WorldWideScience

Sample records for centrality measures specific

  1. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Smirnov, Alexandre [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  2. Central adiposity rather than total adiposity measurements are specifically involved in the inflammatory status from healthy young adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Hermsdorff, H.H. (H. H.); Zulet, M.A. (María Ángeles); B. Puchau; Martinez, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the potential association of some proinflammatory markers with adiposity (total vs. central) and metabolic features in young adults. Measurements included body composition, lifestyle features, blood biochemical, and selected inflammatory indicators on 154 healthy subjects (53 M/101 F; 21.5 ± 3 years; 22.1 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)). Those subjects with higher waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) showed higher (P 

  3. Measuring Central Bank Communication:

    OpenAIRE

    David Lucca; Francesco Trebbi

    2008-01-01

    We present a new automated, objective and intuitive scoring method to measure the content of central bank communication about future policy rate moves. We apply the methodology to statements released by the Federal Open Market Commitee (FOMC) after monetary policy meetings. Using high-frequency financial data, we find that yields on short-term risk-free nominal rates respond both to changes in policy rates and the content of the statements, whereas, medium and long-term rates only respond to ...

  4. Centrality Measures in Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Francis; Tebaldi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    We show that although the prominent centrality measures in network analysis make use of different information about nodes' positions, they all process that information in an identical way: they all spring from a common family that are characterized by the same simple axioms. In particular, they are all based on a monotonic and additively separable treatment of a statistic that captures a node's position in the network.

  5. Centrality Measures in Urban Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Crucitti, P; Porta, S; Crucitti, Paolo; Latora, Vito; Porta, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Centrality has revealed crucial for understanding the structural order of complex relational networks. Centrality is also relevant for various spatial factors affecting human life and behaviors in cities. We present a comprehensive study of centrality distributions over geographic networks of urban streets. Four different measures of centrality, namely closeness, betweenness, straightness and information, are compared over eighteen 1-square-mile samples of different world cities. Samples are represented by primal geographic graphs, i.e. valued graphs defined by metric rather than topologic distance where intersections are turned into nodes and streets into edges. The spatial behavior of centrality indexes over the networks is investigated graphically by means of colour-coded maps. The results indicate that a spatial analysis, that we term Multiple Centrality Assessment(MCA), grounded not a single but on a set of different centrality indices, allows an extended comprehension of the city structure, nicely captu...

  6. Subset specification of central serotonergic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marten P Smidt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The last decade the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT system has received enormous attention due to its role in regulation of behavior, exemplified by the discovery that increased 5-HT tone in the central nervous system is able to alleviate affective disorders. Here, we review the developmental processes, with a special emphasis on subset specification, leading to the formation of the 5-HT system in the brain. Molecular classification of 5-HT neuronal groups leads to the definition of two independent rostral groups positioned in rhombomere 1 and 2/3 and a caudal group in rhombomere 5-8. In addition, more disperse refinement of these subsets is present as shown by the selective expression of the 5-HT1A autoreceptor, indicating functional diversity between 5-HT subsets. The functional significance of the molecular coding differences is not well known and the molecular basis of described specific connectivity patterns remain to be elucidated. Recent developments in genetic lineage tracing models will provide these data and form a major step-up towards the full understanding of the importance of developmental programming and function of 5-HT neuronal subsets.

  7. Measuring and modeling C flux rates through the central metabolic pathways in microbial communities using position-specific 13C-labeled tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, P.; van Groenigen, K.; Hagerty, S.; Salpas, E.; Fairbanks, D. E.; Hungate, B. A.; KOCH, G. W.; Schwartz, E.

    2012-12-01

    The production of energy and metabolic precursors occurs in well-known processes such as glycolysis and Krebs cycle. We use position-specific 13C-labeled metabolic tracers, combined with models of microbial metabolic organization, to analyze the response of microbial community energy production, biosynthesis, and C use efficiency (CUE) in soils, decomposing litter, and aquatic communities. The method consists of adding position-specific 13C -labeled metabolic tracers to parallel soil incubations, in this case 1-13C and 2,3-13C pyruvate and 1-13C and U-13C glucose. The measurement of CO2 released from the labeled tracers is used to calculate the C flux rates through the various metabolic pathways. A simplified metabolic model consisting of 23 reactions is solved using results of the metabolic tracer experiments and assumptions of microbial precursor demand. This new method enables direct estimation of fundamental aspects of microbial energy production, CUE, and soil organic matter formation in relatively undisturbed microbial communities. We will present results showing the range of metabolic patterns observed in these communities and discuss results from testing metabolic models.

  8. Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main task of CBNM is defined as the specific programme Nuclear Measurements and Reference Materials. In the field of neutron data for standards, for fission and for fusion application, the nuclear charge distribution and odd-even effects for mass, charge and neutron number in the cold spontaneous fission of 252Cf were determined. X- and γ-ray emission probabilities were evaluated in the frame of an IAEA coordinated Research Project. The subthermal fission cross section measurements of 235U, 233U and 239Pu, were finalised. The dependence of the experimental weighting function of C6D6 detectors on thickness of several 56Fe samples was determined. Fusion data studies involved the development of a light-ion telescope with improved time - and energy resolution. Double differential cross-sections of 9Be were analysed. Radionuclide metrology dealt with the response of silicon detectors, as well as with the standardization of 192Ir sources. Project Reference Materials reports the EC Certification of nuclear reference materials 210 (PuO2), 523 (Al), 525 (Nb) and 526 (Nb). Progress was achieved in the preparation of dried solid spikes of uranium and plutonium for undiluted reprocessing input solution analysis. 10B and 6Li deposits were prepared for a redetermination of the neutron lifetime. Preliminary studies on speciation of trace metals in biological fluids were successful. Radioactive waste barrels were analysed by γ-scanning and blood samples were irradiated with 0.6 MeV neutrons. Exploratory research resulted in first measurements of transition radiation properties

  9. Hirsch index as a network centrality measure

    CERN Document Server

    Campiteli, Monica G; Soles, Paulo R C; Soares, Leonardo H D; Kinouchi, Osame

    2010-01-01

    We study the h Hirsch index as a local node centrality measure for complex networks in general. The h index is compared with the Degree centrality (a local measure), the Betweenness and Eigenvector centralities (two non-local measures) in the case of a biological network (Yeast interaction protein-protein network) and a linguistic network (Moby Thesaurus II) as test environments. In both networks, the Hirsch index has poor correlation with Betweenness centrality but correlates well with Eigenvector centrality, specially for the more important nodes that are relevant for ranking purposes, say in Search Machine Optimization. In the thesaurus network, the h index seems even to outperform the Eigenvector centrality measure as evaluated by simple linguistic criteria.

  10. Simulation and calibration of the specific energy loss of the central jet chambers of the H1 detector and measurement of the inclusive D{sup *{+-}} meson cross section in photoproduction at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennekemper, Eva

    2011-12-15

    In this thesis the photoproduction of D{sup *} mesons in ep collisions at HERA is analysed. D{sup *} mesons are detected in the 'golden' decay channel D{sup *} {yields} K{pi}{pi}{sub s} with the H1 detector. Compared to earlier analyses, the systematic uncertainty is reduced due to two main improvements. Firstly, the simulation of the Fast Track Trigger, which is based on tracks measured within the central jet chambers, allows the trigger efficiency dependence of various kinematic variables to be evaluated. Secondly, the use of specific energy loss provides the possibility to suppress the non-resonant background. In order to use particle identification with the specific energy loss in the analysis, the simulation of the specific energy loss in the central jet chambers of the H1 detector is improved and the necessary correction functions and calibrations have been determined. This improved final H1 detector simulation is used to determine the cross section of photoproduction of D{sup *} mesons in the HERA II data sample, which corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 113 pb{sup -1}. The measurement was performed in the kinematic region of Q{sup 2}<2 GeV for the photon virtuality and photon-proton center of mass energies of 100central pseudorapidity range of vertical stroke {eta}(D{sup *}) vertical stroke <1.5 are determined and are compared to leading and next to leading order QCD predictions. (orig.)

  11. Centrality measures for immunization of weighted networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khansari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective immunization of individual communities with minimal cost in vaccination has made great discussion surrounding the realm of complex networks. Meanwhile, proper realization of relationship among people in society and applying it to social networks brings about substantial improvements in immunization. Accordingly, weighted graph in which link weights represent the intensity and intimacy of relationships is an acceptable approach. In this work we employ weighted graphs and a wide variety of weighted centrality measures to distinguish important individuals in contagion of diseases. Furthermore, we propose new centrality measures for weighted networks. Our experimental results show that Radiality-Degree centrality is satisfying for weighted BA networks. Additionally, PageRank-Degree and Radiality-Degree centralities showmoreacceptable performance in targeted immunization of weighted networks.

  12. Centrality measures for networks with community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Naveen; Singh, Anurag; Cherifi, Hocine

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the network structure, and finding out the influential nodes is a challenging issue in large networks. Identifying the most influential nodes in a network can be useful in many applications like immunization of nodes in case of epidemic spreading, during intentional attacks on complex networks. A lot of research is being done to devise centrality measures which could efficiently identify the most influential nodes in a network. There are two major approaches to this problem: On one hand, deterministic strategies that exploit knowledge about the overall network topology, while on the other end, random strategies are completely agnostic about the network structure. Centrality measures that can deal with a limited knowledge of the network structure are of prime importance. Indeed, in practice, information about the global structure of the overall network is rarely available or hard to acquire. Even if available, the structure of the network might be too large that it is too much computationally expensive to calculate global centrality measures. To that end, a centrality measure is proposed here that requires information only at the community level. Indeed, most of the real-world networks exhibit a community structure that can be exploited efficiently to discover the influential nodes. We performed a comparative evaluation of prominent global deterministic strategies together with stochastic strategies, an available and the proposed deterministic community-based strategy. Effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated by performing experiments on synthetic and real-world networks with community structure in the case of immunization of nodes for epidemic control.

  13. Central helium density measurements in PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central helium density in PLT has been deduced from measurements of the ratio of d-3He to d-d fusion reactions during deuterium neutral beam injection. The inward transport time for 3He puffed at the edge plasma was 10 → 30 msec. The decay time of the central 3He density increased with electron density, varying from 0.3 sec to greater than 1.0 sec over the density range of (1 → 5) x 1013 cm-3

  14. Photoplethysmographic measurements from central nervous system tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new system for measuring the oxygen saturation of blood within tissue has been developed, for a number of potential patient monitoring applications. This proof of concept project aims to address the unmet need of real-time measurement of oxygen saturation in the central nervous system (CNS) for patients recovering from neurosurgery or trauma, by developing a fibre optic signal acquisition system for internal placement through small apertures. The development and testing of a two-wavelength optical fibre reflectance photoplethysmography (PPG) system is described together with measurements in rats and preliminary results from a clinical trial of the system in patients undergoing neurosurgery. It was found that good quality red and near-infrared PPG signals could be consistently obtained from the rat spinal cord (n=6) and human cerebral cortex (n=4) using the fibre optic probe. These findings justify further development and clinical evaluation of this fibre optic system

  15. EXPLAINING TRAFFIC FLOW PATTERNS USING CENTRALITY MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Jayasinghe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the capability of centrality parameters of the road network to explain and predict traffic flow by types of vehicles. The case study was conducted in Colombo Metropolitan Area, Sri Lanka. Study used four centrality parameters i.e. connectivity, global integration, local integration and choice; and three analysis methods i.e. topological, metric and angular which introduced by space syntax analysis method to compute network centrality of the road network. Findings of this study stress that, (1 human beings perceive the space mostly from geometrical distance (topological and angular distance in comparison to metric distance. Further to this, it was found that angular distance is more powerful in global level whereas topological distance is more powerful in local level; (2 it is more appropriate to consider the multiple influences from multiple centrality parameters rather being confined to a single best parameter and influence of each parameter varies based on type of vehicles.

  16. Energy-loss measurement with the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the specific energy loss due to ionisation, dE/dx, in a drift chamber is a very important tool for particle identification in final states of reactions between high energetic particles. Such identification requires a well understood dE/dx measurement including a precise knowledge of its uncertainties. Exploiting for the first time the full set of ZEUS data from the HERA operation between 1996 and 2005 twelve detector-related influences affecting the dE/dx measurement of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector have been identified, separately studied and parameterised. A sophisticated iterative procedure has been developed to correct for these twelve effects, which takes into account the correlations between them. A universal parameterisation of the detector-specific Bethe-Bloch curve valid for all particle species has been extracted. In addition, the various contributions to the measurement uncertainty have been disentangled and determined. This yields the best achievable prediction for the single-track dE/dx resolution. For both the analysis of the measured data and the simulation of detector performance, the detailed understanding of the measurement and resolution of dE/dx gained in this work provides a tool with optimum power for particle identification in a physics studies. (orig.)

  17. Energy-loss measurement with the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, D.

    2007-05-15

    The measurement of the specific energy loss due to ionisation, dE/dx, in a drift chamber is a very important tool for particle identification in final states of reactions between high energetic particles. Such identification requires a well understood dE/dx measurement including a precise knowledge of its uncertainties. Exploiting for the first time the full set of ZEUS data from the HERA operation between 1996 and 2005 twelve detector-related influences affecting the dE/dx measurement of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector have been identified, separately studied and parameterised. A sophisticated iterative procedure has been developed to correct for these twelve effects, which takes into account the correlations between them. A universal parameterisation of the detector-specific Bethe-Bloch curve valid for all particle species has been extracted. In addition, the various contributions to the measurement uncertainty have been disentangled and determined. This yields the best achievable prediction for the single-track dE/dx resolution. For both the analysis of the measured data and the simulation of detector performance, the detailed understanding of the measurement and resolution of dE/dx gained in this work provides a tool with optimum power for particle identification in a physics studies. (orig.)

  18. Central pressure appraisal: Clinical validation of a subject-specific mathematical model

    OpenAIRE

    Camporeale, Carlo Vincenzo; Guala, Andrea; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Current evidence suggests that aortic blood pressure has a superior prognostic value with respect to brachial pressure for cardiovascular events, but direct measurement is not feasible in daily clinical practice. Aim The aim of the present study is the clinical validation of a multiscale mathematical model for non-invasive appraisal of central blood pressure from subject-specific characteristics. Methods A total of 51 young male were selected for the present study. Aortic systoli...

  19. Central Pressure Appraisal: Clinical Validation of a Subject-Specific Mathematical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Tosello; Andrea Guala; Dario Leone; Carlo Camporeale; Giulia Bruno; Luca Ridolfi; Franco Veglio; Alberto Milan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Current evidence suggests that aortic blood pressure has a superior prognostic value with respect to brachial pressure for cardiovascular events, but direct measurement is not feasible in daily clinical practice. Aim The aim of the present study is the clinical validation of a multiscale mathematical model for non-invasive appraisal of central blood pressure from subject-specific characteristics. Methods A total of 51 young male were selected for the present study. Aortic systoli...

  20. AMPHIBIAN MITIGATION MEASURES IN CENTRAL-EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    Puky, Miklós

    2003-01-01

    Studies from different continents have proved amphibians to be the most frequently killed vertebrates on roads. In Central-Europe their ratio is between 70 and 88 percent. Local populations are known to become extinct or genetically isolated, and avoidance is also recognised, especially where the road network is dense and the traffi c is intensive. Besides ecological and conservation considerations, amphibian road kills also present a hazard for motorists when amphibians migrate in large numb...

  1. Central frequency measurement of the HLS-II storage ring

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Jiajun; Sun, Baogen; Wu, Fangfang; Cheng, Chaocai; Tang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Central frequency is a key parameter of storage rings. This paper presents the measurement of central frequency of the HLS-II storage ring using the sextupole modulation method. Firstly, the basis of central frequency measurement of the electron storage ring is briefly introduced. Then, the error sources and the optimized measurement method for the HLS-II storage ring are discussed. The workflow of the self-compiled Matlab script used in central frequency measurement is also described. In the end, the results achieved by using two methods to cross-check each other are shown. The measured value of the central frequency demonstrates that the real circumference of the HLS-II storage ring agrees well with the designed value.

  2. Capacitance measurement of magnetic specific heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A. R.; Belanger, D. P.; Nordblad, P.; Jaccarino, V.

    1984-03-01

    A new technique-low frequency capacitance (C) measurement-has been used to study the critical behavior of both isotropic and anisotropic antiferromagnets. We find that dC/dT is accurately proportional to the known magnetic specific heat Cm of FeF2. This indicates that both dɛ/dT and dl/dT scale with Cm. For cubic KNiF3, the critical exponent (Cm=At-α) has been found to be α=-0.151±.004 and A/A'=1.56±0.03. The experiments measured the capacitance of disk-shaped samples with a three-terminal capacitance technique. A ratio transformer bridge was employed, yielding a resolution in ΔC/C of about 10-8. The quality of the results is comparable to the best obtainable from conventional Cm and birefringence measurements.

  3. Measurement properties of patient-specific instruments measuring physical function.

    OpenAIRE

    Barten, J.A.; Pisters, M.F.; Huisman, P.A.; Takken, T; Veenhof, C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify patient-specific self-assessment instruments, which measure physical function in patients with musculoskeletal disorders and to evaluate the descriptive properties and the psychometric qualities of these instruments. Study Design and Setting: After a systematic search, included instruments were evaluated psychometrically by the checklist “quality criteria for measurement properties of health status instruments.” Results: Twenty-three studies were included, referring to ...

  4. Measurement properties of patient-specific instruments measuring physical function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barten, J.A.; Pisters, M.F.; Huisman, P.A.; Takken, T.; Veenhof, C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify patient-specific self-assessment instruments, which measure physical function in patients with musculoskeletal disorders and to evaluate the descriptive properties and the psychometric qualities of these instruments. Study Design and Setting: After a systematic search, include

  5. Eigenvector-Based Centrality Measures for Temporal Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Dane; Clauset, Aaron; Porter, Mason A; Mucha, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    In the study of static networks, numerous "centrality" measures have been developed to quantify the importances of nodes in networks, and one can express many of these measures in terms of the leading eigenvector of a matrix. With the increasing availability of network data that changes in time, it is important to extend eigenvector-based centrality measures to time-dependent networks. In this paper, we introduce a principled generalization that is valid for any eigenvector-based centrality measure in terms of matrices of size $NT\\times NT$, where the components of the dominant eigenvector of such a matrix describes the centralities of $N$ nodes during $T$ time layers. Our approach relies on coupling centrality values between neighboring time layers with a inter-layer edge, whose weight controls the extent to which centrality trajectories change over time. By studying the limit of strong coupling between layers, we derive expressions for "time-averaged centralities," which are given by the zeroth-order terms ...

  6. MEASUREMENT OF SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify (and quantify the impact of) the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. The heat capacity of the Saltstone waste form is one of the important properties of Saltstone mixes that was last measured at SRNL in 1997. It is therefore important to develop a core competency for rapid and accurate analysis of the specific heat capacity of the Saltstone mixes in order to quantify the impact of compositional and operational variations on this property as part of the variability study. The heat capacity, coupled with the heat of hydration data obtained from isothermal calorimetry for a given Saltstone mix, can be used to predict the maximum temperature increase in the cells within the vaults of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The temperature increase controls the processing rate and the pour schedule. The maximum temperature is also important to the performance properties of the Saltstone. For example, in mass pours of concrete or grout of which Saltstone is an example, the maximum temperature increase and the maximum temperature difference (between the surface and the hottest location) are controlled to ensure durability of the product and prevent or limit the cracking caused by the thermal gradients produced during curing. This report details the development and implementation of a method for the measurement of the heat capacities of Saltstone mixes as well as the heat capacities of the cementitious materials of the premix and the simulated salt solutions used to batch the mixes. The developed method utilizes the TAM Air isothermal calorimeter and takes advantage of the sophisticated heat flow measurement capabilities of the instrument. Standards and reference materials were identified and used to validate the procedure and ensure accuracy of testing. Heat capacities of Saltstone mixes were

  7. An approach to measuring rotatability in central composite designs

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Ohaegbulem; Polycarp Chigbu

    2015-01-01

    An approach to measure design rotatability and a measure, that quantifies the percentage of rotatability (from 0 to 100) in the central composite designs are introduced. This new approach is quite different from the ones provided by previous authors which assessed design rotatability by the viewing of tediously obtained contour diagrams. This new approach has not practical limitations, and the measure is very easy to compute. Some examples were used to express this approach.

  8. Effects of physical exercise on central nervous system functions: a review of brain region specific adaptations

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Julie A; Corrigan, Frances; Baune, Bernhard T

    2015-01-01

    Pathologies of central nervous system (CNS) functions are involved in prevalent conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, depression, and Parkinson’s disease. Notable pathologies include dysfunctions of circadian rhythm, central metabolism, cardiovascular function, central stress responses, and movement mediated by the basal ganglia. Although evidence suggests exercise may benefit these conditions, the neurobiological mechanisms of exercise in specific brain regions involved in these important ...

  9. Range-limited Centrality Measures in Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ercsey-Ravasz, Maria; Chawla, Nitesh V; Toroczkai, Zoltan

    2011-01-01

    Here we present a range-limited approach to centrality measures in both non-weighted and weighted directed complex networks. We introduce an efficient method that generates for every node and every edge its betweenness centrality based on shortest paths of lengths not longer than $\\ell = 1,...,L$ in case of non-weighted networks, and for weighted networks the corresponding quantities based on minimum weight paths with path weights not larger than $w_{\\ell}=\\ell \\Delta$, $\\ell=1,2...,L=R/\\Delta$. These measures provide a systematic description on the positioning importance of a node (edge) with respect to its network neighborhoods 1-step out, 2-steps out, etc. up to including the whole network. We show that range-limited centralities obey universal scaling laws for large non-weighted networks. As the computation of traditional centrality measures is costly, this scaling behavior can be exploited to efficiently estimate centralities of nodes and edges for all ranges, including the traditional ones. The scaling ...

  10. Central Pressure Appraisal: Clinical Validation of a Subject-Specific Mathematical Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Tosello

    Full Text Available Current evidence suggests that aortic blood pressure has a superior prognostic value with respect to brachial pressure for cardiovascular events, but direct measurement is not feasible in daily clinical practice.The aim of the present study is the clinical validation of a multiscale mathematical model for non-invasive appraisal of central blood pressure from subject-specific characteristics.A total of 51 young male were selected for the present study. Aortic systolic and diastolic pressure were estimated with a mathematical model and were compared to the most-used non-invasive validated technique (SphygmoCor device, AtCor Medical, Australia. SphygmoCor was calibrated through diastolic and systolic brachial pressure obtained with a sphygmomanometer, while model inputs consist of brachial pressure, height, weight, age, left-ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes, and data from a pulse wave velocity study.Model-estimated systolic and diastolic central blood pressures resulted to be significantly related to SphygmoCor-assessed central systolic (r = 0.65 p <0.0001 and diastolic (r = 0.84 p<0.0001 blood pressures. The model showed a significant overestimation of systolic pressure (+7.8 (-2.2;14 mmHg, p = 0.0003 and a significant underestimation of diastolic values (-3.2(-7.5;1.6, p = 0.004, which imply a significant overestimation of central pulse pressure. Interestingly, model prediction errors mirror the mean errors reported in large meta-analysis characterizing the use of the SphygmoCor when non-invasive calibration is performed.In conclusion, multi-scale mathematical model predictions result to be significantly related to SphygmoCor ones. Model-predicted systolic and diastolic aortic pressure resulted in difference of less than 10 mmHg in the 51% and 84% of the subjects, respectively, when compared with SphygmoCor-obtained pressures.

  11. Using Network Centrality Measures to Improve National Journal Classification Lists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuccala, Alesia Ann; Robinson-Garcia, Nicolas; Repiso, Rafael;

    2016-01-01

    (as in the latter). This can create a few problems. Based on a sample of Library and Information Science publications, the aim of this paper is to examine both the Danish and Spanish classification lists, and determine the potential use of network centrality measures for identifying possible...

  12. Commentary on "Measurement of Central Aspects of Scientific Research"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewison, Grant

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the author's critique on "Measurement of Central Aspects of Scientific Research: Performance, Interdisciplinarity, Structure," by Anthony F. J. van Raan. It also presents a summary of recent work by the Leiden bibliometrics group, which van Raan has led so ably for more than 15 years. The group has established an excellent…

  13. Airborne Doppler measurements of the central California extended sea breeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    One data acquisition flight was executed in the late summer of 1984. The flight paths were designed to obtain measurements of the extended sea breeze penetration into the central valley of California over several hours. Data from this flight are being processed at Marshall Space Flight Center prior to release for analysis.

  14. Variability in stream flow and specific discharge along three headwater streams in central Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payn, R. A.; Gooseff, M. N.; Jencso, K.; McGlynn, B. L.

    2008-12-01

    Specific discharge is commonly used to quantify the runoff at a watershed outlet with respect to the watershed area. However, little is known about how specific discharge is distributed along stream valleys within watersheds. Analyses of stream flow and specific discharge distributions may provide insight into the interactions of runoff generating processes and stream-subsurface exchange. We compare longitudinal distributions of stream channel flow and specific discharge in 3 mountain headwater streams of the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest in central Montana, comprising 2.6-, 1.4-, and 2.3-km valley lengths with 5.5, 4.0, and 4.5 km2 of total contributing area, respectively. We performed an instantaneous tracer release every 100 m along each valley, and used dilution gauging to estimate stream channel flow from each release. Multiple series of tracer tests were performed during the summer baseflow recession following snowmelt. We used topographic analysis of digital elevation models to quantify sub-basin contributing areas to each location where flow was measured. We then calculated specific discharges by normalizing each estimate of stream channel flow by its corresponding sub-basin contributing area. The study streams demonstrated substantial variability in specific discharge in both space and time. For example, a 1300-m upstream segment showed consistently lower specific discharges than an 800-m downstream segment in the same stream, where the ratio of specific discharges in the upstream segment to specific discharges in the downstream segment generally ranged from 0.7 at higher baseflows to 0.3 at lower baseflows. The differences in specific discharges over the segments were likely driven by both the variability in source water input from contributing areas and the variability in the importance of segment-scale stream-subsurface exchange relative to stream channel flow. We compare the stream flow and specific discharge distributions across space and time

  15. Measuring Language-Specific Phonetic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennen, Ineke; Scobbie, James M.; de Leeuw, Esther; Schaeffler, Sonja; Schaeffler, Felix

    2010-01-01

    While it is well known that languages have different phonemes and phonologies, there is growing interest in the idea that languages may also differ in their "phonetic setting". The term "phonetic setting" refers to a tendency to make the vocal apparatus employ a language-specific habitual configuration. For example, languages may differ in their…

  16. Reliability of impedance cardiography in measuring central haemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Bonde, J; Stadeager, C;

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study described here was to investigate the reliability of impedance cardiography (IC) in measuring cardiac output (CO) and central blood volume. Absolute values and changes in these variables obtained by impedance cardiography and by isotope- or thermodilution techniques were...... healthy subjects and in 25 unmedicated patients with ischaemic heart disease. We obtained significant correlations between absolute values (y = 0.68x + 1.48) and changes (y = 1.00x + 0.0003) in CO measured by IC and isotope- or thermodilution. IC significantly overestimated absolute values of CO (P less...... suitable for repeated measurements in studies on the haemodynamic effects of physiological or pharmacological intervention. Impedance cardiography is sufficiently reliable for comparison of absolute values of CO between different groups of patients. We cannot recommend impedance cardiography for...

  17. Expression of specific chemokines and chemokine receptors in the central nervous system of multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Tani, M; Jensen, J;

    1999-01-01

    Chemokines direct tissue invasion by specific leukocyte populations. Thus, chemokines may play a role in multiple sclerosis (MS), an idiopathic disorder in which the central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory reaction is largely restricted to mononuclear phagocytes and T cells. We asked whether sp...

  18. Measurements of quarkonia with the central detectors of ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Wolfgang

    2008-03-26

    The production of quarkonia, the bound state of an heavy quark with its anti-particle, has for a long time been seen as a key process to understand the properties of nuclear matter in a relativistic heavy-ion collision. This thesis presents studies on the production of quarkonia in heavy-ion collisions at the new Large Hadron collider (LHC). The focus is set on the decay of J/Psi and Upsilon-states into their di-electronic decay channel, measured within the central detectors of the ALICE detector. (orig.)

  19. Measurements of quarkonia with the central detectors of ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of quarkonia, the bound state of an heavy quark with its anti-particle, has for a long time been seen as a key process to understand the properties of nuclear matter in a relativistic heavy-ion collision. This thesis presents studies on the production of quarkonia in heavy-ion collisions at the new Large Hadron collider (LHC). The focus is set on the decay of J/Psi and Upsilon-states into their di-electronic decay channel, measured within the central detectors of the ALICE detector. (orig.)

  20. Central Corneal Thickness Measurement by Ultrasound versus Orbscan II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Amir; Ziai, Hossein

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To compare Orbscan II and ultrasonic pachymetry for measurement of central corneal thickness (CCT) in eyes scheduled for keratorefractive surgery. Methods CCT was measured using Orbscan II (Bausch & Lomb, USA) and then by ultrasonic pachymetry (Tomey SP-3000, Tomey Ltd, Japan) in 100 eyes of 100 patients with no history of ocular surgery scheduled for excimer laser refractive surgery. Results Mean CCT was 544.7±35.5 (range 453–637) μm by ultrasonic pachymetry versus 546.9±41.6 (range 435–648) μm measured by Orbscan II applying an acoustic factor of 0.92 (P=0.14). The standard deviation of measurements was greater with Orbscan pachymetry but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion CCT measurements by Orbscan II (applying an acoustic factor) and by ultrasonic pachymetry are not significantly different; however, when CCT readings by Orbscan II are in the lower range, it is advisable to recheck the measurements using ultrasonic pachymetry. PMID:23479527

  1. Specificity of Compensatory Reserve and Tissue Oxygenation as Early Predictors of Tolerance to Progressive Reductions in Central Blood Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jeffrey T; Janak, Jud C; Hinojosa-Laborde, Carmen; Convertino, Victor A

    2016-09-01

    We previously reported that measurements of muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) and the compensatory reserve index (CRI) provided earlier indication of reduced central blood volume than standard vital signs (e.g., blood pressure, heart rate, arterial oxygen saturation). In the present study, we hypothesized that the CRI would provide greater sensitivity and specificity to detect progressive decrease in central circulating blood volume compared with SmO2. Continuous noninvasive measures of CRI (calculated from feature changes in the photoplethysmographic arterial waveforms) were collected from 55 healthy volunteer subjects before and during stepwise lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to the onset of hemodynamic decompensation. Near infrared spectroscopy was used on the forearm to obtain deep SmO2, hydrogen ion concentration ([H]), and hemoglobin volume (HbT; decreases reflect vasoconstriction). CRI decreased by 97% in a linear fashion across progressive blood volume loss, with no clinically significant alterations in vital signs. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) for the CRI was 0.91, with a sensitivity of 0.87 and specificity of 0.80, when predicting decompensation at progressive levels of LBNP. In comparison, SmO2, [H], and HbT had significantly lower ROC AUC, sensitivity and specificity values for detecting the same outcome. Consistent with our hypothesis, CRI detected central hypovolemia with significantly greater specificity than measures of tissue metabolism. Single measurement of CRI may enable more accurate triage, while CRI monitoring may allow for earlier detection of casualty deterioration. PMID:27058052

  2. A New Centrality Measure for Tracking Online Community in Social Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.N. purohit

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a centrality measurement and analysis of the social networks for tracking online community. The tracking of single community in social networks is commonly done using some of the centrality measures employed in social network community tracking. The ability that centrality measures have to determine the relative position of a node within a network has been used in previous research work to track communities in social networks using betweenness, closeness and degree centrality measures. It introduces a new metric K-path centrality, and a randomized algorithm for estimating it, and shows empirically that nodes with high K-path centrality have high node betweenness centrality.

  3. Measuring Offence-Specific Forgiveness in Marriage: The Marital Offence-Specific Forgiveness Scale (MOFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleari, F. Giorgia; Regalia, Camillo; Fincham, Frank D.

    2009-01-01

    Three studies involving 328 married couples were conducted to validate the Marital Offence-Specific Forgiveness Scale, a new measure assessing offence-specific forgiveness for marital transgressions. The studies examined the dimensionality; internal consistency; and discriminant, concurrent, and predictive validity of the new measure. The final…

  4. Annual report 89. Central Bureau for nuclear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers CBNM's activities during the second year of the multiannual programme 1988-91. Its contents and form reflect the change in the role and in the working conditions of the Joint Research Center of which CBNM is an institute. The main task of CBNM as covered by the European Communities Framework Programme is defined as the specific programme Nuclear Measurements and Reference Materials. The activities of the CBNM - like for the other institutes of the JRC - are only in part funded as Specific Programme. A small proportion of the specific programme budget is allotted to Exploratory Research, in preparation of possible extensions of existing competences or of potential new activities. Parts of the funding are coming from Support to Other Commission Services and from Work for Third Parties on the basis of contracts. 36 contributions have been presented during a series of international conferences; 24 articles have been submitted for publication in scientific/technical journals

  5. Measured compaction for 24 extensometers in the Central Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the compaction data for 24 extensometers used for observations in the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley...

  6. Measurement of the specific heat capacity of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the objective of implementing graphite calorimetry at the BIPM to measure absorbed dose, an experimental assembly has recently been constructed to measure the specific heat capacity of graphite. A status description of the apparatus and results from the first measurements are given. The outcome is discussed and the experimental uncertainty is reviewed. (authors)

  7. Measurement of the specific heat capacity of graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picard, S.; Burns, D.T.; Roger, P

    2006-01-15

    With the objective of implementing graphite calorimetry at the BIPM to measure absorbed dose, an experimental assembly has recently been constructed to measure the specific heat capacity of graphite. A status description of the apparatus and results from the first measurements are given. The outcome is discussed and the experimental uncertainty is reviewed. (authors)

  8. A New Centrality Measure for Tracking Online Community in Social Network

    OpenAIRE

    G. N. Purohit; Sanjiv Sharma

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a centrality measurement and analysis of the social networks for tracking online community. The tracking of single community in social networks is commonly done using some of the centrality measures employed in social network community tracking. The ability that centrality measures have to determine the relative position of a node within a network has been used in previous research work to track communities in social networks using betweenness, closeness and degree central...

  9. Long term aerosol and trace gas measurements in Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Rizzo, Luciana V.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-04-01

    The central region of the Amazonian forest is a pristine region in terms of aerosol and trace gases concentrations. In the wet season, Amazonia is actually one of the cleanest continental region we can observe on Earth. A long term observational program started 20 years ago, and show important features of this pristine region. Several sites were used, between then ATTO (Amazon Tall Tower Observatory) and ZF2 ecological research site, both 70-150 Km North of Manaus, receiving air masses that traveled over 1500 km of pristine tropical forests. The sites are GAW regional monitoring stations. Aerosol chemical composition (OC/EC and trace elements) is being analysed using filters for fine (PM2.5) and coarse mode aerosol as well as Aerodyne ACSM (Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitors). VOCs are measured using PTR-MS, while CO, O3 and CO2 are routinely measured. Aerosol absorption is being studied with AE33 aethalometers and MAAP (Multi Angle Absorption Photometers). Aerosol light scattering are being measured at several wavelengths using TSI and Ecotech nephelometers. Aerosol size distribution is determined using scanning mobility particle sizer at each site. Lidars measure the aerosol column up to 12 Km providing the vertical profile of aerosol extinction. The aerosol column is measures using AERONET sun photometers. In the wet season, organic aerosol comprises 75-85% of fine aerosol, and sulfate and nitrate concentrations are very low (1-3 percent). Aerosols are dominated by biogenic primary particles as well as SOA from biogenic precursors. Black carbon in the wet season accounts for 5-9% of fine mode aerosol. Ozone in the wet season peaks at 10-12 ppb at the middle of the day, while carbon monoxide averages at 50-80 ppb. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT) is a low 0.05 to 0.1 at 550 nm in the wet season. Sahara dust transport events sporadically enhance the concentration of soil dust aerosols and black carbon. In the dry season (August-December), long range transported

  10. Specific heat measurements on metals up to their melting point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have built an apparatus to measure the specific heat of metal up to the melting point. The method is the pulse-heating method, where the specimen is heated very rapidly (1/10 s) from room temperature to the melting point by a very intense d.c. current (1000 A). The simultaneous measurements of intensity, voltage and temperature in the specimen allows a calculation of the specific heat. We have obtained good results for niobium, tungsten, tantalum and uranium. The accuracy is around 3 to 5 per cent and allows a measurement of the heat of formation of vacancies near the melting temperature. (author)

  11. Of arrows and flows. Causality, determination, and specificity in the Central Dogma of molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Bernardino

    2006-01-01

    From its first proposal, the Central Dogma had a graphical form, complete with arrows of different types, and this form quickly became its standard presentation. In different scientific contexts, arrows have different meanings and in this particular case the arrows indicated the flow of information among different macromolecules. A deeper analysis illustrates that the arrows also imply a causal statement, directly connected to the causal role of genetic information. The author suggests a distinction between two different kinds of causal links, defined as 'physical causality' and 'biological determination', both implied in the production of biological specificity. PMID:18351053

  12. Centrality Measures in Spatial Networks of Urban Streets

    OpenAIRE

    Crucitti, Paolo; Latora, Vito; Porta, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    We study centrality in urban street patterns of different world cities represented as networks in geographical space. The results indicate that a spatial analysis based on a set of four centrality indices allows an extended visualization and characterization of the city structure. Planned and self-organized cities clearly belong to two different universality classes. In particular, self-organized cities exhibit scale-free properties similar to those found in the degree distributions of non-sp...

  13. Predictive Software Measures based on Z Specifications - A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bollin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the effort and quality of a system is a critical step at the beginning of every software project. It is necessary to have reliable ways of calculating these measures, and, it is even better when the calculation can be done as early as possible in the development life-cycle. Having this in mind, metrics for formal specifications are examined with a view to correlations to complexity and quality-based code measures. A case study, based on a Z specification and its implementation in ADA, analyzes the practicability of these metrics as predictors.

  14. Measurement of Temperature Dependent Apparent Specific Heat Capacity in Electrosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaki, Wafaa; Akyildiz, Ali; Borca Tasciuc, Diana-Andra; De, Suvranu

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the measurement of temperature dependent apparent specific heat of ex-vivo porcine liver tissue during radiofrequency alternating current heating for a large temperature range. The difference between spatial and temporal evolution of experimental temperature, obtained during electrosurgical heating by infrared thermometry, and predictions based on finite element modeling was minimized to obtain the apparent specific heat. The model was based on transient heat transfer with internal heat generation considering heat storage along with conduction. Such measurements are important to develop computational models for real time simulation of electrosurgical procedures. PMID:27046573

  15. Simultaneous specific heat and thermal conductivity measurement of individual nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianlin; Wingert, Matthew C.; Moon, Jaeyun; Chen, Renkun

    2016-08-01

    Fundamental phonon transport properties in semiconductor nanostructures are important for their applications in energy conversion and storage, such as thermoelectrics and photovoltaics. Thermal conductivity measurements of semiconductor nanostructures have been extensively pursued and have enhanced our understanding of phonon transport physics. Specific heat of individual nanostructures, despite being an important thermophysical parameter that reflects the thermodynamics of solids, has remained difficult to characterize. Prior measurements were limited to ensembles of nanostructures in which coupling and sample inhomogeneity could play a role. Herein we report the first simultaneous specific heat and thermal conductivity measurements of individual rod-like nanostructures such as nanowires and nanofibers. This technique is demonstrated by measuring the specific heat and thermal conductivity of single ∼600–700 nm diameter Nylon-11 nanofibers (NFs). The results show that the thermal conductivity of the NF is increased by 50% over the bulk value, while the specific heat of the NFs exhibits bulk-like behavior. We find that the thermal diffusivity obtained from the measurement, which is related to the phonon mean free path (MFP), decreases with temperature, indicating that the intrinsic phonon Umklapp scattering plays a role in the NFs. This platform can also be applied to one- and two- dimensional semiconductor nanostructures to probe size effects on the phonon spectra and other transport physics.

  16. The Measurement of Firm-Specific Organization Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Baruch Lev; Suresh Radhakrishnan

    2003-01-01

    We develop a firm-specific measure of organization capital and estimate it for a sample of approximately 250 companies. We test the validity of the organization capital measure within a widely used investment valuation model and show that our organization capital estimate contributes significantly to the explanation of market values of firms, beyond assets in place and expected abnormal earnings (growth potential). We then examine whether capital markets are efficient with respect to organiza...

  17. Cause-specific measures of life years lost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Kragh; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Keiding, Niels

    2013-01-01

    = sum of cause-specific life years lost", and "total number of life years lost before age x + temporary life expectancy between birth and age x = x". Results: The measure is contrasted to alternatives suggested in the demographic literature and all methods are illustrated using Danish and Russian...

  18. Quality control of the concentration measurement of specific radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The counting efficiency of a gamma spectroscopy chain with a Ge (H.p) detector was measured. The Monte Carlo simulation and standard reference materials, in order to calculate the specific activity from 4 reference materials, and from intercomparison samples were used. The purpose was to evaluate the analytical results obtained in the Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Gamma. (author)

  19. Specific activity measurement of 64Cu: A comparison of methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective specific activity of 64Cu (amount of radioactivity per µmol metal) is important in order to determine purity of a particular 64Cu lot and to assist in optimization of the purification process. Metal impurities can affect effective specific activity and therefore it is important to have a simple method that can measure trace amounts of metals. This work shows that ion chromatography (IC) yields similar results to ICP mass spectrometry for copper, nickel and iron contaminants in 64Cu production solutions. - Highlights: • Comparison of TETA titration, ICP mass spectrometry, and ion chromatography to measure specific activity. • Validates ion chromatography by using ICP mass spectrometry as the “gold standard”. • Shows different types and amounts of metal impurities present in 64Cu

  20. Central Corneal Thickness Measurement by Ultrasound versus Orbscan II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Faramarzi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To compare Orbscan II and ultrasonic pachymetry for measurement of central corneal thickness (CCT in eyes scheduled for keratorefractive surgery. METHODS: CCT was measured using Orbscan II (Bausch & Lomb, USA and then by ultrasonic pachymetry (Tomey SP-3000, Tomey Ltd, Japan in 100 eyes of 100 patients with no history of ocular surgery scheduled for excimer laser refractive surgery. RESULTS: Mean CCT was 544.7±35.5 (range 453-637 µm by ultrasonic pachymetry versus 546.9±41.6 (range 435-648 µm measured by Orbscan II applying an acoustic factor of 0.92 (P=0.14. The standard deviation of measurements was greater with Orbscan pachymetry but the difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: CCT measurements by Orbscan II (applying an acoustic factor and by ultrasonic pachymetry are not significantly different; however, when CCT readings by Orbscan II are in the lower range, it is advisable to recheck the measurements using ultrasonic pachymetry.

  1. Plethysmographic measurements of specific airway resistance in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Nielsen, Kim G

    2005-01-01

    Validated methods for lung function measurements in young children are lacking. Plethysmographic measurement of specific airway resistance (sRaw) provides such a method applicable from 2 years of age. sRaw gauges airway resistance from the measurements of the pressure changes driving the airflow...... also been documented by this technique, and sRaw has recently been used in longitudinal studies of young children with chronic pulmonary diseases. Future developments should provide improved algorithms for thermal correction of the respired volumes and adapt the equipment to the special needs of young...

  2. Specific problems of temperature measurement in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of examples are given based on the WWER reactor design which serve for a discussion on problems of measuring temperature in nuclear power plants. Attention is devoted to specific features, the choice and placement of temperature sensors, the impact of radiation on the properties of the measured medium and on the accuracy of measuring temperature with thermocouples. A brief description is presented of the present state of temperature measurement in light-water reactors in the world, namely the temperature of fuel, cladding and coolant. Also characterized is the development of new types of temperature sensors, namely thermocouples based on tungsten-rhenium alloys, noise thermometers, ion temperature sensors and the application of ultrasound for measuring temperature in the reactor core. (Z.M.). 10 refs

  3. Absolute and specific measures of research group excellence

    CERN Document Server

    Mryglod, O; Holovatch, Yu; Berche, B

    2012-01-01

    A desirable goal of scientific management is to introduce, if it exists, a simple and reliable way to measure the scientific excellence of publicly-funded research institutions and universities to serve as a basis for their ranking and financing. While citation-based indicators and metrics are easily accessible, they are far from being universally accepted as way to automate or inform evaluation processes or to replace evaluations based on peer review. Here we consider absolute measurements of research excellence at an amalgamated, institutional level and specific measures of research excellence as performance per head. Using biology research institutions in the UK as a test case, we examine the correlations between peer-review-based and citation-based measures of research excellence on these two scales. We find that citation-based indicators are very highly correlated with peer-evaluated measures of group strength but are poorly correlated with group quality. Thus, and almost paradoxically, our analysis indi...

  4. Evaluation of Alternative Centrality Measure Algorithm For Tracking Online Community In Social Network

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjiv Sharma, G.N. purohit

    2012-01-01

    Network centrality is used to identify the most important/active people at the center of a network or those that are well connected. The tracking of single community in social networks is commonly done using some of the centrality measures employed in social network .The betweenness centrality measures has been used in SCAN (Social Cohesion Analysis of Network) method to track communities in social networks. This paper evaluates new alternative eigenvector centrali...

  5. Species-Specific Responses of Carnivores to Human-Induced Landscape Changes in Central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Nicolás; Lucherini, Mauro; Fortin, Daniel; Casanave, Emma B.

    2016-01-01

    The role that mammalian carnivores play in ecosystems can be deeply altered by human-driven habitat disturbance. While most carnivore species are negatively affected, the impact of habitat changes is expected to depend on their ecological flexibility. We aimed to identify key factors affecting the habitat use by four sympatric carnivore species in landscapes of central Argentina. Camera trapping surveys were carried out at 49 sites from 2011 to 2013. Each site was characterized by 12 habitat attributes, including human disturbance and fragmentation. Four landscape gradients were created from Principal Component Analysis and their influence on species-specific habitat use was studied using Generalized Linear Models. We recorded 74 events of Conepatus chinga, 546 of Pseudalopex gymnocercus, 193 of Leopardus geoffroyi and 45 of Puma concolor. We found that the gradient describing sites away from urban settlements and with low levels of disturbance had the strongest influence. L. geoffroyi was the only species responding significantly to the four gradients and showing a positive response to modified habitats, which could be favored by the low level of persecution by humans. P. concolor made stronger use of most preserved sites with low proportion of cropland, even though the species also used sites with an intermediate level of fragmentation. A more flexible use of space was found for C. chinga and P. gymnocercus. Our results demonstrate that the impact of human activities spans across this guild of carnivores and that species-specific responses appear to be mediated by ecological and behavioral attributes. PMID:26950300

  6. Temporal and sex-specific variability in Rhinoceros Auklet diet in the central California Current system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, Ryan D.; Beck, Jessie N.; Calleri, David M.; Hester, Michelle M.

    2015-06-01

    We used stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) and compared prey provided to chicks by each sex to evaluate seasonal and sex-specific diets in Rhinoceros Auklets (Cerorhinca monocerata) in the central California Current system during 2012-2013. Mixing models indicated northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) were important prey for adults during fall/winter and juvenile rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) were important prey during incubation both years. Adult trophic level increased between incubation and chick-rearing periods in both years. During 2012, δ15N and δ13C of chick-rearing males and females differed significantly; mixing models indicated that females ate more Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) and less market squid (Doryteuthis opalescens) than males. Likewise, females delivered significantly more Pacific saury and less market squid to chicks than males during 2012. Chick growth (g d- 1) and chick survival to fledging were significantly lower during 2012 than 2013, likely because chicks were fed lesser quality prey or fed less frequently in 2012. Lesser body mass of females during incubation in 2012 indicated sex-specific diet differences may have been related to female energetic constraints. The observed variability in Rhinoceros Auklet diet underscores the importance of managing multiple prey populations in this system so that generalist predators have sufficient resources through changing conditions.

  7. A NEW RECIPE FOR OBTAINING CENTRAL VOLUME DENSITIES OF PRESTELLAR CORES FROM SIZE MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a simple analytical method for estimating the central volume density of prestellar molecular cloud cores from their column density profiles. Prestellar cores feature a flat central part of the column density and volume density profiles of the same size indicating the existence of a uniform-density inner region. The size of this region is set by the thermal pressure force which depends only on the central volume density and temperature of the core, and can provide a direct measurement of the central volume density. Thus, a simple length measurement can immediately yield a central density estimate independent of any dynamical model for the core and without the need for fitting. Using the radius at which the column density is 90% of the central value as an estimate of the size of the flat inner part of the column density profile yields an estimate of the central volume density within a factor of two for well-resolved cores.

  8. Specific heat measurements in KCN:KCL mixed crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An adiabatic calorimeter to perform specific heat measurements of small samples (approximatelly 150 mg) was built. The measurements were taken from 6 to 120 K, iN KCN:KCL mixed crystals, in order to observe the evolution of the antiferroelectric phase transition - that occurs at 83 K in KCN pure. From the experimental results the values of the phase transition critical temperature are found, for some particular concentrations of the mixture, and it was detected that this phase transition disappears with only 10% of Cl-. This result is explained in terms of a change of the potential wells in the crystal. (Author)

  9. Changes in cause-specific mortality during heat waves in central Spain, 1975-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Isidro Juan; Linares, Cristina; Montero, Juan Carlos; Criado-Alvarez, Juan Jose; Díaz, Julio

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between heat waves and mortality has been widely described, but there are few studies using long daily data on specific-cause mortality. This study is undertaken in central Spain and analysing natural causes, circulatory and respiratory causes of mortality from 1975 to 2008. Time-series analysis was performed using ARIMA models, including data on specific-cause mortality and maximum and mean daily temperature and mean daily air pressure. The length of heat waves and their chronological number were analysed. Data were stratified in three decadal stages: 1975-1985, 1986-1996 and 1997-2008. Heat-related mortality was triggered by a threshold temperature of 37 °C. For each degree that the daily maximum temperature exceeded 37 °C, the percentage increase in mortality due to circulatory causes was 19.3 % (17.3-21.3) in 1975-1985, 30.3 % (28.3-32.3) in 1986-1996 and 7.3 % (6.2-8.4) in 1997-2008. The increase in respiratory cause ranged from 12.4 % (7.8-17.0) in the first period, to 16.3 % (14.1-18.4) in the second and 13.7 % (11.5-15.9) in the last. Each day of heat-wave duration explained 5.3 % (2.6-8.0) increase in respiratory mortality in the first period and 2.3 % (1.6-3.0) in the last. Decadal scale differences exist for specific-causes mortality induced by extreme heat. The impact on heat-related mortality by natural and circulatory causes increases between the first and the second period and falls significantly in the last. For respiratory causes, the increase is no reduced in the last period. These results are of particular importance for the estimation of future impacts of climate change on health.

  10. Central RF frequency measurement of the HLS-II storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia-Jun, Zheng; Yong-Liang, Yang; Bao-Gen, Sun; Fang-Fang, Wu; Chao-Cai, Cheng; Kai, Tang; Jun-Hao, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Central RF frequency is a key parameter of storage rings. This paper presents the measurement of central RF frequency of the HLS-II storage ring with the sextupole modulation method. Firstly, the basis of central RF frequency measurement of the electron storage ring is briefly introduced. Then, the error sources and the optimized measurement method for the HLS-II storage ring are discussed. The workflow of a self-compiled Matlab script used in central RF frequency measurement is also described. Finally, the results achieved by using two data processing methods to cross-check each other are shown. The measured value of the central RF frequency demonstrates that the circumference deviation of the HLS-II storage ring is less than 1 mm. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11105141, 11175173) and the upgrade project of Hefei Light Source

  11. Climate Change Impacts on Central China and Adaptation Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yong-Jian; CUI Jiang-Xue; WAN Su-Qin; LIU Min; CHEN Zheng-Hong; LIAO Yu-Fang; WANG Ji-Jun

    2013-01-01

    In Central China, the obvious climate change has happened along with global warming. Based on the observational analysis, the climate change has significant effects, both positive and negative, in every field within the study area, and with the harmful effects far more prevalent. Under the scenario A1B, it is reported that temperature, precipitation, days of heat waves and extreme precipitation intensity will increase at respective rates of 0.38◦C per decade, 12.6 mm per decade, 6.4 d and 47 mm per decade in the 21st century. It is widely believed that these climate changes in the future will result in some apparent impacts on agro-ecosystems, water resources, wetland ecosystem, forest ecosystem, human health, energy sectors and other sensitive fields in Central China. Due to the limited scientific knowledge and researches, there are still some shortages in the climate change assessment methodologies and many uncertainties in the climate prediction results. Therefore, it is urgent and essential to increase the studies of the regional climate change adaptation, extend the research fields, and enhance the studies in the extreme weather and climate events to reduce the uncertainties of the climate change assessments.

  12. Phase Measurement of Cognitive Impairment Specific to Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Carol L., E-mail: armstrongc@email.chop.edu [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neuro-Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Shera, David M. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Lustig, Robert A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Phillips, Peter C. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology and Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Memory impairment is an early-delayed effect of radiotherapy (RT). The prospective longitudinal measurement of the cognitive phase effects from RT was conducted on treated and untreated brain tumor patients. The study design investigated semantic vs. perceptual and visual vs. verbal memory to determine the most disease-specific measure of RT-related changes and understanding of the neurotoxicity from RT to the brain. Methods and Materials: Tests of memory that had previously shown RT-related phasic changes were compared with experimental tests of memory to test hypotheses about cognition targeted to the neural toxicity of RT. The results from 41 irradiated and 29 nonirradiated patients with low-grade, supratentorial tumors were analyzed. The methods controlled for comorbid white matter risk, recurrence, interval after treatment, and age (18-69 years). The effects were examined before RT and at three points after RT to 1 year using a mixed effects model that included interval, group, surgical status, medication use, practice, and individual random effects. Four new tests of memory and other candidate cognitive tests were investigated, and a post hoc analysis of a comprehensive battery of tests was performed to identify the cognitive processes most specific to RT. Results: The RT effects on memory were identified in the treated group only; among the new tests of memory and the complete neurocognitive battery, the RT effects were significant only for delayed recall (p < 0.009) and interval to recognize (p < 0.002). Tumor location was not related to the treatment effect. Memory decline was specific to retrieval of semantic memories; a double dissociation of semantic from perceptual visual memory was demonstrated in the RT group. Conclusions: These results implicate memory dependent on the semantic cortex and the hippocampal memory system. A cognitive measurement that is brief but specific to neural mechanisms is effective and feasible for studies of RT damage.

  13. Phase Measurement of Cognitive Impairment Specific to Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Memory impairment is an early-delayed effect of radiotherapy (RT). The prospective longitudinal measurement of the cognitive phase effects from RT was conducted on treated and untreated brain tumor patients. The study design investigated semantic vs. perceptual and visual vs. verbal memory to determine the most disease-specific measure of RT-related changes and understanding of the neurotoxicity from RT to the brain. Methods and Materials: Tests of memory that had previously shown RT-related phasic changes were compared with experimental tests of memory to test hypotheses about cognition targeted to the neural toxicity of RT. The results from 41 irradiated and 29 nonirradiated patients with low-grade, supratentorial tumors were analyzed. The methods controlled for comorbid white matter risk, recurrence, interval after treatment, and age (18–69 years). The effects were examined before RT and at three points after RT to 1 year using a mixed effects model that included interval, group, surgical status, medication use, practice, and individual random effects. Four new tests of memory and other candidate cognitive tests were investigated, and a post hoc analysis of a comprehensive battery of tests was performed to identify the cognitive processes most specific to RT. Results: The RT effects on memory were identified in the treated group only; among the new tests of memory and the complete neurocognitive battery, the RT effects were significant only for delayed recall (p < 0.009) and interval to recognize (p < 0.002). Tumor location was not related to the treatment effect. Memory decline was specific to retrieval of semantic memories; a double dissociation of semantic from perceptual visual memory was demonstrated in the RT group. Conclusions: These results implicate memory dependent on the semantic cortex and the hippocampal memory system. A cognitive measurement that is brief but specific to neural mechanisms is effective and feasible for studies of RT

  14. Measurement of Central Aspects of Scientific Research: Performance, Interdisciplinarity, Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raan, Anthony F. J.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an overview of measuring science based on a bibliometric methodology. The 2 main lines of this methodology are discussed. First, the measurement of research performance is addressed, including aspects such as interdisciplinarity, collaboration, and knowledge users. It is demonstrated that advanced bibliometric methods are an…

  15. Intrinsic and specific vulnerability of groundwater in central Spain: the risk of nitrate pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Bastida, Juan J.; Arauzo, Mercedes; Valladolid, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The intrinsic vulnerability of groundwater in the Comunidad de Madrid (central Spain) was evaluated using the DRASTIC and GOD indexes. Groundwater vulnerability to nitrate pollution was also assessed using the composite DRASTIC (CD) and nitrate vulnerability (NV) indexes. The utility of these methods was tested by analyzing the spatial distribution of nitrate concentrations in the different aquifers located in the study area: the Tertiary Detrital Aquifer, the Moor Limestone Aquifer, the Cretaceous Limestone Aquifer and the Quaternary Aquifer. Vulnerability maps based on these four indexes showed very similar results, identifying the Quaternary Aquifer and the lower sub-unit of the Moor Limestone Aquifer as deposits subjected to a high risk of nitrate pollution due to intensive agriculture. As far as the spatial distribution of groundwater nitrate concentrations is concerned, the NV index showed the greatest statistical significance ( p < 0.01). This new type of multiplicative model offers greater accuracy in estimations of specific vulnerability with respect to the real impact of each type of land use. The results of this study provide a basis on which to guide the designation of nitrate vulnerable zones in the Comunidad de Madrid, in line with European Union Directive 91/676/EEC.

  16. Identification and Characterization of a Rat Novel Gene RSEP4 Expressed Specifically in Central Nervous System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Dao WANG; Ling-Wei KONG; Zhi-Qin XIE; Yu-Qiu ZHANG; Zhi-Xin LIN; Zhi-Qi ZHAO; Lei YU; Nai-He JING

    2004-01-01

    The low-abundantly expressed genes composed the majorities of the mRNAs expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), and were thought to be important for the normal brain functions. Through differential screening a low-abundance cDNA sublibrary with mRNA from neuropathic pain of chronic constriction injury (CCI) model, we have identified a novel rat gene, rat spinal-cord expression protein 4 gene (RSEP4). The total length ofRSEP4 cDNA is 2006 bp, with a 501 nucleotide open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a 167 amino acid polypeptide. Northern blot revealed that RSEP4 was expressed specifically in the CNS. In situ hybridization showed that the mRNA of RSEP4 was strongly expressed in the CA1, CA2, CA3 and DG regions of hippocampus, the Purkinje cells of cerebellum, and the small sensory neurons of dorsal horn and large motor neurons of ventral horn of spinal cord. Over-expression of RSEP4-EGFP fusion protein in the human embryonic kidney 293T cells showed that RSEP4 protein was mainly localized in the cell cytoplasm. These results suggest that RSEP4 may play some roles in the CNS.

  17. Measuring the specific contact resistance of contacts to semiconductor nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohney, S. E.; Wang, Y.; Cabassi, M. A.; Lew, K. K.; Dey, S.; Redwing, J. M.; Mayer, T. S.

    2005-02-01

    Ohmic contacts to semiconductor nanowires are essential components of many new nanoscale electronic devices. Equations for extracting specific contact resistance (or contact resistivity) from several different test structures have been developed by modeling the metal/semiconductor contact as a transmission line, leading to the development of equations analogous to those used for planar contacts. The advantages and disadvantages of various test structures are discussed. To fabricate test structures using a convenient four-point approach, silicon nanowires have been aligned using field-assisted assembly and contacts fabricated. Finally, specific contact resistances near 5 × 10 -4 Ω cm 2 have been measured for Ti/Au contacts to p-type Si nanowires with diameters of 78 and 104 nm.

  18. Measurement of Spray Drift with a Specifically Designed Lidar System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio, Eduard; Torrent, Xavier; Planas de Martí, Santiago; Solanelles, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Masip, Joan; Ribes-Dasi, Manel; Rosell-Polo, Joan R

    2016-01-01

    Field measurements of spray drift are usually carried out by passive collectors and tracers. However, these methods are labour- and time-intensive and only provide point- and time-integrated measurements. Unlike these methods, the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique allows real-time measurements, obtaining information with temporal and spatial resolution. Recently, the authors have developed the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for spray drift monitoring. This prototype is based on a 1534 nm erbium-doped glass laser and an 80 mm diameter telescope, has scanning capability, and is easily transportable. This paper presents the results of the first experimental campaign carried out with this instrument. High coefficients of determination (R² > 0.85) were observed by comparing lidar measurements of the spray drift with those obtained by horizontal collectors. Furthermore, the lidar system allowed an assessment of the drift reduction potential (DRP) when comparing low-drift nozzles with standard ones, resulting in a DRP of 57% (preliminary result) for the tested nozzles. The lidar system was also used for monitoring the evolution of the spray flux over the canopy and to generate 2-D images of these plumes. The developed instrument is an advantageous alternative to passive collectors and opens the possibility of new methods for field measurement of spray drift. PMID:27070613

  19. Measurement of specifications of x-ray quality for calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The filtered continuous X-rays are often used for the calibration and measurement of the energy response of γ-ray dosemeter and dose ratemeter. These X-rays are easily made and sufficiently available for the measurement which does not require the strictly monoenergetic X-ray beam. It is necessary for the employment of continuous X-rays to specify the X-ray qualities such as representative energy and degree of filtration. This report describes a measurement of some specifications of the X-ray quality for a X-ray generator with 50 -- 120 kV of tube potential and a comparison between existing and ISO-4037 proposing expressions on the X-ray quality. According to the resolution of X-ray spectrum, we made four different X-ray quality sets : Wide, Middle, Narrow, and Extra-narrow spectrum series. The information described here about the filtered X-rays will be of use for the calibration and measurement of energy response of the health physics instruments. (J.P.N.)

  20. Optoacoustic measurement of central venous oxygenation for assessment of circulatory shock: clinical study in cardiac surgery patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Prough, Donald S.; Kinsky, Michael; Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Andrey; Henkel, S. Nan; Seeton, Roger; Salter, Michael G.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2014-03-01

    Circulatory shock is a dangerous medical condition, in which blood flow cannot provide the necessary amount of oxygen to organs and tissues. Currently, its diagnosis and therapy decisions are based on hemodynamic parameters (heart rate, blood pressure, blood gases) and mental status of a patient, which all have low specificity. Measurement of mixed or central venous blood oxygenation via catheters is more reliable, but highly invasive and associated with complications. Our previous studies in healthy volunteers demonstrated that optoacoustic systems provide non-invasive measurement of blood oxygenation in specific vessels, including central veins. Here we report our first results of a clinical study in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients. We used a medical-grade OPO-based optoacoustic system developed in our laboratory to measure in real time blood oxygenation in the internal jugular vein (IJV) of these patients. A clinical ultrasound imaging system (GE Vivid e) was used for IJV localization. Catheters were placed in the IJV as part of routine care and blood samples taken via the catheters were processed with a CO-oximeter. The optoacoustic oxygenation data were compared to the CO-oximeter readings. Good correlation between the noninvasive and invasive measurements was obtained. The results of these studies suggest that the optoacoustic system can provide accurate, noninvasive measurements of central venous oxygenation that can be used for patients with circulatory shock.

