Braunlinger, Thomas K
...) Are the military services implementing the network-centric warfare concept?, and (3) Is the network-centric warfare concept a new theory of warfare or rather a modification or extension of previous theories...
Network Centric Warfare can tend to collapse the operational level war by allowing information to flow around or past hierarchical staff structures and directly between tactical and strategic level decision makers...
Each of the four tenets may in fact stifle military effectiveness. We might view the NCW tenets as being like “lies to children” ( Pratchett ...Scientific Discovery, Hutchinson, London. 44 Pratchett , T., Stewart, I., Cohen, J., (2002), The Science of Discworld, Publ. Ebury, London, 2002
Since Network Centric Warfare (NCW) theory stresses shared understanding, command dispersal, and improved situational awareness does it not follow then, that data availability, mining, and superior analytics must be available at all...
Haas, Michael W; Middenorf, Matthew S; Ulring, Shari
.... The second purpose is to document the initial use of the SAFIRE architecture in its intended role, as a tool supporting evaluations of crew-system interfaces used in a network-centric environment...
Moderator: Lt Col Kenneth Lang, USAF, Chief, Net Centric Transformational Operations, C4 Transformation Division (US JFCOM/J69) Panelists...of Interest (US JFCOM/J61) - Mr. Troy Turner, Section Head, C4 Interoperability (ACT) - COL Kelly Mayes, USA, Director, Campaign Planning...Deliverables NCAT NIF SCOPE Net Centric Assessment Tools (includes SCOPE & PFCs evaluation) Conceptual Architecture Framework Standards PFCs: Building Codes
Full Text Available Within the framework of the current revolution in military affairs, at the End of the Cold War a new concept was born: the concept of War Based on Computer Networking or NCW Network Centric-Warfare which was established as a central element of modern military operations. Determined by theprogress recorded in the field of communication systems of all types, technology of information (HI-Tech, IT, war based on computer networking brings a change in the war paradigm and its inherent components In this respect, logistics based on computer networking represents one of the ways in which the reality of the battlefield is preserved which enhances the joint perspective upon the military forces.
Nagalakshmi Jawaharlal; K Umasankar
Objective : Scientific research is the cornerstone of development and conducting research in a systematic and structured manner which is mandatory for universal acceptance. Aims : The objective of the article is to give a ring-side view of research in dentistry for the clinicians interested in research and publication. Discussion : The research methodology, results, summarization and publication of the results are the basic tenets which this article elaborates upon. The ethics of conduc...
Clausewitz Kantian philosophic framework for war, which contends that due to the inherent nature of war, it cannot be predicted or controlled by man. The...the key themes identified within Clausewitz On War has identified that NCW could be considered the anti-thesis of Clausewitz Kantian study of warfare...industries and centers of population remote from the surface forces. While not discussing the ethical implication of legitimizing the attack of civilian
Renner, Scott; Schaefer, Ronald
This paper presents the "C2 Enterprise Reference Architecture" (C2ERA), which is a new technical concept of operations for building information systems better suited to the Network-Centric Warfare (NCW) environment...
The Lord Cameron committee investigated and reported on the causes of the civil disturbances in the 1960s, finding a rising sense of injustice and...IRA was not consistent. The pattern fluctuated throughout the conflict with membership rising after a British atrocity and falling after an IRA...the surface often appears reactive and inconsistent, both Labour and Conservative governments have consistently adhered to a set of basic principles
organizational characteris- tics of bureaucracies is the strong separation of the personal from the professional persona . In a pure bureaucracy...orders given, but sug- gestions are made. Network members can be convinced to engage in certain types of activities, not required. Since networks
its origins in a - some say 1st - generation of warfare, where armies were concentrated and could be controlled by political masters who were also acclaimed as warfare "geniuses". With subsequent generations of warfare, however, the control of war cannot be replaced by a control of military...... administration. While organisation systems continue to make some kind of political control possible, this is not the case in relation to wars. The organisation system is the in-between that should mediatise politics and war but is not functionally equivalent to just and unjust wars. The paper investigates...... the risks of lacking unity and displays the organisational trap to the fatal political myth of controlled warfare: Does it come from the military organisation system itself, from political ideologies of goal-rational governance, or from the chameleonic logic of wars? ...
Andrew M. Colarik
Full Text Available Over the past several decades, advances in technology have transformed communications and the ability to acquire, disseminate, and utilize information in a range of environments. Modern societies and their respective militaries have taken advantage of a robust information space through network-centric systems. Because military and commercial operations have increasingly converged, communication and information infrastructures are now high-priority military objectives in times of war. This article examines the theoretical underpinning of current cyber warfare research, what we have learned so far about its application, and some of the emerging themes to be considered; it also postulates the development of a (national cyber warfare doctrine (CWD. An endeavor of this scale requires lots of considerations and preparation for its development if it is to be cooperatively embraced. This article considers why information technology systems and their supporting infrastructures should be considered legitimate military targets in conflicts, and offers several events that support this supposition. In addition, it identifies the various forms of doctrine that will become the basis for developing a CWD, discusses a CWD's possible components, and proposes a national collaborative and discussion framework for obtaining a nation's stakeholder buy-in for such an endeavor.
Full Text Available The paper is focused on changes occurred in military organizations in Information Age. During Industrial Age the military structure of forces evolved according with principles of decomposition, specialization, hierarchy, optimization, deconfliction, centralized planning, and decentralized execution. But now the solutions based upon Industrial Age assumptions and practices will break down and fail in the Information Age. This will happen no matter how well intentioned, hardworking, or dedicated the leadership and the force are. Two key force capabilities needed by Information Age militaries are interoperability and agility. Both interoperability and agility are provided by Network centric warfare theory of war.
... Navy will require tomorrow. From an overview of Network-Centric Warfare to a detailed look at modeling and simulation, we examine the broad spectrum of effort and intellectual capital being invested in the future of the Navy and Marine Corps...
military vocabulary to describe these observed phenomena. After an intense focus on large-scale conventional conflicts during the Cold War, with episodic...requiring the mastery of both grammars.85 It follows that hybrid warfare requires the blending of both grammars. The Theoretical Lineage of
Bolles, Elliot; Patrizio, Kami
This study investigates the leadership tenets informing veterans' work as school leaders. Drawing on 15 interviews and surveys with military veterans working as educational leaders, the study relies on Stake's (2006) case study method to substantiate assertions that veterans: 1) come into education without the support of a transitional program, 2)…
www.cbsnews.com/news/the-echo-boomers-01-10-2004. 37 Andrew Hanna, “The Global Youth Unemployment Crisis: Exploring Successful Initiatives and Partnering with...SSP/seminars/wed_archives06spring/habeck.html Hanna, Andrew. “The Global Youth Unemployment Crisis: Exploring Successful Initiatives and Partnering...ISIL cause . The millennials within ISILs global insurgency are the drivers of these changes. The current Irregular Warfare literature does not account
Keywords: Captured enemy documents, latent semantic text analysis, network centric warfare, network science, language instant screening tool...document in any language (currently being developed in Arabic), index it for keywords through advanced latent semantic text analysis, append...metadata (GPS, date-time, keywords, unit), and relay the information to higher in near real time. Latent semantic text
to a halt in its usual medium of travel. A certain minimum of speed is essen- tial to sustentation , for the whole phenomenon of flight 36 AIR WARFARE...3,000 pounds, has a wing area of 287 square feet, while the bomber with its weight of 12,000 pounds requires some 1,121 square feet for its sustentation ...the resistance offered by the other parts of the airplane, which, since they play no part in sustentation , are known as “parasite” resistances. But the
T. Sebasthi John Baskar
The Philosophy behind the basic tenets of Saiva Siddhanta is something unique and different from the understanding of other faiths. But at the same time it is very essential to comprehend and to explain the individuality of the great philosophical nature of Pati, Pasu and Pasam which are indispensable for the liberation of the soul to attain its eternity. It is because of the realization of the Divine reality one attains nirvana and detaches himself form Pasu – Pasam and seeks Him true. The U...
Khoury, Fadi E.
Data centric applications, an important effort of software development in large organizations, have been mostly adopting a software methodology, such as a waterfall or Rational Unified Process, as the framework for its development. These methodologies could work on structural, procedural, or object oriented based applications, but fails to capture…
Crude drones existed as early as World War I, but the technology matured in the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s and the current wars around the Middle East. The U.S. first used a weaponized drone in late 2001, in Afghanistan. Drones may cause more or less civilian casualties depending on the targeting protocols employed by their operators. There is an inherent ambiguity in determining who is an insurgent from several thousand feet, but civilian casualties are likely to be higher if targeters emphasize "signature strikes" over "personality strikes," if they engage in "double-tap strikes," if they rely too much on local informants, and if they rely too heavily on cellphone identification in the absence of corroboration from other intelligence sources. The legality of drone warfare is fairly clear in established battle zones such as Afghanistan, but is more problematic in terms of both international and domestic law when it comes to drone strikes in countries such as Yemen, Pakistan and Somalia with which the U.S. is not at war. Looking to the future, the U.S. would be well advised to sponsor negotiations for an international drone convention that might establish clear international rules for the use of drones, ban autonomous smart drones, and establish adjudicatory procedures to handle allegations of war crimes.
Hughes, Jeff; Cybenko, George
This paper presents a threat-driven quantitative mathematical framework for secure cyber-physical system design and assessment. Called The Three Tenets, this originally empirical approach has been used by the US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) for secure system research and development. The Tenets were first documented in 2005 as a teachable methodology. The Tenets are motivated by a system threat model that itself consists of three elements which must exist for successful attacks to occur: - system susceptibility; - threat accessibility and; - threat capability. The Three Tenets arise naturally by countering each threat element individually. Specifically, the tenets are: Tenet 1: Focus on What's Critical - systems should include only essential functions (to reduce susceptibility); Tenet 2: Move Key Assets Out-of-Band - make mission essential elements and security controls difficult for attackers to reach logically and physically (to reduce accessibility); Tenet 3: Detect, React, Adapt - confound the attacker by implementing sensing system elements with dynamic response technologies (to counteract the attackers' capabilities). As a design methodology, the Tenets mitigate reverse engineering and subsequent attacks on complex systems. Quantified by a Bayesian analysis and further justified by analytic properties of attack graph models, the Tenets suggest concrete cyber security metrics for system assessment.
Postgraduate School. 37. Roy, D., Semiotic Schemas: A Framework for Grounding Language in Action and Perception. Artificial Intelligence, 2005. 167: p. 170...Technology Symposium. 2005. 47. Zemanek, H., Semiotics and Programming Languages . Communications of the ACM, 1966. 9(3): p. 139-143. UNCLASSIFIED...16th ICCRTS: Collective C2 in Multinational Civil-Military Operations Towards a Semiotic Information Position Framework for Network
on the Move (BCOTM). To this end a multiplicity of subtasks have been articulated to include: 1) Evaluate future data radio, wireless , personal...Multinational Communcations Systems. Requirement for Dedicated All Weather Communications Relay platforms. Requirement for Higher level of Networking
80 Consequently, Frederick‘s army was the first into Silesia in 1740 and first into Saxony 1756.81 Preemption provided Frederick a great advantage in...refinement, of what is developing into a clearer picture of the essence of command. Eisenhower‘s circumstances are again unique; therefore, the analysis...differences, and construct a common picture ,‖ the advantages are unlikely to be that pronounced because understanding is not the same as developing a
tion of the flawed American model of war. As stated flatly by General Carlos Ospina, a key !eld commander who rose to become head of the Colombian...Sayyid Qutb’s Milestones,20 for instance, one will use violence for redress of grievances. Likewise, if one believes Marx and Lenin, one will also use...violence to pur- sue totalitarian secular ends. Ironically, many of those we face in today’s challenge combine elements of Marx and Lenin with
support roles like base support and sustainment . In contrast, nearly seventeen percent of private contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan performed...numerous others in their works. 48 Jan Glete, “Warfare, Entrepreneurship , and the Fiscal-Military State,” in European Warfare: 1350-1750, eds. Frank...Pirates, and Sovereigns, 21. 50 Glete, “Warfare, Entrepreneurship , and the Fiscal-Military State,” 301. 51 Tallett and Trim, “Then Was Then and Now
Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik; Mosquera, Andres B Munoz
Hybrid Warfare as a method of war is not new. The change today appears to be that Hybrid Warfare “has the potential to transform the strategic calculations of potential belligerents [it has become] increasingly sophisticated and deadly”. This short paper presents Hybrid Warfare and one of its methods, lawfare. For this, we provide a current, comprehensive definition of hybrid warfare and examine different areas where law has been/is being used as a method of war. This paper focuses on the fol...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides NP-3D aircraft host platforms for Effectiveness of Navy Electronic Warfare Systems (ENEWS) Program antiship missile (ASM) seeker simulators used...
population and sow seeds of doubts in the minds of the rebel leadership about their precise role. The aim was to deter the RUF from continuing its...example, while 19 Bde took the decision to spread itself as widely as possible, 20 Bde focused its forces more narrowly around the oil infrastructure...Lim, Soon- Chia , ‘Network Centric Warfare: A Command and Control Perspective’, Thesis submitted to the US Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA
Full Text Available This paper examines the ethics of the practice of information warfare at both the national and corporate levels. Initially examining the present and past actions of individual hackers, it moves to the more organised, future military and economic warfare scenarios. It examines the lack of legal or policy initiatives in this area.
Manke, Gerald C.
The use of lasers for Electronic Warfare applications will be discussed and reviewed. Specific examples of deployed EW systems which include lasers will be presented along with a discussion of their most salient features.
was developed as an alternative to the Western teleological approach, while operational design is based on epistemology. In contrast to EBO...and the Ethics of Warfare,” presentation to the Joint Services FORUM | Systems versus Classical Approach to Warfare Conference on Professional... Ethics , 2006, School of Advanced Military Studies, Fort Leavenworth, KS. 23 Cited in Avi Kober, “The Israel Defense Forces in the Second Lebanon War
Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.
The defence technologies which have been developing and changing rapidly, today make it difficult to be able to foresee the next environment and spectrum of warfare. When said change and development is looked in specific to the naval operations, it can be said that the possible battlefield and scenarios to be developed in the near and middle terms (5-20 years) are more clarified with compare to other force components. Network Centric Naval Warfare Concept that was developed for the floating, diving and flying fleet platforms which serves away from its own mainland for miles, will keep its significance in the future. Accordingly, Network Centric Intelligence structure completely integrating with the command and control systems will have relatively more importance. This study will firstly try to figure out the transition from the traditional intelligence cycle that is still used in conventional war to Network Centric Intelligence Production Process. In the last part, the use of this new approach on the base of UAV that is alternative to satellite based command control and data transfer systems in the joint operations in narrow seas will be examined, a model suggestion for the use of operative and strategic UAVs which are assured within the scope of the NATO AGS2 for this aim will be brought.
The objective of the study is to develop a roadmap for customer centricity and to build the basis on which improved customer centric actions can be built. As other ways of succeeding in the industry are quite limited, the customer centricity and good customer experience are vital to keep the customers interested and create more loyal and long lasting customer relationships. Customer centricity is a complex system incorporating various aspects mutually dependent and influencing each other....
Abraham, Anandapandian Ponsekar; Veeravalli, Padmanabhan Thallam
Centric relation (CR) has been considered mainly as a position posterior to habitual occlusion or maximum intercuspation (MI). Awareness of the tooth contacts relationship in centric relation position of the mandible and diagnosing the case from this position is essential to consistently select treatment plans that will allow to treat to or very near to centric relation occlusion. Centric slide and other occlusal relationships are conceived of as positions, which can be studied in three dimen...
Full Text Available Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.
civilian population. (k) The history of research, trial and use of germ warfare continues to the present day. North Korea claimed dirty tricks were used by the USA during the Korean war in 1952, when American POW's confessed to drop- ping germ bombs including infected foun- tain pens. This was supposedly confirmed.
PASSED) ENEMY DEFENSE POSITION DEFENSIVE ENGAGEMENT CANAIZaE SECURE AN ENEMY MANEUVER OPFN Fl.AhK PORCE ENEMY AVENUES Or APROACH REAR AREAS II XVIE’NFOFSE...Sidorenko, A. A., "The Offensive - A Soviet View," Translated and Published by the US Air Force, 1970 Simpkin, Brigadier Richard, "Tank Warfare," With
Recently, I was tasked with the creation and execution of a new themed general education physics class called The Physics of Warfare. In the past, I had used the theme of a class, such as the physics of sports medicine, as a way to create homework and in-class activities, generate discussions, and provide an application to demonstrate that physics…
1862 to his mother in Goldsboro, NC. Southern Historical Collection, University Archives, Southern Folk Life Collection, Louis Round Wilson Special...carnage" that "no human tongue or pen can adequately describe" was not new to warfare.20 What was new and different were the numbers of wounded
8 N " PART II: Operational Tenets I: .. *COMBINED ARMS OPERATIONS 2 One of the supremely ironic twists of Heinz Guderian’s career has to be his ass...Regulation and Control Officer (G-3/ TRACO ). The TRACO wrote the Traffic Control Annex for an operation order and, employing assets from the division
Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 1. Introduction and Executive Summary For Network Centric Warfare (NCW), robust information-sharing...41]); (iii) NPS M&S Virtual Environment open-source tools and resources (e.g. AUV Workbench [42-43]). Due to the breadth and depth of MBSE/SOSE...Frameworks With Sensor-Package Workbench Capabilities: Motivation, Survey of Resources, and Exploratory Results," 15th ICCRTS, 2010 (http://www.dtic.mil
images is not permissible. iii Abstract Hybrid Warfare: The 21st Century Russian Way of Warfare, by MAJ Amos C. Fox, US Army, 73 pages. In...echelons far above a tactical battalion. Robert Leonhard suggests, “As the Cold War receded into the history books , the day-to-day reality of...Russian brand of hybrid warfare. Furthermore, Leonhard’s definition has more far-reaching applicability than other definitions analyzed, making it usable
using Latent Semantic Analysis and other content analysis frameworks, Evidence Based Research, Inc. Final Report: Human-Centric Architecture 2...recognize using Latent Semantic Analysis and/ or other content analysis tools. Intermediate products. As team members do their work, they create products...concepts that are addressed. It is also possible that techniques that Latent Semantic Analysis uses to evaluate essay question answers can help the
Strictly military information warfare can be defined as all informational operations at tactical, operational and strategic level, in peacetime, crisis and conflict escalation, with the common goals of achieving or influencing certain targets. Information warfare has a military component, command and control warfare which has the following meaning according to NATO: "integrated use of all military capabilities including operations security, deception, psychological operations, electronic warf...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility contains specialized mobile spectral, radiometric, and imaging measurement systems to characterize ultraviolet,...
1997). French , John and Raven , Bertram. “The Bases of Social Power.” Studies in Social Power, 1959 . Galula, David. Counterinsurgency Warfare Theory...of the threats depend on both the 109 John R. P. French and Bertram Raven , “The Bases of Social...police to bring about better security. 112 French and Raven , “The Bases of Social Power,” 167. 38 Ramadan, as I described in the Introduction. It
Martinović Željko; Obradović-Đuričić Kosovka; Teodorović Nevenka S.; Živković Rade
The objective of this paper was to show the historical perspective of the „long centric" occlusal concept and its importance in the modern dentistry, especially from the gnathological aspect. The „long centric" concept represents therapeutic modality used in modern dentistry and occlusal adjustment in all patients showing differences in strong and weak closure of the lower jaw starting from the position of physiological rest/long centric" concept is applied only for anterior teeth and occlusa...
Driscoll, Patrick J; Tortorella, Michael; Pohl, Edward
This study introduces a pragmatic methodology for examining the effectiveness of decision support information systems for Network Centric Operations based on the concept of manufacturing information products...
Afzal, Ambreen; Shameem, Afreen
To compare the centric relation-centric occlusion discrepancy in Angle's class II and class III with Angle's class I malocclusion cases in sagittal (antero-posterior) plane as determined by the difference in the overjet. Comparative; cross-sectional study. Orthodontic Outpatient Department, Karachi Medical and Dental College, from June 2003-August 2004. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the Angle's classification. Leaf gauges were employed for muscle deprogramming. Bimanual manipulation technique was used to guide the mandible in to centric relation. Softened red modeling wax was used to obtain the centric bite registration. The study casts were trimmed in centric relation using bite registration. Overjet was recorded in centric relation and centric occlusion by dial caliper on casts. The overjet values for centric relation-centric occlusion discrepancy were highly significant for Angle's class II (p-value 0.002) and Angle's class III (p-value 0.005) when compared with Angle's class I malocclusion. Centric relation-centric occlusion discrepancy can occur in any dental class regardless of age and gender. However, especial emphasis should be given to Angle's class II and III (with functional shift) cases when evaluating any orthodontic patient.
Mitchell, Dr. William L.; Clark, Dr. Robert M.
In Target-Centric Network Modeling: Case Studies in Analyzing Complex Intelligence Issues, authors Robert Clark and William Mitchell take an entirely new approach to teaching intelligence analysis. Unlike any other book on the market, it offers case study scenarios using actual intelligence......, and collaborative sharing in the process of creating a high-quality, actionable intelligence product. The case studies reflect the complexity of twenty-first century intelligence issues by dealing with multi-layered target networks that cut across political, economic, social, technological, and military issues....... Working through these cases, students will learn to manage and evaluate realistic intelligence accounts....
Networks and network-centric activity are increasingly prevalent in schools and school districts. In addition to ubiquitous social network tools like Facebook and Twitter, educational leaders deal with a wide variety of network organizational forms that include professional development, advocacy, informational networks and network-centric reforms.…
Askin, Osman; Irmak, Riza; Avsever, Mustafa
For the states with advanced technology, effective use of electronic warfare and cyber warfare will be the main determining factor of winning a war in the future's operational environment. The developed states will be able to finalize the struggles they have entered with a minimum of human casualties and minimum cost thanks to high-tech. Considering the increasing number of world economic problems, the development of human rights and humanitarian law it is easy to understand the importance of minimum cost and minimum loss of human. In this paper, cyber warfare and electronic warfare concepts are examined in conjunction with the historical development and the relationship between them is explained. Finally, assessments were carried out about the use of cyber electronic warfare in the coming years.
This book offers an overview of the ethical problems posed by Information Warfare, and of the different approaches and methods used to solve them, in order to provide the reader with a better grasp of the ethical conundrums posed by this new form of warfare.The volume is divided into three parts, each comprising four chapters. The first part focuses on issues pertaining to the concept of Information Warfare and the clarifications that need to be made in order to address its ethical implications. The second part collects contributions focusing on Just War Theory and its application to the case of Information Warfare. The third part adopts alternative approaches to Just War Theory for analysing the ethical implications of this phenomenon. Finally, an afterword by Neelie Kroes - Vice President of the European Commission and European Digital Agenda Commissioner - concludes the volume. Her contribution describes the interests and commitments of the European Digital Agenda with respect to research for the developme...
This work represents a milestone for the? 'ULOOP User-centric Wireless Local Loop' project funded by the EU IST Seventh Framework Programme.ULOOP is focused on the robust, secure, and autonomic deployment of user-centric wireless networks. Contributions by ULOOP partners as well as invited tutorials by international experts in the field. The expected impact is to increase awareness to user-centric networking in terms, e.g., of business opportunities and quality of experience, and to present adequate technology to sustain the growth of user-friendly wireless architectures.Throughout the last 3
A highly accessible reference offering a broad range of topics and insights on large scale network-centric distributed systems Evolving from the fields of high-performance computing and networking, large scale network-centric distributed systems continues to grow as one of the most important topics in computing and communication and many interdisciplinary areas. Dealing with both wired and wireless networks, this book focuses on the design and performance issues of such systems. Large Scale Network-Centric Distributed Systems provides in-depth coverage ranging from ground-level hardware issu
Frisch, P; Miodownik, S; Booth, P; Carragee, P; Dowling, M
Increased technological complexity of medical devices and systems coupled with increased workloads and reduced staffing, have created difficulties and discontinuities in the management of patient information. These issues have directly impacted and contributed to a rise in equipment-related errors, patient dissatisfaction, a potential for patient injury and resulting overall increased concern for patient safety. In response these concerns a variety of new devices, systems and applications have been developed to share information, provide cross checks along with verified delivery of critical information to the point of care. These applications include biomedical information systems, medication administration, sample collection, and electronic medical records. The deployment of these new integrated and networked devices, systems and applications are dependent on an accurate and consistent patient identification and association methodology which dynamically manages the relationship between patients, staff and equipment. Since the association information is common to many applications and utilizes a variety of technologies, (i.e. active and passive radio frequency identification (RFID), barcodes, etc.) an institutional approach is necessary to mange these processes in a consistent manor utilizing a common set of identification hardware. Implementation of a "Patient Centric Identification and Association Platform" represents a significant advance in the management of clinical patient information. The implementation of a Biomedical Device Information Network at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) integrates the identification and association of patients with devices and care providers and provides the methodologies to manage alarms, providing the ability to filter low priority or nuisance alarms. This implementation enables critical information to be distributed directly to care providers utilizing dedicated communications devices. Patient Centric
Curtis, Raymond J; Frizzell, Joseph P
..., processes, and products remain to be addressed. We begin by examining current developments in net-centric, service oriented and effects based operations as part of the changing nature of the U.S...
Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to show the historical perspective of the „long centric" occlusal concept and its importance in the modern dentistry, especially from the gnathological aspect. The „long centric" concept represents therapeutic modality used in modern dentistry and occlusal adjustment in all patients showing differences in strong and weak closure of the lower jaw starting from the position of physiological rest/long centric" concept is applied only for anterior teeth and occlusal movements from rather than toward the center. Whenever the „long centric" parameters are not adequate, occlusal disturbance, resulting from the „wedge" effect during the initial closure of the lower jaw, is present. Different degrees of abrasion or hypermobility of the teeth are often the result of the above-mentioned occlusal disturbances and can potentially trigger bruxism and malfunction. Modus procedendi should be the regular approach of every dentist to any occlusion, because only the built-in „long centric" efficiently contributes to the occlusal stability of the anterior portion of the dentition. All occlusions should be routinely tested regarding their need for „long centric", especially when the extensive therapeutic interventions (conservative, prosthetics of the occlusal complex are required.
Rosengart, Todd K; Kent, K Craig; Bland, Kirby I; Britt, L D; Eberlein, Timothy J; Gewertz, Bruce Labe; Hunter, John G; Lillemoe, Keith D; Pellegrini, Carlos A; Schulick, Richard D; Stain, Steven Charles; Weigel, Ronald J
This Special Communication summarizes the key points raised at the Society of Surgical Chairs mentorship panel sessions held at the 2014 and 2015 annual meetings of the society. Highlights of these expert panel discussions include senior chairs' insights into successfully dealing with increasingly complex academic medical organizations and horizontal department management expectations in the context of the arrival of the Millennial Generation into the work force. Three key tenets of effective surgery leadership that arose from these sessions deal with the importance of (1) collaboration and cooperativity, (2) humanized relationships and mentorship, and (3) operational efficiency. Overall, the panel consensus for the future of surgery leadership was optimistic while recognizing that the demands of chairmanship are considerable.
. Several arguments were used in their respective rhetoric, and at the loci of their attention was the negotiation of a producer- versus a participation-centric design. An alliance of media workers from the editorial and IT departments won ground for their producer-centric proposal, enacting an iPhone...
Ben Van Lier
Full Text Available A fast-paced process of hybridization of man and technology, organization and technology and society and technology is currently sweeping the world. This process requires a way of (scientific thinking that takes hybrid systems as the starting point. This way of thinking gives hybrid systems an increasing need to be interlinked, which enables them to exchange and share information through these links. This development of linking (hybrid systems to enable them to exchange and share information, can also be denoted as the realization of interoperability between (hybrid systems. Five principles from Luhmann’s systems theory can be of help to understand interoperability. Interoperability enables (hybrid systems to join random coalitions and networks. The network centric warfare concept is currently the basis for international efforts for the development and application of interoperability that would enable armed forces to act effectively and efficiently. In this paper is demonstrated what Luhmann’s system’s theory can learn us.
Full Text Available The paper investigates the compatibility of the modern technologies of warfare, specifically the use of offensive drones, with traditional military ethics and suggests that the new technologies radically change the value system of the military in ways which make large parts of the traditional military ethics inapplicable. The author suggests that Agamben’s concept of ‘effectivity’ through ‘special actions’ which mark one’s belonging to a particular community or profession is a useful conceptual strategy to explore the compatibility of drone warfare with traditional military ethics; this strategy shows mixed results at best.
Stegemann, Sven; Ternik, Robert L; Onder, Graziano; Khan, Mansoor A; van Riet-Nales, Diana A
The term "patient centered," "patient centric," or "patient centricity" is increasingly used in the scientific literature in a wide variety of contexts. Generally, patient centric medicines are recognized as an essential contributor to healthy aging and the overall patient's quality of life and life expectancy. Besides the selection of the appropriate type of drug substance and strength for a particular indication in a particular patient, due attention must be paid that the pharmaceutical drug product design is also adequately addressing the particular patient's needs, i.e., assuring adequate patient adherence and the anticipate drug safety and effectiveness. Relevant pharmaceutical design aspects may e.g., involve the selection of the route of administration, the tablet size and shape, the ease of opening the package, the ability to read the user instruction, or the ability to follow the recommended (in-use) storage conditions. Currently, a harmonized definition on patient centric drug development/design has not yet been established. To stimulate scientific research and discussions and the consistent interpretation of test results, it is essential that such a definition is established. We have developed a first draft definition through various rounds of discussions within an interdisciplinary AAPS focus group of experts. This publication summarizes the outcomes and is intended to stimulate further discussions with all stakeholders towards a common definition of patient centric pharmaceutical drug product design that is useable across all disciplines involved.
Titterton, Nathaniel; Lewis, Colleen M.; Clancy, Michael J.
Lab-centric instruction emphasizes supervised, hands-on activities by substituting lab for lecture time. It combines a multitude of pedagogical techniques into the format of an extended, structured closed lab. We discuss the range of benefits for students, including increased staff interaction, frequent and varied self-assessments, integrated collaborative activities, and a systematic sequence of activities that gradually increases in difficulty. Instructors also benefit from a deeper window into student progress and understanding. We follow with discussion of our experiences in courses at U.C. Berkeley, and using data from some of these investigate the effects of lab-centric instruction on student learning, procrastination, and course pacing. We observe that the lab-centric format helped students on exams but hurt them on extended programming assignments, counter to our hypothesis. Additionally, we see no difference in self-ratings of procrastination and limited differences in ratings of course pace. We do find evidence that the students who choose to attend lab-centric courses are different in several important ways from students who choose to attend the same course in a non-lab-centric format.
Full Text Available This study is an attempt to investigate impact of using a technique, namely, genre-based approach on improving reading ability on Iranian EFL learners' achievement. Therefore, an attempt was made to compare genre-based approach to teaching reading with traditional approaches. For achieving this purpose, by administering the Oxford Quick Placement Test (OQPT 80 female EFL learners were chosen. We assigned the participants to an experimental and a control group randomly. A reading test was administered on the whole population as the pretest. 10 reading passages were taught using the tenets of genre based instruction, while the same reading passages were taught to the participants in the control group traditionally. After 10 sessions of instruction when all the passages were taught, the participants sat for a posttest. The research hypothesis according to which using genre-based approach to teaching reading does not significantly improve reading ability of Iranian EFL learners was rejected at 0.05 level of significance. Differently stated, using genre-based approach to teach reading can improve EFL learners’ performance in their reading classes. The result also showed that there is a meaningful difference between the performance of students who go under a traditional approach in teaching reading comprehension and those who are instructed using genre-based approach. The outcomes of this study can be used by English language teachers to consider the importance of a genre-based instruction. Keywords: Genre-Based Instruction (GBI, Reading comprehension, Iranian EFL learners, Reading comprehension
Howe, Erica M.
The history of science (HOS) has proven to be a useful pedagogical tool to help students learn about what has come to be regarded as an agreed upon set of core nature of science (NOS) tenets. The following article illustrates an example of how teachers can instrumentally use the history of research on heterozygote protection in sickle-cell anemia…
multinational operations, leadership challenges, leadership attributes, unity of command. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: UNCLASSIFIED 17. LIMITATION OF...Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited Coalition Warfare: The leadership challenges A Monograph by Colonel Mark J Thornhill...The leadership challenges. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Colonel Mark J. Thornhill
an overview of Shy’s theory of history and learning is required. Shy challenged the practice of interpreting warfare through the lens of the...necessary for victory. The military planners of Operation NEPTUNE during World War II felt that overwhelming superiority was a necessity in establishing a
Jansen, H. J.; Breeveld, F. J.; Stijnis, C.; Grobusch, M. P.
Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria
Mouritsen, Lars; Pedersen, Kenneth; Thruelsen, Peter Dahl
Since the beginning of the new millennium, the West has been increasingly involved in a tiresome and rather particular type of conflict: insurgency warfare. The bloody and shocking terrorist attacks on New York and Washington in September 2001 marked the beginning of a new era, and the introducti...
Siurdyban, Artur Henryk; Svejvig, Per; Møller, Charles
. The purpose of this paper is to propose a direction towards aligning the process-centric and technology-centric approaches. Using the case study method, we gain insight into two implementation projects: one of an information technology (IT) system and one of a process. We compare them using design thinking...... and strategic alignment theories. Based on the discussion, we assess the shortcomings of the process-centric and technology-centric approaches and argue that a conjoint design approach is required to achieve alignment between processes and technology. From a theoretical stance, this paper offers design......-informed insights into the process/technology alignment discussion and points towards a closer integration of process and technology research agendas. The implications for practice include a direction towards design-time coordination of processes and IT systems...
...), promises to increase freedom of action at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels of war by allowing greater control of the operational factors of space, time, and force than has been previously possible...
downsizing the officer corps, optimizing the military education system, developing professional non-commissioned officers (NCO’s), raising officer...cursors and icons wastes time during interfacing. The defense ministry acknowledged that problems remained, but expressed confidence that these
... at all policy and command levels to support superior decision making? Analyzing the anticipated massive amount of GIG data will almost certainly require data warehouses and federated data warehouses...
program that is as pervasive as the Microsoft equivalents for the PC.62 As of 2009, there is no way to know who will win the cloud computing...the Employees, (2002), http://dylan.tweney.com/writing.php?display=323. 80 Andrew Wenger , "Data Protection with SaaS," Communications News 45, no. 9...accessed Wenger , Andrew. 2008. Data Protection with Saas. Communications News 45 (9):30-30. Wilson, Greg. "EC2: Commoditized Computing." January 5
the NATO nations with a strong scientific and technological basis that will guarantee a solid base for the future . The content of this publication...variable. L’expérience fournit des données pour alimenter la Vision Humaine (HV) et les modèles résultants et pour valider la simulation modélisée...Manpower Projections (HV-B1) – illustrates predicted manpower requirements for present and future projects that contribute to larger
reduced in-theater footprint and vulnerability. It will also guarantee C4 of autonomous operations along different lines of operations by a self...Strategic Reconnaissance’. 136 For detailed descriptions refer to Peter Brendel (et al.): p. 33f and ESG Elektroniksystem- und Logistik GmbH Online...Folgerungen fuer die Deutsche Industrie; in: Soldat und Technik, vol. Januar 2004; Report-Verlag, Bonn; 2004. ESG Elektroniksystem- und Logistik GmbH
Karcanes, James A
The term "cultural awareness" serves as the new favorite Department of Defense buzzword but fails in its definition to adequately articulate the complexity of culture and the high level of cultural...
cafe for breakfast, receives good services, and then does not tip the waitress , there is a possibility that she will remember him next time and...Motorola Talkabout radios. One marine’s mother, a waitress in Texas, collected $8000 from patrons and went to RadioShack to buy the Talkabout radios...provide bad service. In this case, the waitress placed trust that Bob would follow custom if he received good service. The likelihood of a future
favorable manner. For example, if Bob stops at a his hometown cafe for breakfast, receives good services, and then does not tip the waitress , there is a...possibility that she will remember him next time and provide bad service. In this case, the waitress placed trust that Bob would follow custom if...he received good service. The likelihood of a future interaction between Bob and the waitress ensures that Bob will meet her prediction. On the
Siurdyban, Artur; Nielsen, Peter Axel
This case illustrates and discusses the issues and challenges at Kerrtec Corporation in their effort to establish process-centric IT management. The case describes how a local business unit in Kerrtec managed their business processes and how that created a necessity for IT to be managed to match ...
Ven, J. van de; Rijk, R. van; Essens, P.; Frinking, E.
This paper describes the approach to implement network centric operations (NCO) in the Dutch crisis management domain. NCO resolves a number of important shortcomings related to the supply and flow of information experienced in current verbal communication-based crisis management. First, we provide
Full Text Available According to the Declaration of Saint Petersburg of 1868 “the only legitimate object which States should endeavor to accomplish during war is to weaken the military forces of the enemy”. Thus, International Humanitarian Law prohibits or limits the use of certain means and methods of warfare. The rapid development of technology has led to the emergence of a new dimension of warfare. The cyber aspect of armed conflict has led to the development of new means and methods of warfare. The purpose of this paper is to study how the norms of international humanitarian law apply to the means and methods of cyber warfare.
