cancers are slow growing and unlikely to spread or threaten a man's life, while others are more aggressive and require treatment. Increasingly, doctors are using new molecular tests, such as the17-gene Genomic Prostate Score (GPS), which can be performed at the time of initial diagnosis to help determine how aggressive a given patient's cancer may be. In this study, performed in a large community-based healthcare network, GPS was shown to be a strong predictor as to whether a man's prostate cancer will spread and

  11. Multizone Modular Artillery Propelling Charge Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    15). As in the previous tcst s, !it th hi-,pad and 4bd itlo A" was at the front o)f the .1 A Aŕ~~ ComEŔ"MU 11- ZONE MODULAR CHARGE obk0- 51 m OMA-22...EXPPTP.R7-2a b A ,tO 1 N.Wfl& ’-.k TYP 11 (CTUAL L(T)__ PA’+ 2,00 5-w bt --356 d td 14~ Jan 82 - - PCD-18,020 lbs. --- C. ARMNY AY ,UNMTON PLANT, RADFORD, VA

  12. Quantitative proteomic analysis of Streptomyces coelicolor development demonstrates that onset of secondary metabolism coincides with hyphae differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manteca, Angel; Sanchez, Jesus; Jung, Hye Ryung

    2010-01-01

    mycelial stages: an early compartmentalized vegetative mycelium (first mycelium, MI), and a multinucleated reproductive mycelium (second mycelium, MII), arising after PCD processes. In the present study, we made a detailed proteomic analysis of the distinct developmental stages of solid confluent...... Streptomyces coelicolor cultures using iTRAQ labelling and LC-MS/MS. A new experimental approach was developed to obtain homogeneous samples at each developmental stage (temporal protein analysis) and also to obtain membrane and cytosolic protein fractions (spatial protein analysis). A total of 345 proteins...

  13. Patient-specific three-dimensional explant spheroids derived from human nasal airway epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marthin, June Kehlet; Stevens, Elizabeth Munkebjerg; Larsen, Lars Allan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional explant spheroid formation is an ex vivo technique previously used in studies of airway epithelial ion and water transport. Explanted cells and sheets of nasal epithelium form fully differentiated spheroids enclosing a partly fluid-filled lumen with the ciliated apical...... surface facing the outside and accessible for analysis of ciliary function. METHODS: We performed a two-group comparison study of ciliary beat pattern and ciliary beat frequency in spheroids derived from nasal airway epithelium in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and in healthy controls...... in the investigation of pathophysiological aspects and drug effects in human nasal airway epithelium....

  14. Exogenous Hydrogen Peroxide Contributes to Heme Oxygenase-1 Delaying Programmed Cell Death in Isolated Aleurone Layers of Rice Subjected to Drought Stress in a cGMP-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghui; Xiao, Yu; Deng, Xiaojiang; Zhang, Heting; Li, Tingge; Chen, Huiping

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) that plays a dual role in plant cells. Here, we discovered that drought (20% polyethylene glycol-6000, PEG)-triggered decreases of HO-1 transcript expression and HO activity. However, exogenous H 2 O 2 contributed toward the increase in HO-1 gene expression and activity of the enzyme under drought stress. Meanwhile, the HO-1 inducer hematin could mimic the effects of the H 2 O 2 scavengers ascorbic acid (AsA) and dimethylthiourea (DMTU) and the H 2 O 2 synthesis inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) for scavenging or diminishing drought-induced endogenous H 2 O 2 . Conversely, the zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX), an HO-1-specific inhibitor, reversed the effects of hematin. We further analyzed the endogenous H 2 O 2 levels and HO-1 transcript expression levels of aleurone layers treated with AsA, DMTU, and DPI in the presence of exogenous H 2 O 2 under drought stress, respectively. The results showed that in aleurone layers subjected to drought stress, when the endogenous H 2 O 2 level was inhibited, the effect of exogenous H 2 O 2 on the induction of HO-1 was enhanced. Furthermore, exogenous H 2 O 2 -activated HO-1 effectively enhanced amylase activity. Application of 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP) (the membrane permeable cGMP analog) promoted the effect of exogenous H 2 O 2 -delayed PCD of aleurone layers in response to drought stress. More importantly, HO-1 delayed the programmed cell death (PCD) of aleurone layers by cooperating with nitric oxide (NO), and the delayed effect of NO on PCD was achieved via mediation by cGMP under drought stress. In short, in rice aleurone layers, exogenous H 2 O 2 (as a signaling molecule) triggered HO-1 and delayed PCD via cGMP which possibly induced amylase activity under drought stress. In contrast, as a toxic by-product of cellular metabolism, the drought-generated H 2 O 2 promoted cell death.

