WorldWideScience

Sample records for centrally planned economies

  1. Assessing the efficiency versus the inefficiency of the energy sectors in formerly centrally planned economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorsatz, D. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    As much the extreme inefficiency of Eastern European energy sectors is emphasized, as little attention their relatively efficient aspects receive. Indeed, a few efficiency indicators show the highest global efficiencies for the formerly centrally planned economies, such as the overall primary to useful energy efficiency. These figures draw the attention to an underestimated feature of former socialist energy sectors and to crucial policy implications: in some respects central planning lead to a more efficient use of energy than the market economy. Consequently, if transitions from the central planning to the market economy are not managed carefully, further reductions in energy efficiency can be expected in some sectors of the economy.

  2. The Theory and Measurement of Macroeconomic Disequilibrium in Centrally Planned Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Portes

    1986-01-01

    The paper considers issues in recent research on macroeconomic equilibrium in centrally planned economies. I defend the explicit aggregative, macroeconomic approach in theory, institutional relationships and measurement. It has offered a fresh, coherent framework for the analysis of many Centrally Planned Economies phenomena, opened up a range of possibilities for empirical investigation, and generated several important spinoffs: work on planners' behaviour; insights into CPE policy problems ...

  3. Can Neoclassical Economics Underpin the Reform of Centrally Planned Economies?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Murrell

    1991-01-01

    This paper addresses whether neoclassical economics can provide the intellectual underpinning for a theory of reform. I examine whether the neoclassical model satisfies an essential condition to qualify for this role: does it give us a satisfactory explanation for the vast differences in performance between capitalist and socialist economic systems? First, I focus on the theoretical arguments that have traditionally been used to examine the comparative properties of central planning and marke...

  4. Nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the world (excluding the centrally planned economies)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on the existing, under construction and planned fuel cycle facilities in the various countries is presented. Some thirty countries have activities related to different nuclear fuel cycle steps and the information covers the capacity, status, location, and the names of owners of the facilities

  5. Public Economy versus Planned Economy. Current Approaches and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Matei

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available he present paper proposes a review of the current object and problems facing the public economy. For the past decade and a half, public economy has clearly come back in the attention of the research interests of specialists from the Central and Eastern European countries. Among these, the scientific research encompassed by the public economy area interrelates with the international trends. At a closer look, public economy appears to be a science, particularly interdisciplinary, with sociological, political, econometrical or systemic approaches possible to prevail. To continue, the author makes reference to four pillars of the public economy: optimum, welfare, social choice and economic justice that allow different approaches to develop. A science branch, equally theoretical and practical, public economy will stress its connections with the economic and mathematic modeling, systemic analysis or sociological and political research. Still, seve¬ral problems in public economy remain open. These concentrate on the public interest, intervention and decision. Conceptualization, understanding and description of the mechanisms that allow the operationalisation may form the basis for further developments on both theoretical and practical level. A clear distinction in order to justify the title of this article needs to be made. Public economy is not to be confused with planning economy. The state remains but one of the producers and delivery agents of public goods and services.

  6. Making Central Banks Serve The Real Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleika Reiners

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The challenge is to redirect central bank money into the real economy and to the needs of society. If new money is issued to expand the productive capacity, there is no reason for inflation. Long-term financing could become available at an affordable price. Central bank money must not replace a sound tax system and the distribution of income and wealth, but complement them. The remaining task, apart from the financing of real needs, is the prevention of speculative asset price inflation. For this, central banks and regulators should install debt brakes for the financial sector. Furthermore, independent monetary policy calls for capital account management. It enables national central banks to find space for the conduct of their own policies in an interdependent global economy. Coordination between central banks and governments might increase as policies combine monetary, fiscal and regulatory facets. The future role of central banks should particularly lie in their insights regarding capital flows and leverage cycles and in their ability to create and withdraw money, depend­ing on economic conditions.

  7. A Home-School Token Economy Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Charles L.; Fairchild, Tom

    1985-01-01

    Presents a workable plan for all counselors who wish to establish cooperation and collaboration between parents and teachers concerning children's problems that involve achievement and misbehavior. A basic outline of how to implement a home-school token economy plan is presented with two case examples illustrating its use and effectiveness.…

  8. Bio energy: Economy and Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is Chapter 6 of the book ''Bio energy - Environment, technique and market''. Its main sections are: (1) Planning of bio fuel plants, (2) Calculation of energy prices, (3) Estimates for different types of bio fuel plants, (4) The bio energy market in Norway and its actors and (5) Socio-economic aspects of the use of bio energy. The Chapter discusses technical and economical planning of bi energy plants and demonstrates the calculation of the energy price for some types of bio fuel plants. Examples of bio fuels and biogas plants are included

  9. A cost in planning for prosperous economies?

    OpenAIRE

    Pugalis, Lee; Glenn, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The new draft PPS4 exudes the desperation born of a harsh economic climate and appears to invite short-term fixes rather than long-term sustainable growth, say Lee Pugalis and Glenn Martin. In her foreword Margaret Beckett, then Minister for Housing and Planning, argued that ‘for the first time, this comprehensive new draft statement brings together in one place all of the Government’s key planning policies relating to the economy and streamlines and simplifies policy to focus on what is ...

  10. Historical meaning of party socialism and the logic of failure in planned economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivata Masajuki

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper consists of three parts. The first part discusses the socialist thought and practice, the second the theory of crisis in the economy with centralized planning, and at the end the author analyses the role of dollar black market in the planned economy in Poland. The first part has the following structure: Four methodological fields of research Socio-experimental cycles; Consumed legitimacy; Anorganic dictatorship versus the organic dictatorship; MPC triangle (market - plan - compromise as the 20th century heritage. The second part investigates the conditions for the balance in planned economy, functional and non-functional processes in planned economy and finally the failure of planned economy. The third part discusses the issue of the relation between the black market course of dollar and the balance levels of domestic (in this case - Polish planned prices.

  11. Central Planning and Monetarism: Fellow Travelers?

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Portes

    1981-01-01

    We discuss the monetary institutions and macroeconomics of centrally planned economies (CPEs) ; objectives and techniques of monetary control; the relevance to CPEs of the neutrality property, the natural rate hypothesis, and the quantity theory; the roles of stock .and flow variables and the stability of asset demand and expenditure functions; the relation between monetary policy, fiscal policy and incomes policy in CPEs; the CPE equivalent of a floating exchange rate and its implications fo...

  12. Historical meaning of party socialism and the logic of failure in planned economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ivata Masajuki

    2006-01-01

    The paper consists of three parts. The first part discusses the socialist thought and practice, the second the theory of crisis in the economy with centralized planning, and at the end the author analyses the role of dollar black market in the planned economy in Poland. The first part has the following structure: Four methodological fields of research Socio-experimental cycles; Consumed legitimacy; Anorganic dictatorship versus the organic dictatorship; MPC triangle (market - plan - compromis...

  13. Employment System for the College Graduates in China during Planned Economy Period

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Rui Juan

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine basic structure of the employment system for the college graduates in China during planned economy period. Under planned economy system, college graduates were recruited centrally by the governments, and tuitions, fees and stipend were given by the government, and job placement of the graduates are done by the governments in cooperation with colleges and universities. National department of education, national department of planning, national and local ...

  14. Monetary policy efficiency in the economies of Central Asia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Isakova, Asel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 58, 11-12 (2008), s. 525-553. ISSN 0015-1920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : monetary policy * Central Asia * dollarization Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.275, year: 2008 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1147_str_525_553_-_isakova.pdf

  15. Formal marketing planning and performance - the case of transitional economy

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanova Jovanov, Tamara; Temjanovski, Riste; Ristevska - Jovanovska, Snezana

    2016-01-01

    This paper was inspired from the necessity to identify the weaknesses in the marketing planning process in companies in a transitional economy and it analyses the connection between continuous formal marketing planning and business performance (profitability and market orientation). The data was obtained with primary and secondary research executed in the companies from the food, i.e. confectionery industry (38% of the registered companies). The research was based on the techniques of sur...

  16. Marketing planning and performance: The case of transitional economy

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanova Jovanov, Tamara; Temjanovski, Riste; Ristevska - Jovanovska, Snezana

    2014-01-01

    This paper is inspired by the distorted marketing practices of companies that operate in a transitional economy, specifically Republic of Macedonia. This analysis has two main objectives: 1. identification of weaknesses in the marketing planning process, 2. providing an evidence of the connection of continuous formal marketing planning with business performance, i.e. profitability and market orientation. The data was obtained both from primary and secondary research. Secondary research was ba...

  17. Marketing planning: state of the art in a transitional economy

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanova Jovanov, Tamara; Temjanovski, Riste; Fotov, Risto

    2014-01-01

    This paper is provoked by the distorted marketing practices of companies that operate in a transitional economy, specifically Republic of Macedonia. The analysis has two main purposes: 1. to identify the weaknesses in the marketing planning process, 2. to prove the connection of continuous formal marketing planning with business performance, i.e. profitability and market share. Data was obtained from primary and secondary research. Primary research was conducted in the food, i.e. confectioner...

  18. SUSTAINABLE GROWTH: RECENT TRENDS ACROSS CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihut Ioana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available What is economic growth? Although the answer to this question may seems of real simplicity, developing an accurate definition of this concept may constitute a real challenge both from a theoretical but also empirical point of view. This constant debate upon the concept of economic growth as well as indentifying the optimum set of instruments for quantifying it, constituted the starting point of the current article. The concept of economic growth is used nowadays complementary to terms like economic development, economic welfare or economic progress with reference to this complex process that implies macro-scale structures. Moreover indentifying the main factors that generate a significant impact upon the dynamics of the economic growth process, constitute a useful approach taking into consideration the high degree of heterogeneity that characterize the architecture of the economies around the world. If we develop this analysis across the European Union member states this debate became even more challenging due to the high degree of diversity that characterize these economies. Moreover, the Central and Eastern European countries and especially the ones that joined EU in 2004 and 2007 embody a set of particularities that make them extremely different from the rest of the European Union member states, features related to the historical background, economic policies and common efforts to intensify the convergence process with the more developed EU members. This paper studies the impact of two main factors upon the economic growth process namely an endogenous-exogenous factor like the degree of openness and an endogenous factor like the human capital using a complex dynamic panel method. The arguments that were in favour of choosing this two factors are on one hand the multitude of theoretical studies that argued the importance of them in modelling the economic growth process and on the other hand the small number of studies that use panel methods in

  19. Sustainable ICT: Action Planning for the New Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Upton, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    The global economy is showing promising signs of recovery, and the 16th Conference of the Parties (COP 16) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, in Cancun, Mexico at the end of 2010, concluded with an approach to addressing climate change that is based on national action plans and reporting of progress against national targets. In the current economic environment, both sustainability and IT will play pivotal roles in any recovery. When these two powerful components come togethe...

  20. New economy, old central banks? Monetary transmission in a new economic environment

    OpenAIRE

    Berk, J M

    2001-01-01

    Proponents of the so-called New Economy claim that it entails a structural change of the economy. Such a change, in turn, would require the central bank to rethink its monetary policy to the extent that traditional relationships between inflation and economic growth are no longer valid. But such a rethinking presupposes that prospective advances in information technology and other factors associated with the new economy do not threaten the capacity of central banks to stabilise the general le...

  1. Soedra's ecological forest management plans. Effects on production and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1995 SOEDRA Skog, Sweden's largest forest owners association, started making ecological forest management plans, Groena skogsbruksplaner. The ecological forest management plans are divided into different compartments in which the management is adapted to the present ecological conditions. The stands are divided into four different categories depending on the different values of nature conservation. The object of this study was to find an easy method to quantify and describe the effects of nature conservation on economy and forest production in SOEDRA:s ecological forest management plans. The developed and purposed method, called PLAN-metoden, does not consider the interests, measures beyond the period of the plan, or losses due to snow or wind. It calculates the difference between the purposed measures in the ecological management plan and an alternative with management according to the requirements of the present Forestry Act. The economic effects of nature conservation varies between a net profit of 0,3% and a cost of 9,1% when calculated with the cash-flow method. The average decrease of possible cutting of merchantable timber was 11,3% and varies between 3,1 and 32,9%. The average decrease of cutting possibilities was 12,9% and varies between a decrease of 0,7% and a decrease of 28,3% when calculated with a present value method. Mainly mature, well-stocked compartments, which are considered not to be managed in the future, give rise to high costs. Properties with unprofitable thinnings and costly scarification, regeneration and cleaning seem to be favoured by the nature conservation in the plans. The Ecological management plans are expected to be of great importance to the members of SOEDRA. The interest in nature conservation is larger than that of economical issues. In order to avoid unsatisfactory results the planning should be accomplished in close personal contact with the forest owner Examination paper 1998-1. 21 refs, 2 figs, 39 tabs

  2. Macro prudential supervision in the open economy, and the role of central banks in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Aizenman, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we explore lessons from the global liquidity crisis pertaining to the prudential supervision role of central bank in an open economy. The narrow view of the role of central banks has been seriously challenged by the global liquidity crisis of 2008-9. The crisis validates central banks’ responsibility for prudential regulations and policies aimed at reducing susceptibility of economies to crises, and the need for external debt management policy in emerging markets. Hoardi...

  3. RE-EXAMINATION OF THE PURCHASING POWER PARITY IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN ECONOMIES

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Zubaidi Baharumshah; Jani Bekő; Darja Boršič

    2011-01-01

    The empirical record on PPP tests for transition economies is far from being so opulent as it is for the developed market economies. This paper attempts to fill this gap by scrutinizing the theory of PPP on a sample of Central and Eastern European economies. The paper has two main advances with respect to previous PPP studies. First, it employs a monthly data base on real exchange rates for a panel of 12 Central and Eastern European economies by testing the theory separately with respect to U...

  4. TRADE IN BASHKIRIA IN THE FIRST FIVEYEAR PLAN FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. ANTOSHKIN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The given article analyses modeling the development of trade in Bashkiria in the first five-year plan of the development of the national economy. On the basis of archive materials, it analyses the dynamics of the trade turnover, the growth of the trading network and the redistribution of trade sectors; it discloses the role of planning in maintaining the balance of demand and supply in the market in Bashkiria. Trade was part of the socialist industrial economy and was based upon the domination of the state-controlled and cooperative sectors. In accordance with the five-year plan, trade in Bashkiria was to evolve significantly, but in the first version of the plan there remained a combination of market-economy regulating mechanisms and prescriptive methods, and the control figures were calculated by the People’s Committee for Trade on the basis of analyzing the market conditions.  The variety of documents issued by different institutions which this article considers allows the conclusion that in the original version of the plan it was trade itself, not the centralized distribution and standardized supply that remained the core of the system of the trade turnover. In the first five-year plan cooperative trade was considered by the People’s Committee for Trade regardless of all the rest of the cooperative sector. Consumers’ cooperation handled the most part of retail trade in the republic. The author argues that trade in Bashkiria was slated to be the main form of economic relationship between the industry and consumers.

  5. RE-EXAMINATION OF THE PURCHASING POWER PARITY IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zubaidi Baharumshah

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The empirical record on PPP tests for transition economies is far from being so opulent as it is for the developed market economies. This paper attempts to fill this gap by scrutinizing the theory of PPP on a sample of Central and Eastern European economies. The paper has two main advances with respect to previous PPP studies. First, it employs a monthly data base on real exchange rates for a panel of 12 Central and Eastern European economies by testing the theory separately with respect to US dollar and with respect to Euro. Second, we utilise a panel unit root test that involves the estimation of the ADF regression in a SUR framework. Since our study found support for the validity of PPP in some reforming European economies, special attention should be devoted to individual country-specific factors that cause PPP deviations.

  6. Central versus Local Education Finance: A Political Economy Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Borck, Rainald

    2006-01-01

    This paper models voters' preferences over central versus local education policies when there are private alternatives. Education is financed by income taxes and individuals are mobile between communities. Public education levels are chosen by majority vote. Contrary to conventional wisdom, centralisation may benefit the rich and poor, while the middle class prefer decentralised education. The model is also extended to include peer effects. Peer effects increase the support for central school...

  7. TOURISM INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IN THE EMERGING ECONOMIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE (HUNGARY, BULGARIA, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Petronela HALLER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Emerging Economies from Central and Eastern Europe take steps to ensure growth through tourism. Although they do not have the cultural, historical and artistic potential of the most famous tourist destinations, these economies promote forms of tourism for which they have suitable conditions. For example, Hungary is famous for health tourism, Bulgaria has made progress in terms of coastal tourism and Romania tries to make known the rural area although it has all conditions for practicing a wide diversified range of tourism forms. In this paper we present statistics showing how the tourism industry looks for three Central and Eastern European countries and we do a brief comparative analysis.

  8. Case studies: Former centrally planned economics, including the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current conditions at former uranium mining sites in the Russian Federation are a direct consequence of the Soviet era operation of uranium mines without effective management of the environmental and social aspects of production and without remediation of contaminated areas, much less planning and design for remediation and long term containment of wastes. Mining operations without environmental protection or closure plans were the normal operating approach in the USA and other western countries but the resulting problems were being recognized in the 1960s and most of the legacy sites have since been cleaned up. Similar operating conditions without effective pollution control and closure concepts prevailed at uranium sites in other centrally planned economies such as the Central Asian Republics, East Germany, Czechoslovakia and Hungary prior to 1990. Currently, many mining areas in eastern and western European countries, including Spain, Hungary and the Czech Republic, have instituted effective remediation standards at major mining sites, including programmes applicable to existing as well as new uranium and other metal mines. These programmes are in areas in which long and active mining traditions provide a set of strong working models for effective environmental controls for current and proposed mines in the Russian Federation and other countries in transition from centrally planned economies. Several community surveys document hundreds of homes with radiation levels as much as 10 to 20 times the level requiring remedial action under international standards acknowledged by Russian investigators. The mining districts of southeastern Chita, (the Russian Federation) including Baley (thorium contamination) and others, reported high indoor radiation areas such as Krasnokamensk and Nerchinsk, which are among the first population exposures to these worldwide problems identified in the Russian Federation. Effective national and international attention to the severity

  9. A Tiny Bilbao in the Province? Experience Economy and Cultral Planning in Small Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Line Marie Bruun

    size of the province communities have in relation to the application of experience economy thinking in cultural planning. The paper presents a reading of the current 13 Danish “Culture Agreements” made between the ministry of culture and the cultural regions (Kulturstyrelsen) The reading has a special...... experience economy driven planning in a Danish context has been discussed by, among others, Marling, Kiib and Jensen (2009) and Andersson (2010). The paper asks if the local and regional cultural planning in Denmark continuously are inspired by the experience economy, and is also asking what implications the...... interest in the projects that focus on art and cultural activities in public space. The 13 examples show that two main rationales guides the agreements: a) the experience economy, which informs cultural planning even in small scale cultural projects in province areas today, and b) the cultural planning of...

  10. Scenarios for economy and environment in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1993 an integrated assessment of the World Bank developed economic scenarios of Central and Eastern European countries was carried out, primarily for emissions, deposition and concentrations of SOx, NOx Particulates, Cadmium en VOCs. Other topics dealt with were quality of soils, groundwater and rivers in Europe. The report forms a background document to the World Bank's 'Environmental Action Programme or Central and Eastern Europe' (EAP). Economic development in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries is far from favorable. Production and consumption have declined by 70% compared to 1990. However, economic prospects seem to be better. The World Bank expects that economic growth will be supported by structural shifts in the production process towards less material-intensive production and reliance on resources. Emissions have been reduced significantly compared to 1990. If in a period of economic recovery, the newly installed capital stock is geared to Western European standards, further reductions may be achieved. To improve the energy efficiency of CEE countries, energy prices will have to increase. It has been assumed that they will harmonize with Western European energy prices. Hot spots are defined as those regions which, by 2010, are still expected to suffer from an exceedance of particulates, SO2 or cadmium concentrations with respect to WHO air quality guidelines. These regional hot spots can be assisted by locally accelerating investments in new capital equipment in such a way that the whole capital stock will operate with Western European Standards by 2010. Not all environmental problems can be resolved by 2010. Implementation of all best available technologies in CEE is necessary, if all the environmental problems are to be solved. (Abstract Truncated)

  11. Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge

  12. Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source special nuclear and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this document. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge. This document has been revised to meet the interim status waste analysis plan requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173 303-300(5). When the final status permit is issued, permit conditions will be incorporated and this document will be revised accordingly

  13. A system dynamics model of coordinated development of central and provincial economy and oil enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the characteristics of oil exploration and development and the inherent rule of a coordinated development of central and provincial economy and oil enterprises in oil producing provinces, this paper addresses the principal questions that determine the coordinated development of the central economy, provincial economy and oil enterprises, and establishes a dynamic model for the above three variables. The research takes Shaanxi Province as an example and makes analogue simulation of the situations from 2006 to 2020. The results indicate that China's provincial governments need to share more tax income, reform some taxes on oil enterprises, and China's oil industry needs to be open to both provincial state-owned enterprise and private enterprise. Meanwhile, this research also provides policy proposals for the coordinated development of central and provincial economy and oil enterprises regarding taxation and sustainable development in China's market-oriented economy. - Highlights: • Chinese provincial government should share more oil enterprises' income tax. • Diversifying sources of investment is able to boost provincial economic development. • Compensation for environment relieves provincial governments' financial pressure. • People's welfare hinges on oil enterprises, provincial governments and tax reform

  14. Study of a Russian University's Organisational Culture in Transition from Planned to Market Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushnykh, Victor; Chemeris, Valeriy

    2006-01-01

    The transition from a planned centralist economy to a market economy over the last decade of the 20th century has presented Russian universities with many profound challenges. These challenges require universities to review and consider their organisational culture and deserve careful study. This paper describes the changes that have taken place…

  15. Paths to policy coherence to create market economies in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Careja, Romana

    2011-01-01

    centralized economies of Central and Eastern Europe into market-driven ones. It shows that government characteristics with likely impact on the quality of policy-making, such as accountability and institutional constraints, are associated with coherent policies only in a limited number of cases. It also shows...... that governments that are not constrained and accountable, formulate coherent policies if they find themselves in contexts that do not pose constraints, or that offer strong incentives. © The Author(s) 2011....

  16. How Colleges Can Keep Strategic Plans on Course in a Stormy Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This article provides suggestions on how colleges can keep strategic plans on course in a stormy economy. These are: (1) Move quickly; (2) Develop contingencies; (3) Be flexible; (4) Make hard choices; and (5) Recognize opportunities.

  17. Central Okanagan smart transit plan : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNally, R.A. [IBI Group, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2005-04-15

    This report outlines the steps and financial aspects of implementing the smart transit plan for the Central Okanagan region, one of British Columbia's fastest growing regions. The plan, which is designed to enhance transit services, is affordable by all stakeholders and is adjustable, based on levels of ridership and availability of resources. The region is expected to grow from 160,000 to 225,000 people by 2021. Transit ridership has grown from just over 1 million passengers per year 10 years ago to almost 3 million passengers in 2003. This strong growth provides an opportunity to pursue a transit plan and land use plan that supports efficient modes of transportation such as transit, walking and cycling. This Smart Transit project involved collaboration with stakeholders to develop a vision for sustainable transit for the region; guidelines for promoting transit-supportive land use development and a business plan to direct transit investments to achieve the transit vision. The existing conditions of the transit system were described with reference to ridership performance by route, current transit ridership, recommended priorities, bus stop inventory, and comparison to other transit systems. Currently, the transit system in the Okanagan region has higher than average ridership compared to similar Canadian systems. It is also as cost-effective as similar sized transit systems. Areas of improvement include better on-time transit service reliability; reduction in the level of graffiti and vandalism and the need to expand off-peak services. Historical and projected future transit system performance was also discussed with reference to system growth, productivity and cost. tabs., figs.

  18. Legislative change in Ireland : a marxist political economy critique of planning law

    OpenAIRE

    Fox-Rogers, Linda; Murphy, Enda; Grist, Berna

    2011-01-01

    In the planning literature relatively little attention has been given to investigating the nature of legislative change in the planning domain. Utilising a political economy approach, this paper analyses recent planning legislative change in the Republic of Ireland. The paper argues that changes in planning legislation can be interpreted within a broader agenda of entrepreneurial planning within the Irish State. In critiquing recent change, the paper highlights three key issues: (1) th...

  19. Planning and pollution: an unusual perspective on central - local relations

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, P.; Miller, C.; Wood, C.

    1998-01-01

    Disputes between the pollution-control and land-us-planning authorities concerning air pollution from unpopular developments such as incinerators offer an unusual perspective on central - local government relations. Central government policy guidance, intended to clarify the boundary between planning and pollution controls over air pollution, was a central issue at the Shell Green inquiry after the local planning authority's refusal of planning consent for a wastewater sludge-processing centr...

  20. Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Haring, Ben

    2009-01-01

    The economy of ancient Egypt is a difficult area of study due to the lack of preservation of much data (especially quantitative data); it is also a controversial subject on which widely divergent views have been expressed. It is certain, however, that the principal production and revenues of Egyptian society as a whole and of its individual members was agrarian, and as such, dependent on the yearly rising and receding of the Nile. Most agricultural producers were probably self-sufficient tena...

  1. ECONOMY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Help for Small Businesses The government will stop charging administrative fees for sole proprietorships and individual market vendors as of September 1, according to a joint circular recently issued by the Ministry of Finance, National Development and Reform Commission and the State Administration for Industry and Commerce. This move is designed to cut costs for individual business owners as part of the government’s efforts to aid the private economy and increase employment.

  2. ECONOMY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Stock Exchange Ties The Shanghai Stock Exchange and the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange (TASE) of Israel signed a memorandum of understanding onNovember 10 to facilitate cooperation between them.They agreed to mutual visits by stock exchange personnel to increase their respective knowledge of and interest in each other’s bourses, according to a news release. It ishoped that the visits will encourage invest-ments and cooperation in various aspects oftheir respective markets and economies, the statement said.

  3. International Tax Planning Methodology and Best Practices of Russian Economy Deoffshorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Vladimirovna Lipatova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is identification of the international tax planning methodology and methods of deoffshorization of the modern Russian economy in order to determine the direction of their improvement, taking into account the need to ensure the economic security of Russia. The article defines the tax planning objectives, content and technology. The article defines a place of the tax planning in the system of tax management. There is a definition of concept and content of the international tax planning as the tax planning method. We have analyzed the different techniques of the international tax planning, most commonly used by the Russian organizations, including the method of offshore. Using the analysis of current statistical data, we have assessed the impact of the international tax planning with the use of low-tax jurisdictions on the economies of capital donor country. There is an estimation of the Russian economy offshorization extent and effects in terms of the economic security. We have analyzed and characterized the tax methods of the Russian economy deoffshorization. The article provides specific recommendations on improving the new Russian methods of the offshore tax regulation and correction of the international tax planning methods under the new conditions - with respect to the improvement of the Russian CFC rules, the new rules on legal entity residence, and the beneficial owner.

  4. The Political Economy of (De)centralization with Complementary Public Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Cheikbossian, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a political economy analysis of (de)centralization when local public goods -- with spillovers effects -- can be substitutes or complements. Depending on the degree of complementarity between local public goods, median voters strategically delegate policy to either `conservative' or to `liberal' representatives under decentralized decision-making. In the first case, it accentuates the free-rider problem in public good provision, while it mitigates it in the second case. Und...

  5. Central Arkansas National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Central Arkansas NWR Complex for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Complex...

  6. The Paper Airplane Challenge: A Market Economy Simulation. Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Kimberly

    This lesson plan features a classroom simulation that helps students understand the characteristics of a market economic system. The lesson plan states a purpose; cites student objectives; suggests a time duration; lists materials needed; and details a step-by-step teaching procedure. The "Paper Airplane Challenge" handout is attached. (BT)

  7. Local School and Central Office Planning Spring, 1972. (Study Document).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milwaukee Public Schools, WI.

    A revision of an earlier rough draft entitled "Local School and System-Wide Planning," this report outlines the planning process. Flow charts and a narrative description of a Central Office and Local School Planning Cycle are provided. This cycle consists of the following steps: (1) superintendent's statement on the implementation of plan cycle,…

  8. Innovations in Health Services Delivery from Transition Economies in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Fidler, A.; Bredenkamp, C.; Schlippert, S.

    2009-01-01

    During the past fifteen years, the countries of the former Eastern Bloc transformed their centrally planned, supply-driven health care systems. Modernization of service delivery required innovations in financing and insurance and the restructuring of primary care and hospital networks. This review of experiences from Central and Southeast Europe, the Baltic States, Central Asia, and the Caucasus spot lights innovative health reforms in low- and middle-income countries, including contributions...

  9. International Tax Planning Methodology and Best Practices of Russian Economy Deoffshorization

    OpenAIRE

    Inna Vladimirovna Lipatova; Lyudmila Vladimirovna Polezharova

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the article is identification of the international tax planning methodology and methods of deoffshorization of the modern Russian economy in order to determine the direction of their improvement, taking into account the need to ensure the economic security of Russia. The article defines the tax planning objectives, content and technology. The article defines a place of the tax planning in the system of tax management. There is a definition of concept and content of the internat...

  10. TRADE IN BASHKIRIA IN THE FIRST FIVEYEAR PLAN FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. ANTOSHKIN

    2016-01-01

    The given article analyses modeling the development of trade in Bashkiria in the first five-year plan of the development of the national economy. On the basis of archive materials, it analyses the dynamics of the trade turnover, the growth of the trading network and the redistribution of trade sectors; it discloses the role of planning in maintaining the balance of demand and supply in the market in Bashkiria. Trade was part of the socialist industrial economy and was based upon the dominatio...

  11. ECONOMY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Strategic Stake in Drax China’s central bank bought a 0.7-percent stake in Yorkshire’s Drax Group, which operates Britain’s largest coal-fired power station, according to a report in the British newspaper Daily Telegraph on September 2.A Drax spokesman confirmed the deal and welcomed all long-term shareholders.The People’s Bank of China acquired the stake after a year of constant effort, and did so quietly because the holding fell below the 3-percent disclosure threshold of the London Stock Exchange. The stake is estimated to be worth about $32.22 million.

  12. A point at the horizon. Start of an intersectoral Business Plan Biobased Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the starting point of a joint business plan for the transition to a Dutch biobased economy (BBE), in which the 6 top sectors chemistry, agro-food, horticulture and propagation materials, logistics, energy and water want to join forces to give more shape to the leading role of the Netherlands in the transition to a sustainable society.

  13. Financial development and energy consumption in Central and Eastern European frontier economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the impact of financial development on energy consumption in a sample of 9 Central and Eastern European frontier economies. Several different measures of financial development are examined including bank related variables and stock market variables. The empirical results, obtained from dynamic panel demand models, show a positive and statistically significant relationship between financial development and energy consumption when financial development is measured using banking variables like deposit money bank assets to GDP, financial system deposits to GDP, or liquid liabilities to GDP. Of the three stock market variables investigated, only one, stock market turnover, has a positive and statistically significant impact on energy consumption. Both short-run and long-run elasticities are presented. The implications of these results for energy policy are discussed. - Research Highlights: → Financial development affects energy consumption in 9 Central and Eastern European frontier economies. → Bank variables have a larger impact on energy consumption than do stock market variables. → Long run bank elasticities range from 0.117 to 0.276. → These results have implications for energy demand forecasts and greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. Privatization in Transition Economies: Case Study of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Rapacki, Ryszard; Linz, Susan Johnston

    1992-01-01

    Contrary to expectations and announcements of policy makers in transition economies, privatization has taken longer than originally planned. This paper analyzes the institutional and behavioral factors that compound systemic barriers to privatization and thus transition from a centrally planned to a market economy. Part I describes the command economy legacy transition economies must overcome while initiating the structural transformation required to introduce a market economy. Part II presen...

  15. European territorial cohesion policies: Parallels to socialist central planning?

    OpenAIRE

    Malý Jiří; Mulíček Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary EU territorial cohesion policy presents some striking reminders of features of socialist central planning. The objective of socio-spatial solidarity aimed at balanced spatial development is a core principle of both spatial planning doctrines. Reviewing key planning documents, this article compares territorial cohesion discourses in terms of their normative and analytical natures in order to critically evaluate the uniqueness and novelty of the current modern concept. In spite of ...

  16. Financial development and energy consumption in Central and Eastern European frontier economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the impact of financial development on energy consumption in a sample of 9 Central and Eastern European frontier economies. Several different measures of financial development are examined including bank related variables and stock market variables. The empirical results, obtained from dynamic panel demand models, show a positive and statistically significant relationship between financial development and energy consumption when financial development is measured using banking variables like deposit money bank assets to GDP, financial system deposits to GDP, or liquid liabilities to GDP. Of the three stock market variables investigated, only one, stock market turnover, has a positive and statistically significant impact on energy consumption. Both short-run and long-run elasticities are presented. The implications of these results for energy policy are discussed. (author)

  17. Folk toys in Central Thailand: Product development for a creative economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanna Pichetpruth

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Folk toys in Central Thailand are a part of local Thai local wisdom. Creative folk toys are a part of cultural heritage and Thai creative and sustainable economic development. So, this research aimed to study 1 the indigenous folk toys in central Thailand, 2 the toy production problems and solution guidelines, and 3 the toy product development for the creative economy. The study employed a qualitative research method. The target group consisted of the selected communities in Nonthaburi Province, Ayutthaya Province and Suphanburi Province and folk toy sources. The informants were: 15 folk toy enterprise presidents, government officers and local experts as the key informants, 45 folk toy enterprise members as the causal informants and 45 customers as the general informants. Data were collected by means of interview, observation, focus group discussion and workshop from field study. Qualitative data were analyzed by inductive analysis method with triangular verification and the research results were presented by a descriptive analysis method. The research results revealed that folk toys in Central Thailand were derived from local indigenous knowledge that was created and transmitted through the generations for at least 700 years. Most of the folk toys in Central Thailand were produced by natural, local and easily found materials, using natural colors. The beauty, styles and quality of natural and man-made children’s toys were based on parental competency. Moreover, creation of folk toys is a form of Thai handicraft. Thai people truly believe that toys are symbols of parental love and attention and the tools to build up children’s growth in terms of lifestyle and creative mind. The findings show that folk toys in Central Thailand are made of special soil, wood, bamboo, lan leaf, tan leaf and coconut shell. Folk toys are categorized in four groups: 1 fun toys, such as krataewien, explosive bamboo, king drum, nangkop drum, rhythm coconut shell

  18. Circular Economy Planning of China "12th Five-year Plan" to be Released in Sep.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) recently organized and convened the meeting on the compilation work of Plan of National Circular economy Development (2011-2015), during which the commission researched and founded the leading team to plan the compilation work, and discussed the working schemes and compilation outlines. Xie Zhenhua, vice director of NDRC, said that it is an important strategy of national economics and social development to develop circular economy.

  19. Towards a Political Economy of Weak Institutions and Strong Elites in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicte Bull

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A common conclusion of studies on Central America’s democracies and political economy is that the weakness of institutions and the strength of elites are a main reason for the region’s problems. Recently, a set of studies have attempted to scrutinize these elites in detail, focussing on their strategies and resources. The purpose of this article is to reflect upon what these studies can tell us about the question: what is strong when institutions are weak? I argue that in the Northern Triangle particularly the answer is elite networks and their command over and competition for the control over four sets of resources: money, means of force, information, and ideas and ideologies, including religion. A systematic study of such networks and how they interact with formal institutions may give us a more realistic view of the current state of Central American political economies. Resumen: Hacia una economía política de instituciones débiles y élites fuertes en Centroamérica Una conclusión común a la que llegan los estudios sobre la economía política y las democracias centroamericanas es que la debilidad de las instituciones y la fuerza de las élites son una razón fundamental para los problemas de la región. Últimamente, una serie de estudios han intentado estudiar a fondo dichas élites, enfocándose en sus estrategias y recursos. El objetivo del presente artículo es reflexionar sobre lo que dichos estudios pueden aportarnos a la respuesta de la pregunta: ¿qué es fuerte cuando las instituciones son débiles? Yo sostengo que en el Triángulo Norte, en particular, la respuesta son las redes de las élites y su control, así como su competencia por dicho control, de cuatro categorías de recursos: el dinero, los medios de coacción, la información y las ideas e ideologías, incluida la religión. Un estudio sistemático de dichas redes y sobre cómo interactúan con las instituciones formales podría facilitarnos una visión m

  20. The Great Leap Forward: Anatomy of a Central Planning Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Yang, Dennis Tao

    2005-01-01

    The Great Leap Forward disaster, characterized by a collapse in grain production and a widespread famine in China between 1959 and 1961, is found attributable to a systemic failure in central planning. Wishfully expecting a great leap in agricultural productivity from collectivization, the Chinese government accelerated its aggressive…

  1. Rent-Seeking, Hierarchy and Centralization: Why the Soviet Union Collapsed So Fast and What it Means for Market Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Guinevere Liberty Nell

    2011-01-01

    Opening of the archives confirmed that the Soviet Union was a hierarchical economy driven by planning, not a rent-seeking society. Rent-seeking could not govern the classical socialist society because lower-level officials could not trust their superiors to collaborate. Individual incentives would have favored widespread rent-seeking in the absence of punishment, therefore loosening of control during perestroika infused the system with rent-seeking and triggered the collapse of the planned ec...

  2. Central Coast Region South District Basin Planning & Habitat Mapping Project

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Jessica; Casagrande, Julie; Watson, Fred

    2008-01-01

    This is a report to the California Department of Fish and Game. Between 2003 and 2008, the Foundation of CSUMB produced fish habitat maps and GIS layers for CDFG based on CDFG field data. This report describes the data entry, mapping, and website construction procedures associated with the project. Included are the maps that have been constructed. This report marks the completion of the Central Coast region South District Basin Planning and Habitat Mapping Project. (Document contains 40 pages)

  3. 75 FR 70020 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that shall ``* * *...

  4. 78 FR 21414 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... an office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that shall...

