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Sample records for central waste complex

  1. Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge

  2. Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source special nuclear and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this document. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge. This document has been revised to meet the interim status waste analysis plan requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173 303-300(5). When the final status permit is issued, permit conditions will be incorporated and this document will be revised accordingly

  3. Central waste complex interim safety basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This interim safety basis provides the necessary information to conclude that hazards at the Central Waste Complex are controlled and that current and planned activities at the CWC can be conducted safely. CWC is a multi-facility complex within the Solid Waste Management Complex that receives and stores most of the solid wastes generated and received at the Hanford Site. The solid wastes that will be handled at CWC include both currently stored and newly generated low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, contact-handled transuranic, and contact-handled TRU mixed waste

  4. Central waste complex interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, F.G.

    1995-05-15

    This interim safety basis provides the necessary information to conclude that hazards at the Central Waste Complex are controlled and that current and planned activities at the CWC can be conducted safely. CWC is a multi-facility complex within the Solid Waste Management Complex that receives and stores most of the solid wastes generated and received at the Hanford Site. The solid wastes that will be handled at CWC include both currently stored and newly generated low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, contact-handled transuranic, and contact-handled TRU mixed waste.

  5. Solid Waste Burial Grounds/Central Waste Complex hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning Activities for Solid Waste Burial Grounds/Central Waste Complex on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE Order 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is documented

  6. Central Waste Complex (CWC) essential/support drawing list

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WHITLOCK, R.W.

    1999-02-23

    Essential and supporting engineering drawings for the Central Waste Complex (CWC) are identified in this document. The purpose of the document is to describe the criteria used to identify drawings and the plan for updating and maintaining their accuracy. This document supports HNF-PRO-242 and HNF-PRO-440.

  7. Central Waste Complex (CWC) essential/support drawing list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essential and supporting engineering drawings for the Central Waste Complex (CWC) are identified in this document. The purpose of the document is to describe the criteria used to identify drawings and the plan for updating and maintaining their accuracy. This document supports HNF-PRO-242 and HNF-PRO-440

  8. Solid Waste Burial Ground Central Waste Complex (CWC) Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders require that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to support emergency planning activities. The Hazard Assessment establishes the technical basis for the Emergency Action Levels (EALs) and the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ). This document represents the facility-specific hazards assessment for the Hanford Site Solid Waste Storage and Disposal (SWSD) organization as interpreted from DOE guidance (DOE 1992)

  9. Environmental assessment: Solid waste retrieval complex, enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage facility, infrastructure upgrades, and central waste support complex, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to take action to: retrieve transuranic (TRU) waste because interim storage waste containers have exceeded their 20-year design life and could fail causing a radioactive release to the environment provide storage capacity for retrieved and newly generated TRU, Greater-than-Category 3 (GTC3), and mixed waste before treatment and/or shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP); and upgrade the infrastructure network in the 200 West Area to enhance operational efficiencies and reduce the cost of operating the Solid Waste Operations Complex. This proposed action would initiate the retrieval activities (Retrieval) from Trench 4C-T04 in the 200 West Area including the construction of support facilities necessary to carry out the retrieval operations. In addition, the proposed action includes the construction and operation of a facility (Enhanced Radioactive Mixed Waste Storage Facility) in the 200 West Area to store newly generated and the retrieved waste while it awaits shipment to a final disposal site. Also, Infrastructure Upgrades and a Central Waste Support Complex are necessary to support the Hanford Site's centralized waste management area in the 200 West Area. The proposed action also includes mitigation for the loss of priority shrub-steppe habitat resulting from construction. The estimated total cost of the proposed action is $66 million

  10. Phase V storage (Project W-112) Central Waste Complex operational readiness review, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the final report for the RFSH conducted, Contractor Operational Readiness Review (ORR) for the Central Waste Complex (CWC) Project W-112 and Interim Safety Basis implementation. As appendices, all findings, observations, lines of inquiry and the implementation plan are included

  11. Phase 5 storage (Project W-112) Central Waste Complex operational readiness review, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wight, R.H.

    1997-05-30

    This document is the final report for the RFSH conducted, Contractor Operational Readiness Review (ORR) for the Central Waste Complex (CWC) Project W-112 and Interim Safety Basis implementation. As appendices, all findings, observations, lines of inquiry and the implementation plan are included.

  12. Nonradioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) Application for the Central Waste Complex (CSC) for Storage of Vented Waste Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KAMBERG, L.D.

    2000-04-01

    This Notice of Construction (NOC) application is submitted for the storage and management of waste containers at the Central Waste Complex (CWC) stationary source. The CWC stationary source consists of multiple sources of diffuse and fugitive emissions, as described herein. This NOC is submitted in accordance with the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-400-110 (criteria pollutants) and 173-460-040 (toxic air pollutants), and pursuant to guidance provided by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). Transuranic (TRU) mixed waste containers at CWC are vented to preclude the build up of hydrogen produced as a result of radionuclide decay, not as safety pressure releases. The following activities are conducted within the CWC stationary source: Storage and inspection; Transfer and staging; Packaging; Treatment; and Sampling. This NOC application is intended to cover all existing storage structures within the current CWC treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) boundary, as well as any storage structures, including waste storage pads and staging areas, that might be constructed in the future within the existing CWC boundary.

  13. Nonradioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) Application for the Central Waste Complex (CSC) for Storage of Vented Waste Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Notice of Construction (NOC) application is submitted for the storage and management of waste containers at the Central Waste Complex (CWC) stationary source. The CWC stationary source consists of multiple sources of diffuse and fugitive emissions, as described herein. This NOC is submitted in accordance with the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-400-110 (criteria pollutants) and 173-460-040 (toxic air pollutants), and pursuant to guidance provided by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). Transuranic (TRU) mixed waste containers at CWC are vented to preclude the build up of hydrogen produced as a result of radionuclide decay, not as safety pressure releases. The following activities are conducted within the CWC stationary source: Storage and inspection; Transfer and staging; Packaging; Treatment; and Sampling. This NOC application is intended to cover all existing storage structures within the current CWC treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) boundary, as well as any storage structures, including waste storage pads and staging areas, that might be constructed in the future within the existing CWC boundary

  14. X/Qs and unit dose calculations for Central Waste Complex interim safety basis effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective for this problem is to calculate the ground-level release dispersion factors (X/Q) and unit doses for onsite facility and offsite receptors at the site boundary and at Highway 240 for plume meander, building wake effect, plume rise, and the combined effect. The release location is at Central Waste Complex Building P4 in the 200 West Area. The onsite facility is located at Building P7. Acute ground level release 99.5 percentile dispersion factors (X/Q) were generated using the GXQ. The unit doses were calculated using the GENII code. The dimensions of Building P4 are 15 m in W x 24 m in L x 6 m in H

  15. Hanford facility dangerous waste Part A, Form 3 and Part B permit application documentation, Central Waste Complex (WA7890008967)(TSD: TS-2-4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saueressig, D.G.

    1998-05-20

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the Central Waste Complex (this document, DOE/RL-91-17). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needed by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the Central Waste Complex permit application documentation, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents section. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the Central Waste Complex permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. Information provided in this Central Waste Complex permit application documentation is current as of May 1998.

  16. Hanford facility dangerous waste Part A, Form 3, and Part B permit application documentation for the Central Waste Complex (WA7890008967) (TSD: TS-2-4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the Central Waste Complex (this document, DOE/RL-91-17). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needed by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the Central Waste Complex permit application documentation, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents section. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the Central Waste Complex permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. Information provided in this Central Waste Complex permit application documentation is current as of May 1998

  17. Interface Control Document Between the Tank Farm System and the Central Waste Complex (CWC) or the Low-Level Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Interface Control Document (ICD) describes the interface between the Tank Farm System and the Central Waste Complex (CWC) or the Low-Level Burial Ground (LLBG). The Tank Farm System generates solid waste during operations. These facilities do not have a direct physical interface since the waste will be moved by truck to the CWC or LLBG. The purpose of the ICD process is to formalize working agreements between the River Protection Project (RPP) Tank Farm System and organization/companies internal and external to RPP. This ICD has been developed as part of the requirements basis for design of the DST System to support the Phase I Privatization effort. The signatures on the cover page of this document indicate agreement between the parties that this document reflects the current technical baseline for each system and that the requirements contained in this document will not be revised without the agreement of all parties

  18. Centralized collection of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard based upon TGL-190-921/05 applies to spent sealed sources of the waste category A3 and the radiation protection groups S1 to S4. The following items are specified: (1) requirements concerning the form and properties of the waste (permitted composition, unpermitted components, type of packaging, maximum weight per package/container), (2) technical conditions for connecting technical means of collection (lifting devices, traffic connections) with customer, and (3) tasks in handing/taking over the waste in relation to waste type (controls, operation of facilities, decontamination, transport documents)

  19. Cadmium complexation by solid waste leachates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu Ze Lun; Christensen, Thomas H.

    1989-01-01

    A previously reported method for determination of Cd species in solid waste leachates has been applied to ten leachate samples representing five different types of solid waste: refuse compost, flyash from coal combustion, sewage sludge, refuse incineration residues and landfilled municipal waste...... complexes, slowly labile complexes and stable complexes. Leachates originating from the same type of solid waste showed different fractions of Cd, in particular with respect to free divalent Cd and stable Cd complexes. Only coal flyash showed almost identical fractions of Cd in the two leachates. The latter...

  20. From Centrality to Temporary Fame: Dynamic Centrality in Complex Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Braha, Dan; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2006-01-01

    We develop a new approach to the study of the dynamics of link utilization in complex networks using records of communication in a large social network. Counter to the perspective that nodes have particular roles, we find roles change dramatically from day to day. "Local hubs" have a power law degree distribution over time, with no characteristic degree value. Our results imply a significant reinterpretation of the concept of node centrality in complex networks, and among other conclusions su...

  1. Cadmium complexation by solid waste leachates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu Ze Lun; Christensen, Thomas H.

    1989-01-01

    A previously reported method for determination of Cd species in solid waste leachates has been applied to ten leachate samples representing five different types of solid waste: refuse compost, flyash from coal combustion, sewage sludge, refuse incineration residues and landfilled municipal waste...... complexes, slowly labile complexes and stable complexes. Leachates originating from the same type of solid waste showed different fractions of Cd, in particular with respect to free divalent Cd and stable Cd complexes. Only coal flyash showed almost identical fractions of Cd in the two leachates. The latter....... The leachates were spiked with Cd (<100 μg Cd 1−1) to obtain comparable concentrations in the investigated samples. For each sample, at two different Cd concentrations, free divalent Cd and complexed Cd were determined. Furthermore, the complexed fraction was operationally separated into labile...

  2. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN TABRIZ PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Abduli, M. Abbasi, T. Nasrabadi, H. Hoveidi, N. Razmkhah

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Tabriz petrochemical complex is located in the northwest of Iran. Major products of this industry include raw plastics like, polyethylene, polystyrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene, etc. Sources of waste generation include service units, health and cure units, water, power, steam and industrial processes units. In this study, different types of solid waste including hazardous and non hazardous solid wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management of the industrial wastes in order to minimize the adverse environmental impacts. In the first stage, locating map and dispersion limits were prepared. Then, the types and amounts of industrial waste generated in were evaluated by an inventory and inspection. Wastes were classified according to Environmental Protection Agency and Basel Standards and subsequently hazards of different types were investigated. The waste management of TPC is quite complex because of the different types of waste and their pollution. In some cases recycling/reuse of waste is the best option, but treatment and disposal are also necessary tools. In this study, using different sources and references, generally petrochemical sources, various solid waste management practices were investigated and the best options were selected. Some wastes should be treated before land filling and some of them should be reused or recycled. In the case of solid waste optimization, source reduction ways were recommended as well as prior incineration system was modified.

  3. From Centrality to Temporary Fame: Dynamic Centrality in Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Braha, D; Braha, Dan; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2006-01-01

    We develop a new approach to the study of the dynamics of link utilization in complex networks using records of communication in a large social network. Counter to the perspective that nodes have particular roles, we find roles change dramatically from day to day. "Local hubs" have a power law degree distribution over time, with no characteristic degree value. Our results imply a significant reinterpretation of the concept of node centrality in complex networks, and among other conclusions suggest that interventions targeting hubs will have significantly less effect than previously thought.

  4. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN TABRIZ PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Abduli, M. Abbasi, T. Nasrabadi, H. Hoveidi, N. Razmkhah

    2006-01-01

    Tabriz petrochemical complex is located in the northwest of Iran. Major products of this industry include raw plastics like, polyethylene, polystyrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene, etc. Sources of waste generation include service units, health and cure units, water, power, steam and industrial processes units. In this study, different types of solid waste including hazardous and non hazardous solid wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management ...

  5. MOBILE COMPLEX FOR CATALYTIC THERMAL WASTE TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Vedi V.E.; Rovenskii A.I.

    2012-01-01

    The design and purpose of the basic units of the mobile waste processing complex “MPK” are described. Experimental data of catalytic purification of exhaust gases are presented. Experimental data on catalytic clearing of final gases of a designed mobile incinerator plant are shown. It is defined, that concentrating of parasitic bridging in waste gases of the complex are considerably smaller, rather than allowed by normative documents.

  6. MOBILE COMPLEX FOR CATALYTIC THERMAL WASTE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedi V.E.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The design and purpose of the basic units of the mobile waste processing complex “MPK” are described. Experimental data of catalytic purification of exhaust gases are presented. Experimental data on catalytic clearing of final gases of a designed mobile incinerator plant are shown. It is defined, that concentrating of parasitic bridging in waste gases of the complex are considerably smaller, rather than allowed by normative documents.

  7. DOE complex buried waste characterization assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaae, P.S.; Holter, G.M.; Garrett, S.M.K.

    1993-01-01

    The work described in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide information to the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. The information in this report is intended to provide a complex-wide planning base for th.e BWID to ensure that BWID activities are appropriately focused to address the range of remediation problems existing across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report contains information characterizing the 2.1 million m[sup 3] of buried and stored wastes and their associated sites at six major DOE facilities. Approximately 85% of this waste is low-level waste, with about 12% TRU or TRU mixed waste; the remaining 3% is low-level mixed waste. In addition, the report describes soil contamination sites across the complex. Some of the details that would be useful in further characterizing the buried wastes and contaminated soil sites across the DOE complex are either unavailable or difficult to locate. Several options for accessing this information and/or improving the information that is available are identified in the report. This document is a companion to Technology Needs for Remediation: Hanford and Other DOE Sites, PNL-8328 (Stapp 1993).

  8. KSC Centralized Index Model in Complex Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To dig potential spread nodes in a complex network mainly relies on using centralized indicators such as the node degree, closeness, betweenness and K-shell to evaluate spread node, which causes that the excavation accuracy is not high and adaptability not strong and induces other shortcomings, therefore this paper proposes KSC of centering indicator model. This model not only considers the internal attributes of nodes, but also takes the external attributes of nodes into account, and it finally conducts simulation experiments on propagation through the use of SIR model. The experimental results show that: The proposed algorithm is suitable for a variety of complex networks and it finds better, more promising and more influential dissemination nodes.

  9. Centralized processing of contact-handled TRU waste feasibility analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents work for the feasibility study of central processing of contact-handled TRU waste. Discussion of scenarios, transportation options, summary of cost estimates, and institutional issues are a few of the subjects discussed

  10. Hanford Waste Treatment Complex Foundation for Success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) River Protection Project (RPP) is to build and operate a Waste Treatment Complex to complete the cleanup of the Hanford Site's highly radioactive tank waste. As directed by Congress in Section 3139 of the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999, DOE established ORP at the Hanford Site in eastern Washington State to manage RPP (formerly the Tank Waste Remediation System). This is DOE's largest and most complex environmental cleanup project. ORP is responsible for safe storage, retrieval, treatment, and disposal of 53 million gallons of highly toxic, high-level radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks located within seven miles of the Columbia River. One hundred forty-nine of these tanks have a single steel liner inside the concrete tanks and are decades beyond their design life. Sixty-seven have leaked an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil. Some of this waste has reached the groundwater, threatening the Columbia River. It is urgent that this waste be vitrified (turned to glass) and stored or disposed of in a more secure location before more leaks occur and before tanks and infrastructure deteriorate to the point where the cost and schedule for cleanup becomes prohibitive. This cleanup must occur in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-efficient manner. The cleanup also must comply with the comprehensive cleanup and compliance agreement among DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology, signed on May 15, 1989. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, or Tri-Party Agreement, is an agreement for achieving compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 remedial action provisions and with the Resource Conservation and Recover Act of 1976 treatment, storage, and disposal unit regulations and corrective action

  11. Solid waste management complex site development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this Solid Waste Management Complex Site Development Plan is to optimize the location of future solid waste treatment and storage facilities and the infrastructure required to support them. An overall site plan is recommended. Further, a series of layouts are included that depict site conditions as facilities are constructed at the SWMC site. In this respect the report serves not only as the siting basis for future projects, but provides siting guidance for Project W-112, as well. The plan is intended to function as a template for expected growth of the site over the next 30 years so that future facilities and infrastructure will be properly integrated

  12. Technical evaluation of proposed Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical report is a comprehensive evaluation of the proposal by the Ukrainian State Committee on Nuclear Power Utilization to create a central facility for radioactive waste (not spent fuel) processing. The central facility is intended to process liquid and solid radioactive wastes generated from all of the Ukrainian nuclear power plants and the waste generated as a result of Chernobyl 1, 2 and 3 decommissioning efforts. In addition, this report provides general information on the quantity and total activity of radioactive waste in the 30-km Zone and the Sarcophagus from the Chernobyl accident. Processing options are described that may ultimately be used in the long-term disposal of selected 30-km Zone and Sarcophagus wastes. A detailed report on the issues concerning the construction of a Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility (CRWPF) from the Ukrainian Scientific Research and Design institute for Industrial Technology was obtained and incorporated into this report. This report outlines various processing options, their associated costs and construction schedules, which can be applied to solving the operating and decommissioning radioactive waste management problems in Ukraine. The costs and schedules are best estimates based upon the most current US industry practice and vendor information. This report focuses primarily on the handling and processing of what is defined in the US as low-level radioactive wastes

  13. Radioactive Waste Management Complex performance assessment: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, M.J.; Maheras, S.J.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Sussman, M.E.; Voilleque, P.

    1990-06-01

    A radiological performance assessment of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was conducted to demonstrate compliance with appropriate radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the general public. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the general public via air, ground water, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty analyses were performed. Results of calculations made using nominal data indicate that the radiological doses will be below appropriate radiological criteria throughout operations and after closure of the facility. Recommendations were made for future performance assessment calculations.

  14. Radioactive Waste Management Complex performance assessment: Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiological performance assessment of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was conducted to demonstrate compliance with appropriate radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the general public. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the general public via air, ground water, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty analyses were performed. Results of calculations made using nominal data indicate that the radiological doses will be below appropriate radiological criteria throughout operations and after closure of the facility. Recommendations were made for future performance assessment calculations

  15. Central Arkansas National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Central Arkansas NWR Complex for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Complex...

  16. Conceptual design report for Central Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The permanent facilities are defined, and cost estimates are provided for the disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Wastes (LLW) at the Central Waste Disposal Facility (CWDF). The waste designated for the Central Waste Disposal Facility will be generated by the Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The facility will be operated by ORNL for the Office of Defense Waste and By-Products Management of the Deparment of Energy. The CWDF will be located on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation, west of Highway 95 and south of Bear Creek Road. The body of this Conceptual Design Report (CDR) describes the permanent facilities required for the operation of the CWDF. Initial facilities, trenches, and minimal operating equipment will be provided in earlier projects. The disposal of LLW will be by shallow land burial in engineered trenches. DOE Order 5820 was used as the performance standard for the proper disposal of radioactive waste. The permanent facilities are intended for beneficial occupancy during the first quarter of fiscal year 1989. 3 references, 9 figures, 7 tables

  17. Temporal node centrality in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoungshick; Anderson, Ross

    2012-02-01

    Many networks are dynamic in that their topology changes rapidly—on the same time scale as the communications of interest between network nodes. Examples are the human contact networks involved in the transmission of disease, ad hoc radio networks between moving vehicles, and the transactions between principals in a market. While we have good models of static networks, so far these have been lacking for the dynamic case. In this paper we present a simple but powerful model, the time-ordered graph, which reduces a dynamic network to a static network with directed flows. This enables us to extend network properties such as vertex degree, closeness, and betweenness centrality metrics in a very natural way to the dynamic case. We then demonstrate how our model applies to a number of interesting edge cases, such as where the network connectivity depends on a small number of highly mobile vertices or edges, and show that our centrality definition allows us to track the evolution of connectivity. Finally we apply our model and techniques to two real-world dynamic graphs of human contact networks and then discuss the implication of temporal centrality metrics in the real world.

  18. Waste analysis plan for T Plant Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington Administration Code 173-303-300 requires that a waste analysis plan (WAP) be provided by a treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) unit to confirm their knowledge about a dangerous and/or mixed waste to ensure that the waste is managed properly. The specific objectives of the WAP are as follows: Ensure safe management of waste during treatment and storage; Ensure that waste generated during operational activities is properly designated in accordance with regulatory requirements; Provide chemical and physical analysis of representative samples of the waste stored for characterization and/or verification before the waste is transferred to another TSD unit; Ensure compliance with land disposal restriction (LDR) requirements for treated waste; and Provide basis for work plans that describes waste analysis for development of new treatment technologies

  19. ICDF Complex Waste Profile and Verification Sample Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. M. Heileson

    2006-10-01

    This guidance document will assist waste generators who characterize waste streams destined for disposal at the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) Complex. The purpose of this document is to develop a conservative but appropriate way to (1) characterize waste for entry into the ICDF; (2) ensure compliance with the waste acceptance criteria; and (3) facilitate disposal at the ICDF landfill or evaporation pond. In addition, this document will establish the waste verification process used by ICDF personnel to ensure that untreated waste meets applicable ICDF acceptance limits

  20. Establishing a central waste processing and storage facility in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    regulations. About 50 delegates from various ministries and establishment participated in the seminar. The final outcome of the draft regulation was sent to the Attorney General's office for the necessary legal review before been presented to Parliament through the Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology. A radiation sources and radioactive waste inventory have been established using the Regulatory Authority Information System (RAIS) and the Sealed Radiation Sources Registry System (SRS). A central waste processing and storage facility was constructed in the mid sixties to handle waste from a 2MW reactor that was never installed. The facility consists of a decontamination unit, two concrete vaults (about 5x15 m and 4m deep) intended for low and intermediate level waste storage and 60 wells (about 0.5m diameter x 4.6m) for storage of spent fuel. This Facility will require significant rehabilitation. Safety and performance assessment studies have been carried out with the help of three IAEA experts. The recommendations from the assessment indicate that the vaults are very old and deteriorated to be considered for any future waste storage. However the decontamination unit and the wells are still in good condition and were earmarked for refurbishment and use as waste processing and storage facilities respectively. The decontamination unit has a surface area of 60m2 and a laboratory of surface area 10m2. The decontamination unit will have four technological areas. An area for cementation of non-compactible solid waste and spent sealed sources. An area for compaction of compactable solid waste and a controlled area for conditioned wastes in 200L drums. Provision has been made to condition liquid waste. There will be a section for receipt and segregation of the waste. The laboratory will be provided with the necessary equipment for quality control. Research to support technological processes will be carried out in the laboratory. A quality assurance and control systems shall

  1. Central Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism: Genetic Complexity of a Complex Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Marino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Central hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH is an emerging pathological condition frequently associated with overweight, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and midline defects. The genetic mechanisms involve mutations in at least twenty-four genes regulating GnRH neuronal migration, secretion, and activity. So far, the mechanisms underlying CHH, both in prepubertal and in adulthood onset forms, remain unknown in most of the cases. Indeed, all detected gene variants may explain a small proportion of the affected patients (43%, indicating that other genes or epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the onset of CHH. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on genetic background of CHH, organizing the large amount of data present in the literature in a clear and concise manner, to produce a useful guide available for researchers and clinicians.

  2. Waste minimization promotes biophysical treatment of complex petrochemical wastes in Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebel, A. [Invirotreat International Ltd., Fulleron, CA (United States); Raveh, A. [Raveh Ecology Ltd., Haifa (Israel)

    1993-12-31

    This work describes a full-scale waste treatment system which was put into operation in a petrochemical manufacturing plant in Israel for the purpose of detoxifying its complex organic waste stream. The treatment plant design incorporates an innovative waste management approach to accommodate the limited space allocated for the facility. Initial performance data indicate a high efficient inorganic waste reduction. 4 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Complex processing of rubber waste through energy recovery

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the applied energy recovery solutions for complex processing of rubber waste for energy recovery. It deals specifically with the solution that could maximize possible use of all rubber waste and does not create no additional waste that disposal would be expensive and dangerous for the environment. The project is economically viable and energy self-sufficient. The outputs of the process could replace natural gas and crude oil products. The other part of the pro...

  4. Solid waste processing of enterprises of engineering complex

    OpenAIRE

    Мезенцева, Ирина Александровна; Горбенко, Вероника Владимировна; Любченко, Ирина Николаевна; Котлярова, Светлана Владимировна

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of solid waste of electrical discharge machining of complex alloys is shown. The types of electrical discharge machining are considered, as well as the physical phenomena occurring at a given processing and characteristics of the waste - products of erosion

  5. MASSIVE PARALLELISM WITH GPUS FOR CENTRALITY RANKING IN COMPLEX NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico L. Cabral

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Many problems in Computer Science can be modelled using graphs. Evaluating node centrality in complex networks, which can be considered equivalent to undirected graphs, provides an useful metric of the relative importance of each node inside the evaluated network. The knowledge on which the most central nodes are, has various applications, such as improving information spreading in diffusion networks. In this case, most central nodes can be considered to have higher influence rates over other nodes in the network. The main purpose in this work is developing a GPU based and massively parallel application so as to evaluate the node centrality in complex networks using the Nvidia CUDA programming model. The main contribution of this work is the strategies for the development of an algorithm to evaluate the node centrality in complex networks using Nvidia CUDA parallel programming model. We show that the strategies improves algorithm´s speed-up in two orders of magnitude on one NVIDIA Tesla k20 GPU cluster node, when compared to the hybrid OpenMP/MPI algorithm version, running in the same cluster, with 4 nodes 2 Intel(R Xeon(R CPU E5-2660 each, for radius zero.

  6. System for decision analysis support on complex waste management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A software system called the Waste Flow Analysis has been developed and applied to complex environmental management processes for the United States Department of Energy (US DOE). The system can evaluate proposed methods of waste retrieval, treatment, storage, transportation, and disposal. Analysts can evaluate various scenarios to see the impacts to waste slows and schedules, costs, and health and safety risks. Decision analysis capabilities have been integrated into the system to help identify preferred alternatives based on a specific objectives may be to maximize the waste moved to final disposition during a given time period, minimize health risks, minimize costs, or combinations of objectives. The decision analysis capabilities can support evaluation of large and complex problems rapidly, and under conditions of variable uncertainty. The system is being used to evaluate environmental management strategies to safely disposition wastes in the next ten years and reduce the environmental legacy resulting from nuclear material production over the past forty years

  7. Consolidation and Centralization of Waste Operations Business Systems - 12319

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, D. Dean [Oak Ridge Operations, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This abstract provides a comprehensive plan supporting the continued development and integration of all waste operations and waste management business systems. These include existing systems such as ATMS (Automated Transportation Management System), RadCalc, RFITS (Radio Frequency Identification Transportation System) Programs as well as incorporating key components of existing government developed waste management systems and COTS (Computer Off The Shelf) applications in order to deliver a truly integrated waste tracking and management business system. Some of these existing systems to be integrated include IWTS at Idaho National Lab, WIMS at Sandia National Lab and others. The aggregation of data and consolidation into a single comprehensive business system delivers best practices in lifecycle waste management processes to be delivered across the Department of Energy facilities. This concept exists to reduce operational costs to the federal government by combining key business systems into a centralized enterprise application following the methodology that as contractors change, the tools they use to manage DOE's assets do not. IWITS is one efficient representation of a sound architecture currently supporting multiple DOE sites from a waste management solution. The integration of ATMS, RadCalc and RFITS and the concept like IWITS into a single solution for DOE contractors will result in significant savings and increased efficiencies for DOE. Building continuity and solving collective problems can only be achieved through mass collaboration, resulting in an online community that DOE contractors and subcontractors access common applications, allowing for the collection of business intelligence at an unprecedented level. This is a fundamental shift from a solely 'for profit' business model to a 'for purpose' business model. To the conventional-minded, putting values before profit is an unfamiliar and unnatural way for a contractor to operate

  8. Consolidation and Centralization of Waste Operations Business Systems - 12319

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This abstract provides a comprehensive plan supporting the continued development and integration of all waste operations and waste management business systems. These include existing systems such as ATMS (Automated Transportation Management System), RadCalc, RFITS (Radio Frequency Identification Transportation System) Programs as well as incorporating key components of existing government developed waste management systems and COTS (Computer Off The Shelf) applications in order to deliver a truly integrated waste tracking and management business system. Some of these existing systems to be integrated include IWTS at Idaho National Lab, WIMS at Sandia National Lab and others. The aggregation of data and consolidation into a single comprehensive business system delivers best practices in lifecycle waste management processes to be delivered across the Department of Energy facilities. This concept exists to reduce operational costs to the federal government by combining key business systems into a centralized enterprise application following the methodology that as contractors change, the tools they use to manage DOE's assets do not. IWITS is one efficient representation of a sound architecture currently supporting multiple DOE sites from a waste management solution. The integration of ATMS, RadCalc and RFITS and the concept like IWITS into a single solution for DOE contractors will result in significant savings and increased efficiencies for DOE. Building continuity and solving collective problems can only be achieved through mass collaboration, resulting in an online community that DOE contractors and subcontractors access common applications, allowing for the collection of business intelligence at an unprecedented level. This is a fundamental shift from a solely 'for profit' business model to a 'for purpose' business model. To the conventional-minded, putting values before profit is an unfamiliar and unnatural way for a contractor to operate - unless however; your

  9. Steam reforming of DOE complex waste simulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories has worked with Synthetica Technologies and Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International (MTCl) to demonstrate the applicability of their commercial steam reforming technologies for treating DOE low-level mixed wastes. Previously, Synthetica successfully demonstrated destruction of a Sandia formulated lab trash simulant. During November 1994 Synthetica did not adequately process the aqueous halogenated organic liquid mixed waste simulant (MWTP-2110) formulated by the DOE Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Testing at MTCl is ongoing and initial results appear to be favorable. Approximately 200 lbs each of the MWIP aqueous halogenated organic liquids (MWTP-2110), and absorbed aqueous and organic liquids (MWTP-3113/3114) simulants have been processed. At 1650 degree F, destruction efficiencies of greater than 99% were obtained for tetrachloroethylene, toluene, and 1,2 dichlorobenzene. Product cases consisted primarily of H2, C02, CO, and CH4 and had higher heating values of up to 355 BTU/SCF. Conclusions concerning the suitability of the MTCI process for treating DOE mixed wastes will be drawn upon the completion of testing

  10. Centrality Robustness and Link Prediction in Complex Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Søren Atmakuri; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This chapter addresses two important issues in social network analysis that involve uncertainty. Firstly, we present am analysis on the robustness of centrality measures that extend the work presented in Borgati et al. using three types of complex network structures and one real social network....... Secondly, we present a method to predict edges in dynamic social networks. Our experimental results indicate that the robustness of the centrality measures applied to more realistic social networks follows a predictable pattern and that the use of temporal statistics could improve the accuracy achieved...

  11. Norwegian support in development of regulations of radioactive waste management in central Asia-threat assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Central Asia (CA) the radioactive waste comes mainly from uranium mining and milling, nuclear weapon testing and nuclear power development and other ionizing sources. This waste was produced, to a greater extent, by the military-industrial complex and the uranium and non-uranium industry, and, to a lesser extent, by the nuclear industry and in the process of use of isotope products. Exploitation and mining of uranium and thorium deposits produce a large amount of solid and liquid radioactive waste, as well volatile contaminants which need a proper management. In Central Asia the wastes are mainly stored at the surface in large piles and represent a long-term potential health and environmental hazard. The process of remediating legacy sites of the past and reducing the threats is now getting under way, with the design and implementation of remediation activities, partly with international support. However, there is a significant lack in the regulatory basis for carrying out such remediation work, including a lack of relevant radiation and environmental safety norms and standards, licensing procedures and requirements for monitoring etc., as well as expertise to transform such a basis into practice. Accordingly, the objective of the proposed project is to assist the relevant regulatory authorities in Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan and Tajikistan to develop national robust and adequate regulations and procedures, taking into account the international guidance and Norwegian experience with regulatory support projects in Russia. Specific expected results in the project period include: a threat assessment report identifying priority areas for regulatory development, based on the status of current regulatory documents and the hazard presented by the different sites and facilities; development of national radioactive waste management strategies in each country; development of an enhanced regulatory framework for supervision of nuclear matters, and an enhanced safety culture

  12. Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Mahlon Heileson

    2006-10-01

    The Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) has been designed to accept CERCLA waste generated within the Idaho National Laboratory. Hazardous, mixed, low-level, and Toxic Substance Control Act waste will be accepted for disposal at the ICDF. The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for the quantities of radioactive and/or hazardous constituents allowable in waste streams designated for disposal at ICDF. This ICDF Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria is divided into four section: (1) ICDF Complex; (2) Landfill; (3) Evaporation Pond: and (4) Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF). The ICDF Complex section contains the compliance details, which are the same for all areas of the ICDF. Corresponding sections contain details specific to the landfill, evaporation pond, and the SSSTF. This document specifies chemical and radiological constituent acceptance criteria for waste that will be disposed of at ICDF. Compliance with the requirements of this document ensures protection of human health and the environment, including the Snake River Plain Aquifer. Waste placed in the ICDF landfill and evaporation pond must not cause groundwater in the Snake River Plain Aquifer to exceed maximum contaminant levels, a hazard index of 1, or 10-4 cumulative risk levels. The defined waste acceptance criteria concentrations are compared to the design inventory concentrations. The purpose of this comparison is to show that there is an acceptable uncertainty margin based on the actual constituent concentrations anticipated for disposal at the ICDF. Implementation of this Waste Acceptance Criteria document will ensure compliance with the Final Report of Decision for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13. For waste to be received, it must meet the waste acceptance criteria for the specific disposal/treatment unit (on-Site or off-Site) for which it is destined.

  13. Using mapping entropy to identify node centrality in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Tingyuan; Guo, Zheng; Zhao, Kun; Lu, Zhe-Ming

    2016-07-01

    The problem of finding the best strategy to attack a network or immunize a population with a minimal number of nodes has attracted much current research interest. The assessment of node importance has been a fundamental issue in the research of complex networks. In this paper, we propose a new concept called mapping entropy (ME) to identify the importance of a node in the complex network. The concept is established according to the local information which considers the correlation among all neighbors of a node. We evaluate the efficiency of the centrality by static and dynamic attacks on standard network models and real-world networks. The simulation result shows that the new centrality is more efficient than traditional attack strategies, whether it is static or dynamic.

  14. Indoor - soil gas radon relationshipin the Central Bohemian Plutonic Complex

    OpenAIRE

    I. Fojtíková; J. Miksová; I. Barnet

    2005-01-01

    The relationship of indoor radon measurements and radon in bedrock was studied in the granitoid Central Bohemian Plutonic Complex (CBPC). The indoor data were linked to vectorised geological and radon risk maps using the coordinates of particular dwellings. For each geological unit and rock type it was possible to calculate the statistical characteristics of indoor radon measurements. A clear relationship between indoor radon values and radon in bedrock was confirmed in al...

  15. Range-limited Centrality Measures in Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ercsey-Ravasz, Maria; Chawla, Nitesh V; Toroczkai, Zoltan

    2011-01-01

    Here we present a range-limited approach to centrality measures in both non-weighted and weighted directed complex networks. We introduce an efficient method that generates for every node and every edge its betweenness centrality based on shortest paths of lengths not longer than $\\ell = 1,...,L$ in case of non-weighted networks, and for weighted networks the corresponding quantities based on minimum weight paths with path weights not larger than $w_{\\ell}=\\ell \\Delta$, $\\ell=1,2...,L=R/\\Delta$. These measures provide a systematic description on the positioning importance of a node (edge) with respect to its network neighborhoods 1-step out, 2-steps out, etc. up to including the whole network. We show that range-limited centralities obey universal scaling laws for large non-weighted networks. As the computation of traditional centrality measures is costly, this scaling behavior can be exploited to efficiently estimate centralities of nodes and edges for all ranges, including the traditional ones. The scaling ...

  16. Geochemical information for the West Chestnut Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility for low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, F.G.; Kelmers, A.D.

    1984-06-01

    Geochemical support activities for the Central Waste Disposal Facility (CWDF) project included characterization of site materials, as well as measurement of radionuclide sorption and desorption isotherms and apparent concentration limit values under site-relevant laboratory test conditions. The radionuclide sorption and solubility information is needed as input data for the pathways analysis calculations to model expected radioactivity releases from emplaced waste to the accessible environment under various release scenarios. Batch contact methodology was used to construct sorption and desorption isotherms for a number of radionuclides likely to be present in waste to be disposed of at the site. The sorption rates for uranium and europium were rapid (> 99.8% of the total radionuclide present was adsorbed in approx. 30 min). With a constant-pH isotherm technique, uranium, strontium, cesium, and curium exhibited maximum Rs values of 4800 to > 30,000 L/kg throughout the pH range 5 to 7. Sorption ratios were generally lower at higher or lower pH levels. Retardation factors for uranium, strontium, and cesium, explored by column chromatographic tests, were consistent with the high sorption ratios measured in batch tests for these radionuclides. The addition of as little as 0.01 M organic reagent capable of forming strong soluble complexes with metals (e.g., ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or citric acid) was found to reduce the sorption ratio for uranium by as much as two orders of magnitude. Substitution of an actual low-level waste site trench water for groundwater in these tests was found to give a similar reduction in the sorption ratio.

  17. Geochemical information for the West Chestnut Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility for low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geochemical support activities for the Central Waste Disposal Facility (CWDF) project included characterization of site materials, as well as measurement of radionuclide sorption and desorption isotherms and apparent concentration limit values under site-relevant laboratory test conditions. The radionuclide sorption and solubility information is needed as input data for the pathways analysis calculations to model expected radioactivity releases from emplaced waste to the accessible environment under various release scenarios. Batch contact methodology was used to construct sorption and desorption isotherms for a number of radionuclides likely to be present in waste to be disposed of at the site. The sorption rates for uranium and europium were rapid (> 99.8% of the total radionuclide present was adsorbed in approx. 30 min). With a constant-pH isotherm technique, uranium, strontium, cesium, and curium exhibited maximum Rs values of 4800 to > 30,000 L/kg throughout the pH range 5 to 7. Sorption ratios were generally lower at higher or lower pH levels. Retardation factors for uranium, strontium, and cesium, explored by column chromatographic tests, were consistent with the high sorption ratios measured in batch tests for these radionuclides. The addition of as little as 0.01 M organic reagent capable of forming strong soluble complexes with metals [e.g., ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or citric acid] was found to reduce the sorption ratio for uranium by as much as two orders of magnitude. Substitution of an actual low-level waste site trench water for groundwater in these tests was found to give a similar reduction in the sorption ratio

  18. DOE complex buried waste characterization assessment. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaae, P.S.; Holter, G.M.; Garrett, S.M.K.

    1993-01-01

    The work described in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide information to the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. The information in this report is intended to provide a complex-wide planning base for th.e BWID to ensure that BWID activities are appropriately focused to address the range of remediation problems existing across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report contains information characterizing the 2.1 million m{sup 3} of buried and stored wastes and their associated sites at six major DOE facilities. Approximately 85% of this waste is low-level waste, with about 12% TRU or TRU mixed waste; the remaining 3% is low-level mixed waste. In addition, the report describes soil contamination sites across the complex. Some of the details that would be useful in further characterizing the buried wastes and contaminated soil sites across the DOE complex are either unavailable or difficult to locate. Several options for accessing this information and/or improving the information that is available are identified in the report. This document is a companion to Technology Needs for Remediation: Hanford and Other DOE Sites, PNL-8328 (Stapp 1993).

  19. Central sets defined by words of low factor complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Bucci, Michelangelo; Zamboni, Luca Q

    2011-01-01

    A subset $A$ of $\\mathbb{N}$ is called an IP-set if $A$ contains all finite sums of distinct terms of some infinite sequence $(x_n)_{n\\in \\mathbb{N}} $ of natural numbers. Central sets, first introduced by Furstenberg using notions from topological dynamics, constitute a special class of IP-sets possessing additional nice combinatorial properties: Each central set contains arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions, and solutions to all partition regular systems of homogeneous linear equations. In this paper we show how certain families of aperiodic words of low factor complexity may be used to generate a wide assortment of central sets having additional nice properties inherited from the rich combinatorial structure of the underlying word. We consider Sturmian words and their extensions to higher alphabets (so-called Arnoux-Rauzy words), as well as words generated by substitution rules including the famous Thue-Morse word. We also describe a connection between central sets and the strong coincidence condition ...