  15. Muramyl Peptide-Enhanced Sleep: Pharmacological Optimization of Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    endotoxin, and I FN c’iti ,I ,r lcli 1)!,.pacid metabolism (31) , thus possibly alteriir, PD proict ion: 11(i *PcD( C2’. enhance release of %I11( 104...interleukin-l in homeostasis. In: The Phys- iologic, Metabolic , and Immunologic Actions of Interleukin-l, edited by M. J. Kluger, J. J. Oppenheim...1980. 99. Sakaguchi, S., S. F. Glotzbach, and H. C. Heller. Influence of hypot!;a- lamic and ambient temperatures on sleep in kangaroo rats. Am. J

  16. Helping Nevada School Children Become Sun Smart

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-11-28

    This podcast features Christine Thompson, Community Programs Manager at the Nevada Cancer Coalition, and author of a recent study detailing a school-based program to help Nevada school children establish healthy sun safety habits and decrease UV exposure. Christine answers questions about her research and what impact her what impact the program had on children’s skin health.  Created: 11/28/2017 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/28/2017.

  17. Women and Cancer: Examining Breast Cancer-Screening Behaviors and Survival

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-07-24

    This podcast features Siran Koroukian, PhD, associate professor in the School of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University and lead author of one of PCD’s most recent articles. Dr. Koroukian answers questions about the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (BCCP) in Ohio and discusses the effectiveness of the program among low-income women enrolled Medicare.  Created: 7/24/2015 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 7/24/2015.

  18. What Drives Health Professionals to Tweet About the HPV Vaccine?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-02-20

    This podcast features Philip Massey, PhD, MPH, an assistant professor at Drexel University and one of the authors of a recent study that looks at what motivates health professionals to tweet about the HPV vaccine. Philip answers questions about his research and what impact social media can have on public health and health care communication.  Created: 2/20/2018 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/20/2018.

  19. Feasibility to implement the radioisotopic method of nasal mucociliary transport measurement getting reliable results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troncoso, M.; Opazo, C.; Quilodran, C.; Lizama, V.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Our goal was to implement the radioisotopic method to measure the nasal mucociliary velocity of transport (NMVT) in a feasible way in order to make it easily available as well as to validate the accuracy of the results. Such a method is needed when primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is suspected, a disorder characterized for low NMVT, non-specific chronic respiratory symptoms that needs to be confirmed by electronic microscopic cilia biopsy. Methods: We performed one hundred studies from February 2000 until February 2002. Patients aged 2 months to 39 years, mean 9 years. All of them were referred from the Respiratory Disease Department. Ninety had upper or lower respiratory symptoms, ten were healthy controls. The procedure, done be the Nuclear Medicine Technologist, consists to put a 20 μl drop of 99mTc-MAA (0,1 mCi, 4 MBq) behind the head of the inferior turbinate in one nostril using a frontal light, a nasal speculum and a teflon catheter attached to a tuberculin syringe. The drop movement was acquired in a gamma camera-computer system and the velocity was expressed in mm/min. As there is need for the patient not to move during the procedure, sedation has to be used in non-cooperative children. Abnormal NMVT values cases were referred for nasal biopsy. Patients were classified in three groups. Normal controls (NC), PCD confirmed by biopsy (PCDB) and cases with respiratory symptoms without biopsy (RSNB). In all patients with NMVT less than 2.4 mm/min PCD was confirmed by biopsy. There was a clear-cut separation between normal and abnormal values and interestingly even the highest NMVT in PCDB cases was lower than the lowest NMVT in NC. The procedure is not as easy as is generally described in the literature because the operator has to get some skill as well as for the need of sedation in some cases. Conclusion: The procedure gives reliable, reproducible and objective results. It is safe, not expensive and quick in cooperative patients. Although, sometimes

  20. Uso de imagens de satélite como suporte à estimativa da demanda hídrica na sub-bacia do Rio Urucuia, MG

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Lorena Santos Cordeiro da

    2014-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a demanda hídrica destinada à irrigação na sub-bacia Urucuia, MG, utilizando dados de sensoriamento remoto e comparar os resultados obtidos com a disponibilidade hídrica da sub-bacia. Para estimativa da demanda hídrica foi calculada a evapotranspiração de referência a partir dos dados coletados da Plataforma de Coleta de Dados (PCD) do município de Santa Fé de Minas e, posteriormente, foi calculada a evapotranspiração das culturas existentes na área. Atra...