Jajodia, Sushil; Subrahmanian, VS; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff
This book features a wide spectrum of the latest computer science research relating to cyber warfare, including military and policy dimensions. It is the first book to explore the scientific foundation of cyber warfare and features research from the areas of artificial intelligence, game theory, programming languages, graph theory and more. The high-level approach and emphasis on scientific rigor provides insights on ways to improve cyber warfare defense worldwide. Cyber Warfare: Building the Scientific Foundation targets researchers and practitioners working in cyber security, especially gove
the Germans fully understand the extent of the revolution that they had wrought in warfare, and only then did blitzkrieg receive its name . Meanwhile...Macmillan, 1969), 1166 , on the development of the Allied plans. 58. Michael Garder, La Guerre Secrete des Services speciaux francaises , 1939-1945 (Paris...to protect the proletarian revolution by possessing an industrial base capable of producing the new weapons ofwar was perhaps the major motivator
145. Smith, Robert M. The Revolutionary Doctrine of Comunist China . Thesis, American University, 1971. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms, 1972. (UA835...JC328.5 .L43) 99. Liu, Chi-aing. Lessons from China (Kiansi, 1934) and a Strategy for Counter-Insurgency (Viet Nam, 1966). Taipei: N.p., 1966...O’Ballance, Edgar. The Indo- China War. 1945-1954: A Study in Guerrilla Warfare. London: Faber and Faber, 1964. (DS550 0 3) 8 123. Organization of
provides a definition of political warfare, offers strategy approaches with associated actions, and develops analytical tools to evaluate PW actions...McAdam, Tarrow, and Tilly, Dynamics of Contention, 12. 21 the interests of at least one of the claimants. Roughly translated, the definition refers...indicates the effect of broad social processes on organizational strength. Broad social processes like migration or overpopulation provide an increase
Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.; Jamilkowski, M. L.
objectives: 1) 'Operationalizing' Suomi NPP, which had originally been intended as a risk reduction mission 2) Leveraging lessons learned to date in multi-mission support 3) Taking advantage of newer, more reliable and efficient technologies 4) Satisfying new requirements and constraints due to the continually evolving budgetary environment To meet these needs, we are upgrading the CGS in the following ways: 1) Performing a system-wide technology refresh for enhanced performance and security 2) Establishing a new front end architecture and augmenting the PRN for mission data transport 3) Standardizing data protocols to accommodate an even wider variety of missions 4) Enhancing flexibility and modularity in IDPS for new and evolving algorithms 5) Achieving comprehensive situational awareness 6) Deploying a full backup capability for Continuity of Operations (COOP) 7) Providing an enclave in compliance with the latest security standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 800-53 This paper will provide an overview of the CGS as it is deployed and operating today, along with a summary of the architectural tenets that will facilitate even easier incorporation of new missions and applications in 2015.
Collected from the Internet Archive "Wayback machine". The Undersea Warfare Curriculum educates officers in the engineering fundamentals, physical principles and analytical concepts that govern operational employment of undersea warfare (USW) sensors and weapons systems. Program is interdisciplinary and integrates; mathematics, physics, acoustics, electrical engineering, oceanography, operations analysis, human factors, computer science and meteorology.
The User Centric Monitoring (UCM) project was aimed at developing a toolkit that provides the Virtual Organization (VO) with tools to build systems that serve a rich set of intuitive job and application monitoring information to the VO’s scientists so that they can be more productive. The tools help collect and serve the status and error information through a Web interface. The proposed UCM toolkit is composed of a set of library functions, a database schema, and a Web portal that will collect and filter available job monitoring information from various resources and present it to users in a user-centric view rather than and administrative-centric point of view. The goal is to create a set of tools that can be used to augment grid job scheduling systems, meta-schedulers, applications, and script sets in order to provide the UCM information. The system provides various levels of an application programming interface that is useful through out the Grid environment and at the application level for logging messages, which are combined with the other user-centric monitoring information in a abstracted “data store”. A planned monitoring portal will also dynamically present the information to users in their web browser in a secure manor, which is also easily integrated into any JSR-compliant portal deployment that a VO might employ. The UCM is meant to be flexible and modular in the ways that it can be adopted to give the VO many choices to build a solution that works for them with special attention to the smaller VOs that do not have the resources to implement home-grown solutions.
Camilleri, Mark Anthony; Evans, Chris
This chapter deliberates on “big data” and provides a short overview of business intelligence and emerging analytics. It underlines the importance of data for customer-centricity in marketing. This contribution contends that businesses ought to engage in marketing automation tools and apply them to create relevant, targeted customer experiences. Today’s business increasingly rely on digital media and mobile technologies as on-demand, real-time marketing has become more personalised than ever....
Brett van Niekerk
Full Text Available Information warfare (IW is a dynamic and developing concept, which constitutes a number of disciplines. This paper aims to develop a life cycle model for information warfare that is applicable to all of the constituent disciplines. The model aims to be scalable and applicable to civilian and military incidents where information warfare tactics are employed. Existing information warfare models are discussed, and a new model is developed from the common aspects of these existing models. The proposed model is then applied to a variety of incidents to test its applicability and scalability. The proposed model is shown to be applicable to multiple disciplines of information warfare and is scalable, thus meeting the objectives of the model.
Client-centricity deals with addressing the needs of clients as they change. It requires contact-personnel who are empowered to not only identify client needs, but address them speedily. This study investigated the perceptions of client-centricity for 559 contact-personnel at three major South African retail banks in central South Africa. The results indicate that in general the contact personnel regard their respective banks as enforcing a client-centric strategy. They do however feel that t...
Karpova Anna Yu.
Full Text Available We attempt to examine the technology of «information warfare» in this paper. The dominant theme of the paper is that the outcome of the information warfare is important not only for the future of a state itself but for the future of the world balance of forces. The main task of geopolitical actors in information warfare is to introduce ideas corresponding to their interests into mass consciousness. All participants of political conflicts have common features in technologies of Information warfare. The information anomie is the indicator of the great geopolitical actors’ personified interests on the stage of «information warfare» - the process resulted in destroying the communicative line: report-information understanding and disrupting the social order in society. In this paper authors describe the following Information Warfare technologies: "Political volcano" technology; "SPIN" technology; "Widening media resource" technology; "specific gravity" technology; "Cold War 2.0" technology and Information cleaningup technology. It is assumed that in the future there will be new instructions on applying technologies of information warfare. To impart perspective to the paper we consider examples, opinions and trends.
cyber warfare, cyber terrorism, DDoS attacks, department of defense, hackers, hacktivists, hybrid warfare, information warfare, insurgency...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xv LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS CBI China, Burma, and India (theater in WWII) CIA Central Intelligence Agency DDoS ...as a distributed denial of service ( DDoS ) attack. By pushing too much data to a computer, site, or server, these types of attacks effectively
Human-Centric Sensing (HCS) is a new concept relevant to Internet of Things (IoT). HCS connectivity, referred to as “smart connectivity” enables applications that are highly personalized and often time-critical. In a typical HCS scenario, there may be many hundreds of sensor streams connections......; centered around the human, who would be the determining factor for the number, the purpose, the direction and the frequency of the sensor streams. This introduces new requirements to network services in terms of delay, packet loss, computing, cloud, encoding....
Aghajan, Hamid; Delgado, Ramon Lopez-Cozar
To create truly effective human-centric ambient intelligence systems both engineering and computing methods are needed. This is the first book to bridge data processing and intelligent reasoning methods for the creation of human-centered ambient intelligence systems. Interdisciplinary in nature, the book covers topics such as multi-modal interfaces, human-computer interaction, smart environments and pervasive computing, addressing principles, paradigms, methods and applications. This book will be an ideal reference for university researchers, R&D engineers, computer engineers, and graduate s
Full Text Available Network approaches in Current Research Information Systems support the shift from a document-centric to a data-centric view, which acknowledges the primacy of data in the scientific process. E-science holds the promise of a complete, data-centred documentation of the scientific process.
Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren H.; Ôzden, Sinasi ̈
Ear-to-ear (E2E) on-body propagation and on-body antennas for body-centric wireless communications are presented.......Ear-to-ear (E2E) on-body propagation and on-body antennas for body-centric wireless communications are presented....
Reuver, M. de; Steen, M.
In this chapter, we discuss the design of a service concept and its underlying business model for a context-aware, we-centric service for Dutch police officers. We-centric services are meant to support people in their communication and collaboration in dynamic groups that may change or emerge over
Zonnenberg, A.J.J.; Mulder, J.
Reproducibility of the centric relation position for patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is not documented in the current literature. It was the objective of this study to assess clinical variability of the centric relation position for TMD patients with a muscle-determined technique by
Čimić, Samir; Badel, Tomislav; Šimunković, Sonja Kraljević; Pavičin, Ivana Savić; Ćatić, Amir
The purpose of this study was to test the possible differences in centric slide values between different Angle's classes of occlusion. The study included 98 participants divided into four groups: Angle's class I, Angle's class II, subdivision 1, Angle's class II, subdivision 2 and Angle's class III. All recordings were obtained using an ultrasound jaw tracking device with six degrees of freedom. The distance between the maximum intercuspation (reference position) and the centric occlusion was recorded at the condylar level. Anteroposterior, superoinferior and transversal distance of the centric slide were calculated for each participant, and the data were statistically analyzed (analysis of variance and Newman-Keuls post hoc test). No statistically significant difference was found in the anteroposterior and transversal distance of the centric slide between tested groups, while Angle's class II, subdivision 2 showed smaller vertical amount of the centric slide compared to Angle's class I and class II, subdivision 1. None of the 98 participants showed coincidence of centric occlusion and maximum intercuspation. Our results suggest that coincidence of the maximum intercuspation with the centric occlusion should not be expected. Smaller extent of the vertical distance of the centric slide could be morphological and a functional expression characteristic of the Angle's class II, subdivision 2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this paper the authors provide context to Topic Modelling as an Information Warfare technique. Topic modelling is a technique that discovers latent topics in unstructured and unlabelled collection of documents. The topic structure can be searched...
Vestenskov, David; Drewes, Line
The conference report Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace constitutes the primary outcome of the conference It is based on excerpts from the conference presenters and workshop discussions. Furthermore, the report contains policy recommendations and key findings, with the ambition of develo......The conference report Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace constitutes the primary outcome of the conference It is based on excerpts from the conference presenters and workshop discussions. Furthermore, the report contains policy recommendations and key findings, with the ambition...
Irregular Warfare, Unconventional Warfare, Hybrid, and 107 John Chambers , Countering Gray-Zone...111 Chambers , 5. Diplomatic, Information, Military, and Economic variables refers to the U.S. Army analytical framework. 112 Dickey et al. 113...media under German control reported, “ bloody terror, unleashed mobs, massacre and looting,” with reports of widespread murder of Sudeten Germans.193
Full Text Available Cyber warfare is a contentious topic, with no agreement on whether this is a real possibility or an unrealistic extension of the physical battlefield. This article will not debate the validity and legality of the concept of cyber warfare...
Saul K. Padover and Harold D. Lasswell , "Psychological Warfare," Headline Series, no. 86 (20 March 1951), pp. 14f.; Daugherty and Janowitz, Casebook...of the North African Theater of Operations, National Archives. 41. Padover and Lasswell , "Psychological Warfare," p. 16. 42. Military Intelligence
Jiow Hee Jhee
Full Text Available The rapid adoption of video gaming among children has placed tremendous strain on parents’ ability to manage their children’s consumption. While parents refer online to video games ratings (VGR information to support their mediation efforts, there are many difficulties associated with such practice. This paper explores the popular VGR sites, and highlights the inadequacies of VGRs to capture the parents’ concerns, such as time displacement, social interactions, financial spending and various video game effects, beyond the widespread panics over content issues, that is subjective, ever-changing and irrelevant. As such, this paper argues for a shift from content-centric to a parent-centric approach in VGRs, that captures the evolving nature of video gaming, and support parents, the main users of VGRs, in their management of their young video gaming children. This paper proposes a Video Games Repository for Parents to represent that shift.
Rasmussen, Anders; Zucca, Riccardo; Johansson, Fredrik; Jirenhed, Dan-Anders; Hesslow, Germund
A central tenet of Rescorla and Wagner's model of associative learning is that the reinforcement value of a paired trial diminishes as the associative strength between the presented stimuli increases. Despite its fundamental importance to behavioral sciences, the neural mechanisms underlying the model have not been fully explored. Here, we present findings that, taken together, can explain why a stronger association leads to a reduced reinforcement value, within the context of eyeblink conditioning. Specifically, we show that learned pause responses in Purkinje cells, which trigger adaptively timed conditioned eyeblinks, suppress the unconditional stimulus (US) signal in a graded manner. Furthermore, by examining how Purkinje cells respond to two distinct conditional stimuli and to a compound stimulus, we provide evidence that could potentially help explain the somewhat counterintuitive overexpectation phenomenon, which was derived from the Rescorla-Wagner model.
Full Text Available Information warfare has surfaced as an emerging concept that affects not only military institutions but ordinary organisations as well. Information warfare in itself consists of various components ranging from its electronic and psychological...
... century features novel aspects. Several concepts have been coined in order to describe the nature and dynamic of warfare in a post-clausewitzian/post-conventional era, such as new wars, Fourth Generation Warfare, compound wars...
Frattasi, S.; Fathi, Hanane; Fitzek, Frank H. P.
boundary of the wireless mobile communication without any limit in its potential, but practically not giving any designing rules and thus any definition of it. In this paper we hence propose a new framework the user centric system that, through a satellite hierarchical vision, presents the key features......The exponential growth of user demands and the limitations of Third Generation of Mobile Communication Systems (3G) have brought researchers to start reflecting on the Fourth Generation (4G). Many prophetic visions have appeared in literature presenting the future generation as the ultimate...... of 4G and points out the various level of interdependency among them. This leads to the identification of the designing rules and therefore to a more pragmatic definition of 4G....
Giannetsos, Thanassis; Dimitriou, Tassos; Prasad, Neeli R.
As the domains of pervasive computing and sensor networking are expanding, there is an ongoing trend towards assistive living and healthcare support environments that can effectively assimilate these technologies according to human needs. Most of the existing research in assistive healthcare...... follows a more passive approach and has focused on collecting and processing data using a static-topology and an application-aware infrastructure. However, with the technological advances in sensing, computation, storage, and communications, a new era is about to emerge changing the traditional view...... sensing devices enabling thousands new personal, social, and public sensing applications. In this paper, we discuss our vision for people-centric sensing in assistive healthcare environments and study the security challenges it brings. This highly dynamic and mobile setting presents new challenges...
Jin, Qun; Yeo, Martin; Hu, Bin; Human Centric Technology and Service in Smart Space, HumanCom 2012
The theme of HumanCom is focused on the various aspects of human-centric computing for advances in computer science and its applications and provides an opportunity for academic and industry professionals to discuss the latest issues and progress in the area of human-centric computing. In addition, the conference will publish high quality papers which are closely related to the various theories and practical applications in human-centric computing. Furthermore, we expect that the conference and its publications will be a trigger for further related research and technology improvements in this important subject.
the areas of Lawfare , Economic Warfare, and Cyber-Warfare. Although the U.S. has made improvements to identify and respond to some key URW... lawfare ) to undermine the spirit and ideological commitment of an adversary before and during a conflict, weaken international support for the...paragraphs, I will discuss potential examples of Chinese URW practices in the areas of Lawfare , Economic Warfare, and Network Warfare and let the
chemical Warfare Intelligence Warfare Resources Warfare Ecological Warfare Psycological Warfare Economic Aid Warfare Space Warfare Smuggling Warfare...state adjust to the prospect of URW? As seen before, state actors no longer have a monopoly over the catastrophic use of violence . The...civilianization of warfare is a natural consequence of URW, and the democratization of violence allows virtually everyone to 21 AU/ACSC/1172/AY09 join the
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate and differentiate between the phenomena of cyberwarfare and information warfare, as manifestations of what we perceive as postmodern warfare. We describe and analyse the current examples of the use the postmodern warfare and the reactions of states and international bodies to these phenomena. The subject matter of this paper is the relationship between new types of postmodern conflicts and the law of armed conflicts (law of war. Based on ICJ case law, it is clear that under current legal rules of international law of war, cyber attacks as well as information attacks (often performed in the cyberspace as well can only be perceived as “war” if executed in addition to classical kinetic warfare, which is often not the case. In most cases perceived “only” as a non-linear warfare (postmodern conflict, this practice nevertheless must be condemned as conduct contrary to the principles of international law and (possibly a crime under national laws, unless this type of conduct will be recognized by the international community as a “war” proper, in its new, postmodern sense.
This doctoral dissertation describes a series of empirical investigations into representation, dissemination and coordination of software architecture design in the context of global software development. A particular focus is placed on model-centric and model-driven software development.
opportunity to participate in the development of a gene-centric model to help predict potential changes in the biogeochemistry of aquatic ecosystems that may arise from anthropogenic stressors and management decisions
Neogi, Natasha A. (Inventor); Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Verstynen, Harry A.
This paper discusses results from a recent study that investigates certification requirements for an unmanned rotorcraft performing agricultural application operations. The process of determining appropriate requirements using a risk-centric approach revealed a number of challenges that could impact larger UAS standardization efforts. Fundamental challenges include selecting the correct level of abstraction for requirements to permit design flexibility, transforming human-centric operational requirements to aircraft airworthiness requirements, and assessing all hazards associated with the operation.
The case study specifically seeks to answer the following problem statement: Does ISIL qualify as an actor using hybrid warfare and if so what characterizes their particular use of this type of warfare? Based on an analysis of ISIL’s warfare from August 2012 to August 2016 the chapter argues......, that it is possible to answer the first part of the problem statement in an affirmative way. Hence, ISIL is not only theoretically prone to hybridity by organizational setup, and by the people comprising the organization, but has in fact continuously acted according to a hybrid logic in its prioritization...... of and ability to synchronize various instruments of power with a view to achieving their end-state. With regards to the second part of the problem statement, the analysis demonstrates how ISIL employed horizontal escalation and ambiguity initially, but later on turned to vertical escalation, within the military...
Full Text Available Urban warfare has become one of the main forms of modern combat in the twenty-first century. The main reason why urban warfare results in hundreds of casualties is that the situational information of the combatant is insufficient. Accessing information via an Augmented Reality system can elevate combatants’ situational awareness to effectively improve the efficiency of decision-making and reduce the injuries. This paper begins with the concept of Urban Warfare Augmented Reality (UWAR and illuminates the objectives of developing UWAR, i.e., transparent battlefield, intuitional perception and natural interaction. Real-time outdoor registration, information presentation and natural interaction are presented as key technologies of a practical UWAR system. Then, the history and current research state of these technologies are summarized and their future developments are highlighted from three perspectives, i.e., (1 Better integration with Geographic Information System and Virtual Geographic Environment; (2 More intelligent software; (3 More powerful hardware.
Hidaka, Osamu; Adachi, Satoshi; Takada, Kenji
This study investigates the differences in condylar position between centric relation (CR) and centric occlusion (CO) in Japanese orthodontic patients before treatment. We employed 150 consecutive cases (age range: 6-57 years) for the study. Dental casts were mounted on a Panadent articulator with a power centric CR bite record. The differences in condylar position between CR and CO in all three spatial planes were measured using the Panadent Condyle Position Indicator (CPI). The subjects were divided into groups by age, gender, mandibular plane angle or angle classification. No significant differences in the magnitude of CPI measurements were found among the groups. The three-dimensional distances of condylar displacement on both sides were almost identical, and the superoinferior displacement (S-I) was greater (P < .0001) than the anteroposterior displacement (A-P). The S-I was greater (P = .02) on the left side than on the right side, while the A-P displacement was smaller (P < .0001) on the left side than that on the right side. Significant condylar displacement (2.0 mm for S-I and A-P, 0.5 mm for the lateral displacement, L) was found frequently in L (31.3%), S-I, and A-P, in that order. Fifty-eight (38.7%) of the subjects had significant displacement in L, S-I, or A-P. Moreover, Angle Class III subjects tended to have significant condylar displacement toward the left side. The results suggest that orthodontists should be aware of a high incidence of condylar displacement in Japanese orthodontic patients and measure condylar displacement before the start of comprehensive orthodontic treatment to unmask real jaw relationships and avoid possible misdiagnoses.
Chukwuka Ogbu Nwachukwu
Full Text Available This paper offers a meta-critical statement on the critical inputs of some major Nigerian male critics to the tenets and posture of feminism in a body of representative feminist creative works in Nigeria. Evincing an aggregation of these male voices the quantum of which urges feminist cautionary approach to their critical expostulations both in the creative enterprise and critical temper, the paper argues that feminism in Nigeria, of whatever shade or colouration, has become too partial, too single-voiced and therefore, too dangerous for continued male and female sanctity and the prevailing complacency in the creative,critical and even political drives of the Nigerian society.The paper in consequence challenges budding and practicing creative writers, critics and stake-holders especially in tertiary institutions in Nigeria to work to reverse or at least curtail and stall the trend as it is poised to pose intractable danger for, not only the country ,but the world at large, in terms of cohesion and the paterfamilias in the not-too-distant future. Keywords: Matriarchy, Feminism, Deconstruction, Logocentricism
Jansen, H J; Breeveld, F J; Stijnis, C; Grobusch, M P
Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria or other agents used to cause illness or death in people, but also in animals or plants. It is aimed at creating casualties, terror, societal disruption, or economic loss, inspired by ideological, religious or political beliefs. The success of bioterroristic attempts is defined by the measure of societal disruption and panic, and not necessarily by the sheer number of casualties. Thus, making only a few individuals ill by the use of crude methods may be sufficient, as long as it creates the impact that is aimed for. The assessment of bioterrorism threats and motives have been described before. Biocrime implies the use of a biological agent to kill or make ill a single individual or small group of individuals, motivated by revenge or the desire for monetary gain by extortion, rather than by political, ideological, religious or other beliefs. The likelihood of a successful bioterrorist attack is not very large, given the technical difficulties and constraints. However, even if the number of casualties is likely to be limited, the impact of a bioterrorist attack can still be high. Measures aimed at enhancing diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and capacities alongside training and education will improve the ability of society to combat 'regular' infectious diseases outbreaks, as well as mitigating the effects of bioterrorist attacks. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
Kulpa, Krzysztof; Szczepankiewicz, Michał; Żywek, Marcin; Malanowski, Mateusz; Misiurewicz, Jacek; Samczyński, Piotr
Electronic warfare (EW) techniques were invented 70 years ago and are still being developed, all the time with a key role played by their operators. However, a human operator responds far too slowly for the on-going needs since to be adequate to current threats the EW system reaction should be within 1 ms or less. Too slow reaction defers an achievement of the objectives, and generally may lead to disclosure of the applied strategy and to waste of resources. Developing the adequate response to the threat is a multifaceted matter that requires considerable experience and knowledge on the one hand, and thorough observation of outcomes of the applied strategy on the other hand. Such action requires the use of not only intelligence but also more complex algorithms for automatic control than the classical ones, and it heavily builds on the experience. It is therefore a cognitive task in its nature, and a human operator acts naturally this way. Consequently, a proper training and experience gained are what really matters. As a result of tests and actions in EW the operator builds his own knowledge base, thus, gains a capability of responding to the known threats in a balanced way. New threats, however, are much more challenging since they should be handled as fast as possible but in a fresh and creative manner. To this end, adapting the algorithms of radar jamming protection for the new conditions of the battlefield is an example of such challenging tasks. At present, such adjustments are done in a long feedback loop when the operator, after recognizing the problem, notifies the equipment manufacturers, and then, their engineers work on required solutions accordingly. Thus, the reaction time is counted in years, not a single milliseconds or seconds. Speeding up the response time is therefore the key issue, and a solution to it would be feasible only when cognitive systems were used. A concept of such cognitive system is presented in this paper.
Hardegree, Stuart P.; Abatzoglou, John T.; Brunson, Mark W.; Germino, Matthew; Hegewisch, Katherine C.; Moffet, Corey A.; Pilliod, David S.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Boehm, Alex R.; Meredith, Gwendwr R.
Invasive annual weeds negatively impact ecosystem services and pose a major conservation threat on semiarid rangelands throughout the western United States. Rehabilitation of these rangelands is challenging due to interannual climate and subseasonal weather variability that impacts seed germination, seedling survival and establishment, annual weed dynamics, wildfire frequency, and soil stability. Rehabilitation and restoration outcomes could be improved by adopting a weather-centric approach that uses the full spectrum of available site-specific weather information from historical observations, seasonal climate forecasts, and climate-change projections. Climate data can be used retrospectively to interpret success or failure of past seedings by describing seasonal and longer-term patterns of environmental variability subsequent to planting. A more detailed evaluation of weather impacts on site conditions may yield more flexible adaptive-management strategies for rangeland restoration and rehabilitation, as well as provide estimates of transition probabilities between desirable and undesirable vegetation states. Skillful seasonal climate forecasts could greatly improve the cost efficiency of management treatments by limiting revegetation activities to time periods where forecasts suggest higher probabilities of successful seedling establishment. Climate-change projections are key to the application of current environmental models for development of mitigation and adaptation strategies and for management practices that require a multidecadal planning horizon. Adoption of new weather technology will require collaboration between land managers and revegetation specialists and modifications to the way we currently plan and conduct rangeland rehabilitation and restoration in the Intermountain West.
Kraus, Dennis H
Patients with head and neck cancer face a number of challenges in terms of treatment, cure of their underlying malignant condition, and quality of survivorship. This presentation will focus on the patient perception of both the quality of care and the empathy and availability of the head and neck oncology team. It has become evident that the quality of survivorship plays a central role in the patient's decision-making process. The process of decision making by the patient facing head and neck cancer and the impact on treatment choices will be explored. The ability of the patient and her or his support system to navigate through the increasingly complicated health care system will be considered, with an emphasis on strategies for success. Finally, the role of the of the head and neck surgeon, and the need for physician wellness in predicating successful patient outcomes will be considered. The ultimate goal of achieving optimal care, superior patient outcomes, and patient satisfaction is the true objective of the concept of living in a patient-centric universe.
network defense management system are sometimes used to describe systems that are used for the remote management of firewalls, intrusion detection...different. Certainly, the remote management of firewalls and intrusion detection systems, etc. should be part of a cyber warfare command and control
WORLD ARMA - MENTS AND DISARMAMENT. SIPRI Yearbook 1990. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. (REF JX1974 S775 1990) Pp. 107-133: "Chemical and...Report. Norton D. Zinder, Chairman. Washington: National Academy Press, 1984. (UG447 N33 1984) LEGACY OF CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICA !L WARFARE Some 20th
Gieling, Joost; Ong, Chin Ee
This paper examines through an analysis of Dutch warfare tourism whether there is a relationship between the subjective perceived salience of Dutch identity and heritage tourists’ motives, emotions and overall satisfaction. Using a social identity theory framework, this study provides a view of
Zhong, Qun; Chen, Shuang; Wu, Xue-yin; Li, Guo-qiang
To compare and analyze the effect of unanatomic and long centric complete occlusal denture on the satisfaction of edentulous patients and mastication. Sixty edentulous patients with severe resorption of residual ridge were treated with unanatomic occlusal and long centric occlusal complete dentures. One month and three months after wearing dentures, the satisfaction evaluation from edentulous patients for the different complete dentures was analyzed, and the masticatory stroke was tested, the masticatory efficiency of the two complete dentures was detected by light absorption method. SPSS 11.0 software package was used for data analysis. Compared with unanatomic occlusal dentures, appearance, pronunciation and comfort of long centric occlusal denture wearers were not significantly different for one and three months (P>0.05). But the masticatory function of long centric occlusal denture wearers was significantly better than anatomic occlusal denture wearers (Pocclusion is feasible for restoration of masticatory efficiency of edentulous patients using long centric occlusal complete dentures, and they are more acceptable by edentulous patients with severe resorption of residual ridge.
Chao, Han-Chieh; Deng, Der-Jiunn; Park, James; HumanCom and EMC 2013
The theme of HumanCom and EMC are focused on the various aspects of human-centric computing for advances in computer science and its applications, embedded and multimedia computing and provides an opportunity for academic and industry professionals to discuss the latest issues and progress in the area of human-centric computing. And the theme of EMC (Advanced in Embedded and Multimedia Computing) is focused on the various aspects of embedded system, smart grid, cloud and multimedia computing, and it provides an opportunity for academic, industry professionals to discuss the latest issues and progress in the area of embedded and multimedia computing. Therefore this book will be include the various theories and practical applications in human-centric computing and embedded and multimedia computing.
brigadier general and publish several more noted works on Mao and revolutionary warfare. See Samuel B. Giffith, Mao Tse-Tung on Guerrilla Warfare (New...and propagators of the faith. The bibles (in English translation) are Mao Tse-tung on Guerrilla Warfare by Brigadier General Samuel B. Griffith...Barnett, B. Hugh Tovar , and Richard H. Schultz eds., Special Operations in US Strategy (Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office, 1984), 2. 58
warfare agents, which include a variety of organophosphorus and organosulfur compounds, are known in the art. 15 However, these known methods use...chemical warfare agents, and works particularly well for neutralization of organosulfur agents such as mustard gas (HD), and organophosphorus agents such...detoxifying/neutralizing a variety of chemical warfare agents, including organosulfur agents such as mustard gas (HD), and organophosphorus agents such as
In this chapter architecture-centric development is proposed as a means to strengthen the cohesion of distributed teams and to tackle challenges due to geographical and temporal distances and the clash of different cultures. A shared software architecture serves as blueprint for all activities in the development process and ties them together. Architecture-centric development thus provides a plan for task allocation, facilitates the cooperation of globally distributed developers, and enables continuous integration reaching across distributed teams. Advice is also provided for software architects who work with distributed teams in an agile manner.
and Manuel Castells , The Rise of the Network Society, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Blackwell, 2000). For popular treatments, see Thomas L. Friedman, The Lexus and...American Military Styles in Strategy and Analysis. Bal- timore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989. Castells , Manuel . The Rise of the Network Soci- ety
information and technology to respond to discontinuous change at the 17 strategic, tactical, and operational levels (Alberts et al, 1999; Haeckel ...Education, (2003). Haeckel , Stephan H. Adaptive Enterprise: Creating and Leading Sense-and-Respond Organizations, Boston: Harvard Business School
An illustration of the formalized four-step process for Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) [From Ref. Aamodt , 1994...the formalized four-step process for Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) [From Ref. Aamodt 1994]. 13 A CBR system consists of a database of past cases...Created with Protege (with OWL Plug-in 2.2, Build 304) http://protege.stanford.edu --> 255 LIST OF REFERENCES Aamodt , A
realizations of success. For example, Alberts , Garstka, & Stein (1999) identify three domains of research necessary for NCW to become plausibly effective...internal cognitive and affective states, as well as behavioral task processes ( Bandura , 1986). Without an understanding of the present
of interest and influence in which activities, functions, and operations are undertaken to accomplish missions and exercise control over an...Officer, Civil Affairs, and Psychological Operations personnel and systems traditionally used in gaining cultural understanding and exercising ...innovation required for future wars. The large requirement for civilian scientists, engineers, and physicists in space also requires investment in
Abstract. Book Title: Composite warfare: the conduct of successful ground force operations in Africa. Book Author: Eeben Barlow. Pinetown: 30 Degrees South Publishers. 2015, 576 pages. ISBN 9781928211761.
This groundbreaking book covers every aspect of deadly toxic chemicals used as weapons of mass destruction and employed in conflicts, warfare and terrorism. Including findings from experimental as well as clinical studies, this one-of-a-kind handbook is prepared in a very user- friendly format that can easily be followed by students, teachers and researchers, as well as lay people. Stand-alone chapters on individual chemicals and major topics allow the reader to easily access required information without searching through the entire book. This is the first book that offers in-depth coverage of individual toxicants, target organ toxicity, major incidents, toxic effects in humans, animals and wildlife, biosensors, biomarkers, on-site and laboratory analytical methods, decontamination and detoxification procedures, prophylactic, therapeutic and countermeasures, and the role of homeland security. Presents a comprehensive look at all aspects of chemical warfare toxicology in one reference work. This saves research...
Letendre, Kenneth (University of New Mexico); Abbott, Robert G.
This document reports on the research of Kenneth Letendre, the recipient of a Sandia Graduate Research Fellowship at the University of New Mexico. Warfare is an extreme form of intergroup competition in which individuals make extreme sacrifices for the benefit of their nation or other group to which they belong. Among animals, limited, non-lethal competition is the norm. It is not fully understood what factors lead to warfare. We studied the global variation in the frequency of civil conflict among countries of the world, and its positive association with variation in the intensity of infectious disease. We demonstrated that the burden of human infectious disease importantly predicts the frequency of civil conflict and tested a causal model for this association based on the parasite-stress theory of sociality. We also investigated the organization of social foraging by colonies of harvester ants in the genus Pogonomyrmex, using both field studies and computer models.
This paper articulates drone warfare through a critical analysis of an actual drone operation and a study into its developing technologies. The first chapter moves through a discussion of the intervening role of the camera as described by Walter Benjamin and societal perspective of visual reproduction technology. This discussion then departs from the mechanical to the digital realm of realtime video, utilizing theory of Paul Virilio. The second chapter focuses on developing technologies withi...
Scientific Terms (TEST) and that thesaurus identified. If it is not possible to select indexing terms which are Unclassified, the classification of...the assumption, almost universally cited by much hybrid warfare literature, that intervention in failed and fragile state scenarios is an automatic ...CONTROL DATA (Security markings for the title, abstract and indexing annotation must be entered when the document is Classified or Designated) 1
Wöll, Steffen; Kim, Sun Hee; Greten, Henry Johannes; Efferth, Thomas
Abstract The long-lasting discussion, why plants produce secondary metabolites, which are pharmacologically and toxicologically active towards mammals traces back to the eminent role of medicinal plants in the millennia-old history of manhood. In recent years, the concept of an animal plant warfare emerged, which focused on the co-evolution between plants and herbivores. As a reaction to herbivory, plants developed mechanical defenses such as thorns and hard shells, which paved the way for ad...
states take to ethically end wars and transition to peace. Immanuel Kant is the first philosopher thought of as the founder of viewing warfare as...in Stahn, 2006, p. 935). Kant also expressed in his Toward Perpetual Peace, as translated and publish by Yale University Press, that states involved...in armed conflict should not conduct acts that will prohibit them from being able to reach peace ( Kant , 2006). As an example, Kant (2006) believed
Velky, ―Special Forces Assessment and Selection,‖ Special Warfare 3, no. 1 (1990): 12–15; Alan Vick, Snakes in the Eagles nest: A History of Ground...skills at BUD/S. They also learn SEAL heritage, history, military bearing, ethics, the SEAL Ethos, mental toughness, nutrition , stretching and... nutrition , and the nature of a SEAL career. The website even provides a forum on which young men can discuss their preparations with each other and
Symposium Paper In the event of a terrorist attack with chemical warfare agents (CWAs), large quantities of materials, both indoor and outdoor, may be treated with thermal incineration during the site remediation process. This paper reports on a study to examine the thermal decomposition of surrogate CWAs and formation of decomposition by-products bound in model building materials (in this case, ceiling tile) in a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator simulator.
In this article I describe software that facilitates "question-centric curricula" in which "big questions," rather than academic disciplines, are the primary means of organizing educational resources. To find these questions, the software scans course catalogs and extracts all sentences ending in a question mark. To find connections between…
Full Text Available Due to the rapid growth of mobile data traffic, more and more basestations and access points (APs have been densely deployed to provide users with ubiquitous network access, which make current wireless network a complex heterogeneous network (HetNet. However, traditional wireless networks are designed with network-centric approaches where different networks have different quality of service (QoS strategies and cannot easily cooperate with each other to serve network users. Massive network infrastructures could not assure users perceived network and service quality, which is an indisputable fact. To address this issue, we design a new framework for heterogeneous wireless networks with the principle of user-centricity, refactoring the network from users’ perspective to suffice their requirements and preferences. Different from network-centric approaches, the proposed framework takes advantage of Software Defined Networking (SDN and virtualization technology, which will bring better perceived services quality for wireless network users. In the proposed user-centric framework, control plane and data plane are decoupled to manage the HetNets in a flexible and coadjutant way, and resource virtualization technology is introduced to abstract physical resources of HetNets into unified virtualized resources. Hence, ubiquitous and undifferentiated network connectivity and QoE (quality of experience driven fine-grained resource management could be achieved for wireless network users.
Schögel, Marcus; Herhausen, Dennis
Wer sein Unternehmen kundenzentrierter gestalten möchte, muss das gesamte Unternehmen auf die Kunden ausrichten . Eine klare kundenzentrierte Strategie ist ein erster Schritt in die richtige Richtung - aber noch nicht mehr. Der Weg zur Customer Centricity erfordert eine systematische, ganzheitliche Herangehensweise bei der Umsetzung. Zur erfolgreichen Realisierung muss eine kundenorientierte Denkweise von allen Managern und Mitarbeitenden gleichermassen verinnerlicht werden.