  1. Cartographic modeling of heterogeneous landscape for footprint analysis of Eddy Covariance Measurements (Central Forest and Central Chernozem reserves, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Daniil

    2014-05-01

    The topographical, soil and vegetation maps of FLUXNET study areas are widely used for interpretation of eddy covariance measurements, for calibration of biogeochemical models and for making regional assessments of carbon balance. The poster presents methodological problems and results of ecosystem mapping using GIS, remote sensing, statistical and field methods on the example of two RusFluxNet sites in the Central Forest (33° E, 56°30'N) and Central Chernozem (36°10' E, 51°36'N) reserves. In the Central Forest reserve tacheometric measurements were used for topographical and peat surveys of bogged sphagnum spruce forest of 20-hectare area. Its common borders and its areas affected by windfall were determined. The supplies and spatial distribution of organic matter were obtained. The datasets of groundwater monitoring measurements on ten wells were compared with each other and the analysis of spatial and temporal groundwater variability was performed. The map of typical ecosystems of the reserve and its surroundings was created on the basis of analysis of multi-temporal Landsat images. In the Central Chernozem reserve the GNSS topographical survey was used for flux tower footprint mapping (22 ha). The features of microrelief predetermine development of different soils within the footprint. Close relationship between soil (73 drilling site) and terrain attributes (DEM with 2.5 m) allowed to build maps of soils and soil properties: carbon content, bulk density, upper boundary of secondary carbonates. Position for chamber-based soil respiration measurements was defined on the basis of these maps. The detailed geodetic and soil surveys of virgin lands and plowland were performed in order to estimate the effect of agrogenic processes such as dehumification, compaction and erosion on soils during the whole period of agricultural use of Central Chernozem reserve area and around. The choice of analogous soils was based on the similarity of their position within the

  2. Myon Density Measurements with the KASCADE Central Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Antoni, T; Badea, F; Bekk, K; Bernlöhr, K; Blümer, H; Bollmann, E; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Büttner, C; Chilingarian, A A; Daumiller, K; Doll, P; Engler, J; Fessler, F; Gils, H J; Glasstetter, R; Haeusler, R; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Holst, T; Hörandel, J R; Kampert, K H; Kempa, J; Klages, H O; Knapp, J; Kohler, K U; Maier, G; Mathes, H J; Mayer, H J; Milke, J; Müller, M; Oehlschläger, J; Petcu, M; Rebel, H; Risse, M; Roth, M; Schatz, G; Scholz, J; Sokhoyan, S H; Thouw, T J; Ulrich, H; Vulpescu, B; Weber, J H; Wentz, J; Wochele, J; Zabierowski, J; Zagromski, S

    2001-01-01

    Frequency distributions of local muon densities in high-energy extensive air-showers (EAS) are presented as signature of the primary cosmic ray energy spectrum in the knee region. Together with the gross shower variables like shower core position, angle of incidence, and the shower sizes, the KASCADE experiment is able to measure local muon densities for two different muon energy thresholds. The spectra have been reconstructed for various core distances, as well as for particular subsamples, classified on the basis of the shower size ratio N_mu/N_e. The measured density spectra of the total sample exhibit clear kinks reflecting the knee of the primary energy spectrum. While relatively sharp changes of the slopes are observed in the spectrum of EAS with small values of the shower size ratio, no such feature is detected at EAS of large N_mu/N_e ratio in the energy range of 1--10 PeV. Comparing the spectra for various thresholds and core distances with detailed Monte Carlo simulations the validity of EAS simulat...

  3. NA49 Results on Single Particle and Correlation Measurements in Central PB+PB Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F. [and others

    1998-12-01

    Single-particle spectra and two-particle correlation functions measured by the NA49 collaboration in central Pb+Pb collisions at 158 GeV/nucleon are presented. These measurements are used to study the kinetic and chemical freeze-out conditions in heavy ion collisions. We conclude that large baryon stopping, high baryon density and strong transverse radial flow are achieved in central Pb+Pb collisions at the SPS.

  4. Measuring fluctuations in shear stretched DNAs using site specific labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Allen; Graham, Thomas; Loparo, Joseph; Eaves, Joel

    2012-02-01

    We report a new technique for measuring the internal dynamics of surface tethered DNAs in shear flow. Previous studies have used end labeling or intercolating dyes which label the entire length of the DNA. Neither prior method can resolve the internal longitudinal fluctuations of the DNA. Our technique accomplishes this by site specific labeling of five sites in lambda phage DNA using EcoRI labeled with fluorescent quantum dots. We used our technique to determine the two point cross correlation functions of the longitudinal and transverse fluctuations of the DNA under shear flow. Our technique allows us to test current models of the non-equilibrium fluctuations of DNA in shear flow in a way previously inaccessible.

  5. Specific activity measurement of radioelement in construction material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human beings have always been exposed to radiation from both natural and technological sources. The main components of the construction materials produced from earth and thus they contain radioelement naturally exist. The most important source of external radiation exposure in buildings is caused by the gamma rays emitted from members of the uranium and thorium decay chains and 40K occurring naturally in building materials. The aim of this work is to determine the specific activity concentrations (Bq/kg) of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in some building materials used for construction purposes in the houses. The measurement has been performed using gamma ray spectrometer with the NaI(Tl) detector.

  6. The measurement of specific dynamic action in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, D; Koenker, R; Farrell, A P

    2016-01-01

    Specific dynamic action (SDA) is the postprandial increase in oxygen uptake. Whereas it is easy to measure in fishes that remain calm and motionless during the entire digestion period, spontaneous locomotor activity is a frequent problem that leads to overestimation of SDA amplitude and magnitude (area under the curve, bound by the standard metabolic rate, SMR). Few studies have attempted to remove the effect of fish activity on SDA. A new method, non-parametric quantile regression, is described to estimate SDA even when pronounced circadian activity cycles are present. Data from juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua are used to demonstrate its use and advantages compared with traditional techniques. Software (scripts in the R language) is provided to facilitate its use. PMID:26768974

  7. LIDAR Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 mass and chemical ...

  8. Measuring long-term impact based on network centrality: unraveling cinematic citations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Spitz

    Full Text Available Traditional measures of success for film, such as box-office revenue and critical acclaim, lack the ability to quantify long-lasting impact and depend on factors that are largely external to the craft itself. With the growing number of films that are being created and large-scale data becoming available through crowd-sourced online platforms, an endogenous measure of success that is not reliant on manual appraisal is of increasing importance. In this article we propose such a ranking method based on a combination of centrality indices. We apply the method to a network that contains several types of citations between more than 40,000 international feature films. From this network we derive a list of milestone films, which can be considered to constitute the foundations of cinema. In a comparison to various existing lists of 'greatest' films, such as personal favourite lists, voting lists, lists of individual experts, and lists deduced from expert polls, the selection of milestone films is more diverse in terms of genres, actors, and main creators. Our results shed light on the potential of a systematic quantitative investigation based on cinematic influences in identifying the most inspiring creations in world cinema. In a broader perspective, we introduce a novel research question to large-scale citation analysis, one of the most intriguing topics that have been at the forefront of scientific enquiries for the past fifty years and have led to the development of various network analytic methods. In doing so, we transfer widely studied approaches from citation analysis to the the newly emerging field of quantification efforts in the arts. The specific contribution of this paper consists in modelling the multidimensional cinematic references as a growing multiplex network and in developing a methodology for the identification of central films in this network.

  9. Measuring long-term impact based on network centrality: unraveling cinematic citations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Andreas; Horvát, Emőke-Ágnes

    2014-01-01

    Traditional measures of success for film, such as box-office revenue and critical acclaim, lack the ability to quantify long-lasting impact and depend on factors that are largely external to the craft itself. With the growing number of films that are being created and large-scale data becoming available through crowd-sourced online platforms, an endogenous measure of success that is not reliant on manual appraisal is of increasing importance. In this article we propose such a ranking method based on a combination of centrality indices. We apply the method to a network that contains several types of citations between more than 40,000 international feature films. From this network we derive a list of milestone films, which can be considered to constitute the foundations of cinema. In a comparison to various existing lists of 'greatest' films, such as personal favourite lists, voting lists, lists of individual experts, and lists deduced from expert polls, the selection of milestone films is more diverse in terms of genres, actors, and main creators. Our results shed light on the potential of a systematic quantitative investigation based on cinematic influences in identifying the most inspiring creations in world cinema. In a broader perspective, we introduce a novel research question to large-scale citation analysis, one of the most intriguing topics that have been at the forefront of scientific enquiries for the past fifty years and have led to the development of various network analytic methods. In doing so, we transfer widely studied approaches from citation analysis to the the newly emerging field of quantification efforts in the arts. The specific contribution of this paper consists in modelling the multidimensional cinematic references as a growing multiplex network and in developing a methodology for the identification of central films in this network. PMID:25295877

  10. The effects of node exclusion on the centrality measures in graph models of interacting economic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Marco Antonio Leonel; Yoneyama, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    This work concerns the study of the effects felt by a network as a whole when a specific node is perturbed. Many real world systems can be described by network models in which the interactions of the various agents can be represented as an edge of a graph. With a graph model in hand, it is possible to evaluate the effect of deleting some of its edges on the architecture and values of nodes of the network. Eventually a node may end up isolated from the rest of the network and an interesting problem is to have a quantitative measure of the impact of such an event. For instance, in the field of finance, the network models are very popular and the proposed methodology allows to carry out "what if" tests in terms of weakening the links between the economic agents, represented as nodes. The two main concepts employed in the proposed methodology are (i) the vibrational IC-Information Centrality, which can provide a measure of the relative importance of a particular node in a network and (ii) autocatalytic networks that can indicate the evolutionary trends of the network. Although these concepts were originally proposed in the context of other fields of knowledge, they were also found to be useful in analyzing financial networks. In order to illustrate the applicability of the proposed methodology, a case of study using the actual data comprising stock market indices of 12 countries is presented.

  11. Measuring layer-specific depth-of-focus requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liegl, Bernhard; Gabor, Allen; Brodsky, Colin; Cotte, John; Krishnan, Mahadevaiyer

    2008-03-01

    As the Rayleigh equations already tell us, improvements in imaging resolution often come at the price of a depth-offocus loss. Often we balance the resolution versus DoF dilemma without regard of the imaging layers location in the overall film stack. E.g. often several via or metal layers are processed with the same optical settings despite facing different amount of depth-of-focus requirements. In actuality, however, substrate induced focus variation can vary greatly from layers at the bottom of a film stack to the layers higher up in the film stack. In the age of super-low k1 lithography this variance needs to be taken into account on a layer specific basis when evaluating the resolution versus DoF tradeoff. We have studied substrate induced focus variation for a 45nm technology test-site as function of film stack sequence and spatial frequency, combining various measurement techniques into an overall topography spectrum. These techniques include data extraction from the exposure tools optical leveling sensor, a mechanical air gauge to calibrate the former and interferometric profiling tools. As a result, we can quantify our DoF requirement for a given layer and product and use this information to optimize our process design on a layer-by-layer basis. This work was performed by the Research Alliance Teams at various IBM Research and Development Facilities

  12. The Theory and Measurement of Macroeconomic Disequilibrium in Centrally Planned Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Portes

    1986-01-01

    The paper considers issues in recent research on macroeconomic equilibrium in centrally planned economies. I defend the explicit aggregative, macroeconomic approach in theory, institutional relationships and measurement. It has offered a fresh, coherent framework for the analysis of many Centrally Planned Economies phenomena, opened up a range of possibilities for empirical investigation, and generated several important spinoffs: work on planners' behaviour; insights into CPE policy problems ...

  13. Evaluation of Central Corneal Thickness Measurements by Optical Low Coherence Reflectometry and Contact Ultrasonic Pachymeter

    OpenAIRE

    Kocatürk, Tolga; Erkan, Erol; Çakmak, Harun; Kurt Ömürlü, İmran; Dayanır, Volkan

    2015-01-01

    AbstractObjective: The aim is to compare the central corneal thickness measurements by optical low-coherence reflectometry and contact ultrasonic pachymeter in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome, pseudoexfoliation glaucoma, primary open-angle glaucoma as well as healthy subjects.Materials and Methods: We have made a survey of the data of the patients with glaucoma who had been followed for ten years at the Department of Ophthalmology. 148 eyes of 76 patients who had central corneal thic...

  14. Presence of a central vein within white matter lesions on susceptibility weighted imaging: a specific finding for multiple sclerosis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susceptibility weighted imaging depicts the perivenous extent of multiple sclerosis white matter lesions (MS-WML) in vivo by directly visualizing their centrally running vein. The aim of this study was to investigate the specificity of this finding for MS. Fifteen patients with MS and 15 patients with microangiopathic white matter lesions (mWML) underwent 3T MRI, including a fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence (FLAIR) and a susceptibility weighted angiography (SWAN). All WMLs were identified on FLAIR and assigned to one of the following localizations: supratentorial peripheral, supratentorial periventricular, or infratentorial. Subsequently, the presence of a central vein within these lesions was assessed on SWAN. A total of 711 MS-WMLs and 1,119 m-WMLs were identified on FLAIR, all of which could also be visualized on SWAN. A central vein was detectable in 80% of the MS-WMLs and in 78% of the m-WMLs (in 73% and 76% of the peripheral, in 92% and 94% of the periventricular, and in 71% and 75% of the infratentorial MS-WMLs and m-WMLs, respectively). With regard to the supratentorial peripheral lesions, significantly more m-WMLs showed a central vein compared to the MS-WMLs. For the other localizations, there was no significant difference between the groups with regard to the percentage of lesions with central vein. Our results indicate that the detection of a central vein within a WML should not be considered a specific finding for MS; it is also found in WMLs of other etiologies. (orig.)

  15. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume II. Plant specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, R. E.

    1983-12-31

    The specifications and design criteria for all plant systems and subsystems used in developing the preliminary design of Carrisa Plains 30-MWe Solar Plant are contained in this volume. The specifications have been organized according to plant systems and levels. The levels are arranged in tiers. Starting at the top tier and proceeding down, the specification levels are the plant, system, subsystem, components, and fabrication. A tab number, listed in the index, has been assigned each document to facilitate document location.

  16. The neurosteroid allopregnanolone modulates specific functions in central and peripheral glial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ValerioMagnaghi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the first observations on the existence of “neurosteroids” in the 1980’s, our understanding of the importance of these endogenous steroids in the control of the central and peripheral nervous system has increased progressively. Although most of the observations were made in neuronal cells, equally important are the effects that neurosteroids exert on glial cells. Among the different classes of neurosteroids acting on glial cells, the progesterone 5α-3α metabolite, allopregnanolone, displays a particular mechanism of action involving primarily the modulation of classic GABA receptors. In this review, we focus our attention on allopregnanolone because its effects on the physiology of glial cells of the central and peripheral nervous system are intriguing and could potentially lead to the development of new strategies for neuroprotection and/or regeneration of injured nervous tissues.

  17. The roadmap for estimation of cell-type-specific neuronal activity from non-invasive measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlirova, Hana; Kılıç, Kıvılcım; Tian, Peifang; Sakadžić, Sava; Gagnon, Louis; Thunemann, Martin; Desjardins, Michèle; Saisan, Payam A; Nizar, Krystal; Yaseen, Mohammad A; Hagler, Donald J; Vandenberghe, Matthieu; Djurovic, Srdjan; Andreassen, Ole A; Silva, Gabriel A; Masliah, Eliezer; Kleinfeld, David; Vinogradov, Sergei; Buxton, Richard B; Einevoll, Gaute T; Boas, David A; Dale, Anders M; Devor, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The computational properties of the human brain arise from an intricate interplay between billions of neurons connected in complex networks. However, our ability to study these networks in healthy human brain is limited by the necessity to use non-invasive technologies. This is in contrast to animal models where a rich, detailed view of cellular-level brain function with cell-type-specific molecular identity has become available due to recent advances in microscopic optical imaging and genetics. Thus, a central challenge facing neuroscience today is leveraging these mechanistic insights from animal studies to accurately draw physiological inferences from non-invasive signals in humans. On the essential path towards this goal is the development of a detailed 'bottom-up' forward model bridging neuronal activity at the level of cell-type-specific populations to non-invasive imaging signals. The general idea is that specific neuronal cell types have identifiable signatures in the way they drive changes in cerebral blood flow, cerebral metabolic rate of O2 (measurable with quantitative functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging), and electrical currents/potentials (measurable with magneto/electroencephalography). This forward model would then provide the 'ground truth' for the development of new tools for tackling the inverse problem-estimation of neuronal activity from multimodal non-invasive imaging data.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. PMID:27574309

  18. Niche-specific regulation of central metabolic pathways in a fungal pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Barelle, Caroline J; Priest, Claire L; MacCallum, Donna M.; Gow, Neil AR; Odds, Frank C; Brown, Alistair JP

    2006-01-01

    Summary To establish an infection, the pathogen Candida albicans must assimilate carbon and grow in its mammalian host. This fungus assimilates six-carbon compounds via the glycolytic pathway, and two-carbon compounds via the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis. We address a paradox regarding the roles of these central metabolic pathways in C. albicans pathogenesis: the glyoxylate cycle is apparently required for virulence although glyoxylate cycle genes are repressed by glucose at concentra...

  19. Network centrality measures and systemic risk: An application to the Turkish financial crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzubaş, Tolga Umut; Ömercikoğlu, Inci; Saltoğlu, Burak

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we analyze the performance of several network centrality measures in detecting systemically important financial institutions (SIFI) using data from the Turkish Interbank market during the financial crisis in 2000. We employ various network investigation tools such as volume, transactions, links, connectivity and reciprocity to gain a clearer picture of the network topology of the interbank market. We study the main borrower role of Demirbank in the crash of the banking system with network centrality measures which are extensively used in the network theory. This ex-post analysis of the crisis shows that centrality measures perform well in identifying and monitoring systemically important financial institutions which provide useful insights for financial regulations.

  20. Comparison of Central Corneal Thickness Measurements Obtained with Ultrasonic Pachymetry and Spectral Domain Anterior Segment OCT

    OpenAIRE

    Kirikkaya, Esin Tunca; Akyuz Unsal, Ayşe İpek; Dogramaci, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To compare central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements obtained with Ultrasonic Pachymetry (USP) and Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (AS-OCT).Methods: Seventy eight eyes of thirty nine volunteers between 40-60 ages were recruited in this study. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements, anterior and posterior segment biomicroscopic examinations of all volunteers were performed. CCT measurements were evaluated with Nidek  UP and Zeiss Cirr...

  1. Centrality measures highlight proton traps and access points to proton highways in kinetic Monte Carlo trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Rachel A. [Department of Chemistry, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Haibach, Frederick G. [Confluent Science, Wilbraham, Massachusetts 01095 (United States); Fry, Dana L.; Gomez, Maria A., E-mail: magomez@mtholyoke.edu [Department of Chemistry, Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, Massachusetts 01075 (United States)

    2015-04-21

    A centrality measure based on the time of first returns rather than the number of steps is developed and applied to finding proton traps and access points to proton highways in the doped perovskite oxides: AZr{sub 0.875}D{sub 0.125}O{sub 3}, where A is Ba or Sr and the dopant D is Y or Al. The high centrality region near the dopant is wider in the SrZrO{sub 3} systems than the BaZrO{sub 3} systems. In the aluminum-doped systems, a region of intermediate centrality (secondary region) is found in a plane away from the dopant. Kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) trajectories show that this secondary region is an entry to fast conduction planes in the aluminum-doped systems in contrast to the highest centrality area near the dopant trap. The yttrium-doped systems do not show this secondary region because the fast conduction routes are in the same plane as the dopant and hence already in the high centrality trapped area. This centrality measure complements kMC by highlighting key areas in trajectories. The limiting activation barriers found via kMC are in very good agreement with experiments and related to the barriers to escape dopant traps.

  2. Vertex centrality as a measure of information flow in Italian Corporate Board Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Rosanna

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the governance models of companies listed on the Italian Stock Exchange by using a network approach, which describes the interlinks between boards of directors. Following mainstream literature, I construct a weighted graph representing the listed companies (vertices) and their relationships (weighted edges), the Corporate Board Network; I then apply three different vertex centrality measures: degree, betweenness and flow betweenness. What emerges from the network construction and by applying the degree centrality is a structure with a large number of connections but not particularly dense, where the presence of a small number of highly connected nodes (hubs) is evident. Then I focus on betweenness and flow betweenness; indeed I expect that these centrality measures may give a representation of the intensity of the relationship between companies, capturing the volume of information flowing from one vertex to another. Finally, I investigate the possible scale-free structure of the network.

  3. Measurements of central corneal thickness using two immersion ultrasound techniques and optical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the accuracy of central corneal thickness measurements using ultrasound biomicroscopy, Orbscan II tomography and an Artemis-2 very high frequency ultrasound scanner. Methods: The prospective study was conducted at Eye World Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from September to November 2012. One eye from each of 60 normal subjects was analysed. The central corneal thickness was measured using ultrasound biomicroscopy, Orbscan II tomography and the Artemis-2 very high frequency ultrasound scanner. Results were compared using analysis of variance, repeated-measures analysis of variance and limits of agreement. Results: The mean central corneal thickness was 530.30+-30.75mm, 548.95+-30.33mm and 554.73+-31.97mm for biomicroscopy, tomography and the scanner respectively. The intraobserver repeatability analyses of variance were not significant for the three procedures (p=0.19, 0.23 and 0.41, respectively). A significant difference was noted among the three different methods (p=0.0001). However, comparison among instruments revealed no significant difference between tomography and the scanner (p>0.05), yet significant differences were noted in biomicroscopy vs tomography, and biomicroscopy vs the scanner (p<0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). The mean differences (and upper/lower limits of agreement) for central corneal thickness measurements were 18.92+-40.71 (60.90/-98.70); 24.7+-13.13 (1.00/-50.40), and -5.8+-38.61 (69.90/-81.40) for biomicroscopy vs tomography, biomicroscopy vs scanner, and tomography vs scanner respectively. Conclusions: The central corneal thickness measurements obtained using Orbscan II tomography and the Artemis-2 very high frequency ultrasound scanner can be used interchangeably. However, Orbscan II tomography and the Artemis-2 scanner measurements cannot be used interchangeably with ultrasound biomicroscopy. (author)

  4. Longshore sediment transport rate-measurement and estimation, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Anand, N.M.; Chandramohan, P.; Naik, G.N.

    Measurements of the longshore sediment transport rate (LSTR) along the surf zone at a 4-km-long beach on the central west coast of India were made over a 4-month period. During the study, both the lateral and vertical distributions of the sediment...

  5. Measuring antigen-specific immune responses: 2008 Update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Gratama (Jan-Willem); F. Kern (Florian); F. Manca (Fabrizio); M. Roederer (Mario)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOverall, the last 10 years have seen an explosion in the field of antigen-specific immune response monitoring. As summarized in this issue of Cytometry and at the MASIR conferences, these technologies have provided new insights into the basic biology of the immune system and are beginnin

  6. Analysis of admissibility of central tendency measures to estimate aviation operator progress

    OpenAIRE

    Борсук, Сергій Павлович

    2015-01-01

    Human role in ensuring flight safety in the system " flight crew – aircraft – medium – air traffic service unit" is considered. The possibility of the training process modeling using stochastic models is shown. The components of the stationary stochastic model of the aviation operator training process were determined. Eleven central tendency measures: arithmetic mean, geometric mean, harmonic mean, three previous measures using weight coefficients, median, mode, Tukey's test, trimmed mean, Wi...

  7. Specific Remedy for Specific Problem: Measuring Service Quality in South African Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, Johan; Gbadamosi, Gbolahan

    2010-01-01

    This study commences a process of developing a scale for the measurement of service quality in higher education in South Africa and also examines the relationship between the measures of service quality on the one hand and some other related variables such as intention to leave the university, trust in management of the university and the overall…

  8. 78 FR 22883 - AHRQ Standing Workgroup for Quality Indicator Measure Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... health care quality measures based on ICD-coded administrative data Knowledge of current quality... Measure Specification AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice...

  9. Time Series Classification by Class-Specific Mahalanobis Distance Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Prekopcsák, Zoltán; Lemire, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    To classify time series by nearest neighbors, we need to specify or learn one or several distance measures. We consider variations of the Mahalanobis distance measures which rely on the inverse covariance matrix of the data. Unfortunately --- for time series data --- the covariance matrix has often low rank. To alleviate this problem we can either use a pseudoinverse, covariance shrinking or limit the matrix to its diagonal. We review these alternatives and benchmark them against competitive ...

  10. Dynamics of zinc-65 specific activity and total zinc in benthic fishes on the outer continental shelf off central Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of 65Zn specific zinc activity and total zinc in benthic fishes on the outer continental shelf off central Oregon (USA) were examined. A differential equation that relates specific activity of 65Zn in fish to that in fish food was used to estimate α's (zinc uptake-rate coefficients) for 3 different size classes of the flounder Lyopsetta exilis, a small predator of pelagic Crustacea, and for 1 size class of the flounder Microstromus pacificus, a large predator of infauna. The α's obtained for L. exilis were very close to the α obtained in the laboratory for the flounder Pleuronectes platessa. The α estimated for M. pacificus was very much smaller than the α's estimated for the other two species. A model that related α to predicted weight-specific feeding rates suggested that the smaller α of M. pacificus was caused by a low absorption efficiency of zinc from its prey. Sensitivity studies indicated that time histories of specific activity in the fishes are not sensitive to moderate changes in α. The negative correlation between specific activity in the diet and in the weight of L. exilis was the major cause of the negative correlative between specific activity and weight in this species. (orig./AJ)

  11. Oligosaccharide-specific receptors for gangliosides in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetic ganglioside-derivatized proteins were prepared, radiolabeled, and used as ligands to search for specific receptors on rat brain membranes. Chemical derivatization schemes were designed to covalently link gangliosides (specifically, GT1b) to bovine serum albumin (BSA) via their ceramide portions leaving the glycolipid oligosaccharides intact and limiting the ability of the ganglioside moiety to interact with brain membranes non-specifically by insertion or hydrophobic adsorption. Following characterization and tyrosine-radioiodination, 125I-(GT1b)4 BSA (BSA derivatized with 4 GT1b moieties/protein molecule), revealed a high affinity and saturable binding site on rat brain membranes. Pretreatment of brain membranes with low concentrations of trypsin blocked binding, consistent with the presence of a proteinaceous ganglioside-receptor. The most potent lipid inhibitors of 125I-(GT1b)4BSA binding were the gangliosides GT1b, GD1b, and GQ1b which share common structural features in their oligosaccharide portions; maximal inhibitory potency required a full length gangliotetraose oligosaccharide core and α2-8 linked sialic acid

  12. Hitting bacteria at the heart of the central dogma: sequence-specific inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortensen Kim

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An important objective in developing new drugs is the achievement of high specificity to maximize curing effect and minimize side-effects, and high specificity is an integral part of the antisense approach. The antisense techniques have been extensively developed from the application of simple long, regular antisense RNA (asRNA molecules to highly modified versions conferring resistance to nucleases, stability of hybrid formation and other beneficial characteristics, though still preserving the specificity of the original nucleic acids. These new and improved second- and third-generation antisense molecules have shown promising results. The first antisense drug has been approved and more are in clinical trials. However, these antisense drugs are mainly designed for the treatment of different human cancers and other human diseases. Applying antisense gene silencing and exploiting RNA interference (RNAi are highly developed approaches in many eukaryotic systems. But in bacteria RNAi is absent, and gene silencing by antisense compounds is not nearly as well developed, despite its great potential and the intriguing possibility of applying antisense molecules in the fight against multiresistant bacteria. Recent breakthrough and current status on the development of antisense gene silencing in bacteria including especially phosphorothioate oligonucleotides (PS-ODNs, peptide nucleic acids (PNAs and phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs will be presented in this review.

  13. Direct measurement of specific membrane capacitance in neurons.

    OpenAIRE

    Gentet, L.J.; Stuart, G J; Clements, J D

    2000-01-01

    The specific membrane capacitance (C(m)) of a neuron influences synaptic efficacy and determines the speed with which electrical signals propagate along dendrites and unmyelinated axons. The value of this important parameter remains controversial. In this study, C(m) was estimated for the somatic membrane of cortical pyramidal neurons, spinal cord neurons, and hippocampal neurons. A nucleated patch was pulled and a voltage-clamp step was applied. The exponential decay of the capacitative char...

  14. Impact of Nodal Centrality Measures to Robustness in Software-Defined Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Hegr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the network robustness from the perspective of nodal centrality measures and its applicability in Software-Defined Networking (SDN. Traditional graph characteristics have been evolving during the last century, and numerous of less-conventional metrics was introduced trying to bring a new view to some particular graph attributes. New control technologies can finally utilize these metrics but simultaneously show new challenges. SDN brings the fine-grained and nearly online view of the underlying network state which allows to implement an advanced routing and forwarding. In such situation, sophisticated algorithms can be applied utilizing pre-computed network measures. Since in recent version of SDN protocol OpenFlow (OF has been revived an idea of the fast link failover, the authors in this paper introduce a novel metric, Quality of Alternative Paths centrality (QAP. The QAP value quantifies node surroundings and can be with an advantage utilized in algorithms to indicate more robust paths. The centrality is evaluated using the node-failure simulation at different network topologies in combination with the Quality of Backup centrality measure.

  15. Loss of myelinated axons is specific to the central nervous system in a mouse model of the fetal alcohol syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Parson, S H; Sojitra, N M

    1995-01-01

    We have previously developed a mouse model of the fetal alcohol syndrome, the outcome of which is a late loss of myelinated axons in the optic nerve of offspring of alcohol-treated mice between 9 and 15 wk of age. We have extended this study to investigate whether this axon loss is stable and specific to the central nervous system. Pregnant female (C57BL/6/Wlds x CBA) F1 mice were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of a 25% solution of ethanol (v:w), on d 12 of gestation. Control a...

  16. Measuring financial stress - A country specific stress index for Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Huotari , Jarkko

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, I develop a financial stress index (FSI) for the Finnish financial system. The FSI aims to reflect the functionality of the system and to provide an aggregate measure of financial stress in the money, bond, equity and foreign exchange markets as well as in the banking sector. The FSI is a composite index that combines information from these markets and provides a measure of stress in the financial system as a whole. The FSI has obvious benefits for all participants in the fina...

  17. Measuring the Specific Heat of Metals by Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, William; Minkin, Leonid; Shapovalov, Alexander S.

    2010-01-01

    Three in one? Yes, three standard undergraduate thermodynamics experiments in one, not an oval can of lubricating oil. Previously it has been shown that the PASCO scientific apparatus for measuring coefficients of thermal expansion of metals can also be used to illustrate Newton's law of cooling in the same experiment. Now it will be shown that by…

  18. Design Specifications for a Radiation Tolerant Beam Loss Measurement ASIC

    CERN Document Server

    Venturini, G G; Effinger, E; Zamantzas, C

    2009-01-01

    A novel radiation-hardened current digitizer ASIC is in planning stage, aimed at the acquisition of the current signals from the ionization chambers employed in the Beam Loss Monitoring system at CERN. The purpose is to match and exceed the performance of the existing discrete component design, currently in operation in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The specifications include: a dynamic range of nine decades, defaulting to the 1 pA-1mA range but adjustable by the user, ability to withstand a total integrated dose of 10 kGy at least in 20 years of operation and user selectable integrating windows, as low as 500 ns. Moreover, the integrated circuit should be able to digitize currents of both polarity with a minimum number of external components and without needing any configuration. The target technology is the IBM 130nm CMOS process. The specifications, the architecture choices and the reasons on which they are based upon are discussed in this paper.

  19. Annual progress report on nuclear data 1983 of the Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements, Geel (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this progress report of the Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements at Geel (Belgium) researches related to neutron data and to non-neutron nuclear data are gathered. Neutron data are essentially related to cross-section measurements: for instance, concerning actinides, structural materials as Cr and Fe, fission products. Some studies are classified as concerning standard neutron data. Underlying physics is no forgotten neither than equipment (linear accelerator). Non-neutron nuclear data is concerned essentially with decay studies. Some compilations and evaluations are also given. Improvement of measurement and source preparation techniques is a part of this section

  20. A case of central-nervous-system leukemia with a specific CT finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We encountered a case of CNS involvement in acute T-cell leukemia with a specific CT finding. The patient, a 45-year-old man, had shown the development of consciousness disturbance and so was examined by means of CT scanning. Plain CT scanning showed mild ventricular dilatation and irregular LDA around the posterior horns of the bilateral ventricles. CT scanning after the administration of an intravenous contrast medium showed a marked linear enhancement of the ventricular wall and intraventricular opacification. His consciousness state improved with ventricular drainage, intraventricular MTX administration, and radiotherapy, but he eventually died due to a deterioration of his general condition. The authors speculated about the mechanism of the leukemic subependymal involvement in relation to the clinical course and the findings of a serial CT scan and the autopsy. (author)

  1. A Method for Specific Activity Measurement of 241Am Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the principle of coincidence theory, the specific activity of 241Am solution was determined on 4πα+4πγ counting standard device by γ efficiency extrapolation, and the problems of constant correction coefficients of self-absorption and scattering in α ionization chamber method were solved. The method was based on the alteration of detection efficiency when the height of elevator was altered, and the activity was obtained by γ fitting extrapolation according to detection efficiency. The results of more than 20 alpha radioactive sources by this method in our work are accordant with those of 2πα ionization chamber, and their uncertainties are improved to 0.4%. (authors)

  2. Specificity of Geotechnical Measurements and Practice of Polish Offshore Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogumil Laczynski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As offshore market in Europe grows faster and faster, new sea areas are being managed and new ideas on how to use the sea potential are being developed. In North Sea, where offshore industry conducts intensive expansion since late 1960s, numerous wind farms, oil and gas platforms and pipelines have been put into operation following extensive research, including geotechnical measurement. Recently, a great number of similar projects is under development in Baltic Sea, inter alia in Polish EEZ, natural conditions of which vary from the North Sea significantly. In this paper, those differences are described together with some solutions to problems thereby arising.

  3. Direct measurement of specific membrane capacitance in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentet, L J; Stuart, G J; Clements, J D

    2000-07-01

    The specific membrane capacitance (C(m)) of a neuron influences synaptic efficacy and determines the speed with which electrical signals propagate along dendrites and unmyelinated axons. The value of this important parameter remains controversial. In this study, C(m) was estimated for the somatic membrane of cortical pyramidal neurons, spinal cord neurons, and hippocampal neurons. A nucleated patch was pulled and a voltage-clamp step was applied. The exponential decay of the capacitative charging current was analyzed to give the total membrane capacitance, which was then divided by the observed surface area of the patch. C(m) was 0.9 microF/cm(2) for each class of neuron. To test the possibility that membrane proteins may alter C(m), embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293) were studied before and after transfection with a plasmid coding for glycine receptor/channels. The value of C(m) was indistinguishable in untransfected cells and in transfected cells expressing a high level of glycine channels, indicating that differences in transmembrane protein content do not significantly affect C(m). Thus, to a first approximation, C(m) may be treated as a "biological constant" across many classes of neuron. PMID:10866957

  4. A new closeness centrality measure via effective distance in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yuxian; Gao, Cai; Chen, Xin; Hu, Yong; Sadiq, Rehan; Deng, Yong

    2015-03-01

    Closeness centrality (CC) measure, as a well-known global measure, is widely applied in many complex networks. However, the classical CC presents many problems for flow networks since these networks are directed and weighted. To address these issues, we propose an effective distance based closeness centrality (EDCC), which uses effective distance to replace conventional geographic distance and binary distance obtained by Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm. The proposed EDCC considers not only the global structure of the network but also the local information of nodes. And it can be well applied in directed or undirected, weighted or unweighted networks. Susceptible-Infected model is utilized to evaluate the performance by using the spreading rate and the number of infected nodes. Numerical examples simulated on four real networks are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed EDCC.

  5. Measuring Central Bank Independence and Inflation Targeting in Developed and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Cornel DUMITER

    2009-01-01

    In the economic literature we can identify six widely used indices or measures for legal independence: Bade & Parkin (1988); Alesina (1988, 1989); Grilli, Masciandaro & Tabellini (1991); Eijffinger & Schaling (1993); Cukierman (1992) and Cukierman, Webb & Neyapti (1992).All these indices of legal central bank independence exhibit inverse and significant relation with inflation in industrialized countries but not in developing countries. In developing countries, the actual practices and norms ...

  6. Central corneal thickness and anterior chamber depth measurement by Sirius® Scheimpflug tomography and ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge J; Rosado JL; Díaz-Rey JA; González-Méijome JM

    2013-01-01

    J Jorge,1 JL Rosado,2 JA Díaz-Rey,1 JM González-Méijome11Clinical and Experimental Optometry Research Laboratory, Center of Physics (Optometry), School of Sciences, University of Minho, Braga, 2Opticlinic, Lisboa, PortugalBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the new Sirius® Scheimpflug anterior segment examination device for measurement of central corneal thickness (CCT) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) with that of CCT ...

  7. Domain Specific Language for Magnetic Measurements at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Petrone, C

    2009-01-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is one of the world’s largest and most respected centres for scientific research. Founded in 1954, the CERN Laboratory sits astride the Franco–Swiss border near Geneva. It was one of Europe’s first joint ventures and now has 20 Member States. Its main purpose is fundamental research in partcle physics, namely investigating what the Universe is made of and how it works. At CERN, the design and realization of the new particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), has required a remarkable technological effort in many areas of engineering. In particular, the tests of LHC superconducting magnets disclosed new horizons to magnetic measurements. At CERN, the objectively large R&D effort of the Technolgy Department/Magnets, Superconductors and Cryostats (TE/MSC) group identified areas where further work is required in order to assist the LHC commissioning and start-up, to provide continuity in the instrumentation for the LHC magnets maintenance,...

  8. Combining Body Mass Index With Measures of Central Obesity in the Assessment of Mortality in Subjects With Coronary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Thais; Goel, Kashish; Corrêa de Sá, Daniel;

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based ona combination of body mass index (BMI) with measures of central obesity.......This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based ona combination of body mass index (BMI) with measures of central obesity....

  9. Central obesity measurements predict metabolic syndrome in a retrospective cohort study of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rosety-Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The various diagnostic classifications in the literature concur as regards the important role of abdominal obesity in the onset and progression of metabolic syndrome. Accordingly, this study was aimed at clarifying whether central obesity measurements assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA may predict metabolic syndrome in Spanish postmenopausal women. Material and methods: This historical cohort study included a total of 1326 postmenopausal women aged > 45 years old who had routinely undergone DXA to measure their bone mineral density between january 2006 and january 2011. The regions of interest (ROI envisaged in our study by using DXA were the lumbar regions L1-L4 and L4-L5. At the same time, they underwent a complete medical examination including personal medical history assessment, biochemical blood analysis, blood pressure measurement and anthropometrical evaluation. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed attending to the criteria established by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NECP-ATP-III. Results: During the observation period, 537 women, representing 40.5% of the total studied, met the diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome. L1-L4 and L4-L5 abdominal fat mass determinations were associated with the development of metabolic syndrome in all regression models tested, showing an increasing gradient from the lowest to highest quintile. Conclusion: Central adiposity measurements assessed by DXA, especially L1-L4 region of interest, could be considered a powerful predictor of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.

  10. Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Danish RERTR Program, three fuel elements with LEU U3O8-Al fuel and three fuel elements with LEU U3Si2-Al fuel were manufactured by NUKEM for irradiation testing in the DR-3 reactor at the Risoe National Laboratory in Denmark. The specifications for the elements with U3O8-Al fuel are presented here as an illustration only. Specifications for the elements with U3Si2-Al fuel were very similar. In this example, materials, material numbers, documents numbers, and drawing numbers specific to a single fabricator have been deleted. (author)

  11. Anisotropy magnetic susceptibility measurements of vulcanic rock from merapi mountain in central Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisotropy Magnetic susceptibility indicated a differences of Magnetic susceptibility value of a sample due to the direction or orientation of magnetic field on it. The 22 sample's were taken from lour area around Merapi mountain in central Java and their Anisotropy Magnetic susceptibility were measured by using MS2 Bartington. The 22 sample's shown a high susceptibility value about 8037.5 x 105. Eleven sample's have high anisotropy ( it's anisotropy degree about 16% ). The rest of the sample have an anisotropy degree less than 6% (sample's from pasar bubar, Kali Kuning, Kali Gendong, Kali Gendol Utara). This result give an indication that a part of the sample's can be used for paleomagnetic

  12. Towards measurement of political pressure on central banks in the emerging market economies: the case of the central bank of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim L. Awad

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses whether the legal independence granted to the Central Bank of Egypt (CBE under the latest legislation is factual. I followed Fry’s methodology, which assumes that the level of independence of the central bank is determined by fiscal attributes. In an attempt to develop Fry’s method, I used a simple criterion to assess the central bank’s independence, namely, that the central bank is actually independent if it can fulfill its money supply target. Applying this criterion to the CBE and some other CBs in the developed countries and emerging market economies, we find that: (i the legal independence granted to the CBE under the latest legislation is not factual; although the final objective of monetary policy is to achieve price stability, the CBE failed to fulfill its money supply target and achieve price stability, because it was responsive to political pressure and did not react to fulfill its money supply target; (ii such political pressure on the CBE is due to fiscal attributes, as measured by domestic credit to the government; (iii CBs whose independence is factual, according to our criterion, showed a negative relationship between the legal indices, as measured by the GMT index, and the fiscal attributes measured by DCGY. However, the relationship was anomalous when measured by the rate of inflation

  13. RIDME distance measurements using Gd(iii) tags with a narrow central transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collauto, A; Frydman, V; Lee, M D; Abdelkader, E H; Feintuch, A; Swarbrick, J D; Graham, B; Otting, G; Goldfarb, D

    2016-07-28

    Methods based on pulse electron paramagnetic resonance allow measurement of the electron-electron dipolar coupling between two spin labels. Here we compare the most popular technique, Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER or PELDOR), with the dead-time free 5-pulse Relaxation-Induced Dipolar Modulation Enhancement (RIDME) method for Gd(iii)-Gd(iii) distance measurements at W-band (94.9 GHz, ≈3.5 T) using Gd(iii) tags with a small zero field splitting (ZFS). Such tags are important because of their high EPR sensitivity arising from their narrow central transition. Two systems were investigated: (i) a rigid model compound with an inter-spin distance of 2.35 nm, and (ii) two mutants of a homodimeric protein, both labeled with a DOTA-based Gd(iii) chelate and characterized by an inter-spin distance of around 6 nm, one having a narrow distance distribution and the other a broad distribution. Measurements on the model compound show that RIDME is less sensitive to the complications arising from the failure of the weak coupling approximation which affect DEER measurements on systems characterized by short inter-spin distances between Gd(iii) tags having a narrow central transition. Measurements on the protein samples, which are characterized by a long inter-spin distance, emphasize the complications due to the appearance of harmonics of the dipolar interaction frequency in the RIDME traces for S > 1/2 spin systems, as well as enhanced uncertainties in the background subtraction. In both cases the sensitivity of RIDME was found to be significantly better than DEER. The effects of the experimental parameters on the RIDME trace are discussed. PMID:27355583

  14. Central corneal thickness and anterior chamber depth measurement by Sirius® Scheimpflug tomography and ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, J; Rosado, JL; Díaz-Rey, JA; González-Méijome, JM

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the new Sirius® Scheimpflug anterior segment examination device for measurement of central corneal thickness (CCT) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) with that of CCT measurements obtained by ultrasound pachymetry and ACD measurements obtained by ultrasound biometry, respectively. Methods CCT and ACD was measured in 50 right eyes from 50 healthy subjects using a Sirius Scheimpflug camera, SP100 ultrasound pachymetry, and US800 ultrasound biometry. Results CCT measured with the Sirius was 546 ± 39 μm and 541 ± 35 μm with SP100 ultrasound pachymetry (P = 0.003). The difference was statistically significant (mean difference 4.68 ± 10.5 μm; limits of agreement −15.8 to 25.20 μm). ACD measured with the Sirius was 2.96 ± 0.3 mm compared with 3.36 ± 0.29 mm using US800 ultrasound biometry (P < 0.001). The difference was statistically significant (mean difference −0.40 ± 0.16 mm; limits of agreement −0.72 to 0.07 mm). When the ACD values obtained using ultrasound biometry were corrected according to the values for CCT measured by ultrasound, the agreement increased significantly between both technologies for ACD measurements (mean difference 0.15 ± 0.16 mm; limits of agreement −0.16 to 0.45 mm). Conclusion CCT and ACD measured by Sirius and ultrasound methods showing good agreement between repeated measurements obtained in the same subjects (repeatability) with either instrument. However, CCT and ACD values, even after correcting ultrasound ACD by subtracting the CCT value obtained with either technology should not be used interchangeably. PMID:23467857

  15. Comparison of central corneal thickness measurements between anterior chamber-optical coherence tomography and ultrasonic pachymeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the agreement of central corneal thickness (CCT) measured by anterior chamber-optical coherence tomography (AC-OCT) and ultrasonic pachymeter and provide an objective basis for clinical application of AC-OCT. Methods: CCT of 150 college student volunteers (300 eyes) measured by two devices were obtained. The data was analyzed by paired t test and Pearson correlation analysis. Bland-Altman plot and Mountain plot were used to assess the agreement. Results: The mean CCT values were (530.05 ± 33.611) μm measured by AC-OCT and (543.68 ± 35.088) μm measured by ultrasonic pachymeter. Regression analysis showed a high correlation between the values obtained by both devices (r=0.960, P<0.001). Compared with AC-OCT, ultrasonic pachymeter overestimated the CCT by a mean of 13.62 μm. The two modalities had incomparable results. Conclusion: It is important to be noted in clinical practice that the measurements acquired by these two modalities are not directly interchangeable. However, the CCT measurements by the AC-OCT and ultrasonic pachymeter are highly correlated. AC-OCT is an effective method to observe the changes of the corneal thickness in the long term. (authors)

  16. A new non-specificity measure in evidence theory based on belief intervals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yi; Han Deqiang; Jean Dezert

    2016-01-01

    In the theory of belief functions, the measure of uncertainty is an important concept, which is used for representing some types of uncertainty incorporated in bodies of evidence such as the discord and the non-specificity. For the non-specificity part, some traditional measures use for reference the Hartley measure in classical set theory;other traditional measures use the simple and heuristic function for joint use of mass assignments and the cardinality of focal elements. In this paper, a new non-specificity measure is proposed using lengths of belief intervals, which represent the degree of imprecision. Therefore, it has more intuitive physical meaning. It can be proved that our new measure can be rewritten in a general form for the non-specificity. Our new measure is also proved to be a strict non-specificity measure with some desired properties. Numerical examples, simulations, the related analyses and proofs are provided to show the characteristics and good properties of the new non-specificity definition. An example of an application of the new non-specificity measure is also presented.

  17. Loss of myelinated axons is specific to the central nervous system in a mouse model of the fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parson, S H; Sojitra, N M

    1995-12-01

    We have previously developed a mouse model of the fetal alcohol syndrome, the outcome of which is a late loss of myelinated axons in the optic nerve of offspring of alcohol-treated mice between 9 and 15 wk of age. We have extended this study to investigate whether this axon loss is stable and specific to the central nervous system. Pregnant female (C57BL/6/Wlds x CBA) F1 mice were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of a 25% solution of ethanol (v:w), on d 12 of gestation. Control animals were given a similar volume of saline at the same time. Litters were taken at 12 (n = 18) and 23 (n = 26) wk of age. Optic nerves only from 12-wk-old, and optic, tibial and saphenous nerves from 23-wk-old mice were removed. A systematic, random sampling method was used to estimate the cross-sectional area of whole nerves from semi thin sections, and the numbers and diameters of myelinated axons from ultrathin sections. There were no differences for the optic nerves of 12-wk-old alcohol-treated and control animals. Optic nerves from the alcohol-treated group at 23 wk had smaller cross-sectional areas and approximately 17% fewer myelinated axons than control nerves. These results confirm that axon loss occurs between 12 and 15 wk, and demonstrate that there is no additional loss of myelinated axons between 15 and 23 wk. In contrast, there were no significant differences in cross-sectional area, number of myelinated axons or axon calibre spectra for the tibial and saphenous nerves between the alcohol-treated and control groups. There was thus no evidence of a peripheral neuropathy as has been observed in chronic alcoholic subjects. In this 'binge' model of the fetal alcohol syndrome, a carefully timed dose of alcohol is administered during pregnancy to coincide with a critical period of development of the visual system. The result is a teratogenic effect which is specific to the central nervous system, stable and reproducible, with no obvious effect on the peripheral

  18. Vertical ozone measurements in the troposphere over the Eastern Mediterranean and comparison with Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Kalabokas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Vertical ozone profiles measured in the period 1996–2002 in the framework of the MOZAIC project (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus in Service Aircraft for flights connecting Central Europe to the Eastern Mediterranean basin (Heraklion, Rhodes; Antalya were analysed in order to evaluate the high rural ozone levels recorded in the Mediterranean area during summertime. The 77 flights during summer (JJAS showed significantly (10–12 ppb, 20–40% enhanced ozone mixing ratios in the lower troposphere over the Eastern Mediterranean frequently exceeding the 60 ppb, 8-h EU air quality standard, whereas ozone between 700 hPa and 400 hPa was only slightly (3–5 ppb, 5–10% higher than over central Europe. Analysis of composite weather maps for the high and low ozone cases, as well as back-trajectories and vertical profiles of carbon monoxide, suggest that the main factor leading to high tropospheric ozone values in the area is anticyclonic influence, in combination with a persistent northerly flow in the lower troposphere during summertime over the Aegean. On the other hand the lowest ozone levels are associated with low-pressure systems, especially the extension of the Middle East low over the Eastern Mediterranean area.

  19. Radon measurement works in Dhaka city and central part of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major source of natural radiation that irradiates the human body is primarily due to inhalation of Radon and its short-lived progeny nuclides. It is well known that exposure of population to high concentration of Radon and its daughters for a long period leads to pathological effects like the respiratory functional changes and the occurrence of lung cancer. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (CR-39) are being used for detection and measurement works of radon and its progeny in Bangladesh. Dhaka the capital of Bangladesh and some areas of the central region of Bangladesh are chosen for the present study to measure the Radon concentration level of the country. Dhaka is one of the most populous cities in Bangladesh as well as in the world. High working levels (WL) were found in some locations of Dhaka city specially in the old part of the city where so many ancient building are established and in some villages of the central part of the country. The aim of the study is to prepare a Radon Map of Bangladesh and the results so far obtained have been presented in the paper. (author)

  20. The magnetic field for the ZEUS central detector - analysis and correction of the field measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic field in the central tracking region of the ZEUS-detector - a facility to investigate highly energetic electron-proton-collisions at the HERA-collider at DESY Hamburg - is generated by a superconducting coil and reaches 18 kG (1.8 T). Some of the tracking devices particularly the drift chambers in the proton forward and rear direction (FTD1-3 and RTD) are not fully contained within the coil and therefore situated in a highly inhomogeneous magnetic field: The radial component Br is up to 6.6 kG, maximum gradients are found to be 300 G/cm for δBr/δr. Evaluating the space drifttime relation necessitates a detailed knowledge of the magnetic field. To reach this goal we analysed the field measurements and corrected them for systematic errors. The corrected data were compared with the field calculations (TOSCA-maps). Measurements and calculations are confirmed by studying consistency with Maxwell's equations. The accuracy reached is better than 100 G throughout the forward and central drift chambers (FTD1-3, CTD) and better than 150 G in the RTD. (orig.)

  1. Central Corneal Thickness Measurements in Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Patients: A Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haneen Jabaly-Habib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To measure central corneal thickness (CCT in patients with history of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION. Patients and Methods. Patients older than 40 years with a history of NAION (group 1 were prospectively evaluated including full eye examination and central corneal thickness (CCT pachymetry. Patients with a history of intraocular surgery, corneal disease, glaucoma, and contact lens wear were excluded. Measurements were also performed in a gender and age matched control group (group 2. Results. Thirty-one eyes of 31 NAION patients in group 1 were included and 30 eyes of 30 participants in group 2. There were 15 men in group 1 and 9 in group 2 P=0.141, and mean age of the patients was 59±10 years in group 1 versus 61±11 years in group 2 P=0.708. Mean CCT was 539±30 microns in group 1 and 550±33 microns in group 2 P=0.155. Conclusion. Patients with NAION have no special characteristic of CCT in contrast to the crowded optic disc known to be a significant anatomic risk factor for NAION. More studies should be carried out to investigate CCT and other structure related elements in NAION patients.

  2. CO2 Total Column Variability From Ground-Based FTIR Measurements Over Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylon, J. L.; Stremme, W.; Plaza, E.; Bezanilla, A.; Grutter, M.; Hase, F.; Blumenstock, T.

    2014-12-01

    There are now several space missions dedicated to measure greenhouse gases in order to improve the understanding of the carbon cycle. Ground based measurement sites are of great value in the validation process, however there are only a few stations in tropical latitudes. We present measurements of solar-absorption infrared spectra recorded on two locations over Central Mexico: the High-Altitude Station Altzomoni (19.12 N, 98.65 W), located in the Izta-Popo National Park outside of Mexico City; and the UNAM's Atmospheric Observatory (19.32 N, 99.17 W) in Mexico City. These measurements were performed using a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer FTIR (Bruker, HR 120/5) at Altzomoni and a moderate resolution FTIR (Bruker, Vertex 80) within the city. In this work, we present the first results for total vertical columns of CO2 derived from near-infrared spectra recorded at both locations using the retrieval code PROFFIT. We present the seasonal cycle and variability from the measurements, as well as the full diagnostics of the retrieval in order assess its quality and discuss the differences of both instruments and locations (altitudes, urban vs remote). This work aims to contribute to generate high quality datasets for satellite validation.

  3. Physical measurements including temperature profiles of coastal Waters off Central California in October 2006 (NODC Accession 0019214)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical measurements of Coastal Waters off Central California in October 2006. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, Technical Report NPS-OC-07-002....

  4. Quantitative sediment source attribution with compound-specific isotope analysis in a C3 plant-dominated catchment (central Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alewell, Christine; Birkholz, Axel; Meusburger, Katrin; Schindler Wildhaber, Yael; Mabit, Lionel

    2016-03-01

    As sediment loads impact freshwater systems and infrastructure, their origin in complex landscape systems is of crucial importance for sustainable management of agricultural catchments. We differentiated the sediment source contribution to a lowland river in central Switzerland by using compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA). We found a clear distinction of sediment sources originating from forest and agricultural land use. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to reduce the uncertainty of sediment source attribution in: (i) using compound content (in our case, long-chain fatty acids; FAs) rather than soil organic matter content to transfer δ13C signal of FAs to soil contribution and (ii) restricting the investigation to the long-chain FAs (> C22 : 0) not to introduce errors due to aquatic contributions from algae and microorganisms. Results showed unambiguously that during base flow, agricultural land contributed up to 65 % of the suspended sediments, while forest was the dominant sediment source during high flow. This indicates that connectivity of sediment source areas within the river changes between base and high flow conditions. Uncertainty, which might occur in complex, large-scale studies due to undetected source attribution and/or CSSI signature degradation, is low because of limited data complexity in our study (i.e., two-three sources and two tracers). Our findings are the first published results highlighting (i) significant differences in compound-specific stable isotope (CSSI) signature of sediment sources from land uses dominated by C3 plant cultivation and (ii) the use of these differences to quantify sediment contribution to a small river.

  5. 78 FR 5810 - AHRQ Standing Workgroup for Quality Indicator Measure Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... health care quality measures based on ICD-coded administrative data Knowledge of current quality... Measure Specification AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of... stakeholders, consumers and other users, quality alliances, medical or specialty societies, measure...

  6. Measurement of the 36Cl deposition flux in central Japan: natural background levels and seasonal variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essential parameters for the applications of 36Cl as a tracer in groundwater studies include the initial 36Cl/Cl ratio, at the time of recharge, and/or the natural background deposition flux of 36Cl in the recharge area. To facilitate the hydrological use of 36Cl in central Japan, this study aimed to obtain a precise estimate of the long-term average local 36Cl flux and to characterize its seasonal variability. The 36Cl in precipitation was continuously monitored in Tsukuba, central Japan over a period of >5 years. The 36Cl flux showed a clear seasonal variation with an annual peak during the spring, which was attributed to the seasonal variability of tropopause height. The long-term average 36Cl flux (32 ± 2 atoms m−2 s−1), estimated from the measured data, was consistent with the prediction from the 36Cl latitudinal fallout model scaled using the global mean production rate of 20 atoms m−2 s−1. The initial 36Cl/Cl ratio was estimated to be (41 ± 6) × 10−15, which is similar to that of pre-bomb groundwater in the Tsukuba Upland. An observation period covering an 11-year solar cycle would yield more accurate estimates of the values, given the increased 36Cl flux during the solar minimum. - Highlights: ► We monitored 36Cl in precipitation in central Japan over a period of >5 years. ► The 36Cl flux varied seasonally, with a peak in spring. ► The long-term average 36Cl flux and the initial 36Cl/Cl ratio were 32 ± 2 atoms m−2 s−1 and (41 ± 6) × 10−15, respectively. ► An observation period covering an 11-year solar cycle would yield more accurate estimates of the values, given the increased 36Cl flux during the solar minimum.

  7. Measurement and estimation of photosynthetically active radiation from 1961 to 2011 in Central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 6-Year observations were used to show the temporal variability of PAR and PAR/G. • Dependence of PAR on clearness index was studied in model development. • New developed models performed very well at different time scales. • The new all-weather model provided good estimates of PAR at two other sites. • Long-term variations of PAR from 1961 to 2011 in Central China were analyzed. - Abstract: Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and global solar radiation (G) at WHU, Central China during 2006–2011 were used to investigate the seasonal characteristics of PAR and PAR/G (PAR fraction). Both PAR and PAR fraction showed similar seasonal features that peaked in values during summer and reached their lowest in winter with annual mean values being 22.39 mol m−2 d−1 and 1.9 mol M J−1 respectively. By analyzing the dependence of PAR on cosine of solar zenith angle and clearness index at WHU, an efficient all-weather model was developed for estimating PAR values under various sky conditions, which also produced accepted estimations with high accuracy at Lhasa and Fukang. PAR dataset was then reconstructed from G for 1961–2011 through the new developed model. Annual mean daily PAR was about 23.12 mol m−2 d−1, there was a significant decreasing trend (11.2 mol m−2 per decade) during the last 50 years in Central China, the decreases were sharpest in summer (−24.67 mol m−2 per decade) with relatively small decreases being observed in spring. Meanwhile, results also revealed that PAR began to increase at a rate of 0.1 mol m−2 per year from 1991 to 2011, which was in consistent with variation patterns of global solar radiation in the study area. The proposed all-weather PAR model would be of vital importance for ecological modeling, atmospheric environment, agricultural processes and solar energy application

  8. Comparison of central corneal thickness measured by Lenstar LS900, OrbscanⅡ and ultrasonic pachmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Tao Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the difference of central corneal thickness(CCTmeasured by Lenstar LS900, OrbscahⅡ system and ultrasonic pachmetry, and to evaluate the correlation and consistency of the results for providing a theoretical basis for clinical application.METHODS: The mean value of CCT in 70 eyes of 35 patients measured three times by Lenstar LS900, OrbscahⅡ system and ultrasonic pachmetry underwent statistical analysis. The difference of CCT was compared, and the correlation and consistency of three measurements were analyzed to provide theoretical basis for clinical application. CCT values measured by different methods were analyzed with randomized block variance analysis. LSD-t test was used for pairwise comparison between groups. The correlation of three measurement methods were analyzed by linear correlation analysis, and Bland-Altman was used to analyze the consistency.RESULTS: The mean CCT values measured by Lenstar LS900, OrbscanⅡ and ultrasonic pachmetry were 542.75±40.06, 528.74±39.59, 538.54±40.93μm, respectively. The mean difference of CCT measurement was 4.21±8.78μm between Lenstar LS900 and ultrasonic pachmetry, 14.01±13.39μm between Lenstar LS900 and Orbscan Ⅱ, 9.8±10.57μm between ultrasonic pachmetry and Orbscan Ⅱ. The difference was statistically significant(PP>0.05: There was positive correlation between CCT with Lenstar LS900 and ultrasonic pachmetry(r=0.977, 0.944; PCONCLUSION: There are excellent correlation among Lenstar LS900, Orbscan Ⅱ and ultrasonic pachmetry. Lenstar LS900 can be used as CCT non-contact measurement tool.

  9. Non-specific symbiotic germination of Cynorkis purpurea (Thouars) Kraezl., a habitat-specific terrestrial orchid from the Central Highlands of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafter, M; Yokoya, K; Schofield, E J; Zettler, L W; Sarasan, V

    2016-08-01

    Orchids, particularly terrestrial taxa, rely mostly on basidiomycete fungi in the Cantharellales and Sebacinales that trigger the process of seed germination and/or initiate the full development of the seedling. During the course of development, orchids may associate with the same fungus, or they may enlist other types of fungi for their developmental needs leading to resilience in a natural setting. This study examined in vitro seed germination and seedling developmental behavior of Cynorkis purpurea, a terrestrial orchid from the Central Highlands of Madagascar. This species is mostly restricted to gallery forests in the Itremo Massif, in moist substrate between rocks bordering streams. The main objective was to understand the influence of diverse mycorrhizal fungi on seed germination and further development of C. purpurea. The study aims to compare symbiotic versus asymbiotic germination and seedling development with seeds and fungi collected from a 13-km(2) area in the Itremo region. Seeds collected from the wild were sown with diverse orchid mycorrhizal fungi (OMF) spanning 12 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in three genera (Tulasnella, Ceratobasidium, and Sebacina) acquired from different habitats. Treatments were assessed in terms of the percentage of germinated seeds and fully developed seedlings against those in asymbiotic control media treatments. Overall, OMF significantly improved seedling development within the 12-week experiment period. Sebacina as a genus was the most effective at promoting seedling development of C. purpurea, as well as having the ability to enter into successful symbiotic relationships with orchids of different life forms; this new knowledge may be especially useful for orchid conservation practiced in tropical areas like Madagascar. A Sebacina isolate from an epiphytic seedling of Polystachya concreta was the most effective at inducing rapid seedling development and was among the five that outperformed fungi isolated from roots

  10. Quantifying specific capacity and salinity variability in Amman Zarqa Basin, Central Jordan, using empirical statistical and geostatistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaqour, F; Taany, R; Rimawi, O; Saffarini, G

    2016-01-01

    Modeling groundwater properties is an important tool by means of which water resources management can judge whether these properties are within the safe limits or not. This is usually done regularly and in the aftermath of crises that are expected to reflect negatively on groundwater properties, as occurred in Jordan due to crises in neighboring countries. In this study, specific capacity and salinity of groundwater of B2/A7 aquifer in Amman Zarqa Basin were evaluated to figure out the effect of population increase in this basin as a result of refugee flux from neighboring countries to this heavily populated basin after Gulf crises 1990 and 2003. Both properties were found to exhibit a three-parameter lognormal distribution. The empirically calculated β parameter of this distribution mounted up to 0.39 m(3)/h/min for specific capacity and 238 ppm for salinity. This parameter is suggested to account for the global changes that took place all over the basin during the entire period of observation and not for local changes at every well or at certain localities in the basin. It can be considered as an exploratory result of data analysis. Formal and implicit evaluation followed this step using structural analysis and construction of experimental semivariograms that represent the spatial variability of both properties. The adopted semivariograms were then used to construct maps to illustrate the spatial variability of the properties under consideration using kriging interpolation techniques. Semivariograms show that specific capacity and salinity values are spatially dependent within 14,529 and 16,309 m, respectively. Specific capacity semivariogram exhibit a nugget effect on a small scale (324 m). This can be attributed to heterogeneity or inadequacies in measurement. Specific capacity and salinity maps show that the major changes exhibit a northwest southeast trend, near As-Samra Wastewater Treatment Plant. The results of this study suggest proper management

  11. Three Concepts of Competitiveness Measures for Livestock Production in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Bojnec

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the overview of competitiveness measures applied in measuring competitiveness of livestock production in Central and Eastern European (CEE countries. Three concepts of competitiveness are presented that are based on (i Porter’s diamond of competitive advantage, (ii competitiveness measures based on accountancy data and Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM approach, and (iii competitiveness measures based on international trade data. On the basis of the presented results the paper evaluates competitiveness of livestock production in CEE countries focusing on policy implications of transition and integration of CEE’s countries livestock sectors into the Single European Market. Low international competitiveness In CEE countries is for beef and milk, but with some indices of most recent improvements. Pork production (e.g. in Bulgaria and sheep production (e.g. in Slovakia may become internationally competitive. Less clear pattern is for the poultry sector. Some improvements may arise as result of a deep restructuring, quality, technology and efficiency improvements and rationalisation of costs, including in food processing.