  5. Planning the transition to a hydrogen economy using multi-criteria techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro Rosende, A.; Rodriguez Bordallo, C.; Gallardo Garcia-Orta, V.; Brey Sanchez, R.; Contreras Rubio, I.; Fernandez Carzo, A.; Garcia Hernandez-Diaz, A.

    2005-07-01

    On January 20, 2004, at the presentation of the constitution of the European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technological Platform, the then President of the European Commission, Romano Prodi, declared that: Our objective is to realize a step-by-step shift towards a fully integrated hydrogen economy, based on renewable energy sources, by the middle of the century. To turn this vision into reality, however, Europe needs more research, larger demonstration and deployment projects, and regulations and standards appropriate to the future hydrogen economy. These efforts will be successful only if national and European resources, both public and private, are pulled together in a coordinated way. This is why we are launching the European partnership for the hydrogen economy. This calls for the inescapable need for each European Union member state to increase the production of energies based on renewable sources and, therefore, global planning of this process must be done while taking into consideration the possibility of interrelations between the different regions and the current installed output and the limitations and potentialities of each of them. In this paper, a multiple criteria goal programming model is being developed for the case of Spain to enable, for the time-period taken into consideration, the planning of the investment in renewable energies and the production and distribution of the hydrogen generated among the different regions. To this end, economic, social and environmental criteria will be attended to, taking into consideration at the same time, for each region, the energy potential for each type of energy considered, the energy demand from the vehicle pool (the main consumer of this hydrogen), different levels of contamination, possibilities of transporting the hydrogen among the regions and governmental preferences for the development of the different types of energy. Therefore, we find ourselves having to face a problem characterized by the existence of

  6. Budgeting and Fiscal Management in Transitional Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Martinez-Vazquez; Jameson Boex

    2000-01-01

    The past ten years have been witness to one of the largest experiments in economic history, namely the transition of centrally planned economies to market-based economies. While policy reform in transitional countries has encompassed virtually every sector of the economy, modernization of public sector budgeting practices and fiscal management techniques have been widely recognized as critical to the success of the economic transition experiment. However, the breadth and pace of fiscal manage...

  7. Bioeconomy and Green Economy: European Strategies, Action Plans and Impact on Life Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Socaciu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The review presents the definitions, the main concepts and vision for Bioeconomy versus Green economy. The key aspects which are discussed refers to European strategy and action plans (1, Bioeconomy and agriculture orientation (2, Biorefinery for a better life quality (3 and involvement of education, research and innovation for the progress of Bioeconomy (4. There are described the main challenges, requirements, aims related to the integration of bioeconomy in different economic sectors, the strategic plans and activities at global level  with specific consideration for European member states. Innovation and the need of an integrative knowledge, creating translational bridges and covering gaps by sustainable interdisciplinary research and technology development are  also discussed. Considering the vital links betweeen research - innovation and technlogy transfer, for the bioeconomy progress, relevant examples will be presented, related to  European programs (2014-2020, e.g. Horizon 2020,  European Innovation partnership (EIP and Partnerships Public-Private (PPP. The role of universities, as best providers of education and research will be underlined with a strong focus on the need to develop the entrepreunership culture and their role as knowledge and innovation disseminator, filling the gap research­-invention­­-innovation.

  8. Engineering economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is written for engineer and manager who is working for analysis of propriety of project. It gives descriptions of basic of engineering economy, compare principle of engineering economy, application of compare principle, evaluation of capital project, value of time of funds and evaluation of investment, engineering economy analysis of an alternative idea, depreciation, determination and principle analysis of uncertain prospect, analysis of propriety of project, profitable plan in product progress, quality, cost and profit and analysis of complex investment project.

  9. Can we Plan. The political economy of commercial nuclear energy policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dissertation is an analysis of the commercial nuclear energy sector's decline in the United States. The research attempts to reconcile the debate between Weberian-institutional and Marxist political theory about the state's inability to successfully plan industrial development in advanced capitalist countries. Synthesizing these views, the central hypothesis guiding the research is that the greater the state's relative autonomy from political and economic constraints in an institutional sense, i.e., the greater its insulation from the contradictions of capitalism and democracy, the greater its planning capacity and the more successful it will be in directing industrial performance. The research examines one industrial sector, commercial nuclear energy, and draws two major comparison. First, the French and US nuclear industries are compared, since the state's relative autonomy is much greater in the former than in the latter. This comparison is developed to identify policy areas where nuclear planning has succeeded in France but failed in America. Four areas are identified: reactor standardization, waste management, reactor safety, and financing. Second, looking particularly at the US, the policy areas are compared to analyze the development of policy and its effects on the sector's performance and to determine the degree to which planning was undermined by the structural constraints characteristic of a state with low relative autonomy

  10. Contrasting ERP absorption between transition and developed economies from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernroider, Edward W.N.; Sudzina, Frantisek; Pucihar, Andreja

    2011-01-01

    production process. Despite converging Enterprise Resource Planning saturation levels, the data identifies gaps in absorption levels and performance. Organizations in transition face greater challenges, engage more in phased Enterprise Resource Planning absorptions, and expect higher levels of external...

  11. Lump-Sum Payments and Profit-Sharing Plans in the Union Sector of the United States Economy.

    OpenAIRE

    Linda A. Bell; Neumark, David

    1993-01-01

    Lump-sum payments and profit-sharing plans became increasingly prevalent in union contracts in the U.S. economy in the 1980s. This paper analyzes the relationship between lump-sums, profit sharing, labor costs and employment, in firm-level panel data for the union sector of the U.S. economy. In general, the firm-level data suggest that profit sharing has a statistically significant effect of lowering labor cost growth. Profit sharing also appears to increase employment growth and reduce emplo...

  12. Banking Ssystems, central banks and international reserve accumulation in East Asian economies

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Prakash Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines changes in the balance sheets of the banking system in five East Asian economies which were affected by the 1997 Asian Crisis. These countries have persistently accumulated international reserves since the crisis. This paper estimates the impact of reserve accumulation on some important balance sheet variables such as liquid assets, credit and deposits of the banking system by applying panel data techniques. Estimates using data from Thailand, South Korea, Malaysia, Philip...

  13. Banking systems, central banks and international reserve accumulation in East Asian economies

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Prakash Kumar

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines changes in the balance sheets of the banking system in five East Asian economies which were affected by the 1997 Asian Crisis. These countries have persistently accumulated foreign currency reserves since the crisis. This paper estimates the impact of reserve accumulation on some important balance sheet variables such as liquid assets, credits and deposits of the banking system by applying panel data techniques. Estimates using data from Thailand, South Korea, Malaysia, Ph...

  14. Clean Cities Strategic Planning White Paper: Light Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hopson, Dr Janet L [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Greene, David [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Gibson, Robert [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Increasing the energy efficiency of motor vehicles is critical to achieving national energy goals of reduced petroleum dependence, protecting the global climate, and promoting continued economic prosperity. Even with fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions standards and various economic incentives for clean and efficient vehicles, providing reliable and accurate fuel economy information to the public is important to achieving these goals. This white paper reviews the current status of light-duty vehicle fuel economy in the United States and the role of the Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Cities Program in disseminating fuel economy information to the public.

  15. Integrating planning and design optimization for thermal power generation in developing economies: Designs for Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, John Dinh Chuong

    In the twenty first century, global warming and climate change have become environmental issues worldwide. There is a need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from thermal power plants through improved efficiency. This need is shared by both developed and developing countries. It is particularly important in rapidly developing economies (for example, Vietnam, South Korea, and China) where there is very significant need to increase generation capacity. This thesis addresses improving thermal power plant efficiency through an improved planning process that emphasizes integrated design. With the integration of planning and design considerations of key components in thermal electrical generation, along with the selection of appropriate up-to-date technologies, greater efficiency and reduction of emissions could be achieved. The major barriers to the integration of overall power plant optimization are the practice of individual island tendering packages, and the lack of coordinating efforts between major original equipment manufacturers (OEM). This thesis assesses both operational and design aspects of thermal power plants to identify opportunities for energy saving and the associated reduction of CO2 emissions. To demonstrate the potential of the integrated planning design approach, three advanced thermal power plants, using anthracite coal, oil and gas as their respective fuel, were developed as a case study. The three plant formulations and simulations were performed with the cooperation of several leading companies in the power industry including Babcock & Wilcox, Siemens KWU, Siemens-Westinghouse Power Corporation, Hitachi, Alstom Air Preheater, TLT-Covent, and ABB Flakt. The first plant is a conventional W-Flame anthracite coal-fired unit for base load operation. The second is a supercritical oil-fired plant with advanced steam condition, for two shifting and cycling operations. The third plant is a gas-fired combined cycle unit employing a modern steam-cooled gas

  16. Constructing Hongqiao Hub and Serving Regional Economy:Planning and Operation of Hongqiao Comprehensive Transportation Hub

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Taking Hongqiao Integrated Transportation Hub Project as a case, this paper introduces its origin, orientation, development programming, planning and design, road planning, information system planning, air-rail integrated transportation planning, disaster prevention planning, and so on.

  17. 75 FR 6696 - Draft Recovery Plan for Tidal Marsh Ecosystems of Northern and Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Draft Recovery Plan for Tidal Marsh Ecosystems of Northern and Central... draft recovery plan for Tidal Marsh Ecosystems of Northern and Central California for public review and... Marsh Ecosystems of Northern and Central California features five endangered species. The biology...

  18. Towards measurement of political pressure on central banks in the emerging market economies: the case of the central bank of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim L. Awad

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses whether the legal independence granted to the Central Bank of Egypt (CBE under the latest legislation is factual. I followed Fry’s methodology, which assumes that the level of independence of the central bank is determined by fiscal attributes. In an attempt to develop Fry’s method, I used a simple criterion to assess the central bank’s independence, namely, that the central bank is actually independent if it can fulfill its money supply target. Applying this criterion to the CBE and some other CBs in the developed countries and emerging market economies, we find that: (i the legal independence granted to the CBE under the latest legislation is not factual; although the final objective of monetary policy is to achieve price stability, the CBE failed to fulfill its money supply target and achieve price stability, because it was responsive to political pressure and did not react to fulfill its money supply target; (ii such political pressure on the CBE is due to fiscal attributes, as measured by domestic credit to the government; (iii CBs whose independence is factual, according to our criterion, showed a negative relationship between the legal indices, as measured by the GMT index, and the fiscal attributes measured by DCGY. However, the relationship was anomalous when measured by the rate of inflation

  19. Management and development of land in the name of the Green Economy: planning, landscape, efficiency, biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuti, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Promoting sustainable economic development is the basis of the Green Economy: a new vision of Agriculture, Environmental and Regional policy, shared by the wine sector, especially on some crucial issues, such as reducing the consumption of agricultural land, recognition as economically important of the green agricultural production space, spreading of organic farming, adoption of good agricultural practices. Sustainability, in fact , is not just about the use of analysis tools (carbonfoot print, Waterfoot print, etc .) but is about innovations to be introduced in the entire production process, protection of biodiversity, ethic work in the vineyard and winery. It means to disseminate as much as possible all those practices that can enable a more efficient land management also considering the recent climate changes: introduction of agro-energy and precision agriculture, rational use of water resources, creation of an observatory on temperatures and an interactive mapping system, viticultural zoning and municipal planning to make concrete balance between vitality in agronomic sector and landscape quality. Realizing such a regional geopedological mapping about agricultural soil, will allow companies to display a real-time access to all the data needed for a sustainable management of the funds, not only it would be an important tool to support the technical choices of farmers, enhancing their potential and optimizing production in relation to the current climate crisis, but would have a strong impact in terms of managing and saving water and energy resources. A strong efficacy in this context should be recognized at the "Urban Regulation Plans of the Wine Cities", which have developed since 2007 on the base of the guidelines promoted by the Italian Association Città del Vino, in order to enhance the quality of wine districts. The foundations of this multidisciplinary tool are based on: • in-depth knowledge of the characteristics of the wine territory; • unity and

  20. 78 FR 63491 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... achievable by project contractors using best available cost-effective technology and best...

  1. 2015 Plan. Project 2: the electric power sector and the Brazilian economy: insertion and forecasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project shows the economic and the energetic view of the Brazilian electric power sector, mentioning the actual conjuncture; the economy evolution; some sector forecasts; demographical aspects; international price of petroleum and National Energetic Matrix. (C.G.C.)

  2. Impacts of Centrally and Non-centrally Planned Distributed Generation on Low Voltage Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Huat Tang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of Feed in Tariff (FiT by Malaysian Government in December 2011 has resulted in the increasing number of distributed generators (DG connected to the existing radial low voltage (LV distribution network. It is important to investigate the technical issues caused by anticipated amount of DG, in order to ensure the safety, reliability, and efficiency of the power system. The paper describes a simulation work based on a commercial and residential LV distribution network in the state of Selangor. Both centrally and non-centrally planned distributed generators are studied to investigate the positive and negative impacts of DG connected to the LV distribution network. The voltage unbalance factor in LV distribution network with different penetration level of DG is studied. In addition, the LV network with DGs is also used to minimize the network power losses. The power factor and the voltage unbalance factor at point of coupling are studied. Finally, this simulation work is extended to assess how the cable length from substation to the point of coupling affects the voltage unbalance in the network.

  3. Changes in Chinese Education under Globalisation and Market Economy: Emerging Issues and Debates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shibao; Guo, Yan; Beckett, Gulbahar; Li, Qing; Guo, Linyuan

    2013-01-01

    Fuelled by forces of globalisation, China has gradually shifted from a centrally planned economy to the "socialist market economy". This study examines changes in Chinese education under globalisation and market economy, focusing on the teaching and living conditions of teachers. The study reveals that the profound transformation of social and…

  4. Analysis of Leading Cities in Central Europe: Control of Regional Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Csomós György (1974-) (geográfus)

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, one of the characteristic orientations in social science studies focusing on cities is the ranking of cities, as well as the definition of the world's leading cities (world cities, global cities) on the basis of various criteria. Central European countries are given just a minor role in these researches, particularly in comparison with German cities with their considerable economic performance. This analysis compares the large cities of Austria, Germany and the countries of the Vise...

  5. Placing the environment in migration: environment, economy, and power in Ghana's Central Region

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Edward R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the role of environmental change as a driver of migration, a central concern of areas of inquiry ranging from the Human Dimensions of Global Change research to population geography and development studies. Although much of the literature on the role of the environment in migration reflects a general awareness that environmental factors are but one of a suite of influences shaping migration decisionmaking, a framework within which to place social, economic, and environmenta...

  6. Privatization of Corporations in Uzbekistan in Comparison with Transition Economies of Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kakhkharov, Jakhongir

    2003-01-01

    The demise of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the USSR signaled a rush to privatization in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. The governments of these countries are trying to privatize i.e. transfer state-owned-and-operated enterprises to private owners and/or managers in order to create a viable private sector, capital markets and other institutions and processes, which describe a free market capitalist system. However, the pace of privatization has not been the same...

  7. An Examination of Centralized Educational Planning Practices in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisman, Mehmet

    2003-01-01

    Examines and analyzes the educational planning practices in Turkey at the national level after the planned development period (1963-2002). The principles, policies, and goals related to education in development plans and how far they were put into practice are summarized in eight sections. (Contains 2 tables and 24 references.) (MLF)

  8. Urban competitiveness in the knowledge economy: Universities as new planning animateurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneworth, Paul; Hospers, Gert-Jan

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary economic activity is increasingly dominated by ‘knowledge-based’ activities. Increasingly internationalisation of competition has increased pressures on firms in all advanced economies to compete primarily in terms of product differentiation (Porter, 1990). This has changed the nature o

  9. The lending channel and budget balance: empirical evidences from Central and Eastern European economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan-Gabriel MOINESCU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to deepen the analysis on the indirect dependence of government budget balance on private sector credit flow in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The added value of this approach consists of two elements. First, the analysis suggests developing the traditional analytical framework of assessing risks to public finance stability by including second round effects of negative fiscal impulses on credit to private sector during recession periods. Second, the study provides empirical evidence on the importance of economic growth transmission channel for the impact of credit accelerator effects on primary deficit. At the same time, nonperforming loans channel proved to be insignificant, especially in relation to the persistency of last year’s budget deficit and the effects of budget allocations pro-cyclicality. However, loan portfolio quality seems to be more relevant in the case of public debt service, through its influence on the evolution of the yield on long-term government securities that is closely related to sovereign risk premium. Nevertheless, strengthening the financial safety net by the introduction of resolution funds will most probably break the link investors saw between credit portfolio quality and the impending increase in budget spending. This expected development across not only CEE countries, but at the EU level also, will facilitate the isolation of sovereign risk premium from non-performing loans’ dynamics.

  10. Small Businesses and the Shadow Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Bojan Nastav; Štefan Bojnec

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates causalities between small businesses and the shadow economy in ten New Member States of the European Union in the years 2000–2005. The transition from a centrally planned to a market economy, with deregulation and privatization of economic activities, has yielded new opportunities for small businesses, new entrepreneurial ideas, and new income sources in these countries. Yet, rigid legislation, high tax wedges, and transaction costs of government institutions have incr...

  11. 76 FR 58840 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act; Refuge Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act; Refuge Water Management Plans AGENCY... Refuge Water Management Plans (Refuge Criteria). Several entities have each developed a Refuge Water...) 978-5281 (TDD 978-5608). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following Refuge Water Management Plans...

  12. Simulations of the Fuel Economy and Emissions of Hybrid Transit Buses over Planned Local Routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    We present simulated fuel economy and emissions city transit buses powered by conventional diesel engines and diesel-hybrid electric powertrains of varying size. Six representative city drive cycles were included in the study. In addition, we included previously published aftertreatment device models for control of CO, HC, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Our results reveal that bus hybridization can significantly enhance fuel economy by reducing engine idling time, reducing demands for accessory loads, exploiting regenerative braking, and shifting engine operation to speeds and loads with higher fuel efficiency. Increased hybridization also tends to monotonically reduce engine-out emissions, but trends in the tailpipe (post-aftertreatment) emissions involve more complex interactions that significantly depend on motor size and drive cycle details.

  13. Banking behaviour and the Brazilian economy after the Real Plan: The post-Keynesian approch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz-Fernando De Paula

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analysing--from a Post Keynesian approach--the Brazilian bankingbehaviour in the current phase of the business cycle that is at the semi-stagnation state of the economy. According to the Post Keynesian approach, banks are economic agents that have liquidity preference determined strongly by their expectations under uncertainty, managing their portfolio according to the tradeoff between liquidity and profitability. We argue that banking behaviour in Brazil has been determined by the specific institutional-macroeconomic context of the current phase of the Brazilian economy, with banks taking advantage of the high rates of interest and the conditions in which government has managed its internal debt. But at the same time bankingstrategies are determinant of the current phase since portfolio allocation has been dominated by a short-termist behaviour and high liquidity preference that have resulted in low credit supply and high banking spread.

  14. Regional Planning and Development Under the Maximization of Urban Agglomerative Economies%城市集聚经济最大化视角下的区域规划发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱英明

    2005-01-01

    Starting from the meaning and types of urban agglomerative economies, with the analysis of the characteristics and causes of urban agglomerative economies, this paper puts forward that the regional planning and development should attach importance to urban agglomerative economies, follow the law of the maximization of regional urban agglomerative economies. It also points out the countermeasures and advices tofacilitate the regional planning and development based on the principle.

  15. Project Planning and Control in a Developing Economy: Implementation and Realisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Abdul-Rahman

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In the competitive and uncertain environment of the construction industry, the ability to deliver end products with the required quality, schedule and budget is vital to the survival of any construction-related firm. Before embarking on any project, realistic planning and, consequently, a control procedure must be in place to enable the parties to manage the project with sufficient degree of authority and certainty. This paper addresses issues associated with the implementation of project planning and control, identificati on of impacts in the implementation of project planning and the critical success factors of project planning. A questionnaire survey was conducted on construction professionals and contractors involved in the running of construction projects. The survey results showed that common problems associated with the project planning and control are the lack of experienced staff and poor coordination by the contractor. During site operation, a delay in decision making aggravates the effect of poor planning and control and much of the effect of project planning rests on the pro-activeness of experienced staff. The positive impact associated with proper planning and control is the high probability of finishing the project on time while the negative impact is that it is a time-consuming and costly process. The critical success factors identified from the survey are Excellent Teamwork and Experienced Team.

  16. Planning and financing of the petroleum business in a lean economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Niger delta is a rich oil and gas province with great development potential and the present Memorandum Of Understanding(MOU)/Joint Ownership Agreement (JOA) framework has resulted until 1992 in more investments, increased production and reserves. The National aspirations of i. 25 billion barrels reserves, ii. 2.5 million bopd production and iii. reduction of gas flaring are achievable but funding problems, margin erosion and lean economy are jeopardizing the industry's confidence and ability to proceed. If oil investment is not restored, oil production and Government revenues will decline significantly. The solution is potentially simple and is already embedded in the existing MOU/JOA structure. A coherent National Energy Policy is required to exploit Nigeria's gas potential to the fullest

  17. Voluntary Truck and Bus Fuel-Economy-Program marketing plan. Final technical report, September 29, 1980-January 29, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the program is to improve the utilization of fuel by commercial trucks and buses by updating and implementing specific approaches for educating and monitoring the trucking industry on methods and means of conserving fuels. The following outlines the marketing plan projects: increase use of program logo by voluntary program members and others; solicit trade publication membership and support; brief Congressional delegations on fuel conservation efforts; increase voluntary program presence before trade groups; increase voluntary program presence at truck and trade shows; create a voluntary program display for use at trade shows and in other areas; review voluntary program graphics; increase voluntary program membership; and produce placemats carrying fuel conservation messages; produce a special edition of Fuel Economy News, emphasizing the driver's involvement in fuel conservation; produce posters carrying voluntary program fuel conservation message. Project objectives, activities, and results for each project are summarized.

  18. The legacy of the Real Plan and an alternative agenda for the Brazilian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Filho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El Plan Real es considerado el plan más exitoso de estabilización económica que Brasil ha experimentado recientemente en relación a su principal objetivo económico de reducir y controlar la tasa de inflación del país. Mientras el incontrovertible éxito del Plan Real es evidenciado por la estabilización de precios, el Plan, como un todo, ha sido, en realidad, un fracaso cuando vemos el pobre desempeño económico brasileño durante el período del real. Este artículo tiene dos objetivos. Primero, procura analizar las razones del éxito del Plan Real (una reducción y control de la tasa de inflación y las razones del fracaso del Plan (bajo crecimiento económico, alto desempleo e inestabilidad macroeconómica en la forma de déficits en el presupuesto fiscal y en la balanza de pagos. En este contexto, el artículo muestra que la política de estabilización brasileña, durante el período del real, ha causado un incremento del déficit fiscal y del déficit de balanza de pagos, y que éste desequilibrio ha resultado en restricciones que continuaran como efecto de la recuperación del crecimiento económico brasileño en el mediano y largo plazo. El segundo objetivo de este artículo es presentar una agenda económica que controle la inflación y promueva un crecimiento económico sustentable en Brasil.

  19. Puzzling stakeholder views for long-term planning in the bio-economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sisto, Roberta; Vliet, van Mathijs; Prosperi, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Planning long-term actions in the South of Italy is often characterised by a 'vicious circle of non-participation'. Stakeholders are increasingly not aware of the relevant role they have in supporting policy-making processes, even if they are usually keen to express their opinions. The aim of the

  20. Planning regulations in the USA and their implications on urban design in the central city zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinić Milena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 20th century, urban planning of the American cities was founded on the strong capitalist system and vast available land area. After a long period of planning, which was suited for the use of automobiles, nowadays the deficiencies both in the urban structure and social sphere are very obvious. Modern planning is striving to prescribe guidelines for urban design and thus create a continuity of cityscape and emphasize the pedestrian character of the area, particularly in central city zones. Town planning in the USA comprises local regulations which are suited to the needs of individual cities. Particularly important are the implications which certain town planning regulations have on the design of physical structures in the central city zone, which is the research goal of this paper.

  1. Project Planning and Control in a Developing Economy: Implementation and Realisation

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Rahman, H; M. Othman; N. Zakaria; I. A. Yahya; Mohamed, O; L. C. Lan

    2005-01-01

    In the competitive and uncertain environment of the construction industry, the ability to deliver end products with the required quality, schedule and budget is vital to the survival of any construction-related firm. Before embarking on any project, realistic planning and, consequently, a control procedure must be in place to enable the parties to manage the project with sufficient degree of authority and certainty. This paper addresses issues associated with the implementation of project pla...

  2. Economies and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for launching the journal Economies (ISSN 2227-7099 is my concern regarding human sustainability [1,2]. There are two major categories of economic systems: capitalism, or free market economy and socialism, or planned economy. The last 30 years have witnessed great social change in China, for example, indicating that the free market economy has prevailed and now dominates around the World.

  3. More planned economy than market economy in the energy policy strategy for 2020 of the European Commission; Mehr Plan- als Marktwirtschaft in der energiepolitischen Strategie 2020 der Europaeischen Kommission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haucap, Justus; Coenen, Michael

    2011-04-15

    The Europeanization of energy policies is desirable because the three main objectives of energy policy (climate protection, security of supply and competitiveness) have cross-border impacts. Hence, it is good that the European Union has been granted a competence for energy policy in the article 194 of the Lisbon treaty. In addition, it is good that the European Commission has published its long-term strategy to stabilize expectations which is important for infrastructure investment. It is regrettable though that price signals, competition and market principles only play a minor role for the Commission while rather doubtful objectives such as fostering energy efficiency and promoting renewable dominate the agenda. The Commission's strategy is mainly characterized by bureaucratic dirigisme, intense regulation, state planning and public subsidies. The road to a centrally planned energy industry is being walked down fast.

  4. Doing it differently or The impact of the financial crisis on central bank balance sheets in emerging economies

    OpenAIRE

    Szilárd Erhart; Gergely Kicsák; Zsolt Kuti; Zoltán Molnár; Zoltán Monostori

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates changes in central bank balance sheets and the non-conventional central bank measures triggered by the crisis by comparing international examples. The trend of rapid expansion in central bank balance sheets and the resulting higher need for sterilisation is not solely a Hungarian phenomenon, as it represents a challenge for central banks around the world. Responding to a variety of exchange rate and financial crises since the end of the 1990s, the central banks of emer...

  5. Protection Planning for Rural Centralized Drinking Water Source Areas in Chongqing

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Protection planning is made for rural centralized drinking water source areas according to current situations of rural drinking water and existing problems of centralized drinking water source areas in Chongqing, and in combination with survey, analysis and evaluation of urban-rural drinking water source areas in whole city. There are engineering measures and non-engineering measures, to guarantee drinking water security of rural residents, improve rural ecological environment, realize sustai...

  6. Trade Policies in Central Asia after EU Enlargement and before Russian WTO Accession: Regionalism and Integration into the World Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Pomfret

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the choices between regionalism and multilateralism, and the impact of WTO membership on the five Central Asian countries. The two main sections analyse (1) why the large number of regional trade agreements which the Central Asian countries have signed have had little economic impact, and (2) the consequences for the Central Asian countries of Chinese and Russian WTO membership and the consequences of the current Central Asian applicants’ (Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbeki...

  7. Varieties in state capitalism: Outward FDI strategies of central and local state-owned enterprises from emerging economy countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Hua Li; Lin Cui; Jiangyong Lu

    2014-01-01

    Institutional diversity characterizing state-owned enterprises (SOEs) from emerging economies holds critical but under-examined implications for their internationalization activities. Different types of SOEs can exhibit distinct motivations, strategic resources, and adaptive capabilities for penetrating foreign markets. To understand how such idiosyncratic differences emerge, we conceptualize the heterogeneity of SOEs as an outcome of multiple institutional reform processes – administrative a...

  8. Economy of Central Asia Under the Rule of the Abbasids%阿拔斯王朝统治下的中亚经济

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永伦

    2012-01-01

    Economy of Central Asia continued to develop Under the rule of the Abbasids.Feudalism of Central Asia during this period of time further to develop and landowner began to form a special elass.the Arab went on to exploit irrigation water and farm in order to accelerate the development of agriculture of Central Asia. on which the development of handicraft ,commerce and banking of Central Asia was based. Economy of Central Asia continued to be prosperous.%在阿拔斯王朝统治时期,中亚经济得到发展。封地制进一步发展,大土地所有者形成。阿拉伯人在中亚继续兴修水利,开垦荒地,促进农业的发展,在此基础上,中亚的手工业、商业和中国史料提到的白水胡城是商人汇集之地。这里修建的商队客栈达一千七百个,有的为会馆,如布哈拉人的会馆,撒马尔罕人的会馆,那色波人的会馆等,多是本地人为其同乡所建,或为由商人或达官贵人捐款,修建了他们聚集的会所,有的则为达官贵人捐款所建。银行业也发展起来,整个中亚经济呈现出繁荣景象。

  9. Planning of activities in the Laguna Verde Central planning at 12 weeks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The universe of works that are carried out in a nuclear facility to maintain effective the structures, systems and components require of a continuous analysis, in the order of the maintenance frequencies that can be of the preventive, predictive or corrective type. Each component is associated to reserve parts, readiness of systems, in fulfillment to the operation technical specifications, to the environment of the one work; each component requires of a planning level, where it is distinguished with clarity when they are executed, in the operation stage, stop or recharge. This work has as end to show like the activities are planned during the operation, using planning methods to twelve weeks, where the reach of the task is conceptualized, operative requirements, of reserve parts, of the work environment analysis, of those radiological conditions, of the authorizations for their execution, the same execution and the evaluation post work like a technique to maintain in continuous improvement the tasks of the maintenance of the Units of the Power station. A motor valve to be worked in its internals requires access to the work point, it requires bill of the system, electric disconnection, maneuvers to disassemble actuators and retirement of thermal isolation if it applies, reserve parts of the caps joints, control mechanisms, personal, tools, radiological control. The success of the continuous operation of a power station is in the planning quality, the attention of each one of the details to assure that the components, structures and components stay effective to make their function when they are demanded. The planning task requires of experience and knowledge of each some of the components, the task of planning of activities and its execution is multidisciplinary This work has that purpose, to show the planning tools in the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power station, under the concept of twelve weeks. (Author)

  10. Economic Planning in China

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory C. Chow

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an up-to-date study of economic planning in China as it affects the economic development, growth and fluctuations of the Chinese economy. Although economic planning has been practiced in China since 1953 when the first Five-Year Plan began, its nature has changed after economic reform started in 1978. Market reform reduced the importance of central planning, but more recently the global economic recession and China’s active macro-economic policy interventions have increase...

  11. Central planning, market and subsistence from a tundra perspective: Field experience with reindeer herders in the Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessislav Sabev

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on field experience in the tundra camp of a reindeer-herding brigade with mixed ethnic background (Komi, Sami, Nenets, Russians belonging to the ex-Sovkhoz of Krasnoschelie. Its purpose is to situate the new critical issues facing the reindeer-herding collectives after the economic collapse in Russia in 1998. My main argument is that the increasing economic isolation of the tundra periphery forces the herders to redefine their relationship with both the centre(s and the other tundra actors. Reindeer herding on the Kola Peninsula is analysed in relation to its heterogeneous economic system defined by the old Sovkhoz-like management and the new Western buyer of reindeer meat. Furthermore, the social environment in the herding territories has changed since the deterioration of the central planning economy, implying new renewable resources' users. After massive loss of jobs, militaries, miners and geologists came into the tundra for substantial hunting and fishing and so became actors in the local informal economy. Finally, tundra-located herders and hunters seem to be somewhere unified by a discourse against the town-based administrative power and economic actors such as mining industry. Therefore herders have to deal with both an old administrative system in the agrocentre and new realities in the tundra. Based on a case study of herding/hunting activities in a tundra camp, the paper analyses the social relationships between the different actors in the post-Soviet Kola tundra and express their quest for solutions.

  12. Regional Entrepreneurial Heritage in a Socialist and a Post-Socialist Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Wyrwich

    2010-01-01

    This paper sheds light on regional differences of self-employment in a socialist economy on the eve of its transition toward a market economy and differences with regard to start-up activities after transition. It shows that regions with a long entrepreneurial tradition have higher self-employment rates than regions where these traditions played only a minor role before the introduction of a socialist centrally planned economy. These regions have also higher start-up rates after transition. I...

  13. WORLD ECONOMY POST-CRYSIS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu GARSTEA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Once the acute phases of the financial and euro crises were over, it was clear that it would take time for advanced economies to recover. The history of past financial crises gave a clear warning that recovery would typically be long and painful. The aim is to investigate the state of the world economy to make some conclusions for the less advanced countries, like Moldova. Research methodology involves analytical, comparative, foresight, induction and deduction methods. New development and planning institutions presume the rejection of forms of bureaucratic centralism and base on network forms of organization of the subject and the process of production, trade and services.

  14. 78 FR 52562 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Central Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Central Planning Area (CPA) Lease Sales 235, 241, and 247 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy... EIS for proposed Central Planning Area (CPA) Lease Sales 235, 241 and 247 in the Gulf of Mexico...

  15. Central New York Library Resources Council CLRC Regional Digitization Plan. Final Report for the Preparing Central New York History for the Future LSTA Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sywetz, Betsy

    The primary goal for digitization projects sponsored by the Central New York Library Resources Council (CLRC) is enhanced access for the people of the region to digital resources created from collections in Central New York's libraries, archives and museums. The CLRC Digitization Plan provides a framework for the support of digitization activities…

  16. 2005 Economy: Stable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      2005 is the fifth year of China's Tenth Five-Year Plan, it is an important year to implement commitment for entering into WTO as well as a key year for deepening macro-control. With further deepening of macro control and development of regional economy, Chinese economy will operate in a more healthy and stable way.……

  17. 2005 Economy: Stable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ 2005 is the fifth year of China's Tenth Five-Year Plan, it is an important year to implement commitment for entering into WTO as well as a key year for deepening macro-control. With further deepening of macro control and development of regional economy, Chinese economy will operate in a more healthy and stable way.

  18. A Fair Plan Approach For Devolution Under The Twelfth Central Finance Commission: Some Suggestions

    OpenAIRE

    Abhay Pethe; Mala Lalvani

    2005-01-01

    This study has made some suggestions for the consideration of the Twelfth Finance Commission. We have provided a conceptual framework comprising eight cardinal principles abbreviated as FAIR PLAN. We have also operationalised the framework and provided a computational algorithm for inter se distribution of the states share in central taxes. The devolution scheme has been illustrated using 4 states of Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar as representatives of different income cate...

  19. Fiscal Reform in European Economies in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    George Kopits

    1991-01-01

    Most European economies in transition are engaged in public sector reform aimed mainly at replacing the previous fiscal system subordinated to the central plan with a system where fiscal instruments can make a distinct contribution to stabilization, equity, and efficiency. This paper examines past progress and future tasks in major reform areas: taxation, subsidies, social security, public investment, public enterprises, government debt, and intergovernmental relations. An overview of the fis...

  20. Protection Planning for Rural Centralized Drinking Water Source Areas in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Protection planning is made for rural centralized drinking water source areas according to current situations of rural drinking water and existing problems of centralized drinking water source areas in Chongqing,and in combination with survey,analysis and evaluation of urban-rural drinking water source areas in whole city.There are engineering measures and non-engineering measures,to guarantee drinking water security of rural residents,improve rural ecological environment,realize sustainable use of water resource,and promote sustainable development of society.Engineering measures include conservation and protection of water resource,ecological restoration,isolation,and comprehensive control of pointsource and area-source pollution.Non-engineering measures include construction of monitoring system for drinking water source area,construction of security information system for rural centralized drinking water source area,and construction of emergency mechanism for water pollution accidents in rural water source areas.

  1. The impact of the financial crisis under the effects of increasing global economic interdependence. The case of Eastern and Central Europe Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bușega Ionuț

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The technological progress that arose in areas such as transportation, communication and information exchange has led to a series of consequences that forced national economies to converge into a global, market based economy. In addition to the aforementioned causes, increased liberalisation amidst financial markets has supplemented the initiation of this metamorphosis that had several benefits in terms of general commercial exchange (trade, capital flows, and investment opportunities for business organisations. Simultaneously with the financial leverage resulted from the expansion of these interconnections, a series of channels that are detrimental to the financial welfare of entities has emerged, which, in consequence elevated the vulnerability and susceptibility to external economic shocks. The major debate elicited by this trade-off mainly concerns the costs and benefits of the international liberalisation of capital flows and trade. The purpose of this article is to examine the methods through which globalisation has affected the expansion of the international financial crisis back in 2008, by identifying and assessing the subsequent transfer routes, to and from the United States, where it was initially triggered. This article also aims to evaluate the repercussions experienced by Central and Eastern Europe and how they re-established economic growth following the financial crisis.

  2. World-Economy Centrality and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: A New Look at the Position in the Capitalist World-System and Environmental Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Prew

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the ever-growing concern of climate change, much attention has been paid to the factors driving carbon dioxide emissions. Previous research in the World-Systems perspective has identified a relationship between carbon dioxide emissions and position in the world-economy. This study intends to build on the previous research by developing a new, more parsimonious indicator of World-System position based on Immanuel Wallerstein’s theoretical concepts of incorporation and core-periphery processes. The new World-System indicator is derived from the centrality measure in network analysis based on import data from the International Monetary Fund’s Direction of Trade Statistics. Based on the theoretical concepts of core-periphery processes, carbon dioxide emissions are predicted to rise based on the predominance of energy-intensive, high-technology, core processes within the nation. The results tend to demonstrate a strong relationship between carbon dioxide emissions and position in the world-economy, and the new World-System position indicator is more strongly related with carbon dioxide emissions than Gross Domestic Product per capita.