  20. Waste management as the central task of nuclear energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey article deals with the tasks of the different steps of waste disposal, the amounts of fuel elements and waste obtained and the role of reprocessing in waste management, the intermediate storage of fuel elements and the alternative reprocessing or direct ultimate storage of fuel elements. The present state of the art of large-scale waste management in West Germany, is briefly outlined including responsibilities. (HPH)

  1. 340 waste handling complex: Deactivation project management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stordeur, R.T.

    1998-06-25

    This document provides an overview of the strategy for deactivating the 340 Waste Handling Complex within Hanford`s 300 Area. The plan covers the period from the pending September 30, 1998 cessation of voluntary radioactive liquid waste (RLW) transfers to the 340 Complex, until such time that those portions of the 340 Complex that remain active beyond September 30, 1998, specifically, the Retention Process Sewer (RPS), can also be shut down and deactivated. Specific activities are detailed and divided into two phases. Phase 1 ends in 2001 after the core RLW systems have been deactivated. Phase 2 covers the subsequent interim surveillance of deactivated and stand-by components during the period of continued RPS operation, through the final transfer of the entire 340 Complex to the Environmental Restoration Contractor. One of several possible scenarios was postulated and developed as a budget and schedule planning case.

  2. 340 waste handling complex: Deactivation project management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides an overview of the strategy for deactivating the 340 Waste Handling Complex within Hanford's 300 Area. The plan covers the period from the pending September 30, 1998 cessation of voluntary radioactive liquid waste (RLW) transfers to the 340 Complex, until such time that those portions of the 340 Complex that remain active beyond September 30, 1998, specifically, the Retention Process Sewer (RPS), can also be shut down and deactivated. Specific activities are detailed and divided into two phases. Phase 1 ends in 2001 after the core RLW systems have been deactivated. Phase 2 covers the subsequent interim surveillance of deactivated and stand-by components during the period of continued RPS operation, through the final transfer of the entire 340 Complex to the Environmental Restoration Contractor. One of several possible scenarios was postulated and developed as a budget and schedule planning case

  3. Mobile loading transuranic waste at small quantity sites in the Department of Energy complex-10523

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad Office (LANL-CO), operates mobile loading operations for all of the large and small quantity transuranic (TRU) waste sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The mobile loading team performs loading and unloading evolutions for both contact handled (CH) and remote handled (RH) waste. For small quantity sites, many of which have yet to remove their TRU waste, the mobile loading team will load shipments that will ship to Idaho National Laboratory, a centralization site, or ship directly to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). For example, Argonne National Laboratory and General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center have certified programs for RH waste so they will ship their RH waste directly to WIPP. Many of the other sites will ship their waste to Idaho for characterization and certification. The Mobile Loading Units (MLU) contain all of the necessary equipment needed to load CH and RH waste into the appropriate shipping vessels. Sites are required to provide additional equipment, such as cranes, fork trucks, and office space. The sites are also required to provide personnel to assist in the shipping operations. Each site requires a site visit from the mobile loading team to ensure that all of the necessary site equipment, site requirements and space for shipping can be provided. The mobile loading team works diligently with site representatives to ensure that all safety and regulatory requirements are met. Once the waste is ready and shipping needs are met, the mobile loading team can be scheduled to ship the waste. The CH MLU is designed to support TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT loading activities wherever needed within the DOE complex. The team that performs the mobile loading operation has obtained national certification under DOE for TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT loading and shipment certification. The RH MLU is designed to support removable lid canister (RLC) and RH-72B cask loading activities wherever needed within the DOE

  4. Mobile loading transuranic waste at small quantity sites in the Department of Energy complex-10523

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Mitch [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Howard, Bryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weyerman, Wade [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mctaggart, Jerri [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad Office (LANL-CO), operates mobile loading operations for all of the large and small quantity transuranic (TRU) waste sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The mobile loading team performs loading and unloading evolutions for both contact handled (CH) and remote handled (RH) waste. For small quantity sites, many of which have yet to remove their TRU waste, the mobile loading team will load shipments that will ship to Idaho National Laboratory, a centralization site, or ship directly to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). For example, Argonne National Laboratory and General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center have certified programs for RH waste so they will ship their RH waste directly to WIPP. Many of the other sites will ship their waste to Idaho for characterization and certification. The Mobile Loading Units (MLU) contain all of the necessary equipment needed to load CH and RH waste into the appropriate shipping vessels. Sites are required to provide additional equipment, such as cranes, fork trucks, and office space. The sites are also required to provide personnel to assist in the shipping operations. Each site requires a site visit from the mobile loading team to ensure that all of the necessary site equipment, site requirements and space for shipping can be provided. The mobile loading team works diligently with site representatives to ensure that all safety and regulatory requirements are met. Once the waste is ready and shipping needs are met, the mobile loading team can be scheduled to ship the waste. The CH MLU is designed to support TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT loading activities wherever needed within the DOE complex. The team that performs the mobile loading operation has obtained national certification under DOE for TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT loading and shipment certification. The RH MLU is designed to support removable lid canister (RLC) and RH-72B cask loading activities wherever needed within the DOE

  5. High-level waste program integration within the DOE complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven major Department of Energy (DOE) site contractors were chartered by the Assistant Secretary to use a systems engineering approach to develop and evaluate technically defensible cost savings opportunities across the complex. Known as the complex-wide Environmental Management Integration (EMI), this process evaluated all the major DOE waste streams including high level waste (HLW). Across the DOE complex, this waste stream has the highest life cycle cost and is scheduled to take until at least 2035 before all HLW is processed for disposal. Technical contract experts from the four DOE sites that manage high level waste participated in the integration analysis: Hanford, Savannah River Site (SRS), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). In addition, subject matter experts from the Yucca Mountain Project and the Tanks Focus Area participated in the analysis. Also, departmental representatives from the US Department of Energy Headquarters (DOE-HQ) monitored the analysis and results. Workouts were held throughout the year to develop recommendations to achieve a complex-wide integrated program. From this effort, the HLW Environmental Management (EM) Team identified a set of programmatic and technical opportunities that could result in potential cost savings and avoidance in excess of $18 billion and an accelerated completion of the HLW mission by seven years. The cost savings, schedule improvements, and volume reduction are attributed to a multifaceted HLW treatment disposal strategy which involves waste pretreatment, standardized waste matrices, risk-based retrieval, early development and deployment of a shipping system for glass canisters, and reasonable, low cost tank closure

  6. Cationic ruthenium-nitrosyl complexes in radioactive waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of counterpressure column electrophoresis using Lichroprep Si 60 as carrier medium it has been possible for the first time to preparatively isolate and thus analyse all cationic ruthenium-nitrosylnitrato complexes. The composition of the various complexes is determined from the ion charge revealed by the migration path during the electrophoresis, and from the content of Ru, NO and NO3-. The denitration of simulated high-activity and medium-activity waste solution with formaldehyde or formic acid results in the formation of formiato complexes, the composition of which can be determined by a new method corresponding to the one used for nitrato complexes. The extraction of ruthenium with TBP Dodecan will predominantly yield neutral complexes, but a reduction in temperature and a high amount of impurity electrolytes will favour the extraction of all complexes. (orig./RB)

  7. B Plant Complex waste management training plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This training program is designed to comply with all applicable federal, state and US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office training requirements. The training program complies with requirements contained within WAC 173-303-330 for the development of a written dangerous waste training program. The training program is designed to prepare personnel to manage and maintain waste treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, as well as generator units, in a safe, effective, efficient and environmentally sound manner. In addition to preparing employees to manage and maintain TSD and generator units under normal conditions, the training program ensures that employees are prepared to respond in a prompt and effective manner should an emergency occur. The training plan also identifies specific individuals holding key waste management positions at B Plant Complex

  8. Nuclear Waste Glasses: Beautiful Simplicity of Complex Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R.

    2009-01-01

    The behavior of glasses with a large number of components, such as waste glasses, is not more complex than the behavior of simple glasses. On the contrary, the presence of many components restricts the composition region of these glasses in a way that allows approximating composition-property relationships by linear functions. This has far-reaching practical consequences for formulating nuclear waste glasses. On the other hand, processing high-level and low-activity waste glasses presents various problems, such as crystallization, foaming, and salt segre-gation in the melter. The need to decrease the settling of solids in the melter to an acceptable level and to maximize the rate of melting presents major challenges to processing technology. However, the most important property of the glass product is its chemical durability, a somewhat vague concept in lieu of the assessment of the glass resistance to aqueous attack while the radioactivity decays over tens of thousands of years.

  9. Mixed Waste Focus Area: Department of Energy complex needs report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a new approach in August of 1993 to environmental research and technology development. A key feature of this new approach included establishment of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to identify, develop, and implement needed technologies such that the major environmental management problems related to meeting DOE's commitments for treatment of mixed wastes under the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA), and in accordance with the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), can be addressed, while cost-effectively expending the funding resources. To define the deficiencies or needs of the EM customers, the MWFA analyzed Proposed Site Treatment Plans (PSTPs), as well as other applicable documents, and conducted site visits throughout the summer of 1995. Representatives from the Office of Waste Management (EM-30), the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and the Office of Facility Transition and Management (EM-60) at each site visited were requested to consult with the Focus Area to collaboratively define their technology needs. This report documents the needs, deficiencies, technology gaps, and opportunities for expedited treatment activities that were identified during the site visit process. The defined deficiencies and needs are categorized by waste type, namely Wastewaters, Combustible Organics, Sludges/Soils, Debris/Solids, and Unique Wastes, and will be prioritized based on the relative affect the deficiency has on the DOE Complex

  10. Mixed Waste Focus Area: Department of Energy complex needs report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, J.A.

    1995-11-16

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a new approach in August of 1993 to environmental research and technology development. A key feature of this new approach included establishment of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to identify, develop, and implement needed technologies such that the major environmental management problems related to meeting DOE`s commitments for treatment of mixed wastes under the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA), and in accordance with the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), can be addressed, while cost-effectively expending the funding resources. To define the deficiencies or needs of the EM customers, the MWFA analyzed Proposed Site Treatment Plans (PSTPs), as well as other applicable documents, and conducted site visits throughout the summer of 1995. Representatives from the Office of Waste Management (EM-30), the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and the Office of Facility Transition and Management (EM-60) at each site visited were requested to consult with the Focus Area to collaboratively define their technology needs. This report documents the needs, deficiencies, technology gaps, and opportunities for expedited treatment activities that were identified during the site visit process. The defined deficiencies and needs are categorized by waste type, namely Wastewaters, Combustible Organics, Sludges/Soils, Debris/Solids, and Unique Wastes, and will be prioritized based on the relative affect the deficiency has on the DOE Complex.

  11. Supplemental design requirements document solid waste operations complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides additional and supplemental information to the WHC-SD-W112-FDC-001, WHC-SD-W113-FDC-001, and WHC-SD-W100-FDC-001. It provides additional requirements for the design and summarizes Westinghouse Hanford Company key design guidance and establishes the technical baseline agreements to be used for definitive design common to the Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) Facilities (Project W-112, Project W-113, and WRAP 2A)

  12. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 222-S Laboratory Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the 222-S Laboratory Complex (this document, DOE/RL-91-27). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the 222-S Laboratory Complex permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. Information provided in this 222-S Laboratory Complex permit application documentation is current as of August 2000

  13. Centralization and Decentralization of Public Policy in a Complex Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria ROSARIA ALFANO

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The public economic literature of the past century is characterized by a traditional paradigm that ascribes little attention to the spatial dimension. However, contemporary globalization requires that researchers and economists expand their perspectives to consider space conceptualization. What is required in the 21st century is a richer and more realistic framework that broadens existing concepts of socio-economic analysis while overcoming narrow national borders. Although national governments will remain prominent performers in the global market, regional and local governments cannot be ignored because citizens worldwide are exerting greater self-determination in influencing governmental decisions. This paper is focused on the opportunity to analyze the governance of decentralization by the new optimizing procedures provided by complex system theory. The first section of the paper explores the positive and normative issues related to centralization and decentralization in a globalized framework as well as the increased interdependence in power sharing among different jurisdictional level. In the second section, Kauffman’s (1993 contributions are examined as a means of determining if the fitness landscape allows combining the institutional evolution. Finally, this paper concludes highlighting that complex system theory is one of the possible tools useful to redesign the map of institutional sharing power in an era of globalization, considering that it allows catching Pareto improving in the level of welfare.

  14. Safe operation of a national centralized processing facility for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peru has a centralized waste processing and storage facility for radioactive wastes. It is placed in the Nuclear Research Center 'RACSO'. It is located 40 km in the north of Lima and started operation in the beginning of 1989. Actually, RACSO, operates a pool type research reactor of 10 Mw to produce radioisotopes. There are many laboratories where a small research program is developed. Iodine-131 and Technetium 99 are produced twice a week. Some kind of radioactive wastes are produced. Other sources are from the application of radioisotopes in hospitals, industry and other institutions. This paper presents the experience gained in the operation of this centralized facility. In twenty years of operation has been produced 15 cubic metres of solid wastes, 532 TBq of activity and approximately standardized 52 drums of 200 litres of conditioned solid wastes. During the period of operation it has not been produced any kind of accident. (author)

  15. Monitoring plan for routine organic air emissions at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Waste Storage Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This monitoring plan provides the information necessary to perform routine organic air emissions monitoring at the Waste Storage Facilities located at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Waste Storage Facilities include both the Type I and II Waste Storage Modules. The plan implements a dual method approach where two dissimilar analytical methodologies, Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) and ancillary SUMMA reg-sign canister sampling, following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analytical method TO-14, will be used to provide qualitative and quantitative volatile organic concentration data. The Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy will provide in situ, real time monitoring of volatile organic compound concentrations in the ambient air of the Waste Storage Facilities. To supplement the OP-FTIR data, air samples will be collected using SUMMA reg-sign, passivated, stainless steel canisters, following the EPA Method TO-14. These samples will be analyzed for volatile organic compounds with gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry analysis. The sampling strategy, procedures, and schedules are included in this monitoring plan. The development of this monitoring plan is driven by regulatory compliance to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, State of Idaho Toxic Air Pollutant increments, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The various state and federal regulations address the characterization of the volatile organic compounds and the resultant ambient air emissions that may originate from facilities involved in industrial production and/or waste management activities

  16. Complexant Identification in Hanford Waste Simulant Sr/TRU Filtrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project was designed to characterize the available multidentate ligand species and metal ion complexes of iron, strontium and manganese formed with the parent chelators, complexing agents and their fragment products. Complex identification was applied to AN-102 and AN-107 filtrate simulants for Hanford waste after an oxidation reaction with sodium permanganate to create a freshly precipitated manganese dioxide solid for adsorption of transuranic elements. Separation efficiency of different ligands was investigated based on the exchange capability of different ion exchange and ion exclusion analytical columns including Dionex IonPac AS-5A, AS-10, AS-11 and AS-6. The elution programs developed with different mobile phase concentrations were based on the change in the effective charge of the anionic species and therefore the retention on the stationary phase. In the present work, qualitative and quantitative assessments of multidentate ligands were investigated. Identification methods for the metal ion complexes responsible for solubilizing Fe, Mn and Sr were applied to aged and fresh simulant waste filtrates. Although concentration measurements of both fresh and 3-week aged filtrates showed that the degradation process occurs mainly due to the harsh chemical environment, it was found that the concentration of iron and manganese did not increase, within the error of the analytical measurements, after three weeks when compared with fresh filtrate

  17. Screening tests for hazard classification of complex waste materials - Selection of methods

    OpenAIRE

    Weltens, R; Vanermen, G.; Tirez, K.; J. Robbens; Deprez, K.; Michiels, Luc

    2012-01-01

    In this study we describe the development of an alternative methodology for hazard characterization of waste materials. Such an alternative methodology for hazard assessment of complex waste materials is urgently needed, because the lack of a validated instrument leads to arbitrary hazard classification of such complex waste materials. False classification can lead to human and environmental health risks and also has important financial consequences for the waste owner. The Hazardous Waste Di...

  18. TRU waste inventory collection and work off plans for the centralization of TRU waste characterization/certification at INL - on your mark - get set - 9410

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mctaggert, Jerri Lynne [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lott, Sheila A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gadbury, Casey [CBFO

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) amended the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Waste Management Program: Treatment and Storage of Transuranic Waste to centralize transuranic (TRU) waste characterization/certification from fourteen TRU waste sites. This centralization will allow for treatment, characterization and certification ofTRU waste from the fourteen sites, thirteen of which are sites with small quantities ofTRU waste, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prior to shipping the waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Centralization of this TRU waste will avoid the cost of building treatment, characterization, certification, and shipping capabilities at each of the small quantity sites that currently do not have existing facilities. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) and Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) will provide centralized shipping facilities, to WIPP, for all of the small quantity sites. Hanford, the one large quantity site identified in the ROD, has a large number of waste in containers that are overpacked into larger containers which are inefficient for shipment to and disposal at WIPP. The AMWTF at the INL will reduce the volume of much of the CH waste and make it much more efficient to ship and dispose of at WIPP. In addition, the INTEC has a certified remote handled (RH) TRU waste characterization/certification program at INL to disposition TRU waste from the sites identified in the ROD.

  19. Radioactive Waste Management Complex low-level waste radiological performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of radioactive low-level waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This radiological performance assessment was conducted to evaluate compliance with applicable radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals inadvertently intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were performed. The results of the analyses indicate compliance with established radiological criteria and provide reasonable assurance that public health and safety will be protected

  20. Training requirements and responsibilities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, H.G.; French, S.B.; Rick, D.L.

    1992-09-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is scheduled to conduct intrusive (hydropunch screening tests, bore hole installation, soil sampling, etc.) and nonintrusive (geophysical surveys) studies at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). These studies and activities will be limited to specific locations at the RWMC. The duration of these activities will vary, but most tasks are not expected to exceed 90 days. The BWID personnel requested that the Waste Management Operational Support Group establish the training requirements and training responsibilities for BWID personnel and BWID subcontractor personnel. This document specifies these training requirements and responsibilities. While the responsibilities of BWID and the RWMC are, in general, defined in the interface agreement, the training elements are based on regulatory requirements, DOE orders, DOE-ID guidance, state law, and the nature of the work to be performed.

  1. Training requirements and responsibilities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is scheduled to conduct intrusive (hydropunch screening tests, bore hole installation, soil sampling, etc.) and nonintrusive (geophysical surveys) studies at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). These studies and activities will be limited to specific locations at the RWMC. The duration of these activities will vary, but most tasks are not expected to exceed 90 days. The BWID personnel requested that the Waste Management Operational Support Group establish the training requirements and training responsibilities for BWID personnel and BWID subcontractor personnel. This document specifies these training requirements and responsibilities. While the responsibilities of BWID and the RWMC are, in general, defined in the interface agreement, the training elements are based on regulatory requirements, DOE orders, DOE-ID guidance, state law, and the nature of the work to be performed

  2. Radioactive Waste Management Complex low-level waste radiological performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, S.J.; Rood, A.S.; Magnuson, S.O.; Sussman, M.E.; Bhatt, R.N.

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of radioactive low-level waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This radiological performance assessment was conducted to evaluate compliance with applicable radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals inadvertently intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were performed. The results of the analyses indicate compliance with established radiological criteria and provide reasonable assurance that public health and safety will be protected.

  3. Laboratory development of methods for centralized treatment of liquid low-level waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved centralized treatment methods are needed in the management of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). LLLW, which usually contains radioactive contaminants at concentrations up to millicurie-per-liter levels, has accumulated in underground storage tanks for over 10 years and has reached a volume of over 350,000 gal. These wastes have been collected since 1984 and are a complex mixture of wastes from past nuclear energy research activities. The waste is a highly alkaline 4-5 M NaNO3 solution with smaller amounts of other salts. This type of waste will continue to be generated as a consequence of future ORNL research programs. Future LLLW (referred to as newly generated LLLW or NGLLLW) is expected to a highly alkaline solution of sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide with a smaller concentration of sodium nitrate. New treatment facilities are needed to improve the manner in which these wastes are managed. These facilities must be capable of separating and reducing the volume of radioactive contaminants to small stable waste forms. Treated liquids must meet criteria for either discharge to the environment or solidification for onsite disposal. Laboratory testing was performed using simulated waste solutions prepared using the available characterization information as a basis. Testing was conducted to evaluate various methods for selective removal of the major contaminants. The major contaminants requiring removal from Melton Valley Storage Tank liquids are 90Sr and 137Cs. Principal contaminants in NGLLLW are 9OSr, 137Cs, and 106Ru. Strontium removal testing began with literature studies and scoping tests with several ion-exchange materials and sorbents

  4. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application for T Plant Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the T Plant Complex (this document, DOE/RL-95-36). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the T Plant Complex permit application documentation, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents Section. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the T Plant Complex permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text

  5. TRU waste inventory collection and work-off plans for the centralization of TRU waste characterization at INL - on your mark - get set - 9410

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mctaggert, Jerri Lynne [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lott, Sheila [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gadbury, Casey [CBFO

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) amended the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Waste Management Program: Treatment and Storage ofTransuranic Waste to centralize transuranic (TRU) waste characterization/certification from fourteen TRU waste sites. This centralization will allow for treatment, characterization and certification ofTRU waste from the fourteen sites, thirteen of which are sites with small quantities ofTRU waste, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prior to shipping the waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Centralization ofthis TRU waste will avoid the cost ofbuilding treatment, characterization, certification, and shipping capabilities at each ofthe small quantity sites that currently do not have existing facilities. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) and Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) will provide centralized shipping facilities, to WIPP, for all ofthe small quantity sites. Hanford, the one large quantity site identified in the ROD, has a large number ofwaste in containers that are overpacked into larger containers which are inefficient for shipment to and disposal at WIPP. The AMWTP at the INL will reduce the volume ofmuch of the CH waste and make it much more efficient to ship and dispose of at WIPP. In addition, the INTEC has a certified remote handled (RH) TRU waste characterization/certification program at INL to disposition TRU waste from the sites identified in the ROD.

  6. Waste management in the mine and mill industrial complex of Pocos de Caldas plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The waste management flow chart of the uranium mine and mill industrial complex of Pocos de Caldas Plateau, M.G., in Brazil is presented. This industrial complex has two operational divisions: the mine and the mill. The equipments and processes for waste management of both divisions, are described, showing treatment systems and waste containment for environmental protection. (M.C.K.)

  7. The 10 April 2014 Earthquake in Central Nicaragua: Evidence of Complex Crustal Deformation in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, G.; Muñoz, A.; Talavera, E.; Tenorio, V.; Farraz, I.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Sánchez, A.

    2014-12-01

    On 10 April 2014 a magnitude Mw 6.1 struck central Nicaragua. The main event and the aftershocks were clearly recorded by the Nicaraguan seismic network. These crustal earthquakes were strongly felt but caused relatively little damage to the city of Managua and to the surrounding cities and towns. This is in sharp contrast to the destructive effects of the 1972 earthquake in the capital city of Managua. The differences in damage stem from the fact that in 1972, the earthquake occurred on a fault beneath the city; in contrast, the 2014 event lies offshore, under Lake Managua. The distribution of aftershocks shows two clusters of seismic activity. In the northwestern part of Lake Managua, an alignment of aftershocks suggests a southeast trending fault. The reported source mechanism suggests right-lateral strike slip motion on a plane with the same azimuth as the aftershock sequence. A second cluster of seismic activity occurred simultaneously, but spatially separated, beneath Apoyeque volcano. There is no clear alignment of the epicenters in this cluster. Seismic scaling relations between magnitude and the fault length predict a length of approximately 10 km for an earthquake of this magnitude. This is in agreement with the extent of the fault defined by the aftershock sequence. The northeast - southwest trending Tiscapa and Ciudad Jardín faults that broke during the 1972 and 1931 Managua earthquakes are orthogonal to the fault where the 10 April earthquake occurred. This set of conjugate faults confirms that Central Nicaragua is being deformed in a complex tectonic style of deformation. The forearc sliver between the trench and the volcanic arc moves to the northwest relative to the Caribbean plate. This deformation, however, does not take place on a single set of faults. The motion is apparently accommodated by a system of conjugate faults: right lateral, strike-slip faults oriented parallel to the volcanic arc and another set of faults trending northeast

  8. National radioactive waste management agencies potential models for Central and Eastern European countries, Cassiopee management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In discussing institutional arrangements for radioactive waste disposal organizations particular attentions paid to the relationships between - and the responsibilities of the State, the Regulator, Waste Producer, and the national Waste Management Organization. The IAEA provide guidance relating to the establishment of appropriate radioactive waste management structures. The model of the IAEA guidance on radioactive waste management infrastructure is sometimes referred to as the 'classical triangle' principle. The model separates the three roles of the Regulator, the Waste Producer and the Waste Disposer. Each has separate responsibilities and must exhibit independence from the other. However the triangle also has another dimension, in that the arrangements should be underpinned by from government policy on radioactive waste, on the basis of the guidance on responsibilities set out by the IAEA. Models of the institutional arrangements in the countries of the European Union (EU) typically follow the principles set out by the above. Since the break up of Soviet Union, economic and political changes in the Newly Independent States and the countries of Central and Eastern Europe have, in turn, inspired changes in the management of nuclear power related activities including radioactive waste management, bringing them more in line with practices adopted in the UE. In 1993 the European Commission encouraged the creation of Cassiopee, a Consortium of EU national radioactive waste agencies comprising ANDRA (France), COVRA (The Netherlands), DBE (Germany), ENRESA (Spain), Nirex (UK), ONDRAF/ NIREX (Belgium). The consortium combines the individual members competence and capabilities and provides assistance and advice through the EU programmes to beneficiary countries in two main ways: Developing national radioactive waste management strategies; Advising on the implementation of projects. As such Cassiopee has undertaken two projects of direct relevance to the Bulgarian

  9. Participation of the ININ in the activities of radioactive waste management of the Laguna Verde Central

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the beginning of the operation of the Laguna Verde Central (CLV) the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) has come supporting the CLV in the activities of administration of the humid and dry radioactive waste generated by the operation of the two units of the CLV, from the elaboration of procedures to the temporary storage in site, the implementation of a program of minimization and segregation of dry solid wastes, until the classification of the lots of humid waste and bulk dry wastes. In this work the description of the management activities of radioactive wastes carried out by the ININ in the facilities of the CLV to the date is presented, as well as some actions that they are had drifted in the future near, among those that it stands out the determination of the total alpha activity in humid samples by means of scintillation analysis. (Author)

  10. Codigestion of manure and industrial organic waste at centralized biogas plants: process imbalances and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    The present study focuses on process imbalances in Danish centralized biogas plants treating manure in combination with industrial waste. Collection of process data from various full-scale plants along with a number of interviews showed that imbalances occur frequently. High concentrations of...... conditions) and high fractions of industrial waste in the feedstock was also observed. The process imbalances and suboptimal conditions are mainly allowed to occur due to 1) inadequate knowledge about the waste composition, 2) inadequate knowledge about the waste degradation characteristics, 3) inadequate...... process surveillance, especially with regard to volatile fatty acids, and 4) insufficient pre-storage capacity causing inexpedient mixing and hindering exact dosing of the different waste products....

  11. Radioactive waste management complex low-level waste radiological composite analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The composite analysis estimates the projected cumulative impacts to future members of the public from the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) and all other sources of radioactive contamination at the INEEL that could interact with the LLW disposal facility to affect the radiological dose. Based upon the composite analysis evaluation, waste buried in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the RWMC is the only source at the INEEL that will significantly interact with the LLW facility. The source term used in the composite analysis consists of all historical SDA subsurface disposals of radionuclides as well as the authorized LLW subsurface disposal inventory and projected LLW subsurface disposal inventory. Exposure scenarios evaluated in the composite analysis include all the all-pathways and groundwater protection scenarios. The projected dose of 58 mrem/yr exceeds the composite analysis guidance dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr; therefore, an options analysis was conducted to determine the feasibility of reducing the projected annual dose. Three options for creating such a reduction were considered: (1) lowering infiltration of precipitation through the waste by providing a better cover, (2) maintaining control over the RWMC and portions of the INEEL indefinitely, and (3) extending the period of institutional control beyond the 100 years assumed in the composite analysis. Of the three options investigated, maintaining control over the RWMC and a small part of the present INEEL appears to be feasible and cost effective

  12. Radioactive waste management complex low-level waste radiological composite analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, J.M.; Becker, B.H.; Magnuson, S.O.; Keck, K.N.; Honeycutt, T.K.

    1998-05-01

    The composite analysis estimates the projected cumulative impacts to future members of the public from the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) and all other sources of radioactive contamination at the INEEL that could interact with the LLW disposal facility to affect the radiological dose. Based upon the composite analysis evaluation, waste buried in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the RWMC is the only source at the INEEL that will significantly interact with the LLW facility. The source term used in the composite analysis consists of all historical SDA subsurface disposals of radionuclides as well as the authorized LLW subsurface disposal inventory and projected LLW subsurface disposal inventory. Exposure scenarios evaluated in the composite analysis include all the all-pathways and groundwater protection scenarios. The projected dose of 58 mrem/yr exceeds the composite analysis guidance dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr; therefore, an options analysis was conducted to determine the feasibility of reducing the projected annual dose. Three options for creating such a reduction were considered: (1) lowering infiltration of precipitation through the waste by providing a better cover, (2) maintaining control over the RWMC and portions of the INEEL indefinitely, and (3) extending the period of institutional control beyond the 100 years assumed in the composite analysis. Of the three options investigated, maintaining control over the RWMC and a small part of the present INEEL appears to be feasible and cost effective.

  13. A centralized hazardous waste treatment plant: the facilities of the ZVSMM at Schwabach as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsoneit, Norbert [Zweckverband Sondermuell-Entsorgung Mittelfranken, Rednitzhembach (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    In this work a centralized hazardous waste treatment plant is described and its infra-structure is presented. Special emphasis is given to the handling of the residues produced and the different treatment processes at the final disposal. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Safety assessments for centralized waste treatment and disposal facility in Puspokszilagy Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The centralized waste treatment and disposal facility Puspokszilagy is a shallow land, near surface engineered type disposal unit. The site, together with its geographic, geological and hydrogeological characteristics, is described. Data are given on the radioactive inventory. The operational safety assessment and the post-closure safety assessment is outlined. (author)

  15. Public acceptance for centralized storage and repositories of low-level waste session (Panel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, H.R.

    1995-12-31

    Participants from various parts of the world will provide a summary of their particular country`s approach to low-level waste management and the cost of public acceptance for low-level waste management facilities. Participants will discuss the number, geographic location, and type of low-level waste repositories and centralized storage facilities located in their countries. Each will discuss the amount, distribution, and duration of funds to gain public acceptance of these facilities. Participants will provide an estimated $/meter for centralized storage facilities and repositories. The panel will include a brief discussion about the ethical aspects of public acceptance costs, approaches for negotiating acceptance, and lessons learned in each country. The audience is invited to participate in the discussion.

  16. Low-level waste characterization plan for the WSCF Laboratory Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Characterization Plan for the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) complex describes the organization and methodology for characterization of all waste streams that are transferred from the WSCF Laboratory Complex to the Hanford Site 200 Areas Storage and Disposal Facilities. Waste generated at the WSCF complex typically originates from analytical or radiological procedures. Process knowledge is derived from these operations and should be considered an accurate description of WSCF generated waste. Sample contribution is accounted for in the laboratory waste designation process and unused or excess samples are returned to the originator for disposal. The report describes procedures and processes common to all waste streams; individual waste streams; and radionuclide characterization methodology

  17. Low-level waste certification plan for the WSCF Laboratory Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solid, low-level waste certification plan for the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) describes the organization and methodology for the certification of the solid low-level waste (LLW) that is transferred to the Hanford Site 200 Areas Storage and Disposal Facilities. This plan incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, including up-front minimization, and end product treatment to reduce the volume or toxicity of the waste. The plan also includes segregation of different waste types. This low-level waste certification plan applies only to waste generated in, or is the responsibility of the WSCF Laboratory Complex. The WSCF Laboratory Complex supports technical activities performed at the Hanford Site. Wet Chemical and radiochemical analyses are performed to support site operations, including environmental and effluent monitoring, chemical processing, RCRA and CERCLA analysis, and waste management activities. Environmental and effluent samples include liquid effluents, ground and surface waters, soils, animals, vegetation, and air filters

  18. The system for centralized inventory keeping and ultimate disposal of radioactive waste in the former German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report explains the concept adopted by the former GDR. The system based at Morsleben, for centralized inventory keeping and management of radioactive waste is explained, refewing to the amounts of waste accrued, storage and transport of waste drums, classification and preparation of waste forms, and ultimate disposal of radioactive waste in the Morsleben repository. The report includes information on the management of special waste and spent fuel elements which cannot be stored at the Morsleben site. Most of the radioactive waste produced in the former GDR has been stored since 1979 at the Morsleben site. The waste came from the nuclear power plants (Greifswald, Rheinsberg), and from installations and institutes applying or producing radionuclides - so-called APR waste - (e.g. from the institutes at Rossendorf and Berlin-Buch, and from about 1300 other waste producers). The waste was accepted as or processed to solid waste forms, liquid waste, sealed radiation sources, and special waste; the ultimate storage techniques applied are packing of drums, backfilling, solidification of liquid waste and disposal in boreholes. Up to the end of the year 1989, the Morsleben repository received about 14000 m3 of radioactive waste (about 40% solid waste, and about 60% liquid waste). (orig.)

  19. THOR steam reforming technology for the treatment of ion exchange resins and more complex wastes such as fuel reprocessing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The THOR fluidized bed steam reforming process has been successfully operated for more than 10 years in the United States for the treatment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes generated by commercial nuclear power plants. The principle waste stream that has been treated is ion exchange resins (IER) and Dry Active Waste (DAW), but various liquids, sludges, and solid organic wastes have also been treated. The principle advantages of the THOR process include: (a) high volume reduction on the order of 5:1 to 10:1 for IER and up to 50:1 for high plastic content DAW streams depending on the waste type and waste characteristics, (b) environmentally compliant off-gas emissions, (c) reliable conversion of wastes into mineralized products that are durable and leach-resistant, and (d) no liquid effluents for treatment of most radioactive wastes. Over the past ten years, the THOR process has been adapted for the treatment of more complex wastes including historic defense wastes, reprocessing wastes, and other wastes associated with the fuel cycle. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) environmental remediation activities, the THOR dual bed steam reforming process has successfully processed: (a) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW), (b) Savannah River Tank 48 High Level Waste (HLW), (c) Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW), and (d) Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) liquid slurry simulants. The THOR process has been shown in pilot plant operations to successfully process various simulated liquid, radioactive, nitrate-containing wastes into environmentally safe, leach-resistant, solid mineralized products. These mineralized products incorporate normally soluble ions (e.g. - Na, K, Cs, Tc), sulfates, chloride salts, and fluoride salts into an alkali alumino-silicate mineral matrix that inhibits the leaching of those ions into the environment. The solid mineralized products produced by the THOR process exhibit durability

  20. CONTINUOUS MICRO-SORTING OF COMPLEX WASTE PLASTICS PARTICLEMIXTURES VIA LIQUID-FLUIDIZED BED CLASSIFICATION (LFBC) FOR WASTE MINIMIZATIONAND RECYCLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fundamental investigation is proposed to provide a technical basis for the development of a novel, liquid-fluidized bed classification (LFBC) technology for the continuous separation of complex waste plastic mixtures for in-process recycling and waste minimization. Although ...

  1. Health, safety, and environmental risk assessment of steel production complex in central Iran using TOPSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozi, S A; Majd, N Moradi

    2014-10-01

    This research was carried out with the aim of presenting an environmental management plan for steel production complex (SPC) in central Iran. Following precise identification of the plant activities as well as the study area, possible sources of environmental pollution and adverse impacts on the air quality, water, soil, biological environment, socioeconomic and cultural environment, and health and safety of the employees were determined considering the work processes of the steel complex. Afterwards, noise, wastewater, and air pollution sources were measured. Subsequently, factors polluting the steel complex were identified by TOPSIS and then prioritized using Excel Software. Based on the obtained results, the operation of the furnaces in hot rolling process with the score 1, effluent derived from hot rolling process with the score 0.565, nonprincipal disposal and dumping of waste at the plant enclosure with the score 0.335, walking beam process with the score 1.483 respectively allocated themselves the highest priority in terms of air, water, soil and noise pollution. In terms of habitats, land cover and socioeconomic and cultural environment, closeness to the forest area and the existence of four groups of wildlife with the score 1.106 and proximity of villages and residential areas to the plant with the score 3.771 respectively enjoyed the highest priorities while impressibility and occupational accidents with the score 2.725 and cutting and welding operations with score 2.134 had the highest priority among health and safety criteria. Finally, strategies for the control of pollution sources were identified and Training, Monitoring and environmental management plan of the SPC was prepared. PMID:25049141

  2. Effect of pH on the destruction of complexants with ozone in Hanford nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical processing of nuclear waste at Hanford has generated some waste solutions with high concentration (0.1 to 0.5M) of N-(hydroxyethyl)-ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and other organic complexing agents. These complexants must be destroyed bacause they affect radionuclide migration in soils, waste concentration, radionuclide removal, and other waste storage and processing considerations. Previous studies on actual waste solutions demonstrated that preozonation of the alkaline waste significantly improved radionuclide removal. A series of bench-scale experiments using synthetic waste has been performed to determine the optimum pH for most efficient ozone destruction of EDTA. Ozonation of EDTA in synthetic waste was carried out over the pH range of 1 to 14. Potential catalytic materials were examined at different pH levels. The EDTA-ozone reaction rates and stoichiometric requirements were compared and evaluated for the varying conditions

  3. B Plant complex hazardous, mixed and low level waste certification plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan describes the administrative steps and handling methodology for certification of hazardous waste, mixed waste, and low level waste generated at B Plant Complex. The plan also provides the applicable elements of waste reduction and pollution prevention, including up front minimization and end product reduction of volume and/or toxicity. The plan is written to satisfy requirements for Hanford Site waste generators to have a waste certification program in place at their facility. This plan, as described, applies only to waste which is generated at, or is the responsibility of, B Plant Complex. The scope of this plan is derived from the requirements found in WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

  4. Effect of pH on the destruction of complexants with ozone in Hanford nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, W.I.

    1981-06-01

    Chemical processing of nuclear waste at Hanford has generated some waste solutions with high concentration (0.1 to 0.5M) of N-(hydroxyethyl)-ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and other organic complexing agents. These complexants must be destroyed bacause they affect radionuclide migration in soils, waste concentration, radionuclide removal, and other waste storage and processing considerations. Previous studies on actual waste solutions demonstrated that preozonation of the alkaline waste significantly improved radionuclide removal. A series of bench-scale experiments using synthetic waste has been performed to determine the optimum pH for most efficient ozone destruction of EDTA. Ozonation of EDTA in synthetic waste was carried out over the pH range of 1 to 14. Potential catalytic materials were examined at different pH levels. The EDTA-ozone reaction rates and stoichiometric requirements were compared and evaluated for the varying conditions.

  5. Complex central structures suggest complex evolutionary paths for barred S0 galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dullo, Bililign T; Knapen, Johan H

    2016-01-01

    We investigate three barred lenticular galaxies (NGC 2681, NGC 3945 and NGC 4371) which were previously reported to have complex central structures but without a detailed structural analysis of these galaxies' high-resolution data. We have therefore performed four- to six-component (pseudo-)bulge/disk/bar/ring/point source) decompositions of the composite (Hubble Space Telescope plus ground-based) surface brightness profiles. We find that NGC 2681 hosts three bars, while NGC 3945 and NGC 4371 are double- and single-barred galaxies, respectively, in agreement with past isophotal analysis. We find that the bulges in these galaxies are compact, and have S\\'ersic indices of $n\\sim 2.2 - 3.6$ and stellar masses of $M_{*}$ $\\sim 0.28\\times10^{10} - 1.1\\times10^{10} M_{\\sun}$. NGC 3945 and NGC 4371 have intermediate-scale `pseudo-bulges' that are well described by a S\\'ersic model with low $n \\la 0.5$ instead of an exponential ($n=1$) profile as done in the past. We measure emission line fluxes enclosed within 9 dif...