Keat, Ng Wai; Shahrir, Mohammad Shazri
In computer science research, ontologies are commonly utilised to create a unified abstract across many rich and different fields. In this paper, we apply the concept to the customer centric domain of digital services analytics and present an analytics solution ontology. The essence is based from traditional Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD), which then was abstracted out to cover wider areas on customer centric digital services. The ontology we developed covers both static aspects (customer identifiers) and dynamic aspects (customer's temporal interactions). The structure of the customer scape is modeled with classes that represent different types of customer touch points, ranging from digital and digital-stamps which represent physical analogies. The dynamic aspects of customer centric digital service are modeled with a set of classes, with the importance is represented in different associations involving establishment and termination of the target interaction. The realized ontology can be used in development of frameworks for customer centric applications, and for specification of common data format used by cooperating digital service applications.
Cotton, Simon L.; D'Errico, Raffaele; Oestges, Claude
The human body is an extremely challenging environment for the operation of wireless communications systems, not least because of the complex antenna-body electromagnetic interaction effects which can occur. This is further compounded by the impact of movement and the propagation characteristics of the local environment which all have an effect upon body centric communications channels. As the successful design of body area networks (BANs) and other types of body centric system is inextricably linked to a thorough understanding of these factors, the aim of this paper is to conduct a survey of the current state of the art in relation to propagation and channel models primarily for BANs but also considering other types of body centric communications. We initially discuss some of the standardization efforts performed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 802.15.6 task group before focusing on the two most popular types of technologies currently being considered for BANs, namely narrowband and Ultrawideband (UWB) communications. For narrowband communications the applicability of a generic path loss model is contended, before presenting some of the scenario specific models which have proven successful. The impacts of human body shadowing and small-scale fading are also presented alongside some of the most recent research into the Doppler and time dependencies of BANs. For UWB BAN communications, we again consider the path loss as well as empirical tap delay line models developed from a number of extensive channel measurement campaigns conducted by research institutions around the world. Ongoing efforts within collaborative projects such as Committee on Science and Technology Action IC1004 are also described. Finally, recent years have also seen significant developments in other areas of body centric communications such as off-body and body-to-body communications. We highlight some of the newest relevant research in these areas as well as discussing
Cotton, Simon L; D'Errico, Raffaele; Oestges, Claude
The human body is an extremely challenging environment for the operation of wireless communications systems, not least because of the complex antenna-body electromagnetic interaction effects which can occur. This is further compounded by the impact of movement and the propagation characteristics of the local environment which all have an effect upon body centric communications channels. As the successful design of body area networks (BANs) and other types of body centric system is inextricably linked to a thorough understanding of these factors, the aim of this paper is to conduct a survey of the current state of the art in relation to propagation and channel models primarily for BANs but also considering other types of body centric communications. We initially discuss some of the standardization efforts performed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 802.15.6 task group before focusing on the two most popular types of technologies currently being considered for BANs, namely narrowband and Ultrawideband (UWB) communications. For narrowband communications the applicability of a generic path loss model is contended, before presenting some of the scenario specific models which have proven successful. The impacts of human body shadowing and small-scale fading are also presented alongside some of the most recent research into the Doppler and time dependencies of BANs. For UWB BAN communications, we again consider the path loss as well as empirical tap delay line models developed from a number of extensive channel measurement campaigns conducted by research institutions around the world. Ongoing efforts within collaborative projects such as Committee on Science and Technology Action IC1004 are also described. Finally, recent years have also seen significant developments in other areas of body centric communications such as off-body and body-to-body communications. We highlight some of the newest relevant research in these areas as well as discussing
information warfare concepts as a barometer of how the PLA approached the concept, by 2007 the threads of integrated network electronic warfare... water filtration systems” against the chaos that could result from successful cyber attacks.75 PLA Lieutenant General Liu Jixian, of the PLA’s
leadership .60 Why Adversaries Will Use Hybrid Warfare Desert Storm, operations in former Yugoslavia, as well as Afghanistan and Iraq, demonstrated...February 26, 2013). 128 Manwaring, The Complexity of Modern Asymmetric Warfare, 130-131 129 Ben Sherwood , President of ABC News, discussion with author
emphasized dismal living conditions and blamed the Soviet Union for shortages of fuel, vegetables , and dairy. They also reported on widespread arrests and...a more traditional form of warfare. Special operations leaders agree that SOF’s proficiency in special warfare in “low-visibility, small- footprint
Bloemen, A.A.F.; Witberg, R.
AAW is a warfare area with wide-spread spectrum. Command and Control Systems, sensors, effectors and electronic warfare are integrated to a system, they influence each other and must eventually be effective in coordinated action. This complexity asks for Operations Research methods to measure
This article illustrates the relevance of information warfare models to critical infrastructure protection. Analogies of information warfare models to those of information security and information systems were used to deconstruct the models into their fundamental components and this will be discussed. The models were applied ...
Mehmet Seyfettin EROL
Full Text Available Although Hybrid Warfare is an old concept, theoretical studies in the western countries mainly began in the post-Col War era, focusing on asymmetrical threats against conventional superiority of western countries such as USA or Israel. September 11th attacks and 2006 Israel-Lebanon war played important roles for the evolution of hybrid warfare theories. However, there has not any consensus among scholars on a exact or unique definition of hybrid warfare. Hybrid warfare became one of the main security issues for the West and especially for NATO after the Russia-Ukraine crisis. Russian military strategies, called “hybrid warfare” by the western countries, resulted in the successful annexation of Crimea and, caused a serious security problem for the West resulting important structural and functional changes for the military system of NATO. Russian activities, which have been based on surprise, ambiguity and deniability, presented a unique example for hybrid warfare studies.
Li, Si-yu; Xu, Jun
To evaluate whether the mesial displacement of the mandibular complete dentures with long-centric occlusal pattern could meet the long centric of edentulous patients and to verify the design theory of the long-centric occlusal pattern of complete dentures. Complete dentures with three different occlusal patterns were made for each of 10 edentulous patients. Gothic arch tracing apparatus was used to record the long centric of edentulous patients. Three-dimensional measuring apparatus was used to measure the mesial displacement of mandibular dentures with three occlusal patterns. Comparison of the mesial displacement of three occlusal pattern dentures was made each other and with the long centric of the patients respectively. The mean of long centric was (1.02 +/- 0.36) mm. The means of mesial displacement of mandibular complete dentures were as follows: the long-centric occlusal pattern dentures (1.016 +/- 0.348) mm, the linear occlusal dentures (1.092 +/- 0.448) mm, the anatomic occlusal dentures (0.409 +/- 0.253) mm. The mandibular complete dentures with long-centric occlusal pattern can meet the physiological requirement for the long centric of edentulous patients and achieve a free slide from the centric relation position to the muscular contact position of the mandible.
Full Text Available This paper deals with a high power microwave generator with virtual cathode – vircator in axial release for electronic warfare applications. The classification of directed energy weapons microwave (DEWM is introduced together with basic block diagrams of a particular class of DEWM. In the paper, methods for designing vircator pulsed power supply, axial vircator structure, measurement methods and experimental results are presented. The vircator in electromagnetic ammunition is powered by magneto-cumulative generator and in weapons for defense of objects (WDO, it is powered by Marx generator. The possible applications of a vircator in the DEWM area are discussed.
Poisel, Richard A
Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o
This book by the author of Digital Techniques for Wideband Receivers willbe like no other one on your book shelf as the definitive word on electronicwarfare (EW) receiver design and performance. Whether you are an EWscientist involved in the test and evaluation of EW receivers or a designerof RWR's and other EW-related receivers, Microwave Receivers withElectronic Warfare Applications is a handy reference through which you canperfect your technical art. Lucidly written, this book is a treatise on EWreceivers that is relevant to you if you are just looking for a top-levelinsight into EW receive
Bogers, Marcel; Hadar, Ronen; Bilberg, Arne
Digital fabrication—including additive manufacturing (AM), rapid prototyping and 3D printing—has the potential to revolutionize the way in which products are produced and delivered to the customer. Therefore, it challenges companies to reinvent their business model—describing the logic of creating...... and capturing value. In this paper, we explore the implications that AM technologies have for manufacturing systems in the new business models that they enable. In particular, we consider how a consumer goods manufacturer can organize the operations of a more open business model when moving from a manufacturer......-centric to a consumer-centric value logic. A major shift includes a move from centralized to decentralized supply chains, where consumer goods manufacturers can implement a “hybrid” approach with a focus on localization and accessibility or develop a fully personalized model where the consumer effectively takes over...
Keshvad, A; Winstanley, R B
The literature directly and indirectly related to centric relation (CR) has been reviewed chronologically. More than 300 papers and quoted sections of books have been divided into three sections. The first two parts are related to CR. Studies in this group mainly compared, either the position of the mandibular condyle or the mandible itself in different CR recordings. Various tools were discussed for this purpose. The third part of the paper is about CR-centric occlusion (CO) discrepancy. CR still remains one of the controversial issues in prosthodontics and orthodontics. Debates such as mounting casts on the articulator by reproducible records for orthodontic treatment planning and end results, and whether or not orthodontic treatment based on CO causes TMJ dysfunction, remain unsolved. The references are listed at the end of Part III.
Ahmed, Syed Hassan; Kim, Dongkyun
This book introduces Content-Centric Networking (CCN), a networking paradigm that provides a simple and effective solution to the challenging demands of future wired and wireless communications. It provides an overview of the recent developments in the area of future internet technologies, bringing together the advancements that have been made in Information-Centric Networking (ICN) in general, with a focus on CCN. It begins with an introduction to the basics of CCN is followed by an overview of the current internet paradigm and its challenges. Next, an application perspective has been included, where the authors encompass the selected applications for CCN with recent refereed research and developments. These applications include Internet of Things (IoT), Smart Grid, Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs), and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The book is a useful reference source for practising researchers, and can be used as supporting material for undergraduate and graduate level courses in computer science and...
Full Text Available Content Centric Networking (CCN is an effective communication paradigm that well matches the features of wireless environments. To be considered a viable candidate in the emerging wireless networks, despite the clear benefits of location-independent security, CCN must at least have parity with existing solutions for confidential and anonymous communication. This paper designs a new cryptographic scheme, called Asymmetric Index Encapsulation (AIE, that enables the router to test whether an encapsulated header matches the token without learning anything else about both of them. We suggest using the AIE as the core protocol of anonymous Content Centric Networking. A construction of AIE which strikes a balance between efficiency and security is given. The scheme is proved to be secure based on the DBDH assumption in the random oracle with tight reduction, while the encapsulated header and the token in our system consist of only three elements.
Wildey, Timothy Michael; Cyr, Eric C; Shadid, John N; Pawlowski, Roger P; Smith, Thomas Michael
This document summarizes the results from a level 3 milestone study within the CASL VUQ effort. We compare the adjoint-based a posteriori error estimation approach with a recent variant of a data-centric verification technique. We provide a brief overview of each technique and then we discuss their relative advantages and disadvantages. We use Drekar::CFD to produce numerical results for steady-state Navier Stokes and SARANS approximations. 3
Automotive human-machine interfaces are increasingly relying on situation awareness and context processing in order to improve the safety and user experience. This work suggests a context-centric approach to designing a human-machine interface, which places the focus on the context modelling and context usage. In the first step, a unified human-machine interaction strategy is defined. In the second step, the resulting requirements are analyzed and the appropriate solutions are implemented. ...
With the proliferation of mobile computing devices there is an increasing demand for applications supporting collaboration among users working in the field and in the office. A key component for collaboration in this domain is sharing and manipulation of information using very different devices and communications. We propose a novel, data-centric collaboration paradigm, where each user can obtain a subset of the shared data and the data may be visualized differently for different users. The d...
Big amounts of test data generated by the current used software testing tools (QA-C/QA-C++ and Cantata) contain a variety of different values. The variances cause enormous challenges in data aggregation and interpretation that directly affect generation of test metrics. Due to the circumstance of data processing, this master thesis introduces a database-centric test management framework for test metrics aims at centrally handling the big data as well as facilitating the generation of test met...
Zuo, Wei; Aïcha-Nabila, Benharkat; Amghar, Youssef
International audience; —Web service is subject to frequent changes during its lifecycle. Web service evolution is a widely discussed topic. Many related problems have also been generated from Web service evolution such as Web service adaptation, Web service versioning and Web service change management. To treat with these issues efficiently, a complete evolution model for Web service should be built. In this paper, we introduce our change-centric model for Web service evolution and how we us...
Conklin, Ross, Jr.; Burbank, Jack; Nichols, Robert, Jr.
This paper presents a vision for a future capability-based military communications system that considers user requirements. Historically, the military has developed and fielded many specialized communications systems. While these systems solved immediate communications problems, they were not designed to operate with other systems. As information has become more important to the execution of war, the "stove-pipe" nature of the communications systems deployed by the military is no longer acceptable. Realizing this, the military has begun the transformation of communications to a network-centric communications paradigm. However, the specialized communications systems were developed in response to the widely varying environments related to military communications. These environments, and the necessity for effective communications within these environments, do not disappear under the network-centric paradigm. In fact, network-centric communications allows for one message to cross many of these environments by transiting multiple networks. The military would also like one communications approach that is capable of working well in multiple environments. This paper presents preliminary work on the creation of a framework that allows for a reconfigurable device that is capable of adapting to the physical and network environments. The framework returns to the Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) architecture with the addition of a standardized intra-layer control interface for control information exchange, a standardized data interface and a proposed device architecture based on the software radio.
Biswash, S. K.; Jayakody, D. N. K.
The Fifth Generation Communication (5G) networks have several functional features such as: Massive Multiple Input and Multiple Output (MIMO), Device centric data and voice support, Smarter-device communications, etc. The objective for 5G networks is to gain the 1000x more throughput, 10x spectral efficiency, 100 x more energy efficiency than existing technologies. The 5G system will provide the balance between the Quality of Experience (QoE) and the Quality of Service (QoS), without compromising the user benefit. The data rate has been the key metric for wireless QoS; QoE deals with the delay and throughput. In order to realize a balance between the QoS and QoE, we propose a cellular Device centric communication methodology for the overlapping network coverage area in the 5G communication system. The multiple beacon signals mobile tower refers to an overlapping network area, and a user must be forwarded to the next location area. To resolve this issue, we suggest the user centric methodology (without Base Station interface) to handover the device in the next area, until the users finalize the communication. The proposed method will reduce the signalling cost and overheads for the communication.
Baskinger, Patricia J.; Chruscicki, Mary Carol; Turck, Kurt
The objective of mission training exercises is to immerse the trainees into an environment that enables them to train like they would fight. The integration of modeling and simulation environments that can seamlessly leverage Live systems, and Virtual or Constructive models (LVC) as they are available offers a flexible and cost effective solution to extending the "war-gaming" environment to a realistic mission experience while evolving the development of the net-centric enterprise. From concept to full production, the impact of new capabilities on the infrastructure and concept of operations, can be assessed in the context of the enterprise, while also exposing them to the warfighter. Training is extended to tomorrow's tools, processes, and Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TTPs). This paper addresses the challenges of a net-centric modeling and simulation environment that is capable of representing a net-centric enterprise. An overview of the Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL) Airborne Networking Component Architecture Simulation Environment (AN-CASE) is provide as well as a discussion on how it is being used to assess technologies for the purpose of experimenting with new infrastructure mechanisms that enhance the scalability and reliability of the distributed mission operations environment.
Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents.
The shift in mindset of decision makers, from maintenance being a “necessary evil” and “cost centre” to a “profit contributor” in manufacturing companies has driven outsourced maintenance suppliers to employ value-centric approaches in order to design more effective maintenance programs. A value assessment for maintenance outsourcing must facilitate the trade-off between cost-centric and value-centric approaches to enable the maintenance service providers to design more effe...
Engineering . DOCTORAL DISSERTATION The Life Cycle of the Centric Diatom "Thalassiosira weissflogii: Control of Gametogenesis and Cell Size by by OTIC...Cycle of the Centric Diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii: Control of Gametogenesis and Cell Size by E. Virginia Armbrust Woods Hole Oceanographic...Cycle of the Centric Diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii: Control of Gametogenesis and Cell Size. Ph.D. Thesis. MIT/WHOI, WHO1-90-16. "Approved for
Alperen M Aydin
Aim/Purpose: The objective of this paper is to review the vast literature of user-centric in-formation science and inform about the emerging themes in information behaviour science. Background: The paradigmatic shift from system-centric to user-centric approach facilitates research on the cognitive and individual information processing. Various information behaviour theories/models emerged. Methodology: Recent information behaviour theories and models are presented. Features, str...
Jensen, Mikkel Storm
The abstract has the title: “The Cycle of Warfare - Analysis of an Analytical Model” The Cycle of Warfare is an analytical model designed to illustrate the coherence between the organization, doctrine and technology of a military entity and the influence of the surrounding society as expressed...... by its economic, political and ideological characteristics. With the single assumption of economic rationality in human behaviour, Cycle of Warfare is not only coherent, it is applicable to all entities engaged in competition anywhere in the world at any point in history. The Cycle of Warfare can be used...... both retrospectively and predictively. As a tool for historians the model can help to identify decisive factors in developments and outcomes. As a tool for intelligence analysts, it can be used predictively to identify likely possible outcomes or unknown elements in analysed entities....
This paper discusses the difficulty in determining whether an information warfare attack, such as a computer virus, can be treated as an "armed attack" for purposes of national defense under the United Nations charter. As the U.S...
Paschal, David G
... to operate effectively in an irregular warfare environment. The utility of a decisive war between nation states continues to decline and will eventually reach critical mass based upon the extreme imbalance of military power and a U.S. monopoly...
Peng, Hsin-Hsien; Chen, Chang-Kuo; Hsueh, Chi-Shun
Electromagnetic signals and the requirements of timely response have been a rapid growth in modern electronic warfare. Although jammers are limited resources, it is possible to achieve the best electronic warfare efficiency by tactical decisions. This paper proposes the intelligent electronic warfare decision support system. In this work, we develop a novel hybrid algorithm, Digital Pheromone Particle Swarm Optimization, based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm (SFLA). We use PSO to solve the problem and combine the concept of pheromones in ACO to accumulate more useful information in spatial solving process and speed up finding the optimal solution. The proposed algorithm finds the optimal solution in reasonable computation time by using the method of matrix conversion in SFLA. The results indicated that jammer allocation was more effective. The system based on the hybrid algorithm provides electronic warfare commanders with critical information to assist commanders in effectively managing the complex electromagnetic battlefield.
The idea that international conflict might be seeing more hybrid warfare and hybrid threats has animated debate among security and defense establishments in the run-up to NATO's 2016 Warsaw Summit...
A. V. Budaev
Washington’s hybrid warfare in Latin American region differs by its inventive and sophisticated methods and in fact represents a complex and multidimensional phenomenon including symbiosis of the “soft” and “hard...
Smith, Carl R.; Grasso, Robert; Pledger, Jack; Murarka, Naveen
Protection of military aircraft from hostile threats is paramount to ensure the survivability of aircrews, platforms, and mission success. While the threat environment continues to become more complex, shrinking defense budgets places new challenges on the development of electronic warfare (EW) systems. This paper presents the trends in electro-optical EW system development including 1) features, 2) affordability, 3) open architecture, 4) multi-functionality, 5) integrated avionics survivability equipment, and 6) enabling technologies for sensors, and optical sources. While these system attributes are not new, they have grown in importance in the design of EW systems. And, if treated correctly can have a beneficial symbiotic relationship to each other and to the airframe they support.
Dmitriy Nikolaevich Bespalov
Full Text Available The article presents the opposite, but dependent on each other's reality - Revolutionary War information,information security goals and objectives of their study within the scheme "challenge-response", methodological and analytical support, the role of elites and the information society in promoting information security. One of the features of contemporaneityis the global spread of ICT, combined with poor governance and other difficulties in the construction of innovation infrastructures that are based on them in some countries. This leads to the reproduction of threats, primarily related to the ability to use ICT for purposes that are inconsistent with the objectives of maintaining international peace and security, compliance with the principles of non-use of force, non-interference in the internal affairs of states, etc. In this regard, include such terms as "a threat of information warfare", "information terrorism" and so forth. Information warfare, which stay in the policy declared the struggle for existence, and relationships are defined in terms of "friend-enemy", "ours-foreign". Superiority over the opponent or "capture of its territory" is the aim of political activity. And information security, serving activities similar process of political control, including a set of components, is a technology until their humanitarian. From the context and the decision itself is the ratio of the achieved results of information and political influence to the target - a positive image of Russia. Bringing its policy in line with the demands of a healthy public opinion provides conductivity of theauthorities initiatives in the country and increases the legitimacy of the Russian Federation actions in the world.
Cui, Yuehua; Kang, Guolian; Sun, Kelian; Qian, Minping; Romero, Roberto; Fu, Wenjiang
Genes are the functional units in most organisms. Compared to genetic variants located outside genes, genic variants are more likely to affect disease risk. The development of the human HapMap project provides an unprecedented opportunity for genetic association studies at the genomewide level for elucidating disease etiology. Currently, most association studies at the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) or the haplotype level rely on the linkage information between SNP markers and disease variants, with which association findings are difficult to replicate. Moreover, variants in genes might not be sufficiently covered by currently available methods. In this article, we present a gene-centric approach via entropy statistics for a genomewide association study to identify disease genes. The new entropy-based approach considers genic variants within one gene simultaneously and is developed on the basis of a joint genotype distribution among genetic variants for an association test. A grouping algorithm based on a penalized entropy measure is proposed to reduce the dimension of the test statistic. Type I error rates and power of the entropy test are evaluated through extensive simulation studies. The results indicate that the entropy test has stable power under different disease models with a reasonable sample size. Compared to single SNP-based analysis, the gene-centric approach has greater power, especially when there is more than one disease variant in a gene. As the genomewide genic SNPs become available, our entropy-based gene-centric approach would provide a robust and computationally efficient way for gene-based genomewide association study. PMID:18458106
Talavage JJ, Barash MM. “Complexity in Manufacturing Systems Part 1: Analysis of Static Complexity.” IIE Transactions 1998; 30(7):645–655. 141...August 2012. Deshmukh A.V., Talavage J.J., Barash M.M. “Complexity in Manufacturing Systems Part 1: Analysis of Static Complexity.” IIE Transactions 1998...Network-Centric Infrastructures.” IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics – Part A: Systems and Humans 2010; 40(4):839-852. 98
Shrestha, Sunil; Su, Chun-Yi; White, Amanda M.; Manzano Franco, Joseph B.; Marquez, Andres; Feo, John T.
In the age of massive parallelism, the focus of performance analysis has switched from the processor and related structures to the memory and I/O resources. Adapting to this new reality, a performance analysis tool has to provide a way to analyze resource usage to pinpoint existing and potential problems in a given application. This paper provides an overview of the Memory Observant Data Analysis (MODA) tool, a memory-centric tool first implemented on the Cray XMT supercomputer. Throughout the paper, MODA's capabilities have been showcased with experiments done on matrix multiply and Graph-500 application codes.
van Cleeff, A.
Consumer mobile phone security requires more attention, now that their data storage capacity is increasing. At the same time, much effort is spent on data-centric security for large enterprises. In this article we try to apply data-centric security to consumer mobile phones. We show a maturity model
Sato, Yuuji; Koretake, Katsunori; Hosokawa, Ryuji
An alternative procedure for discrimination of contacts in centric occlusion and lateral excursion was introduced for eliminating premature contacts in lateral excursion without the alteration of other intercuspations. This procedure involves the application of red paper for the evaluation of lateral excursive contacts and blue paper for centric occlusion holding contacts to provide improved visibility of occlusal contacts.
Nishizaki, Kyle; Marino, Wayne; Hoshizaki, Thomas Blaine; et al, ...
Head injuries, and concussion in particular, have become a source of interest in the sport of ice hockey. This study proposes a monorail test methodology combined with a finite element method to evaluate ice hockey helmets in a centric/non-centric protocol with performance metrics more closely associated with risk of concussion. Two conditions were tested using the protocol: (a) helmeted versus no helmet, and (b) vinyl nitrile lined hockey helmet versus expanded polypropylene lined hockey hel...
Ning, Zhibin; Zhang, Xu; Mayne, Janice; Figeys, Daniel
Quantitative proteomics can provide rich information on changes in biological functions and processes. However, its accuracy is affected by the inherent information degeneration found in bottom-up proteomics. Therefore, the precise protein inference from identified peptides can be mistaken since an ad hoc rule is used for generating a list of protein groups that depends on both the sample type and the sampling depth. Herein, we propose an alternative approach for examining quantitative proteomic data which is peptide-centric instead of protein-centric. We discuss the feasibility of the peptide-centric approach which was tested on several quantitative proteomic data sets. We show that peptide-centric quantification has several advantages over protein level analysis: (1) it is more sensitive for sample segregation, (2) it avoids the issues associated with protein inference, and (3) it can retrieve significant peptides lost in protein-centric quantification for further downstream analysis.
Full Text Available Information warfare has surfaced as an emerging concept that affects not only military institutions but ordinary organisations as well. Information warfare in itself consists of various components ranging from its electronic and psychological...
Gao, Wei; Lu, Haoyang
Mobile phone sensing is a critical underpinning of pervasive mobile computing, and is one of the key factors for improving people's quality of life in modern society via collective utilization of the on-board sensing capabilities of people's smartphones. The increasing demands for sensing services and ambient awareness in mobile environments highlight the necessity of active participation of individual mobile users in sensing tasks. User incentives for such participation have been continuously offered from an application-centric perspective, i.e., as payments from the sensing server, to compensate users' sensing costs. These payments, however, are manipulated to maximize the benefits of the sensing server, ignoring the runtime flexibility and benefits of participating users. This paper presents a novel framework of user-centric incentive design, and develops a universal sensing platform which translates heterogenous sensing tasks to a generic sensing plan specifying the task-independent requirements of sensing performance. We use this sensing plan as input to reduce three categories of sensing costs, which together cover the possible sources hindering users' participation in sensing.
Bangash, Javed Iqbal; Khan, Abdul Waheed; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan
A significant proportion of the worldwide population is of the elderly people living with chronic diseases that result in high health-care cost. To provide continuous health monitoring with minimal health-care cost, Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) has been recently emerged as a promising technology. Depending on nature of sensory data, WBSNs might require a high level of Quality of Service (QoS) both in terms of delay and reliability during data reporting phase. In this paper, we propose a data-centric routing for intra WBSNs that adapts the routing strategy in accordance with the nature of data, temperature rise issue of the implanted bio-medical sensors due to electromagnetic wave absorption, and high and dynamic path loss caused by postural movement of human body and in-body wireless communication. We consider the network models both with and without relay nodes in our simulations. Due to the multi-facet routing strategy, the proposed data-centric routing achieves better performance in terms of delay, reliability, temperature rise, and energy consumption when compared with other state-of-the-art.
Gioioso, Marisa M.; McCullough, S. Daryl; Cormier, Jennifer P.; Marceau, Carla; Joyce, Robert A.
Modern Defense strategy and execution is increasingly net-centric, making more information available more quickly. In this environment, the intelligence agent or warfighter must distinguish decision-quality information from potentially inaccurate, or even conflicting, pieces of information from multiple sources - often in time-critical situations. The Pedigree Management and Assessment Framework (PMAF) enables the publisher of information to record standard provenance metadata about the source, manner of collection, and the chain of modification of information as it passed through processing and/or assessment. In addition, the publisher can define and include other metadata relevant to quality assessment, such as domain-specific metadata about sensor accuracy or the organizational structure of agencies. PMAF stores this potentially enormous amount of metadata compactly and presents it to the user in an intuitive graphical format, together with PMAF-generated assessments that enable the user to quickly estimate information quality. PMAF has been created for a net-centric information management system; it can access pedigree information across communities of interest (COIs) and across network boundaries and will also be implemented in a Web Services environment.
A growing number of applications require combining SPARQL queries with generic graph search on RDF data. However, the lack of procedural capabilities in SPARQL makes it inappropriate for graph analytics. Moreover, RDF engines focus on SPARQL query evaluation whereas graph management frameworks perform only generic graph computations. In this work, we bridge the gap by introducing SPARTex, an RDF analytics framework based on the vertex-centric computation model. In SPARTex, user-defined vertex centric programs can be invoked from SPARQL as stored procedures. SPARTex allows the execution of a pipeline of graph algorithms without the need for multiple reads/writes of input data and intermediate results. We use a cost-based optimizer for minimizing the communication cost. SPARTex evaluates queries that combine SPARQL and generic graph computations orders of magnitude faster than existing RDF engines. We demonstrate a real system prototype of SPARTex running on a local cluster using real and synthetic datasets. SPARTex has a real-time graphical user interface that allows the participants to write regular SPARQL queries, use our proposed SPARQL extension to declaratively invoke graph algorithms or combine/pipeline both SPARQL querying and generic graph analytics.
Kasthuri, A S; Pradhan, A B; Dham, S K; Bhalla, I P; Paul, J S
Casualties in earlier wars were due much more to diseases than to weapons. Mention has been made in history of the use of biological agents in warfare, to deny the enemy food and water and to cause disease. In the first world war chemical agents were used to cause mass casualties. Nuclear weapons were introduced in the second world war. Several countries are now involved in developing nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems, for the mass annihilation of human beings, animals and plants, and to destroy the economy of their enemies. Recently, natural calamities and accidents in nuclear, chemical and biological laboratories and industries have caused mass instantaneous deaths in civilian population. The effects of future wars will not be restricted to uniformed persons. It is time that physicians become aware of the destructive potential of these weapons. Awareness, immediate protective measures and first aid will save a large number of persons. This series of articles will outline the medical aspects of nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems in three parts. Part I will deal with the biological effects of a nuclear explosion. The short and long term effects due to blast, heat and associated radiation are highlighted. In Part II, the role of biological agents which cause commoner or new disease patterns is mentioned. Some of the accidents from biological warfare laboratories are a testimony to its potential deleterious effects. Part III deals with medical aspects of chemical warfare agents, which in view of their mass effects can overwhelm the existing medical resources, both civilian and military.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Full Text Available This paper studies the radar cross section (RCS of carrier electronic warfare airplanes. Under the typical naval operations section, the mathematical model of the radar wave’s pitch angle incidence range analysis is established. Based on the CATIA software, considering dynamic deflections of duck wing leading edge flaps, flaperons, horizontal tail, and rudder, as well as aircraft with air-to-air missile, anti-radiation missile, electronic jamming pod, and other weapons, the 3D models of carrier electronic warfare airplanes Model A and Model B with weapons were established. Based on the physical optics method and the equivalent electromagnetic flow method, by the use of the RCSAnsys software, the characteristics of carrier electronic warfare airplanes’ RCS under steady and dynamic flights were simulated under the UHF, X, and S radar bands. This paper researches the detection probability of aircraft by radars under the condition of electronic warfare, and completes the mathematical statistical analysis of the simulation results. The results show that: The Model A of carrier electronic warfare airplane is better than Model B on stealth performance and on discover probability by radar detection effectively.
Barras, V; Greub, G
Bioterrorism literally means using microorganisms or infected samples to cause terror and panic in populations. Bioterrorism had already started 14 centuries before Christ, when the Hittites sent infected rams to their enemies. However, apart from some rare well-documented events, it is often very difficult for historians and microbiologists to differentiate natural epidemics from alleged biological attacks, because: (i) little information is available for times before the advent of modern microbiology; (ii) truth may be manipulated for political reasons, especially for a hot topic such as a biological attack; and (iii) the passage of time may also have distorted the reality of the past. Nevertheless, we have tried to provide to clinical microbiologists an overview of some likely biological warfare that occurred before the 18th century and that included the intentional spread of epidemic diseases such as tularaemia, plague, malaria, smallpox, yellow fever, and leprosy. We also summarize the main events that occurred during the modern microbiology era, from World War I to the recent 'anthrax letters' that followed the World Trade Center attack of September 2001. Again, the political polemic surrounding the use of infectious agents as a weapon may distort the truth. This is nicely exemplified by the Sverdlovsk accident, which was initially attributed by the authorities to a natural foodborne outbreak, and was officially recognized as having a military cause only 13 years later. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
Talmage, Sylvia Smith [ORNL; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Munro, Nancy B [ORNL; King, J. [U.S. Army Environmental Center
The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) from structures, environmental media, and even personnel has become an area of particular interest in recent years due to increased homeland security concerns. In addition to terrorist attacks, scenarios such as accidental releases of CWA from U.S. stockpile sites or from historic, buried munitions are also subjects for response planning. To facilitate rapid identification of practical and effective decontamination approaches, this paper reviews pathways of CWA degradation by natural means as well as those resulting from deliberately applied solutions and technologies; these pathways and technologies are compared and contrasted. We then review various technologies, both traditional and recent, with some emphasis on decontamination materials used for surfaces that are difficult to clean. Discussion is limited to the major threat CWA, namely sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate), and the G-series nerve agents. The principal G-agents are GA (tabun, ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate), GB (sarin, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and GD (soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate). The chemical decontamination pathways of each agent are outlined, with some discussion of intermediate and final degradation product toxicity. In all cases, and regardless of the CWA degradation pathway chosen for decontamination, it will be necessary to collect and analyze pertinent environmental samples during the treatment phase to confirm attainment of clearance levels.
Simmhan, Yogesh; Kumbhare, Alok; Wickramaarachchi, Charith; Nagarkar, Soonil; Ravi, Santosh; Raghavendra, Cauligi; Prasanna, Viktor
Large scale graph processing is a major research area for Big Data exploration. Vertex centric programming models like Pregel are gaining traction due to their simple abstraction that allows for scalable execution on distributed systems naturally. However, there are limitations to this approach which cause vertex centric algorithms to under-perform due to poor compute to communication overhead ratio and slow convergence of iterative superstep. In this paper we introduce GoFFish a scalable sub-graph centric framework co-designed with a distributed persistent graph storage for large scale graph analytics on commodity clusters. We introduce a sub-graph centric programming abstraction that combines the scalability of a vertex centric approach with the flexibility of shared memory sub-graph computation. We map Connected Components, SSSP and PageRank algorithms to this model to illustrate its flexibility. Further, we empirically analyze GoFFish using several real world graphs and demonstrate its significant performance improvement, orders of magnitude in some cases, compared to Apache Giraph, the leading open source vertex centric implementation. We map Connected Components, SSSP and PageRank algorithms to this model to illustrate its flexibility. Further, we empirically analyze GoFFish using several real world graphs and demonstrate its significant performance improvement, orders of magnitude in some cases, compared to Apache Giraph, the leading open source vertex centric implementation.
The font selection menu in most application software's is arranged alphabetically; in recent years one can also see the split menu approach being used. An alphabetical arrangement presupposes that the users are aware of the font characteristics and usage scenario through its name. Unless the font name specifies it; the scheme does not in any which way indicate the morphological features or the usage scenarios of a given font. In order to address these issues, a set of systematic experiments was conducted to capture the typeface classification strategies of users with a modified card sorting technique. The collected data was subjected to hierarchical clustering algorithms to come up with a collective user-centric classification system for Devanagari fonts. The classes created by this method appears to address the problems raised by alphabetical orderings by allowing the groupings to be more intuitive (and realistic) while retaining statistical validity over large user sets.
Karavakis, Edward; Andreeva, Julia; Khan, Akram; Maier, Gerhild; Gaidioz, Benjamin
We are now in a phase change of the CMS experiment where people are turning more intensely to physics analysis and away from construction. This brings a lot of challenging issues with respect to monitoring of the user analysis. The physicists must be able to monitor the execution status, application and grid-level messages of their tasks that may run at any site within the CMS Virtual Organisation. The CMS Dashboard Task Monitoring project provides this information towards individual analysis users by collecting and exposing a user-centric set of information regarding submitted tasks including reason of failure, distribution by site and over time, consumed time and efficiency. The development was user-driven with physicists invited to test the prototype in order to assemble further requirements and identify weaknesses with the application.
Pre-print repositories have seen a significant increase in use over the past fifteen years across multiple research domains. Researchers are beginning to develop applications capable of using these repositories to assist the scientific community above and beyond the pure dissemination of information. The contributions set forth by this paper emphasize a deconstructed publication model where in which the peer-review certification phase of a pre-print is mediated by an OAI-compliant peer-review service. This peer-review service uses a social-network algorithm for determining potential reviewers for a submitted manuscript and for weighting the influence of each participating reviewer’s evaluations. The paper also provides a set of peer-review specific metadata tags that can accompany a pre-prints existing metadata record. The combinations of these contributions provide a unique repository-centric peer-review model within the framework of the current OAI standards existing today.
The volume delivers a wealth of effective methods to deal with various types of uncertainty inherently existing in human-centric decision problems. It elaborates on comprehensive decision frameworks to handle different decision scenarios, which help use effectively the explicit and tacit knowledge and intuition, model perceptions and preferences in a more human-oriented style. The book presents original approaches and delivers new results on fundamentals and applications related to human-centered decision making approaches to business, economics and social systems. Individual chapters cover multi-criteria (multiattribute) decision making, decision making with prospect theory, decision making with incomplete probabilistic information, granular models of decision making and decision making realized with the use of non-additive measures. New emerging decision theories being presented as along with a wide spectrum of ongoing research make the book valuable to all interested in the field of advanced decision-mak...