  12. [Evaluation of malaria vector control measures in central Vietnam (1976-1991)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T V; Bui, D B; Mai, V S; Ta, V T; Nguyen, T Q; Tan, N; Nguyen, T

    1996-01-01

    Activities used to control malaria transmission in the pilot station of Vanh Canh in the Binh Dinh Province of central Vietnam from 1976 to 1991 have been evaluated. These activities were: spraying DDT in and around the houses in the villages and the settlements in the fields; spraying lambdacyalothrin in the houses; and use of bed-nets impregnated with permethrin. Their efficacy was measured by the number of fever episodes due to malaria infections among the population. The spraying of DDT in the houses was followed by a reduction of malaria infection by more than 90%. However, spraying of the settlements was not advantageous. The termination of DDT spraying was not followed by an increase of malaria infections. Spraying with lambdacyalothrin was slightly more effective than with pyrimiphos and DDT. The use of pesticide-impregnated bed-nets was efficient, especially in the villages far away from the forest. Thus, these activities can contribute to the control of the malaria endemic in central Vietnam. PMID:8705136

  13. The injection efficiency measurement and analysis for central region model cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hongjuan; Li, Zhenguo; Ge, Tao; Wu, Longcheng; Guan, Fengping; Lv, Yinlong; Wang, Zhenhui; Liu, Gengshou; Zhang, Tianjue; Cai, Hongru

    2010-02-01

    At the China Institute of Atomic Energy, a central region model cyclotron has been constructed, which is dedicated for various experimental verifications to study beam properties. The design features of the ion source and injection line have already been described in other papers. We shall report here the results of the initial beam tests. A wire scanner is employed in the injection line to measure beam transverse sizes and these data can be used to fit the phase plane parameters after the ion source. Based on the beam tests results, the ion source built in 2003 has been improved recently. The improvement is mainly due to the repair of the multicusp field. From the ion source to the exit of the inflector, a transmission efficiency of 93% has been obtained for a continuous and low current input beam. It is also described here the experimental arrangement and the results. PMID:20192449

  14. Practice of Reactivity Measurement at Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest /CRIP/ a series of critical assemblies has been built and investigated since 1960, namely: - ZR-1 and ZR-2 critical assemblies fueled by 10% enriched fuel pins /EK-lo type/ moderated and reflected by light water. Both assemblies had a highly variable lattice pitch. - ZE-3 system fueled by 36% enriched hexagonal-tubular fuel-assemblies /WWR-M type/ moderated by light water and reflected by Be. - ZR-4 solid homogeneous zero-power reactor fueled by 20 % enriched U3O8 dispersed in polyethylene/ and reflected by graphite. When investigating these systems the following methods have been chosen and applied routine for reactivity measurements

  15. Measured Cooling Performance and Potential for Buried Duct Condensation in a 1991 Central Florida Retrofit Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chasar, Dave [Building America Partership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Withers, Charles R. [Building America Partership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-02-01

    FSEC conducted energy performance monitoring of two existing residences in Central Florida that were undergoing various retrofits. These homes were occupied by FSEC researchers and were fully instrumented to provide detailed energy, temperature, and humidity measurements. The data provided feedback about the performance of two levels of retrofit in two types of homes in a hot-humid climate. This report covers a moderate-level retrofit and includes two years of pre-retrofit data to characterize the impact of improvements. The other home is a 'deep energy retrofit' (detailed in a separate report) that has performed at near zero energy with a photovoltaic (PV) system and extensive envelope improvements.

  16. Techniques for Measuring Aerosol Attenuation using the Central Laser Facility at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory in Malarg\\"ue, Argentina, is designed to study the properties of ultra-high energy cosmic rays with energies above 1018 eV. It is a hybrid facility that employs a Fluorescence Detector to perform nearly calorimetric measurements of Extensive Air Shower energies. To obtain reliable calorimetric information from the FD, the atmospheric conditions at the observatory need to be continuously monitored during data acquisition. In particular, light attenuation due to aerosols is an important atmospheric correction. The aerosol concentration is highly variable, so that the aerosol attenuation needs to be evaluated hourly. We use light from the Central Laser Facility, located near the center of the observatory site, having an optical signature comparable to that of the highest energy showers detected by the FD. This paper presents two procedures developed to retrieve the aerosol attenuation of fluorescence light from CLF laser shots. Cross checks between the two methods demonstrate that re...

  17. Central corneal thickness and anterior chamber depth measurement by Sirius® Scheimpflug tomography and ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge J

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available J Jorge,1 JL Rosado,2 JA Díaz-Rey,1 JM González-Méijome11Clinical and Experimental Optometry Research Laboratory, Center of Physics (Optometry, School of Sciences, University of Minho, Braga, 2Opticlinic, Lisboa, PortugalBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the new Sirius® Scheimpflug anterior segment examination device for measurement of central corneal thickness (CCT and anterior chamber depth (ACD with that of CCT measurements obtained by ultrasound pachymetry and ACD measurements obtained by ultrasound biometry, respectively.Methods: CCT and ACD was measured in 50 right eyes from 50 healthy subjects using a Sirius Scheimpflug camera, SP100 ultrasound pachymetry, and US800 ultrasound biometry.Results: CCT measured with the Sirius was 546 ± 39 µm and 541 ± 35 µm with SP100 ultrasound pachymetry (P = 0.003. The difference was statistically significant (mean difference 4.68 ± 10.5 µm; limits of agreement −15.8 to 25.20 µm. ACD measured with the Sirius was 2.96 ± 0.3 mm compared with 3.36 ± 0.29 mm using US800 ultrasound biometry (P < 0.001. The difference was statistically significant (mean difference −0.40 ± 0.16 mm; limits of agreement −0.72 to 0.07 mm. When the ACD values obtained using ultrasound biometry were corrected according to the values for CCT measured by ultrasound, the agreement increased significantly between both technologies for ACD measurements (mean difference 0.15 ± 0.16 mm; limits of agreement −0.16 to 0.45 mm.Conclusion: CCT and ACD measured by Sirius and ultrasound methods showing good agreement between repeated measurements obtained in the same subjects (repeatability with either instrument. However, CCT and ACD values, even after correcting ultrasound ACD by subtracting the CCT value obtained with either technology should not be used interchangeably.Keywords: Scheimpflug corneal tomography, ultrasound biometry, ultrasound pachymetry, limits of agreement

  18. Location of 24 extensometers used to measure compaction in the Central Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset describes the location of 21 extensometers used for observations of subsidence in the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central...

  19. Genetic Covariation Underlying Reading, Language and Related Measures in a Sample Selected for Specific Language Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Logan, Jessica, A. R.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Flax, Judy; Justice, Laura M.; Hou, Liping; BASSETT, ANNE S.; Tallal, Paula; Brzustowicz, Linda M; Bartlett, Christopher W.

    2010-01-01

    Specific language impairment is a developmental language disorder characterized by failure to develop language normally in the absence of a specific cause. Previous twin studies have documented the heritability of reading and language measures as well as the genetic correlation between those measures. This paper presents results from an alternative to the classical twin designs by estimating heritability from extended pedigrees. These pedigrees were previously studied as part of series of mol...

  20. Measurements of thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity with LFA 447 apparatus

    OpenAIRE

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    The LFA 447 can be successfully used for measurements of thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity of various samples. It is especially useful when determining the properties of materials on a very small scale. The matrix measurement mode allows for determining the local properties with a fine resolution, down to 1 millimeter.Special attention needs to be taken when determining the specific heat capacity in the comparative method. First of all, the test and reference sample ...

  1. Mobile LiDAR Measurement for Aerosol Investigation in South-Central Hebei, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    qin, kai; Wu, Lixin; Zheng, Yunhui; Wong Man, Sing; Wang, Runfeng; Hu, Mingyu; Lang, Hongmei; Wang, Luyao; Bai, Yang; Rao, Lanlan

    2016-04-01

    With the rapid industrialization and urbanization in China during the last decades, the increasing anthropogenic pollutant emissions have significantly caused serious air pollution problems which are adversely influencing public health. Hebei is one of the most air polluted provinces in China. In January 2013, an extremely severe and persistent haze episode with record-breaking PM2.5 outbreak affecting hundreds of millions of people occurred over eastern and northern China. During that haze episode, 7 of the top 10 most polluted cities in China were located in the Hebei Province according to the report of China's Ministry of Environmental Protection. To investigate and the spatial difference and to characterize the vertical distribution of aerosol in different regions of south-central Hebei, mobile measurements were carried out using a mini micro pulse LiDAR system (model: MiniMPL) in March 2014. The mobile LiDAR kit consisting of a MiniMPL, a vibration reduction mount, a power inverter, a Windows surface tablet and a GPS receiver were mounted in a car watching though the sunroof opening. For comparison, a fixed measurement using a traditional micro pulse LiDAR system (model: MPL-4B) was conducted simultaneously in Shijiazhuang, the capital of Hebei Province. The equipped car was driven from downtown Shijiazhuang by way of suburban and rural area to downtown Cangzhou, Handan, and Baoding respectively at almost stable speed around 100Km per hour along different routes which counted in total more than 1000Km. The results can be summarized as: 1) the spatial distribution of total aerosol optical depth along the measurement routes in south-central Hebei was controlled by local terrain and population in general, with high values in downtown and suburban in the plain areas, and low values in rural areas along Taihang mountain to the west and Yan mountain to the north; 2) obviously high AODs were obtained at roads crossing points, inside densely populated area and nearby

  2. Surface wave tomography of central and northern Europe from automated inter-station dispersion measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, R. A.; Weidle, C.; Lebedev, S.; Cristiano, L.; Meier, T. M.

    2013-12-01

    With the rapid growth in the no. of seismic stations globally, manual data processing for routine analysis as well as determination of seismic observables becomes more and more impractical. Therefore, automated schemes are inevitable to handle these large data volumes. For surface wave tomography, phase velocity dispersion curves of fundamental mode surface waves yield information on the isotropic as well as anisotropic structure of the crust and upper mantle. We measure inter-station phase velocity dispersion curves through cross correlation of vertical component (Rayleigh wave) and transverse component (Love wave) seismograms. We have developed a scheme to automate this well established inter-station method, which automatically selects the smooth parts of observed phase velocity dispersion curves, and thus obtain path average phase velocity dispersion curve of each inter-station path. After testing various parameters for automation of the procedure we finally confined the method to three parameters only, namely (1) difference of the measured phase velocity curve from a background model, (2) a smoothness constraint and (3) a length criterion. We performed rigorous tests to optimize the parameters and obtained optimal values of these three parameters. We successfully applied the method to more than one hundred thousand inter station paths in central and northern Europe which involved more than one million cross correlations on 20 years of the data of the permanent networks. The method was also tested on temporary deployments e.g. TOR, PASSEQ, SVEKALPKO etc, across Europe. After inversion of the fundamental mode phase velocity dispersion curves for both Rayleigh and Love waves, we obtain high resolution anisotropic phase velocity maps for periods between 10 and 250 seconds with a lateral resolution between about 50 to 100 kilometers. Well known features of upper mantle structure in central Europe are well resolved in our phase velocity maps. Distinct differences

  3. Conformal field theory at central charge c=0: A measure of the indecomposability (b) parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A good understanding of conformal field theory (CFT) at c=0 is vital to the physics of disordered systems, as well as geometrical problems such as polymers and percolation. Steady progress has shown that these CFTs should be logarithmic, with indecomposable operator product expansions, and indecomposable representations of the Virasoro algebra. In one of the earliest papers on the subject, V. Gurarie introduced a single parameter b to quantify this indecomposability in terms of the logarithmic partner t of the stress-energy tensor T. He and A. Ludwig conjectured further that b=-5/8 for polymers and b=5/6 for percolation. While a lot of physics may be hidden behind this parameter - which has also given rise to a lot of discussions - it had remained very elusive up to now, due to the lack of available methods to measure it experimentally or numerically, in contrast say with the central charge. We show in this paper how to overcome the many difficulties in trying to measure b. This requires control of a lattice scalar product, lattice Jordan cells, together with a precise construction of the state L-2|0>. The final result is that b=5/6 for polymers. For percolation, we find that b=-5/8 within an XXZ or supersymmetric representation. In the geometrical representation, we do not find a Jordan cell for L0 at level two (finite-size Hamiltonian and transfer matrices are fully diagonalizable), so there is no b in this case.

  4. LHCb; Measurement of the forward-central $b \\bar{b}$ production asymmetry

    CERN Multimedia

    Salustino Guimarães, V

    2013-01-01

    CDF and D0 collaborations results suggests that the top-quark forward-backward production asymmetry is much larger than the Standard Model (SM) predictions. Measuring the $b \\bar{b}$ asymmetry production would provide constraint on the flavor structure of any model that attempts to explain the CDF and D0 results. A measurement of the forward-central (FC) $b\\bar{b}$ production asymmetry is presented based on the LHCb data collected in 2011 at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$ using selected events that have two identified $b$ jets, one of which is flavor tagged by one muon with high momentum. The FC asymmetry is defined as \\begin{align} A^{b \\bar{b}}_{FC}=\\frac{N(\\Delta y > 0)-N(\\Delta y 0)+N(\\Delta y 100$ GeV the expected asymmetry is about $\\cal{O}$(0.1 %) where gluon fusion which has no asymmetry is less dominant at high mass.

  5. Specifics of the hail parameter measurements using the optical precipitation gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalchikhin, V. V.; Kobzev, A. A.; Korolkov, V. A.; Tikhomirov, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    There are specifics of use of the obtaining and analyzing precipitation particle shadow images method for the hail precipitation investigations. Descriptions of the method and operation of the new optical rain gauge measuring system are presented. There are estimations of the device capabilities and prospects of its use for measurement of hail characteristics.

  6. Agreement of central site measurements and land use regression modeled oxidative potential of PM2.5 with personal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidative potential (OP) of ambient particulate matter (PM) has been suggested as a health-relevant exposure metric. In order to use OP for exposure assessment, information is needed about how well central site OP measurements and modeled average OP at the home address reflect temporal and spatial variation of personal OP. We collected 96-hour personal, home outdoor and indoor PM2.5 samples from 15 volunteers living either at traffic, urban or regional background locations in Utrecht, the Netherlands. OP was also measured at one central reference site to account for temporal variations. OP was assessed using electron spin resonance (OPESR) and dithiothreitol (OPDTT). Spatial variation of average OP at the home address was modeled using land use regression (LUR) models. For both OPESR and OPDTT, temporal correlations of central site measurements with home outdoor measurements were high (R>0.75), and moderate to high (R=0.49–0.70) with personal measurements. The LUR model predictions for OP correlated significantly with the home outdoor concentrations for OPDTT and OPESR (R=0.65 and 0.62, respectively). LUR model predictions were moderately correlated with personal OPDTT measurements (R=0.50). Adjustment for indoor sources, such as vacuum cleaning and absence of fume-hood, improved the temporal and spatial agreement with measured personal exposure for OPESR. OPDTT was not associated with any indoor sources. Our study results support the use of central site OP for exposure assessment of epidemiological studies focusing on short-term health effects. - Highlights: • Oxidative potential (OP) of PM was proposed as a health-relevant exposure metric. • We evaluated the relationship between measured and modeled outdoor and personal OP. • Temporal correlations of central site with personal OP are moderate to high. • Adjusting for indoor sources improved the agreement with personal OP. • Our results support the use of central site OP for short-term health effect

  7. Measuring motivation in schizophrenia: is a general state of motivation necessary for task-specific motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jimmy; Choi, Kee-Hong; Felice Reddy, L; Fiszdon, Joanna M

    2014-03-01

    Despite the important role of motivation in rehabilitation and functional outcomes in schizophrenia, to date, there has been little emphasis on how motivation is assessed. This is important, since different measures may tap potentially discrete motivational constructs, which in turn may have very different associations to important outcomes. In the current study, we used baseline data from 71 schizophrenia spectrum outpatients enrolled in a rehabilitation program to examine the relationship between task-specific motivation, as measured by the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), and a more general state of volition/initiation, as measured by the three item Quality of Life (QLS) motivation index. We also examined the relationship of these motivation measures to demographic, clinical and functional variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The two motivation measures were not correlated, and participants with low general state motivation exhibited a full range of task-specific motivation. Only the QLS motivation index correlated with variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The lack of associations between QLS motivation index and IMI subscales suggests that constructs tapped by these measures may be divergent in schizophrenia, and specifically that task-specific intrinsic motivation is not contingent on a general state of motivation. That is, even in individuals with a general low motivational state (i.e. amotivation), interventions aimed at increasing task-specific motivation may still be effective. Moreover, the pattern of interrelationships between the QLS motivation index and variables relevant to psychosocial rehabilitation supports its use in treatment outcome studies. PMID:24529609

  8. The installation for measuring of specific coefficient of force light materials with turn of light effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butenko V. K.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The installation for measuring of specific coefficient of candle-power light of returning surfaces on the accordance of ДСТУ 4100-2002 is developed. The construction of installation provides more wide in comparison with analogues range of measuring — from 10–1 to 104 kd/(lk·m2. Limit of the basic assumed relative error of measuring is no more then ±15%.

  9. The prediction of fracture toughness from specific microstructural measurements in engineering alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on an investigation based on sharp-crack and blunt-notch toughness and microstructural measurements whereby toughness values are predicted from measuring the microstructural feature that dominates toughness. Three engineering alloys are investigated: pearlitic ductile iron, rail steel, and Zircodyne 7 (Zr-Nb). Examples of toughness prediction in engineering applications are presented in terms of specific microstructural measurements and phases dominating toughness and in terms of selecting and specifying alloys to meet service conditions

  10. Serological detection of circulating Angiostrongylus vasorum antigen and specific antibodies in dogs from central and northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardone, L; Schnyder, M; Macchioni, F; Deplazes, P; Magi, M

    2013-02-18

    The most frequently employed method for the diagnosis of Angiostrongylus vasorum in dogs is the detection of first stage larvae (L1) in faeces. The sensitivity of coproscopy, however, is limited in case of low parasite load, intermittent larval excretion, and during pre-patency. An epidemiological survey on dogs was conducted applying serological methods in two Italian regions where angiostrongylosis is endemic in foxes. 265 dog serum samples from Tuscany (central Italy - site A) and 447 from Liguria (north-western Italy - site B) were tested with a sandwich-ELISA for detection of circulating antigen, and with an ELISA using A. vasorum adult somatic antigen purified by monoclonal antibodies for specific antibody detection. During previous examinations dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum (n=149), Dirofilaria immitis (n=40), Dirofilaria repens (n=30), Acanthocheilonema reconditum (n=27), Crenosoma vulpis (n=1), A. vasorum (n=2), Capillaria aerophila (n=35), Capillaria boehmi (n=3), Toxocara canis (n=68), Toxascaris leonina (n=5), hookworms (n=37) and Trichuris vulpis (n=39) were detected. Sera of these dogs were used to evaluate cross reactions. In site A, 2 dogs (0.8%) were seropositive for antibody and antigen detection and 4 (1.5%) for antibody detection only. From site B, 4 dogs (0.9%) were seropositive for both tests, while other 4 dogs (0.9%) for antigen detection only and 9 dogs (2%) for antibody detection only. Considering a subgroup of 347 dogs from site B which had also been tested with the Baermann technique, 2 (0.6%) were positive for both tests, 4 (1.2%) for antigen detection only and 9 (2.6%) for antibody detection only. The two dogs which were positive for both serological tests were also positive for A. vasorum L1 in the faeces. No significant difference in seropositivities was observed in the group of dogs with other proven parasitic infections. A. vasorum serology presents significant advantages (diagnosis before patency, single serum

  11. Issues in the in vivo measurement of glucose metabolism of human central nervous system tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Chiro, G; Brooks, R A; Patronas, N J; Bairamian, D; Kornblith, P L; Smith, B H; Mansi, L; Barker, J

    1984-01-01

    Over 150 cases of central nervous system tumors have been studied with positron emission tomography using fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) as a tracer. From this material 100 consecutive cases of cerebral glioma have been reviewed and analyzed. The results show a strong correlation of tumor grade with glycolytic rate, with visual "hot spots" present in all high-grade neoplasms and in only four low-grade tumors. The quantitative accuracy is limited by three basic factors. First, the measurement of tissue uptake, as compared with the parent technique, autoradiography, is more difficult because detection must be done outside the body. Effects such as scattered radiation and self-attenuation introduce errors unless properly corrected. A more serious problem when measuring small structures, such as a rim-shaped high-grade glioma, is the limited spatial resolution. The most advanced scanner, the Neuro-PET, has a resolution of 6 to 7 mm. Second, corrections are needed for backflow, including free tracer at the time of the scan that will return to the blood and "trapped" tracer that will backflow because of the presence of phosphatase. These corrections are calculated from the blood activity using nominal rate constants for 18FDG. Our study found no significant alteration in rate constants between normal and tumoral tissue. Finally, a lumped constant is needed to correct for kinetic differences between 18FDG and glucose. If there is a change in the mechanism of either membrane transport or the hexokinase reaction, the lumped constant may change. However, measurements of actual glucose utilization in tissue culture lines from six patients support the 18FDG results. PMID:6331282

  12. Spectro-microscopic measurements of carbonaceous aerosol aging in Central California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Moffet

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbonaceous aerosols are responsible for large uncertainties in climate models, degraded visibility, and adverse health effects. The Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES was designed to study carbonaceous aerosols in the natural environment of Central Valley, California, and learn more about their atmospheric formation and aging. This paper presents results from spectro-microscopic measurements of carbonaceous particles collected during CARES at the time of pollution accumulation event (27–29 June 2010, when in situ measurements indicated an increase in the organic carbon content of aerosols as the Sacramento urban plume aged. Computer controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (CCSEM/EDX and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled with near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS were used to probe the chemical composition and morphology of individual particles. It was found that the mass of organic carbon on individual particles increased through condensation of secondary organic aerosol. STXM/NEXAFS indicated that the number fraction of homogenous organic particles lacking inorganic inclusions (greater than ~50 nm diameter increased with plume age as did the organic mass per particle. Comparison of the CARES spectro-microscopic data set with a similar dataset obtained in Mexico City during the MILAGRO campaign showed that individual particles in Mexico City contained twice as much carbon as those sampled during CARES. The number fraction of soot particles at the Mexico City urban site (30% was larger than at the CARES urban site (10% and the most aged samples from CARES contained less carbon-carbon double bonds. Differences between carbonaceous particles in Mexico City and California result from different sources, photochemical conditions, gas phase reactants, and secondary organic aerosol precursors. The detailed results provided by these spectro

  13. How Does Attention Relate to the Ability-Specific and Position-Specific Components of Reasoning Measured by APM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xuezhu; Goldhammer, Frank; Moosbrugger, Helfried; Schweizer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the nature of the ability-specific and position-specific components of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) by relating them to a number of types of attention. The ability-specific component represents the constant part of cognitive performance whereas the position-specific component reflects the…

  14. Soft x-ray magneto-optic Kerr rotation and element-specific hysteresis measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soft x-ray magneto-optic Kerr rotation has been measured using a continuously tunable multilayer linear polarizer in the beam reflected from samples in applied magnetic fields. Like magnetic circular dichroism, Kerr rotation in the soft x-ray region can be element specific and much larger than in the visible spectral range when the photon energy is tuned near atomic core resonances. Thus sensitive element-specific hysteresis measurements are possible with this technique. Examples showing large Kerr rotation from an Fe film and element-specific hysteresis loops of the Fe and Cr in an Fe/Cr multilayer demonstrate these new capabilities. Some consequences of the strong anomalous dispersion near the Fe L2,3 edges to the Kerr rotation measurement are discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  15. Measurements of thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity with LFA 447 apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    properties with a fine resolution, down to 1 millimeter. Special attention needs to be taken when determining the specific heat capacity in the comparative method. First of all, the test and reference sample should be of nearly identical thickness. Secondly, their heat diffusion time should be comparable, so...... that the heat losses from both samples during the measurement are similar. Finally, the leveling of the samples is very important. Very small discrepancies can cause a massive error in the derivation of specific heat capacity and, as a result, thermal conductivity.......The LFA 447 can be successfully used for measurements of thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity of various samples. It is especially useful when determining the properties of materials on a very small scale. The matrix measurement mode allows for determining the local...

  16. A specific method for measurement of nitric oxide synthase enzymatic activity in peritoneal biopsies.

    OpenAIRE

    Combet, S.; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Lameire, N.; Goffin, Eric; Devuyst, Olivier

    2000-01-01

    A specific method for measurement of nitric oxide synthase enzymatic activity in peritoneal biopsies. BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized by NO synthase (NOS) isoforms that are expressed in the peritoneum. Thus far, NOS activity in the peritoneum has been assessed by nonspecific methods. We describe the application of a specific method for determination of NOS activity in rat and human peritoneal biopsies. METHODS: The L-citrulline assay is based on the stoechiometric production of N...

  17. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of a forearm blood pressure measurement method in severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Marie-Ève; Cloutier, Lyne; Poirier, Paul

    2015-04-01

    For blood pressure assessment, it has been reported that forearm blood pressure measurement appears to be as valid as an upper-arm blood pressure measurement method in individuals with severe obesity when correlated to the intra-arterial method, considered as the gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for the presence of systemic hypertension in 25 severely obese patients from 352 blood pressure measurements were calculated. The sensitivity (0.98) and the positive predictive value (0.93) for hypertension on forearm blood pressure measurements are excellent, indicating that the forearm approach is a promising alternative to systemic hypertension diagnosis in severe obesity. PMID:25757220

  18. Mass specific optical absorption coefficients of mineral dust components measured by a multi wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Utry

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mass specific optical absorption coefficients of various mineral dust components including silicate clays (illite, kaolin and bentonite, oxides (quartz, hematite and rutile, and carbonate (limestone were determined at wavelengths of 1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm. These values were calculated from aerosol optical absorption coefficients measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic (PA instrument, the mass concentration and the number size distribution of the generated aerosol samples as well as the size transfer functions of the measuring instruments. These results are expected to have considerable importance in global radiative forcing calculations. They can also serve as reference for validating calculated wavelength dependent imaginary parts (κ of complex refractive indices which up to now have been typically deduced from bulk phase measurements by using indirect measurement methods. Accordingly, the presented comparison of the measured and calculated aerosol optical absorption spectra revealed the strong need for standardized sample preparation and measurement methodology in case of bulk phase measurements.

  19. The impact of contact effort on mode-specific selection and measurement bias

    OpenAIRE

    Schouten, Barry; Laan, Jan van der; Cobben, Fannie

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, a large-scale mixed-mode experiment was linked to the Crime Victimisation Survey (CVS). This experiment consisted of a randomized allocation of sample persons to the four contemporary survey modes Web, mail, telephone and face-to-face, and a follow-up using only interviewer modes. The aim of the experiment was to disentangle mode-specific selection- and measurement bias. In a previous paper (Schouten et al 2013), mode-specific selection and measurement biases were reported for a larg...

  20. Tracer technique for measuring specific activity of 63 Ni, using 4πβ-γ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific activity of a 63 Ni solution has been measured by an efficiency tracer technique using a 4 π β - γ coincidence system. 63 Ni was chosen. Because it's a very low energy pure beta emitter. Due to chemical compatibility and beta spectral shapes, 60 Co has been chosen as tracer. In the determination of 63 Ni, the specific activity. As the efficiency tracer techniques requires a previous knowledge of tracer activity, this has been measured by a conventional 4 π β -γ coincidence method. (author)

  1. Measurement of radium isotope activities in reservoir and spring water in the Cameroon Central Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Lydie Marie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the activities of 226Ra and 228Ra in the reservoir and spring water samples respectively during the dry and the rainy seasons; and to calculate the annual intake Ii (Bq/y for each type of water samples. Methods: Using both well calibrated Canberra NaI(Tl and HPGe detector systems, it was possible to determine the average specific activity of those radium’s isotopes in water samples which were collected in 2010, from Reservoirs and springs in Cameroon central region including Ngoaekelle, Minboman, Etoudi and Njoungolo. Results: The average specific activity values obtained for 226Ra and 228Ra in reservoir water samples were 8.76 ± 3.50 BqL-1 and 0.64 ± 0.28 BqL-1 during the dry season and, 8.24 ±3.48 BqL-1 and 0.58 ± 0.24 BqL-1 during the rainy season respectively. For spring water, the average values were 3.50 ± 0.63 BqL-1 and below 0.0002 BqL-1 (detection limit of 228Ra in water during the dry season; 3.20 ± 0.60 BqL-1 and below 0.0002 BqL-1 (detection limit of 228Ra in water during the rainy season respectively. Assuming that the volume of drinking water for adult is 2.5 litres per day, the average annual intakes of 226Ra and 228Ra through ingestion in these water samples were 7702 Bq/y and 575 Bq/y for reservoir water; 2993 Bq/y and < 0.25 for spring water respectively. Conclusion: The results have indicated that the annual intake by the population of sampling region as a result of 226Ra in these drinking waters is 7.7 × 103Bq/y more than the maximum limit fixed by ICRP which is 7 × 103 Bq/y. There is a need for regular monitoring the radiological water quality aspect in this region.

  2. Specific interaction of central nervous system myelin basic protein with lipids effects of basic protein on glucose leakage from liposomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gould, R.M.; London, Y.

    1972-01-01

    The leakage from liposomes preloaded with glucose was continuously monitored in a Perkin-Elmer Model 356 dual beam spectrophotometer using an enzyme-linked assay system. The central nervous system myelin basic protein (A1 protein) caused a 3–4-fold increase in the rate of leakage from liposomes prep

  3. Central tendency measure and wavelet transform combined in the non-invasive analysis of atrial fibrillation recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcaraz Raúl

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common supraventricular arrhythmia in the clinical practice, being the subject of intensive research. Methods The present work introduces two different Wavelet Transform (WT applications to electrocardiogram (ECG recordings of patients in AF. The first one predicts spontaneous termination of paroxysmal AF (PAF, whereas the second one deals with the prediction of electrical cardioversion (ECV outcome in persistent AF patients. In both cases, the central tendency measure (CTM from the first differences scatter plot was applied to the AF wavelet decomposition. In this way, the wavelet coefficients vector CTM associated to the AF frequency scale was used to assess how atrial fibrillatory (f waves variability can be related to AF events. Results Structural changes into the f waves can be assessed by combining WT and CTM to reflect atrial activity organization variation. This fact can be used to predict organization-related events in AF. To this respect, results in the prediction of PAF termination regarding sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 100%, 91.67% and 96%, respectively. On the other hand, for ECV outcome prediction, 82.93% sensitivity, 90.91% specificity and 85.71% accuracy were obtained. Hence, CTM has reached the highest diagnostic ability as a single predictor published to date. Conclusions Results suggest that CTM can be considered as a promising tool to characterize non-invasive AF signals. In this sense, therapeutic interventions for the treatment of paroxysmal and persistent AF patients could be improved, thus, avoiding useless procedures and minimizing risks.

  4. Specific heat capacity and emissivity measurements of ribbon-shaped graphite using pulse current heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measurement method for specific heat capacity and hemispherical total emissivity of electrically conductive materials with pulse current heating is investigated, in which a ribbon-shaped sample is heated up to 3000 K in a subsecond-duration experiment. Specific heat capacity and hemispherical total emissivity of the sample are calculated from the time variations of heat generation and surface temperature of the sample measured during heating and cooling phases. The true surface temperature of the ribbon-shaped sample is obtained with a radiation thermometer, the directional spectral emissivity of the sample surface is measured using a hemispherical mirror centered at the sample surface. Measurements are performed for POCO AXM-5Q1 graphite in the temperature range from 1500 to 3000 K

  5. Wintertime measurements of aerosol acidity and trace elements in Wuhan, a city in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, J. M.; Lioy, P. J.; Zelenka, M.; Jing, L.; Lin, Y. N.; He, Q. C.; Qian, Z. M.; Chapman, R.; Wilson, W. E.

    A 2-week intensive ambient aerosol study was conducted in December 1988 in Wuhan (Hubei Province), a city of nearly 2 million located on the Yangtze River in central China (P.R.C.). This is an industrial region where soft coal burning is widespread, and emission controls for vehicles and industrial facilities are minimal. The sampling site was located in one of the civic centers where residential and commercial density is highest. An Andersen dichotomous sampler was operated with Teflon membrane filters to collect fine ( dp mass and element determinations. An annular denuder system (ADS) was used to collect fine fraction aerosols for analyses of ionic species including strong acidity (H +). The study was conducted between 18 and 30 December, which was rainless, consistently cool (3-10°C) and overcast, but without fog or acute stagnation. Fine particulate mass (PM, as μ m -3) averaged 139 (range 54-207); coarse PM averaged 86 (range 29-179). Trace element concentrations were also high. Crustal elements (Si, Al, Ca and Fe) were found primarily in the coarse fraction, while elements associated with combustion (S, K, Cl, Zn and Se) were enriched in the fine fraction. The concentrations of arsenic and selenium were evidence of a large source of coal burning, while vanadium levels (associated with fuel oil use) were not especially enriched. Despite the seemingly high PM loadings, ionic concentrations were not especially high. The average composition of soluble fine aerosol species (in neq m -3) were SO 42-: 520 (range 180-980), NO 3-: 225 (range 50-470), Cl -: 215 (range 20-640), and NH 4+: 760 (range 280-1660). A deficit in accountable FP components (total mass compared to the total of ionic plus element masses) as well as the black appearance of collected materials indicate an abundance of carbonaceous aerosol, as high as 100 μ m -3. (total mass compared to the total of ionic plus element masses) as well as the black appearance of collected materials indicate an

  6. Spectro-microscopic measurements of carbonaceous aerosol aging in Central California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Moffet

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbonaceous aerosols are responsible for large uncertainties in climate models, degraded visibility, and adverse health effects. The Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES was designed to study carbonaceous aerosols in the natural environment of the Central Valley, California, and learn more about their atmospheric formation and aging. This paper presents results from spectro-microscopic measurements of carbonaceous particles collected during CARES at the time of a pollution accumulation event (27–29 June 2010, when in situ measurements indicated an increase in the organic carbon content of aerosols as the Sacramento urban plume aged. Computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (CCSEM/EDX and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled with near-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS were used to probe the chemical composition and morphology of individual particles. It was found that the mass of organic carbon on individual particles increased through condensation of secondary organic aerosol. STXM/NEXAFS indicated that the number fraction of homogenous organic particles lacking inorganic inclusions (greater than ~50 nm equivalent circular diameter increased with plume age, as did the organic mass per particle. Comparison of the CARES spectro-microscopic dataset with a similar dataset obtained in Mexico City during the MILAGRO campaign showed that fresh particles in Mexico City contained three times as much carbon as those sampled during CARES. The number fraction of soot particles at the Mexico City urban site (ranging from 16.6 to 47.3% was larger than at the CARES urban site (13.4–15.7%, and the most aged samples from CARES contained fewer carbon–carbon double bonds. Differences between carbonaceous particles in Mexico City and California result from different sources, photochemical conditions, gas phase reactants, and secondary organic aerosol

  7. Measurement of specific radioactivity of 125I, 139Ce, etc 7 kinds of nuclide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decay characteristic of 125I, 139Ce, 88Y, 57Co, 60Co, 137Cs and 134Cs radio-nuclide and the principle for measurement of specific activity of the seven kinds of nuclide with coincidence method, 4πγ ionization room method, spectroscopy method and summing peak method are simply is described. The results compare with the measurement result from National Institute of Metrology P.R. China, they are agreeable within uncertainty. (authors)

  8. Measurement properties of translated versions of neck-specific questionnaires: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vet Henrica C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several disease-specific questionnaires to measure pain and disability in patients with neck pain have been translated. However, a simple translation of the original version doesn't guarantee similar measurement properties. The objective of this study is to critically appraise the quality of the translation process, cross-cultural validation and the measurement properties of translated versions of neck-specific questionnaires. Methods Bibliographic databases were searched for articles concerning the translation or evaluation of the measurement properties of a translated version of a neck-specific questionnaire. The methodological quality of the selected studies and the results of the measurement properties were critically appraised and rated using the COSMIN checklist and criteria for measurement properties. Results The search strategy resulted in a total of 3641 unique hits, of which 27 articles, evaluating 6 different questionnaires in 15 different languages, were included in this study. Generally the methodological quality of the translation process is poor and none of the included studies performed a cross-cultural adaptation. A substantial amount of information regarding the measurement properties of translated versions of the different neck-specific questionnaires is lacking. Moreover, the evidence for the quality of measurement properties of the translated versions is mostly limited or assessed in studies of poor methodological quality. Conclusions Until results from high quality studies are available, we advise to use the Catalan, Dutch, English, Iranian, Korean, Spanish and Turkish version of the NDI, the Chinese version of the NPQ, and the Finnish, German and Italian version of the NPDS. The Greek NDI needs cross-cultural validation and there is no methodologically sound information for the Swedish NDI. For all other languages we advise to translate the original version of the NDI.

  9. A noncontact measurement technique for the specific heat and total hemispherical emissivity of undercooled refractory materials

    OpenAIRE

    Rulison, Aaron J.; Rhim, Won-Kyu

    1994-01-01

    A noncontact measurement technique for the constant pressure specific heat (c(pl)) and the total hemispherical emissivity (epsilon(T1)) of undercooled refractory materials is presented. In purely radiative cooling, a simple formula which relates the post-recalescence isotherm duration and the undercooling level to c(pl) is derived. This technique also allows us to measure epsilon(Tl) once C(pl) is known. The experiments were performed using the high-temperature high-vacuum electrostatic levit...

  10. Process Ontology Specification for Enhancing the Process Compliance of a Measurement and Evaluation Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Becker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we specify a generic ontology for the process domain considering the related state-of-the-art research literature. As a result, the recently built process ontology contributes to enrich semantically the terms for the (previously developed measurement and evaluation domain ontology by means of stereotypes. One of the underlying hypothesis in this research is that the generic ontology for process can be seen as a reusable artifact which can be used to enrich semantically not only the measurement and evaluation domain ontology but also to other domains involved in different organizational endeavors. For instance, for the measurement domain, now is explicit that the measurement term has the semantic of task, the measure term has the meaning of outcome, and the metric term has the semantic of method, from the process terminological base standpoint. The augmented conceptual framework, i.e. measurement and evaluation concepts plus process concepts, has also a positive impact on the GOCAME (Goal-Oriented Context-Aware Measurement and Evaluation strategy capabilities since ensures terminological uniformity, consistency and verifiability to its process and method specifications. In order to illustrate how the augmented conceptual framework impacts on the verifiability of GOCAME process and method specifications in addition to the consistency and comparability of results in measurement and evaluation projects, an ICT (Information and Communications Technology security and risk evaluation case study is used.

  11. Haplotype reconstruction error as a classical misclassification problem: introducing sensitivity and specificity as error measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lamina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statistically reconstructing haplotypes from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotypes, can lead to falsely classified haplotypes. This can be an issue when interpreting haplotype association results or when selecting subjects with certain haplotypes for subsequent functional studies. It was our aim to quantify haplotype reconstruction error and to provide tools for it. METHODS AND RESULTS: By numerous simulation scenarios, we systematically investigated several error measures, including discrepancy, error rate, and R(2, and introduced the sensitivity and specificity to this context. We exemplified several measures in the KORA study, a large population-based study from Southern Germany. We find that the specificity is slightly reduced only for common haplotypes, while the sensitivity was decreased for some, but not all rare haplotypes. The overall error rate was generally increasing with increasing number of loci, increasing minor allele frequency of SNPs, decreasing correlation between the alleles and increasing ambiguity. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that, with the analytical approach presented here, haplotype-specific error measures can be computed to gain insight into the haplotype uncertainty. This method provides the information, if a specific risk haplotype can be expected to be reconstructed with rather no or high misclassification and thus on the magnitude of expected bias in association estimates. We also illustrate that sensitivity and specificity separate two dimensions of the haplotype reconstruction error, which completely describe the misclassification matrix and thus provide the prerequisite for methods accounting for misclassification.

  12. Measuring State-Specific Rumination: Development of the Rumination about an Interpersonal Offense Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Nathaniel G.; Vogel, David L.; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Goldman, Daniel B.

    2008-01-01

    The tendency to ruminate has been consistently linked to psychological disturbances, such as increased stress, anger, and fear in response to provocations. However, existing measures of rumination focus on the disposition to ruminate rather than on rumination about a specific situation. This limits the ability to explore rumination about a…

  13. Initial Validation of an Instrument Measuring Psychology-Specific Epistemological Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renken, Maggie D.; McMahan, Ethan A.; Nitkova, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Psychology-specific epistemological beliefs (EBs) are believed to influence students' approach to and performance in psychology courses. However, empirical research on this topic is limited due in part to a lack of well-validated instruments measuring this construct. The primary objective of this research was to develop and validate the…

  14. Dynamic properties of silica aerogels as deduced from specific-heat and thermal-conductivity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernasconi, A.; Sleator, T.; Posselt, D.;

    1992-01-01

    The specific heat C(p) and the thermal conductivity lambda of a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels have been measured at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. The results confirm that the different length-scale regions observed in the aerogel structure are reflected in the dynamic behavior of...

  15. Comparison of measured and computed plasma loading resistance in the tandem mirror experiment-upgrade (TMX-U) central cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasma loading resistance vs density plots computed with McVey's Code XANTENA1, agree well with experimental measurements in the TMX-U central cell. The agreement is much better for frequencies where ω/ω/sub ci/ <1 than for ω/ω/sub ci/ greater than or equal to 1

  16. Specific binding properties of 125I-apamin in various structures of the rat central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, P K

    1989-01-01

    The properties of 125I-apamin binding with rat central nervous system slices were analysed in vitro using computerized densitometric autoradiography. Scatchard analysis performed for the data of binding experiments in rat brain and spinal cord demonstrates that apamin binds to a single class of non-interacting binding sites in all investigated structures. The dissociation constant values (KD) were similar in all investigated structures (31-38 pM). The maximal binding capacity (Bmax) was observed in the structures of limbic olfactory system (30 fmol/mg protein), the lowest in brain white matter (0.5 fmol/mg protein). It is concluded that the observed pattern of 125I-apamin binding might represent the topography of a class of Ca2+ dependent K+ channels in the rat central nervous system. PMID:2641420

  17. Measuring Spatial Price Transmission of Coffee between Bench Maji Zone and Central Market in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Dessalegn Gachena; Amsalu Mitiku

    2014-01-01

    This study tries to analyze the spatial price transmission of coffee between Bench Maji Zone and Addis Ababa markets. Monthly prices data (September 2006 to August 2011) for producer and central market prices were collected from Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia. The Engle and Granger procedure was employed to test for co-integration between prices. The ADF test for unit root was applied for individual price series. The results of stationarity tests indicate...

  18. On the abundance of non-zero central Lyapunov exponents, physical measures and stable ergodicity for partially hyperbolic dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Araujo, Vitor

    2010-01-01

    We show that each strongly partially hyperbolic $C^2$ diffeomorphism, with one-dimensional subbundles and $C^2$ smooth and minimal strong-unstable foliation, is $C^2$ close to a diffeomorphism having non-zero central Lyapunov exponent Lebesgue almost everywhere and a unique physical measure with full basin, which is $C^r$ stably ergodic. Our method is perturbative and does not rely on preservation of a smooth measure.

  19. Soft-x-ray magneto-optical Kerr effect and element-specific hysteresis measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortright, J.B.; Rice, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Interest in the utilization of x-ray magneto-optical properties to provide element-specific magnetic information, combined with recent development of tunable linear polarizers for spectroscopic polarization measurement, have led the authors to the study of magneto-optical rotation (MOR) near core levels of magnetic atoms in magnetic multilayer and alloy films. Their initial observation of Faraday rotation (in transmission) demonstrated that for Fe MOR is easily measured and is larger at its L{sub 3} resonance than in the near-visible spectral regions. This work also demonstrated that the spectroscopic behavior of the MOR signal in transmission, resulting from the differential reaction of left- and right-circular components of a linearly polarized beam, is related to the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), or differential absorption, as expected by a Kramers-Kronig transformation. Thus MCD measurements using circular polarization and MOR measurements using linear polarization can provide complementary, and in some cases equivalent, information. On beamline 6.3.2 the authors have begun to investigate soft x-ray MOR in the reflection geometry, the x-ray magneto-optic Kerr effect (XMOKE). Early measurements have demonstrated the ability to measure element-specific hysteresis loops and large rotations compared to analogous near-visible measurements. The authors are investigating the spectral dependence of the XMOKE signal, and have initiated systematic materials studies of sputter-deposited films of Fe, Fe{sub x}Cr{sub 1{minus}x} alloys, and Fe/Cr multilayers.

  20. Measurement of NOx fluxes from a tall tower in central London, UK and comparison with emissions inventories

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, James D.; Helfter, Carole; Purvis, Ruth M.; Beevers, Sean D.; Carslaw, David C.; Alastair C. Lewis; Moller, Sarah J.; Tremper, Anja; Vaughan, Adam; Nemitz, Eiko G.

    2015-01-01

    Direct measurements of NOx concentration and flux were made from a tall tower in central London, UK as part of the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project. Fast time resolution (10 Hz) NO and NO2 concentrations were measured and combined with fast vertical wind measurements to provide top-down flux estimates using the eddy covariance technique. Measured NOx fluxes were usually positive and ranged from close to zero at night to 2000–8000 ng m–2 s–1 during the day. Peak fluxes were usually obse...

  1. Comparison of Measurement of Central Corneal Thickness with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and Standard Ultrasonic Pachymeter in Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Emre Hekimoglu; Muhammet Kazım Erol; Devrim Toslak; Deniz Turgut Coban; Berna Doğan; Ozgur Yucel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the repeatability of measurement of central corneal thickness (CCT) by spectral domain optical coherence (SD-OCT) in premature infants and compare it to CCT measurement by ultrasonic pachymetry (USP). Methods. Three CCT measurements of the left eyes of 50 premature infants were obtained by SD-OCT using the iVue system. 10 CCT measurements of each 28 left eyes of 28 infants were obtained by USP using the Pacscan 300P system. Bland-Altman plots were developed and the limit ...

  2. IFN-γ– and IL-10–expressing virus epitope-specific Foxp3+ T reg cells in the central nervous system during encephalomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jingxian; Zhao, Jincun; Fett, Craig; Trandem, Kathryn; Fleming, Erica; Perlman, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Foxp3+ CD4 regulatory T cells (T reg cells) are important in limiting immunopathology in infections. However, identifying pathogen-specific epitopes targeted by these cells has been elusive. Using MHC class II/peptide tetramers and intracellular cytokine staining, we identify T reg cells recognizing two virus-specific CD4 T cell epitopes in the coronavirus-infected central nervous system as well as naive T cell precursor pools. These T reg cells are detected at the same time as effector T cel...

  3. High Frequency of Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells in the Central Nervous System of Macaques Chronically Infected with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac251

    OpenAIRE

    Moniuszko, Marcin; Brown, Charlie; Pal, Ranajit; Tryniszewska, Elzbieta; Tsai, Wen-Po; Hirsch, Vanessa M.; Franchini, Genoveffa

    2003-01-01

    Infection with human immunodeficiency virus or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) induces virus-specific CD8+ T cells that traffic to lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues. In this study, we used Gag-specific tetramer staining to investigate the frequency of CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood and the central nervous system of Mamu-A*01-positive SIV-infected rhesus macaques. Most of these infected macaques were vaccinated prior to SIVmac251 exposure. The frequency of Gag181-189 CM9 tetramer-positive...

  4. Measuring the specific caesium sorption capacity of soils, sediments and clay minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Koning, A. [aEnergy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Westerduinweg 3, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG, Petten (Netherlands); Konoplev, A.V. [Institute of Experimental Meteorology, 82 Lenin Avenue, Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249020 (Russian Federation); Comans, R.N.J. [Wageningen University, Department of Soil Quality, P.O. Box 8005, 6700 EC Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2007-01-15

    Two methods to quantify the specific Cs sorption capacity of soils and sediments, which is generally believed to be associated with the Frayed Edge Sites (FES) of illitic clay minerals, are described in detail and are critically reviewed. The first method is a direct measurement of the FES capacity, while the second quantifies the combined parameter K{sub D}{sup C}s x [K{sup +}] (=K{sub C}(K-->Cs) x [FES]) i.e. the product of the FES capacity and the affinity of these sites for Cs. Both methods use the bulky AgTU-complex to mask non-specific sorption sites for Cs and are applied to a number of different soils and pure minerals. Measurement of the FES capacity of pure illite is straightforward. It is shown that the measured capacity is independent of the saturating ion, but does depend on particle size. This method could not be successfully applied to a peat bog soil with 90% organic matter, because the necessary correction for non-specific Cs sorption by the large pool of organic exchange sites overpasses the capacity of the small FES fraction. Measurement of the combined parameter K{sub D}{sup C}s x [K{sup +}] is shown to be more appropriate in such cases. Application of the FES capacity method to the hydrous aluminosilicate mineral allophane, an important soil constituent of Andisols, shows that the AgTU-complex is unable to block all non-specific sorption sites for Cs on this mineral. The K{sub D}{sup C}s x [K{sup +}] measurements show evidence of a very small number of specific Cs sorption sites on allophane, much smaller than inferred from the FES capacity measurement. The FES capacity of the clay mineral vermiculite is difficult to quantify because the high Cs concentrations that are needed to measure the FES capacity probably cause a collapse of the vermiculite interlayers, thereby creating more high-affinity sites for Cs. The K{sub D}{sup C}s x [K{sup +}] method, in which only trace concentrations of Cs are used, is shown to be more appropriate for soils

  5. Radon measurements with CR-39 track detectors at specific locations in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulug Asiye

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor radon concentration levels at three sites in Turkey were measured using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors. The annual mean of radon concentration was estimated on the basis of four quarter measurements at specific locations in Turkey. The measuring sites are on the active faults. The results of radon measurements are based on 280 measurements in doors. The annual arithmetic means of radon concentrations at three sites (Isparta Egirdir, and Yalvac were found to be 164 Bqm–3, 124 Bqm–3, and 112 Bqm–3 respectively, ranging from 78 Bqm–3 to 279 Bqm–3. The in door radon concentrations were investigated with respect to the ventilation conditions and the age of buildings. The ventilation conditions were determined to be the main factor affecting the in door radon concentrations. The in door radon concentrations in the new buildings were higher than ones found in the old buildings.

  6. Radon measurements with CR-39 track detectors at specific locations in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon concentration levels at three sites in Turkey were measured using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors. The annual mean of radon concentration was estimated on the basis of four quarter measurements at specific locations in Turkey. The measuring sites are on the active faults. The results of radon measurements are based on 280 measurements indoors. The annual arithmetic means of radon concentrations at three sites (Isparta, Egirdir, and Yalvac) were found to be 164 Bqm-3, 124 Bqm-3, and 112 Bqm-3, respectively, ranging from 78 Bqm-3 to 279 Bqm-3. The indoor radon concentrations were investigated with respect to the ventilation conditions and the age of buildings. The ventilation conditions were determined to be the main factor affecting the indoor radon concentrations. The indoor radon concentrations in the new buildings were higher than ones found in the old buildings. (author)

  7. Performance evaluation of quantitative adiabatic (13)C NMR pulse sequences for site-specific isotopic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaudeau, Christophe; Remaud, Gérald; Silvestre, Virginie; Akoka, Serge

    2010-07-01

    (2)H/(1)H and (13)C/(12)C site-specific isotope ratios determined by NMR spectroscopy may be used to discriminate pharmaceutically active ingredients based on the synthetic process used in production. Extending the Site-specific Natural Isotope Fractionation NMR (SNIF-NMR) method to (13)C is highly beneficial for complex organic molecules when measurements of (2)H/(1)H ratios lead to poorly defined molecular fingerprints. The current NMR methodology to determine (13)C/(12)C site-specific isotope ratios suffers from poor sensitivity and long experimental times. In this work, several NMR pulse sequences based on polarization transfer were evaluated and optimized to measure precise quantitative (13)C NMR spectra within a short time. Adiabatic 180 degrees (1)H and (13)C pulses were incorporated into distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer (DEPT) and refocused insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarization transfer (INEPT) to minimize the influence of 180 degrees pulse imperfections and of off-resonance effects on the precision of the measured (13)C peak areas. The adiabatic DEPT sequence was applied to draw up a precise site-specific (13)C isotope profile of ibuprofen. A modified heteronuclear cross-polarization (HCP) experiment featuring (1)H and (13)C spin-locks with adiabatic 180 degrees pulses is also introduced. This sequence enables efficient magnetization transfer across a wide (13)C frequency range although not enough for an application in quantitative (13)C isotopic analysis. PMID:20527737

  8. Vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties over central Illinois and comparison with surface and satellite measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Sheridan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Between June 2006 and September 2009, an instrumented light aircraft measured over 400 vertical profiles of aerosol and trace gas properties over eastern and central Illinois. The primary objectives of this program were to (1 measure the in situ aerosol properties and determine their vertical and temporal variability and (2 relate these aircraft measurements to concurrent surface and satellite measurements. The primary profile location was within 15 km of the NOAA/ESRL surface aerosol monitoring station near Bondville, Illinois. Identical instruments at the surface and on the aircraft ensured that the data from both platforms would be directly comparable and permitted a determination of how representative surface aerosol properties were of the lower column. Aircraft profiles were also conducted occasionally at two other nearby locations to increase the frequency of A-Train satellite underflights for the purpose of comparing in situ and satellite-retrieved aerosol data. Measurements of aerosol properties conducted at low relative humidity over the Bondville site compare well with the analogous surface aerosol data and do not indicate any major sampling issues or that the aerosol is radically different at the surface compared with the lowest flyby altitude of ~ 240 m above ground level. Statistical analyses of the in situ vertical profile data indicate that aerosol light scattering and absorption (related to aerosol amount decreases substantially with increasing altitude. Parameters related to the nature of the aerosol (e.g., single-scattering albedo, Ångström exponent, etc., however, are relatively constant throughout the mixed layer, and do not vary as much as the aerosol amount throughout the profile. While individual profiles often showed more variability, the median in situ single-scattering albedo was 0.93–0.95 for all sampled altitudes. Several parameters (e.g., submicrometer scattering fraction, hemispheric backscattering fraction, and

  9. Seasonal variability of measured ozone production efficiencies in the lower free troposphere of Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zanis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present the seasonal variability of ozone production efficiencies (EN, defined as the net number of ozone molecules produced per molecule of nitrogen oxides (nitrogen oxide (NO + nitrogen dioxide (NO2=NOx oxidized to NOz (total reactive nitrogen (NOy–NOx determined from field measurements of a seven-year period (1998–2004 at the Swiss high-alpine research station Jungfraujoch (JFJ, 3580 m a.s.l. This dataset is a unique long-term data series of nitrogen levels in the free troposphere over Central Europe and hence it offers an excellent opportunity to perform such an analysis and provide further evidence to the photochemical origin of the ozone spring maximum at locations of the northern hemisphere distant from nearby pollution sources. Experimentally derived daily EN values have been selected for 571 days out of the 2557 days from 1998 to 2004, from which an average ozone production efficiency of 18.8±1.3 molecules of O3 produced per molecule of NOx oxidized was calculated. This value indicates the great potential and importance of photochemical ozone production in the free troposphere. The monthly means of experimentally derived daily EN values show a seasonal variation with lower values from May to August, which can be probably attributed to more efficient vertical transport of polluted air masses from the atmospheric boundary layer up to JFJ. In agreement, theoretically derived monthly EN values show similar seasonal variation. The ratio NOy/CO, a parameter to assess the aging process that has occurred in an air parcel, was used as a criterion to disaggregate the 571 selected days between undisturbed and disturbed free tropospheric (FT. The monthly means of experimentally derived EN values for the undisturbed FT conditions show a distinct seasonal cycle with higher values in the cold season from November to April. The EN values for undisturbed FT conditions are particularly higher than the respective monthly EN values

  10. Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures; January 2012 - March 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaweera, T.; Haeri, H.

    2013-04-01

    Under the Uniform Methods Project, DOE is developing a framework and a set of protocols for determining the energy savings from specific energy efficiency measures and programs. The protocols provide a straightforward method for evaluating gross energy savings for common residential and commercial measures offered in ratepayer-funded initiatives in the United States. They represent a refinement of the body of knowledge supporting energy efficiency evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) activities. This document deals with savings from the following measures: commercial and industrial lighting, commercial and industrial lighting controls, small commercial and residential unitary and split system HVAC cooling equipment, residential furnaces and boilers, residential lighting, refrigerator recycling, whole-building retrofit using billing analysis, metering, peak demand and time-differentiated energy savings, sample design, survey design and implementation, and assessing persistence and other evaluation issues.

  11. Uncertainty Factors for Stage-Specific and Cumulative Results of Indirect Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, B P

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of a variable Yd from certain measured variable(s) Xi(s), by making use of their system-specific-relationship (SSR), is generally referred as the indirect measurement. Naturally the SSR may stand for a simple data-translation process in a given case, but a set of equations, or even a cascade of different such processes, in some other case. Further, though the measurements are a priori ensured to be accurate, there is no definite method for examining whether the result obtained at the end of an SSR, specifically a cascade of SSRs, is really representative as the measured Xi-values. Of Course, it was recently shown that the uncertainty (ed) in the estimate (yd) of a specified Yd is given by a specified linear combination of corresponding measurement-uncertainties (uis). Here, further insight into this principle is provided by its application to the cases represented by cascade-SSRs. It is exemplified how the different stage-wise uncertainties (Ied, IIed, ... ed), that is to say the requirements for t...

  12. Ion-selective self-referencing probes for measuring specific ion flux

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Brian; Zhao, Min

    2011-01-01

    The metal vibrating probe developed in the 1970s to measure electric current is sensitive down to the micro-Amp range, but detects only net current due to flow of multiple ions and is too large to measure from single cells. Electrophysiological techniques which use glass microelectrodes such as voltage clamping can be used on single cells but are also non-specific. Ion-selective probes are glass microelectrodes containing at their tip a small amount of ionophore permeable to a particular ion....

  13. Aluminum phosphide poisoning: Possible role of supportive measures in the absence of specific antidote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum phosphide (ALP poisoning is one of the major causes of suicidal deaths. Toxicity by ALP is caused by the liberation of phosphine gas, which rapidly causes cell hypoxia due to inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation, leading to circulatory failure. Treatment of ALP toxicity is mainly supportive as there is no specific antidote. We recently managed 7 cases of ALP poisoning with severe hemodynamic effects. Patients were treated with supportive measures including gastric lavage with diluted potassium permanganate, coconut oil and sodium-bicarbonate first person account should be avoided in a scientific paper. Intravenous magnesium sulfate, proper hemodynamic monitoring and vasopressors. Four out of 7 survived thus suggesting a role of such supportive measures in the absence of specific antidote for ALP poisoning.

  14. Measuring the masses of a pair of semi-invisibly decaying particles in central exclusive production with forward proton tagging

    CERN Document Server

    Harland-Lang, L A; Sakurai, K; Stirling, W J

    2011-01-01

    We discuss how the mass of new physics particles involved in a pair of short decay chains leading to two invisible particles, for example slepton pair production, followed by the decay into two leptons and two neutralinos, may be measured in central exclusive production (CEP) with forward proton tagging. We show how the existing mass measurement strategies in CEP may be improved by making full use of the mass-shell constraints, and demonstrate that, with around 30 signal events, the masses of the slepton and neutralino can be measured with an accuracy of a few GeV.

  15. Multivariate Volumetric Specifications and Dynamic Modulus as a Quality Measure for Asphalt Concrete Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Katicha, Samer; de León Izeppi, Edgar; Flintsch, Gerardo W.

    2010-01-01

    The Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) has worked toward end-result specifications (ERSs) in asphalt concrete since the mid-1960s. As stated by Hughes et al. (2007), true ERSs can lead to a reduction in VDOT's overall inspection force resulting in considerable savings and allow for the reallocation of inspection resources to key construction and placement processes that cannot be measured upon delivery (e.g., joint tacking and construction platform preparation). The latest efforts t...

  16. A customised scale for measuring retail service quality in a college shop: a context specific approach

    OpenAIRE

    Yaghi, Derar

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to modify an existing scale to measure retail service quality in a college shop. This scale was modified based on the retail service quality scale (RSQS) to make it more contexts specific and culturally sensitive for the retail college shop (Al Waha) at Dubai Women‘s College. It also explores the relationship between the new retail service quality dimensions and overall service quality, satisfaction, loyalty and frequency of visits. A total of 424 completed qu...

  17. Beyond Surface Characteristics: A New Health Text-Specific Readability Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyeoneui; Goryachev, Sergey; Rosemblat, Graciela; Browne, Allen; Keselman, Alla; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2007-01-01

    Accurate readability assessment of health related materials is a critical first step in producing easily understandable consumer health information resources and personal health records. Existing general readability formulas may not always be appropriate for the medical/consumer health domain. We developed a new health-specific readability pilot measure, based on the differences in semantic and syntactic features as well as text unit length. The tool was tested with 4 types of materials: cons...

  18. Measurement of specific renocortical blood flow using the 133Xe inhalation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific renocortical blood flow is measured in dogs after 133Xe inhalation and compared with intra-arterial injection of 133Xe. The results are very good. The correlation coefficient is 0.964. For 45 healthy test persons (106 kidneys) there is a standard range between 379 and 774 ml (2s range) with a mean value of 577 ml/100 g x min. The values obtained are somewhat higher than those reported for intra-arterial injection. In transplanted kidneys, continuous measurements of specific renocortical blood flow up to 21 days after surgery may make a decisive contribution to early detection of transplant rejection. Examples are given to demonstrate course control of specific renocortical blood flow in transplanted kidneys over several years with satisfactory function of the transplant, acute rejection, and chronic rejection. Even with satisfactory transplant function, specific renocortical blood flow will be about 25 to 30% below the mean value of the healthy test group. With chronic rejection, values are 30 to 70% below average. (orig.)

  19. Measurement of the specific airway resistance by plethysmography in young children accompanied by an adult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klug, B; Bisgaard, H

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a procedure for measurement of specific airway resistance (sRaw) by whole body plethysmography in young awake children accompanied by an adult. sRaw was measured by a single-step procedure, omitting the measurement of the thoracic gas volume. The frequency...... performed measurements with and without an accompanying adult, the mean value of sRaw was 1.45 (0.36) and 1.44 (0.38) kPa x s, respectively, with a mean difference of 0.008 (0.152) kPa x s, and mean within-subject coefficients of variations (CV) of 8% and 10%, respectively. In 52 children (mean age 3.3 (0.......8) yrs), for whom measurements made only in the presence of an accompanying adult, the CV was 8.5%. No measurements could be obtained in 22 children (17%) (mean age 2.8 (0.5) yrs). Measurements exhibited a significant frequency dependency, and electronic BTPS compensation substantially overestimated SRaw...