  6. Mineralogical and isotopic characterization of graphite deposits from the Anatectic Complex of Toledo, central Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Méndez, Iván; Boixereu, Ester; Villaseca, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Graphite is found dispersed in high-grade metapelitic rocks of the Anatectic Complex of Toledo (ACT) and was mined during the mid twentieth century in places where it has been concentrated (Guadamur and la Puebla de Montalbán mines). Some samples from these mines show variable but significant alteration intensity, reaching very low-T hydrothermal (supergene) conditions for some samples from the waste heap of the Guadamur site (<100 °C and 1 kbar). Micro-Raman and XRD data indicate that all the studied ACT graphite is of high crystallinity irrespective of the degree of hydrothermal alteration. Chemical differences were obtained for graphite δ13C composition. ACT granulitic graphite shows δ13CPDB values in the range of -20.5 to -27.8 ‰, indicating a biogenic origin. Interaction of graphite with hydrothermal fluids does not modify isotopic compositions even in the most transformed samples from mining sites. The different isotopic signatures of graphite from the mining sites reflect its contrasted primary carbon source. The high crystallinity of studied graphite makes this area of central Spain suitable for graphitic exploration and its potential exploitation, due to the low carbon content required for its viability and its strategic applications in advanced technologies, such as graphene synthesis.

  7. Input-output analysis of various elements of an energy-agro-waste complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    The mass input and output streams of various agricultural and waste treatment processes were quantified and models developed to serve in the engineering analysis of potential waste heat utilization schemes. The unit process models can be integrated into energy-agro-waste complexes, in which waste heat from power plants is used by certain processes and the wastes of some processes are used as inputs to others. The models provide a means of determining the sizing or subsystems, the compatibility of subsystems, and the overall feasibility of an integrated complex. Ten potential complexes were qualitatively discussed and the considerations involved in forming such complexes explained. A mass balance analysis was performed on four integrated complexes demonstrating the engineering value of the analytical models developed.

  8. Effective centrality and explosive synchronization in complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, A; Villacorta-Atienza, J A; Leyva, I; Almendral, J A; Sendiña-Nadal, I; Boccaletti, S

    2015-12-01

    Synchronization of networked oscillators is known to depend fundamentally on the interplay between the dynamics of the graph's units and the microscopic arrangement of the network's structure. We here propose an effective network whose topological properties reflect the interplay between the topology and dynamics of the original network. On that basis, we are able to introduce the effective centrality, a measure that quantifies the role and importance of each network's node in the synchronization process. In particular, in the context of explosive synchronization, we use such a measure to assess the propensity of a graph to sustain an irreversible transition to synchronization. We furthermore discuss a strategy to induce the explosive behavior in a generic network, by acting only upon a fraction of its nodes. PMID:26764757

  9. A preliminary analysis of the reduction of chemotherapy waste in the treatment of cancer with centralization of drug preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Hyeda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available SummaryIntroduction:chemotherapy is essential to treat most types of cancer. Often, there is chemotherapy waste in the preparation of drugs prescribed to the patient. Leftover doses result in toxic waste production.Objective:the aim of the study was to analyze chemotherapy waste reduction at a centralized drug preparation unit.Methods:the study was cross-sectional, observational and descriptive, conducted between 2010 and 2012. The data were obtained from chemotherapy prescriptions made by oncologists linked to a health insurance plan in Curitiba, capital of the state of Paraná, in southern Brazil. Dose and the cost of chemotherapy waste were calculated in each application, considering the dose prescribed by the doctor and the drug dosages available for sale. The variables were then calculated considering a hypothetical centralized drug preparation unit.Results:there were 176 patients with a cancer diagnosis, 106 of which underwent treatment with intravenous chemotherapy. There were 1,284 applications for intravenous anticancer medications. There was a total of 63,824mg in chemotherapy waste, the cost of which was BRL 448,397.00. The average cost of chemotherapy waste per patient was BRL 4,607.00. In the centralized model, there was 971.80mg of chemotherapy waste, costing BRL 13,991.64. The average cost of chemotherapy waste per patient was BRL 132.00.Conclusion:the use of centralized drug preparation units may be a strategy to reduce chemotherapy waste.

  10. Central Facilities Area Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego; Brion Bennett

    2011-11-01

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Central Facilities Area facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facilityspecific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  11. Lineage-based analysis of the development of the central complex of the Drosophila brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereanu, Wayne; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Lovick, Jennifer; Spindler, Shana; Hartenstein, Volker

    2011-03-01

    Most neurons of the central complex belong to 10 secondary (larvally produced) lineages. In the late larva, undifferentiated axon tracts of these lineages form a primordium in which all of the compartments of the central complex can be recognized as discrete entities. Four posterior lineages (DPMm1, DPMpm1, DPMpm2, and CM4) generate the classes of small-field neurons that interconnect the protocerebral bridge, fan-shaped body, noduli, and ellipsoid body. Three lineages located in the anterior brain, DALv2, BAmv1, and DALcl2, form the large-field neurons of the ellipsoid body and fan-shaped body, respectively. These lineages provide an input channel from the optic tubercle and connect the central complex with adjacent anterior brain compartments. Three lineages in the posterior cortex, CM3, CP2, and DPMpl2, connect the posterior brain neuropil with specific layers of the fan-shaped body. Even though all of the compartments of the central complex are prefigured in the late larval brain by the axon tracts of the above-mentioned lineages, the neuropil differentiates during the first 2 days of the pupal period when terminal branches and synapses of secondary neurons are formed. During this phase the initially straight horizontal layers of the central complex bend in the frontal plane, which produces the characteristic shape of the fan-shaped and ellipsoid body. Our analysis provides a comprehensive picture of the lineages that form the central complex, and will facilitate future studies that address the structure or function of the central complex at the single cell level. PMID:21246549

  12. A preliminary analysis of the reduction of chemotherapy waste in the treatment of cancer with centralization of drug preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Hyeda; Elide Sbardellotto Mariano da Costa

    2015-01-01

    SummaryIntroduction:chemotherapy is essential to treat most types of cancer. Often, there is chemotherapy waste in the preparation of drugs prescribed to the patient. Leftover doses result in toxic waste production.Objective:the aim of the study was to analyze chemotherapy waste reduction at a centralized drug preparation unit.Methods:the study was cross-sectional, observational and descriptive, conducted between 2010 and 2012. The data were obtained from chemotherapy prescriptions made by on...

  13. Practices, Concerns, and Willingness to Participate in Solid Waste Management in Two Urban Slums in Central Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Trasias Mukama; Rawlance Ndejjo; David Musoke; Geofrey Musinguzi; Abdullah Ali Halage; Carpenter, David O.; Ssempebwa, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Poor solid waste management is among the major challenges facing urban slums in developing countries including Uganda. Understanding community concerns and willingness towards involvement in solid waste management improvement initiatives is critical for informing interventions in slums. Methods. We used a cross-sectional study to collect quantitative data from 435 residents in two urban slums in central Uganda. A semistructured questionnaire was used which assessed waste collection practices,...

  14. IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTES IN AMMONIA UNIT OF RAZI PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX AND FEASIBILITY OF WASTE MINIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fakheri Raouf, R. Nabizadeh and N. Jafarzadeh

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Petrochemical industries are considered as strategic and important sectors in economic development of Iran. Razi petrochemical factory is one of complex in Iran, established in 1970 with 100 hectare. In this research, the possibility of waste minimization in the ammonia unit of Razi petrochemical complex with about 1000 tons per year was studied for a period of 18 months from September 2003 to April 2005. More than 20 site visits were conducted and the required information was collected. Factors such as industrial solid wastes quality and quantity, sources of generation, production period and the present management practice, were studied. Petrochemical solid wastes were classified based on the recommended method of the United Nations and appropriate policies were suggested for waste minimization. The collected results of this study show production of 185 tons of industrial solid wastes from 45 sources which contained 68.5% catalysts, 10.25% metal barrels, 18.61% aluminum ball, 2.62% plastic barrels and 0.02% paper. 93.3% of these wastes were generated as the result of catalysts change, 3.3% as the result of using chemicals and oils, 1.7% as the result of methanol solution amid application, and 1.1% because of aluminum ball changes. Based on the UNEP methods, the ammonia unit wastes classified as 19/7%hazadrous and 87,12% non hazardous. At present 87.12% of these wastes are being dumped in the area and 12.88% are sold. Proposed procedures for waste minimization contain 68.5% reuse and recycling and 31.5% recycling.

  15. The central electricity generating board approach to low level waste activity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of the activity of low level waste (LLW) within Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) has historically been achieved by a combination of dose rate measurements and empirical isotopic composition data. Because of changes in regulatory requirements and the increased costs of disposal, it became clear in 1986/87 that fundamental changes in the method of assay of LLW were needed. This paper describes the approach adopted by CEGB to introduce these changes. Details of the philosophy of 'area fingerprints' and the programme of work for their determination are outlined together with a description of an on-site monitoring system which represents a practical implementation of the approach

  16. Mobile/portable transuranic waste characterization systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory and a model for their use complex-wide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has implemented mobile and portable characterization and repackaging systems to characterize TRU waste in storage for ultimate shipment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM. These mobile systems are being used to characterize and repackage waste to meet the full requirements of the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and the WIPP Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). Mobile and portable characterization and repackaging systems are being used to supplement the capabilities and throughputs of existing facilities. Utilization of mobile systems is a key factor that is enabling LANL to: (1) reduce its TRU waste work-off schedule from 36 years to 8.5 years; (2) eliminate the need to construct a $70M+ TRU waste characterization facility; (3) have waste certified for shipment to WIPP when WIPP opens; (4) continue to ship TRU waste to WIPP at the rate of 5000 drums per year; and, (5) reduce overall costs by more than $200M. Aggressive implementation of mobile and portable systems throughout the DOE complex through a centralized-distributed services model will result in similar advantages complex-wide

  17. Mobile/portable transuranic waste characterization systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory and a model for their use complex-wide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has implemented mobile and portable characterization and repackaging systems to characterize transuranic (TRU) waste in storage for ultimate shipment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM. These mobile systems are being used to characterize and repackage waste to meet the full requirements of the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and the WIPP Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). Mobile and portable characterization and repackaging systems are being used to supplement the capabilities and throughputs of existing facilities. Utilization of mobile systems is a key factor that is enabling LANL to (1) reduce its TRU waste work-off schedule from 36 years to 8.5 years; (2) eliminate the need to construct a $70M+ TRU waste characterization facility; (3) have waste certified for shipment to WIPP when WIPP opens; (4) continue to ship TRU waste to WIPP at the rate of 5000 drums per year; and (5) reduce overall costs by more than $200M. Aggressive implementation of mobile and portable systems throughout the Department of Energy complex through a centralized-distributed services model will result in similar advantages complex-wide

  18. Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection among recyclable waste collectors in central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamíris Augusto Marinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The collection of recyclable waste materials is a widespread activity among the urban poor. Today, this occupation attracts an increasingly large number of individuals. Despite its economic and environmental importance, this activity is associated with unsafe and unhealthy working conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroepidemiological profile of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection in a population of recyclable waste collectors in central Brazil. Methods: Recyclable waste collectors from all 15 recycling cooperatives in Goiânia City were invited to participate in the study. The participants (n = 431 were interviewed and screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and antibodies against HBsAg (anti-HBs and hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. HBsAg- and anti-HBc-positive samples were tested for HBV DNA and genotyped. Results: The overall prevalence of HBV infection (HBsAg- and/or anti-HBc-positive was 12.8%. An age over 40 years and illicit drug use were associated with HBV infection. HBV DNA was detected in 2/3 HBsAg-positive samples and in 1/52 anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative samples (an occult HBV infection rate of 1.9%, in which the genotypes/subgenotypes A/A1, D/D3 and F/F2 were identified. Only 12.3% of the recyclable waste collectors had serological evidence of previous HBV vaccination. Conclusions: These findings highlight the vulnerability of recyclable waste collectors to HBV infection and reinforce the importance of public health policies that address the health and safety of this socially vulnerable population.

  19. Report of scouting study on precipitation of strontium, plutonium, and americium from Hanford complexant concentrate waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory scouting test was conducted of precipitation methods for reducing the solubility of radionuclides in complexant concentrate (CC) waste solution. The results show that addition of strontium nitrate solution is effective in reducing the liquid phase activity of 90Sr (Strontium) in CC waste from tank 107-AN by 94% when the total strontium concentration is adjusted to 0.1 M. Addition of ferric nitrate solution effective in reducing the 241Am (Americium) activity in CC waste by 96% under the conditions described in the report. Ferric nitrate was also marginally effective in reducing the solubility of 239/240Pu (Plutonium) in CC waste

  20. Complex processing of fluorine- and alumina comprising wastes of aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to complex processing of fluorine- and alumina comprising wastes of aluminium production. The composition and optimal parameters of soda-alkaline treatment of solution, obtained at sulfuric acid decomposition of fluorine- and alumina comprising wastes of aluminium production was defined. The conducted studies shown that from sulphate comprising solution at soda-alkaline treatment it is possible to obtain the alumina, fluoric salts and building materials. The flowsheet of complex processing of fluorine- and alumina comprising wastes was elaborated and proposed.

  1. Waste Sampling & Characterization Facility (WSCF) Complex Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MELOY, R.T.

    2002-04-01

    This document was prepared to analyze the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility for safety consequences by: Determining radionuclide and highly hazardous chemical inventories; Comparing these inventories to the appropriate regulatory limits; Documenting the compliance status with respect to these limits; and Identifying the administrative controls necessary to maintain this status. The primary purpose of the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) is to perform low-level radiological and chemical analyses on various types of samples taken from the Hanford Site. These analyses will support the fulfillment of federal, Washington State, and Department of Energy requirements.

  2. Practices, Concerns, and Willingness to Participate in Solid Waste Management in Two Urban Slums in Central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trasias Mukama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor solid waste management is among the major challenges facing urban slums in developing countries including Uganda. Understanding community concerns and willingness towards involvement in solid waste management improvement initiatives is critical for informing interventions in slums. Methods. We used a cross-sectional study to collect quantitative data from 435 residents in two urban slums in central Uganda. A semistructured questionnaire was used which assessed waste collection practices, separation and disposal methods, concerns regarding solid wastes, and willingness to participate in waste separation and composting. Data was analysed using STATA 12. Results. Food remains (38% and plastics (37% formed the biggest proportion of wastes generated in households. Most households (35.9% disposed of general wastes by open dumping while 27% disposed of plastics by burning. Only 8.8% of households conducted composting while 55% carried out separation for some decomposable wastes. Separation was carried out for only banana peelings and leftover foods for feeding animals. Respondents expressed high willingness to separate (76.6% and compost (54.9% solid wastes. Conclusion. Practices in waste disposal and separation were poor despite high willingness to participate in initiatives to improve waste management, highlighting a need for authorities to engage residents of slums to improve their practices.

  3. Practices, Concerns, and Willingness to Participate in Solid Waste Management in Two Urban Slums in Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukama, Trasias; Ndejjo, Rawlance; Musoke, David; Musinguzi, Geofrey; Halage, Abdullah Ali; Carpenter, David O; Ssempebwa, John C

    2016-01-01

    Poor solid waste management is among the major challenges facing urban slums in developing countries including Uganda. Understanding community concerns and willingness towards involvement in solid waste management improvement initiatives is critical for informing interventions in slums. Methods. We used a cross-sectional study to collect quantitative data from 435 residents in two urban slums in central Uganda. A semistructured questionnaire was used which assessed waste collection practices, separation and disposal methods, concerns regarding solid wastes, and willingness to participate in waste separation and composting. Data was analysed using STATA 12. Results. Food remains (38%) and plastics (37%) formed the biggest proportion of wastes generated in households. Most households (35.9%) disposed of general wastes by open dumping while 27% disposed of plastics by burning. Only 8.8% of households conducted composting while 55% carried out separation for some decomposable wastes. Separation was carried out for only banana peelings and leftover foods for feeding animals. Respondents expressed high willingness to separate (76.6%) and compost (54.9%) solid wastes. Conclusion. Practices in waste disposal and separation were poor despite high willingness to participate in initiatives to improve waste management, highlighting a need for authorities to engage residents of slums to improve their practices. PMID:27066081

  4. B Plant Complex generator dangerous waste storage areas inspection plan: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the inspection plan for the <90 day dangerous/mixed waste storage areas and satellite accumulation areas at B Plant Complex. This inspection plan is designed to comply with all applicable federal, state and US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office training requirements. In particular, the requirements of WAC 173-303 ''Dangerous Waste Regulations'' are met by this inspection plan. This inspection plan is designed to provide B Plant Complex with the records and documentation showing that the waste storage and handling program is in compliance with applicable regulations. The plan also includes the requirements for becoming a qualified inspector of waste storage areas and the responsibilities of various individuals and groups at B Plant Complex

  5. Provenance variations in the Late Paleozoic accretionary complex of central Chile as indicated by detrital zircons

    OpenAIRE

    Hervé, F.; Calderón, M.; Fanning, C. M.; Pankhurst, R.J.; Godoy, E.

    2013-01-01

    We present detrital zircon UPb SHRIMP age patterns for the central segment (34–42°S) of an extensive accretionary complex along coastal Chile together with ages for some relevant igneous rocks. The complex consists of a basally accreted high pressure/low temperature Western Series outboard of a frontally accreted Eastern Series that was overprinted by high temperature/low pressure metamorphism. Eleven new SHRIMP detrital zircon age patterns have been obtained for meta-turbidites from the cent...

  6. Multidisciplinary study of Santa Eulália Plutonic Complex (Central Portugal): Preliminary insight.

    OpenAIRE

    Sant’Ovaia, Helena; Lopes, José Carrilho; Nogueira, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Multidisciplinary study of Santa Eulalia Plutonic Complex (Central Portugal): Preliminary insight H. SANT’OVAIA1*, J. CARRILHO LOPES2 AND P. NOGUEIRA2 1DGAOT, Centro de Geologia, FCUP, Portugal (*correspondence: ) 2Dep. Geo., Univ. Évora, Centro de Geologia UL, Portugal The Santa Eulália Plutonic Complex (SEPC) is a late- Variscan calcalkaline granitic body that occupies an area of 400 km2 and is located in the Variscan Iberian sector. The host ...

  7. Waste sampling and characterization facility complex safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meloy, R.T., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-04

    The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility is a `Non-Nuclear, Radiological Facility. This document demonstrates, by analysis, that WSCF can meet the chemical and radiological inventory limits for a radiological facility. It establishes control that ensures those inventories are maintained below threshold values to preserve the `Non- Nuclear, Radiological` classification.

  8. Treatment of complex electroplating waste by 'zero discharge' technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface treatment processes generate lot of liquid waste, which contains toxic substances and are potentially harmful to the living beings. It is extremely difficult to treat the pollutants where processes and frequencies are not fixed. In Chemical Treatment Facility of RRCAT, surface treatment processes are user dependent and makes the electroplating waste very complicated. Initially the waste was treated by simple chemical transformation technique in which heavy metal ions are converted to hydroxide precipitates. Non metallic ions that contribute much to the plating waste could not be treated by this process. To remove maximum possible pollutants, many experiments were conducted on the laboratory scale. Based on those results, a pilot ion exchange plant of various resins was introduced in the process to achieve disposal quality effluent. Anionic load of Phosphate, Nitrate and fluoride caused frequent anionic bed exhaustions and polymeric network damaging. To avoid this phenomenon a new setup was designed. This pre treatment has the capacity to treat 500 litres per hour connected to a platter with clarifier followed by high pressure carbon and pebbles filters. Analysis of these ions was carried out on the advanced ion chromatography system and is found free of toxic metals, phosphate and fluoride. This effluent can be reused by adding a reverse osmosis system followed by ion exchange system to produce good quality de mineralized water needed for surface treatment activities. In this paper we describe the existing status of effluent treatment facility and future plans for achieving 'zero discharge'. (author)

  9. Screening tests for hazard classification of complex waste materials - Selection of methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weltens, R., E-mail: reinhilde.weltens@vito.be [VITO Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Boeretang 200, B 2400 Mol (Belgium); Vanermen, G.; Tirez, K. [VITO Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Boeretang 200, B 2400 Mol (Belgium); Robbens, J. [University of Antwerp - Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Deprez, K.; Michiels, L. [University of Hasselt - Biomedical Research Institute, University Hasselt, Campus Diepenbeek, Agoralaan A, B3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2012-12-15

    In this study we describe the development of an alternative methodology for hazard characterization of waste materials. Such an alternative methodology for hazard assessment of complex waste materials is urgently needed, because the lack of a validated instrument leads to arbitrary hazard classification of such complex waste materials. False classification can lead to human and environmental health risks and also has important financial consequences for the waste owner. The Hazardous Waste Directive (HWD) describes the methodology for hazard classification of waste materials. For mirror entries the HWD classification is based upon the hazardous properties (H1-15) of the waste which can be assessed from the hazardous properties of individual identified waste compounds or - if not all compounds are identified - from test results of hazard assessment tests performed on the waste material itself. For the latter the HWD recommends toxicity tests that were initially designed for risk assessment of chemicals in consumer products (pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, biocides, food, etc.). These tests (often using mammals) are not designed nor suitable for the hazard characterization of waste materials. With the present study we want to contribute to the development of an alternative and transparent test strategy for hazard assessment of complex wastes that is in line with the HWD principles for waste classification. It is necessary to cope with this important shortcoming in hazardous waste classification and to demonstrate that alternative methods are available that can be used for hazard assessment of waste materials. Next, by describing the pros and cons of the available methods, and by identifying the needs for additional or further development of test methods, we hope to stimulate research efforts and development in this direction. In this paper we describe promising techniques and argument on the test selection for the pilot study that we have performed on different types of

  10. Screening tests for hazard classification of complex waste materials--selection of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltens, R; Vanermen, G; Tirez, K; Robbens, J; Deprez, K; Michiels, L

    2012-12-01

    In this study we describe the development of an alternative methodology for hazard characterization of waste materials. Such an alternative methodology for hazard assessment of complex waste materials is urgently needed, because the lack of a validated instrument leads to arbitrary hazard classification of such complex waste materials. False classification can lead to human and environmental health risks and also has important financial consequences for the waste owner. The Hazardous Waste Directive (HWD) describes the methodology for hazard classification of waste materials. For mirror entries the HWD classification is based upon the hazardous properties (H1-15) of the waste which can be assessed from the hazardous properties of individual identified waste compounds or--if not all compounds are identified--from test results of hazard assessment tests performed on the waste material itself. For the latter the HWD recommends toxicity tests that were initially designed for risk assessment of chemicals in consumer products (pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, biocides, food, etc.). These tests (often using mammals) are not designed nor suitable for the hazard characterization of waste materials. With the present study we want to contribute to the development of an alternative and transparent test strategy for hazard assessment of complex wastes that is in line with the HWD principles for waste classification. It is necessary to cope with this important shortcoming in hazardous waste classification and to demonstrate that alternative methods are available that can be used for hazard assessment of waste materials. Next, by describing the pros and cons of the available methods, and by identifying the needs for additional or further development of test methods, we hope to stimulate research efforts and development in this direction. In this paper we describe promising techniques and argument on the test selection for the pilot study that we have performed on different types of

  11. Screening tests for hazard classification of complex waste materials – Selection of methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we describe the development of an alternative methodology for hazard characterization of waste materials. Such an alternative methodology for hazard assessment of complex waste materials is urgently needed, because the lack of a validated instrument leads to arbitrary hazard classification of such complex waste materials. False classification can lead to human and environmental health risks and also has important financial consequences for the waste owner. The Hazardous Waste Directive (HWD) describes the methodology for hazard classification of waste materials. For mirror entries the HWD classification is based upon the hazardous properties (H1–15) of the waste which can be assessed from the hazardous properties of individual identified waste compounds or – if not all compounds are identified – from test results of hazard assessment tests performed on the waste material itself. For the latter the HWD recommends toxicity tests that were initially designed for risk assessment of chemicals in consumer products (pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, biocides, food, etc.). These tests (often using mammals) are not designed nor suitable for the hazard characterization of waste materials. With the present study we want to contribute to the development of an alternative and transparent test strategy for hazard assessment of complex wastes that is in line with the HWD principles for waste classification. It is necessary to cope with this important shortcoming in hazardous waste classification and to demonstrate that alternative methods are available that can be used for hazard assessment of waste materials. Next, by describing the pros and cons of the available methods, and by identifying the needs for additional or further development of test methods, we hope to stimulate research efforts and development in this direction. In this paper we describe promising techniques and argument on the test selection for the pilot study that we have performed on different

  12. Can we talk? Communications management for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, a complex nuclear waste management project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia Nuclear Waste Management Program is pursuing for DOE an option for permanently disposing radioactive waste in deep geologic repositories. Included in the Program are the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project for US defense program mixed waste the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) for spent power reactor fuel and vitrified high-level waste, projects for other waste types, and development efforts in environmental decision support technologies. WIPP and YMP are in the public arena, of a controversial nature, and provide significant management challenges. Both projects have large project teams, multiple organization participants, large budgets, long durations, are very complex, have a high degree of programmatic risk, and operate in an extremely regulated environment requiring legal defensibility. For environmental projects like these to succeed, SNL's Program is utilizing nearly all areas in PMI's Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) to manage along multiple project dimensions such as the physical sciences (e.g., geophysics and geochemistry; performance assessment; decision analysis) management sciences (controlling the triple constraint of performance, cost and schedule), and social sciences (belief systems; public participation; institutional politics). This discussion focuses primarily on communication challenges active on WIPP. How is the WIPP team meeting the challenges of managing communications?'' and ''How are you approaching similar challenges?'' will be questions for a dialog with the audience

  13. Safety report for Central Interim Storage facility for radioactive waste from small producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1999 the Agency for Radwaste Management took over the management of the Central Interim Storage (CIS) in Brinje, intended only for radioactive waste from industrial, medical and research applications. With the transfer of the responsibilities for the storage operation, ARAO, the new operator of the facility, received also the request from the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration for refurbishment and reconstruction of the storage and for preparation of the safety report for the storage with the operational conditions and limitations. In order to fulfill these requirements ARAO first thoroughly reviewed the existing documentation on the facility, the facility itself and the stored inventory. Based on the findings of this review ARAO prepared several basic documents for improvement of the current conditions in the storage facility. In October 2000 the Plan for refurbishment and modernization of the CIS was prepared, providing an integral approach towards remediation and refurbishment of the facility, optimization of the inventory arrangement and modernization of the storage and storing utilization. In October 2001 project documentation for renewal of electric installations, water supply and sewage system, ventilation system, the improvements of the fire protection and remediation of minor defects discovered in building were completed according to the Act on Construction. In July 2003 the safety report was prepared, based on the facility status after the completion of the reconstruction works. It takes into account all improvements and changes introduced by the refurbishment and reconstruction of the facility according to project documentation. Besides the basic characteristics of the location and its surrounding, it also gives the technical description of the facility together with proposed solutions for the renewal of electric installations, renovation of water supply and sewage system, refurbishment of the ventilation system, the improvement of fire

  14. Analysis of the low-level waste radionuclide inventory for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of a study to improve the estimates of the radionuclides in the low-level radioactive waste (LLW) inventory which is buried in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). The work is done to support the RWMC draft performance assessment (PA). Improved radionuclide inventory estimates are provided for the INEL LLW generators. Engineering, environmental assessment or other research areas may find use for the information in this report. It may also serve as a LLW inventory baseline for data quality assurance. The individual INEL LLW generators, their history and their activities are also described in detail

  15. Ticks of the Hyalomma marginatum complex transported by migratory birds into Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapek, Miroslav; Literák, I.; Kocianová, E.; Sychra, O.; Najer, T.; Trnka, A.; Kverek, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 5 (2014), s. 489-493. ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Ticks * Hyalomma marginatum complex * Vector * Passerines * Migration * Central Europe Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2014

  16. THORR Steam Reforming Technology for the Treatment of Complex and Problematic Wastes - 59084

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many types of complex radioactive wastes exist, that due to their chemical and radiological characteristics, are problematic to treat using traditional methods. Studsvik has developed the THORR process that has the capability to successfully treat a wide variety of radioactive wastes including those with high organic content, high nitrate and nitrite content, high solids content, and heavy metal bearing. The process produces a dry stable waste form with no liquid effluents and environmentally compliant off-gas emissions, while reducing the overall waste volume. The more than 10 years of successful operations at Studsvik's facility in Erwin, TN USA provides the foundation for the deployment of the THORR steam reforming process for the treatment of many complex wastes. The THORR process has been shown to effectively convert numerous types of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) liquid radioactive wastes into solid products while providing a final waste form with leach resistance comparable to vitrified glass waste forms. In addition to testing and on-going project work in the U.S., multiple test programs including lab-scale and engineering-scale demonstrations have been successfully completed for several international organizations. This international work has included testing and development work with solid and liquid organic wastes, as well as high nitrate content liquid waste and graphite. In order to better meet the needs of the international market, Studsvik offers a modular form of its THORR process that is transportable to multiple locations, enabling customers to treat a wide variety of waste streams at multiple sites without the need to design and construct multiple treatment facilities. This paper will provide an up to date overview of the THORR technology, its current capabilities, and a summary of current THORR projects. (authors)

  17. Isotopic detection of waste water disposal in deep pre-tertiary aquifers in the Weisselster basin, Central Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Central German lignite mining area pumping of ground water along with mining activities have caused severe hydraulic disturbances in the aquifer system. Moreover in the period from 1940's to mid 1970's coal processing companies injected phenolic waste water into abandoned mining pits and deep Upper Permian Zechstein aquifers. A spatial analysis of the data from 350 drillings allowed to characterise the subsurface geology; phenolic waste water traces were found in Zechstein aquifer

  18. Management and hazardous waste characterization in Central for Isotop and Radiation Application based on potential dangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separating and storing hazardous waste have been done based on the physical, chemical, and based on potential dangers due to safety hazardous waste temporary storage warehouse. From the results of data collection in 2014 found that the most dominant hazardous waste is organic liquid waste which reaches 61 %, followed by inorganic liquid waste 33 % while organic solid waste and inorganic solid waste has a small portion. When viewed from potential danger, flammable liquid waste has the greatest volume percentage it is 47 % and is followed by a corrosive liquid waste 26 %, while the liquid waste that has not been identified is quite large, which is 9 %. From the highest hazard potential data, hazardous waste storage warehouse is required to have good air circulation and waste storage shelf protected from direct solar heat. Cooperation of lab workers and researchers are also indispensable in providing identification of each waste generated to facilitate the subsequent waste management. (author)

  19. Fate of copper complexes in hydrothermally altered deep-sea sediments from the Central Indian Ocean Basin.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Sander, S.G.; Jayachandran, S.; Nath, B.N.; Nagaraju, G.; Chennuri, K.; Vudamala, K.; Lathika, N.; Mascarenhas-Pereira, M.B.L.

    -EDTA complexes. The speciation of Cu indicates that hydrothermally influenced deep-sea sediments from Central Indian Ocean Basin may not significantly contribute to the global Cu flux. However, increasing lability of Cu-sediment complexes with increasing depth...

  20. Treatment of uranium contaminated waste by complexation and ultrafiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is an attempt to remove uranium by complexing with some complexing agents and passing the effluent through ultrafilter of 1000 molecular weight cut off hollow fibre membrane made of polysulphone to retain uranium along with complexing agent. Polyethylenimine, polyacrylamide and EDTA have been used as complexing agents whereas Ca3(PO4)2 and Fe(OH)3 as precipitating agents for this purpose. Results indicate that 800 mg/L of EDTA and 200 mg/L of polyethylenimine at a pH of 8 to 9 are most effective. The final activity was brought down to 10-7 mCi/L being the maximum permissible concentration for alpha activity in the effluent to be discharged in the sea. (author). 4 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  1. The Centralized Temporary Storage (ATC) Spanish. General and operational readiness in the management of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-level waste will go to Centralized Temporary Storage (ATC) in Villar de Canas (Cuenca), which is the solution to your management until finished designing its final disposal in the Deep Geological Storage (AGP). Transport containers of high activity radioactive waste will be stored on arrival at the ATC. In time of management, waste will be taken remotely, will be encapsulated in secure conditions and stored in vaults designed to be cooled by natural convection of air confinement. The buildings in the facility will have a general provision optimize the movement of packages and people for the development of all these activities. (Author)

  2. Review of DOE's proposal for Crystalline bedrock disposal of radioactive waste, north-central area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE's Region-to-Area Screening Methodology for the Crystalline Repository Project (DOE/CH-1), the Final North-Central Region Geologic Characterization Report (DOE/CH-8(1)), and the Draft Area Recommendation Report for the Crystalline Repository Project (DOE/CH-15), with the associated maps, were reviewed. The review has focused on all general information regarding geologic topics and all site-specific data for DOE sites NC-10 and NC-3. This report contains two parts: (1) a point-by-point critique of perceived errors, omissions, or other shortcomings in each of the three documents; and (2) a discussion of the feasibility of crystalline bedrock as a suitable host medium for high-level radioactive waste

  3. A Survey of Mixed-Waste HEPA Filters in the DOE Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felicione, F. S.; Barber, D. B.; Carney, K. P.

    2002-02-28

    A brief investigation was made to determine the quantities of spent, mixed-waste HEPA filters within the DOE Complex. The quantities of both the mixed-waste filters that are currently being generated, as well as the legacy mixed-waste filters being stored and awaiting disposition were evaluated. Seven DOE sites representing over 89% of the recent HEPA filter usage were identified. These sites were then contacted to determine the number of these filters that were likely destined to become mixed waste and to survey the legacy-filter quantities. Inquiries into the disposition plans for the filters were also made. It was determined that the seven sites surveyed possess approximately 500 m3 of legacy mixed-waste HEPA filters that will require processing, with an annual generation rate of approximately 25 m3. No attempt was made to extrapolate the results of this survey to the entire DOE Complex. These results were simply considered to be the lower bound of the totality of mixed-waste HEPA filters throughout the Complex. The quantities determined encourage the development of new treatment technologies for these filters, and provide initial data on which an appropriate capacity for a treatment process may be based.

  4. A Survey of Mixed-Waste HEPA Filters in the DOE Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief investigation was made to determine the quantities of spent, mixed-waste HEPA filters within the DOE Complex. The quantities of both the mixed-waste filters that are currently being generated, as well as the legacy mixed-waste filters being stored and awaiting disposition were evaluated. Seven DOE sites representing over 89% of the recent HEPA filter usage were identified. These sites were then contacted to determine the number of these filters that were likely destined to become mixed waste and to survey the legacy-filter quantities. Inquiries into the disposition plans for the filters were also made. It was determined that the seven sites surveyed possess approximately 500 m3 of legacy mixed-waste HEPA filters that will require processing, with an annual generation rate of approximately 25 m3. No attempt was made to extrapolate the results of this survey to the entire DOE Complex. These results were simply considered to be the lower bound of the totality of mixed-waste HEPA filters throughout the Complex. The quantities determined encourage the development of new treatment technologies for these filters, and provide initial data on which an appropriate capacity for a treatment process may be based

  5. An anillin-Ect2 complex stabilizes central spindle microtubules at the cortex during cytokinesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Frenette

    Full Text Available Cytokinesis occurs due to the RhoA-dependent ingression of an actomyosin ring. During anaphase, the Rho GEF (guanine nucleotide exchange factor Ect2 is recruited to the central spindle via its interaction with MgcRacGAP/Cyk-4, and activates RhoA in the central plane of the cell. Ect2 also localizes to the cortex, where it has access to RhoA. The N-terminus of Ect2 binds to Cyk-4, and the C-terminus contains conserved DH (Dbl homologous and PH (Pleckstrin Homology domains with GEF activity. The PH domain is required for Ect2's cortical localization, but its molecular function is not known. In cultured human cells, we found that the PH domain interacts with anillin, a contractile ring protein that scaffolds actin and myosin and interacts with RhoA. The anillin-Ect2 interaction may require Ect2's association with lipids, since a novel mutation in the PH domain, which disrupts phospholipid association, weakens their interaction. An anillin-RacGAP50C (homologue of Cyk-4 complex was previously described in Drosophila, which may crosslink the central spindle to the cortex to stabilize the position of the contractile ring. Our data supports an analogous function for the anillin-Ect2 complex in human cells and one hypothesis is that this complex has functionally replaced the Drosophila anillin-RacGAP50C complex. Complexes between central spindle proteins and cortical proteins could regulate the position of the contractile ring by stabilizing microtubule-cortical interactions at the division plane to ensure the generation of active RhoA in a discrete zone.

  6. SCIENTIFIC METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO CREATION OF COMPLEX CONTROL SYSTEM MODEL FOR THE STREAMS OF BUILDING WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tskhovrebov Eduard Stanislavovich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2011 in Russia a Strategy of Production Development of Construction Materials and Industrial Housing Construction for the period up to 2020 was approved as one of strategic documents in the sphere of construction. In the process of this strategy development all the needs of construction complex were taken into account in all the spheres of economy, including transport system. The strategy also underlined, that the construction industry is a great basis for use and application in secondary economic turnover of dangerous waste from different production branches. This gives possibility to produce construction products of recycled materials and at the same time to solve the problem of environmental protection. The article considers and analyzes scientific methodological approaches to creation of a model of a complex control system for the streams of building waste in frames of organizing uniform ecologically safe and economically effective complex system of waste treatment in country regions.

  7. Assessment of the Impact of Complex Healthcare Features on Construction Waste Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niluka Domingo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over recent years, the British government has been investing billions of pounds in new and refurbished healthcare building projects. With the rapid growth in investment in healthcare infrastructure throughout the United Kingdom, a number of sustainability issues have been created, including construction waste generation. There is growing consensus in the literature that healthcare buildings are “complex”, due to their unique functional and operational features, and are thus more prone to generating larger amounts of construction waste. However, no significant research has been undertaken to identify the relationships between complex features in building projects and construction waste production, which is the focus of this study. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey were conducted among healthcare clients, contractors, and architects. A life cycle approach has been adopted in this study to holistically assess and evaluate the effects of complexities with construction waste causes in healthcare projects. The findings reveal that the complex shapes and sizes of rooms, and mechanical and electrical services, significantly impact waste caused by such things as: incomplete briefing, incorrect drawing details, complex designs, non-standard designs, and inadequate communication and coordination in the pre-design, design, and construction stages.

  8. A multi-criteria assessment of scenarios on thermal processing of infectious hospital wastes: A case study for Central Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Greece more than 14,000 tonnes of infectious hospital waste are produced yearly; a significant part of it is still mismanaged. Only one off-site licensed incineration facility for hospital wastes is in operation, with the remaining of the market covered by various hydroclave and autoclave units, whereas numerous problems are still generally encountered regarding waste segregation, collection, transportation and management, as well as often excessive entailed costs. Everyday practices still include dumping the majority of solid hospital waste into household disposal sites and landfills after sterilization, still largely without any preceding recycling and separation steps. Discussed in the present paper are the implemented and future treatment practices of infectious hospital wastes in Central Macedonia; produced quantities are reviewed, actual treatment costs are addressed critically, whereas the overall situation in Greece is discussed. Moreover, thermal treatment processes that could be applied for the treatment of infectious hospital wastes in the region are assessed via the multi-criteria decision method Analytic Hierarchy Process. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis was performed and the analysis demonstrated that a centralized autoclave or hydroclave plant near Thessaloniki is the best performing option, depending however on the selection and weighing of criteria of the multi-criteria process. Moreover the study found that a common treatment option for the treatment of all infectious hospital wastes produced in the Region of Central Macedonia, could offer cost and environmental benefits. In general the multi-criteria decision method, as well as the conclusions and remarks of this study can be used as a basis for future planning and anticipation of the needs for investments in the area of medical waste management.