Agarwal, Ankur; Henehan, Nathan; Somashekarappa, Vivek; Pandya, A. S.; Kalva, Hari; Furht, Borko
This chapter discusses an emerging concept of a cloud computing based Patient Centric Medical Information System framework that will allow various authorized users to securely access patient records from various Care Delivery Organizations (CDOs) such as hospitals, urgent care centers, doctors, laboratories, imaging centers among others, from any location. Such a system must seamlessly integrate all patient records including images such as CT-SCANS and MRI'S which can easily be accessed from any location and reviewed by any authorized user. In such a scenario the storage and transmission of medical records will have be conducted in a totally secure and safe environment with a very high standard of data integrity, protecting patient privacy and complying with all Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations.
Full Text Available Knowledge Networks are gaining momentum within cyber world. Knowledge leads to innovation and for this reason organizations focus on research and information gathering in order to gain and improve existing knowledge. This of information era, which is primarily based on world wide web technologies, enables significantly expanded networks of people to communicate and collaborate 'virtually' across teams, across entire organizations and across the world, anytime and anywhere. Innovations in computing and telecommunications have transformed the corporations from structured and manageable types to interwoven network of blurred boundaries such as; ad hoc networks and mobile wireless networks, etc. This study explores knowledge networks in Information Technology and security leaks that are found, as well as measures that are taken to counter this menace which is coming up with optimal Secure Clustered Power Centric node network. The paper concludes these measures, evaluating and integrating them to come up with a secured network design.
Bruère, A N; Chapman, H M; Jaine, P M; Morris, R M
The karyotypes of 731 sheep of various breeds were studied and considered in association with previous chromosome studies of domestic sheep. A high incidence of the t2 trnslocation was found in two pedigree flocks of New Zealand Romney sheep. One of these flocks was established over 100 years ago and it is suggested that this translocation originated in the Romney Marsh breed of sheep in England. A naturally occurring double translocation heterozygote 52t1t2 was reported for the first time. A further flock of sheep of the Perendale breed was found with a high incidence of dicentric chromosome fusion that was identified as the t3 translocation. The apparently common occurrence of chromosome polymorphism, due to centric fusions, in domestic sheep is discussed in relation to karyotype evolution among both domestic and wild sheep.
Huddleston, Lisa L.; Roeder, William p.; Merceret, Francis J.
A new probabilistic facility-centric approach to lightning strike location has been developed. This process uses the bivariate Gaussian distribution of probability density provided by the current lightning location error ellipse for the most likely location of a lightning stroke and integrates it to determine the probability that the stroke is inside any specified radius of any location, even if that location is not centered on or even with the location error ellipse. This technique is adapted from a method of calculating the probability of debris collisionith spacecraft. Such a technique is important in spaceport processing activities because it allows engineers to quantify the risk of induced current damage to critical electronics due to nearby lightning strokes. This technique was tested extensively and is now in use by space launch organizations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Future applications could include forensic meteorology.
Filtchev, Andon Dimitrov; Kalachev, Yavor Stefanov
The number and distribution of occlusal contacts in centric occlusion (CO) and centric relation have been studied by a number of authors. All these studies have one thing in common--they define the greatest number of occlusal contacts between the molars. The purpose of the present study was to register the maximum clenching forces in CO, as well as to analyze the anatomic and functional factors that determine their localization on teeth. The study included 42 subjects, aged 19 to 26 years, with intact dentition and Class I Angle occlusion; 38 persons had 1 to 4 restorations on the premolars and molars. The occlusal contacts were investigated in CO by the T-Scan system (Sentek) on wax and silicone impressions. The force loads in different sections of the dentition were differentiated by an additionally developed computer program. The T-Scan analysis and the developed computer program revealed that the maximum values of the clenching forces were recorded on the third molars. The strongest contacts found by the T-Scan system were successfully visualized in wax and silicone impressions. The maximum clenching forces of the masticatory muscles recorded by the T-Scan system were located in CO at the third molars in a dentition of 32 teeth and at the second molars in a dentition of 28 teeth. If the above-mentioned phenomenon is not taken into consideration in clinical practice, occlusal contacts may be created that will unfavorably transfer the specific clenching forces to a more medially located molar in cases of occlusal restoration of the same molar by a restoration or a single crown.
Klepel, ST.; Graefenhain, U.; Lippe, R.; Stach, J.; Starrock, V.
Interference compounds like gasoline, diesel, burning wood or fuel, etc. are presented in common battlefield situations. These compounds can cause detectors to respond as a false positive or interfere with the detector's ability to respond to target compounds such as chemical warfare agents. To ensure proper response of the ion mobility spectrometer to chemical warfare agents, two special software packages were developed and incorporated into the Bruker RAID-1. The programs suppress interferring signals caused by car exhaust or smoke gases resulting from burning materials and correct the influence of variable sample gas humidity which is important for detection and quantification of blister agents like mustard gas or lewisite.
A. V. Budaev
Full Text Available Washington’s hybrid warfare in Latin American region differs by its inventive and sophisticated methods and in fact represents a complex and multidimensional phenomenon including symbiosis of the “soft” and “hard” power as well as their combination in the form of the “smart power”. The increasing importance of hybrid warfare technologies in the US foreign policy in Latin America predetermines the necessity of thorough studies and analysis of this phenomenon for providing Russian interests.
Олександр Васильович Курбан
Full Text Available It is conducted a comprehensive theoretical study and determine the basic provisions of the modern theory of information warfare in on-line social networks. Three basic blocks, which systematized the theoretical and methodological basis of the topic, are established. There are information and psychological war, social off-line and on-line network. According to the three blocks, theoretical concepts are defined and methodological substantiation of information processes within the information warfare in the social on-line networks is formed
Full Text Available Hybrid warfare is perhaps the most frequently used concept in seeking to explain and define Russia‘s military actions in Ukraine. This article thoroughly analyses the development of the theory of hybrid warfare and circumstances of its formation, draws a line between hybrid warfare and hybrid threats, and discusses the perception of hybrid warfare in the armies of Western states and Russia. Actions of the Russian army in Crimea are analysed on the grounds of the provisions of the theory of hybrid warfare formulated by Frank Hoffman through revealing the impact on a military operation not only of the changing warfare tendencies but also of political, cultural, demographic and military conditions that existed on the Crimean peninsula. The article ends with an assessment of the capability of the hybrid warfare theory, as an analytical category, to explain Russia’s military actions in Crimea.
Roffey, R; Tegnell, A; Elgh, F
There are some early examples of biological warfare (BW), but in modern times it was used first for sabotage by Germany during WWI. Development of biological weapons on a military significant scale was initiated in several countries in the period between the world wars. During WWII, several countries had active programs such as the USA, UK, Canada, Germany, Japan and the Soviet Union. It was only Japan that on a fairly large scale used BW. The US program continued until 1969, when President Nixon took a decision to end it in connection with signing the BTWC. The Soviet Union had also continued its program after the war, and this was enhanced after signing the BTWC: in the 1980s the program consisted of around fifty facilities and involved around 60,000 people. The Soviet Union produced and maintained a large stockpile of BW-agents. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, and due to pressure from USA and UK, President Yeltsin issued a decree in 1992 banning continued offensive BW activity. However, there are still concerns of residual activity in Russia. Another program of concern is the Iraqi BW-program. After 10 years of UN inspections that were stopped in 1998, there are still many unanswered questions concerning the BW program. There was also a covert BW-program in South Africa that was terminated around 1993. There have also been a number of allegations of alleged use or possession. In addition, there are indications that 10-12 states are now trying to acquire BW, and this assessment is based on intelligence information, mainly from the USA. For example Iraq, North Korea, Iran, Syria, Sudan and Libya. Another aspect is the strong driving force of technology developments to promote this type of program, opening new risks for future potential military misuse.
Morales, E. A.; Rivera, S. F.; Rubin, S. D. C.; Vis, M. L.; Houk, Václav
Roč. 30, č. 3 (2015), s. 269-277 ISSN 0269-249X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : centric diatom s * taxonomy * valve ultrastructure Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.868, year: 2015
Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard
understanding and modification are essential during software evolution and maintenance. In this paper, we present an infrastructure built on top of the NetBeans IDE called Featureous that allows for rapid construction of tools for feature-centric analysis of object-oriented software. Our infrastructure......The decentralized nature of collaborations between objects in object-oriented software makes it difficult to understand how user-observable program features are implemented and how their implementations relate to each other. It is worthwhile to improve this situation, since feature-centric program...... encompasses a lightweight feature location mechanism, a number of analytical views and an API allowing for addition of third-party extensions. To form a common conceptual framework for future feature-centric extensions, we propose to structure feature centric analysis along three dimensions: perspective...
Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard
Feature-centric comprehension of software is a prerequisite to incorporating modifications requested by users during software evolution and maintenance. However, feature-centric understanding of large object-oriented programs is difficult to achieve due to size, complexity and implicit cha......-racter of mappings between features and source code. In this paper, we address these issues through our unified approach to feature-centric analysis of object-oriented software. Our approach supports discovery of feature-code traceability links and their analysis from three perspectives and at three levels...... of abstraction. We further improve scalability of analysis by partitioning features into canonical groups. To demonstrate feasibility our approach, we use our NetBeans-integrated tool Featureous for conducting a case study of feature-centric analysis of the JHotDraw project. Lastly, we discuss how Featureous...
Hienerth, Christoph; Keinz, Peter; Lettl, Christopher
integrated users into their core business processes, and find that implementing user-centric business models successfully requires a comprehensive approach encompassing an appropriate social software design, a transparent intellectual property policy, proper incentive systems, evolutional learning...... users in core business processes, and (2) effective strategies to overcome internal resistance at established companies wishing to introduce user-centric business models. We apply a multi-case comparison methodology between three well-known companies (LEGO, IBM and Coloplast) which have successfully...
Chhabra, A; Chhabra, N; Makkar, S; Sharma, A
Human mandible is related to the anatomic skull in several positions among these; centric relation is a significant spatial position. It contributes not only as a reference position to build optimal occlusion in artificial dentition, but is also related to sound periodontal health and stomatognatic function. The purpose of this article is to critically discuss the historical and current definitions of centric relation, the different methods used for recording the same and its clinical implication in the restorative dental practice.
The article consists of two parts: the theory of manoeuvre warfare and the history of the 1914-1915 South African campaign in German South West Africa (GSWA). The GSWA campaign has been described in many ways as a secondary theatre within the greater geostrategic chess game of the First World War. The objective ...
information security and information systems were used to deconstruct the models into their fundamental components and this .... emptive strikes on communications and logistics may be conducted using computer- based information warfare or physical ..... and risk to infrastructure. Preventing an aggressor from acquiring ...
Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik
This is a report on the information gathered during work related to sea dumped chemical warfare agents. It mainly reviews the work conducted in relation to the installation of the two Nord Stream gas pipeline from 2008-2012. The focus was on the weight-of-evidence risk assessment of disturbed CWA...
thinking from ‘heavy metal ’, armour oriented manoeuvre warfare thinking to more agile and intellectual military actions then those adjectives serve their...flourish the power distance and excess testosterone needs to be reduced. A similar problem of Power Distance exists in the British Army but is perhaps less
Noort, D.; Benschop, H.P.; Black, R.M.
In this report an overview of the methods currently available for detection of exposure to a number of chemical warfare agents (CWA), i.e., sulfur mustard, lewisite and nerve agents, is presented. Such methods can be applied for various purposes, e.g., diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure of
warfare have included couriers on horseback, sig- nal flags, encryption and code breaking, telegraph , wire- less radio, aerial reconnaissance and...Leavenworth, KS, 1990).  P. C. Niedfeldt, B. T. Carroll, J. A. Howard, R. W. Beard, B. S. Morse , and S. Pledgie, Enhanced UAS surveillance using a
Anti-nuclear discourse, which peaked in 1981-82, signaled an emergence of public discourse on the nuclear warfare issue. During the development of the original atomic bomb, public discussion of the issue was severely restricted, but immediately after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, discourse on the subject increased. During the Cold War…
This paper examines how the interactions of politics and economy influenced the changing perspective on warfare in nineteenth century Benin Kingdom. The study investigates how the combined political and economic behaviour of Benin affected the rebuilding of military power as instrument of political policy in furtherance ...
COMPOSITE WARFARE: THE CONDUCT OF. SUCCESSFUL GROUND FORCE. OPERATIONS IN AFRICA. Eeben Barlow. Abel Esterhuyse, PhD. Stellenbosch University. Pinetown: 30 Degrees South Publishers. 2015, 576 pages. ISBN 9781928211761. Africa is still one of the most conflict-ridden places on earth – from ...
underground structure through social media. Social media such as Facebook , Twitter, Instagram , and YouTube are this generation’s leaflet technology for...66 E . TUNNEL WARFARE DURING THE VIETNAM WAR (1966) ..............67 1. Introduction...89 d. Indicators and Detection of Subterranean Activity ...............90 e . Alternate Approaches
Van Niekerk, B
Full Text Available information to allow them to manage their own spectrum, to identify threats, and to deny adversaries’ use of the spectrum. In this paper, the concepts of integrated electronic warfare and spectrum battle management are introduced, and the relevant information...
Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.
Simulating cyber warfare is critical to the preparation of decision-makers for the challenges posed by cyber attacks. Simulation is the only means we have to prepare decision-makers for the inevitable cyber attacks upon the information they will need for decision-making and to develop cyber warfare strategies and tactics. Currently, there is no theory regarding the strategies that should be used to achieve objectives in offensive or defensive cyber warfare, and cyber warfare occurs too rarely to use real-world experience to develop effective strategies. To simulate cyber warfare by affecting the information used for decision-making, we modify the information content of the rings that are compromised during in a decision-making context. The number of rings affected and value of the information that is altered (i.e., the closeness of the ring to the center) is determined by the expertise of the decision-maker and the learning outcome(s) for the simulation exercise. We determine which information rings are compromised using the probability that the simulated cyber defenses that protect each ring can be compromised. These probabilities are based upon prior cyber attack activity in the simulation exercise as well as similar real-world cyber attacks. To determine which information in a compromised "ring" to alter, the simulation environment maintains a record of the cyber attacks that have succeeded in the simulation environment as well as the decision-making context. These two pieces of information are used to compute an estimate of the likelihood that the cyber attack can alter, destroy, or falsify each piece of information in a compromised ring. The unpredictability of information alteration in our approach adds greater realism to the cyber event. This paper suggests a new technique that can be used for cyber warfare simulation, the ring approach for modeling context-dependent information value, and our means for considering information value when assigning cyber
Hired Commission for the Reduction of Arma - ments (A. 16. 1924.. H), Geneva, 30 Jul 1924., pp. 29-30. In Hist files. Extracts from this League...Department of Agriculture in Kay 1942, several rice pathogens were considered as potential biologica warfare agents, one of «rich »as Hel
over the conferral of First Special Service and Ranger unit colors , lineage, and honors to the Army’s Special Forces. Looking back upon that scene...Against E-e y, n D_:2a to VE-V1. New York: George. W. Stewart, Inc., 1949. Linebarger, Paul M. A. Psichological Warfare, New York: ]>jell, Sloan and Pearce
Zhang, Liang; Shu, Yantai; Yang, Zhenyu
Reliable transport protocols such as TCP are tuned to perform well in traditional networks where packet losses occur mostly because of congestion. However, networks with wireless and other lossy links also suffer from significant non-congestion-related losses due to reasons such as bit errors and handoffs. TCP responds to all losses by invoking congestion control and avoidance algorithms, resulting in degraded end-to-end performance in wireless and lossy networks. In case of wired-wireless interaction (WLANs), the wireless link is assumed to be the last hop where most of the loss and delay occurs. Since the mobile host is adjacent to the wireless hops, it is obviously better equipped to obtain first-hand knowledge of the wireless links. In the paper, we proposed a mobile-host-centric transport protocol called MCP (Mobile-host Control Protocol) that is like TCP in its general behavior, but allows for better congestion control and loss recovery in mobile wireless networks. The MCP shifts most transport layer control policies to the mobile host side under all cases (mobile host is a sender or receiver, fixed or mobile, and so on). Therefore, mobile stations can make better transport layer control in time based on the condition of wireless link.
Degan, Michael G.; Ryadinskiy, Lillian; Fujimoto, Grant M.; Wilkins, Christopher S.; Lichti, Cheryl F.; Payne, Samuel H.
For targeted proteomics to be broadly adopted in biological laboratories as a routine experimental protocol, wet-bench biologists must be able to approach SRM assay design in the same way they approach biological experimental design. Most often, biological hypotheses are envisioned in a set of protein interactions, networks and pathways. We present a plugin for the popular Skyline tool that presents public mass spectrometry data in a pathway-centric view to assist users in browsing available data and determining how to design quantitative experiments. Selected proteins and their underlying mass spectra are imported to Skyline for further assay design (transition selection). The same plugin can be used for hypothesis-drive DIA data analysis, again utilizing the pathway view to help narrow down the set of proteins which will be investigated. The plugin is backed by the PNNL Biodiversity Library, a corpus of 3 million peptides from >100 organisms, and the draft human proteome. Users can upload personal data to the plugin to use the pathway navigation prior to importing their own data into Skyline.
Scott, Jacob; Marusyk, Andriy
It is generally accepted that the initiation and progression of cancers is the result of somatic clonal evolution. Despite many peculiarities, evolution within populations of somatic cells should obey the same Darwinian principles as evolution within natural populations, i.e. variability of heritable phenotypes provides the substrate for context-specific selection forces leading to increased population frequencies of phenotypes, which are better adapted to their environment. Yet, within cancer biology, the more prevalent way to view evolution is as being entirely driven by the accumulation of "driver" mutations. Context-specific selection forces are either ignored, or viewed as constraints from which tumor cells liberate themselves during the course of malignant progression. In this review, we will argue that explicitly focusing on selection forces acting on the populations of neoplastic cells as the driving force of somatic clonal evolution might provide for a more accurate conceptual framework compared to the mutation-centric driver gene paradigm. Whereas little can be done to counteract the "bad luck" of stochastic occurrences of cancer-related mutations, changes in selective pressures and the phenotypic adaptations they induce can, in principle, be exploited to limit the incidence of cancers and to increase the efficiency of existing and future therapies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Evolutionary principles - heterogeneity in cancer?, edited by Dr. Robert A. Gatenby. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The paper introduces a new direction in quality-of-service-aware networked sensing that designs communication protocols and scheduling policies for data delivery that are optimized specifically for decision needs. The work complements present decision monitoring and support tools and falls in the larger framework of decision-driven resource management. A hallmark of the new protocols is that they are aware of the inference structure used to arrive at decisions (from logical predicates, as well as the data (and data quality that need to be furnished to successfully evaluate the unknowns on which these decisions are based. Such protocols can therefore anticipate and deliver precisely the right data, at the right level of quality, from the right sources, at the right time, to enable valid and timely decisions at minimum cost to the underlying network. This paper presents the decision model used and the protocol design philosophy, reviews the key recent results and describes a novel system, called Athena, that is the first to embody the aforementioned data delivery paradigm. Evaluation results are presented that compare the performance of decision-centric anticipatory information delivery to several baselines, demonstrating its various advantages in terms of decision timeliness, validity and network resources used. The paper concludes with a discussion of remaining future challenges in this emerging area.
James P Sluka
Full Text Available We describe a multi-scale, liver-centric in silico modeling framework for acetaminophen pharmacology and metabolism. We focus on a computational model to characterize whole body uptake and clearance, liver transport and phase I and phase II metabolism. We do this by incorporating sub-models that span three scales; Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK modeling of acetaminophen uptake and distribution at the whole body level, cell and blood flow modeling at the tissue/organ level and metabolism at the sub-cellular level. We have used standard modeling modalities at each of the three scales. In particular, we have used the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML to create both the whole-body and sub-cellular scales. Our modeling approach allows us to run the individual sub-models separately and allows us to easily exchange models at a particular scale without the need to extensively rework the sub-models at other scales. In addition, the use of SBML greatly facilitates the inclusion of biological annotations directly in the model code. The model was calibrated using human in vivo data for acetaminophen and its sulfate and glucuronate metabolites. We then carried out extensive parameter sensitivity studies including the pairwise interaction of parameters. We also simulated population variation of exposure and sensitivity to acetaminophen. Our modeling framework can be extended to the prediction of liver toxicity following acetaminophen overdose, or used as a general purpose pharmacokinetic model for xenobiotics.
Full Text Available Research-based Learning (RbL extends Inquiry and Project-based Learning by facilitating an early stage exposure and training for future scientists through authentic research activities. In this paper, an iterative problem-centric RbL process is introduced, and its activities and management aspects are described. The process helps implement course-integrated research systematically and practically. Furthermore, the novel process follows constructivist methods in incorporating inquiry, scaffolding, open-ended projects, as well as a goal oriented learning approach. The RbL process is adopted in two advanced computing courses, at two different universities: a leading comprehensive Western university and a new university in a developing country. The paper summarizes new lessons learned in these rewarding experiences. In particular, the instructor should help students start their projects, by providing them with previous work or data and pre-approving the papers to review by students. He should also maintain a continuous feedback to and from students to keep the students motivated and help the instructor refine and adapt the RBL process. We note that research collaborators can help students in identifying the research topics early. The paper also shows how to alleviate difficulties that may be encountered by students who find the novel approach demanding, and consequently it also helps the instructors better manage the course contents.
Liu, D T; Franklin, M J; Garlick, J; Abdulla, G M
Data-centric workflow middleware systems are workflow systems that treat data as first class objects alongside programs. These systems improve the usability, responsiveness and efficiency of workflow execution over cluster (and grid) computers. In this work, we explore the scalability of one such system, GridDB, on cluster computers. We measure the performance and scalability of GridDB in executing data-intensive image processing workflows from the SuperMACHO astrophysics survey on a large cluster computer. Our first experimental study concerns the scale-up of GridDB. We make a rather surprising finding, that while the middleware system issues many queries and transactions to a DBMS, file system operations present the first-tier bottleneck. We circumvent this bottleneck and increase the scalability of GridDB by more than 2-fold on our image processing application (up to 128 nodes). In a second study, we demonstrate the sensitivity of GridDB performance (and therefore application performance) to characteristics of the workflows being executed. To manage these sensitivities, we provide guidelines for trading off the costs and benefits of GridDB at a fine-grain.
Yet, there are currently no treaties dealing specifically with the law of armed conflict in the air and space environments. Chapter 1 describes the...evolution to date of the law governing aerospace warfare. Chapter II analyzes the relevance of military interventions in Iraq and Yugoslavia (Bosnia...Kosovo) to the law of air and space warfare. Chapter III discusses the impact of humanitarian intervention’ on the law of aerospace warfare. Chapters IV
The first part of the lecture is devoted to the description of the Stuxnet worm, the first cyber-weapon whose existence has been made public, discovered in 2010 and targeting a specific industrial control system; the worm is responsible for the damaging of many centrifuges at an uranium enrichment facility, with the goal of sabotaging Iran's nuclear program. In the second part, the main features of cyber-warfare in conflict and pre-conflict activities will be discussed and compared to the conventional warfare domains, with also a general view at the international political debate on this topic. Check the http://pugwash.org web site, an organisation that seeks a world free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction. The lecturer invites comments via email to Gian.Piero.Siroli@cern.ch NB! All Academic Training lectures are recorded and are publicly available. There is no live webcast.
The first part of the lecture is devoted to the description of the Stuxnet worm, the first cyber-weapon whose existence has been made public, discovered in 2010 and targeting a specific industrial control system; the worm is responsible for the damaging of many centrifuges at an uranium enrichment facility, with the goal of sabotaging Iran's nuclear program. In the second part, the main features of cyber-warfare in conflict and pre-conflict activities will be discussed and compared to the conventional warfare domains, with also a general view at the international political debate on this topic. Check the http://pugwash.org web site, an organisation that seeks a world free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction. NB! All Academic Training lectures are recorded and are publicly available. There is no live webcast.
Akbulut-Yuksel, Mevlude; Yuksel, Mutlu
This paper estimates the long-term heterogeneous legacies of exposures to war in utero and during early childhood on height in adulthood. Using a novel dataset on the regional WWII destruction in Germany, combined with the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), we find that individuals who experienced warfare in utero and during childhood are an average of 2cm shorter as adults, suggesting that the negative scarring effect of WWII dominated the positive effect coming from a selection. Among war survivors, children from less privileged families who resided in highly destroyed regions, particularly girls, suffered the greatest health consequences of warfare. Our analyses also show that wartime children who lost their parents during the war years are an average of 1.3cm shorter as adults. However, the father's conscription during WWII had no long-term effect on adult height. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Coathup, Victoria; Hamakawa, Nao; Finlay, Teresa; Bell, Jessica; Kaye, Jane; Kato, Kazuto
Significant advances in digital technologies have meant that health care data can be collected, stored, transferred, and analyzed for research purposes more easily than ever before. Participant-centric initiatives (PCI) are defined as "tools, programs, and projects that empower participants to engage in the research process" using digital technologies and have the potential to provide a number of benefits to both participants and researchers, including the promotion of public trust in medical research, improved quality of research, increased recruitment and retention, and improved health care delivery. The main objective of this scoping review is to describe the extent and range of PCIs across the United Kingdom, United States, and Japan that are designed to facilitate medical research. The methodological framework described by Levac et al will be applied to this scoping review. We will search electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing, and Allied Health Literature and CiNii), grey literature sources, Internet search engines (Google and Bing), and hand search key journals and reference lists of relevant articles. All digital tools and programs will be eligible for inclusion if there is a description of key features and functions that fall within the parameters of a PCI. Only those that play a role in medical research will be included. Preliminary searches conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE retrieved 1820 and 2322 results, respectively. The scoping review will be completed by January 2018. The scoping review will be the first to map the extent and range of PCIs currently available across the United Kingdom, United States, and Japan, and will be the first review to contribute to a better understanding of what PCIs patients may benefit from. Researchers and practitioners will be able to use information in this review as a guide for patients and also as a guide for the development of future tools and programs. The results will be
Laura Di Pietro
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to propose a visitor centric perspective that can support museums towards sustainability. The main premise of this study is due to a concept of economic and social sustainability of museums, defined as the possession of sufficient resources to maintain the existence of an organization, and achieve their goals in the future, ensuring a certain flow of visitors. A great number of museums are characterized by a low number of visits; therefore, in order to become sustainable, museums should pay attention to audience and its internal diversity. In this way, a cultural site can plan tailored strategies to increase the number of visits and re-visits and to achieve community support. For this reason it is necessary to understand the cultural needs of visitors, acquiring appropriate monitoring tools, such as qualitative and quantitative ones. Generally, quantitative analyses are more reliable and complete, even if they require a considerable number of observations for the reliability of the results. Moreover, qualitative analysis provides more in depth information, even if their data do not allow us to make generalizations. The qualitative and quantitative methods for the detection of satisfaction are usually used separately, but their integration may bring significant added value in terms of the wealth of information. This study follows the analysis of the potential of the integration of qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques customized with respect to different types of targets. The results of the experimentation performed on ethnographic museums shows a consistency of the results obtained by the two different tools that increase the capacity information of survey instruments.
Sharpe, Richard E; Sharpe, Megan; Siegel, Eliot; Siddiqui, Khan
Internet-based search engines have become a significant component of medical practice. Physicians increasingly rely on information available from search engines as a means to improve patient care, provide better education, and enhance research. Specialized search engines have emerged to more efficiently meet the needs of physicians. Details about the ways in which radiologists utilize search engines have not been documented. The authors categorized every 25th search query in a radiology-centric vertical search engine by radiologic subspecialty, imaging modality, geographic location of access, time of day, use of abbreviations, misspellings, and search language. Musculoskeletal and neurologic imagings were the most frequently searched subspecialties. The least frequently searched were breast imaging, pediatric imaging, and nuclear medicine. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography were the most frequently searched modalities. A majority of searches were initiated in North America, but all continents were represented. Searches occurred 24 h/day in converted local times, with a majority occurring during the normal business day. Misspellings and abbreviations were common. Almost all searches were performed in English. Search engine utilization trends are likely to mirror trends in diagnostic imaging in the region from which searches originate. Internet searching appears to function as a real-time clinical decision-making tool, a research tool, and an educational resource. A more thorough understanding of search utilization patterns can be obtained by analyzing phrases as actually entered as well as the geographic location and time of origination. This knowledge may contribute to the development of more efficient and personalized search engines.
ambush is a form of offensive attack that utilizes principles of the defense and relies on deception. Jon Latimer describes the ambush and “…the use...of lures to draw the enemy into them…” as fundamental aspects of irregular and guerrilla warfare; Jon Latimer , Deception in War (New York: Overlook...Theory of Intelligence,” in Intelligence Theory, 10. 296 Latimer , Deception in War, 272. 297 Organizationally, fusion provides a structural framework
Arms Warfare by Alexander the Great Approved by: ^§FC ^ohn T. Broom, Ph.D. ^c^. Thesis Committee Chairman y v^X^; ■-. ■SA: Gary J. Bjorge ...research. Dr. Bjorge and LTC Clay have provided technical advice and copy editing for much of this thesis. Special acknowledgment is due LTC David...objective to destroy or disrupt the enemy forces. Additionally, ancient armies did not have the communication ability that the modern army possess
with the Theory of War Carl von Clausewitz believed that there were certain laws and principles of warfare but that they tended to exist at the... Carl von Clausewitz ,” Parameters (Spring 2006): 83-84. 47 Peter Paret, ed. Makers of Modern Strategy from Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age...Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986), 193. 48 Paret, 107. 49 Michael Howard and Peter Paret, ed and trans, Carl Von Clausewitz : On War
Yue, Kuizhi; Liu, Wenlin; Li, Guanxiong; Ji, Jinzu; Yu, Dazhao
This paper studies the radar cross section (RCS) of carrier electronic warfare airplanes. Under the typical naval operations section, the mathematical model of the radar wave’s pitch angle incidence range analysis is established. Based on the CATIA software, considering dynamic deflections of duck wing leading edge flaps, flaperons, horizontal tail, and rudder, as well as aircraft with air-to-air missile, anti-radiation missile, electronic jamming pod, and other weapons, the 3D models of carr...
Agency that claimed Stuxnet infected over one thousand Chinese industrial computer networks, including the Three Gorges Dam hydroelectric facility...infrastructure. Three case studies evaluate cyber policy, discourse, and procurement in the US, Russia, and China before and after Stuxnet to illustrate their...similar, yet unique, realities of cyber warfare. Evidence suggests that all three nations are taking extraordinary measures to build cyber armies
de Colombia FID Foreign Internal Defense FM Field Manual GVN Government of South Vietnam ICP Indochinese Communist Party ISIL Islamic State of Iraq...abound throughout the world. Hezbollah, Hamas, ISIL, and the Taliban in the Middle East, the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC) in South...describing what UW consists of, and how it is applied, in FM 31-21 (1969). “Unconventional warfare consists of military, political, psychological , or
32Nic Fields and Peter Dennis, Boudicca’s Rebellion AD 60-61: The Britons Rise up against Rome (Long Island City, NY: Osprey Publication, 2011), 47–51...Colonial Pacification in Tonkin and Madagascar , 1885-1900, 2013, 13. 19 validated entrenched ideas of traditional warfare codified in General...counterinsurgency operation. The Philippine-American War, the unintended result of purchasing the island chain from Spain after a naval victory at
Pirkle, Wesley M
... implementing the concept of counterinsurgency compound warfare. Counterinsurgency Compound Warfare is the simultaneous use of a regular or conventional force and an irregular, indigenous force in unison against a common enemy...
Bennis & Nanus , 1985; Bennis & Shepard, 1956; Bion, 1961; Schultz, 1958; Tuckman, 1965; Tuckman & Jenson, 1977). These models provide a...2003). Power to the edge: Command... control.., in the information age. Washington: Command & Control Research Program. Bennis , W.G. & Nanus , G... Bennis , W. G., & Shepard, H. A. (1956). A theory of group development. Human Relations, 9, 415-437. Bion, W. R. (1961). Experiences in groups
Employing Sealant Foam TMD/CMD S-HAE (Find/Attack) P-HAE (Find) C-MAE (Attack) SAR/MTI Radar, Air-to-Air Tracking Radar, EO/IR Imaging Fire Control...moisture such as rain, snow, ice, frost, or fog and the crosswind limitations for takeoff and landing are 17 knots. The assessment of the operational...technological advancements and growth in capabilities, UAVs are becoming indispensable to commanders in lifting or reducing the fog of war. All
.... In order to assess the impact different multi-level attributes of patient-centric care networks on healthcare outcomes, this study first captured patient-centric care networks for 85 hospitals using...
David A Alexander
The User Centric Monitoring (UCM) project was aimed at developing a toolkit that provides the Virtual Organization (VO) with tools to build systems that serve a rich set of intuitive job and application monitoring information to the VO's scientists so that they can be more productive. The tools help collect and serve the status and error information through a Web interface. The proposed UCM toolkit is composed of a set of library functions, a database schema, and a Web portal that will collect and filter available job monitoring information from various resources and present it to users in a user-centric view rather than and administrative-centric point of view.
Dunnington, Renee M
Enhancing immersive presence has been shown to have influence on learning outcomes in virtual types of simulation. Scenario-based human patient simulation, a mixed reality form, may pose unique challenges for inducing the centricity of presence among participants in simulation. A model for enhancing the centricity of presence in scenario-based human patient simulation is presented here. The model represents a theoretical linkage among the interaction of pedagogical, individual, and group factors that influence the centricity of presence among participants in simulation. Presence may have an important influence on the learning experiences and learning outcomes in scenario-based high fidelity human patient simulation. This report is a follow-up to an article published in 2014 by the author where connections were made to the theoretical basis of presence as articulated by nurse scholars. © The Author(s) 2014.
Giordano, Peter J
Mainstream personality psychology in the West neglects the investigation of intra-individual process and variation, because it favors a Being over a Becoming ontology. A Being ontology privileges a structural (e.g., traits or selves) conception of personality. Structure-centric models in turn suggest nomothetic research strategies and the investigation of individual and group differences. This article argues for an open-system, process-centric understanding of personality anchored in an ontology of Becoming. A classical Confucian model of personality is offered as an example of a process-centric approach for investigating and appreciating within-person personality process and variation. Both quantitative and qualitative idiographic strategies can be used as methods of scientific inquiry, particularly the exploration of the Confucian exemplar of psychological health and well-being.
João César Guimarães Henriques
Full Text Available The magnitude of occasional discrepancies between the centric relation and maximal intercuspation positions remains a controversial subject. This study quantitatively evaluated the possible discrepancies in the condyle/mandibular fossa relationship between these positions using cone-beam computed tomography. Twenty young and asymptomatic volunteers were distributed equally into normal occlusion and Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion groups. They were submitted to one tomographic scan in maximal intercuspation and one in centric relation. Measurements were performed on lateral and frontal cuts of the patients' temporomandibular joints, and the data collected were compared using Student's t test at a significance level of 5%. The results showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the centric relation and maximal intercuspation positions in young and asymptomatic patients with practically intact dentitions using cone-beam computed tomography.
Warfare EWAISF Electronic Warfare Avionics Integration Support Facility EWOLS Electronic Warfare Open Loop Simulator GRA Graphics Command HIPO ...Softech’s Structured Analysis and Design Technique (SADT)(Ref 16). and IBM’s Hierarchical Input-Process-Output ( HIPO ) diagrams (Ref 8). Structured
Blumberg, Leonid M
If both parameters (the entropy, ΔS, and the enthalpy, ΔH) of the classic van't Hoff model of dependence of distribution coefficients (K) of analytes on temperature (T) are treated as the temperature-independent constants then the accuracy of the model is known to be insufficient for the needed accuracy of retention time prediction. A more accurate 3-parameter Clarke-Glew model offers a way to treat ΔS and ΔH as functions, ΔS(T) and ΔH(T), of T. A known T-centric construction of these functions is based on relating them to the reference values (ΔSref and ΔHref) corresponding to a predetermined reference temperature (Tref). Choosing a single Tref for all analytes in a complex sample or in a large database might lead to practically irrelevant values of ΔSref and ΔHref for those analytes that have too small or too large retention factors at Tref. Breaking all analytes in several subsets each with its own Tref leads to discontinuities in the analyte parameters. These problems are avoided in the K-centric modeling where ΔS(T) and ΔS(T) and other analyte parameters are described in relation to their values corresponding to a predetermined reference distribution coefficient (KRef) - the same for all analytes. In this report, the mathematics of the K-centric modeling are described and the properties of several types of K-centric parameters are discussed. It has been shown that the earlier introduced characteristic parameters of the analyte-column interaction (the characteristic temperature, Tchar, and the characteristic thermal constant, θchar) are a special chromatographically convenient case of the K-centric parameters. Transformations of T-centric parameters into K-centric ones and vice-versa as well as the transformations of one set of K-centric parameters into another set and vice-versa are described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard
Feature-centric comprehension of source code is necessary for incorporating user-requested modifications during software evolution and maintenance. However, such comprehension is difficult to achieve in case of large object-oriented programs due to the size, complexity, and implicit character...... of mappings between features and source code. To support programmers in overcoming these difficulties, we present a feature-centric analysis tool, Featureous. Our tool extends the NetBeans IDE with mechanisms for efficient location of feature implementations in legacy source code, and an extensive analysis...... of the discovered feature-code relations through a number of analytical views....