  20. Specificity and sensitivity of noninvasive measurement of pulmonary vascular protein leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noninvasive techniques employing external counting of radiolabeled protein have the potential for measuring pulmonary vascular protein permeability, but their specificity and sensitivity remain unclear. The authors tested the specificity and sensitivity of a double-radioisotope method by injecting radiolabeled albumin (131I) and erythrocytes (/sup 99m/Tc) into anesthetized dogs and measuring the counts of each isotope for 150 min after injection with an external gamma probe fixed over the lung. They calculated the rate of increase of albumin counts measured by the probe (which reflects the rate at which protein leaks into the extravascular space). To assess permeability the authors normalized the rate of increase in albumin counts for changes in labeled erythrocyte signal to minimize influence of changes in vascular surface area and thus derived an albumin leak index. They measured the albumin leak index and gravimetric lung water during hydrostatic edema (acutely elevating left atrial pressure by left atrial balloon inflation: mean pulmonary arterial wedge pressure = 22.6 Torr) and in lung injury edema induced by high- (1.0 g/kg) and low-dose (0.25 g/kg) intravenous thiourea. To test specificity hydrostatic and high-dose thiourea edema were compared. The albumin leak index increased nearly fourfold from control after thiourea injury (27.2 +/- 2.3 x 10-4 vs. 7.6 +/- 0.9 x 10-4 min-1) but did not change from control levels after elevating left atrial pressure (8.9 +/- 1.2 x 10-4 min-1) despite comparable increases in gravimetric lung water. To test sensitivity the authors compared low-dose thiourea with controls. Following low-dose thiourea, the albumin leak index nearly doubled despite the absence of a measurable increase in lung water

  1. Validation of subject-specific cardiovascular system models from porcine measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revie, James A; Stevenson, David J; Chase, J Geoffrey; Hann, Christopher E; Lambermont, Bernard C; Ghuysen, Alexandre; Kolh, Philippe; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Heldmann, Stefan; Desaive, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    A previously validated mathematical model of the cardiovascular system (CVS) is made subject-specific using an iterative, proportional gain-based identification method. Prior works utilised a complete set of experimentally measured data that is not clinically typical or applicable. In this paper, parameters are identified using proportional gain-based control and a minimal, clinically available set of measurements. The new method makes use of several intermediary steps through identification of smaller compartmental models of CVS to reduce the number of parameters identified simultaneously and increase the convergence stability of the method. This new, clinically relevant, minimal measurement approach is validated using a porcine model of acute pulmonary embolism (APE). Trials were performed on five pigs, each inserted with three autologous blood clots of decreasing size over a period of four to five hours. All experiments were reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of the Medical Faculty at the University of Liege, Belgium. Continuous aortic and pulmonary artery pressures (P(ao), P(pa)) were measured along with left and right ventricle pressure and volume waveforms. Subject-specific CVS models were identified from global end diastolic volume (GEDV), stroke volume (SV), P(ao), and P(pa) measurements, with the mean volumes and maximum pressures of the left and right ventricles used to verify the accuracy of the fitted models. The inputs (GEDV, SV, P(ao), P(pa)) used in the identification process were matched by the CVS model to errors <0.5%. Prediction of the mean ventricular volumes and maximum ventricular pressures not used to fit the model compared experimental measurements to median absolute errors of 4.3% and 4.4%, which are equivalent to the measurement errors of currently used monitoring devices in the ICU (∼5-10%). These results validate the potential for implementing this approach in the intensive care unit. PMID:22126892

  2. CAST-ChIP Maps Cell-Type-Specific Chromatin States in the Drosophila Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Schauer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin organization and gene activity are responsive to developmental and environmental cues. Although many genes are transcribed throughout development and across cell types, much of gene regulation is highly cell-type specific. To readily track chromatin features at the resolution of cell types within complex tissues, we developed and validated chromatin affinity purification from specific cell types by chromatin immunoprecipitation (CAST-ChIP, a broadly applicable biochemical procedure. RNA polymerase II (Pol II CAST-ChIP identifies ∼1,500 neuronal and glia-specific genes in differentiated cells within the adult Drosophila brain. In contrast, the histone H2A.Z is distributed similarly across cell types and throughout development, marking cell-type-invariant Pol II-bound regions. Our study identifies H2A.Z as an active chromatin signature that is refractory to changes across cell fates. Thus, CAST-ChIP powerfully identifies cell-type-specific as well as cell-type-invariant chromatin states, enabling the systematic dissection of chromatin structure and gene regulation within complex tissues such as the brain.

  3. [18F]fluoro-β-fluoromethylene-m-tyrosine derivatives show stereo, geometrical, and regio specificities as in vivo central dopaminergic probes in monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stereo (D and L), geometrical (E and Z), and regiospecific (2-, 4-, and 6-[18F]fluoro) analogs of β-fluoromethylene-m-tyrosine (FMMT) have been investigated in adult vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus, n=12) in vivo with positron emission tomography (PET). Brain transport through the blood-brain barrier and central aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD)-mediated decarboxylation rates were established. Results show strict structural dependency of the kinetic behavior of radiofluorinated FMMT analogs, with the E-isomer exhibiting a higher specificity over the (Z) geometrical counterpart for central dopaminergic structures. The 6-[18F]fluoro substituted L-(E)-FMMT was also favored over the 2- and 4-[18F]fluorosubstituted isomers in terms of their ability to localize in the same brain areas. The role of PET in drug development is also exemplified in this work

  4. [{sup 18}F]fluoro-{beta}-fluoromethylene-m-tyrosine derivatives show stereo, geometrical, and regio specificities as in vivo central dopaminergic probes in monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, S.-C.; Quintana, Javier; Satyamurthy, N.; Lacan, Goran; Yu Danchu; Phelps, Michael E.; Barrio, Jorge R

    1999-05-01

    Stereo (D and L), geometrical (E and Z), and regiospecific (2-, 4-, and 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro) analogs of {beta}-fluoromethylene-m-tyrosine (FMMT) have been investigated in adult vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus, n=12) in vivo with positron emission tomography (PET). Brain transport through the blood-brain barrier and central aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD)-mediated decarboxylation rates were established. Results show strict structural dependency of the kinetic behavior of radiofluorinated FMMT analogs, with the E-isomer exhibiting a higher specificity over the (Z) geometrical counterpart for central dopaminergic structures. The 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro substituted L-(E)-FMMT was also favored over the 2- and 4-[{sup 18}F]fluorosubstituted isomers in terms of their ability to localize in the same brain areas. The role of PET in drug development is also exemplified in this work.

  5. Speciated mercury measurements in ambient air from 2009 to 2011 at a Central European rural background monitoring site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigelt A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since January 2009 highly time-resolved mercury speciation measurements in ambient air are carried out at the Central European German EMEP monitoring station and measurement site of the German Federal Environment Agency “Waldhof“, providing the longest Central European dataset for mercury species. First statistical analyses do not indicate long term trends for the concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM and particle bound mercury (TPM. A potential increasing trend for reactive gaseous mercury (RGM will have to be verified in the coming years and should be regarded as indicative only at present. A seasonal cycle for TPM could be observed with higher concentrations during winter time. Furthermore a diurnal cycle for RGM is apparent with highest concentrations in the early afternoon.

  6. Particle number emissions of motor traffic derived from street canyon measurements in a Central European city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Klose

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A biennial dataset of ambient particle number size distributions (diameter range 4–800 nm collected in urban air in Leipzig, Germany, was analysed with respect to the influence of traffic emissions. Size distributions were sampled continuously in 2005 and 2006 inside a street canyon trafficked by ca. 10 000 motor vehicles per day, and at a background reference site distant at 1.5 km. Auto-correlation analysis showed that the impact of fresh traffic emissions could be seen most intensely below particle sizes of 60 nm. The traffic-induced concentration increment at roadside was estimated by subtracting the urban background values from the street canyon measurement. To describe the variable dispersion conditions inside the street canyon, micro-meteorological dilution factors were calculated using the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM, driven by above-roof wind speed and wind direction observations. The roadside increment concentrations, dilution factor, and real-time traffic counts were used to calculate vehicle emission factors (aerosol source rates that are representative of the prevailing driving conditions, i.e. stop-and-go traffic including episodes of fluent traffic flow at speeds up to 40 km h−1. The size spectrum of traffic-derived particles was essentially bimodal – with mode diameters around 12 and 100 nm, while statistical analysis suggested that the emitted number concentration varied with time of day, wind direction, particle size and fleet properties. Significantly, the particle number emissions depended on ambient temperature, ranging between 4.8 (±1.8 and 7.8 (±2.9.1014 p. veh−1 km−1 in summer and winter, respectively. A separation of vehicle types according to vehicle length suggested that lorry-like vehicles emit about 80 times more particle number than passenger car-like vehicles. Using nitrogen oxide (NOx measurements, specific total particle number

  7. Quasi-static magnetic measurements to predict specific absorption rates in magnetic fluid hyperthermia experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral, D. F.; Mendoza Zélis, P.; de Sousa, M. E.; Muraca, D.; Lassalle, V.; Nicolás, P.; Ferreira, M. L.; Fernández van Raap, M. B.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the issue on whether dynamic magnetic properties of polydispersed magnetic colloids modeled using physical magnitudes derived from quasi-static magnetic measurement can be extrapolated to analyze specific absorption rate data acquired at high amplitudes and frequencies of excitation fields is addressed. To this end, we have analyzed two colloids of magnetite nanoparticles coated with oleic acid and chitosan in water displaying, under a radiofrequency field, high and low specific heat power release. Both colloids are alike in terms of liquid carrier, surfactant and magnetic phase composition but differ on the nanoparticle structuring. The colloid displaying low specific dissipation consists of spaced magnetic nanoparticles of mean size around 4.8 nm inside a large chitosan particle of 52.5 nm. The one displaying high specific dissipation consists of clusters of magnetic nanoparticles of mean size around 9.7 nm inside a chitosan particle of 48.6 nm. The experimental evaluation of Néel and Brown relaxation times (˜10-10 s and 10-4 s, respectively) indicate that the nanoparticles in both colloids magnetically relax by Néel mechanism. The isothermal magnetization curves analysis for this mechanism show that the magnetic nanoparticles behave in the interacting superparamagnetic regime. The specific absorption rates were determined calorimetrically at 260 kHz and up to 52 kA/m and were well modeled within linear response theory using the anisotropy density energy retrieved from quasi-static magnetic measurement, validating their use to predict heating ability of a given polydispersed particle suspension. Our findings provide new insight in the validity of quasi-static magnetic characterization to analyze the high frequency behavior of polydispersed colloids within the framework of the linear response and Wohlfarth theories and indicate that dipolar interactions play a key role being their strength larger for the colloid displaying higher dissipation, i

  8. Scale Specific and Scale Independent Measures of Heart Rate Variability as Risk Indicators

    CERN Document Server

    Ashkenazy, Yu; Levitan, J; Havlin, S; Saermark, K; Moelgaard, H; Thomsen, P E B; Möller, M; Hintze, U; Huikuri, H

    1999-01-01

    We study the Heart Rate Variability (HRV) using scale specific variance and scaling exponents as measures of healthy and cardiac impaired individuals. Our results show that the variance and the scaling exponent are highly uncorrelated. We find that the variance measure at certain scales are well suited to separate healthy subjects from heart patients. However, for cumulative survival probability the scaling exponents outperform the variance measure. Our risk study is based on a database containing recordings from 428 MI individuals (after myocardial infarct) and on database containing 105 healthy subjects and 11 heart patients. The results have been obtained by applying three recently developed methods (DFA - Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, WAV - Multiresolution Wavelet Analysis, and DTS - Detrended Time Series analysis) which are found to be highly correlated.

  9. Specific calibration problems for gammaspectrometric measurements of low-level radioactivity in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, D. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Wershofen, H. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Gammaspectrometric measurements of low-level radioactivity in environmental samples are always done in a close source detector geometry. This geometry causes coincidence-summing effects for measurements of multi-photon emitting nuclides. The measurements of radioactivity in environmental samples are also influenced by the absorption of photons in the materials which have to be analysed. Both effects must be taken into account by correction factors with respect to an energy-specific calibration of the detector system for a given geometry and a given composition of the calibration source. The importance of these corrections is emphasized. It is the aim of the present paper to compare different experimental and theoretical methods for the determination of these correction factors published by various authors and to report about efforts to refine them. (orig.)

  10. Regional CO2 fluxes inferred from mixing ratio measurements: estimates from flask air samples in central Kansas, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Chun-Ta; Schauer, Andrew J.; Owensby, Clenton; Ham, Hay M.; Helliker, Brent; Tans, Pieter P.; Ehleringer, James R

    2011-01-01

    We estimated regional fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) using mixing ratios measured in a tallgrass prairie in central Kansas, USA over 3 yr (2002–2004). Glass flasks were used to collect whole air samples in the midafternoon for determining CO2 mixing ratios and their carbon isotopic composition. Regional CO2 fluxes were calculated assuming atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) approaches an equilibrium state on a monthly basis. CO2 mixing ratios derived from the marine boundary layer data were used...

  11. Comparison of Central Corneal Thickness Measurements by Ultrasonic Pachymetry and Orbscan II Corneal Topography and Evaluation of Ultrasonic Pachymetry Repeatability

    OpenAIRE

    Semra Tiryaki Demir; Mahmut Odabaşı; Mehmet Ersin Oba; Ayşe Burcu Dirim; Efe Can; Orhan Kara

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Comparison of central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements by ultrasonic pachymetry and Orbscan II corneal topography and evaluation of ultrasonic pachymetry repeatability for same observer. Materials and Methods: The study included 132, 82, and 80 eyes of 66 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), 41 patients with ocular hypertension (OHT), and 40 controls, respectively. All subjects were subjected to routine ophthalmic examination. Orbscan II (Bausch&Lomb) ...

  12. A specific and sensitive method for visualization of tumor necrosis factor in the murine central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertsen, K L; Drøjdahl, N; Owens, T; Finsen, B

    2001-01-01

    We present here sensitive, simple and robust methods for detection of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) mRNA and TNF in histological sections and homogenates of brain tissue from mice subjected to focal cerebral ischemia or hippocampal axonal lesioning. Both types of lesions are characterized by...... Western blot analysis on homogenates prepared from microdissected brain regions. Advantages and disadvantages of the methods are discussed with emphasis on the specificity and sensitivity of the histological procedures. Our strategy for detection of TNF mRNA and protein provides a solid basis for...... individual cells, and can successfully be combined with immunohistochemical procedures. We also describe a sensitive immunohistochemical method for detection of TNF, which can be combined with visualization of an additional antigen. The specificity of the histological procedures are confirmed by RT-PCR and...

  13. Neuroblast lineage identification and lineage-specific Hox gene action during postembryonic development of the subesophageal ganglion in the Drosophila central brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuert, Philipp A; Hartenstein, Volker; Bello, Bruno C; Lovick, Jennifer K; Reichert, Heinrich

    2014-06-15

    The central brain of Drosophila consists of the supraesophageal ganglion (SPG) and the subesophageal ganglion (SEG), both of which are generated by neural stem cell-like neuroblasts during embryonic and postembryonic development. Considerable information has been obtained on postembryonic development of the neuroblasts and their lineages in the SPG. In contrast, very little is known about neuroblasts, neural lineages, or any other aspect of the postembryonic development in the SEG. Here we characterize the neuroanatomy of the larval SEG in terms of tracts, commissures, and other landmark features as compared to a thoracic ganglion. We then use clonal MARCM labeling to identify all adult-specific neuroblast lineages in the late larval SEG and find a surprisingly small number of neuroblast lineages, 13 paired and one unpaired. The Hox genes Dfd, Scr, and Antp are expressed in a lineage-specific manner in these lineages during postembryonic development. Hox gene loss-of-function causes lineage-specific defects in axonal targeting and reduction in neural cell numbers. Moreover, it results in the formation of novel ectopic neuroblast lineages. Apoptosis block also results in ectopic lineages suggesting that Hox genes are required for lineage-specific termination of proliferation through programmed cell death. Taken together, our findings show that postembryonic development in the SEG is mediated by a surprisingly small set of identified lineages and requires lineage-specific Hox gene action to ensure the correct formation of adult-specific neurons in the Drosophila brain. PMID:24713419

  14. Direct measurement and prediction of bulk density on alluvial soils of central Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Casanova; Elizabeth Tapia; Oscar Seguel; Osvaldo Salazar

    2016-01-01

    The significance of soil bulk density (ρ) as a key indicator of soil quality was examined in this study. Bulk density values obtained by direct methods (clod, cylinder, and excavation) with three sample sizes (small, medium, and large) were compared with those obtained by 10 published pedotransfer functions (PTFs) for two alluvial soils (a massive fine-textured Fluventic Haploxeroll and an aggregated, coarse-textured Fluventic Haploxerept) of central Chile. With the exception of small cylinde...

  15. Localization of Distant Urogenital System-, Central Nervous System-, and Endocardium-Specific Transcriptional Regulatory Elements in the GATA-3 Locus

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmanan, Ganesh; Lieuw, Ken H.; Lim, Kim-Chew; Gu, Yi; Grosveld, Frank; Engel, James Douglas; Karis, Alar

    1999-01-01

    We found previously that neither a 6-kbp promoter fragment nor even a 120-kbp yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) containing the whole GATA-3 gene was sufficient to recapitulate its full transcription pattern during embryonic development in transgenic mice. In an attempt to further identify tissue-specific regulatory elements modulating the dynamic embryonic pattern of the GATA-3 gene, we have examined the expression of two much larger (540- and 625-kbp) GATA-3 YACs in transgenic animals. A lac...

  16. Relative position and pose measurement approach of specific operation site of space non-cooperative target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Zhou, Ying; Li, Ronghua; Huang, Jianming

    2015-12-01

    In order to achieve the rendezvous and capture of the space non-cooperative target, the relative position and pose measurement of non-cooperative target must be resolved. Since the marker is not installed into the non-cooperative target and there is no inter satellite link to transfer the information, so it is very difficult to measure the relative position and pose measurement of non-cooperative target. The solar array connecting frame of non-cooperative targets have their characters and are easy to capture, so the position and pose measurement of specific operation site of non-cooperative target based on stereo vision has been studied in this paper. The method composed of image acquiring, image filtering, edge detection, feature extraction and relative pose measurement. Finally, the relative position and attitude parameters of the solar wing connection were obtained and provided to the control system. The results of simulation and ground verification show that the algorithm is accurate and effective, and can satisfy the technical requirements of the on orbit operation. The measurement approach can be used for engineering implementation.

  17. Satellites measure recent rates of groundwater depletion in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiglietti, J. S.; Lo, M.; Ho, S. L.; Bethune, J.; Anderson, K. J.; Syed, T. H.; Swenson, S. C.; de Linage, C. R.; Rodell, M.

    2011-02-01

    In highly-productive agricultural areas such as California's Central Valley, where groundwater often supplies the bulk of the water required for irrigation, quantifying rates of groundwater depletion remains a challenge owing to a lack of monitoring infrastructure and the absence of water use reporting requirements. Here we use 78 months (October, 2003-March, 2010) of data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite mission to estimate water storage changes in California's Sacramento and San Joaquin River Basins. We find that the basins are losing water at a rate of 31.0 ± 2.7 mm yr-1 equivalent water height, equal to a volume of 30.9 km3 for the study period, or nearly the capacity of Lake Mead, the largest reservoir in the United States. We use additional observations and hydrological model information to determine that the majority of these losses are due to groundwater depletion in the Central Valley. Our results show that the Central Valley lost 20.4 ± 3.9 mm yr-1 of groundwater during the 78-month period, or 20.3 km3 in volume. Continued groundwater depletion at this rate may well be unsustainable, with potentially dire consequences for the economic and food security of the United States.

  18. MT TOPOIBERIA. Long period measurements in the Iberian Massif (central Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Within the context of the Spanish TOPOIBERIA project a number of MT profiles are being carried out in Iberia and northern Morocco. The data are collected with recently acquired instruments consisting of 5 ADU07 (BBMT) and 10 LEMI-417 (LMT) systems, which make up a new Spanish pool of MT instruments. Two profiles with the LMT system have been carried out to date. One profile was undertaken in the Iberian Massif (Central Iberian Zone and Ossa Morena Zone) and the other across the Betic Chain in the south of Spain. Both profiles together form a 400 km long transect from the centre of Iberia to the Mediterranean Sea. We present the results of the first profile located in the eastern part of the Central Iberian Zone. The profile crosses the boundary between the Ossa Morena and Central Iberian zones and reaches the Tajo basin, crossing the Sierra de Alcudia and the Toledo Mountains. It is a 210 km long profile in a NE direction, from NW of Toledo to the province of Cordoba. The MT data consist of 31 BBMT sites (T=0.001-1000s) and 9 LMT sites (T=10-20000s). Dimensionality analysis indicates two directions, one for medium and the other for long periods. 2D inversions with different strikes in accordance with dimensionality analysis were performed in order to detect common features in the resistivity structure as a first step prior to a 3D inversion.

  19. Long-term reproducibility of in vivo measures of specific binding of radioligands in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term reproducibility of measures of in vivo specific binding of radiolabeled forms of (+)-α-dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) and d-threo-methylphenidate (MPH) in rat brain was examined. All studies were done using a consistent bolus plus infusion protocol and calculation of equilibrium distribution volume ratios (DVR). Over a period of eight years striatal DVR values for DTBZ binding to the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in young adult (8-10 wks old) rats showed very good reproducibility (3.62±0.33, N=35). Equivalent values were obtained using either tritiated or carbon-11 labeled DTBZ, and were irrespective of sex of animals. Older animals (78 wks old) showed losses (-45%) of specific binding. Striatal binding of MPH to the dopamine transporter (DAT) showed a similar reproducibility over a five year period (DVR=2.17±0.39, N=52), again irrespective of radionuclide or sex. These studies demonstrate that use of a consistent in vivo technique can provide reliable measures of specific binding of radioligands to high affinity sites in the rat brain

  20. Long-term reproducibility of in vivo measures of specific binding of radioligands in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilbourn, Michael R. E-mail: mkilbour@umich.edu

    2004-07-01

    The long-term reproducibility of measures of in vivo specific binding of radiolabeled forms of (+)-{alpha}-dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) and d-threo-methylphenidate (MPH) in rat brain was examined. All studies were done using a consistent bolus plus infusion protocol and calculation of equilibrium distribution volume ratios (DVR). Over a period of eight years striatal DVR values for DTBZ binding to the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in young adult (8-10 wks old) rats showed very good reproducibility (3.62{+-}0.33, N=35). Equivalent values were obtained using either tritiated or carbon-11 labeled DTBZ, and were irrespective of sex of animals. Older animals (78 wks old) showed losses (-45%) of specific binding. Striatal binding of MPH to the dopamine transporter (DAT) showed a similar reproducibility over a five year period (DVR=2.17{+-}0.39, N=52), again irrespective of radionuclide or sex. These studies demonstrate that use of a consistent in vivo technique can provide reliable measures of specific binding of radioligands to high affinity sites in the rat brain.

  1. Specific-heat measurements on dilute 3He-4He mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author measured the specific heat of dilute 3He-4He mixtures in the concentration range from X = 1 x 10-3 to X = 3 x 10-3 and in the temperature range from 100 mK to 600 mK. This has been done by means of a thermal relaxation method. This method provides some interesting features and is applied, to our knowledge, for the first time to dilute 3He-4He mixtures. To reach the required temperature range for our experiments a 4He circulating 3He-4He dilution refrigerator has been constructed. The results confirm the deviation of the 3He contribution to the specific heat from the ideal Fermi gas behaviour. (Auth.)

  2. Comparison of Measurement of Central Corneal Thickness with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and Standard Ultrasonic Pachymeter in Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Hekimoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the repeatability of measurement of central corneal thickness (CCT by spectral domain optical coherence (SD-OCT in premature infants and compare it to CCT measurement by ultrasonic pachymetry (USP. Methods. Three CCT measurements of the left eyes of 50 premature infants were obtained by SD-OCT using the iVue system. 10 CCT measurements of each 28 left eyes of 28 infants were obtained by USP using the Pacscan 300P system. Bland-Altman plots were developed and the limit of agreement (LoA was determined to compare the mean of the SD-OCT and USP measurements. Results. No statistically significant difference was found among the 3 CCT measurements by SD-OCT. Both USP and SD-OCT have been performed for only left eyes of 28 of the 50 babies. Those results have been compared with each other. A statistically significant difference was found between the mean CCT measurements by SD-OCT and USP (p<0.05. The LoA between the SD-OCT and USP measurements ranged from 11.4 to −64.1. Conclusions. CCT can be measured using the iVue SD-OCT system with a high level of repeatability. Although measurement of CCT by SD-OCT and USP is highly correlated, the 2 systems cannot be used interchangeably in premature infants.

  3. Central tolerance spares the private high-avidity CD4(+) T-cell repertoire specific for an islet antigen in NOD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serre, Laurent; Fazilleau, Nicolas; Guerder, Sylvie

    2015-07-01

    Although central tolerance induces the deletion of most autoreactive T cells, some autoreactive T cells escape thymic censorship. Whether potentially harmful autoreactive T cells present distinct TCRαβ features remains unclear. Here, we analyzed the TCRαβ repertoire of CD4(+) T cells specific for the S100β protein, an islet antigen associated with type 1 diabetes. We found that diabetes-resistant NOD mice deficient for thymus specific serine protease (TSSP), a protease that impairs class II antigen presentation by thymic stromal cells, were hyporesponsive to the immunodominant S100β1-15 epitope, as compared to wild-type NOD mice, due to intrathymic negative selection. In both TSSP-deficient and wild-type NOD mice, the TCRαβ repertoire of S100β-specific CD4(+) T cells though diverse showed a specific bias for dominant TCRα rearrangements with limited CDR3α diversity. These dominant TCRα chains were public since they were found in all mice. They were of intermediate- to low-avidity. In contrast, high-avidity T cells expressed unique TCRs specific to each individual (private TCRs) and were only found in wild-type NOD mice. Hence, in NOD mice, the autoreactive CD4(+) T-cell compartment has two major components, a dominant and public low-avidity TCRα repertoire and a private high-avidity CD4(+) T-cell repertoire; the latter is deleted by re-enforced negative selection. PMID:25884569

  4. Dynamic properties of silica aerogels as deduced from specific-heat and thermal-conductivity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernasconi, A.; Sleator, T.; Posselt, D.; Kjems, Jørgen; Ott, H.R.

    1992-01-01

    The specific heat C(p) and the thermal conductivity lambda of a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels have been measured at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. The results confirm that the different length-scale regions observed in the aerogel structure are reflected in the dynamic behavior of...... the possibility of two spectral dimensions characterizing the fracton modes. Our data imply important differences between the physical mechanisms dominating the low-temperature behavior of aerogels and dense glasses, respectively. From our analysis we also conclude that the low-temperature properties...

  5. Cell-line-specific stimulation of tumor cell aggressiveness by wound healing factors – a central role for STAT3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local recurrence is a major factor affecting survival after treatment for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). It is possible that the normal processes involved in wound healing after surgical removal of a primary tumor can boost the regrowth of residual cancer cells, thereby contributing to the recurrent growth. In this work, we collected human wound fluids and used them to investigate the effect of wound healing factors on HNSCC cell lines in vitro. Wound fluids were collected from thyroidectomized patients diagnosed with benign disease and were included in assays of cell proliferation, migration, cell scattering, and invasion. The involvement of intracellular signaling pathways and membrane receptors were investigated by western blotting and the inclusion of specific inhibitors. One out of four cell lines was greatly stimulated in proliferation, migration, cell scattering, and invasion by the addition of wound fluid as compared with addition of fetal bovine or human serum. These effects were accompanied by a sharp increase in activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Inhibition of STAT3 activation abolished the wound fluid response, showing that STAT3 plays an important role in the wound healing response. Several of the observed phenotypic changes were epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like, but the appropriate changes were not seen in any of the EMT markers investigated. The involvement of c-Met or epidermal growth factor receptor family members was excluded, while the interleukin-6 receptor was found to be partly responsible for the activation of STAT3. In conclusion, we found cell-line-specific effects of wound healing factors on HNSCC, setting the stage for therapy development and predictive opportunities

  6. Cell-line-specific stimulation of tumor cell aggressiveness by wound healing factors – a central role for STAT3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekblad Lars

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local recurrence is a major factor affecting survival after treatment for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. It is possible that the normal processes involved in wound healing after surgical removal of a primary tumor can boost the regrowth of residual cancer cells, thereby contributing to the recurrent growth. In this work, we collected human wound fluids and used them to investigate the effect of wound healing factors on HNSCC cell lines in vitro. Methods Wound fluids were collected from thyroidectomized patients diagnosed with benign disease and were included in assays of cell proliferation, migration, cell scattering, and invasion. The involvement of intracellular signaling pathways and membrane receptors were investigated by western blotting and the inclusion of specific inhibitors. Results One out of four cell lines was greatly stimulated in proliferation, migration, cell scattering, and invasion by the addition of wound fluid as compared with addition of fetal bovine or human serum. These effects were accompanied by a sharp increase in activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3. Inhibition of STAT3 activation abolished the wound fluid response, showing that STAT3 plays an important role in the wound healing response. Several of the observed phenotypic changes were epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT-like, but the appropriate changes were not seen in any of the EMT markers investigated. The involvement of c-Met or epidermal growth factor receptor family members was excluded, while the interleukin-6 receptor was found to be partly responsible for the activation of STAT3. Conclusions In conclusion, we found cell-line-specific effects of wound healing factors on HNSCC, setting the stage for therapy development and predictive opportunities.

  7. Textile Diamond Dipole and Artificial Magnetic Conductor Performance under Bending, Wetness and Specific Absorption Rate Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kamardin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Textile diamond dipole and Artificial Magnetic Conductor (AMC have been proposed and tested under wearable and body centric measurements. The proposed antenna and AMC sheet are entirely made of textiles for both the substrate and conducting parts, thus making it suitable for wearable communications. Directive radiation patterns with high gain are obtained with the proposed AMC sheet, hence minimizing the radiation towards the human body. In this study, wearable and body centric measurements are investigated which include bending, wetness and Specific Absorption Rate (SAR. Bending is found not to give significant effect to the antenna and AMC performance, as opposed to wetness that yields severe performance distortion. However, the original performance is retrieved once the antenna and AMC dried. Moreover, notable SAR reduction is achieved with the introduction of the AMC sheet, which is appropriate to reduce the radiation that penetrates into human flesh.

  8. Linking Groundwater Use and Stress to Specific Crops Using the Groundwater Footprint in the Central Valley and High Plains Aquifer Systems, U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Y.; Esnault, L.; Gleeson, T.; Heinke, J.; Gerten, D.; Flanary, E.; Bierkens, M. F.; Van Beek, L. P.

    2014-12-01

    A number of aquifers worldwide are being depleted, mainly by agricultural activities, yet groundwater stress has not been explicitly linked to specific agricultural crops. Using the newly-developed concept of the groundwater footprint (the area required to sustain groundwater use and groundwater-dependent ecosystem services), we develop a methodology to derive crop-specific groundwater footprints. We illustrate this method by calculating high resolution groundwater footprint estimates of crops in two heavily used aquifer systems: the Central Valley and High Plains, U.S. In both aquifer systems, hay and haylage, corn and cotton have the largest groundwater footprints, which highlights that most of the groundwater stress is induced by crops meant for cattle feed. Our results are coherent with other studies in the High Plains but suggest lower groundwater stress in the Central Valley, likely due to artificial recharge from surface water diversions which were not taken into account in previous estimates. Uncertainties of recharge and irrigation application efficiency contribute the most to the total relative uncertainty of the groundwater footprint to aquifer area ratios. Our results and methodology will be useful for hydrologists, water resource managers, and policy makers concerned with which crops are causing the well-documented groundwater stress in semiarid to arid agricultural regions around the world.

  9. Specificity matters: criterion-related validity of contextualized and facet measures of conscientiousness in predicting college student performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sang Eun; Jin, Jing; LeBreton, James M

    2015-01-01

    To enhance the predictive validity of self-report personality measures, 2 distinct ways of increasing specificity of personality measures have been proposed in the literature-contextual specificity (i.e., providing a contextual referent) and content specificity (i.e., focusing on more specific constructs such as the Big Five facets). This study extends this line of research by examining whether there is an optimal way to configure, align, or integrate contextual and content specificity using measures of conscientiousness to predict college student success. A sample of 478 undergraduate students completed 4 measures of conscientiousness that varied in the level of content and contextual specificity. These forms of specificity were crossed to yield 4 distinct measures of conscientiousness. We then evaluated and compared the relative importance and the incremental importance of these different measures in the prediction of academic success. Superior predictive validity was found for both contextualized and facet measures of conscientiousness compared to a measure of global conscientiousness in predicting grade-point average and a broader behavioral criterion of student performance. When contextual and content specificity approaches were compared and combined, we observed the strongest predictive validity when the level of specificity is appropriately matched between predictor and criterion. PMID:25695753

  10. Small-Chamber Measurements of Chemical-Specific Emission Factors for Drywall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy; Russell, Marion; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-06-01

    Imported drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. To support an investigation of those building materials by the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) measured chemical-specific emission factors for 30 samples of drywall materials. Emission factors are reported for 75 chemicals and 30 different drywall samples encompassing both domestic and imported stock and incorporating natural, synthetic, or mixed gypsum core material. CPSC supplied all drywall materials. First the drywall samples were isolated and conditioned in dedicated chambers, then they were transferred to small chambers where emission testing was performed. Four sampling and analysis methods were utilized to assess (1) volatile organic compounds, (2) low molecular weight carbonyls, (3) volatile sulfur compounds, and (4) reactive sulfur gases. LBNL developed a new method that combines the use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) with small emission chambers to measure the reactive sulfur gases, then extended that technique to measure the full suite of volatile sulfur compounds. The testing procedure and analysis methods are described in detail herein. Emission factors were measured under a single set of controlled environmental conditions. The results are compared graphically for each method and in detailed tables for use in estimating indoor exposure concentrations.

  11. Patient-specific simulations and measurements of the magneto-hemodynamic effect in human primary vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the main characteristics of the magneto-hemodynamic (MHD) response for application as a biomarker of vascular blood flow. The induced surface potential changes of a volunteer exposed to a 3 T static B0 field of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnet were measured over time at multiple locations by an electrocardiogram device and compared to simulation results. The flow simulations were based on boundary conditions derived from MRI flow measurements restricted to the aorta and vena cava. A dedicated and validated low-frequency electromagnetic solver was applied to determine the induced temporal surface potential change from the obtained 4D flow distribution using a detailed whole-body model of the volunteer. The simulated MHD signal agreed with major characteristics of the measured signal (temporal location of main peak, magnitude, variation across chest and along torso) except in the vicinity of the heart. The MHD signal is mostly influenced by the aorta; however, more vessels and better boundary conditions are needed to analyze the finer details of the response. The results show that the MHD signal is strongly position dependent with highly variable but reproducibly measurable distinguished characteristics. Additional investigations are necessary before determining whether the MHD effect is a reliable reference for location-specific information on blood flow. (paper)

  12. On the measurement technique for specific absorption rate of nanoparticles in an alternating electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate measurement of specific absorption rate (SAR) is essential for quantifying the power dissipation of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions in alternating magnetic fields, which have applications in cancer hyperthermia. Current SAR measurement setups usually comprise a coil surrounding a container holding the sample fluid. The temperature rise of the magnetic fluid is recorded once the field is turned on and SAR is determined from the initial slope of the temperature as a function of time. However several factors, including volume of the fluid sample, thermal properties of the container, positioning of the temperature sensor and non-uniformities in the magnetic field induced by the sample and coil geometry, may influence the reported SAR. To illustrate these effects theoretical and experimental investigations are carried out. The results show that the SAR measured on samples of relatively small volume may be subjected to errors associated with conductive heat losses to the container holding the sample. Numerical simulations also show that the fluid experiences internal convection during heating, which dictates the positioning of the temperature sensor. Moreover, the heat generation is shown to depend on sample geometry because this has an effect on the magnetic flux passing through the sample. Since SAR is proportional to squared field strength, small differences in the magnetic field may result in large differences in SAR. The findings reported here are also relevant to the measurement of power dissipation in capacitively coupled, radio-frequency heating of metallic nanoparticles. (paper)

  13. Development of the Abbott MATRIX Aero assay for the measurement of specific IgE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, R E; Anawis, M A; Bailey, M; Mangat, D; Frank, P M; Hrusovsky, I G; Hooyman, L; Putterman, C; Defreese, J D

    1991-01-01

    An enzyme immunoassay has been developed for the quantitation of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in human serum to a panel of allergens. The assay system, called the Abbott MATRIX Aero, includes an instrument, reagents and test cell disposables. Each test cell contains fourteen airborne allergens individually localized on a nitrocellulose solid phase. Individual calibration curves for each allergen are established by the manufacturer and included in barcode form with each test kit. Stable factory calibration eliminates the need to establish a calibration curve with each assay run. The instrument automatically incubates, washes, and reads the test cell and prints each result, which ensures assay reproducibility and provides ease-of-use. Analysis of test results shows good agreement with another in vitro assay for specific IgE. The Abbott MATRIX Aero is a sensitive, reproducible and easy-to-use system for the measurement of specific IgE to a panel of fourteen allergens simultaneously using a single, small volume of serum. PMID:1806584

  14. Nutritional status influences generic and disease-specific quality of life measures in haemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Catarina Moreira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor nutritional status and worse health-related quality of life (QoL have been reported in haemodialysis (HD patients. The utilization of generic and disease specific QoL questionnaires in the same population may provide a better understanding of the significance of nutrition in QoL dimensions. Objective: To assess nutritional status by easy to use parameters and to evaluate the potential relationship with QoL measured by generic and disease specific questionnaires. Methods: Nutritional status was assessed by subjective global assessment adapted to renal patients (SGA, body mass index (BMI, nutritional intake and appetite. QoL was assessed by the generic EuroQoL and disease specific Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form (KDQoL-SF questionnaires. Results: The study comprised 130 patients of both genders, mean age 62.7 ± 14.7 years. The prevalence of undernutrition ranged from 3.1% by BMI 25 also had worse scores in some QoL dimensions, but after adjustment the pattern was maintained only in the symptoms and problems dimension of KDQoL-SF (p = 0.011. Conclusion: Our study reveals that even in mildly undernourished HD patients, nutritional status has a significant impact in several QoL dimensions. The questionnaires used provided different, almost complementary perspectives, yet for daily practice EuroQoL is simpler. Assuring a good nutritional status, may positively influence QoL.

  15. Measuring Alcohol-Specific Communication with Friends: Conceptualizing and Operationalizing Communication as Multidimensional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Jennifer A; Figueroa-Caballero, Andrea; Basinger, Erin D

    2016-06-01

    According to primary socialization theory, adolescents develop beliefs about alcohol by interacting with peers, as well as other socialization agents. Although communication is essential to this belief-formation process, few studies have identified the specific alcohol-related messages that adolescents exchange with their peers, and more specifically friends, that lead to certain anti- and/or pro-alcohol-related beliefs. Consequently, the goal of this study was to develop a multidimensional measure of alcohol-specific communication with friends. Based on survey data from 259 high school students, the results indicated that communication with friends involving warnings against drinking alcohol, disapproval of alcohol consumption, and making fun of others for drinking alcohol was negatively related to pro-alcohol beliefs and intentions. Communication with friends involving rumors, teasing each other about drinking alcohol, intentions to drink alcohol, different types of alcohol, experiences with alcohol, and talking about how many peers drink alcohol was positively related to pro-alcohol beliefs and intentions. PMID:26529419

  16. Site-specific waste management instruction for the Onsite Measurements Services Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Site-Specific Waste Management Instruction provides guidance for the management of waste generated as a result of field screening measurements performed by the Onsite Measurements Services Organization. Because this report is not project specific, it is not possible to designate waste streams through this document, other than to assess whether the analyses themselves will cause a waste stream to be designated. Generally, field screening methodologies that do not create dangerous waste are employed instead of those that create dangerous waste. The analyses within the scope of this SSWMI are as follows: VOC analyses of water samples using aqueous headspace analyses; VOC analyses of air samples using soil gas analytical techniques; total uranium analyses of water samples using kinetic phosphorescence analyses; chromate analyses of water samples is using a colorimetric method based on ''AccuVac'' ampuls manufactured by the Hach Company; nitrate analyses of water samples using paper test strips; conductivity analyses of water samples using electrodes; and sulfate analyses of water samples using a colorimetric method based on ''AccuVac'' ampuls

  17. The specific star formation rate and stellar mass fraction of low-mass central galaxies in cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Avila-Reese, V; González-Samaniego, A; Valenzuela, O; Firmani, C; Velázquez, H; Ceverino, D

    2011-01-01

    By means of cosmological simulations of galaxies in the context of the LCDM scenario we explore the specific star formation rates (SSFR=SFR/Ms, Ms is the stellar mass) and stellar mass fractions (Fs=Ms/Mh, Mh is the halo mass) for sub-M* field galaxies at different redshifts (0

  18. Heavy ion reaction measurements with the EOS TPC (looking for central collisions with missing energy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EOS TPC was constructed for complete event measurement of heavy ion collisions at the Bevalac. We report here on the TPC design and some preliminary measurements of conserved event quantities such as total invariant mass, total momentum, total A and Z

  19. Association between birth weight and objectively measured sedentary time is mediated by central adiposity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrand, Maria; Kolle, Elin; Hansen, Bjørge H;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Birth weight is an early correlate of disease later in life, and animal studies suggest that low birth weight is associated with reduced activity and increased sedentary time. Whether birth weight predicts later sedentary time in humans is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: We examined the relation.......001). Results of the mediation analysis showed a significant indirect effect of birth weight on sedentary time through waist circumference (B: 1.30; 95% bias-corrected CI: 0.94, 1.72), and when waist circumference was controlled for, the effect of birth weight on sedentary time was attenuated by 32% (B = 2...... between birth weight and sedentary time in youth and examined whether this association was mediated by central adiposity. DESIGN: We used pooled cross-sectional data from 8 observational studies conducted between 1997 and 2007 that consisted of 10,793 youth (boys: 47%) aged 6-18 y from the International...

  20. Subsidence in the Central Valley, California 2007 - present measured by InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.; Liu, Z.; Jones, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Subsidence caused by groundwater pumping in the rich agricultural area of California's Central Valley has been a problem for decades. Over the last few years, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) observations from satellite and aircraft platforms have been used to produce maps of subsidence with ~cm accuracy. For this study, we have obtained and analyzed Japanese PALSAR data for 2006 - 2011, Canadian Radarsat-1 data for 2011 - 2013, Radarsat-2 data for 2012 - 2015, and ESA's Sentinel-1A for 2015 and produced maps of subsidence for those periods. High resolution InSAR data were also acquired along the California Aqueduct by the NASA UAVSAR from 2013 - 2015. Using multiple scenes acquired by these systems, we were able to produce the time histories of subsidence at selected locations and transects showing how subsidence varies both spatially and temporally. The maps show that subsidence is continuing in areas with a history of subsidence and that the rates and areas affected have increased due to increased groundwater extraction during the extended western US drought. The high resolution maps from UAVSAR were used to identify and quantify new, highly localized areas of accelerated subsidence along the California Aqueduct that occurred in 2014. The California Department of Water Resources (DWR) funded this work to provide the background and an update on subsidence in the Central Valley to support future policy. Geographic Information System (GIS) files are being furnished to DWR for further analysis of the 4 dimensional subsidence time-series maps. Part of this work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA.

  1. Aircraft measurements of polar organic tracer compounds in tropospheric particles (PM10) over central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, P. Q.; Kawamura, K.; Cheng, Y. F.; Hatakeyama, S.; Takami, A.; Li, H.; Wang, W.

    2014-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected by aircraft at low to middle altitudes (0.8-3.5 km a.g.l.) over central East to West China during summer 2003 and spring 2004. The samples were analyzed for polar organic compounds using a technique of solvent extraction/BSTFA derivatization/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers from the oxidation of isoprene were found to be more abundant in summer (3.3-138 ng m-3, mean 39 ng m-3) than in spring (3.2-42 ng m-3, 15 ng m-3), while α/β-pinene and β-caryophyllene SOA tracers showed similar abundances between these two seasons. A strong positive correlation (R2 = 0.83) between levoglucosan and β-caryophyllinic acid was found in the spring samples vs. a weak correlation (R2 = 0.17) in the summer samples, implying substantial contributions from biomass burning to the β-caryophyllinic acid production in spring. Two organic nitrogen species (oxamic acid and carbamide) were detected in the aircraft aerosol samples, and their concentrations were comparable to those of biogenic SOA tracers. Most of the primary organic aerosol (POA) and SOA tracers were less abundant at higher altitudes, suggesting they are of ground surface origin, either being directly emitted from anthropogenic/natural sources on the ground surface, or rapidly formed through photooxidation of their precursors emitted from the ground surface and then diluted during uplifting into the troposphere. This study demonstrates that primary biological aerosols, biogenic SOA, and organic nitrogen species are important components of organic aerosols in the troposphere over central China during warm seasons.

  2. Direct Heat-Flux Measurement System (MDF) for Solar central Receiver Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballestrin, J.

    2001-07-01

    A direct flux measurement system, MDF, has been designed, constructed and mounted on top of the SSPS-CRS tower at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in addition to an indirect flux measurement system based on a CCD camera. It's one of the main future objectives to compare systematically both measurements of the concentrated solar power, increasing in this way the confidence in the estimate of this quantity. Today everything is prepared to perform the direct flux measurement on the aperture of solar receivers: calorimeter array, data acquisition system and software. the geometry of the receiver determines the operation and analysis procedures to obtain the indecent power onto the defined area. The study of previous experiences with direct flux measurement systems ha been useful to define a new simpler and more accurate system. A description of each component of the MDF system is included, focusing on the heat-flux sensors or calorimeters, which enables these measurements to be done in a few seconds without water-cooling. The incident solar power and the spatial flux distribution on the aperture of the volumetric receiver Hitrec II are supplied by the above-mentioned MDF system. The first results obtained during the evaluation of this solar receiver are presented including a sunrise-sunset test. All these measurements have been concentrated in one coefficient that describes the global behavior of the Solar Power Plant. (Author) 18 refs.

  3. Direct Heat-Flux Measurement System (MDF) for Solar Central Receiver Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A direct flux measurement system, MDF, has been designed, constructed and mounted on top of the SSPSCRS tower at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in addition to an indirect flux measurement system based on a CCD camera. It's one of the main future objectives to compare systematically both measurements of the concentrated solar power, increasing in this way the confidence in the estimate of this quantity. Today everything is prepared to perform the direct flux measurement on the aperture of solar receivers: calorimeter array, data acquisition system and software. The geometry of the receiver determines the operation and analysis procedures to obtain the incident power onto the defined area. The study of previous experiences with direct flux measurement systems has been useful to define a new, simpler and more accurate system. A description of each component of the MDF system is included, focusing on the heat-flux sensors or calorimeters, which enables these measurements to be done in a few seconds without water-cooling. The incident solar power and the spatial flux distribution on the aperture of the volumetric receiver Hitrec II are supplied by the above-mentioned MDF system. The first results obtained during the evaluation of this solar receiver are presented including a sunrise-sunset test. AU these measurements have been concentrated in one coefficient that describes the global behavior of the Solar Power Plant. (Author) 18 refs

  4. Recommendations for Guidelines for Environment-Specific Magnetic-Field Measurements, Rapid Program Engineering Project #2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Electric Research and Management, Inc.; IIT Research Institute; Magnetic Measurements; Survey Research Center, University of California; T. Dan Bracken, Inc.

    1997-03-11

    The purpose of this project was to document widely applicable methods for characterizing the magnetic fields in a given environment, recognizing the many sources co-existing within that space. The guidelines are designed to allow the reader to follow an efficient process to (1) plan the goals and requirements of a magnetic-field study, (2) develop a study structure and protocol, and (3) document and carry out the plan. These guidelines take the reader first through the process of developing a basic study strategy, then through planning and performing the data collection. Last, the critical factors of data management, analysis reporting, and quality assurance are discussed. The guidelines are structured to allow the researcher to develop a protocol that responds to specific site and project needs. The Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (RAPID) is based on exposure to magnetic fields and the potential health effects. Therefore, the most important focus for these magnetic-field measurement guidelines is relevance to exposure. The assumed objective of an environment-specific measurement is to characterize the environment (given a set of occupants and magnetic-field sources) so that information about the exposure of the occupants may be inferred. Ideally, the researcher seeks to obtain complete or "perfect" information about these magnetic fields, so that personal exposure might also be modeled perfectly. However, complete data collection is not feasible. In fact, it has been made more difficult as the research field has moved to expand the list of field parameters measured, increasing the cost and complexity of performing a measurement and analyzing the data. The guidelines address this issue by guiding the user to design a measurement protocol that will gather the most exposure-relevant information based on the locations of people in relation to the sources. We suggest that the "microenvironment" become the base unit of area in a study, with

  5. Neutron flux measurement in the central channel (XC1) of TRIGA 14 MW LEU core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The full conversion of the 14 MW TRIGA Research Reactor was completed in May 2006 and each step of the conversion was achieved by removal of HEU fuel and replaced by LEU fuel. The operation was accompanied by a large set of theoretical evaluations and physical measurements intended to confirm the performances of gradual conversion. After the core full conversion, a program of measurements and comparisons with previous results of core physics and measurements is underway, allowing data acquisition for normal operation, demonstration of safety and economics of the converted core. Neutron flux spectrum measurements in the XC-1 water-filled channel were performed using multi-foil activation techniques. The neutron spectra and flux are obtained by unfolding from measured reaction rates using SAND II computer code. The integral flux measured value for LEU core and 14 MW reactor power is 4.66x1014 n/cm2s. For standard core the integral neutron flux for 14 MW reactor power was 4.27x1014 n/cm2s. (authors)

  6. Association of lymph-node antigens with lower Gag-specific central-memory and higher Env-specific effector-memory CD8(+) T-cell frequencies in a macaque AIDS model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Saori; Nomura, Takushi; Nakamura, Midori; Shiino, Teiichiro; Sato, Yuko; Iwata-Yoshikawa, Naoko; Hasegawa, Hideki; Mizuta, Kazuta; Sakawaki, Hiromi; Miura, Tomoyuki; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Naruse, Taeko K; Kimura, Akinori; Matano, Tetsuro

    2016-01-01

    Virus-specific CD8(+) T cells exert strong suppressive pressure on human/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) replication. These responses have been intensively examined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) but not fully analyzed in lymph nodes (LNs), where interaction between CD8(+) T cells and HIV/SIV-infected cells occurs. Here, we investigated target antigen specificity of CD8(+) T cells in LNs in a macaque AIDS model. Analysis of virus antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses in the inguinal LNs obtained from twenty rhesus macaques in the chronic phase of SIV infection showed an inverse correlation between viral loads and frequencies of CD8(+) T cells with CD28(+) CD95(+) central memory phenotype targeting the N-terminal half of SIV core antigen (Gag-N). In contrast, analysis of LNs but not PBMCs revealed a positive correlation between viral loads and frequencies of CD8(+) T cells with CD28(-)CD95(+) effector memory phenotype targeting the N-terminal half of SIV envelope (Env-N), soluble antigen. Indeed, LNs with detectable SIV capsid p27 antigen in the germinal center exhibited significantly lower Gag-N-specific CD28(+) CD95(+) CD8(+) T-cell and higher Env-N-specific CD28(-)CD95(+) CD8(+) T-cell responses than those without detectable p27. These results imply that core and envelope antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells show different patterns of interactions with HIV/SIV-infected cells. PMID:27452272

  7. DC temperature measurements to characterize the central frequency and 3 dB bandwidth in mmW power amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Aragonès Cervera, Xavier; Mateo Peña, Diego; González Jiménez, José Luis; Vidal López, Eva María; Gómez Salinas, Didac; Martineau, B.; Altet Sanahujes, Josep

    2015-01-01

    This letter shows how a temperature sensor and a simple DC voltage multimeter can be used as instruments to determine the central frequency and 3 dB bandwidth of a 60 GHz linear power amplifier (PA). Compared to previous works, the DC temperature monitoring now proposed requires a much simpler and convenient measurement set-up. In this example, the temperature sensor is embedded in the same silicon die as the PA. Being placed in empty layout spaces next to it, it is proposed as a built-in tes...

  8. Wintertime measurements of aerosol acidity and trace elements in wuhan, a city in central china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the People's Republic of China (P.R.C.), the pervasive use of soft coal leads to situations where the concentrations of SO2 and particulate matter approach or surpass those historically observed in London. A cooperative investigation of the effects of air pollution upon the lung function of children in five Chinese cities has been developed among China EPA, U.S. EPA and Robert Wood Johnson Medical School. The paper presents initial results of a winter air pollution field study conducted in Wuhan, one of the selected cities. A 2-week intensive ambient aerosol study was conducted in December 1988 in Wuhan (Hubei Province), a city of nearly 2 million located on the Yangtze River in central China (P.R.C.). This is an industrial region where soft coal burning is widespread, and emission controls for vehicles and industrial facilities are minimal. The sampling site was located in one of the civic centers where residential and commercial density is highest. The purpose of this initial intensive study period was to obtain information on the chemical and physical characteristics of the aerosol species in the urban P.R.C. setting. The focus was the composition and acidity of fine particulate material

  9. Measurement and Study of Lidar Ratio by Using a Raman Lidar in Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Gong, Wei; Mao, Feiyue; Pan, Zengxin; Liu, Boming

    2016-01-01

    We comprehensively evaluated particle lidar ratios (i.e., particle extinction to backscatter ratio) at 532 nm over Wuhan in Central China by using a Raman lidar from July 2013 to May 2015. We utilized the Raman lidar data to obtain homogeneous aerosol lidar ratios near the surface through the Raman method during no-rain nights. The lidar ratios were approximately 57 ± 7 sr, 50 ± 5 sr, and 22 ± 4 sr under the three cases with obviously different pollution levels. The haze layer below 1.8 km has a large particle extinction coefficient (from 5.4e-4 m−1 to 1.6e-4 m−1) and particle backscatter coefficient (between 1.1e-05 m−1sr−1 and 1.7e-06 m−1sr−1) in the heavily polluted case. Furthermore, the particle lidar ratios varied according to season, especially between winter (57 ± 13 sr) and summer (33 ± 10 sr). The seasonal variation in lidar ratios at Wuhan suggests that the East Asian monsoon significantly affects the primary aerosol types and aerosol optical properties in this region. The relationships between particle lidar ratios and wind indicate that large lidar ratio values correspond well with weak winds and strong northerly winds, whereas significantly low lidar ratio values are associated with prevailing southwesterly and southerly wind. PMID:27213414

  10. Measurement and Study of Lidar Ratio by Using a Raman Lidar in Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Gong, Wei; Mao, Feiyue; Pan, Zengxin; Liu, Boming

    2016-01-01

    We comprehensively evaluated particle lidar ratios (i.e., particle extinction to backscatter ratio) at 532 nm over Wuhan in Central China by using a Raman lidar from July 2013 to May 2015. We utilized the Raman lidar data to obtain homogeneous aerosol lidar ratios near the surface through the Raman method during no-rain nights. The lidar ratios were approximately 57 ± 7 sr, 50 ± 5 sr, and 22 ± 4 sr under the three cases with obviously different pollution levels. The haze layer below 1.8 km has a large particle extinction coefficient (from 5.4e-4 m(-1) to 1.6e-4 m(-1)) and particle backscatter coefficient (between 1.1e-05 m(-1)sr(-1) and 1.7e-06 m(-1)sr(-1)) in the heavily polluted case. Furthermore, the particle lidar ratios varied according to season, especially between winter (57 ± 13 sr) and summer (33 ± 10 sr). The seasonal variation in lidar ratios at Wuhan suggests that the East Asian monsoon significantly affects the primary aerosol types and aerosol optical properties in this region. The relationships between particle lidar ratios and wind indicate that large lidar ratio values correspond well with weak winds and strong northerly winds, whereas significantly low lidar ratio values are associated with prevailing southwesterly and southerly wind. PMID:27213414

  11. Comparison between the evapotranspiration of alfalfa measured by eddy covariance and estimated by FAO 56 method in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Alessandra; Vergni, Lorenzo; Todisco, Francesca; Mannocchi, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study is the comparison between crop evapotranspiration measurements by eddy covariance (ETEC) and estimates by FAO-56 method (ETC). An open patch eddy covariance (EC) system has been installed in the middle of an alfalfa farmland in Central Italy. The EC system consisted of a 3D sonic anemometer/thermometer (model CSAT3) and a gas-analyzer (model Li-7500). CSAT3 and Li-7500 measured three-directions fluctuations of wind, sonic temperature, and concentrations of H2O and CO2 at 20Hz. These instruments allowed to measure independently latent heat flux (LE) and sensible heat flux (H). Soil heat flux (G) and net radiation (Rn) were measured using soil heat flux plates (model HFP01) and a net radiometer respectively, in order to check energy balance closure. All the sensors were connected to a datalogger (model CR3000) and the 10-min statistics (average, variance and covariance) were computed. Daily precipitation and air temperature were also recorded. The sensors were placed at 1.8m height over the soil surface. Available energy (Rn-G) systematically exceeds the measured fluxes (LE+H), being the underestimation of LE+H between 10 and 30%. Therefore, in accordance to the literature, the energy balance closure was considered to provide evidence for the validity of the results on LE. The evapotranspiration was measured by the EC system between days of the year 2009 (DOY) 130 (10th May) and 153 (2nd June), corresponding to the first 24 days of the 2nd cutting cycle of the growing season and between DOY 190 (9th July) and 240 (21st August), the whole 3rd cutting cycle of the growing season. For the same periods crop evapotranspiration was also calculated as the product between reference evapotranspiration (ET0) estimated by the FAO Penman-Monteith equation and the factor Kc×Ks (where Kc, crop coefficient; Ks, water stress coefficient, FAO-56 method). Tabulated Kc values, adjusted for the specific air humidity and wind speed conditions measured at the

  12. Estimating Aboveground Forest Carbon Stock of Major Tropical Forest Land Uses Using Airborne Lidar and Field Measurement Data in Central Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, R. B.; Watanabe, M.; Motohka, T.; Shiraishi, T.; shimada, M.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical forests are providing environmental goods and services including carbon sequestration, energy regulation, water fluxes, wildlife habitats, fuel, and building materials. Despite the policy attention, the tropical forest reserve in Southeast Asian region is releasing vast amount of carbon to the atmosphere due to deforestation. Establishing quality forest statistics and documenting aboveground forest carbon stocks (AFCS) are emerging in the region. Airborne and satellite based large area monitoring methods are developed to compliment conventional plot based field measurement methods as they are costly, time consuming, and difficult to implement for large regions. But these methods still require adequate ground measurements for calibrating accurate AFCS model. Furthermore, tropical region comprised of varieties of natural and plantation forests capping higher variability of forest structures and biomass volumes. To address this issue and the needs for ground data, we propose the systematic collection of ground data integrated with airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. Airborne LiDAR enables accurate measures of vertical forest structure, including canopy height and volume demanding less ground measurement plots. Using an appropriate forest type based LiDAR sampling framework, structural properties of forest can be quantified and treated similar to ground measurement plots, producing locally relevant information to use independently with satellite data sources including synthetic aperture radar (SAR). In this study, we examined LiDAR derived forest parameters with field measured data and developed general and specific AFCS models for tropical forests in central Sumatra. The general model is fitted for all types of natural and plantation forests while the specific model is fitted to the specific forest type. The study region consists of natural forests including peat swamp and dry moist forests, regrowth, and mangrove and plantation forests

  13. Electron spectroscopic evidence of electron correlation in Ni-Pt alloys: comparison with specific heat measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed photoemission spectroscopy of Ni-Pt alloys to understand the origin of the discrepancy between the experimental linear coefficient of specific heat γ and that predicted by band theory. We found that the quasiparticle density of states at the Fermi level deduced from photoemission measurement is in agreement with the experimental value of γ, if we include the electron correlation effect. It was also found that the Ni 2p core level satellite intensity increases as Ni content is reduced, indicating a strong electron correlation effect which can enhance the quasiparticle effective mass considerably. This supports our conclusion that electron correlation is the most probable reason of disagreement of γ between experiment and band theory

  14. Constructing disease-specific gene networks using pair-wise relevance metric: Application to colon cancer identifies interleukin 8, desmin and enolase 1 as the central elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Wei

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advance of large-scale omics technologies, it is now feasible to reversely engineer the underlying genetic networks that describe the complex interplays of molecular elements that lead to complex diseases. Current networking approaches are mainly focusing on building genetic networks at large without probing the interaction mechanisms specific to a physiological or disease condition. The aim of this study was thus to develop such a novel networking approach based on the relevance concept, which is ideal to reveal integrative effects of multiple genes in the underlying genetic circuit for complex diseases. Results The approach started with identification of multiple disease pathways, called a gene forest, in which the genes extracted from the decision forest constructed by supervised learning of the genome-wide transcriptional profiles for patients and normal samples. Based on the newly identified disease mechanisms, a novel pair-wise relevance metric, adjusted frequency value, was used to define the degree of genetic relationship between two molecular determinants. We applied the proposed method to analyze a publicly available microarray dataset for colon cancer. The results demonstrated that the colon cancer-specific gene network captured the most important genetic interactions in several cellular processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, mitogenesis and immunity, which are known to be pivotal for tumourigenesis. Further analysis of the topological architecture of the network identified three known hub cancer genes [interleukin 8 (IL8 (p ≈ 0, desmin (DES (p = 2.71 × 10-6 and enolase 1 (ENO1 (p = 4.19 × 10-5], while two novel hub genes [RNA binding motif protein 9 (RBM9 (p = 1.50 × 10-4 and ribosomal protein L30 (RPL30 (p = 1.50 × 10-4] may define new central elements in the gene network specific to colon cancer. Gene Ontology (GO based analysis of the colon cancer-specific gene network and

  15. Anxiety and cerebral blood flow during behavioral challenge. Dissociation of central from peripheral and subjective measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zohar, J.; Insel, T.R.; Berman, K.F.; Foa, E.B.; Hill, J.L.; Weinberger, D.R.

    1989-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between anxiety and regional cerebral blood flow, we administered behavioral challenges to 10 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder while measuring regional cerebral blood flow with the xenon 133 inhalation technique. Each patient was studied under three conditions: relaxation, imaginal flooding, and in vivo (actual) exposure to the phobic stimulus. Subjective anxiety, obsessive-compulsive ratings, and autonomic measures (heart rate, blood pressure) increased significantly, but respiratory rate and PCO/sub 2/ did not change across the three conditions. Regional cerebral blood flow increased slightly (in the temporal region) during imaginal flooding, but decreased markedly in several cortical regions during in vivo exposure, when anxiety was highest by subjective and peripheral autonomic measures. These results demonstrate that intense anxiety can be associated with decreased rather than increased cortical perfusion and that ostensibly related states of anxiety (eg, anticipatory and obsessional anxiety) may be associated with opposite effects on regional cerebral blood flow.

  16. Measurement Levels of the Spatial Integration – Suggestions for a Central-European Factor Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Uszkai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to point out, what kind of measurement methodologies and factor groups are used to determinate the depth of the spatial integration in the national and international scientific literature. Integration means in this sense the interconnection of several (spatial units (Kulcsár-Rostás, 1989; Kovács, 2001; Kiss, 2005. One of the most widely interpreted types of the integration is the economic integration, which can be applied to enterprises and spatial units as well. This study focuses on the last one and examines it at three territorial levels, distinguishing global, supranational (among national states and subnational levels. The possible measurement methods are significantly determined by the spatial levels. The paper makes some suggestions for the possible measurement method in Cenrtral-European context.