  9. Final Safety Report for Central Interim Storage Facility for Radioactive Waste from Small Producers in Brinje near Ljubljana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1999 the Agency for Radwaste Management took over the management of the Central Interim Storage for radioactive waste from small producers in Brinje. At the same time in accordance with a Decree on the Mode, Subject and Terms of Performing the Public Service of Radioactive Waste Management (Official Gazette of RS, 32/99) the ARAO agency was appointed to perform the public service of radioactive waste management for waste produced in Slovenia in industry, medicine and research. After taking over responsibility for the storage the ARAO thoroughly reviewed the facility and the stored inventory. Based on the findings of this review the ARAO agency prepared a basic document for the facility i.e. Final Safety Report for the Central Interim Storage for radioactive waste from small producers in Brinje. The safety report is based on the present state of the facility, its location, stored inventory and present operation. The latter is limited to storing of already stored waste, acceptance of new waste only in emergency cases, and internal transport of the accepted waste with a forklift or manually. The Final Safety Report is prepared in accordance with the requirements of Regulation E2 and deals with the following areas: The safety approach to LILW storage, Description and location analysis of the Central interim storage, Technical features of the Central interim storage, Safety analysis of the Central interim storage, Organisational measures for normal operation of the Central interim storage, Operational conditions and limitations, Ionising radiation protection service, its methods and equipment, Radioactive waste management and disposal, Review of the plans, measures and procedures to prevent radiological accidents, Quality assurance programme, Review of the measures for physical protection of the LILW storage and stored radioactive waste, Planned measures and necessary equipment for the closure of the Central interim storage. Safety analysis proves that the facility

  10. The Evolution of Privatization at Hanford Tank Waste Treatment Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Privatization acquisition strategies embody substantial contract reform principles-private financing and ownership, competition, fixed prices, and payment only upon delivery of services-which in time became the recipe for privatization of Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) cleanup projects. Privatization changes the federal government's approach from traditional cost-plus contracting, where the federal government pays the contractor as the project progresses, to a strategy where the federal government pays for products or services as they are delivered. To be successful, the privatization requires additional risk taking by the contractor. This paper focuses on why the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) pursued privatization, how the TWRS Privatization Project matured, and why the privatization project moved to an alternate path. The paper is organized as follows: a description of the TWRS-Privatization framework, how the project changed from the original request for proposal through the decision not to proceed to Part B-2, and the lessons learned during evolution of the effort, including what worked as well as what went wrong and how such negative outcomes might be prevented in the future

  11. Laboratory studies of complexed waste slurry volume growth in Tank 241-SY-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of waste volume in complexant laden Hanford waste slurry was found to be due to gas generation caused by the oxidative degradation of the complexant HEDTA. The complexant EDTA was found to be stable in this slurry. The degradation proceeds according to first order kinetics in both NaAlO2 and HEDTA concentration and requires nitrate and/or nitrite to proceed. The dependence of reaction rate on NaOH concentration goes through a maximum implying the formation of an aluminum-HEDTA-hydroxide intermediate reactive species. The reaction products are an unidentified complexant and several gas species; principally N2, N2O and H2. At 1200C HEDTA has a half-life of approx. 100 hours in simulated Tank 101-SY slurry. The reaction shows an Arrhenius dependence of reaction rate on temperature at 60 to 1200C. Aarrhenius activation energy is 24.5 kcal/mole

  12. Nuclear waste management and sustainable development: the complexity of a decision in a controversial universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This PhD dissertation intends to demonstrate in what extent the concept of sustainable development applied to nuclear waste management requires a novel scientific approach. High-level and long-lived radioactive waste management needs to make decisions in taking into account multiple dimensions, characterised by uncertainty, irreversibility, and long term, and which are much debated. These scientific controversies often induce social conflicts due to the divergence in stakeholders point of views, values or interests. Therefore, nuclear waste management in a sustainable development constitutes a complex decision-making problem. This thesis focuses on high-level and long-lived radioactive waste management in the French context because this country is confronted with the most severe conflicts. Researches are operating in the 30 December 1991 law framework, and in 2006 a Parliament decision could be made concerning the choice of a long-term nuclear waste management solution. This survey studies in what extent economics can open to other scientific disciplines in using evaluation tools and decision-making procedures which better integrate several conflicting criteria. This work deals with the criticism of the epistemological and methodological foundations of economic evaluation, notably in questioning the realism of its hypothesis, and a qualitative survey directly made close to stakeholders goes deeper into the analysis of their complex relationships. The first part of this thesis puts in evidence the complexity of a sustainable nuclear waste management. Chapter 1 shows that sustainable nuclear waste management is a health and ecological problem irreducible to a technical solution, and Chapter 2 explains why sustainable nuclear waste management constitutes a social choice problem irreducible to an economic evaluation. The second part of this thesis shows that a concerted decision-making process seems to be a good procedure to overcome this complexity. Chapter 3 analyses

  13. Routine organic air emissions at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Waste Storage Facilities fiscal year 1995 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the data and results of the routine organic air emissions monitoring performed in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Waste Storage Facility, WMF-628, from January 4, 1995 to September 3, 1995. The task objectives were to systematically identify and measure volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations within WMF-628 that could be emitted into the environment. These routine measurements implemented a dual method approach using Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) monitoring and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analytical method TO-14, Summa reg-sign Canister sampling. The data collected from the routine monitoring of WNF-628 will assist in estimating the total VOC emissions from WMF-628

  14. Organic complexant-enhanced mobility of toxic elements in low-level wastes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of a project whose objective was to determine how and to what extent organic complexants affect the mobility of toxic elements in subsurface groundwater at commercial low-level waste disposal sites. The complexants EDTA and picolinate, both of which are used in reactor decontamination operations, were studied most extensively. Hydrous ferric oxide, Fe2O3 x H2O, and kaolinite clay were the soil components most used. Four toxic elements were studied: Ni, Am, Cd, and Pu. Ni, Am and Pu have radioactive isotopes that are commonly present in commercial low-level wastes, and Cd is an example of a nonradioactive toxic element that might also be in such wastes. A wide diversity of effects of organic complexants on toxic element sorption was observed. Some complexes are sorbed by soil components at some pH values, but others are not. Important reactions are slow in some systems but rapid in others. There are two separate reactions in which slow kinetics have been observed in some systems; one is the slow dissociation of a preformed complex and the other is the slow desorption by complexant solutions of a previously sorbed uncomplexed element

  15. 2015 Groundwater Radiological Monitoring Results Associated with the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring results from groundwater wells associated with the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds Reuse Permit (I-161-02). All radiological monitoring is performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  16. Complex utilization of snf processing wastes in air plasma of high-frequency torch discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karengin, A. G.; Karengin, A. A.; Podgornaya, O. D.; Shlotgauer, E. E.

    2014-10-01

    We present results of complex spent nuclear fuel wastes utilization process in air plasma of high-frequency torch discharge in form of dispersed water-organic compositions. We demonstrate the possibility to apply magnetic separation for effective extraction of obtained dispersed solid products including magnetic iron oxide from water suspension.

  17. Neurochemical architecture of the central complex related to its function in the control of grasshopper acoustic communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kunst

    Full Text Available The central complex selects and coordinates the species- and situation-specific song production in acoustically communicating grasshoppers. Control of sound production is mediated by several neurotransmitters and modulators, their receptors and intracellular signaling pathways. It has previously been shown that muscarinic cholinergic excitation in the central complex promotes sound production whereas both GABA and nitric oxide/cyclic GMP signaling suppress its performance. The present immunocytochemical and pharmacological study investigates the question whether GABA and nitric oxide mediate inhibition of sound production independently. Muscarinic ACh receptors are expressed by columnar output neurons of the central complex that innervate the lower division of the central body and terminate in the lateral accessory lobes. GABAergic tangential neurons that innervate the lower division of the central body arborize in close proximity of columnar neurons and thus may directly inhibit these central complex output neurons. A subset of these GABAergic tangential neurons accumulates cyclic GMP following the release of nitric oxide from neurites in the upper division of the central body. While sound production stimulated by muscarine injection into the central complex is suppressed by co-application of sodium nitroprusside, picrotoxin-stimulated singing was not affected by co-application of this nitric oxide donor, indicating that nitric oxide mediated inhibition requires functional GABA signaling. Hence, grasshopper sound production is controlled by processing of information in the lower division of the central body which is subject to modulation by nitric oxide released from neurons in the upper division.

  18. Integrated assessment of a new Waste-to-Energy facility in Central Greece in the context of regional perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkoulidis, G; Papageorgiou, A; Karagiannidis, A; Kalogirou, S

    2010-07-01

    The main aim of this study is the integrated assessment of a proposed Waste-to-Energy facility that could contribute in the Municipal Solid Waste Management system of the Region of Central Greece. In the context of this paper alternative transfer schemes for supplying the candidate facility were assessed considering local conditions and economical criteria. A mixed-integer linear programming model was applied for the determination of optimum locations of Transfer Stations for an efficient supplying chain between the waste producers and the Waste-to-Energy facility. Moreover different Regional Waste Management Scenarios were assessed against multiple criteria, via the Multi Criteria Decision Making method ELECTRE III. The chosen criteria were total cost, Biodegradable Municipal Waste diversion from landfill, energy recovery and Greenhouse Gas emissions and the analysis demonstrated that a Waste Management Scenario based on a Waste-to-Energy plant with an adjacent landfill for disposal of the residues would be the best performing option for the Region, depending however on the priorities of the decision makers. In addition the study demonstrated that efficient planning is necessary and the case of three sanitary landfills operating in parallel with the WtE plant in the study area should be avoided. Moreover alternative cases of energy recovery of the candidate Waste-to-Energy facility were evaluated against the requirements of the new European Commission Directive on waste in order for the facility to be recognized as recovery operation. The latter issue is of high significance and the decision makers in European Union countries should take it into account from now on, in order to plan and implement facilities that recover energy efficiently. Finally a sensitivity check was performed in order to evaluate the effects of increased recycling rate, on the calorific value of treated Municipal Solid Waste and the gate fee of the candidate plant and found that increased

  19. Integrated assessment of a new Waste-to-Energy facility in Central Greece in the context of regional perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of this study is the integrated assessment of a proposed Waste-to-Energy facility that could contribute in the Municipal Solid Waste Management system of the Region of Central Greece. In the context of this paper alternative transfer schemes for supplying the candidate facility were assessed considering local conditions and economical criteria. A mixed-integer linear programming model was applied for the determination of optimum locations of Transfer Stations for an efficient supplying chain between the waste producers and the Waste-to-Energy facility. Moreover different Regional Waste Management Scenarios were assessed against multiple criteria, via the Multi Criteria Decision Making method ELECTRE III. The chosen criteria were total cost, Biodegradable Municipal Waste diversion from landfill, energy recovery and Greenhouse Gas emissions and the analysis demonstrated that a Waste Management Scenario based on a Waste-to-Energy plant with an adjacent landfill for disposal of the residues would be the best performing option for the Region, depending however on the priorities of the decision makers. In addition the study demonstrated that efficient planning is necessary and the case of three sanitary landfills operating in parallel with the WtE plant in the study area should be avoided. Moreover alternative cases of energy recovery of the candidate Waste-to-Energy facility were evaluated against the requirements of the new European Commission Directive on waste in order for the facility to be recognized as recovery operation. The latter issue is of high significance and the decision makers in European Union countries should take it into account from now on, in order to plan and implement facilities that recover energy efficiently. Finally a sensitivity check was performed in order to evaluate the effects of increased recycling rate, on the calorific value of treated Municipal Solid Waste and the gate fee of the candidate plant and found that increased

  20. Anti-triangle centrality-based community detection in complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Songwei; Gao, Lin; Gao, Yong; Wang, Haiyang

    2014-06-01

    Community detection has been extensively studied in the past decades largely because of the fact that community exists in various networks such as technological, social and biological networks. Most of the available algorithms, however, only focus on the properties of the vertices, ignoring the roles of the edges. To explore the roles of the edges in the networks for community discovery, the authors introduce the novel edge centrality based on its antitriangle property. To investigate how the edge centrality characterises the community structure, they develop an approach based on the edge antitriangle centrality with the isolated vertex handling strategy (EACH) for community detection. EACH first calculates the edge antitriangle centrality scores for all the edges of a given network and removes the edge with the highest score per iteration until the scores of the remaining edges are all zero. Furthermore, EACH is characterised by being free of the parameters and independent of any additional measures to determine the community structure. To demonstrate the effectiveness of EACH, they compare it with the state-of-the art algorithms on both the synthetic networks and the real world networks. The experimental results show that EACH is more accurate and has lower complexity in terms of community discovery and especially it can gain quite inherent and consistent communities with a maximal diameter of four jumps. PMID:25014378

  1. Evaluation of Xenon Gas Detection as a Means for Identifying Buried Transuranic Waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P Evan; Waichler, Scott R.

    2004-04-01

    Xenon is produced as a fission product in nuclear reactors and through spontaneous fission of some transuranic (TRU) isotopes. Xenon gas is nearly inert and will be released from buried TRU waste. This document describes and evaluates the potential for analyzing xenon isotopes in soil gas to detect TRU waste in the subsurface at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's Radioactive Waste Management Complex.

  2. Conceptual Model of Uranium in the Vadose Zone for Acidic and Alkaline Wastes Discharged at the Hanford Site Central Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Szecsody, James E.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    Historically, uranium was disposed in waste solutions of varying waste chemistry at the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The character of how uranium was distributed in the vadose zone during disposal, how it has continued to migrate through the vadose zone, and the magnitude of potential impacts on groundwater are strongly influenced by geochemical reactions in the vadose zone. These geochemical reactions can be significantly influenced by the disposed-waste chemistry near the disposal location. This report provides conceptual models and supporting information to describe uranium fate and transport in the vadose zone for both acidic and alkaline wastes discharged at a substantial number of waste sites in the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The conceptual models include consideration of how co-disposed acidic or alkaline fluids influence uranium mobility in terms of induced dissolution/precipitation reactions and changes in uranium sorption with a focus on the conditions near the disposal site. This information, when combined with the extensive information describing uranium fate and transport at near background pH conditions, enables focused characterization to support effective fate and transport estimates for uranium in the subsurface.

  3. A new closeness centrality measure via effective distance in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yuxian; Gao, Cai; Chen, Xin; Hu, Yong; Sadiq, Rehan; Deng, Yong

    2015-03-01

    Closeness centrality (CC) measure, as a well-known global measure, is widely applied in many complex networks. However, the classical CC presents many problems for flow networks since these networks are directed and weighted. To address these issues, we propose an effective distance based closeness centrality (EDCC), which uses effective distance to replace conventional geographic distance and binary distance obtained by Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm. The proposed EDCC considers not only the global structure of the network but also the local information of nodes. And it can be well applied in directed or undirected, weighted or unweighted networks. Susceptible-Infected model is utilized to evaluate the performance by using the spreading rate and the number of infected nodes. Numerical examples simulated on four real networks are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed EDCC.

  4. Complex-Wide Waste Flow Analysis V1.0 verification and validation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complex-wide waste flow analysis model (CWWFA) was developed to assist the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) to evaluate waste management scenarios with emphasis on identifying and prioritizing technology development opportunities to reduce waste flows and public risk. In addition, the model was intended to support the needs of the Complex-Wide Environmental Integration (EMI) team supporting the DOE's Accelerating Cleanup: 2006 Plan. CWWFA represents an integrated environmental modeling system that covers the life cycle of waste management activities including waste generation, interim process storage, retrieval, characterization and sorting, waste preparation and processing, packaging, final interim storage, transport, and disposal at a final repository. The CWWFA shows waste flows through actual site-specific and facility-specific conditions. The system requirements for CWWFA are documented in the Technical Requirements Document (TRD). The TRD is intended to be a living document that will be modified over the course of the execution of CWWFA development. Thus, it is anticipated that CWWFA will continue to evolve as new requirements are identified (i.e., transportation, small sites, new streams, etc.). This report provides a documented basis for system verification of CWWFA requirements. System verification is accomplished through formal testing and evaluation to ensure that all performance requirements as specified in the TRD have been satisfied. A Requirement Verification Matrix (RVM) was used to map the technical requirements to the test procedures. The RVM is attached as Appendix A. Since February of 1997, substantial progress has been made toward development of the CWWFA to meet the system requirements. This system verification activity provides a baseline on system compliance to requirements and also an opportunity to reevaluate what requirements need to be satisfied in FY-98

  5. Dark fermentation of complex waste biomass for biohydrogen production by pretreated thermophilic anaerobic digestate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Anish; Frunzo, Luigi; Pontoni, Ludovico; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Lens, Piet N L; Esposito, Giovanni; Pirozzi, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    The Biohydrogen Potential (BHP) of six different types of waste biomass typical for the Campania Region (Italy) was investigated. Anaerobic sludge pre-treated with the specific methanogenic inhibitor sodium 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid (BESA) was used as seed inoculum. The BESA pre-treatment yielded the highest BHP in BHP tests carried out with pre-treated anaerobic sludge using potato and pumpkin waste as the substrates, in comparison with aeration or heat shock pre-treatment. The BHP tests carried out with different complex waste biomass showed average BHP values in a decreasing order from potato and pumpkin wastes (171.1 ± 7.3 ml H2/g VS) to buffalo manure (135.6 ± 4.1 ml H2/g VS), dried blood (slaughter house waste, 87.6 ± 4.1 ml H2/g VS), fennel waste (58.1 ± 29.8 ml H2/g VS), olive pomace (54.9 ± 5.4 ml H2/g VS) and olive mill wastewater (46.0 ± 15.6 ml H2/g VS). The digestate was analyzed for major soluble metabolites to elucidate the different biochemical pathways in the BHP tests. These showed the H2 was produced via mixed type fermentation pathways. PMID:25617867

  6. Aggradational and erosional history of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term performance of the low-level waste disposal site at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is partially dependent on the stability of the land surface with respect to erosion of cover materials. This document discusses the aggradational and erosional history of the naturally occurring sediments and soils in and around the RWMC, focusing on the late-Pleistocene and Holocene epochs. Other related issues include the ages of the various deposits, the extent to which they have been altered by soil formation and other processes, their relationships to the basalt flows in the area, and the impact of human activity on the materials at the RWMC

  7. SHARING AND DEPLOYING INNOVATIVE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS TO MANAGE WASTE ACROSS THE DOE COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crolley, R.; Thompson, M.

    2011-01-31

    There has been a need for a faster and cheaper deployment model for information technology (IT) solutions to address waste management needs at US Department of Energy (DOE) complex sites for years. Budget constraints, challenges in deploying new technologies, frequent travel, and increased job demands for existing employees have prevented IT organizations from staying abreast of new technologies or deploying them quickly. Despite such challenges, IT organizations have added significant value to waste management handling through better worker safety, tracking, characterization, and disposition at DOE complex sites. Systems developed for site-specific missions have broad applicability to waste management challenges and in many cases have been expanded to meet other waste missions. Radio frequency identification (RFID) and global positioning satellite (GPS)-enabled solutions have reduced the risk of radiation exposure and safety risks. New web-based and mobile applications have enabled precision characterization and control of nuclear materials. These solutions have also improved operational efficiencies and shortened schedules, reduced cost, and improved regulatory compliance. Collaboration between US Department of Energy (DOE) complex sites is improving time to delivery and cost efficiencies for waste management missions with new information technologies (IT) such as wireless computing, global positioning satellite (GPS), and radio frequency identification (RFID). Integrated solutions developed at separate DOE complex sites by new technology Centers of Excellence (CoE) have increased material control and accountability, worker safety, and environmental sustainability. CoEs offer other DOE sister sites significant cost and time savings by leveraging their technology expertise in project scoping, implementation, and ongoing operations.

  8. The environmental impacts and waste problems of the Russian Nuclear complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russia as a successor state of the former Soviet Union with its big nuclear industry is one of the countries where a big amount of nuclear waste exists and where some regions are strongly affected by radioactive contaminations. In June 2001 the Russian State Duma passed an amendment to the Law on Environmental Protection and paved the way to import nuclear waste in large. The proponents of the law stress that the import will be important for the development of Russian industry and science and Russian authorities believe the income from the spent nuclear fuel import will total at least $20 billions. In view of Russia's problems with the management of the nuclear waste already existing and with the cleaning up of contaminated areas, environmentalists fear that the earnings neither will reach that level nor will be used for cleaning up the many dangerously contaminated areas, and that the massive import of nuclear waste will increase the danger of an environmental catastrophe to occur. Against this background the study gives a view over the most important components of the Russian nuclear complex and discusses its risks and problems as well as the effects on man and nature. National and international measures and aid programmes to remove the problems with the nuclear waste are represented. In comparison with Russia and with regard to the planned nuclear imports international practice of nuclear waste disposal and its problems are discussed. At the end recommendations are formulated which measures should be taken by Russia to decrease security risks by nuclear waste disposal, to reduce the amount of nuclear waste and to foster the search for suitable possibilities of permanent disposal. (orig.)

  9. Central interstate low-level radioactive waste compact region site exclusionary screening study. Phase I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 assigns to the states the responsibility for disposal of the low-level radioactive waste generated within their boundaries. It also provides for regional compacts among states to address their needs on a broader basis and permits restriction of the use of regional disposal facilities after January 1, 1986, to generators of low-level waste within the region. Each state, either individually or as a member of a compact, must therefore consider the establishment of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility within its borders. The states of Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Nebraska, and Oklahoma adopted the Central Interstate Low-Level Waste Compact (CILLWC) and legislation was submitted to Congress for consent in June of 1983 legislation is being reintroduced in the 99th Congress. In August of 1984, the CILLWC selected and contracted Dames and Moore to conduct a Phase I-Site Suitability Screening Study for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in the five-state region. This report presents the results of the Phase I Screening Study. Dames and Moore reported to the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) of the CILLWC which provided guidance and comment on work progress and direction

  10. Fundamental chemistry, characterization, and separation of technetium complexes in Hanford waste. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'The ultimate goal of this proposal is to separate technetium from Hanford tank waste. The recent work has shown that a large portion of the technetium is not pertechnetate (TcO4-) and is not easily oxidized. This has serious repercussions for technetium partitioning schemes because they are designed to separate this chemical form. Rational attempts to oxidize these species to TcO4- for processing or to separate the non-pertechnetate species themselves would be facilitated by knowing the identity of these complexes and understanding their fundamental chemistry. Tank characterization work has not yet identified any of the non-pertechnetate species. However, based on the types of ligands available and the redox conditions in the tank, a reasonable speculation can be made about the types of species that may be present. Thus, this proposal will synthesize and characterize the relevant model complexes of Tc(III), Tc(IV), and Tc(V) that may have formed under tank waste conditions. Once synthesized, these complexes will be used as standards for developing and characterizing the non-pertechnetate species in actual waste using instrumental techniques such as capillary electrophoresis electrospray mass spectrometry (CE-MS), x-ray absorbance spectroscopy (EXAFS and XANES), and multi-nuclear NMR (including 99Tc NMR). The authors study the redox chemistry of the technetium complexes so that more efficient and selective oxidative methods can be used to bring these species to TcO4- for processing purposes. They will also study their ligand substitution chemistry which could be used to develop separation methods for non-pertechnetate species. Understanding the fundamental chemistry of these technetium complexes will enable technetium to be efficiently removed from the Hanford tank waste and help DOE to fulfill its remediation mission. This report summarizes the first 8 months of a 3-year project.'

  11. Selection of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites using screening models versus more complex methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The task of choosing a waste-disposal site from a set of candidate sites requires an approach capable of objectively handling many environmental variables for each site. Several computer methodologies have been developed to assist in the process of choosing a site for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste; however, most of these models are costly to apply, in terms of computer resources and the time and effort required by professional modelers, geologists, and waste-disposal experts. The authors describe how the relatively simple DRASTIC methodology (a standardized system for evaluating groundwater pollution potential using hydrogeologic settings) may be used for open-quotes pre-screeningclose quotes of sites to determine which subset of candidate sites is worthy of more detailed screening. Results of site comparisons made with DRASTIC are compared with results obtained using PRESTO-II methodology, which is representative of the more complex release-transport-human exposure methodologies. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. Materials and Fuels Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego; Brion Bennett

    2011-09-01

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Fuels Complex facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  13. Advanced Test Reactor Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego; Brion Bennett

    2011-11-01

    U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Advanced Test Reactor Complex facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. U.S. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool to develop the radioactive waste management basis.

  14. Design Concepts of a Centralized Automatic Air Monitoring System for a Large Radioisotope Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a large radioisotope complex it is necessary to monitor the activity levels of a large number of laboratory rooms far threshold as well as rate-of-rise alarm conditions. In a conventional monitoring system for such a complex, a number of monitors equipped with alarm circuits are located in various rooms. The outputs from these monitors are brought to a central monitoring room where the activity levels are recorded on multi-pen recorders and alarm conditions are displayed by means of lamps. Such a system requires much wiring and redundant instrumentation. Moreover, there is no record of the alarm conditions. A system for monitoring 100 locations has been designed wherein each location has only a detector and its count-rate meter. The outputs from the CRMs are brought to a central monitoring room where the system is to be located. A scanner in the system scans all the inputs sequentially at a speed of six seconds per input. During the six seconds when an input is selected, the actual value of the input and the threshold and/or rate-of-rise alarm are recorded. The alarm levels can be changed by means of program boards. The information is printed out on a teleprinter in a format which is convenient to Inspect and store. The output is also available on a paper tape which can be fed to a computer for operational analysis. An alarm condition in any one of the laboratory rooms Is annunciated to draw the operator's attention. (author)

  15. Geophysical Survey and Detailed Geologic Mapping of an Eroded Stratovolcano's Central Intrusive Complex, Summer Coon, Co.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, A.

    2015-12-01

    Eroded volcanoes expose plumbing systems that provide important information on intrusive geometries, magma propagation directions, and the effects of host rock types and heterogeneities. Summer Coon Volcano, CO, is an Oligocene stratovolcano where erosion has removed much of the original edifice, revealing the intrusive stocks of the central intrusive complex (CIC). Surrounding the CIC are hundreds of radial dikes ranging from basaltic to rhyolitic in composition. Published geologic maps indicate most radial dikes do not connect to the intrusive stocks, supporting published theories that most did not emanate from the central intrusions. However, much of the area surrounding the CIC is covered by alluvium, suggesting that the lack of connection might be an artifact of exposure. We completed a ground magnetic survey and detailed geological mapping to determine if the dikes continue beneath the alluvium and into the intrusive stocks. Linear magnetic anomalies indicate four NW-SE trending rhyodacite dikes continue beneath the alluvium for up to 250 m, and mapping indicates that at least two of the rhyodacite dikes do extend into the CIC. Shorter linear anomalies are attributed to seven NW-SE trending basaltic dikes ~100-500-m-long which are sparsely exposed in the alluvium. Mapping shows that three rhyodacite dikes extend into the CIC and to within 200 m of their possible source, an 800-m-wide granodiorite stock. Additionally, three rhyolitic dikes extend to within several meters of a 200×500-m-wide tuff breccia zone of similar composition, likely their source. In summary, magnetic data and detailed mapping indicate that radial dikes do extend into the central intrusive complex in contrast to some model predictions.

  16. Neuroarchitecture and neuroanatomy of the Drosophila central complex: A GAL4-based dissection of protocerebral bridge neurons and circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Tanya; Iyer, Nirmala A; Rubin, Gerald M

    2015-05-01

    Insects exhibit an elaborate repertoire of behaviors in response to environmental stimuli. The central complex plays a key role in combining various modalities of sensory information with an insect's internal state and past experience to select appropriate responses. Progress has been made in understanding the broad spectrum of outputs from the central complex neuropils and circuits involved in numerous behaviors. Many resident neurons have also been identified. However, the specific roles of these intricate structures and the functional connections between them remain largely obscure. Significant gains rely on obtaining a comprehensive catalog of the neurons and associated GAL4 lines that arborize within these brain regions, and on mapping neuronal pathways connecting these structures. To this end, small populations of neurons in the Drosophila melanogaster central complex were stochastically labeled using the multicolor flip-out technique and a catalog was created of the neurons, their morphologies, trajectories, relative arrangements, and corresponding GAL4 lines. This report focuses on one structure of the central complex, the protocerebral bridge, and identifies just 17 morphologically distinct cell types that arborize in this structure. This work also provides new insights into the anatomical structure of the four components of the central complex and its accessory neuropils. Most strikingly, we found that the protocerebral bridge contains 18 glomeruli, not 16, as previously believed. Revised wiring diagrams that take into account this updated architectural design are presented. This updated map of the Drosophila central complex will facilitate a deeper behavioral and physiological dissection of this sophisticated set of structures. PMID:25380328

  17. SHRIMP U–Pb zircon dating of anatexis in high-grade migmatite complexes of Central Spain: implications in the Hercynian evolution of Central Iberia

    OpenAIRE

    Castiñeiras García, Pedro; Villaseca González, Carlos; Barbero González, Luis C.; Martín Romera, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    U–Pb SHRIMP ages obtained in zircons from the Sotosalbos and Toledo anatectic complexes in Central Spain give new constraints to the evolution of the inner part of the Hercynian Iberian belt. Pre- Hercynian ages in zircons from the Sotosalbos complex (~464 Ma) are well preserved and reveal that an age diversity of the Lower Paleozoic magmatism in the area exists, as previous data on westernmost orthogneisses yield significant older ages. Zircon ages in the pelite-de...

  18. Improving societal acceptance of rad waste management policy decisions: an approach based on complex intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In today's context elaborate public participation exercises are conducted around the world to elicit and incorporate societal risk perceptions into nuclear policy Decision-Making. However, on many occasions, such as in the case of rad waste management, the society remains unconvinced about these decisions. This naturally leads to the questions: are techniques for incorporating societal risk perceptions into the rad waste policy decision making processes sufficiently mature? How could societal risk perceptions and legal normative principles be better integrated in order to render the decisions more equitable and convincing to society? Based on guidance from socio-psychological research this paper postulates that a critical factor for gaining/improving societal acceptance is the quality and adequacy of criteria for option evaluation that are used in the policy decision making. After surveying three rad waste public participation cases, the paper identifies key lacunae in criteria abstraction processes as currently practiced. A new policy decision support model CIRDA: Complex Intelligent Risk Discourse Abstraction model that is based on the heuristic of Risk-Risk Analysis is proposed to overcome these lacunae. CIRDA's functionality of rad waste policy decision making is modelled as a policy decision-making Abstract Intelligent Agent and the agent program/abstraction mappings are presented. CIRDA is then applied to a live (U.K.) rad waste management case and the advantages of this method as compared to the Value Tree Method as practiced in the GB case are demonstrated. (author)

  19. Copper (II) and lead (II) complexation capacity of composts from several wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Cortés, E.; Madrid, Luis; Bejarano Bravo, M.

    2001-01-01

    Several authors have shown the great importance of organic matter on the bioavailability of metal ions for plants and how formation of complexes can affect their retention and solubility (Harter and Naidu, 1995). Thus, although addition of composts from several wastes to soils as organic amendments is a common practice, their excessive use may cause deficiency or toxicity of heavy metals in some instances. An increase in metal solubility due to formation of soluble comple...

  20. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113: Project cost estimate. Preliminary design report. Volume IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains Volume IV of the Preliminary Design Report for the Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113 which is the Project Cost Estimate and construction schedule. The estimate was developed based upon Title 1 material take-offs, budgetary equipment quotes and Raytheon historical in-house data. The W-113 project cost estimate and project construction schedule were integrated together to provide a resource loaded project network

  1. A dynamic simulation model of the Savannah River Site high level waste complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed, dynamic simulation entire high level radioactive waste complex at the Savannah River Site has been developed using SPEEDUP(tm) software. The model represents mass transfer, evaporation, precipitation, sludge washing, effluent treatment, and vitrification unit operation processes through the solution of 7800 coupled differential and algebraic equations. Twenty-seven discrete chemical constituents are tracked through the unit operations. The simultaneous simultaneous simulation of concurrent batch and continuous processes is achieved by several novel, customized SPEEDUP(tm) algorithms. Due to the model's computational burden, a high-end work station is required: simulation of a years operation of the complex requires approximately three CPU hours on an IBM RS/6000 Model 590 processor. The model will be used to develop optimal high level waste (HLW) processing strategies over a thirty year time horizon. It will be employed to better understand the dynamic inter-relationships between different HLW unit operations, and to suggest strategies that will maximize available working tank space during the early years of operation and minimize overall waste processing cost over the long-term history of the complex. Model validation runs are currently underway with comparisons against actual plant operating data providing an excellent match

  2. Ruthenium nitrosyl complexes in radioactive waste solutions of reprocessing plants. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of neutral ruthenium nitrosyl nitrato complexes found in high-level wastes (HLW) is similar to that in pure nitric solutions. Solutions with a high salt content, such as feed-solution or concentrated HLW (HLWC), contain a higher percentage of neutral complexes. The introduction of nitrous gases into simulated HLWC causes a lasting change of the complex equilibria by formation of nitro and nitro-nitrato complexes. After 30 days storage at 600C, the composition of the solutions treated with nitrous gases is practically the same as in the simulated HLWC stored for 30 days at 600C. As to the latter solution, a storage of 7 days is sufficient for experiments on the volatility of ruthenium during vitrification. (orig.)

  3. Current situation with the centralized storage facilities for non-power radioactive wastes in Latin American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Several Latin American (LA) countries have been firmly committed to the peaceful applications of ionizing radiations in medicine, industry, agriculture and research in order to achieve socioeconomic development in diverse sectors. Consequently the use of radioactive materials and radiation sources as well as the production of radioisotopes and labeled compounds may always produce radioactive wastes which require adequate management and, in the end, disposal. However, there are countries in the Latin American region whose radioactive waste volumes do not easily justify a national repository. Moreover, such facilities are extremely expensive to develop. It is unlikely that such an option will become available in the foreseeable future for most of these countries, which do not have nuclear industries. Storage has long been incorporated as a step in the management of radioactive wastes. In the recent years, there have been developments that have led some countries to consider whether the roles of storage might be expanded to provide longer-term care of long-live radioactive wastes The aim of this paper is to discuss the current situation with the storage facilities/conditions for the radioactive wastes and disused sealed radioactive sources in Latin-American countries. In some cases a brief description of the existing facilities for certain countries are provided. In other cases, when no centralized facility exists, general information on the radioactive inventories and disused sealed sources is given. (author)

  4. Radionuclide migration pathways analysis for the Oak Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility on the West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dose-to-man pathways analysis is performed for disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the Central Waste Disposal Facility on the West Chestnut Ridge Site. Both shallow land burial (trench) and aboveground (tumulus) disposal methods are considered. The waste volumes, characteristics, and radionuclide concentrations are those of waste streams anticipated from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The site capacity for the waste streams is determined on the basis of the pathways analysis. The exposure pathways examined include (1) migration and transport of leachate from the waste disposal units to the Clinch River (via the groundwater medium for trench disposal and Ish Creek for tumulus disposal) and (2) those potentially associated with inadvertent intrusion following a 100-year period of institutional control: an individual resides on the site, inhales suspended particles of contaminated dust, ingests vegetables grown on the plot, consumes contaminated water from either an on-site well or from a nearby surface stream, and receives direct exposure from the contaminated soil. It is found that either disposal method would provide effective containment and isolation for the anticipated waste inventory. However, the proposed trench disposal method would provide more effective containment than tumuli because of sorption of some radionuclides in the soil. Persons outside the site boundary would receive radiation doses well below regulatory limits if they were to ingest water from the Clinch River. An inadvertent intruder could receive doses that approach regulatory limits; however, the likelihood of such intrusions and subsequent exposures is remote. 33 references, 31 figures, 28 tables

  5. Regulatory controls on the hydrogeological characterization of a mixed waste disposal site, Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the detection of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in the groundwater beneath the SDA in the summer of 1987, hydrogeological characterization of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The waste site, the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA), is the subject of a RCRA Corrective Action Program. Regulatory requirements for the Corrective Action Program dictate a phased approach to evaluation of the SDA. In the first phase of the program, the SDA is the subject of a RCRA Facility Investigation (RIF), which will obtain information to fully characterize the physical properties of the site, determine the nature and extent of contamination, and identify pathways for migration of contaminants. If the need for corrective measures is identified during the RIF, a Corrective Measures Study (CMS) will be performed as second phase. Information generated during the RIF will be used to aid in the selection and implementation of appropriate corrective measures to correct the release. Following the CMS, the final phase is the implementation of the selected corrective measures. 4 refs., 1 fig

  6. Oceanic crust formation in the Egeria Fracture Zone Complex (Central Indian Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Minor, Marine; Gaina, Carmen; Sigloch, Karin; Minakov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to analyse in detail the oceanic crust fabric and volcanic features (seamounts) formed for the last 10 million years at the Central Indian Ridge between 19 and 21 latitude south. Multibeam bathymetry and magnetic data has been collected in 2013 as part of the French-German expedition RHUM-RUM (Reunion hotspot and upper mantle - Reunion's unterer mantel). Three long profiles perpendicular on the Central Indian Ridge (CIR), south of the Egeria fracture zone, document the formation of oceanic crust since 10 million years, along with changes in plate kinematics and variations in the magmatic input. We have inspected the abyssal hill geometry and orientation along conjugate oceanic flanks and within one fracture zone segment where we could identify J-shaped features that are indicators of changes in plate kinematics. The magnetic anomaly data shows a slight asymmetry in seafloor spreading rates on conjugate flanks: while a steady increase in spreading rate from 10 Ma to the present is shown by the western flank, the eastern part displays a slowing down from 5 Ma onwards. The deflection of the anti J-shaped abyssal hill lineations suggest that the left-stepping Egeria fracture zone complex (including the Egeria, Flinders and an un-named fracture zone to the southeast) was under transpression from 9 to 6 Ma and under transtension since 3 Ma. The transpressional event was triggered by a clockwise mid-ocean ridge reorientation and a decrease of its offset, whereas the transtensional regime was probably due to a counter-clockwise change in the spreading direction and an increase of the ridge offset. The new multibeam data along the three profiles reveal that crust on the eastern side is smoother (as shown by the abyssal hill number and structure) and hosts several seamounts (with age estimations of 7.67, 6.10 and 0.79 Ma), in contrast to the rougher conjugate western flank. Considering that the western flank was closer to the Reunion plume, and therefore

  7. Use of Iron (II) Salts and Complexes for the Production of Soil Amendments from Organic Solid Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Chidichimo; Amerigo Beneduci; Ilaria Costa

    2012-01-01

    A method to obtain rapidly stabilized composts for crops from solid organic wastes is evaluated. Here we used a laboratory scale reaction chamber where solid waste treatment was performed under strictly controlled temperature and pressure conditions. The row organic waste was mixed with acid solutions containing iron (II) ions either in the fully hydrated form or in the form of complexes with the diethylentriaminopentaacetic acid. Data from elemental analysis distribution and GC/MS analysis o...