  3. Wetlands of the central region of the Pampa, Argentina: study and territorial planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, it's evident that wet lands favour a dynamic equilibrium keeping key ecologic processes and services, however, as part of a global tendency, and stimulated by the settlement and the expansion of economy, the pressure over the environment, and more particularly the wet lands, it's quickly increasing. This work puts forward the realization of an environmental characterization and a proposal of territorial planning of wet lands Urre Lauquen located in La Pampa province, Argentina, so as to attain a rational exploitation of the sources related to it. The used methodology was Gomez Orea (1993), which was adapted to the studied area.. This methodology consisted, on the one hand, in the realization of an area characterization in order to provide basic information about the different environmental factors like: geomorphology, lands, vegetation, climate, hydrology and socio-economic aspects, which were added physics and chemistry analysis. According to the obtained information, it was elaborated a territorial planning proposal where were determined which were the accurate activities to be implemented in the studied area. (author)

  4. 75 FR 80430 - Passenger Car and Light Truck Average Fuel Economy Standards Request for Product Plan Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ...--classification such as NiMH = Nickel Metal Hydride; Li-ion = Lithium Ion; Li-Air = Lithium Air. b. Battery 100... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you... Intent, 75 FR 62739 (Oct. 13, 2010). \\5\\ Available at http://www.nhtsa.gov/fuel-economy (last...

  5. Gallium-cladding compatibility testing plan: Phase 3: Test plan for centrally heated surrogate rodlet test. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) is investigating the use of weapons grade plutonium in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for light-water reactors (LWR). Commercial MOX fuel has been successfully used in overseas reactors for many years; however, weapons derived fuel may differ from the previous commercial fuels because of small amounts of gallium impurities. A concern presently exists that the gallium may migrate out of the fuel, react with and weaken the clad, and thereby promote loss of fuel pin integrity. Phases 1 and 2 of the gallium task are presently underway to investigate the types of reactions that occur between gallium and clad materials. This is a Level-2 document as defined in the Fissile Materials Disposition Program Light-Water Reactor Mixed-Oxide Fuel Irradiation Test Project Plan. This Plan summarizes the projected Phase 3 Gallium-Cladding compatibility heating test and the follow-on post test examination (PTE). This work will be performed using centrally-heated surrogate pellets, to avoid unnecessary complexities and costs associated with working with plutonium and an irradiation environment. Two sets of rodlets containing pellets prepared by two different methods will be heated. Both sets will have an initial bulk gallium content of approximately 10 ppm. The major emphasis of the PTE task will be to examine the material interactions, particularly indications of gallium transport from the pellets to the clad

  6. Solar Central Receiver Prototype Heliostat. Volume II. Phase II planning (preliminary)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    A currently planned DOE program will develop and construct a 10 MW/sub e/ Pilot Plant to demonstrate the feasibility and operational characteristics of Solar Central Receiver Power Generation. The field of heliostats is a major element of the Solar Central Receiver Power Generation system. The primary objective of the program described is to establish and verify the manufacturability, performance, durability, and maintenance requirements of the commercial plant heliostat design. End products of the 16 month effort include: (1) design, fabrication, and test of heliostats; (2) preliminary designs of manufacturing, assembly, installation, and maintenance processes for quantity production; (3) detailed design of critical tooling or other special equipment for such processes; (4) refined cost estimates for heliostats and maintenance; and (5) an updated commercial plant heliostat preliminary design. The program management and control system is discussed. (WHK)

  7. Linen, Silver, Slaves, and Coffee: A Spatial Approach to Central Europe’s Entanglements with the Atlantic Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In German scholarship of the post-war period, the category of space was regarded as discredited, because of its abuse during the Nazi period. This applies in particular to the 1970s and 80s, when novel approaches in social and economic history were developed. Research on proto-industrialisation, broadly examining its internal structures, did not take into account the export orientation of Central Europe’s early modern commodity production. At the same time, the expanding research on Europe’s Atlantic empires, including the trans-Atlantic slave trade, did hardly take notice of the manufactures from the Holy Roman Empire, distributed all around the Atlantic basin. This paper examines those conditions favouring German proto-industries which are relevant for a ‘spatial approach’ to the phenomenon. It also covers the late medieval beginnings of this process, in order to demonstrate the continuity of Central Europe’s entanglement with the Atlantic world. The paper further emphasises that any future research using spatial categories must be aware of the ideological contamination of the German term ‘Raum’ during the 19th and 20th century. The interlace of economic and social history with historiography demands a compilation from current and older research literature, some of it on different regions and subjectsEn la escuela alemana del período de pos-guerra la categoría de espacio fue desprestigiada debido a los abusos sucedidos durante el período nazi. Esto se aplica en especial a los años de 1970 y 1980, cuando se desarrollaron los nuevos enfoques en historia social y económica. Las investigaciones sobre la proto-industrialización en Europa Central durante la Edad Moderna que examinan, en líneas generales, sus estructuras internas, no tuvieron en cuenta la dimensión espacial de las exportaciones de su producción. Al mismo tiempo, las crecientes investigaciones de los imperios europeos en el Atlántico, incluso del comercio de

  8. Planning Future Electric Vehicle Central Charging Stations Connected to Low-Voltage Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Træholt, Chresten; Larsen, Esben

    2012-01-01

    A great interest is recently paid to Electric Vehicles (EV) and their integration into electricity grids. EV can potentially play an important role in power system operation, however, the EV charging infrastructures have been only partly defined, considering them as limited to individual charging...... points, randomly distributed into the networks. This paper addresses the planning of public central charging stations (CCS) that can be integrated in low-voltage (LV) networks for EV parallel charging. The concepts of AC and DC architectures of CCS are proposed and a comparison is given on their...

  9. The West Central Alberta Woodland Caribou Landscape Plan: Using a Modeling Approach to Develop Alternative Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hubbs

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus are classified as threatened in Alberta. In support of Canada's Species at Risk Act, a Recovery Plan for Woodland Caribou in Alberta was completed in 2004 which required local implementation plans to be completed within 5 areas of the province. The West Central Alberta Caribou Landscape Plan (WCCLP is the first of these to be initiated and it addresses the recovery strategies for 4 herds. Two aspatial computer models built on the STELLA© modelling platform (ISee Systems, 2007 were used to assist the planning team in evaluating cumulative effects and alternative scenarios for caribou conservation. The ALCES© (Forem Technologies 2008 modelling tool was used to forecast potential changes in the west central Alberta landscape over time. Yearly landscape condition outputs from ALCES© were then exported into a caribou-specific population model, REMUS© (Weclaw, 2004, that was used to project potential population responses by woodland caribou, other primary prey species [moose (Alces alces, elk (Cervus elaphus and deer (Odocoileus sp.] and wolves (Canis lupus (Weclaw & Hudson, 2004. Simulated habitat management strategies that resulted in the highest likelihood of caribou recovery included the maintenance of a high proportion of old forest, the aggregation of industrial footprints and the reclamation of historic seismic lines (although the latter took decades to provide real dividends. Sharing of industrial roads, protection of fragments of old-growth, and expanding an already aggressive fire control strategy in Alberta had little additional effect on caribou recovery. Simulated population management strategies that were successful all involved decades of intensive wolf control, either directly or indirectly through intensive primary prey control (with the exception of woodland caribou until old-growth forests recovered to densities that provided caribou habitat and decreased alternate prey of wolves. Although

  10. The ends of uncertainty: Air quality science and planning in Central California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fine, James

    2003-09-01

    Air quality planning in Central California is complicated and controversial despite millions of dollars invested to improve scientific understanding. This research describes and critiques the use of photochemical air quality simulation modeling studies in planning to attain standards for ground-level ozone in the San Francisco Bay Area and the San Joaquin Valley during the 1990's. Data are gathered through documents and interviews with planners, modelers, and policy-makers at public agencies and with representatives from the regulated and environmental communities. Interactions amongst organizations are diagramed to identify significant nodes of interaction. Dominant policy coalitions are described through narratives distinguished by their uses of and responses to uncertainty, their exposures to risks, and their responses to the principles of conservatism, civil duty, and caution. Policy narratives are delineated using aggregated respondent statements to describe and understand advocacy coalitions. I found that models impacted the planning process significantly, but were used not purely for their scientific capabilities. Modeling results provided justification for decisions based on other constraints and political considerations. Uncertainties were utilized opportunistically by stakeholders instead of managed explicitly. Ultimately, the process supported the partisan views of those in control of the modeling. Based on these findings, as well as a review of model uncertainty analysis capabilities, I recommend modifying the planning process to allow for the development and incorporation of uncertainty information, while addressing the need for inclusive and meaningful public participation. By documenting an actual air quality planning process these findings provide insights about the potential for using new scientific information and understanding to achieve environmental goals, most notably the analysis of uncertainties in modeling applications. Concurrently

  11. Radiation therapy treatment planning for tumors of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is essential to attempt to minimize the effect of radiation on the normal brain and spinal cord in treatment planning. The central nervous system was thought to be resistant to radiation; however, as data have accumulated concerning the late effects of radiation the nervous system has been shown to be more sensitive. Recently the late effects of radiation on the spinal cord have been evaluated and it has been shown the sensitivity of this portion of the nervous system to high doses of radiation and has pointed out the importance of fractionation. It is estimated that the spinal cord increases its sensitivity by 1.6 by increasing the dose per fraction from 2. to 3 Gy. Likewise, the sensitivity of the optic nerve to radiation has been reported particularly when the size of the fraction is greater than 2 Gy. In treatment planning, therefore, the size of the dose given per fraction is important in the initial part of the planning procedure. In order to keep the dose per fraction to a minimum (2 Gy or less), multiple fields may be used to minimize the dose gradient in the high dose area. When treating with multiple fields it is wise to treat each field every day. In planning treatment not only must one consider the normal brain and spinal cord but one must also consider the radiosensitivity of other surrounding organs. The eye, particularly the lens, should be avoided if possible in order to prevent the formation of a radiation cataract. The salivary gland is sensitive to radiation and the ear has recently been reported to have some sensitivity to high doses of radiation. When planning treatment for the spinal cord one must consider the sensitivity of the cord itself and as well as the effect of radiation on the bone marrow in the vertebral bodies adjacent to the spinal cord. The heat, the lungs, and organs in the abdomen must also be considered in planning treatment on the torso

  12. Bald eagle site management plan for the Hanford Site, south-central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CERCLA remedial investigations of waste sites on the Hanford Site will involve lands containing or adjacent to a bald eagle nest, winter concentration areas, or communal night roost. Because these CERCLA investigations may affect bald eagles, the DOE has prepared this Bald Eagle Site Management Plan (BESMP). However, it is intended that this BESMP be used or updated so as to be also applicable to future activities that affect bald eagles on the Hanford Site. Bald eagles regularly use the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in south-central Washington State during winter months for roosting, perching, and foraging. Each of these activities requires buffer zones to protect eagles from human disturbances. Buffer zones developed in this plan follow recommended guidelines and are intended to be used in planning. If Hanford Site activities in the vicinity of identified bald eagle use areas are carried out in accordance with this plan, such actions are not likely to adversely affect the eagles or their habitat. Activities that may be exceptions will involve informal or formal (whichever is appropriate) consultation with the US Fish and Wildlife Service as required by the Endangered Species Act

  13. Overheated Economy in China?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On July 19, 2007, the State Statistics Bureau made a report on the development of national economy in the first half of this year. The central government has come up with a string of macro-control policies and regulations this year to deal with urgent contradictions and problems during the economic development. As a result, the national economy has enjoyed a stable and rapid growth with an increase in quality and effectiveness, a stronger structure harmonization, and more benefits for its people.

  14. Art as an investment in Poland - the first 20 years after the collapse of the central planning economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Potocki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at answering the following research question: is the Polish art market mature enough to look at art investment as an important element of portfolio diversification? To provide an answer, the Authors analyzed auctions in Poland from the period 1991-2010, which were published by Art&Business magazine. The number of the analyzed records amounted to 28951. The conclusions may be valuable for researchers specializing in art economics, investors dealing with wealth transfer, financial advisors offering financial products as well as for policy makers responsible for providing institutional infrastructure essential for development of the Polish art market.

  15. Benchmarking a Transition Economy Capital Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Keller

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available As the centrally planned communist nations of Central Europe lacked liquid and efficient capital markets,financial systems architecture became instrumental to their transition into market economies. Now, afteralmost 17 years of operations, it is time to take a snapshot of one of these economies and compare it to a welldeveloped capital market. This study is the first to provide a quantifiable comparison of the quality of thecapital markets of a fully developed and a transition economy; namely Euronext France [Euronext] and theWarsaw Stock Exchange [WSE]. Using intraday data for the Euronext market and the WSE it is shown thatwhile overall liquidity is certainly much greater in Euronext, range based intra-day volatility is significantlylower in the WSE. For stocks with the highest market capitalisation the WSE has lower transaction costs inthe first [largest] decile than Euronext. These results indicate that while the established market is significantlymore liquid in terms of average trade size and trade numbers it does not always offer lower transaction costsor volatility. This is a new result as most contributions to the literature argue that an emerging market within atransition economy will suffer from excess volatility.

  16. Corrective action investigation plan for Central Nevada Test Area CAU No. 417

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) is part of a US Department of Energy (DOE)-funded environmental investigation of the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA). The CNTA is located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, adjacent to US Highway 6, about 15 kilometers (10 miles) northeast of Warm Springs. The CNTA was the site of Project Faultless, a nuclear device detonated in the subsurface by the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in January 1968. The purpose of this test was to gauge the seismic effects of relatively large, high-yield detonations completed outside of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test was also used to determine the suitability of the site for future large detonations. The yield of the Faultless test was between 200 kilotons and 1 megaton (DOE, 1994c).

  17. Fluid Management Plan Central Nevada Test Area Corrective Action Unit 443

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office initiated the Offsites Project to characterize the risk posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing at sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. Responsibility for environmental restoration of the sites that constitute the Offsites Project was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to the DOE Office of Legacy Management (LM) on October 1, 2006. The scope of this Fluid Management Plan (FMP) is to support subsurface investigations at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996). The subsurface CAU 443 is associated with the underground nuclear testing conducted at UC-1 and is located approximately 30 miles north of Warm Springs in Nye County, Nevada.

  18. Robustness and Closeness Centrality for Self-Organized and Planned Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Masucci, A Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Street networks are important infrastructural transportation systems that cover a great part of the planet. It is now widely accepted that transportation properties of street networks are better understood in the interplay between the street network itself and the so called \\textit{information} or \\textit{dual network}, which embeds the topology of the street network navigation system. In this work, we present a novel robustness analysis, based on the interaction between the primal and the dual transportation layer for two large metropolis, London and Chicago, thus considering the structural differences to intentional attacks for \\textit{self-organized} and planned cities. We elaborate the results through an accurate closeness centrality analysis in the Euclidean space and in the relationship between primal and dual space. Interestingly enough, we find that even if the considered planar graphs display very distinct properties, the information space induce them to converge toward systems which are similar in t...

  19. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Campbell

    2000-04-01

    This Corrective Action Plan provides methods for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as provided in the Corrective Action Decision Document for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 (DOE/NV, 1999). The CNTA is located in the Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, approximately 137 kilometers (85 miles) northeast of Tonopah, Nevada. The CNTA consists of three separate land withdrawal areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4, all of which are accessible to the public. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs). Results of the investigation activities completed in 1998 are presented in Appendix D of the Corrective Action Decision Document (DOE/NV, 1999). According to the results, the only Constituent of Concern at the CNTA is total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Of the 34 CASs, corrective action was proposed for 16 sites in 13 CASs. In fiscal year 1999, a Phase I Work Plan was prepared for the construction of a cover on the UC-4 Mud Pit C to gather information on cover constructibility and to perform site management activities. With Nevada Division of Environmental Protection concurrence, the Phase I field activities began in August 1999. A multi-layered cover using a Geosynthetic Clay Liner as an infiltration barrier was constructed over the UC-4 Mud Pit. Some TPH impacted material was relocated, concrete monuments were installed at nine sites, signs warning of site conditions were posted at seven sites, and subsidence markers were installed on the UC-4 Mud Pit C cover. Results from the field activities indicated that the UC-4 Mud Pit C cover design was constructable and could be used at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP). However, because of the size of the UC-1 CMP this design would be extremely costly. An alternative cover design, a vegetated cover, is proposed for the UC-1 CMP.

  20. Refurbishing State Capitalism: A Policy Analysis of Efforts to Rebalance China’s Political Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher A. McNally; Chaminade University

    2014-01-01

    "This article provides an analysis of policy initiatives aimed at rebalancing China's political economy, especially those contained in the 12th Five Year Plan and other recent pronouncements. The objective is to generate a conceptual examination of these policy measures, thereby highlighting their basic intent and purpose. The analysis shows that the Chinese leadership intends to pursue policies that can centralize, standardize and regulate the political economy under continued state guidance...

  1. The Transition to a Market Economy in Russia: Property Rights, Mass Privatization and Stabilization

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar L. Feige

    2003-01-01

    The Soviet Union and the nations of Eastern Europe are undergoing a historically unprecedented restructuring as they move inexorably from centrally planned economies toward market economies. This historic transition must be guided by a coherent set of stabilization policies to reduce the threat of macroeconomic collapse and the threat of inflation. As a precursor to price liberalization, private property rights must be created, distributed and credibly enforced in order to ensure that these r...

  2. Entrepreneurship in transition economies: the role of institutions and generational change

    OpenAIRE

    Estrin, Saul; Mickiewicz, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    The transition economies have lower rates of entrepreneurship than are observed in most developed and developing market economies. The difference is even more marked in the countries of the former Soviet Union than those of Central and Eastern Europe. We link these differences partly with the legacy of communist planning, which needs to be replaced with formal market-supporting institutions. But many of these developments have now taken place, yet entrepreneurial activity still remains low in...

  3. Revitalizing central western Maine's economy

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer DeChant

    2003-01-01

    In Maine's Kennebec and Somerset counties, the Progressive Alliance for Careers and Training is working to create employment opportunities and spur economic growth. Jennifer DeChant of Coastal Enterprises, Inc., highlights some of the program's successes to date.

  4. Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra; O'riain, Sean

    2009-01-01

    We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...

  5. GIS-based landslide susceptibility mapping models applied to natural and urban planning in Trikala, Central Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Skilodimou, H. D.; Kalivas, D. P.; Bathrellos, G. D.

    2009-01-01

    Landslide susceptibility mapping is a practical tool in natural and urban planning; it can be applied for determining land use zones, in construction design and planning of a variety of projects. In this study, two different GIS based landslide susceptibility maps were generated in the mountainous part of the Trikala Prefecture in Thessaly, Central Greece. This was accomplished by using different methods for correlating factors, which have an effect on landslide occurrences. The instability f...

  6. Economy on Track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Not long after China's top legislative body, the National People's Congress, passed the 11th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development (2006-10) during its annual meeting in mid-March, Joseph Stiglitz, the 2001 Nobel Prize laureate in economics, talked to 21st Century Business Herald, a leading business paper based in south China's Guangdong Province, on the economy and the newly adopted plan. Here are some excerpts from that interview:

  7. Corrective action investigation plan for Central Nevada Test Area, CAU No. 417

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) is part of a US Department of Energy (DOE)-funded environmental investigation of the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA). This CAIP addresses the surface investigation and characterization of 15 identified Corrective Action Sites (CASs). In addition, several other areas of the CNTA project area have surface expressions that may warrant investigation. These suspect areas will be characterized, if necessary, in subsequent CAIPs or addendums to this CAIP prepared to address these sites. This CAIP addresses only the 15 identified CASs as shown in Table 2-1 that are associated with the drilling and construction of a number of testing wells designed as part of an underground nuclear testing program. The purpose of the wells at the time of construction was to provide subsurface access for the emplacement, testing, and post detonation evaluations of underground nuclear devices. If contamination is found at any of the 15-surface CASs, the extent of contamination will be determined in order to develop an appropriate corrective action

  8. 75 FR 69698 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Criteria for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... ``Criteria for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans'' (Refuge Criteria) are now available for public... and format by which Refuge Water Management Plans (Plans) should be prepared and submitted to... for any subsequent information or to obtain a copy of any water management plans, please contact...

  9. Knowledge-based economy hypothesis revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaurin Dragoljub

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available At the theoretical level, within the context of developed countries such as the UK and USA, the paradigm of the emerging 'knowledge economy' is becoming prevalent in sociology, and social sciences more broadly. Leading social scientists see this as a crucial development. This paper challenges the view about the emergence of this new type of economy and looks at the intersection of economics and the sociology of education. Central questions to be addressed here are whether we need a radically new approach to education in the light of the recent developments? Should broad and humanistic goals be subjected to the needs of economy and the labour market? How can we best approach educational planning? Are we witnessing the emergence of the economy of the highly skilled? Are there examples that represent a countervailing power to this hypothesis? Are there instances where we can witness the 'low skills' agenda? In essence, the paper is geared to investigating how these questions can be answered or deflected.

  10. Urban Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Karl Kresl

    2014-01-01

    In a call for papers, for the special issue to be devoted to “Urban Economy†late in 2015, that the Economies editors issued recently, I noted the increased attention that has been given to urban economies during the past quarter century. This is concomitant with the increased importance and role in policy that cities have attained. This is, in part, due to the diminished capacity of national and sub-national governments to find the funds needed for urban projects and services, and in part...

  11. Moneyless Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Subhendu

    2012-01-01

    Moneyless economy (MLE) does not have any money in the economy. All products and services are free for all people. This means everybody must work, work for free, and get everything they want for free also. Any work that a society needs is considered legitimate. MLE is not socialism. MLE has the ability to provide a lifestyle that anyone wants. We show that it is possible to run the exact same economy that we have now, in the exact same way, and without money. Any government of any country can...

  12. Cambodia's economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ear, Sophal

    2008-01-01

    "This presentation is adapted from a Harvard KSG workshop held earlier this year on the Political Economy of "Binding Constraints to Growth" Cambodia Pilot for which I served as an External Panelist/Resource Person."

  13. Statistical prediction of seasonal discharge in the Naryn basin for water resources planning in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Heiko; Gafurov, Abror; Gerlitz, Lars; Unger-Shayesteh, Katy; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Merkushkin, Aleksandr; Merz, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The semi-arid regions of Central Asia crucially depend on the water resources supplied by the mountainous areas of the Tien-Shan and Pamirs. During the summer months the snow and glacier melt water of the rivers originating in the mountains provides the only water resource available for agricultural production but also for water collection in reservoirs for energy production in winter months. Thus a reliable seasonal forecast of the water resources is crucial for a sustainable management and planning of water resources.. In fact, seasonal forecasts are mandatory tasks of national hydro-meteorological services in the region. Thus this study aims at a statistical forecast of the seasonal water availability, whereas the focus is put on the usage of freely available data in order to facilitate an operational use without data access limitations. The study takes the Naryn basin as a test case, at which outlet the Toktogul reservoir stores the discharge of the Naryn River. As most of the water originates form snow and glacier melt, a statistical forecast model should use data sets that can serve as proxy data for the snow masses and snow water equivalent in late spring, which essentially determines the bulk of the seasonal discharge. CRU climate data describing the precipitation and temperature in the basin during winter and spring was used as base information, which was complemented by MODIS snow cover data processed through ModSnow tool, discharge during the spring and also GRACE gravimetry anomalies. For the construction of linear forecast models monthly as well as multi-monthly means over the period January to April were used to predict the seasonal mean discharge of May-September at the station Uchterek. An automatic model selection was performed in multiple steps, whereas the best models were selected according to several performance measures and their robustness in a leave-one-out cross validation. It could be shown that the seasonal discharge can be predicted with

  14. Respiratory virus laboratory pandemic planning an surveillance in central Viet Nam, 2008-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinh Xuan Mai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Laboratory capacity is needed in central Viet Nam to provide early warning to public health authorities of respiratory outbreaks of importance to human health, for example the outbreak of influenza A(H1N1 pandemic in 2009. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR procedures established as part of a capacity-building process were used to conduct prospective respiratory surveillance in a region where few previous studies have been undertaken.Methods: Between October 2008 and September 2010, nose and throat swabs from adults and children (approximately 20 per week presenting with an acute respiratory illness to the Ninh Hoa General Hospital were collected. Same-day PCR testing and result reporting for 13 respiratory viruses were carried out by locally trained scientists.Results: Of 2144 surveillance samples tested, 1235 (57.6% were positive for at least one virus. The most common were influenza A strains (17.9%, with pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 and seasonal H3N2 strain accounting for 52% and 43% of these, respectively. Other virus detections included: rhinovirus (12.4%, enterovirus (8.9%, influenza B (8.3%, adenovirus (5.3%, parainfluenza (4.7%, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV (3.9%, human coronavirus (3.0% and human metapneumovirus (0.3%. The detection rate was greatest in the 0–5 year age group. Viral co-infections were identified in 148 (6.9% cases.Discussion: The outbreak in 2009 of the influenza A(H1N1 pandemic strain provided a practical test of the laboratory’s pandemic plan. This study shows that the availability of appropriate equipment and molecular-based testing can contribute to important individual and public health outcomes in geographical locations susceptible to emerging infections.

  15. Human economy and natural economy

    OpenAIRE

    Masullo Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The decline of economy is due to its dependency from a virtual value, the currency, the coin, that in the recent phase of consumerism is so far from real value: human capital and natural capital. If human economy wants to continue to produce wellbeing, it must accept to be a subset of natural economy, intercept flux of matter produced by its circular mechanisms, put constraints in it, i.e. machines and structures, to direct it temporarily for our advantage, and finally release it to the same ...

  16. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE PLANNING OF PROTECTED AREAS ARISING FROM A STUDY OF THE TUSCANIA NATURAL RESERVE (CENTRAL ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Leone

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the increase in protected territories over recent years, emphasis has been laid on improving nature conservation and management effectiveness. In particular, special attention has been given to areas where the interaction between people and the environment has produced a distinct character, rich in both ecological and cultural values. Such areas are known as Protected Landscapes and require a special planning and management focus, in which relevant weight is given to local people. The aim of this research is to present a planning process case study in central Italy (Tuscania, north of Rome, where the protected area plan tackles nature conservation and environmental concerns (i.e. water quality, soil conservation, landscape restoration etc.. The results are of general interest because they are the fruit of an experience in debating and improving both the plan’s contents and planning methods. In particular, they show: i the primary role of local people in the various phases of planning, including delicate decisions such as the park’s limits and its buffer area; ii that a protected area plan should not be strictly prescriptive, but should have the role of a strategic master plan; iii that the protected area policy should be emphasised in the park regulations document, rather than in rigid territorial zoning.

  17. Bill asserting the national commitment for the environment (declared urgency), text from the commission of economy, sustainable development and town and country planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bill asserting the French national commitment for the environment (also named 'Grenelle 2') is considered as the juridical tool-box of the French environmental policy. It confirms, strengthens, and concretizes the objectives defined by the Grenelle 1 law. The main dispositions of the bill concern the following domains: settlement and urbanism with the improvement of the energy efficiency, energy conservation and life-cycle of buildings; transports with the development of sustainable transportation systems; energy with the creation of regional climate, air and energy schemes with the aim of developing renewable energies (with some restrictions concerning wind power) and reducing CO2 emissions; biodiversity with the creation of ecological pathways between protected areas for the migration of flora and fauna species; environment and waste management with the reinforcement of measures for the abatement of environmental pollutant effects. Among the numerous dispositions involving more than 20 codes (urbanism, environment, buildings etc..) one concerns the progressive implementation of a 'carbon price' index taking into account the greenhouse gas emission costs during the whole life cycle of a product, another one concerns the monitoring of indoor air quality in public buildings. This document is the text of the bill as prepared by the Commission of economy, sustainable development and town and country planning. (J.S.)

  18. Gradual restructuring and structural unemployment in Poland. A legacy of central planning

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Hartmut; Patrick P. Walsh

    1999-01-01

    In the transition to a market economy we examine the relationship between inherited human capital structures and the evolution of unemployment within a two-sector model of endogenous restructuring. We find evidence across Polish regions for the predictions of our theory. The inherited dominance of ineffective human capital in eastern regions of Poland has delayed restructuring, reduced unemployment turnover and lowered the number of workers with out-dated human capital in the unemployme...

  19. Integration of vision and central pattern generator based locomotion for path planning of a non-holonomic crawling humanoid robot

    OpenAIRE

    Gay, Sébastien; Dégallier Rochat, Sarah; Ijspeert, Auke; Santos-Victor, José

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present our work on integrating a locomotion controller based on central pattern generator (CPG) and a motion planning algorithm using artificial potential fields for a non-holonomic crawling humanoid robot, the iCub. We also integrated a vision tracker and an inverse kinematics solver to perform reaching tasks. We study the influence of the various parameters of the potential field equations on the performance of the system and prove the efficiency of our framework by testin...

  20. Hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahwa, P.K.; Pahwa, Gulshan Kumar

    2013-10-01

    In the future, our energy systems will need to be renewable and sustainable, efficient and cost-effective, convenient and safe. Hydrogen has been proposed as the perfect fuel for this future energy system. The availability of a reliable and cost-effective supply, safe and efficient storage, and convenient end use of hydrogen will be essential for a transition to a hydrogen economy. Research is being conducted throughout the world for the development of safe, cost-effective hydrogen production, storage, and end-use technologies that support and foster this transition. This book discusses hydrogen economy vis-a-vis sustainable development. It examines the link between development and energy, prospects of sustainable development, significance of hydrogen energy economy, and provides an authoritative and up-to-date scientific account of hydrogen generation, storage, transportation, and safety.

  1. SOLIDARY INFORMATION ECONOMY - THE ECONOMY WITHOUT MARKET AND MONEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov A. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We are developing a new organizational-economic theory - solidary information economy, based on the views of Aristotle. The name of this theory has changed over time. Initially, we used the term "nonformal information economy of the future", and then began to use the term "solidary information economy." In connection with Biocosmology and neo-Aristotelism preferred is an adequate term "functionalist organic information economy. Further development of our theory is the subject of this article. We begin with a brief review of the economic views of Aristotle and the basic ideas of solidary information economy. Then are substantiated the withering away of the Family, Private Property and the State. We discuss the evolution of money - from gold coins to IOUs and conventional units of circulation. We prove that the market economy has remained in the XIX century and the mainstream in modern economic science - justification of insolvency of a market economy and the need to move to a planned system of economic management. We examine the impact of ICT on economic activity. We develop the approaches to decision-making in the functionalist organic information economy. On the basis of modern decision theory (especially expert procedures and information-communication technologies earthlings can get rid of chrematistics and will understand the term "economy" according to Aristotle

  2. Energy Conservation and Development Plan. Southern Tier Central Region, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    A summary is presented of the work of 40 volunteers working with regional planners to imagine, assess, and prescribe for the development of local energy resources (wind, solar, biomass, and water) and for conservation of all forms of energy. The plan contains a brief summary of the process the citizens followed in formulating the plan, the plans themselves, and appendices which contain more detailed comments by citizens on the possible consequences of the development of each resource. The areas (Chemung, Steuben, and Schuyler counties) experienced severe natural gas curtailments during the winter of 1976-1977. The formulation of an emergency energy conservation plan is also presented.

  3. MAKASSAR COPRA AS A TRIGGER OF STRUGGLING FOR POWER BETWEEN CENTRAL AND LOCAL GOVERMENT: A HISTORICAL STUDY OF REGIONAL POLITICAL ECONOMY IN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Asba, A. Rasyid

    2011-01-01

    central government of Jakarta. For example, there was a claim of South Moluccas Republic Movement and Permesta (Whole people struggling) for economic equity. The gain of copra trading which divided into 70% for local and 30% for central government became national political problem in maintaining the central and local government relationship. That???s why, the local conflict in Eastern Indonesia had been occuring until now and being a problem for developing a democratic modern Indonesia. N...

  4. Contribution of cacao ( Theobroma cacao) agroforestry systems to the household economy of small-scale producers in Central America: the case of Bocas del Toro, Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Niehaus, Lourdes A.

    2012-01-01

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is the main cash crop of Ngöbe-Buglé indigenous communities in Bocas del Toro, Panama. Their traditional polycultures include many other food crops for family consumption, but there is no actual description of their diversity, productivity or contribution to household economy. This study was designed to determine the value and allocation of multiple products, depict floristic composition of cacao agroforestry systems (AFS), assess socio-economic performance, a...

  5. Plan seguridad mantenimiento mecánico central térmica soto de rivera

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Arenas, Diego

    2014-01-01

    El objeto del presente plan de seguridad es recoger aquellas medidas preventivas que deberán ser aplicadas en el momento y lugar oportunos, en relación con los riesgos observados en cada uno de los puestos de trabajo incluidos en este plan, con la claridad suficiente como para ser aplicadas por los responsables de seguridad

  6. Overall Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The economy's need for workers originates in the demand for the goods and services that these workers provide. So, to project employment, BLS starts by estimating the components of gross domestic product (GDP) for 2020. GDP is the value of the final goods produced and services provided in the United States. Then, BLS estimates the size--in…

  7. Artificial Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru JIVAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to eliminate, a routine in the economic thinking, claimed to be responsible for the negative essence of economic developments, from the point of view, of the ecological implications (employment in the planetary ecosystem. The methodological foundations start from the natural origins of the functionality of the human economic society according to the originary physiocrat liberalism, and from specific natural characteristics of the humankind. This paper begins with a comment-analysis of the difference between natural and artificial within the economy, and then explains some of the most serious diversions from the natural essence of economic liberalism. It shall be explained the original (heterodox interpretation of the Classical political economy (economics, by making calls to the Romanian economic thinking from aggravating past century. Highlighting the destructive impact of the economy - which, under the invoked doctrines, we call unnatural - allows an intuitive presentation of a logical extension of Marshall's market price, based on previous research. Besides the doctrinal arguments presented, the economic realities inventoried along the way (major deficiencies and effects, determined demonstrate the validity of the hypothesis of the unnatural character and therefore necessarily to be corrected, of the concept and of the mechanisms of the current economy.The results of this paper consist of original heterodox methodspresented, intuitive or developed that can be found conclusively within the key proposals for education and regulation.

  8. Kinetic Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Ahmad Tajuddin Wan Abdullah; Sidiq Mohamad Khidzir

    2007-01-01

    We study a minimalist kinetic model for economies. A system of agents with local trading rules display emergent demand behaviour. We examine the resulting wealth distribution to look for non-thermal behaviour. We compare and contrast this model with other similar models.

  9. Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Attila; Constantiou, Ioanna; Thoma, Antonela

    De spite the hype the notion of the sharing economy is surrounded by, our understanding of sharing is surprisingly undertheorized. In this paper, we make a first step towards rem edying this state of affairs by analy sing sharing as a s ocial practice. Based on a multi ple - case study, we analyse...

  10. Human economy and natural economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masullo Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The decline of economy is due to its dependency from a virtual value, the currency, the coin, that in the recent phase of consumerism is so far from real value: human capital and natural capital. If human economy wants to continue to produce wellbeing, it must accept to be a subset of natural economy, intercept flux of matter produced by its circular mechanisms, put constraints in it, i.e. machines and structures, to direct it temporarily for our advantage, and finally release it to the same original flux, in an still usable state. In this way it will assume a function no more parasitic but symbiotic. It will be connected to natural cycles without destroying it, recovering the co-evolutionary link between nature and culture, building an economic web suited to the ecological web; thus we will have a mosaic characterised by biodiversity, technological diversity, and cultural diversity, able to produce a durable prosperity.

  11. Guidelines for Establishing and Maintaining Token Economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Brenda Smith; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The following stages in planning a token economy with students having behavior problems are discussed: (1) identifying target behaviors; (2) specifying and selecting reinforcers; (3) identifying token types and schedules; (4) planning token distribution and redemption; (5) initiating and implementing the token economy system; and (6) planning…

  12. GREEN ECONOMY - THE ECONOMY OF THE FUTURE

    OpenAIRE

    BLAJ Robert

    2013-01-01

    This paper defines the concept of "green economy", presents the main international organizations that deal the green economy. Are provided details of the most significant principles, objectives and actions of the concept of green economy. At the European level there is "The 2020 strategy ", which shows that Europe's economy should be an economy that knows how to manage resources efficiently and reduce carbon emissions. There are currently a number of basic laws for the green economy. Forest e...

  13. ANALYSIS OF THE PROFITABILITY AND FINANCIAL RISK OF THE BRANCHES OF ECONOMY OF LATGALE PLANNING REGION DURING THE PERIOD OF TIME FROM 2006 TO 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Garanča, Biruta

    2014-01-01

    There has been calculated and analysed the profitability of the branches of economy and the basic activity of Latgale in comparison with that of Latvia during the period of time from 2006 to 2012. The impact of the profitability of the economic and the basic activity has been calculated by applying the author’s worked out methodology. There have been calculated and analysed the profitability variation quotients of the branches of economy and the basic activity, which characterize the financia...

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document/ Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area-Subsurface Central Nevada Test Area, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Evans

    2004-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the subsurface at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443, CNTA - Subsurface, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). CAU 443 is located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, north of U.S. Highway 6, about 48 kilometers north of Warm Springs, Nevada. The CADD/CAP combines the decision document (CADD) with the corrective action plan (CAP) and provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend corrective actions for the UC-1 Cavity (Corrective Action Site 58-57-001) at CAU 443, as provided in the FFACO. The purpose of the CADD portion of the document (Section 1.0 to Section 4.0) is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for the subsurface at CNTA. To achieve this, the following tasks were required: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend a preferred corrective action alternative for the subsurface at CNTA. A Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) was performed in several stages from 1999 to 2003, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for the Central Nevada Test Area Subsurface Sites (Corrective Action Unit No. 443)'' (DOE/NV, 1999). Groundwater modeling was the primary activity of the CAI. Three phases of modeling were conducted for the Faultless underground nuclear test. The first involved the gathering and interpretation of geologic and hydrogeologic data into a three-dimensional numerical model of groundwater flow, and use of the output of the flow model for a

  15. Study on the Land Use Planning Target Oriented to Market Economy%面向市场经济的土地利用规划目标研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马仁珍; 师学义; 唐臣燕

    2012-01-01

    从规划的本质入手,对市场经济条件下规划目标的特性进行了剖析,并对规划目标确定进行了初步探讨.研究表明:市场经济条件下,政治目标是制定规划目标的指导方针,市场力是土地利用优化配置最有效的引导力.土地利用规划目标的制定应以政治目标为前提,宏观经济政策和市场需求为导向,以土地资源优化配置为中心,以解决人地矛盾和协调土地与经济发展关系为重点,针对市场经济条件下土地利用特点开展.%According to the essence of land use planning, the features of land use planning target under the market economy conditions were exposed, and the setting up of planning target was probed into. As indicated by the studies, under the market economy, the land use planning target is guided by political goals, and the optimization of land use configuration is effectively driven by market demand. Thus the land use planning target should be formulated based on the premise of political goals, oriented to macroeconomic policies and market demand, and with the optimal allocation of land resources as the center, so as to resolve the contradiction between human and land and coordinate the relationship between land and economic development, and the target is carried out according to the land use characteristics of market economy.