  17. Anxiety and cerebral blood flow during behavioral challenge. Dissociation of central from peripheral and subjective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the relationship between anxiety and regional cerebral blood flow, we administered behavioral challenges to 10 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder while measuring regional cerebral blood flow with the xenon 133 inhalation technique. Each patient was studied under three conditions: relaxation, imaginal flooding, and in vivo (actual) exposure to the phobic stimulus. Subjective anxiety, obsessive-compulsive ratings, and autonomic measures (heart rate, blood pressure) increased significantly, but respiratory rate and PCO2 did not change across the three conditions. Regional cerebral blood flow increased slightly (in the temporal region) during imaginal flooding, but decreased markedly in several cortical regions during in vivo exposure, when anxiety was highest by subjective and peripheral autonomic measures. These results demonstrate that intense anxiety can be associated with decreased rather than increased cortical perfusion and that ostensibly related states of anxiety (eg, anticipatory and obsessional anxiety) may be associated with opposite effects on regional cerebral blood flow

  18. Undertaking cause-specific mortality measurement in an unregistered population: an example from Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagos Godefay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The lack of adequate documentation of deaths, and particularly their cause, is often noted in African and Asian settings, but practical solutions for addressing the problem are not always clear. Verbal autopsy methods (interviewing witnesses after a death have developed rapidly, but there remains a lack of clarity as to how these methods can be effectively applied to large unregistered populations. This paper sets out practical details for undertaking a representative survey of cause-specific mortality in a population of several million, taking Tigray Region in Ethiopia as a prototype. Sampling: Sampling was designed around an expected level of maternal mortality ratio of 400 per 100,000 live births, which needed measuring within a 95% confidence interval of approximately ±100. Taking a stratified cluster sample within the region at the district level for logistic reasons, and allowing for a design effect of 2, this required a population of around 900,000 people, equating to six typical districts. Since the region is administered in six geographic zones, one district per zone was randomly selected. Implementation: The survey was implemented as a two-stage process: first, to trace deaths that occurred in the sampled districts within the preceding year, and second to follow them up with verbal autopsy interviews. The field work for both stages was undertaken by health extension workers, working in their normally assigned areas. Most of the work was associated with tracing the deaths, rather than undertaking the verbal autopsy interviews. Discussion: This approach to measuring cause-specific mortality in an unregistered Ethiopian population proved to be feasible and effective. Although it falls short of the ideal situation of continuous civil registration and vital statistics, a survey-based strategy of this kind may prove to be a useful intermediate step on the road towards full civil registration and vital statistics implementation.

  19. Antarctic specific features of the greenhouse effect. A radiative analysis using measurements and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CO2 is the strongest anthropogenic forcing agent for climate change since pre-industrial times. Like other greenhouse gases, CO2 absorbs terrestrial surface radiation and causes emission from the atmosphere to space. As the surface is generally warmer than the atmosphere, the total long-wave emission to space is commonly less than the surface emission. However, this does not hold true for the high elevated areas of central Antarctica. For this region, it is shown that the greenhouse effect of CO2 is around zero or even negative. Moreover, for central Antarctica an increase in CO2 concentration leads to an increased long-wave energy loss to space, which cools the earth-atmosphere system. These unique findings for central Antarctica are in contrast to the well known general warming effect of increasing CO2. The work contributes to explain the non-warming of central Antarctica since 1957.

  20. Antarctic specific features of the greenhouse effect. A radiative analysis using measurements and models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmithuesen, Holger

    2014-12-10

    CO{sub 2} is the strongest anthropogenic forcing agent for climate change since pre-industrial times. Like other greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2} absorbs terrestrial surface radiation and causes emission from the atmosphere to space. As the surface is generally warmer than the atmosphere, the total long-wave emission to space is commonly less than the surface emission. However, this does not hold true for the high elevated areas of central Antarctica. For this region, it is shown that the greenhouse effect of CO{sub 2} is around zero or even negative. Moreover, for central Antarctica an increase in CO{sub 2} concentration leads to an increased long-wave energy loss to space, which cools the earth-atmosphere system. These unique findings for central Antarctica are in contrast to the well known general warming effect of increasing CO{sub 2}. The work contributes to explain the non-warming of central Antarctica since 1957.

  1. The carbon storage regulator (Csr system exerts a nutrient-specific control over central metabolism in Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Revelles

    Full Text Available The role of the post-transcriptional carbon storage regulator (Csr system in nutrient utilization and in the control of the central metabolism in E. coli reference commensal strain Nissle 1917 was investigated. Analysis of the growth capabilities of mutants altered for various components of the Csr system (csrA51, csrB, csrC and csrD mutations showed that only the protein CsrA - the key component of the system - exerts a marked role in carbon nutrition. Attenuation of CsrA activity in the csrA51 mutant affects the growth efficiency on a broad range of physiologically relevant carbon sources, including compounds utilized by the Entner-Doudoroff (ED pathway. Detailed investigations of the metabolomes and fluxomes of mutants and wild-type cells grown on carbon sources representative of glycolysis and of the ED pathway (glucose and gluconate, respectively, revealed significant re-adjusting of central carbon metabolism for both compounds in the csrA51 mutant. However, the metabolic re-adjusting observed on gluconate was strikingly different from that observed on glucose, indicating a nutrient-specific control of metabolism by the Csr system.

  2. The carbon storage regulator (Csr) system exerts a nutrient-specific control over central metabolism in Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelles, Olga; Millard, Pierre; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Oswald, Eric; Létisse, Fabien; Portais, Jean-Charles

    2013-01-01

    The role of the post-transcriptional carbon storage regulator (Csr) system in nutrient utilization and in the control of the central metabolism in E. coli reference commensal strain Nissle 1917 was investigated. Analysis of the growth capabilities of mutants altered for various components of the Csr system (csrA51, csrB, csrC and csrD mutations) showed that only the protein CsrA - the key component of the system - exerts a marked role in carbon nutrition. Attenuation of CsrA activity in the csrA51 mutant affects the growth efficiency on a broad range of physiologically relevant carbon sources, including compounds utilized by the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway. Detailed investigations of the metabolomes and fluxomes of mutants and wild-type cells grown on carbon sources representative of glycolysis and of the ED pathway (glucose and gluconate, respectively), revealed significant re-adjusting of central carbon metabolism for both compounds in the csrA51 mutant. However, the metabolic re-adjusting observed on gluconate was strikingly different from that observed on glucose, indicating a nutrient-specific control of metabolism by the Csr system. PMID:23840455

  3. Neutron flux measurement in the central channel (XC-1) of TRIGA 14 MW LEU core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TRIGA 14 MW reactor, operated by Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti, Romania, is a pool type reactor, and has a rectangular shape which holds fuel bundles and is surrounded with beryllium reflectors. Each fuel bundle is composed of 25 nuclear fuel rods. The TRIGA 14 MW reactor was commissioned 28 years ago with HEU fuel rods. The conversion was gradually achieved, starting in February 1992 and completed in March 2006. The full conversion of the 14 MW TRIGA Research Reactor was completed in May 2006 and each step of the conversion was achieved by removal of HEU fuel, replaced by LEU fuel, accompanied by a large set of theoretical evaluation and physical measurements intended to confirm the performances of gradual conversion. After the core full conversion, a program of measurements and comparisons with previous results of core physics and measurements is underway, allowing data acquisition for normal operation, demonstration of safety and economics of the converted core. Neutron flux spectrum measurements in the XC in the XC-1 water 1 water-filled channel were performed using multi multi-foil activation techniques. The neutron spectra and flux are obtained by unfolding from measured reaction rates using SAND II computer code. The integral neutron flux value for LEU core is greater of 13% than for the standard HEU core. Also thermal neutron flux value for converted LEU core is smaller by 0.38% than for the standard HEU core. These differences appear because the foil activation detectors have been irradiated using a pneumatic rabbit having a diameter of 32 mm, whereas foil irradiations in standard HEU core has been performed with a pneumatic rabbit having a diameter of 14 mm, and therefore the neutron spectra in LEU core is less thermalized and the weight of fast neutron is greater

  4. Neutron flux measurement in the central channel (XC-1) of TRIGA 14 MW LEU core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARBOS, D.; BUSUIOC, P.; ROTH, Cs.; PAUNOIU, C. [Institute for Nuclear Research - ICN Pitesti (Romania)

    2008-10-29

    The TRIGA 14 MW reactor, operated by Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti, Romania, is a pool type reactor, and has a rectangular shape which holds fuel bundles and is surrounded with beryllium reflectors. Each fuel bundle is composed of 25 nuclear fuel rods. The TRIGA 14 MW reactor was commissioned 28 years ago with HEU fuel rods. The conversion was gradually achieved, starting in February 1992 and completed in March 2006. The full conversion of the 14 MW TRIGA Research Reactor was completed in May 2006 and each step of the conversion was achieved by removal of HEU fuel, replaced by LEU fuel, accompanied by a large set of theoretical evaluation and physical measurements intended to confirm the performances of gradual conversion. After the core full conversion, a program of measurements and comparisons with previous results of core physics and measurements is underway, allowing data acquisition for normal operation, demonstration of safety and economics of the converted core. Neutron flux spectrum measurements in the XC in the XC-1 water 1 water-filled channel were performed using multi multi-foil activation techniques. The neutron spectra and flux are obtained by unfolding from measured reaction rates using SAND II computer code. The integral neutron flux value for LEU core is greater of 13% than for the standard HEU core. Also thermal neutron flux value for converted LEU core is smaller by 0.38% than for the standard HEU core. These differences appear because the foil activation detectors have been irradiated using a pneumatic rabbit having a diameter of 32 mm, whereas foil irradiations in standard HEU core has been performed with a pneumatic rabbit having a diameter of 14 mm, and therefore the neutron spectra in LEU core is less thermalized and the weight of fast neutron is greater.

  5. An assessment of the usefulness of a rapid immuno-chromatographic test, "Determine™ malaria pf" in evaluation of intervention measures in forest villages of central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Manmohan

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum malaria, is a major health problem in forested tribal belt of central India. Rapid and accurate methods are needed for the diagnosis of P. falciparum. We performed a blinded evaluation of the recently introduced Determine™ malaria pf test (Abbott, Laboratories, Japan compared with microscopy and splenomegaly in children in epidemic prone areas of district Mandla to assess the impact of intervention measures. Methods Children aged 2–10 yrs with and without fever were examined for spleen enlargement by medical specialist by establishing a mobile field clinic. From these children thick blood smears were prepared from finger prick and read by a technician. Simultaneously, rapid tests were performed by a field lab attendant. The figures for specificity, sensitivity and predictive values were calculated using microscopy as gold standard. Results In all 349 children were examined. The sensitivity and specificity for Determine rapid diagnostic test were 91 and 80% respectively. The positive predictive values (PPV, negative predictive values (NPV and accuracy of the test were respectively 79, 91 and 85%. On the contrary, the sensitivity and specificity of spleen in detecting malaria infection were 57 and 74 % respectively with PPV of 73%, NPV 59 % and an accuracy of 65%. Conclusions Determine™ malaria rapid diagnostic test is easier and quicker to perform and has other advantages over microscopy in not requiring prior training of personnel or quality control. Thus, highlighting the usefulness of a rapid antigen test in assessing prevailing malaria situation in remote areas.

  6. Monograph Series No. 3: 10 MWe Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant receiver solar absorptance measurements and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, A.F.

    1986-06-01

    Solar absorptance data on Pyromark painted receiver panels at the 10 MWe Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant located near Barstow, California are reported. Measurements were made in 1982, 1983, and 1984. Selected measurements were made in 1985 after one receiver panel was repainted with Pyromark. The results show a linear decrease in the solar absorptance with time from an original average value of 0.92 to 0.88 after 663 days. The decrease in solar absorptance correlated with the higher incident solar flux levels on the receiver panels and not with the operating temperature of the panels. Repainting of one receiver panel successfully increased the solar absorptance to a value above 0.96.

  7. [Measurement of blood cholesterol, decentralized, using a Reflotron, or centralized in a laboratory. A comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, T E; Agner, E; Jensen, S E; Jacobsen, K; Mahnfeldt, M S; Baastrup, A

    1990-11-01

    In connection with an extensive screening programme for blood cholesterol, the cholesterol values in 105 participants were measured on a sample of capillary blood employing a Reflotron and, simultaneously, samples of venous blood were examined by conventional enzymatic analysis in a laboratory. Whereas the day-to-day variation and the scatter involved were quite limited in the laboratory, the variation scatter between the two methods of measurement was 0.65 mmol/l. This figure was, however, no greater than that described between different laboratories in USA. Nevertheless, it is an important problem with the Reflotron method that even slight deviations from the recommended procedure of withdrawing blood involve a systematic risk for erroneously low cholesterol results. PMID:2238225

  8. Soil gas measurements around the most recent volcanic system of metropolitan France (Lake Pavin, Massif Central)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil gas monitoring techniques (CO2, O2, 222Rn, 4He) are used in the geographical context of the recent volcanic system of Lake Pavin (Puy-de-Dome), to get a better knowledge of local gaseous emissions, in order to establish whether or not this system can present evidence of reactivation. Concentrations up to 100% CO2 and 50 ppm of helium are measured in a narrow geographical area (Escarot Mofette), together with a magmatic origin for these gases. Radon activity in the Mofette area is quite high, but does not show, compared to surrounding areas, enrichments as high as those measured for CO2 or helium. Hourly records of these radon activities, performed during several weeks, suggest the existence of pulsed radon exhalation in the Mofette area. The period of this pulsation is around 40 days but its origin remains poorly understood. Apart from this Mofette, no evidence of gas originating from depth is highlighted. (authors)

  9. Techniques for measuring aerosol attenuation using the Central Laser Facility at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    PIERRE AUGER Collaboration; Abreu, P; Pastor, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory in Malargue, Argentina, is designed to study the properties of ultra-high energy cosmic rays with energies above 10(18) eV. It is a hybrid facility that employs a Fluorescence Detector to perform nearly calorimetric measurements of Extensive Air Shower energies. To obtain reliable calorimetric information from the FD, the atmospheric conditions at the observatory need to be continuously monitored during data acquisition. In particular, light attenuation due to aer...

  10. Development of a Competitive Cystatin C-Specific Bioassay Suitable for Repetitive Measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Damm

    Full Text Available Human cystatin C (hCC, a cysteine protease inhibitor, has been proposed as a diagnostic marker because its serum levels correlate with certain cardiovascular and kidney diseases. All current hCC assays are based on ex vivo detection. Here we describe the generation and evaluation of antibodies that allow the repetitive binding and release of hCC and hCC-fusion proteins, a prerequisite for long-term measurement, which is required for compatibility with implantable biochip devices and for the development of innovative antibody-based assays suitable for continuous in vivo and in vitro monitoring. Recombinant hCC and hCC-fusion proteins were produced in Escherichia coli and HEK293T cells and were used to generate antibodies by hybridoma technology. After screening by indirect and sandwich ELISAs, 12 monoclonal hybridoma cell lines producing hCC-specific monoclonal antibodies were identified. To determine their hCC association and dissociation properties, the antibodies were analysed by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, revealing three with the desired fast binding and moderate-to-fast release characteristics. The analysis of binding and dissociation in the presence of hCC and hCC-fusion proteins using fluorescence-based replacement assays showed that mAb CyDI-4 was the most suitable for further analysis. The results showed that repetitive replacement on mAb CyDI-4 was possible and that most of the change in signal intensity occurred after 20-30 min. Furthermore, the suitability of mAb CyDI-4 for serum hCC measurement was confirmed by a fluorescence-based replacement assay using serially-diluted reference serum from the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (ERM-DA471/IFCC. Our results suggest that the assay covers the physiological and pathological ranges of hCC.

  11. Development of a Competitive Cystatin C-Specific Bioassay Suitable for Repetitive Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Tatjana; Spiegel, Holger; Barth, Stefan; Fischer, Rainer; Naehring, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Human cystatin C (hCC), a cysteine protease inhibitor, has been proposed as a diagnostic marker because its serum levels correlate with certain cardiovascular and kidney diseases. All current hCC assays are based on ex vivo detection. Here we describe the generation and evaluation of antibodies that allow the repetitive binding and release of hCC and hCC-fusion proteins, a prerequisite for long-term measurement, which is required for compatibility with implantable biochip devices and for the development of innovative antibody-based assays suitable for continuous in vivo and in vitro monitoring. Recombinant hCC and hCC-fusion proteins were produced in Escherichia coli and HEK293T cells and were used to generate antibodies by hybridoma technology. After screening by indirect and sandwich ELISAs, 12 monoclonal hybridoma cell lines producing hCC-specific monoclonal antibodies were identified. To determine their hCC association and dissociation properties, the antibodies were analysed by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, revealing three with the desired fast binding and moderate-to-fast release characteristics. The analysis of binding and dissociation in the presence of hCC and hCC-fusion proteins using fluorescence-based replacement assays showed that mAb CyDI-4 was the most suitable for further analysis. The results showed that repetitive replacement on mAb CyDI-4 was possible and that most of the change in signal intensity occurred after 20–30 min. Furthermore, the suitability of mAb CyDI-4 for serum hCC measurement was confirmed by a fluorescence-based replacement assay using serially-diluted reference serum from the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (ERM-DA471/IFCC). Our results suggest that the assay covers the physiological and pathological ranges of hCC. PMID:26799562

  12. Critical Velocity Is Associated With Combat-Specific Performance Measures in a Special Forces Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Mattan W; Stout, Jeffrey R; Hoffman, Jay R; Landua, Geva; Fukuda, David H; Sharvit, Nurit; Moran, Daniel S; Carmon, Erez; Ostfeld, Ishay

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between critical velocity (CV) and anaerobic distance capacity (ADC) to combat-specific tasks (CST) in a special forces (SFs) unit. Eighteen male soldiers (mean ± SD; age: 19.9 ± 0.8 years; height: 177.6 ± 6.6 cm; body mass: 74.1 ± 5.8 kg; body mass index [BMI]: 23.52 ± 1.63) from an SF unit of the Israel Defense Forces volunteered to complete a 3-minute all-out run along with CST (2.5-km run, 50-m casualty carry, and 30-m repeated sprints with "rush" shooting [RPTDS]). Estimates of CV and ADC from the 3-minute all-out run were determined from data downloaded from a global position system device worn by each soldier, with CV calculated as the average velocity of the final 30 seconds of the run and ADC as the velocity-time integral above CV. Critical velocity exhibited significant negative correlations with the 2.5-km run time (r = -0.62, p < 0.01) and RPTDS time (r = -0.71, p < 0.01). In addition, CV was positively correlated with the average velocity during the 2.5-km run (r = 0.64, p < 0.01). Stepwise regression identified CV as the most significant performance measure associated with the 2.5-km run time, whereas BMI and CV measures were significant predictors of RPTDS time (R(2) = 0.67, p ≤ 0.05). Using the 3-minute all-out run as a testing measurement in combat, personnel may offer a more efficient and simpler way in assessing both aerobic and anaerobic capabilities (CV and ADC) within a relatively large sample. PMID:26049790

  13. Electrons in the D0 central calorimeter: A study of the systematic biases in the measurement of the W mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The D0 detector at Fermilab is a general purpose collider detector designed for the study of proton-antiproton collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.8 TeV. The detector consists of an inner tracking volume, a hermetic uranium/liquid argon calorimeter, and an outer muon detection system. Since the detector lacks a central magnetic field, it relies on energy measurements from the calorimeter as opposed to momentum measurements using the tracking chambers. To provide the necessary understanding of the calorimeter, a testbeam was conducted at Fermilab during the second half of 1991 featuring detector modules from the central calorimeter. Detailed simulations of the detector apparatus were also written. This thesis will present the results of this testbeam and simulation effort and relate them to the measurement of the W± intermediate vector boson mass in the full D0 detector. In the testbeam, an energy resolution that scaled as 14% divided by the square root of the beam energy was found. The uniformity of response of the detector as a function of angle of incidence was investigated. We found that the response increased by 4% over the range investigated. The results were compared to a simulation written using the CERN package GEANT. Although GEANT was able to reproduce the energy resolution, it was not able to reproduce the uniformity of response function. A second simulation utilizing the EGS4 package from SLAC was successful in reproducing the behavior of the detector as a function of angle. The biases induced by the discrepancies between the detector and GEANT response functions in the W± mass measurement are studied. We find that using GEANT as a detector simulation will cause a bias of between 460 and 680 MeV in the W± mass determination

  14. A family-specific use of the Measure of Processes of Care for Service Providers (MPOC-SP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebes, R. C.; Nijhuis, B. J. G.; Boonstra, A. M.; Ketelaar, M.; Wijnroks, L.; Reinders-Messelink, H. A.; Postema, K.; Vermeer, A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the validity and utility of the Dutch Measure of Processes of Care for Service Providers (MPOC-SP) as a family-specific measure. Design: A validation study. Setting: Five paediatric rehabilitation settings in the Netherlands. Main measures: The MPOC-SP was utilized in a general

  15. Can the frequency-dependent specific heat be measured by thermal effusion methods?

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Tage; Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2007-01-01

    It has recently been shown that plane-plate heat effusion methods devised for wide-frequency specific-heat spectroscopy do not give the isobaric specific heat, but rather the so-called longitudinal specific heat. Here it is shown that heat effusion in a spherical symmetric geometry also involves the longitudinal specific heat.

  16. Towards Inter- and Intra- Cellular Protein Interaction Analysis: Applying the Betweenness Centrality Graph Measure for Node Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Alan J.; Haqqani, Arsalan S.

    2011-11-01

    Three public biological network data sets (KEGG, GeneRIF and Reactome) are collected and described. Two problems are investigated (inter- and intra- cellular interactions) via augmentation of the collected networks to the problem specific data. Results include an estimate of the importance of proteins for the interaction of inflammatory cells with the blood-brain barrier via the computation of Betweenness Centrality. Subsequently, the interactions may be validated from a number of differing perspectives; including comparison with (i) existing biological results, (ii) the literature, and (iii) new hypothesis driven biological experiments. Novel therapeutic and diagnostic targets for inhibiting inflammation at the blood-brain barrier in a number of brain diseases including Alzheimer's disease, stroke and multiple sclerosis are possible. In addition, this methodology may also be applicable towards investigating the breast cancer tumour microenvironment.

  17. Comparing measured and modelled soil carbon: which site-specific variables are linked to high stability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andy; Schipanski, Meagan; Ma, Liwang; Ahuja, Lajpat; McNamara, Niall; Smith, Pete; Davies, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Changes in soil carbon (C) stocks have been studied in depth over the last two decades, as net greenhouse gas (GHG) sinks are highlighted to be a partial solution to the causes of climate change. However, the stability of this soil C is often overlooked when measuring these changes. Ultimately a net sequestration in soils is far less beneficial if labile C is replacing more stable forms. To date there is no accepted framework for measuring soil C stability, and as a result there is considerable uncertainty associated with the simulated impacts of land management and land use change when using process-based systems models. However, a recent effort to equate measurable soil C fractions to model pools has generated data that help to assess the impacts of land management, and can ultimately help to reduce the uncertainty of model predictions. Our research compiles this existing fractionation data along with site metadata to create a simplistic statistical model able to quantify the relative importance of different site-specific conditions. Data was mined from 23 published studies and combined with original data to generate a dataset of 100+ land use change sites across Europe. For sites to be included they required soil C fractions isolated using the Zimmermann et al. (2007) method and specific site metadata (mean annual precipitation, MAP; mean annual temperature, MAT; soil pH; land use; altitude). Of the sites, 75% were used to develop a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) to create coefficients where site parameters can be used to predict influence on the measured soil fraction C stocks. The remaining 25% of sites were used to evaluate uncertainty and validate this empirical model. Further, four of the aforementioned sites were used to simulate soil C dynamics using the RothC, DayCent and RZWQM2 models. A sensitivity analysis (4096 model runs for each variable applying Latin hypercube random sampling techniques) was then used to observe whether these models place

  18. Comparison of Central Corneal Thickness Measurements by Ultrasonic Pachymetry and Orbscan II Corneal Topography and Evaluation of Ultrasonic Pachymetry Repeatability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Tiryaki Demir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Comparison of central corneal thickness (CCT measurements by ultrasonic pachymetry and Orbscan II corneal topography and evaluation of ultrasonic pachymetry repeatability for same observer. Materials and Methods: The study included 132, 82, and 80 eyes of 66 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, 41 patients with ocular hypertension (OHT, and 40 controls, respectively. All subjects were subjected to routine ophthalmic examination. Orbscan II (Bausch&Lomb corneal topography and ultrasonic pachymetry (Nidek Ultrasonic Pachymetry UP-1000 were used for measurement of CCT. ANOVA (Turkey test was used for variable distribution, paired sample t-test was used for repeated measurements, and the analyses were done by SPSS 20.0. Results: Mean CCT was 558.9±37.2 µm by ultrasonic pachymetry and 553.4±37 µm by corneal topography. There was a significant difference between the two measurements (p0.05. CCT was 555±39.2 µm, 564.3±28.4 µm, and 559.7±41.5 µm by ultrasonic pachymetry in POAG, OHT, and control subjects, respectively; CCT was 550.3±38.3 µm, 558.5±28 µm, and 553.2±42.5 µm by Orbscan II corneal topography in POAG, OHT, and control subjects, respectively. There was a significant linear correlation between Orbscan II corneal topography and ultrasonic pachymetry in CCT measurements (r=0.975, p<0.0001. Repeatability of ultrasonic pachymetry for same observer was (ICC value 0.990. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between Orbscan II corneal topography and ultrasonic pachymetry in CCT measurements. These two methods of measurements should not be substituted for each other, since ultrasonic pachymetry measures CCT greater than Orbscan II corneal topography. Repeatability of ultrasonic pachymetry for same observer is very high. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 263-7

  19. Central temperature of the Sun can be measured via the 7Be solar neutrino line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A precise test of the theory of stellar evolution can be performed by measuring the difference in average energy between the neutrino line produced by 7Be electron capture in the solar interior and the corresponding neutron line produced in a terrestrial laboratory. The high temperatures in the center of the Sun broaden the line asymmetrically, FWHM =1.6 keV, and cause an average energy shift of 1.3 keV. The width of the 7Be neutrino line should be taken into account in calculations of vacuum neutrino oscillations

  20. Determining vaccination frequency in farmed rainbow trout using Vibrio anguillarum O1 specific serum antibody measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Holten-Andersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite vaccination with a commercial vaccine with a documented protective effect against Vibrio anguillarum O1 disease outbreaks caused by this bacterium have been registered among rainbow trout at Danish fish farms. The present study examined specific serum antibody levels as a valid marker for assessing vaccination status in a fish population. For this purpose a highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was developed and used to evaluate sera from farmed rainbow trout vaccinated against V. anguillarum O1. STUDY DESIGN: Immune sera from rainbow trout immunised with an experimental vaccine based on inactivated V. anguillarum O1 bacterin in Freund's incomplete adjuvant were used for ELISA optimisation. Subsequently, sera from farmed rainbow trout vaccinated with a commercial vaccine against V. anguillarum were analysed with the ELISA. The measured serum antibody levels were compared with the vaccine status of the fish (vaccinated/unvaccinated as evaluated through visual examination. RESULTS: Repeated immunisation with the experimental vaccine lead to increasing levels of specific serum antibodies in the vaccinated rainbow trout. The farmed rainbow trout responded with high antibody levels to a single injection with the commercial vaccine. However, the diversity in responses was more pronounced in the farmed fish. Primary visual examinations for vaccine status in rainbow trout from the commercial farm revealed a large pool of unvaccinated specimens (vaccination failure rate=20% among the otherwise vaccinated fish. Through serum analyses using the ELISA in a blinded set-up it was possible to separate samples collected from the farmed rainbow trout into vaccinated and unvaccinated fish. CONCLUSIONS: Much attention has been devoted to development of new and more effective vaccines. Here we present a case from a Danish rainbow trout farm indicating that attention should also be directed to the vaccination procedure in

  1. Annual progress report on nuclear data 1989. Central Bureau for nuclear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1989 the efforts for the improvement of the set of standard neutron cross sections and other quantities selected within the INDC/NEANDC Standards File continued. In particular a detailed study of the nuclear mass and charge distribution of the cold and near cold fission of 252Cf yielded understanding of cold mass rearrangements in nuclei. Accuracy of alpha-particle emission probabilities for major transitions in the decay of 236Pu, 239Pu and 243Am was improved to better than 0.5%. In the field of nuclear data for fission technology work was concentrated on European requests in the NEA High Priority Request List. The number of neutrons emitted per neutron absorbed, was obtained for 235U between 2 and 100 meV neutron energy. Using the weighting function determined at CBNM for neutron capture detectors, a new value was obtained for the neutron width of the 1.15 keV resonance in 56FeΓn = (62.9 ± 2.1) meV. In the field of nuclear data for fusion technology, measurements continued aiming at an improvement of relevant data for neutron transport calculations in the blanket and for prediction of gas production. The radionuclide metrology subproject follows three lines: determination of decay-scheme data, preparation of special standards and the improvement of measurement techniques including international comparisons

  2. Runoff measurement and prediction for a watershed under natural vegetation in central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Silva

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to measure and analyze total rainfall (P, rainfall intensity and five-day antecedent rainfall effects on runoff (R; to compare measured and simulated R values using the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number method (CN for each rainfall event; and to establish average R/P ratios for observed R values. A one-year (07/01/96 to 06/30/97 rainfall-runoff data study was carried out in the Capetinga watershed (962.4 ha, located at the Federal District of Brazil, 47° 52' longitude West and 15° 52' latitude South. Soils of the watershed were predominantly covered by natural vegetation. Total rainfall and runoff for the period were 1,744 and 52.5 mm, respectively, providing R/P of 3% and suggesting that watershed physical characteristics favored water infiltration into the soil. A multivariate regression analysis for 31 main rainfall-runoff events totaling 781.9 and 51.0 mm, respectively, indicated that the amount of runoff was only dependent upon rainfall volume. Simulated values of total runoff were underestimated about 15% when using CN method and an area-weighted average of the CN based on published values. On the other hand, when average values of CN were calculated for the watershed, total runoff was overestimated about 39%, suggesting that CN method shoud be used with care in areas under natural vegetation.

  3. A central rapidity straw tracker and measurements on cryogenic components for the large hadron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis is divided into two parts in which two different aspects of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project are discussed. The first part describes the design of a transition radiation tracker (TRT) for the inner detector in ATLAS. In particular, the barrel part was studied in detail. The barrel TRT consists of 52544 1.5 m long proportional tubes (straws), parallel to the beam axis and each with a diameter of 4 mm. The detector is divided into three module layers with 32 modules in each layer. The preparatory study comprises: module size optimization, mechanical and thermal calculations, tracking performance and material budget studies. The second part deals with the cryogenic system for the LHC superconducting magnets. They will work at a temperature below 2 K and it is essential to understand the thermal behaviour of the individual cryogenic components in order to assess the insulating properties of the magnet cryostat. The work involves the design of two dedicated heat-inlet measuring benches for cryogenic components, and the results from heat-inlet measurements on two different types of cryogenic components are reported. 54 refs., 79 figs., 14 tabs

  4. Measurement of Anterior-Posterior Diameter of Inferior Vena Cava by Ultrasonography: A Non-Invasive Method for Estimation of Central Venous Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    R Nafisi-Moghadam; Mansourian, H.R

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objective: The assessment of blood volume is now one of the most commonly needed interventions in the first line of care and severe ill patients. Measuring central venous pressure (CVP) is an invasive method, most frequently used in clinical practice for the assessment of volume status. The di-ameter of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is a parameter to estimate central venous pressure. The purpose of this study was to determine whether measurement of the anterior-posterior diamete...

  5. Complexity measures of the central respiratory networks during wakefulness and sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragomir, Andrei; Akay, Yasemin; Curran, Aidan K.; Akay, Metin

    2008-06-01

    Since sleep is known to influence respiratory activity we studied whether the sleep state would affect the complexity value of the respiratory network output. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that the complexity values of the diaphragm EMG (EMGdia) activity would be lower during REM compared to NREM. Furthermore, since REM is primarily generated by a homogeneous population of neurons in the medulla, the possibility that REM-related respiratory output would be less complex than that of the awake state was also considered. Additionally, in order to examine the influence of neuron vulnerabilities within the rostral ventral medulla (RVM) on the complexity of the respiratory network output, we inhibited respiratory neurons in the RVM by microdialysis of GABAA receptor agonist muscimol. Diaphragm EMG, nuchal EMG, EEG, EOG as well as other physiological signals (tracheal pressure, blood pressure and respiratory volume) were recorded from five unanesthetized chronically instrumented intact piglets (3-10 days old). Complexity of the diaphragm EMG (EMGdia) signal during wakefulness, NREM and REM was evaluated using the approximate entropy method (ApEn). ApEn values of the EMGdia during NREM and REM sleep were found significantly (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively) lower than those of awake EMGdia after muscimol inhibition. In the absence of muscimol, only the differences between REM and wakefulness ApEn values were found to be significantly different.

  6. Sgr A$^*$: a laboratory to measure the central black hole and cluster parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Nucita, A A; Ingrosso, G; Qadir, A; Zakharov, A F

    2007-01-01

    Several stars orbit around a black hole candidate of mass $3.7\\times 10^6$ M$_{\\odot}$, in the region of the Galactic Center (GC). Looking for General Relativistic (GR) periastron shifts is limited by the existence of a stellar cluster around the black hole that would modify the orbits due to classical effects that might mask the GR effect. Only if one knows the cluster parameters (its mass and core radius) it is possible to unequivocally deduce the GR effects expected and then test them. In this paper it is shown that the observation of the proper motion of Sgr A$^*$, $v_{Sgr A^*} = (0.4\\pm 0.9)$ km s$^{-1}$ (\\citealt{reid2004}), could help us to constrain the cluster parameters significantly and that future measurements of the periastron shifts for at least three stars may adequately determine the cluster parameters and the mass of the black hole.

  7. Central Reactivity Measurements on Assemblies 1 and 3 of the Fast Reactor FR0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactivity effects of small samples of various materials have been measured, by the period method at the core centre of Assemblies 1 and 3 of the fast zero power reactor FR0. For some materials the reactivity change as a function of sample size has also been determined experimentally. The core of Assembly 1 consisted only of uranium enriched to 20 % whereas the core of Assembly 3 was diluted with 30 % graphite. The results have been compared with calculated values obtained with a second-order transport-theoretical perturbation model and using differently shielded cross sections depending upon sample size. Qualitative agreement has generally been found, although discrepancies still exist. The spectrum perturbation caused by the experimental arrangement has been analyzed and found to be rather important

  8. Functional analysis of the CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) on virus-specific CD8+ T cells following coronavirus infection of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracranial infection of C57BL/6 mice with mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) results in an acute encephalomyelitis followed by a demyelinating disease similar in pathology to the human disease multiple sclerosis (MS). T cells participate in both defense and disease progression following MHV infection. Expression of chemokine receptors on activated T cells is important in allowing these cells to traffic into and accumulate within the central nervous system (CNS) of MHV-infected mice. The present study evaluated the contributions of CCR5 to the activation and trafficking of virus-specific CD8+ T cells into the MHV-infected CNS mice. Comparable numbers of virus-specific CD8+ T cells derived from immunized CCR5+/+ or CCR5-/- mice were present within the CNS of MHV-infected RAG1-/- mice following adoptive transfer, indicating that CCR5 is not required for trafficking of these cells into the CNS. RAG1-/- recipients of CCR5-/--derived CD8+ T cells exhibited a modest, yet significant (P ≤ 0.05), reduction in viral burden within the brain which correlated with increased CTL activity and IFN-γ expression. Histological analysis of RAG1-/- recipients of either CCR5+/+or CCR5-/--derived CD8+ T cells revealed only focal areas of demyelination with no significant differences in white matter destruction. These data indicate that CCR5 signaling on CD8+ T cells modulates antiviral activities but is not essential for entry into the CNS

  9. Optimal central obesity measurement site for assessing cardiometabolic and type 2 diabetes risk in middle-aged adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seán R Millar

    Full Text Available Despite recommendations that central obesity assessment should be employed as a marker of cardiometabolic health, no consensus exists regarding measurement protocol. This study examined a range of anthropometric variables and their relationships with cardiometabolic features and type 2 diabetes in order to ascertain whether measurement site influences discriminatory accuracy. In particular, we compared waist circumference (WC measured at two sites: (1 immediately below the lowest rib (WC rib and (2 between the lowest rib and iliac crest (WC midway, which has been recommended by the World Health Organisation and International Diabetes Federation.This was a cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 2,002 men and women aged 46-73 years. Metabolic profiles and WC, hip circumference, pelvic width and body mass index (BMI were determined. Correlation, logistic regression and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to evaluate obesity measurement relationships with metabolic risk phenotypes and type 2 diabetes.WC rib measures displayed the strongest associations with non-optimal lipid and lipoprotein levels, high blood pressure, insulin resistance, impaired fasting glucose, a clustering of metabolic risk features and type 2 diabetes, in both genders. Rib-derived indices improved discrimination of type 2 diabetes by 3-7% compared to BMI and 2-6% compared to WC midway (in men and 5-7% compared to BMI and 4-6% compared to WC midway (in women. A prediction model including BMI and central obesity displayed a significantly higher area under the curve for WC rib (0.78, P=0.003, Rib/height ratio (0.80, P<0.001, Rib/pelvis ratio (0.79, P<0.001, but not for WC midway (0.75, P=0.127, when compared to one with BMI alone (0.74.WC rib is easier to assess and our data suggest that it is a better method for determining obesity-related cardiometabolic risk than WC midway. The clinical utility of rib-derived indices, or

  10. Shipboard measurements of gaseous elemental mercury along the coast of Central and Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Bates, T. S.; Gaston, C.; Prather, K.; Vlasenko, A.; Li, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) in the atmosphere was measured during an oceanographic cruise in coastal waters between San Diego and San Francisco, California during the CalNex 2010 campaign. The goal of the measurements was to quantify GEM in the various environments that the ship encountered, from urban outflow, the Port of Long Beach and associated shipping lanes, coastal waters affected by upwelling, the San Francisco Bay, and the Sacramento ship channel. Mean GEM for the whole cruise was 1.41 ± 0.20 ng m-3, indicating that background concentrations were predominantly observed. The ship's position was most often in waters off the coast of Los Angeles (74% of time with latitude 0.05) higher than the whole cruise mean. South of 34.3°N, GEM was observed to vary diurnally and as a function of wind direction, displaying significantly higher concentrations at night and in the morning associated with general transport from the land to the sea. GEM and CO concentrations were positively correlated with a slope of 0.0011 ng m-3 ppbv-1 (1.23 × 10-7 mol mol-1) during periods identified as "Los Angeles urban outflow", which given the inventoried CO emissions for the region, suggests a larger source of GEM than is accounted for by the inventory. The timing of the diel maximum in GEM (9:00 local time) was intermediate between the maxima of CO and NO2 (6:00) and that of NO and SO2 (10:00-12:00), suggesting that a mixture of urban and industrial sources were contributing to GEM. There was no observable postsunrise dip in GEM concentrations due to reaction with atomic chlorine in the polluted coastal atmosphere. On three occasions, significantly higher GEM concentrations were observed while in the Port of Long Beach (~ 7 ng m-3), and analyses of wind directions, ratios of GEM with other copollutants, and the composition of single particles, suggest that these plumes originated from the local waste incinerator in the Port area. A plume encounter from a large cargo ship

  11. Specificity and sensitivity of commercially available assays for glucagon and oxyntomodulin measurement in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Monika Judyta; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob; Pedersen, Jens; Hartmann, Bolette; Christensen, Mikkel; Vilsbøll, Tina; Knop, Filip Krag; Deacon, Carolyn F; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    To analyse specificity and sensitivity of commercially available assays for glucagon and/or oxyntomodulin.......To analyse specificity and sensitivity of commercially available assays for glucagon and/or oxyntomodulin....

  12. Membrane-based nanocalorimeter for high-resolution measurements of low-temperature specific heat

    CERN Document Server

    Tagliati, S; Rydh, A

    2012-01-01

    A differential, membrane-based nanocalorimeter for general specific heat studies of very small samples, ranging from 0.5 mg to sub-{\\mu}g in mass, is described. The calorimeter operates over the temperature range from above room temperature down to 0.5 K. It consists of a pair of cells, each of which is a stack of heaters and thermometer in the center of a silicon nitride membrane, in total giving a background heat capacity less than 100 nJ/K at 300 K, decreasing to 10 pJ/K at 1K. The device has several distinctive features: i) The resistive thermometer, made of a Ge_{1-x}Au_{x} alloy, displays a high dimensionless sensitivity |dlnR/dlnT | \\geq 1 over the entire temperature range. ii) The sample is placed in direct contact with the thermometer, which is allowed to self-heat. The thermometer can thus be operated at high dc current to increase the resolution. iii) Data are acquired with a set of eight synchronized lock-in amplifiers measuring dc, 1st and 2nd harmonic signals of heaters and thermometer. This giv...

  13. Comparable Measures of Accessibility to Public Transport Using the General Transit Feed Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjoo Bok

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Public transport plays a critical role in the sustainability of urban settings. The mass mobility and quality of urban lives can be improved by establishing public transport networks that are accessible to pedestrians within a reasonable walking distance. Accessibility to public transport is characterized by the ease with which inhabitants can reach means of transportation such as buses or metros. By measuring the degree of accessibility to public transport networks using a common data format, a comparative study can be conducted between different cities or metropolitan areas with different public transit systems. The General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS by Google Developers allows this by offering a common format based on text files and sharing the data set voluntarily produced and contributed by the public transit agencies of many participating cities around the world. This paper suggests a method to assess and compare public transit accessibility in different urban areas using the GTFS feed and demographic data. To demonstrate the value of the new method, six examples of metropolitan areas and their public transit accessibility are presented and compared.

  14. Testing Measurement Invariance and Latent Mean Differences across Gender Groups in College Students' Internet-Specific Epistemic Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yen-Lin; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Liang, Jyh-Chong

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the measurement invariance and gender differences in the Internet-specific epistemic beliefs between male and female undergraduates. A total of 735 university students in Taiwan were surveyed using the Internet-specific epistemic beliefs questionnaire (ISEQ). By conducting structural equation modeling…

  15. Methane fluxes measured by eddy covariance and static chamber techniques at a temperate forest in central Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Wang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Methane flux measurements were carried out at a temperate forest (Haliburton Forest and Wildlife Reserve in central Ontario (45°17´11´´ N, 78°32´19´´ W from June to October 2011. Continuous measurements were made by an off-axis integrated cavity output spectrometer that measures methane (CH4 at 10 Hz sampling rates. Fluxes were calculated from the gas measurements in conjunction with wind data collected by a 3-D sonic anemometer using the eddy covariance (EC method. Observed methane fluxes showed net uptake of CH4 over the measurement period with an average uptake flux (±standard deviation of the mean of −2.7 ± 0.13 nmol m−2 s−1. Methane fluxes showed a seasonal progression with average rates of uptake increasing from June through September and remaining high in October. This pattern was consistent with a decreasing trend in soil moisture content at the monthly timescale. On the diurnal timescale, there was evidence of increased uptake during the day, when the mid-canopy wind speed was at a maximum. These patterns suggest that substrate supply of CH4 to methanotrophs, and in certain cases hypoxic soil conditions supporting methanogenesis in low-slope areas, drives the observed variability in fluxes. A network of soil static chambers used at the tower site showed reasonable agreement with the seasonal trend and overall magnitude of the eddy covariance flux measurements. This suggests that soil-level microbial processes, and not abiological leaf-level CH4 production, drive overall CH4 dynamics in temperate forest ecosystems such as Haliburton Forest.

  16. Methane fluxes measured by eddy covariance and static chamber techniques at a temperate forest in central ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Methane flux measurements were carried out at a temperate forest (Haliburton Forest and Wildlife Reserve in central Ontario (45°17´11´´ N, 78°32´19´´ W from June–October, 2011. Continuous measurements were made by an off-axis integrated cavity output spectrometer Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyzer (FGGA from Los Gatos Research Inc. that measures methane (CH4 at 10 Hz sampling rates. Fluxes were calculated from the gas measurements in conjunction with wind data collected by a 3-D sonic anemometer using the eddy covariance (EC method. Observed methane fluxes showed net uptake of CH4 over the measurement period with an average uptake flux (± standard deviation of the mean of −2.7 ± 0.13 nmol m−2 s−1. Methane fluxes showed a seasonal progression with average rates of uptake increasing from June through September and remaining high in October. This pattern was consistent with a decreasing trend in soil moisture content at the monthly time scale. On the diurnal timescale, there was evidence of increased uptake during the day, when the mid-canopy wind speed was at a maximum. These patterns suggest that substrate supply of CH4 and oxygen to methanotrophs, and in certain cases hypoxic soil conditions supporting methanogenesis in low-slope areas, drive the observed variability in fluxes. A network of soil static chambers used at the tower site showed close agreement with the eddy covariance flux measurements. This suggests that soil-level microbial processes, and not abiological leaf-level CH4 production, drive overall CH4 dynamics in temperate forest ecosystems such as Haliburton Forest.

  17. Methane fluxes measured by eddy covariance and static chamber techniques at a temperate forest in central Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. M.; Murphy, J. G.; Geddes, J. A.; Winsborough, C. L.; Basiliko, N.; Thomas, S. C.

    2013-06-01

    Methane flux measurements were carried out at a temperate forest (Haliburton Forest and Wildlife Reserve) in central Ontario (45°17´11´´ N, 78°32´19´´ W) from June to October 2011. Continuous measurements were made by an off-axis integrated cavity output spectrometer that measures methane (CH4) at 10 Hz sampling rates. Fluxes were calculated from the gas measurements in conjunction with wind data collected by a 3-D sonic anemometer using the eddy covariance (EC) method. Observed methane fluxes showed net uptake of CH4 over the measurement period with an average uptake flux (±standard deviation of the mean) of -2.7 ± 0.13 nmol m-2 s-1. Methane fluxes showed a seasonal progression with average rates of uptake increasing from June through September and remaining high in October. This pattern was consistent with a decreasing trend in soil moisture content at the monthly timescale. On the diurnal timescale, there was evidence of increased uptake during the day, when the mid-canopy wind speed was at a maximum. These patterns suggest that substrate supply of CH4 to methanotrophs, and in certain cases hypoxic soil conditions supporting methanogenesis in low-slope areas, drives the observed variability in fluxes. A network of soil static chambers used at the tower site showed reasonable agreement with the seasonal trend and overall magnitude of the eddy covariance flux measurements. This suggests that soil-level microbial processes, and not abiological leaf-level CH4 production, drive overall CH4 dynamics in temperate forest ecosystems such as Haliburton Forest.

  18. Characterisation of Central-African emissions based on MAX-DOAS measurements, satellite observations and model simulations over Bujumbura, Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Clio; Hendrick, Francois; Pinardi, Gaia; De Smedt, Isabelle; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Yu, Huan; Fayt, Caroline; Hermans, Christian; Bauwens, Maité; Ndenzako, Eugene; Nzohabonayo, Pierre; Akimana, Rachel; Niyonzima, Sébastien; Müller, Jean-Francois; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Central Africa is known for its strong biogenic, pyrogenic, and to a lesser extent anthropogenic emissions. Satellite observations of species like nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO), as well as inverse modelling results have shown that there are large uncertainties associated with the emissions in this region. There is thus a need for additional measurements, especially from the ground, in order to better characterise the biomass-burning and biogenic products emitted in this area. We present MAX-DOAS measurements of NO2, HCHO, and aerosols performed in Central Africa, in the city of Bujumbura, Burundi (3°S, 29°E, 850m). A MAX-DOAS instrument has been operating at this location by BIRA-IASB since late 2013. Aerosol-extinction and trace-gases vertical profiles are retrieved by applying the optimal-estimation-based profiling tool bePRO to the measured O4, NO2 and HCHO slant-column densities. The MAX-DOAS vertical columns and profiles are used for investigating the diurnal and seasonal cycles of NO2, HCHO, and aerosols. Regarding the aerosols, the retrieved AODs are compared to co-located AERONET sun photometer measurements for verification purpose, while in the case of NO2 and HCHO, the MAX-DOAS vertical columns and profiles are used for validating GOME-2 and OMI satellite observations. To characterise the biomass-burning and biogenic emissions in the Bujumbura region, the trace gases and aerosol MAX-DOAS retrievals are used in combination to MODIS fire counts/radiative-power and GOME-2/OMI NO2 and HCHO satellite data, as well as simulations from the NOAA backward trajectory model HYSPLIT. First results show that HCHO seasonal variation around local noon is driven by the alternation of rain and dry periods, the latter being associated with intense biomass-burning agricultural activities and forest fires in the south/south-east and transport from this region to Bujumbura. In contrast, NO2 is seen to depend mainly on local emissions close to the city, due

  19. Phase velocities of Rayleigh and Love waves in central and northern Europe from automated, broad-band, interstation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, R. A.; Weidle, C.; Cristiano, L.; Lebedev, S.; Meier, T.; Passeq Working Group

    2016-01-01

    can, therefore, be treated as random but they do need to be removed in order to reduce random errors of the measurements. Using our large new data set, we construct phase-velocity maps for central and northern Europe. According to checkerboard tests, the lateral resolution in central Europe is ≤150 km. Comparison of regional surface-wave tomography with independent data on sediment thickness in North-German Basin and Polish Trough confirms the high-resolution potential of our phase-velocity measurements. At longer periods, the structure of the lithosphere and asthenosphere around the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) is seen clearly. The region of the Tornquist-Teisseyre-Zone in the southeast is associated with a stronger lateral contrast in lithospheric thickness, across the TESZ compared to the region across the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist-Zone in the northwest.

  20. Internal Flow Measurement of a Very Low Specific-Speed Centrifugal Pump by PIV

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Y.-D.; Kurokawa, Junichi; Nishino, K; Matsui, J.; Imamura, H.

    2002-01-01

    As the performance characteristics of a very low specific-speed centrifugal pump are much different from those of a normal specific-speed pump, there is strong demand of full understanding for the internal flow of the very low specific-speed centrifugal pump in order to improve the pump performance. The purpose of this study is to establish a method of visualization by PIV for a very low specific-speed centrifugal pump and to make clear the internal flow characteristics of the pump. Test pump...

  1. Antarctic Specific Features of the Greenhouse Effect : A Radiative Analysis Using Measurements and Models

    OpenAIRE

    Schmithüsen, Holger

    2015-01-01

    CO2 is the strongest anthropogenic forcing agent for climate change since pre-industrial times. Like other greenhouse gases, CO2 absorbs terrestrial surface radiation and causes emission from the atmosphere to space. As the surface is generally warmer than the atmosphere, the total long-wave emission to space is commonly less than the surface emission. However, this does not hold true for the high elevated areas of central Antarctica. For this region, it is shown that the greenhouse effect of...

  2. The Fleas of Endemic and Introduced Small Mammals in Central Highland Forests of Madagascar: Faunistics, Species Diversity, and Absence of Host Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Steven M; Randrenjarison Andriniaina, H Rico; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Beaucournu, Jean-Claude

    2015-09-01

    Data are presented on the flea species of the genera Paractenopsyllus (Ceratophyllidae, Leptopsyllinae) and Synopsyllus (Pulicidae, Xenopsyllinae) obtained from small mammals during two 2014 seasonal surveys at a montane humid forest site (Ambohitantely) in the Central Highlands of Madagascar. The mammal groups included the endemic family Tenrecidae (tenrecs) and subfamily Nesomyinae (rodents) and two introduced families Muridae (rodents) and Soricidae (shrews); no fleas were recovered from the latter family. The surveys were conducted at the end of the wet and dry seasons with 288 individual small mammals captured, including 12 endemic and four introduced species. These animals yielded 344 fleas, representing nine species endemic to Madagascar; no introduced species was collected. Some seasonal variation was found in the number of trapped small mammals, but no marked difference was found in species richness. For flea species represented by sufficient samples, no parasite-host specificity was found, and there is evidence for considerable lateral exchange in the local flea fauna between species of tenrecs and the two rodent families (endemic and introduced). The implications of these results are discussed with regards to small mammal species richness and community structure, as well as a possible mechanism for the maintenance of sylvatic cycles of bubonic plague in the montane forests of Madagascar. PMID:26336252

  3. Sources of methane and nitrous oxide in California's Central Valley estimated through direct airborne flux and positive matrix factorization source apportionment of groundbased and regional tall tower measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Abhinav

    Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are two major greenhouse gases that contribute significantly to the increase in anthropogenic radiative-forcing causing perturbations to the earth's climate system. In a watershed moment in the state's history of environmental leadership and commitment, California, in 2006, opted for sharp reductions in their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and adopted a long-term approach to address climate change that includes regulation of emissions from individual emitters and source categories. There are large CH4 and N2O emissions sources in the state, predominantly in the agricultural and waste management sector. While these two gases account for increasing number of `top-down' studies based on ambient observations point towards underestimation of their emissions in the inventory. Three intensive field observation campaigns that were spatially and temporally diverse took place between 2010 and 2013 in the Central Valley of California where the largest known sources of CH4 and N2O (e.g. agricultural systems and dairies) and potentially significant CH4 sources (e.g. oil and gas extraction) are located. The CalNex (California Nexus - Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) field campaign during summer 2010 (May 15 - June 30) took place in the urban core of Bakersfield in the southern San Joaquin Valley, a city whose economy is built around agriculture and the oil and gas industry. During summer of 2011, airborne measurements were performed over a large spatial domain, all across and around the Central Valley as part of the CABERNET (California Airborne BVOC Emission Research in Natural Ecosystem Transects) study. Next, a one-year continuous field campaign (WGC 2012-13, June 2012 - August 2013) was conducted at the Walnut Grove tall tower near the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta in the Central Valley. Through analysis of these field measurements, this dissertation presents the apportionment of observed CH4 and N2O

  4. Detection of Faint BLR Components in the Starburst/Seyfert Galaxy NGC 6221 and Measure of the Central BH Mass

    CERN Document Server

    La Franca, Fabio; Ricci, Federica; Bianchi, Stefano; Marconi, Alessandro; Sani, Eleonora; Vignali, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, using single epoch virial based techniques in the optical band, it has been possible to measure the central black hole mass on large AGN1 samples. However these measurements use the width of the broad line region as a proxy of the virial velocities and are therefore difficult to be carried out on those obscured (type 2) or low luminosity AGN where the nuclear component does not dominate in the optical. Here we present the optical and near infrared spectrum of the starburst/Seyfert galaxy NGC 6221, observed with X-shooter/VLT. Previous observations of NGC 6221 in the X-ray band show an absorbed (N_H=8.5 +/- 0.4 x 10^21 cm^-2) spectrum typical of a type 2 AGN with luminosity log(L_14-195 keV) = 42.05 erg/s, while in the optical band its spectrum is typical of a reddened (A_V=3) starburst. Our deep X-shooter/VLT observations have allowed us to detect faint broad emission in the H_alpha, HeI and Pa_beta lines (FWHM ~1400-2300 km/s) confirming previous studies indicating that NGC 6221 is a redd...

  5. Measurement of jet suppression in central Pb–Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Adam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The transverse momentum (pT spectrum and nuclear modification factor (RAA of reconstructed jets in 0–10% and 10–30% central Pb–Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV were measured. Jets were reconstructed using the anti-kT jet algorithm with a resolution parameter of R=0.2 from charged and neutral particles, utilizing the ALICE tracking detectors and Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EMCal. The jet pT spectra are reported in the pseudorapidity interval of |ηjet|5 GeV/c to suppress jets constructed from the combinatorial background in Pb–Pb collisions. The leading charged particle requirement applied to jet spectra both in pp and Pb–Pb collisions had a negligible effect on the RAA. The nuclear modification factor RAA was found to be 0.28±0.04 in 0–10% and 0.35±0.04 in 10–30% collisions, independent of pT,jet within the uncertainties of the measurement. The observed suppression is in fair agreement with expectations from two model calculations with different approaches to jet quenching.

  6. Remote sensing and hydrological measurement based irrigation performance assessments in the upper Amu Darya Delta, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, C.; Dech, S. W.; Hafeez, M.; Lamers, J. P. A.; Tischbein, B.

    In the Aral Sea Basin, where the Central Asian countries compete for limited water resources, reliable information on the actual water use for eight million ha of irrigated land are rare. In this study, spatially distributed land use data, seasonal actual evapotranspiration, and reference evapotranspiration derived from multitemporal MODIS data were combined with in situ water flow measurements for irrigation performance assessments in the upper Amu Darya Delta. The functioning of the major irrigation and drainage which supplies an agricultural area of 270,000 ha in the Uzbek province Khorezm was analysed using water balancing and adequacy indicators of irrigation water use. An average relative evapotranspiration of 95% indicated fulfilled water demands and partly over-irrigation, whereas values below 75% disclosed inadequate water supply in distant parts of the irrigation system. On the other hand, immense water withdrawals of approximately 24,000 m3 ha-1 recorded at the system boundaries between April and September 2005 clearly exceeded the field water demands for cotton cultivation. Only 46% of the total irrigation amounts were consumed for crop production at field level. Throughout the vegetation period, approximately 58% of the total available water left the region as drainage water. Monthly observations of the depleted fraction and the drainage ratio highlighted drainage problems and rising groundwater levels at regional scale. In the most distant downstream subsystem, a high risk of groundwater and soil salinity during the main irrigation phase was found. A combination of high conveyance losses, hydraulic problems, direct linkages between irrigation and drainage, and low field application efficiencies were identified as major reasons for underperforming irrigation. The findings underlined the necessity of water saving and of reconsidering water distribution in Khorezm. The remote sensing approach was concluded as a reliable data basis for regular performance

  7. Comparison of Total Hospital-Acquired Bloodstream Infections to Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections and Implications for Outcome Measures in Infection Control

    OpenAIRE

    Leekha, Surbhi; Li, Shanshan; Thom, Kerri A.; Anne Preas, Michael; Caffo, Brian S.; Morgan, Daniel J.; Harris, Anthony D.

    2013-01-01

    Validity of the central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) measure is compromised by subjectivity. We observed significant decreases in both CLABSI and total hospital-acquired bloodstream infection (BSI) following a CLABSI prevention intervention in adult intensive care units. Total hospital-acquired BSI could be explored as an adjunct, objective CLABSI measure.

  8. Generic and disease-specific measures of quality of life in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattacharya, Suvosree; Vogel, Asmus; Hansen, Marie-Louise H;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the pattern of association of generic and disease-specific quality of life (QoL) scales with standard clinical outcome variables in Alzheimer's disease (AD)....

  9. Regional CO{sub 2} fluxes inferred from mixing ratio measurements: estimates from flask air samples in central Kansas, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Chun-Ta; Schauer, Andrew J.; Ehleringer, James R. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Biology; Owensby, Clenton; Ham, Jay M. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Agronomy; Helliker, Brent [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Biology; Tans, Pieter P. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory

    2006-11-15

    We estimated regional fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) using mixing ratios measured in a tallgrass prairie in central Kansas, USA over 3 yr (2002-2004). Glass flasks were used to collect whole air samples in the mid afternoon for determining CO{sub 2} mixing ratios and their carbon isotopic composition. Regional CO{sub 2} fluxes were calculated assuming atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) approaches an equilibrium state on a monthly basis. CO{sub 2} mixing ratios derived from the marine boundary layer data were used as a proxy to represent those in the free troposphere, which allowed for determining a boundary layer CO{sub 2} gradient primarily resulting from surface exchange. We estimated temporal changes in the ABL height for this region on a monthly basis (600-1700 m asl for a 5-yr average between 1997 and 2001) from European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model data. Accordingly, we estimated the rate of entrainment (flux density) by interpolating NCAR/NCEP reanalysis data to the estimated ABL height. Our study differentiates from previous studies in several aspects: (1) we used flask-based mixing ratio measurements; (2) only discrete midday CO{sub 2} mixing ratio data were used to construct weekly CO{sub 2} gradients between free troposphere and the ABL and (3) we propose a new means for estimating monthly values of vertical transport. Modelled regional CO{sub 2} fluxes were compared to net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO{sub 2} fluxes measured by eddy covariance method. Assuming negligible vertical CO{sub 2} gradients between mid-ABL and the surface layer and with no correction applied, calculated NEE showed a general agreement with measured NEE fluxes throughout the growing season. Using CO mixing ratio data, we show that fossil fuel burning contributed negligible CO{sub 2} fluxes in summer but partially explained the discrepancy between modelled regional CO{sub 2} fluxes and measured NEE in winter. This wintertime fossil fuel input was

  10. Regional CO{sub 2} fluxes inferred from mixing ratio measurements: estimates from flask air samples in central Kansas, USA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Chun-Ta; Schauer, Andrew J.; Ehleringer, James R. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Biology; Owensby, Clenton; Ham, Jay M. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Agronomy; Helliker, Brent [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Biology; Tans, Pieter P. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory

    2006-11-15

    We estimated regional fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) using mixing ratios measured in a tallgrass prairie in central Kansas, USA over 3 yr (2002-2004). Glass flasks were used to collect whole air samples in the mid afternoon for determining CO{sub 2} mixing ratios and their carbon isotopic composition. Regional CO{sub 2} fluxes were calculated assuming atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) approaches an equilibrium state on a monthly basis. CO{sub 2} mixing ratios derived from the marine boundary layer data were used as a proxy to represent those in the free troposphere, which allowed for determining a boundary layer CO{sub 2} gradient primarily resulting from surface exchange. We estimated temporal changes in the ABL height for this region on a monthly basis (600-1700 m asl for a 5-yr average between 1997 and 2001) from European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model data. Accordingly, we estimated the rate of entrainment (flux density) by interpolating NCAR/NCEP reanalysis data to the estimated ABL height. Our study differentiates from previous studies in several aspects: (1) we used flask-based mixing ratio measurements; (2) only discrete midday CO{sub 2} mixing ratio data were used to construct weekly CO{sub 2} gradients between free troposphere and the ABL and (3) we propose a new means for estimating monthly values of vertical transport. Modelled regional CO{sub 2} fluxes were compared to net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO{sub 2} fluxes measured by eddy covariance method. Assuming negligible vertical CO{sub 2} gradients between mid-ABL and the surface layer and with no correction applied, calculated NEE showed a general agreement with measured NEE fluxes throughout the growing season. Using CO mixing ratio data, we show that fossil fuel burning contributed negligible CO{sub 2} fluxes in summer but partially explained the discrepancy between modelled regional CO{sub 2} fluxes and measured NEE in winter. This wintertime fossil fuel input was

  11. Generic and disease-specific measures of quality of life in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattacharya, Sumangala; Vogel, A.; Hansen, M.L.;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the pattern of association of generic and disease-specific quality of life (QoL) scales with standard clinical outcome variables in Alzheimer's disease (AD).......The aim of the study was to investigate the pattern of association of generic and disease-specific quality of life (QoL) scales with standard clinical outcome variables in Alzheimer's disease (AD)....

  12. [Central manifestations of dystrophinopathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuisset, J-M; Rivier, F

    2015-12-01

    The dystrophin gene involved in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy is expressed in three main tissues resulting in clinical manifestations: skeletal muscle, heart and central nervous system. The 6 different existing dystrophins in the brain may play a role in the maturation and plasticity of neuronal synapses in particular by their functions in clustering and stabilization of different receptors at the post synaptic membrane. The possibility of an intellectual deficiency in Duchenne muscular dystrophy is known from the original description by Duchenne himself. Current data are in line with a constant cognitive impairment with a Gaussian curve shifted intellectual quotient (IQ) at -1 standard deviation from the standard population with an average IQ around 80. Clinical manifestations suggestive of a central nervous system involvement can affect all dystrophinopathies, including isolated central presentations without myopathic sign. The phenotypic spectrum appears broader and more subtle than non specific intellectual deficiency. The isolated or shared involvement of specific cognitive functions is possible (memory functions, executive functions, attention) with or without intellectual deficiency. Autism spectrum disorders are also among the encountered events. In clinical practice, it seems worth to ask for a measurement of serum creatine kinase (CK) in these different situations, keeping in mind that pure forms of central dystrophinopathies with a normal CK level have been recently reported. PMID:26773588

  13. Association and Centrality in Criminal Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenqvist

    analyze the structural richness required to model and investigate criminal network entities and their associations. We demonstrate a need to rethink entity associations with one specific case (inspired by \\textit{The Wire}, a tv series about organized crime in Baltimore, United States) and corroborated by...... three of these associations and extend and test two centrality measures using CrimeFighter Investigator, a novel tool for criminal network investigation. Our findings show that the extended centrality measures offer new insights into criminal networks....