  1. Screening for primary creatine deficiencies in French patients with unexplained neurological symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheillan David

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A population of patients with unexplained neurological symptoms from six major French university hospitals was screened over a 28-month period for primary creatine disorder (PCD. Urine guanidinoacetate (GAA and creatine:creatinine ratios were measured in a cohort of 6,353 subjects to identify PCD patients and compile their clinical, 1H-MRS, biochemical and molecular data. Six GAMT [N-guanidinoacetatemethyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.2] and 10 X-linked creatine transporter (SLC6A8 but no AGAT (GATM [L-arginine/glycine amidinotransferase (EC 2.1.4.1] deficient patients were identified in this manner. Three additional affected sibs were further identified after familial inquiry (1 brother with GAMT deficiency and 2 brothers with SLC6A8 deficiency in two different families. The prevalence of PCD in this population was 0.25% (0.09% and 0.16% for GAMT and SLC6A8 deficiencies, respectively. Seven new PCD-causing mutations were discovered (2 nonsense [c.577C > T and c.289C > T] and 1 splicing [c.391 + 15G > T] mutations for the GAMT gene and, 2 missense [c.1208C > A and c.926C > A], 1 frameshift [c.930delG] and 1 splicing [c.1393-1G > A] mutations for the SLC6A8 gene. No hot spot mutations were observed in these genes, as all the mutations were distributed throughout the entire gene sequences and were essentially patient/family specific. Approximately one fifth of the mutations of SLC6A8, but not GAMT, were attributed to neo-mutation, germinal or somatic mosaicism events. The only SLC6A8-deficient female patient in our series presented with the severe phenotype usually characterizing affected male patients, an observation in agreement with recent evidence that is in support of the fact that this X-linked disorder might be more frequent than expected in the female population with intellectual disability.

  2. Is caffeic acid phenethyl ester more protective than doxycycline in experimental periodontitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiğit, Umut; Kırzıoğlu, Fatma Yeşim; Uğuz, Abdülhadi Cihangir; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Özmen, Özlem

    2017-09-01

    Host modulation therapies (anti-inflammatory drugs, bone-stimulating agents, anti-proteinase etc.) target the inhibition or stabilization of tissue breakdown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and/or low dose doxycycline (LDD) administrations on alveolar bone loss (ABL), serum cytokines and gingival apoptosis, as well as the levels of oxidants and anti-oxidants in rats with ligature-induced periodontitis. The animals were randomly divided into five groups: Group C (periodontally healthy), Group PC (Periodontitis+CAPE), Group PD (Periodontitis+LDD), Group PCD (Periodontitis+CAPE+LDD), Group P (Periodontitis). Experimental periodontitis was induced for 14days. Levels of ABL, and the serum cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1 β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-10 were assessed as were the levels of the oxidants and anti-oxidants, malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and levels of gingival apoptosis. The lowest ABL levels was evident in the PC group, among the experimental groups. There was also less inflammatory infiltration in the PC group than the PD group. IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 were lower in the PC group and higher in the P group in comparison to the levels in the other experiment groups. TNF-α levels in the PD group were higher than levels in the PC and PCD groups. The PC and PCD groups did not differ from the C group in regard to MDA levels. The highest GSH-Px level was found in the PC group. Gingival apoptosis in the PC group was not only lower than the PD and PCD groups, but also lower than in the C group. The present study suggests that CAPE has more anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic effects than LDD, with no additive benefits of a CAPE+LDD combination being evident in rats with periodontitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Yersinia pestis subverts the dermal neutrophil response in a mouse model of bubonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Jeffrey G; Hasenkrug, Aaron M; Dorward, David W; Nair, Vinod; Carmody, Aaron B; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2013-08-27