  8. Waste management under multiple complexities: inexact piecewise-linearization-based fuzzy flexible programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Huang, Guo H; Lv, Ying; Li, Gongchen

    2012-06-01

    To tackle nonlinear economies-of-scale (EOS) effects in interval-parameter constraints for a representative waste management problem, an inexact piecewise-linearization-based fuzzy flexible programming (IPFP) model is developed. In IPFP, interval parameters for waste amounts and transportation/operation costs can be quantified; aspiration levels for net system costs, as well as tolerance intervals for both capacities of waste treatment facilities and waste generation rates can be reflected; and the nonlinear EOS effects transformed from objective function to constraints can be approximated. An interactive algorithm is proposed for solving the IPFP model, which in nature is an interval-parameter mixed-integer quadratically constrained programming model. To demonstrate the IPFP's advantages, two alternative models are developed to compare their performances. One is a conventional linear-regression-based inexact fuzzy programming model (IPFP2) and the other is an IPFP model with all right-hand-sides of fussy constraints being the corresponding interval numbers (IPFP3). The comparison results between IPFP and IPFP2 indicate that the optimized waste amounts would have the similar patterns in both models. However, when dealing with EOS effects in constraints, the IPFP2 may underestimate the net system costs while the IPFP can estimate the costs more accurately. The comparison results between IPFP and IPFP3 indicate that their solutions would be significantly different. The decreased system uncertainties in IPFP's solutions demonstrate its effectiveness for providing more satisfactory interval solutions than IPFP3. Following its first application to waste management, the IPFP can be potentially applied to other environmental problems under multiple complexities. PMID:22370050

  9. Reference design for a centralized waste processing and storage facility. Technical manual for the management of low and intermediate level wastes generated at small nuclear research centres and by radioisotope users in medicine, research and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to present the generic reference design of a centralized waste processing and storage facility (WPSF) intended for countries producing small but significant quantities of liquid and solid radioactive wastes. These wastes are generated through the use of radionuclides for research, medical, industrial and other institutional activities in IAEA Member States that have not yet developed the infrastructure for a complete nuclear fuel cycle. The WPSF comprises two separate buildings. The first, for receiving and processing waste from the producers, includes the necessary equipment and support services for treating and conditioning the waste. The second building acts as a simple but adequate warehouse for storing a ten year inventory of the conditioned waste. In developing the design, it was a requirement of the IAEA that options for waste management techniques for each of the waste streams should be evaluated, in order to demonstrate that the reference design is based on the most appropriate technology. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Sampling and analysis plan for sampling of liquid waste streams generated by 222-S Laboratory Complex operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) establishes the requirements and guidelines to be used by the Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. personnel in characterizing liquid waste generated at the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The characterization process to verify the accuracy of process knowledge used for designation and subsequent management of wastes consists of three steps: to prepare the technical rationale and the appendix in accordance with the steps outlined in this SAP; to implement the SAP by sampling and analyzing the requested waste streams; and to compile the report and evaluate the findings to the objectives of this SAP. This SAP applies to portions of the 222-S Laboratory Complex defined as Generator under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Any portion of the 222-S Laboratory Complex that is defined or permitted under RCRA as a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility is excluded from this document. This SAP applies to the liquid waste generated in the 222-S Laboratory Complex. Because the analytical data obtained will be used to manage waste properly, including waste compatibility and waste designation, this SAP will provide directions for obtaining and maintaining the information as required by WAC173-303

  11. Discussion paper: siting a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in the Central Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact region. A model for other regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While this paper is intended to be broad enough in scope to cover the concerns and implementation guidelines of any compact commission, the focus will be on the procedures and guidelines that must be followed under the terms of the Central Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact. This is not necessarily an endorsement of the Central States Compact approach to siting but is rather an attempt to discuss the siting process by using an existing compact as an example. As stated earlier, each compact commission will have to follow the specific guidelines of its compact. Many of the procedures to be followed and technical standards to be considered, however, apply to all the compacts

  12. Waste management under multiple complexities: Inexact piecewise-linearization-based fuzzy flexible programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Inexact piecewise-linearization-based fuzzy flexible programming is proposed. ► It’s the first application to waste management under multiple complexities. ► It tackles nonlinear economies-of-scale effects in interval-parameter constraints. ► It estimates costs more accurately than the linear-regression-based model. ► Uncertainties are decreased and more satisfactory interval solutions are obtained. - Abstract: To tackle nonlinear economies-of-scale (EOS) effects in interval-parameter constraints for a representative waste management problem, an inexact piecewise-linearization-based fuzzy flexible programming (IPFP) model is developed. In IPFP, interval parameters for waste amounts and transportation/operation costs can be quantified; aspiration levels for net system costs, as well as tolerance intervals for both capacities of waste treatment facilities and waste generation rates can be reflected; and the nonlinear EOS effects transformed from objective function to constraints can be approximated. An interactive algorithm is proposed for solving the IPFP model, which in nature is an interval-parameter mixed-integer quadratically constrained programming model. To demonstrate the IPFP’s advantages, two alternative models are developed to compare their performances. One is a conventional linear-regression-based inexact fuzzy programming model (IPFP2) and the other is an IPFP model with all right-hand-sides of fussy constraints being the corresponding interval numbers (IPFP3). The comparison results between IPFP and IPFP2 indicate that the optimized waste amounts would have the similar patterns in both models. However, when dealing with EOS effects in constraints, the IPFP2 may underestimate the net system costs while the IPFP can estimate the costs more accurately. The comparison results between IPFP and IPFP3 indicate that their solutions would be significantly different. The decreased system uncertainties in IPFP’s solutions demonstrate

  13. Reactive transport modelling of organic complexing agents in cement stabilized low and intermediate level waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schenck, Henrik; Källström, Klas

    The Swedish final repository for short-lived radioactive waste (SFR 1) is located at Forsmark in Sweden. It holds low and intermediate-level operational waste from the Swedish nuclear power plants, as well as industrial, research-related, and medical waste. A variety of low molecular weight organic compounds are present in the waste or in its matrix. Such compounds can also be formed by chemical degradation of organic macromolecules. These organics can ligate to metal atoms forming stable complexes and also adsorb to the surface of cement, thereby influencing the net release of radionuclides from the repository. This motivates the study of the concentration distribution of complexing agents in the repository as a function of time. The following paper reports the results of mass transport modelling, describing the transport of complexing agents through the cementitous matrix in the rock vault for intermediate-level waste in the SFR 1 repository. Nitrilotriacetate (NTA) and isosaccharinate (ISA) have been investigated, where the former is considered to be non-sorbing and non-reacting, while the latter is produced from cellulose degradation and adsorbs strongly to cement. The 3D model considers advection, diffusion, and sorption of solvated species in cement pore water over a time period of 20,000 years. The model accounts for the spatial distribution of the flow field in the repository structure and also considers changing groundwater flow during the investigated time period. It is found that 99% of the NTA is removed after approximately 4000 years, while 90% of the ISA is retained in the rock vault after 20,000 years. The maximum pore water concentration of ISA is found to be 8.6 mol/m3 after approximately 2300 years, based on the degradation of the deposited amounts of cellulose. Over the investigated time scale, the ligands retained in the repository can redistribute across several waste compartments where the organic compounds were not originally deposited. In

  14. Organic complexant-enhanced mobility of toxic elements in low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the results obtained during the recent activities of a project whose objective is to determine how and to what extent organic complexants affect the mobility of toxic elements in subsurface groundwaters at commercial low-level waste disposal sites. Generic soil components (e.g., hydrous oxides, silica, clays) are being employed so that the results will be broadly applicable. Data have been obtained with two radionuclides (63Ni and 239Pu) and one nonradioactive toxic element (Cd). Work with 63Ni has been emphasized; it was studied with five different generic soil components (hydrous ferric oxide, silica, titania, kaolinite, and montmorillonite) and five different complexants (EDTA, NTA, picolinate, citrate, and oxalate). EDTA was the complexant studied most extensively and hydrous ferric oxide, Fe2O3 . xH2O, was the most studied soil component. A wide diversity of effects of organic complexants on toxic elements sorption was observed. The effects vary not only among complexants, but also among toxic elements and among soil components. In some systems the complexant results in increased toxic element sorption (decreased mobility) while in other systems the complexant results in decreased toxic element sorption (increased mobility)

  15. Complex processing and utilization of waste as the basis for sustainable economic development district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.М. Ilchenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main environmental problems of Ukraine. The problems that are connected with complex processing and recycling, the example Dnieper economic paradise-one, which allows more detailed present environmental situation of the country at this stage. The article is used and analyzed recent environmental performance and the basic problems of on-disposal and recycling. Basic research methods: observation, analysis and comparison. The aim was to find ways to overcome the ecological crisis in Ukraine. As a result of the research, it was determined that most types of waste-tion prevail in Ukraine and found the best solutions to problems related to waste and their processing. It was possible to find the main problem that has caused serious environmental situation, and the main task for the country at this stage. The main problems and tasks Dnieper economic region. Also indicate how to save, due to complex processing waste. The article is very relevant and important because it is here that the basic problems and tasks of Ukraine concerning the ecological situation. It also focuses on eco-logical problems, which the government does not pay enough attention.

  16. The locust standard brain: a 3D standard of the central complex as a platform for neural network analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Heinze

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Many insects use the pattern of polarized light in the sky for spatial orientation and navigation. We have investigated the polarization vision system in the desert locust. To create a common platform for anatomical studies on polarization vision pathways, Kurylas et al. (2008 have generated a three-dimensional (3D standard brain from confocal microscopy image stacks of 10 male brains, using two different standardization methods, the Iterative Shape Averaging (ISA procedure and the Virtual Insect Brain (VIB protocol. Comparison of both standardization methods showed that the VIB standard is ideal for comparative volume analysis of neuropils, whereas the ISA standard is the method of choice to analyze the morphology and connectivity of neurons. The central complex is a key processing stage for polarization information in the locust brain. To investigate neuronal connections between diverse central-complex neurons, we generated a higher-resolution standard atlas of the central complex and surrounding areas, using the ISA method based on brain sections from 20 individual central complexes. To explore the usefulness of this atlas, two central-complex neurons, a polarization-sensitive columnar neuron (type CPU1a and a tangential neuron that is activated during flight, the giant-fan shaped (GFS neuron, were reconstructed three-dimensionally from brain sections. To examine whether the GFS neuron is a candidate to contribute to synaptic input to the CPU1a neuron, we registered both neurons into the standardized central complex. Visualization of both neurons revealed a potential connection of the CPU1a and GFS neurons in layer II of the upper division of the central body.

  17. Prediction of extreme floods in the Central Andes by means of Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boers, Niklas; Bookhagen, Bodo; Barbosa, Henrique; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen; Marengo, Jose

    2014-05-01

    Based on a non-linear synchronisation measure and complex network theory, we present a novel framework for the prediction of extreme events of spatially embedded, interrelated time series. This method is general in the sense that it can be applied to any type of spatially sampled time series with significant interrelations, ranging from climate observables to biological or stock market data. In this presentation, we apply our method to extreme rainfall in South America and show how this leads to the prediction of more than 60% (90% during El Niño conditions) of extreme rainfall events in the eastern Central Andes of Bolivia and northern Argentina, with only 1% false alarms. From paleoclimatic to decadal time scales, the Central Andes continue to be subject to pronounced changes in climatic conditions. In particular, our and past work shows that frequency as well as magnitudes of extreme rainfall events have increased significantly during past decades, calling for a better understanding of the involved climatic mechanisms. Due to their large spatial extend and occurrence at high elevations, these extreme events often lead to severe floods and landslides with disastrous socioeconomic impacts. They regularly affect tens of thousands of people and produce estimated costs of the order of several hundred million USD. Alongside with the societal value of predicting natural hazards, our study provides insights into the responsible climatic features and suggests interactions between Rossby waves in polar regions and large scale (sub-)tropical moisture transport as a driver of subseasonal variability of the South American monsoon system. Predictable extreme events result from the propagation of extreme rainfall from the region of Buenos Aires towards the Central Andes given characteristic atmospheric conditions. Our results indicate that the role of frontal systems originating from Rossby waves in polar latitudes is much more dominant for controlling extreme rainfall in

  18. Central ossifying fibroma, periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia and complex odontoma occurring in the same jaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Agha Hosseini

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Central ossifying fibroma is a rare, benign fibro-osseous lesion that arises from the periodontal ligament. Periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia is another variant of fibro-osseous lesion which occurs in the anterior region of the mandible of females. Odontoma is a benign odontogenic tumor that contains enamel, dentine cement and pulp tissue. A 46-year-old woman was referred to the Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, with two nonpainful swellings on both sides of the mandible, which had been slowly growing over a period of one year. Our differential diagnosis was florid cemento-osseous dysplasia, focal cemento-osseous dysplasia for the right side, complex odontoma for the left side and periapical cement-osseous dysplasia for the anterior side. The historical feature revealed ossifying fibroma, complex odontoma and periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia. The occurrence of these three lesions in the same jaw has been rarely reported in the literature. The relationship between the occurrence of these three lesions is not obvious it could be coincidental. It seems that more case reports are needed to establish the relationship between them.

  19. The G305 star-forming complex: the central star clusters Danks 1 and Danks 2

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Ben; Trombley, Christine; Figer, Donald F; Najarro, Francisco; Crowther, Paul A; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Thompson, Mark; Urquhart, James S; Hindson, Luke

    2011-01-01

    The G305 HII complex (G305.4+0.1) is one of the most massive star forming structures yet identified within the Galaxy. It is host to many massive stars at all stages of formation and evolution, from embedded molecular cores to post main-sequence stars. Here, we present a detailed near-infrared analysis of the two central star clusters Danks 1 and Danks 2, using HST+NICMOS imaging and VLT+ISAAC spectroscopy. We find that the spectro-photometric distance to the clusters is consistent with the kinematic distance to the G305 complex, an average of all measurements giving a distance of 3.8\\pm0.6kpc. From analysis of the stellar populations and the pre-main-sequence stars we find that Danks 2 is the elder of the two clusters, with an age of 3^{+3}_{-1}Myr. Danks 1 is clearly younger with an age of 1.5^{+1.5}_{-0.5}Myr, and is dominated by three very luminous H-rich Wolf-Rayet stars which may have masses \\geq100\\msun. The two clusters have mass functions consistent with the Salpeter slope, and total cluster masses o...

  20. Identification of the non-pertechnetate species in Hanford waste tanks, Tc(I) carbonyl complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immobilization of the high-level nuclear waste stored at the Hanford Reservation has been complicated by the presence of soluble, lower-valent technetium species. Previous work by Schroeder and Blanchard has shown that these species cannot be removed by ion-exchange and are difficult to oxidize. The Tc K-edge XANES spectra of the species in Tanks SY-101 and SY-103 were reported by Blanchard, but they could not be assigned to any known technetium complex. We report that the XANES spectra are most likely those of Tc(I)-carbonyl species, especially fac-Tc(CO)3(gluconate)2-. This is further supported by EXAFS and 99Tc-NMR studies in nonradioactive simulants of these tank wastes

  1. Recent ORNL experience in site performance prediction: the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant and the Oak Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The suitability of the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant Landfill and the Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Central Waste Disposal Facility for disposal of low-level radioactive waste was evaluated using pathways analyses. For these evaluations, a conservative approach was selected; that is, conservatism was built into the analyses when assumptions concerning future events had to be made or when uncertainties concerning site or waste characteristics existed. Data from comprehensive laboratory and field investigations were used in developing the conceptual and numerical models that served as the basis for the numerical simulations of the long-term transport of contamination to man. However, the analyses relied on conservative scenarios to describe the generation and migration of contamination and the potential human exposure to the waste. Maximum potential doses to man were calculated and compared to the appropriate standards. Even under this conservative framework, the sites were found to provide adequate buffer to persons outside the DOE reservations and conclusions concerning site capacity and site acceptability were drawn. Our experience through these studies has shown that in reaching conclusions in such studies, some consideration must be given to the uncertainties and conservatisms involved in the analyses. Analytical methods to quantitatively assess the probability of future events to occur and to quantitatively determine the sensitivity of the results to data uncertainty may prove useful in relaxing some of the conservatism built into the analyses. The applicability of such methods to pathways analyses is briefly discussed

  2. Summary of Laboratory Capabilities Fact Sheets Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility and 222-S Laboratory Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This summary of laboratory capabilities is provided to assist prospective responders to the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) Requests for Proposal (RFP) issued or to be issued. The RFPs solicit development of treatment technologies as categorized in the CHG Requests for Information (RFI): Solid-Liquid Separations Technology - SOL: Reference-Number-CHG01; Cesium and Technetium Separations Technology - SOL: Reference-Number-CHG02; Sulfate Removal Technology - SOL: Reference-Number-CHG03; Containerized Grout Technology - SOL: Reference-Number-CHG04; Bulk Vitrification Technology - SOL: Reference-Number-CHG05; and TRU Tank Waste Solidification for Disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - SOL: Reference-Number-CHG06 Hanford Analytical Services, Technology Project Management (TPM), has the capability and directly related experience to provide breakthrough innovations and solutions to the challenges presented in the requests. The 222-S Complex includes the 70,000 sq ft 222-S Laboratory, plus several support buildings. The laboratory has 11 hot cells for handling and analyzing highly radioactive samples, including tank farm waste. Inorganic, organic, and radiochemical analyses are performed on a wide variety of air, liquid, soil, sludge, and biota samples. Capabilities also include development of process technology and analytical methods, and preparation of analytical standards. The TPM staff includes many scientists with advanced degrees in chemistry (or closely related fields), over half of which are PhDs. These scientists have an average 20 years of Hanford experience working with Hanford waste in a hot cell environment. They have hundreds of publications related to Hanford tank waste characterization and process support. These would include, but are not limited to, solid-liquid separations engineering, physical chemistry, particle size analysis, and inorganic chemistry. TPM has had revenues in excess of $1 million per year for the past decade in above

  3. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No Name

    2014-10-01

    ABSTRACT This renewal application for the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (IWRP) WRU-I-0160-01 at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Industrial Waste Ditch (IWD) and Industrial Waste Pond (IWP) is being submitted to the State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). This application has been prepared in compliance with the requirements in IDAPA 58.01.17, Recycled Water Rules. Information in this application is consistent with the IDAPA 58.01.17 rules, pre-application meeting, and the Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater (September 2007). This application is being submitted using much of the same information contained in the initial permit application, submitted in 2007, and modification, in 2012. There have been no significant changes to the information and operations covered in the existing IWRP. Summary of the monitoring results and operation activity that has occurred since the issuance of the WRP has been included. MFC has operated the IWP and IWD as regulated wastewater land treatment facilities in compliance with the IDAPA 58.01.17 regulations and the IWRP. Industrial wastewater, consisting primarily of continuous discharges of nonhazardous, nonradioactive, routinely discharged noncontact cooling water and steam condensate, periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from the MFC facility process holdup tanks, and precipitation runoff, are discharged to the IWP and IWD system from various MFC facilities. Wastewater goes to the IWP and IWD with a permitted annual flow of up to 17 million gallons/year. All requirements of the IWRP are being met. The Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Industrial Wastewater System will be updated to include any new requirements.

  4. Complex-wide review of DOE`s management of low-level radioactive waste - progress to date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letourneau, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-2 includes a recommendation that the Department of Energy (DOE) conduct a comprehensive, complex-wide review of the low-level waste issue to establish the dimensions of the low-level waste problem and to identify necessary corrective actions to address the safe disposition of past, present, and future volumes. DOE`s Implementation Plan calls for the conduct of a complex-wide review of low-level radioactive waste treatment, storage, and disposal sites to identify environmental, safety, and health vulnerabilities. The complex-wide review focuses on low-level waste disposal facilities through a site evaluation survey, reviews of existing documentation, and onsite observations. Low-level waste treatment and storage facilities will be assessed for their ability to meet waste acceptance criteria for disposal. Results from the complex-wide review will be used to form the basis for an integrated and planned set of actions to correct the identified vulnerabilities and to prompt development of new requirements for managing low-level waste.

  5. Integration of complex-wide mixed low-level waste activities for program acceleration and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) chartered a contractor-led effort to develop a suite of technically defensible, integrated alternatives which would allow the Environmental Management program to accomplish its mission objectives in an accelerated fashion and at a reduced cost. These alternatives, or opportunities, could then be evaluated by DOE and stakeholders for possible implementation, given precursor requirements (regulatory changes, etc.) could be met and benefits to the Complex realized. This contractor effort initially focused on six waste types, one of which was Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW). Many opportunities were identified by the contractor team for integrating MLLW activities across the DOE Complex. These opportunities were further narrowed to six that had the most promise for implementation and savings to the DOE Complex. The opportunities include six items: (1) the consolidation of individual site analytical services procurement efforts, (2) the consolidation of individual site MLLW treatment services procurement efforts, (3) establishment of ''de minimus'' radioactivity levels, (4) standardization of characterization requirements, (5) increased utilization of existing DOE treatment facilities, and (6) using a combination of DOE and commercial MLLW disposal capacity. The results of the integration effort showed that by managing MLLW activities across the DOE Complex as a cohesive unit rather than as independent site efforts, the DOE could improve the rate of progress toward meeting its objectives and reduce its overall MLLW program costs. Savings potential for MLLW, if the identified opportunities could be implemented, could total $224 million or more. Implementation of the opportunities also could result in the acceleration of the MLLW ''work off schedule'' across the DOE Complex by five years

  6. Ecology studies at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 1977 a radioecological research program was initiated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex in the southcentral Idaho. The primary goals of the research are to: (1) determine floral and faunal composition in the area; (2) sample various ecosystem components for radionuclides; (3) determine impacts of small mammal burrowing and vegetation growth on movement of radioactive materials; (4) compare ambient radiation exposures to radiation doses received by animals inhabiting the area; and (5) understand the interrelationships between the organisms and their role in radionuclide transport

  7. Vitrification of nuclear wastes by a complex sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document in abstract form only. Full text follows: Our patented complex sol-gel process has been used for synthesis of silica glasses designed to contain high-level nuclear wastes. Cs, Sr, Co, and Nd (generically denoted Me) were used, the last as surrogate of actinides. Gels in the form of powders and monoliths were prepared by hydrolysis and polycondensation of tetra-ethoxide/Me nitrate solutions, which contained ascorbic acid as catalyst. Thermal treatment studies were conducted for the powders. Transformation to final products was studied by thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and Xray diffraction. Preliminary testing of Me leaching was completed. (authors)

  8. Identifying Causes of Construction Waste – Case of Central Region of Peninsula Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasitharan Nagapan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Construction waste becomes a global issue facing by practitioners and researchers around the world. Waste can affects success of construction project significantly. More specifically, it has major impact on construction cost, construction time, productivity and sustainability aspects. This paper aims to identify various factors causing construction waste in Malaysia. Study was carried out through structured questionnaire focusing three major parties (i.e. clients, consultants and contractors involved in construction project. Data was analyzed with Statistical Software Package SPSS. Reliability of data was found as 0.917 which showed that data collected was highly reliable. The calculation of Mean Rank of the construction waste causes found that the 5 key causes are Poor site management and supervision, Lack of experience, inadequate planning and scheduling, Mistakes and errors in design and finally Mistakes during construction. Spearman correlation analysis showed that Mistakes during construction was highly correlated with Rework (with 0.829 correlation value and Slow information flow between parties (with a value of 0.60 and vice versa. Through identifying the causes and its correlation of the construction waste it gives better understanding to the construction community for future construction projects which benefit not only in term of economy but also the environment.

  9. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management manpower needs assessment: US Department of Energy complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, C.W.; Lewis, R.E.; Hunt, S.T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Finn, M.G. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)

    1992-06-01

    A study was conducted Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc. to assess the supply and demand for 53 scientific, engineering, and technical occupations relevant to the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste management (EM). These assessments were made by examining budget projections and the input of program/project and human resources managers throughout the DOE complex. Quantitative projections of full-time equivalent employees slots for each occupation have been developed for the 1993--1997 time frame. Qualitative assessments of the factors that affect recruitment, staffing, and retention are also reported. The implications of the study are discussed within the likely skills mix of the future workforce and the education and organization interventions most likely to address the needs of the DOE complex.

  10. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management manpower needs assessment: US Department of Energy complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, C.W.; Lewis, R.E.; Hunt, S.T. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Finn, M.G. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States))

    1992-06-01

    A study was conducted Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc. to assess the supply and demand for 53 scientific, engineering, and technical occupations relevant to the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste management (EM). These assessments were made by examining budget projections and the input of program/project and human resources managers throughout the DOE complex. Quantitative projections of full-time equivalent employees slots for each occupation have been developed for the 1993--1997 time frame. Qualitative assessments of the factors that affect recruitment, staffing, and retention are also reported. The implications of the study are discussed within the likely skills mix of the future workforce and the education and organization interventions most likely to address the needs of the DOE complex.

  11. Seasonal oscillation of liver-derived hibernation protein complex in the central nervous system of non-hibernating mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Seldin, Marcus M.; Byerly, Mardi S.; Petersen, Pia S.; Swanson, Roy; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Martin H. Groschup; Wong, G. William

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian hibernation elicits profound changes in whole-body physiology. The liver-derived hibernation protein (HP) complex, consisting of HP-20, HP-25 and HP-27, was shown to oscillate circannually, and this oscillation in the central nervous system (CNS) was suggested to play a role in hibernation. The HP complex has been found in hibernating chipmunks but not in related non-hibernating tree squirrels, leading to the suggestion that hibernation-specific genes may underlie the origin of hibe...

  12. Utilization of central nervous system resources for preparation and performance of complex walking tasks in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Walking in the home and community often involves performance of complex walking tasks. Understanding the control of such tasks is crucial to preserving independence and quality of life in older adults. However, very little research has been conducted in this area. Here we assess the extent to which two measures of central nervous system (CNS) activity are responsive to the challenges posed by preparation and performance of complex walking tasks. Prefrontal cortical activity...

  13. Utilization of central nervous system resources for preparation and performance of complex walking tasks in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, David J.; Rose, Dorian K.; Ring, Sarah A.; Porges, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Walking in the home and community often involves performance of complex walking tasks. Understanding the control of such tasks is crucial to preserving independence and quality of life in older adults. However, very little research has been conducted in this area. Here, we assess the extent to which two measures of central nervous system (CNS) activity are responsive to the challenges posed by preparation and performance of complex walking tasks. Prefrontal cortical activity was...

  14. Magma transport in sheet intrusions of the Alnö carbonatite complex, central Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Magnus; Almqvist, Bjarne S. G.; Burchardt, Steffi; Troll, Valentin R.; Malehmir, Alireza; Snowball, Ian; Kübler, Lutz

    2016-06-01

    Magma transport through the Earth’s crust occurs dominantly via sheet intrusions, such as dykes and cone-sheets, and is fundamental to crustal evolution, volcanic eruptions and geochemical element cycling. However, reliable methods to reconstruct flow direction in solidified sheet intrusions have proved elusive. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in magmatic sheets is often interpreted as primary magma flow, but magnetic fabrics can be modified by post-emplacement processes, making interpretation of AMS data ambiguous. Here we present AMS data from cone-sheets in the Alnö carbonatite complex, central Sweden. We discuss six scenarios of syn- and post-emplacement processes that can modify AMS fabrics and offer a conceptual framework for systematic interpretation of magma movements in sheet intrusions. The AMS fabrics in the Alnö cone-sheets are dominantly oblate with magnetic foliations parallel to sheet orientations. These fabrics may result from primary lateral flow or from sheet closure at the terminal stage of magma transport. As the cone-sheets are discontinuous along their strike direction, sheet closure is the most probable process to explain the observed AMS fabrics. We argue that these fabrics may be common to cone-sheets and an integrated geology, petrology and AMS approach can be used to distinguish them from primary flow fabrics.

  15. Magma transport in sheet intrusions of the Alnö carbonatite complex, central Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Magnus; Almqvist, Bjarne S G; Burchardt, Steffi; Troll, Valentin R; Malehmir, Alireza; Snowball, Ian; Kübler, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Magma transport through the Earth's crust occurs dominantly via sheet intrusions, such as dykes and cone-sheets, and is fundamental to crustal evolution, volcanic eruptions and geochemical element cycling. However, reliable methods to reconstruct flow direction in solidified sheet intrusions have proved elusive. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in magmatic sheets is often interpreted as primary magma flow, but magnetic fabrics can be modified by post-emplacement processes, making interpretation of AMS data ambiguous. Here we present AMS data from cone-sheets in the Alnö carbonatite complex, central Sweden. We discuss six scenarios of syn- and post-emplacement processes that can modify AMS fabrics and offer a conceptual framework for systematic interpretation of magma movements in sheet intrusions. The AMS fabrics in the Alnö cone-sheets are dominantly oblate with magnetic foliations parallel to sheet orientations. These fabrics may result from primary lateral flow or from sheet closure at the terminal stage of magma transport. As the cone-sheets are discontinuous along their strike direction, sheet closure is the most probable process to explain the observed AMS fabrics. We argue that these fabrics may be common to cone-sheets and an integrated geology, petrology and AMS approach can be used to distinguish them from primary flow fabrics. PMID:27282420

  16. Investigation of the subsurface environment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive, 10-year plan to investigate radionuclide migration in the subsurface at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) has been prepared and initiated (in FY-84). The RWMC Subsurface Investigation is designed to address two objectives set forth by the DOE Idaho Operations Office: (1) determine the extent of radionuclide migration, if any, from the buried waste, and (2) develop and calibrate a computer model to simulate long-term radionuclide migration. At the RWMC, the Snake River Plain Aquifer underlies about 177 m of partially saturated, fractured basalts and thin sedimentary units. Three sedimentary units, accounting for no more than 20 m of the partially saturated thickness, appear to be continuous throughout the area. Thinner sedimentary units are discontinuous. Low-level waste and (prior to 1970) transuranic waste have been buried in the surficial sediments at the RWMC. The first burials took place in 1952. Due to the complicated disposal system, a comprehensive review of state-of-the-art vadose zone monitoring instrumentation and techniques, an analysis of conceptual migration pathways, and an evaluation of potential hazard from buried radionuclides were conducted to guide preparation of the investigation plan. The plan includes an overview of the RWMC facility, subsurface work conducted to date at the RWMC and other DOE laboratory facilities, an evaluation and selection of the methods and studies to be used, a radionuclide hazard evaluation, a cost analysis, and external peer review results. In addition, an Appendix contains the details for each method/study to be employed. 4 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  17. Prokaryotic complex of newly formed soils on nepheline-containing industrial waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evdokimova, G. A.; Kalmykova, V. V.

    2010-06-01

    The characteristics are given of the prokaryotic complex participating in the processes of the primary soil formation on nepheline-containing waste and depending on the time of the waste disposal and degree of reclamation. The total population density of the bacteria determined with the method of fluorescent microscopy in “pure” sand ranged within 0.34—0.60 billion CFU/g soil; in the reclaimed sand under different vegatation communities, from 2.6 to 7.2 billion CFU/g soil. Gram-positive bacteria dominate in the prokaryotic complex of the nepheline sands, whereas the Grarrmegative ones dominate in the zonal soils. The bacteria predominating in the nepheline sands were classified on the basis of the comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences in the 16S rRNA genes within the Actinobacteria class (Arthrobacter boritolerans, A. ramosus, Rhodococcusfascians, Micrococcus luteus, and Streptomyces spp.). The evolution of the microbial community in the nepheline sands in the course of their reclamation and in the course of their overgrowing by plants proceeds in way toward the microbial communities of the zonal soils on moraine deposits.

  18. Complex formation of U(VI) with Bacillus-isolates from a uranium mining waste pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation studies with vegetative cells and spores of three Bacillus isolates (JG-A 30, JG-A 12, JG-A 22, classified as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus megaterium) from a uranium mining waste pile (Johanngeorgenstadt, Saxony) and their corresponding reference strains have shown that Bacilli accumulate high amounts of U(VI) in the concentration range examined (11-214 mg/L). Information on the binding strength and the reversibility were obtained from extraction studies with different extractants. With 0.01 M EDTA solution the uranium bound to the biomass was released almost quantitatively. The characterization of the bacterial-UO22+-complexes by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) showed the formation of inner-sphere complexes with phosphate groups of the biomass. The results lead to the conclusion that the cell wall components with phosphate residues e.g., polysaccharides, teichoic and teichuroic acids or phospholipide layers of the membranes are responsible for the uranium binding. The spectroscopic studies of the U(VI)-complexes with isolated bacterial cell walls and isolated surface-layer proteins of the strain Bacillus sphaericus NCTC 9602 after cell fractionation have shown that the complexation of U(VI) with intact cells (vegetative cells or spores) is different from the coordination with isolated cell wall components, especially with the S-layer proteins. For all Bacillus strains studied in this work, a significant contribution of the S-layer proteins to the binding of uranyl to living cells can be excluded. (orig.)

  19. Preliminary engineering evaluation of heat and digest treatment for in-tank removal of radionuclides from complexed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klem, M.J.

    1995-09-29

    This report uses laboratory data from low temperature-ambient pressure digestion of actual complexed supernatant to evaluate digestion as a pretreatment method for waste in double-shell tanks 241-AN-102, 241-AN-107 and 241-AY-101. Digestion time requirements were developed at 100 degrees celsius to remove organic and meet NRC Class C criterion for TRU elements and NRC Class B criterion for 90Sr. The incidental waste ruling will establish the need for removal of 90Sr. Digestion pretreatment precipitates non radioactive metal ions and produces additional high-level waste solids and canisters of high level glass. This report estimates the amount of additional high-level waste produced and preliminary capital and operating costs for in-tank digestion of waste. An overview of alternative in-tank treatment methods is included

  20. Preliminary engineering evaluation of heat and digest treatment for in-tank removal of radionuclides from complexed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report uses laboratory data from low temperature-ambient pressure digestion of actual complexed supernatant to evaluate digestion as a pretreatment method for waste in double-shell tanks 241-AN-102, 241-AN-107 and 241-AY-101. Digestion time requirements were developed at 100 degrees celsius to remove organic and meet NRC Class C criterion for TRU elements and NRC Class B criterion for 90Sr. The incidental waste ruling will establish the need for removal of 90Sr. Digestion pretreatment precipitates non radioactive metal ions and produces additional high-level waste solids and canisters of high level glass. This report estimates the amount of additional high-level waste produced and preliminary capital and operating costs for in-tank digestion of waste. An overview of alternative in-tank treatment methods is included

  1. Participation of the ININ in the activities of radioactive waste management of the Laguna Verde Central; Participacion del ININ en las actividades de gestion de desechos radiactivos de la Central Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medrano L, M.; Rodriguez C, C.; Linares R, D. [ININ, Gerencia Subsede Sureste (Mexico); Ramirez G, R.; Zarate M, N. [Central Laguna Verde, CFE (Mexico)]. e-mail: maam@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    From the beginning of the operation of the Laguna Verde Central (CLV) the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) has come supporting the CLV in the activities of administration of the humid and dry radioactive waste generated by the operation of the two units of the CLV, from the elaboration of procedures to the temporary storage in site, the implementation of a program of minimization and segregation of dry solid wastes, until the classification of the lots of humid waste and bulk dry wastes. In this work the description of the management activities of radioactive wastes carried out by the ININ in the facilities of the CLV to the date is presented, as well as some actions that they are had drifted in the future near, among those that it stands out the determination of the total alpha activity in humid samples by means of scintillation analysis. (Author)

  2. The uplift magnetisation record in the central scandinavian caledonides: results from basic igneous complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, J. D. A.; Poppleton, T. J.; Mason, R.; Griffiths, A. J.

    1990-11-01

    To identify the palaeomagnetic record acquired during slow post-orogenic uplift and cooling in the central part of the Scandinavian Caledonides we have investigated four separated synorogenic basic complexes in the Middle and Upper Allochthons. A shallow N-S axis of magnetisation is common to three of these bodies and therefore postdates all major tectonism. It is defined in the Møsjoen Gabbro ( D/I = 7°/3°, N = 23 samples, α 95 = 5.0° ), in the Sulitjelma Gabbro ( D/I=20°/-9°, N = 22 samples, α 95 = 6.6° )and the Råna norite ( D/I = 9°/-16°, N=19 samples, α 95 = 7.9° ). No vestige of this uplift remanence is recognised in the Lyngen Ophiolite, where a characteristic remanence of D/I = 65°/43° ( N = 19 samples, α 95 = 10.6° ) is recorded. The possibility that the N-S shallow axis of magnetisation is of mid-Carboniferous age, is considered and rejected. Instead it is attributed to the interval of post-tectonic cooling of the Caledonian nappe pile between synorogenic events dated ca.. 420 Ma and the uplift to surface levels defined by later Devonian events. It corresponds closely to an axis of magnetisation extensively represented within the metamorphic Caledonides and Scotland and believed to record a post-tectonic thermochemical event. Subordinate components record Mesozoic overprinting events and relict Caledonian magnetisations which have escaped replacement during this thermo-tectonic event. The latter collectively imply a rapid movement from high to low palaeolatitudes in Late Ordovician and Early Silurian times.

  3. Indoor radon related to uranium in granitoids of the Central Bohemian plutonic complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study is based on the indoor radon data (one year measurements, Kodak LR 115 track etch detectors), vectorized geological maps 1:50000, vectorized coordinates of dwellings and uranium data for granitoid types of the Central Bohemian Plutonic Complex (CBPC). Using ArcGis 8.2 programme, the position of 16145 dwellings was linked to a geological database covering the CBPC (approx. 3200 km2), and the type of underlying rock type was specified for each house. The resulting databases enabled us to calculate the mean EEC indoor Rn data for particular granitoid types and to study the relationship between the indoor Rn and the U concentrations. The petrogenetically variable CBPC was emplaced during Variscan orogenesis (330-350 Ma) and is among the most radioactive rock types within the Bohemian Massif. A long-term process of CBPC genesis resulted in more than 20 granitoid types, differing by their petrogenetic characteristics as well as mineralogical and chemical composition, including uranium concentration. The relation between the mean indoor radon values and uranium concentrations in particular rock types was examined. A positive regression between indoor Rn and uranium as the source of Rn soil gas clearly demonstrates how regional geology influences the indoor radon activity concentration in dwellings. The highest indoor Rn concentrations were observed in the Sedlcany granodiorite and Certovo bremeno syenite, where also the highest gamma dose rates (150-210 nGy.h-1) within all granitoid types in the Czech Republic were observed. The two rock types differ from other granitoids by a relatively high zircon concentration, which is the main source of U and subsequently of soil gas Rn being released from the bedrock. The lower indoor Rn values of Certovo bremeno syenite which do not correspond with the high U concentrations can be explained by a relatively low permeability of its clayey weathering crust. This feature was also observed for soil gas radon concentration

  4. Process Knowledge Summary Report for Advanced Test Reactor Complex Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Drum TRA010029

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. R. Adams; R. P. Grant; P. R. Smith; J. L. Weisgerber

    2013-09-01

    This Process Knowledge Summary Report summarizes information collected to satisfy the transportation and waste acceptance requirements for the transfer of one drum containing contact-handled transuranic (TRU) actinide standards generated by the Idaho National Laboratory at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Complex to the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) for storage and subsequent shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for final disposal. The drum (i.e., Integrated Waste Tracking System Bar Code Number TRA010029) is currently stored at the Materials and Fuels Complex. The information collected includes documentation that addresses the requirements for AMWTP and applicable sections of their Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permits for receipt and disposal of this TRU waste generated from ATR. This Process Knowledge Summary Report includes information regarding, but not limited to, the generation process, the physical form, radiological characteristics, and chemical contaminants of the TRU waste, prohibited items, and packaging configuration. This report, along with the referenced supporting documents, will create a defensible and auditable record for this TRU waste originating from ATR.

  5. Study of radionuclides complexes formation by organic compounds in intermediate and low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the general framework of the safety of nuclear wastes of low and intermediate activity, we have studied the effects of organic compounds on the solubilization of metallic cations. Organic compounds originate from the degradation of cellulose in concrete interstitial waters. Degradation reactions generate a number of products, among which carboxylic acids. These acids are known for their chelating properties. We have first analysed the degradation of cellulose in alkaline conditions: we have qualitatively and quantitatively determined the degradation products for various reaction progress indices, including a dozen of carboxylic acids. The principal goal of our work was the prediction of the behaviour of metallic cations in such cellulose degradation solutions. Owing the complexity of the system, a priori theoretical calculation are not possible. We have thus decided to choose tetra hydroxy pentanoic acid as a reference compound in order to simulate as accurately as possible the behaviour of more complex acids which contain similar functional groups. We have experimentally determined the complexing properties of this reference acid toward divalent cobalt and copper, and trivalent samarium and europium. Simple and mixed complex (hydroxyl) have been evidenced in alkaline medium. Their stability constants have been determined and extrapolated at zero ionic strength using the SIT theory. These results allowed us to theoretically predict the behaviour of our four reference cations in cellulose degradation products formed in concrete interstitial waters. In parallel, we have measured their solubility in real cellulose degradation solutions. Solubility predictions are correct for transition metals, but not for rare earth cations. In this case the complexes which have been identified with tetra hydroxy pentanoic acid are not stable enough to dissolve metallic hydroxides. In real degradation solutions, other compounds would account for the enhancement of rare earth

  6. Surface complexation modeling of uranyl adsorption on corrensite from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang-Won; Leckie, J.O. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Siegel, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Corrensite is the dominant clay mineral in the Culebra Dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The surface characteristics of corrensite, a mixed chlorite/smectite clay mineral, have been studied. Zeta potential measurements and titration experiments suggest that the corrensite surface contains a mixture of permanent charge sites on the basal plane and SiOH and AlOH sites with a net pH-dependent charge at the edge of the clay platelets. Triple-layer model parameters were determined by the double extrapolation technique for use in chemical speciation calculations of adsorption reactions using the computer program HYDRAQL. Batch adsorption studies showed that corrensite is an effective adsorbent for uranyl. The pH-dependent adsorption behavior indicates that adsorption occurs at the edge sites. Adsorption studies were also conducted in the presence of competing cations and complexing ligands. The cations did not affect uranyl adsorption in the range studied. This observation lends support to the hypothesis that uranyl adsorption occurs at the edge sites. Uranyl adsorption was significantly hindered by carbonate. It is proposed that the formation of carbonate uranyl complexes inhibits uranyl adsorption and that only the carbonate-free species adsorb to the corrensite surface. The presence of the organic complexing agents EDTA and oxine also inhibits uranyl sorption.