  14. Surveillance of radioactivity by the German Meteorological Service. Automatic nuclide specific measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DWD (Deutscher Wetterdienst, German Meteorological Service) is charged by law with the surveillance of radioactivity in the atmosphere. In the frame of the ''Integrated Measuring and Information System for the Surveillance of Radioactivity in the Environment'' (IMIS) the measuring tasks of DWD are well described. Since 2009 it was aimed for the automatic measurement of aerosol-bound radionuclides, gaseous Iodine-131 and deposited radionuclides at the 48 measuring sites of DWD. To guarantee the continuous operation of germanium detectors it was necessary to install electrically cooled systems instead of systems cooled by liquid nitrogen. The technical details and the experiences are described.

  15. Microdosimetric system for use in the measurement of specific energy distributions for 15 MeV electrons in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spherical, solid-walled, tissue equivalent proportional counter has been used to obtain specific energy distributions for 15 MeV electrons. The microdosimetric proportional counting system is new to the university with initial measurements being obtained in the Department of Radiation Therapy at the North Carolina Memorial Hospital. Specific energy distributions as functions of dose, f(z,D), at various depths in water have been recorded using the therapeutic electron accelerator. Plots are presented showing the experimentally measured relationship between distribution variances and dose for 1 micron spheres of simulated tissue. The mean of the distribution, anti z, as a function of depth in water has also been determined

  16. Using repeated measures of sleep disturbances to predict future diagnosis-specific work disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Paula; Vahtera, Jussi; Hall, Martica;

    2012-01-01

    It is unknown whether or not measuring sleep disturbances repeatedly, rather than at only one point in time, improves prediction of work disability.......It is unknown whether or not measuring sleep disturbances repeatedly, rather than at only one point in time, improves prediction of work disability....

  17. Developing scales measuring disorder-specific intolerance of uncertainty (DSIU) : a new perspective on transdiagnostic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thibodeau, Michel A; Carleton, R Nicholas; McEvoy, Peter M; Zvolensky, Michael J; Brandt, Charles P; Boelen, Paul A; Mahoney, Alison E J; Deacon, Brett J; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2015-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a construct of growing prominence in literature on anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder. Existing measures of IU do not define the uncertainty that respondents perceive as distressing. To address this limitation, we developed eight scales measuring disor

  18. Comparison of Central Corneal Thickness Measurements by Ultrasonic Pachymetry, Orbscan II, and SP3000P in Eyes with Glaucoma or Glaucoma Suspect

    OpenAIRE

    Mei-Ching Teng; Ing-Chou Lai; Tsung-Ho Ou

    2012-01-01

    Background: Intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements are affected by the central cornea thickness (CCT). The conventional method for CCT measurement is ultrasonic pachymetry. However, noncontact procedures lower the risk of infection and corneal damage. In this study, we compared the CCT measured by Orbscan II, SP3000P, and ultrasonic pachymetry in patients with glaucoma or glaucoma suspect.Methods: The CCT of 208 eyes (46 eyes with glaucoma suspect, 42 with primary angle-closure glaucoma, and...

  19. Measurement of central corneal thickness by ultrasonic pachymeter and oculus pentacam in patients with well-controlled glaucoma: hospital-based comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid RF; Farhood QK

    2016-01-01

    Riyam Faihan Rashid, Qasim K Farhood Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq Background: The measurement of central corneal thickness (CCT) plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma and many corneal diseases.Objective of the study: To compare the measurement of CCT by ultrasonic pachymeter with that measured by oculus pentacam in both normal subjects and patients with well-controlled glaucoma.Patients and methods: In 17...

  20. Halo, Central Tendency, and Leniency in performance appraisel: A comparison between a graphic rating scale and a behaviourally based measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. C. Birkenbach

    1984-11-01

    Full Text Available The process of performance appraisal can serve important employee development as well as organizational administrative functions. However, the reliable and accurate assessment of performance could be hampered by rating errors such as halo, leniency, and central tendency. Because the traditional approach to appraisal by means of graphic rating scales is considered to be susceptible to these errors, behaviourally based measures have been developed which have the claimed advantage of being relatively resistant to rating errors. This study compared the ratings given to a group of employees on a graphic rating scale and a behavioural observation scale. The results did not support the superiority of the BOS in resisting rating errors. OpsommingDie proses van prestasiebeoordeling speel 'n belangrike rol in die ontwikkeling van werknemers asook om administratiewe besluite te maak oor personeel. Die betroubare en akkurate evaluering van werkprestasie kan egter belemmer word deur beoordelingsfoute soos die stralekranseffek, toegeeflikheid, en sentrale neiging. Omrede die alombekende grafiese beoordelingskaal veronderstel is om baie vatbaar te wees vir beoordelingsfoute is daar die afgelope paar jaar aandag geskenk aan die ontwikkeling van gedragsgeoriënteerde beoordelingsmetodes. Dit word aangevoer dat laasgenoemde minder onderworpe is aan beoordelingsfoute. Hierdie studie het die beoordelings van 'n groep werkers op 'n grafiese beoordelingskaal en 'n gedragswaarnemingskaal met mekaar vergelyk. Die resultate kon nie ondersteuning verleen aan die standpunt dat grafiese skale meer vatbaar is vir beoordelingsfoute nie.

  1. Measuring the mass of the central black hole in the bulgeless galaxy NGC 4395 from gas dynamical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Brok, Mark den; Barth, Aaron J; Carson, Daniel J; Neumayer, Nadine; Cappellari, Michele; Debattista, Victor P; Ho, Luis C; Hood, Carol E; McDermid, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    NGC 4395 is a bulgeless spiral galaxy, harboring one of the nearest known type 1 Seyfert nuclei. Although there is no consensus on the mass of its central engine, several estimates suggest it to be one of the lightest massive black holes (MBHs) known. We present the first direct dynamical measurement of the mass of this MBH from a combination of two-dimensional gas kinematic data, obtained with the adaptive optics assisted near infrared integral field spectrograph Gemini/NIFS, and high-resolution multiband photometric data from Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). We use the photometric data to model the shape and stellar mass-to-light ratio (M/L) of the nuclear star cluster. From the Gemini/NIFS observations, we derive the kinematics of warm molecular hydrogen gas as traced by emission through the H$_2$ 1--0 S(1) transition. These kinematics show a clear rotational signal, with a position angle orthogonal to NGC 4395's radio jet. Our best fitting tilted ring models of the kinematics of th...

  2. Comparison of the performance of two measures of central adiposity among apparently healthy Nigerians using the receiver operating characteristic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Ifedili Okafor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the performance of waist circumference (WC and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR in predicting the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension and generalized obesity in an apparently healthy population. Materials and Methods: We recruited 898 apparently healthy subjects (318 males and 580 females of the Igbo ethnic group resident in Enugu (urban, Southeast Nigeria. Data collection was done using the World Health Organization Stepwise approach to Surveillance of risk factors (STEPS instrument. Subjects had their weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, systolic and diastolic blood pressures measured according to the guidelines in the step 2 of STEPS instrument. Generalized obesity and hypertension were defined using body mass index (BMI and JNC 7 classifications, respectively. Quantitative and qualitative variables were analyzed using t-test and Chi-square analysis, respectively, while the performance of WC and WHR was compared using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analysis. P value was set at <0.05. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 48.7 (12.9 years. Central obesity was found in 76.9% and 66.5% of subjects using WHR and WC, respectively. WC had a significantly higher area under the curve (AUC than WHR in all the cardiovascular risk groups, namely, generalized obesity (AUC = 0.88 vs. 0.62, hypertension alone (AUC = 0.60 vs. 0.53, and both generalized obesity and hypertension (AUC = 0.86 vs. 0.57. Conclusion: WC performed better than WHR in predicting the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. Being a simple index, it can easily be measured in routine clinic settings without the need for calculations or use of cumbersome techniques.

  3. Determining Vaccination Frequency in Farmed Rainbow Trout Using Vibrio anguillarum O1 Specific Serum Antibody Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Lars; Dalsgaard, Inger; Nylén, Jørgen;

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite vaccination with a commercial vaccine with a documented protective effect against Vibrio anguillarum O1 disease outbreaks caused by this bacterium have been registered among rainbow trout at Danish fish farms. The present study examined specific serum antibody levels as a valid...

  4. Measurement of specific [3H]-ouabain binding to different types of human leucocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Arnold; Oh, V M; Taylor, John E.; Johansen, Torben; Aronson, J K; Grahame-Smith, D G

    1984-01-01

    We have studied the specific binding of [3H]-ouabain to intact mononuclear leucocytes (82% lymphocytes) and polymorphonuclear leucocytes. In both types of cells [3H]-ouabain binding was saturable, confined to a single site of high affinity, slow to reach equilibrium, slow to reverse, temperature-...

  5. Specific immunoglobulin measurements related to exposure and resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in Sudanese canal cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satti, M.Z.; Lind, Peter; Vennervald, B.J.; Sulaiman, S.M.; Daffalla, A.A.; Ghalib, H.W.

    1996-01-01

    used to detect specific IgE and IgG subclasses in response to whole worm antigen (WWH) and soluble egg antigen (SEA) before and 3 months after praziquantel treatment in the groups of canal cleaners and before and 1 year after treatment in normally exposed adults. When intensity of infection was...

  6. Soccer-specific accuracy and validity of the local position measurement (LPM) system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, Wouter G. P.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Delleman, Nico J.

    2010-01-01

    Limited data is available on accuracy and validity of video-based GPS and electronic tracking systems particularly with reference to curved courses and short high intensity running activities The main goal of this study was to assess soccer specific accuracy and validity of the radio-frequency based

  7. Measuring human rights violations in a conflict-affected country: results from a nationwide cluster survey in Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Les

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring human rights violations is particularly challenging during or after armed conflict. A recent nationwide survey in the Central African Republic produced estimates of rates of grave violations against children and adults affected by armed conflict, using an approach known as the "Neighborhood Method". Methods In June and July, 2009, a random household survey was conducted based on population estimates from the 2003 national census. Clusters were assigned systematically proportional to population size. Respondents in randomly selected households were interviewed regarding incidents of killing, intentional injury, recruitment into armed groups, abduction, sexual abuse and rape between January 1, 2008 and the date of interview, occurring in their homes' and those of their three closest neighbors. Results Sixty of the selected 69 clusters were surveyed. In total, 599 women were interviewed about events in 2,370 households representing 13,669 persons. Estimates of annual rates of each violation occurring per 1000 people in each of two strata are provided for children between the ages of five and 17, adults 18 years of age and older and the entire population five years and older, along with a combined and weighted national rate. The national rates for children age five to 17 were estimated to be 0.98/1000/year (95% CI: 0.18 - 1.78 for recruitment, 2.56/1000/year (95% CI: 1.50 - 3.62 for abduction, 1.13/1000/year (95% CI: 0.33 - 1.93 for intentional injury, 10.72/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 7.40 - 14.04 for rape, and 4.80/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 2.61 - 6.00 for sexual abuse. No reports of any violation against a person under the age of five were recorded and there were no reports of rape or sexual abuse of males. No children were reported to have been killed during the recall period. Rape and abduction were the most frequently reported events. Conclusions The population-based figures greatly augment existing information on

  8. Measuring human rights violations in a conflict-affected country: results from a nationwide cluster survey in Central African Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Measuring human rights violations is particularly challenging during or after armed conflict. A recent nationwide survey in the Central African Republic produced estimates of rates of grave violations against children and adults affected by armed conflict, using an approach known as the "Neighborhood Method". Methods In June and July, 2009, a random household survey was conducted based on population estimates from the 2003 national census. Clusters were assigned systematically proportional to population size. Respondents in randomly selected households were interviewed regarding incidents of killing, intentional injury, recruitment into armed groups, abduction, sexual abuse and rape between January 1, 2008 and the date of interview, occurring in their homes' and those of their three closest neighbors. Results Sixty of the selected 69 clusters were surveyed. In total, 599 women were interviewed about events in 2,370 households representing 13,669 persons. Estimates of annual rates of each violation occurring per 1000 people in each of two strata are provided for children between the ages of five and 17, adults 18 years of age and older and the entire population five years and older, along with a combined and weighted national rate. The national rates for children age five to 17 were estimated to be 0.98/1000/year (95% CI: 0.18 - 1.78) for recruitment, 2.56/1000/year (95% CI: 1.50 - 3.62) for abduction, 1.13/1000/year (95% CI: 0.33 - 1.93) for intentional injury, 10.72/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 7.40 - 14.04) for rape, and 4.80/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 2.61 - 6.00) for sexual abuse. No reports of any violation against a person under the age of five were recorded and there were no reports of rape or sexual abuse of males. No children were reported to have been killed during the recall period. Rape and abduction were the most frequently reported events. Conclusions The population-based figures greatly augment existing information on human rights violations in

  9. OPPORTUNISTIC ASPERGILLUS PATHOGENS MEASURED IN HOME AND HOSPITAL TAP WATER BY MOLD SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE PCR (MSQPCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opportunistic fungal pathogens are a concern because of the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. The goal of this research was to test a simple extraction method and rapid quantitative PCR (QPCR) measurement of the occurrence of potential pathogens, Aspergillus fumiga...

  10. Textile Diamond Dipole and Artificial Magnetic Conductor Performance under Bending, Wetness and Specific Absorption Rate Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Kamardin, K.; M.K.A. Rahim; Hall, P S; N. A. Samsuri; M. E. Jalil; M. F. Abd Malek

    2015-01-01

    Textile diamond dipole and Artificial Magnetic Conductor (AMC) have been proposed and tested under wearable and body centric measurements. The proposed antenna and AMC sheet are entirely made of textiles for both the substrate and conducting parts, thus making it suitable for wearable communications. Directive radiation patterns with high gain are obtained with the proposed AMC sheet, hence minimizing the radiation towards the human body. In this study, wearable and body centric measurements ...

  11. Assessment of solvent extraction efficiency in sandstones using BET [Brunauer-Emmett-Teller] specific surface area measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, P.R.; Mannhardt, K.; DeBree, N.; Shaw, J.C. [Petroleum Recovery Inst. (Canada)

    1995-03-01

    Cleaning core is standard procedure prior to routine measurement of parameters such as porosity and permeability, and before performing special core analyses. It is shown that the cleaning efficiency of different solvents and the degree of cleanliness of a core can be assessed through specific surface area measurements. Berea and Crossfield Cardium sandstone sandstone core plugs containing residual Crossfield Cardium oil from laboratory core floods were extracted with the azeotropic mixture of chloroform/methanol, toluene, and methylene chloride, and the specific surface areas were measured as a function of cleaning time. Solvent cleaning increased the specific surface areas by a factor of three to four in some instances. Cloroform/methanol was found to be the most efficient of the three tested solvents. It is shown that the presence of residual oil may render a drastically reduced specific surface area for a rock, but the specific surface area can be restored to its original value by extraction with chloroform/methanol. The solvent itself does not seem to alter the clay structure within the rock. 19 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Specific heat measurements of the antiferroelectric phase transition in the mixed system KCN sub(x)Cl sub(1-x)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific heat of KCN sub(x)Cl sub(1-x) mixed crystals was measured for four chlorine concentrations between x=0,90 and x=1,00. The entropy change ΔS and critical temperature T sub(c) were obtained and the results are discussed in terms of the orientational motion of the CN- molecular ions. (Author)

  13. Effect of heavy metals on nitrification activity as measured by RNA- and DNA-based function-specific assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavy metals can inhibit nitrification, a key process for nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment. The transcriptional responses of functional genes (amoA, hao, nirK and norB) were measured in conjunction with specific oxygen uptake rate (sOUR) for nitrifying enrichment cultures...

  14. Metal-insulator transition in Nd1-xEuxNiO3 probed by specific heat and anelastic measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Barbeta, V. B.; Jardim, R. F.; Torikachvili, M. S.; Escote, M. T.; Cordero, F; Pontes, F. M.; Trequattrini, F.

    2010-01-01

    Oxides RNiO3 (R = rare-earth, R # La) exhibit a metal-insulator (MI) transition at a temperature TMI and an antiferromagnetic (AF) transition at TN. Specific heat (CP) and anelastic spectroscopy measurements were performed in samples of Nd1-xEuxNiO3, 0

  15. Performance Measurements of a Low Specific Speed TurboClaw® Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, J.; Cattell, R.; Etemad, S.; Pullen, K. R.

    2015-08-01

    Low specific speed compressors have been historically based on positive displacement machines. Attempts to bring advantages of turbomachinery such as oil free, low parts counts, low cost of manufacture, and reliability to low flow rate applications have not been sparse, but the principle difficulty has always been that the conventional turbomachine design operates at ultra-high speed to deliver low volume flow rates. This is synonymous with low efficiency due to higher losses (windage, surface finish, and tip clearances). The innovative TurboClaw® design is a low specific speed turbomachinery with forward swept impeller geometry. It owes its high efficiency and operational stability to careful design of its nearly tangential forward swept blading and diffuser geometry.

  16. Use of stream water pH and specific conductance measurements to identify ground water discharges of fly ash leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low pH and high specific conductance are typical chemical characteristics of coal fly ash leachate. Measurements of these parameters in streams adjacent to a fly ash facility were used to identify areas of ground water discharge into the streams. In-situ specific conductance and pH were determined at approximately 50 surface water stations from on-site and off-site streams. The results of the in-situ determinations were used to select twelve surface water stations for more detailed chemical analyses. The chemical character of the stream water affected by ground water discharges was similar to the water quality of sedimentation ponds which received drainage from the fly ash embankment. The results indicated that in-situ measurements of indicator parameters such as pH and specific conductance can be used as a screening method for identifying surface water quality impacts at fly ash facilities

  17. Application of the specific activity approach to radioactivity measurements in public water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intake of radioactivity by the general population is mainly through ingestion of farm and aquatic produce and from drinking water when the source water supply contains trace radioactivity. The radioactive pollutants, participate in environmental processes exactly as the stable elements do and reach man in magnified concentrations. Isotopic stable elements present in total dissolved solids in public water supplies influence the body uptake of radionuclides by isotopic dilution. The applicability of this Specific Activity Principle for safety of the population is discussed. (author)

  18. Measurement and analysis of the common food allergens specific IgE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄惠敏

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the positive distribution characteristics and analyse the correlation of common food allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) with suspected food allergy in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University.Methods Using fluorescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect the serum sIgE antibody of 854 patients,including 7 kinds of food allergens (milk,egg white,egg yolk,shrimp,crab,peanut and soybean) from July 2006 to January 2013.

  19. Consistent Quantitative Operational Risk Measurement and Regulation; Challenges of Model Specification, Data Collection and Loss Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Jobst

    2007-01-01

    Amid increased size and complexity of the banking industry, operational risk has a greater potential to transpire in more harmful ways than many other sources of risk. This paper provides a succinct overview of the current regulatory framework of operational risk under the New Basel Capital Accord with a view to inform a critical debate about the influence of varying loss profiles and different methods of data collection, loss reporting, and model specification on the reliability of operation...

  20. Deriving content-specific measures of room acoustic perception using a binaural, nonlinear auditory model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dorp Schuitman, J.; De Vries, D.; Lindau, A.

    2013-01-01

    Acousticians generally assess the acoustic qualities of a concert hall or any other room using impulse response-based measures such as the reverberation time, clarity index, and others. These parameters are used to predict perceptual attributes related to the acoustic qualities of the room. Various

  1. A measure of the broad substrate specificity of enzymes based on 'duplicate' catalytic residues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chakraborty

    Full Text Available The ability of an enzyme to select and act upon a specific class of compounds with unerring precision and efficiency is an essential feature of life. Simultaneously, these enzymes often catalyze the reaction of a range of similar substrates of the same class, and also have promiscuous activities on unrelated substrates. Previously, we have established a methodology to quantify promiscuous activities in a wide range of proteins. In the current work, we quantitatively characterize the active site for the ability to catalyze distinct, yet related, substrates (BRASS. A protein with known structure and active site residues provides the framework for computing 'duplicate' residues, each of which results in slightly modified replicas of the active site scaffold. Such spatial congruence is supplemented by Finite difference Poisson Boltzmann analysis which filters out electrostatically unfavorable configurations. The congruent configurations are used to compute an index (BrassIndex, which reflects the broad substrate profile of the active site. We identify an acetylhydrolase and a methyltransferase as having the lowest and highest BrassIndex, respectively, from a set of non-homologous proteins extracted from the Catalytic Site Atlas. The acetylhydrolase, a regulatory enzyme, is known to be highly specific for platelet-activating factor. In the methyltransferase (PDB: 1QAM, various combinations of glycine (Gly38/40/42, asparagine (Asn101/11 and glutamic acid (Glu59/36 residues having similar spatial and electrostatic profiles with the specified scaffold (Gly38, Asn101 and Glu59 exemplifies the broad substrate profile such an active site may provide. 'Duplicate' residues identified by relaxing the spatial and/or electrostatic constraints can be the target of directed evolution methodologies, like saturation mutagenesis, for modulating the substrate specificity of proteins.

  2. Dissipation kinetics of asparagine in soil measured by compound-specific analysis with metabolite tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czaban, Weronika; Rasmussen, Jim; Nicolaisen, Mogens;

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the potential for direct plant acquisition of organic N, in particular amino acids, requires assessment of their turnover times in soil. It is well known from 14C studies that mineralization of amino acids occurs within hours, but mineralization to 14CO2 does not indicate the rate of...... labeled glutamic acid were detected in soil. This highlights the fast turnover of amino acid in soil and that the estimation of concentration of the formed compounds is important when evaluating plant available organic N. Efficiency of the compound-specific analysis showed to be a powerful technique in...

  3. Sequence-specific nucleic acid detection from binary pore conductance measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Esfandiari, Leyla; Monbouquette, Harold G.; Jacob J. Schmidt

    2012-01-01

    We describe a platform for sequence-specific nucleic acid (NA) detection utilizing a micropipette tapered to a 2 μm diameter pore and 3 μm diameter polystyrene beads to which uncharged peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe molecules have been conjugated. As the target NAs hybridize to the complementary PNA-beads, the beads acquire negative charge and become electrophoretically mobile. An applied electric field guides these NA-PNA-beads toward the pipette tip, which they obstruct, leading to an ind...

  4. Measuring cell-type specific differential methylation in human brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaño, Carolina M; Irizarry, Rafael A; Kaufmann, Walter E; Talbot, Konrad; Gur, Raquel E; Feinberg, Andrew P; Taub, Margaret A

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of epigenetic mechanisms in the brain is obscured by tissue heterogeneity and disease-related histological changes. Not accounting for these confounders leads to biased results. We develop a statistical methodology that estimates and adjusts for celltype composition by decomposing neuronal and non-neuronal differential signal. This method provides a conceptual framework for deconvolving heterogeneous epigenetic data from postmortem brain studies. We apply it to find cell-specific differentially methylated regions between prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. We demonstrate the utility of the method on both Infinium 450k and CHARM data. PMID:24000956

  5. Membrane-based nanocalorimeter for high-resolution measurements of low-temperature specific heat

    OpenAIRE

    Tagliati, S.; Krasnov, V. M.; Rydh, A.

    2012-01-01

    A differential, membrane-based nanocalorimeter for general specific heat studies of very small samples, ranging from 0.5 mg to sub-{\\mu}g in mass, is described. The calorimeter operates over the temperature range from above room temperature down to 0.5 K. It consists of a pair of cells, each of which is a stack of heaters and thermometer in the center of a silicon nitride membrane, in total giving a background heat capacity less than 100 nJ/K at 300 K, decreasing to 10 pJ/K at 1K. The device ...

  6. Optical measurement of materials and lens assemblies at specific or varied temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemechek, John J.

    2015-10-01

    Optical materials and lens assemblies are specified for use at various operating temperatures. Ophthalmic lenses such as intra-ocular (IOLs), rigid gas permeable (RGP), and soft contact lenses must be verified at a single well-controlled temperature to ensure correct performance. In comparison, lens assemblies for UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) and other "outdoor" applications demand performance over a substantial range of temperatures. Both applications demand the ability to integrate temperature monitoring or control with optical measuring instruments. A common practice is to thermally soak the material or lens assembly and then attempt measurement before the object under evaluation returns to ambient room temperature. We are reporting on the utilization of a NIST-traceable temperature device combined with wavefront sensing technology for faster integrated measurement capability. The temperature sensor is currently capable of 0.01 and 0.1 degree C resolution and accuracy; respectively for an operating range of 0 to 100 degrees C. Efforts are underway to extend the temperature measurement range down to -30 C. The wavefront measurement device is a Shack- Hartmann sensor (SHS) operating at 5 to 15 Hz with simultaneous gauging of temperature. The SHS can be operated with a choice of wavelengths from 400 to 1,000 nm. It also supports both single and double-pass configurations. The single-pass arrangement was chosen for these experiments due to the simpler, more compact set-up. The dynamic range of the wavefront sensor is first utilized to evaluate the temperature chamber. Results are then presented for two lens assemblies intended for commercial UAVs.

  7. Integrating field measurements, a geomorphological map and stochastic modelling to estimate the spatially distributed rockfall sediment budget of the Upper Kaunertal, Austrian Central Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Tobias; Hilger, Ludwig; Vehling, Lucas; Becht, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The estimation of catchment-scale rockfall rates relies on the regionalisation of local measurements. Here, we propose a new framework for such a regionalisation by the example of a case study in the Upper Kaunertal, Austrian Central Alps (62.5 km2). Measurements of rockfall deposition during 12 months onto six collector nets within the study area were combined with published mean annual rates from the literature, and a probability density function was fitted to these data. A numerical model involving a random walk routing scheme and a one-parameter friction model was used to simulate rockfall trajectories, starting from potential rockfall source areas that were delineated from a digital elevation model. Rockfall rates sampled from the fitted probability density function were assigned to these trajectories in order to model the spatial distribution and to estimate the amount of rockfall deposition. By recording all trajectories as edges of a network of raster cells, and by aggregating the latter to landforms (or landform types) as delineated in a geomorphological map of the study area, rockfall sediment flux from sources to different landforms could be quantified. Specifically, the geomorphic coupling of rockfall sources to storage landforms and the glacial and fluvial sediment cascade was investigated using this network model. The total rockfall contribution to the sediment budget of the Upper Kaunertal is estimated at c. 8000 Mg yr- 1, 16.5% of which is delivered to the glaciers, and hence to the proglacial zone. The network approach is favourable, for example because multiple scenarios (involving different probability density functions) can be calculated on the basis of the same set of trajectories, and because deposits can be back-linked to their respective sources. While the methodological framework constitutes the main aim of our paper, we also discuss how the estimation of the budget can be improved on the basis of spatially distributed production rates.

  8. InSAR measurement of the deformation around Siling Co Lake: Inferences on the lower crust viscosity in central Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doin, Marie-Pierre; Twardzik, Cédric; Ducret, Gabriel; Lasserre, Cécile; Guillaso, Stéphane; Jianbao, Sun

    2015-07-01

    The Siling Co Lake is the largest endorheic lake in Central Tibet. Altimetric measures, combined with lake contours, show that in 1972-1999 its water level remained stable, while it increased by about 1.0 m/yr in the period 2000-2006. The increased rate gradually stepped down to 0.2 m/yr in 2007-2011. The ground motion associated with the water load increase is studied by interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) using 107 ERS and Envisat SAR images during the period 1992-2011. The deformation amplitude closely follows the lake level temporal evolution, except that subsidence continues in 2008-2011, while the lake level stagnated. This temporal evolution suggests a non elastic relaxation process taking place at a decade timescale. Phase delay maps are used to constrain possible layered viscoelastic rheological models. An elastic model could partly explain the observed subsidence rate if elastic moduli are about twice lower than those extracted from VP/VS profiles. The surface deformation pattern is also extracted by projecting the phase delay maps against the best fit model temporal behavior. It shows that deep relaxation in the asthenosphere is negligible at the decade timescale and favors the existence of a ductile channel in the deep crust above a more rigid mantle. Overall, the best fit model includes a ductile lower crust, with a viscosity of 1-3 × 1018 Pa s between 25 and 35 km and the Moho (at 65 km), overlying a rigid mantle.

  9. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps M Appendix M to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt....

  10. Measuring the Electronic Properties of DNA-Specific Schottky Diodes Towards Detecting and Identifying Basidiomycetes DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, Vengadesh; Rizan, Nastaran; Al-Ta’Ii, Hassan Maktuff Jaber; Tan, Yee Shin; Tajuddin, Hairul Annuar; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2016-07-01

    The discovery of semiconducting behavior of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has resulted in a large number of literatures in the study of DNA electronics. Sequence-specific electronic response provides a platform towards understanding charge transfer mechanism and therefore the electronic properties of DNA. It is possible to utilize these characteristic properties to identify/detect DNA. In this current work, we demonstrate a novel method of DNA-based identification of basidiomycetes using current-voltage (I-V) profiles obtained from DNA-specific Schottky barrier diodes. Electronic properties such as ideality factor, barrier height, shunt resistance, series resistance, turn-on voltage, knee-voltage, breakdown voltage and breakdown current were calculated and used to quantify the identification process as compared to morphological and molecular characterization techniques. The use of these techniques is necessary in order to study biodiversity, but sometimes it can be misleading and unreliable and is not sufficiently useful for the identification of fungi genera. Many of these methods have failed when it comes to identification of closely related species of certain genus like Pleurotus. Our electronics profiles, both in the negative and positive bias regions were however found to be highly characteristic according to the base-pair sequences. We believe that this simple, low-cost and practical method could be useful towards identifying and detecting DNA in biotechnology and pathology.

  11. Energy exchanges in a Central Business District - Interpretation of Eddy Covariance and radiation flux measurements (London UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotthaus, S.; Grimmond, S.

    2013-12-01

    Global urbanisation brings increasingly dense and complex urban structures. To manage cities sustainably and smartly, currently and into the future under changing climates, urban climate research needs to advance in areas such as Central Business Districts (CBD) where human interactions with the environment are particularly concentrated. Measurement and modelling approaches may be pushed to their limits in dense urban settings, but if urban climate research is to contribute to the challenges of real cities those limits have to be addressed. The climate of cities is strongly governed by surface-atmosphere exchanges of energy, moisture and momentum. Observations of the relevant fluxes provide important information for improvement and evaluation of modelling approaches. Due to the CBD's heterogeneity, a very careful analysis of observations is required to understand the relevant processes. Current approaches used to interpret observations and set them in a wider context may need to be adapted for use in these more complex areas. Here, we present long-term observations of the radiation balance components and turbulent fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat and momentum in the city centre of London. This is one of the first measurement studies in a CBD covering multiple years with analysis at temporal scales from days to seasons. Data gathered at two sites in close vicinity, but with different measurement heights, are analysed to investigate the influence of source area characteristics on long-term radiation and turbulent fluxes. Challenges of source area modelling and the critical aspect of siting in such a complex environment are considered. Outgoing long- and short-wave radiation are impacted by the anisotropic nature of the urban surface and the high reflectance materials increasingly being used as building materials. Results highlight the need to consider the source area of radiometers in terms of diffuse and direct irradiance. Sensible heat fluxes (QH) are positive

  12. The study of transit time measurement for flow through the central and southern canals of MADA using I-131 radioisotope technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of breakthrough and transit time through the central and southern canals of Lembaga Kemajuan Pertanian Muda (MADA) by using radiotracer technique is discussed An estimated of 1700 cusec water was released from Pelubang regulator through central canal. The water is then distributed through several regulators down stream and finally ended through the SCD1 and SCD1a secondary canals. Radiotracer 1-131 with the activity of 250 mCi and 500 mCi were injected at several identified injection points by using glass breaker technique. The measurement of breakthrough and transit time were observed respectively at several measurement station. Results of the study indicated that the time travel from Pelubang regulator to SCD1a secondary canal would take about 3 days during normal operation. Detail of breakthrough and transit time at every regulators and other measurement stations were also presented

  13. Analysis of patient specific dosimetry quality assurance measurements in intensity modulated radiotherapy: A multi centre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: IMRT centers are having random and biased (skewed towards over or under dose distribution of the percentage variation in difference between measured and planned doses. The analysis of results of the IMRT pre-treatment dose verification reveals that there are systematic errors in the chain of IMRT treatment process at a few centers. The dosimetry quality audit prior to commissioning of IMRT may play an important role in avoiding such discrepancies.

  14. Real-world and specific to vehicle driving cycles for measuring car pollutant emissions

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRE, M; Joumard, R.

    2004-01-01

    In the frame of the European research project ARTEMIS, a set of representative real-world driving cycles has been developed, to ensure a coherency between the pollutant emissions measurements conducted in the frame of the ARTEMIS project and of on-going national campaigns and to enable the integration of all the resulting emission data in the European systems of emission inventory. The 3 real-world ARTEMIS driving cycles (urban, rural road and motorway) represent the observed European drivi...

  15. Specific Measures of Executive Function Predict Cognitive Decline in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Lindsay R.; Schiehser, Dawn M.; Weissberger, Gali H.; Salmon, David P.; Delis, Dean C.; Bondi, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    Decline in executive function has been noted in the prodromal stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and may presage more global cognitive declines. In this prospective longitudinal study, five measures of executive function were used to predict subsequent global cognitive decline in initially nondemented older adults. Of 71 participants, 15 demonstrated significant decline over a 1-year period on the Dementia Rating Scale (Mattis, 1988) and the remaining participants remained stable. In the year ...

  16. Measuring motivation in schizophrenia: Is a general state of motivation necessary for task-specific motivation?

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jimmy; Choi, Kee-Hong; Reddy, Felice; Fiszdon, Joanna M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important role of motivation in rehabilitation and functional outcomes in schizophrenia, to date, there has been little emphasis on how motivation is assessed. This is important, since different measures may tap potentially discrete motivational constructs, which in turn may have very different associations to important outcomes. In the current study, we used baseline data from 71 schizophrenia spectrum outpatients enrolled in a rehabilitation program to examine the relationship b...

  17. Trauma Coping Self-Efficacy: A Context Specific Self-Efficacy Measure for Traumatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benight, Charles C.; Shoji, Kotaro; James, Lori E.; Waldrep, Edward E.; Delahanty, Douglas L.; Cieslak, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The psychometric properties of a Trauma Coping Self-Efficacy (CSE-T) scale that assesses general trauma-related coping self-efficacy perceptions were assessed. Measurement equivalence was assessed using several different samples: hospitalized trauma patients (n1 = 74, n2 = 69, n3 = 60), three samples of disaster survivors (n1 = 273, n2 = 227, n3 = 138), and trauma exposed college students (N = 242). This is the first multi-sample evaluation of the psychometric properties for a general trauma-related CSE measure. Results showed that a brief and parsimonious 9-item version of the CSE performed well across the samples with a robust factor structure; factor structure and factor loadings were similar across study samples. The 9-item scale CSE-T demonstrated measurement equivalence across samples indicating that the underlying concept of general post-traumatic CSE is organized in a similar manner in the different trauma-exposed groups. These results offer strong support for cross-event construct validity of the CSE-T scale. Associations of the CSE-T with important expected covariates showed significant evidence for convergent validity. Finally, discriminant validity was also supported. Replication of the factor structure, internal reliability, and other evidence for construct validity is a critical next step for future research. PMID:26524542

  18. Trace elements and radioactivity measurements in some terrestrial food crops in Jos-plateau, north central, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some crops of important nutritive requirements have been collected from farmlands located in Bitsichi an old tin mining town in north central region of Nigeria. The food crops were analyzed in order to determine trace element concentrations level using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The activity concentrations due to natural radionuclides in the food samples and soil samples collected within the root zone of the crops were also determined using gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS). The NAA results obtained showed higher concentration of Potassium among the essential elements in all the crops. Calcium concentration in both maize and Guinea corn was below detection limit and also Zn in Green beans, sweet potato and cassava. The trace elements; Sc, Hf, Sm, and Th, were below detection limit in all the crops except in Green beans. Rubidium (Rb) and lanthanum (La) were below detection limits only in Cabbage. The activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in the food samples were found to vary between 83 and 129 Bq kg-1 for 40K, 19 and 30 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra and 27 to 41 Bq kg-1 for 232Th. In the soil samples the activity concentrations varied between 177 and 271 Bq kg-1 for 40K, 53 and 96 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra and 73 to 176 Bq kg-1 for 232Th. Results of activity concentration levels of the radionuclides obtained in similar crops collected for control measurements were found to be very low compared to those from the study area. The effective dose due to intake of the food crops considered in the study area was estimated based on the measured activity concentrations of 226Ra and 232Th in the food crops. It was found to vary between 0.01 mSv y-1 (Acha) and 1.35 mSv y-1 (Cassava) with a cumulative total dose estimated as 2.5 mSv y-1. The mining activities in the area are seen to have 1 influenced the concentration of these trace elements and radionuclides in the food I crops. However, they are seen not to pose any serious internal health burden due to ingestion given the

  19. Ion Specificity in Protein Aggregation Predicted from Diffusivity Measurements in Stable Protein Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Jonathan; San Miguel, Adriana; Bommarius, Andreas; Behrens, Sven

    2011-03-01

    The aggregation of therapeutic proteins in solution represents a major challenge in pharmaceutical development, as the mid- and long-term stability of these proteins is crucial for their efficacy and for compliance with FDA requirements. Monitoring slow aggregation experimentally is notoriously time-consuming, yet often unavoidable, since no theory with predictive power is currently available. In the present work, diffusion and aggregation kinetics of the globular model proteins lysozyme and BSA were studied in sodium-salt solutions of different composition and ionic strength using dynamic light scattering. We find a strong correlation between the concentration dependent protein diffusivity in stable solutions and the kinetics of protein aggregation in unstable solutions of similar composition but higher salt content. Our findings suggest a fast and convenient new way to assess a protein's specific tendency to aggregate in different types of electrolytes and buffer solutions.

  20. The autocorrelated noise filtering problem: the ISMC filter in a specific case of distance measuring

    CERN Document Server

    Prattico, Flavio

    2013-01-01

    In a previous paper we were working on a electronic travel aid for blind people based on infrared sensors. The signals coming from them are affected by a great noise that also with the use of low pass filter cannot be clean well. Motivated by the improvement of the system, in this paper we show a novelty way to filter autocorrelated noise based on a probabilistic description of the process. We apply an indexed semi-Markov model in order to filter the signal coming from the infrared sensor. We conduce first of all a data analysis on the noise in order to understand well its form. We give the general formulation of the new ISMC filter and at last we compare the results with a particular kind of Kalman filter for the specific stochastic application.

  1. SU-E-I-40: New Method for Measurement of Task-Specific, High-Resolution Detector System Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughran, B; Singh, V; Jain, A; Bednarek, D; Rudin, S [University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Although generalized linear system analytic metrics such as GMTF and GDQE can evaluate performance of the whole imaging system including detector, scatter and focal-spot, a simplified task-specific measured metric may help to better compare detector systems. Methods: Low quantum-noise images of a neuro-vascular stent with a modified ANSI head phantom were obtained from the average of many exposures taken with the high-resolution Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) and with a Flat Panel Detector (FPD). The square of the Fourier Transform of each averaged image, equivalent to the measured product of the system GMTF and the object function in spatial-frequency space, was then divided by the normalized noise power spectra (NNPS) for each respective system to obtain a task-specific generalized signal-to-noise ratio. A generalized measured relative object detectability (GM-ROD) was obtained by taking the ratio of the integral of the resulting expressions for each detector system to give an overall metric that enables a realistic systems comparison for the given detection task. Results: The GM-ROD provides comparison of relative performance of detector systems from actual measurements of the object function as imaged by those detector systems. This metric includes noise correlations and spatial frequencies relevant to the specific object. Additionally, the integration bounds for the GM-ROD can be selected to emphasis the higher frequency band of each detector if high-resolution image details are to be evaluated. Examples of this new metric are discussed with a comparison of the MAF to the FPD for neuro-vascular interventional imaging. Conclusion: The GM-ROD is a new direct-measured task-specific metric that can provide clinically relevant comparison of the relative performance of imaging systems. Supported by NIH Grant: 2R01EB002873 and an equipment grant from Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation.

  2. SU-E-I-40: New Method for Measurement of Task-Specific, High-Resolution Detector System Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Although generalized linear system analytic metrics such as GMTF and GDQE can evaluate performance of the whole imaging system including detector, scatter and focal-spot, a simplified task-specific measured metric may help to better compare detector systems. Methods: Low quantum-noise images of a neuro-vascular stent with a modified ANSI head phantom were obtained from the average of many exposures taken with the high-resolution Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) and with a Flat Panel Detector (FPD). The square of the Fourier Transform of each averaged image, equivalent to the measured product of the system GMTF and the object function in spatial-frequency space, was then divided by the normalized noise power spectra (NNPS) for each respective system to obtain a task-specific generalized signal-to-noise ratio. A generalized measured relative object detectability (GM-ROD) was obtained by taking the ratio of the integral of the resulting expressions for each detector system to give an overall metric that enables a realistic systems comparison for the given detection task. Results: The GM-ROD provides comparison of relative performance of detector systems from actual measurements of the object function as imaged by those detector systems. This metric includes noise correlations and spatial frequencies relevant to the specific object. Additionally, the integration bounds for the GM-ROD can be selected to emphasis the higher frequency band of each detector if high-resolution image details are to be evaluated. Examples of this new metric are discussed with a comparison of the MAF to the FPD for neuro-vascular interventional imaging. Conclusion: The GM-ROD is a new direct-measured task-specific metric that can provide clinically relevant comparison of the relative performance of imaging systems. Supported by NIH Grant: 2R01EB002873 and an equipment grant from Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation

  3. Report on specification of the electron beam parameter suitable for emittance measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Malka, V

    2009-01-01

    The all optical external injection scheme that we will use with two colliding laser pulses allows a way to stabilize the injection of electrons into the plasma wave, and to easily tune the energy of the output beam by changing the longitudinal position of the injection. The charge and relative energy spread are also controllable by tuning parameters such as the injection intensity and its polarization. We report here on the control of the e-beam parameters, on the e-beam parameters that will be used for the conception and design of the emittance meter and on the experimental arrangement on which emittance measurement experiments will be achieved.

  4. Trauma Coping Self-Efficacy: A Context Specific Self-Efficacy Measure for Traumatic Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Benight, Charles C.; Shoji, Kotaro; Lori E. James; Waldrep, Edward E.; Delahanty, Douglas L.; Cieslak, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The psychometric properties of a Trauma Coping Self-Efficacy (CSE-T) scale that assesses general trauma-related coping self-efficacy perceptions were assessed. Measurement equivalence was assessed using several different samples: hospitalized trauma patients (n1 = 74, n2 = 69, n3 = 60), three samples of disaster survivors (n1 = 273, n2 = 227, n3 = 138), and trauma exposed college students (N = 242). This is the first multi-sample evaluation of the psychometric properties for a general trauma-...

  5. Technical specification of a tokamak poloidalfield-coil-system (ZEPHYR) with special consideration of the central (OH) coil within a magnetic field of extremely high value (27 T)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plant conditions giving the poloidal magnetic field required bring about extremly high loads and stresses within the coils, especially within the central OH transformer coil. The maximum magnetic field of nearly 27 T arises if the central OH coil is excited with a current of 9.1 KA/cm2. The pulsating load of the coils intended with pulses of 10 s duration produces a rise in temperature of Δ T > 120 K meaning that the start temperature has to be less than 80 K. The time between the current pulses used for cooling down the coils to their start temperature should be passed within a limit of 0.5 h. The report gives a detailed statement of the central OH coil and a proposal for manufacturing and working it. (orig./AH)

  6. Agreement of central site measurements and land use regression modeled oxidative potential of PM{sub 2.5} with personal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Aileen, E-mail: Yang@uu.nl [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.178, 3508TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Hoek, Gerard; Montagne, Denise [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.178, 3508TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Leseman, Daan L.A.C. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Hellack, Bryan [Air Quality & Sustainable Nanotechnology, Institute of Energy and Environmental Technology (IUTA), e.V., Blierheimer Str. 58-60, 47229 Duisburg (Germany); Kuhlbusch, Thomas A.J. [Air Quality & Sustainable Nanotechnology, Institute of Energy and Environmental Technology (IUTA), e.V., Blierheimer Str. 58-60, 47229 Duisburg (Germany); Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Cassee, Flemming R. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.178, 3508TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Brunekreef, Bert [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.178, 3508TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Janssen, Nicole A.H. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720BA Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2015-07-15

    Oxidative potential (OP) of ambient particulate matter (PM) has been suggested as a health-relevant exposure metric. In order to use OP for exposure assessment, information is needed about how well central site OP measurements and modeled average OP at the home address reflect temporal and spatial variation of personal OP. We collected 96-hour personal, home outdoor and indoor PM{sub 2.5} samples from 15 volunteers living either at traffic, urban or regional background locations in Utrecht, the Netherlands. OP was also measured at one central reference site to account for temporal variations. OP was assessed using electron spin resonance (OP{sup ESR}) and dithiothreitol (OP{sup DTT}). Spatial variation of average OP at the home address was modeled using land use regression (LUR) models. For both OP{sup ESR} and OP{sup DTT}, temporal correlations of central site measurements with home outdoor measurements were high (R>0.75), and moderate to high (R=0.49–0.70) with personal measurements. The LUR model predictions for OP correlated significantly with the home outdoor concentrations for OP{sup DTT} and OP{sup ESR} (R=0.65 and 0.62, respectively). LUR model predictions were moderately correlated with personal OP{sup DTT} measurements (R=0.50). Adjustment for indoor sources, such as vacuum cleaning and absence of fume-hood, improved the temporal and spatial agreement with measured personal exposure for OP{sup ESR}. OP{sup DTT} was not associated with any indoor sources. Our study results support the use of central site OP for exposure assessment of epidemiological studies focusing on short-term health effects. - Highlights: • Oxidative potential (OP) of PM was proposed as a health-relevant exposure metric. • We evaluated the relationship between measured and modeled outdoor and personal OP. • Temporal correlations of central site with personal OP are moderate to high. • Adjusting for indoor sources improved the agreement with personal OP. • Our results

  7. Ultrasensitive and specific measurement of protease activity using functionalized photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bakul; Mai, Kelly; Lowe, Stuart B; Wakefield, Denis; Di Girolamo, Nick; Gaus, Katharina; Reece, Peter J; Gooding, J Justin

    2015-10-01

    Herein is presented a microsensor technology as a diagnostic tool for detecting specific matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) at very low concentrations. MMP-2 and MMP-9 are detected using label free porous silicon (PSi) photonic crystals that have been made selective for a given MMP by filling the nanopores with synthetic polymeric substrates containing a peptide sequence for that MMP. Proteolytic cleavage of the peptide sequence results in a shift in wavelength of the main peak in the reflectivity spectrum of the PSi device, which is dependent on the amount of MMP present. The ability to detect picogram amounts of MMP-2 and MMP-9 released by primary retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and iris pigment epithelial (IPE) cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is demonstrated. It was found that both cell types secrete higher amounts of MMP-2 than MMP-9 in their stimulated state, with RPE cells producing higher amounts of MMPs than IPE cells. The microsensor performance was compared to conventional protease detection systems, including gelatin zymography and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). It was found that the PSi microsensors were more sensitive than gelatin zymography; PSi microsensors detected the presence of both MMP-2 and MMP-9 while zymography could only detect MMP-2. The MMP-2 and MMP-9 quantification correlated well with the ELISA. This new method of detecting protease activity shows superior performance to conventional protease assays and has the potential for translation to high-throughput multiplexed analysis. PMID:26312479

  8. Polyclonal antibodies to tropoelastin and the specific detection and measurement of tropoelastin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, I W; Whitehouse, L A; Parks, W C; Stahle-Bäckdahl, M; Hinek, A; Park, P W; Mecham, R P

    1991-01-01

    Because tropoelastin is difficult to purify, most antibodies to elastin are raised against the insoluble form of the molecule. While these antibodies cross-react with tropoelastin, antigenic differences between insoluble and soluble elastin suggest that antibodies raised directly against tropoelastin might provide a more sensitive and specific reagent for evaluating tropoelastin production in elastin-producing systems. Using an improved method for purifying tropoelastin from tissue culture explants, we describe the generation and characterization of an antibody to bovine tropoelastin. This antibody was used to develop a sensitive, direct-binding immunoassay capable of quantifying small levels of tropoelastin in conditioned medium from cultured cells. This assay takes advantage of the propensity of tropoelastin to adsorb to vinyl microtiter plates, even in the presence of serum proteins. This property, in combination with the increased sensitivity obtained using antibodies to tropoelastin, provides for a direct-binding immunoassay that detects nanogram quantities of tropoelastin directly in cell culture medium, avoiding sample preparation steps that result in extensive loss of tropoelastin. In addition, this direct-binding assay is ten- to 30-fold more sensitive than the existing competitive ELISA assays. PMID:2060302

  9. SU-E-T-602: Patient-Specific Online Dose Verification Based On Transmission Detector Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoelking, J; Yuvaraj, S; Jens, F; Lohr, F; Wenz, F; Wertz, H; Wertz, H [University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Baden-Wuerttemberg (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy requires a comprehensive quality assurance program in general and ideally independent verification of dose delivery. Since conventional 2D detector arrays allow only pre-treatment verification, there is a debate concerning the need of online dose verification. This study presents the clinical performance, including dosimetric plan verification in 2D as well as in 3D and the error detection abilities of a new transmission detector (TD) for online dose verification of 6MV photon beam. Methods: To validate the dosimetric performance of the new device, dose reconstruction based on TD measurements were compared to a conventional pre-treatment verification method (reference) and treatment planning system (TPS) for 18 IMRT and VMAT treatment plans. Furthermore, dose reconstruction inside the patient based on TD read-out was evaluated by comparing various dose volume indices and 3D gamma evaluations against independent dose computation and TPS. To investigate the sensitivity of the new device, different types of systematic and random errors for leaf positions and linac output were introduced in IMRT treatment sequences. Results: The 2D gamma index evaluation of transmission detector based dose reconstruction showed an excellent agreement for all IMRT and VMAT plans compared to reference measurements (99.3±1.2)% and TPS (99.1±0.7)%. Good agreement was also obtained for 3D dose reconstruction based on TD read-out compared to dose computation (mean gamma value of PTV = 0.27±0.04). Only a minimal dose underestimation within the target volume was observed when analyzing DVH indices (<1%). Positional errors in leaf banks larger than 1mm and errors in linac output larger than 2% could clearly identified with the TD. Conclusion: Since 2D and 3D evaluations for all IMRT and VMAT treatment plans were in excellent agreement with reference measurements and dose computation, the new TD is suitable to qualify for routine treatment plan

  10. SU-E-T-602: Patient-Specific Online Dose Verification Based On Transmission Detector Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy requires a comprehensive quality assurance program in general and ideally independent verification of dose delivery. Since conventional 2D detector arrays allow only pre-treatment verification, there is a debate concerning the need of online dose verification. This study presents the clinical performance, including dosimetric plan verification in 2D as well as in 3D and the error detection abilities of a new transmission detector (TD) for online dose verification of 6MV photon beam. Methods: To validate the dosimetric performance of the new device, dose reconstruction based on TD measurements were compared to a conventional pre-treatment verification method (reference) and treatment planning system (TPS) for 18 IMRT and VMAT treatment plans. Furthermore, dose reconstruction inside the patient based on TD read-out was evaluated by comparing various dose volume indices and 3D gamma evaluations against independent dose computation and TPS. To investigate the sensitivity of the new device, different types of systematic and random errors for leaf positions and linac output were introduced in IMRT treatment sequences. Results: The 2D gamma index evaluation of transmission detector based dose reconstruction showed an excellent agreement for all IMRT and VMAT plans compared to reference measurements (99.3±1.2)% and TPS (99.1±0.7)%. Good agreement was also obtained for 3D dose reconstruction based on TD read-out compared to dose computation (mean gamma value of PTV = 0.27±0.04). Only a minimal dose underestimation within the target volume was observed when analyzing DVH indices (<1%). Positional errors in leaf banks larger than 1mm and errors in linac output larger than 2% could clearly identified with the TD. Conclusion: Since 2D and 3D evaluations for all IMRT and VMAT treatment plans were in excellent agreement with reference measurements and dose computation, the new TD is suitable to qualify for routine treatment plan

  11. CSEWG shielding benchmark specifications neutron attenuation measurements in a mockup of the FFTF radial shield. STD 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, P. F.; Alter, H.; Paschall, R. K.; Thiele, A. W.

    1973-01-15

    The experimental details and the calculational specifications for a CSEWG integral data test shielding experiment are presented. The shielding experiment described in the benchmark model is a combination of sodium and stainless steel that simulates the FFTF radial shield. The measurements in general include use of foil activation techniques using resonance and threshold detectors and proton recoil neutron spectrometer measurements in the range 5 kev to 2 MeV. The benchmark model is a test of the neutron cross-section data for sodium and the material components of stainless steel.

  12. Specific heat measurements on (Nd1-xSmx)2CuO4 in applied magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-temperature specific heat measurements were performed on polycrystalline samples of (Nd1-xSmx)2CuO4. All samples show an anomaly at low temperatures characterized by a maximum in the specific heat, as previously reported for the pure compounds, which has been associated with a transition to an ordered state of the rare earth ion. The results at zero field show that there are two different mechanisms involved in the rare earth ordering process in the mixed compounds. Measurements on these samples in applied magnetic fields reveal that the temperature at which the maximum occurs decreases slightly with increasing field for Sm-rich samples and increases for Nd-rich samples. ((orig.))

  13. Measurement of the flavour-specific CP-violating asymmetry asls in Bs0 decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CP-violating asymmetry asls is studied using semileptonic decays of Bs0 and B¯s0 mesons produced in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV at the LHC, exploiting a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb−1. The reconstructed final states are Ds±μ∓, with the Ds± particle decaying in the ϕπ± mode. The Ds±μ∓ yields are summed over B¯s0 and Bs0 initial states, and integrated with respect to decay time. Data-driven methods are used to measure efficiency ratios. We obtain asls=(−0.06±0.50±0.36)%, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic

  14. Cadmium may impair prostate function as measured by prostate specific antigen in semen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreucci, Alessandro; Mocevic, Emina; Jönsson, Bo A G; Giwercman, Aleksander; Giwercman, Yvonne Lundberg; Toft, Gunnar; Lundh, Thomas; Bizzaro, Davide; Specht, Ina Olmer; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    .098, P = 0.0009). Inverse trends between cadmium and PSA were found when semen zinc concentrations were below the median value for men from Ukraine and Greenland. These outcomes suggest that cadmium may impair prostate function, as measured by PSA in semen, while high zinc levels and a low number of CAG...... in Greenland, Poland and Ukraine. We found an inverse trend between cadmium and PSA (log(β) = -0.121, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.213; -0.029, P = 0.0103) in Greenlandic men. Similar results were observed in men with a high number of CAG repeats (CAG 24) (log(β) = -0.231, 95% CI: -0.363; -0...

  15. Basophil sensitivity through CD63 or CD203c is a functional measure for specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahl Ronald

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subcutaneous Immunotherapy (SCIT modifies the allergic response and relieves allergic symptoms. SCIT is the only and a very effective treatment for insect venom allergy. We hypothesized that basophil sensitivity, measured through the basophil activation test, would decrease during SCIT up dosing. Expression of CD203c was compared to CD63 as marker for basophil activation, using a Bland Altman plot and ROC curves. Methods Patients (n = 18 starting subcutaneous SCIT for wasp allergy with an up dosing scheme of 7 to 11 weeks were enrolled. Heparinised blood samples were drawn at weeks 1-4, 7 and at the first maintenance visit. Basophils were stimulated at 7 log dilutions of V. vespula allergen for 15 min, and were stained with CD203c and CD63. Basophils were identified as CD203c+ leukocytes, and the proportion of CD63+ and CD203c+ cells were plotted against allergen concentration. A sigmoid curve was fitted to the points, and the allergen concentration at which half of the maximal activation was achieved, LC50, was calculated. In another series of experiments, LC50 calculated in whole blood (AP was subtracted from LC50 calculated with basophils suspended in plasma from a nonatopic donor (HS to determine the protective effect of soluble factors in blood of patients treated with SCIT. Results Heparin blood basophil activation was similar through CD63 and CD203c. Basophils were significantly more sensitized three weeks after initiation of SCIT compared to baseline (p Conclusion Basophil activation is a versatile and sensitive tool that measures changes in the humoral immune response to allergen during SCIT.

  16. Split core experiments; Part I. Axial neutron flux distribution measurements in the reactor core with a central horizontal reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of critical experiments were performed on the RB reactor in order to determine the thermal neutron flux increase in the central horizontal reflector formed by a split reactor core. The objectives of these experiments were to study the possibilities of improving the thermal neutron flux characteristics of the neutron beam in the horizontal beam tube of the RA research reactor. The construction of RA reactor enables to split the core in two, to form a central horizontal reflector in front of the beam tube. This is achieved by replacing 2% enriched uranium slugs in the fuel channel by dummy aluminium slugs. The purpose of the first series of experiments was to study the gain in thermal neutron component inside the horizontal reflector and the loss of reactivity as a function of the lattice pitch and central reflector thickness

  17. Soil bioengineering measures for disaster mitigation and environmental restoration in Central America: authochtonal cuttings suitability and economic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2009-04-01

    The use of Soil Bio-Engineering techniques in Developing countries is a relevant issue for Disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of this Discipline. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of Soil Bio-engineering works in the Humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, Soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for Soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Thus, a conclusion can be reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions

  18. Direct in situ measurement of specific capacitance, monolayer tension, and bilayer tension in a droplet interface bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Graham J; Venkatesan, Guru A; Collier, C Patrick; Sarles, Stephen A

    2015-10-14

    Thickness and tension are important physical parameters of model cell membranes. However, traditional methods to measure these quantities require multiple experiments using separate equipment. This work introduces a new multi-step procedure for directly accessing in situ multiple physical properties of droplet interface bilayers (DIB), including specific capacitance (related to thickness), lipid monolayer tension in the Plateau-Gibbs border, and bilayer tension. The procedure employs a combination of mechanical manipulation of bilayer area followed by electrowetting of the capacitive interface to examine the sensitivities of bilayer capacitance to area and contact angle to voltage, respectively. These data allow for determining the specific capacitance of the membrane and surface tension of the lipid monolayer, which are then used to compute bilayer thickness and tension, respectively. The use of DIBs affords accurate optical imaging of the connected droplets in addition to electrical measurements of bilayer capacitance, and it allows for reversibly varying bilayer area. After validating the accuracy of the technique with diphytanoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPhPC) DIBs in hexadecane, the method is applied herein to quantify separately the effects on membrane thickness and tension caused by varying the solvent in which the DIB is formed and introducing cholesterol into the bilayer. Because the technique relies only on capacitance measurements and optical images to determine both thickness and tension, this approach is specifically well-suited for studying the effects of peptides, biomolecules, natural and synthetic nanoparticles, and other species that accumulate within membranes without altering bilayer conductance. PMID:26289743

  19. Mapping of neurons in the central nervous system of the guinea pig by use of antisera specific to the molluscan neuropeptide FMRFamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triepel, J; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1984-01-01

    Immunoreactive neurons were mapped in the central nervous system of colchicine-treated and untreated guinea pigs with the use of two antisera to the molluscan neuropeptide FMRFamide. These antisera were especially selected for their incapability to react with peptides of the pancreatic polypeptide...

  20. Global measure of satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions versus measures of specific aspects of psychosocial work conditions in explaining sickness absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westergaard-Nielsen Niels

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attempts to identify particular aspects of psychosocial work conditions as predictors of sickness absence remain inconclusive. A global measure has previously been suggested to be an efficient way to measure psychosocial work conditions in questionnaires. This paper investigates whether satisfaction with specific aspects of psychosocial work conditions explains sickness absence beyond its association with a global measure of psychosocial work conditions. Methods The participants were 13,437 employees from 698 public service workplaces in Aarhus County, Denmark. 33 items from a questionnaire fell in groupings around six aspects of psychosocial work conditions: skill discretion, professionalism, management, decision authority, workload and cooperation. A global measure rating satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions on a scale from 0 to 10 was also included in the questionnaire. Individual ratings were aggregated to workplace scores. Analysis of variance and multiple linear regression was used to compare the average number of days of yearly sickness absence with different levels of satisfaction with six aspects of psychosocial work conditions. The covariates included were gender, age, occupation, size of workplace, contact to hospital, civil status and children below 13 living at home. Results Dissatisfaction with each of the six aspects of psychosocial work conditions was associated with an increase in sickness absence. When all aspects were simultaneously included in the model, only skill discretion and professionalism were negatively associated with sickness absence. When a global measure of satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions was also included in the model none of the specific aspects showed a statistically significant association with sickness absence. Conclusion Low global satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions is associated with increased levels of sickness absence. Including specific aspects of

  1. Long term energy yield measurements of a string- vs. central inverter concept tested on a large scale PV-plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Kasper; Nymand, Morten; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj

    2015-01-01

    High speed long term recording of inverter data has been performed on a utility scale PV plant and two different configurations of panel groups are compared. The recorded impact of partial shading due to moving clouds on a sting based and a central inverter based concept is analyzed.......High speed long term recording of inverter data has been performed on a utility scale PV plant and two different configurations of panel groups are compared. The recorded impact of partial shading due to moving clouds on a sting based and a central inverter based concept is analyzed....

  2. Particle Size-Specific Magnetic Measurements as a Tool for Enhancing Our Understanding of the Bulk Magnetic Properties of Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Hatfield

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bulk magnetic properties of soils and sediments are often sensitive proxies for environmental change but commonly require interpretation in terms of the different sources of magnetic minerals (or components that combine to generate them. Discrimination of different components in the bulk magnetic record is often attempted through endmember unmixing and/or high resolution measurements that can require intensive measurement plans, assume linear additivity, and sometimes have difficulty in discriminating a large number of sources. As an alternative, magnetic measurements can be made on isolated sediment fractions that constitute the bulk sample. When these types of measurements are taken, heterogeneity is frequently observed between the magnetic properties of different fractions, suggesting different magnetic components often associate with different physical grain sizes. Using a particle size-specific methodology, individual components can be isolated and studied and bulk magnetic properties can be linked to, and isolated from, sedimentological variations. Deconvolving sedimentary and magnetic variability in this way has strong potential for increased understanding of how magnetic fragments are carried in natural systems, how they vary with different source(s, and allows for a better assessment of the effect environmental variability has in driving bulk magnetic properties. However, despite these benefits, very few studies exploit the information they can provide. Here, I present an overview of the different sources of magnetic minerals, why they might associate with different sediment fractions, how bulk magnetic measurements have been used to understand the contribution of different components to the bulk magnetic record, and outline how particle size-specific magnetic measurements can assist in their better understanding. Advantages and disadvantages of this methodology, their role alongside bulk magnetic measurements, and potential future

  3. Measuring specific receptor binding of a PET radioligand in human brain without pharmacological blockade: The genomic plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Mattia; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Rizzo, Gaia; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Innis, Robert B.; Turkheimer, Federico E.