  16. 2 CFR Appendix C to Part 225 - State/Local-Wide Central Service Cost Allocation Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... service funds are dependent upon a reasonable level of working capital reserve to operate from one billing... operating purposes is considered reasonable. A working capital reserve exceeding 60 days may be approved by.... Working capital reserves 3. Carry-forward adjustments of allocated central service costs 4. Adjustments...

  17. 76 FR 12756 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... available for review: Truckee-Carson Irrigation District. Goleta Water District. Delano-Earlimart Irrigation District. Feather Irrigation District. To meet the requirements of the Central Valley Project Improvement... criteria state that all parties (Contractors) that contract with Reclamation for water supplies...

  18. 77 FR 64544 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... Dorado Irrigation District Lower Tule River Irrigation District City of Roseville East Bay Municipal... Irrigation District Porterville Irrigation District To meet the requirements of the Central Valley Project... available cost-effective technology and best management practices.'' These criteria state that all...

  19. Developing Tsunami Evacuation Plans, Maps, And Procedures: Pilot Project in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos, N. P.; Kong, L. S. L.; Arcas, D.; Aliaga, B.; Coetzee, D.; Leonard, J.

    2015-12-01

    In the End-to-End tsunami warning chain, once a forecast is provided and a warning alert issued, communities must know what to do and where to go. The 'where to' answer would be reliable and practical community-level tsunami evacuation maps. Following the Exercise Pacific Wave 2011, a questionnaire was sent to the 46 Member States of Pacific Tsunami Warning System (PTWS). The results revealed over 42 percent of Member States lacked tsunami mass coastal evacuation plans. Additionally, a significant gap in mapping was exposed as over 55 percent of Member States lacked tsunami evacuation maps, routes, signs and assembly points. Thereby, a significant portion of countries in the Pacific lack appropriate tsunami planning and mapping for their at-risk coastal communities. While a variety of tools exist to establish tsunami inundation areas, these are inconsistent while a methodology has not been developed to assist countries develop tsunami evacuation maps, plans, and procedures. The International Tsunami Information Center (ITIC) and partners is leading a Pilot Project in Honduras demonstrating that globally standardized tools and methodologies can be applied by a country, with minimal tsunami warning and mitigation resources, towards the determination of tsunami inundation areas and subsequently community-owned tsunami evacuation maps and plans for at-risk communities. The Pilot involves a 1- to 2-year long process centered on a series of linked tsunami training workshops on: evacuation planning, evacuation map development, inundation modeling and map creation, tsunami warning & emergency response Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), and conducting tsunami exercises (including evacuation). The Pilot's completion is capped with a UNESCO/IOC document so that other countries can replicate the process in their tsunami-prone communities.

  20. Relationship between the electric power supplier and customer during Romania's transition from an over-centralized to a market economy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of undertakings of RENEL is introduced which aim to improve the mutual relations between supplier and customer and to settle these relations on a partnership basis incurring responsibilities for both parties. Among these undertakings, one aims to improve the metering and billing system, with subsequent effects upon both electric power customer and supplier. The new relations, settled on a contract basis and made proper to the market economy make it necessary to control the electric power quality as well as the quality of the whole supply service to every customer. Within the electric power supply department, a privileged activity is the improvement of the systems for meter reading, billing and financial receipts. The document describes also the results obtained by RENEL following a market study. (author)

  1. Strategic Planning for Activation and Operation of the North Central Superpave Center (NCSC): Interim Report

    OpenAIRE

    Olek, J.; McDaniel, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    The North Central Superpave Center (NCSC) was established to serve the needs of the states and industry in ten states and two Canadian provinces as they implement the Superpave system. Accomplishing this goal requires the cooperation and active support of a number of people and organizations. Organizational and operational issues related to infrastructure, personnel, equipment and finances also needed to be resolved. This project was designed to address those issues, develop a comprehensive s...

  2. Trade Liberalization and Labour Markets: Perspective from OECD Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Landesmann; Sebastian Leitner; Robert Stehrer

    2001-01-01

    This study looks at the relationship between trade integration and labour markets for a group of OECD economies (USA, Japan, France, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, United Kingdom). We examine particularly trade relationships between these OECD economies and different groups of 'Southern' economies Southern Europe, the advanced South East Asian economies, a larger group of developing and catching-up economies, and transition countries from Central and Eastern Europe. The analysis uses a disaggr...

  3. Leadership Succession Planning In International Mergers And Acquisitions In Central And Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru-Cristian CORETCHI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s business environment characterized by near-constant change, where international acquisitions and investments picking up the pace modify the configuration of existing organizations, the management of the risk associated with planned and unplanned departures in key positions, the prevention of loss of knowledge and relationships that reside with key employees or simply managing the impact of demographics shifts in the workplace are business imperatives that executives can no longer afford to ignore. Leadership development and succession planning in a dynamic environment is an ongoing process and requires more a special attention to support the organization’s mission and goals. The paper discusses the implications of M&A’s led changes and how HR leaders can create the right approach to help their organizations sustain the leadership bench necessary to help addressing these imperatives these business risks and support business growth.

  4. Economic and environmental issues confronted during the transition from centrally planned to market based economic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A more comprehensive electricity planning process is needed to incorporate the health and environmental impacts of electricity generation. One way to do this is to use the identification, assessment and multicriteria assessment of the alternative scenarios of grid system development. Czechoslovakia is trying to pursue this approach, however great effort on the international level is needed to facilitate a more balanced consideration of technical, economic, environmental and health related issues. (author). 3 refs

  5. Leadership Succession Planning In International Mergers And Acquisitions In Central And Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Doru-Cristian CORETCHI; Adrian GROSU

    2011-01-01

    In today’s business environment characterized by near-constant change, where international acquisitions and investments picking up the pace modify the configuration of existing organizations, the management of the risk associated with planned and unplanned departures in key positions, the prevention of loss of knowledge and relationships that reside with key employees or simply managing the impact of demographics shifts in the workplace are business imperatives that executives can no longer a...

  6. Strategic planning 2007-2011, an opportunity for quality, competitiveness and excellence of the Laguna Verde Central

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reason is to give to know to the nuclear community in Mexico the good results that it located in the 2006 to the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central in the classification of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) like one of the best in the worldwide scale, and their Strategic Plan 2007-2011 like an opportunity to continue improving the Quality, the Competitiveness and the Excellency in their Generating Units. It stands out that the fuel reloads are carried out in systemic form in less than 30 days, and also other achievements like it is the certificate granted by PROFEPA of Clean Industry, the renovation of the Certifications of the ISO-9001 and the ISO-14001, as well as the accredit of the Laboratories, and they will give data of the project of the increment of power that their power rose in 15%. For those results in the Strategic Planning 2007-2011 are pointed out that the Laguna Verde Central is a highly viable option in Mexico, when continuing with reloads that will allow a capacity factor up of 90%, and the other concepts that will give the obtaining of the qualification level 1 of WANO in this strategic period. Finally I will conclude with the good news for the Nuclear Industry in Mexico that published the Reforma newspaper at November 01, 2006: 'To the president of Mexico, Felipe Calderon, interests him to impel during his command the alternating energy sources to the hydrocarbons, known it is that the hydrocarbons (petroleum, coal or natural gas) they are finite, while the appetite of the world for the energy is infinite. As you they know, Mexico possesses a nuclear plant that generates energy starting from enriched uranium: the famous Laguna Verde Thermonuclear Central. He declared that Mexico can and it should advance for the one on the way to the energy generation for the nuclear road.' (Author)

  7. Plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author expresses his opinion on the situation, describes the energy-economic setting, indicates the alternatives: fuel reprocessing or immediate long-term storage, and investigates the prospects for economic utilization of the breeder reactors. All the facts suggest that the breeder reactor will never be able to stand economic competition with light-water reactors. However, there is no way to prove the future. It is naive to think that every doubt could and must be removed before stopping the development of breeder reactors - and thus also the reprocessing of the fuel of light-water reactors. On the basis of the current state of knowledge an unbiased cost-benefit-analysis can only lead to the recommendation to stop construction immediately. But can 'experts', who for years or even decades have called for and supported the development of breeder reactors be expected to make an unbiased analysis. Klaus Traube strikes the balance of the state Germany's nuclear economy is in: although there is no chance of definitively abandoning that energy-political cul-de-sac, no new adventures must be embarked upon. Responsible handling of currently used nuclear technology means to give up breeder technology and waive plutonium economy. It is no supreme technology with the aid of which structural unemployment or any other economic problem could be solved. (orig.)

  8. Determinants of low family planning use and high unmet need in Butajira District, South Central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekonnen Wubegzier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid population growth does not match with available resource in Ethiopia. Though household level family planning delivery has been put in place, the impact of such programs in densely populated rural areas was not studied. The study aims at measuring contraception and unmet need and identifying its determinants among married women. Methods A total of 5746 married women are interviewed from October to December 2009 in the Butajira Demographic Surveillance Area. Contraceptive prevalence rate and unmet need with their 95% confidence interval is measured among married women in the Butajira district. The association of background characteristics and family planning use is ascertained using crude and adjusted Odds ratio in logistic regression model. Results Current contraceptive prevalence rate among married women is 25.4% (95% CI: 24.2, 26.5. Unmet need of contraception is 52.4% of which 74.8% was attributed to spacing and the rest for limiting. Reasons for the high unmet need include commodities' insecurity, religion, and complaints related to providers, methods, diet and work load. Contraception is 2.3 (95% CI: 1.7, 3.2 times higher in urbanites compared to rural highlanders. Married women who attained primary and secondary plus level of education have about 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.6 and 2 (95% CI: 1.4, 2.9 times more risk to contraception; those with no child death are 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.5 times more likely to use contraceptives compared to counterparts. Besides, the odds of contraception is 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.6 and 1.5 (1.1, 2.0 times more likely among women whose partners completed primary and secondary plus level of education. Women discussing about contraception with partners were 2.2 (95% CI: 1.8, 2.7 times more likely to use family planning. Nevertheless, contraception was about 2.6 (95% CI: 2.1, 3.2 more likely among married women whose partners supported the use of family planning. Conclusions The local government

  9. Geo-economy of the Caspian basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Caspian area is essential for the development of the central Asia countries and Caucasus. Excepted the Iran and the Russia, these areas economy is poor. The hydrocarbons exploitation should reinforce the economic weight of these States. The author analyzes the Caspian area economies and shows that the basin economies are confronted with three handicaps, and that even with different economic ways, the soviet economic system is still present in the basin. (A.L.B.)

  10. CREDIT MARKET FRICTIONS IN AN OPEN ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Iris Claus; Kunhong Kim

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses the effects of asymmetric information and agency costs in credit markets in an open economy with a floating exchange rate and sticky prices. A decline in agency costs lowers the cost of external finance and increases the long-run level of steady state investment, capital and output. Agency costs also affect the business cycle and the central bank's response to shocks in the economy. Following a supply (demond) shock to the economy agency costs dampen (magnify) output fluct...

  11. ECONOMY MANAGEMENT REFORMULATION THROUGH CORPORATE MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Maria, GĂF-DEAC

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents conceptual aspects of corporate management on the reformulation of the economy. The central aim of the reformulation process management Romanian and European economy is entering into economic science and practice of corporate logic, modal logic as part of trust and distrust, to operate the new network economy based on knowledge. It concludes that, in fact, the utmost importance of corporate social responsibility proves practical and effective in the management of the econom...

  12. Gold in Modern Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Boryshkevych Olena V.

    2014-01-01

    The article studies the role of gold in modern economy. It analyses dynamics and modern state of the gold market. It studies volumes of contracts in exchange and off-exchange markets. In order to reveal changes of key features of the gold market, it focuses on the study of gold demand volumes, studies volumes and geographical changes in the world gold mining, and analyses volumes of monetary gold of central banks and its share in gold and currency reserves. It analyses price fluctuations in t...

  13. Simulating the New Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Eliasson, Gunnar; Johansson, Dan; Taymaz, Erol

    2004-01-01

    The IT, the Internet, or the Computing & Communications (C&C) technology revolution has been central to the economic discussion for several decades. Before the mid-1990s the catchword was the “productivity paradox” coined by Robert Solow, who stated in 1987 that “computers are everywhere visible, except in the productivity statistics”. Then the New Economy and fast productivity growth fueled by C&C technology suddenly became the catchword of the very late 1990s. Its luster however, faded almo...

  14. Virtual Planning at Work: A Tour of NASA Future Flight Central

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenahen, Jim; Dorighi, Nancy S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    FutureFlight Central will permit integration of tomorrow's technologies in a risk-free simulation of any airport, airfield, and tower cab environment. The facility provides an opportunity for airlines to mitigate passenger delays by fine tuning airport hub operations, gate management and ramp movement procedures. It also allows airport managers an opportunity to study effects of various improvements at their airports. Finally, it enables air traffic controllers to provide feedback and to become familiar with new airport operations and technologies before final installation.

  15. Economy of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Adam McCarty

    2001-01-01

    Viet Nam was a country ruled by colonists, divided, or at war for most of the 20th century. Unification of the country in 1976 was followed by the invasion of Cambodia in 1978, and a subsequent brief but violent war with the People’s Republic of China. This legacy had profound consequences for economic development in general and for attempts to impose central planning in particular. Central planning was introduced in North Viet Nam in the 1950s, and in South Viet Nam after 1976, but less exte...

  16. Huge natural gas reserves central to capacity work, construction plans in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Questions about oil production capacity in Iran tend to mask the country's huge potential as a producer of natural gas. Iran is second only to Russia in gas reserves, which National Iranian Gas Co. estimates at 20.7 trillion cu m. Among hurdles to Iran's making greater use of its rich endowment of natural gas are where and how to sell gas not used inside the country. The marketing logistics problem is common to other Middle East holders of gas reserves and a reason behind the recent proliferation of proposals for pipeline and liquefied natural gas schemes targeting Europe and India. But Iran's challenges are greater than most in the region. Political uncertainties and Islamic rules complicate long-term financing of transportation projects and raise questions about security of supply. As a result, Iran has remained mostly in the background of discussions about international trade of Middle Eastern gas. The country's huge gas reserves, strategic location, and existing transport infrastructure nevertheless give it the potential to be a major gas trader if the other issues can be resolved. The paper discusses oil capacity plans, gas development, gas injection for enhanced oil recovery, proposals for exports of gas, and gas pipeline plans

  17. "New Economy"

    OpenAIRE

    Editorial

    2001-01-01

    Quelles sont les forces motrices de la « nouvelle économie » ? Ce concept un peu dé­crié depuis la fin de la bulle spéculative de la fin du siècle résume pourtant un ensemble de facteurs générant croissance et compétitivité, dont les principaux sont le dévelop­pe­ment de l’informatique et la mise en œuvre des TIC. Etude de la position de l’Allemagne face aux USA commanditée à l’institut RWI par le ministère fédéral de l’Economie. (IB)

  18. ORGANIC ANIMAL BREEDING, CONDITIONS, DATA, FACTS, PLANS (EXAMPLES FROM CENTRAL EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SEREGI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider that the organic animal breeding – as one of the methods with a significant influence on the human nutrition – is the necessary consequence of the 21st century. They present the way of establishing the organic breeding by some Hungarian and Central-European animal farms. They show some examples for the period of transformation into eco farms. The results cover the objective, personal, animal breed and feeding relations. Results of changing and operation: raw materials and products with some of their advantages are shown, just as some examples for protection of origin and food safety. Suggestions for marketing and cooperation, as well as for development are finally given, with special regard to rural development (employment, direct marketing and to the importance of environmental protection with regard to eco / alternative animal breeding.

  19. Geothermal power plants of Mexico and Central America: a technical survey of existing and planned installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo. R.

    1978-07-01

    In this report, the fifth in a series describing the geothermal power plants of the world, the countries of Mexico and of Central America are studied. The geothermal plants are located in areas of recent and active volcanism; the resources are of the liquid-dominated type. Details are given about the plants located at Cerro Prieto in Mexico and at Ahuachapan in El Salvador. In both cases, attention is paid to the geologic nature of the fields, the well programs, geofluid characteristics, energy conversion systems, materials of construction, effluent handling systems, economic factors and plant operating experience. Exploration and development activities are described for other promising geothermal areas in Mexico and El Salvador, along with those in the countries of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama.

  20. What is the economy of Ancien Regime?

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Yves Grenier

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the main features of the Ancien Regime economy and develop a “political economy” of European societies, particularly the French, during the central period of modernity (XVII-XVIII centuries

  1. Geological study of Ujungwatu area as support for NPP planning in Muria Central Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with growth of life in Java, the need for electricity is also growing accordingly. Efforts to provide electricity such as planning to build nuclear power plant (NPP) has been in the debate for a while. There are many factors to be considered in this planning, such as its environmental condition. Geological factor is one of the important one to be considered. Surface geological conditions around NPP area at Ujungwatu needed include stratigraphy, geological structure, geomorphology, and environmental geology. Geology in Ujungwatu at radius 5 km is quite interesting. This area is part of Genuk volcano group which is laid at south and Ujungwatu coast at north. Genuk mountain group is divided into mountain slope, mountain back, and mountain skeleton. Coastal area is composed of coast sand. Sand up to broken rock was present along river gullies. Others were volcanic rocks which was composed of lapili tuff, trachite, pyroxene andesite, tuff breccia, tephrite-andesitic tuff breccia, and basaltic tuff breccia. Volcanic structure is well reflected by morphological feature as lineaments and half circular form in mount Genuk. This structure was predominantly in NW-SE direction, and less dominant in NE-SW direction. Ujungwatu, from environmental view, is deserved to be developed because of its underground potency. Iron sand, fluvial tuff, kaolin, mud, riverstone, volcanic rock, tuff and marble were easily found underground. Those could be benefited to the people in the area so that it could change socio-economical condition of the people which in turn electricity is becoming a necessity. Last but not least, Portuguese fort as potential touristic object is also situated at Kartini beach near Ujungwatu. (author). 15 refs, 3 tabs, 5 figs

  2. Using seabird habitat modeling to inform marine spatial planning in central California's National Marine Sanctuaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer McGowan

    Full Text Available Understanding seabird habitat preferences is critical to future wildlife conservation and threat mitigation in California. The objective of this study was to investigate drivers of seabird habitat selection within the Gulf of the Farallones and Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuaries to identify areas for targeted conservation planning. We used seabird abundance data collected by the Applied California Current Ecosystem Studies Program (ACCESS from 2004-2011. We used zero-inflated negative binomial regression to model species abundance and distribution as a function of near surface ocean water properties, distances to geographic features and oceanographic climate indices to identify patterns in foraging habitat selection. We evaluated seasonal, inter-annual and species-specific variability of at-sea distributions for the five most abundant seabirds nesting on the Farallon Islands: western gull (Larus occidentalis, common murre (Uria aalge, Cassin's auklet (Ptychorampus aleuticus, rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata and Brandt's cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus. The waters in the vicinity of Cordell Bank and the continental shelf east of the Farallon Islands emerged as persistent and highly selected foraging areas across all species. Further, we conducted a spatial prioritization exercise to optimize seabird conservation areas with and without considering impacts of current human activities. We explored three conservation scenarios where 10, 30 and 50 percent of highly selected, species-specific foraging areas would be conserved. We compared and contrasted results in relation to existing marine protected areas (MPAs and the future alternative energy footprint identified by the California Ocean Uses Atlas. Our results show that the majority of highly selected seabird habitat lies outside of state MPAs where threats from shipping, oil spills, and offshore energy development remain. This analysis accentuates the need for innovative marine

  3. Optimized plan of centralized and decentralized wastewater reuse systems for housing development in the urban area of Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X C; Chen, R; Zhang, Q H; Li, K

    2008-01-01

    In an arid and water deficient urban area, such as Xi'an in the northwest region of China, gardening and forestation often use large amounts of tap water. Therefore, there is a need for treated wastewater reuse for such purpose to mitigate urban water shortage, especially in the newly developed housing area, where a high green coverage is often required for both commercial value and living condition improvement. Supply of the treated wastewater through a centralized system which has been planned and partially constructed is one measure to meet such need, but it may require an extension of the distribution system for a full coverage of the whole city area. A supplementary measure is to construct decentralized wastewater treatment and reuse (DESAR) systems in areas that are distant from the planned centralized system. In order to optimize the plan of wastewater reuse for housing development in the urban area, the authors analyzed the existing plan of centralized wastewater reuse and the envisaged plan of housing development in Xi'an urban area. A method was proposed for selection of a feasible way of reclaimed water reuse from two options, namely centralized and decentralized ones, by introducing a critical distance L0 which depends on the relationship between the cost for DESAR system installation and that for water delivery pipeline construction. If the distance from the project site to the nearest access point of the centralized system L is shorter than L0 then using reclaim water from the centralized system becomes more feasible, and otherwise DESAR system installation becomes more feasible. A distribution map was thus obtained to show an optimized plan of centralized and decentralized wastewater reuse systems for housing development in Xi'an city. An example was also given to show the advantage of a DESAR system installed. PMID:18824793

  4. Nuclides Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally the subject of discussion about the nuclear technology development is focused on the conditions that facilitate the nuclear power deployment. The main objective of this work is seeking of methodological basis for analysis of the coupling consequences of nuclear development. Nuclide economy is the term, which defines a new kind of society relations, dependent on nuclear technology development. It is rather closed to the setting of problems then to the solving of them. Last year Dr. Jonathan Tennenbaum published in Executive Intelligence Review Vol. 33 no 40 the article entitled as 'The Isotope Economy' where main interconnections for nuclear energy technologies and their infrastructure had been explained on the popular level. There he has given several answers and, therefore, just here we will try to expand this concept. We were interested by this publication because of similarity of our vision of resource base of technologies development. The main paradigm of 'Isotope economy' was expresses by Lyndon H. LaRouche: 'Instead of viewing the relevant resources of the planet as if they were a fixed totality, we must now assume responsibility of man's creating the new resources which will be more than adequate to sustain a growing world population at a constantly improved standard of physical per-capita output, and personal consumption'. We also consider the needed resources as a dynamic category. Nuclide economy and nuclide logistics both are needed for identifying of the future development of nuclear power as far we follow the holistic analysis approach 'from cave to grave'. Thus here we try to reasoning of decision making procedures and factors required for it in frame of innovative proposals development and deployment. The nuclear power development is needed in humanitarian scientific support with maximally deep consideration of all inter-disciplinary aspects of the nuclear power and nuclear technologies implementation. The main objectives for such

  5. Education and earnings in a transition economy (Vietnam)

    OpenAIRE

    Moock, Peter R; Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Venkataraman, Meera

    1998-01-01

    The transition from a centrally planned to a market economy is likely to have a strong impact on the labor market, on relative earnings, and on returns to education. Major economic reforms in Vietnam since 1986 (the policy known as"Doi Moi") have included a number of measures to liberalize the labor market. It is too soon to assess the full impact of these reforms, but the authors analyze the returns to education, on the basis of earnings in 1992-93 (collected in the first Vietnam Living Stan...

  6. Summary of planned investments in the central and regional grids for the period 2012-2021; Sammenfatning av planlagte investeringer i sentral- og regionalnettet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2013-02-01

    The report aims to provide a picture of the extent of planned investments in the Norwegian central and regional network in the years ahead. It is an update of a similar report from 2009. Compared with national development report, 2009, with total investment plans for 2008-2017, the report shows a relatively large increase in planned investment. In the regional network it is planned investments up to NOK 18 billion. For the main grid project it is needed to invest between NOK 50-70 billion.(Author)

  7. Communicating strategic planning and project integration paramount to achieving cleanup goals at the Central plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) contractor responsible for the safe, environmental cleanup of the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site. The 586-square-mile Hanford Site is located along the Columbia River in southeastern Washington State. A plutonium production complex with nine nuclear reactors and associated processing facilities, Hanford played a pivotal role in the nation's defense for more than 40 years, beginning in the 1940's with the Manhattan Project. Today, under the direction of the DOE, Hanford is engaged in the world's largest environmental cleanup project. The Plateau Remediation Contract (PRC) is a 10-year project paving the way for closure of the Hanford Site through demolition of the Plutonium Finishing Plant; remediation of six burial grounds and 11 groundwater systems; treatment of 43.8 meters of sludge; and disposition of 8,200 meters of transuranic waste, 800 spent nuclear material containers, 2,100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel, and two reactors. The $4.5 billion project, funded through the U.S. DOE Office of Environmental Management, focuses equally on reducing risks to workers, the public, and the environment and on protecting the Columbia River. (authors)

  8. The control of the economy

    OpenAIRE

    J. STEINDL

    2013-01-01

    The control of the economy is examined in terms of the relationships between instruments and targets. The endogeneity of the budget deficit is analysed, exploring 'reflation' as a possible solution, and it is shown that monetarism has changed people's response patterns. The mechanical approach to economic management, and particularly inflation, is rejected in favour of political solutions and long-term planning.

  9. Conference Modernization of Economy and the State

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovková, Jitka

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 4 (2006), s. 835-837. ISSN 0038-0288. [Conference Modernization of Economy and the State. Moskva, 04.04.2006-06.04.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : conference * economy * role of state Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.128, year: 2006

  10. Economic efficiency of brown coal mine ''Konin'' in market economy conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic situation of ''Konin'' brown coal mine located in Central Poland is analysed. The main problem of the mine is the coal price which is still regulated despite market economy. It causes many difficulties and therefore a change of energy policy is postulated. The basic economic results for 1993 as well as prognosis of investment costs up to 2020 are given. The changes of management system and the strategy planning training are also described. 2 ills, 1 tab

  11. Circumstance and choice : the role of initial conditions and policies in transition economies

    OpenAIRE

    de Melo, Martha; Denizer, Cevdet; Gelb, Alan; Tenev, Stoyan

    1997-01-01

    The experience of countries in transition from a planned to a market-oriented economy has varied greatly. The clearest differences are between the East Asian countries, China and Vietnam, and the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the former Soviet Union (FSU). China and Vietnam have contained inflation and benefited from continued high growth in GDP since the beginning of their reforms, while all CEE and FSU countries have experienced large declines in output, and most have ex...

  12. Transition economies and the re-emergence of the new institutional economics

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLER, Esra

    2012-01-01

    Transition from the socialist system that is based on central planning to the capitalist system that is based on free market involves, above all, a great and complex institutional transformation. The fact that academic studies examining economies that underwent such a transformation have ignored “institutions” especially at the beginning of this process is a result of a shortcoming in the dominant neoclassical paradigm. This shortcoming is tried to be eliminated through The New Institutional ...

  13. GREEN ECONOMY - THE ECONOMY OF THE FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert BLAJ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines the concept of "green economy", presents the main international organizations that deal the green economy. Are provided details of the most significant principles, objectives and actions of the concept of green economy. At the European level there is "The 2020 strategy ", which shows that Europe's economy should be an economy that knows how to manage resources efficiently and reduce carbon emissions. There are currently a number of basic laws for the green economy. Forest ecosystems are part of the green economy and the forest products industry are very important because they are renewable, recyclable and biodegradable. Thus forests are a fundament of the green economy, the goods and services are important components.

  14. Strategic Readjustment of State-owned Economy in the Thirteenth Five-year Plan%“十三五”时期新一轮国有经济战略性调整研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄群慧

    2016-01-01

    “十三五”时期,为了适应经济增速趋缓、结构趋优、动力转换的经济新常态,必须推进新一轮国有经济布局的战略性调整。当前国有经济存在总量大,但功能定位模糊、过于集中于重化工业、地方国企扩张较快、创新方向和效率还不能满足创新型国家的要求,面临国际"竞争性中立"的严峻挑战、自然垄断性行业有效竞争不够和竞争性行业产业集中度不高等问题。“十三五”时期的新常态下国有经济布局结构战略性调整的目标,应该重"质"轻"量",不再纠结于国有经济占整个国民经济的具体比例高低的"数量目标",而应更加看重优化国有经济布局、促进国有经济更好地实现其功能定位和使命要求的"质量目标"。具体需要基于功能定位分类推进国有经济战略性调整、基于国家战略性标准和公共服务性标准选择调整国有经济的产业布局、基于全面深化改革和优化市场结构双重目标来协同推进国有企业兼并重组。%In the 13 th Five-Year Plan,it is of necessity to push forward the strategic adjustment of the layout of state-owned economy in order to accommodate the new economic normalcy of slowing eco-nomic growth,structural optimization and the transformation of driving force.The current state-owned economy is large in amount but dispersed in functional orientation and over-concentrated on heavy industry.Besides,the local state-owned enterprises are expanding their business quickly and fa-cing problems such as international competitive neutrality and insufficient effective competition in mo-nopolistic industries,and low degree of industrial concentration in competitive industries;their direc-tion of innovation and efficiency cannot meet the requirement of constructing innovative country.It is proposed in this paper that the state-owned economy in the new economic normalcy should be readjus-ted strategically

  15. The New Economy- Knowledge Based Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Marin, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of knowledge based economy, in this time characterized by fast changes and sometimes radical changes, it is impossible to resist without adapting, both people and the organizations too. The matter of the paper develops knowledge based economy concept: elements, definitions of the knowledge based economy, stages and the main knowledge codification. In the end of the paper, the author presents the importance of economy knowledge, in Romanian ...

  16. The New Economy- Knowledge Based Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen MARIN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of knowledgebased economy, in this time characterized by fast changes and sometimes radical changes, it is impossible to resist without adapting, both people and the organizations too. The matter of the paper develops knowledge based economy concept: elements, definitions of the knowledge based economy, stages and themain knowledge codification. In the end of the paper, the author presents the importance of economy knowledge, in Romanian organizations.

  17. The European idea in Central Europe and Scandinavia as a part of the security and peaceful co-existence policy in the framework of the postwar planning

    OpenAIRE

    Chernyshev Ye. Yu.

    2011-01-01

    This article is dedicated to the development of European unity in Central Europe and Scandinavia as a mechanism of collective security and intergovernmental cooperation development. The cultural and historical features of Central Europe and Scandinavia emphasize the need for a comparative study into the European idea. This article considers the tendencies and factors which affected the development of the European idea in the framework of the post-war planning. This research sets out to compar...

  18. Practical Token Economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackerby, W. F.

    1988-01-01

    The article discusses special considerations in applying standard token economy techniques to behavior change with the head injured with examples of token economies at three rehabilitation facilities. (DB)

  19. Radiation processing and market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the system of totalitarian economy, regulated by bureaucracy, the real value of equipment, materials and services is almost completely unknown, what makes impossible the comparison of different technologies, eliminates competition, disturbs research and development. With introduction of market economy in Central and Eastern Europe, the radiation processing has lost doubtful support, becoming an independent business, subject to laws of free market economy. Only the most valuable objects of processing have survived that test. At the top of the list are: radiation sterilization of medical equipment and radiation induced crosslinking of polymers, polyethylene in particular. New elements of competition has entered the scene, as well as questions of international regulations and standards have appeared

  20. 21st Century jobs initiative - building the foundations for a 21st Century economy. Appendix A, cluster working group initiative business plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The business and community leaders who participated in a four-month long series of working groups developed business plans for initiatives which would lead to further growth and competitiveness of each of the industrial clusters. This appendix contains those business plans as they stood at the end of the working group session mid-September, 1995.

  1. 76 FR 16818 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Standard Criteria for Ag and Urban Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... ``Standard Criteria for Agricultural and Urban Water Management Plans'' (Criteria) are now available for... published the Criteria. The Criteria apply to any Water Management Plans (Plans) submitted to Reclamation as... Management Plans are considered the same as Water Conservation Plans. DATES: Submit written comments by...

  2. Indigenous Economies, Theories of Subsistence, and Women: Exploring the Social Economy Model for Indigenous Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuokkanen, Rauna

    2011-01-01

    The significance of traditional economies in indigenous communities goes beyond the economic realm--they are more than just livelihoods providing subsistence and sustenance to individuals or communities. The centrality of traditional economies to indigenous identity and culture has been noted by numerous scholars. However, today one can detect a…

  3. The real new economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Diana

    2003-10-01

    During the soar-and-swoon days of the late 1990s, many people believed that information technology, and the Internet in particular, were "changing everything" in business. A fundamental change did happen in the 1990s, but it was less about technology than about competition. Under director Diana Farrell, the McKinsey Global Institute has conducted an extensive study of productivity and its connection to corporate IT spending and use during that period. The study revealed that information technology is important--but not central--to the fate of industries and individual companies. So if information technology was not the primary factor in the productivity surge, what was? The study points to competition and innovation. In those industries that saw increases in competitive intensity, managers were forced to innovate aggressively to protect their revenues and profits. Those innovations--in products, business practices, and technology--led to the gains in productivity. In fact, a critical dynamic of the new economy--the real new economy--is the virtuous cycle of competition, innovation, and productivity growth. Managers can innovate in many ways, but during the 1990s, information technology was a particularly powerful tool, for three reasons: First, IT enabled the development of attractive new products and efficient new business processes. Second, it facilitated the rapid industrywide diffusion of innovations. And third, it exhibited strong scale economies--its benefits multiplied rapidly as its use expanded. This article reveals surprising data on how various industries in the United States and Europe were affected by competition, innovation, and information technology in the 1990s and offers insights about how managers can get more from their IT investments. PMID:14521102

  4. Preparing for Future Water Resources Conflicts through Climate Change Adaptation Planning: A Case Study in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehlert, B. B.; Neumann, J. E.; Strzepek, K.; Sutton, W.; Srivastava, J.

    2011-12-01

    Uncertainties posed by climate change and rapidly rising global water demand suggest that existing conflicts over water resources are likely to be exacerbated and new conflicts will appear where little or no conflict occurs today. Successfully planning for and preventing conflicts first requires a sound scientific understanding of the timing, location, and magnitude of water resource shortfalls, identification of the most appropriate climate adaptation options based on multiple criteria, and development of broad, multi-level consensus within the affected community. We recently applied this approach in a World Bank-funded adaptation assessment for the agricultural sectors of four countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia-Albania, Macedonia, Moldova, and Uzbekistan. For each major basin, we first used a hydrological model to project changes in water availability through 2050 under country-specific high, medium, and low climate impact scenarios. Next, under the three climate scenarios, we projected changes in agricultural water demand using a crop model (i.e., AquaCrop and DSSAT), and changes in water demand in other sectors based on population projections and sectoral forecasts of changes in per capita use. We incorporated these water availability and demand projections-along with other characteristics of the water system such as water supply priorities, environmental and transboundary flow requirements, irrigation efficiency, and reservoir locations and volumes-into a monthly integrated water resource planning tool (the Water Evaluation And Planning tool, or WEAP) to generate projected unmet water demand under each climate scenario and to each sector through 2050. The findings suggest that the agricultural sector in each country (except the relatively water-rich Albania) would experience significant unmet water demands, up to 52 percent in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya River basins of Uzbekistan. Potential adaptation responses to address unmet water demands-such as

  5. ESTIMATED DATE OF COMPLETION OF THE PLANNED MOTORWAY SEGMENTS IN THE CENTRAL, NORTH-WESTERN AND WESTERN REGIONS OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CSUTAK ISTVAN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Romania’s highways are standing ahead of considerably high investments. In the last few decades thetransport infrastructure has been pushed into the background due to lack of financial support. The 21st Centuryhas brought important breakthroughs in the building of highways. In the report on global risks in 2013published by WEF (World Economic Forum the "The prolonged neglect of infrastructure" is being consideredsuch a risk. Our study focuses on the construction works that have been carried out in the Central, North-Western and Western regions of Romania. The highways of the above mentioned regions will be analysed basedon three main points of focus: highways that have already been built, highways currently under construction andhighways that are planned to be built. The aim is to present and compare the 3 regions’ highway infrastructure,determination of an approximate end date for the highways that are currently under construction. It has beenconcluded, that until 2013 the construction work on segments funded by the EU progressed much faster, than theones funded by the government. The results of the study refer to how soon could the construction works reach anend on segments currently in progress.

  6. A digital model for planning water management at Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, west-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimick, David A.; McCarthy, Peter M.; Fields, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge is an important area for waterfowl production and migratory stopover in west-central Montana. Eight wetland units covering about 5,600 acres are the essential features of the refuge. Water availability for the wetland units can be uncertain owing to the large natural variations in precipitation and runoff and the high cost of pumping supplemental water. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, has developed a digital model for planning water management. The model can simulate strategies for water transfers among the eight wetland units and account for variability in runoff and pumped water. This report describes this digital model, which uses a water-accounting spreadsheet to track inputs and outputs to each of the wetland units of Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Inputs to the model include (1) monthly values for precipitation, pumped water, runoff, and evaporation; (2) water-level/capacity data for each wetland unit; and (3) the pan-evaporation coefficient. Outputs include monthly water volume and flooded surface area for each unit for as many as 5 consecutive years. The digital model was calibrated by comparing simulated and historical measured water volumes for specific test years.

  7. Medical and Radiological Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Jalal Jalal Shokouhi

    2009-01-01

    Economy ride ahead of the world. "nAll human activities lead to financial problems. "nEconomy has two dimensions in usual daily commercial problems but medical and radiological economy is a tridimensional phenomenon. "nIn the two-dimensional economy, both sides, see their own benefits and fair "gains" but in the  medical and radiologic economy, the patient gives us money and gets health. We protect the patient’s benefits by controlling the complications and c...