  7. Surface complexation modeling of uranyl adsorption on corrensite from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrensite is the dominant clay mineral in the Culebra Dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The surface characteristics of corrensite, a mixed chlorite/smectite clay mineral, have been studied. Zeta potential measurements and titration experiments suggest that the corrensite surface contains a mixture of permanent charge sites on the basal plane and SiOH and AlOH sites with a net pH-dependent charge at the edge of the clay platelets. Triple-layer model parameters were determined by the double extrapolation technique for use in chemical speciation calculations of adsorption reactions using the computer program HYDRAQL. Batch adsorption studies showed that corrensite is an effective adsorbent for uranyl. The pH-dependent adsorption behavior indicates that adsorption occurs at the edge sites. Adsorption studies were also conducted in the presence of competing cations and complexing ligands. The cations did not affect uranyl adsorption in the range studied. This observation lends support to the hypothesis that uranyl adsorption occurs at the edge sites. Uranyl adsorption was significantly hindered by carbonate. It is proposed that the formation of carbonate uranyl complexes inhibits uranyl adsorption and that only the carbonate-free species adsorb to the corrensite surface. The presence of the organic complexing agents EDTA and oxine also inhibits uranyl sorption

  8. Effects of operational parameters on dark fermentative hydrogen production from biodegradable complex waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Anish; Sposito, Fabio; Frunzo, Luigi; Trably, Eric; Escudié, Renaud; Pirozzi, Francesco; Lens, Piet N L; Esposito, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    This work aimed to investigate the effect of the initial pH, combination of food to microorganism ratio (F/M) and initial pH, substrate pre-treatment and different inoculum sources on the dark fermentative biohydrogen (H2) yields. Three model complex waste biomasses (food waste, olive mill wastewater (OMWW) and rice straw) were used to assess the effect of the aforementioned parameters. The effect of the initial pH between 4.5 and 7.0 was investigated in batch tests carried out with food waste. The highest H2 yields were shown at initial pH 4.5 (60.6 ± 9.0 mL H2/g VS) and pH 5.0 (50.7 ± 0.8 mL H2/g VS). Furthermore, tests carried out with F/M ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 at initial pH 5.0 and 6.5 revealed that a lower F/M ratio (0.5 and 1.0) favored the H2 production at an initial pH 5.0 compared to pH 6.5. Alkaline pre-treatment of raw rice straw using 4% and 8% NaOH at 55°C for 24h, increased the H2 yield by 26 and 57-fold, respectively. In the dark fermentation of OMWW, the H2 yield was doubled when heat-shock pre-treated activated sludge was used as inoculum in comparison to anaerobic sludge. Overall, this study shows that the application of different operating parameters to maximize the H2 yields strongly depends on the biodegradability of the substrate. PMID:26876775

  9. Characterization of radionuclide-chelating agent complexes found in low-level radioactive decontamination waste. Literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is responsible for regulating the safe land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes that may contain organic chelating agents. Such agents include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), picolinic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid, and can form radionuclide-chelate complexes that may enhance the migration of radionuclides from disposal sites. Data from the available literature indicate that chelates can leach from solidified decontamination wastes in moderate concentration (1--100 ppm) and can potentially complex certain radionuclides in the leachates. In general it appears that both EDTA and DTPA have the potential to mobilize radionuclides from waste disposal sites because such chelates can leach in moderate concentration, form strong radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be recalcitrant to biodegradation. It also appears that oxalic acid and citric acid will not greatly enhance the mobility of radionuclides from waste disposal sites because these chelates do not appear to leach in high concentration, tend to form relatively weak radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be readily biodegraded. In the case of picolinic acid, insufficient data are available on adsorption, complexation of key radionuclides (such as the actinides), and biodegradation to make definitive predictions, although the available data indicate that picolinic acid can chelate certain radionuclides in the leachates

  10. Characterization of radionuclide-chelating agent complexes found in low-level radioactive decontamination waste. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R.J.; Felmy, A.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Krupka, K.M.; Campbell, J.A.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is responsible for regulating the safe land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes that may contain organic chelating agents. Such agents include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), picolinic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid, and can form radionuclide-chelate complexes that may enhance the migration of radionuclides from disposal sites. Data from the available literature indicate that chelates can leach from solidified decontamination wastes in moderate concentration (1--100 ppm) and can potentially complex certain radionuclides in the leachates. In general it appears that both EDTA and DTPA have the potential to mobilize radionuclides from waste disposal sites because such chelates can leach in moderate concentration, form strong radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be recalcitrant to biodegradation. It also appears that oxalic acid and citric acid will not greatly enhance the mobility of radionuclides from waste disposal sites because these chelates do not appear to leach in high concentration, tend to form relatively weak radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be readily biodegraded. In the case of picolinic acid, insufficient data are available on adsorption, complexation of key radionuclides (such as the actinides), and biodegradation to make definitive predictions, although the available data indicate that picolinic acid can chelate certain radionuclides in the leachates.

  11. 2014 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2013 through October 31, 2014. The report contains the following information; Facility and system description; Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; Groundwater monitoring data; Status of special compliance conditions; Noncompliance issues; and Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2014 reporting year, an estimated 10.11 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the applicable Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s groundwater quality standard levels.

  12. A case study of waste management at the Northern Finnish pulp and paper mill complex of Stora Enso Veitsiluoto Mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmesniemi, Hannu; Pöykiö, Risto; Keiski, Riitta Liisa

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the current waste management system at the pulp and paper mill complex of Stora Enso Oyj Veitsiluoto Mills at Kemi, Northern Finland. This paper covers examples of case studies carried out at the mill and describes how the wastes and by-products are utilized as a neutralizing agent for acidic wastewaters (i.e., green liquor dregs from the causticizing process), as a hardener in filling mine cavities (i.e., ash from the fluidized bed boiler), as a landscaping agent (i.e., ash as well as the fibre clay from chemical wastewater treatment plant), as a hydraulic barrier material for landfills (i.e., fibre clay), and as a soil enrichment agent (i.e., calcium carbonate from the precipitated calcium carbonate plant). In addition, the wood waste from the wood-handling plant, sawmill, packaging pallet plant and from the groundwood mill, as well as the biosludge from the biological wastewater treatment plant, are all incinerated in the fluidized bed boiler for energy production. Due to effective utilization of the solid wastes generated at the mills, the annual amount of waste to be disposed of in the landfill has decreased between 1994 and 2004 from 42,990 to 6083 tonn (expressed as wet weight). The paper also gives an overview of the relevant European Union legislation on the forest industry and on waste management, as well as of the pulping process and of the generation of major solid wastes in the pulp and paper mills. PMID:16987647

  13. Independent Verification Of The Central Campus And Southeast Laboratory Complex Building Slabs At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities/Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORAU/ORISE) has completed the independent verification survey of the Central Campus and Southeast Lab Complex Building Slabs. The results of this effort are provided. The objective of this verification survey was to provide independent review and field assessment of remediation actions conducted by SEC, and to independently assess whether the final radiological condition of the slabs met the release guidelines

  14. INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION OF THE CENTRAL CAMPUS AND SOUTHEAST LABORATORY COMPLEX BUILDING SLABS AT OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Phyllis C.

    2012-07-24

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities/Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORAU/ORISE) has completed the independent verification survey of the Central Campus and Southeast Lab Complex Building Slabs. The results of this effort are provided. The objective of this verification survey was to provide independent review and field assessment of remediation actions conducted by SEC, and to independently assess whether the final radiological condition of the slabs met the release guidelines.

  15. SCREENING COMPLEX HAZARDOUS WASTES FOR MUTAGENIC ACTIVITY USING A MODIFIED VERSION OF THE TLC/SALMONELLA ASSAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten complex hazardous wastes were tested for mutagenic activity using a modified version of the TLC/Ames assay developed by Bjorseth et al. (1982). This fractionation/bioassay scheme couples thin layer chromatography (TLC) with the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome (Ames) assay for ...

  16. Dispersal and density of small mammals on the radioactive waste management complex Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 1978 a study of small mammal density, species composition, and dispersal patterns for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex was initiated. This study will provide data necessary to determine the role of small mammals in the redistribution of transuranics and other radionuclides and the amounts being moved. The problems associated with studying dispersal of rodents from the SDA are discussed

  17. Solid Waste Disposal Management in A Residential Complex of A Defence Establishment- A Modern Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdamba Dixit , Anil Kumar Dixit, Singh Narendra

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The AFMRC project “Solid Waste Disposal Management” has been found useful in controlling the problems of environmental sanitation. Similar projects may be undertaken at large scale to reduce, reuse and recycle the generated waste.

  18. MONITORING FORMATION OF SOLID INDUCTRIAL WASTE AND ITS RECYCLING IN A FOREST COMPLEX

    OpenAIRE

    Kozhevnikov, A.; Aksenov, N.; Rubinskaya, A.; Sedrisev, D.

    2014-01-01

    The articles studies problems of formation and secondary facilitation of solid industrial wastes, reveals types of wastes that are produced at the territory of Krasnoyarsk region, and outlines the most significant types for recycling.

  19. Natural draught centralized dry store for irradiated fuel and active waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modular design is described for the long term dry storage of irradiated fuel and vitrified fission products. The specification set by the Central Electricity Generating Board for the AGR fuel store was that the store should be capable of accommodating the lifetime discharge from 10 AGR reactors (7200 tonnes of irradiated fuel) and be cooled by natural convection. The fuel assemblies should be enclosed in individual steel containers. The store has an area for drying the AGR fuel and containering. The single dry cell storage capacities are, 5 years output from 1300 MWe station stored as fuel elements, or 14 year output from 1300 MWe thermal reactors stored as vitrified fission products. (U.K.)

  20. Shipping of spent nuclear fuel to Central and Eastern Europe, and other nuclear waste deals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its reply to a written question in Parliament, the German federal government puts emphasis on the fact that all agreements concerning industrial or economic cooperation in the nuclear sector, concluded between the GDR and the Soviet Union, have been declared to be terminated in 1991. Hence the government declares that there are no international treaties any more that might serve as a vehicle for performing spent fuel shipments to Russia or any other state of the CIS. The German federal government further states to be prepared to contribute its share to the multinational assistance programme adopted in 1992 at the World Economic Summit Conference for the purpose of enhancing the safety of Soviet-design nuclear power plant. A number of projects, the government states, are in preparation with the competent institutions in the CIS, as e.g. projects for reactor safety analysis, improvement of reactor operating safety, safer nuclear fuel supply and waste management, and installation of a system for environmental radioactivity monitoring. (orig./HSCH)

  1. Speciation on the rocks: integrated systematics of the Heteronotia spelea species complex (Gekkota; Reptilia from Western and Central Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitzy Pepper

    Full Text Available The isolated uplands of the Australian arid zone are known to provide mesic refuges in an otherwise xeric landscape, and divergent lineages of largely arid zone taxa have persisted in these regions following the onset of Miocene aridification. Geckos of the genus Heteronotia are one such group, and have been the subject of many genetic studies, including H. spelea, a strongly banded form that occurs in the uplands of the Pilbara and Central Ranges regions of the Australian arid zone. Here we assess the systematics of these geckos based on detailed examination of morphological and genetic variation. The H. spelea species complex is a monophyletic lineage to the exclusion of the H. binoei and H. planiceps species complexes. Within the H. spelea complex, our previous studies based on mtDNA and nine nDNA loci found populations from the Central Ranges to be genetically divergent from Pilbara populations. Here we supplement our published molecular data with additional data gathered from central Australian samples. In the spirit of integrative species delimitation, we combine multi-locus, coalescent-based lineage delimitation with extensive morphological analyses to test species boundaries, and we describe the central populations as a new species, H. fasciolatus sp. nov. In addition, within the Pilbara there is strong genetic evidence for three lineages corresponding to northeastern (type, southern, and a large-bodied melanic population isolated in the northwest. Due to its genetic distinctiveness and extreme morphological divergence from all other Heteronotia, we describe the melanic form as a new species, H. atra sp. nov. The northeastern and southern Pilbara populations are morphologically indistinguishable with the exception of a morpho-type in the southeast that has a banding pattern resembling H. planiceps from the northern monsoonal tropics. Pending more extensive analyses, we therefore treat Pilbara H. spelea as a single species with

  2. Techno-economic assessment of central sorting at material recovery facilities - the case of lightweight packaging waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Maul, Anja; Wenzel, Henrik;

    2016-01-01

    7 to 21 million EUR and the yearly operational expenditure grew by a factor of 2.4 from 2 to 4.7 million EUR. As a result, specific unit processing cost decreased from 110 to 70 EUR/tonne. Material sales and disposal costs summed to between a net cost of 25 EUR/tonne and net revenue of 50 EUR...... sales and sorting residues disposal costs. Material flows through the plants were simulated considering both optimal process conditions and real or typical conditions characterised by downtime and frequent operation at overcapacity. By modelling four plants of progressively higher capacity (size) and....../tonne. Measured as total materials recovery, the difference between optimal and typical operation was approximately 15% points. The complex nature of LWP waste combined with challenging processing conditions were identified as important factors explaining the relatively low overall recovery efficiencies achieved...

  3. Certification Plan, Radioactive Mixed Waste Hazardous Waste Handling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). RMW is low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or transuranic (TRU) waste that is co-contaminated with dangerous waste as defined in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and the Washington State Dangerous Waste Regulations, 173-303-040 (18). This waste is to be transferred to the Hanford Site Central Waste Complex and Burial Grounds in Hanford, Washington. This plan incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Waste Management Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWHF (Section 4); and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification

  4. Traceability of fluorescent engineered nanomaterials and their fate in complex liquid waste matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part, Florian; Zaba, Christoph; Bixner, Oliver; Zafiu, Christian; Hann, Stephan; Sinner, Eva-Kathrin; Huber-Humer, Marion

    2016-07-01

    , specifically surfactant-stabilized QDs, allowed distinctive tracing in complex aqueous waste matrices in order to study their long-term behavior and ultimate fate. PMID:27155097

  5. The system for centralized inventory keeping and ultimate disposal of radioactive waste in the former German Democratic Republic. Der Stand des Systems der zentralen Erfassung und Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle in der ehemaligen DDR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beise, E.; Mielke, H.G.; Mueller, W.; Oppermann, U.

    1991-01-01

    The report explains the concept adopted by the former GDR. The system based at Morsleben, for centralized inventory keeping and management of radioactive waste is explained, refewing to the amounts of waste accrued, storage and transport of waste drums, classification and preparation of waste forms, and ultimate disposal of radioactive waste in the Morsleben repository. The report includes information on the management of special waste and spent fuel elements which cannot be stored at the Morsleben site. Most of the radioactive waste produced in the former GDR has been stored since 1979 at the Morsleben site. The waste came from the nuclear power plants (Greifswald, Rheinsberg), and from installations and institutes applying or producing radionuclides - so-called APR waste - (e.g. from the institutes at Rossendorf and Berlin-Buch, and from about 1300 other waste producers). The waste was accepted as or processed to solid waste forms, liquid waste, sealed radiation sources, and special waste; the ultimate storage techniques applied are packing of drums, backfilling, solidification of liquid waste and disposal in boreholes. Up to the end of the year 1989, the Morsleben repository received about 14000 m{sup 3} of radioactive waste (about 40% solid waste, and about 60% liquid waste). (orig.).

  6. Exuberant Complexity: The Interplay of Morphology, Syntax, and Prosody in Central Alaskan Yup'ik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Mithun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Written varieties of many languages show greater syntactic complexity than their spoken counterparts. The difference is not surprising: writers have more time to create elaborate structures than speakers, who must produce speech in a steady stream. As documentation grows of the effects of language contact in the Americas, it is becoming ever clearer that exposure to languages with strong literary traditions has often had a significant impact on syntactic structure. Complexity is, however, not always due to literacy or contact with literacy. Here it is shown that though contact can indeed result in copied markers or replicated categories, it is not a precondition for the development of complexity.

  7. Radionuclide-Chelating Agent Complexes in Low-Level Radioactive Decontamination Waste; Stability, Adsorption and Transport Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Cantrell, Cantrell J.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Owen, Antionette T.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Orr, Robert D.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2002-02-01

    Speciation calculations were done to determine whether organic complexants facilitate transport of radionuclides leached from waste buried in soils. EDTA readily mobilizes divalent transition metals and moderately impacts trivalent actinides. Picolinate readily mobilizes only Ni2+ and Co2+. These speciation predictions ignore the influence of soil adsorption and biodegradation that break apart the complexes. In adsorption studies, picolinate concentrations have to be >10-4 M to lower the adsorption of Ni and Co. For Sm(III), Th(IV), Np(V), U(VI), and Pu, the picolinate concentration must be >10-3 M before adsorption decreases. EDTA forms strong complexes with divalent transition metals and can stop adsorption of Ni and Co when EDTA solution concentrations are 10-5 M. EDTA complexes with Np(V), U(VI), and Pu are much weaker; EDTA concentrations would have to be >10-3 M to adversely effects non-transition metal/radionuclide adsorption. Most picolinate and ETDA-metal complexes appear to readily dissociate during interactions with soils. The enhanced migration of radionuclide-organic complexes may be limited to a few unique conditions. We recommend that mixtures of metal/radionuclides and EDTA should not be solidified or co-disposed with high pH materials such as cement. For weaker binding organic complexants, such as picolinate, citrate and oxalate, co-disposal of decontamination wastes and concrete should be acceptable.

  8. Human Balance System: A Complex Coordination of Central and Peripheral Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maintained by a complex set of sensorimotor control systems that include sensory input from vision (sight), proprioception (touch), and the vestibular system (motion, equilibri- um, spatial orientation); integration of that sensory input; and motor output to the eye and ...

  9. The Oedipus complex: A confrontation at the central cross-roads of psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartke, Raul

    2016-06-01

    The theory of the Oedipus complex as Freud formulated it rests on the following pillars: the child's characteristic sexual and aggressive impulses concerning the parents, phallic monism, and the castration complex. This paper reviews the context in which Freud discovered the Oedipus complex, as well as Freud's theory. It then examines the proposals of later authors whose general Oedipal theories differ from Freud's in an attempt to point out both their possible correlations and confrontations with Freud. It includes Klein's pre-genital Oedipal theory, Lacan's structuralist reinterpretation, Bion's reconception of the complex under the knowledge vertex, Green's generalized triangulation theory, Meltzer's notions of the aesthetic object and sexual mental states, and Chasseguet-Smirgel's archaic Oedipal matrix. PMID:27437633

  10. Characterization and Disposition of Legacy Low-Level Waste at the Y-12 National Security Complex - 12133

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) is concluding a multi-year program to characterize and dispose of all legacy low-level waste (LLW). The inventory of legacy waste at Y-12 has been reduced from over 3500 containers in Fiscal Year (FY) 2000 to 6 containers at the end of FY2011. In addition, the site recently eliminated the inventory of other low-level waste that is greater than 365 days old (i.e., >365-Day LLW), to be in full compliance with DOE Order 435.1. A consistent technical characterization approach emerged for both of these populations of backlogged waste: (1) compile existing historical data and process knowledge and conduct interviews with site personnel; (2) inspect the containers and any tags, labels, or other markings to confirm or glean additional data; (3) with appropriate monitoring, open the container, visually inspect and photograph the contents while obtaining preliminary radiological surveys; (4) obtain gross weight and field non-destructive assay (NDA) data as needed; (5) use the non-public Oak Ridge Reservation Haul Road to ship the container to a local offsite vendor for waste sorting and segregation; (6) sort, drain, sample, and remove prohibited items; and (7) compile final data and prepare for shipment to disposal. After disposing of this backlog, the focus has now turned to avoiding the recurrence of this situation by maintaining low inventories of low-level waste and shortening the duration between waste generation and disposal. An enhanced waste tracking system and monthly metric charts are used to monitor and report progress to contractor and federal site office management. During the past 2 years, the average age of LLW onsite at Y-12 has decreased from more than 180 days to less than 60 days. (authors)

  11. Site characterization program at the radioactive waste management complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Site Characterization Program is a continuation of the Subsurface Investigation Program (SIP). The scope of the SIP has broadened in response to the results of past work that identified hazardous as well as radionuclide contaminants in the subsurface environment and in response to the need to meet regulatory requirements. Two deep boreholes were cored at the RWMC during FY-1988. Selected sediment samples were submitted for Appendix IX of 40 CFR Part 264 and radionuclide analyses. Detailed geologic logging of archived core was initiated. Stratigraphic studies of the unsaturated zone were conducted. Studies to determine hydrologic properties of sediments and basalts were conducted. Geochemical studies and analyses were initiated to evaluate contaminant and radionuclide speciation and migration in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) geochemical environment. Analyses of interbed sediments in boreholes D15 and 8801D did not confirm the presence of radionuclide contamination in the 240-ft interbed. Analyses of subsurface air and groundwater samples identified five volatile organic compounds of concern: carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, chloroform, and tetrachloroethylene. 33 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  12. A modeling study of water flow in the vadose zone beneath the Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modeling study was conducted for the purpose of gaining insight into the nature of water flow in the vadose zone beneath the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The modeling study focused on three specific hydrologic aspects: (1) relationship between meteorologic conditions and net infiltration, (2) water movement associated with past flooding events, and (3) estimation of water travel-times through the vadose zone. This information is necessary for understanding how contaminants may be transported through the vadose zone. Evaluations of net infiltration at the RWMC were performed by modeling the processes of precipitation, evaporation, infiltration and soil-moisture redistribution. Water flow simulations were performed for two distinct time periods, namely 1955--1964 and 1984--1990. The patterns of infiltration were calculated for both the undisturbed (or natural sediments) and the pit/trench cover materials. Detailed simulations of the 1969 flooding of Pit 10 were performed to estimate the rate and extent of water movement through the vadose zone. Water travel-times through the vadose zone were estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation approach. The simulations accounted for variability of soil and rock hydraulic properties as well as variations in the infiltration rate

  13. Basic data report for drillholes at the H-11 complex (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drillholes H-11b1, H-11b2, and H-11b3 were drilled from August to December 1983 for site characterization and hydrologic studies of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Upper Permian Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. In October 1984, the three wells were subjected to a series of pumping tests designed to develop the wells, provide information on hydraulic communication between the wells, provide hydraulic properties information, and to obtain water samples for quality of water measurements. Based on these tests, it was determined that this location would provide an excellent pad to conduct a convergent-flow non-sorbing tracer test in the Culebra dolomite. In 1988, a fourth hole (H-11b4) was drilled at this complex to provide a tracer-injection hole for the H-11 convergent-flow tracer test and to provide an additional point at which the hydraulic response of the Culebra H-11 multipad pumping test could be monitored. A suite of geophysical logs was run on the drillholes and was used to identify different lithologies and aided in interpretation of the hydraulic tests. 4 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Site characterization program at the radioactive waste management complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, D.L.; Rawson, S.A.; Hubbell, J.M.; Minkin, S.C.; Baca, R.G.; Vigil, M.J.; Bonzon, C.J.; Landon, J.L.; Laney, P.T.

    1989-07-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Site Characterization Program is a continuation of the Subsurface Investigation Program (SIP). The scope of the SIP has broadened in response to the results of past work that identified hazardous as well as radionuclide contaminants in the subsurface environment and in response to the need to meet regulatory requirements. Two deep boreholes were cored at the RWMC during FY-1988. Selected sediment samples were submitted for Appendix IX of 40 CFR Part 264 and radionuclide analyses. Detailed geologic logging of archived core was initiated. Stratigraphic studies of the unsaturated zone were conducted. Studies to determine hydrologic properties of sediments and basalts were conducted. Geochemical studies and analyses were initiated to evaluate contaminant and radionuclide speciation and migration in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) geochemical environment. Analyses of interbed sediments in boreholes D15 and 8801D did not confirm the presence of radionuclide contamination in the 240-ft interbed. Analyses of subsurface air and groundwater samples identified five volatile organic compounds of concern: carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, chloroform, and tetrachloroethylene. 33 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Complex-wide review of DOE's Low-Level Waste Management ES ampersand H vulnerabilities. Volume II. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume I of this report presents a summary of DOE's complex-wide review of its low-level waste management system, including the assessment scope and methodology, site-specific and complex-wide vulnerabilities, and DOE's conclusions and recommendations. Volume II presents a more detailed discussion of the assessment methodology and evaluation instruments developed by the Assessment Working Group for identifying site-specific vulnerabilities, categorizing and classifying vulnerabilities, and identifying and analyzing complex-wide vulnerabilities. Attachments A and B of this volume contain, respectively, the Site Evaluation Survey and the Vulnerability Assessment Form used in those processes. Volume III contains the site-specific assessment reports for the 36 sites (38 facilities) assessed in the complex-wide review from which the complex-wide vulnerabilities were drawn

  16. Complexity measures of the central respiratory networks during wakefulness and sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragomir, Andrei; Akay, Yasemin; Curran, Aidan K.; Akay, Metin

    2008-06-01

    Since sleep is known to influence respiratory activity we studied whether the sleep state would affect the complexity value of the respiratory network output. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that the complexity values of the diaphragm EMG (EMGdia) activity would be lower during REM compared to NREM. Furthermore, since REM is primarily generated by a homogeneous population of neurons in the medulla, the possibility that REM-related respiratory output would be less complex than that of the awake state was also considered. Additionally, in order to examine the influence of neuron vulnerabilities within the rostral ventral medulla (RVM) on the complexity of the respiratory network output, we inhibited respiratory neurons in the RVM by microdialysis of GABAA receptor agonist muscimol. Diaphragm EMG, nuchal EMG, EEG, EOG as well as other physiological signals (tracheal pressure, blood pressure and respiratory volume) were recorded from five unanesthetized chronically instrumented intact piglets (3-10 days old). Complexity of the diaphragm EMG (EMGdia) signal during wakefulness, NREM and REM was evaluated using the approximate entropy method (ApEn). ApEn values of the EMGdia during NREM and REM sleep were found significantly (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively) lower than those of awake EMGdia after muscimol inhibition. In the absence of muscimol, only the differences between REM and wakefulness ApEn values were found to be significantly different.

  17. Development of novel mixed ligand technetium complexes (3 + 1 combination) for imaging central neural system receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of mixed ligand oxotechnetium-99m complexes carrying the 1-(2-methoxyphenyl) piperazine moiety has been synthesized. For structural characterization, and for in vitro binding assays, the analogous oxorhenium or oxotechnetium-99 complexes were prepared. As demonstrated by appropriate competition binding tests in rat hippocampal preparations, all oxorhenium analogues showed affinity for the 5-HT1A receptor binding sites with 50% inhibitory concentration values in the nanomolar range (IC50=6-106nM). All 99mTcO[SN(R)S]/[S] complexes showed a significant brain uptake in rats at 2 min post-injection (0.24-1.31 dose/organ). The regional distribution is inhomogeneous but the ratio between areas rich and poor in 5-HT1A receptor was not high. Structural modifications to this system may further improve the biological profile of these compounds and eventually provide efficient 99mTc receptor imaging agents. (author)

  18. Palaeoenvironment reconstruction, volcanic evolution and geochronology of the Cerro Blanco subcomplex, Nevados de Chillan volcanic complex, Central Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Mee, Katy; Gilbert, Jennie S.; McGarvie, David W.; Naranjo, Jose A.; Pringle, Malcolm S.

    2009-01-01

    Nevados de Chillán Volcanic Complex, central Chile, has been active for at least 640 ka—a period spanning a number of glacial and interglacial periods. Geologic mapping, radiometric dating and geochemical analysis have identified six new volcanic units and produced four new 40Ar/39Ar ages for Cerro Blanco, the northern subcomplex of Nevados de Chillán volcano. Compositions range from dacite to basaltic-andesite and a new geologic map is presented. Examination of lava fracture structures on bo...

  19. Floristic complexes on landslides of different age in Central Yamal, West Siberian Low Arctic, Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Khitun; Ksenia Ermokhina; Irina Czernyadjeva; Marina Leibman; Artem Khomutov

    2015-01-01

    Accurate ground-based datasets are important for correct interpretation of remote sensing data. West-Siberian Arctic has been exposed to rapid land-cover and land-use changes during the last 50 years. Cryogenic landslides are important disturbing agents in the region, especially in the central part of the Yamal Peninsula. Different succession stages in the recovery of cryogenic landslides are described at the example of 4 model ones formed respectively in 1989, in the middle of 1970s, in la...

  20. The tectonics of the Central Anatolian crystalline complex: a structural, metamorphic and paleomagnetic study

    OpenAIRE

    Lefebvre, C.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The Anatolian region is a segment of the Alpine-Himalayan orogen. The rocks presently exposed in Anatolia provide a geological record of the closure history of the Neotethyan Ocean(s) situated between the converging African and Eurasian continents during late Mesozoic – Cenozoic times. The location of the former northern Neo-Tethyan ocean is marked by the presence of an ophiolitic mélange forming the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone (IAESZ). South of the IAESZ, the Central Anatolian Crystall...

  1. Visual Pattern Memory Requires "Foraging" Function in the Central Complex of "Drosophila"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Pan, Yufeng; Li, Weizhe; Jiang, Huoqing; Chatzimanolis, Lazaros; Chang, Jianhong; Gong, Zhefeng; Liu, Li

    2008-01-01

    The role of the "foraging" ("for)" gene, which encodes a cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG), in food-search behavior in "Drosophila" has been intensively studied. However, its functions in other complex behaviors have not been well-characterized. Here, we show experimentally in "Drosophila" that the "for"…

  2. Solid Waste Projection Model: Model user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford company (WHC) specifically to address solid waste management issues at the Hanford Central Waste Complex (HCWC). This document, one of six documents supporting the SWPM system, contains a description of the system and instructions for preparing to use SWPM and operating Version 1 of the model. 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. Comparison of Central Corneal Thickness and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness and Ganglion Cell Complex in Patients with Ocular Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Mumcu Taşlı

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the correlation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT with ganglion cell complex and central corneal thickness (CCT measurements in patients with ocular hypertension and healthy subjects. Material and Method: Seventy-six eyes of 38 patients with ocular hypertension and 76 eyes of 38 healthy subjects were included in this study. Both groups were stratified by CCT into 579 µm (p0.05. In the control group, there was no significant correlation between CCT and RNFLT (average, superior average, inferior average measurements (p>0.05. There was no significant correlation between CCT and average, superior average, inferior average ganglion cell complex in both groups. Discussion: Ocular hypertension patients with CCT <550 µm may represent patients who have very early undetected glaucoma. This may in part explain the higher risk of these patients for progression to glaucoma. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 385-90

  4. Tectonic Geomorphology and 36Cl geochronology of the Camardi Alluvial Fan Complex, Central Anatolia: Implications for Neotectonic activity of the Central Anatolian Fault Zone (CAFZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, M.; Schoenbohm, L. M.; Gosse, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Situated between an extensional province to the west and younger, compressional forces to the east, the significance of internal deformation within Central Anatolia, and particularly the Central Anatolian Fault Zone, remains poorly understood. The CAFZ, which records approximately 70+/- 10km of Cenozoic sinistral displacement, was initially described as an active, NE trending, 700km long, major intra-plate shear zone. However, the Cenozoic evolution of the CAFZ and its relevance to the modern tectonic setting of Anatolia are the subject of debate, and the kinematics, geometry and activity levels of the CAFZ remain both poorly documented and understood. The aim of this study is to constrain the extrusion related, neotectonic portion of this total displacement using methods unavailable to previous studies of the area: Terrestrial Cosmogenic Nuclide (TCN) geochronology and newly acquired high-resolution satellite imagery. Focusing on a tectonically offset alluvial fan complex, we apply In situ TCN 36Cl exposure dating to produce new geochronologically constrained quaternary slip rates for the southern, Ecemis Segment of the CAFZ. A combination of field observations, high precision GPS based fault scarp profiles and mapping on high-resolution satellite images are used to document offset geomorphic markers including: deflected streams, terrace edges and shutter ridges. These features show sinistral and normal displacement of 60 and 18 m respectively in the older alluvial surface. Determining the ages of this faulted surface, as well as a younger un-deformed alluvial surface using TCN, will yield a minimum quaternary slip-rate. Additionally, morphological characteristics of 25 drainage basins along the Ecemis Fault are determined using Digital Elevation Model (DEM)data. Key geomorphic indices include: hypsometric integral, basin asymmetry and the valley width-to-height ratio (Vf). The results suggest the morphology of these drainage basins is influenced by the recent

  5. Complex mass wasting response of drainage basins to forest management in coastal British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brardinoni, Francesco; Hassan, Marwan A.; Slaymaker, H. Olav

    2003-01-01

    The impacts of logging activities on mass wasting were examined in five watersheds in the coastal mountains of British Columbia. Historical aerial photos were used to document mass wasting events, and their occurrence was related to logging activities in the study basins. Logged and forested areas were compared in terms of mass wasting magnitude and frequency, with reference to site characteristics. The recovery time of the landscape after logging was assessed. Bedrock type and basin physiography had no identifiable effect on mass wasting frequency and magnitude. Mass wasting failure was primarily controlled by slope gradient. Basin vulnerability increased, following clearcutting relative to forested areas, in that mass wasting was initiated on gentler slopes. The volume of sediment produced from logged slopes is of the same order as that from forested areas, which are steeper by as much as 10°. In both logged and forested areas, the size distribution of mass wasting events follows an exponential distribution. However, the variability in mass wasting size in forested areas is much higher than that obtained for logged areas. The recovery time after forest harvesting is over 20 years, which confirms published estimates based on vegetation reestablishment. Continuous disturbance of the basin, however, may extend the recovery time for the whole basin well beyond 20 years.

  6. COLLOIDAL SYSTEMS OF WASTES OF DIFFERENT PRODUCTION AND THEIR ROLE IN THE FORMATION OF COMPLEX COMPOSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyuchenko I. S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dispersed colloidal particles pertaining to positive colloids is played important role in the process of the interaction of organic wastes (sewage sludge, defeca-tion mud, chicken manure, etc. with various wastes of mineral raw materials (phosphogypsum, lime powder, halite, etc.

  7. Sheeting, Mingling, and Up Direction?, Hortavaer Igneous Complex, North-central Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, L. E.; Barnes, C. G.; Prestvik, T.

    2005-12-01

    The c. 456 Ma Hortavaer igneous complex intrudes quartzofeldspathic gneiss, quartzite, marble and calc-silicate gneiss of the Helgeland Nappe Complex of the Uppermost Allochthon. The intrusive rocks may be divided into at least three distinct zones, each of which contains screens/xenoliths of the host rocks. The western "syenitic zone" is predominantly fine- to very coarse-grained syenite. Grain size is variable on the outcrop scale, primarily due to intrusion and mingling of fine-grained syenite in coarser grained syenite. The eastern "dioritic zone" consists of hundreds of mafic sheet-like intrusions (gabbro to monzodiorite), metasomatized calc-silicate rocks (now melanocratic syenite and monzonite), monzonite, and syenite. Cross-cutting relationships, particularly back-veining of syenite in mafic bodies, indicate that syenitic magmas were present throughout emplacement of the mafic magmas. The boundary between syenitic and dioritic zones consists of parallel to subparallel syenite and diorite sheets from cm to c. 10 m wide. The sheets strike N to NE and dip W to NW between 40° and 60°. In this "sheeted zone", possible hybrid rocks are identified by their intermediate color index, their occurrence as enclaves within syenite and diorite, and locally by the presence of syenitic and dioritic enclaves in intermediate rocks. Contacts between sheeted zone syenite and diorite are asymmetric. The western contacts of many diorite sheets are chilled against syenite and locally show flame- and load cast- like structures. In contrast, the eastern contacts range from planar to wispy or crenulate, and dioritic enclaves are common. If this asymmetry is used as a geopetal indicator, then original up direction was to the east and the Hortavaer complex is now overturned. The nearby Leka ophiolite underwent block rotation of about 90° to the east; similar, larger eastward block rotation of the Hortavaer complex would result in overturning of the sheets. Reconstruction of the

  8. 2015 Annual Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This report describes conditions and information, as required by the state of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality Reuse Permit I-161-02, for the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds located at Idaho National Laboratory from November 1, 2014–October 31, 2015. The effective date of Reuse Permit I-161-02 is November 20, 2014 with an expiration date of November 19, 2019.

  9. Management of quarry water and solid wastes from the San Rafael Mining and Manufacturing Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Rafael Mining and Milling Complex is located in Mendoza province, in San Rafael Department, 38 km West from San Rafael city and 240 km South from Mendoza city, capital of the province. Activities related with yellow cake production were performed from 1979 to 1999. Nowadays the mine and the plant are in stand by. At the moment technical, economic and environmental studies are being done in order to restart the activities. Different kind of residues are accumulated in the site: a) Tailing; b) Sludges; c) Low grade ores; e) Waste rock; f) Mine water; g) Solid residues (RS). In this paper methodology to treat mine water and solid residues (RS) will be informed. a) Mine water: 800.000 m3 of mine water are accumulated in different open pit. Uranium, radium and arsenic are the main ions to take into account to treat the water. Several laboratory and pilot test have been performed in order to define the treatment of the water, according with the regulatory requirement. A methodology using anion exchange resin to fix uranium and precipitation using barium chloride and iron sulfate to separate radium and arsenic has been developed. b) Solid residues (RS): these residues (precipitates) have been produced by neutralization of effluents in a nuclear purification process (TBP process). They are accumulated in drums. These residues come from Cordoba plant, a factory which produces UO2 powder. The total content of uranium in the precipitate is 14.249 kg with an average uranium concentration of 1,33%. A methodology using sulfuric acid dissolution of the precipitates and anion exchange resin to recovery the uranium has been developed. (author)

  10. Radiometric K/ag data as evidence of the geodynamic evolution of the Ždraljica ophiolitic complex, central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resimić-Šarić Kristina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents age data and petrologic characteristics of igneous rocks of the Ždraljica ophiolitic complex (ŽOC, situated in central Serbia, 150 km south of Belgrade. The complex consists predominately of a MORB/VAB-like tholeutic suite, represented mostly by gabbros and diabases. The tholeiitic suite is intruded by calc-alkaline intermediate and acid magmas of a VA-affinity, which presumably formed in a pre-collisional setting. The whole complex is intruded by peraluminous granite magmas. The crystallization age of the calc-alkaline pre-collisional quartzdiorite is 168.4±6.7 Ma and it post-dates the formation of the here exposed ocean­ic crust. Geological evidence suggest that the emplacement of the complex occurred during the Upper Jurassic. With respect to their petrology and age, the Ždraljica ophiolitic rocks are similar to the south Apuseni Mts. ophiolites, situated to the north, and to the Kuršumija and Guevgeli ophiolites, situated to the south. All these ophiolites probably formed as parts of a single Jurassic belt, which can be termed the eastern branch of the Vardar Zone.

  11. Origin of groundwater in the tertiary volcanic complex in central Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the inner side of the Carpathian Mountain arch in central Slovakia, there is a sequence of Miocene to Pleistocene volcanic rocks predominantly of andesite type and their pyroclastics, forming a stratovolcanic structure up to 1500 m thick over an area of about 5400 km2. The volcanics are underlain by Mesozoic carbonate and by earlier crystalline rocks. The andesites were considered to be poor aquifers. A recent systematic hydrogeological investigation has confirmed that there is a concentration of groundwater flow in fractured zones along faults, this flow discharging into streams. The isotope analyser helped to explain the groundwater structure in the volcanic rocks in relation to the earlier structures, and contributed to knowledge on the development of groundwater and the evaluation of its resources. 2 figs, 1 tab

  12. Evidence for an Upper Palaeozoic North-Palaeotethyan succession in Central Iran: The Siah Godar Complex of Jandaq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra, Fabrizio; Zanchi, Andrea; Malaspina, Nadia; Javadi, Hamid Reza; Koohpeyma, Meysam; Angiolini, Lucia; Vachard, Daniel; Zanchetta, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    The Upper Palaeozoic successions exposed SW of Jandaq, Central Iran, have been studied in the frame of the DARIUS PROGRAMME. These successions, different from the typical passive margin succession of Gondwanan affinity of the Central Iran block, represent keystones for the reconstruction of the convergence (latest Palaeozoic) and docking (Triassic) of Iran to the margin of Eurasia, despite their original relationships have been modified by Mesozoic to Quaternary tectonics, hampering Palaeozoic palaeogeographic reconstructions. In the Jandaq area, three isolated Upper Palaeozoic outcrops, different for tectonic deformation and lithological composition, are preserved close to amphibolite-facies metamorphic rocks of the Jandaq Complex. The southernmost of these outcrops (Chah Rizab) consists of a succession of volcanics interbedded with severely deformed carbonate layers, Fammenian-Tournaisian in age (Bagheri and Stampfli, 2008) according to conodonts, unconformably covered by conglomerates with volcanic and granitoid blocks. The intermediate outcrop is characterized by deformed massive limestones (Early to Late Carboniferous, Sharkovski et al.; 1984) yielding crinoid ossicles, brachiopods (Choristites aff. C. mosquensis, Orulgania sp.)and bryozoans. They are associated with cherty limestones, fine-grained siliciclastics and bedded limestones rich in isolated corals. Shallow marine sedimentation with local episodes of deeper water facies can be inferred. A lithologically different, poorly deformed succession occurs slightly to the north: it consists of alluvial plain sandstones and conglomerates containing marble, volcanic and sedimentary pebbles, as well as granitoids and granophyres. U-Pb radiometric dating on zircons from these rocks are in progress. In the upper part of the unit, marine ingressions are documented by coastal well-selected quartzarenites and a thin limestone intercalation containing brachiopods (Choristites aff. C. mosquensis, Choristites sp

  13. Complex-wide review of DOE's Low-Level Waste Management ES ampersand H vulnerabilities. Volume I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) conducted a comprehensive complex-wide review of its management of low-level waste (LLW) and the radioactive component of mixed low-level waste (MLLW). This review was conducted in response to a recommendation from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) which was established and authorized by Congress to oversee DOE. The DNFSB's recommendation concerning conformance with safety standards at DOE LLW sites was issued on September 8, 1994 and is referred to as Recommendation 94-2. DOE's Implementation Plan for its response to Recommendation 94-2 was submitted to the DNFSB on March 31, 1995. The DNFSB recommended that a complex-wide review of DOE's LLW management be initiated. The goal of the complex-wide review of DOE's LLW management system was to identify both programmatic and physical vulnerabilities that could lead to unnecessary radiation exposure of workers or the public or unnecessary releases of radioactive materials to the environment. Additionally, the DNFSB stated that an objective of the complex-wide review should be to establish the dimensions of the DOE LLW problem and support the identification of corrective actions to address safe disposition of past, present, and future volumes of LLW. The complex-wide review involved an evaluation of LLW management activities at 38 DOE facilities at 36 sites that actively manage LLW and MLLW

  14. 3D magnetotelluric modelling of the Alnö alkaline and carbonatite ring complex, central Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ping; Andersson, Magnus; Kalscheuer, Thomas; García Juanatey, María A.; Malehmir, Alireza; Shan, Chunling; Pedersen, Laust B.; Almqvist, Bjarne S. G.