    The majority of human Yersinia pestis infections result from introduction of bacteria into the skin by the bite of an infected flea. Once in the dermis, Y. pestis can evade the host's innate immune response and subsequently disseminate to the draining lymph node (dLN). There, the pathogen replicates to large numbers, causing the pathognomonic bubo of bubonic plague. In this study, several cytometric and microscopic techniques were used to characterize the early host response to intradermal (i.d.) Y. pestis infection. Mice were infected i.d. with fully virulent or attenuated strains of dsRed-expressing Y. pestis, and tissues were analyzed by flow cytometry. By 4 h postinfection, there were large numbers of neutrophils in the infected dermis and the majority of cell-associated bacteria were associated with neutrophils. We observed a significant effect of the virulence plasmid (pCD1) on bacterial survival and neutrophil activation in the dermis. Intravital microscopy of i.d. Y. pestis infection revealed dynamic interactions between recruited neutrophils and bacteria. In contrast, very few bacteria interacted with dendritic cells (DCs), indicating that this cell type may not play a major role early in Y. pestis infection. Experiments using neutrophil depletion and a CCR7 knockout mouse suggest that dissemination of Y. pestis from the dermis to the dLN is not dependent on neutrophils or DCs. Taken together, the results of this study show a very rapid, robust neutrophil response to Y. pestis in the dermis and that the virulence plasmid pCD1 is important for the evasion of this response. Yersinia pestis remains a public health concern today because of sporadic plague outbreaks that occur throughout the world and the potential for its illegitimate use as a bioterrorism weapon. Since bubonic plague pathogenesis is initiated by the introduction of Y. pestis into the skin, we sought to characterize the response of the host's innate immune cells to bacteria early after

  4. Degradation of gas-phase trichloroethylene over thin-film TiO2 photocatalyst in multi-modules reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Bum; Lee, Jun Yub; Kim, Gyung Soo; Hong, Sung Chang

    2009-01-01

    The present paper examined the photocatalytic degradation (PCD) of gas-phase trichloroethylene (TCE) over thin-film TiO 2 . A large-scale treatment of TCE was carried out using scale-up continuous flow photo-reactor in which nine reactors were arranged in parallel and series. The parallel or serial arrangement is a significant factor to determine the special arrangement of whole reactor module as well as to compact the multi-modules in a continuous flow reactor. The conversion of TCE according to the space time was nearly same for parallel and serial connection of the reactors.

  5. Degradation of gas-phase trichloroethylene over thin-film TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst in multi-modules reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Bum [New and Renewable Energy Team, Environment and Energy Division, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun Yub, E-mail: ljy02191@hanafos.com [Power Engineering Research Institute, Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc. (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gyung Soo [New and Renewable Energy Team, Environment and Energy Division, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Chang [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyonggi University (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-30

    The present paper examined the photocatalytic degradation (PCD) of gas-phase trichloroethylene (TCE) over thin-film TiO{sub 2}. A large-scale treatment of TCE was carried out using scale-up continuous flow photo-reactor in which nine reactors were arranged in parallel and series. The parallel or serial arrangement is a significant factor to determine the special arrangement of whole reactor module as well as to compact the multi-modules in a continuous flow reactor. The conversion of TCE according to the space time was nearly same for parallel and serial connection of the reactors.

  6. Promesas y traiciones: una radionovela enfocada en la educación sobre enfermedades crónicas (Promises and Betrayals: A Radio Novella Focused on Chronic Disease Education)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Los casos de diabetes y de otras enfermedades crónicas en la comunidad hispana de los Estados Unidos siguen en aumento. En este Podcast, los autores de un artículo publicado en la revista Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD) de los CDC hablan en acerca de cómo usaron un innovador modelo educativo de entretenimiento para crear una radionovela en español con el objetivo de reducir los factores de riesgo de enfermedades crónicas en este sector de la población.

  7. Finding Nutritious Foods in Small Food Stores

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-12

    Nutrition has consistently been a popular topic of discussion among researchers and public health officials. This podcast consists of an interview with a nutrition-minded author and University of California, Berkeley PhD candidate whose 2012 original research article was the winner of PCD’s 2012 Student Paper Contest.  Created: 7/12/2012 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 7/12/2012.