  8. Building the Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Čerić, Vlatko

    2001-01-01

    Generation and exploitation of knowledge became one of the most significant components in the new economy. This paper first investigates influence of information and communications technology on economy, with specific emphasis on Internet economy and electronic commerce. The paper then describes characteristics of the knowledge economy, discusses knowledge, presents main issues relevant for building of knowledge economy and gives an overview of the situation and perspectives of knowledge econ...

  9. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the modern theories of economic development – the take-off, backwardness, convergence and balanced growth hypothesis - the new industrialized states from Asia seem to have noticed the advantages of backwardness from which low income countries benefited, namely the possibility to take advantage of the latest technological discoveries of advanced countries, thus achieving a faster growth than the latter which operated closer to the technological border. The assimilation of appropriate technologies, however, required the efficient mobilization and allocation of resources and the improvement of human and physical capital. While the Western countries were confronted with crises generated by inflationary shocks and movements of speculative capital, the relative isolation of countries whose economy was planned by the world economy sheltered them until 1990, unemployment being practically non-existent. Asia's exceptional economic success is not only due to borrowing Western practices, but also to the fact that Asian societies maintained certain traditional features of their own culture - such as a strong work ethic - and integrated them in the modern business environment.

  10. 从计划经济到消费时代——中国住房政策发展解读%From Planned Economy to Consumer Society --An Interpretation of China's Housing Policy Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王韬

    2012-01-01

    From planned economy to market economy, consumption has always been playing an important role in China's housing question. In the last three decades, the housing reform has turned the unanimous housing shortage into a new scenario: one the one hand, there is the tendency towards a consumer's society where cultural and symbolic meanings of housing have transcended its basic function; on the other, the "collective consumption" of housing in terms of reproduction of labor still demands further state intervention.%从计划经济到市场经济,消费都在中国的住房问题中扮演着一个重要的角色。中国近30年住房制度改革,使得当年以匮乏为特征的住房“集体消费”,转向了一种阶层化的住房消费格局:既有市场化的走向文化符号消费的特点,同时劳动力再生产的住房“集体消费”仍然是一个需要国家干预的问题。

  11. Increasing Use of Postpartum Family Planning and the Postpartum IUD: Early Experiences in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleah, Tsigue; Hyjazi, Yolande; Austin, Suzanne; Diallo, Abdoulaye; Dao, Blami; Waxman, Rachel; Karna, Priya

    2016-08-11

    A global resurgence of interest in the intrauterine device (IUD) as an effective long-acting reversible contraceptive and in improving access to a wide range of contraceptive methods, as well as an emphasis on encouraging women to give birth in health care facilities, has led programs to introduce postpartum IUD (PPIUD) services into postpartum family planning (PPFP) programs. We describe strategic, organizational, and technical elements that contributed to early successes of a regional initiative in West and Central Africa to train antenatal, maternity, and postnatal care providers in PPFP counseling for the full range of available methods and in PPIUD service delivery. In November 2013, the initiative provided competency-based training in Guinea for providers from the main public teaching hospital in 5 selected countries (Benin, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Niger, and Senegal) with no prior PPFP counseling or PPIUD capacity. The training was followed by a transfer-of-learning visit and monitoring to support the trained providers. One additional country, Togo, replicated the initiative's model in 2014. Although nascent, this initiative has introduced high-quality PPFP and PPIUD services to the region, where less than 1% of married women of reproductive age use the IUD. In total, 21 providers were trained in PPFP counseling, 18 of whom were also trained in PPIUD insertion. From 2014 to 2015, more than 15,000 women were counseled about PPFP, and 2,269 women chose and received the PPIUD in Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Niger, Senegal, and Togo. (Introduction of PPIUD services in Chad has been delayed.) South-South collaboration has been central to the initiative's accomplishments: Guinea's clinical centers of excellence and qualified trainers provided a culturally resonant example of a PPFP/PPIUD program, and trainings are creating a network of regional trainers to facilitate expansion. Two of the selected countries (Benin and Niger) have expanded their PPFP/PPUID training

  12. ECONOMY MANAGEMENT REFORMULATION THROUGH CORPORATE MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria, GĂF-DEAC

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents conceptual aspects of corporate management on the reformulation of the economy. The central aim of the reformulation process management Romanian and European economy is entering into economic science and practice of corporate logic, modal logic as part of trust and distrust, to operate the new network economy based on knowledge. It concludes that, in fact, the utmost importance of corporate social responsibility proves practical and effective in the management of the economy reformulation. It is said that success and key future performance of the Romanian economy is a model integrated eneralized corporate management, the project outlined in the article, regarding conceptual and practical regulatory alignments new modern enterprises corporate behavior.

  13. Current situation of the Bulgarian power sector and strategy of its development in the transition to a market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgaria's change from a centrally planned economy to a market oriented one has created a completely different approach to energy and electricity planning. This has been more noticeable at the level of the electrical utility which presently is confronted with some privatization initiatives. Because of on-going cooperative efforts with several international organizations, different models are being proposed for planning the expansion of the power system. This paper reviews the most important results of the application of these models to the Bulgarian conditions. (author). 5 figs, 4 tabs

  14. Measuring the New Economy

    OpenAIRE

    J. Steven Landefeld; Fraumeni, Barbara M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides background information on the new economy and how it relates to BEA’s economic accounts. It is designed to answer the following questions: What is the new economy? Why is it important that the new economy be captured in GDP and BEA’s other economic accounts estimates? What do we know now about the size and impact of the new economy? Where does the new economy show up in the accounts? How well is the new economy recorded in the accounts? What should be BEA’s highest priorit...

  15. The control of the economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. STEINDL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The control of the economy is examined in terms of the relationships between instruments and targets. The endogeneity of the budget deficit is analysed, exploring 'reflation' as a possible solution, and it is shown that monetarism has changed people's response patterns. The mechanical approach to economic management, and particularly inflation, is rejected in favour of political solutions and long-term planning.

  16. GIS-based landslide susceptibility mapping models applied to natural and urban planning in Trikala, Central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skilodimou, H. D.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Landslide susceptibility mapping is a practical tool in natural and urban planning; it can be applied for determining land use zones, in construction design and planning of a variety of projects. In this study, two different GIS based landslide susceptibility maps were generated in the mountainous part of the Trikala Prefecture in Thessaly, Central Greece. This was accomplished by using different methods for correlating factors, which have an effect on landslide occurrences. The instability factors taken into account were: lithology, tectonic features, slope gradients, road network, drainage network, land use and rainfall. A frequency distribution of the half number of the landslide events of the study area in each class of the instability factors was performed in order to rate the classes. Two models have been used to combine the instability factors and assess the overall landslide susceptibility, namely: the Weight Factor Model (WeF, which is a statistical method, and the Multiple Factor Model (MuF that is a logical method. The produced maps were classified into four zones: Low, Moderate, High and Very High susceptible zones and validated using the other half number of the landslide events of the area. Evaluation of the results is optimized through a Landslide Models Indicator (La.M.I..Los mapas de susceptibilidad de deslizamientos representan una práctica herramienta en la planificación urbana y de espacios naturales. Así, puede aplicarse a la determinación de los usos de terrenos, en el diseño de construcción civil y para la planificación de gran variedad de actividades. En este estudio se generaron dos tipos diferentes de mapas de susceptibilidad basados en GIS para la parte montañosa de la prefectura de Trikala en Tesalia (Grecia Central. Estos se llevaron a cabo usando dos métodos de correlación de los factores que pueden tener un efecto en la generación de deslizamientos. Los factores de desestabilización tenidos en cuenta

  17. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, INFLUENCES ON NATIONAL ECONOMIES

    OpenAIRE

    CEAUȘESCU IONUT

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of research is to improve the understanding of nature underground economy by rational justification of the right to be enshrined a reality that, at least statistically, can no longer be neglected. So, we propose to find the answer to the question: has underground economy to stand-alone?

  18. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, INFLUENCES ON NATIONAL ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUȘESCU IONUT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to improve the understanding of nature underground economy by rational justification of the right to be enshrined a reality that, at least statistically, can no longer be neglected. So, we propose to find the answer to the question: has underground economy to stand-alone?

  19. Labor Market Performance in Transition; The Experience of Central and Eastern European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Egoume Bossogo; Jerald Alan Schiff; Miho Ihara; Tetsuya Konuki; Kornelia Krajnyak

    2006-01-01

    More than a decade after the start of the transition process, unemployment rates remain in the double digits in a number of Central and Eastern European countries. That unemployment rates have failed to decline, even in countries experiencing good growth, is puzzling. In this paper the authors examine three interrelated questions: How has the transition from central planning to market economies affected labor market performance? How have labor market institutions and policies influenced devel...

  20. Money in the modern economy: an introduction

    OpenAIRE

    McLeay, Michael; Radia, Amar; Thomas, Ryland

    2014-01-01

    Money is essential to the workings of a modern economy, but its nature has varied substantially over time. This article provides an introduction to what money is today. Money today is a type of IOU, but one that is special because everyone in the economy trusts that it will be accepted by other people in exchange for goods and services. There are three main types of money: currency, bank deposits and central bank reserves. Each represents an IOU from one sector of the economy to another. Most...

  1. Planning for environmental restoration of uranium mining and milling sites in Central and Eastern Europe. Proceedings of a workshop held under the technical co-operation project RER/9/022 on environmental restoration in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An IAEA Regional Technical Co-operation (TC) project RER/9/022 on ''Environmental Restoration'' for central and eastern Europe and the former USSR was launched in 1992 and concluded at the end of 1996. The first phase of this project had the primary purpose of identifying and characterizing radioactively contaminated sites in the region, including evaluation of doses to the general public and other environmental impacts. The main result of this phase of the project were published in IAEA-TECDOC-865. A new 1995-1996 phase of the project focused on the radioactive contamination of uranium mining and milling sites and the development of plans for environmental restoration of these sites. While the 1993-1994 phase aimed at attracting the attention of Member States in the region to a long neglected problem, the second phase served as a stimulus to initiate concrete planning activities that would lead to corrective actions in highly contaminated areas in those countries. As a consequence, the project emphasis shifted from scientific discussions to the identification of responsibilities, planning activities, and the assessment of existing and required resources for the eventual implementation of restoration plans. The 1995-1996 phase of the project consisted of a planning meeting and three workshops that addressed different topical themes. The papers compiled in this publication were presented at the last workshop, held in Felix, Romania, 4-8 November 1996. They summarize national situations in environmental contamination as of the end of 1996 and ongoing or planned actions for remediation

  2. Understanding the New Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Louis R.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that while the Nasdaq bubble did burst, the new economy is real and that failure to understand the rules of the digital economy can lead to substandard investment portfolio performance. Offers guidelines for higher education institutional investors. (EV)

  3. Climate change impacts on Moroccan agriculture and the whole economy: An analysis of the impacts of the Plan Maroc Vert in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Ouraich, Ismail; Wallace E. Tyner

    2014-01-01

    The paper provides estimates of economic impacts of climate change, compares these with historical impacts of drought spells, and estimates the extent to which the current Moroccan agricultural development and investment strategy, the Plan Maroc Vert, helps in agricultural adaptation to climate change and uncertainty. We develop a regionalized Morocco Computable General Equilibrium model to analyse the linkages of climate-induced productivity losses (gains) at the level of administrative and ...

  4. Indicators for Knowledge Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon European Council conclusion was that in 2010 Europe will become 'the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustained economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion'. The knowledge economy concept is a part of modern society. This paper examines the knowledge economy concept and indicators for measuring the performance of the knowledge economy

  5. Knowledge Based Economy Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Madalina Cristina Tocan

    2012-01-01

    The importance of knowledge-based economy (KBE) in the XXI century is evident. In the article the reflection of knowledge on economy is analyzed. The main point is targeted to the analysis of characteristics of knowledge expression in economy and to the construction of structure of KBE expression. This allows understanding the mechanism of functioning of knowledge economy. The authors highlight the possibility to assess the penetration level of KBE which could manifest itself trough the exist...

  6. Indicators for Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena BATAGAN

    2007-01-01

    The Lisbon European Council conclusion was that in 2010 Europe will become 'the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustained economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion'. The knowledge economy concept is a part of modern society. This paper examines the knowledge economy concept and indicators for measuring the performance of the knowledge economy

  7. Capital formation and economic growth under central planning and transition: A theoretical and empirical analysis, ca. 1920–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Péter Földvári; Bas van Leeuwen; Dmitry Didenko

    2015-01-01

    According to the consensus view, it was primarily physical capital accumulation that drove economic growth during the early years of state socialism. Growth models incorporating both human and physical capital accumulation led to the conclusion that a high physical/human capital ratio can cause a lower economic growth in the long run, hence offering an explanation for the failure of socialist economies. In this paper, we show theoretically and empirically that according to the logic of the so...

  8. FROM CIRCULAR ECONOMY TO BLUE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iustin-Emanuel, ALEXANDRU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the subject of this essay is based on the background ideas generated by a new branch of science - Biomimicry. According to European Commissioner for the Environment, "Nature is the perfect model of circular economy". Therefore, by imitating nature, we are witnessing a process of cycle redesign: production-consumption-recycling. The authors present some reflections on the European Commission's decision to adopt after July 1, 2014 new measures concerning the development of more circular economies. Starting from the principles of Ecolonomy, which is based on the whole living paradigm, this paper argues for the development within each economy of entrepreneurial policies related to the Blue economy. In its turn, Blue economy is based on scientific analyses that identify the best solutions in a business. Thus, formation of social capital will lead to healthier and cheaper products, which will stimulate entrepreneurship. Blue economy is another way of thinking economic practice and is a new model of business design. It is a healthy, sustainable business, designed for people. In fact, it is the core of the whole living paradigm through which, towards 2020, circular economy will grow more and more.

  9. Problems measuring the underground economy in transition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Palda, F.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 4 (2006), s. 707-718. ISSN 0967-0750 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/04/0166 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : informal economy * macro estimates of shadow economy * transition Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2006 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0351.2006.00268.x

  10. 基于集聚经济的海上旅游规划研究--以秦皇岛为例%Marine Tourism Planning Research Based on Agglomeration Economies-An Analysis of Qinhuangdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩元军; 杨德进

    2013-01-01

    中国休闲度假时代的来临带动着国内海上休闲旅游蓬勃发展,以秦皇岛市海上旅游规划为例,尝试性提出旅游目的地集聚经济论,并且认为秦皇岛核心旅游目的地聚集经济形成与否决定了海上旅游规划的成败,进而通过静态和动态博弈分析得出秦皇岛海上旅游发展战略应采取与周边滨海城市合作的互助模式,海上旅游空间规划则需要从旅游产品设计、旅游线路组织、海上配套设施建设、海上旅游品牌营销等方面打造出秦皇岛独具魅力的海上旅游体系。%The advent of China ’ s leisure era promotes the development of domestic marine leisure tourism .In this paper, taking Qinhuangdao city marine tourism planning as an example , the author attempts to put forward a theory on tourism destination agglomeration economy .And the author thinks that the formation or not of Qinhuangdao core tourism destination agglomeration economies determines the success or failure of the marine tourism planning .And then, through the static and dynamic game analysis , the author gets a decision that the Qinhuangdao sea tourism development strategy should adopt the mutual aid mode of cooperating with surrounding coastal city .To build Qin-huangdao ’ s unique charming sea travel system , tourism place planning at sea needs to be implemented from the as-pects of tourism product design , organization of tour routes , offshore facilities construction and marine tourism brand marketing.

  11. Manufacturing in the knowledge economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis; Winther, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies stress the relevance of a broad conceptualization of the knowledge economy which goes beyond the strong, current policy focus on high-tech industries. Today, low-tech industries continue to have a significant role in European manufacturing in terms of employment, value added and...... export. However, the character and activities of these industries are profoundly changing as they become increasingly knowledge intensive. Thus, innovation processes and knowledge production in manufacturing are much more complex than suggested by the classic division into high-, medium-and low......-tech industries. This calls for a rethinking of manufacturing’s position in contemporary capitalism and a redefinition of the central categories based on research and development (R & D) intensity that dominate the debate on the knowledge economy....

  12. Technical Assistance and Training in Integrated Provincial Planning : Quang Nam Province, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally both national and regional development planning in Vietnam has been driven by 'top-down' Central Government social and economic targets based on limited analytical investigation. However, with the advent of the free market economy in Vietnam since the late 1980s, vigorous global economic competitiveness and Vietnam's membership to the World Trade Organization (WTO), changes i...

  13. Central-Receiver Solar-Thermal Power System 10-MW/sub e/ Pilot Plant: collector subsystem manufacturing plan report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-09-15

    The overall manufacturing planning effort included: design modification analysis; manufacturing/tooling conceptual trades; process/tooling verification experiments; and documentation of manufacturing plans and cost estimates. Innovative tooling concepts were evaluated. Studies also included comparison of costs of both field and shop assembly of heliostats.

  14. Dismantling the Cold War economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    End-of-the-Cold-War economic realities include political jockeying over the future of weapons systems, a paucity of meaningful conversion efforts, and a suspicion that a weak economy will be unable to compensate for the loss of jobs and purchasing power as defense budgets are reduced. The authors of this book present three interrelated hypotheses: The first is that the existence of a large military production sector has depleted the civilian economy of key resources and has preempted creation of the kind of broad-base civilian-oriented industrial policies needed for economic revitalization. The second is that a large military production sector creates barriers to the movement of resources. The third is that economic depletion and the barriers to moving resources to civilian production make conversion planning essential. This book explains why conversion is difficult, but offers only a few pages of specific conversion proposals

  15. Implementation of the monitoring Plan of the State and behavior of the systems in the Central Nuclear Almaraz; Implantacion del Plan de Seguimiento del Estado y Comportamiento de Sistemas en la Central Nuclear Almaraz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero Puertas, I.; Gonzalez Redondo, R.; Lopez Pozo, A.

    2013-07-01

    This work aims to present the implementation process of the Monitoring of the State and behavior of the systems in the Nuclear plan Almaraz. Will define the scope, process, frequencies and criteria of evaluation of the State and behavior of the systems included in the Plan of reliability, as well as the documentary requirements of this evaluation. Cases will also be collected practical real phenomena detected during monitoring degradation made and will explain the actions taken prior to the failure.

  16. Feeding of Pellona flavipinnis (Clupeiformes, Pristigasteridaein a Central Amazonian floodplain Dieta de Pellona flavipinnis (Clupeiformes, Pristigasteridae em planície alagada da Amazônia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra S. Moreira-Hara

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The feeding habits of Pellona flavipinnis (Valenciennes, 1836 at Catalão, a floodplain area on the Brazilian Central Amazon was studied. Data was obtained during three hydrological cycles, between September 1999 and September 2003. Diet composition, daily and seasonal variation in the feeding activity and the relationship between predator's size and its prey were analyzed. Almost 80% of the food consumed has autochthonous origin and diet was composed basically by insects and fish. Juvenile fish predominated in the stomach contents of all size classes but there was no significant relationship between predator's size and its prey. Pellona flavipinnis may be considered a carnivorous species which feeds mainly on juvenile (young-of-the-year specimens of other fish. More intense feeding activity occurred at night and in the high water period.Os hábitos alimentares de Pellona flavipinnis (Valenciennes, 1836 de uma área de várzea na Amazônia Central, Catalão, foram estudados. Foram utilizados dados referentes a três ciclos hidrológicos, entre setembro de 1999 e setembro de 2003. Foram analisados a dieta, a atividade alimentar diária e sazonal e a relação entre o comprimento da presa e o do predador. Cerca de 80% dos alimentos consumidos eram de origem autóctone e a dieta composta basicamente de insetos e peixes. Peixes juvenis predominaram nos conteúdos estomacais de exemplares de todas as classes de tamanho, mas não houve relação significativa entre o tamanho do predador e o das presas consumidas. Pellona flavipinnis pode ser considerada uma espécie carnívora que se alimenta principalmente de indivíduos juvenis de outras espécies de peixes. A atividade alimentar foi maior durante a noite e no período da cheia.

  17. Underdeveloping Appalachia: Toward an environmental sociology of extractive economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishart, William Ryan

    This dissertation uses mixed methods to examine the role of the coal industry in the reproduction of Central Appalachia as an internal periphery within the United States and the economic, ecological, and human inequalities this entails. It also analyzes the related political economy and power structure of coal in a national context. Particularly important for analysis of the region's underdevelopment are the class relations involved in unequal ecological exchange and the establishment of successive "modes of extraction." I employ a historical comparative analysis of Appalachia to evaluate Bunker's thesis that resource dependent peripheries often become locked into a "mode of extraction" (with aspects parallel to Marxist concepts of mode of production) triggering economic and ecological path dependencies leading to underdevelopment. This historical comparative analysis establishes the background for a closer examination of the political economy of the modern US coal industry. After sketching the changes in the structure of monopoly and competition in the coal industry I employ network analysis of the directorate interlocks of the top twenty coal firms in the US within the larger energy policy-planning network to examine their connections with key institutions of the policy formation network of think tanks and business groups. My findings show the importance of the capacities of fossil fuel fractions of the capitalist class in formulating energy policy around issues such as the 2009 climate legislation. As a contribution to the growing literature applying the concept of metabolism as link between contemporary and classical theory, I examine the conflict at Coal River Mountain from the vantage points of ecology, political economy, and human development in dialectical rotation. Utilizing Marx's method of successive abstractions, the mountain is presented as a nexus of metabolic rifts in the human relationship to the earth's natural systems and an impediment to genuine

  18. Promoting an effective market economy in a changing world

    OpenAIRE

    Willem H. Buiter; Lago, Richard; Stern, Nicholas

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we examine the main challenges in promoting an effective market economy. While the paper ranges widely across the spectrum of economic institutions and policies, the central theme is the importance of macroeconomic stability for economic growth in the medium and long run. Macroeconomic stability may be seen as a public good. Its provision is among the essential responsibilities of the state both in modern market economies and in economies transforming themselves into modern mark...

  19. Growing a market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  20. Underground Economy in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Marija Švec

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this paper is to estimate the size of underground economy in the period 2001-2007 using labour approach. Two types of data are used: administrative and survey. The main questions are: How did the activity rates move? What is the relationship between activity rates and the size of shadow economy? Is there correlation between official employment, official unemployment and unofficial employment (shadow economy) and what is it like? What is the position of Croatia considering the m...

  1. Knowledge Economy Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin BRATIANU; Violeta Mihaela DINCA

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of the emergent knowledge economy and its dimensions. The knowledge economy is based primarily on the development of intangibles, and knowledge processing. The knowledge revolution is changing the way we think and work, and the knowledge worker reflects the nature of the new economic driving forces. The knowledge economy opens new directions, and offers unprecedented opportunities to produce and sell on a mass scale, reduce costs, and custom...

  2. Did inequality increase in transition? : an analysis of the transitional countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    RoÌ zsaÌ s, TamaÌ s.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Parallel to the process of democratization, the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia have shown an increase in measured income inequality during their transition from centrally-planned to a market-oriented economy. Since the behavior of these countries contradicted previous models of inequality, researchers analyzing the transition process linked the increase in income inequality to the egalitarian values of s...

  3. Economy and Grace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2015-01-01

    Luther develops his idea the grace of God in tandem with his idea of economy, and a society characterized by ethical and social values such as love of neighbour and caring for the poor. Hence, the reformer's search for a gracious God is developed along with his criticism of the current indulgence...... doctrine and the emerging 'oeconomia moderna'. Thus, building on a simul gratia et oeconomia, grace and economy simultaneously, Luther's reformation theology can be perceived as te intersection of an economy of grace and a horizontal social economy (works of love) in quotidian life that together constitute...

  4. A sustainable economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawlak, J. J.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available There exists a direct correlation between improvements in standard of living and the consumption of resources. To be able to maintain the standard of living of a modern developed country, society must adapt to an economy based on sustainable processes, energy, and raw materials. The sustainable economy presents itself as a disruptive technology to the traditional economy, which is based largely on non-renewable resources. The issue seems to be more about when will we switch to a sustainable economy, rather than whether we will switch.

  5. On Population Mobility in Market Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xianzhong

    2005-01-01

    Regular and extensive social population mobility in natural economy is neither necessary nor possible while in a planned economic system, social population distribution is necessary but social population mobility is unlikely. Modern market economy as a highly mobile economy has a free-mobile population characteristic of market economy, which is fundamental to optimize human resource distribution. The rule for the modern market-based population movement is as follows: If the mobile population is the rational behavior choosers, under the permissive developmental environment as arranged by the social system, they tend to move from low profit-making fields to high income fields when there exists comparable difference of income in different regions and different industries, and various potential and practical profit-making chances. The degree of difference in comparable income is positively co-relative to the velocity and flux of mobile population.

  6. Agents modeling agents in information economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, J.M.; Durfee, E.H. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Our goal is to design and build agents that act intelligently when placed in an agent-based information economy, where agents buy and sell services (e.g. thesaurus, search, task planning services, etc.). The economy we are working in is the University of Michigan Digital Library (UMDL), a large scale multidisciplinary effort to build an infrastructure for the delivery of library services. In contrast with a typical economy, an information economy deals in goods and services that are often derived from unique sources (authors, analysts, etc.), so that many goods and services are not interchangeable. Also, the cost of replicating and transporting goods is usually negligible, and the quality of goods and services is difficult to measure objectively: even two sources with essentially the same information might appeal to different audiences. Thus, each agent has its own assessment of the quality of goods and services delivered.

  7. Fixed Costs and Economies of Scale: Some Problematic Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Alzona Gianluigi

    2009-01-01

    Economies of scale are a central concept in Industrial Economics/Organization studies, connected with important topics as size structure of industries, conditions and strategies of entry, market forms. The present paper illustrates and discusses some alleged contradictions between the approach to economies of scale taken by modern studies in Industrial Economics/Organization and the traditional microeconomic theory.

  8. Managing Reward in Developing Economies: The Challenge for Multinational Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opute, John

    2010-01-01

    Reward has been, and continues to be, subject to significant changes in developing economies; the industrial relations model prevalent being driven by the complex socio-economic and cultural paradigms and the increasing demands of globalisation. The issue of reward in developing economies is therefore central and dependent on numerous contextual…

  9. Real economy versus virtual economy - New challenges for nowadays society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Associates Professon Dr. Veronica Adriana Popescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper Real Economy versus Virtual Economy – New Challenges for Nowadays Society our goal is to present the importance of both real economy and virtual economy.At the begging of our research, we have presented the main views of some specialists concerning both virtual and real economy. After that we have compared the two types of economies and we have stressed the most important aspects connected to them. The main reason why we have decided to approach this complex subject is due to the increasing interest in the virtual economy matters and the relation that this particular type of economy develops with the real economy.

  10. Desarrollo de mejoras en la eficiencia de un plan de mantenimiento en una central térmica de vapor supercrítico

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Alfonseca, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Se analiza la Central Térmica de carbón de Lada en Langreo, Asturias, la cual, consta de dos grupos térmicos uno de 350 y el otro de 150 Mw. Se define el mantenimiento su historia y evolución desde sus comienzos en el año 1945 hasta la actualidad, los tipos de mantenimiento desde el mantenimiento correctivo hasta el preventivo ya sea sistemático o condicional (predictivo). El desarrollo del plan de mantenimiento básico utilizando las instrucciones técnicas de los fabricantes y mejorando a par...

  11. Globalization vs. Developing economy

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Ionescu

    2007-01-01

    Economic reality worldwide is marked by the evolution of globalization. This process entails effects that are perceived differently at national economy levels, function of their degree of development. We will proceed by attempting a survey of aspects pertaining to the relationship between globalization and developing economies, stressing on internationalizing Transnational Corporations and its effects.

  12. The Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Carroll, John M.; Hjalmarsson, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    The sharing economy is spreading rapidly worldwide in a number of industries and markets. The disruptive nature of this phenomenon has drawn mixed responses ranging from active conflict to adoption and assimilation. Yet, in spite of the growing attention to the sharing economy, we still do not know...

  13. The National Economy Maintained a Steady and Fast Growth in 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Fuzhan

    2007-01-01

    @@ In 2006, the national economy maintained steady and fast growth.The Central Party Committee and the State Council adopted a series of macro-economic control policies and measures in a timely manner to target the outstanding problems,which emerged in economic development. These policies and measures proved to be effective and helped the economic development avoid moving from speedy growth to over-heating.The economic and social development made a good start for the implementation of the 11th Five-Year Plan.

  14. Real exchange rates in emerging economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brůha, J.; Podpiera, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2010), s. 599-628. ISSN 0967-0750 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : real exchange rate * emerging economies * two-country modelling Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.536, year: 2010

  15. On educational attainment in transition economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duczynski, Petr

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2001), s. 163-173. ISSN 1210-0455 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK9058117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : transition economies * educational attainment Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  16. Institutions and economic growth in transition economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Campos, Nauro

    Varna : European Association for Comparative Economic Studies, 1998, s. 103-103. [European Association for Comparative Economic Studies Conference /5./. Sunny Day, Varna (BG), 10.09.1998-12.09.1998] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : transition economies * institutions * economic growth Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  17. Land-use planning for phosphate mining and resource areas: the central Florida case. A workshop synopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFevers, J. R.; Toner, W. J.; Guernsey, J. L.; Rifkin, E.

    1980-05-01

    On July 19-20, 1978, a workshop was conducted in Bartow, Florida, on the topic of land-use and reclamation planning in the local phosphate mining region. More than 100 participants attended the workshop representing the phosphate mining industry, environmental groups, research organizations, planning agencies, news media, and governmental regulatory agencies. Various aspects of the environmental and land-use impacts of phosphate mining, together with the state-of-the-art of mitigating adverse impacts, were discussed. The participants were required to work cooperatively to develop a series of alternative land-use plans for a selected mining site that was the focus of a half-day field trip. Overall, the participants developed a number of rational land-use and reclamation plans for the site that were considered acceptable by the majority of the group. There was general agreement that the most valuable aspect of the workshop was the opportunity for individuals with such diverse interests to work cooperatively on a common problem and develop acceptable solutions.

  18. Use of the Systems Approach for Successful Token Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Catherine C.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The three basic steps of the systems approach are described: the mission profile, the functional analysis, and the method-means. The advantageous use of these steps in planning a token economy is illustrated by a systematic evaluation of a token economy implemented in a sixth-grade setting. (Author)

  19. The European idea in Central Europe and Scandinavia as a part of the security and peaceful co-existence policy in the framework of the postwar planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshev Ye. Yu.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the development of European unity in Central Europe and Scandinavia as a mechanism of collective security and intergovernmental cooperation development. The cultural and historical features of Central Europe and Scandinavia emphasize the need for a comparative study into the European idea. This article considers the tendencies and factors which affected the development of the European idea in the framework of the post-war planning. This research sets out to compare and identify similar or analogous features and elements of the theoretical bases of movements for European unity in Central and Northern Europe. The author comes to the conclusion about the correlation between the “Europe of regions” model and the European unity concept. The ideas of Scandinavian and Central European integration rested on national, cultural and historical connections of the neighbouring countries were expected to constitute such formations, which contradicted and were opposed to by the theoretical framework of Western European integration. On the other hand, regional integration implied that a federation or union of the neighbouring states could be considered a step towards a more universal organisation, which would not mean the isolation of Scandinavia and Central Europe from the rest of the world. The theoretical and practical significance of this work lies in the comparative approach to the analysis of the phenomena which have been considered individually in the framework of historiography. It is the major contribution of the article to the research on history of ideas and European diplomacy. Moreover, the subject of research is immediately connected to the problem of security in the Baltic region and the Soviet factor, as well as political stereotypes produced in this field. The author employed historical comparative and inductive types of the historical typological method.

  20. Globalization of the sports economy

    OpenAIRE

    Wladimir Andreff

    2008-01-01

    Introduction – 1. Major features of a globalized sports economy – 2. International economic flows in a global sports economy – 3. Globalization as geographical spread of the sports economy – 4. Globalization of professional sports – Conclusion – References

  1. www.FuelEconomy.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — FuelEconomy.gov provides comprehensive information about vehicles' fuel economy. The official U.S. government site for fuel economy information, it is operated by...

  2. 集中型充电站容量规划模型研究%Study on Capacity and Site Planning of Large-scale Centralized Charging Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高赐威; 张亮; 薛飞; 刘红超

    2012-01-01

    购买电池的初期投资大、电池充电时间长以及分布式随机充电对电网负面影响大是制约电动汽车发展的重要因素.基于里程计费的换电池模式实际上采用了电池租赁模式和慢充技术,而且可以通过建立规模庞大的集中型充电站为电池进行充电,因此为当前电动汽车发展问题具有竞争力的解决方案.但是作为新生事物,集中型充电站规划建设缺乏科学理论指导,从区域各类型电动汽车的电池组充电需求出发,在综合考虑集中型充电站建设初期购置设备费用和运行期间购买电能费用的基础上,建立了集中型充电站最优容量配置模型,数值算例仿真验证了模型的有效性相关分析表明,电池组需求和充电电价设置对集中型充电站的容量规划影响巨大.%The high initial investment of battery, the long charging time, and the negative effect on the power grid due to the electric vehicles' distributed and random charging, are the main factors that limit the development of electric vehicles (EVs). The battery swapping mode actually applies battery leasing model and the slow charging technology, and large-scale centralized charging station can be built to recharge the battery, which has become a competitive way to solve this key problem. As a new-born thing, it is lack of theoretical guidance for the planning and operation of large-scale centralized charging station. Given the regional charging demand and considering the initial investment of equipment and the electric energy cost during the operation period, a capacity planning model for centralized charging station was established. The effectivity of the model was tested by a numerical example. Relative analysis demonstrates that battery demand and charging tariff will have great influence on the capacity planning of the centralized charging station.

  3. ECONOMY AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg BOGOMOLOV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Market reforms in the post-socialist countries have brought into sharp focus the problem of interconnection and interaction between the economy and the social environment. The economy is inseparable from politics and the operation of the political system, from the state of the social consciousness, the moral and cultural level of the population and from many other aspects of human life and behavior, in short, from everything that can be described by the concept of social environment. Society in every country is a single organism with closely interconnected and interacting parts and systems. Their conjugation and mutual influence are not always apparent and are often overlooked. It is quite easy to see how changes in policy affect the economy and then trace the feedback effect of the economy on policy. It is more difficult to discern the direct and feedback relationship of the economy with administrative relations, with the state of culture, science, morals and public opinion. Meanwhile, an underestimation of these mutual influences is a frequent cause of failures in socio-economic transformation. It is to be regretted that the reforms in Russia were accompanied by a dangerous disruption not only of the economy, but also of the entire system of social relations. What was primary here and what was secondary? In order to answer this question the paper takes a theoretical look at the problem of interaction between the economy and the social environment.

  4. Achieving Sustainable Value Planning For Malaysian Public Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Faudzi; Mahbub Rohana; Nawawi Abdul Hadi; Abidin Nazirah Zainul

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability is the central development issue in the modern economy. Through sustainable development, quality of life can be improved or maintained over time. Since Malaysia is targeting to become a high-income nation by the year 2020, financial investment in public projects should be planned comprehensively so that it will generate immediate and long-term benefits to the country and the people. Within the currently tight financial environment, achieving value for money in public spending i...

  5. Emission reductions in transition economies: A result of output contraction or more stringent environmental policy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zugravu, N.; Millock, K. [University Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne (France); Duchene, G. [University Paris 12, Creteil (France)

    2007-07-01

    Countries in Central and Eastern Europe significantly reduced their CO{sub 2} emissions between 1996 and 2001. Was this emission reduction just the fortuitous result of the major economic transformation undergone by those countries in the transition away from a centralized plan economy? Or is the emission reduction rather a result of more stringent environmental policy? The objective of the article is to answer this question through a model of the relation between environmental quality and enforcement, on the one hand, and environmental quality and economic growth, on the other hand. The authors develop structural equations for the demand (emissions) and supply (environmental stringency) of pollution. The supply equation takes into account the institutional quality of the country (control of corruption and political stability) as well as consumer preferences for environmental quality, as proxied by per capita revenue and unemployment. The system is estimated by three stage least squares on a sample of three groups of countries for comparative analysis: Central and Eastern European countries, Western European countries, and emerging economies. The results indicate that, all else equal, the scale effect on its own would have increased industrial CO{sub 2} emissions in the Central and Eastern European countries in the sample by 44.6% between 1996 and 2001. The composition effect accounted for a corresponding reduction in emissions by 16%. The technique effect had the largest marginal impact, corresponding to a 37.4% reduction in emissions.

  6. The Danish Negotiated Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    2012-01-01

    Denmark is characterised by a number of distinct traits: a small and open economy, a stable democratic political system, a high proportion of organised wage earners covered by collective agreements, a political culture marked by social partnership, and a long tradition of institutionalised class...... cooperation. In this sense, Denmark has not only developed from a market to a mixed economy, but from a mixed to a negotiated economy. Because of its political history, the institutional structure in Denmark is hybrid. Market power and state authority are mixed in corporate bodies. Public authority is...

  7. The Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Andersson, Magnus; Nickerson, Jeffrey;

    2014-01-01

    An economy based on the exchange of capital, assets and services between individuals has grown significantly, spurred by proliferation of internet-based platforms that allow people to share underutilized resources and trade with reasonably low transaction costs. The movement toward this economy...... of “sharing” translates into market efficiencies that bear new products, reframe established services, have positive environmental effects, and may generate overall economic growth. This emerging paradigm, entitled the collaborative economy, is disruptive to the conventional company-driven economic paradigm...

  8. The Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela-Carmen MUNTEAN; Nistor, Costel; Ludmila Daniela MANEA

    2009-01-01

    We are living through a period of profound change and transformation of the shape of society and its underlying economic base .The nature of production, trade, employment and work in the coming decades will be very different from what it is today. In an agricultural economy land is the key resource. In industrial economy natural resources, such as coal and iron ore and labour are the main resources. A knowledge economy is one in which knowledge is the key resource. One in which the generation...