    2016-01-01

    PET studies allow in vivo imaging of the density of brain receptor species. The PET signal, however, is the sum of the fraction of radioligand that is specifically bound to the target receptor and the non-displaceable fraction (i.e. the non-specifically bound radioligand plus the free ligand in tissue). Therefore, measuring the non-displaceable fraction, which is generally assumed to be constant across the brain, is a necessary step to obtain regional estimates of the specific fractions. The nondisplaceable binding can be directly measured if a reference region, i.e. a region devoid of any specific binding, is available. Many receptors are however widely expressed across the brain, and a true reference region is rarely available. In these cases, the nonspecific binding can be obtained after competitive pharmacological blockade, which is often contraindicated in humans. In this work we introduce the genomic plot for estimating the nondisplaceable fraction using baseline scans only. The genomic plot is a transformation of the Lassen graphical method in which the brain maps of mRNA transcripts of the target receptor obtained from the Allen brain atlas are used as a surrogate measure of the specific binding. Thus, the genomic plot allows the calculation of the specific and nondisplaceable components of radioligand uptake without the need of pharmacological blockade. We first assessed the statistical properties of the method with computer simulations. Then we sought ground-truth validation using human PET datasets of seven different neuroreceptor radioligands, where nonspecific fractions were either obtained separately using drug displacement or available from a true reference region. The population nondisplaceable fractions estimated by the genomic plot were very close to those measured by actual human blocking studies (mean relative difference between 2% and 7%). However, these estimates were valid only when mRNA expressions were predictive of protein levels (i

  4. Effect of Diffusion on the Autoradiographic Measurement of Macromolecular Synthesis in Specific Cell Types In Vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organ slices cultured in vitro lack a capillary circulation. Cells within the slice are supplied with nutrients and oxygen by diffusion from the culture medium into the slice. The rate of synthesis of macromolecules, e.g. ribonucleic acid, deoxyribonucleic acid, protein or mucopolysaccharide can be determined in these circumstances by adding labelled precursors to the culture medium. Comparisons of the rate of synthesis between different types of cell within a single organ slice or between different slices can be quantitated by autoradiography and grain counting only if the concentration of labelled precursor in tissue water is uniform throughout all the slices. To achieve this aim the precursor should rapidly saturate the tissue water at the beginning of the incubation period, and subsequently diffusion into the slice should keep pace with consumption of the precursor by the cells. Experimental methods to measure the relevant parameters of any organ slice and precursor combination will be described. These parameters are the diffusion coefficient of the precursor in the organ slice, the rate of consumption of the precursor by each cell type, and the frequency and distribution of tissue within the slice. The relation between precursor concentration and position within the slice can be calculated under differing culture conditions, using the appropriate mathematical model. It is then possible to choose those conditions which give a uniform concentration of precursor throughout the organ slice. The methods are illustrated by consideration of ribonucleic acid synthesis from 3H-uridine in full thickness slices of human skin, an organ which contains several tissues including epidermis, hair follicle, eccrine sweat gland and sebaceous gland. (author)

  5. Specific absorption rate dependence on temperature in magnetic field hyperthermia measured by dynamic hysteresis losses (ac magnetometry)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaio, Eneko; Sandre, Olivier; Collantes, Juan-Mari; Garcia, Jose Angel; Mornet, Stéphane; Plazaola, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are intensively studied for their potential use for magnetic hyperthermia, a treatment that has passed a phase II clinical trial against severe brain cancer (glioblastoma) at the end of 2011. Their heating power, characterized by the ‘specific absorption rate (SAR)’, is often considered temperature independent in the literature, mainly because of the difficulties that arise from the measurement methodology. Using a dynamic magnetometer presented in a recent paper, we measure here the thermal dependence of SAR for superparamagnetic iron oxide (maghemite) NPs of four different size-ranges corresponding to mean diameters around 12 nm, 14 nm, 15 nm and 16 nm. The article reports a parametrical study extending from 10 to 60 {}^\\circ C in temperature, from 75 to 1031 kHz in frequency, and from 2 to 24 kA m-1 in magnetic field strength. It was observed that SAR values of smaller NPs decrease with temperature whereas for the larger sample (16 nm) SAR values increase with temperature. The measured variation of SAR with temperature is frequency dependent. This behaviour is fully explained within the scope of linear response theory based on Néel and Brown relaxation processes, using independent magnetic measurements of the specific magnetization and the magnetic anisotropy constant. A good quantitative agreement between experimental values and theoretical values is confirmed in a tri-dimensional space that uses as coordinates the field strength, the frequency and the temperature.

  6. Specificity, accuracy, and interpretation of measurements of ethylene oxide gas concentrations during sterilization using a microwave spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z.; Matthews, I. P.; Dickinson, W.

    1997-07-01

    This article reports the update in the design of a microwave spectrometer for measuring concentrations of ethylene oxide gas during sterilization. The specificity of the measurement (absorption line at 23.134 GHz) using the spectrometer has been found to be virtually 100%. A great number of calibrations have been conducted in the range of concentrations 100% to 40% of ethylene oxide gas at intervals of -10% in order to determine the accuracy of the spectrometer. It was found that the maximum standard deviation from the regression curve was 1.2% full scale (0%-100%). A mathematical model based on a diffusion equation has been developed and was used to interpret the real time measurement data during sterilization. Numerical simulation using this model has demonstrated that it is possible to predict the dynamic distributions of ethylene oxide concentration within the load being sterilized.

  7. A Multibody Knee Model Corroborates Subject-Specific Experimental Measurements of Low Ligament Forces and Kinematic Coupling During Passive Flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Mohammad; Schafer, Kevin; Lipman, Joseph; Cross, Michael; Mayman, David; Pearle, Andrew; Wickiewicz, Thomas; Imhauser, Carl

    2016-05-01

    A multibody model of the knee was developed and the predicted ligament forces and kinematics during passive flexion corroborated subject-specific measurements obtained from a human cadaveric knee that was tested using a robotic manipulator. The model incorporated a novel strategy to estimate the slack length of ligament fibers based on experimentally measured ligament forces at full extension and included multifiber representations for the cruciates. The model captured experimentally measured ligament forces (≤ 5.7 N root mean square (RMS) difference), coupled internal rotation (≤ 1.6 deg RMS difference), and coupled anterior translation (≤ 0.4 mm RMS difference) through 130 deg of passive flexion. This integrated framework of model and experiment improves our understanding of how passive structures, such as ligaments and articular geometries, interact to generate knee kinematics and ligament forces. PMID:26926010

  8. Implicit sexual attitude of heterosexual, gay and bisexual individuals: disentangling the contribution of specific associations to the overall measure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Anselmi

    Full Text Available The article aims to measure implicit sexual attitude in heterosexual, gay and bisexual individuals. A Many-Facet Rasch Measurement analysis was used to disentangle the contribution of specific associations to the overall IAT measure. A preference for heterosexuals relative to homosexuals is observed in heterosexual respondents, driven most by associating positive attributes with heterosexuals rather than negative attributes with homosexuals. Differently, neither the negative nor the positive evaluation of any of the target groups play a prominent role in driving the preference for homosexuals observed in gay respondents. A preference for heterosexuals relative to homosexuals is observed in bisexual respondents, that results most from ascribing negative attributes to homosexuals rather than positive attributes to heterosexuals. The results are consistent with the expression of the need for achieving a positive self-image and with the influence of shared social norms concerning sexuality.

  9. Determining Concentration of Neurotrophic Factors and Neuron Specific Enolase in the Blood of Newborns with Central Nervous System Damages as a New Approach in Clinical Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Vedunova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to assess the quantity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF and neuron specific enolase (NSE in plasma of newborns with perinatal hypoxic damage of CNS. Materials and Methods. Neurotrophic factors and NSE enzyme concentrations in plasma of newborns (gestation age 31–42 weeks was studied. The main groups consisted of newborns with the symptoms of perinatal CNS damage (group 1 — with convulsive states, group 2 — with the signs of severe perinatal CNS damage, diagnosed according to physical examination, evaluation of the neurological status dynamics and neurosonographic studies. Control group included healthy neonates. Concentration of BDNF, GDNF (R&D Systems, USA and NSE enzyme (Vector Best, Russia was determined by ELISA kit during hospitalization and on day 10–14 after the rehabilitation therapy. Results. Carried out experiments revealed the significant increase of NSE concentration in plasma of newborns with convulsive states. The higher levels of this enzyme were detected in infants with severe perinatal CNS damage. Moreover, BDNF concentration significantly increases in plasma of patients with the symptoms of severe CNS damage in the period following rehabilitation therapy. These experiments also demonstrate the inverse correlation between BDNF and GDNF levels. It was shown the important prognostic value of BDNF and NSE determination in plasma of newborns with CNS injury. Conclusion. The most diagnostic value for assessing the severity of brain damage in early neonatal period is associated with measurements of NSE and BDNF concentrations in plasma, which allows to use these markers immediately after birth and before the development of neurological symptoms.

  10. Predicting Quiescence: The Dependence of Specific Star Formation Rate on Galaxy Size and Central Density at 0.5

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Katherine E; van Dokkum, Pieter G; Franx, Marijn; van der Wel, Arjen; Brammer, Gabriel; Forster-Schreiber, Natascha M; Giavalisco, Mauro; Labbe, Ivo; Momcheva, Ivelina G; Nelson, Erica J; Skelton, Rosalind

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between star formation and structure, using a mass-complete sample of 27,893 galaxies at 0.50.5 dex from z~2 to z~0.7. Neither a compact galaxy size nor a high n are sufficient to assess the likelihood of quiescence for the average galaxy; rather, it is the combination of these two parameters together with stellar mass that results in a unique quenching threshold in central density or velocity.

  11. Reduced Genetic Diversity in Lymphoid and Central Nervous System Tissues and Selection-Induced Tissue-Specific Compartmentalization of Neuropathogenic SIVsmmFGb during Acute Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Reeve, Aaron B.; Patel, Kalpana; Pearce, Nicholas C.; Augustus, Katherine V.; Domingues, Heber G.; O'Neil, Shawn P.; Novembre, Francis J.

    2009-01-01

    The simian lentivirus strain SIVsmmFGb is a viral swarm population inducing neuropathology in over 90% of infected pigtailed macaques and serves as a reliable model for HIV neuropathogenesis. However, little is understood about the genetic diversity of this virus, how said diversity influences the initial seeding of the central nervous system and lymph nodes, or whether the virus forms distinct genetic compartments between tissues during acute infection. In this study, we establish that our S...

  12. Elements of European Political Culture in the Central Asian National Outskirts of the Russian Empire: Perception Specifics of Foreign Cultural Innovations (late 19th – early 20th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya A. Lysenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main results of political modernization in the Central Asian national outskirts of the Russian Empire taken place in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. The concept “Central Asian national outskirts” includes Stepnoy and Turkistan Governorate Generals, the two administrative-territorial entities founded in the 1860s as a result of a complete joining of the Kazakh camping grounds of the Junior, Middle and Elder zhuzhes; after the Kokand and Khivinsk khanates inhabited by nomads ( the Kirghiz, the Kara-Kalpaks as well as the settled population (the Uzbeks were conquered. The analysis of the sources and materials conducted by the authors asserts that the political modernization of the Central Asian national outskirts proposed by the Russian Empire was carried out in line with the fundamental characteristics of West European civilization and the basis of its political culture. Thus the system of local government was established and the democratic electoral system was introduced by means of expanding the voter’s base, with the region’s population participating in social and political life. The principles of bourgeois ideology based on such concepts as “equality”, “freedom”, “self-determination” were also formed. However, the political modernization of the Central Asian national outskirts should not be considered as complete. Up to 1917 the political sphere of the region’s population was characterized by the predominance of traditional mores, values and laws, whereas clan ideology, tribalism and Muslim ethno-consciousness were characteristic of the social sphere. All these factors affected the process of adapting to western political culture. The institutionalization of the new structures did not go along with the de-institutionalization of the traditional ones, and so resulted in the combination and coexistence of the traditional and modern structures.

  13. Centrality dependence of charm production from a measurement of single electrons in Au+Au collisions at sqrt[s(NN)]=200 GeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, S S; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Alexander, J; Amirikas, R; Aphecetche, L; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, R; Babintsev, V; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Berdnikov, Y; Bhagavatula, S; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Borenstein, S; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Camard, X; Chai, J-S; Chand, P; Chang, W C; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J; Choudhury, R K; Chujo, T; Cianciolo, V; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Constantin, P; d'Enterria, D G; David, G; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Devismes, A; Dietzsch, O; Drapier, O; Drees, A; du Rietz, R; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Efremenko, Y V; El Chenawi, K; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Ewell, L; Fields, D E; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fox, B D; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fung, S-Y; Garpman, S; Ghosh, T K; Glenn, A; Gogiberidze, G; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Guryn, W; Gustafsson, H-A; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Hartouni, E P; Harvey, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, N; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hibino, M; Hill, J C; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Ichihara, T; Ikonnikov, V V; Imai, K; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Jacak, B V; Jang, W Y; Jeong, Y; Jia, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kang, J H; Kapoor, S S; Katou, K; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, D W; Kim, E; Kim, G-B; Kim, H J; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Kiyoyama, K; Klein-Boesing, C; Kobayashi, H; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Koehler, D; Kohama, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kuberg, C H; Kurita, K; Kuroki, Y; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Ladygin, V; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, S; Leitch, M J; Li, X H; Lim, H; Litvinenko, A; Liu, M X; Liu, Y; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Manko, V I; Mao, Y; Martinez, G; Marx, M D; Masui, H; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McGaughey, P L; Melnikov, E; Messer, F; Miake, Y; Milan, J; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, R E; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Mühlbacher, F; Mukhopadhyay, D; Muniruzzaman, M; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Nakamura, T; Nandi, B K; Nara, M; Newby, J; Nilsson, P; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, K; Ono, M; Onuchin, V; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V S; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Parmar, A; Pate, S F; Peitzmann, T; Peng, J-C; Peresedov, V; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Plasil, F; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roche, G; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosnet, P; Ryu, S S; Sadler, M E; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, M; Sakai, S; Samsonov, V; Sanfratello, L; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Shaw, M R; Shea, T K; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shiina, T; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Sivertz, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tamai, M; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarján, P; Tepe, J D; Thomas, T L; Tojo, J; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuruoka, H; Tuli, S K; Tydesjö, H; Tyurin, N; van Hecke, H W; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Veszprémi, V; Villatte, L; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; White, S N; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Xie, W; Yang, Y; Yanovich, A; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zhou, S J; Zolin, L

    2005-03-01

    The PHENIX experiment has measured midrapidity transverse momentum spectra (0.4centrality in Au+Au collisions at sqrt[s(NN)]=200 GeV. Contributions from photon conversions and Dalitz decays of light neutral mesons are measured by introducing a thin (1.7% X0) converter into the PHENIX acceptance and are statistically removed. The subtracted nonphotonic electron spectra are primarily due to the semileptonic decays of hadrons containing heavy quarks, mainly charm at lower p(T). For all centralities, the charm production cross section is found to scale with the nuclear overlap function, T(AA). For minimum-bias collisions the charm cross section per binary collision is N(cc )/T(AA)=622+/-57(stat)+/-160(syst) microb. PMID:15783878

  14. Serial measurement of neuron specific enolase improves prognostication in cardiac arrest patients treated with hypothermia: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storm Christian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuron specific enolase (NSE has repeatedly been evaluated for neurological prognostication in patients after cardiac arrest. However, it is unclear whether current guidelines for NSE cutoff levels also apply to cardiac arrest patients treated with hypothermia. Thus, we investigated the prognostic significance of absolute NSE levels and NSE kinetics in cardiac arrest patients treated with hypothermia. Methods In a prospective study of 35 patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest, NSE was measured daily for four days following admission. Outcome was assessed at ICU discharge using the CPC score. All patients received hypothermia treatment for 24 hours at 33°C with a surface cooling device according to current guidelines. Results The cutoff for absolute NSE levels in patients with unfavourable outcome (CPC 3-5 72 hours after cardiac arrest was 57 μg/l with an area under the curve (AUC of 0.82 (sensitivity 47%, specificity 100%. The cutoff level for NSE kinetics in patients with unfavourable outcome (CPC 3-5 was an absolute increase of 7.9 μg/l (AUC 0.78, sensitivity 63%, specificity 100% and a relative increase of 33.1% (AUC 0.803, sensitivity 67%, specificity 100% at 48 hours compared to admission. Conclusion In cardiac arrest patients treated with hypothermia, prognostication of unfavourable outcome by NSE kinetics between admission and 48 hours after resuscitation may be superior to prognostication by absolute NSE levels.

  15. Simultaneous measurements of auto-immune and infectious disease specific antibodies using a high throughput multiplexing tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Asati

    Full Text Available Considering importance of ganglioside antibodies as biomarkers in various immune-mediated neuropathies and neurological disorders, we developed a high throughput multiplexing tool for the assessment of gangliosides-specific antibodies based on Biolpex/Luminex platform. In this report, we demonstrate that the ganglioside high throughput multiplexing tool is robust, highly specific and demonstrating ∼100-fold higher concentration sensitivity for IgG detection than ELISA. In addition to the ganglioside-coated array, the high throughput multiplexing tool contains beads coated with influenza hemagglutinins derived from H1N1 A/Brisbane/59/07 and H1N1 A/California/07/09 strains. Influenza beads provided an added advantage of simultaneous detection of ganglioside- and influenza-specific antibodies, a capacity important for the assay of both infectious antigen-specific and autoimmune antibodies following vaccination or disease. Taken together, these results support the potential adoption of the ganglioside high throughput multiplexing tool for measuring ganglioside antibodies in various neuropathic and neurological disorders.

  16. Numerical modelling of slow landslides through the exploitation of DInSAR and inclinometric measurements: the Ivancich case study (Assisi, Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldo, Raffaele; Lollino, Piernicola; Tizzani, Pietro; Ardizzone, Francesca; Calò, Fabiana; Guzzetti, Fausto; Manunta, Michele; Manzo, Mariarosaria

    2013-04-01

    Risk management of slow landslides requires both the assessment of slope stability conditions and the analysis of the dynamic evolution in terms of displacement, velocity or acceleration during the deformation phase. To this purpose, we analysed the kinematical evolution of a slow landslides through a numerical model implemented in Finite Element Environment (FEE) and compared with monitoring data based on DInSAR interferometry technique and conventional inclinometric investigation. In our study we analyse the Ivancich slow landslide (Assisi, Central Italy). The landslide body is formed of detritus (or debris) material sliding on a arenaceous marl substratum, with a thin shear band detected using borehole and inclinometric data, at depth ranging from 20 to 60 m. Specifically, we considered the active role of this shear band in the control of the landslide evolution process. Ground surface displacement measurements have been also retrieved via an advanced space-based Differential SAR interferometry analysis. ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT SAR images taken in the 1992-2010 period have been used to generate long time-series showing the temporal evolution of surface movements of the unstable slope, that indicate different displacement rates for the various portions of the landslide body. A large field monitoring dataset of the landslide process, including at-depth piezometric and inclinometric measurements acquired in the last decade all over the landslide body, was available to us. The piezometric data do not show appreciable variation of the pore water pressures at the level of the sliding surface. We performed a two-dimensional time-dependent Finite Element Model (FEM) of the active ground deformation field aimed at simulating the kinematical evolution of the different sectors of the unstable mass. In particular, a deviatoric creep law, accounting for a time dependent shear deformation over constant deviatoric stress, has been used to describe the shear band behavior. An

  17. Investigation of the sources and processing of organic aerosol over the Central Mexican Plateau from aircraft measurements during MILAGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. DeCarlo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic aerosol (OA represents approximately half of the submicron aerosol in Mexico City and the Central Mexican Plateau. This study uses the high time resolution measurements performed onboard the NCAR/NSF C-130 aircraft during the MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign in March 2006 to investigate the sources and chemical processing of the OA in this region. An examination of the OA/ΔCO ratio evolution as a function of photochemical age shows distinct behavior in the presence or absence of substantial open biomass burning (BB influence, with the latter being consistent with other studies in polluted areas. In addition, we present results from Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis of 12-s High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS OA spectra. Four components were resolved. Three of the components contain substantial organic oxygen and are termed semivolatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA, low-volatility OOA (LV-OOA, and biomass burning OA (BBOA. A reduced "hydrocarbon-like OA" (HOA component is also resolved. LV-OOA is highly oxygenated (atomic O/C~1 and is aged organic aerosol linked to regional airmasses, with likely contributions from pollution, biomass burning, and other sources. SV-OOA is strongly correlated with ammonium nitrate, Ox, and the Mexico City Basin. We interpret SV-OOA as secondary OA which is nearly all (>90% anthropogenic in origin. In the absence of biomass burning it represents the largest fraction of OA over the Mexico City basin, consistent with other studies in this region. BBOA is identified as arising from biomass burning sources due to a strong correlation with HCN, and the elevated contribution of the ion C2H4O2+ (m/z 60, a marker for levoglucosan and other primary BB species. WRF-FLEXPART calculated fire impact factors (FIF show good correlation with BBOA mass concentrations within the basin, but show location offsets in the far field

  18. Investigation of the sources and processing of organic aerosol over the Central Mexican Plateau from aircraft measurements during MILAGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. DeCarlo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic aerosol (OA represents approximately half of the submicron aerosol in Mexico City and the Central Mexican Plateau. This study uses the high time resolution measurements performed onboard the NCAR/NSF C-130 aircraft during the MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign in March 2006 to investigate the sources and chemical processing of the OA in this region. An examination of the OA/ΔCO ratio evolution as a function of photochemical age shows distinct behavior in the presence or absence of substantial open biomass burning (BB influence, with the latter being consistent with other studies in polluted areas. In addition, we present results from Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis of 12-s High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS OA spectra. Four components were resolved. Three of the components contain substantial organic oxygen and are termed semivolatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA, low-volatility OOA (LV-OOA, and biomass burning OA (BBOA. A reduced "hydrocarbon-like OA" (HOA component is also resolved. LV-OOA is highly oxygenated (atomic O/C~1 and is aged organic aerosol linked to regional airmasses, with likely contributions from pollution, biomass burning, and other sources. SV-OOA is strongly correlated with ammonium nitrate, Ox, and the Mexico City Basin. We interpret SV-OOA as secondary OA which is nearly all (>90% anthropogenic in origin. In the absence of biomass burning it represents the largest fraction of OA over the Mexico City basin, consistent with other studies in this region. BBOA is identified as arising from biomass burning sources due to a strong correlation with HCN, and the elevated contribution of the ion C2H4O2+ (m/z 60, a marker for levoglucosan and other primary BB species. WRF-FLEXPART calculated fire impact factors (FIF show good correlation with BBOA mass concentrations within the basin, but show location offsets in the far field

  19. Time-specific measurements of energy deposition from radiation fields in simulated sub-micron tissue volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tissue-equivalent spherical proportional counter is used with a modified amplifier system to measure specific energy deposited from a uniform radiation field for short periods of time (∼1 micros to seconds) in order to extrapolate to dose in sub-micron tissue volumes. The energy deposited during these time intervals is compared to biological repair processes occurring within the same intervals after the initial energy deposition. The signal is integrated over a variable collection time which is adjusted with a square-wave pulse. Charge from particle passages is collected on the anode during the period in which the integrator is triggered, and the signal decays quickly to zero after the integrator feedback switch resets; the process repeats for every triggering pulse. Measurements of energy deposited from x rays, 137Cs gamma rays, and electrons from a 90Sr/90Y source for various time intervals are taken. Spectral characteristics as a function of charge collection time are observed and frequency plots of specific energy and collection time-interval are presented. In addition, a threshold energy flux is selected for each radiation type at which the formation of radicals (based on current measurements) in mammalian cells equals the rate at which radicals are repaired

  20. Measurement of jet suppression in central Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN)=2.76 TeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, J.; Adamova, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Rinella, G. Aglieri; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Molina, R. Alfaro; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Prado, C. Alves Garcia; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Anticic, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshauser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badala, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Ball, M.; Pedrosa, F. Baltasar Dos Santos; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnafoeldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Camejo, A. Batista; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Martinez, H. Bello; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Boggild, H.; Boldizsar, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossu, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Boettger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Buxton, J. T.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Diaz, L. Calero; Caliva, A.; Villar, E. Calvo; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castellanos, J. Castillo; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Cavicchioli, C.; Sanchez, C. Ceballos; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Barroso, V. Chibante; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Balbastre, G. Conesa; del Valle, Z. Conesa; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Morales, Y. Corrales; Maldonado, I. Cortes; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Albino, R. Cruz; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Denes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Corchero, M. A. Diaz; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divia, R.; Djuvsland, O.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Gimenez, D. Domenicis; Doenigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erhardt, F.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Tellez, A. Fernandez; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Girard, M. Fusco; Gaardhoje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glassel, P.; Ramirez, A. Gomez; Gonzalez-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Gorlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J. -Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, O.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Corral, G. Herrera; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hilden, T. E.; Hillemanns, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Hristov, P.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Ionita, C.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Bustamante, R. T. Jimenez; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kadyshevskiy, V.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Uysal, A. Karasu; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Khan, K. H.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bosing, C.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Kohler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Meethaleveedu, G. Koyithatta; Kral, J.; Kralik, I.; Kravcakova, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kucera, V.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Fernandes, C. Lagana; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Lee, S.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; Monzon, I. Leon; Leoncino, M.; Levai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; Torres, E. Lopez; Lowe, A.; Lu, X. -G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Cervantes, I. Maldonado; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mares, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marin, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Blanco, J. Martin; Martinengo, P.; Martinez, M. I.; Garcia, G. Martinez; Pedreira, M. Martinez; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Masui, H.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Mcdonald, D.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Perez, J. Mercado; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Minervini, L. M.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Zetina, L. Montano; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; De Godoy, D. A. Moreira; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Muhlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Muller, H.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Naru, M. U.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nellen, L.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Ohlson, A.; Okatan, A.; Okubo, T.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Da Silva, A. C. Oliveira; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Velasquez, A. Ortiz; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pagano, P.; Paic, G.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, J.; Pant, D.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Da Costa, H. Pereira; De Oliveira Filho, E. Pereira; Peresunko, D.; Lara, C. E. Perez; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petracek, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Ploskon, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, J.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Rasanen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J. -P.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rivetti, A.; Rocco, E.; Cahuantzi, M. Rodriguez; Manso, A. Rodriguez; Roed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Roehrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Montero, A. J. Rubio; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Safarik, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Castro, X. Sanchez; Sandor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Seeder, K. S.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Seo, J.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, N.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Sogaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Song, Z.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Sumbera, M.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szabo, A.; de Toledo, A. Szanto; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tanaka, N.; Tangaro, M. A.; Takaki, J. D. Tapia; Peloni, A. Tarantola; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Munoz, G. Tejeda; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thader, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trogolo, S.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Palomo, L. Valencia; Vallero, S.; Van Der Maarel, J.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; Van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vyvre, P. Vande; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Limon, S. Vergara; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Baillie, O. Villalobos; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Voelkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrlakova, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, D.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I. -K.; Yurchenko, V.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaborowska, A.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Zavada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zyzak, M.

    2015-01-01

    The transverse momentum(p(T)) spectrum and nuclear modification factor (R-AA) of reconstructed jets in 0-10% and 10-30% central Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV were measured. Jets were reconstructed using the anti-k(T) jet algorithm with a resolution parameter of R = 0.2 from charged and n

  1. Summary report of consultants' meeting on high-precision beta-intensity measurements and evaluations for specific PET radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is given of a Consultants' Meeting on 'High-precision beta-intensity measurements and evaluations for specific PET radioisotopes'. Participants assessed and reviewed the decay data for close to 50 positron-emitting radionuclides. Technical discussions are described in this report, along with the detailed recommendations and a priority list for future work. Direct positron and X-ray measurements are required to resolve a significant number of outstanding issues associated with the radionuclides reviewed. The following new measurements are recommended: gamma-ray emission probability for Cu-64, positron and Xray emission probabilities for Ni-57, Cu-62, Ga-66, As-72, Se-73, Rb-81,82m, Sr-83, Y-86 and Tc-94m. The following immediate evaluations were also recommended: Br-76 and I-120g.. Participants assessed and reviewed the decay data for close to 50 positron-emitting radionuclides. Technical discussions are described in this report, along with the detailed recommendations and a priority list for future work. Direct positron and X-ray measurements are required to resolve a significant number of outstanding issues associated with the radionuclides reviewed. The following new measurements are recommended: gamma-ray emission probability for Cu-64, positron and Xray emission probabilities for Ni-57, Cu-62, Ga-66, As-72, Se-73, Rb-81,82m, Sr-83, Y-86 and Tc-94m. The following immediate evaluations were also recommended: Br-76 and I-120g. (author)

  2. Magnetic and Electromagnetic signals related to tectonic activity: updates and new analyses on measurements in Central Italy

    OpenAIRE

    D. Di Mauro; S. Lepidi; A. Meloni; Palangio, P.

    2005-01-01

    Tectonomagnetic field observations from absolute magnetic field levels have been collected in Central Italy since 1989 by means of a network of four absolute magnetometer stations, including the geomagnetic observatory of L'Aquila (42°23 N, 13°19 E) used as reference for differentiation; also electromagnetic variations from VLF signals have been recorded in the last years by means of VLF search coil wide-band antennas. Many reports proved the occurrence of electromagnetic effects clearly rel...

  3. Evaluation of the effectiveness of malaria vector control measures in urban settings of Dakar by a specific anopheles salivary biomarker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papa Makhtar Drame

    Full Text Available Standard entomological methods for evaluating the impact of vector control lack sensitivity in low-malaria-risk areas. The detection of human IgG specific to Anopheles gSG6-P1 salivary antigen reflects a direct measure of human-vector contact. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a range of vector control measures (VCMs in urban settings by using this biomarker approach. The study was conducted from October to December 2008 on 2,774 residents of 45 districts of urban Dakar. IgG responses to gSG6-P1 and the use of malaria VCMs highly varied between districts. At the district level, specific IgG levels significantly increased with age and decreased with season and with VCM use. The use of insecticide-treated nets, by drastically reducing specific IgG levels, was by far the most efficient VCM regardless of age, season or exposure level to mosquito bites. The use of spray bombs was also associated with a significant reduction of specific IgG levels, whereas the use of mosquito coils or electric fans/air conditioning did not show a significant effect. Human IgG response to gSG6-P1 as biomarker of vector exposure represents a reliable alternative for accurately assessing the effectiveness of malaria VCM in low-malaria-risk areas. This biomarker tool could be especially relevant for malaria control monitoring and surveillance programmes in low-exposure/low-transmission settings.

  4. Pneumothorax as a complication of central venous catheter insertion

    OpenAIRE

    Tsotsolis, Nikolaos; Tsirgogianni, Katerina; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Baka, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Barbetakis, Nikos; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    The central venous catheter (CVC) is a catheter placed into a large vein in the neck [internal jugular vein (IJV)], chest (subclavian vein or axillary vein) or groin (femoral vein). There are several situations that require the insertion of a CVC mainly to administer medications or fluids, obtain blood tests (specifically the “central venous oxygen saturation”), and measure central venous pressure. CVC usually remain in place for a longer period of time than other venous access devices. There...

  5. The carbon storage regulator (Csr) system exerts a nutrient-specific control over central metabolism in Escherichia coli strain nissle 1917

    OpenAIRE

    Revelles, Olga; Millard, Pierre; Nougayrede, Jean-Philippe; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Oswald, Eric; Létisse, Fabien; Portais, Jean-Charles

    2013-01-01

    The role of the post-transcriptional carbon storage regulator (Csr) system in nutrient utilization and in the control of the central metabolism in E. coli reference commensal strain Nissle 1917 was investigated. Analysis of the growth capabilities of mutants altered for various components of the Csr system (csrA51, csrB, csrC and csrD mutations) showed that only the protein CsrA - the key component of the system - exerts a marked role in carbon nutrition. Attenuation of CsrA activity in the c...

  6. Measurement of the centrality dependence of $J/{\\psi}$ yields and observation of Z production in lead-lead collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Ackers, Mario; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov , Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Aleppo, Mario; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Jose; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonelli, Stefano; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arms, Kregg; Armstrong, Stephen Randolph; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Giovanni; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Rudolf; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Böser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Boorman, Gary; Booth, Chris; Booth, Peter; Booth, Richard; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Brambilla, Elena; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Breton, Dominique; Brett, Nicolas; Bright-Thomas, Paul; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brubaker, Erik; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Buira-Clark, Daniel; Buis, Ernst-Jan; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, François; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Byatt, Tom; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caccia, Massimo; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camard, Arnaud; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Cammin, Jochen; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carpentieri, Carmen; Carrillo Montoya, German D.; Carron Montero, Sebastian; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavallari, Alvise; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Cazzato, Antonio; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerna, Cedric; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Li; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chevallier, Florent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G.; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H.; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Colas, Jacques; Cole, Brian; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Coluccia, Rita; Comune, Gianluca; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Correard, Sebastien; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cuneo, Stefano; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Rocha Gesualdi Mello, Aline; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dahlhoff, Andrea; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dallison, Steve; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dankers, Reinier; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Daum, Cornelis; Dauvergne , Jean-Pierre; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; De La Taille, Christophe; De Lotto, Barbara; De Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Oliveira Branco, Miguel; De Pedis, Daniele; de Saintignon, Paul; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Dedes, George; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Deile, Mario; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delpierre, Pierre; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Dennis, Chris; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietl, Hans; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djilkibaev, Rashid; Djobava, Tamar; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson , Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Dodd, Jeremy; Dogan, Ozgen Berkol; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jürgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Drohan, Janice; Dubbert, Jörg; Dubbs, Tim; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen , Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak , Friedrich; Dzahini, Daniel; Düren, Michael; Ebke, Johannes; Eckert, Simon; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Efthymiopoulos, Ilias; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Ely, Robert; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Facius, Katrine; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falou, Alain; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fasching, Damon; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Ivan; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Felzmann, Ulrich; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferguson, Douglas; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernandes, Bruno; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipcic, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer , Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Fisher, Steve; Flammer, Joachim; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Föhlisch, Florian; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallas, Manuel; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, K.K.; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaumer, Olivier; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; Georgatos, Fotios; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghez, Philippe; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gieraltowski, Gerry; Gilbert, Laura; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gildemeister, Otto; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Borge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Goldin, Daniel; Golling, Tobias; Gollub, Nils Peter; Golovnia, Serguei; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorisek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Gorski, Boguslaw Tomasz; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouanère, Michel; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grabski, Varlen; Grafström, Per; Grah, Christian; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenfield, Debbie; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griesmayer, Erich; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grognuz, Joel; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Gruwe, Magali; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hackenburg, Robert; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Christian Johan; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jorgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hart, John; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heldmann, Michael; Heller, Mathieu; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henss, Tobias; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Hidvegi, Attila; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmes, Alan; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homer, Jim; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Horton, Katherine; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hott, Thomas; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova , Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Idzik, Marek; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Imbault, Didier; Imhaeuser, Martin; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ionescu, Gelu; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishii, Koji; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Isobe, Tadaaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Itoh, Yuki; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jez, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joo, Kwang; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Ju, Xiangyang; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Kazi, Sandor Istvan; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kersevan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Ketterer, Christian; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kilvington, Graham; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Guillaume; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kiyamura, Hironori; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Koblitz, Birger; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; König, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Kopikov, Sergey; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Serguei; Kotov, Vladislav; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasel, Olaf; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuykendall, William; Kuze, Masahiro; Kuzhir, Polina; Kvasnicka, Ondrej; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Rémi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Landsman, Hagar; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lapin, Vladimir; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov , Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Lau, Wing; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorato, Antonia; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Lazzaro, Alfio; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Leahu, Marius; Lebedev, Alexander; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lehto, Mark; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lellouch, Jeremie; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewandowska, Marta; Lewis, George; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lilley, Joseph; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Shengli; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Lockwitz, Sarah; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken , James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lu, Jiansen; Lu, Liang; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lupi, Anna; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maass en, Michael; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macek, Bostjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magalhaes Martins, Paulo Jorge; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Magrath, Caroline; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandic, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March , Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchesotti, Marco; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Mass, Martin; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maxfield, Stephen; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McMahon, Tania; McMahon, Tom; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meinhardt, Jens; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Merkl, Doris; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meuser, Stefan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W. Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Miele, Paola; Migas, Sylwia; Mijovic, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikulec, Bettina; Mikuz, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitra, Ankush; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohn, Bjarte; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Moneta, Lorenzo; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morais, Antonio; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morita, Youhei; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morone, Maria-Christina; Morris, John; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muijs, Sandra; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murakami, Koichi; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nasteva, Irina; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Nesterov, Stanislav; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya , Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norniella Francisco, Olga; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozicka, Miroslav; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nyman, Tommi; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Odino, Gian Andrea; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohska, Tokio Kenneth; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Ordonez, Gustavo; Oreglia, Mark; Orellana, Frederik; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Ortega, Eduardo; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Oyarzun, Alejandro; Øye, Ola; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pajchel, Katarina; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Paoloni, Alessandro; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor , Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Peric, Ivan; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Perus, Antoine; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Onne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Alan; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickford, Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Plano, Will; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Porter, Robert; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prichard, Paul; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rajek, Silke; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Ramstedt, Magnus; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rauter, Emanuel; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Reljic, Dusan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Renkel, Peter; Rensch, Bertram; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieke, Stefan; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodier, Stephane; Rodriguez, Diego; Rodriguez Garcia, Yohany; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Maltrana, Diego; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rossi, Lucio; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rottländer, Iris; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rulikowska-Zarebska, Elzbieta; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Runolfsson, Ogmundur; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rust, Dave; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandhu, Pawan; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Takashi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savva , Panagiota; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schäfer, Uli; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R.~Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmidt, Michael; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitz, Martin; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Christian; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siebel, Anca-Mirela; Siegert, Frank; Siegrist, James; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloan, Terrence; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Sondericker, John; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sorbi, Massimo; Sosebee, Mark; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St. Denis, Richard Dante; Stahl, Thorsten; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockmanns, Tobias; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Siva; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taga, Adrian; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Gary; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Tennenbaum-Katan, Yaniv-David; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terwort, Mark; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Tevlin, Christopher; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tic, Tomas; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timmermans, Charles; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Tobias, Jürgen; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonazzo, Alessandra; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Traynor, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Treis, Johannes; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Typaldos, Dimitrios; Tyrvainen, Harri; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urkovsky, Evgeny; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; Van Eijk, Bob; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Ventura , Silvia; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Viret, Sébastien; Virzi, Joseph; Vitale , Antonio; Vitells, Ofer; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vovenko, Anatoly; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C.; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Jens; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xaplanteris, Leonidas; Xella, Stefania; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yamada, Miho; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Weiming; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zaets , Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zalite , Youris; Zanello, Lucia; Zarzhitsky, Pavel; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zdrazil, Marian; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zema, Pasquale Federico; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Anton; Zenin, Oleg; Zenis, Tibor; Zenonos, Zenonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zilka, Branislav; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Zivkovic, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2011-01-01

    Using the ATLAS detector, a centrality-dependent suppression has been observed in the yield of $J/{\\psi}$ mesons produced in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of minimum-bias lead-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre of mass energy $\\surd sNN$ = 2.76 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 6.7 ${\\mu}b^{-1}$, $J/{\\psi}$ mesons are reconstructed via their decays to ${\\mu}+{\\mu}-$ pairs. The measured $J/{\\psi}$ yield, normalized to the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, is found to significantly decrease from peripheral to central collisions. The centrality dependence is found to be qualitatively similar to the trends observed at previous, lower energy experiments. The same sample is used to reconstruct Z bosons in the ${\\mu}+{\\mu}-$ final state, and a total of 38 candidates are selected in the mass window of 66 to 116 GeV. The relative Z yields as a function of centrality are also presented, although no conclusion can be inferred about their s...

  7. Centrality dependence of proton and antiproton spectra in Pb+Pb collisions atand 158A GeV measured at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron

    OpenAIRE

    Anticic, T.; Baatar, B.; Botje, M.A.J.; Christakoglou, P; van Leeuwen, M.(Institute for Subatomic Physics of Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands); Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A.

    2011-01-01

    The yields of (anti)protons were measured by the NA49 Collaboration in centrality-selected Pb + Pb collisions at 40A and 158A GeV. Particle identification was obtained in the laboratory momentum range from 5 to 63 GeV/c by measuring the energy loss dE/dx in the time projection chamber detector gas. The corresponding rapidity coverage extends 1.6 units from midrapidity into the forward hemisphere. Transverse-mass spectra, the rapidity dependences of the average transverse mass, and rapidity de...

  8. Saharan dust aerosol over the central Mediterranean Sea: optical columnar measurements vs. aerosol load, chemical composition and marker solubility at ground level

    OpenAIRE

    Marconi, M.; D. M. Sferlazzo; Becagli, S.; C. Bommarito; G. Calzolai; Chiari, M; di Sarra, A.; C. Ghedini; Gómez-Amo, J. L.; Lucarelli, F.; Meloni, D.; Monteleone, F.; Nava, S.; G. Pace; Piacentino, S.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at the determination of the mineral contribution to PM10 in the central Mediterranean Sea on the basis of 7 yr of PM10 chemical composition daily measurements made on the island of Lampedusa (35.5° N, 12.6° E). Aerosol optical depth measurements are carried out in parallel while sampling with a multi-stage impactor, and observations with an optical particle counter were performed in selected periods. Based on daily samples, the total content and soluble fraction of sel...

  9. Airborne LIDAR Measurements of Water Vapor, Ozone, Clouds, and Aerosols in the Tropics Near Central America During the TC4 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, Susan; Fenn, Marta; Ismail, Syed; Ferrare, Richard; Hair, John; Browell, Edward; Notari, Anthony; Butler, Carolyn; Burton, Sharon; Simpson, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Large scale distributions of ozone, water vapor, aerosols, and clouds were measured throughout the troposphere by two NASA Langley lidar systems on board the NASA DC-8 aircraft as part of the Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling Experiment (TC4) over Central and South America and adjacent oceans in the summer of 2007. Special emphasis was placed on the sampling of convective outflow and transport, sub-visible cirrus clouds, boundary layer aerosols, Saharan dust, volcanic emissions, and urban and biomass burning plumes. This paper presents preliminary results from this campaign, and demonstrates the value of coordinated measurements by the two lidar systems.

  10. Construction of a traditional Chinese medicine syndrome-specific outcome measure: the Kidney Deficiency Syndrome questionnaire (KDSQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Run

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM syndrome-specific outcome measures is needed for the evaluation of TCM syndrome-specific therapies. We constructed a Kidney Deficiency Syndrome Questionnaire (KDSQ for the evaluation of the common TCM syndromes Kidney-Yin Deficiency Syndrome (KDS-Yin and Kidney-Yang Deficiency Syndrome (KDS-Yang in middle-aged women with menopausal symptoms. Methods KDS-Yin and KDS-Yang were traditionally defined by expert opinion were validated by exploratory factor analysis (EFA and structural equation modeling (SEM. Content validity was tested by EFA on a sample of 236 women from a seminar and SEM on another sample of 321 women from a postal survey. Other psychometric properties were tested on 292 women from the seminar at baseline and two systematically selected sub-samples: 54 who reported no changes in discomforts 11–12 days after the baseline and 31 who reported changes in discomforts 67–74 days after the baseline. All participants completed the KDSQ, the Greene Climacteric Scale and the standard 12-item Short Form Health Survey. Results The EFA and SEM established the measurement models of KDS-Yin and KDS-Yang supporting content validity of the KDSQ. Internal consistency was good (Cronbach’s Alpha >0.70. Construct validity was supported by theoretically-derived levels of correlation with the established external measures. Test–retest reliability was strong (ICCagreement: KDS-Yin, 0.94; KDS-Yang, 0.93. The KDSQ was responsive to changes over time as tested by effect size and longitudinal validity. Conclusions The KDSQ was a valid and reliable measure for KDS-Yin and KDS-Yang in Hong Kong Chinese middle-aged women with menopausal symptoms.

  11. Measurement of fractionated plasma metanephrines for exclusion of pheochromocytoma: Can specificity be improved by adjustment for age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafni Amiram

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biochemical testing for pheochromocytoma by measurement of fractionated plasma metanephrines is limited by false positive rates of up to 18% in people without known genetic predisposition to the disease. The plasma normetanephrine fraction is responsible for most false positives and plasma normetanephrine increases with age. The objective of this study was to determine if we could improve the specificity of fractionated plasma measurements, by statistically adjusting for age. Methods An age-adjusted metanephrine score was derived using logistic regression from 343 subjects (including 33 people with pheochromocytoma who underwent fractionated plasma metanephrine measurements as part of investigations for suspected pheochromocytoma at Mayo Clinic Rochester (derivation set. The performance of the age-adjusted score was validated in a dataset of 158 subjects (including patients 23 with pheochromocytoma that underwent measurements of fractionated plasma metanephrines at Mayo Clinic the following year (validation dataset. None of the participants in the validation dataset had known genetic predisposition to pheochromocytoma. Results The sensitivity of the age-adjusted metanephrine score was the same as that of traditional interpretation of fractionated plasma metanephrine measurements, yielding a sensitivity of 100% (23/23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 85.7%, 100%. However, the false positive rate with traditional interpretation of fractionated plasma metanephrine measurements was 16.3% (22/135, 95% CI, 11.0%, 23.4% and that of the age-adjusted score was significantly lower at 3.0% (4/135, 95% CI, 1.2%, 7.4% (p Conclusion An adjustment for age in the interpretation of results of fractionated plasma metanephrines may significantly decrease false positives when using this test to exclude sporadic pheochromocytoma. Such improvements in false positive rate may result in savings of expenditures related to confirmatory imaging.

  12. Dietary restraint and responsiveness to sensory-based food cues as measured by cephalic phase salivation and sensory specific satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, B J

    1992-08-01

    Responsiveness to sensory-based food cues was examined in restrained and unrestrained, normal-weight subjects identified with the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. Salivary flow rate was measured with no food present and while subjects viewed hot pizza. In the presence of food, restrained eaters had a mean salivary flow rate (0.388 g/min) greater than twice that of the unrestrained eaters (0.186 g/min). During sensory specific satiety testing, subjects tasted and rated the pleasantness of 9 foods, then received a meal of either cheese and crackers or cookies. Changes in pleasantness for the tasted foods were evaluated at 2, 20, and 40 min following the meal. Both restrained and unrestrained subjects displayed similar patterns of sensory specific satiety, i.e., the pleasantness foods which were eaten decreased relative to foods tasted but not eaten. These patterns were unaffected by the type of food consumed in the test meal. These data demonstrate that restrained eaters show moderately enhanced salivary responses but no changes in sensory-specific satiety to food stimuli, suggesting that heightened responsiveness to the sensory properties of foods may not be a generalized phenomenon in restrained eaters. PMID:1523258

  13. A critical review of dimension-specific measures of health-related quality of life in cross-cultural research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, M J; Wiklund, I

    1993-12-01

    This article reviews six dimension-specific health-related quality of life (HRQL) measures which have been used cross-culturally. The instruments reviewed are: the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ); the Center for Epidemiologic Studies--Depression (CES-D); the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS); the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ); and the Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWB). These instruments primarily represent the psychological or emotional dimension of HRQL, and are scales that were developed and validated in the USA, Canada or the UK. The review of specific studies for each of the six instruments was not meant to be exhaustive, but rather to give an indication of the ways in which the instruments have been assessed or used in various countries. The focus throughout this article is on the psychometric properties (reliability, validity and responsiveness) of these scales in different cultures, as well as the processes used to translate the instruments from English into another language. Implications of the results of this review for cross-cultural use of dimension-specific HRQL instruments are drawn. PMID:8161976

  14. The Substance Use Risk Profile Scale: a scale measuring traits linked to reinforcement-specific substance use profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woicik, Patricia A; Stewart, Sherry H; Pihl, Robert O; Conrod, Patricia J

    2009-12-01

    The Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) is based on a model of personality risk for substance abuse in which four personality dimensions (hopelessness, anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity, and sensation seeking) are hypothesized to differentially relate to specific patterns of substance use. The current series of studies is a preliminary exploration of the psychometric properties of the SURPS in two populations (undergraduate and high school students). In study 1, an analysis of the internal structure of two versions of the SURPS shows that the abbreviated version best reflects the 4-factor structure. Concurrent, discriminant, and incremental validity of the SURPS is supported by convergent/divergent relationships between the SURPS subscales and other theoretically relevant personality and drug use criterion measures. In Study 2, the factorial structure of the SURPS is confirmed and evidence is provided for its test-retest reliability and validity with respect to measuring personality vulnerability to reinforcement-specific substance use patterns. In Study 3, the SURPS was administered in a more youthful population to test its sensitivity in identifying younger problematic drinkers. The results from the current series of studies demonstrate support for the reliability and construct validity of the SURPS, and suggest that four personality dimensions may be linked to substance-related behavior through different reinforcement processes. This brief assessment tool may have important implications for clinicians and future research. PMID:19683400

  15. The substance use risk profile scale: a scale measuring traits linked to reinforcement-specific substance use profiles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woicik, P.A.; Stewart, S.H.; Pihl, R.O.; Conrod, P.J.

    2009-12-01

    The Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) is based on a model of personality risk for substance abuse in which four personality dimensions (hopelessness, anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity, and sensation seeking) are hypothesized to differentially relate to specific patterns of substance use. The current series of studies is a preliminary exploration of the psychometric properties of the SURPS in two populations (undergraduate and high school students). In study 1, an analysis of the internal structure of two versions of the SURPS shows that the abbreviated version best reflects the 4-factor structure. Concurrent, discriminant, and incremental validity of the SURPS is supported by convergent/divergent relationships between the SURPS subscales and other theoretically relevant personality and drug use criterion measures. In Study 2, the factorial structure of the SURPS is confirmed and evidence is provided for its test-retest reliability and validity with respect to measuring personality vulnerability to reinforcement-specific substance use patterns. In Study 3, the SURPS was administered in a more youthful population to test its sensitivity in identifying younger problematic drinkers. The results from the current series of studies demonstrate support for the reliability and construct validity of the SURPS, and suggest that four personality dimensions may be linked to substance-related behavior through different reinforcement processes. This brief assessment tool may have important implications for clinicians and future research.

  16. Natural radioactivity measurements in agricultural soil, fertilizer and crops in some specific areas of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector gamma-ray spectrometry with 500 cc Marinelli beaker geometry was used for radioactivity measurement in some specific areas of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The detection limits of 210Pb, 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soil, fertilizers, and vegetables lie mostly below 1 Bq/kg. The activity concentrations of 238U and 226Ra in local phosphate fertilizers were measured in the range of 236.8-879.0 Bq/kg and 101.5-297.0 Bq/kg, respectively. The respective activity concentrations of 238U and 226Ra measured in one charge of German phosphate fertilizer are in the range of 552.7-790.0 Bq/kg and 280.6-317.0 Bq/kg. The activity concentrations of 232Th are assessed to have maximum values up to 2.24 Bq/kg in locally manufactured phosphate fertilizers. Local urea exhibited concentration level (Bq/kg) of 210Pb, 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K below the detection limit. Mean values of activity concentrations of 238U in agricultural soil of Wadi Fatima, Taif, Hada Al-Sham, Madina City and Abyar Al-MashiMadina are 21.7 ± 3.24, 38.2 ± 4.1, 17.6 ± 2.1, 34.3 ± 3.5 and 32.7 ± 2.4 Bq/kg, respectively. The respective mean of 226Ra activity concentrations in those areas are 12.16 ± 1.16, 20.2 ± 1.33, 11.21 ± 0.4, 21.4 ± 1.7 and 21.0 ± 1.22 Bq/kg. The specific activity of 232Th in the respective areas has been measured as 12.6 ± 1.3, 25.3 ± 0.8, 11.5 ± 0.9, 20.4 ± 2.4 and 20.0 ± 1.2 Bq/kg. Activity concentrations of 210Pb, 238U, 226Ra and 232Th in the vegetable samples are mostly found in the range of 0.37 Bq/kg to 37.8 Bq/kg. The 40K specific activity lies in the range of 44.4-196 Bq/kg. The calculated absorbed dose rates in the representative locations are 24.07-53.28 nGy/h. (orig.)

  17. A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains – from measurements to data bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schöne

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS of Central Asia, are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and lately Afghanistan to collect observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and to deliver them to the end-users for operational tasks and scientific studies. The newly developed and installed remotely operated multi-parameter stations (ROMPS do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. Additionally, three stations integrate seismic sensors for earthquake monitoring. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted nominally in near-real time, but at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is planed to be distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

  18. A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains – from measurements to data bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schöne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS, are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Afghanistan which is collecting observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and delivering them to the end-users. The network design focuses mainly on the higher elevations where the recent decline of monitoring stations and networks established in Soviet times was strongest, and the resulting observational gap hinders research on climate and hydrological change as well as operational tasks in water management such as the seasonal runoff forecast. The newly developed and installed Remotely Operated Multi-Parameter Stations (ROMPS do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver GPS data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

  19. QUANTITATIVE CHANGES IN THE SYNAPTIC VESICLE PROTEINS SYNAPSIN I AND P38 AND THE ASTROCYTE-SPECIFIC PROTEIN GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN ARE ASSOCIATED WITH CHEMICAL-INDUCED INJURY TO THE RAT CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (JOURNAL VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements of neuron-specific and glia-specific proteins were used to characterize chemical-induced injury to the rat CNS. Trimethyltin (TMT), a neurotoxicant which preferentially damages neurons in limbic structures, was employed to produce consistent, time-dependent, dose-rel...

  20. Total cyanide mass measurement with micro-ion selective electrode for determination of specific activity of carbon-11 cyanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research, we aim to directly measure the specific activity (SA) of the carbon-11 cyanide ([11C]CN¯) produced by our in-house built automated [11C]HCN production system and to identify the major sources of 12C-cyanide (12CN¯). The [11C]CN¯ is produced from [11C]CO2, which is generated by the 14N(p,α)11C nuclear reaction using a cyclotron. Direct measurement of cyanide concentrations was accomplished using a relatively inexpensive, and easy to use ion selective electrode (ISE) which offered an appropriate range of sensitivity for detecting mass. Multiple components of the [11C]HCN production system were isolated in order to determine their relative contributions to 12CN¯ mass. It was determined that the system gases were responsible for approximately 30% of the mass, and that the molecular sieve/nickel furnace unit contributed approximately 70% of the mass. Beam on target (33 µA for 1 and 10 min) did not contribute significantly to the mass. Additionally, we compared the SA of our [11C]HCN precursor determined using the ISE to the SA of our current [11C]CN¯ derived radiotracers determined by HPLC to assure there was no significant difference between the two methods. These results are the first reported use of an ion selective electrode to determine the SA of no-carrier-added cyanide ion, and clearly show that it is a valuable, inexpensive and readily available tool suitable for this purpose. - Highlights: • Measurement of cyanide mass contribution from different component of automated [11C]HCN production system. • Determination of specific activity of [11C]HCN by micro ion selective electrode

  1. Comparação entre as medidas da espessura central corneana usando a paquimetria óptica e a ultra-sônica Comparison between the measurements of central corneal thickness using optic and ultrasonic pachymeters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Leonel Maimone

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Comparar a medida da espessura corneana central (ECC obtida pelo paquímetro óptico Haag-Streit e a paquimetria ultrassônica DGH 500 (PachetteTM. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados, 200 olhos de 100 pacientes utilizando-se o paquímetro óptico (PO e o ultrassônico (PU. As medidas foram realizadas na área central da córnea, respeitando a área dos 3 mm, em pacientes com córneas normais, em olhos hipermétropes, emétropes e míopes, excluindo doenças oculares, usuários de lentes de contato ou submetidos às cirurgias. RESULTADOS: A média geral da ECC medida pelo PO foi 603,8± 32,6µm, e 568,2±40,5 µm pelo PU. As comparações entre as medidas dos dois aparelhos foram realizadas ao nível de 5% de significância e a diferença entre os dois aparelhos foi 35,7±26,4 µm (p=0,0000, indicando diferença significativa entre os métodos utilizados. Não houve diferença estatística entre olhos hipermétropes, emétropes e míopes usando o PU. CONCLUSÃO: A medida da ECC é superestimada pelo PO quando comparada com o PU.PURPOSE: To compare measurements of central corneal thickness obtained using a Haag-Streit optic pachymeter and a DGH 500 (Pachette Ttm ultrasonic pachymeter in normal patients. METHODS: An evaluation was made of 200 eyes of 100 patients using Optic (PO and Ultrasonic (PU pachymeters. Measurements were made in the area of the central cornea (ECC respecting the 3.0 mm territory, in patients with normal corneas of hypermetropic, emetropic and myopic eyes. Patients with ocular diseases, ocular surgeries, and contact lens wearers, were excluded. A statistical analysis was performed using a Paired Student's t test to compare measurements between instruments at the 5% level of significance. RESULTS: The mean thickness of the ECC measured by the PO was 603.8±32.6µm and by the PU, 568.2±40.5µm. The difference between the two instruments was 35.7±26.4µm. Applying the t test with p = <5%, the difference was significant. We

  2. Isoprene and monoterpene fluxes from Central Amazonian rainforest inferred from tower-based and airborne measurements, and implications on the atmospheric chemistry and the local carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Kuhn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We estimated the isoprene and monoterpene source strengths of a pristine tropical forest north of Manaus in the central Amazon Basin using three different micrometeorological flux measurement approaches. During the early dry season campaign of the Cooperative LBA Airborne Regional Experiment (LBA-CLAIRE-2001, a tower-based surface layer gradient (SLG technique was applied simultaneously with a relaxed eddy accumulation (REA system. Airborne measurements of vertical profiles within and above the convective boundary layer (CBL were used to estimate fluxes on a regional scale by application of the mixed layer gradient (MLG technique. The mean daytime fluxes of organic carbon measured by REA were 2.1 mg C m−2 h−1 for isoprene, 0.20 mg C m−2 h−1 for α-pinene, and 0.39 mg C m−2 h−1 for the sum of monoterpenes. These values are in reasonable agreement with fluxes determined with the SLG approach, which exhibited a higher scatter, as expected for the complex terrain investigated. The observed VOC fluxes are in good agreement with simulations using a single-column chemistry and climate model (SCM.

    In contrast, the model-derived mixing ratios of VOCs were by far higher than observed, indicating that chemical processes may not be adequately represented in the model. The observed vertical gradients of isoprene and its primary degradation products methyl vinyl ketone (MVK and methacrolein (MACR suggest that the oxidation capacity in the tropical CBL is much higher than previously assumed. A simple chemical kinetics model was used to infer OH radical concentrations from the vertical gradients of (MVK+MACR/isoprene. The estimated range of OH concentrations during the daytime was 3–8×106 molecules cm−3, i.e., an order of magnitude higher than is estimated for the tropical CBL by current state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry and transport models

  3. Measurement of Anterior-Posterior Diameter of Inferior Vena Cava by Ultrasonography: A Non-Invasive Method for Estimation of Central Venous Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nafisi-Moghadam

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The assessment of blood volume is now one of the most commonly needed interventions in the first line of care and severe ill patients. Measuring central venous pressure (CVP is an invasive method, most frequently used in clinical practice for the assessment of volume status. The di-ameter of the inferior vena cava (IVC is a parameter to estimate central venous pressure. The purpose of this study was to determine whether measurement of the anterior-posterior diameter of the IVC by ultra-sonography, correlates with CVP. Materials and Methods: It was a descriptive and pro-spective study on 50 patients; CVP was measured in supine position by CVP manometer. Anterior – pos-terior IVC diameter was assessed by ultrasonography during inspiration and expiration. Results: The mean of CVP during inspiration and ex-piration was 11.31+5.59, 12.20 + 5.65cmH2o, respec-tively. The mean of inspiratory and expiratory IVC diameter was 7.71+3.56, 11.97+3.28 mm, respectively. There was significant relation between CVP and IVC diameter in the inspiration (r=0.664, p<0.0001 and expiration (r=0.495, p=0.001. The relation between these two variables was linear. Conclusion: Result of this study showed that IVC di-ameter measurement by ultrasonography can be used to estimate the mean of CVP.

  4. Precision of gamma-ray measurements of the effective specific power and effective 240Pu fraction of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses gamma-ray spectrometry data from replicate measurements on 40 plutonium-bearing samples to examine the repeatability of the effective 240Pu fraction (240Pueff) and the effective specific power (Peff) calculated from the isotopic distribution analyzed with gamma-ray spectrometry codes. The measurements were used to identify the error component arising from repeatability in the determination of the isotopic composition of plutonium in the sample and the contribution of the error component to the uncertainty in total plutonium mass measurements from neutron coincidence counting (240Pueff) and calorimetry (Peff). The 40 samples had 240Pueff percentages ranging from 2 to 39% and Peff values ranging from 2 to 16 mW/g Pu. Four different gamma-ray spectrometry codes (FRAM, MGA, Blue Box, and PUJRC) were used to analyze the data (not all samples were analyzed with each code). All analyses showed that the % relative standard deviation of Peff was smaller than that of 240Pueff. This result coupled with a cursory examination of uncertainties in coincidence counting of well-characterized samples and water-bath calorimetry errors for the same types of samples lead to the conclusion that smaller uncertainties will be present in the total plutonium mass determined by the combination of calorimetry/gamma-ray spectrometry than in the mass determined by coincidence counting/gamma-ray spectrometry. An additional examination of the biases arising from the 240Pu correlation used in the gamma-ray spectrometry codes also supported this conclusion. 17 refs

  5. The emetophobia questionnaire (EmetQ-13): psychometric validation of a measure of specific phobia of vomiting (emetophobia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschen, Mark J; Veale, David; Ellison, Nell; Reddell, Tamara

    2013-10-01

    This study reports on the development and psychometric evaluation of a self-report assessment of the severity of symptoms of emetophobia. Using a sample of 95 individuals with emetophobia, and a matched sample of 90 control participants, a 13-items inventory was developed that showed a clear three-factor structure. The EmetQ-13 had good internal consistency (α=.82 in the clinical sample, and α=.85 in the control sample), and one-week test-retest reliability (rxx=.76). The EmetQ-13 showed significant correlations with another measure of emetophobia symptoms, the Specific Phobia of Vomiting Inventory, and related constructs such as disgust sensitivity. The measure showed excellent ability to classify emetophobic and non-emetophobic individuals, with correct assignment in 96.2% of cases. The EmetQ-13 also correlated significantly with a behavioural approach test using a vomit-like stimulus. The initial evaluation of the EmetQ-13 suggests that it is a reliable and valid measure for the assessment of emetophobia. PMID:24080612

  6. Aerosol and precipitation chemistry measurements in a remote site in Central Amazonia: the role of biogenic contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliquevis, T.; Lara, L. L.; Antunes, M. L.; Artaxo, P.

    2012-06-01

    In this analysis a 3.5 years data set of aerosol and precipitation chemistry, obtained in a remote site in Central Amazonia (Balbina, (1°55' S, 59°29' W, 174 m a.s.l.), about 200 km north of Manaus) is discussed. Aerosols were sampled using stacked filter units (SFU), which separate fine (d responsible for a minor fraction of the aerosol mass (less than 17%). Sudden increases in the concentration of elements as Al, Ti and Fe were also observed, both in fine and coarse mode (mostly during the April-may months), which we attribute to episodes of Saharan dust transport. During the dry periods, a significant contribution to the fine aerosols loading was observed, due to the large-scale transport of smoke from biomass burning in other portions of the Amazon basin. This contribution is associated with the enhancement of the concentration of S, K, Zn and BCE. Chlorine, which is commonly associated to sea salt and also to biomass burning emissions, presented higher concentration not only during the dry season but also for the April-June months, due to the establishment of more favorable meteorological conditions to the transport of Atlantic air masses to Central Amazonia. The chemical composition of rainwater was similar to those ones observed in other remote sites in tropical forests. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) pH was 4.90. The most important contribution to acidity was from weak organic acids. The organic acidity was predominantly associated with the presence of acetic acid instead of formic acid, which is more often observed in pristine tropical areas. Wet deposition rates for major species did not differ significantly between dry and wet season, except for NH4+, citrate and acetate, which had smaller deposition rates during dry season. While biomass burning emissions were clearly identified in the aerosol component, it did not present a clear signature in rainwater. The biogenic component and the long-range transport of sea salt were observed both in aerosols and

  7. Measurement of natural radioactivity in granites and its quartz-bearing gold at El-Fawakhir area (Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.M. Uosif

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of natural radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K in Granites and its quartz-bearing gold at El-Fawakhir area (Central Eastern Desert, Egypt were measured by using γ-ray spectroscopy [NaI (Tl 3″ × 3″]. X-Ray Fluorescence technique was used for chemical analyses of the studied samples. The specific activity of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K values are in range (3 ± 0.5 to 43 ± 2 Bqkg−1, (5 ± 0.7 to 41 ± 2 Bqkg−1 and (128 ± 6 to 682 ± 35 Bqkg−1 respectively. The absorbed dose rates ranged from 13.8 to 58.4 nGy h−1, where the total effective dose rates were determined to be between 16.7 and 70.9 μSvy−1. The maximum external hazard index (Hex is 0.3 nGyh−1. The calculated values of the excess lifetime cancer risks (ELCR and annual effective dose rate values are in between (8.48 × 10−5 and 2.63 × 10−4 and (24.2 and 72.9 μSvy−1 respectively. Geochemically, the studied granites consist of major oxides, they are characterized by SiO2, K2O, Na2O, Al2O3, and depleted in CaO, MgO, TiO2, and P2O5. The average absorbed dose rate (Do in air is 37.8 nGyh−1 for the whole studied samples, this value is about 3.78% of the 1.0 mSvy−1 recommended by (ICRP-60,1991 to the public, so there is no radiological risk for the workers in that area.