  8. Análise dos modelos de avaliação de requerentes ao beneficio de prestação continuada: 2006 a 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Bim, Miriam Cláudia Spada; Carvalho, Manoela de; Murofuse, Neide Tiemi

    2015-01-01

    Este estudo apresenta uma análise dos resultados do processo de avaliação da pessoa com deficiência (PcD), requerentes do Benefício de Prestação Continuada (BPC), baseado na Classificação Internacional de Funcionalidade, Incapacidade e Saúde (CIF) a partir da caracterização dos requerentes deste beneficio quanto às incapacidades diagnosticadas. Entre os 1404 requerimentos de BPC, arquivados na Agência da Previdência Social (APS) de Assis Chateubriand, Paraná, foram analisadas as doenças e ou ...

  9. "Yo elijo": Participación política y derecho a la ciudadanía de las personas con discapacidad

    OpenAIRE

    Levín Rojo, Elías; González, Emma; Lugo García, Yael; Murga Chávez, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    El presente estudio da cuenta de una investigación acción que se centró en los problemas de atención para los votantes con discapacidad en México llevada a cabo durante el proceso electoral de 2012. Es nuestro interés conocer la manera en que las personas con discapacidad (Pcd) participan del ejercicio de ciudadanía considerado más importante: el voto, así como dar cuenta de la generación de experiencias novedosas de participación ciudadana, como la organización de un observatorio del voto de...

  10. An?lise da amplia??o da academia do SESI/AM para atendimento a pessoa com defici?ncia f?sica: est?mulo a inclus?o social, laboral e qualidade de vida

    OpenAIRE

    Passos, Adeilson da Silva

    2016-01-01

    A busca pela qualidade de vida das pessoas tem sido um fator de grande relev?ncia no cen?rio atual. Um meio de obten??o da qualidade de vida seria por meio da pr?tica de esportes que proporciona sa?de e o bem-estar das pessoas. A discuss?o sobre a inclus?o da pessoa com defici?ncia nas academias j? acontece h? algum tempo. Vale ressaltar que nem todas as academias est?o adaptadas para receber pessoas com defici?ncia f?sica (PCD). Diante disso, essa problem?tica ? objeto prin...

  11. Exogenous Hydrogen Peroxide Contributes to Heme Oxygenase-1 Delaying Programmed Cell Death in Isolated Aleurone Layers of Rice Subjected to Drought Stress in a cGMP-Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghui; Xiao, Yu; Deng, Xiaojiang; Zhang, Heting; Li, Tingge; Chen, Huiping

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) that plays a dual role in plant cells. Here, we discovered that drought (20% polyethylene glycol-6000, PEG)-triggered decreases of HO-1 transcript expression and HO activity. However, exogenous H2O2 contributed toward the increase in HO-1 gene expression and activity of the enzyme under drought stress. Meanwhile, the HO-1 inducer hematin could mimic the effects of the H2O2 scavengers ascorbic acid (AsA) and dimethylthiourea (DMTU) and the H2O2 synthesis inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) for scavenging or diminishing drought-induced endogenous H2O2. Conversely, the zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX), an HO-1-specific inhibitor, reversed the effects of hematin. We further analyzed the endogenous H2O2 levels and HO-1 transcript expression levels of aleurone layers treated with AsA, DMTU, and DPI in the presence of exogenous H2O2 under drought stress, respectively. The results showed that in aleurone layers subjected to drought stress, when the endogenous H2O2 level was inhibited, the effect of exogenous H2O2 on the induction of HO-1 was enhanced. Furthermore, exogenous H2O2-activated HO-1 effectively enhanced amylase activity. Application of 8-bromoguanosine 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP) (the membrane permeable cGMP analog) promoted the effect of exogenous H2O2-delayed PCD of aleurone layers in response to drought stress. More importantly, HO-1 delayed the programmed cell death (PCD) of aleurone layers by cooperating with nitric oxide (NO), and the delayed effect of NO on PCD was achieved via mediation by cGMP under drought stress. In short, in rice aleurone layers, exogenous H2O2 (as a signaling molecule) triggered HO-1 and delayed PCD via cGMP which possibly induced amylase activity under drought stress. In contrast, as a toxic by-product of cellular metabolism, the drought-generated H2O2 promoted cell death. PMID:29449858

  12. Long-term clearance from small airways in subjects with ciliary dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelte Lena; Falk Rolf; Lindström Maria; Philipson Klas; Svartengren Magnus

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate if long-term clearance from small airways is dependent on normal ciliary function. Six young adults with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) inhaled 111 Indium labelled Teflon particles of 4.2 μm geometric and 6.2 μm aerodynamic diameter with an extremely slow inhalation flow, 0.05 L/s. The inhalation method deposits particles mainly in the small conducting airways. Lung retention was measured immediately after inhalation and at four occasi...