    2016-06-01

    Thirty-four broadband magnetotelluric stations were deployed across the Alnö alkaline and carbonatite ring intrusion in central Sweden. The measurements were designed such that both 2D models along existing seismic profiles and a 3D model can be constructed. Alnö Island and surrounding areas are densely populated and industrialized and in order to reduce the effect of noise, the remote reference technique was utilized in time series processing. Strike and dimensionality analyses together with the induction arrows show that there is no homogeneous regional strike direction in this area. Therefore, only the determinant of the impedance tensor was used for 2D inversion whereas all elements of the impedance tensor were used for 3D inversion. Representative rock samples were collected from existing outcrops and their resistivities were measured in the laboratory to facilitate interpretation of the inversion models. The results from these measurements show that coarse-grained (sövite, white color) and fine-grained (dark color) carbonatites are the most conductive and resistive rock types, respectively. In accordance with the interpretation of the reflection seismic images, the 2D and 3D resistivity models depict the caldera-related ring-type fault system and updoming faulted and fractured systems as major 10-500 Ωm conductors, extending down to about 3 km depth. A central ~ 4000 Ωm resistive unit at about 3 km depth appears to correspond to a solidified fossil magma chamber as speculated from the reflection seismic data and earlier field geological studies.

  15. New Evidence of Holocene Mass Wasting Events in Recent Volcanic Lakes from the French Massif Central (Lakes Pavin, Montcineyre and Chauvet) and Implications for Natural Hazards

    OpenAIRE

    Chapron, Emmanuel; Ledoux, Grégoire; SIMONNEAU, Anaëlle; Albéric, Patrick; St-Onge, Guillaume; Lajeunesse, Patrick; Boivin, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution seismic profiling (12 kHz) surveys combined with sediment cores, radiocarbon dating, tephrochronology and multibeam bathymetry (when available) allow documentation of a range of Holocene mass wasting events in nearby contrasting lakes of volcanic origin in the French Massif Central (45°N, 2°E): two deep maar lakes (Pavin and Chauvet) and a shallow lake (Montcineyre) dammed by the growth of a volcano. In these lacustrine environments dominated by authigenic sedimentation, recen...

  16. Talc-carbonate alteration of ultramafic rocks within the Leka Ophiolite Complex, Central Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerga, A.; Konopásek, J.; Pedersen, R. B.

    2015-06-01

    Petrographic and geochemical analyses of partly and completely serpentinized and carbonated peridotites within the ultramafic section of the Leka Ophiolite Complex have been used to elucidate the evolution of alterations and identify possible fluid sources. The alterations show no evidence for any major deformation and are located along low-angle structures that were formed in a late stage of the structural evolution of the ophiolite complex. Modeling of mineral equilibria in the SiO2-MgO-FeO-Fe2O3-CaO-H2O ± CO2 system has been utilized to constrain the conditions during serpentinization and carbonation. The partly altered peridotites consist of the mineral assemblage olivine-clinopyroxene-serpentine-magnetite-brucite and formed at temperatures Talc-carbonate rocks formed by the breakdown of the serpentine in the previously formed serpentinite rock at temperatures talc-magnesite-magnetite-dolomite. Carbon isotope values determined for dolomite from crosscutting carbonate lenses within the talc-carbonate rock yield δ13C values of ~- 5 indicative of a mantle source for the carbon required for the carbonation. Oxygen isotope values δSMOW18O of ~ 10.8-11.3‰ together with initial 87Sr/86Sri = 400Ma values of 0.7029 and 0.7063, suggest dehydration of rocks with mantle affinity as a source for the fluids. Based on analytical results and field observations we propose that the formation of the talc- and carbonate-bearing alteration zones is caused by the focused infiltration of fluids that originated at the bottom of already partly serpentinized ophiolite complex during extension-driven burial at the late stage of the Caledonian orogeny.

  17. Organic complexant-enhanced mobility of toxic elements in low-level wastes. Annual report, July 1983-June 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the initial results obtained in a project whose objective is to determine how and to what extent organic complexants affect the mobility of toxic elements in subsurface groundwaters at commercial low-level waste disposal sites. Generic soil components (e.g., hydrous oxides, silica, clays) are being employed so that the results will be broadly applicable. Organic complexants used in the nuclear industry are being emphasized. Data have been obtained with two radioactive (63Ni and 239Pu) and one nonradioactive toxic element (Cd). Work with 63Ni has been emphasized; it was studied with five different generic soil components (hydrous ferric oxide, silica, titania, kaolinite, and montmorillonite) and five different complexants (EDTA, NTA, picolinate, citrate, and oxalate). EDTA was the complexant studied most extensively and hydrous ferric oxide was the most studied soil component. A wide diversity of effects of organic complexants on toxic elements sorption was observed. The effects vary not only among complexants, but also among toxic elements and among soil components. In some systems the complexant results in increased toxic element sorption (decreased mobility) while in other systems the complexant results in decreased toxic element sorption (increased mobility). 16 references, 14 figures, 5 tables

  18. Dynamic Effects of Tank Waste Aging on Radionuclide-Complexant Interactions - Final Report - 10/01/1997 - 10/01/2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-range objective of this project is to provide a scientific basis for safely processing high-level nuclear tanks wastes for disposal. Our goals are to identify a means to prepare realistic simulant formulations for complexant-containing Hanford tank wastes, and then use those simulants to determine the relative importance of various organic complexants and their breakdown products on the partitioning of important radionuclides. The harsh chemical and radiolytic environment in high-level waste tanks alters both the organic complexants and the metal species, producing radionuclide-chelator complexes that resist standard separation methods. A detailed understanding of the complexation reactions of the key radionuclides in tank wastes would allow for reliable, science-based solutions for high-level waste processing, but a key problem is that tank waste samples are exceedingly difficult to obtain, transport and handle in the laboratory. In contrast, freshly-prepared simulated wastes are safe and readily obtained, but they do not reproduce the partitioning behavior of actual tank waste samples. For this project, we will first artificially age complexant-containing tank waste simulants using microwave, ultrasound, and photolysis techniques that can be applied in any standard laboratory. The aged samples will be compared to samples of actual Hanford tank wastes to determine the most realistic aging method, on the basis of the organic fragments present, and the oxidation states and partitioning behavior of important radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and 239Pu. Our successful completion of this goal will make it possible for scientists in academic and industrial laboratories to address tank waste remediation problems without the enormous costs and hazards associated with handling actual tank waste samples. Later, we will use our simulant aging process to investigate the relative effects of chelator degradation products on the partitioning of important radionuclides

  19. Development of major process improvements for decontamination of large, complex, highly radioactive mixed waste items at the Hanford Site T Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the decontamination/treatment mission at the Hanford Site, Westinghouse Hanford Company, under contract to the US Department of Energy, conducts decontamination activities at the T Plant complex. Currently, the 221-T canyon High-Level Waste Decontamination Facility and the 2706-T Low-Level Waste Decontamination Facility capabilities are limited because upgrades are needed. Major process improvements must be developed to decontaminate large, complex, highly radioactive mixed-waste items. At the T Plant complex, an engineering team process was used to project possible solid mixed-waste feed streams and develop a preconceptual system to decontaminate and treat the waste. Treatment objectives and benefits were identified. Selected technologies were reviewed and improvements required to implement a preconceptual system at T Plant were considered. Decontamination facility alternatives were discussed in conjunction with ongoing and future decontamination activities at the Hanford Site, including efforts to enhance overall decontamination operations and capabilities

  20. Quantitative measurement of cyanide complexes in simulated and actual Hanford ferrocyanide wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyanide-containing radioactive waste from radiocesium scavenging processes conducted during the 1950's at Hanford is currently stored in 24 single shell tanks. As part of ongoing tank characterization efforts, the quantity and chemical form of cyanide in these tanks need to be determined. This report summarizes the results of studies conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract to Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to develop methods for the quantification of total cyanide and identification of major cyanide-containing species in Ferrocyanide Tank Waste. Results from the application of FTIR, IC, and microdistillation procedures to simulated and actual Hanford waste are presented and compared where applicable

  1. Evaluation of alternatives to shallow land burial at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternative waste disposal technologies were reviewed relative to Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) 10 CFR 61 low level waste (LLW) disposal criteria and the emerging DOE 5820.2 Chapter III criteria. The intent of the review was to select a technology which would meet or improve upon the disposal practices set forth in these regulations and orders. The evaluation of the disposal technologies yielded a disposal design which incorporates three elements: an all earth cover, earth vaults for the Class A (I) bottom discharge cask inserts, and a concrete vault for the Class B and C (II and III) bulk waste

  2. Garlic viral complex: identification of Potyviruses and Carlavirus in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAJARDO THOR V. M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Garlic viruses often occur in complex infections in nature. In this study, a garlic virus complex, collected in fields in Brazil, was purified. RT-PCR was performed using specific primers designed from the consensus regions of the coat protein genes of Onion yellow dwarf virus, a garlic strain (OYDV-G and Leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV. cDNA of Garlic common latent virus (GCLV was synthesized using oligo-dT and random primers. By these procedures individual garlic virus genomes were isolated and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence analysis associated with serological data reveals the presence of two Potyvirus OYDV-G and LYSV, and GCLV, a Carlavirus, simultaneously infecting garlic plants. Deduced amino acid sequences of the Brazilian isolates were compared with related viruses reported in different geographical regions of the world. The analysis showed closed relations considering the Brazilian isolates of OYDV-G and GCLV, and large divergence considering LYSV isolate. The detection of these virus species was confirmed by specific reactions observed when coat protein genes of the Brazilian isolates were used as probes in dot-blot and Southern blot hybridization assays. In field natural viral re-infection of virus-free garlic was evaluated.

  3. Calculation of projected waste loads for transuranic waste management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level of treatment and the treatment and interim storage site configurations (decentralized, regional, or centralized) impact transuranic (TRU) waste loads at and en route to sites in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Other elements that impact waste loads are the volume and characteristics of the waste and the unit operation parameters of the technologies used to treat it. Projected annual complexwide TRU waste loads under various TRU waste management alternatives were calculated using the WASTEunderscoreMGMT computational model. WASTEunderscoreMGMT accepts as input three types of data: (1) the waste stream inventory volume, mass, and contaminant characteristics by generating site and waste stream category; (2) unit operation parameters of treatment technologies; and (3) waste management alternative definitions. Results indicate that the designed capacity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, identified under all waste management alternatives as the permanent disposal facility for DOE-generated TRU waste, is sufficient for the projected complexwide TRU waste load under any of the alternatives

  4. Utilization of central nervous system resources for preparation and performance of complex walking tasks in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Clark

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionWalking in the home and community often involves performance of complex walking tasks. Understanding the control of such tasks is crucial to preserving independence and quality of life in older adults. However, very little research has been conducted in this area. Here we assess the extent to which two measures of central nervous system (CNS activity are responsive to the challenges posed by preparation and performance of complex walking tasks. Prefrontal cortical activity was measured by functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS and sympathetic nervous system arousal was measured by skin conductance level (SCL.Materials and MethodsSixteen older men and women (age 77.2 ± 5.6 years with mild mobility deficits participated in this study. Participants walked at their preferred speed without distractions along an unobstructed, well-lit course (control task and also walked on the same course under five separate challenging conditions: performing a cognitive verbal fluency task (verbal task, dim lighting (dim task, carrying a tray (carry task, negotiating obstacles (obstacles task and wearing a weighted vest (vest task. Mean prefrontal activation and SCL were calculated during the preparation and performance phases of each task. Gait spatiotemporal measurements were acquired by an instrumented gait mat.ResultsPrefrontal cortical activity and SCL were elevated during the preparation phase of complex walking tasks relative to the control task. During the performance phase, prefrontal activity remained elevated to a similar level as during task preparation. In contrast, SCL continued to increase beyond the level observed during task preparation. A larger increase in prefrontal activity was found to be linked to preserved quality of gait during complex walking tasks.DiscussionThese findings indicate that availability and utilization of CNS resources are important for optimizing performance of complex walking tasks in older adults.

  5. Chronic Wasting Disease Surveillance and Contingency Plan Eastern Virginia Rivers Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan is established to provide a framework for surveillance, monitoring and disease response to Chronic Wasting Disease at the Eastern Virginia Rivers National...

  6. Weathering of Monuments at Jethawanaramaya Complex in North-Central, Sri Lanka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amila Sandaruwan RATNAYAKE; Amarasooriya PITAWALA

    2009-01-01

    Sri Lanka has the richest archaeological sites in Asia. Jethawanarama Complex, one of the valuable sites in the country, is suffering from deterioration due to weathering. Monuments were built mainly from stones (granitic gneiss and marble) and clay bricks. The present study aimed to categorize weathering forms and interpret the recently-developing weathering processes. The growing of lichens on surfaces and the development of saline conditions are the major threats on the survival of monuments other than the typical weathering processes of tropical climates Morinite (NaCa_2Al_2[PO_4)]_2 [F,OH]_5·2H_2O) is identified as a weathering product of monuments and is generated from lichens.

  7. Floristic complexes on landslides of different age in Central Yamal, West Siberian Low Arctic, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Khitun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate ground-based datasets are important for correct interpretation of remote sensing data. West-Siberian Arctic has been exposed to rapid land-cover and land-use changes during the last 50 years. Cryogenic landslides are important disturbing agents in the region, especially in the central part of the Yamal Peninsula. Different succession stages in the recovery of cryogenic landslides are described at the example of 4 model ones formed respectively in 1989, in the middle of 1970s, in late 1950s or early 1960s and an ancient landslide back scarp dated with radiocarbon method as ca 1000 year old. Botanical survey was performed in 1991 and repeated in 2012, phytosociological study on the same landslides and their surroundings was performed in 1997–2002. Correlation between different syntaxa, age and morphological element of landslide is shown. Both projective cover and species composition change gradually on young and old landslides, though vegetation on the ancient ones did not change during the last 20 years. Pioneer communities on Yamal landslides are dominated by grasses (Deschampsia borealis, Puccinellia sibirica, Calamagrostis holmii, Poa alpigena ssp. colpodea, Dupontia fisheri . Proportion of various species differs both between years and different sections of the shear surface. Сarex glareosa indicating saline deposits was recorded on landslides of all stages. Mosses play important role in the recovery and formation of organic horizon on the young landslides. Geochemical properties of the groundwater were analyzed and correlation of different communities with different levels of mineralization of groundwater is shown. Vegetation allows estimate the age of younger landslides and indicates the sites of possible ancient detachment.

  8. Use of Iron (II Salts and Complexes for the Production of Soil Amendments from Organic Solid Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amerigo Beneduci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to obtain rapidly stabilized composts for crops from solid organic wastes is evaluated. Here we used a laboratory scale reaction chamber where solid waste treatment was performed under strictly controlled temperature and pressure conditions. The row organic waste was mixed with acid solutions containing iron (II ions either in the fully hydrated form or in the form of complexes with the diethylentriaminopentaacetic acid. Data from elemental analysis distribution and GC/MS analysis of the polar and non polar dissolved organic matter, clearly showed that Fe(II ions significantly enhance organic substrate oxidation of the initial solid waste, compared to a material obtained without the addition of the Fe(II ions to the raw organic matrix. These results suggest that Fe(II ions might be involved in a catalytic oxidation pathway that would be activated under the experimental conditions used. The extent of the oxidation process was evaluated by the value of the C/N ratio and, qualitatively, by the molecular composition of the dissolved organic matter. After about 6 hours of incubation, dark-brown and dry organic matrices were obtained with C/N ratio as low as 12 and a high degree of oxidative decomposition into low-molecular-weight compounds at high oxidation state.

  9. The Visual Orientation Memory of "Drosophila" Requires Foraging (PKG) Upstream of Ignorant (RSK2) in Ring Neurons of the Central Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Sara; Poeck, Burkhard; Sokolowski, Marla B.; Strauss, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Orientation and navigation in a complex environment requires path planning and recall to exert goal-driven behavior. Walking "Drosophila" flies possess a visual orientation memory for attractive targets which is localized in the central complex of the adult brain. Here we show that this type of working memory requires the cGMP-dependent protein…

  10. Subsurface Investigations Program at the radioactive waste management complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Annual progress report, FY-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes work conducted in FY-85 in support of the Subsurface Investigation Program at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The work is part of a continuing effort to define and predict radionuclide migration from buried waste. The Subsurface Investigation Program is a cooperative study conducted by EG and G Idaho and the US Geological Survey, INEL Office. EG and G is responsible for the shallow drilling, solution chemistry, and net downward flux portions of this program, while the US Geological Survey is responsible for the weighing lysimeters and test trench. Data collection was initiated by drilling, sampling, and instrumenting shallow wells, continuing the installation of test trenches, and modifying the two weighing lysimeters. Twenty-one shallow auger holes were around the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) to evaluate radionuclide content in the surficial sediments, to determine the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the surficial sediments, and to provide as monitoring sites for moisture in these sediments. Eighteen porous cup lysimeters were installed in 12 auger holes to collect soil water samples from the surficial sediments. Fourteen auger holes were instrumented with tensiometers, gypsum blocks and/or psychrometers at various depths throughout the RWMC. Readings from these instruments are taken on a monthly basis

  11. Dating coeval mafic magmatism and ultrahigh temperature metamorphism in the Anápolis-Itauçu Complex, Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustina, Maria Emilia Schutesky Della; Pimentel, Márcio Martins; Ferreira Filho, Cesar Fonseca; de Hollanda, Maria Helena Bezerra Maia

    2011-05-01

    Dating granulites has always been of great interest because they represent one of the most extreme settings of an orogen. Owing to the resilience of zircon, even in such severe environments, the link between P-T conditions and geological time is possible. However, a challenge to geochronologists is to define whether the growth of new zircon is related to pre- or post-P-T peak conditions and which processes might affect the (re)crystallization. In this context, the Anápolis-Itauçu Complex, a high-grade complex in central Brazil with ultrahigh temperature (UHT) granulites, may provide valuable information within this topic. The Anápolis-Itauçu Complex (AIC) includes ortho- and paragranulites, locally presenting UHT mineral assemblages, with igneous zircon ages varying between 760 and 650 Ma and metamorphic overgrowths dated at around 650-640 Ma. Also common in the Anápolis-Itauçu Complex are layered mafic-ultramafic complexes metamorphosed under high-grade conditions. This article presents the first geological and geochronological constraints of three of these layered complexes within the AIC, the Damolândia, Taquaral and Goianira-Trindade complexes. U-Pb (LA-MC-ICPMS, SHRIMP and ID-TIMS) zircon analyses reveal a spread of concordant ages spanning within an age interval of ~ 80 Ma with an “upper” intercept age of ~ 670 Ma. Under cathodoluminescence imaging, these crystals show partially preserved primary sector zoning, as well as internal textures typical of alteration during high-grade metamorphism, such as inward-moving boundaries. Zircon grains reveal homogeneous initial 176Hf/177Hf values in distinct crystal-scale domains in all samples. Moreover, Hf isotopic ratios show correlation neither with U-Pb ages nor with Th/U ratios, suggesting that zircon grains crystallized during a single growth event. It is suggested, therefore, that the observed spread of concordant U-Pb ages may be related to a memory effect due to coupled dissolution

  12. Neutron spectrometry in the temporary storage of waste of the Jose Cabrera (Zorita); Espectrometria de neutrones en el almacen temporal de residuos de la central Jose Cabrera (Zorita)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo, C.; Amgarou, K.

    2011-07-01

    Radiation controls the temporary storage of waste must ensure that the exterior of the same area is classified as open access. Gamma radiation monitors commonly used ensure that this is the case for this type of radiation. The presence of the neutron field associated with the fission of the fuel and the inherent complexity of the neutron dosimetry, in which information is required to assess spectrometric corresponding dosimetric quantities, has led to this season, first in Spain, measures in containers of waste and spent nuclear fuel in the ATI of the Jose Cabrera.

  13. Mixed waste certification plan for the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Hazardous Waste Handling Facility. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of mixed waste handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This plan is composed to meet the requirements found in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and follows the suggested outline provided by WHC in the letter of April 26, 1990, to Dr. R.H. Thomas, Occupational Health Division, LBL. Mixed waste is to be transferred to the WHC Hanford Site Central Waste Complex and Burial Grounds in Hanford, Washington

  14. Systematics of the Podarcis hispanicus complex (Sauria, Lacertidae) III: valid nomina of the western and central Iberian forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniez, Philippe; Sá-Sousa, Paulo; Guillaume, Claude P; Cluchier, Alexandre; Crochet, Pierre-André

    2014-01-01

    Recent genetic works have suggested that the Iberian wall lizard Podarcis hispanicus (Steindachner, 1870) sensu lato is a species complex. Several forms have already been elevated to species rank and linked to available nomina, but at least three still have to be formally named, including the western Iberian forms currently designated as Podarcis hispanicus "type 1A", "type 1B" and "type 2". The aim of the present work is to assign a valid nomen to these taxa. Using multivariate analyses, we first checked that the morphological differences reported in Portugal between type 1 and type 2 are maintained over their distribution range. We then investigated phenotypic differentiation between type 1A and type 1B, which were found to be so similar that identification based on phenotype is currently not advisable. We propose to treat type 1 and type 2 as distinct species because of their level of genetic and phenotypic divergence, large area of distribution and ample evidence for reduced or absent introgression in contact zones. We maintain type 1A and 1B as subspecies for the time being, pending further analyses of their contact zone. The valid nomen for "Podarcis hispanica type 1 (sensu lato)" is Lacerta muralis guadarramae Boscá, 1916 which becomes Podarcis guadarramae (Boscá, 1916). Lineage type 1A is here described as a new taxon: P. guadarramae lusitanicus ssp. nov., inhabiting northern Portugal and northwestern Spain. The type 1B lineage corresponds to the nominotypical subspecies that inhabits Spain, mostly the Central Iberian Mountains. We were unable to locate an available nomen for "Podarcis hispanica type 2", which is here described as Podarcis virescens sp. nov. This species is widely distributed in the plains and plateaus of central and parts of south-western Spain as well as central and southern Portugal. PMID:24870311

  15. Home range and local movement of small mammals on the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 1978, a study of local movement of small mammals on the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) was undertaken in conjunction with a study of rodent dispersal. Live trapping in May and June revealed a strong potential for the detection of local movement of at least four species of rodents. Information on this movement is important as each species, during burrowing, may transport radioactive waste from the point of interment to the surface. The area over which contamination may be spread, as fecal deposits or as metabolically incorporated elements, is a function of the daily movement of each animal. At least eight factors may effect size and shape of home range. These factors are discussed, techniques employed in the calculation of home range are outlined, and problems associated with live trapping and studying local movement of small mammals are considered

  16. Review of Corrosion Inhibition in High Level Radioactive Waste Tanks in the DOE Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is stored in underground storage tanks at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The waste tanks store supernatant liquid salts, consisting primarily of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium hydroxide, and sludge. An assessment of the potential degradation mechanisms of the high level waste (HLW) tanks determined that nitrate- induced pitting corrosion and stress corrosion cracking were the two most significant degradation mechanisms. Controls on the solution chemistry (minimum nitrite and hydroxide concentrations) are in place to prevent the initiation and propagation of pitting and stress corrosion cracking in the tanks. These controls are based upon a series of experiments performed using simulated solutions on materials used for construction of the tanks. The technical bases and evolution of these controls is presented

  17. Colonization of a Central Venous Catheter by the Hyaline Fungus Fusarium solani Species Complex: A Case Report and SEM Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Colombo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of opportunistic infections by filamentous fungi is increasing partly due to the widespread use of central venous catheters (CVC, indwelling medical devices, and antineoplastic/immunosuppressive drugs. The case of a 13-year-old boy under treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia is presented. The boy was readmitted to the Pediatric Ward for intermittent fever of unknown origin. Results of blood cultures drawn from peripheral venous sites or through the CVC were compared. CVC-derived bottles (but not those from peripheral veins yielded hyaline fungi that, based on morphology, were identified as belonging to the Fusarium solani species complex. Gene amplification and direct sequencing of the fungal ITS1 rRNA region and the EF-1alpha gene confirmed the isolate as belonging to the Fusarium solani species complex. Portions of the CVC were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Fungi mycelia with long protruding hyphae were seen into the lumen. The firm adhesion of the fungal formation to the inner surface of the catheter was evident. In the absence of systemic infection, catheter removal and prophylactic voriconazole therapy were followed by disappearance of febrile events and recovery. Thus, indwelling catheters are prone to contamination by environmental fungi.

  18. A multi-disciplinary approach to study coastal complex landslides: the case of Torino di Sangro (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Marco; Carabba, Luigi; Urbano, Tullio; Calista, Monia

    2016-04-01

    This work illustrates the studies carried out on a complex landslide phenomenon between the Sangro and Osento River's mouths, near Torino di Sangro village in Southern Abruzzo Region (Italy). Historical activity of this landslide is well-documented since 1916; the activation/reactivation of the movements caused several interruptions of a national railway and the damage of few houses. The Torino di Sangro case study can be regarded as representative of many large landslides distributed along the central Adriatic coast (e.g., Ancona, Ortona, Vasto and Petacciato Landslides) that affect densely populated urban areas with a large amount of man-made infrastructure. The main controlling factors of these large and deep-seated landslides are still debated. From the geological and geomorphological viewpoint, the central Adriatic coast is characterized by a low-relief landscape (mesa) carved on clay-sandstone-conglomerate bedrock belonging to the Upper Pliocene - Lower Pleistocene marine deposits and locally to the Middle Pleistocene marine to continental transitional deposits. This high coast is widely affected by slope instability (rock falls, rotational, complex and shallow landslides) on both active and inactive sea cliffs, the first being mainly affected by wave-cut erosion and the latter influenced by heavy rainfall and changes of pore pressure. The main landslide has the typical characteristics of a deep-seated gravitation deformation. The landslide study was based on a multidisciplinary approach including: 1) definition and GIS mapping of geology and geomorphology factors (slope, aspect, topographic curvature, bedrock lithology, near-surface deposits, deposit thickness and land use), by means of DTM processing, multi-temporal analysis, and large-scale geomorphological field survey; 2) monitoring system in the landslide; 3) application of empiric models for the analysis of unstable sandstone-conglomerate escarpments; 4) slope stability analysis performed using a

  19. Characterization of the hydrothermal system of the Tinguiririca Volcanic Complex, Central Chile, using structural geology and passive seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavez, C.; Tapia, F.; Comte, D.; Gutiérrez, F.; Lira, E.; Charrier, R.; Benavente, O.

    2016-01-01

    A structural characterization of the hydrothermal-volcanic field associated with the Tinguiririca Volcanic Complex had been performed by combining passive seismic tomography and structural geology. This complex corresponds to a 20 km long succession of N25°E oriented of eruptive centers, currently showing several thermal manifestations distributed throughout the area. The structural behavior of this zone is controlled by the El Fierro-El Diablo fault system, corresponding to a high angle reverse faults of Oligocene-Miocene age. In this area, a temporary seismic network with 16 short-period stations was setup from January to April of 2010, in the context of the MSc thesis of Lira (2010), covering an area of 200 km2 that corresponds with the hydrothermal field of Tinguiririca Volcanic Complex (TVC), Central Chile, Southern Central Andes. Using P- and S- wave arrival times, a 3D seismic velocity tomography was performed. The preliminary locations of 2270 earthquakes have first been determined using an a priori 1D velocity model. Afterwards, a joint inversion of both, the 3D velocity model and final locations have been obtained. High Vp/Vs ratios are interpreted as zones with high hot fluid content and high fracturing. Meanwhile, low Vp/Vs anomalies could represent the magmatic reservoir and the conduit network associated to the fluid mobility. Based on structural information and thermal manifestations, these anomalies have been interpreted. In order to visualize the relation between local geology and the velocity model, the volume associated with the magma reservoir and the fluid circulation network has been delimited using an iso-value contour of Vp/Vs equal to 1.70. The most prominent observed feature in the obtained model is a large "V" shaped low-velocity anomaly extending along the entire study region and having the same vergency and orientation as the existing high-angle inverse faults, which corroborates that El Fierro-El Diablo fault system represents the

  20. The Paleoproterozoic Singo granite in south-central Uganda revealed as a nested igneous ring complex using geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Katumwehe, Andrew B.; Atekwana, Estella A.; Le Pera, Alan K.; Achang, Mercy

    2016-04-01

    We used high-resolution airborne magnetic and radiometric data and satellite gravity data to investigate the form of occurrence of the Paleoproterozoic Singo granite in west-central Uganda. This granitic body covers an area of ∼700 km2, intrudes Paleoproterozoic crystalline rocks and overlain by Paleoproterozoic-Mesoproterozoic sedimentary rocks, both of which belong to the Rwenzori terrane, and it is host to hydrothermally-formed economic minerals such as gold and tungsten. Our analysis provided unprecedented geometrical details of the granitic body and revealed the following: (1) the margins of the Singo granite are characterized by a higher magnetic signature compared to the interior of the granitic body as well as the surroundings. These anomalies are apparent in both the total magnetic field and horizontal derivative images and define eight overlapping ring features. (2) the depth continuation of these magnetic anomalies define outward but steeply-dipping features as indicated by the tilt images extracted from the airborne magnetic data. This is further supported by forward modeling of the magnetic and gravity data. (3) the Singo granite is characterized by relatively high and evenly-distributed equivalent concentration of Uranium (eU) and Thorium (eTh) compared to the surroundings and this is apparent in the Potassium (K)-eTh-eU radiometric ternary image. (4) the granitic body is defined by a gravity low anomaly that persisted to a depth of three km as shown by the Bouguer anomaly image and its five km upward continuation. We used these observations to identify this granitic body as a nested igneous ring complex and we refer to it as the Singo Igneous Ring Complex (SIRC). We further interpreted the eight ring structures as individual igneous ring complexes aligned in an E-W and NE-SW direction and these were developed due to repeated calderas collapse. Additionally, we interpreted the ring-shaped magnetic anomalies as due to hydrothermally-altered margins

  1. Application of pathways analyses for site performance prediction for the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant and Oak Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The suitability of the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant and the Oak Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility for shallow-land burial of low-level radioactive waste is evaluated using pathways analyses. The analyses rely on conservative scenarios to describe the generation and migration of contamination and the potential human exposure to the waste. Conceptual and numerical models are developed using data from comprehensive laboratory and field investigations and are used to simulate the long-term transport of contamination to man. Conservatism is built into the analyses when assumptions concerning future events have to be made or when uncertainties concerning site or waste characteristics exist. Maximum potential doses to man are calculated and compared to the appropriate standards. The sites are found to provide adequate buffer to persons outside the DOE reservations. Conclusions concerning site capacity and site acceptability are drawn. In reaching these conclusions, some consideration is given to the uncertainties and conservatisms involved in the analyses. Analytical methods to quantitatively assess the probability of future events to occur and the sensitivity of the results to data uncertainty may prove useful in relaxing some of the conservatism built into the analyses. The applicability of such methods to pathways analyses is briefly discussed. 18 refs., 9 figs

  2. Ruthenium nitrosyl complexes in radioactive waste solutions of reprocessing plants. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparative isolation of the cationic ruthenium nitrosyl nitrato complexes succeeds by counter-pressure column electrophoresis on Lichroprep Si 60 as supporting medium. The composition of the separated complexes is elucidated by the ionic charge determined via the electrophoretic migration distance and by the content of Ru and NO-3. The amounts of the single complexes in simulated HAW and MAW solutions are practically equal to those in the corresponding pure nitric solutions. By denitration using formic acid or formaldehyde, formato complexes are formed, the composition of which is revealed by means of a new formate determination method analogous to that for the nitrato complexes. From the mixture of the complexes the neutral complexes can be extracted well, the cationic ones only very slightly. In order to determine the extraction behavior of the simple cationic complexes with TBP-Dodecane, they are separated by column electrophoresis at 00C. The low temperature not only prevents the complexes from transformation, but also improves the extraction in the same way as does the electrolyte, necessarily contained in the eluent. In the case of the cationic complexes, the extraction coefficients increase with decreasing ionic charge and increasing number of nitrato ligands. (orig.)

  3. A study of the energy balance and melt regime on Juncal Norte Glacier, semi-arid Andes of central Chile, using melt models of different complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Pellicciotti, Francesca; Helbing, Jakob; Rivera, Andrés; Favier, Vincent; Corripio, Javier; Araos, José; Sicart, Jean-Emmanuel; Carenzo, Marco

    2008-01-01

    We use meteorological data from two automatic weather stations (AWS) on Juncal Norte Glacier, central Chile, to investigate the glacier-climate interaction and to test ablation models of different complexity. The semi-arid Central Andes are characterized by dry summers, with precipitation close to zero, low relative humidity and intense solar radiation. We show that katabatic forcing is dominant both on the glacier tongue and in the fore field, and that low humidity and absence of clouds caus...

  4. Biomonitoring of ecosystem degradation caused by CPO waste of Mentaya River in Central Kalimantan use of esterase isozyme electromorph method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRABANG SETYONO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of CPO (Crude Palm Oil dock activity in Mentaya River of Central Borneo caused degradation of ecosystem, particularly on both mangrove and macrozoobenthos community. One of methods used for monitoring of ecosystem degradation was to determine species that were still survive under the polluted conditions. These survival species were assumed to synthesize alloenzyme that can be used as indicator. Alloenzyme was synthesized as an effort of adaptation processes toward environmental pressures caused by CPO spill on Mentaya River. Alloenzyme would be expressed as phenotypic and genotypic adaptation processes or phenotypic plasticity. Research was carried out, consisted of field research included collecting sample and environmental data (oil content, temperature, pH, electric conductivity and redox potential, and laboratory research included series analysis of water quality (DO, BOD, COD, pH, TSS, TDS and also alloenzyme content of Soneratia caseolaris L. and Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man. The alloenzyme of root and leaves mangrove and prawn’s hepatopancreas was analyzed using Spencer starch gel electrophoresis modified method of exposed on sucrose solution. Separated components of alloenzyme were detected by special staining for Esterase isozyme. The results revealed that Soneratia caseolaris L. and Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man were bioindicator organisms for the polluted site by oil spills from CPO loading activities. The polluted river water by oil spill from CPO activities decreased redox potential, DO, increased oil content, DHL, water temperature, pH sediment, pH water, TDS, BOD, COD, TSS. Gel electrophoretical analysis demonstrated that Mangrove Soneratia caseolaris synthesized alloenzyme consisted of complex enzymes such as EST in its root and leave cells. Those enzymes were nearly similar to those of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The oil spill from CPO have ester bonding so its adaptation mechanism with release Esterase

  5. The 10 April 2014 Nicaraguan Crustal Earthquake: Evidence of Complex Deformation of the Central American Volcanic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Gerardo; Muñoz, Angélica; Farraz, Isaac A.; Talavera, Emilio; Tenorio, Virginia; Novelo-Casanova, David A.; Sánchez, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    On 10 April 2014, an M w 6.1 earthquake struck central Nicaragua. The main event and the aftershocks were clearly recorded by the Nicaraguan national seismic network and other regional seismic stations. These crustal earthquakes were strongly felt in central Nicaragua but caused relatively little damage. This is in sharp contrast to the destructive effects of the 1972 earthquake in the capital city of Managua. The differences in damage stem from the fact that the 1972 earthquake occurred on a fault beneath the city; in contrast, the 2014 event lies offshore, under Lake Managua. The distribution of aftershocks of the 2014 event shows two clusters of seismic activity. In the northwestern part of Lake Managua, an alignment of aftershocks suggests a northwest to southeast striking fault, parallel to the volcanic arc. The source mechanism agrees with this right-lateral, strike-slip motion on a plane with the same orientation as the aftershock sequence. For an earthquake of this magnitude, seismic scaling relations between fault length and magnitude predict a sub-surface fault length of approximately 16 km. This length is in good agreement with the extent of the fault defined by the aftershock sequence. A second cluster of aftershocks beneath Apoyeque volcano occurred simultaneously, but spatially separated from the first. There is no clear alignment of the epicenters in this cluster. Nevertheless, the decay of the number of earthquakes beneath Apoyeque as a function of time shows the typical behavior of an aftershock sequence and not of a volcanic swarm. The northeast-southwest striking Tiscapa/Ciudad Jardín and Estadio faults that broke during the 1972 and 1931 Managua earthquakes are orthogonal to the fault where the 10 April earthquake occurred. These orthogonal faults in close geographic proximity show that Central Nicaragua is being deformed in a complex tectonic setting. The Nicaraguan forearc sliver, between the trench and the volcanic arc, moves to the

  6. ICD Complex Operations and Maintenance Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, P. L.

    2007-06-25

    This Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Plan describes how the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducts operations, winterization, and startup of the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Complex. The ICDF Complex is the centralized INL facility responsible for the receipt, storage, treatment (as necessary), and disposal of INL Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation waste.

  7. Fractionation and magma mixing within intruding dike swarm: evidence from the Miocene Shitara-Otoge igneous complex, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geshi, Nobuo

    2000-05-01

    The analysis of intrusion pattern and petrological character of the central dike swarm in the Miocene igneous complex of the Shitara district, central Japan clarified that magma mixing between a strongly differentiated magma and a less-differentiated magma occurred within a dike swarm. The dike rocks have a wide compositional variation ranging from 5.5 to 0.7 wt.% MgO. They are divided into P1- and P2-types. The P2-type rocks provide many lines of evidence for magma mixing such as reversely zoned phenocrysts, bimodal composition distribution, and dissolution texture, whereas P1-type rocks do not. Phenocryst compositions of P2-type suggest that the magma mixing occurred between a less-fractionated phenocryst-poor magma and a strongly fractionated crystal-rich magma. Concentration ratios among incompatible elements show that the mixing end components were derived from a similar parental magma common to P1-type by fractional crystallization in a near closed system. The dikes with evidence for the magma mixing (P2-type) are distributed only in the southern marginal part of the dike swarm, whereas P1-type dikes do not show any such localization. The distribution and the intrusion direction of the dikes indicate a nearly horizontal outward flow of magmas in the southern part of the dike swarm and accompanied magma mixing in the dike during intrusion. The fractionated end component is inferred to be a product of crystal fractionation within small and ephemeral magma pockets in the dike swarm. Magma mixing is thought to have occurred when a newly intruded dike ruptured the magma reservoir. The frequency of magma mixing was controlled mainly by competition between the lifetime of ephemeral magma reservoir and frequency of dike intrusions. The condition of magma mixing was satisfied only in the southern part of the dike swarm affected by the preceding volcanic activities.

  8. Complex Treatment of Soils, Waste Water and Groundwater Contaminated by Halogenated Organic Compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaštánek, František; Maléterová, Ywetta; Kaštánek, P.; Rott, J.

    Rhode Island: Global -NEST, 2005 - (Lekkas, T.). s. 112 ISBN 960-7475-33-X. [International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology /9./. 01.09.2005-03.09.2005, Rhodes Island] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/03/0407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : solid wastes * chlorophenols * Pd/Fe catalyst Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  9. Complex coacervation of collagen hydrolysate extracted from leather solid wastes and chitosan for controlled release of lavender oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Buğra

    2012-06-15

    In the world, approximately 600,000 metric tonnes of chromium-containing solid wastes are generated by the leather industry each year. Environmental concerns and escalating landfill costs are becoming increasingly serious problems to the leather industry and seeking solutions to these problems is a prime concern in much research today. In this study, solid collagen-based protein hydrolysate was isolated from chromium-tanned leather wastes and its chemical properties were determined. Microcapsules of collagen hydrolysate (CH) - chitosan (C) crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (GA) containing Lavender oil (LO) were prepared by complex coacervation method. The effects of various processing parameters, including the CH to C ratio, LO content, and GA, on the oil load (%), oil content (%), encapsulation efficiency (%) and release rate of LO from microcapsules were investigated. As the ratio of C present in the CH/C mixture and crosslinking density increased, the release rate of LO from microcapsules slowed down. Optical and scanning electron microscopy images illustrated that the LO microcapsules were spherical in shape. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies confirmed that there was no significant interaction between CH/C complex and LO. PMID:22361107

  10. International technology catalogue: Foreign technologies to support the environmental restoration and waste management needs of the DOE complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matalucci, R.V. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Programs Dept.; Jimenez, R.D.; Esparza-Baca, C. [ed.] [Applied Sciences Lab., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-07-01

    This document represents a summary of 27 foreign-based environmental restoration and waste management technologies that have been screened and technically evaluated for application to the cleanup problems of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex. The evaluation of these technologies was initiated in 1992 and completed in 1995 under the DOE`s International Technology Coordination Program of the Office of Technology Development. A methodology was developed for conducting a country-by-country survey of several regions of the world where specific environmental technology capabilities and market potential were investigated. The countries that were selected from a rank-ordering process for the survey included: then West Germany, the Netherlands, France, Japan, Taiwan, the Czech and Slovak Republics, and the Former Soviet Union. The notably innovative foreign technologies included in this document were screened initially from a list of several hundred, and then evaluated based on criteria that examined for level of maturity, suitability to the DOE needs, and for potential cost effective application at a DOE site. Each of the selected foreign technologies that were evaluated in this effort for DOE application were subsequently matched with site-specific environmental problem units across the DOE complex using the Technology Needs Assessment CROSSWALK Report. For ease of tracking these technologies to site problem units, and to facilitate their input into the DOE EnviroTRADE Information System, they were categorized into the following three areas: (1) characterization, monitoring and sensors, (2) waste treatment and separations, and (3) waste containment. Technical data profiles regarding these technologies include title and description, performance information, development status, key regulatory considerations, intellectual property rights, institute and contact personnel, and references.