General, DoD, on contract offloading, including Report No. 93-068, " Procurement of Services for the Non-Acoustic Anti-Submarine Warfare Program...contract administration in response to Audit Report No. 93-042. Report No. 93-068, " Procurement of Services for the Non-Acoustic Anti- Submarine Warfare
Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.; Katz, Michael J.; Mondloch, Joseph E.
A method of using a metal organic framework (MOF) comprising a metal ion and an at least bidendate organic ligand to catalytically detoxify chemical warfare nerve agents including exposing the metal-organic-framework (MOF) to the chemical warfare nerve agent and catalytically decomposing the nerve agent with the MOF.
PROCTORING THE JOINT FORCE: NETWORKS, HIERARCHY, AND 21ST CENTURY WARFARE BY MAJOR DANIEL W. TIPPETT A THESIS PRESENTED...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Proctoring the Joint Force: Networks, Hierarchy, and 21st Century Warfare 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c
Revolution.‖ 64Jason Fritz, ―How China will use cyber warfare to leapfrog in military competitiveness,‖ Culture Mandala : The Bulletin of the Centre for East...cyber warfare to leapfrog in military competitiveness.‖ Culture Mandala : The Bulletin of the Centre for East-West Culture and Economic Studies 8 no. 1
Conclusion: Chemical warfare victims have relatively poor dental/oral health. Chemical injury might cause a dysfunction in saliva secretion, with decrease in saliva secretion increasing the risk for tooth decay and periodontal disorders. Further research is required to find out the exact underlying mechanisms and the factors associated with poor dental/oral health in chemical warfare victims.
.... Ethical development and biases formed may be based on theological or philosophical tenets and represent a potential area of conflict during the coalition's operational war planning and decision-making cycle...
van Hoesel, L.F.W.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Chatterjea, Supriyo
In this paper we present a novel TDMA-based medium access control (MAC) protocol for wireless sensor networks. Unlike conventional MAC protocols which function independently of the application, we introduce an Adaptive, Information-centric and Lightweight MAC(AI-LMAC) protocol that adapts its
Scanlon, W.G.; Chandran, A.R.
The ability to electronically switch between off-body and on-body communications is a useful feature for wearable antenna applications. Therefore, we present a novel stacked-patch antenna with a switched propagation mode for body-centric communications at 2.45 GHz. Mounted 2 mm above a muscle-tissue
Purpose: This paper aims to initiate a timely discussion about the epistemological advantages of Web 2.0 as a non-foundational network-centric learning space in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: A philosophical analysis of the underpinning design principles of Web 2.0 social media and of conventional "foundational" and emergent…
Avgeriou, Paris; Zdun, Uwe; Borne, Isabelle
Software evolution has largely been focused on low-level implementation artefacts through refactoring techniques rather than the architectural level. However code-centric evolution techniques have not managed to effectively solve the problems that software evolution entails. Instead a paradigm shift
Decker, Janet R.
A recent study discovered that charter schools designed for children with autism or "autism-centric charter schools" comprise half of the total number of charter schools designed for children with disabilities. However, these unique charter schools may be vulnerable to legal challenges because they may be violating the Individuals with…
Purohit, Sumit; Paulson, Patrick R.; Rodriguez, Luke R.
This research focuses on user-centric approach of building such tools and proposes a flexible, extensible, and easy to use framework to support performance analysis of Big Data systems. Finally, case studies from two different domains are presented to validate the framework.
Sun, Changai; Aiello, Marco
As Service Centric (SC) Systems are being increasing v adopted, new challenges and possibilities emerge. Business processes are now able to execute seamlessly across organizations and to coordinate the interaction of loosely coupled services. Often it is necessary to have transactionality for a set
Hofmeijer, T.J.; Dulman, S.O.; Jansen, P.G.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Sahni, S.
DCOS is a Data Centric lightweight Operating System for embedded devices. Despite limited energy and hardware resources, it supports a data driven architecture with provisions for dynamic loadable Modules. It combines these with Real-Time provisions based on Earliest Deadline First with a simple but
Huang, Shiu-Li; Shiu, Jung-Hung
The success of Web 2.0 inspires e-learning to evolve into e-learning 2.0, which exploits collective intelligence to achieve user-centric learning. However, searching for suitable learning paths and content for achieving a learning goal is time consuming and troublesome on e-learning 2.0 platforms. Therefore, introducing formal learning in these…
Vossel, Hannah; Reed, Jane M.; Houk, Václav; Cvetkoska, Aleksandra; Van De Vijver, Bart
Large, subfossil populations of an unknown centric, planktonic diatom were observed in a lake sediment core from Lake Kinneret (Israel), which is here described as Cyclotella paleo–ocellata sp. nov. The new taxon, which belongs to the Cyclotella ocellata species complex, is described and separated
Stoll, Copper; Giddings, Gene
Transformation of public education requires the reawakening of the sleeping giant in the room: the learners. Students, teachers, and principals must develop a learner-centric, standards-driven school. "Reawakening the Learner" is a guide to creating just such an environment. Continua describe the journey of teachers, teacher leaders, and…
Kukushkin, Merili; Otto, Tauno; Howard, Thomas J.
The companies that discover changes and possibilities within the value system first and make use of them are considered to be prime movers and often are more successful than those who adapt late. Research has been done on multiple levels for understanding value-centric business from a practical...
Dong, Kyung-Rae; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Lee, Jae-Seung; Chung, Woon-Kwan
This study evaluated the usefulness of time resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (TRICKS) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and elliptical centric MRA according to the type of cerebral disease. From February 2010 to January 2012, elliptical centric MRA and TRICKS MRA images were acquired from 50 normal individuals and 50 patients with cerebral diseases by using 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment. The images were analyzed qualitatively by examining areas such as the presence or absence of artifacts on the images, the distinctness of boundaries of blood vessels, accurate representation of the lesions, and the subtraction level. In addition, the sensitivity, specificity, positive prediction rate, negative prediction rate and accuracy were assessed by comparing the diagnostic efficacy of the two techniques. The results revealed TRICKS MRA to have superior image quality to elliptical centric MRA. Regarding each disease, TRICKS MRA showed higher diagnostic efficacy for artery venous malformation (AVM) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass patients whereas elliptical centric MRA was more suitable for patients with brain tumors, cerebral infarction, cerebral stenosis or sinus mass.
Full Text Available The development and use of national guidelines for the exchange of patient-centric healthcare data from electronic medical record systems are essential for the consistent and efficient use and analysis of those data. These guidelines must be based...
Mahalingam, Sheila; Abdollah, Faizal Mohd; Sahib, Shahrin
The paper focus on learner centric attributes in a m-learning environment encounters the security measurements. In order to build up a systematic threat and countermeasure for protecting the learners as well as providing awareness and satisfaction in utilizing the mobile learning system, a security model need to be overhauled. The brief literature…
Zaric, Nicola; Pejanovic-Djurisic, Milica; Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova
This paper proposes the concept of Human Centric Sensing in the context of Internet of Things and Ambient Assisted Living. The paper uses a case study to present and analyze the proposed idea, and identifies the main challenges and open issues that require research and policy attention....
Kim, Dong Min; Thomsen, Henning; Popovski, Petar
In this paper, we describe CoMP2flex, a user-centric base station (BS) cooperation scheme that provides improvements in reliability of both uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) communications of wireless cellular networks. CoMP2flex supports not only cooperation of two BSs with same direction of traffic...
Full Text Available The environmental problems are one of the issues that intensively occupy the agenda of humankind. This fact mainly derives from the ambiguity of the s pan and the content of the issue. The concept of environmental problems can not be confined to th e soil, air and water pollution for the reason that it covers a scope wider than a classical pollution issues. Initially the form of the relations hip between h uman and nature has been relying on the “consumption at the level of content” which stands for a level that is enough to sustain the living. The perception of the nature used to be described with the metaphor of mother while natural environment was defined as the “mother earth”. However subsequent to natural environment definition of the Cartesian philosophy with its approach to the human nature relationship, the core metaphor to describe the natural environment has changed from the metaphor of “mother” to the “slave” which should serve by any means. The human - nature relationship within the context of ethics, both the parties an d their respective statues bear an importance. In terms of ethics of human - nature relationship, it is possible to mention three main approaches. First one is the anthropo - centric approach. Within the scope of historical process, human - nature relationship is addressed according to anthropo - centric ethics comprehension so human has remained at the center of discussion. Following the change of the perception regarding the issue of environment, new approaches have emerged that give emphasis not only on human beings but also others; on li ving and non - living beings with in the eco - system. In principle, this represents a departure from an anthropo - centric ethics to a new ethic approach which fall s into two categories, bio centric and eco - centric. The theo - centric ethics should also be included to these ethics approaches that are shaped within the sphere of positive sciences. The Abrahamic
Full Text Available technology for their day-to-day operation (Panda, Giordano 1999). A report by the Defense Science Board in the United States of America (USA) explains that challenges in the present age include information assurance, and that this requires new...", International Journal of Information Security, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 3-13. Munro, N. 1996, "Sketching a national Information Warfare defense plan", Communications of the ACM, vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 15-17. Panda, B. & Giordano, J. 1999, "Defensive Information...
Mosquera, A.; Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik
In the context of ‘Hybrid Warfare’ as 21st Century’s threat to peace and security, this paper intends to address the role of Lawfare. The use of law as a weapon, Lawfare,1can have a tangible impact on democratic States when their adversaries use it in an exploitative way. Lawfare can be used in the context of Hybrid War.2 Examples of Hybrid Warfare as witnessed in the Russian/Ukrainian conflict of 2014/2015 and the ongoing conflict with Daesh are particularly sensitive to Lawfare due to an ap...
Mattsson Peter A.
Full Text Available This article deals with how Russian warfighting is described and discussed in contemporary Russian military theory. The approach has been studies, analyses and interpretations of primarily Russian sources as prominent Russian journals, but also Western analyses and interpretations of contemporary Russian warfighting discussions. Theoretical considerations are limited to the period from the 1980s to the present day - 2014. Mainly Russian experts on military theory (Bogdanov, Chekinov, Gareev, Kiselyov, Kuralenko, Morozov, Slipchenko, Vinogradov, Vladimirov, Vorobyov have been studied, but also sources from some prominent Western experts on Russian warfare (FitzGerald, Gileotti, Kipp, McDermott.
Johnson, Thomas A
The World Economic Forum regards the threat of cyber attack as one of the top five global risks confronting nations of the world today. Cyber attacks are increasingly targeting the core functions of the economies in nations throughout the world. The threat to attack critical infrastructures, disrupt critical services, and induce a wide range of damage is becoming more difficult to defend against. Cybersecurity: Protecting Critical Infrastructures from Cyber Attack and Cyber Warfare examines the current cyber threat landscape and discusses the strategies being used by governments and corporatio
Le, Jimmy T; Viswanathan, Shilpa; Tarver, Michelle E; Eydelman, Malvina; Li, Tianjing
Minimally invasive glaucoma surgical (MIGS) devices are one option for lowering intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma. To examine how often existing clinical studies of MIGS devices registered on ClinicalTrials.gov measure patient-centric outcomes that patients value directly. We searched ClinicalTrials.gov, a registry of publicly and privately supported clinical studies, on February 20, 2015, for records of MIGS device studies involving patients with glaucoma. Two investigators independently abstracted study design and outcome details from eligible records. We classified outcomes as patient-centric or not patient-centric using a prespecified definition. Proportion of patient-centric and nonpatient-centric outcomes registered on ClinicalTrials.gov. We identified 51 eligible studies specifying 127 outcomes. Reduction in intraocular pressure was the most frequent outcome specified (78/127; 61%) and a primary outcome in 41 studies. Patient-centric outcomes-such as adverse events (n = 19; 15%), topical medication use (n = 16; 13%), visual acuity (n = 4; 3%), and health-related quality of life (n = 1; 1%)-were less frequently specified (n = 40; 32%) and a primary outcome in only 12 studies. Patient-centric outcomes that provide insight into the relative desirability and acceptability of the benefits and risks of MIGS devices are not well represented in current clinical studies.
SYSTEM: ACHIEVING A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE THROUGH ENHANCED “POPULATION-CENTRIC” KNOWLEDGE FLOWS by Eric X. Schaner September 2008 Thesis... Competitive Advantage Through Enhanced “Population-Centric” Knowledge Flows 6. AUTHOR(S) Eric X. Schaner 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Terrain Team, Competitive Advantage , Counterinsurgency Warfare, Tacit Knowledge, Explicit Knowledge 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF
Full Text Available This article presents three reasons for states to use cyber warfare and shows that cyberspace is—and will continue to be—a decisive element in China's strategy to ascend in the international system. The three reasons are: deterrence through infiltration of critical infrastructure; military technological espionage to gain military knowledge; and industrial espionage to gain economic advantage. China has a greater interest in using cyberspace offensively than other actors, such as the United States, since it has more to gain from spying on and deterring the United States than the other way around. The article also documents China's progress in cyber warfare and shows how it works as an extension of its traditional strategic thinking and the current debate within the country. Several examples of cyber attacks traceable to China are also presented. This includes cyber intrusions on a nuclear arms laboratory, attacks on defense ministries (including the Joint Strike Fighter and an airbase and the U.S. electric grid, as well as the current Google affair, which has proved to be a small part of a broader attack that also targeted the U.S. Government. There are, however, certain constraints that qualify the image of China as an aggressive actor in cyberspace. Some believe that China itself is the victim of just as many attacks from other states. Furthermore, certain actors in the United States and the West have an interest in overestimating China's capabilities in cyberspace in order to maintain their budgets.
A. V. Masloboev
Full Text Available The paper deals with development of methods and tools for mathematical and computer modeling of the multilevel network-centric control systems of regional security. This research is carried out under development strategy implementation of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation and national safeguarding for the period before 2020 in the Murmansk region territory. Creation of unified interdepartmental multilevel computer-aided system is proposed intended for decision-making information support and socio-economic security monitoring of the Arctic regions of Russia. The distinctive features of the investigated system class are openness, self-organization, decentralization of management functions and decision-making, weak hierarchy in the decision-making circuit and goal generation capability inside itself. Research techniques include functional-target approach, mathematical apparatus of multilevel hierarchical system theory and principles of network-centric control of distributed systems with pro-active components and variable structure. The work considers network-centric management local decisions coordination problem-solving within the multilevel distributed systems intended for information support of regional security. The coordination problem-solving approach and problem formalization in the multilevel network-centric control systems of regional security have been proposed based on developed multilevel recurrent hierarchical model of regional socio-economic system complex security. The model provides coordination of regional security indexes, optimized by the different elements of multilevel control systems, subject to decentralized decision-making. The model specificity consists in application of functional-target technology and mathematical apparatus of multilevel hierarchical system theory for coordination procedures implementation of the network-centric management local decisions. The work-out and research results can find further
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I proposal seeks support to extend the BrahmsVE architecture to support a multi-agent human-centric simulation of a hypothetical future ISS which is...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A WiMAX networked UAV Telemetry System (WNUTS) is designed for net-centric remote sensing and launch range surveillance applications. WNUTS integrates a MIMO powered...
FERREIRA, Amanda de Freitas; Henriques,João César Guimarães; Almeida,Guilherme Araújo; Machado, Asbel Rodrigues; Machado, Naila Aparecida de Godoi; Fernandes Neto,Alfredo Júlio
This research consisted of a quantitative assessment, and aimed to measure the possible discrepancies between the maxillomandibular positions for centric relation (CR) and maximum intercuspation (MI), using computed tomography volumetric cone beam (cone beam method). The sample of the study consisted of 10 asymptomatic young adult patients divided into two types of standard occlusion: normal occlusion and Angle Class I occlusion. In order to obtain the centric relation, a JIG device and mandi...
FERREIRA, Amanda de Freitas; HENRIQUES, Jo?o C?sar Guimar?es; Almeida, Guilherme de Ara?jo; Machado, Asbel Rodrigues; Machado, Naila Aparecida de Godoi; Fernandes, Alfredo J?lio
ABSTRACT This research consisted of a quantitative assessment, and aimed to measure the possible discrepancies between the maxillomandibular positions for centric relation (CR) and maximum intercuspation (MI), using computed tomography volumetric cone beam (cone beam method). The sample of the study consisted of 10 asymptomatic young adult patients divided into two types of standard occlusion: normal occlusion and Angle Class I occlusion. In order to obtain the centric relation, a JIG device ...
Thakur, Mridul; Jain, Veena; Parkash, Hari; Kumar, Pravesh
To evaluate and compare the centric relation and horizontal condylar guidance using interocclusal wax and extra oral Gothic arch methods and subjective evaluation of dentures thus fabricated. Centric relation and horizontal condylar guidance was recorded by using interocclusal wax and gothic arch tracing in 28 completely edentulous patients. These records were transferred to the articulator and difference in both values was recorded. After that patients were divided in two groups according to...
On September 19, 1996, the Defense Criminal Investigative Service requested assistance from the Assistant Inspector General for Auditing, DoD, in an investigation at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, Virginia...
Orth, Paul H
As part of its squadron activation, the 315th Network Warfare Squadron (NWS) requested assistance from the Air Force Institute of Technology in developing criteria for declaring Initial Operational Capability (IOC...
Full Text Available This article aims to provide a brief and comprehensive introduction to the issue of cyber warfare and to display the recent development in this area. Geographically, it focuses on the Middle East region, since the vast majority of the most important recent cyber attacks appeared just in there or were connected to it. The first part of the article tries to define the key notion of cyber warfare, compares it to the standard warfare and presents different types of cyber weapons that are known today. The second part points out examples of the most striking recent cyber attacks and uses them as evidences to demonstrate today's importance and dissemination of cyber warfare. Finally, the article sums up pros and cons of the cyber weapons and, in view of these, predicts a significant increase in their use in any future war conflicts.
Johnson, Todd J
This monograph is an analysis of Major General Nathanael Greene's implementation of compound warfare in the Southern Department from December 1780 until the British surrender at Yorktown in October 1781...
Springman, Jeffrey A
...? This project compares the relationship between attrition and maneuver warfare. The study considers whether there are times when wars of attrition should be fought, and whether there are conditions that force wars of attrition...
Crane, Conrad C
Much controversy still surrounds accusations that American forces in the Far East during the Korean War used biological warfare against North Korea and China. An analysis of recently declassified documents reveals that, although the United States attempted to accelerate its development and acquisition of such weapons during that period, its efforts to create a viable biological warfare capability were unsuccessful. Plans to similarly expand chemical warfare stocks and capabilities were also frustrated. Technological difficulties, personnel shortages, bureaucratic battles between the armed services, and policy limitations combined to hold back advances in American chemical and biological warfare. In light of the recent fears of terrorist attacks with such weapons, this analysis highlights the great difficulties involved in developing, acquiring, and delivering such capabilities.
China's explosive economy has financed her recent modernization program. Not only is China modernizing her armed forces but many of her senior military authors are advocating a RMA and expounding on its potential value to future warfare...
Denmond, Constance M; Johnson, Derek N; Lewis, Chavius G; Zegley, Christopher R
The purpose of this project is to investigate the potential retention and cost impacts of offering combinations of retention base incentives to members of the Surface Warfare Officer (SWO) community...
Full Text Available The paper deals with the optimization of military capabilities of the Slovak Armed Forces for conducting operations in a hybrid conflict, which represents one of the possible scenarios of irregular warfare. Whereas in the regular warfare adversaries intend to eliminate the centers of gravity of each other, most often command and control structures, in irregular conflicts, the center of gravity shifts towards the will and cognitive perception of the target population. Hybrid warfare comprises a thoroughly planned combination of conventional military approaches and kinetic operations with subversive, irregular activities, including information and cyber operations. These efforts are often accompanied by intensified activities of intelligence services, special operation forces, and even mercenary and other paramilitary groups. The development of irregular warfare capabilities within the Slovak Armed Forces will require a progressive transformation process that may turn the armed forces into a modern and adaptable element of power, capable of deployment in national and international crisis management operations.
The paper deals with the optimization of military capabilities of the Slovak Armed Forces for conducting operations in a hybrid conflict, which represents one of the possible scenarios of irregular warfare...
... CONTACT: Mr. David Olson, Headquarters, Operations and Regulatory Community of Practice, Washington, DC at..., Dahlgren to Baber Point; and thence west along the Upper Machodoc Creek shore of Naval Surface Warfare...
Full Text Available The phenomenon of innovation growing rapidly and having a shorter lifespan is a structural change due to the development of ICT (Information and Communications Technology, diverse investment methods, and reduced pattern of innovation adoption. For ICT companies to survive and maintain their success in this ever-changing environment, they need to succeed in fulfilling both productivity and accuracy of innovation. To sustain their innovative success, ICT companies should consistently maintain the direction of innovation towards consumers. The present study analyzes various cases of ICT companies which succeeded or failed to maintain their prior innovative success, and suggests consumer-centric innovation as a solution. To create consumer-centric innovations, companies have to (1 predict the dynamically evolving demand of consumers and continuously transform; (2 proactively employ observation method and big data analysis to discover hidden demands; and (3 identify hassles such as wastes, inconveniences, and anxieties, and put effort in solving these hassles.
Full Text Available Nowadays, the effective and adaptive dynamic Web service composition is a major challenge for a real success of Web services among ordinary users. For the latter, and from the viewpoint of a user centric paradigm, existing work has limitation on their agility to create a composed service on the fly according to the desire/need of an end-user at a given time/place. This article presents our approach which consists in providing a comprehensive framework for a user centric WS-mediator which is capable of dynamic service composition. It is based on a composition engine which follows user’s specific needs and which yields a composed service through a WS knowledge base. Users can mash up the services at run time with their own logic and have a fully dynamic composition with context adaptation through a WS-mediator that is also capable of supporting the semantic web.
Applied data-centric social sciences aim to develop both methodology and practical applications of various fields of social sciences and businesses with rich data. Specifically, in the social sciences, a vast amount of data on human activities may be useful for understanding collective human nature. In this book, the author introduces several mathematical techniques for handling a huge volume of data and analysing collective human behaviour. The book is constructed from data-oriented investigation, with mathematical methods and expressions used for dealing with data for several specific problems. The fundamental philosophy underlying the book is that both mathematical and physical concepts are determined by the purposes of data analysis. This philosophy is shown throughout exemplar studies of several fields in socio-economic systems. From a data-centric point of view, the author proposes a concept that may change people’s minds and cause them to start thinking from the basis of data. Several goals underlie ...
Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard
software maintenance and evolution, this situation needs to change. In this paper, we present Featureous, an integrated development environment built on top of the NetBeans IDE that facilitates feature-centric analysis of object-oriented software. Our integrated development environment encompasses......The decentralized nature of collaborations between objects in object-oriented software makes it difficult to understand the implementations of user-observable program features and their respective interdependencies. As feature-centric program understanding and modification are essential during...... a lightweight feature location mechanism, a number of reusable analytical views, and necessary APIs for supporting future extensions. The base of the integrated development environment is a conceptual framework comprising of three complementary dimensions of comprehension: perspective, abstraction...
Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova
– Human-Centric Sensing (HCS) is a newly emerged concept in the context of the Internet of Things (IoT) and the active and assisted living (AAL) scenario. HCS connectivity, also referred to as “smart connectivity” enables applications that are highly personalized and often time-critical. In a typ......– Human-Centric Sensing (HCS) is a newly emerged concept in the context of the Internet of Things (IoT) and the active and assisted living (AAL) scenario. HCS connectivity, also referred to as “smart connectivity” enables applications that are highly personalized and often time......-critical. In a typical HCS scenario, there may be many hundreds of sensor streams connections; centered around the human, who would be the determining factor for the number, the purpose, the direction and the frequency of the sensor streams. This paper investigates the accuracy of user location identification...
Full Text Available We propose a hierarchical brokering architecture (HiBA and Mobile Multicloud Networking (MMCN feedback control framework for mobile device-centric cloud (MDC2 computing. Exploiting the MMCN framework and RESTful web-based interconnection, each tier broker probes resource state of its federation for control and management. Real-time and seamless services were developed. Case studies including intrafederation energy-aware balancing based on fuzzy feedback control and higher tier load balancing are further demonstrated to show how HiBA with MMCN relieves the embedding of algorithms when developing services. Theoretical performance model and real-world experiments both show that an MDC2 based on HiBA features better quality in terms of resource availability and network latency if it federates devices with enough resources distributed in lower tier hierarchy. The proposed HiBA realizes a development platform for MDC2 computing which is a feasible solution to User-Centric Networks (UCNs.
Watching Hainan, Remembering Murmansk : Cold War Analogies, Maritime Access, and the Future of Warfare Adam Grissom 78 10 Irregular Warfare and Future War...77 Betz The Mystique of "Cyberwar" and the Strategic Latency of Networked Social Movements 9. Watching Hainan, Remembering Murmansk Cold War...issues. Strategic Insights • October 2011 Volume 10, Special Issue 79 Grissom Watching Hainan, Remembering Murmansk : Cold War Analogies, Maritime
for a constructivist perspective of social movement theory that emphasized the role of subjective interpretation and meaning in causing and sustaining...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Past and Potential Theory for Special Warfare Operational Art: People’s War and...Potential Theory for Special Warfare Operational Art: People’s War and Contentious Politics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM
Clark, Eric S.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines the effect of the timing of graduation education attainment on retention of officers within the Surface Warfare community. Navy Surface Warfare Officers (SWOs) commissioned between fiscal years 1999 and 2003 were classified as having no graduate degree, or earning their master’s prior to service, before five years of service, between five and 10 years of service, and after 10 years of service. Differential bivariat...
Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development by Neal Tesny Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...14. ABSTRACT Software and hardware were developed to control the rotation of the 6 double-ridged waveguide horn antennas that are used in the
Kline, Jeff; O’Neal, Carol
The purpose of the Warfare Innovation Continuum is to coordinate and execute a series of cross‐campus educational and research activities synchronized by the Chair of Systems Engineering Analysis with a central theme of exploring the creation of asymmetric warfighting advantages across all domains. The focus will be on leveraging unmanned systems to enhance cross domain operations and developing the Electromagnetic Maneuver Warfare (EMW) concept by extending research in electro...
Dolislager, Frederick [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bansleben, Dr. Donald [U.S. Department of Homeland Security; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL
Health-based surface clearance goals, in units of mg/cm2, have been developed for the persistent chemical warfare agents sulfur mustard (HD) and nerve agent VX as well as their principal degradation products. Selection of model parameters and critical receptor (toddler child) allow calculation of surface residue estimates protective for the toddler child, the general population and adult employees of a facilty that has undergone chemical warfare agent attack.
The present study relates to the field of digital marketing communication. The purpose of the study is to create a customer-centric digital marketing communication strategy for Salusfin, a technological start-up company in need of an effective digital strategy. The key issue of the study is to provide an insight on how digital marketing communication tools can fulfil the needs and benefit the company while adding value for the customers. The research questions addressed in the study are 1. Wh...
consider alterna- tives reveals that the Army has become dogmatic, bound like a Gordian knot to the methods of population-centric counterinsurgency...cure the population, win the hearts and minds, and from this new position of power the deals cut with the Sons of Iraq, Moqtada al Sadr’s retreat...the Sunni community convinced the insurgents that they could no longer counter all these forces and it was to their advantage to cut a deal with the
Marx, R.; Simo Fhom, H.; Scheuermann, D.; Bayarou, K.M.; Perez, A.
In this paper, we describe how security and privacy can be increased in user-centric Identity Management (IdM) by the introduction of a so-called IdM card. This IdM card securely stores and processes identity data of the card owner, an end user. The card represents a trusted device that supports the user in managing its digital identities and also in performing secure and privacy-enhanced service authentication and authorization.
A. V. Masloboev; V. A. Putilov; A. V. Sioutine
The paper deals with development of methods and tools for mathematical and computer modeling of the multilevel network-centric control systems of regional security. This research is carried out under development strategy implementation of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation and national safeguarding for the period before 2020 in the Murmansk region territory. Creation of unified interdepartmental multilevel computer-aided system is proposed intended for decision-making information suppo...
M&S. Enhanced MVC framework is designed to provide this capability  Table 2: Comparison of MDA and DUNIP 5.3 Potential Issues and Drawbacks...for Capabilities Based Planning”, Simulation Interoperability Workshop Spring 2004  Badros, G. JavaML: a Markup Language for Java Source Code...Enhanced MVC framework is designed to provide.Dynamic capability Summary • DUNIP supports web-centric development and testing of SoS • Advantages of
Ge Sun; Peter Caldwell; Asko Noormets; Steven G. McNulty; Erika Cohen; al. et.
We developed a waterâcentric monthly scale simulation model (WaSSIâC) by integrating empirical water and carbon flux measurements from the FLUXNET network and an existing water supply and demand accounting model (WaSSI). The WaSSIâC model was evaluated with basinâscale evapotranspiration (ET), gross ecosystem productivity (GEP), and net ecosystem exchange (NEE)...
Chaves, Duarte Arriaga e Cunha Matos
A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics The way the independent hotel industry makes business has recently changed. Startup venture capitalist GuestCentric Systemsi henceforth called GC, is a small sized IT company that is tackling an unmet opportunity, they are revolutionizing the online presence of the independent hotel industry by offering a fully integrated e-commerce ma...
Purpose: The purpose of this empirical master study is to examine how innovation strategy, emphasizing Value-centric innovation strategies, can help to enhance mobile & tablet B2B/Business app Product-Life-Cycles. Furthermore, analyzing strategical aspects and how these impact; digital value creation & digital value capturing, app B2B marketing, disruption, diffusion, high growth user adoptions and app profit and profitability. The research takes a holistic approach to brin...
Although several books and academic courses discuss data management and networking, few of them focus on the convergence of networking and software technologies for identifying, addressing, and managing distributed data. Focusing on this convergence, Identification and Management of Distributed Data: NGN, Content-Centric Networks and the Web collates and describes the various distributed data management technologies to help readers from various backgrounds understand the common aspects that govern distributed data management. With a focus on the primary problems in identifying, addressing, and
Fei Wang; YongJun Xu; Lin Wu; Longyijia Li; Dan Liu; Liehuang Zhu
Security is a crucial issue in distributed applications of multihop wireless opportunistic network due to the features of exposed on the fly communication, relaxed end-to-end connectivity, and vague destinations literately. In this paper, we focus on problems of user privacy leakage and end-to-end confidentiality invasion in content-based or interest-centric wireless opportunistic network. And we propose a public-encryption-with-fuzzy-keyword-search- (PEFKS-) and ciphertext-policy-attribute-b...
El Essaili, Ali
The focus of this thesis is to design, implement and evaluate novel user-centric approaches for the distribution of the limited wireless network resources across multiple users in a mobile cell. The first part of this thesis is concerned with the uplink distribution of user-generated video content over fourth generation mobile networks. The second part explores the benefit of QoE-based traffic and resource management in the mobile network in the context of adaptive HTTP downlink video deliver...
Yao, Haipeng; Qiu, Chao; Fang, Chao; Chen, Xu; Yu, F. Richard
Many communities have researched the application of novel network architectures such as Content-Centric Networking (CCN) and Software-Defined Networking (SDN) to build the future Internet. Another emerging technology which is big data analysis has also won lots of attentions from academia to industry. Many splendid researches have been done on CCN, SDN, and big data, which all have addressed separately in the traditional literature. In this paper, we propose a novel network paradigm to jointl...
Bruère, A N; Ellis, P M
The significance of centric fusions (Robertsonian translocations) in domestic animals, with special reference to sheep, is reviewed. The mating is described of a further 856 ewes with either a normal chromosome number 2n = 54 or carrying one or more of the three different translocations (centric fusions) t1, t2 and t3 in various heterozygous and homozygous arrangements. Rams which were used in the matings were homozygous for one of the translocation chromosomes (2n = 52), double heterozygotes (2n = 52), triple heterozygotes (2n = 51) or were carriers of 4 translocation chromosomes (2n = 50) and 5 translocation chromosomes (2n = 49). A remarkably even distribution of segregation products was recorded in the progeny of all combinations of translocation ewes x translocation rams in those groups in which sufficient animals were available for statistical analysis. Forty-eight chromosomally different groups of animals were mated. Further, the overall fertility of the translocation sheep, measured by conception rate to first service, lambing percentage and number of ewes which did not breed a lamb, was not significantly different from New Zealand national sheep breeding data. In some groups the poorer reproductive performance could be explained by the age structure of the flock and inbreeding depression, which probably affected the performance of some animals. Sheep with progressively decreasing chromosome numbers, due to centric fusion, 2n = 50, 2n = 49 and 2n = 48, are reported. The 2n = 48 category represents a triple homozygous ewe and a triple homozygous ram and is the first report of the viable evolution of such domestic animals. Less than 1% of phenotypically abnormal lambs were recorded in a total of 1995 progeny born over 10 years. It is now considered that there is little or no evidence to suggest that centric fusions in a variety of combinations affect the total productive fitness of domestic sheep. It is suggested that future research should be more actively
Zhang, Rong; Wang, Jiaheng; Wang, Zhaocheng; Xu, Zhengyuan; Zhao, Chunming; Hanzo, Lajos
At the time of writing, there is substantial research interest in the subject of Visible Light Communications (VLC) owing to its capability of offering significant traffic offloading potential in highly crowded Radio Frequency (RF) scenarios. We introduce the user-centric design of VLC for Heterogeneous Networks (HetNet), where three key aspects are identified and elaborated on, namely 1) signal coverage quality, 2) system control and 3) service provision aspects. More explicitly, the concept...
Uyar, Bora; Yusuf, Dilmurat; Wurmus, Ricardo; Rajewsky, Nikolaus; Ohler, Uwe; Akalin, Altuna
In the field of RNA, the technologies for studying the transcriptome have created a tremendous potential for deciphering the puzzles of the RNA biology. Along with the excitement, the unprecedented volume of RNA related omics data is creating great challenges in bioinformatics analyses. Here, we present the RNA Centric Annotation System (RCAS), an R package, which is designed to ease the process of creating gene-centric annotations and analysis for the genomic regions of interest obtained from various RNA-based omics technologies. The design of RCAS is modular, which enables flexible usage and convenient integration with other bioinformatics workflows. RCAS is an R/Bioconductor package but we also created graphical user interfaces including a Galaxy wrapper and a stand-alone web service. The application of RCAS on published datasets shows that RCAS is not only able to reproduce published findings but also helps generate novel knowledge and hypotheses. The meta-gene profiles, gene-centric annotation, motif analysis and gene-set analysis provided by RCAS provide contextual knowledge which is necessary for understanding the functional aspects of different biological events that involve RNAs. In addition, the array of different interfaces and deployment options adds the convenience of use for different levels of users. RCAS is available at http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/RCAS.html and http://rcas.mdc-berlin.de. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Modern applications, such as drug repositioning, require sophisticated analytics on RDF graphs that combine structural queries with generic graph computations. Existing systems support either declarative SPARQL queries, or generic graph processing, but not both. We bridge the gap by introducing Spartex, a versatile framework for complex RDF analytics. Spartex extends SPARQL to support programs that combine seamlessly generic graph algorithms (e.g., PageRank, Shortest Paths, etc.) with SPARQL queries. Spartex builds on existing vertex-centric graph processing frameworks, such as Graphlab or Pregel. It implements a generic SPARQL operator as a vertex-centric program that interprets SPARQL queries and executes them efficiently using a built-in optimizer. In addition, any graph algorithm implemented in the underlying vertex-centric framework, can be executed in Spartex. We present various scenarios where our framework simplifies significantly the implementation of complex RDF data analytics programs. We demonstrate that Spartex scales to datasets with billions of edges, and show that our core SPARQL engine is at least as fast as the state-of-the-art specialized RDF engines. For complex analytical tasks that combine generic graph processing with SPARQL, Spartex is at least an order of magnitude faster than existing alternatives.
Bullock, I M; Ma, R R; Dollar, A M
This work contributes to the development of a common framework for the discussion and analysis of dexterous manipulation across the human and robotic domains. An overview of previous work is first provided along with an analysis of the tradeoffs between arm and hand dexterity. A hand-centric and motion-centric manipulation classification is then presented and applied in four different ways. It is first discussed how the taxonomy can be used to identify a manipulation strategy. Then, applications for robot hand analysis and engineering design are explained. Finally, the classification is applied to three activities of daily living (ADLs) to distinguish the patterns of dexterous manipulation involved in each task. The same analysis method could be used to predict problem ADLs for various impairments or to produce a representative benchmark set of ADL tasks. Overall, the classification scheme proposed creates a descriptive framework that can be used to effectively describe hand movements during manipulation in a variety of contexts and might be combined with existing object centric or other taxonomies to provide a complete description of a specific manipulation task.
Xu, Q.; Hollingsworth, P.; Smith, K.