  9. The Knowledge Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Carmen MUNTEAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We are living through a period of profound change andtransformation of the shape of society and its underlying economic base .Thenature of production, trade, employment and work in the coming decades willbe very different from what it is today. In an agricultural economy land is thekey resource. In industrial economy natural resources, such as coal and iron oreand labour are the main resources. A knowledge economy is one in whichknowledge is the key resource. One in which the generation and the exploitationof knowledge has come to play the predominant part in the creation of wealth.

  10. Business Standardization & Market Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shiyuan

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of the market economy in China requires a renewed understanding of the theory and practice of business standardization. Built on the basic principles of standardization and the market economics, this paper seeks to define the role and status of standardization in the market economy, its aims and priorities. It then describes the deployment of standardization in market competition. Lastly, it explores into the possible transformations of concepts, functions and associated personnel of enterprise standardization in order to keep abreast of the evolving market economy.

  11. Essays in Political Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Vernby, Kåre

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of five essays in the field of political economy. The first part of the thesis includes three essays covering various aspects of the political economy of globalization and economic reforms, which are linked in several ways. The second part of the thesis includes two essays on the political economy of development in India. The aim of this introductory section is to give a brief and non-technical overview of the essays, as well as to explain the links between them. The disc...

  12. FROM CIRCULAR ECONOMY TO BLUE ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Iustin-Emanuel, ALEXANDRU; Alexandru, TASNADI

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the subject of this essay is based on the background ideas generated by a new branch of science - Biomimicry. According to European Commissioner for the Environment, "Nature is the perfect model of circular economy". Therefore, by imitating nature, we are witnessing a process of cycle redesign: production-consumption-recycling. The authors present some reflections on the European Commission's decision to adopt after July 1, 2014 new measures concerning the development of more circu...

  13. The Knowledge Economy – New Economy?

    OpenAIRE

    Niculae Niculescu

    2006-01-01

    The status of knowledge and information as development resources make us familiar with the phenomena on which The New Economy is founded. They reveal the fact that the universalisation of the scientific and technical values does not have alternative on the evolutionary level of mankind. Named with slight differences and variations, as we have already stated, the new economic and social reality has several specific features: the technologies based on microelectronics and computer science, biot...

  14. Analysis on Relation Measuring and Development Innovation Path of Tourism Economy in Shenyang Economic Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang; ZHAO; Xiangye; SONG

    2014-01-01

    This article firstly measures the tourism economy relations in Shenyang Economic Zone,and summarizes the spatial structure of tourism economy in Shenyang Economic Zone. The results show that Shenyang is in the central position and its tourism resource has obvious advantages. Finally,this paper provides the development innovation path of tourism economy in Shenyang Economic Zone.

  15. Conceptual design of Advanced Central Receiver Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept: development plan and pilot plant description. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-03-01

    This volume encompasses Task 6 of the Phase I effort on the Advanced Central Receiver. This task included developing a plan to bring the commercial plant conceptual design into being. The base version of the plan includes a pilot plant to be designed and constructed during Phases II and III, three subsystem research experiments to be performed during Phase II, and the design and construction of a commercial demonstration plant. These plans are discussed in detail, as well as several options which could reduce both cost and schedule to achieve the overall goal of a commercial-sized demonstration plant. In evaluating pilot plant characeristics, emphasis was placed on representing commercial plant receiver characteristics and total system operation. In considering total system operation, it was recognized that a water-steam pilot plant would already be in operation, hence certain systems will already have been tested. Several receiver configurations were investigated consisting of from one to five full-size panels, with the objective of representing peak north side power for a 100-MWe plant as well as the peak flux vaue of about 1.4 MW/m/sup 2/. This goal was accomplished with a 5-panel receiver; however, the power to the edge panels is very low. Hence, with little loss, these panels can be eliminated to give a 3-panel configuration. The total absorbed thermal power is about 38 MWt, which is sufficient for about 10 MWe. A plant of this size is described.

  16. Striving for "Standard Economy"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Huailin

    2006-01-01

    @@ Promotion of the "standard economy" itself is an integral part of upgrading the quality of China's economic development, transforming economic growth mode and responding to foreign trade barriers as well as a key strategy for improving foreign trade level.

  17. Political Economy of Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Perotti

    2013-01-01

    This survey reviews how a recent political economy literature helps explaining variation in governance, competition, funding composition and access to credit. Evolution in political institutions can account for financial evolution, and appear critical to explain rapid changes in financial structure,

  18. Implementing a hydrogen economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Ritter

    2003-09-01

    In recent years, months, weeks, and even days, it has become increasingly clear that hydrogen as an energy carrier is ‘in’ and carbonaceous fuels are ‘out’1. The hydrogen economy is coming, with the impetus to transform our fossil energy-based society, which inevitably will cease to exist, into a renewable energy-based one2. However, this transformation will not occur overnight. It may take several decades to realize a hydrogen economy. In the meantime, research and development is necessary to ensure that the implementation of the hydrogen economy is completely seamless, with essentially no disruption of the day-to-day activities of the global economy. The world has taken on a monumental, but not insurmountable, task of transforming from carbonaceous to renewable fuels, with clean burning, carbon dioxide-free hydrogen as the logical choice.

  19. Reshaping the global economy

    OpenAIRE

    Pisani-Ferry, Jean; Santos, Indhira

    2009-01-01

    Jean Pisani-Ferry and Indhira Santos observe that the crisis and the national responses to it have started to reshape the global economy. But beyond the specifics of shock transmission, the crisis has also exposed that, in spite of regional integration and the emergence of new economic powers, the global economy lacks resilience. The authors explain how they believe the international community could build a stronger and more legitimate globalised governance out of the crisis.

  20. Shadow Economy and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Nikopour, Hesam; Shah Habibullah, Muzafar

    2010-01-01

    This study attempts to investigate the relationship between shadow economy and poverty by explaining the mechanism through which shadow economy affects poverty via its impact on government size and economic growth, and using the human poverty index (HPI) for developing and developed countries. In order to achieve this objective, the three-way interaction model is utilized using data of 139 developing and 23 developed countries separately during 1999-2007. For developing countries the dynamic ...

  1. SOCIAL ECONOMY EFFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Florina Oana Virlanuta

    2015-01-01

    The social economy combines profitability with social inclusion. Social innovation is the first step in the creation of a social enterprise. Social economy development is a process underway, innovative in terms of relating the individual to the production processes, the concept of citizenship, production areas and modalities. The concern for sustainable development, analysis of economic and financial crisis, the issue of the relationship between the individual and the production process open ...

  2. New Open Economy Macroeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    Corsetti, Giancarlo

    2007-01-01

    The New Open Economy Macroeconomics refers to a vast body of literature embracing a new theoretical framework for policy analysis in open economy, with the goal of overcoming the limitations of the Mundell-Fleming model, while preserving the empirical wisdom and policy friendliness of traditional analysis. Starting in the early 1990s, NOEM contributions have developed general equilibrium models with imperfect competition and nominal rigidities, to reconsider conventional views ...

  3. ECONOMY AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg BOGOMOLOV

    2008-01-01

    Market reforms in the post-socialist countries have brought into sharp focus the problem of interconnection and interaction between the economy and the social environment. The economy is inseparable from politics and the operation of the political system, from the state of the social consciousness, the moral and cultural level of the population and from many other aspects of human life and behavior, in short, from everything that can be described by the concept of social environment. Society ...

  4. The Economy of Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley Fischer

    1983-01-01

    The paper opens with a description of the salient features of the Israeli economy. These consist of a large government sector(the government budget has absorbed more than 80% of GNP in some recent years); high levels of defense spending; a large government budget deficit; a large current account deficit (about 20%of GNP); triple digit inflation; and extensive indexation of both wages and long term financial commitments. A descriptive model of the economy is then presented, which includes the ...

  5. Corruption and the economy

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzi Vito

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the economic and not on the political impact of corruption. Corruption delegitimizes the working of a market economy, as well as the outcomes of political processes. This paper highlights ways in which corruption, by distorting economic decisions and the working of the market economy, inevitably reduces a country’s rate of growth. The paper also discusses some of the channels through which corruption distorts various economic decisions. Finally, the paper reports o...

  6. Speculation and the economy

    OpenAIRE

    Aßmuth, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the impact of speculative behaviour on output patterns of the real economy. The impact may be twofold. Speculative behaviour occurs due to positive developments at the real economy and optimistic outlooks. Also, speculative behaviour may occur at other markets, like the stock market. We address both, a spill-over effect and the build up of speculation due to economic activity. Therefore, we implement realistic behaviour in an evolutionary framework and...

  7. Island political economy

    OpenAIRE

    Bertram, Geoffrey; Poirine, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    International audience In this chapter we build on the observation that island economies, and especially small ones (population below one million), exhibit a remarkably wide range of economic structures built on a correspondingly wide range of development strategies. Common elements of "islandness" may serve to define island economies as a general class, but there clearly exist several distinct "species" within that class, and a corresponding menu of strategic options open to islander comm...

  8. Zoning the neighbourhood economy

    OpenAIRE

    Risselada, Anne; Folmer, Emma

    2011-01-01

    With industrialisation and rationalisation of the Western economy, the scale of production became larger, production costs declined and competitiveness rose (Kloosterman and van der Leun 2004). It was thought that Economies of scale would weed out small-business. This seems plausible: As a company increases production, the average costs per unit will decrease. Due to shifts in production and consumption patterns that are characteristic of post-industrial societies, small-scale business became...

  9. Observing the economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Stan

    2009-07-01

    In "The (unfortunate) complexity of the economy" (April pp28-32) Jean-Philippe Bouchaud presents clear evidence that traditional assumptions of rational markets have to be abandoned. The old investor slogan "buy on promise, sell on rumour" quickly magnifies a downturn into a crisis, which triggers two questions. If physics-based models are applied (beyond understanding and prediction) to actual market decisions, does this make the economy more or less stable? And, is this cause for stronger regulation?

  10. A shopkeeper economy

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Daniel P

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the properties of an economy populated by shopkeepers who monopolistically provide differentiated services at zero marginal cost but positive fixed costs. In this setting, equilibrium output and wealth depend on consumer demand rather than available supply. The “shopkeeper economy” is compared to a standard production-based economy in which wealth is a function only of labor supply and technology. I demonstrate that the existence of producers who face only fixed costs ...

  11. Token economy for schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMonagle, T

    2000-01-01

    A token economy is a behavioural therapy technique in which the desired change is achieved by means of tokens administered for the performance of predefined behaviours according to a program. Though token economy programmes were widespread in the 1970s they became largely restricted to wards where long-stay patients from institutions are prepared for transfer into the community and were particularly aimed at changing negative symptoms of schizophrenia - poor motivation, poor attention and social withdrawal.

  12. Population and the Colombian economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1983-01-01

    Colombia is the only one of the 6 most populous Latin American countries that is currently free of major economic crisis requiring an agreement with the International Monetary Fund. The difference in the economic performances of these countries is relative, since the rate of growth in the Colombian economy was only 1.5% in 1982. Yet, Colombia seems to have weathered the international recession better than most. The crisis atmosphere in the rest of Latin America, triggered by overall economic decline, high rates of inflation, and an indebtedness that soaks up much of export earnings to service it, is lacking in Colombia or present in lesser degree. If Colombia can strengthen its political performance and tighten national unity, it could move through the 1980s with considerable confidence and success in economic development. Colombia differs little from other major Latin American countries with regard to traditionalism and modernization. Most Colombians are secularized. Colombia is far ahead of most comparable Latin American countries in fertility control. The lower rate of population increase defines the extent to which the economy must provide education, health, food, and jobs. 2 other factors are essential for understanding the current situation in Colombia and its prospects for the 1980s. Government policy in the 1970s opted for an austerity program while the other countries were growing rapidly, in large part through borrowed resources. A 2nd factor is the prospect of attaining autonomy in energy production. These special characteristics--population, public policy, and energy--are discussed. Since the mid 1960s Colombia has functioned with 3 family planning programs. Their existence makes contraception easily available to the population generally. In 1960 Colombia had a higher total fertility rate (TFR) 7.0, than either Venezuela (6.6) or Brazil (5.3), but by 1976 its TFR was down to 4.1, while Venezuela's (4.8) and Brazil's (4.3) were now higher. On balance

  13. Underground Economy in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Švec

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is to estimate the size of underground economy in the period 2001-2007 using labour approach. Two types of data are used: administrative and survey. The main questions are: How did the activity rates move? What is the relationship between activity rates and the size of shadow economy? Is there correlation between official employment, official unemployment and unofficial employment (shadow economy and what is it like? What is the position of Croatia considering the members of the European Union? It is presumed that the increase of activity rates causes decrease of underground economy. However, this assumption is valid only for administrative data. Correlation analysis is based on regression models and given results are quite logical. If Croatian and European underground economy is compared, it can be confirmed that the position of Croatia is extremely poor. Given results are approximative and show the level of Croatian underground economy which is presumably underestimated. These phenomena occur because of available statistics and method limitations

  14. Food retailing in Central Europe and the Baltic Republics: Structure and buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    2002-01-01

    When the Berlin Wall crumbled in 1989 and communist regimes all over Eastern Europe subsequently came tumbling down, retailing in Eastern Europe was in a dire state following decades of neglect. In the centrally planned economies of Eastern Europe retailing had not been allowed to fulfil the...... central role it plays in modern market economies - i.e., to bridge the gap between the processes of production and consumption - as retailing had only been considered a necessary evil in an otherwise production-oriented plan. Since then much has changed. This article points to some of the changes that...... have occurred in the structure of food retailing in Eastern Europe over the past decade and presents the results of an exploratory study of how food retailers in six Eastern European countries buy fish and cheese....

  15. Implications of International Manorial Economy for Development of Characteristic Manorial Economy in Yunnan Plateau Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; LUO; Lu; FENG; Xiaobo; DONG; Yuan; YUAN; Xuelin; LI; Liangzheng; CHEN

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly summarized experience of Vietnam and Taiwan in developing modern agricultural manorial economy. The manorial economy of Vietnam is characterized by intensive and specialized operation and high marketization and wide employment of labors,while the experience of Taiwan can be outlined as " government launching,agricultural association promoting,and farmers acting". Then,it analyzed existing problems of modern agricultural manorial economy in China and opportunities and challenges of characteristic modern agricultural manorial economy in Yunnan plateau area. Finally in line with these problems and combining experience of international manorial economy,it came up with systematic recommendations for healthy and sustainable development of characteristic modern agricultural manorial economy in Yunnan plateau area:(i) perfecting organization leadership,improving planning guidance,and enhancing standardized management;(ii) putting forth effort on innovation of system and mechanism for land,fund and technology,to break bottleneck of manorial economic development;(iii) increasing input and comprehensively building the service support system to promote long-term development of manorial economy.

  16. Analysis on the Development of Low-Carbon Marine Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of low-carbon economy,the paper analyzes the factors that influencing the development of low carbon economy.It is showed that the damage of marine ecological environment results in the low ability of oceans in absorbing green gas;environmental pollution leads to lowering capacity of ocean to deal with the wastes;development of related marine industries brings deterioration of marine environment;changes of climate threat the healthy development of marine economy.The paper points out the development routines of marine low carbon economy:accelerating the innovation of energy techniques,exploring marine renewable green energies;planning scientifically and strengthening the protection and repairmen of marine environment;developing marine recycle economy,upgrading resources using efficiency;adjusting marine industrial structures and exploring greatly the marine low carbon industries;guiding industries to chase chances and accelerating the development of low-carbon marine economy.

  17. The Knowledge Economy and Innovation: Certain Uncertainty and the Risk Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Elizabeth; Fahey, Johannah; Kenway, Jane

    2006-01-01

    The knowledge economy is a dominant force in today's world, and innovation policy and national systems of innovation are central to it. In this article, we draw on different sociological and economic theories of risk to engage critically with innovation policy and national systems of innovation. Beck's understanding of a risk society, Schumpeter's…

  18. Energy reforms in central and eastern Europe - The first year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first stages of the energy reforms in central and eastern Europe - taking stock of the heritage of the past and conceptualizing the nature of reforms - were accomplished in 1990. While two countries - the USSR and Albania -introduced some market economy elements into central energy planning and basically maintained the latter, all other countries of central and eastern Europe opted for a replacement of central energy planning by market-oriented energy policies and practices. In those latter countries, a typical policy of market adaptation emerged consisting of a change of policies, institutions, economic instruments and relations. Differences in the conditions prevailing in the various countries resulted in the emergence of specific national ''models'' of market adaptation. The reforms, if successful, would imply: greater energy efficiency, reduced pollution, enhanced nuclear safety, a reduced impact on the climate, greater business opportunities, the closure of uneconomic capacities, a decline of coal production, a rise in unemployment; a rise of the energy trade dependence coupled with a rise of gas and oil imports; but practically no change of the net energy exports of the USSR. By the end of 1990 developed market economies agreed to co-ordinate assistance (within the ''Group of 24'') and determined the type and modalities of support. This support would enable and encourage the economies in transition to finalize reform, stimulate their practical implementation and address side effects (disinvestments, unemployment) and systematic risks (e.g. trade dependence) and opportunities (e.g. trade diversification). The business community and lending institutions would have to assess and support investments opportunities more actively. Intergovernmental organizations will play an important role in improving the conditions for business involvement. In 1990, the frameworks for energy reforms in central and eastern Europe, short term assistance, long term business

  19. Key Issues in the Design and Planning of Central Kitchens%中央厨房规划设计要点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓明

    2011-01-01

    The central kitchen is a new type of food processing facility growing popular in recent years and is a combination of food processing and cold chain logistics. With empirical examples, the paper studies the key factors in the design and planning of such facilities and concludes on the core design points.%中央厨房是近些年来涌现出的新型食品加工建筑类型,是食品加工与冷链物流的有机结合.对此领域工程设计研究尚属于摸索阶段,结合工程实例对该类建筑设计中的关键因素进行了初步研究,总结出核心设计要点.

  20. Spatial dynamics in the experience economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne Birte; Topsø Larsen, Karin; Schrøder, Lise

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. What is the experience economy? The experience economy and innovation. The experience economy and governance. The experience economy, space and place......Introduction. What is the experience economy? The experience economy and innovation. The experience economy and governance. The experience economy, space and place...

  1. Centralization and political accountability

    OpenAIRE

    Hindriks, Jean; Lockwood, Ben

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we abstract from the usual gains and costs of decentralization (e.g. preference matching, spillovers and economies of scale). Instead we compare the political accountability of decentralized governments relative to centralized ones when there is a risk of "bad" governance. We study both the selection and incentive effects of accountability. A key aspect of centralization is to make the politician answerable to multiple constituencies subject to a common budget constraint. Our ma...

  2. Outsourcing central banking

    OpenAIRE

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg , Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervision can be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI) in the banking sector if political nationalism does not trump economic rationality. An orthodox CB renders the central banking function redundant in terms of interest rate and exchange rate determination. FDI in banking could...

  3. GENERAL OVERWIEV ON EU ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA GEORGETA PANAIT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the international economic crisis on new EU member states has proven to be more severe than the first estimates of the economic analysts. The situation is different for each Member State, the nature and the dimension of the challenges faced are not identical, and the pace of reform is not the same. The economic crisis has prompted intense and sustained action by the EU's national governments, the European Central Bank and the Commission. All have been working closely together to support growth and employment, ensure financial stability, and put in place a better governance system for the future. Sustainable development in the future is the common responsibility of all Member States and EU institutions, because our economies are closely interlinked, and the EU economic governance now reconfigured to provide more effective responses at the policy level, to give a good reaction to the present and the future challenges.

  4. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if politica...

  5. Corruption and the Shadow Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jay Pil; Thum, Marcel

    2002-01-01

    This paper develops a simple framework to analyze the links between corruption and the unofficial economy and their implications for the official economy. In a model of self-selection with heterogeneous entrepreneurs, we show that the entrepreneurs' option to flee to the underground economy constrains a corrupt official's ability to introduce distortions to the economy for private gains. The unofficial economy thus mitigates government-induced distortions and, as a result, leads to enhanced e...

  6. INTERNET ECONOMY AND ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

    OpenAIRE

    Čerić, Vlatko

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of and development trends in the Internet Economy and Electronic Commerce. The first part of the paper describes the influence of information technology on the economy. The paper then gives an overview of the basic components of the Internet Economy, i.e. the economy based on the Internet, and it presents key figures from recent research about revenues and jobs related to the Internet Economy. Electronic Commerce (E-commerce) refers to business activities using...

  7. The New Economy: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    AKÇAY, Selçuk

    2002-01-01

    A phenomenon coined as "new economy" is attracting a great deal of attention around the world. This study surveys and discusses issues related to new economy. In the first section of this study, definitions and basic features of the new economy are presented.The second section of this study discusses measurements and indicators of new economy. The last section examines the impact of the new economy on economic growth and productivity.

  8. Knowledge Based Economy Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Cristina Tocan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of knowledge-based economy (KBE in the XXI century isevident. In the article the reflection of knowledge on economy is analyzed. The main point is targeted to the analysis of characteristics of knowledge expression in economy and to the construction of structure of KBE expression. This allows understanding the mechanism of functioning of knowledge economy. Theauthors highlight the possibility to assess the penetration level of KBE which could manifest itself trough the existence of products of knowledge expression which could be created in acquisition, creation, usage and development of them. The latter phenomenon is interpreted as knowledge expression characteristics: economic and social context, human resources, ICT, innovative business and innovation policy. The reason for this analysis was based on the idea that in spite of the knowledge economy existence in all developed World countries adefinitive, universal list of indicators for mapping and measuring the KBE does not yet exists. Knowledge Expression Assessment Models are presented in the article.

  9. 基于中枢模式发生器的仿人机器人步态规划%Humanoid robot gait planning based on Central Pattern Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正文; 张国良; 张维平; 羊帆

    2011-01-01

    对Matsuoka振荡器进行了分析,根据仿人机器人步态规划的要求,选用Matsuoka振荡器构建了中枢模式发生器(CPG)网络;采用遗传算法(GA)来调整网络的参数,解决了关键的网络参数调整的问题;根据CPG网络的输出结果,控制仿人机器人的相应关节,实现了仿人机器人基本步态规划。通过ADAMS进行了仿真,结果表明,该控制策略具有较理想的效果,并且原理简单,易于实现。%The Matsuoka oscillator was analyzed, according to the humanoid robot gait planning requirements, the Matsuoka oscillator was selected to construct the Central Pattern Generator (CPG) network, using genetic algorithms (GA) to adjust the network parameters, the key network parameter adjustment problem was solved; according to the CPG network output results, the humanoid robot relevant joint was controlled, the basic gait planning of the humanoid robot was achieved. Through the ADAMS simulation, the results show that this control strategy has an ideal effect, and the principle is simple, easy to implement.

  10. The political economy of risk and ideology

    OpenAIRE

    Dimick, Matthew; Stegmueller, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues for the central role of risk aversion in shaping political ideology. We develop a political economy model, which makes explicit the link between risk aversion, the labor market, government policy, and ideology. Our model distinguishes the effects of risk aversion from unemployment risk and our evidence sheds light on debates over explanations for the welfare state. We test our model using a large-scale household panel with an experimentally validated measure of risk aversion...

  11. Model for Digital Economy in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Didiek Wiet Aryanto; Agnes Advensia Chrismastuti

    2011-01-01

    This study introduces the early development of digital economy in Indonesia. e-Business activity is growing at an unprecedented rate in Indonesia as indicated by the number of online real time transactions (Real Time Gross Settlement) recorded by Bank Indonesia (Indonesian Central Bank), the emergence of dotcom companies, and the use of ICT in conventional business (a combination of brick & mortar with click/online). Research was conducted by investigating the digital activities of businesses...

  12. Petroleum and the economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In re-examining the effect of energy price shocks on the economy, this article applies several tests to show that the apparent coincidence between price shocks and poor economic performance may be misleading. For example, whereas macroeconomic analysis graphs of employment and GNP clearly indicate an apparent correlation between the 1979 petroleum price hike and economic downturn in the USA, Great Britain and Germany, Japan's performance stayed fairly constant during that period. Additional sectoral analyses of the performances of the western economies show that the impacts of the '74 and '79 oil price shocks were not equally distributed across the different industrial sectors of the various nations. The paper argues that a deeper understanding of the energy-economy relationship is required to reduce these ambiguities

  13. Inverting the moral economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Noe, Christine; Kangalawe, Richard;

    2015-01-01

    Governments, donors and investors often promote land acquisitions for forest plantations as global climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration. Investors’ forestry thereby becomes part of a global moral economy imaginary. Using examples from Tanzania we critically examine the global moral...... economy’s narrative foundation, which presents trees as axiomatically ‘green’, ‘idle’ land as waste and economic investments as benefiting the relevant communities. In this way the traditional supposition of the moral economy as invoked by the economic underclass to maintain the basis of their subsistence...

  14. SOCIAL ECONOMY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana Virlanuta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The social economy combines profitability with social inclusion. Social innovation is the first step in the creation of a social enterprise. Social economy development is a process underway, innovative in terms of relating the individual to the production processes, the concept of citizenship, production areas and modalities. The concern for sustainable development, analysis of economic and financial crisis, the issue of the relationship between the individual and the production process open up many opportunities for development that can influence public policies on employment and social cohesion.

  15. Real economy versus virtual economy - New challenges for nowadays society

    OpenAIRE

    Associates Professon Dr. Veronica Adriana Popescu; Assistant Dr. Cristina Raluca Popescu

    2011-01-01

    In the paper Real Economy versus Virtual Economy – New Challenges for Nowadays Society our goal is to present the importance of both real economy and virtual economy.At the begging of our research, we have presented the main views of some specialists concerning both virtual and real economy. After that we have compared the two types of economies and we have stressed the most important aspects connected to them. The main reason why we have decided to approach this complex subject is due to the...

  16. Dynamic systems of regional economy management optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, S.; Kudzh, S.

    directions of an industrial policy of region. The situational-analytical centers (SAC) of regional administration The major component of SAC is dynamic modeling, analysis, forecasting and optimization systems, based on modern intellectual information technologies. Spheres of SAC are not only financial streams management and investments optimization, but also strategic forecasting functions, which provide an optimum choice, "aiming", search of optimum ways of regional development and corresponding investments. It is expedient to consider an opportunity of formation of the uniform organizational-methodical center of an industrial policy of region. This organization can be directly connected to the scheduled-analytical services of the largest economic structures, local authorities, the ministries and departments. Such "direct communication" is capable to provide an effective regional development strategic management. Anyway, the output on foreign markets demands concentration of resources and support of authorities. Offered measures are capable to provide a necessary coordination of efforts of a various level economic structures. For maintenance of a regional industrial policy an attraction of all newest methods of strategic planning and management is necessary. Their activity should be constructed on the basis of modern approaches of economic systems management, cause the essence of an industrial policy is finally reduced to an effective regional and corporate economic activities control centers formation. Opportunities of optimum regional economy planning and management as uniform system Approaches to planning regional economic systems can be different. We will consider some most effective methods of planning and control over a regional facilities condition. All of them are compact and evident, that allows to put them into the group of average complexity technologies. At the decision of problems of a regional resource management is rather perspective the so

  17. The Knowledge Economy – New Economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae Niculescu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The status of knowledge and information as development resources make us familiar with the phenomena on which THE NEW ECONOMY is founded. They reveal the fact that the universalisation of the scientific and technical values does not have alternative on the evolutionary level of mankind. Named with slight differences and variations, as we have already stated, the new economic and social reality has several specific features: the technologies based on microelectronics and computer science, biotechnologies, genetic engineering, green revolution, nuclear technology, space navigation etc. The transformation of management in a key –social function, responsible for the achievement of the best possible results, is also owed to the fact that information and knowledge have become requisite to the economic development.

  18. Addendum to: Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443: Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)-Subsurface Central Nevada Test Area, DOE/NV-977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-01-01

    The environmental remediation closure process for the nuclear test at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) has progressed from the approved Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) to this addendum. The closure process required the installation of three monitoring/validation (MV) wells and validation analysis of the flow and transport model. The model validation analysis led to the conclusion that the hydraulic heads simulated by the flow model did not adequately predict observed heads at the MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3 validation points (wells and piezometers). The observed heads from screened intervals near the test horizon were higher than the model predicted and are believed to be the result of detonation-related effects that have persisted since the nuclear test. These effects, which include elevated heads out from the detonation zone and lower heads in the immediate vicinity of the detonation, are seen at other nuclear tests and typically dissipate within a few years. These effects were not included in the initial head distribution of the model. The head variations at CNTA are believed to have persisted due to the very low permeability of the material at the detonation level.

  19. Theoretical aspects of appearing of bubbles in economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pronoza Pavlo V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers theoretical aspects of appearing of bubbles in economy. It analyses vies of scientists regarding the essence of this phenomenon and, with the help of content analysis, specifies the essence of the bubble notion in economy. It considers main stages of appearance of such bubbles. It offers classification of their types. It analyses pre-requisites of appearance of bubbles in economy and their features. It considers main existing approaches to detection and modelling appearance of bubbles. It proves that bubbles negatively influence economy of the countries, that is why, the problem of their detection and prevention is one of the central problems in the process of development of policy of state regulation of economy.

  20. Restructuring and regulating district heating and cogeneration in transition economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In summer 2004, the World Energy Council published a Study on 'Regulating district heating and cogeneration in central and eastern Europe'2, prepared by representatives from eleven economies in transition and two Nordic countries. The Task Force analysed twelve regulatory issues, country-by-country, on all internationally comparable basis. Regulatory progress on the road to more efficient, profitable, competitive and service-oriented heat supplies was described. Common concerns were identified: the need for independence of the regulator from policy and industry, improved coordination between central and local regulators and between environmental and energy authorities, access to grids, and a 'fair' sharing of CHP benefits among heat and electricity generation. Looking forward, the Task Force advocated a continued dialogue between decision makers, regulators, regulated industries and customers on: 1)the internalisation of DH/CHP benefits; 2)the future reduction of the density of regulation; 3) Joint implementation; 4)the compensation for public service obligations; 5)the elimination of old debt and stranded investments; 6) DH/CHP taxation; 7)privatisation; 8)the integration of DH/CHP in urban planning. A concluding WEC workshop in Moscow in March 2004 addressed recommendations to policy makers('Moscow Statement'). (Author)

  1. From national to regional plans – the Integrated Drought Management Programme of the Global Water Partnership for Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Bokal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades it has become evident that the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE are affected by droughts which are becoming more and more lasting and severe. The region׳s vulnerability to this natural hazard alerted the public, governments, and operational agencies to the many socio-economic problems accompanying water shortage and to the need for drought mitigation measures. In addition, climate change amplifies the frequency and severity of droughts in the region. In this context, the CEE region of the Global Water Partnership (GWP recently launched the regional Integrated Drought Management Programme (IDMP as part of the global joint World Meteorological Organization (WMO/GWP IDMP. The purpose of this paper is to present the work plan of the GWP CEE IDM Programme which is being implemented in the years 2013–2015. The planning process for this Programme carried out in 2012 included national and regional reviews of existing drought risks, policies and strategies. The programme inception phase was summarized in October 2012 by a regional workshop organized jointly by GWP and WMO, with the participation of representatives of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD Secretariat, the Drought Management Centre for Southeastern Europe (DMCSEE, the EU Joint Research Centre, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE and the European Drought Centre. The Programme was launched in February 2013 and involves more than 40 organizations from 9 CEE countries. The basic four elements of the Programme include policy advice, demonstration projects, capacity building knowledge management and regional cooperation (from national to regional plans. The major output, building upon national initiatives, shall be a coordinated regional framework for drought monitoring, early warning, prediction and management, accompanied by a set of guidelines and tools for the development of regional, national and local

  2. THE SYSTEM OF KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY - ACADEMIC FREEDOM

    OpenAIRE

    Gundappa Singe; Pathwardhan Rathod

    2015-01-01

    Higher education in India is in the process of transition in the face of globalization. Some of the important organizations involved in responding to the challenges of developing a knowledge economy and seeking this transition in higher education are the University Grants Commission (UGC), the Union Ministry of Human Resource Development, the Planning Commission and the National Knowledge Commission (NKC). Each of them has its own perspective on what ought to be the fu...

  3. Equality and Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The two big events in higher education during 2010 were the implementation of the Equality Act, and the introduction of a new dispensation on fees and funding. The former is intended to promote equality, the latter is premised on the need for economy. In this article, the author focuses on the effect of the latter on the former. He considers this…

  4. Economy of referential preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Goucha, T

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce basic notions of new economic model where preference relations on commodities set are represented by a group action on Euclidean space instead of utility function. Conditions that ensure the existence of individual demand functions and a general equilibrium in the setting of exchange economy are examined.

  5. Poverty and Informal Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnet, François; Venkatesh, Sudhir

    2016-01-01

    International audience Informal economic activity is a significant part of world production and distribution. This chapter reviews different core definitions (informal economic activities versus informal sector), different historical instances of "the" informal economy (in the Third World, under Communism and in contemporary Western cities), and different theoretical approaches (the dualist or development perspective, the legalist or neoliberal perspective, the structuralist or neomarxist ...

  6. The College Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.

    2012-01-01

    As the United States grinds its way through a halting economic recovery, one thing has become abundantly clear: The recession of 2007 continues to reshape the economy in significant and permanent ways. Perhaps the most profound change is the accelerating disappearance of good-paying jobs that require only a high-school education or less. That…

  7. Operant Conditioning - Token Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Jacqueline; McBurney, Raymond D.

    Described is an Operant Conditioning-Token Economy Program, teaching patients to be responsible for their own behavior, to make choices, and to be motivated to change. The program was instigated with mentally ill patients in a state hospital and was later used with institutionalized mentally handicapped groups. After two years, only four of the…

  8. Token Economies in Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Richard T.; Nicholas, Heather

    1973-01-01

    Behavior modification has become a widely known practice in rehabilitation during the past decade. A medium of exchange or token is typically used to facilitate transactions and can be traded for backup reinforcers later on. This review of the use of token economies focuses on groups of individuals usually considered target rehabilitation…

  9. Airline Safety and Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This video documents efforts at NASA Langley Research Center to improve safety and economy in aircraft. Featured are the cockpit weather information needs computer system, which relays real time weather information to the pilot, and efforts to improve techniques to detect structural flaws and corrosion, such as the thermal bond inspection system.

  10. Chapter IX. The economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the economy of the Slovak electric power systems to 1918 an in the periods 1939 - 1945, 1946-1968, 1969-1989 and 1929 are reviewed. The corporation taxes, personal management and information management as well as material-technical supply are discussed

  11. Fueling the Green Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, James

    2009-01-01

    The Obama administration, along with many others, has placed a high priority on accelerating the nation's transition to a cleaner, greener economy. Transforming the nation's economic, energy, and environmental systems to become more sustainable will require a level of expertise, innovation, and cooperation unseen since the 1940s war effort. Public…

  12. Investment and Interest Rate Policy in the Open Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen McKnight

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the necessary and sufficient conditions to ensure that interest rate policy does not introduce real indeterminacy and thus self-fulfilling fluctuations into open economies. A key feature of the model is the incorporation of capital and investment spending into the analysis. The conditions for real determinacy are examined for two measures of inflation that central banks' can target in open economies: domestic vs. consumer price inflation. In stark contrast to previous stud...

  13. Yield curve and monetary policy expectations in small open economies

    OpenAIRE

    Doh, Taeyoung; Park, Woong Yong; Bong, Kwan Soo

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates a New Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model in small open economies using the yield curve data as well as standard macro data. The DSGE model is estimated on the data of three inflation-targeting small open economies (Australia, Canada, and New Zealand) using Bayesian methods. We find that the long-end of the yield curve is highly correlated with the current and future short-term interest rates determined by domestic central banks. Yield curve data...

  14. Interest rates and structural shocks in European transition economies

    OpenAIRE

    Rajmund MIRDALA

    2014-01-01

    European transition economies are still suffering from negative implications of economic crisis. Significant decrease in the key interest rates was followed by reduced maneuverability of central banks in providing incentives into real economies. Low interest rate environment together with effects of quantitative easing induced economists to examine sources of interest rates volatility. Responsiveness of short-term interest rates to the structural shocks provides unique platform to investigate...

  15. PRODUCTIVE GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE IN A STOCHASTICALLY GROWING OPEN ECONOMY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haijun WANG; Shigeng HU

    2007-01-01

    This paper employs a stochastic endogenous growth model with productive government expenditure in a small open economy to analyze the optimal fiscal policy.First,a stochastic model of a small open economy is constructed.Second.the equilibrium solutions of the representative agent's stochastic optimization problem are derived.Third,we obtain the equilibrium solutions of the central planner's stochastic optimization problem and the optimal government expenditure policy.Finally,the optimal tax policy is characterized.

  16. Essays on the political economy of European integration

    OpenAIRE

    Montanari, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Recently, a rising interest in political and economic integration/disintegration issues has been developed in the political economy field. This growing strand of literature partly draws on traditional issues of fiscal federalism and optimum public good provision and focuses on a trade-off between the benefits of centralization, arising from economies of scale or externalities, and the costs of harmonizing policies as a consequence of the increased heterogeneity of individual...

  17. SOLIDARY INFORMATION ECONOMY - THE ECONOMY WITHOUT MARKET AND MONEY

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov A. I.

    2015-01-01

    We are developing a new organizational-economic theory - solidary information economy, based on the views of Aristotle. The name of this theory has changed over time. Initially, we used the term "nonformal information economy of the future", and then began to use the term "solidary information economy." In connection with Biocosmology and neo-Aristotelism preferred is an adequate term "functionalist organic information economy. Further development of our theory is the subject of this article....