  13. Laser beam machining of polycrystalline diamond for cutting tool manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszyński, Dominik; Ostrowski, Robert; Zwolak, Marek; Bryk, Witold

    2017-10-01

    The paper concerns application of DPSS Nd: YAG 532nm pulse laser source for machining of polycrystalline WC based diamond inserts (PCD). The goal of the research was to determine optimal laser cutting parameters for cutting tool shaping. Basic criteria to reach the goal was cutting edge quality (minimalization of finishing operations), material removal rate (time and cost efficiency), choice of laser beam characteristics (polarization, power, focused beam diameter). The research was planned and realised and analysed according to design of experiment rules (DOE). The analysis of the cutting edge was prepared with use of Alicona Infinite Focus measurement system.

  14. Screening for primary creatine deficiencies in French patients with unexplained neurological symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    A population of patients with unexplained neurological symptoms from six major French university hospitals was screened over a 28-month period for primary creatine disorder (PCD). Urine guanidinoacetate (GAA) and creatine:creatinine ratios were measured in a cohort of 6,353 subjects to identify PCD patients and compile their clinical, 1H-MRS, biochemical and molecular data. Six GAMT [N-guanidinoacetatemethyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.2)] and 10 X-linked creatine transporter (SLC6A8) but no AGAT (GATM) [L-arginine/glycine amidinotransferase (EC 2.1.4.1)] deficient patients were identified in this manner. Three additional affected sibs were further identified after familial inquiry (1 brother with GAMT deficiency and 2 brothers with SLC6A8 deficiency in two different families). The prevalence of PCD in this population was 0.25% (0.09% and 0.16% for GAMT and SLC6A8 deficiencies, respectively). Seven new PCD-causing mutations were discovered (2 nonsense [c.577C > T and c.289C > T] and 1 splicing [c.391 + 15G > T] mutations for the GAMT gene and, 2 missense [c.1208C > A and c.926C > A], 1 frameshift [c.930delG] and 1 splicing [c.1393-1G > A] mutations for the SLC6A8 gene). No hot spot mutations were observed in these genes, as all the mutations were distributed throughout the entire gene sequences and were essentially patient/family specific. Approximately one fifth of the mutations of SLC6A8, but not GAMT, were attributed to neo-mutation, germinal or somatic mosaicism events. The only SLC6A8-deficient female patient in our series presented with the severe phenotype usually characterizing affected male patients, an observation in agreement with recent evidence that is in support of the fact that this X-linked disorder might be more frequent than expected in the female population with intellectual disability. PMID:23234264

  15. Soft x-ray detection with diamond photoconductive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kania, D.R.; Pan, L.; Kornblum, H.; Bell, P.; Landen, O.N.; Pianetta, P.

    1990-01-01

    Photoconductive detectors fabricated from natural lla diamonds have been used to measure the x-ray power emitted from laser produced plasmas. The detector was operated without any absorbing filters to distort the x-ray power measurement. The 5.5 eV bandgap of the detector material practically eliminates its sensitivity to scattered laser radiation thus permitting filterless operation. The detector response time or carrier life time was 90 ps. Excellent agreement was achieved between a diamond PCD and a multichannel photoemissive diode array in the measurement of radiated x-ray power and energy. 4 figs

  16. Delamination in surface plies of graphite/epoxy caused by the edge trimming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colligan, K.; Ramulu, M.

    Delamination in surface plies of graphite/epoxy laminates caused by edge trimming using polycrystalline diamond (PCD) and carbide cutters is investigated. The effect of several machining variables on formation of delaminations in the surface plies of a graphite fiber reinforced composite material is presented. Machining tests were performed to assess the impact of cutter geometry, feedrate, rotation direction, and graphite fiber orientation. Three typical delamination modes were observed and documented. Feedrate was found to have a significant effect on surface ply delamination in graphite/epoxy composite materials.