  8. Missing Millions and Measuring Progress towards the Millenium Development Goals with a focus on Central Asian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Carr-Hill

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In developing countries, population estimates and assessments of progress towards the Millenium Development Goals are based increasingly on household surveys.  It is not recognised that they are inappropriate for obtaining information about the poorest of the poor..  This is because they, typically, omit by design: those not in households because they are homeless; those who are in institutions; and mobile, nomadic or pastoralist populations.  In addition, in practice, because they are difficult to reach, household surveys will typically under-represent: those in fragile, disjointed or multiple occupancy households; those in urban slums, and may omit certain areas of a country deemed to pose a security risk. Those six sub-groups constitute a pretty comprehensive ostensive definition of the ‘poorest of the poor’. Methods This paper documents these omissions in general, drawing on worldwide literature about the theory and practice fo implementing censuses and household surveys; and shows how substantial proportions are missing from both censuses and the sample frames of surveys. Results This paper suggests that between 300 and 350 million will effectively be missed worldwide from the sampling frames of such surveys and from most censuses.  The impact on the health MDGs is illustrated for the five republics of the former Soviet Union making up Central Asia: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan Conclusions It is impossible to assess progress towards or away from the MDGS in both the Central Asian Republics and worldwide.  It is urgent to find solutions to the problem of the ‘missing ‘ poor population sub-groups.

  9. Site-specific reaction rate constant measurements for various secondary and tertiary H-abstraction by OH radicals

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2015-02-01

    Reaction rate constants for nine site-specific hydrogen atom (H) abstraction by hydroxyl radicals (OH) have been determined using experimental measurements of the rate constants of Alkane+OH→Products reactions. Seven secondary (S 20, S 21, S 22, S 30, S 31, S 32, and S 33) and two tertiary (T 100 and T 101) site-specific rate constants, where the subscripts refer to the number of carbon atoms (C) connected to the next-nearest-neighbor (N-N-N) C atom, were obtained for a wide temperature range (250-1450K). This was done by measuring the reaction rate constants for H abstraction by OH from a series of carefully selected large branched alkanes. The rate constant of OH with four different alkanes, namely 2,2-dimethyl-pentane, 2,4-dimethyl-pentane, 2,2,4-trimethyl-pentane (iso-octane), and 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-pentane were measured at high temperatures (822-1367K) using a shock tube and OH absorption diagnostic. Hydroxyl radicals were detected using the narrow-line-width ring-dye laser absorption of the R1(5) transition of OH spectrum near 306.69nm.Previous low-temperature rate constant measurements are added to the current data to generate three-parameter rate expressions that successfully represent the available direct measurements over a wide temperature range (250-1450. K). Similarly, literature values of the low-temperature rate constants for the reaction of OH with seven normal and branched alkanes are combined with the recently measured high-temperature rate constants from our group [1]. Subsequent to that, site-specific rate constants for abstractions from various types of secondary and tertiary H atoms by OH radicals are derived and have the following modified Arrhenius expressions:. S20=8.49×10-17T1.52exp(73.4K/T)cm3molecule-1s-1(250-1450K) S21=1.07×10-15T1.07exp(208.3K/T)cm3molecule-1s-1(296-1440K) S22=2.88×10-13T0.41exp(-291.5K/T)cm3molecule-1s-1(272-1311K) S30=3.35×10-18T1.97exp(323.1K/T)cm3molecule-1s-1(250-1366K) S31=1.60×10-18T2.0exp(500.0K/T)cm3

  10. Preparation of the Improved Technical Specifications of Nuclear Almaraz, Asco and Vandellos; Procedimiento de elaboracion de las Especificaciones Tecnicas Mejoradas de las Centrales de Almaraz Asco y Vandellos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuente, I.; Mirallas, F.; Garcia, M. D.

    2012-07-01

    In 2010 the Nuclear Almaraz, Asco and Vandellos agreed with the CSN start the transition project to the Improved Plant Technical Specifications (IPTSs), with reference the Rev. 3.1 of NUREG-1431. In April 2012 has been published the Rev. 4.0 of NUREG and have decided to adapt the IPTSs to the content of this new revision. The project for the three plants is developed in parallel, which allows to optimize the process.

  11. Synthesis of stereo (R and S) and geometric (E and Z) [F-18]fluoro-β-fluoromethylene-M-tyrosine derivatives: specific PET probes for central dopamine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racemic β-fluoromethylene-m-tyrosine (FMMl) was developed as an aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD)- activated monoamine oxidase (MAO) suicide inhibitor. Direct [F-18] fluorination of pure enantiomers, R and S-(E)-β- fluoromethylene-m-tyrosine (E-FMMT) and the racemic geometric isomer R,S(Z)-β-fluoromethylene-m-tyrosine (Z-FMMT) with [F- 18] acetylhypofluorite, afforded 6- and 2[F-18] fluoro positional isomers as the major products. Regioselective radiofluorodestannylation of the respective 4-trimethylstannyl R,S- (E) - FMMT with [F-18]F2 yielded the 4[F-18] fluoro derivative, thus allowing for the systematic evaluation of the regio- and stereo radiofluorinated AAAD probes. Macacca nemestrina monkeys were injected iv with purified radiofluorinated FMMT analogs and the distribution of activity in the central dopaminergic system was studied with positron emission tomography (PET). Radiofluorinated stereo and geometric FMMT derivatives showed significant differences in their in vivo striatal localization, with radioprobe localization decreasing in the order: 6F-S-(E)-FMMT >> 2F-S-(E)- FMMT >> 4F-R,S-(E)-FMMT. Neither radiofluorinated analogs of R-(E)- FMMT and R,S-(Z)-FMMT showed any significant striatal localization in vivo. (author)

  12. Attributions for sexual situations in men with and without erectile disorder: evidence from a sex-specific attributional style measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scepkowski, Lisa A; Wiegel, Markus; Bach, Amy K; Weisberg, Risa B; Brown, Timothy A; Barlow, David H

    2004-12-01

    This study investigated the attributional styles of men with and without sexual dysfunction for both positive and negative sexual and general events using a sex-specific version of the Attributional Style Questionnaire (Sex-ASQ), and ascertained the preliminary psychometric properties of the measure. The Sex-ASQ was created by embedding 8 hypothetical sexual events (4 positive, 4 negative) among the original 12 events in the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ; C. Peterson, A. Semmel, C. von Baeyer, L. Y. Abramson, G. I. Metalsky, & M. E. Seligman, 1982). The Sex-ASQ was completed by 21 men with a principal DSM-IV diagnosis of Male Erectile Disorder (MED) and 32 male control participants. The psychometrics of the Sex-ASQ were satisfactory, but with the positive sexual event scales found to be less stable and internally consistent than the negative sexual event scales. Reasons for modest reliability of the positive event scales are discussed in terms of the original ASQ. As expected, men with MED did not differ significantly from men without sexual dysfunction in their causal attributions for general events, indicating that both groups exhibited an optimistic attributional style in general. Also as predicted, men with MED made more internal and stable causal attributions for negative sexual events than men without sexual dysfunction, and also rated negative sexual events as more important. For positive sexual events, the 2 groups did not differ in attributional style, with both groups making more external/unstable/specific causal attributions than for positive general events. Differences between explanatory style for sexual versus nonsexual events found in both sexually functional and dysfunctional men lend support for explanatory style models that propose both cross-situational consistency and situational specificity. PMID:15483370

  13. Measurement of indoor radon and thoron levels in dwellings and estimation of uranium, thorium and potassium in soil samples from central part of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of nationwide survey project, measurement of indoor radon/thoron level has been carried out in 132 dwellings situated in 10 different towns/villages of centrally located states Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. LR 115 solid-state nuclear track detectors in plastic twin chamber dosimeter cups were used for the measurement. The measurements were carried out for a full year, divided into four quarters. The mean radon/thoron concentration at all the locations falls well below the range of active level recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection. The results of uranium, thorium and potassium estimation in soil samples belonging to these areas are also reported. Positive correlation has not been observed between indoor radon/thoron concentration and uranium/thorium content of the soil. It is concluded that the diffusion of radon from soil to dwelling is greatly affected by flooring material

  14. Human Vitamin B12 Absorption and Metabolism are Measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Using Specifically Labeled 14C-Cobalamin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is need for an improved test of human ability to assimilate dietary vitamin B12. Assaying and understanding absorption and uptake of B12 is important because defects can lead to hematological and neurological complications. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is uniquely suited for assessing absorption and kinetics of 14C-labeled substances after oral ingestion because it is more sensitive than decay counting and can measure levels of carbon-14 (14C) in microliter volumes of biological samples, with negligible exposure of subjects to radioactivity. The test we describe employs amounts of B12 in the range of normal dietary intake. The B12 used was quantitatively labeled with 14C at one particular atom of the DMB moiety by exploiting idiosyncrasies of Salmonellametabolism. In order to grow aerobically on ethanolamine, S. entericamust be provided with either pre-formed B12 or two of its precursors: cobinamide and dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). When provided with 14C-DMB specifically labeled in the C2 position, cells produced 14C-B12 of high specific activity (2.1 GBq/mmol, 58 mCi/mmol) and no detectable dilution of label from endogenous DMB synthesis. In a human kinetic study, a physiological dose (1.5 mg, 2.2 KBq/59 nCi) of purified 14C-B12 was administered and showed plasma appearance and clearance curves consistent with the predicted behavior of the pure vitamin. This method opens new avenues for study of B12 assimilation

  15. Molecular Form Differences Between Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Standards Create Quantitative Discordances in PSA ELISA Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJimpsey, Erica L.

    2016-02-01

    The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assays currently employed for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) lack the specificity needed to differentiate PCa from benign prostatic hyperplasia and have high false positive rates. The PSA calibrants used to create calibration curves in these assays are typically purified from seminal plasma and contain many molecular forms (intact PSA and cleaved subforms). The purpose of this study was to determine if the composition of the PSA molecular forms found in these PSA standards contribute to the lack of PSA test reliability. To this end, seminal plasma purified PSA standards from different commercial sources were investigated by western blot (WB) and in multiple research grade PSA ELISAs. The WB results revealed that all of the PSA standards contained different mass concentrations of intact and cleaved molecular forms. Increased mass concentrations of intact PSA yielded higher immunoassay absorbance values, even between lots from the same manufacturer. Standardization of seminal plasma derived PSA calibrant molecular form mass concentrations and purification methods will assist in closing the gaps in PCa testing measurements that require the use of PSA values, such as the % free PSA and Prostate Health Index by increasing the accuracy of the calibration curves.

  16. Spiritual Dryness as a Measure of a Specific Spiritual Crisis in Catholic Priests: Associations with Symptoms of Burnout and Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arndt Büssing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirituality/religiosity is recognized as a resource to cope with burdening life events and chronic illness. However, less is known about the consequences of the lack of positive spiritual feelings. Spiritual dryness in clergy has been described as spiritual lethargy, a lack of vibrant spiritual encounter with God, and an absence of spiritual resources, such as spiritual renewal practices. To operationalize experiences of “spiritual dryness” in terms of a specific spiritual crisis, we have developed the “spiritual dryness scale” (SDS. Here, we describe the validation of the instrument which was applied among other standardized questionnaires in a sample of 425 Catholic priests who professionally care for the spiritual sake of others. Feelings of “spiritual dryness” were experienced occasionally by up to 40%, often or even regularly by up to 13%. These experiences can explain 44% of variance in daily spiritual experiences, 30% in depressive symptoms, 22% in perceived stress, 20% in emotional exhaustion, 19% in work engagement, and 21% of variance of ascribed importance of religious activity. The SDS-5 can be used as a specific measure of spiritual crisis with good reliability and validity in further studies.

  17. Quantum dots thermal stability improves simultaneous phenotype-specific telomere length measurement by FISH-flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Veena; Hakim, Fran T; Rehman, Najibah; Gress, Ronald E; Telford, William G

    2009-05-15

    -associated decline in telomere length in both human monocytes and T cell subsets. With quantum dot immunolabeling, the mean decrease rate in telomere length for CD4+ cells was calculated at 41.8 bp/year, very close to previously reported values using traditional flow-FISH and Southern blotting. This modification to the traditional flow-FISH technique should therefore allow simultaneous fluorescent immunophenotyping and telomere length measurement, permitting complex cell subset-specific analysis in small numbers of cells without the requirement for prior cell sorting. PMID:19268672

  18. Aerosol and precipitation chemistry measurements in a remote site in Central Amazonia: the role of biogenic contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pauliquevis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this analysis a 3.5 years data set of aerosol and precipitation chemistry, obtained in a remote site in Central Amazonia (Balbina, (1°55' S, 59°29' W, 174 m a.s.l., about 200 km north of Manaus is discussed. Aerosols were sampled using stacked filter units (SFU, which separate fine (d < 2.5 μm and coarse mode (2.5 μm < d < 10.0 μm aerosol particles. Filters were analyzed for particulate mass (PM, Equivalent Black Carbon (BCE and elemental composition by Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE. Rainwater samples were collected using a wet-only sampler and samples were analyzed for pH and ionic composition, which was determined using ionic chromatography (IC. Natural sources dominated the aerosol mass during the wet season, when it was predominantly of natural biogenic origin mostly in the coarse mode, which comprised up to 81% of PM10. Biogenic aerosol from both primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol dominates the fine mode in the wet season, with very low concentrations (average 2.2 μg m-3. Soil dust was responsible for a minor fraction of the aerosol mass (less than 17%. Sudden increases in the concentration of elements as Al, Ti and Fe were also observed, both in fine and coarse mode (mostly during the April-may months, which we attribute to episodes of Saharan dust transport. During the dry periods, a significant contribution to the fine aerosols loading was observed, due to the large-scale transport of smoke from biomass burning in other portions of the Amazon basin. This contribution is associated with the enhancement of the concentration of S, K, Zn and BCE. Chlorine, which is commonly associated to sea salt and also to biomass burning emissions, presented higher concentration not only during the dry season but also for the April–June months, due to the establishment of more favorable meteorological conditions to the transport of Atlantic air masses to Central

  19. Comparison of Central Corneal Thickness Measurements by Ultrasonic Pachymetry, Orbscan II, and SP3000P in Eyes with Glaucoma or Glaucoma Suspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Ching Teng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intraocular pressure (IOP measurements are affected by the central cornea thickness (CCT. The conventional method for CCT measurement is ultrasonic pachymetry. However, noncontact procedures lower the risk of infection and corneal damage. In this study, we compared the CCT measured by Orbscan II, SP3000P, and ultrasonic pachymetry in patients with glaucoma or glaucoma suspect.Methods: The CCT of 208 eyes (46 eyes with glaucoma suspect, 42 with primary angle-closure glaucoma, and 120 with primary open-angle glaucoma was measured using Orbscan II, SP3000P, and ultrasonic pachymetry. We compared the linear correlation of the CCT between each mode.Results: The mean CCT measured by Orbscan II (563.63 Ų 35.867 µm was larger than with the other two devices. There were significant linear correlations between measurements with ultrasonic pachymetry and Orbscan II (Pearson correlation coefficient (r = 0.793, p 500 µm to ≤ 578 µm, and > 578 µm. There was no significant linear correlation between ultrasonic pachymetry and Orbscan II in the thin group. But, in the intermediate and thick CCT groups, there were significant linear correlations between each of the three devices.Conclusion: We showed good linear correlations of CCT measurements between each of 3 devices, especially in the intermediate and thickest CCTs. These results will be helpful in predicting the relationship between IOP and CCT for the diagnosis and screening of glaucoma; even we used optic systems.

  20. Modelling site-specific N2O emission factors from Austrian agricultural soils for targeted mitigation measures (NitroAustria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Barbara; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Kasper, Martina; Foldal, Cecilie; Schiefer, Jasmin; Kitzler, Barbara; Schwarzl, Bettina; Zethner, Gerhard; Anderl, Michael; Sedy, Katrin; Gaugitsch, Helmut; Dersch, Georg; Baumgarten, Andreas; Haas, Edwin; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Results from a previous project "FarmClim" highlight that the IPCC default emission factor is not able to reflect region specific N2O emissions from Austrian arable soils. The methodology is limited in identifying hot spots and hot moments of N2O emissions. When estimations are based on default emission factors no recommendations can be given on optimisation measures that would lead to a reduction of soil N2O emissions. The better the knowledge is about Nitrogen and Carbon budgets in Austrian agricultural managed soils the better the situation can be reflected in the Austrian GHG emission inventory calculations. Therefore national and regionally modelled emission factors should improve the evidence for national deviation from the IPCC default emission factors and reduce the uncertainties. The overall aim of NitroAustria is to identify the drivers for N2O emissions on a regional basis taking different soil types, climate, and agricultural management into account. We use the LandscapeDNDC model to update the N2O emission factors for N fertilizer and animal manure applied to soils. Key regions in Austria were selected and region specific N2O emissions calculated. The model runs at sub-daily time steps and uses data such as maximum and minimum air temperature, precipitation, radiation, and wind speed as meteorological drivers. Further input data are used to reflect agricultural management practices, e.g., planting/harvesting, tillage, fertilizer application, irrigation and information on soil and vegetation properties for site characterization and model initialization. While at site scale, arable management data (crop cultivation, rotations, timings etc.) is obtained by experimental data from field trials or observations, at regional scale such data need to be generated using region specific proxy data such as land use and management statistics, crop cultivations and yields, crop rotations, fertilizer sales, manure resulting from livestock units etc. The farming

  1. Exceptional ablation season 2009 on the Zhadang Glacier, Central Tibet - An approach combining field measurements and numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maussion, Fabien; Huintjes, Eva; Schneider, Christoph; Scherer, Dieter

    2010-05-01

    The central goal of the project DynRG-TiP (Dynamic Response of Glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau) is improving our understanding of atmosphere-cryosphere interactions on the Tibetan Plateau (TiP) by adding new data and improved methods combining field studies, remote sensing and numerical modelling. The setup of two automatic weather stations (AWS) on the slopes of Zhadang (north exposed) and Tangse River No. 2 Glacier (south exposed) - 5.850 m a.s.l, Western Nyainqentanglha Mountains (NyM) - in May 2009, joining the previous installations of the Chinese co-operating partners from the Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, make the Zhadang glacier one of the most extensively equipped and best observed glaciers in Central Asia. Based on previous studies (Kang et al., 2009), a summer ablation lower than 2 m w.e. was expected at the positions of the AWS. However, at the time of the second field campaign in October 2009, both stations had fallen over. This incidence occurred already in mid-July, despite of the mast being fixed three meters deep in the ice. At that time approximately half of the ablation period had passed and the estimated lowering of the surface already summed up to about 2 m. The ice-atmosphere interaction processes leading to this exceptional high melt rates are studied using the data gathered from the two AWS, supplemented by the output of the mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model. The downscaling approach using two-way nesting, following Box et al., 2006 and Caldwell et al., 2009, allows substantial improvements in surface mass balance (SMB) computations, providing additional spatial information on long-term time series. A first assessment of the downscaling capabilities of the WRF modelling system is realized for the ablation season 2009, analyzing the output of a 2 km grid resolution nested domain centered on the NyM. References: Box, J. E., Bromwich, D. H., Veenhuis, B. A., Bai, L.-S., Stroeve, J. C., Rogers, J. C., Steffen, K

  2. Outdoor near-roadway, community and residential pollen, carbon dioxide and particulate matter measurements in the urban core of an agricultural region in central CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendell, Derek G.; Therkorn, Jennifer H.; Yamamoto, Naomichi; Meng, Qingyu; Kelly, Sarah W.; Foster, Christine A.

    2012-04-01

    We can control asthma through proper clinical and environmental management and education. The U.S. population is growing, urbanizing and aging; seniors of low-to-middle income families are working and living longer. We conducted community-based participatory research in Visalia, Tulare County, California with a prospective, cross-sectional repeated measures design and quantitative and qualitative process; home environment and health-related outcomes data were collected. In this paper, we presented results of the air quality sampling-pollen, carbon dioxide (CO2) and particulate matter (PM) outdoors away from most major sources (agricultural fields, large pollinating trees, etc)-at a community central site close to a mobile line source and participant homes in the cooling season, July, 2009. Weather was hot and dry with light winds; diurnal variation ranged between 65-107 °F (18-42 °C) and 12-76% relative humidity at the study's central site. Co-located active (reference) and passive (PAAS) samplers were used for pollen; passive monitoring for CO2 (Telaire 7001) and active sampling for PM were conducted. Overall, we observed spatial variability in CO2, fine PM (PM2.5), and pollen counts. Weekday and study week average CO2 and PM2.5 concentrations were higher near study homes compared to central site sampling points, but peak measures and overnight/pre-dawn time period averages were elevated at the central site. Pollen counts were typically lower at homes-even if grass, trees, flowers or potted plants were present-compared to the central site closer to and generally downwind from commercial agricultural tree production. Data are new; the nine-county San Joaquin Valley has one pollen count station in the national network, and two of four government outdoor air monitoring stations in the county are in national parks. We suggest-given poor air quality in large part due to PM-adding routine pollen counts to regional/state agency air monitoring sites and more CO2 and PM

  3. Quantifying Causal Coupling Strength: A Lag-specific Measure For Multivariate Time Series Related To Transfer Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Runge, Jakob; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    While it is an important problem to identify the existence of causal associations between two components of a multivariate time series, a topic addressed in Runge et al. (2012), it is even more important to assess the strength of their association in a meaningful way. In the present article we focus on the problem of defining a meaningful coupling strength using information theoretic measures and demonstrate the short-comings of the well-known mutual information and transfer entropy. Instead, we propose a certain time-delayed conditional mutual information, the momentary information transfer (MIT), as a measure of association that is general, causal and lag-specific, reflects a well interpretable notion of coupling strength and is practically computable. MIT is based on the fundamental concept of source entropy, which we utilize to yield a notion of coupling strength that is, compared to mutual information and transfer entropy, well interpretable, in that for many cases it solely depends on the interaction of...

  4. Magnetic and Electromagnetic signals related to tectonic activity: updates and new analyses on measurements in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Di Mauro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Tectonomagnetic field observations from absolute magnetic field levels have been collected in Central Italy since 1989 by means of a network of four absolute magnetometer stations, including the geomagnetic observatory of L'Aquila (42°23 N, 13°19 E used as reference for differentiation; also electromagnetic variations from VLF signals have been recorded in the last years by means of VLF search coil wide-band antennas. Many reports proved the occurrence of electromagnetic effects clearly related to tectonic events (seismic and volcanic activity in active areas of our planet. In this paper we show the variation of some electromagnetic parameters which could be related to local and regional seismic activity for the most recent years 2002 and 2003. We also report the seismic activity recorded in this area by the Italian seismic national network. Some tentative analysis (in the wavelets and statistical approach on the historical and recent dataset allow a better characterization of electromagnetic properties of the study area, at different temporal and spatial scales.

  5. Acute central nervous system (CNS) toxicity of total body irradiation (TBI) measured using neuropsychological testing of attention functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate acute normal tissue damage of low irradiation doses to the healthy, adult central nervous system (CNS) using neuropsychological testing of attention functions. Methods and Materials: Neuropsychological testing (IQ, attention [modified Trail-Making Test A, Digit Symbol Test, D2 Test, Wiener Determination Machine]) was used to examine 40 patients (43 ± 10 years) before and immediately after the first fraction (1.2 Gy) of hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) at the University of Heidelberg. The patients received antiemetic premedication. Test results are given as mean percentiles ± standard deviation, with 50 ± 34 being normal. Thirty-eight control patients (53 ± 15 years) were studied to quantify the influence of hospitalization, stress, and repeated testing. Results: The patients showed normal baseline test results (IQ = 101 ± 14, attention = 54 ± 28) and no decrease in test results after 1.2 Gy TBI. Attention functions improved (66 ± 25) corresponding to a practice effect of repeated testing that was seen in the control group, although alternate versions of the tests were used (IQ = 104 ± 10, attention before = 42 ± 29, attention after = 52 ± 31). Conclusion: Our data show no deterioration of neuropsychologic test results acutely after 1.2 Gy whole body exposure in adult patients without CNS disease receiving antiemetic medication

  6. Reaction rate constants of H-abstraction by OH from large ketones: Measurements and site-specific rate rules

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2014-01-01

    Reaction rate constants of the reaction of four large ketones with hydroxyl (OH) are investigated behind reflected shock waves using OH laser absorption. The studied ketones are isomers of hexanone and include 2-hexanone, 3-hexanone, 3-methyl-2-pentanone, and 4-methl-2-pentanone. Rate constants are measured under pseudo-first-order kinetics at temperatures ranging from 866 K to 1375 K and pressures near 1.5 atm. The reported high-temperature rate constant measurements are the first direct measurements for these ketones under combustion-relevant conditions. The effects of the position of the carbonyl group (CO) and methyl (CH3) branching on the overall rate constant with OH are examined. Using previously published data, rate constant expressions covering, low-to-high temperatures, are developed for acetone, 2-butanone, 3-pentanone, and the hexanone isomers studied here. These Arrhenius expressions are used to devise rate rules for H-abstraction from various sites. Specifically, the current scheme is applied with good success to H-abstraction by OH from a series of n-ketones. Finally, general expressions for primary and secondary site-specific H-abstraction by OH from ketones are proposed as follows (the subscript numbers indicate the number of carbon atoms bonded to the next-nearest-neighbor carbon atom, the subscript CO indicates that the abstraction is from a site next to the carbonyl group (CO), and the prime is used to differentiate different neighboring environments of a methylene group):P1,CO = 7.38 × 10-14 exp(-274 K/T) + 9.17 × 10-12 exp(-2499 K/T) (285-1355 K)S10,CO = 1.20 × 10-11 exp(-2046 K/T) + 2.20 × 10-13 exp(160 K/T) (222-1464 K)S11,CO = 4.50 × 10-11 exp(-3000 K/T) + 8.50 × 10-15 exp(1440 K/T) (248-1302 K)S11′,CO = 3.80 × 10-11 exp(-2500 K/T) + 8.50 × 10-15 exp(1550 K/T) (263-1370 K)S 21,CO = 5.00 × 10-11 exp(-2500 K/T) + 4.00 × 10-13 exp(775 K/T) (297-1376 K) © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  7. Measurements of Aerosol, Ocean and Sky Properties at the HOT Site in the Central Pacific. Chapter 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, John N.; Letelier, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    Monthly cruises have been made to the HOT site (approximately 100 km north of Oahu) since October 1988. The goal of these cruises is to make hydrography, chemistry, and biology observations. Measurements are typically made at a near coastal station (Kahe) on the first day to test the equipment and to obtain coastal shallow water (approximately 1500 m) observations. The second and third days are spent at the HOT site. On the morning of the fourth day, measurements are made at the HOT site and noontime measurements are made at the Hale-Aloha station near the mooring before returning to port by early the next morning. The locations of the three stations are Kahe, HOT, and Hale-ALOHA buoy. The routine HOT measurements are available during the summer following the year of the observations. The 1998 measurements will therefore become available during the summer of 1999. The data sets can be obtained at the National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) or from the HOT web site http://kahana.soest.hawaii.edu/hot/hot_jgofs.html.

  8. Protein Phosphatase 2A Catalytic Subunit α Plays a MyD88-Dependent, Central Role in the Gene-Specific Regulation of Endotoxin Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Xie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available MyD88, the intracellular adaptor of most TLRs, mediates either proinflammatory or immunosuppressive signaling that contributes to chronic inflammation-associated diseases. Although gene-specific chromatin modifications regulate inflammation, the role of MyD88 signaling in establishing such epigenetic landscapes under different inflammatory states remains elusive. Using quantitative proteomics to enumerate the inflammation-phenotypic constituents of the MyD88 interactome, we found that in endotoxin-tolerant macrophages, protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit α (PP2Ac enhances its association with MyD88 and is constitutively activated. Knockdown of PP2Ac prevents suppression of proinflammatory genes and resistance to apoptosis. Through site-specific dephosphorylation, constitutively active PP2Ac disrupts the signal-promoting TLR4-MyD88 complex and broadly suppresses the activities of multiple proinflammatory/proapoptotic pathways as well, shifting proinflammatory MyD88 signaling to a prosurvival mode. Constitutively active PP2Ac translocated with MyD88 into the nuclei of tolerant macrophages establishes the immunosuppressive pattern of chromatin modifications and represses chromatin remodeling to selectively silence proinflammatory genes, coordinating the MyD88-dependent inflammation control at both signaling and epigenetic levels under endotoxin-tolerant conditions.

  9. Development and multi-site validation of a new condition-specific quality of life measure for eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusella Joanne L

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In eating disorders (EDs treatment, outcome measurement has traditionally focused on symptom reduction rather than functioning or quality of life (QoL. Generic QoL measures lack sensitivity for some diagnoses and many not be responsive in eating disorder patients. This article describes the development and validation of a condition-specific QoL measure for adolescents and adults with eating disorders – the Eating Disorders Quality of Life Scale (EDQLS. Methods Multi-source and multi-stage methods were used to develop the EDQLS, with participation of patients with EDs, their family members and ED treatment providers. Sources for domain and item development included 39 articles, 12 patient and 10 treatment provider interviews, and 31 first person narratives from the internet. Four stages of validation and pre-testing involving 17 patients, 10 family members and 18 providers reduced 233 items to 40 items in 12 domains. These items were pilot tested in 41 ED patients. Results The final instrument was then validated in a 12 site sample of 171 individuals aged 14–60 with EDs. All items showed good dispersion. The total raw mean score was 110 out of 200 (SD 27.6 with higher scores indicating better QoL. Internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach's alpha = .96 and subscale internal consistency ranged from alpha .36 to .79 providing evidence for a strong overall construct and some multi-dimensionality. Validity was supported by significant differences in mean EDQLS according to severity levels on the EDI-2 (F = 95.3, p Conclusion The EDQLS has promising psychometric characteristics and may be useful for evaluating ED treatment effectiveness.

  10. Precision of gamma-ray measurements of the effective specific power and effective {sup 240}Pu fraction of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, T.E.

    1992-05-01

    This paper uses gamma-ray spectrometry data from replicate measurements on 40 plutonium-bearing samples to examine the repeatability of the effective {sup 240}Pu fraction ({sup 240}Pu{sub eff}) and the effective specific power (P{sub eff}) calculated from the isotopic distribution analyzed with gamma-ray spectrometry codes. The measurements were used to identify the error component arising from repeatability in the determination of the isotopic composition of plutonium in the sample and the contribution of the error component to the uncertainty in total plutonium mass measurements from neutron coincidence counting ({sup 240}Pu{sub eff}) and calorimetry (P{sub eff}). The 40 samples had {sup 240}Pu{sub eff} percentages ranging from 2 to 39% and P{sub eff} values ranging from 2 to 16 mW/g Pu. Four different gamma-ray spectrometry codes (FRAM, MGA, Blue Box, and PUJRC) were used to analyze the data (not all samples were analyzed with each code). All analyses showed that the % relative standard deviation of P{sub eff} was smaller than that of {sup 240}Pu{sub eff}. This result coupled with a cursory examination of uncertainties in coincidence counting of well-characterized samples and water-bath calorimetry errors for the same types of samples lead to the conclusion that smaller uncertainties will be present in the total plutonium mass determined by the combination of calorimetry/gamma-ray spectrometry than in the mass determined by coincidence counting/gamma-ray spectrometry. An additional examination of the biases arising from the {sup 240}Pu correlation used in the gamma-ray spectrometry codes also supported this conclusion. 17 refs.

  11. Measurements of Black Carbon Specific Absorption in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MCMA 2003 Field Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Barnard

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available During the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA field campaign of 2003, measurements of the shortwave radiation field, lidar backscatter, and atmospheric concentrations of black carbon (BC permitted the inference of the BC carbon specific absorption, αλ, defined as the absorption cross section per unit mass (with units of m2/g. This diverse set of measurements allowed us to determine αλ in two ways. These methods – labeled I and II – are distinguished from one another in the manner that the columnar concentration of BC (with units of mg/m2 is determined. This concentration is found by using either surface measurements of BC concentration and lidar estimates of aerosol mixing heights, or a more rigorous method that relies on the columnar aerosol size distribution. The averaged values of αλ derived from these methods agree to about 20%, although we expect that the values obtained from method I are underestimated. These results, along with those of Schuster et al. (2005, suggest that in the MCMA, αλ is in a range of 8 to 10 m2/g at a wavelength of 550 nm. This range is somewhat lower than the commonly accepted value of 10 m2/g for a wavelength of 550 nm, but is consistent with the calculations of Fuller et al. (1999, who suggest that this value is too high.

  12. SU-E-T-472: A Multi-Dimensional Measurements Comparison to Analyze a 3D Patient Specific QA Tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate a 3D patient specific QA tool using 2D film and 3D Presage dosimetry. Methods: A brain IMRT case was delivered to Delta4, EBT2 film and Presage plastic dosimeter. The film was inserted in the solid water slabs at 7.5cm depth for measurement. The Presage dosimeter was inserted into a head phantom for 3D dose measurement. Delta4's Anatomy software was used to calculate the corresponding dose to the film in solid water slabs and to Presage in the head phantom. The results from Anatomy were compared to both calculated results from Eclipse and measured dose from film and Presage to evaluate its accuracy. Using RIT software, we compared the “Anatomy” dose to the EBT2 film measurement and the film measurement to ECLIPSE calculation. For 3D analysis, DICOM file of “Anatomy” was extracted and imported to CERR software, which was used to compare the Presage dose to both “Anatomy” calculation and ECLIPSE calculation. Gamma criteria of 3% - 3mm and 5% - 5mm was used for comparison. Results: Gamma passing rates of film vs “Anatomy”, “Anatomy” vs ECLIPSE and film vs ECLIPSE were 82.8%, 70.9% and 87.6% respectively when 3% - 3mm criteria is used. When the criteria is changed to 5% - 5mm, the passing rates became 87.8%, 76.3% and 90.8% respectively. For 3D analysis, Anatomy vs ECLIPSE showed gamma passing rate of 86.4% and 93.3% for 3% - 3mm and 5% - 5mm respectively. The rate is 77.0% for Presage vs ECLIPSE analysis. The Anatomy vs ECLIPSE were absolute dose comparison. However, film and Presage analysis were relative comparison Conclusion: The results show higher passing rate in 3D than 2D in “Anatomy” software. This could be due to the higher degrees of freedom in 3D than in 2D for gamma analysis

  13. Rapid and accurate measurement of the specific surface area of snow using infrared reflectance at 1310 and 1550 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Gallet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though the specific surface area (SSA of snow is a crucial variable to determine the chemical and climatic impact of the snow cover, few data are available on snow SSA because current measurement methods are not simple to use in the field or do not have a sufficient accuracy. We propose here a novel determination method based on the measurement of the hemispherical reflectance of snow in the infrared using the DUFISSS instrument (DUal Frequency Integrating Sphere for Snow SSA measurement. DUFISSS uses 1310 and 1550 nm radiation provided by laser diodes, an integrating sphere 15 cm in diameter, and InGaAs photodiodes. For SSA<60 m2 kg−1, we use the 1310 nm radiation, reflectance is in the range 15 to 50% and the accuracy is 10%. For SSA>60 m2 kg−1, snow is usually of low to very low density (typically 30 to 100 kg m−3 and this produces artifacts caused by the e-folding length of light in snow being too long. We therefore use 1550 nm radiation for SSA>60 m2 kg−1. Reflectance is then in the range 5 to 12%, and the accuracy is 12%. No effect of crystal shape on reflectance was detected. We propose empirical equations to determine SSA from reflectance at both wavelengths, with that for 1310 nm taking into account the snow density. DUFISSS has been tested in the Alps to measure the snow area index (SAI of the Alpine snowpack in a south facing area at 2100 m elevation. This was done by measuring the SSA, thickness and density of the seven main layers of the snowpack in just 30 min, and a value of 5350 was found, significantly greater than in Arctic and subarctic regions. DUFISSS can now be used to help study issues related to polar and Alpine atmospheric chemistry and climate.

  14. SU-E-T-472: A Multi-Dimensional Measurements Comparison to Analyze a 3D Patient Specific QA Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashmeg, S; Jackson, J; Zhang, Y; Oldham, M; Yin, F; Ren, L [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate a 3D patient specific QA tool using 2D film and 3D Presage dosimetry. Methods: A brain IMRT case was delivered to Delta4, EBT2 film and Presage plastic dosimeter. The film was inserted in the solid water slabs at 7.5cm depth for measurement. The Presage dosimeter was inserted into a head phantom for 3D dose measurement. Delta4's Anatomy software was used to calculate the corresponding dose to the film in solid water slabs and to Presage in the head phantom. The results from Anatomy were compared to both calculated results from Eclipse and measured dose from film and Presage to evaluate its accuracy. Using RIT software, we compared the “Anatomy” dose to the EBT2 film measurement and the film measurement to ECLIPSE calculation. For 3D analysis, DICOM file of “Anatomy” was extracted and imported to CERR software, which was used to compare the Presage dose to both “Anatomy” calculation and ECLIPSE calculation. Gamma criteria of 3% - 3mm and 5% - 5mm was used for comparison. Results: Gamma passing rates of film vs “Anatomy”, “Anatomy” vs ECLIPSE and film vs ECLIPSE were 82.8%, 70.9% and 87.6% respectively when 3% - 3mm criteria is used. When the criteria is changed to 5% - 5mm, the passing rates became 87.8%, 76.3% and 90.8% respectively. For 3D analysis, Anatomy vs ECLIPSE showed gamma passing rate of 86.4% and 93.3% for 3% - 3mm and 5% - 5mm respectively. The rate is 77.0% for Presage vs ECLIPSE analysis. The Anatomy vs ECLIPSE were absolute dose comparison. However, film and Presage analysis were relative comparison Conclusion: The results show higher passing rate in 3D than 2D in “Anatomy” software. This could be due to the higher degrees of freedom in 3D than in 2D for gamma analysis.

  15. Is there a divergence between objective measures and subjective perceptions of poverty trends? Evidence from West and Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Wodon, Quentin

    2007-01-01

    Several sub-Saharan African countries have succeeded at increasing their economic growth rate in recent years, and this has translated into substantial poverty reduction according to objective measures based on household survey data. At the same time, many people do not feel that the poverty situation has been improving in their country or community, and this is a source of concern for ele...

  16. Measurement of 238U, 232Th and 40K in boreholes at Gosa and Lugbe, Abuja, north central Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate the suitability of different sites as locations for obtaining underground water for consumption. The analysis of 238U, 232Th and 40K from rock samples from each layer of borehole at a depth of ∼50 m at Site A borehole, S3L1-S3L6 in Gosa and 40 m at Site B borehole, S4L1-S4L5 in Lugbe, Abuja, north central Nigeria is presented. The gamma-ray spectrometry was carried out using a high-purity germanium detector coupled to a computer-based high-resolution multichannel analyzer. The activity concentrations at Site A borehole for 238U have a mean value of 26±3, ranging from 23±2 to 30±3 Bq kg-1, 232Th a mean value of 63±5, ranging from 48±4 to 76±6 Bq kg-1 and 40K a mean value of 573±72, ranging from 437±56 to 821±60 Bq kg-1. The activity concentrations at Site B borehole for 238U have a mean value of 20±2, ranging from 16±2 to 23±2 Bq kg-1, 232Th a mean value of 46±4, ranging from 43±4 to 49±4 Bq kg-1, 40K a mean value of 915±116 and ranging from 817±103 Bq kg-1 to 1011±128 Bq kg-1. It is noted that the higher activity concentrations of 232Th and 238U are found in Site A at Gosa. Site B has lower radioactivity, and it is recommended that both sites are suitable for underground water consumption. (authors)

  17. Field based measurements of albedo for two candidate perennial cellulosic feedstocks and row crops in Central Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. N.; VanLoocke, A.; Bernacchi, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    The production of perennial cellulosic feedstocks for bioenergy present the potential to diversify regional economies and the national energy supply, while also serving as a climate 'regulators' due to a number of biogeochemical and biophysical differences relative to row crops. Numerous observationally and modeling based approaches, including life cycle analyses have investigated biogeochemical tradeoffs, such as increased carbon sequestration and biophysical increased water use, associated with growing cellulosic feedstocks. A less understood aspect is the biophysical changes associated with the difference in albedo, which will alter the local energy balance and could cause a local to regional cooling several times larger than that associated with offsetting carbon. To address this factor an experiment consisting of paired fields of Miscanthus and Switchgrass, two of the leading perennial cellulosic feedstock candidates, and traditional row crops was established in central Illinois. Data from the first two growing seasons indicate that this effect is most pronounced during the spring and fall as perennial biofuel crops green up earlier and senesce later than common annual row crops. The albedo of the perennials converges to that of the row crops during the growing season as the canopies develop. During the early winter, before the perennial crops are harvested, the albedo over fallow soybean and maize fields can vary greatly depending on snowfall and, to a lesser extent, soil moisture, whereas perennials show less variation. Thus, perennial biofuel crops also have the potential to buffer the local environment against short-term variations in climate. These factors should be considered when evaluating the tradeoffs and climate-regulation services associated with large-scale planting of bioenergy crops.

  18. Assessing the Impact of Central Appalachian Tree Species on Canopy Albedo via Measurement of Leaf Angles from Repeated Ground-based, Drone, and Hemispherical Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, B. E.; Erazo, D.; Heimerl, T.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite measurements of forest albedo are directly used in climate models, and could be used in models of the C and N cycles if we more fully understood the mechanism causing a strong correlation of forest albedo with canopy N and C assimilation. One attractive mechanism posits that tree species have evolved convergent leaf and canopy traits. While the leaf traits of tree species are known to drive variability in canopy N and C assimilation, linking tree species to variability in albedo is challenging because of the difficulty in measuring important canopy traits like leaf angle. To refine techniques for measuring leaf angle, and test the hypothesis that high albedo in the central Appalachians could be linked to the abundance of species with canopy traits of more horizontal leaf angles, we conducted four tests with ground-based, drone, and hemispherical photographs. First, we used a leveled camera on a steep slope to repeatedly, and directly measure the leaf angle of over 400 leaves within the canopies of oak, maple, and beech trees. Across all 21 repetitions (3 times a day on 7 dates between May and July), we observed consistent species differences in mean leaf angle (MLA), with maple always being the most horizontal (MLA = 14-18°) and oak the most vertical (MLA = 19-28°). Second, we again found highly significant species differences in MLA when we used a hexacopter drone with a camera on a self-leveling gimbal to make over 1020 direct measurements of leaf angle from six tree species in three broadleaf deciduous forest plots. Third, to measure MLA of a whole multi-species canopy, we compared a species abundance-weighted plot average of the drone-measured MLA values with an indirect, ground-based hemispherical photograph method. The strong agreement of these direct and indirect plot-level methods finally led us to compare a broader set of 61 plot-level hemispherical photo MLA measurements with canopy albedo measured by AVIRIS in broadleaf deciduous forests. In

  19. Human Vitamin B12 Absorption and Metabolism are Measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Using Specifically Labeled 14C-Cobalamin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carkeet, C; Dueker, S R; Lango, J; Buchholz, B A; Miller, J W; Green, R; Hammock, B D; Roth, J R; Anderson, P J

    2006-01-26

    There is need for an improved test of human ability to assimilate dietary vitamin B{sub 12}. Assaying and understanding absorption and uptake of B{sub 12} is important because defects can lead to hematological and neurological complications. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is uniquely suited for assessing absorption and kinetics of {sup 14}C-labeled substances after oral ingestion because it is more sensitive than decay counting and can measure levels of carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) in microliter volumes of biological samples, with negligible exposure of subjects to radioactivity. The test we describe employs amounts of B{sub 12} in the range of normal dietary intake. The B{sub 12} used was quantitatively labeled with {sup 14}C at one particular atom of the DMB moiety by exploiting idiosyncrasies of Salmonellametabolism. In order to grow aerobically on ethanolamine, S. entericamust be provided with either pre-formed B{sub 12} or two of its precursors: cobinamide and dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). When provided with {sup 14}C-DMB specifically labeled in the C2 position, cells produced {sup 14}C-B{sub 12} of high specific activity (2.1 GBq/mmol, 58 mCi/mmol) and no detectable dilution of label from endogenous DMB synthesis. In a human kinetic study, a physiological dose (1.5 mg, 2.2 KBq/59 nCi) of purified {sup 14}C-B{sub 12} was administered and showed plasma appearance and clearance curves consistent with the predicted behavior of the pure vitamin. This method opens new avenues for study of B{sub 12} assimilation.

  20. Measuring patient experiences in Fabry disease: validation of the Fabry-specific Pediatric Health and Pain Questionnaire (FPHPQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaswami Uma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Common symptoms for children with Anderson-Fabry Disease (FD such as acroparaesthesia and gastrointestinal manifestations can only be objectively assessed in patients using a valid instrument. To date, no such instrument exists. Methods A preliminary 40-item measure of symptoms and experience with FD, the Fabry-specific Paediatric Health and Pain Questionnaire (FPHPQ was developed, but lacked a formal assessment of its measurement properties. The FPHPQ was used in the Fabry Outcome Survey (FOS, a registry for all patients with a confirmed diagnosis of FD who are receiving agalsidase alfa, or are treatment naïve and who are managed by physicians participating in FOS. After an item analysis to explore how items performed and combined into domains, a battery of psychometric analyses was performed to assess the measurement properties of this new instrument. Results Eighty-seven children (ages 4-18 years completed the questionnaire. Twenty-three items in three subscales of the questionnaire emerged: pain associated with heat or exertion, pain associated with cold, and abdominal pain and fatigue symptoms. Internal consistency reliability for all three subscales was good (Cronbach alpha ≥ 0.84. Reliability was equally high for all age groups (4-7, 8-12, and 13-18. Test-retest reliability was high for all three subscales (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ 0.74. Construct validity was demonstrated by moderate correlation with brief pain inventory (BPI, KINDL, and EQ-5D. Known group validity showed all subscales were able to discriminate between Fabry disease severity groups as classified by above or below median of the FOS MSSI (Mainz Severity Score Index grade. The heat or exertion subscale was responsive to change in symptoms between responders and non-responders as defined by change in EQ-5D index scores between the first and second visit. Conclusions Preliminary results indicate that the measurement properties

  1. Centralizing and decentralizing the system for unifying measurements on ionizing-radiation characteristics (medium-energy photon and charged-particle radiometry and spectrometry)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing-radiation applications have gradually defined the physical quantities needed to describe radiation sources, radiation as such, and interactions with matter. The optimum unit system has not yet been defined, since new regularities appear during research on the interactions of radiation with matter, and new relationships are being discovered between the radiation characteristics and the observed effects. There are 13 state primary standards in the measurement of ionizing radiation. Several of the standards reproduce the same unit but for different forms of radiation, while special standards reproduce units under special conditions. The present article discusses the various approaches to centralizing and decentralizing systems of supporting unified measurements for various ionizing-radiation characteristics. The three basic physical quantities used to characterize radioactive sources -- radionuclide activity, external particle emission, and particle energy -- are addressed separately. 10 refs

  2. Comparative measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes from two nearby towers in a central Amazonian rainforest: the Manaus LBA site

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, A. C.; Nobre, A. D.; Kruijt, B.; Elbers, J.A.; Dallarosa, R.; Stefani, P.; Randow, von, C.; A. O. Manzi; Culf, A. D.; J. H. C. Gash; Valentini, R.; P. Kabat

    2002-01-01

    Forests around Manaus have staged the oldest and the longest forest-atmosphere CO2 exchange studies made anywhere in the Amazon. Since July 1999 the exchange of CO2, water, and energy, as well as weather variables, have been measured almost continuously over two forests, 11 km apart, in the Cuieiras reserve near Manaus, Brazil. This paper presents the sites and climatology of the region based upon the new data sets. The landscape consists of plateaus dissected by often waterlogged valleys, an...

  3. Measurement of central wavelength and spectral width of the Ni-like silver x-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have conducted high precision measurements of the wavelength of a 4d 1S0 → 4p1P1 line of the nickel-like silver x-ray laser. The Lyman series lines of hydrogen-like helium ions emitted from low density plasmas have been used for the wavelength references, and the wavelength of the x-ray laser line is determined to be 13.887nm (±0.002nm). (author)

  4. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Measurements Using a NT-530P Noncontact Tono/Pachymeter and Correlation of Central Corneal Thickness with Intraocular Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Kazutaka; Fujiwara, Kazuko; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the repeatability and reproducibility of intraocular pressure (IOP) and central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements using a noncontact tono/pachymeter (NT-530P) and to assess the correlation of CCT with IOP. Methods. Forty-six eyes of healthy volunteers were measured by two examiners. Three consecutive measurements per eye were performed. Repeatability was assessed using the coefficient of variation, and reproducibility was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. Linear correlations were used to determine agreement between CCT and noncorrected IOP and CCT and corrected IOP, which was calculated using a formula built into the NT-530P. Results. The coefficient of variation for IOP was 6.4% and for CCT was 0.4%. The 95% limits of agreement between examiners were −0.17 ± 1.42 mmHg (range: −2.95 to 2.61 mmHg) for IOP, −0.93 ± 4.37 μm (range: −9.50 to 7.64 μm) for CCT. The corrected IOP was significantly higher than the noncorrected IOP (P = 0.010.3). The noncorrected IOP significantly correlated with CCT (r = −0.4883, P = 0.0006). The corrected IOP showed no significant correlation with CCT (r = −0.0285, P = 0.8509). Conclusions. NT-530P offered repeatability and reproducibility in both IOP and CCT measurements. The corrected IOP calculated using the NT-530P was independent of the CCT, suggesting that this IOP may be less influenced by the central corneal thickness. PMID:24222904

  5. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Measurements Using a NT-530P Noncontact Tono/Pachymeter and Correlation of Central Corneal Thickness with Intraocular Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusako Fujimura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the repeatability and reproducibility of intraocular pressure (IOP and central corneal thickness (CCT measurements using a noncontact tono/pachymeter (NT-530P and to assess the correlation of CCT with IOP. Methods. Forty-six eyes of healthy volunteers were measured by two examiners. Three consecutive measurements per eye were performed. Repeatability was assessed using the coefficient of variation, and reproducibility was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. Linear correlations were used to determine agreement between CCT and noncorrected IOP and CCT and corrected IOP, which was calculated using a formula built into the NT-530P. Results. The coefficient of variation for IOP was 6.4% and for CCT was 0.4%. The 95% limits of agreement between examiners were −0.17±1.42 mmHg (range: −2.95 to 2.61 mmHg for IOP, −0.93±4.37 μm (range: −9.50 to 7.64 μm for CCT. The corrected IOP was significantly higher than the noncorrected IOP (P=0.010.3. The noncorrected IOP significantly correlated with CCT (r=−0.4883, P=0.0006. The corrected IOP showed no significant correlation with CCT (r=−0.0285, P=0.8509. Conclusions. NT-530P offered repeatability and reproducibility in both IOP and CCT measurements. The corrected IOP calculated using the NT-530P was independent of the CCT, suggesting that this IOP may be less influenced by the central corneal thickness.

  6. Methodology and calibration for continuous measurements of biogeochemical trace gas and O2 concentrations from a 300-m tall tower in central Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Kozlova

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available We present an integrated system for measuring atmospheric concentrations of CO2, O2, CH4, CO, and N2O in central Siberia. Our project aims to demonstrate the feasibility of establishing long-term, continuous, high precision atmospheric measurements to elucidate greenhouse gas processes from a very remote, mid-continental boreal environment. Air is sampled from five heights on a custom-built 300-m tower. Common features to all species' measurements include air intakes, an air drying system, flushing procedures, and data processing methods. Calibration standards are shared among all five measured species by extending and optimising a proven methodology for long-term O2 calibration. Our system achieves the precision and accuracy requirements specified by the European Union's "CarboEurope" and "ICOS" (Integrated Carbon Observing System programmes in the case of CO2, O2, and CH4, while CO and N2O require some further improvements. It was found that it is not possible to achieve these high precision measurements without skilled technical assistance on-site, primarily because of 2–3 month delays in access to data and diagnostic information. We present results on the stability of reference standards in high pressure cylinders. It was also found that some previous methods do not mitigate fractionation of O2 in a sample airstream to a satisfactory level.

  7. Methodology and calibration for continuous measurements of biogeochemical trace gas and O2 concentrations from a 300-m tall tower in central Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Seifert

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We present an integrated system for measuring atmospheric concentrations of CO2, O2, CH4, CO, and N2O in central Siberia. Our project aims to demonstrate the feasibility of establishing long-term, continuous, high precision atmospheric measurements to elucidate greenhouse gas processes from a very remote mid-continental boreal environment. Air is sampled from five heights on a custom-built 300-m tower. Common features to all species' measurements include air intakes, an air drying system, flushing procedures, and data processing methods. Calibration standards are shared among all five measured species as a result of extending and optimising a proven methodology for long-term O2 calibration. Our system achieves the precision and accuracy requirements specified by the European Union's "CarboEurope" and "ICOS" (Integrated Carbon Observing System programmes in the case of CO2, O2, and CH4, while CO and N2O require some further improvements. We found that it is not possible to achieve these high precision measurements without skilled technical assistance on-site, primarily because of 2–3 month delays in access to data and diagnostic information. We present results on the stability of reference standards in high pressure cylinders. We also found that some previous methods do not mitigate fractionation of O2 in a sample airstream to a satisfactory level.

  8. Alternating current calorimeter for specific heat capacity measurements at temperatures below 10 K and pressures up to 10 GPa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeo, Kazunori

    2016-06-01

    A developed alternating current calorimeter for measuring the absolute value of specific heat C of a very small sample under a pressure up to 10 GPa and low temperature below 10 K is described. A Bridgman anvil cell made of tungsten carbide with a top diameter of 3 mm is used. A hollow at the top prevents expansion of the sample space over the anvil top. Two chip resistors, which act as a thermometer and a heater, are mounted on the outer part of a copper-beryllium gasket with a frying pan-like shape. Thus, the thermometer is not pressurized. In order to isolate the gasket from the anvil thermally, diamond powder with a grain size of 0.25 μm is placed on the anvil top. Two jumps of C at the superconducting transitions of Pb (3.3 mg) and In (5.0 mg) are observed under various pressures up to 9 GPa, as clearly as those at the ambient pressure. PMID:27370464

  9. Comparison of a citation-based indicator and peer review for absolute and specific measures of research-group excellence

    CERN Document Server

    Mryglod, O; Holovatch, Yu; Berche, B

    2013-01-01

    Many different measures are used to assess academic research excellence and these are subject to ongoing discussion and debate within the scientometric, university-management and policy-making communities internationally. One topic of continued importance is the extent to which citation-based indicators compare with peer-review-based evaluation. Here we analyse the correlations between values of a particular citation-based impact indicator and peer-review scores in several academic disciplines, from natural to social sciences and humanities. We perform the comparison for research groups rather than for individuals. We make comparisons on two levels. At an absolute level, we compare total impact and overall strength of the group as a whole. At a specific level, we compare academic impact and quality, normalised by the size of the group. We find very high correlations at the former level for some disciplines and poor correlations at the latter level for all disciplines. This means that, although the citation-ba...

  10. Alternating current calorimeter for specific heat capacity measurements at temperatures below 10 K and pressures up to 10 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeo, Kazunori

    2016-06-01

    A developed alternating current calorimeter for measuring the absolute value of specific heat C of a very small sample under a pressure up to 10 GPa and low temperature below 10 K is described. A Bridgman anvil cell made of tungsten carbide with a top diameter of 3 mm is used. A hollow at the top prevents expansion of the sample space over the anvil top. Two chip resistors, which act as a thermometer and a heater, are mounted on the outer part of a copper-beryllium gasket with a frying pan-like shape. Thus, the thermometer is not pressurized. In order to isolate the gasket from the anvil thermally, diamond powder with a grain size of 0.25 μm is placed on the anvil top. Two jumps of C at the superconducting transitions of Pb (3.3 mg) and In (5.0 mg) are observed under various pressures up to 9 GPa, as clearly as those at the ambient pressure.

  11. A measurement-specific quality-of-life satisfaction during premenopause, perimenopause and postmenopause in Arabian Qatari women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to use an instrument, the menopause-specific quality-of-life satisfaction in the state of Qatar for the premenopausal, menopause and postmenopausal period.Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study was used to generate menopause symptoms experienced by Arabian Gulf women. Measurement-specific quality-of-life satisfaction questionnaires and face-to-face interviews were performed.Setting: Primary Health Care (PHC Centers in Qatar.Materials and Methods: A multistage sampling design was used and a representative sample of 1,500 women aged 40-60 years were included during July 2012 and November 2013, and 1,158 women agreed to participate (77.2% and responded to the study.Results: The mean age and standard deviation of the subjects was 50.9 ± 6.1. The median age of natural menopause in the present study was 49 years [mean and standard deviation 49.9 ± 2.7]. The rate of consanguineous marriages in the sample was found to be 30.3%. There were statistically significance differences between menopausal stages with regard to ethnicity, education level, occupation, type of housing condition, and consanguinity. There were statistically significance differences between menopausal stages concerning BMI groups, Systolic BP, Diastolic BP, physical activity, parity, and sheesha smoking habits. Meanwhile, the present study revealed that the most common disease was found to be diabetes mellitus (11.4%, followed by hypertension (6.6%, asthma (5.6% and CHD (2.5%, and the majority of subjects (69.5% had no specific disease. The most frequent symptom was "aches in the back and neck" (49.2%, night sweat (37.2%, low backache (35.7%, feeling nervous (35.4% followed by "aches in the muscles/joints" (34.6%, hot flashes (33.3%, decreased social activities (28.3%, decreased leisure activities (47.6%, difficulty sleeping (28.9%, mood swings (25.4%, and decreased concentration (28.3%, sexual activity (24.1% and total energy level (26

  12. Comparison of the measured specific activities of cesium in mushrooms, pine tree twigs, blueberries, honey and game in Aachen after 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl the specific activity in mushrooms originating from the region of Aachen was continuously measured until today. At the same time the specific activity was determined in pine tree twigs, blueberries, honey and game. There is a strong connection of the living organisms and the inanimate environment within the forest ecosystem. The decrease of the specific caesium activity in living organisms is slower than in the other environment. (orig.)

  13. PREVALENCE OF PREHYPERTENSION AND HYPERTENSION AND ITS CORRELATION WITH ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS IN MEDICAL STUDENTS OF CENTRAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a growing health problem in Asia, while most studies describe hypertension in older adults and elderly there is paucity of data on hypertension in teenagers and young adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted from Dec 2013 to Jan 2014 in Chirayu medical College and Hospital. A total of 300 students were included in the study those who volunteered for participation. Hypertension was diagnosed based on drug treatment for hypertension or if the blood pressure was greater than 140/90 mmHg – Joint National Committee 7 (JNC VII Criteria.8 Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, waist and hip measurements were obtained using standardized techniques. RESULTS: Out of total 300 subjects 128(42.6% were prehypertensives, 20 (6.66% had stage I hypertension and 04 (1.3% had stage II hypertension. Out of total 300 subjects 40 (13.3% subjects had BMI < 18.5, 168 (56% had BMI between 18.5 and 23.9, 38 (12.6% had BMI between 24- 26.9 and 54 (18% had BMI ≥27. CONCLUSION: Overweight and obesity are a major health hazard all over the world and are becoming a major health threat among both the sexes and all age groups. Substantial proportions of young adult medical students are prehypertensives, overweight and obese. Our results highlight the necessity to institute effective prevention and health promotion programs targeting younger age groups.

  14. Role of skin prick test and serological measurement of specific IgE in the diagnosis of occupational asthma resulting from exposure to vinyl sulphone reactive dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Park, J.; Kim, C.; Kim, K; Choi, S.; Kang, D.; S. Ko; Won, J; Yang, J; Hong, C

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Some patients with occupational asthma resulting from exposure to reactive dyes have skin reactivity to the causative dyes and specific IgE to reactive dyes have been found in these patients. However, the usefulness of skin prick tests (SPTs) and serological measurement of specific IgE in screening, diagnosis, and monitoring the occupational asthma resulting from exposure to reactive dyes have not yet been assessed. In this study, the clinical validation of SPTs and measurement of ...

  15. Measurements of intestinal villi non-specific and ulcer-associated duodenitis-correlation between area of microdissected villus and villus epithelial cell count.

    OpenAIRE

    M. Hasan; Ferguson, A.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of villus height, villus area, together with counts of epithelial cells in individual villi, were performed on endoscopic duodenal biopsies from five groups of patients: controls, ulcer-associated duodenitis, mild and severe non-specific (non-ulcerative) duodenitis, cimetidine healed ulcer-associated duodenitis and cimetidine healed non-specific duodenitis. The objectives of the study were two-fold: to establish if epithelial cell count correlated with simpler measurements of vil...

  16. The use of patient-specific measurement instruments in the process of goal-setting: a systematic review of available instruments and their feasibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, A.; Beurskens, A.; Koke, A.; Weijden, T.T. van der

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the currently available patient-specific measurement instruments used in the process of goal-setting and to assess their feasibility. METHODS: After a systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO and REHABDATA, patient-specific instruments w

  17. Fifth research coordination meeting on the measurement and evaluation of transactinium isotope nuclear data. Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements, Geel, Belgium, 1-3 September 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of the fifth meeting of the participants in the IAEA Coordinated Research Programme to measure and evaluate the required nuclear decay data of heavy element radionuclides, convened by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section on 1-3 September 1982 at CBNM, Geel, Belgium. The meeting participants reviewed the data requirements, updated and extended the recommended list of half-lives, and continued to review the status of alpha and gamma radiation spectra emitted in the decay of transactinium isotopes. (author)

  18. Agreement between amoA Gene-Specific Quantitative PCR and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization in the Measurement of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria in Activated Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, J. D. C.; Lunn, M.; Davenport, R. J.; Swan, D. L.; Read, L. F.; Brown, M.R.; Morais, C.; Curtis, T.P.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial abundance is central to most investigations in microbial ecology, and its accurate measurement is a challenging task that has been significantly facilitated by the advent of molecular techniques over the last 20 years. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is considered the gold standard of quantification techniques; however, it is expensive and offers low sample throughput, both of which limit its wider application. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is an alternative that offers signific...

  19. Measurement of the enthalpy and specific heat of a Be2C-graphite-UC2 reactor fuel material to 19800K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enthalpy and specific heat of a Be2C-graphite-UC2 composite nuclear fuel material were measured over the temperature range 300 to 19800K using differential scanning calorimetry and liquid argon vaporization calorimetry. The fuel material measured was developed at Sandia National Laboratories for use in pulsed test reactors. The material is a hot-pressed composite consisting of 40 vol % Be2C, 49.5 vol % graphite, 3.5 vol % UC2 and 7.0 vol % void. The specific heat was measured with the differential scanning calorimeter over the temperature range 300 to 9500K while the enthalpy was measured over the range 1185 to 19800K with the liquid argon vaporization calorimeter. The normal spectral emittance at a wavelength of 6.5 x 10-5 cm was measured