Emerging design concepts such as miniaturisation, modularity, and standardisation, have contributed to the rapid development of small and inexpensive platforms, particularly cubesats. This has been stimulating an upcoming revolution in space design and development, leading satellites into the era of "smaller, faster, and cheaper". However, the current requirement-centric design philosophy, focused on bespoke monolithic systems, along with the associated development and production process does not inherently fit with the innovative modular, standardised, and mass-produced technologies. This paper presents a new categorisation, characterisation, and value-centric design architecture to address this need for both traditional and novel system designs. Based on the categorisation of system configurations, a characterisation of space systems, comprised of duplication, fractionation, and derivation, is proposed to capture the overall system configuration characteristics and promote potential hybrid designs. Complying with the definitions of the system characterisation, mathematical mapping relations between the system characterisation and the system properties are described to establish the mathematical foundation of the proposed value-centric design methodology. To illustrate the methodology, subsystem reliability relationships are therefore analysed to explore potential system configurations in the design space. The results of the applications of system characteristic analysis clearly show that the effects of different configuration characteristics on the system properties can be effectively analysed and evaluated, enabling the optimization of system configurations.
Full Text Available Recent rapid developments in wireless and mobile IT technologies have led to their application in many real-life areas, such as disasters, home networks, mobile social networks, medical services, industry, schools, and the military. Business/work environments have become wire/wireless, integrated with wireless networks. Although the increase in the use of mobile devices that can use wireless networks increases work efficiency and provides greater convenience, wireless access to networks represents a security threat. Currently, wireless intrusion prevention systems (IPSs are used to prevent wireless security threats. However, these are not an ideal security measure for businesses that utilize mobile devices because they do not take account of temporal-spatial and role information factors. Therefore, in this paper, an efficient and secure mobile-IPS (m-IPS is proposed for businesses utilizing mobile devices in mobile environments for human-centric computing. The m-IPS system incorporates temporal-spatial awareness in human-centric computing with various mobile devices and checks users’ temporal spatial information, profiles, and role information to provide precise access control. And it also can extend application of m-IPS to the Internet of things (IoT, which is one of the important advanced technologies for supporting human-centric computing environment completely, for real ubiquitous field with mobile devices.
Full Text Available Our increasing dependence on information technologies and autonomous systems has escalated international concern for information- and cyber-security in the face of politically, socially and religiously motivated cyber-attacks. Information warfare tactics that interfere with the flow of information can challenge the survival of individuals and groups. It is increasingly important that both humans and machines can make decisions that ensure the trustworthiness of information, communication and autonomous systems. Subsequently, an important research direction is concerned with modelling decision-making processes. One approach to this involves modelling decision-making scenarios as games using game theory. This paper presents a survey of information warfare literature, with the purpose of identifying games that model different types of information warfare operations. Our contribution is a systematic identification and classification of information warfare games, as a basis for modelling decision-making by humans and machines in such scenarios. We also present a taxonomy of games that map to information warfare and cyber crime problems as a precursor to future research on decision-making in such scenarios. We identify and discuss open research questions including the role of behavioural game theory in modelling human decision making and the role of machine decision-making in information warfare scenarios.
Full Text Available The military joint operations of the future are characterized by large concentrations of forces and conventional means on the directions that permit the exploitation of the technological superiority and the manifestation of the offensive spirit of the commanders of the joint operation force groups. Having in mind the fact that the relation between the combatant forces and the logistic ones will shift more and more in favour of the latter, the aforementioned operations will be usually supported by modern flexible logistic structures. The constituted force groups will have a significant joint force character, ensuring superior quality of the troops’ combat training, both at individual level and collective level of units and large units. The current article presents innovative aspects of focused logistics, adapted for the modern warfare, which should be designed and achieved in order to increase the operational potential of the joint force groups.
Noah, D L; Sobel, A L; Ostroff, S M; Kildew, J A
The threat of biological terrorism and warfare may increase as the availability of weaponizable agents increases, the relative production costs of these agents decrease, and, most importantly, there exist terrorist groups willing to use them. Therefore, an important consideration during the current period of heightened surveillance for emerging infectious diseases is the ability to differentiate between natural and intentional outbreaks. Certain attributes of a disease outbreak, although perhaps not pathognomonic for a biological attack when considered singly, may combine to provide convincing evidence of intentional causation. These potentially differentiating criteria include proportion of combatants at risk, temporal patterns of illness onset, number of cases, clinical presentation, strain/variant, economic impact, geographic location, morbidity/mortality, antimicrobial resistance patterns, seasonal distribution, zoonotic potential, residual infectivity/toxicity, prevention/therapeutic potential, route of exposure, weather/climate conditions, incubation period, and concurrence with belligerent activities of potential adversaries.
Noah, D L; Sobel, A L; Ostroff, S M; Kildew, J A
The threat of biological terrorism and warfare may increase as the availability of weaponizable agents increase, the relative production costs of these agents decrease, and, most importantly, there exist terrorist groups willing to use them. Therefore, an important consideration during the current emphasis of heightened surveillance for emerging infectious diseases is the capability to differentiate between natural and intentional outbreaks. Certain attributes of a disease outbreak, while perhaps not pathognomic for a biological attack when considered singly, may in combination with other attributes provide convincing evidence for intentional causation. These potentially differentiating criteria include proportion of combatants at risk, temporal patterns of illness onset, number of cases, clinical presentation, strain/variant, economic impact, geographic location, morbidity/mortality, antimicrobial resistance patterns, seasonal distribution, zoonotic potential, residual infectivity/toxicity, prevention/therapeutic potential, route of exposure, weather/climate conditions, incubation period, and concurrence with belligerent activities of potential adversaries.
Full Text Available Employing a perspective informed by brand management, this article aims at understanding information warfare operations in social media. The state, seen as brand, must project an image of itself to both internal and foreign audiences to unite the domestic audience and/or attract global support. However, in constructing a brand, states are vulnerable to ‘sofa warriors’ – ordinary individuals who have been unwittingly recruited by hostile actors to disseminate (over social media or other platforms a counter-brand, harmful to the state concerned. These new threats are investigated in light of recent tendencies in online branding, elucidating their status as a national security threat, with the potential to significantly disrupt life in political communities.
Gary C. Kessler
Full Text Available Libicki, M.C. (2007. Conquest in Cyberspace: National Security and Information Warfare. New York: Cambridge University Press. 323 pages, ISBN: 978-0-521-69214-4 (paper, US$80Reviewed by Gary C. Kessler (firstname.lastname@example.orgMany books -- and even movies ("Live Free or Die Hard" -- are based upon the premise of an impending information war. In these scenarios -- made all too plausible by the increased frequency with which we read about and experience major information security incidents -- a Bad Guy exploits known computer security vulnerabilities in order to control major national infrastructures via the Internet so as to reap financial, economic, and/or personal power.(see PDF for full review
This article examines 18th-century European warfare, tracing the first formal codifications of conventions of war, frequently introduced by military physicians and initially regarding the treatment...
Jastram, Nathan Joseph
This thesis presents the analysis, design and measurements of novel passive front ends of interest to millimeter wave electronic warfare systems. However, emerging threats in the millimeter waves (18 GHz and above) has led to a push for new systems capable of addressing these threats. At these frequencies, traditional techniques of design and fabrication are challenging due to small size, limited bandwidth and losses. The use of surface micromachining technology for wideband direction finding with multiple element antenna arrays for electronic support is demonstrated. A wideband tapered slot antenna is first designed and measured as an array element for the subsequent arrays. Both 18--36 GHz and 75--110 GHz amplitude only and amplitude/phase two element direction finding front ends are designed and measured. The design of arrays using Butler matrix and Rotman lens beamformers for greater than two element direction finding over W band and beyond using is also presented. The design of a dual polarized high power capable front end for electronic attack over an 18--45 GHz band is presented. To combine two polarizations into the same radiating aperture, an orthomode transducer (OMT) based upon a new double ridge waveguide cross section is developed. To provide greater flexibility in needed performance characteristics, several different turnstile junction matching sections are tested. A modular horn section is proposed to address flexible and ever changing operational requirements, and is designed for performance criteria such as constant gain, beamwidth, etc. A multi-section branch guide coupler and low loss Rotman lens based upon the proposed cross section are also developed. Prototyping methods for the herein designed millimeter wave electronic warfare front ends are investigated. Specifically, both printed circuit board (PCB) prototyping of micromachined systems and 3D printing of conventionally machined horns are presented. A 4--8 GHz two element array with
Major Richard Hughbank
Full Text Available Both domestic and international terrorist organizations employ guerrilla warfare tactics, techniques, and procedures. Thus, the ability to identify and defeat the members of these organizations, cripple their infrastructures, and disrupt their financial resources lies in the understanding of modern guerrilla warfare as it develops in the twenty-first century within the United States.3 The forms of asymmetric warfare4 adopted by domestic and international terrorist groups alike is no longer intended to gain simple media exposure or governmental manipulation; they want to make an overpowering impact by causing massive loss of life and severe damage to infrastructure and are often motivated by religious imperatives and political goals. As terrorism analyst Stephen Flynn has observed, "Throughout the 20th century [Americans] were able to treat national security as essentially an out-of-body experience. When confronted by threats, [America] dealt with them on the turf of our allies or our adversaries. Aside from the occasional disaster and heinous crime, civilian life [in the United States] has been virtually terror-free." With the turn of the twenty-first century, terrorist operations have become more prevalent in the United States and are taking shape in the form of modern guerrilla warfare, thus creating new challenges for federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies. After reviewing the origin and nature of these challenges, this article will offer some suggestions for countering guerilla warfare in the United States.
Smith, Meredith Y; Benattia, Isma
Patient-centeredness has become an acknowledged hallmark of not only high-quality health care but also high-quality drug development. Biopharmaceutical companies are actively seeking to be more patient-centric in drug research and development by involving patients in identifying target disease conditions, participating in the design of, and recruitment for, clinical trials, and disseminating study results. Drug safety departments within the biopharmaceutical industry are at a similar inflection point. Rising rates of per capita prescription drug use underscore the importance of having robust pharmacovigilance systems in place to detect and assess adverse drug reactions (ADRs). At the same time, the practice of pharmacovigilance is being transformed by a host of recent regulatory guidances and related initiatives which emphasize the importance of the patient's perspective in drug safety. Collectively, these initiatives impact the full range of activities that fall within the remit of pharmacovigilance, including ADR reporting, signal detection and evaluation, risk management, medication error assessment, benefit-risk assessment and risk communication. Examples include the fact that manufacturing authorization holders are now expected to monitor all digital sources under their control for potential reports of ADRs, and the emergence of new methods for collecting, analysing and reporting patient-generated ADR reports for signal detection and evaluation purposes. A drug safety department's ability to transition successfully into a more patient-centric organization will depend on three defining attributes: (1) a patient-centered culture; (2) deployment of a framework to guide patient engagement activities; and (3) demonstrated proficiency in patient-centered competencies, including patient engagement, risk communication and patient preference assessment. Whether, and to what extent, drug safety departments embrace the new patient-centric imperative, and the methods and
Levy, Renato; Lyell, Margaret
In Net-centric operations the timely flow of the correct information to the mission partners is fundamental for the success of the endeavor. Yet, as we strive to work in multi-agencies and multi-national coalitions it is important to control the flow of information. This is the information assurance net-centric dilemma. How to speed the flow of information while keeping the necessary access boundaries? Current multi-level security and role base access strategies and their derivatives control the flow of data, but fail to implement higher levels of information policy. We propose an architecture capable of supporting the solution of the Net-Centric dilemma. This architecture, distributed and scalable, is compatible with Air Force's Metadata Environment initiative (MDE). In the proposed architecture the metadata tagged data items are used to construct a semantic map of how the information items are associated. Using this map, policy can be applied to information items. Provided the policy is logically based, reasoners can be used to identify not only if the person soliciting the data item has rights to receive it but also what kind of information can be derived from this data based on information retrieved previously. The full architecture includes the determination of which information can be relayed or not at any given time, as well as all the required mechanisms for enforcement including identification of potential intentional fraudulent actions. The proposed architecture is extensible and does not require any specific policy language or reasoner to be effective. Multiple approaches can be simultaneously present in the system.
and Saudi Arabia expel Iraqi forces in 1995, American military intervention put a stop to the persecution and massacre of Bosnian Muslims by Serbs...contained and removed before their ideological tenets are absorbed and acted upon by the general population. The Banana Wars of the early 20th
... Panama City Division Mission Activities AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... proposed action, announces its decision to improve the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division's.... Carmen Ferrer, Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division, Code CX06, 110 Vernon Avenue, Panama...
This paper considers incorporating autonomy into human-centric Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) environments. Specifically, it focuses on identifying ways that current autonomy technologies can augment human control and the challenges presented by additive autonomy. Three approaches to this challenge are considered, stemming from prior work in two converging areas. In the first, the problem is approached as augmenting what humans currently do with automation. In the alternate approach, the problem is approached as treating humans as actors within a cyber-physical system-of-systems (stemming from robotic distributed computing). A third approach, combines elements of both of the aforementioned.
Neha Shankar Sharma
Full Text Available The clinical research industry today is undergoing a major facelift. Companies are continuously looking to adopt and implement effective and innovative ways to accelerate drug launches in the market. Companies today are more open and do not view patients as mere "subjects" who generate data, - but as informed collaborators whose participation is "core" to the overall success of trials leading to the emergence of the concept of "patient-centric trials." This paper is intended to highlight the current trends and new opportunities that can be seen in industry -indicative of crucial role patients today play in their own health care using technology, social media and self education.
Sharma, Neha Shankar
The clinical research industry today is undergoing a major facelift. Companies are continuously looking to adopt and implement effective and innovative ways to accelerate drug launches in the market. Companies today are more open and do not view patients as mere "subjects" who generate data, - but as informed collaborators whose participation is "core" to the overall success of trials leading to the emergence of the concept of "patient-centric trials." This paper is intended to highlight the current trends and new opportunities that can be seen in industry -indicative of crucial role patients today play in their own health care using technology, social media and self education.
Adjei, Joseph K.; Olesen, Henning
-ernments in many countries are implementing identity man-agement systems (IdMS) to curtail these incidences and to offer citizens the power to exercise informational self-determination. Using concepts from technology adoption and fit-viability theo-ries as well as the laws of identity, this paper analyzes...... the crite-ria for successful implementation and defines a framework for a citizen-centric national IdMS. Results from a survey con-ducted in Ghana are also included....
Mikkelsen, Gert Læssøe; Keller, Marcel; Rupp, Andy
logarithms, representations, p-th roots, etc.), as well as OR statements. These building blocks are proven secure in our model. Furthermore, we apply the developed primitives and techniques in the context of user-centric protocols. In particular, we construct distributed-user variants of Brands’ e......, such as identification schemes, electronic cash (e-cash), and anonymous credentials. We present a security model for threshold proofs of knowledge and develop threshold versions of well-known primitives such as range proofs, zero-knowledge proofs for preimages of homomorphisms (which generalizes PoKs of discrete...
Cheng, Xiaosheng; Liao, Wenhe; Zhang, Xiang; Yu, Qing
The rotation axis equation of the simple articulator is built by the cylinder feature identification, which facilitates the rotation transform of the lower jaw data. Then the collision points and areas on the position of centric occlusion are found to form two collision couples. The virtual orientation of the lower and upper jaws model is realized by collision detection of the collision couples. Consequently the occlusal relation between the lower and upper jaws is established. It sets a good basis for the virtual adjustment of edentulous occlusal surface. The jaw movement of opening and closing in the state of hinge axis is also simulated accordingly.
Conroy, Mike; Mazzone, Rebecca; Lin, Wei
This whitepaper accepts the goals, needs and objectives of NASA's Integrated Model-centric Architecture (NIMA); adds experience and expertise from the Constellation program as well as NASA's architecture development efforts; and provides suggested concepts, practices and norms that nurture and enable model use and re-use across programs, projects and other complex endeavors. Key components include the ability to effectively move relevant information through a large community, process patterns that support model reuse and the identification of the necessary meta-information (e.g. history, credibility, and provenance) to safely use and re-use that information.
air are responsive to his intent. A useful analogy is a fishing charter captain allowing the mates to catch bait fish while missing the chance to...hook a world record marlin that is trailing the boat. A similar situation in a combat zone has far more serious consequences. Although admittedly
Heuvel, Willem-Jan van den; Zimmermann, Olaf; Leymann, Frank; Lago, Patricia; Schieferdecker, Ina; Zdun, Uwe; Avgeriou, Paris
Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) constitutes a modern, standards-based and technology-independent paradigm and architectural style for distributed enterprise computing. The SOA style promotes the publishing, discovery, and binding of loosely-coupled, network-accessible software services. With SOA
Van Den Heuvel W.-J.; Zimmermann O.; Leymann F.; Lago P.; Schieferdecker I.; Zdun U.; Avgeriou P.
Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) constitutes a modern, standards-based and technology-independent paradigm and architectural style for distributed enterprise computing. The SOA style promotes the publishing, discovery, and binding of loosely-coupled, network-accessible software services. With SOA systems operating in distributed and heterogeneous execution environments, the engineers of such systems are confined by the limits of traditional software engineering. In this position paper, we ...
In his Politica: Politics Methodically set Forth and Illustrated with Sacred and Profane Examples published in 1603 Johannes Althusius' sets out his grand scheme of republican federalism. Soon, however, the final establishment of the territorial state and the paradigm of statism relegated grand federalism to the distant ...
Greenfield, Ronald A; Brown, Brent R; Hutchins, James B; Iandolo, John J; Jackson, Rhett; Slater, Leonard N; Bronze, Michael S
Microbiological, biological, and chemical toxins have been employed in warfare and in terrorist attacks. In this era, it is imperative that health care providers are familiar with illnesses caused by these agents. Botulinum toxin produces a descending flaccid paralysis. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B produces a syndrome of fever, nausea, and diarrhea and may produce a pulmonary syndrome if aerosolized. Clostridium perfringens epsilon-toxin could possibly be aerosolized to produce acute pulmonary edema. Ricin intoxication can manifest as gastrointestinal hemorrhage after ingestion, severe muscle necrosis after intramuscular injection, and acute pulmonary disease after inhalation. Nerve agents inhibit acetylcholinesterase and thus produce symptoms of increased cholinergic activity. Ammonia, chlorine, vinyl chloride, phosgene, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide, tear gas, and zinc chloride primarily injure the upper respiratory tract and the lungs. Sulfur mustard (and nitrogen mustard) are vesicant and alkylating agents. Cyanide poisoning ranges from sudden-onset headache and drowsiness to severe hypoxemia, cardiovascular collapse, and death. Health care providers should be familiar with the medical consequences of toxin exposure, and understand the pathophysiology and management of resulting illness.
Full Text Available This paper, part of a larger project that examines drones from a social-construction of technology perspective, considers drone warfare in light of Harold Innis’s seminal work on empire and communication. Leveraging leading-edge aeronautics with advanced optics, data processing, and networked communication, drones represent an archetypal “space-biased” technology. Indeed, by allowing remote operators and others to monitor, select, and strike targets from half a world away, and in real-time, these weapon systems epitomize the “pernicious neglect of time” Innis sought to identify and remedy in his later writing. With Innis’s time-space dialectic as a starting point, then, the paper considers drones in light of a longstanding paradox of American culture: the impulse to collapse the geographical distance between the United States and other parts of the globe, while simultaneously magnifying the cultural difference between Americans and other peoples and societies. In the midst of the worldwide proliferation of drones, this quintessentially sublime technology embodies this (disconnect in important, profound, and ominous ways.
Anderson, Debra A.
The purpose of this doctoral project was to develop the most credible educational tool openly available to enhance the understanding and the application of biological weapons threat analysis. The theory governing the effectiveness of biological weapons was integrated from publications, lectures, and seminars primarily provided by Kenneth Alibek and William C. Patrick III, the world's foremost authorities on the topic. Both experts validated the accuracy of the theory compiled from their work and provided forewords. An exercise requiring analysis of four national intelligence estimates of the former Soviet biological warfare program was included in the form of educational case studies to enhance retention, experience, and confidence by providing a platform against which the reader can apply the newly learned theory. After studying the chapters on BW theory, the reader can compare his/her analysis of the national intelligence estimates against the analysis provided in the case studies by this researcher. This training aid will be a valuable tool for all who are concerned with the threat posed by biological weapons and are therefore seeking the most reliable source of information in order to better understand the true nature of the threat.
João Paulo Nunes Vicente
Full Text Available A century after the first air bomb mission, a new intervention in the same geographic space has made evident the changes in Airpower. The Aerial Warfare in Libya has radically changed the civil war, complying with a UN mission to protect Libyan population, imposing a no-fly zone and an arms embargo. Therefore, Operation Unified Protector became one of the most successful campaigns in the history of NATO. We aim to assess the operational efficiency of Airpower in the conflict in Libya, focusing on the challenges of a War essentially Aerial. Despite the military results and the fact that some political objectives were met, we can identify some concerning trends that, if not shifted, may negatively influence future NATO operations. We do not aim to draw general and universal conclusions on the strategic value of Airpower based on the analysis of a specific case. Above all, we focus on identifying some lessons which have influenced OUP operational efficiency. Thus, we must analyze some factors, such as the scope of objectives, the type of opposing action and aerial strategy used by the coalition and then focus on the challenges arising from the OUP.
Full Text Available Historically, dehumanization has enabled members of advantaged groups to 'morally disengage' from disadvantaged group suffering, thereby facilitating acts of intergroup aggression such as colonization, slavery and genocide. But is blatant dehumanization exclusive to those at the top 'looking down', or might disadvantaged groups similarly dehumanize those who dominate them? We examined this question in the context of intergroup warfare in which the disadvantaged group shoulders a disproportionate share of casualties and may be especially likely to question the humanity of the advantaged group. Specifically, we assessed blatant dehumanization in the context of stark asymmetric conflict between Israelis (Study 1; N = 521 and Palestinians (Study 2; N = 354 during the 2014 Gaza war. We observed that (a community samples of Israelis and Palestinians expressed extreme (and comparable levels of blatant dehumanization, (b blatant dehumanization was uniquely associated with outcomes related to outgroup hostility for both groups, even after accounting for political ideologies known to strongly predict outgroup aggression, and (c the strength of association between blatant dehumanization and outcomes was similar across both groups. This study illuminates the striking potency and symmetry of blatant dehumanization among those on both sides of an active asymmetric conflict.
Karoliina Koski; Toni Björninen; Lauri Sydänheimo; Leena Ukkonen; Yahya Rahmat-Samii
Body-centric wireless systems demand wearable sensor and tag antennas that have robust impedance matching and provide enough gain for a reliable wireless communication link. In this paper, we discuss a novel and practical technique for the modeling of the human body in UHF RFID body-centric wireless systems. What makes this technique different is that we base the human model on measured far-field response from a reference tag attached to the human body. Hereby, the human body model accounts f...
The United States and Biological Warfare is about accusations that the United States resorted to bacteriological warfare at a time of great military stress during the Korean War. In December 1951, the then US Secretary of Defense ordered early readiness for offensive use of biological weapons. Soon afterwards, the North Korean and Chinese armies accused the United States of starting a large-scale biological warfare experiment in Korea. The US State Department denied the accusation. Both parties to the dispute maintain their positions today. The authors spent 20 years researching the accusations in North America, Europe and Japan. They were the first foreigners to be given access to Chinese classified documents. The reader is also introduced to the concept of 'plausible denial', an official US policy which allowed responsible governmental representatives to deny knowledge of certain events. The authors hope that their work will contribute to the understanding of a time when modern war expanded into a new type of violence.
This book equips readers with a thorough understanding of the applicability of new-generation silicon-germanium (SiGe) electronic subsystems for the military purposes of electronic warfare and defensive countermeasures. The theoretical and technical background is extensively explained and all aspects of the integration of SiGe as an enabling technology for maritime, land, and airborne (including space) electronic warfare are addressed, including research, design, development, and implementation. The coverage is supported by mathematical derivations, informative illustrations, practical examples, and case studies. While SiGe technology provides speed, performance, and price advantages in many markets, sharing of information on its use in electronic warfare systems has to date been limited, especially in developing nations. This book will therefore be warmly welcomed as an engineering guideline that focuses especially on the speed and reliability of current-generation SiGe circuits and highlights emerging innov...
of fear evolves in asymmetric warfare. Asymmetric war induces fear in both parties, but in a communicative form that leads to very different experiences of fear. Fear is observed and analysed with Niklas Luhmann’s theory of self-referential systems of communication and well as his theory of risk......Fear is defined as the distinction between risk and danger, a distinction that operates in communicative forms. War is always also warfare about the form of war. The article describes how fear in warfare becomes a symbolically generalized medium of communication, mainly focusing on how the form....... Following Luhmann and in continuation of Clausewitz’ conceptual tools, yet with other means, the article proposes to observe war as a system that can de-ontologize itself and thereby concern moving centres of gravity such as communication lines, motivation, public fear as well as perceptions of risk...
Zefferman, Matthew R; Mathew, Sarah
When humans wage war, it is not unusual for battlefields to be strewn with dead warriors. These warriors typically were men in their reproductive prime who, had they not died in battle, might have gone on to father more children. Typically, they are also genetically unrelated to one another. We know of no other animal species in which reproductively capable, genetically unrelated individuals risk their lives in this manner. Because the immense private costs borne by individual warriors create benefits that are shared widely by others in their group, warfare is a stark evolutionary puzzle that is difficult to explain. Although several scholars have posited models of the evolution of human warfare, these models do not adequately explain how humans solve the problem of collective action in warfare at the evolutionarily novel scale of hundreds of genetically unrelated individuals. We propose that group-structured cultural selection explains this phenomenon. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The technological development and the instant communication possibilities advanced not only economic and social developments, but also evolving threats from those who exploit the vulnerabilities of communication and information systems. The cyber threat landscape points to a significant increase of the frequency, intensity, duration and sophistication of cyber-attacks. One of the new and concerning trends is the use of cyber capabilities in relation with military of hybrid operations – the so-called cyber dimension of hybrid warfare. NATO’s strategy on countering hybrid warfare is based on the triad: prepare-deter-defend, which also applies to cyber. Nations represent the first line of defence in countering hybrid strategies. International cooperation is also a key factor in this sense. It is in this context that NATO’s response to cyber-attacks in the context of hybrid warfare must be further refined.
Panulla, Brian J.; More, Loretta D.; Shumaker, Wade R.; Jones, Michael D.; Hooper, Robert; Vernon, Jeffrey M.; Aungst, Stanley G.
Rapid improvements in communications infrastructure and sophistication of commercial hand-held devices provide a major new source of information for assessing extreme situations such as environmental crises. In particular, ad hoc collections of humans can act as "soft sensors" to augment data collected by traditional sensors in a net-centric environment (in effect, "crowd-sourcing" observational data). A need exists to understand how to task such soft sensors, characterize their performance and fuse the data with traditional data sources. In order to quantitatively study such situations, as well as study distributed decision-making, we have developed an Extreme Events Laboratory (EEL) at The Pennsylvania State University. This facility provides a network-centric, collaborative situation assessment and decision-making capability by supporting experiments involving human observers, distributed decision making and cognition, and crisis management. The EEL spans the information chain from energy detection via sensors, human observations, signal and image processing, pattern recognition, statistical estimation, multi-sensor data fusion, visualization and analytics, and modeling and simulation. The EEL command center combines COTS and custom collaboration tools in innovative ways, providing capabilities such as geo-spatial visualization and dynamic mash-ups of multiple data sources. This paper describes the EEL and several on-going human-in-the-loop experiments aimed at understanding the new collective observation and analysis landscape.
Full Text Available This paper presents the Animated VISualization Tool (AVIST, an exploration-oriented data visualization tool that enables rapidly exploring and filtering large time series multidimensional datasets. AVIST highlights interactive data exploration by revealing fine data details. This is achieved through the use of animation and cross-filtering interactions. To support interactive exploration of big data, AVIST features a GPU (Graphics Processing Unit-centric design. Two key aspects are emphasized on the GPU-centric design: (1 both data management and computation are implemented on the GPU to leverage its parallel computing capability and fast memory bandwidth; (2 a GPU-based directed acyclic graph is proposed to characterize data transformations triggered by users’ demands. Moreover, we implement AVIST based on the Model-View-Controller (MVC architecture. In the implementation, we consider two aspects: (1 user interaction is highlighted to slice big data into small data; and (2 data transformation is based on parallel computing. Two case studies demonstrate how AVIST can help analysts identify abnormal behaviors and infer new hypotheses by exploring big datasets. Finally, we summarize lessons learned about GPU-based solutions in interactive information visualization with big data.
Full Text Available This paper outlines a requirements-analysis process that unites task models, scenarios, and critical parameters to exploit and generate reusable knowledge at the requirements phase. Through the deployment of a critical-parameter-based approach to task modeling, the process yields the establishment of an integrative and formalized model issued from scenarios that can be used for requirements characterization. Furthermore, not only can this entity serve as interface to a knowledge repository relying on a critical-parameter-based taxonomy to support reuse but its characterization in terms of critical parameters also allows the model to constitute a broader reuse solution. We discuss our vision for a user-centric and reuse-centric approach to requirements analysis, present previous efforts implicated with this line of work, and state the revisions brought to extend the reuse potential and effectiveness of a previous iteration of a requirements tool implementing such process. Finally, the paper describes the sequence and nature of the activities involved with the conduct of our proposed requirements-analysis technique, concluding by previewing ongoing work in the field that will explore the feasibility for designers to use our approach.
Full Text Available Pervasive user-centric applications are systems which are meant to sense the presence, mood, and intentions of users in order to optimize user comfort and performance. Building such applications requires not only state-of-the art techniques from artificial intelligence but also sound software engineering methods for facilitating modular design, runtime adaptation and verification of critical system requirements. In this paper we focus on high-level design and analysis, and use the algebraic rewriting language Real-Time Maude for specifying applications in a real-time setting. We propose a generic component-based approach for modeling pervasive user-centric systems and we show how to analyze and prove crucial properties of the system architecture through model checking and simulation. For proving time-dependent properties we use Metric Temporal Logic (MTL and present analysis algorithms for model checking two subclasses of MTL formulas: time-bounded response and time-bounded safety MTL formulas. The underlying idea is to extend the Real-Time Maude model with suitable clocks, to transform the MTL formulas into LTL formulas over the extended specification, and then to use the LTL model checker of Maude. It is shown that these analyses are sound and complete for maximal time sampling. The approach is illustrated by a simple adaptive advertising scenario in which an adaptive advertisement display can react to actions of the users in front of the display.
Muliukha, Vladimir; Ilyashenko, Alexander; Zaborovsky, Vladimir; Lukashin, Alexey
Complex engineering tasks concerning control for groups of mobile robots are developed poorly. In our work for their formalization we use cyber-physical approach, which extends the range of engineering and physical methods for a design of complex technical objects by researching the informational aspects of communication and interaction between objects and with an external environment . The paper analyzes network-centric methods for control of cyber-physical objects. Robots or cyber-physical objects interact with each other by transmitting information via computer networks using preemptive queueing system and randomized push-out mechanism ,. The main field of application for the results of our work is space robotics. The selection of cyber-physical systems as a special class of designed objects is due to the necessity of integrating various components responsible for computing, communications and control processes. Network-centric solutions allow using universal means for the organization of information exchange to integrate different technologies for the control system.
Pedersen, Klaus I.; Niparko, Maciej; Steiner, Jens
In this paper we present our latest findings on dynamic user-centric scheduling for a flexible 5G radio design, capable of serving users with highly diverse QoS requirements. The benefits of being able to schedule users with different transmission time intervals (TTIs) are demonstrated, in combin......In this paper we present our latest findings on dynamic user-centric scheduling for a flexible 5G radio design, capable of serving users with highly diverse QoS requirements. The benefits of being able to schedule users with different transmission time intervals (TTIs) are demonstrated...... download to faster overcome the slow start phase, while at higher offered traffic loads the best performance is achieved with longer TTIs. Using longer TTI sizes results in less control overhead (from scheduling grants), and therefore higher spectral efficiency. The presented analysis leads...... to the conclusion that a future 5G design shall include support for dynamic scheduling with different TTI sizes to achieve the best performance....
Schlappal, Thomas; Schweigler, Michael; Gmainer, Susanne; Peyerl, Martin; Pichler, Bernhard
Existing design guidelines for concrete hinges consider bending-induced tensile cracking, but the structural behavior is oversimplified to be time-independent. This is the motivation to study creep and bending-induced tensile cracking of initially monolithic concrete hinges systematically. Material tests on plain concrete specimens and structural tests on marginally reinforced concrete hinges are performed. The experiments characterize material and structural creep under centric compression as well as bending-induced tensile cracking and the interaction between creep and cracking of concrete hinges. As for the latter two aims, three nominally identical concrete hinges are subjected to short-term and to longer-term eccentric compression tests. Obtained material and structural creep functions referring to centric compression are found to be very similar. The structural creep activity under eccentric compression is significantly larger because of the interaction between creep and cracking, i.e. bending-induced cracks progressively open and propagate under sustained eccentric loading. As for concrete hinges in frame-like integral bridge construction, it is concluded (i) that realistic simulation of variable loads requires consideration of the here-studied time-dependent behavior and (ii) that permanent compressive normal forces shall be limited by 45% of the ultimate load carrying capacity, in order to avoid damage of concrete hinges under sustained loading.
Goldstein, Gary; Andrawis, Mark; Choi, Mijin; Wiens, Jonathan; Janal, Malvin N
The definition of centric relation (CR) has been both controversial and divisive, with little consensus. The purpose of this study was to determine whether agreement can be reached on a definition for CR among the Fellows of the Academy of Prosthodontics, the organization that writes the Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms. A survey of the Fellows of the Academy of Prosthodontics was conducted at the organization's annual business meeting. Of the 83 eligible Fellows in attendance, 72 responded to the survey, a response rate of 86%. Of those, the 5 responders who did not indicate a preferred definition and the 2 that chose 2 definitions were censored, yielding an analyzable sample of 65 for the definitions. The most common definition received 19 votes, the next 16, and the third 13, with the other 6 definitions receiving from 2 to 5 votes. Some of the variability in definition depended on the era of training. Disagreement and confusion continues regarding the definition of centric relation. Some of this disagreement can be explained by training era. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de Bragança, Rafaella Mariana Fontes; Rodrigues, Carolina Almeida; Melchior, Melissa Oliveira; Magri, Laís Valencise; Mazzetto, Marcelo Oliveira
To evaluate the influence of ULF-TENS on the displacement of the mandibular condyle and on the repeatability of centric relation (CR) registration of three different techniques: bimanual manipulation (BM), long strip technique, and harmonic centric occlusal relationship (R.O.C.A. wires). Twenty-five participants without temporomandibular disorder (TMD) underwent two study stages conducted via electronic position analysis: (1) three CR records were made, one for each manipulation technique; (2) the ULF-TENS was applied for 30 min, and after that the same CR records were repeated. Mann-Whitney, ICC, and one-tailed F test. The ULF-TENS did not influence the condyle total displacement, regardless of CR recording technique used (p > 0.05). BM showed an improvement in repeatability after ULF-TENS. Concerning the variance, BM showed less variation at the X-axis. Long strip technique and R.O.C.A. wires varied less at the Y-axis. Long strip technique was again less variable at the Z-axis.
Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL
To better understand insurgent activities and asymmetric warfare, a social adaptive model for modeling multiple insurgent groups attacking multiple military and civilian targets is proposed and investigated. This report presents a pilot study using the particle swarm modeling, a widely used non-linear optimal tool to model the emergence of insurgency campaign. The objective of this research is to apply the particle swarm metaphor as a model of insurgent social adaptation for the dynamically changing environment and to provide insight and understanding of insurgency warfare. Our results show that unified leadership, strategic planning, and effective communication between insurgent groups are not the necessary requirements for insurgents to efficiently attain their objective.
beamwidth entity, sensor entity, time, mode entity, time, x, y, z entity, time, image After processing the logging stream the tables will have...E. Jarvis Electronic Warfare M-on-N Digital Simulation Logging Requirements and HDF5: A Preliminary Analysis Advanced Techniques Branch Tactical...12-04-2017 NRL Memorandum Report Electronic Warfare M-on-N Digital Simulation Logging Requirements and HDF5: A Preliminary Analysis Donald E
Vladimir V. Šepec
Full Text Available U radu je primenjena teorija masovnog opsluživanja u analizi efikasnosti sistema protivvazduhoplovne odbrane (sistema PVO u uslovima elektronskih dejstava protivnika. Prikazan je model za ocenu efikasnosti sistema PVO i predstavljeni su izrazi za procenu efikasnosti sistema PVO u uslovima elektronskih dejstava. / In this article the theory of mass servicing is used in the analysis of efficiency of antiaircraft system in the conditions of electronic warfare. The model for analysis of the antiaircraft system efficiency has been shown and formulas for qualitative analysis of antiaircraft system efficiency have been presented in the conditions of electronic warfare.
Full Text Available In recent years, a discussion on the relationship between Electronic Warfare (EW), Information Warfare (IW), Cyber Operations, Net-Centric Warfare, Command and Control, Information Operations (IO) and other constructs have emerged. This paper...