  18. The determinants of retail bank fees in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, P.; Hanousek, Jan

    Vol. Part II. České Budějovice: University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Faculty of Economy , 2010 - (Houda, M.; Friebelová, J.), s. 123-127 ISBN 978-80-7394-218-2. [28th International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Economics 2010. České Budějovice (CZ), 08.09.2010-10.09.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : bank fees * Central and Eastern Europe * international comparison * structure conduct performance hypothesis Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  19. Ekonomik Büyümenin Belirleyicileri ve 2008 Krizi: Orta Asya Ülkeleri ve Türkiye Ekonomisi İçin Panel Veri Analizi(The Determinats of Economic Growth and 2008 Crisis: Panel Data Analysis for Central Asia Countries and Turkey’s Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet MERCAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the determinants of economic growth and the effects of 2008 global economic crisis on growth were analysed by using 1990-2012 periods’ annual data in the sample of Turkey and Central Asia Countries (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The 2008 crisis started in the USA in mid-2008 in mortgage markets and also affected the financial markets and the reel sector and it spread all over European Countries (EU and the world from September 2008 and it caused a shrink in world economy by 2.3 % and distorted the macroeconomic balances of countries including in particular the economic growth. According to the empirical findings of the analysis the government expenditures, the export and the private consumption expenditure in order made the most contribution to the countries’ economic growth. Effect of the crisis on economic growth was negative and statistically significant.

  20. Enlightenment of New Economy on the Development of Chinese Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫焕久; 李理光

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes the features of the new economy in America, and then analyses the differences between the new economy and Chinese economy with trade theories. At the last, this paper concentrates on study of strategies for China to develop economic internationalization.

  1. STATUS, PROBLEMS AND PROJECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF DISTRICT, URBAN PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE IN BULGARIA IN EARLY 21ST CENTURY (AGAINST THE BACKGROUND OF THE MARKET ECONOMY AND THE UPCOMING FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS. PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovachev Atanas Dimitrov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The author provides an overview of the main urban planning trends in the present-day Bulgaria. The author also demonstrates principal approaches to area planning and provides examples of master plans of major cities of the country. The author emphasizes the need to resolve the environmental problems of urban territories, to develop their public transportation networks, resorts, landscape gardening, and a special role of historic and archeological monuments in the present-day cities. Today, multiple hierarchically arranged plans of districts and towns are being developed in accordance with the Law on area arrangement of 2001. There are three levels of area planning in Bulgaria: strategic, tactical and operative/applied. The level of strategic planning covers the territory of the whole country (or its major parts, including regions and clusters of communities. The second level of area planning represents a tactical level. It is applied to smaller sections of the territory (communities, towns and it converts into more detailed planning of the territory if compared to the top level of area planning. The general structure of the territory is developed at this level of planning. This level includes master plans of cities and towns. The third level, the level of operative/ applied planning, is applied to separate parts of populated areas, even particular sites. This level is characterized by detailed elaboration and it serves as a link to architectural planning. This level incorporates detailed area plans.

  2. Project plan-Surficial geologic mapping and hydrogeologic framework studies in the Greater Platte River Basins (Central Great Plains) in support of ecosystem and climate change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Margaret E.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Slate, Janet L.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Sawyer, David A.; Van Sistine, Darren R.

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Platte River Basin area spans a central part of the Midcontinent and Great Plains from the Rocky Mountains on the west to the Missouri River on the east, and is defined to include drainage areas of the Platte, Niobrara, and Republican Rivers, the Rainwater Basin, and other adjoining areas overlying the northern High Plains aquifer. The Greater Platte River Basin contains abundant surficial deposits that were sensitive to, or are reflective of, the climate under which they formed: deposits from multiple glaciations in the mountain headwaters of the North and South Platte Rivers and from continental ice sheets in eastern Nebraska; fluvial terraces (ranging from Tertiary to Holocene in age) along the rivers and streams; vast areas of eolian sand in the Nebraska Sand Hills and other dune fields (recording multiple episodes of dune activity); thick sequences of windblown silt (loess); and sediment deposited in numerous lakes and wetlands. In addition, the Greater Platte River Basin overlies and contributes surface water to the High Plains aquifer, a nationally important groundwater system that underlies parts of eight states and sustains one of the major agricultural areas of the United States. The area also provides critical nesting habitat for birds such as plovers and terns, and roosting habitat for cranes and other migratory birds that travel through the Central Flyway of North America. This broad area, containing fragile ecosystems that could be further threatened by changes in climate and land use, has been identified by the USGS and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln as a region where intensive collaborative research could lead to a better understanding of climate change and what might be done to adapt to or mitigate its adverse effects to ecosystems and to humans. The need for robust data on the geologic framework of ecosystems in the Greater Platte River Basin has been acknowledged in proceedings from the 2008 Climate Change Workshop and in draft

  3. SU-E-J-55: Dosimetric Evaluation of Centrally Located Lung Tumors: A Monte Carlo (MC) Study of Lung SBRT Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokhrel, D; Badkul, R; Jiang, H; Saleh, H; Estes, C; Park, J; Kumar, P; Wang, F [University Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare dose distributions calculated using the iPlan XVMC algorithm and heterogeneities corrected/uncorrected Pencil Beam (PB-hete/PB-homo) algorithms for SBRT treatments of lung tumors. Methods: Ten patients with centrally located solitary lung tumors were treated using MC-based SBRT to 60Gy in 5 fractions for PTVV100%=95%. ITV was delineated on MIP-images based on 4D-CT scans. PTVs(ITV+5mm margins) ranged from 10.1–106.5cc(mean=48.6cc). MC-SBRT plans were generated with a combination of non-coplanar conformal arcs/beams using iPlan-XVMC-algorithm (BrainLABiPlan ver.4.1.2) for Novalis-TX consisting of HD-MLCs and 6MV-SRS(1000MU/min) mode, following RTOG 0813 dosimetric criteria. For comparison, PB-hete/PB-homo algorithms were used to re-calculate dose distributions using same beam configurations, MLCs/monitor units. Plans were evaluated with isocenter/maximal/mean doses to PTV. Normal lung doses were evaluated with V5/V10/V20 and mean-lung-dose(MLD), excluding PTV. Other OAR doses such as maximal spinal cord/2cc-esophagus/max bronchial tree (BT/maximal heart doses were tabulated. Results: Maximal/mean/isocenter doses to PTV calculated by PB-hete were uniformly larger than MC plans by a factors of 1.09/1.13/1.07, on average, whereas they were consistently lower by PB-homo by a factors of 0.9/0.84/0.9, respectively. The volume covered by 5Gy/10Gy/20Gy isodose-lines of the lung were comparable (average within±3%) when calculated by PB-hete compared to XVMC, but, consistently lower by PB-homo by a factors of 0.90/0.88/0.85, respectively. MLD was higher with PB-hete by 1.05, but, lower by PB-homo by 0.9, on average, compared to XVMC. XVMC max-cord/max-BT/max-heart and 2cc of esophagus doses were comparable to PB-hete; however, PB-homo underestimates by a factors of 0.82/0.89/0.88/0.86, on average, respectively. Conclusion: PB-hete significantly overestimates dose to PTV relative to XVMC -hence underdosing the target. MC is more complex and accurate with

  4. Economy Principle in English Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan; Hong

    2015-01-01

    Languages evolve unceasingly according to the economy principle: to exchange the maximal amount of information through the minimal language codes expenditure.This paper analyzes economy in advertisements,especially the concise wording which saves layout,time and energy.

  5. Geçiş Ekonomileri ve Yeni Kurumsal İktisat’ın Yeniden Yükselişi = Transition Economies and the Re-Emergence of the New Institutional Economics

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLER, Esra

    2012-01-01

    Transition from the socialist system that is based on central planning to the capitalist system that is based on free market involves, above all, a great and complex institutional transformation. The fact that academic studies examining economies that underwent such a transformation have ignored “institutions” especially at the beginning of this process is a result of a shortcoming in the dominant neoclassical paradigm. This shortcoming is tried to be eliminated through The New Institutional ...

  6. INFORMATION SOCIETY AND KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Berisha Namani, Mihane; Myrvete BADIVUKU PANTINA

    2009-01-01

    Today, technologies have changed our social and economic life. Society is becoming “knowledge society” and information and communication technology has played an important role. The economy is evolving out of classic model of the economy in the new economy known as “knowledge economy”. Information and communication technology is bringing changes to various sectors of economy. Business is undergoing a fundamental structural transformation and traditional business become more dependent on Inter...

  7. Fiscal Limits in Advanced Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Eric M. Leeper; Walker, Todd B

    2011-01-01

    Aging populations in advanced economies are placing ever-increasing demands on government spending in the form of old-age benefits. Economies that have promised substantially more benefits than they have made provision to finance are heading into a prolonged era of fiscal stress. Unresolved fiscal stress raises the possibility that the economies will hit their fiscal limits where taxes and spending no longer adjust to stabilize debt. In such economies, monetary policy may lose its ability to ...

  8. Paraguay: population and the economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1986-01-01

    Paraguay's political conflicts and development experiences have been accompanied by compensatory population movements; however, economic and population policies of the past are not adequate to address the current economic challenges. The principal structural problem is dependence on international commodity prices. Since late 1984, the international prices for soya and cotton have declined more than 50%; these 2 products account for 83% of official exports. The external debt has grown significantly in the past 5 years and is increasingly difficult to service. A major problem the government faces in servicing the debt and maintaining economic growth is its inability to get control of foreign exchange. Much of Paraguay's external trade is contraband, with the dollars passing into the black market. As a result of the illegal economy, government earnings have been insufficient to cover expenses. Unemployment stands at 12% because of general economic decline, cuts in government expenditure, and the reduction of investment in hydroelectricity. Occupation of new land, the classic solution by the Paraguayan peasantry, is no longer a viable option since all land is now utilized. About 20-25% of Paraguayans live outside the country, expecially in Argentina. In 1986, a commission drafted an Adjustment Plan that recommended a devaluation of the official gurani rate, tax increases, higher tariffs for public services, and incentives to invest in priority areas; however, this plan has not been implemented to date. PMID:12315094

  9. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Egypt, Arab Republic of. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that...

  10. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Portugal. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. ...

  11. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Mali. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Econ...

  12. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Burkina Faso. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain ...

  13. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Georgia. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. E...

  14. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Ireland. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. E...

  15. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for China. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Eco...

  16. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Sao Tome and Principe. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that c...

  17. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Micronesia, Federated States of. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and th...

  18. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Kazakhstan. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it...

  19. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Côte dIvoire. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain ...

  20. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Bulgaria. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. ...

  1. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Guatemala. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it....

  2. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Paraguay. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. ...

  3. Popular Education in Solidarity Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Neto, José Francisco; da Costa, Francisco Xavier Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to show the relation between popular education and solidarity economy in experiences of solidarity economy enterprises in Brazil. It is based on diverse experiences which have occurred in various sectors of this economy, highlighting those experiences which took place in João Pessoa with the creation of a Cooperative of Workers…

  4. Knowledge Economy and Research Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastalich, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The "knowledge economy" has been received with considerable scepticism by scholars within the fields of political economy, social and political philosophy, and higher education. Key arguments within this literature are reviewed in this article to suggest that, despite policy claims, "knowledge economy" does not describe a "new" mode of economic…

  5. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Lithuania. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it....

  6. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Thailand. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. ...

  7. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Palau. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Eco...

  8. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Malaysia. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. ...

  9. The collaborative Economy and Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne; Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    2015-01-01

    House swapping, ridesharing, voluntourism, couchsurfing, dinner hosting and similar innovations epitomize the collaborative economy. The rise of the collaborative economy, also known as collaborative consumption, the sharing economy and peer-to-peer consumption, has been fuelled by a range of...

  10. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Italy. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Eco...

  11. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Turkey. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Ec...

  12. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Equatorial Guinea. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that const...

  13. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Gabon. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Eco...

  14. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Vietnam. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. E...

  15. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Sri Lanka. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it....

  16. ICT, Kennis en Economie, 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munck, S.G.E. de

    2011-01-01

    ICT, kennis en economie is een voortzetting van de publicatiereeksen De digitale economie en Kennis en economie, zoals die tot voor kort jaarlijks door het CBS werden uitgebracht. In deze nieuwe publicatie beschrijft het CBS de Nederlandse kenniseconomie aan de hand van de pijlers R&D, innovatie en

  17. Statement of basis/proposed plan for the Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit (631-6G). Revision 1, Final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the preferred alternative for addressing the Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit 631-6G (BRP6G) located at SRS, in northwestern Barnwell County, South Carolina and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process. Arsenic, beryllium, iron, and octachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin isomers (OCDD) concentrations in the pit soil are at levels consistent with those found in the background. Therefore, the only contamination attributable to actions in BRP6G is PCB-1254. After the risk contributions of these chemicals are eliminated, the only remaining risk attributable to the pit soil is from PCB-1254 (about 2 x 10-6 via ingestion of vegetables grown on-site). The maximum concentration of PCB-1254 detected in the pit was 0.115 mg/kg, approximately 10% of the residential action level for PCBs of 1 mg/kg. Based on the results of the remedial investigation and the BRA, it is proposed that No Action be performed for the BRP6G. Considering the low levels of residual contamination present principally below 1.2 meters (4 feet) within the pit and the associated risks (about 2 x 10-6) within the lower level of EPA's target risk range, action is not warranted for this unit

  18. Essays on Political Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca Galvis, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on political economy. The first essay studies the effect of competition on media bias in the context of U.S. newspapers in the period 1870-1910. We measure bias as the intensity with which different newspapers cover scandals. We collected data on 121 scandals and 157 newspapers. We also collected data on the partisanship, frequency of publication, and circulation of the newspapers in our sample, as well as of the newspapers circulating in the sam...

  19. "Economy as Religion"

    OpenAIRE

    Hellestveit, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Comparing economy to religion is a fairly common phenomenon when used as a rhetorical tool, but can it also be used analytically? This thesis is based on a sociological reading of three books by Robert Nelson, who defines the field of economics as a set of theologies for secular religions in modern society. Using the phenomenological sociology of Thomas Luckmann, it seeks to expand on the ideas of Nelson and identify their sociological utility. It finds that understanding econo...

  20. Framing the Collaborative Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Gruszka, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Within the context of multiple crises and change, a range of practices discussed under the umbrella term of collaborative (or sharing) economy have been gaining considerable attention. Supporters build an idealistic vision of collaborative societies. Critics have been stripping the concept of its visionary potential, questioning its revolutionary nature. In the study, these debates are brought down to the local level in search for common perceptions among the co-creators of the concept in Vie...

  1. Nowcasting the global economy

    OpenAIRE

    Rossiter, James

    2010-01-01

    Forecasts of global economic activity and inflation are important inputs when conducting monetary policy in small open economies such as Canada. As part of the Bank of Canada's broad agenda to augment its short-term forecasting tools, the author constructs simple mixed-frequency forecasting equations for quarterly global output, imports, and inflation using the monthly global Purchasing Managers Index (PMI). When compared against two benchmark models, the results show that the PMIs are useful...

  2. Information model of economy

    OpenAIRE

    N.S.Gonchar

    2006-01-01

    A new stochastic model of economy is developed that takes into account the choice of consumers are the dependent random fields. Axioms of such a model are formulated. The existence of random fields of consumer's choice and decision making by firms are proved. New notions of conditionally independent random fields and random fields of evaluation of information by consumers are introduced. Using the above mentioned random fields the random fields of consumer choice and decision making by firms ...

  3. Challenges of Global Economy

    OpenAIRE

    VARGAS-HERNANDEZ, Jose G.; Noruzi, Mohammad Reza

    2010-01-01

    One way to analyze the phenomenon of development in the era of globalization is through an approach involving interaction of the economic and the political system. The global economy has altered economic structures and social policies at the level of the nation-state, because the latter limits and impedes the processes of generation and capital accumulation. The purpose of this document is to analyze the emerging phenomenon of the transfer of state governance to global economic corporate gove...

  4. High Speed Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Vadim Dumitrascu; Roxana Arabela Dumitrascu

    2013-01-01

    The use of knowledge in business opens vast possibilities for the spectacular intensification of the rhythms of the processes of economic value creation. High speeds are a fundamental feature of the knowledge economy. The sources of high speeds in business are certain economic, technological and commercial processes with the nature of some positive feedbacks. What generates it is the organization of knowledge in the form of networks. The organizations competitiveness is marked by the ability ...

  5. Towards an Inclusive Economy

    OpenAIRE

    The Treasury

    2001-01-01

    There has recently been a rapid growth in international literature and research on the links between economic growth and social capability and their impact upon well-being. This paper draws on that literature to build upon previous Treasury work at the intersection of economic and social policy. It examines the relationship between a productive economy and a society that enjoys high levels of participation, connection and cohesion, and their combined impact of peoples' well-being. It suggests...

  6. Securing the Digital Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin P. MĂZĂREANU; Alina MARIN

    2010-01-01

    The Digital economy has naturally led to thereconfiguration of communication and information processes.These processes are depending on the computer, starting fromthe personal one and reaching to computer networks, whetherlocal, metropolitan or global. These led to the development ofsuch information systems able to communicate information,systems that must also ensure the security of communicationsbetween computers within the company, but also betweencomputers of different parties, outside th...

  7. Biomass rural economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukehurst, C.

    1993-12-31

    The development strategy of wood fuel in the United Kingdom aims at reducing CO{sub 2} and providing farmers with a new income source. Wood fuel will be produced by poplar and willow plantations or by traditional coppice. For example, two wood fired heating schemes will be discussed. Wood fuel can provide a useful alternative to the set-aside land and can have wider implications for the local rural economy. (Authors). 1 fig.

  8. A green hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is the result of over a dozen scholars and practitioners who strongly felt that a hydrogen economy and hence the future is closer than some American politicians and bureaucrats state. Moreover, when seen internationally, there is strong evidence, the most recent and obvious ones are the proliferation of hybrid vehicles, that for any nation-state to be energy independent it must seek a renewable or green hydrogen future in the near term. The State of California has once again taken the lead in this effort for both an energy-independent future and one linked strongly to the hydrogen economy. Then why a hydrogen economy in the first instance? The fact is that hydrogen most likely will not be used for refueling of vehicles in the near term. The number of vehicles to make hydrogen commercially viable will not be in the mass market by almost all estimates until 2010. However, it is less than a decade away. The time frame is NOT 30-40 years as some argue. The hydrogen economy needs trained people, new ventures and public-private partnerships now. The paper points out how the concerns of today, including higher costs and technologies under development, can be turned into opportunities for both the public and private sectors. It was not too long ago that the size of a mobile phone was that of a briefcase, and then almost 10 years ago, the size of a shoe box. Today, they are not only the size of a man's wallet but also often given away free to consumers who subscribe or contract for wireless services. While hydrogen may not follow this technological commercialization exactly, it certainly will be on a parallel path. International events and local or regional security dictate that the time for a hydrogen must be close at hand

  9. Green Economy, Red Herring

    OpenAIRE

    Clive L Spash

    2012-01-01

    This year sees Rio plus 20 years and much activity especially from United Nations (UN) related institutions to push forward various agendas which the environmentally concerned might welcome. The financial and banking crisis signals for many the tip of the iceberg of reality into which modern industrial economies must inevitably run. Growth of material and energy throughput is then doomed to sink. ... Societal, economic and environmental crises are unified as the result of an old but common de...

  10. Moral Economies of Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria is famous for "419" emails asking recipients for bank account information and for scandals involving the disappearance of billions of dollars from government coffers. Corruption permeates even minor official interactions, from traffic control to university admissions. In Moral Economies of Corruption Steven Pierce provides a cultural history of the last 150 years of corruption in Nigeria as a case study for considering how corruption plays an important role in the processes of politic...

  11. Risk management practices in Islamic and conventional banks in Kazakhstan - the Islamic finance hub of the Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Kulchmanov, Arman

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The study explores the risk management and reporting practices in selected Islamic and conventional banks in Kazakhstan, the Islamic finance hub of the Central Asia. The Government of Kazakhstan has planned to transform the economy to a Shari’ah complaint economic system. As risk management is one of the important challenges for banks, this study explores the preparedness of the banking industry in Kazakhstan facing the risk management challenges. Design/methodology/approach – T...

  12. Superconductivity for hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emerging hydrogen economy is expected to deal with a large amount of liquid hydrogen produced from the renewable energy resources. The main advantage of liquid hydrogen in comparison with other forms of its storage and transportation is in allowing wide use of superconductivity, which would optimise energy efficiency of the economy. The basic element of the infrastructure for hydrogen economy is a network of superconducting pipelines carrying simultaneously liquid hydrogen and loss-free electricity. The most likely material for such infrastructure is MgB2, the only superconductor efficiently working at boiling temperature of liquid hydrogen and not showing strong critical current reduction on grain boundaries. The cheap techniques for the preparation of MgB2 are hot isostatic pressing, resistive sintering and paint coating. These and other advanced techniques are able to provide MgB2 with suitable for the infrastructure structural and superconducting properties. The preparation of a large-area superconducting joint between two pieces of MgB2 as a technique enabling this infrastructure is reported. A potential of synergy between liquid hydrogen and superconductivity is revealed in a range of possible new energy applications.

  13. Trading scheme 'key' to low-carbon economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federal Opposition Leader Kim Beazley has emphasised the importance of getting the economics of environmental policy right by introducing market-based mechanisms for pricing emissions. 'Market-based mechanisms such as emissions trading are central to moving to a low-carbon economy,' he said in his latest blueprint. 'A functioning carbon market will deliver a price signal, so there is a long-term incentive to cut emissions further, and a mechanism for trading, so that energy can be allocated efficiently in the economy. It will also encourage greater private investment in clean energy technology.' Mr Beazley said the new market would also reward the many companies who were already adapting to a carbon-constrained world. 'This includes those global companies in Australia that already operate in emissions trading markets overseas. An effective price signal for carbon in Australia will allow these companies to benefit directly from their good corporate citizenship and long-term vision.' Mr Beazley has committed a federal Labor government to work with state governments and business to establish the national trading scheme. He also criticised the Federal Government for refusing to ratify the Kyoto Protocol, which he argued excluded Australian businesses from participating in the emerging global carbon trade. This made it harder for businesses to break into the market for cleaner production technologies overseas. While again admitting Kyoto was not perfect, Mr Beazley said ratification would see Australia part of what would potentially be 'the biggest market in the world by 2020'. He said the recent Asia Pacific Climate Change Pact was a positive step but was not an alternative to Kyoto. 'Above all, it has no economic mechanisms to drive further change. 'Without ratifying Kyoto some of our businesses are missing out on effective participation in international schemes that offer substantial financial rewards for greenhouse gas reductions. 'By ratifying Kyoto and adopting

  14. Flexibilización laboral y competitividad durante el plan de convertibilidad

    OpenAIRE

    Morero, Hernán Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    The nineties in Argentina was marked by an ambitious set of structural reforms known as the Convertibility Plan. Margin, some authors claim that their collapse was due, among other things, lack of competitiveness of Argentina's economy. We believe that this did not go unnoticed by "policymakers" and tempt in this paper analyze the policies that were undertaken to address the shortcomings in competitiveness that the country suffered. The central hypothesis of this paper is that it underlay ...

  15. Nigeria: the political economy of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is the second in a series of books on the major petroleum exporting nations, most of them part of the developing world. These countries occupy a central position in the global economy given that oil is the energy source most used in the world and the most important primary commodity in international trade. At the same time they find themselves inescapably dependent on a single source of income. Their own economic prospects are closely bound to the future of their oil. It aims to provide a broad description of the oil and gas sectors, highlighting those features which give the country a physiognomy of its own. The analysis is set in the context of history, economic policy and international relations. It also seeks to identify the specific challenges that the exporting country studies will face in developing its wealth to the best advantage of the economy. (author)

  16. Venezuela: the political economy of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book inaugurates a new series of books on the major petroleum exporting nations, most of them part of the developing world. These countries occupy a central position in the global economy given that oil is the energy source most used in the world and the most important primary commodity in international trade. At the same time they find themselves inescapably dependent on a single source of income. Their own economic prospects are closely bound to the future of their oil. It aims to provide a broad description of the oil and gas sectors, highlighting those features which give the country a physiognomy of its own. The analysis is set in the context of history, economic policy and international relations. It also seeks to identify the specific challenges that the exporting country studies will face in developing its wealth to the best advantage of the economy. (author)

  17. Education in social economy: challenges and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo Adams

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the challenges and perspectives of education in social economy, considering the context of implementation of a national public policy in education. After situating the issue in the context of productive restructuring of capitalism, and its repercussions in the work world, there are analyzed the potentialities and limits under the perspective of real and potential pedagogical mediations found in these spaces of associated work. Among the challenges one can highlight the activity in the field of ideas to reaffirm the centrality of work, and the need to discern the characteristics of the alternatives in social economy in contrast to the neoliberalization of solidarity, as well as to affirm a coherent social, ecological, political and technological practice that contributes to a new mode of producing and living.

  18. Venezuela: the political economy of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boue, J.C.

    1993-12-31

    This book inaugurates a new series of books on the major petroleum exporting nations, most of them part of the developing world. These countries occupy a central position in the global economy given that oil is the energy source most used in the world and the most important primary commodity in international trade. At the same time they find themselves inescapably dependent on a single source of income. Their own economic prospects are closely bound to the future of their oil. It aims to provide a broad description of the oil and gas sectors, highlighting those features which give the country a physiognomy of its own. The analysis is set in the context of history, economic policy and international relations. It also seeks to identify the specific challenges that the exporting country studies will face in developing its wealth to the best advantage of the economy. (author)

  19. Nigeria: the political economy of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, S.A.

    1994-12-31

    This book is the second in a series of books on the major petroleum exporting nations, most of them part of the developing world. These countries occupy a central position in the global economy given that oil is the energy source most used in the world and the most important primary commodity in international trade. At the same time they find themselves inescapably dependent on a single source of income. Their own economic prospects are closely bound to the future of their oil. It aims to provide a broad description of the oil and gas sectors, highlighting those features which give the country a physiognomy of its own. The analysis is set in the context of history, economic policy and international relations. It also seeks to identify the specific challenges that the exporting country studies will face in developing its wealth to the best advantage of the economy. (author)

  20. Comparison between response dynamics in transition economies and developed economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Joel; Horvatić, Davor; Bajić, Slavica Cosović; Pehlivanović, Bećo; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-10-01

    In developed economies, the sign of the price increment influences the volatility in an asymmetric fashion—negative increments tend to result in larger volatility (increments with larger magnitudes), while positive increments result in smaller volatility. We explore whether this asymmetry extends from developed economies to European transition economies and, if so, how such asymmetry changes over time as these transition economies develop and mature. We analyze eleven European transition economies and compare the results with those obtained by analyzing U.S. market indices. Specifically, we calculate parameters that quantify both the volatility asymmetry and the strength of its dependence on prior increments. We find that, like their developed economy counterparts, almost all transition economy indices exhibit a significant volatility asymmetry, and the parameter γ characterizing asymmetry fluctuates more over time for transition economies. We also investigate how the association between volatility and volatility asymmetry varies by type of market. We test the hypothesis of a negative correlation between volatility and volatility asymmetry. We find that, for developed economies, γ experiences local minima during (i) “Black Monday” on October 19, 1987, (ii) the dot-com bubble crash in 2002, and (iii) the 2007-2009 global crisis while for transition economies, γ experiences local maxima during times of economic crisis.

  1. Dynamic systems of regional economy management optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, S.; Kudzh, S.

    directions of an industrial policy of region. The situational-analytical centers (SAC) of regional administration The major component of SAC is dynamic modeling, analysis, forecasting and optimization systems, based on modern intellectual information technologies. Spheres of SAC are not only financial streams management and investments optimization, but also strategic forecasting functions, which provide an optimum choice, "aiming", search of optimum ways of regional development and corresponding investments. It is expedient to consider an opportunity of formation of the uniform organizational-methodical center of an industrial policy of region. This organization can be directly connected to the scheduled-analytical services of the largest economic structures, local authorities, the ministries and departments. Such "direct communication" is capable to provide an effective regional development strategic management. Anyway, the output on foreign markets demands concentration of resources and support of authorities. Offered measures are capable to provide a necessary coordination of efforts of a various level economic structures. For maintenance of a regional industrial policy an attraction of all newest methods of strategic planning and management is necessary. Their activity should be constructed on the basis of modern approaches of economic systems management, cause the essence of an industrial policy is finally reduced to an effective regional and corporate economic activities control centers formation. Opportunities of optimum regional economy planning and management as uniform system Approaches to planning regional economic systems can be different. We will consider some most effective methods of planning and control over a regional facilities condition. All of them are compact and evident, that allows to put them into the group of average complexity technologies. At the decision of problems of a regional resource management is rather perspective the so

  2. Economy of small-scale power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic requirement for profitable generation of power and heat is sufficient and even heat load. The investment required by a plant based on cogeneration is always higher than that of a plant producing only heat, and hence the full time operation of the plant should be ensured since the beginning of the plant operational age. The second requirement for profitable operation of a small-scale power plant is the homogenous heat and power consumption profiles. Because the plants always cause remarkable capital costs and other fixed costs it is important to make an economic survey of the costs before the decision making in the preliminary planning phase. The presentation gives a review of the factors effecting on the economy of small-scale power plant, the distribution of the costs, and the methods used for investigation of the economy are reviewed

  3. The Russian oil economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contents: 1. Introduction 2. Risky Business - Oil in the Russian Empire 3. The Command Oil Economy 4. An Industry Fit for a Superpower 5. Malaise at the End of the Command Era 6. Desperate Measures 7. The New Wild West 8. Russian Oil in the 21 st Century Appendix A. The Early Regional Development of the Russian Oil Industry, 1860-1975 B. Reserve Classifications of the Soviet Union C. Long-Distance Oil Pipelines in Russia, 1908-1988 D. Internal Oil Pricing Policies of the Soviet Union. (Author)

  4. The Methanol Economy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olah, George [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Prakash, G. K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The Methanol Economy Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO2 capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO2 and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO2 and H2, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields.

  5. Information model of economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.Gonchar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new stochastic model of economy is developed that takes into account the choice of consumers are the dependent random fields. Axioms of such a model are formulated. The existence of random fields of consumer's choice and decision making by firms are proved. New notions of conditionally independent random fields and random fields of evaluation of information by consumers are introduced. Using the above mentioned random fields the random fields of consumer choice and decision making by firms are constructed. The theory of economic equilibrium is developed.

  6. Implementing a hydrogen economy

    OpenAIRE

    James A Ritter; Armin D Ebner; Jun Wang; Ragaiy Zidan

    2003-01-01

    President Bush, during his State of the Union Address this year, pronounced a $1.2 billion jump-start to the hydrogen economy. The move would represent not only freedom from US-dependence on foreign oil, which is a national security issue, but also a necessary and gargantuan step toward improving the environment by reducing the amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere. However, hydrogen storage is proving to be one of the most important issues and potentially biggest roadblock fo...

  7. Taxation in Walrasian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Zak, F.

    2010-01-01

    We consider two models of lump sum taxation in pure exchange economy in which the state imposes taxes on (or offers financial aid to) economic agents characterized by their demand functions and initial resources. In the first model the state has its own preferences and uses the collected money to enter the market and maximize its utility while in the second model it uses the taxes to acquire fixed resources necessary for its functioning. We study the existence and structure of equilibria in g...

  8. Ethics and Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Nejedlo, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In the theoretical part of the work the author first of all defines general ethics and basic ethic definitions which are in the work applied. After them there are introduced empirical ethics and contradicting Kant´s point of view. Furthermore there are defined economic ethics, sense of the economy, corporate social responsibility and their piers. Since the justi-fication of the economic ethics is often questioned by the economistic access to the eco-nomics is, after it, this access duly intro...

  9. Economy in Sound Shape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    No economic crisis in China in the near future, a possibility of a hard landing for China's economy, and non-performing assets in Chinese banks will continue to rise. These are the predictions of Ben Bernanke, Chairman of the U.S. Federal Reserve, as reported by Reuters on September 2. Whether his predictions are accurate or not remains to be seen. It is beneficial, however, to analyze the reasons why Bernanke made these remarks and examine the facts. Zuo Xiaolei, Chief Economist of China Galaxy Securiti...

  10. Economy Steams Ahead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's National Bureau of Statistics recently issued economic data for the first half of the year, showing that the country's gross domestic product (GDP) grew by 10.9 percent and fixed asset investment increased by 29.8 percent,0.9 and 4.4 percentage points higher, respectively, than the same period last year. How should one view these figures related to China's economic performance? Is the country's economy overheating now? What is the trend for the second half of the year? In an article in People's D...

  11. The digital economy

    OpenAIRE

    Hungerland, Fabian; Quitzau, Jörn; Zuber, Christopher; Ehrlich, Lars; Growitsch, Christian; Rische, Marie-Christin; Schlitte, Friso; Haß, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    [Introduction] Digitisation is by no means a completely new phenomenon. By the time of the dotcom boom of the late 1990s at the latest, it was clear that the economy was facing a massive upheaval. A good decade and a half later, internet corporations are already established players in the corporate world. If the topic of digitisation is still omnipresent in 2015, making headlines in the business press under the catchphrase »Industry 4.0« day after day, there are good reasons for this. Previou...

  12. FROM SOCIAL ECONOMY TO SOLIDARY ECONOMY. SPECIFIC SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netedu Adrian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Specialized literature from the field of social economy has been facing in the last years a new concept, namely solidary economy. Although the terms are very much alike, many analysts consider that there are enough specific differences in order to successfully impose this new concept. Unavoidably, solidary economy may come from social economy but bringing some corrections and examples. In this article we try to mark the limits of the two concepts mainly from the theoretical perspective as they appear in the French specialized literature.

  13. Bir Geçiş Ekonomisi Olarak Kırgızistan’da Doğrudan Yabancı Yatırımlar ve Orta Asya Ülkeleri İle Kıyaslanması(Foreign Direct Investments in Kyrgyzstan as a Transition Economy and Its Comparison with Central Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madina PASHALIEVA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sovyetler Birliği’nin dağılmasıyla bağımsızlığı ilan eden ve piyasa ekonomisine geçmeye çalışan ülkelere geçiş ekonomileri denilmektedir. Bu ülkelerden birisi olan Kırgızistan, Orta Asya bölgesindeki stratejik konumu, liberal ekonomisi ve ılımlı yaklaşımı itibariyle gün geçtikçe daha fazla dikkatleri üzerine çekmektedir. Geçiş döneminin izlerini üzerinden atmaya çalışan ülke, yabancı yatırımları teşvik etmek üzere ciddi yasal ve yapısal düzenleme ve uygulamalara gitmiştir. Bu çalışmada, Kırgızistan Cumhuriyeti’nde sürdürülebilir büyüme ve refahın arttırılması amacıyla uygulamaya konulan politikalar sayesinde ülkenin yabancı yatırımları hangi düzeyde çekebildiği ve bölge ülkeleri ile kıyaslandığında, durumunun ne olduğu ve sahip olduğu üstünlükler incelenmiştir. The countries which pronounced their independence after the dissolution of the Soviet Union and are endeavouring to shift to market economy are called transition economies. As one of these countries Kyrgyzstan is attracting more attention every other day due to its strategic position in Central Asia, its liberal economy and moderate approach. Trying to get rid of the traces of the transition period, this country has established serious legal and structural regulations and practices in order to promote foreign investments. This study deals with how much the Republic of Kyrgyzstan has managed to attract foreign investments thanks to the policies implemented for sustainable growth and improvement of welfare, and its status and superiorities when compared to other countries in the region.

  14. Applying a Virtual Economy Model in Mexico's Oil Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of Mexico's oil industry, including the accomplishments of Pemex, Mexico's national oil company, was discussed, with particular reference to the progress made in the period of 1988-1994, and the outlook for innovations in the post-Salinas era. The concept of an evolutionary trend from a command economy (State as sole producer), towards market (State as regulator) or mixed economies (State as business partner) in developing countries, was introduced, placing Pemex within this evolutionary model as moving away from centralized control of oil production and distribution, while achieving international competitiveness. The concept of ''virtual market economy'' was also discussed. This model contains the legal basis of a command economy, while instituting modernization programs in order to stimulate market-economic conditions. This type of economy was considered particularly useful in this instance, sine it would allow Pemex units to operate within international performance and price benchmarks while maintaining state monopoly. Specific details of how Pemex could transform itself to a virtual market economy were outlined. It was recommended that Pemex experiment with the virtual mixed economy model; in essence, making the state a co-producer, co-transporter, and co-distributor of hydrocarbons. The effects of such a move would be to bring non-debt funding to oil and gas production, transmission, and associated industrial activities

  15. From user-producer relations to the learning economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with three issues. First, the conceptual and theoretical development in Lundvall’s writing from user–producer relations to the learning economy is discussed with a focus on his main contributions to innovation theory. Second, Lundvall’s description of the learning economy...... is extended in that it is argued that it is driven by its internal contradictions, and by the institutional responses to these contradictions. This approach is not in conflict with Lundvall’s views, but he has not pursued it and it may give new insights into the dynamics of the learning economy. Finally...... the learning economy is placed as a central concept in the quest for a general theory of innovation, which for many years has characterized Lundvall’s writings....

  16. A green economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus Simons

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth has become a fetish, as it is believed to yield many benefits to society. It has its origins in the Enlightenment ideal of progress through science, technology and a free market economy. J.W. Goethe anticipated the problems of such progress in his poem Faust, especially its second part. Binswanger interprets Goethe’s view on the modern economy as a form of alchemy, an attempt to master time through the invention of monetary capital. Keynes’s views on progress and liquidity are compatible with this analysis. The problems, evoked by the uncritical application of scientific technology so as to increase material welfare, have given rise to a dialectic between business seeking growth and those concerned about its effects, especially on ecology. Sustainable development is an outcome of this dialectic, without abandoning it. Others, particularly those advocating décroissance [de-growth], reject the concepts underlying growth. The ideology underlying this is a combination of technicism and economism. A spiritual revolution is called for to break the hold of this ideology on society, with a change from the metaphor of the world as a machine to that of a garden-city. It is suggested that working groups should analyse the various proposals for change from the perspective of the garden-city metaphor.