  17. Calf management practices and associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality on beef cow-calf operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C F; Fick, L J; Pajor, E A; Barkema, H W; Jelinski, M D; Windeyer, M C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate calf management practices on beef cow-calf operations and determine associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality of pre-weaned calves. A 40-question survey about management practices, morbidity and mortality was administered to cow-calf producers by distributing paper surveys and by circulating an online link through various media. A total of 267 producers completed the survey. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and multivariable linear regression models. Average herd-level treatment risk for pre-weaning calf diarrhea (PCD) and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) were 4.9% and 3.0%, respectively. Average herd-level mortality within the first 24 h of life (stillbirth), from 1 to 7 days and 7 days to weaning were 2.3%, 1.1%, and 1.4%, respectively. Operations that never intervened at parturition had 4.7% higher PCD than those that occasionally did. On operations using small elastrator bands for castration, PCD was 1.9% higher than those using other methods. For every increase of 100 cows in herd size, BRD decreased by 1.1%. The association between BRD and PCD varied by when calving season began. Operations that used off-farm, frozen colostrum had a 1.1% increase in stillbirths. Operations that verified a calf had suckled had 0.7% lower mortality from 1 to 7 days of age. Those that intervened when colostrum was abnormal or that used small elastrator bands for castration had 1.9% and 1.4% higher mortality during the 1st week of life, respectively, compared with other operations. Mortality from 7 days to weaning was lower by 0.7% when calving season started in April compared with January or February and was higher by 1.0% for each additional week of calving season. Operations that intervened with colostrum consumption for assisted calvings had lower mortality from 7 days to weaning by 0.8% compared with those that did not. For every 1.0% increase in BRD, mortality from 7 days to weaning increased by 1

  18. IMPACT STUDY: MK-0646 (DALOTUZUMAB, INSULIN GROWTH FACTOR 1 RECEPTOR (IGF-1R ANTIBODY COMBINED WITH PEMETREXED AND CISPLATIN IN STAGE IV METASTATIC NON-SQUAMOUS LUNG CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao H Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R regulates cell growth, proliferation and apoptosis. Adenocarcinoma and never-smokers have a higher expression of IGF-1R, which is associated with worse overall survival. Dalotuzumab-MK0646 (D is a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets IGF-1R. Pemetrexed (P has higher activity in non-squamous lung cancer (NSQL. We initiated a randomized phase II trial to test the combination of P and Cisplatin (C +/- D in NSQL.Methods: Eligibility criteria: untreated NSQL stage IIIB or IV, ECOG 0 or 1, measurable disease, adequate renal, hepatic and hematologic function, and no other intercurrent illness. P at 500mg/m2 and C at 75mg/m2 IV were given every 3 weeks. D was given at 10mg/kg IV weekly on days 1, 8 and 15 of every 3-week cycle in the experimental group. The patients had a radiographic assessment after every 2 cycles and were treated for a maximum of 6 cycles if there was a response or stable disease. The primary objective of the study was to compare the clinical response rates of PC vs PC+D. Results: From 1/2009 to 2/2011, the study accrued 26 subjects: 16 male and 10 female, with a median age of 59; 14 were treated with PC and 12 were treated with PC+D. We observed 2 partial responses (PR, 7 stable disease (SD, 3 progressive disease (PD, and 2 were not evaluable (NE in the PC arm. In comparison, for the PC+D arm there were: 3 PR, 4 SD, 4 PD and 1 NE. The hematologic toxicity was similar in both groups. There higher incidence of hyperglycemia the experimental group; 4 cases with grade 3 and 1 case with grade 4. Conclusion: PC+D had a similar response rate compared to PC, with a higher rate of hyperglycemia. Identification of responders using predictive markers would be key to continuing the study of D in NSQL.

  19. Using GIS Maps to Improve Diabetes Prevention in New York

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-26

    This podcast features Rachael Ruberto, MPH, New York State Department of Health research scientist and lead author of PCD’s most recent Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Snapshots article. Rachael provides an overview of her article and how GIS was used for the analysis of diabetes prevention in New York.  Created: 2/26/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/26/2014.

  20. Mobile Fruit and Vegetable Vendors’ Impact on Food Deserts

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-09-10

    Kathleen Y. L, BS, winner of PCD’s 2014 Student Research Paper Contest and medical student at the University of California, San Francisco, discusses her winning paper on the evaluation and placement of mobile fruit and vegetables vendors and their ability to alleviate food deserts in New York City.  Created: 9/10/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/10/2014.