Noah, Donald L; Huebner, Kermit D; Darling, Robert G; Waeckerle, Joseph F
The inevitable conclusion is that the availability of biological warfare agents and supporting technologic infrastructure, coupled with the fact that there are many people motivated to do harm to the United States, means that America must be prepared to defend her homeland against biological agents. Some have argued to the contrary, that the threat and risks from a biological weapon attack are not to be considered serious, because : They've not been used yet on a large scale so they probably won't be in the near future. Their use is so morally repugnant that they probably won't be used at all. The technologic hurdles associated with isolating, growing, purifying, weaponizing, and disseminating adequate quantities of pathologic agents are so high that only the most advanced laboratories could attempt the process. Similar to a 'nuclear winter,' the aftermath of a biological attack is so unthinkable that none would attempt it. Unfortunately, the trends associated with biotechnology globalization, terrorist group dynamics, and global/regional politics render these beliefs untenable and inappropriate, as recent events have underscored. To that end, the United States has accelerated its program of defense against biological weapons, as it must. Biological weapons are such dreadful weapons of uniqueness and complexity that a specific defense strategy is paramount. Elements of this program include pharmaceutical stockpiles, heightened surveillance systems, energized vaccine development programs, and comprehensive training initiatives. Although the depth and breadth of these efforts are unprecedented, above all these efforts is the absolute necessity for medical and public health care professionals to be educated and actively involved. These professionals are the sine qua non of future defensive readiness. This is just the start; unfortunately, there is no end yet in sight.
Tomaszewski, Maciej; Debiec, Radoslaw; Braund, Peter S.; Nelson, Christopher P.; Hardwick, Robert; Christofidou, Paraskevi; Denniff, Matthew; Codd, Veryan; Rafelt, Suzanne; van der Harst, Pim; Waterworth, Dawn; Song, Kijoung; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Burton, Paul R.; Mooser, Vincent; Charchar, Fadi J.; Thompson, John R.; Tobin, Martin D.; Samani, Nilesh J.
Genetic determinants of blood pressure are poorly defined. We undertook a large-scale, gene-centric analysis to identify loci and pathways associated with ambulatory systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We measured 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in 2020 individuals from 520 white European
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the status of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) policies in supporting lecturers when providing mobile centric services to students. The research was undertaken as a single case study within the Open...
Marcelo Matida Hamata
Full Text Available Fabrication of occlusal splints in centric relation for temporomandibular disorders (TMD patients is arguable, since this position has been defined for asymptomatic stomatognathic system. Thus, maximum intercuspation might be employed in patients with occlusal stability, eliminating the need for interocclusal records. This study compared occlusal splints fabricated in centric relation and maximum intercuspation in muscle pain reduction of TMD patients. Twenty patients with TMD of myogenous origin and bruxism were divided into 2 groups treated with splints in maximum intercuspation (I or centric relation (II. Clinical, electrognathographic and electromyographic examinations were performed before and 3 months after therapy. Data were analyzed by the Student's t test. Differences at 5% level of probability were considered statistically significant. There was a remarkable reduction in pain symptomatology, without statistically significant differences (p>0.05 between the groups. There was mandibular repositioning during therapy, as demonstrated by the change in occlusal contacts on the splints. Electrognathographic examination demonstrated a significant increase in maximum left lateral movement for group I and right lateral movement for group II (p0.05 in the electromyographic activities at rest after utilization of both splints. In conclusion, both occlusal splints were effective for pain control and presented similar action. The results suggest that maximum intercuspation may be used for fabrication of occlusal splints in patients with occlusal stability without large discrepancies between centric relation and maximum intercuspation. Moreover, this technique is simpler and less expensive.
additional education for the healthcare team. 1. Gantt Chart Key: red line = Core Site progress; purple line = Houston Site progress; dark blue line...Checklist Centric Model to Improve Patient Care in the Burn Intensive Care Unit ERMS/Log Number: 12340054 W81XWH-13-2-0011 PI: LTC Jeremy Pamplin, MD Org
Liu, Xiang-hui; Liu, Jian-zhang; Xie, Qiu-fei; Kang, Yan-feng; Chen, Wei
To assess the masticatory efficiency and patient' satisfaction in long-centric occlusal pattern complete denture wearers. The anatomic occlusal pattern and long-centric occlusal pattern complete dentures were made for each of 10 edentulous patients with severe alveolar rigde absorption simultaneously using the technique of interchangeable artificial teeth. The order of delivery of different occlusal pattern complete denture was determined according to randomized principle. For each kind of occlusal pattern complete denture, the masticatory efficiency was measured with spectrophotometer after the dentures were worn 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks. A psychometric questionnaire was completed by the patients after wearing the dentures for more than three months and analyzing the patients' rating of the denture satisfaction. No significant differences in masticatory efficiency was found between the long-centric occlusal pattern complete denture wearers and the anatomic occlusal complete denture wearers. The patients' grade of denture satisfaction in long-centric occlusal pattern complete dentures wearers was significantly better than that in anatomic occlusal denture wearers (Pcentric occlusion can be used to improve the clinical effect of edentulous patients with severe absorption of residual alveolar rigde.
Nindl, Bradley C
The physiological differences, particularly of upper-body strength and power, between women and men, and the rigors of combat-centric occupational demands would seem to place women at a significant disadvantage, as the U.S. military opens up previously closed combat-arms military occupational specialties (MOSs) to women. This inherent disadvantage can be significantly mitigated by implementing effective and comprehensive physical training (PT) regimens for women targeting those fitness components most critical for those tasks considered most essential for solider warfighting duties (i.e., strength and power). Regrettably, the military historical and legacy overemphasis on aerobic fitness and on "field expediency" as the major criteria for implementing training have limited the extent to which the military has fully operationalized state-of-the-science PT policies. This continued legacy approach could be problematic regarding fully enhancing women's abilities to perform physically demanding combat-centric occupations and could place the successful integration of women into ground combat MOSs at significant risk. Seminal studies from the literature indicate that (a) a minimum of 6 months of periodized combined resistance/endurance training preparedness is recommended for untrained women considering entering combat-arms MOS training; (b) any comprehensive PT program should incorporate and emphasize progressive load carriage training; (c) a greater emphasis on upper body on strength/power development in military women is needed; (d) heavy resistance training in the range of 3-8 repetition maximum sets should be incorporated into training programs to target type II motor units and muscle fibers (those fibers that produce the most force and have the greatest capacity to hypertrophy); (e) low-volume, high-intensity interval training should be considered as a time-efficient training method to improve aerobic fitness while protecting against lower-body musculoskeletal
Cobern, William W.; Loving, Cathleen C.; Davis, Edward B.; Terpstra, Jeff
Since its origination in the late nineteenth century, the warfare metaphor has been used to characterize the relationship between science and religion, especially orthodox Christianity. Though thoroughly discredited by historians of science, the ideological descendants of Thomas Huxley, who spoke of science in quasi-religious terms, have kept the…
Noort, D.; Schans, M.J. van der; Bikker, F.J.; Benschop, H.P.
Methods to analyze chemical warfare agents (CW-agents) and their decomposition products in environmental samples were developed over the last decades. In contrast herewith, procedures for analysis in biological samples have only recently been developed. Retrospective detection of exposure to
Graffelman, J.; Hoekstra, R.F.
Many factors have been hypothesized to affect the human secondary sex ratio (the annual percentage of males among all live births), among them race, parental ages, and birth order. Some authors have even proposed warfare as a factor influencing live birth sex ratios. The hypothesis that during and
for “better schooling, and a surface warfare pin equivalent to the dolphins worn by submariners or the wings by the aviators” (Robinson, 2008...Historical Perspective from World War II to 2008. Fort Leavenworth: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. Rocci, R. (2003). A Cognitive and
Warfare in Independent Africa is Reno’s bold attempt to analyze the modern history of African insurgencies. The book tackles this task through the prism of five generations of rebel, which left their mark on the continent; anti-colonial rebels, majority rule rebels, reform rebels, warlord rebels...
mindset devalues EW, and how its effect on EW employment will negatively impact control of the information domain. Before discussing IO, EW, JEMSO...electronic warfare support (ES). Electronic attack utilizes the radiation or re- radiation of electromagnetic energy, directed energy, electromagnetic ... electromagnetic energy, directed energy, or anti- radiation weapons to attack enemy personnel or facilities in order to degrade or destroy his
This article traces the story of how the author and a number of daring young commanders and soldiers had cast aside military textbooks in developing their own military doctrine for mobile warfare, South African style. It is clear that the Ratel infantry fighting vehicle had wielded huge influence on the development and ...
the major counterinsurgent wars in Indochina and Algeria. The first facet of study is the French experience and organizational development up to the... organizational development in Algeria is studied as the penultimate example of the French model. Derived from previous colonial warfare experience
This article examines 18th-century European warfare, tracing the first formal codifications of conventions of war, frequently introduced by military physicians and initially regarding the treatment of the sick and wounded. It outlines to what extent these conventions were followed in practice, particularly in the challenging environment of American irregular warfare, with a focus on the most well-known incident of "biological warfare" in the period: the deliberate spread of smallpox by British officers among Amerindians in 1763. More broadly, it demonstrates that the history of military medicine provides a fruitful method with which to uncover assumptions about the ethics of war.
Full Text Available The need for high-quality out-of-hospital healthcare is a known socioeconomic problem. Exploiting ICT's evolution, ad-hoc telemedicine solutions have been proposed in the past. Integrating such ad-hoc solutions in order to cost-effectively support the entire healthcare cycle is still a research challenge. In order to handle the heterogeneity of relevant information and to overcome the fragmentation of out-of-hospital instrumentation in person-centric healthcare systems, a shared and open source interoperability component can be adopted, which is ontology driven and based on the semantic web data model. The feasibility and the advantages of the proposed approach are demonstrated by presenting the use case of real-time monitoring of patients' health and their environmental context.
Guan, Jianfeng; Xu, Changqiao; Su, Wei; Zhang, Hongke
Emergent content-oriented networks prompt Internet service providers (ISPs) to evolve and take major responsibility for content delivery. Numerous content items and varying content popularities motivate interdependence between peering ISPs to elaborate their content caching and sharing strategies. In this paper, we propose the concept of peering for content exchange between interdependent ISPs in content centric Internet to minimize content delivery cost by a proper peering strategy. We model four peering strategic games to formulate four types of peering relationships between ISPs who are characterized by varying degrees of cooperative willingness from egoism to altruism and interconnected as profit-individuals or profit-coalition. Simulation results show the price of anarchy (PoA) and communication cost in the four games to validate that ISPs should decide their peering strategies by balancing intradomain content demand and interdomain peering relations for an optimal cost of content delivery. PMID:24381517
Full Text Available Emergent content-oriented networks prompt Internet service providers (ISPs to evolve and take major responsibility for content delivery. Numerous content items and varying content popularities motivate interdependence between peering ISPs to elaborate their content caching and sharing strategies. In this paper, we propose the concept of peering for content exchange between interdependent ISPs in content centric Internet to minimize content delivery cost by a proper peering strategy. We model four peering strategic games to formulate four types of peering relationships between ISPs who are characterized by varying degrees of cooperative willingness from egoism to altruism and interconnected as profit-individuals or profit-coalition. Simulation results show the price of anarchy (PoA and communication cost in the four games to validate that ISPs should decide their peering strategies by balancing intradomain content demand and interdomain peering relations for an optimal cost of content delivery.
Zhao, Jia; Guan, Jianfeng; Xu, Changqiao; Su, Wei; Zhang, Hongke
Emergent content-oriented networks prompt Internet service providers (ISPs) to evolve and take major responsibility for content delivery. Numerous content items and varying content popularities motivate interdependence between peering ISPs to elaborate their content caching and sharing strategies. In this paper, we propose the concept of peering for content exchange between interdependent ISPs in content centric Internet to minimize content delivery cost by a proper peering strategy. We model four peering strategic games to formulate four types of peering relationships between ISPs who are characterized by varying degrees of cooperative willingness from egoism to altruism and interconnected as profit-individuals or profit-coalition. Simulation results show the price of anarchy (PoA) and communication cost in the four games to validate that ISPs should decide their peering strategies by balancing intradomain content demand and interdomain peering relations for an optimal cost of content delivery.
Razzaque, Md Abdur; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon
In this paper, we address Quality-of-Service (QoS)-aware routing issue for Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) in delay and reliability domains. We propose a data-centric multiobjective QoS-Aware routing protocol, called DMQoS, which facilitates the system to achieve customized QoS services for each traffic category differentiated according to the generated data types. It uses modular design architecture wherein different units operate in coordination to provide multiple QoS services. Their operation exploits geographic locations and QoS performance of the neighbor nodes and implements a localized hop-by-hop routing. Moreover, the protocol ensures (almost) a homogeneous energy dissipation rate for all routing nodes in the network through a multiobjective Lexicographic Optimization-based geographic forwarding. We have performed extensive simulations of the proposed protocol, and the results show that DMQoS has significant performance improvements over several state-of-the-art approaches.
Full Text Available In an indoor safety-critical application, sensors and actuators are clustered together to accomplish critical actions within a limited time constraint. The cluster may be controlled by a dedicated programmed autonomous microcontroller device powered with electricity to perform in-network time critical functions, such as data collection, data processing, and knowledge production. In a data-centric sensor network, approximately 3–60% of the sensor data are faulty, and the data collected from the sensor environment are highly unstructured and ambiguous. Therefore, for safety-critical sensor applications, actuators must function intelligently within a hard time frame and have proper knowledge to perform their logical actions. This paper proposes a knowledge discovery strategy and an exploration algorithm for indoor safety-critical industrial applications. The application evidence and discussion validate that the proposed strategy and algorithm can be implemented for knowledge discovery within the operational framework.
Issom, David-Zacharie; Hartvigsen, Gunnar; Bonacina, Stefano; Koch, Sabine; Lovis, Christian
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most prevalent blood inherited disorder in the world. Patients suffer from several chronic issues, comorbidities and high-mortality rates. Despite its prevalence, the disease remains largely ignored. A literature review was conducted and a questionnaire was sent to patients in order to understand the potential of e-health tools to support people with SCD. Additionally, focus groups have been conducted to detail respondents' answers. The results showed that patients felt isolated and misunderstood. They also highlighted patients' wishes for a social network able to make them feel less scattered. Using participatory-design techniques, we designed a prototype of user-centric interface for an online self-supportive SCD patient community. The mock-ups include chatrooms, forums and videoconferences capabilities. They illustrate how SCD patients' social networking and caregivers-patient relationship needs could be met. Future work will focus on the implementation and evaluation of the system.
The proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter and Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter missions were formulated using current state-of-the-art MBSE facilities: - JPL's TeamX, Rapid Mission Architecting - ESA's Concurrent Design Facility - APL's ACE Concurrent Engineering Facility. When JEO became an official "pre-project" in Sep 2010, we had already developed a strong partnership with JPL's Integrated Model Centric Engineering (IMCE) initiative; decided to apply Architecting and SysML-based MBSE from the beginning, begun laying these foundations to support work in Phase A. Release of Planetary Science Decadal Survey and FY12 President's Budget in March 2011 changed the landscape. JEO reverted to being a pre-phase A study. A conscious choice was made to continue application of MBSE on the Europa Study, refocused for early formulation. This presentation describes the approach, results, and lessons.
software are still document- and application-centric, they fail to capture and support the rich activities and context in which they are being used. This leaves users without a stable concept for cross-device information management, forcing them to perform a large amount of manual configuration work...... be distributed, fragmented and used across multiple devices and users. Second, I present a technical infrastructure and four applications that apply the concepts of activity configuration. The infrastructure is a general purpose platform for the design, development and deployment of distributed activitycentric...... a whole new set of cross-device and cross-user interactions as well as to support seamless distributed workspaces that facilitate coordination and communication with other users. Because of the distributed nature of this paradigm, there is an intrinsic difficulty and overhead in managing and using...
This book describes an approach and supporting infrastructure to facilitate debugging the silicon implementation of a System-on-Chip (SOC), allowing its associated product to be introduced into the market more quickly. Readers learn step-by-step the key requirements for debugging a modern, silicon SOC implementation, nine factors that complicate this debugging task, and a new debug approach that addresses these requirements and complicating factors. The authors’ novel communication-centric, scan-based, abstraction-based, run/stop-based (CSAR) debug approach is discussed in detail, showing how it helps to meet debug requirements and address the nine, previously identified factors that complicate debugging silicon implementations of SOCs. The authors also derive the debug infrastructure requirements to support debugging of a silicon implementation of an SOC with their CSAR debug approach. This debug infrastructure consists of a generic on-chip debug architecture, a configurable automated design-for-debug ...
Triandopoulos, Nikolaos; Cornelius, Cory; Kapadia, Apu
Personal mobile devices are increasingly equipped with the capability to sense the physical world (through cameras, microphones, and accelerometers, for example) and the, network world (with Wi-Fi and Bluetooth interfaces). Such devices offer many new opportunities for cooperative sensing...... applications. For example, users' mobile phones may contribute data to community-oriented information services, from city-wide pollution monitoring to enterprise-wide detection of unauthorized Wi-Fi access points. This people-centric mobile-sensing model introduces a new security challenge in the design...... sensing model. We describe our trust model, and the security properties that drove the design of the AnonySense system. We evaluate our prototype implementation through experiments that indicate the feasibility of this approach, and through two applications: a Wi-Fi rogue access point detector and a lost...
Wei, Yu-Chih; Chen, Yi-Ming; Shan, Hwai-Ling
In Vehicular Networks, for enhancing driving safety as well as supporting other applications, vehicles periodically broadcast safety messages with their precise position information to neighbors. However, these broadcast messages make it easy to track specific vehicles and will likely lead to compromise of personal privacy. Unfortunately, current location privacy enhancement methodologies in VANET, including Pseudonymization, K-anonymity, Random silent period, Mix-zones and path confusion, all suffer some shortcomings. In this paper, we propose a RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator)-based user centric anonymization model, which can significantly enhance the location privacy and at the same time ensure traffic safety. Simulations are performed to show the advantages of the proposed method. In comparison with traditional random silent period method, our method can increase at least 47% of anonymity in both simple and correlation tracking.
dos Santos, T.; Mättig, P.; Wulff, N.; Harenberg, T.; Volkmer, F.; Beermann, T.; Kalinin, S.; Ahrens, R.
With the Job Execution Monitor, a user-centric job monitoring software developed at the University of Wuppertal and integrated into the job brokerage systems of the WLCG, job progress and grid worker node health can be supervised in real time. Imminent error conditions can thus be detected early by the submitter and countermeasures can be taken. Grid site admins can access aggregated data of all monitored jobs to infer the site status and to detect job misbehaviour. To remove the last "blind spot" from this monitoring, a remote debugging technique based on the GNU C compiler suite was developed and integrated into the software; its design concept and architecture is described in this paper and its application discussed.
Full Text Available Due to the battery resource constraints, saving energy is a critical issue in wireless sensor networks, particularly in large sensor networks. One possible solution is to deploy multiple sink nodes simultaneously. Another possible solution is to employ an adaptive clustering hierarchy routing scheme. In this paper, we propose a multiple sink cluster wireless sensor networks scheme which combines the two solutions, and propose an efficient transmission power control scheme for a sink-centric cluster routing protocol in multiple sink wireless sensor networks, denoted as MSCWSNs-PC. It is a distributed, scalable, self-organizing, adaptive system, and the sensor nodes do not require knowledge of the global network and their location. All sinks effectively work out a representative view of a monitored region, after which power control is employed to optimize network topology. The simulations demonstrate the advantages of our new protocol.
Full Text Available The gathering pace of IT innovation has, or ought to have had notable methodological repercussions for the social-science community (and beyond. Where yesterday the researcher could unhurriedly unlock the social-scientific significance of a chosen medium, secure in the knowledge that his or her work would have bearing for many years, by now there is every reason to confront a fear that the prodded IT implementation may in fact be gone or at least heavily altered by the time such comprehensive research is concluded. This paper will propose a complementing systematic "interface-centric" research model capable of interconnecting a non-finite variety of IT implementations and social science studies in a coherent way. The paper also outlines how users "downstream", whether political actors or technology operators can use the proposed framework to more easily approach and weight academic input when evaluating complex IT effects.
Orfanidis, Charalampos; Zhang, Yue; Dragoni, Nicola
Energy efficiency is a key factor to prolong the lifetime of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This is particularly true in the design of human-centric wireless sensor networks (HCWSN) where sensors are more and more embedded and they have to work in resource-constraint settings. Resource limitation...... has a significant impact on the design of a WSN and the adopted fault detection method. This paper investigates a number of fault detection approaches and proposes a fault detection framework based on an energy efficiency perspective. The analysis and design guidelines given in this paper aims...... at representing a first step towards the design of energy-efficient detection approaches in resource-constraint WSN, like HCWSNs....
Tuomainen, Mika; Mykkänen, Juha; Luostarinen, Heli; Pöyhölä, Assi; Paakkanen, Esa
Modeling is used increasingly in healthcare to increase shared knowledge, to improve the processes, and to document the requirements of the solutions related to health information systems (HIS). There are numerous modeling approaches which aim to support these aims, but a careful assessment of their strengths, weaknesses and deficiencies is needed. In this paper, we compare three model-centric approaches in the context of HIS development: the Model-Driven Architecture, Business Process Modeling with BPMN and BPEL and the HL7 Development Framework. The comparison reveals that all these approaches are viable candidates for the development of HIS. However, they have distinct strengths and abstraction levels, they require local and project-specific adaptation and offer varying levels of automation. In addition, illustration of the solutions to the end users must be improved.
Full Text Available Humanity have witnessed many confrontations of states whose interests challenge at some points and their struggle to neutralize problems in battlefield. While war was perceived as a way of eliminating deadlocks for some parties, some considered it as one of the international policy materials. The definition and content of conventional warfare have been subject to change for centuries, while the new weapons and technologies have been developed by human beings that it has brought constant change in the law of war and at the same time more lethal and devastating consequences. The struggle for superiority in international relations played an impulsive role in the development of weapons used in the battlefield. Countries have used their labor and financial resources to improve their military skills. Beginning with stones and sticks in the battlefield, this struggle has reached the point of using the next generation satellite controlled unmanned and armed aircrafts and having nuclear weapons has become more deterrent than using them. The struggle between strong countries and the limited countries in terms of technology and armed groups that do not have enough technology and skills completely changed the definition of conventional warfare. This fight has led Asymmetric warfare born which can turn commercial airline planes full of innocent people into a weapon like September-11 attacks. In this study, the historical development and the change in the content of the warfare were briefly explained and then cyber-attacks in the concept of the fourth generation warfare was analyzed taking into account of prominent attacks.
Cain, Jeff; Dillon, Gerald
To determine types of pharmacy blogs in existence, themes of discourse on pharmacy blogs, and impressions of the profession generated by pharmacy blogs. Descriptive, qualitative, cross-sectional study. Weblogs (blogs) on the World Wide Web in July 2009. Not applicable; pharmacy-centric blogs were analyzed. Qualitative research methods were used to form categories and assign pharmacy-centric blogs to appropriate categories. Thematic analysis was used to study the discourse of blogs in the personal views category. Finally, blogs in the personal views category were analyzed further to determine what type of impression (positive, negative, or neutral) they gave the reader. Categories, themes, and impressions of blogs, as determined by analysis. 136 blogs met study criteria. Seven main categories of pharmacy blogs emerged from the study. The majority of blogs were assigned to the news (n = 44) and personal views (n = 38) categories. Thematic analysis of blogs in the personal views category revealed 11 different themes. The top four blog post themes were issues with patients (n = 30), personal lives (n = 29), working conditions/issues (n = 20), and issues with other professionals (n = 19). A total of 24 (63%) blogs in the personal views category were judged as promoting a negative impression of pharmacists and/or the profession. The pharmacy blogosphere contains a variety of blog types. Most of these blogs studied were useful information resources for those in or considering the profession. However, a considerable number of pharmacy blogs contained derogatory posts regarding patients, other health care professionals, and/or the author's occupation as a pharmacist. Blogs such as these tend to generate a negative impression of pharmacy to the reader. The opportunity exists for pharmacists and pharmacy educators to use social media applications such as blogs to educate new pharmacists and advance the profession.
Ianni, J.; Aleva, D.; Ellis, S.
A number of organizations, within the government, industry, and academia, are researching ways to help humans understand and react to events in space. The problem is both helped and complicated by the fact that there are numerous data sources that need to be planned (i.e., tasked), collected, processed, analyzed, and disseminated. A large part of the research is in support of the Joint Space Operational Center (JSpOC), National Air and Space Intelligence Center (NASIC), and similar organizations. Much recent research has been specifically targeting the JSpOC Mission System (JMS) which has provided a unifying software architecture. This paper will first outline areas of science and technology (S&T) related to human-centric space situational awareness (SSA) and space command and control (C2) including: 1. Object visualization - especially data fused from disparate sources. Also satellite catalog visualizations that convey the physical relationships between space objects. 2. Data visualization - improve data trend analysis as in visual analytics and interactive visualization; e.g., satellite anomaly trends over time, space weather visualization, dynamic visualizations 3. Workflow support - human-computer interfaces that encapsulate multiple computer services (i.e., algorithms, programs, applications) into a 4. Command and control - e.g., tools that support course of action (COA) development and selection, tasking for satellites and sensors, etc. 5. Collaboration - improve individuals or teams ability to work with others; e.g., video teleconferencing, shared virtual spaces, file sharing, virtual white-boards, chat, and knowledge search. 6. Hardware/facilities - e.g., optimal layouts for operations centers, ergonomic workstations, immersive displays, interaction technologies, and mobile computing. Secondly we will provide a survey of organizations working these areas and suggest where more attention may be needed. Although no detailed master plan exists for human-centric
Jaeger, Sara R; Cardello, Armand V; Chheang, Sok L; Beresford, Michelle K; Hedderley, Duncan I; Pineau, Benedicte
Despite occupying a cornerstone position in consumer research and innovation, product liking/disliking provides only partial insight into consumer behaviour. By adopting a consumer-centric perspective and drawing on additional factors that underpin food-related consumer behaviour, a more complete product understanding is gained. The present research showcases this approach in a study with New Zealand beer (incl. pilsner, lager and ale categories). Implementation of a multi-variate approach with 128 regular beer drinkers provided assessments pertaining to liking and sensory novelty/complexity, situational appropriateness of consumption, as well as attitudes/perceptions and emotional associations. The 9 samples grouped into two clusters, where 4 of the beers were similar in being perceived as having less complex flavours, being appropriate for many uses and evoking stronger emotional associations of "relaxed/calm." The 4 beers were perceived as "easy to drink", and were, on average, most liked. One of the samples in this cluster was lighter in alcohol (2.5% ABV), but not inferior to beers with 4-5% ABV. The 5 beers in the second cluster were, on average, less liked and were associated with more negative emotions, e.g. "unhappy, "jittery", and "tense". Additional insights were gained from segmentation which identified two groups of consumers, named 'Lager Lovers' and 'Ale Aficionados'. Beers 1-4 were positively perceived by 'Lager Lovers' but less so by 'Ale Aficionados', and vice versa. The study was conducted under central location test conditions compatible with testing protocols often used in product research. The study protocol can be amended to include few/many consumer-centric measures and extended to product testing where packaging, brand, and other extrinsic information is available to consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Galeković, Nikolina Holen; Fugošić, Vesna; Braut, Vedrana; Ćelić, Robert
The aim of this study was to determine the reproducibility of clinical centric relation (CR) registration techniques (bimanual manipulation, chin point guidance and Roth's method) by means of condyle position analysis. Thirty two fully dentate asymptomatic subjects (16 female and 16 male) with normal occlusal relations (Angle class I) participated in the study (mean age, 22.6 ± 4.7 years). The mandibular position indicator (MPI) was used to analyze the three-dimensional (anteroposterior (ΔX), superoinferior (ΔZ), mediolateral (ΔY)) condylar shift generated by the difference between the centric relation position (CR) and the maximal intercuspation position (MI) observed in dental arches. The mean value and standard deviation of three-dimensional condylar shift of the tested clinical CR techniques was 0.19 ± 0.34 mm. Significant differences within the tested clinical CR registration techniques were found for anteroposterior condylar shift on the right side posterior (Δ Xrp; P ≤ 0.012); and superoinferior condylar shift on the left side inferior (Δ Zli; P ≤ 0.011), whereas between the tested CR registration techniques were found for anteroposterior shift on the right side posterior (ΔXrp, P ≤ 0.037) and superoinferior shift on the right side inferior (ΔZri, P ≤ 0.004), on the left side inferior (ΔZli, P ≤ 0.005) and on the left side superior (ΔZls, P ≤ 0.007). Bimanual manipulation, chin point guidance and Roth's method are clinical CR registration techniques of equal accuracy and reproducibility in asymptomatic subjects with normal occlusal relationship.
Huldén, Lena; Huldén, Larry
A sudden outbreak of vivax malaria among Finnish troops in SE-Finland and along the front line in Hanko peninsula in the southwest occurred in 1941 during World War II. The common explanation has been an invasion of infective Anopheles mosquitoes from the Russian troops crossing the front line between Finland and Soviet Union. A revised explanation is presented based on recent studies of Finnish malaria. The exact start of the epidemic and the phenology of malaria cases among the Finnish soldiers were reanalyzed. The results were compared with the declining malaria in Finland. A comparison with a corresponding situation starting in the 1990's in Korea was performed. The malaria cases occurred in July in 1941 when it was by far too early for infective mosquitoes to be present. The first Anopheles mosquitoes hatched at about the same time as the first malaria cases were observed among the Finnish soldiers. It takes about 3-6 weeks for the completion of the sporogony in Finland. The new explanation is that soldiers in war conditions were suddenly exposed to uninfected mosquitoes and those who still were carriers of hypnozoites developed relapses triggered by these mosquitoes. It is estimated that about 0.5% of the Finnish population still were carriers of hypnozoites in the 1940's. A corresponding outbreak of vivax malaria in Korea in the 1990's is similarly interpreted as relapses from activated hypnozoites among Korean soldiers. The significance of the mosquito induced relapses is emphasized by two benefits for the Plasmodium. There is a synchronous increase of gametocytes when new mosquitoes emerge. It also enables meiotic recombination between different strains of the Plasmodium. The malaria peak during the positional warfare in the 1940's was a short outbreak during the last phase of declining indigenous malaria in Finland. The activation of hypnozoites among a large number of soldiers and subsequent medication contributed to diminishing the reservoir of malaria
Full Text Available Abstract Background A sudden outbreak of vivax malaria among Finnish troops in SE-Finland and along the front line in Hanko peninsula in the southwest occurred in 1941 during World War II. The common explanation has been an invasion of infective Anopheles mosquitoes from the Russian troops crossing the front line between Finland and Soviet Union. A revised explanation is presented based on recent studies of Finnish malaria. Methods The exact start of the epidemic and the phenology of malaria cases among the Finnish soldiers were reanalyzed. The results were compared with the declining malaria in Finland. A comparison with a corresponding situation starting in the 1990's in Korea was performed. Results and discussion The malaria cases occurred in July in 1941 when it was by far too early for infective mosquitoes to be present. The first Anopheles mosquitoes hatched at about the same time as the first malaria cases were observed among the Finnish soldiers. It takes about 3 – 6 weeks for the completion of the sporogony in Finland. The new explanation is that soldiers in war conditions were suddenly exposed to uninfected mosquitoes and those who still were carriers of hypnozoites developed relapses triggered by these mosquitoes. It is estimated that about 0.5% of the Finnish population still were carriers of hypnozoites in the 1940's. A corresponding outbreak of vivax malaria in Korea in the 1990's is similarly interpreted as relapses from activated hypnozoites among Korean soldiers. The significance of the mosquito induced relapses is emphasized by two benefits for the Plasmodium. There is a synchronous increase of gametocytes when new mosquitoes emerge. It also enables meiotic recombination between different strains of the Plasmodium. Conclusion The malaria peak during the positional warfare in the 1940's was a short outbreak during the last phase of declining indigenous malaria in Finland. The activation of hypnozoites among a large number of
...) to explore non-linearity and intangibles inherent in guerrilla warfare. An infiltration scenario is developed based on the author's experiences fighting guerrillas in the mountains of Southeast Turkey...
Yourick D (2009) Analyzing large data sets acquired through telemetry from rats exposed to organophosphorus compounds: an EEG study. J Neurosci Methods...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0082 TITLE: Developmental Toxic Effects of Exposure to Chemical Warfare Nerve Agents in Rats : Effects on Brain and...2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Developmental Toxic Effects of Exposure to Chemical Warfare Nerve Agents in Rats : Effects on Brain
AFRL-SA-WP-TR-2013-0006 Sources of Occupational Stress and Prevalence of Burnout and Clinical Distress Among U.S. Air Force Cyber Warfare... Burnout and Clinical Distress Among U.S. Air Force Cyber Warfare Operators 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...the prevalence of occupational burnout and clinical distress among this critical workforce. The purpose of this study is to identify the main
... officer characteristics, A standard interview protocol is used to record the views of senior naval leadership and senior DON civilians who are experts in future warfare concepts and/or Navy manpower...
Nunes, David; Tran, Thanh-Dien; Raposo, Duarte; Pinto, André; Gomes, André; Silva, Jorge Sá
As the Internet evolved, social networks (such as Facebook) have bloomed and brought together an astonishing number of users. Mashing up mobile phones and sensors with these social environments enables the creation of people-centric sensing systems which have great potential for expanding our current social networking usage. However, such systems also have many associated technical challenges, such as privacy concerns, activity detection mechanisms or intermittent connectivity, as well as limitations due to the heterogeneity of sensor nodes and networks. Considering the openness of the Web 2.0, good technical solutions for these cases consist of frameworks that expose sensing data and functionalities as common Web-Services. This paper presents our RESTful Web Service-based model for people-centric sensing frameworks, which uses sensors and mobile phones to detect users' activities and locations, sharing this information amongst the user's friends within a social networking site. We also present some screenshot results of our experimental prototype.
Full Text Available This paper proposes a method whereby a device can transmit and receive information using a beacon, and also describes application scenarios for the proposed method. In a multi-device to multi-device (MD2MD content-centric networking (CCN environment, the main issue involves searching for and connecting to nearby devices. However, if a device can’t find another device that satisfies its requirements, the connection is delayed due to the repetition of processes. It is possible to rapidly connect to a device without repetition through the selection of the optimal device using the proposed method. Consequently, the proposed method and scenarios are advantageous in that they enable efficient content identification and delivery in a content-centric Internet of Things (IoT environment, in which multiple mobile devices coexist.
Quan, Shanguo; Kim, Youngyong
We present a numerical analysis of the optimal number of active mobile users for minimizing average data delivery delay in intelligent people-centric urban sensing, in which context-aware mobile devices act as sensor-data carriers and sensor nodes act as data accumulators within CDMA cellular networks. In the analysis, we compute the optimal number of mobile users for different environmental conditions and then investigate the minimum average data delivery delay for this optimal number of mobile users.
Zhou, Zhenkun; Lin, Yong
Balancing customization and standardization in knowledge intensive business services is the dilemma issue of the successful trade-off between efficiency and cost. This paper develops a modular service platform architecture for KIBS firms who are thinking various dynamic relationships containing niche market strategies, platform-centric tactics and operational means of core capabilities matching in the context of service innovation. Two-dimension front-back stage decoupling views on modular se...