  17. The energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This introduction to the economy of energy applies the main economic concepts to the energy sector (nature of the good, supply, demand), proposes an overview of existing actors, and analyses challenges and tools of economic policy like network regulation, competition policy, independence and energy transition. By using recent examples, statistics and international comparisons, it gives elements to highlight issues like the relationship between shale gas exploitation and economic recovery in the USA, the choice between monopole and competition for electricity or gas supply, reaching greenhouse gas emissions of the energy sector by incentives or taxes, secure energy supplies in a changing international environment, ways to supply energy to everyone at prices guaranteeing economy competitiveness, or ways to evolve towards energy systems which would be more environment- and climate-friendly. The successive chapters address fundamentals issues (nature of the good, historical and technical overview), the State intervention (definition of an energy policy, steering the energy mix, ensuring secure supply), the reorganisation of industries and the protection of consumers, the relationship between energy and climate (worrying perspectives, progressive emergence of solutions). The last chapter addresses the future challenges like innovation, and disruptive innovations (smart grids, big data, batteries, CO2 capture and storage, nuclear waste processing and management, development of nuclear fusion), and the issue of energy poverty

  18. Medical and Radiological Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Jalal Shokouhi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Economy ride ahead of the world. "nAll human activities lead to financial problems. "nEconomy has two dimensions in usual daily commercial problems but medical and radiological economy is a tridimensional phenomenon. "nIn the two-dimensional economy, both sides, see their own benefits and fair "gains" but in the  medical and radiologic economy, the patient gives us money and gets health. We protect the patient’s benefits by controlling the complications and consequently his/her future. This means we are not looking for our benefits only. "n19% of WHO payments are by private insurance companies, 25% by social insurance companies, 18% out of packet or with no payment, 34% by governments and 4% by others. "nIn undeveloped countries 20-25% of health payments are dedicated for 1% of the people, 60%of the payment for 10% of the people and 20% for the other 89% of the nation. Today most of our people are young but after 3-4 decades our people or the Iranian society turns into a gray category or old population. "nPercentage increase in health budget from 1960 to1997 was 12% in Japan, 10% in Germany, 9.5% in France, 9.4% in the USA, 8.5% in Canada, 8.2% in England and 7.5% in Newzealand. "nThe number of physicians for 1000 population is 3.4 in Germany, 2.9 in France, 2.6 in the USA, 2.1 in Canada, 1.8 in Japan and 1.7 in the UK. "nHospital beds for 1000 population in year 2003 was minimum 3.1 in Finland and maximum 12.3 in Japan. "nBy 1996: Number of X-ray CT scan for 1000.000 population is 69.7 in Japan, 26.9 in USA, 18.4 in Australia, 16.04 in Germany,9.4 in France, 7.9 in Canada and 6.3 in England. "nFrom 1995 to 1996: Number of MRI for 1000.000 population is 18.8 in Japan, 16 in the USA, 5.7 in Germany, 3.4 in the UK, 2.9 in Australia, 2.3 in France and 1.3 in Canada. "nFee for service is very low in our country and any investment or business is better than medical investment, especially radiology investment. "nPrescriptions for the future in

  19. Geo-economy of the Caspian basin; Geoeconomie du bassin caspien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raballand, G

    2003-05-15

    The Caspian area is essential for the development of the central Asia countries and Caucasus. Excepted the Iran and the Russia, these areas economy is poor. The hydrocarbons exploitation should reinforce the economic weight of these States. The author analyzes the Caspian area economies and shows that the basin economies are confronted with three handicaps, and that even with different economic ways, the soviet economic system is still present in the basin. (A.L.B.)

  20. INFORMATION SOCIETY AND KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihane BERISHA NAMANI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, technologies have changed our social and economic life. Society is becoming “knowledge society” and information and communication technology has played an important role. The economy is evolving out of classic model of the economy in the new economy known as “knowledge economy”. Information and communication technology is bringing changes to various sectors of economy. Business is undergoing a fundamental structural transformation and traditional business become more dependent on Internet related technologies. This paper describes the role and the importance of the use of information technology with special emphases how economy and business can benefit from information technology. This technology play a key role and influence society and have a great impact in all spheres of economy. This components are described and discussed while the use of this technology for business purposes are proposed as necessary.

  1. Social Economy: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan HOSU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article addresses a topic of interest for both the public sector and the nonprofit sector, namely that of the innovative practices of social economy. Diverse practices and models of social economy are increasingly present in the Romanian community, this being the reason why it is important to study the major coordinates of social economy and social entrepreneurship identified by means of an empirical research done in Romania. Social economy is considered one of the most important innovative strategy approaches as this sector may contribute to some efforts done for the elimination of poverty and the re-launching of local economies. The integration of the identified elements in regional programs and public policies is the starting point of the strategic approaches regarding reform in public administration. Social economy can be an example of joint action for public and private organizations and institutions interested in carrying out community projects based on inclusive, participative and innovative forms of community development.

  2. Competition in the sharing economy

    OpenAIRE

    Demary, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Sharing goods, services or knowledge is at the center of the so-called Sharing Economy. Businesses are usually based on online platforms that match demand and supply which is in many cases, but not always provided by individuals. Sharing Economy companies typically compete with traditional companies in many different markets. The main challenge of this type of competition currently is the application of the existing regulation. While incumbent firms adhere to this, Sharing Economy companies o...

  3. Digital Economy Impact on Society

    OpenAIRE

    Lazãr Cristina; Epure Dãnuþ Tiberius; Spãtariu Elena Cerasela

    2011-01-01

    With this study we’re trying to bolster up the idea that digitization of information combined with the Internet is a form of general purpose technology, which rose a wide range of new possible combinations that could be provided by the digital economy. The impact of the digital economy over societies can be seen and recognized even if only part of it is measurable. The effects of digitalization the economy are seen more in the new activities and products than the productivity.

  4. Family Planning Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米国庆

    1994-01-01

    According to the China national programme of economic and social development, by 2000 the standard of living of Chinese people will have been fairly welloff. In order to accomplish the goal, the government has comprised the population development in the national social economic development programme. Family planning (FP) work will contribute to the general goal of social economy and development. Reform and open policy and establishment of socialist market economy sys

  5. Essays in political economy and resource economic: A macroeconomic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Acosta, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation consists of four chapters in Political Economy and Resource Economics from a macroeconomic perspective. This collection of works emphasizes the endogenous nature of institutions and their importance for economic development. The four chapters revolve around two central questions: 1. Why do inefficient institutions emerge and persist over time? And, 2. What are the dynamic consequences of inefficient institutions? The first two chapters investigate these two central questions...

  6. Targeting Inflation in a Dollarized Economy: The Peruvian Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Armas, Adrián; Grippa, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    This discusses the unique experience of Peru's Central Bank with inflation targeting in an economy characterized by a high degree of financial dollarization. The paper outlines how Peru has taken financial dollarization into consideration in the design of monetary policy, then deals with monetary policy implementation and the Central Bank's strategy for controlling financial dollarization risks. The paper concludes with analysis and lessons drawn from the Peruvian case.

  7. Macroeconomics in an open economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R N

    1986-09-12

    The customary treatment of national economies as closed and self-contained must be substantially modified to allow for those economies that typically trade goods, services, and securities with other countries in increasing volume. Open economy macroeconomics is essential to understanding the major events of the U.S. economy over the past half dozen years. Both the sharp rise in the dollar and the unprecedentedly large U.S. trade deficit are linked to the U.S. budget deficit, as is the drop in the rate of inflation. PMID:17756868

  8. SOCIAL ECONOMY - A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Asiminei

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a brief overview of the history of definitions of social economy at European level, the ideological background of the concept and highlights some key dimensions for sociological analysis of social economy. Although the social economy is a reality present in different forms in most human communities, the term has no universally accepted definition nor in international area or in Europe. Attempts of defining and theorizing of the concept is relatively new in relation to practice. This article is a development of conceptual framework chapter from the report “Profit to the people”, POSDRU project Social Economy Model in Romania.

  9. Urban and regional studies in the experience economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne; Jeannerat, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    economy is seen as an integrated approach in policy and strategic planning on as well as across different scales. Future research should not only trace the evolution of experience offerings, stages and destinations and its possible dependence on specific economic phases and contexts. It should also......The paper introduces a special issue on `the experience turn in development and planning’. It is argued that the notion of the experience economy is able to challenge established theories of the culture economy in three ways. First, by placing consumption and consumers as point of departure for...... develop further the potentials of the experience economy approach as a new perspective on economic phenomena as well as on territorial development....

  10. A Political Economy of University Funding: The English Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Murray

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the coalition United Kingdom government policy on university funding in England as a political economy. It depicts higher education as a public and private good in the context of international trends in "cost sharing" and it addresses the centrality of economic drivers for the profile and orientation of higher education,…

  11. Sustainable degrowth through more amateur economy

    OpenAIRE

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    By a simple descriptive model is illustrated how the role of labor input tothe economy will have to revised in a degrowth economy. A destinction is made btween the Professional (GDP) economy, driven by money, and the Amateur economy (voluntary) driven by love. Shifting some economic activities (back) from the prof. economy to the amateur economy will be less productive than the prof. economy in terms of output per man hour, but often more 'productive' in generating satisfaction and happiness ...

  12. Service Recovery in Transition Economies: Russia and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy K. T. Gubler

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available While processes for transition from planned to market economy vary, there is one common outcome from the transition process – more discriminating customers. Growing customer expectations increase the possibility of failing to meet those expectations. In competitive market economies service failures are accompanied by new consequences of lost customer loyalty. These potential losses to service providers that can result from service failures necessitate the implementation of service recovery. In this study researchers investigated the role of service recovery in two major economies that are currently in transition from a planned to a market economy: Russia and China. Four recovery systems were examined within the context of two levels of service failure criticality. Service recovery system design was found to matter in customer recovery in both Russia and China, but Chinese respondents reported higher levels of recovery success. Interaction effects also suggest that the common experience of transition from planned to market economy did not produce exactly the same response to service recovery efforts.

  13. Economics and land-use planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The aim of this book is to use the tools developed by modern microeconomics to provide a framework for the analysis of policies towards the allocation of land and the control of activities using land. There has been a traditional conflict between economists and land-use planners. But the new concepts of externalities and public goods have given economists new tools particularly relevant to land-use planning. Developments in planning theory have also tended to make the planners' prime concern the best allocation of total resources: the central problem of economic analysis. The principal focus of the book is the general justification for intervention in the urban land and property markets, the principles for evaluating such intervention and the proper role of the public sector within the urban economy. It also considers in some detail the practical problems involved in putting these principles into effect.

  14. The European House of Education: Education and Economy--A New Partnership. Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    Five areas essential to developing partnerships between the education systems and economies of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe were analyzed: (1) state and social partner roles in supporting links between education/training and the economy; (2) contribution of the world of work to education and training; (3) education/training to…

  15. Export Diversi cation in a Transitioning Economy : The Case of Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Jamus Jerome; Saborowski, Christian

    2011-01-01

    How does the process of export diversification play out in a transitioning economy, especially in light of government policy aimed at trade liberalization? This paper examines this question by considering a directed policy effort by Syria -- an economy transitioning from both economic centralization and resource dependence -- to liberalize its trade in 2001. In addition to documenting the ...

  16. The National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) and its participation in the External Radiological Emergency Plans at Laguna Verde Power plant; El ININ y su participacion en el Plan de Emergencia Radiologica Externo de la Central Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, G. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Proteccion Radiologica, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    In this article it is described the form in which the ININ participates in the External Radiological Emergency Plan at Laguna Verde Power plant. It is set the objective, mission and organization of this plan. The responsibilities and activities that plan has assigned are mentioned also the organization to fulfil them and the obtained results during 9 years of participation. (Author)

  17. Knowledge for a sustainable economy. Knowledge questions around the Dutch Memorandum on Environment and Economy ('Nota Milieu en Economie'); Kennis voor een duurzame economie. Kennisvragen rond de Nota Milieu en Economie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieleman, J.P.C.; Hafkamp, W.A. [Erasmus Studiecentrum voor Milieukunde, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-05-19

    June 18, 1997, the Dutch government presented the Memorandum Environment and Economy with the aim to contribute to integration of environment and economy and to stimulation the realization of a sustainable economy. Next to a vast overview of actions, ideas, perspectives, staring points, challenges and dilemmas to take into account when forming a sustainable economy, it is indicated in that Memorandum that there is a need for research and knowledge to compile relevant data and insight to support decision making processes. The aim of this report is to develop a framework in which knowledge questions can be generated. The questions that fall outside the framework of the Memorandum concern needs, values and images and are formulated in four groups: (1) what is the role of materialism and stress in processes of conventional economic growth?; (2) What is the importance of reduction of consumption ('consuminderen') and slowing down ('onthaasting' or dehasting) to realize a process of sustainable economic development; (3) which images form the basis of the present process of economic development, where do they come from and how do they change over time; and (4) which images of progression give direction to a sustainable economic development and how do they exist? The questions that follow the Memorandum concern decoupling (of environment and economy), sustainable consumption, knowledge economy, institutions and a process of change. Central in the framework of knowledge questions are questions, related to perspectives and actions, as formulated in the Memorandum for different sectors in the Dutch society: industry and services; agriculture and rural areas; and traffic, transport and infrastructure.

  18. Securing the Digital Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin P. MĂZĂREANU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Digital economy has naturally led to thereconfiguration of communication and information processes.These processes are depending on the computer, starting fromthe personal one and reaching to computer networks, whetherlocal, metropolitan or global. These led to the development ofsuch information systems able to communicate information,systems that must also ensure the security of communicationsbetween computers within the company, but also betweencomputers of different parties, outside the company. As thecommunication between computers in the network has evolvedto electronic funds transfer (EFT, digital money andcommunication of personal data, internet banking, etc., theimportance of security issues of data transmitted over thenetwork also has increased. Even more as the network hasevolved into a “wireless” one.

  19. Tourism's intimate economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Maurer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] What’s Love Got To Do with It? Transnational Desires and Sex Tourism in the Dominican Republic. Denise Brennan. Durham NC: Duke University Press, 2004. ix + 280 pp. (Paper US$ 21.95 Behind the Smile: The Working Lives of Caribbean Tourism. George Gmelch. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2003. x + 212 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 New research on Caribbean tourism solidly locates it within the regional shift from “incentive-induced exports” like bananas to “service-based exports” like data processing, offshore finance, and novel forms of mass tourism (Mullings 2004:294; Duval 2004. Earlier studies may have made mention of the similarities between plantation economies and tourism development, but new models like the all-inclusive resort demonstrate a near identity of form and structure with plantation systems: foreign dominance over ownership and profit leaves little multiplier effect for the Caribbean islands playing host to enclaved resorts. Agricultural exports have been in free fall since the end of preferential trade protocols, and export manufacturing after the North American Free Trade Agreement is in steep decline. If new service economies seemed to offer a solution to economic and social disorder, the reaction to the events of September 11, 2001 demonstrated the fragility of service-based exports and, in particular, of new kinds of tourism. It took four years for international tourism to rebound to pre-9/11 levels;1 with the perceived threat of SARS and avian flu, as well as the Iraq war and the weak U.S. dollar, official projections of the industry’s near future are “cautiously optimistic.”2

  20. Environmental policy in economies in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylicz, T

    1999-01-01

    Considerable improvement in environmental pollution has been achieved, primarily due to targeted environmental policies rather than general economic developments. Some countries in central and eastern Europe have managed to reduce emissions even after the gross domestic product once again began to increase. Everywhere in the region, however, the cost-effectiveness of environmental spending is questionable. Most countries have established systems of earmarked resource and pollution taxes, which provide a sizable share in financing environmental investment. With stationary sources of pollution brought under increasingly effective control, the environmental problems in central and eastern Europe, and eventually in the newly independent states, will start to resemble those of developed market economies. As more activities become affected by environmental protection measures, cost-effectiveness considerations deserve increased attention. PMID:10546809

  1. NEAP - National Environmental Action Plan (Republic of Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Republic of Macedonia, like other Central and East European countries in transition, has started the process of reform towards a market economy. As a part of the economic development program, the Republic of Macedonia is shaping its environmental polices and identifying priority actions to protect human health and the environment and to utilize its natural resources in a sustainable manner. These polices and actions are consistent with the 'Environmental Action Programme for Central and Eastern Europe' (EAP), the document adopted at the Ministerial Conference in Lucerne in 1993. In meeting the goals towards protecting the environment, The Government of the Republic of Macedonia has prepared the National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) with the support of the World Bank group. The Ministry of Urban Planning, Construction and Environment was the key agency involved in the preparation of the NEAP. The NEAP highlights the environmental problems and recommends actions related to policy, institutions and priority investments. (author)

  2. Research on Optimal Development Pattern of Yunnan Central Economic Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diego Salmero; Suman Rana

    2012-01-01

    By the case study on the Urban Agglomeration Plan of Yunnan Central Economic Region (YCER), which is jointly made by Chinese and Swiss scholars, with the adoption of GIS and traditional urban planning methods, this paper uses multiple scenarios to analyze four development models of "Scattered Yunnan," "Regional Yunnan," "Metropolitan Yunnan" and "Network Yunnan." It also explores the relatively rational scenarios for the future development of YCER, i.e., up to 2030, the development model of YCER will be "Regional," and after 2030 it will be "Network." In this way, YCER will be developed stably and methodically, and finally achieve the unification of ecological safety, intensified energy and resources, as well as prosperous economy.

  3. Can Education Save the Economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noy, Michelle; Zeidenberg, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The recent global economic downturn is causing U.S. workers and employers to look to the educational system for skills that will allow them to thrive when the economy recovers. Education alone cannot save the economy. Much larger forces are at work, such as international equity and debt markets, the banking crisis, and the deflation of consumer …

  4. DISPROPORTIONS IN THE WORLD ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Anatolii VDOVICHEN

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a systematic study of global economic development processes, in particular through the prism of definition the disproportional changes in the financial and real sectors of the global economy and concretize the impact of the information sector of the world economy on the two above mentioned.

  5. Why Classroom Token Economies Fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabman, Ronald S.; Tucker, Richard D.

    1974-01-01

    The reasons for clinical failures of classroom token economies are divided into three groups: (1) Problems associated with the token program itself, (2) Problems associated with the teacher, and (3) Problems associated with the specific population on which the classroom token economy is used. Each of these problem areas is discussed. (Author)

  6. Interorganisational Management in Entrepreneurial Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul Rind; Piihl, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    In this article relationship management is defined and discussed in the context of an entrepreneurial society. Important aspects of trends in entrepreneurial economies to aspects of managerial economies. Based on a review of established management theories, it is concluded that there is a need for...

  7. Experience economy brimming with potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming; Sundbo, Jon

    2014-01-01

    In these days of economic uncertainty, businesses ought to make better use of recent research into the experience economy. Perhaps co-creation and individualisation can save us from the crisis, argue the editors of a new book about the latest research into the experience economy....

  8. Learning in a credit economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Assenza; M. Berardi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we analyze a credit economy à la Kiyotaki and Moore [1997. Credit cycles. Journal of Political Economy 105, 211-248] enriched with learning dynamics, where both borrowers and lenders need to form expectations about the future price of the collateral. We find that under homogeneous lear

  9. New Economy - New Policy Rules?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullard, J.; Schaling, E.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. economy appears to have experienced a pronounced shift toward higher productivity over the last five years or so. We wish to understand the implications of such shifts for the structure of optimal monetary policy rules in simple dynamic economies. Accordingly, we begin with a standard econo

  10. Externalities, Incentives and Failure to Achieve National Objectives in Decentralized Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Aizenman; Peter Isard

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study why decentralized economies often fail to achieve national objective in the presence of externalities. The paper employs a two-period, open economy framework in which the central government allocates its tax revenues among a larger number of individual decision makers (e.g., provincial authorities or managers of state enterprises). The central government has only limited monitoring capacity, which gives individual decision makers the opportunity to commit...

  11. Informal economy as an expression of the state failure

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Kubiczek

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the phenomenon of second economy, underground or subterranean economy, unofficial economy, unrecorded economy, informal economy, cash economy etc., which has been assessed here as a function of a given mix of economic policies.

  12. An Evaluation of the Cedar Rapids / Linn County Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, David A.; Eathington, Liesl

    2008-01-01

    This report investigates historical and structural aspects of the Cedar Rapids / Linn Countyeconomy. Each section will provide basic conclusions about the regional economy, its performance, andits human capital structure to allow for solid and reliable inputs into strategic planning.Importantly, this assessment provides baseline data for assessing future performance and itprovides clear methods of those assessments that can be replicated.

  13. A Simple Real Business Cycle Model of the Czech Economy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baxa, Jaromír

    Bratislava : University of Economics in Bratislava, 2008, s. 28-38 ISBN 978-80-8078-217-7. [Quantitative Methods in Economics: Multiplie Criteria Decision Making XIV. Tatranská Lomnica (SK), 05.07.2008-07.07.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : real business cycle * DSGE model * Kdylant-Prescott filter * Czech economy Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  14. Determinants of obesity in transition economies: The case of Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizov, M.I.; Huffman, S.K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines human obesity, measured as weight and body mass index (BMI), and its determinants in Russia. Obesity increased dramatically during transition from a planned to a market economy, by 38 percent. We determine the factors contributing to rising obesity using individual level data fro

  15. Foreign direct investment spillovers in emerging market economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gorodnichenko, Y.; Švejnar, Jan; Terrell, K.

    Cheltenham, UK : Edward Elgar, 2007 - (Liebscher, K.; Christl, J.; Mooslechner, P.; Ritzberger-Grünwald, D.), s. 58-75 ISBN 978-1-84720-487-5 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : foreign direct investment * emerging market economies Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://books. google .com/books?id=4RqQGesjmNQC&hl=cs

  16. Tax Planning for Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Weiqing

    2011-01-01

    @@ Tax planning is legal planning activities for tax savings, meaning tax payers make operation plans within the national policy framework and choose operation programs favorable to tax savings.Along with a maturing socialist market economy system in China, tax planning is becoming an integral part of enterprise management and operation.For a better tax planning, enterprises have to fully understand the meaning, get proficient at relevant strategies, and apply these methods to save taxes and realize the maximization of enterprise value while considering the actual situation.

  17. Marketing and sales planning in the energy economy - too detailed, too expensive and of no avail?; Marketing- und Vertriebsplanung in der Energiewirtschaft - zu detailliert, zu teuer und ohne Nutzen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenkel, B. [Celesio AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Lueers, T. [Prof. Homburg und Partner, Mannheim (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    Every year an important task returns to the sales departments, that is, putting target figures together for the coming year. While there was a time when many energy managers had evidently resigned to the annual ritual of short and medium-term operative marketing and sales planning, more recently it has increasingly been called into question again. A frequently heard objection is that the effort invested in planning stands in no reasonable relation to the benefit that can later be derived from the figures. Preparing the figures is considered laborious, their value insignificant and their validity in today's dynamic world usually short-lived. However a recent study shows that power supply companies are often not up to the mark in handling this planning instrument. The authors explain how it can be redesigned to make it an effective control instrument.

  18. New measures of output, labour and capital in industries of the Russian economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskoboynikov, Ilya B.

    2012-01-01

    Russia is an important part of the world economy both now and in the past. Indeed, one would expect an abundance of studies on Russian economic development. In the past, growth and performance in planned economies vis-à-vis the Western world did attract much attention. These types of studies contrib

  19. Economy and culture are dead! Long live economy and culture!

    OpenAIRE

    Castree, N.

    2004-01-01

    This essay critically evaluates the debate in human geography and cognate fields about economy-culture relationships. It takes issue with the terms of the debate, wherein different authors have sought to ground their claims about economy and culture with reference to supposed ‘ontological realities’. Building on the arguments of Don Mitchell (1995; 2000), I argue that economy and culture should be seen as two powerful ideas that help to create the realities they seem only to describe. Eco...

  20. The Effects of Exchange Rate Market in the Economy of Kosova

    OpenAIRE

    Argjira Kadrijaj Dushi; Safet Merovci

    2014-01-01

    From a conducted centralized economy, Kosovo‟s economy became a free market after 1999. This made the economy of Kosovo to face a lot of challenges. One of them and still a topic not studied among Kosovo economists is the Kosovo currency. Kosovo is not yet a member of EU but since 2002 is using euro currency. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using euro currency for the economy of Kosovo? This was not questionable in 2002, because Kosovo was still in the first steps ...

  1. 解析新型城镇化背景下的镇中心区规划--以中山市板芙镇新中心区规划为例%Analysis on the Central Town Planning under the Background of New Urbanization--Taking New Central District Planning of Banfu Town, Zhongshan City as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建武

    2014-01-01

    新型城镇化是以城乡统筹、城乡一体、产城互动、节约集约、生态宜居、和谐发展为基本特征的城镇化,是大中小城市、小城镇、新型农村社区协调发展、互促共进的城镇化。做好镇级中心区规划,将会对城乡一体化起到至关重要的作用。%New urbanization is the urbanization with essential features of urban-rural development balance, urban-rural inte-gration, production and city’s interaction, saving and intensive, ecological and livable and developing harmoniously. With it, cities, smal towns and new- type rural communities develop harmoniously and promote each others. It wil play a crucial role in urban and rural integration to complete the township central planning.

  2. Economies of scale and scope in Vietnamese hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Marcia; Deolalikar, Anil

    2004-07-01

    Hospitals consume a large share of health resources in developing countries, but little is known about the efficiency of their scale and scope. The Ministry of Health of Vietnam and World Bank collected data in 1996 from the largest sample ever surveyed in a developing country. The sample included 654 out of 815 public hospitals, six categories of hospitals and a broad range of sizes. These data were used to estimate total variable cost as a function of multiple products, such as admissions and outpatient visits. We report results for two specifications: (1) estimates with a single variable for beds and (2) estimates with interaction terms for beds and the category of hospital. The coefficient estimates were used to calculate marginal costs, short-run returns to the variable factor, economies of scale, and economies of scope for each category of hospital. There were important differences across categories of hospitals. The measure of economies of scale was 1.09 for central general and 1.05 for central specialty hospitals with a mean of 516 and 226 beds, respectively, indicating roughly constant returns to scale. The measure was well below one for both provincial general and specialty hospitals with a mean of 357 and 192 beds, respectively, indicating large diseconomies of scale. The measure was 1.16 for district hospitals and 0.89 other ministry hospitals indicating modest economies and diseconomies of scale, respectively. There were large economies of scope for central and provincial general hospitals. We conclude that in a system of public hospitals in a developing country that followed an administrative structure, the variable cost function differed significantly across categories of hospitals. Economies of scale and scope depended on the category of the hospital in addition to the number of beds and volume of output. PMID:15087154

  3. A Spatial Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Donald R.; Dingel, Jonathan I.

    2012-01-01

    Leading empiricists and theorists of cities have recently argued that the generation and exchange of ideas must play a more central role in the analysis of cities. This paper develops the first system of cities model with costly idea exchange as the agglomeration force. Our model replicates a broad set of established facts about the cross section of cities. It provides the first spatial equilibrium theory of why skill premia are higher in larger cities, how variation in these premia emerges f...

  4. Gulf of Mexico sales 147 and 150: Central and western planning areas. Draft environmental impact statement. Volume 2. Sections IV.D through IX. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contents: environmental impacts of the proposed actions and alternatives; proposed central gulf sale 147; proposed western gulf sale 150; analysis of a large oil spill; consultation and coordination; bibliography and special references; glossary; appendices

  5. The green economy and sustainable development: an uneasy balance?

    OpenAIRE

    Bina, Olívia

    2013-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (or Rio+20) was conceived at a time of great concern for the health of the world economy. In this atmosphere ‘green economy’ was chosen as one of two central themes for the conference, building on a burgeoning body of literature on the green economy and growth. This research examines the relationship and influence between the double crisis and the rise of ‘greening’ as part of the solution. The aim is to understand what defines and dist...

  6. Remedial investigation/feasibility study Work Plan and addenda for Operable Unit 4-12: Central Facilities Area Landfills II and III at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keck, K.N.; Stormberg, G.J.; Porro, I.; Sondrup, A.J.; McCormick, S.H.

    1993-07-01

    This document is divided into two main sections -- the Work Plan and the addenda. The Work Plan describes the regulatory history and physical setting of Operable Unit 4-12, previous sampling activities, and data. It also identifies a preliminary conceptual model, preliminary remedial action alternatives, and preliminary applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. In addition, the Work Plan discusses data gaps and data quality objectives for proposed remedial investigation activities. Also included are tasks identified for the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) and a schedule of RI/FS activities. The addenda include details of the proposed field activities (Field Sampling Plan), anticipated quality assurance activities (Quality Assurance Project Plan), policies and procedures to protect RI/FS workers and the environment during field investigations (Health and Safety Plan), and policies, procedures, and activities that the Department of Energy will use to involve the public in the decision-making process concerning CFA Landfills II and III RI/FS activities (Community Relations Plan).

  7. Remedial investigation/feasibility study Work Plan and addenda for Operable Unit 4-12: Central Facilities Area Landfills II and III at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is divided into two main sections -- the Work Plan and the addenda. The Work Plan describes the regulatory history and physical setting of Operable Unit 4-12, previous sampling activities, and data. It also identifies a preliminary conceptual model, preliminary remedial action alternatives, and preliminary applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. In addition, the Work Plan discusses data gaps and data quality objectives for proposed remedial investigation activities. Also included are tasks identified for the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) and a schedule of RI/FS activities. The addenda include details of the proposed field activities (Field Sampling Plan), anticipated quality assurance activities (Quality Assurance Project Plan), policies and procedures to protect RI/FS workers and the environment during field investigations (Health and Safety Plan), and policies, procedures, and activities that the Department of Energy will use to involve the public in the decision-making process concerning CFA Landfills II and III RI/FS activities (Community Relations Plan)

  8. Why the New Economy is a Learning Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    In this paper it is shown that the intense focus on the new economy reflected real change as well as 'hype?. The basic reason why new economy-growth could not be seen as sustainable is that introducing advanced technologies can only take place successfully when it is accompanied by organizational...... conclusion it is argued that there is a need for a new type of knowledge and learning oriented Keynesianism in order to get close to the kind of growth rates characterizing the high days of the new economy adventure in the US....... change and competence-building among employees. Any strategy that gives technology an independent role as problem-solver is doomed to fail. Danish data of a unique character are used to demonstrate that the key to economic performance is to promote learning at different levels of the economy. In the...

  9. Colloquium on Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the direction of international relations of the French Senate and the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The topics treated concern: - the present day political-economical situation of Central Asia countries (problem of borders, relations with Russia and China); - the economies of Central Asia countries: short term problems and medium-term perspectives; - the relations with the European Union (political, economical, trade and investments, perspectives); - the European energy stakes of Caspian sea (oil and gas reserves, development of hydrocarbon resources, exploitation and transport constraints, stakes for Europe and France); - TotalFinaElf company in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, enclavement problem); - the economical impacts of the TRACECA pathway (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia). (J.S.)

  10. The Naive Central Banker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Carvalho Griebeler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been in some countries a trend of assigning other functions to central banks besides price stability. The most suggested function to be added to monetary authority’s obligations is to pursue economic growth or full employment. In this paper we characterize the behavior and analyse the optimal monetary policy of, what we call, a naive central banker. We describe the naive behavior as one that does face the inflation-unemployment trade-off, but it tries to minimize both variables simultaneously. Our findings, both under discretion and commitment, indicate that the naive central banker delivers lower expected inflation and inflation variance than the benchmark behavior whenever the economy is rigid enough. However, the degree of conservativeness also affects this result, such that the less conservative the naive policymaker, the more rigidity is necessary.

  11. Analysis of economy selected village

    OpenAIRE

    Sadílková, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor thesis „Analysis of economy of the selected village“ has been dealing with analysis of economy of the village of Kolešovice in the period of six years, from 2005 to 2010. The thesis has been divided in two sections. The first, theoretical, section has been devoted to literary researches related to the topic dealt and to introduction of the village of Kolešovice. The other, practical, section has been dealing with economy of the village. Comparison of incomes and expenses and use ...

  12. The American Economy Towards Stagflation?

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The title of this paper is: “The American Economy Towards Stagflation?” Iain McLeod, Chancellor of the Exchequer in UK in 1965, was the first who formally used the expression stagflation. The word combines “stag” from a stagnating economy and “flation” due to high inflation. In other words stagflation is a recession with the occurrence of high inflation at the same time which was incompatible with traditional macro economy before the 1970`s which suggested that there were a trade-off between ...

  13. New Threat to World Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The aggregate amount of money and credit in the global economy has risen sharply over the past 30 years,with its growth rate and stock far exceeding that of the real economy or real assets of the world.This is the view of Xiang Songzuo,professor at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology,whose opinion was first published in a recent article in China Business News.Xiang said this situation is a real threat to the world economy.Excerpts of his article are reprinted below:

  14. Eyes on the Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    During the annual session of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), China's top advisory body, which started in early March, the 11th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development (2006-10) is in the spotlight for discussion. Economists who are also CPPCC members explain what will be the top issues for China in the next five years. Excerpts follow:

  15. Human trafficking: fighting the illicit economy with the legitimate economy

    OpenAIRE

    Louise Shelley; Christina Bain

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of research on human trafficking, there has been attention paid to the challenges surrounding the illicit economy. In creating new strategies and initiatives on combatting human trafficking, there needs to be more discussion surrounding the legitimate economy and how the business sector can make an impact in the fight against trafficking. Currently, there is a growing movement of businesses that are looking to address human trafficking through training, education, and lead...

  16. Fuel Economy Label and CAFE Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Engine and Vehicle Compliance Certification and Fuel Economy Inventory contains measured emissions and fuel economy compliance information for light duty...

  17. "Why Central Banks (and Money) Rule the Roost"

    OpenAIRE

    Sardoni, Claudio

    2006-01-01

    Some have argued that a significant decrease in the demand for money, due to financial innovations, could imply that central banks are unable to implement effective monetary policies. This paper argues that central banks are always able to influence the economy's interest rates, because their liability is the economy's unit of account. In this sense, central banks "rule the roost." In the 1930s, starting from Keynes's ideas and referring to money in general, Kaldor had followed a similar line...

  18. MARKAL-MACRO: A linked model for energy-economy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARKAL-MACRO is an experiment in model linkage for energy and economy analysis. This new tool is intended as an improvement over existing methods for energy strategy assessment. It is designed specifically for estimating the costs and analyzing the technologies proposed for reducing environmental risks such as global climate change or regional air pollution. The greenhouse gas debate illustrates the usefulness of linked energy-economy models. A central issue is the coupling between economic growth, the level of energy demands, and the development of an energy system to supply these demands. The debate is often connected with alternative modeling approaches. The competing philosophies may be labeled ''top-down macroeconomic'' and ''bottom-up engineering'' perspectives. MARKAL is a systems engineering (physical process) analysis built on the concept of a Reference Energy System (RES). MARKAL is solved by means of dynamic linear programming. In most applications, the end use demands are fixed, and an economically efficient solution is obtained by minimizing the present value of energy system's costs throughout the planning horizon. MACRO is a macroeconomic model with an aggregated view of long-term economic growth. The basis input factors of production are capital, labor and individual forms of energy. MACRO is solved by nonlinear optimization

  19. Comparison of dose distribution between IMRT and 3-DCRT plans to realized SBRT in central Non-small-cell Lung Cancer%中央型肺癌应用IMRT和3-DCRT实现SBRT的剂量学比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李腊枚; 黄高明; 周光华

    2013-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study is through dose studies provide theoretical basis for SBRT used in central lung cancer;to compare the dosimetric distribution of tumor target and surrounding normal tissue be-tween different radiothe-rapy plannings of the non-small-cell lung cancer,Methods The plannings conclued 9-beam DMLC-IMRT,3DCRT,7- beam DMLC-IMRT.Compared the three plannings in the difference of the dosi-metric distribution for the target and normal tissue. Results SBRT can be used in central lung cancer;7beam IM-RT plannings are better in protect the normal tissues. Conclusion SBRT can be used in central lung cancer;Compared to other two plannings ,7 beam IMRT plannings have advatages in clinical,is worth to promotion fur-ther.%  目的:通过剂量学研究为立体定向放疗(SBRT)应用于中央型肺癌提供理论依据;通过比较中央型肺癌在三维适形放疗(3-DCRT)、动态调强放疗(DMLC-IMRT)技术下实现SBRT后肿瘤靶区和周围正常组织的剂量学差异,为SBRT应用于中央型肺癌提供剂量学依据。方法:对近1年内收治的30例中央型非小细胞肺癌患者设计处方剂量和治疗间隔相同的9野IMRT、3-DCRT和7野IMRT立体定向放疗(SBRT)计划,采用剂量体积直方图评价不同计划靶区和正常组织照射剂量以及适形指数(CI)和不均匀性指数(HI)。结果:SBRT应用于中央型肺癌的满足剂量学要求;三组计划比较,7野IMRT较其他两种计划对正常组织的保护性更好。结论:从剂量学角度分析SBRT可以应用于中央型肺癌;7野IMRT计划较其他两种计划在剂量学上更有优势。

  20. Social economy and social enterprise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    2011-01-01

    social economy fit with current strategies in the areas of welfare policies and social service? Is it as a certain type of social entrepreneurship an integral part of a social innovation of the mainstream market economy or is it part of an emerging counter discourse in the sense of a participatory non......The social policy agenda in the decades to come will be marked an ageing population on a global scale and by increased and diversified expectations from citizens in the need of work and social service. Public budgets for social service such as health, education and welfare including social work...... practice will be put under increasing pressure. There is a difference between a social economy approach to the third sector and an approach based upon the notion of a non-profit constraint. Social economy is well positioned as a third sector to play a core role in meeting this urgency. But how does the...