Tay, Keson; Yu Lee, Rachel Jia; Sim, Shin Wei; Menon, Sumytra; Kanesvaran, Ravindran; Radha Krishna, Lalit Kumar
Advanced care plans (ACPs) are designed to convey the wishes of patients with regards to their care in the event of incapacity. There are a number of prerequisites for creation of an effective ACP. First, the patient must be aware of their condition, their prognosis, the likely trajectory of the illness, and the potential treatment options available to them. Second, patient input into ACP must be free of any coercive factors. Third, the patient must be able to remain involved in adapting their ACP as their condition evolves. Continued use of familial determination and collusion within the local healthcare system, however, has raised concerns that the basic requirements for effective ACP cannot be met. To assess the credibility of these concerns, we employed a video vignette approach depicting a family of three adult children discussing whether or not to reveal a cancer diagnosis to their mother. Semistructured interviews with 72 oncology patients and 60 of their caregivers were conducted afterwards to explore the views of the participants on the different positions taken by the children. Collusion, family-centric decision making, adulteration of information provided to patients, and circumnavigation of patient involvement appear to be context-dependent. Patients and families alike believe that patients should be told of their conditions. However, the incidence of collusion and familial determination increases with determinations of a poor prognosis, a poor anticipated response to chemotherapy, and a poor premorbid health status. Financial considerations with respect to care determinations remain secondary considerations. Our data suggest that ACPs can be effectively constructed in family-centric societies so long as healthcare professionals continue to update and educate families on the patient's situation. Collusion and familial intervention in the decision-making process are part of efforts to protect the patient from distress and are neither solely dependent on
Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Guo, Yiran; van Iperen, Erik P.A.; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Tragante, Vinicius; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Lange, Leslie A.; Almoguera, Berta; Appelman, Yolande E.; Barnard, John; Baumert, Jens; Beitelshees, Amber L.; Bhangale, Tushar R.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Gaunt, Tom R.; Gong, Yan; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E.; Langaee, Taimour Y.; Li, Mingyao; Li, Yun R.; Liu, Kiang; McDonough, Caitrin W.; Meijs, Matthijs F.L.; Middelberg, Rita P.S.; Musunuru, Kiran; Nelson, Christopher P.; O’Connell, Jeffery R.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Pankow, James S.; Pankratz, Nathan; Rafelt, Suzanne; Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Romaine, Simon P.R.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Shaffer, Jonathan; Shen, Haiqing; Smith, Erin N.; Tischfield, Sam E.; van der Most, Peter J.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Verweij, Niek; Volcik, Kelly A.; Zhang, Li; Bailey, Kent R.; Bailey, Kristian M.; Bauer, Florianne; Boer, Jolanda M.A.; Braund, Peter S.; Burt, Amber; Burton, Paul R.; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Chen, Wei; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; deJong, Jonas S.; Delles, Christian; Duggan, David; Fornage, Myriam; Furlong, Clement E.; Glazer, Nicole; Gums, John G.; Hastie, Claire; Holmes, Michael V.; Illig, Thomas; Kirkland, Susan A.; Kivimaki, Mika; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Kumari, Meena; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Mallela, Laya; Murugesan, Gurunathan; Ordovas, Jose; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Post, Wendy S.; Saxena, Richa; Scharnagl, Hubert; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Shah, Tina; Shields, Denis C.; Shimbo, Daichi; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Taylor, Herman A.; Topol, Eric J.; Toskala, Elina; van Pelt, Joost L.; van Setten, Jessica; Yusuf, Salim; Whittaker, John C.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Anand, Sonia S.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Casas, Juan P.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Clarke, Robert; Connell, John M.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Davidson, Karina W.; Day, Ian N.M.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Hall, Alistair S.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hillege, Hans L.; Hofker, Marten H.; Humphries, Steve E.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Johnson, Julie A.; Kaess, Bernhard M.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lawlor, Debbie A.; März, Winfried; Melander, Olle; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Murray, Sarah S.; Newhouse, Stephen J.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Poulter, Neil; Psaty, Bruce; Redline, Susan; Rich, Stephen S.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Schunkert, Heribert; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Silverstein, Roy L.; Stanton, Alice; Thorand, Barbara; Trip, Mieke D.; Tsai, Michael Y.; van der Harst, Pim; van der Schoot, Ellen; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Verschuren, W.M. Monique; Watkins, Hugh; Wilde, Arthur A.M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Whitfield, John B.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Reilly, Muredach P.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wilson, James G.; Rader, Daniel J.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Reiner, Alex P.; Hegele, Robert A.; Kastelein, John J.P.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Talmud, Philippa J.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Elbers, Clara C.; Keating, Brendan J.; Drenos, Fotios
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified many SNPs underlying variations in plasma-lipid levels. We explore whether additional loci associated with plasma-lipid phenotypes, such as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TGs), can be identified by a dense gene-centric approach. Our meta-analysis of 32 studies in 66,240 individuals of European ancestry was based on the custom ∼50,000 SNP genotyping array (the ITMAT-Broad-CARe array) covering ∼2,000 candidate genes. SNP-lipid associations were replicated either in a cohort comprising an additional 24,736 samples or within the Global Lipid Genetic Consortium. We identified four, six, ten, and four unreported SNPs in established lipid genes for HDL-C, LDL-C, TC, and TGs, respectively. We also identified several lipid-related SNPs in previously unreported genes: DGAT2, HCAR2, GPIHBP1, PPARG, and FTO for HDL-C; SOCS3, APOH, SPTY2D1, BRCA2, and VLDLR for LDL-C; SOCS3, UGT1A1, BRCA2, UBE3B, FCGR2A, CHUK, and INSIG2 for TC; and SERPINF2, C4B, GCK, GATA4, INSR, and LPAL2 for TGs. The proportion of explained phenotypic variance in the subset of studies providing individual-level data was 9.9% for HDL-C, 9.5% for LDL-C, 10.3% for TC, and 8.0% for TGs. This large meta-analysis of lipid phenotypes with the use of a dense gene-centric approach identified multiple SNPs not previously described in established lipid genes and several previously unknown loci. The explained phenotypic variance from this approach was comparable to that from a meta-analysis of GWAS data, suggesting that a focused genotyping approach can further increase the understanding of heritability of plasma lipids. PMID:23063622
Full Text Available The centric relation is a mandibular position that determines a balance relation among the temporomandibular joints, the chew muscles and the occlusion. This position makes possible to the dentist to plan and to execute oral rehabilitation respecting the physiological principles of the stomatognathic system. The aim of this study was to investigate the reproducibility of centric relation records obtained using two techniques: Dawson's Bilateral Manipulation and Gysi's Gothic Arch Tracing. Twenty volunteers (14 females and 6 males with no dental loss, presenting occlusal contacts according to those described in Angle's I classification and without signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders were selected. All volunteers were submitted five times with a 1-week interval, always in the same schedule, to the Dawson's Bilateral Manipulation and to the Gysi's Gothic Arch Tracing with aid of an intraoral apparatus. The average standard error of each technique was calculated (Bilateral Manipulation 0.94 and Gothic Arch Tracing 0.27. Shapiro-Wilk test was applied and the results allowed application of Student's t-test (sampling error of 5%. The techniques showed different degrees of variability. The Gysi's Gothic Arch Tracing was found to be more accurate than the Bilateral Manipulation in reproducing the centric relation records.
Amanda de Freitas Ferreira
Full Text Available This research consisted of a quantitative assessment, and aimed to measure the possible discrepancies between the maxillomandibular positions for centric relation (CR and maximum intercuspation (MI, using computed tomography volumetric cone beam (cone beam method. The sample of the study consisted of 10 asymptomatic young adult patients divided into two types of standard occlusion: normal occlusion and Angle Class I occlusion. In order to obtain the centric relation, a JIG device and mandible manipulation were used to deprogram the habitual conditions of the jaw. The evaluations were conducted in both frontal and lateral tomographic images, showing the condyle/articular fossa relation. The images were processed in the software included in the NewTom 3G device (QR NNT software version 2.00, and 8 tomographic images were obtained per patient, four laterally and four frontally exhibiting the TMA's (in CR and MI, on both sides, right and left. By means of tools included in another software, linear and angular measurements were performed and statistically analyzed by student t test. According to the methodology and the analysis performed in asymptomatic patients, it was not possible to detect statistically significant differences between the positions of centric relation and maximum intercuspation. However, the resources of cone beam tomography are of extreme relevance to the completion of further studies that use heterogeneous groups of samples in order to compare the results.
Ferreira, Amanda de Freitas; Henriques, João César Guimarães; Almeida, Guilherme Araújo; Machado, Asbel Rodrigues; Machado, Naila Aparecida de Godoi; Fernandes Neto, Alfredo Júlio
This research consisted of a quantitative assessment, and aimed to measure the possible discrepancies between the maxillomandibular positions for centric relation (CR) and maximum intercuspation (MI), using computed tomography volumetric cone beam (cone beam method). The sample of the study consisted of 10 asymptomatic young adult patients divided into two types of standard occlusion: normal occlusion and Angle Class I occlusion. In order to obtain the centric relation, a JIG device and mandible manipulation were used to deprogram the habitual conditions of the jaw. The evaluations were conducted in both frontal and lateral tomographic images, showing the condyle/articular fossa relation. The images were processed in the software included in the NewTom 3G device (QR NNT software version 2.00), and 8 tomographic images were obtained per patient, four laterally and four frontally exhibiting the TMA's (in CR and MI, on both sides, right and left). By means of tools included in another software, linear and angular measurements were performed and statistically analyzed by student t test. According to the methodology and the analysis performed in asymptomatic patients, it was not possible to detect statistically significant differences between the positions of centric relation and maximum intercuspation. However, the resources of cone beam tomography are of extreme relevance to the completion of further studies that use heterogeneous groups of samples in order to compare the results.
In the television series Korea the Unknown War produced jointly by Thames Television (London) and WGBH (Boston) in 1990, General Matthew Ridgway, Commander in Chief of United Nations forces during the Korean War, called the accusations that the United States waged bacteriological warfare "black propaganda." The charges discredited the United States and, despite denials and many international discussions, have not been completely refuted until new. Following studies in archives previously not available for research and after uncovering new sources, many specific examples of black propaganda were discovered that contained false information and lies discrediting the United States. The mechanism of lies, which convinced the Korean population that bacteriological warfare was going on and that the only way not to become victims of the United States' inhuman cruelty was to fight, are shown in this paper.
Peterson, Gregory W; Lu, Annie X; Hall, Morgan G; Browe, Matthew A; Tovar, Trenton; Epps, Thomas H
This work describes a new strategy for fabricating mixed matrix composites containing layered metal-organic framework (MOF)/polymer films as functional barriers for chemical warfare agent protection. Through the use of mechanically robust polymers as the top and bottom encasing layers, a high-MOF-loading, high-performance-core layer can be sandwiched within. We term this multifunctional composite "MOFwich". We found that the use of elastomeric encasing layers enabled core layer reformation after breakage, an important feature for composites and membranes alike. The incorporation of MOFs into the core layer led to enhanced removal of chemical warfare agents while simultaneously promoting moisture vapor transport through the composite, showcasing the promise of these composites for protection applications.
Full Text Available The second Gulf War will become synonymous with the emergence of fully-fledged information warfare where the military-entertainment complex has so influenced strategic and logistic possibilities that it becomes apparent that the war was waged as entertainment. This is entertainment not as an amusement or diversion but utilising the techniques and tropes of the burgeoning entertainment industry as a means to achieve military objectives. This paper offers a short history of the military-entertainment complex as reality and simulation become fused in the practices of the US military machine. The paper then briefly explores three central aspects of this phenomenon evident in recent developments: the military function of computer games; the role of the Hollywood scenario and the blurring between news and reality TV. Finally the suggestion is made that subverting, co-opting and reconstructing the military-entertainment complex provides new possibilities for alternative strategies of information warfare.
Franz, D R; Jahrling, P B; Friedlander, A M; McClain, D J; Hoover, D L; Bryne, W R; Pavlin, J A; Christopher, G W; Eitzen, E M
Concern regarding the use of biological agents--bacteria, viruses, or toxins--as tools of warfare or terrorism has led to measures to deter their use or, failing that, to deal with the consequences. Unlike chemical agents, which typically lead to violent disease syndromes within minutes at the site of exposure, diseases resulting from biological agents have incubation periods of days. Therefore, rather than a paramedic, it will likely be a physician who is first faced with evidence of the results of a biological attack. We provide here a primer on 10 classic biological warfare agents to increase the likelihood of their being considered in a differential diagnosis. Although the resultant diseases are rarely seen in many countries today, accepted diagnostic and epidemiologic principles apply; if the cause is identified quickly, appropriate therapy can be initiated and the impact of a terrorist attack greatly reduced.
David L. Bibighaus
Full Text Available All warfare contains and element of randomness. This article will argue that, the kind uncertainty encountered in cyber warfare (Power-Law randomness is fundamentally different from the uncertainty the military has evolved to deal with in the physical world (Gaussian-Randomness. The article will explain the difference between these two kinds of randomness, and how cyber weapons appear to operate under Power-Law randomness. It then will show how in cyberspace, key aspects of strategic thought are based on a flaws assumption of randomness. Finally, this article shall argue that if the American military is going to be effective in cyberspace, it must re-examine the way the military assumes risk, recruits is forces, plans for war and maintains the peace.
Michael Pillsbury, "Strategic Acupuncture ," Foreign Policy, no. 41 (1980), 53. 43 Blasko, The Chinese Army Today: Tradition and Transformation for the...2002), 60. 59 Pillsbury, Strategic Acupuncture , 57–58. 60 Ibid., 54. 61 Ibid., 54. 62 Shambaugh, Modernizing China’s Military: Progress... efficiency of the whole operational system” of warfare would help prevent the PRC from being in a similar disadvantageous position in a future
Hybrid Warfare Dilemmas in the Middle Colonies during the American Revolution A Monograph by MAJ William C. Murray II US Army...in the Middle Colonies during the American Revolution 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) MAJ ...OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON MAJ William C. Murray a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 19b. PHONE NUMBER (include area code) (U) (U) (U) (U) 43 Standard
Warfare CIS Commonwealth of Independent States DDOS Distributed Denial of Service DIME-FIL Diplomacy, Information, Military, Economics, Finance...for over a week, Estonian government and financial institutions were subjected to a wave of distributed denial of service ( DDoS ) attacks, supposedly...Using a now familiar mix of non-attributable government cyber security organizations and independent hackers, Russia conducted botnet and DDoS attacks
as Operation GLADIATOR PHOENIX, the operation to operate in and defend the global information grid (GIG), for introducing new strategies to confront...information technology’s vulnerabilities. Thanks to the emphasis of non-kinetic warfare in Operation GLADIATOR PHOENIX, the Navy has outlined a...army has also embraced the benefits of Operation GLADIATOR PHOENIX and the establishment of a unified command dedicated to cyberspace. General
problems of conflicts that impact the human domain, focusing largely on government-to-government relations or shaping military operational conditions .35...Deterrence in the Human Domain: A COIN Framework to Deterring Unconventional Warfare in Shaping Operations A Monograph by MAJ Matthew P...YYYY) 05-25-2017 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2016 – MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Deterrence in the Human
Piérard, G E
A variety of chemical components can be used as warfare threats directly targeting humans. They can be classified according to their main biological effects as nerve agents, vesicants, lung damaging agents, cyanogen agents and incapacitants. Other chemical agents are water and food contaminants. Still other less aggressive compounds are mainly used to control riots. Smokes, flame materials and herbicides belong to other classes of chemical agents of the warlike armamentum exhibiting a direct effect on man.
Mosquera, A.; Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik
This short paper introduces the reader to the mutating military concept of hybrid warfare and one of its implementing methods, the use of law as a weapon. We aim to provide a current, comprehensive definition of the terms “hybrid warfare” and “lawfare”. This submission focuses on the following areas: where law has been/is being used as a method of war, namely the Jus ad bellum, the jus in bello and the law of treaties in international relations.
The Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI) is presently developing a mobile laboratory for the identification of chemical warfare agents (CWA) and related compounds. The laboratory will be used in the field, and it is therefore advantageous that the analytical methods give a high priority to low solvent consumption and minimal need for sample preparation. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) meets these requirements, since the technique is based on automatic extraction and concentration...
to operational shortfalls. Clearly, there are benefits in following known methods in organizing the cyberspace mission and its capabilities...sid26_gci853845,00.html (accessed 15 December 2008). 9 BX.com Terminology Reference, “Web Year,” http://www.bx.com/dictionary/ ecommerce /Web_year.cfm... benefits of the process, while amplifying the negative aspects of the bureaucracy. Network warfare capabilities are much more vulnerable to
coordinate cobaltous porphyrin site in a metal – organic framework: structural , EPR, and O, Inorg. Chem. Front., (04 2016): 536. doi: 10.1039...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This project sought to employ heme-containing metal - organic framework (MOF) materials to carry out the oxidative...15-Apr-2015 14-Jan-2016 Final Report: Heme-Containing Metal - Organic Frameworks for the Oxidative Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents The views
McKeever, Michelle Cecille
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In 1986, Deputy Secretary of Defense W. H. Taft IV, established an "Acquisition Streamlining Initiative** (ASI) which addresses and attempts to "streamline" the acquisition process and mandated requirements. This research reviews efforts of one Hardware Systems Command—the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR) —to implement AS I . In reviewing the five major programs streamlined thus far at -SPAUAR, it w...
Penguin Book, 2013), 161. 20 Eric T. Olson, “A Balanced Approach to Irregular Warfare,” The Journal of International Security Affairs (2009): 4-6...volatile Uruzgon district of Chora. The district of Chora is mainly composed of inhospitable desert and steep mountains . The majority of the... mountain passes. Again, SOTF-SE assisted through the employment of the 8th Commando Kandak to disrupt enemy forces through targeted raids and clearing
Moshiri, Mohammd; Darchini-Maragheh, Emadodin; Balali-Mood, Mahdi
Abstract Organophosphorous (OP) Nerve agents (NAs) are known as the deadliest chemical warfare agents. They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds. The main mechanism of action is irreversible inhibition of Acetyl Choline Esterase (AChE) resulting in accumulation of toxic levels of acetylcholine (ACh) at the ...
AU/ACSC/ 03-1261R/2003-04 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR UNIVERSITY RESEARCH PAPER ASYMMETRIC WARFARE - EXPOSING AMERICA’S...Air University Research Paper : Asymmetric Wafare - Exposing America’s Weaknesses 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Std Z39-18 Disclaimer The views expressed in this academic research paper are those of the author(s) and do not reflect the official policy or
Board Task Force on Military Operations in Built-Up Areas ( MOBA )," (Washington, DC: Office of the Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition and...Smithsonian Institute Press, 1999), 130. 45 Vick, et al., 120. 46 Rebecca A. Grant, "The Radar Game ," Air Force Magazine, February 1999, 52-60. Grant...University Press, 1962. Grant, Rebecca A. "The Radar Game ." Air Force Magazine, February 1999, 52-60. Hawkins, William R. Putting Urban Warfare in
SCIENCE Military History by NICHOLAS J. CRUZ, MAJOR, U.S. MARINE CORPS B.A., North Carolina Central University, Durham, North Carolina...interconnectivity the internet would soon provide, the impact of social media, the proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicle technology, and the...continue to prepare, train, and equip for large-scale peer or near-peer conventional warfare, the breadth of the republic’s history teaches that Irregular
intermediates. Bellamy also found that HD could be decontaminated by 13X zeolites .(10) These previous studies suggest that nanomaterials may have unique...REPORT Development of Nanocrystalline Zeolite Materials for the Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...The main objective of this research is to use novel nanocrystalline zeolite materials synthesized in our laboratories for the decontamination of
accessed 13 February 2014). 66Teresa Degenhard “Between War and Crime: The Overlap between War and Crime: Unpacking Foucault and Agamben’s Studies...Article-2-Revision- for- Foucault -and-Agamben-Degenhardt-July-2013.pdf (accessed 5 April 2014). 26... Foucault and Agamben’s Studies within the Context of the War on Terror.”, 34. 68US Department of Defense, Electronic Warfare, Joint Publication 3-13, I-2
chemical and biological warfare plant that received outside aid from South Africa. In assisting Rhodesia, South African researchers continued to...with South African involvement, planted anthrax spores in grain fed to cattle in guerrilla-held areas and caused an anthrax epidemic that struck...ricin and botulinum. Reportedly, they had acquired anthrax, Plague, cholera, E. coli, staph, necrotizing fasciitis , ricin, botulinum, gas gangrene, anti
Škoro, Nikola; Puač, Nevena; Živković, Suzana; Krstić-Milošević, Dijana; Cvelbar, Uroš; Malović, Gordana; Petrović, Zoran Lj.
Today's reality is connected with mitigation of threats from the new chemical and biological warfare agents. A novel investigation of cold plasmas in contact with liquids presented in this paper demonstrated that the chemically reactive environment produced by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is potentially capable of rapid destruction of chemical warfare agents in a broad spectrum. The decontamination of three different chemical warfare agent surrogates dissolved in liquid is investigated by using an easily transportable APPJ. The jet is powered by a kHz signal source connected to a low-voltage DC source and with He as working gas. The detailed investigation of electrical properties is performed for various plasmas at different distances from the sample. The measurements of plasma properties in situ are supported by the optical spectrometry measurements, whereas the high performance liquid chromatography measurements before and after the treatment of aqueous solutions of Malathion, Fenitrothion and Dimethyl Methylphosphonate. These solutions are used to evaluate destruction and its efficiency for specific neural agent simulants. The particular removal rates are found to be from 56% up to 96% during 10 min treatment. The data obtained provide basis to evaluate APPJ's efficiency at different operating conditions. The presented results are promising and could be improved with different operating conditions and optimization of the decontamination process.
Yasar, Nurgul; Yasar, Fatih M.; Topcu, Yucel
While cyberspace is emerging as a new battlefield, conventional Electronic Warfare (EW) methods and applications are likely to change. Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) concept which merges cyberspace capabilities with traditional EW methods, is a new and enhanced form of the electronic attack. In this study, cyberspace domain of the battlefield is emphazised and the feasibility of integrating Cyber Warfare (CW) concept into EW measures is researched. The SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis method is used to state the operational advantages of using CEW concept in the battlefield. The operational advantages of CEW are assessed by means of its effects on adversary air defense systems, communication networks and information systems. Outstanding technological and operational difficulties are pointed out as well. As a result, a comparison of CEW concept and conventional EW applications is presented. It is concluded that, utilization of CEW concept is feasible at the battlefield and it may yield important operational advantages. Even though the computers of developed military systems are less complex than normal computers, they are not subjected to cyber threats since they are closed systems. This concept intends to show that these closed systems are also open to the cyber threats. As a result of the SWOT analysis, CEW concept provides Air Forces to be used in cyber operations effectively. On the other hand, since its Collateral Damage Criteria (CDC) is low, the usage of cyber electronic attack systems seems to grow up.
Chris A. Geldenhuys
Full Text Available Orientation: In the hyper turbulent context faced currently by organisations, more flexible strategic planning approaches, such as scenario planning which take into account a more comprehensive range of possible futures for an organisation, will position organisations better than conventional forecast and estimates that depend only on a single, linearly extrapolated, strategic response.Research purpose: This study aimed to investigate how scenario-based planning (a strictly cognitive management tool can be combined with organisational change navigation (a practice addressing the emotionality of change and how this integrated process should be aligned with the prerequisites imposed by a developing country context and an Afro-centric leadership perspective in order to make the process more context relevant and aligned.Motivation for the study: The integration of organisational change navigation with conventional scenario based planning, as well as the incorporation of the perquisites of a developing countries and an Afro-centric leadership perspective, will give organisations a more robust, holistic strategic management tool that will add significantly more value within a rapidly, radically and unpredictably changing world.Research design, approach and method: The adopted research approach comprised a combination of the sourcing of the latest thinking in the literature (the ‘theory’ as well as the views of seasoned practitioners of scenario planning (the ‘practice’ through an iterative research process, moving between theory and practice, back to practice and finally returning to theory in order to arrive at a validated expanded and enhanced scenario-based planning process which is both theory and practice ‘proof’.Main findings: A management tool incorporating the change navigation and the unique features of developing countries and Afro-centric leadership was formulated and empirically validated. This management tool is referred to as
Hart, Steven N; Moore, Raymond M; Zimmermann, Michael T; Oliver, Gavin R; Egan, Jan B; Bryce, Alan H; Kocher, Jean-Pierre A
Objective. Bringing together genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and other -omics technologies is an important step towards developing highly personalized medicine. However, instrumentation has advances far beyond expectations and now we are able to generate data faster than it can be interpreted. Materials and Methods. We have developed PANDA (Pathway AND Annotation) Explorer, a visualization tool that integrates gene-level annotation in the context of biological pathways to help interpret complex data from disparate sources. PANDA is a web-based application that displays data in the context of well-studied pathways like KEGG, BioCarta, and PharmGKB. PANDA represents data/annotations as icons in the graph while maintaining the other data elements (i.e., other columns for the table of annotations). Custom pathways from underrepresented diseases can be imported when existing data sources are inadequate. PANDA also allows sharing annotations among collaborators. Results. In our first use case, we show how easy it is to view supplemental data from a manuscript in the context of a user's own data. Another use-case is provided describing how PANDA was leveraged to design a treatment strategy from the somatic variants found in the tumor of a patient with metastatic sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma. Conclusion. PANDA facilitates the interpretation of gene-centric annotations by visually integrating this information with context of biological pathways. The application can be downloaded or used directly from our website: http://bioinformaticstools.mayo.edu/research/panda-viewer/.
Constantinescu, L; Pradana, R; Kim, J; Gong, P; Fulham, Michael; Feng, D
Rich Internet Applications (RIAs) are an emerging software platform that blurs the line between web service and native application, and is a powerful tool for handheld device deployment. By democratizing health data management and widening its availability, this software platform has the potential to revolutionize telemedicine, clinical practice, medical education and information distribution, particularly in rural areas, and to make patient-centric medical computing a reality. In this paper, we propose a telemedicine application that leverages the ability of a mobile RIA platform to transcode, organise and present textual and multimedia data, which are sourced from medical database software. We adopted a web-based approach to communicate, in real-time, with an established hospital information system via a custom RIA. The proposed solution allows communication between handheld devices and a hospital information system for media streaming with support for real-time encryption, on any RIA enabled platform. We demonstrate our prototype's ability to securely and rapidly access, without installation requirements, medical data ranging from simple textual records to multi-slice PET-CT images and maximum intensity (MIP) projections.
Full Text Available Among the various smart multimedia devices, multimedia smartphones have become the most widespread due to their convenient portability and real-time information sharing, as well as various other built-in features. Accordingly, since personal and business activities can be carried out using multimedia smartphones without restrictions based on time and location, people have more leisure time and convenience than ever. However, problems such as loss, theft, and information leakage because of convenient portability have also increased proportionally. As a result, most multimedia smartphones are equipped with various built-in locking features. Pattern lock, personal identification numbers, and passwords are the most used locking features on current smartphones, but these are vulnerable to shoulder surfing and smudge attacks, allowing malicious users to bypass the security feature easily. In particular, the smudge attack technique is a convenient way to unlock multimedia smartphones after they have been stolen. In this paper, we propose the secure locking screen using time pattern (SLSTP focusing on improved security and convenience for users to support human-centric multimedia device completely. The SLSTP can provide a simple interface to users and reduce the risk factors pertaining to security leakage to malicious third parties.
A reduced control-centric model of a particular behaviour associated with maritime helicopter rotor systems, known as Blade Sailing Phenomenon (BSP), is developed. BSP is a transient aeroelastic phenomenon described by the large undesired flapping motion of the helicopter rotor blades during low rotor speeds under high wind and elevated sea conditions. The developed model utilizes the Unified Airloads Model to capture the aerodynamic loads and the Intrinsic Nonlinear Beam Model to capture the structural behaviour of the blade. Integrally Actuated Twist (IAT) is used as the actuation strategy and a nonlinear feedback controller based on the Lyapunov stability theorem for autonomous dynamical systems is developed to counter the BSP. To evaluate the performance of the designed controller, the reduced BSP model is then discretized in the space domain using the Galerkin Spectral Discretization Method. The results prove the promising potential of the designed controller in countering the BSP in the reduced model. A further assessment of the controller is carried out by testing its performance in a comprehensive BSP model validated against experimental data. The results prove the capability of the controller to counter the BSP in a more accurate blade model and a more realistic simulation of a maritime environment.
Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT has inspired solutions that are already available for addressing problems in various application scenarios, such as healthcare, security, emergency support and tourism. However, there is no clear approach to modeling these systems and envisioning their capabilities at the design time. Therefore, the process of designing these systems is ad hoc and its real impact is evaluated once the solution is already implemented, which is risky and expensive. This paper proposes a modeling approach that uses human-centric wireless sensor networks to specify and evaluate models of IoT-based systems at the time of design, avoiding the need to spend time and effort on early implementations of immature designs. It allows designers to focus on the system design, leaving the implementation decisions for a next phase. The article illustrates the usefulness of this proposal through a running example, showing the design of an IoT-based solution to support the first responses during medium-sized or large urban incidents. The case study used in the proposal evaluation is based on a real train crash. The proposed modeling approach can be used to design IoT-based systems for other application scenarios, e.g., to support security operatives or monitor chronic patients in their homes.
Full Text Available Exploiting software-defined networking techniques, randomly and instantly mutating routes can disguise strategically important infrastructure and protect the integrity of data networks. Route mutation has been to date formulated as NP-complete constraint satisfaction problem where feasible sets of routes need to be generated with exponential computational complexities, limiting algorithmic scalability to large-scale networks. In this paper, we propose a novel node-centric route mutation method which interprets route mutation as a signature matching problem. We formulate the route mutation problem as a three-dimensional earth mover’s distance (EMD model and solve it by using a binary branch and bound method. Considering the scalability, we further propose that a heuristic method yields significantly lower computational complexities with marginal loss of robustness against eavesdropping. Simulation results show that our proposed methods can effectively disguise key infrastructure by reducing the difference of historically accumulative traffic among different switches. With significantly reduced complexities, our algorithms are of particular interest to safeguard large-scale networks.
Liu, Xiaoqiao; Wu, Jianmin; Wang, Jun; Liu, Xiaochuan; Zhao, Shuqi; Li, Zhe; Kong, Lei; Gu, Xiaocheng; Luo, Jingchu; Gao, Ge
With the rapid progress of biological research, great demands are proposed for integrative knowledge-sharing systems to efficiently support collaboration of biological researchers from various fields. To fulfill such requirements, we have developed a data-centric knowledge-sharing platform WebLab for biologists to fetch, analyze, manipulate and share data under an intuitive web interface. Dedicated space is provided for users to store their input data and analysis results. Users can upload local data or fetch public data from remote databases, and then perform analysis using more than 260 integrated bioinformatic tools. These tools can be further organized as customized analysis workflows to accomplish complex tasks automatically. In addition to conventional biological data, WebLab also provides rich supports for scientific literatures, such as searching against full text of uploaded literatures and exporting citations into various well-known citation managers such as EndNote and BibTex. To facilitate team work among colleagues, WebLab provides a powerful and flexible sharing mechanism, which allows users to share input data, analysis results, scientific literatures and customized workflows to specified users or groups with sophisticated privilege settings. WebLab is publicly available at http://weblab.cbi.pku.edu.cn, with all source code released as Free Software. PMID:19465388
Stroetmann, Karl A
By taking a stakeholder perspective, the paper explores reasons why the political commitment to patient-centric integrated care, facilitated by eHealth applications, is so difficult to meet. In spite of hundreds of pilots, still today there is a dearth of evidence on how to indeed successfully organise such services. Outcomes from a variety of implementation projects supported by the European Union were analysed, focusing on benefits and costs for the diverse stakeholder groups involved or impacted. The re-engineering of the services may result in a considerable shift in these variables between groups. Rendering both positive clinical impacts and a positive (overall) socio-economic return is not sufficient to assure wide acceptance and long-term sustainability. However motivated stakeholders may be, few will operate against their economic interests. Successfully establishing modern eHealth facilitated services is not so much a technical, but a social, organisational, and business innovation. We need to better understand in detail the benefits and costs, or the new 'business models' that go with integrated care for each involved stakeholder group, and the likely impacts for each of them, with a focus on how to best assure a win-win situation for all. Health policy has to respond to this, and a promising approach would be to promote organisational integration with shared budgets and outcome targets.
Full Text Available Fractionated spacecrafts are of particular interest for pointing-intensive missions because of their ability to decouple physically the satellite bus and some imaging payloads, which possess a lesser lifecycle cost than a comparable monolithic spacecraft. Considering the probabilistic uncertainties during the mission lifecycle, the cost assessment or architecture optimization is essentially a stochastic problem. Thus, this research seeks to quantitatively assess different spacecraft architecture strategies for remote-sensing missions. A dynamical lifecycle simulation and parametric models are developed to evaluate the lifecycle costs, while the mass, propellant usage, and some other constraints on spacecraft are assessed using nonparametric, physics-based computer models. Compared with the traditional Monte Carlo simulation to produce uncertain distributions during the lifecycle, the unscented transformation is employed to reduce the computational overhead, just as it does in improving the extended Kalman filter. Furthermore, the genetic algorithm is applied to optimize the fractionated architecture based on the probabilistic value-centric assessments developed in this paper.
Monares, Álvaro; Ochoa, Sergio F.; Santos, Rodrigo; Orozco, Javier; Meseguer, Roc
The Internet of Things (IoT) has inspired solutions that are already available for addressing problems in various application scenarios, such as healthcare, security, emergency support and tourism. However, there is no clear approach to modeling these systems and envisioning their capabilities at the design time. Therefore, the process of designing these systems is ad hoc and its real impact is evaluated once the solution is already implemented, which is risky and expensive. This paper proposes a modeling approach that uses human-centric wireless sensor networks to specify and evaluate models of IoT-based systems at the time of design, avoiding the need to spend time and effort on early implementations of immature designs. It allows designers to focus on the system design, leaving the implementation decisions for a next phase. The article illustrates the usefulness of this proposal through a running example, showing the design of an IoT-based solution to support the first responses during medium-sized or large urban incidents. The case study used in the proposal evaluation is based on a real train crash. The proposed modeling approach can be used to design IoT-based systems for other application scenarios, e.g., to support security operatives or monitor chronic patients in their homes. PMID:25157549
Wu, Chunlei; Macleod, Ian; Su, Andrew I
Fast-evolving technologies have enabled researchers to easily generate data at genome scale, and using these technologies to compare biological states typically results in a list of candidate genes. Researchers are then faced with the daunting task of prioritizing these candidate genes for follow-up studies. There are hundreds, possibly even thousands, of web-based gene annotation resources available, but it quickly becomes impractical to manually access and review all of these sites for each gene in a candidate gene list. BioGPS (http://biogps.org) was created as a centralized gene portal for aggregating distributed gene annotation resources, emphasizing community extensibility and user customizability. BioGPS serves as a convenient tool for users to access known gene-centric resources, as well as a mechanism to discover new resources that were previously unknown to the user. This article describes updates to BioGPS made after its initial release in 2008. We summarize recent additions of features and data, as well as the robust user activity that underlies this community intelligence application. Finally, we describe MyGene.info (http://mygene.info) and related web services that provide programmatic access to BioGPS.
Yohanes Baptista Dafferianto Trinugroho
Full Text Available Technology innovations have pushed today’s healthcare sector to an unprecedented new level. Various portable and wearable medical and fitness devices are being sold in the consumer market to provide the self-empowerment of a healthier lifestyle to society. Many vendors provide additional cloud-based services for devices they manufacture, enabling the users to visualize, store and share the gathered information through the Internet. However, most of these services are integrated with the devices in a closed “silo” manner, where the devices can only be used with the provided services. To tackle this issue, an information integration platform (IIP has been developed to support communications between devices and Internet-based services in an event-driven fashion by adopting service-oriented architecture (SOA principles and a publish/subscribe messaging pattern. It follows the “Internet of Things” (IoT idea of connecting everyday objects to various networks and to enable the dissemination of the gathered information to the global information space through the Internet. A patient-centric healthcare service environment is chosen as the target scenario for the deployment of the platform, as this is a domain where IoT can have a direct positive impact on quality of life enhancement. This paper describes the developed platform, with emphasis on dependability aspects, including availability, scalability and security.
Alpert, Jordan M; Krist, Alex H; Aycock, Rebecca A; Kreps, Gary L
Legislation mandates that clinicians make patients' medical information available digitally. This has resulted in hurriedly installing patient portals that do not fully meet the needs of patients or clinicians. This study examined a specific portal, MyPreventiveCare (MPC), a patient-centered portal designed to promote preventive care to consumers, to elicit recommendations from patients and clinicians about how it could be more beneficial by uncovering their uses and gratifications (U&G). In-depth interviews with 31 patients and two clinician focus groups were conducted. Multiple methods were utilized, such as grounded theory coding to develop themes and content analysis to classify responses according to the U&G framework. Four main categories emerged that users desire to be included in health portals: integration with technology (27%), coordination of care (27%), incorporation of lifestyle (26%), and increased control (20%). Additional analysis revealed that health portals are mainly utilized to fulfill cognitive and affective needs, with over 80% of recommendations related to the U&G categories of cognitive and affective needs. Cognitive (60%), affective (21%), social integrative (10%), personal integrative (9%), and tension release (0%). Portals will continue to evolve and become important health communication tools if they address the user's perspective and are inclusive of new technological advances. Specifically, portals must become more user centric and incorporate aspects of the patients' lifestyle and integrate health information technology.
Full Text Available The adoption of mobile and ubiquitous solutions that involve participatory or opportunistic sensing increases every day. This situation has highlighted the relevance of optimizing the energy consumption of these solutions, because their operation depends on the devices’ battery lifetimes. This article presents a study that intends to understand how the prediction of topology control messages in human-centric wireless sensor networks can be used to help reduce the energy consumption of the participating devices. In order to do that, five research questions have been defined and a study based on simulations was conducted to answer these questions. The obtained results help identify suitable mobile computing scenarios where the prediction of topology control messages can be used to save energy of the network nodes. These results also allow estimating the percentage of energy saving that can be expected, according to the features of the work scenario and the participants behavior. Designers of mobile collaborative applications that involve participatory or opportunistic sensing, can take advantage of these findings to increase the autonomy of their solutions.
Full Text Available The significant changes enabled by the fog computing had demonstrated that Internet of Things (IoT urgently needs more evolutional reforms. Limited by the inflexible design philosophy; the traditional structure of a network is hard to meet the latest demands. However, Information-Centric Networking (ICN is a promising option to bridge and cover these enormous gaps. In this paper, a Smart Collaborative Caching (SCC scheme is established by leveraging high-level ICN principles for IoT within fog computing paradigm. The proposed solution is supposed to be utilized in resource pooling, content storing, node locating and other related situations. By investigating the available characteristics of ICN, some challenges of such combination are reviewed in depth. The details of building SCC, including basic model and advanced algorithms, are presented based on theoretical analysis and simplified examples. The validation focuses on two typical scenarios: simple status inquiry and complex content sharing. The number of clusters, packet loss probability and other parameters are also considered. The analytical results demonstrate that the performance of our scheme, regarding total packet number and average transmission latency, can outperform that of the original ones. We expect that the SCC will contribute an efficient solution to the related studies.