  11. International technology catalogue: Foreign technologies to support the environmental restoration and waste management needs of the DOE complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document represents a summary of 27 foreign-based environmental restoration and waste management technologies that have been screened and technically evaluated for application to the cleanup problems of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex. The evaluation of these technologies was initiated in 1992 and completed in 1995 under the DOE's International Technology Coordination Program of the Office of Technology Development. A methodology was developed for conducting a country-by-country survey of several regions of the world where specific environmental technology capabilities and market potential were investigated. The countries that were selected from a rank-ordering process for the survey included: then West Germany, the Netherlands, France, Japan, Taiwan, the Czech and Slovak Republics, and the Former Soviet Union. The notably innovative foreign technologies included in this document were screened initially from a list of several hundred, and then evaluated based on criteria that examined for level of maturity, suitability to the DOE needs, and for potential cost effective application at a DOE site. Each of the selected foreign technologies that were evaluated in this effort for DOE application were subsequently matched with site-specific environmental problem units across the DOE complex using the Technology Needs Assessment CROSSWALK Report. For ease of tracking these technologies to site problem units, and to facilitate their input into the DOE EnviroTRADE Information System, they were categorized into the following three areas: (1) characterization, monitoring and sensors, (2) waste treatment and separations, and (3) waste containment. Technical data profiles regarding these technologies include title and description, performance information, development status, key regulatory considerations, intellectual property rights, institute and contact personnel, and references

  12. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 3: Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 3 is a compilation of the construction specifications that will constitute the Title II materials and performance specifications. This volume contains CSI specifications for non-equipment related construction material type items, performance type items, and facility mechanical equipment items. Data sheets are provided, as necessary, which specify the equipment overall design parameters.

  13. The insect central complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Daniel B; Jayaraman, Vivek

    2016-06-01

    Hordes of tourists flock to Washington, D.C. every spring to see the cherry trees blossom. Once in the city, they must find their way to the Tidal Basin where the Japanese trees grow. Fortunately, a number of visual landmarks can help them to navigate. In 1910, the United States Congress passed The Height of Buildings Act, limiting the elevation of commercial and residential structures in D.C. to 130 feet. Thus, the 555-foot-tall Washington Monument often looms large against the horizon, serving as an anchor point to help set the tourists' sense of direction. Once their heading is set, they can lose sight of the monument behind buildings or groups of tall Scandinavian visitors and still use their internal compass to navigate to the Basin. This compass keeps track of their paces and turns and updates their sense of where they are and where they need to go. Yet while their heading informs their actions, it does not dictate them. Tourists who have been to D.C. in the past can, for example, use remembered views to alter their routes to avoid crowds. On an even finer scale, their leg movements also depend on their current state - they might increase the frequency and length of their strides if hunger pangs compete with their desire to see cherry blossoms, for example. The way in which these disparate cues and motivations influence exploration is a neuroscience mystery across creatures large and small. PMID:27269718

  14. Ruthenium nitrosyl complexes in radioactive waste solutions in reprocessing plants. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With capillary isotachophoresis and free-flow isotachophoresis it is possible to separate and isolate preparatively the mononuclear cationic ruthenium nitrosyl nitrato complexes. The behaviour of these complexes during storage, concentration and calcination is studied: The conversion of six ruthenium nitrosyl nitrato complexes as a function of time is studied at -360C, 00C, +30C and 1000C. The percentage of ruthenium nitrosyl complexes with NO3- as ligand increased markedly during concentration experiments. Above 2500C NOsub(x) is liberated and the colour of the residue changes from brown to brownish-grey. At 4000C ruthenium complexes are no longer detected and the inner walls of the apparatus are covered with RuO2. (orig.)

  15. Geochronology of blueschists from west-central Baja California and the timing of uplift in subduction complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, S.L.; Harrison, T.M. (Dept. of Geol. Sciences, Albany, NY (USA))

    1989-03-01

    A geochronologic study of blueschists from west-central Baja California has provided constraints on the timing of high-pressure, low-temperature metamorphism and the subsequent uplift of this subduction complex. Mineral separates from coherent blueschists and blueschist blocks enclosed in serpentinite melange were analyzed by {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar, fission track, and Rb/Sr methods. {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar age spectra for white mica separated from four blueschist blocks and an overprinted eclogite block in serpentinite-matrix melange show slow cooling gradients between 115-95 Ma. Rb/Sr apparent ages for one block are concordant with these results. {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages of blue amphibole are primarily the result of the degassing of white mica intergrowths as confirmed by microprobe analyses. Apatite fission track ages indicate a blueschist block and an eclogite block cooled to a temperature below {approximately}100 C at 22 Ma and 32 Ma, respectively. Subduction-related metamorphism of the coherent blueschists occurred in late Early Cretaceous time, based on a {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar age or 109 Ma for metamorphic white mica from a metasandstone. {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar analysis of partially albitized K-feldspar from a plutonic clast in a metaconglomerate indicates this sample cooled to a temperature of {approximately} 145 C at approximately 20 Ma. Geochronologic and petrologic data for coherent blueschists indicate an average uplift rate of 0.1 mm/yr for one portion of the subduction complex. The relatively slow uplift rate and lack of any higher temperature overprinting assemblages in the coherent blueschists suggest that synsubduction uplift was gradual and proceeded through a dynamic accretionary wedge characterized by low geothermal gradients. An increase in uplift rate (to 1.0 mm/yr) during post-Miocene time coincides with a change from a convergent to a transform plate boundary.

  16. Accessory and rock forming minerals monitoring the evolution of zoned mafic ultramafic complexes in the Central Ural Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, J.; Brügmann, G. E.; Pushkarev, E. V.

    2007-04-01

    This study describes major and trace element compositions of accessory and rock forming minerals from three Uralian-Alaskan-type complexes in the Ural Mountains (Kytlym, Svetley Bor, Nizhnii Tagil) for the purpose of constraining the origin, evolution and composition of their parental melts. The mafic-ultramafic complexes in the Urals are aligned along a narrow, 900 km long belt. They consist of a central dunite body grading outward into clinopyroxenite and gabbro lithologies. Several of these dunite bodies have chromitites with platinum group element mineralization. High Fo contents in olivine (Fo 92-93) and high Cr/(Cr + Al) in spinel (0.67-0.84) suggest a MgO-rich (> 15 wt.%) and Al 2O 3-poor ultramafic parental magma. During its early stages the magma crystallized dominantly olivine, spinel and clinopyroxene forming cumulates of dunite, wehrlite and clinopyroxenite. This stage is monitored by a common decrease in the MgO content in olivine (Fo 93-86) and the Cr/(Cr + Al) value of coexisting accessory chromite (0.81-0.70). Subsequently, at subsolidus conditions, the chromite equilibrated with the surrounding silicates producing Fe-rich spinel while Al-rich spinel exsolved chromian picotite and chromian titanomagnetite. This generated the wide compositional ranges typical for spinel from Uralian-Alaskan-type complexes world wide. Laser ablation analyses (LA-ICPMS) reveal that clinopyroxene from dunites and clinopyroxenite from all three complexes have similar REE patterns with an enrichment of LREE (0.5-5.2 prim. mantle) and other highly incompatible elements (U, Th, Ba, Rb) relative to the HREE (0.25-2.0 prim. mantle). This large concentration range implies the extensive crystallization of olivine and clinopyroxene together with spinel from a continuously replenished, tapped and crystallizing magma chamber. Final crystallization of the melt in the pore spaces of the cooling cumulate pile explains the large variation in REE concentrations on the scale of a thin

  17. Land subsidence resulted from 500m spring draining in granite complex in Mizunami, central Japan (2004-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, F.; Honda, R.; Asai, Y.; Ishii, H.; Miyajima, R.; Tanaka, T.

    2013-12-01

    The 1,000m shaft excavation project in granite complex by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is on going in Mizunami, Gifu prefecture, Central Japan since April 2004. The excavating is reached the 500 m depth in March 2010 and the groundwater are inflowing around 700 ton/day. It is suggested the land subsidence as a result of ground water level changing by spring drain at the shaft. We make observations of ground water, crustal deformation by tilt meter, stress meter, strain meter and precise leveling, and gravity around the shaft. The subsidence was started at the time of the excavation beginning. As the observation results, drawdown of water head amounting to 70 m was detected in the observation wells, and 1-2 cm subsidence are detected at the benchmarks locating close to the shaft excavation site and on its south side area in the period of February 2004 to October 2012. The groundwater was almost recovered to the level of before the shaft excavation when drainage was temporarily stopped in June 2005, but it decreased by resume of drainage again. It shows a good association between the subsidence and water level change. It is suggested ground consolidation and elastic deformation as a mechanism of the subsidence. However, benchmarks are limited to the excavation site, and we could not make clear spatial distribution of the subsidence.

  18. Anatomical basis of sun compass navigation II: the neuronal composition of the central complex of the monarch butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Stanley; Florman, Jeremy; Asokaraj, Surainder; El Jundi, Basil; Reppert, Steven M

    2013-02-01

    Each fall, eastern North American monarch butterflies in their northern range undergo a long-distance migration south to their overwintering grounds in Mexico. Migrants use a time-compensated sun compass to determine directionality during the migration. This compass system uses information extracted from sun-derived skylight cues that is compensated for time of day and ultimately transformed into the appropriate motor commands. The central complex (CX) is likely the site of the actual sun compass, because neurons in this brain region are tuned to specific skylight cues. To help illuminate the neural basis of sun compass navigation, we examined the neuronal composition of the CX and its associated brain regions. We generated a standardized version of the sun compass neuropils, providing reference volumes, as well as a common frame of reference for the registration of neuron morphologies. Volumetric comparisons between migratory and nonmigratory monarchs substantiated the proposed involvement of the CX and related brain areas in migratory behavior. Through registration of more than 55 neurons of 34 cell types, we were able to delineate the major input pathways to the CX, output pathways, and intrinsic neurons. Comparison of these neural elements with those of other species, especially the desert locust, revealed a surprising degree of conservation. From these interspecies data, we have established key components of a conserved core network of the CX, likely complemented by species-specific neurons, which together may comprise the neural substrates underlying the computations performed by the CX. PMID:22886450

  19. Geographic variation and genetic relationships in populations of the Androniscus dentiger complex from Central Italy (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Trichoniscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Gentile

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Androniscus dentiger is a terrestrial isopod distributed from Great Britain to North Africa, inhabiting humid edafic environments, superficial underground compartments and both natural and artificial caves. In this study allozyme data have been used to investigate the geographic variation and the genetic relationships of several populations of A. dentiger from Central Italy, using as outgroups populations from four congeneric species, A. calcivagus, A. cfr. subterraneus, A. spelaeorum, and A. degener. Multivariate analysis of A. dentiger allele frequencies indicates the existence of a group of populations (group A distributed in a wide geographic area which are genetically slightly differentiated, and several populations (arbitrarily defined as group B which show differentiation levels comparable to those observed between the morphologically well differentiated species. The low valley of the river Tiber seems to act as an effective geographic barrier between the populations from group A and the remaining ones. The genetic divergence between populations within the group A seems to have a recent origin. This is suggested by the low genetic distances and heterozygosity values within the group A, and by the very low number of private alleles occurring in this group. The high degree of intraspecific and interspecific genetic differentiation is not consistent with the levels of morphological differentiation traditionally used to distinguish different species within this genus. On the whole, these data suggest that A. dentiger might be considered as a complex of cryptic/sibling species.

  20. Geologic processes in the RWMC area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Implications for long term stability and soil erosion at the radioactive waste management complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, W.R.; Tullis, J.A.; Smith, R.P. [and others

    1995-09-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is the disposal and storage facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Transuranic waste and mixed wastes were also disposed at the RWMC until 1970. It is located in the southwestern part of the INEL about 80 km west of Idaho Falls, Idaho. The INEL occupies a portion of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), a low-relief, basalt, and sediment-floored basin within the northern Rocky Mountains and northeastern Basin and Range Province. It is a cool and semiarid, sagebrush steppe desert characterized by irregular, rolling terrain. The RWMC began disposal of INEL-generated wastes in 1952, and since 1954, wastes have been accepted from other Federal facilities. Much of the waste is buried in shallow trenches, pits, and soil vaults. Until about 1970, trenches and pits were excavated to the basalt surface, leaving no sediments between the waste and the top of the basalt. Since 1970, a layer of sediment (about 1 m) has been left between the waste and the basalt. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has developed regulations specific to radioactive-waste disposal, including environmental standards and performance objectives. The regulation applicable to all DOE facilities is DOE Order 5820.2A (Radioactive Waste Management). An important consideration for the performance assessment of the RWMC is the long-term geomorphic stability of the site. Several investigators have identified geologic processes and events that could disrupt a radioactive waste disposal facility. Examples of these {open_quotes}geomorphic hazards{close_quotes} include changes in stream discharge, sediment load, and base level, which may result from climate change, tectonic processes, or magmatic processes. In the performance assessment, these hazards are incorporated into scenarios that may affect the future performance of the RWMC.

  1. Geologic processes in the RWMC area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Implications for long term stability and soil erosion at the radioactive waste management complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is the disposal and storage facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Transuranic waste and mixed wastes were also disposed at the RWMC until 1970. It is located in the southwestern part of the INEL about 80 km west of Idaho Falls, Idaho. The INEL occupies a portion of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), a low-relief, basalt, and sediment-floored basin within the northern Rocky Mountains and northeastern Basin and Range Province. It is a cool and semiarid, sagebrush steppe desert characterized by irregular, rolling terrain. The RWMC began disposal of INEL-generated wastes in 1952, and since 1954, wastes have been accepted from other Federal facilities. Much of the waste is buried in shallow trenches, pits, and soil vaults. Until about 1970, trenches and pits were excavated to the basalt surface, leaving no sediments between the waste and the top of the basalt. Since 1970, a layer of sediment (about 1 m) has been left between the waste and the basalt. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has developed regulations specific to radioactive-waste disposal, including environmental standards and performance objectives. The regulation applicable to all DOE facilities is DOE Order 5820.2A (Radioactive Waste Management). An important consideration for the performance assessment of the RWMC is the long-term geomorphic stability of the site. Several investigators have identified geologic processes and events that could disrupt a radioactive waste disposal facility. Examples of these open-quotes geomorphic hazardsclose quotes include changes in stream discharge, sediment load, and base level, which may result from climate change, tectonic processes, or magmatic processes. In the performance assessment, these hazards are incorporated into scenarios that may affect the future performance of the RWMC

  2. Complex Treatment of Soils, Waste Water and Groundwater Contaminated by Halogenated Organic Compounds.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaštánek, František; Maléterová, Ywetta; Kaštánek, P.; Rott, J.; Jiřičný, Vladimír; Jirátová, Květa

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 211, č. 1-3, (2007) , s. 261-271. ISSN 0011-9164. [Environmental Science and Technology Symposium /9./. Rhodes, 01.09.2005-03.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/03/0407; GA MPO FI-IM3/050 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : vinyl chloride * waste and underground water * fenton reaction Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.875, year: 2007

  3. Population ecology of small mammals on the radioactive waste management complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Species composition, diversity, biomass, population dynamics, absolute density, and movements of small mammal populations were examined on and adjacent to a solid radioactive waste disposal area in southeastern Idaho. The 15-month live-trapping study resulted in marking 2384 individuals representing 10 species of small mammals. Three vegetation types were sampled: crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) and Russian thistle (Salsola kali) habitats on the disposal area and native sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) habitat surrounding the disposal area. The deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) was the most common rodent in both disposal area habitats as well as the adjacent sagebrush habitat; Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) was also an abundant rodent in all vegetation types. The montane vole (Microtus montanus) was common only in crested wheatgrass stands on the disposal area. The annual total small mammal biomass of 346 kg for the entire disposal area represents a potentially large vector for movement of radionuclides off the disposal area. However, the number of animals known to contact waste areas and traverse at least 50 m beyond the perimeter of the SDA appears to be small (8.7%)

  4. Methanization plants for household waste. Environmental evaluation of the degree of centralization; Methanisation de dechets organiques menagers. Evaluation environnementale du degre de centralisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Membrez, Y. [EREP SA, Aclens (France); Glauser, M. [biol conseils SA, Yverdon-les-Bains (France); Imer, J.M. [biol conseils SA, Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate, from an environmental viewpoint, the influence of the centralization of the methanization installations which are needed to eliminate the organic waste produced by the population of a given region. Four scenarious of methanization organization are studied for the canton of Vaud, Switzerland (pop. 600 000) in the domains of waste collection, transport, treatment and use for agriculture. The method used is the `ecopoint method`, where `ecofactors` are established, which take into account the current impact of the environment, and the critical value of this impact that would cause environmental perturbation. The main results show that in the methanization of organic household waste, the dominant impact is that of air pollution (NO{sub x} emission). (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit dieser Studie soll der Einfluss der Zentralisierung von Methanisierungsanlagen, welche zur Entsorgung der von der Bevoelkerung einer gegebenen Region produzierten organischen Abfaelle benoetigt werden, von umweltschuetzerischen Gesichtspunkten aus beurteilt werden. Fuer die Organisation der Methanisierungsanlagen im Kanton Waadt, Schweiz (Bevoelkerungszahl 600 000), wurden vier Szenarien untersucht, welche die Bereiche Abfallsammlung, Transport, Verarbeitung und Verwendung in der Landwirtschaft umfassten. Die angewendete Methode ist die `Umweltbelastungspunkte-Methode`, worin `Oekofaktoren` eingefuehrt werden, welche die aktuelle Belastung der Umwelt sowie den kritischen Wert dieser Belastung, bei dessen Erreichung mit Umweltschaeden zu rechnen ist, beruecksichtigen. Die wichtigsten Ergebnisse zeigen, dass bei der Methanisierung von organischen Haushaltsabfaellen die Luftverschmutzung (NO{sub x}-Emission) unter den Umweltbelastungen am meisten ins Gewicht faellt. (orig.)

  5. Shallow sub-surface structure of the central volcanic complex of Tenerife, Canary Islands: implications for the evolution and the recent reactivation of the Las Canadas caldera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new local Bouguer anomaly map of the Central Volcanic Complex (CVC) of Tenerife, Spain. The high-density core of the CVC and the pronounced gravity low centred in the Las Canadas caldera (LCC) in greater detail than previously available. Mathematical construction of a subsurface model from the local anomaly data, employing a 3-D inversion enables mapping of the shallow structure beneath the complex, giving unprecedented insights into the sub-surface architecture of the complex, and shedding light on its evolution.

  6. Shallow sub-surface structure of the central volcanic complex of Tenerife, Canary Islands: implications for the evolution and the recent reactivation of the Las Canadas caldera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottsmann, J [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Wills Memorial Building, Queens Road, Bristol BS8 1RJ (United Kingdom); Camacho, A G; Fernandez, J [Instituto de Astronomia y Geodesia (CSIC-UCM), Ciudad Universitaria, Pza. de Ciencias, 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain); MartI, J [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC, Lluis Sole SabarIs s/n, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Wooller, L; Rymer, H [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); GarcIa, A [Department of Volcanology, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: j.gottsmann@bristol.ac.uk

    2008-10-01

    We present a new local Bouguer anomaly map of the Central Volcanic Complex (CVC) of Tenerife, Spain. The high-density core of the CVC and the pronounced gravity low centred in the Las Canadas caldera (LCC) in greater detail than previously available. Mathematical construction of a subsurface model from the local anomaly data, employing a 3-D inversion enables mapping of the shallow structure beneath the complex, giving unprecedented insights into the sub-surface architecture of the complex, and shedding light on its evolution.

  7. Melanin and humic acid-like polymer complex from olive mill waste waters. Part I. Isolation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemakhem, Maissa; Papadimitriou, Vassiliki; Sotiroudis, Georgios; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Arbez-Gindre, Cécile; Bouzouita, Nabiha; Sotiroudis, Theodore G

    2016-07-15

    A water soluble humic acid and melanin-like polymer complex (OMWW-ASP) was isolated from olive mill waste waters (OMWW) by ammonium sulfate fractionation to be used as natural additive in food preparations. The dark polymer complex was further characterized by a variety of biochemical, physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. OMWW-ASP is composed mainly of proteins associated with polyphenols and carbohydrates and the distribution of its relative molecular size was determined between about 5 and 190 kDa. SDS-PAGE shows the presence of a well separated protein band of 21.3 kDa and a low molecular weight peptide. The OMWW-ASP complex exhibits a monotonically increasing UV-Vis absorption spectrum and it contains stable radicals. Antioxidant activity measurements reveal the ability of the OMWW protein fraction to scavenge both the cationic 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(+)) radical, as well as the stable nitroxide free radical 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPOL). PMID:26948649

  8. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid silicon based complexing materials: extraction of transuranic elements from high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid organic/inorganic silica compounds with extractive properties have been developed under an enhanced decontamination program for radioactive aqueous nitric acid waste in nuclear facilities. The materials were obtained by the sol-gel process through hydrolysis and poly-condensation of complexing organo-tri-alkoxy-silanes with the corresponding tetra-alkoxy-silane. Hybrid silica compounds were initially synthesized and characterized from mono- and bis-silyl precursors with malonamide or ethylenediamine patterns. Solids with different specific areas and pore diameters were obtained depending on the nature of the precursor, its functionality and its concentration in the tetra-alkoxy-silane. These compounds were then considered and assessed for use in plutonium and americium extraction. Excellent results-partitioning coefficients and capacities have been obtained with malonamide hybrid silica. The comparison with silica compounds impregnated or grafted with the same type of organic group is significant in this respect. Much of the improved performance obtained with hybrid silica may be attributed to the large quantity of complexing groups that can be incorporated in these materials. The effect of the solid texture on the extraction performance was also studied. Although the capacity increased with the specific area, little effect was observed on the distribution coefficients -notably for americium- indicating that the most favorable complexation sites are found on the outer surface. Macroporous malonamide hybrid silica compounds were synthesized to study the effects of the pore diameter, but the results have been inconclusive to date because of the unexpected molecular composition of the materials. (author)

  9. Pucarilla-Cerro Tipillas volcanic complex: the oldest recognized caldera in the southeastern portion of central volcanic zone of Central Andes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We recognize the most eastern and oldest collapse caldera structure in the southern portion of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes. A description of Middle-Upper Miocene successions related to explosive- effusive events is presented. The location of this centre close to Cerro Galn Caldera attests a recurrence in the volcanism between 12 and 2 Ma in this portion of the Altiplano - Puna Plateau.

  10. Pucarilla-Cerro Tipillas volcanic complex: the oldest recognized caldera in the southeastern portion of central volcanic zone of Central Andes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman, Silvina; Petrinovic, Ivan [CONICET -IBIGEO. Museo de Cs. Naturales, Universidad de Salta, Mendoza 2 (4400), Salta (Argentina)], E-mail: guzmansilvina@gmail.com

    2008-10-01

    We recognize the most eastern and oldest collapse caldera structure in the southern portion of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes. A description of Middle-Upper Miocene successions related to explosive- effusive events is presented. The location of this centre close to Cerro Galn Caldera attests a recurrence in the volcanism between 12 and 2 Ma in this portion of the Altiplano - Puna Plateau.

  11. Soil moisture monitoring results at the radioactive waste management complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, FY-1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, D.L.

    1993-11-01

    In FY-1993, two tasks were performed for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Low Level Waste Performance Assessment to estimate net infiltration from rain and snow at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) and provide soil moisture data for hydrologic model calibration. The first task was to calibrate the neutron probe to convert neutron count data to soil moisture contents. A calibration equation was developed and applied to four years of neutron probe monitoring data (November 1986 to November 1990) at W02 and W06 to provide soil moisture estimates for that period. The second task was to monitor the soils at two neutron probe access tubes (W02 and W06) located in the SDA of the RWMC with a neutron probe to estimate soil moisture contents. FY-1993 monitoring indicated net infiltration varied widely across the SDA. Less than 1.2 in. of water drained into the underlying basalts near W02 in 1993. In contrast, an estimated 10.9 in. of water moved through the surficial sediments and into the underlying basalts at neutron probe access tube W06. Net infiltration estimates from the November 1986 to November 1990 neutron probe monitoring data are critical to predictive contaminant transport modeling and should be calculated and compared to the FY-1993 net infiltration estimates. In addition, plans are underway to expand the current neutron probe monitoring system in the SDA to address the variability in net infiltration across the SDA.

  12. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Order 5820.2A requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of radioactive waste at TSD units operated by WMH. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP); and T Plant Complex. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the 1901 identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the Waste Specification Records (WSRds). The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite facilities

  13. Description and hydrogeologic implications of cored sedimentary material from the 1975 drilling program at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of sedimentary material from interbeds between basalt flows and from fractures in the flows, taken from two drill cores at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory were analyzed for (1) particle-size distribution, (2) bulk mineralogy, (3) clay mineralogy, (4) cation-exchange capacity, and (5) carbonate content. Thin sections of selected sedimentary material were made for petrographic examination. These analyses are needed for a characterization of paths and rates of movement of radionuclides transported by infiltrating water. Preliminary interpretations indicate that (1) it may be possible to distinguish the various sedimentary interbeds on the basis of their mineralogy, (2) the presence of carbonate horizons in sedimentary interbeds may be utilized to approximate the time of exposure and the climate while the surface was exposed, and (3) the type and orientation of fracture-filling material may be utilized to determine the mechanism by which fractures were filled. 9 references, 14 figures, 8 tables

  14. Food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Arazim, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    This thesis looks into issues related to food waste and consists of a theoretical and a practical part. Theoretical part aims to provide clear and complex definition of wood waste related problems, summarize current findings in Czech and foreign sources. Introduction chapter explains important terms and legal measures related to this topic. It is followed by description of causes, implications and possibilities in food waste reduction. Main goal of practical part is analyzing food waste in Cz...

  15. Sedimentology of a Mid-Late Ordovician carbonate mud-mound complex from the Kathmandu nappe in Central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pas, Damien; Da Silva, Anne-Christine; Dhital, Megh Raj; Boulvain, Frédéric

    2011-08-01

    This sedimentological study of the Godavari quarry is the first relating to the Palaeozoic Tethyan sedimentary rocks of the Katmandu nappe (Central Nepal). Sedimentological analyses led to the identification of six microfacies belonging to a large carbonate mud-mound complex, which can be divided into mound, flank and off-mound main depositional settings. Identification of two dasycladaceans ( Dasyporell a cf. silurica ( Stolley, 1893) and Vermiporella sp.) in the mound facies gives a Mid-Late Ordovician age to this newly discovered Godavari carbonate mud-mound, which makes this mound one of the oldest ever described in the Asian continent. The mound microfacies are characterized by a high micritic content, the presence of stromatactis and the prevalence of red coloured sediments (the red pigmentation probably being related to organic precipitation of iron). The flank microfacies are characterized by a higher crinoid and argillaceous content and the presence of bio- and lithoclasts concentrated in argillaceous lenses. Finally, the off-mound microfacies show very few bioclasts and a high argillaceous content. Palaeoenvionmental interpretation of microfacies, in terms of bathymetry, leads us to infer that the Godavari mud-mound started to grow in a deep environment setting below the photic and wave action zones and that it evolved to occupy a location below the fair weather wave base. Cementation of cavities within the mound facies underlines a typical transition from a marine to a burial diagenetic environment characterized by: (1) a radiaxial non luminescent feroan calcite cement (marine) showing a bright orange luminescent band in its middle part; (2) a bright zoned orange fringe of automorphic feroan calcite (meteoric phreatic); (3) a dull orange xenomorphic feroan calcite cement in the centre of cavities (burial) and (4) a saddle dolomite within the centre of larger cavities. The faunal assemblage (diversity and relative proportion) of the Godavari mound facies

  16. SCIENTIFIC METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO CREATION OF COMPLEX CONTROL SYSTEM MODEL FOR THE STREAMS OF BUILDING WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    Tskhovrebov Eduard Stanislavovich; Velichko Evgeniy Georgievich

    2015-01-01

    In 2011 in Russia a Strategy of Production Development of Construction Materials and Industrial Housing Construction for the period up to 2020 was approved as one of strategic documents in the sphere of construction. In the process of this strategy development all the needs of construction complex were taken into account in all the spheres of economy, including transport system. The strategy also underlined, that the construction industry is a great basis for use and application in secondary ...

  17. Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.

  18. Characterisation of metals in the electronic waste of complex mixtures of end-of-life ICT products for development of cleaner recovery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Z.H.I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, TU Delft, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Xiao, Y. [Ironmaking Department, R and D, Tata Steel, 1970 CA IJmuiden (Netherlands); Sietsma, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, TU Delft, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Agterhuis, H.; Visser, G. [Business Development, Van Gansewinkel Groep BV, 5657 DH Eindhoven (Netherlands); Yang, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, TU Delft, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • New characterisation methodology has been established to understand an industrially processed ICT waste. • Particle size distribution, composition, thermal–chemical behaviour and occurrence of metals were considered. • The characterisation provides direct guidelines for values recovery from the waste. - Abstract: Recycling of valuable metals from electronic waste, especially complex mixtures of end-of-life information and communication technology (ICT) products, is of great difficulty due to their complexity and heterogeneity. One of the important reasons is the lack of comprehensive characterisation on such materials, i.e. accurate compositions, physical/chemical properties. In the present research, we focus on developing methodologies for the characterisation of metals in an industrially processed ICT waste. The morphology, particle size distribution, compositional distribution, occurrence, liberation as well as the thermo-chemical properties of the ICT waste were investigated with various characterisation techniques, including X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersed spectroscopy (EDS). Due to the high heterogeneity of the material, special sample preparation procedures were introduced to minimise the discrepancies during compositional analyses. As a result, a clearer overview of the ICT waste has been reached. This research provides better understanding of the extractability of each metal and improves the awareness of potential obstacles for extraction. It will lead to smarter decisions during further development of a clean and effective recovery process.

  19. Characterisation of metals in the electronic waste of complex mixtures of end-of-life ICT products for development of cleaner recovery technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • New characterisation methodology has been established to understand an industrially processed ICT waste. • Particle size distribution, composition, thermal–chemical behaviour and occurrence of metals were considered. • The characterisation provides direct guidelines for values recovery from the waste. - Abstract: Recycling of valuable metals from electronic waste, especially complex mixtures of end-of-life information and communication technology (ICT) products, is of great difficulty due to their complexity and heterogeneity. One of the important reasons is the lack of comprehensive characterisation on such materials, i.e. accurate compositions, physical/chemical properties. In the present research, we focus on developing methodologies for the characterisation of metals in an industrially processed ICT waste. The morphology, particle size distribution, compositional distribution, occurrence, liberation as well as the thermo-chemical properties of the ICT waste were investigated with various characterisation techniques, including X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersed spectroscopy (EDS). Due to the high heterogeneity of the material, special sample preparation procedures were introduced to minimise the discrepancies during compositional analyses. As a result, a clearer overview of the ICT waste has been reached. This research provides better understanding of the extractability of each metal and improves the awareness of potential obstacles for extraction. It will lead to smarter decisions during further development of a clean and effective recovery process

  20. Theoretical study of trivalent element complexes for the nuclear waste reprocessing; Etude theorique de complexes d'elements f trivalents pour le retraitement des dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, L

    2007-10-15

    Current energetic and environmental concerns have made the nuclear waste reprocessing to be a major issue in numerous countries. One avenue to treat nuclear spent fuel requires separating selectively trivalent minor actinides An (Am{sup 3+}, Cm{sup 3+}) from lanthanides Ln. In this regard, nitrogen extractants are under study. Their selectivity toward actinides is still unclear, but could be the result of enhanced covalency effects with trivalent minor actinides with respect to lanthanides (III). In this thesis, we have performed DFT calculations (Density Functional Theory) to study covalency effects within the actinide-ligand bond, following three main axes of research: advanced study of the nature of the chemical bonding, spectroscopic characterization of covalency, and preliminary tests of ab initio molecular dynamics for future calculations in solvent. Methods that are not regularly applied to trivalent actinides complexes have been used: topological methods, TDDFT, LDDFT, ab initio molecular dynamics. We have managed to show that the selectivity of the BTP ligand - the most effective An/Ln extractant to date - comes at least for a part from stronger covalency effects within the An-BTP bond with respect to the Ln-BTP bond, which has never been proved before. (author)

  1. In situ technology evaluation and functional and operational guidelines for treatability studies at the radioactive waste management complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R.A.; Donehey, A.J.; Piper, R.B.; Roy, M.W.; Rubert, A.L.; Walker, S.

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide EG G Idaho's Waste Technology Development Department with a basis for selection of in situ technologies for demonstration at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and to provide information for Feasibility Studies to be performed according to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The demonstrations will aid in meeting Environmental Restoration/Waste Management (ER/WM) schedules for remediation of waste at Waste Area Group (WAG) 7. This report is organized in six sections. Section 1, summarizes background information on the sites to be remediated at WAG-7, specifically, the acid pit, soil vaults, and low-level pits and trenches. Section 2 discusses the identification and screening of in situ buried waste remediation technologies for these sites. Section 3 outlines the design requirements. Section 4 discusses the schedule (in accordance with Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) scoping). Section 5 includes recommendations for the acid pit, soil vaults, and low-level pits and trenches. A listing of references used to compile the report is given in Section 6. Detailed technology information is included in the Appendix section of this report.

  2. In situ technology evaluation and functional and operational guidelines for treatability studies at the radioactive waste management complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide EG ampersand G Idaho's Waste Technology Development Department with a basis for selection of in situ technologies for demonstration at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and to provide information for Feasibility Studies to be performed according to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The demonstrations will aid in meeting Environmental Restoration/Waste Management (ER/WM) schedules for remediation of waste at Waste Area Group (WAG) 7. This report is organized in six sections. Section 1, summarizes background information on the sites to be remediated at WAG-7, specifically, the acid pit, soil vaults, and low-level pits and trenches. Section 2 discusses the identification and screening of in situ buried waste remediation technologies for these sites. Section 3 outlines the design requirements. Section 4 discusses the schedule [in accordance with Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) scoping]. Section 5 includes recommendations for the acid pit, soil vaults, and low-level pits and trenches. A listing of references used to compile the report is given in Section 6. Detailed technology information is included in the Appendix section of this report

  3. Finding of no significant impact for the interim action for cleanup of Pit 9 at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0854, for an interim action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The proposed action would be conducted at Pit 9, Operable Unit 7--10, located at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The proposed action consists of construction of retrieval and processing buildings, excavation and retrieval of wastes from Pit 9, selective physical separation and chemical extraction, and stabilization of wastes either through thermal processing or by forming a stabilized concentrate. The proposed action would involve limited waste treatment process testing and full-scale waste treatment processing for cleaning up pre-1970 Transuranic (TRU) wastes in Pit 9. The purpose of this interim action is to expedite the overall cleanup at the RWMC and to reduce the risks associated with potential migration of Pit 9 wastes to the Snake River Plain Aquifer

  4. The investigation of the neptunium complexes formed upon interaction of high level waste glass and boom clay media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since complexes formed between actinides released from high level waste glass and humic acids present in high concentration in boom clay porewater may control the actinide solubility in the clay formation, a research programme has been started to study the complexes formed between neptunium, the most critical actinide in the Belgian performance assessment studies, and boom clay porewater. The leaching experiments give a maximum solution concentration of Np in boom clay porewater of 10-6 M after 24 days. In the leachates, Np is mainly associated with colloidal particles of small sizes and is present as a mixture of two oxidation states, V and IV. The retention of Np in the glass increases with increasing SA/V (geometrical surface area on solution volume ratio). A high solution concentration is accompanied by a high retention of Np. The characterisation of the mobile boom clay organic matter (OM) gives a proton exchange capacity (PEC) equal to 2.9 meq g-1 OM at pH 8.5. Related to this value, the interaction constants (β) of the literature were reviewed and calculated according to their proton exchange capacity for the pH of interest. (orig.)

  5. Predicting biomass of hyperdiverse and structurally complex central Amazonian forests - a virtual approach using extensive field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnabosco Marra, Daniel; Higuchi, Niro; Trumbore, Susan E.; Ribeiro, Gabriel H. P. M.; dos Santos, Joaquim; Carneiro, Vilany M. C.; Lima, Adriano J. N.; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I.; Holzwarth, Frederic; Reu, Björn; Wirth, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Old-growth forests are subject to substantial changes in structure and species composition due to the intensification of human activities, gradual climate change and extreme weather events. Trees store ca. 90 % of the total aboveground biomass (AGB) in tropical forests and precise tree biomass estimation models are crucial for management and conservation. In the central Amazon, predicting AGB at large spatial scales is a challenging task due to the heterogeneity of successional stages, high tree species diversity and inherent variations in tree allometry and architecture. We parameterized generic AGB estimation models applicable across species and a wide range of structural and compositional variation related to species sorting into height layers as well as frequent natural disturbances. We used 727 trees (diameter at breast height ≥ 5 cm) from 101 genera and at least 135 species harvested in a contiguous forest near Manaus, Brazil. Sampling from this data set we assembled six scenarios designed to span existing gradients in floristic composition and size distribution in order to select models that best predict AGB at the landscape level across successional gradients. We found that good individual tree model fits do not necessarily translate into reliable predictions of AGB at the landscape level. When predicting AGB (dry mass) over scenarios using our different models and an available pantropical model, we observed systematic biases ranging from -31 % (pantropical) to +39 %, with root-mean-square error (RMSE) values of up to 130 Mg ha-1 (pantropical). Our first and second best models had both low mean biases (0.8 and 3.9 %, respectively) and RMSE (9.4 and 18.6 Mg ha-1) when applied over scenarios. Predicting biomass correctly at the landscape level in hyperdiverse and structurally complex tropical forests, especially allowing good performance at the margins of data availability for model construction/calibration, requires the inclusion of predictors that express

  6. Predicting biomass of hyperdiverse and structurally complex Central Amazon forests - a virtual approach using extensive field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnabosco Marra, D.; Higuchi, N.; Trumbore, S. E.; Ribeiro, G. H. P. M.; dos Santos, J.; Carneiro, V. M. C.; Lima, A. J. N.; Chambers, J. Q.; Negrón-Juárez, R. I.; Holzwarth, F.; Reu, B.; Wirth, C.

    2015-09-01

    Old-growth forests are subject to substantial changes in structure and species composition due to the intensification of human activities, gradual climate change and extreme weather events. Trees store ca. 90 % of the total AGB above-ground biomass in tropical forests and AGB estimation models are crucial for forest management and conservation. In the Central Amazon, predicting AGB at large spatial-scales is a challenging task due to the heterogeneity of successional stages, high tree species diversity and inherent variations in allometry and architecture. We parameterized generic AGB estimation models applicable across species and a wide range of structural and compositional variation related to species sorting into height layers as well as frequent natural disturbances. We used 727 trees from 101 genera and at least 135 species harvested in a contiguous forest near Manaus, Brazil. Sampling from this dataset we assembled six scenarios designed to span existing gradients in floristic composition and size distribution in order to select models that best predict AGB at the landscape-level across successional gradients. We found that good individual tree model fits do not necessarily translate into good predictions of AGB at the landscape level. When predicting AGB (dry mass) over scenarios using our different models and an available pantropical model, we observed systematic biases ranging from -31 % (pantropical) to +39 %, with RMSE root-mean-square error values of up to 130 Mg ha-1 (pantropical). Our first and second best models had both low mean biases (0.8 and 3.9 %, respectively) and RMSE (9.4 and 18.6 Mg ha-1) when applied over scenarios. Predicting biomass correctly at the landscape-level in complex tropical forests, especially allowing good performance at the margins of data availability for model parametrization, requires the inclusion of predictors related to species architecture. The model of interest should comprise the floristic composition and size

  7. Granting the consent of the Congress to the Central Midwest Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact. A report submitted to the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, December 5, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approval of H.R. 2062 for the formation of the Central Midwest Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact will affect the states of Illinois and Kentucky. The House Energy and Commerce Committee reports its findings and supports the concept of regional cooperation in establishing and operating facilities for low-level wastes. The committee report describes the bill's intent, the committee hearings, and cost estimates, which will be minor. There is a section-by-section analysis and discussion of the bill and an analysis of how the bill will change existing nuclear waste disposal law

  8. Consent of the Congress to the Central Midwest Interstate Low-level Radioactive Waste Compact. Report submitted to the US House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, October 22, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Committee recommendations and suggested amendments for H.R. 2062 describe the Central Midwest Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact, which has been ratified by Illinois and Kentucky. Other states will be eligible to participate by following the compact procedures. The report summarizes the legislation, which permits a regional compact to handle, allocate, and regulate low-level wastes. It also establishes the conditions for the congressional consent, gives a section-by-section analysis of the provisions and obligations of member states, and concludes that the higher cost of waste disposal due to new facilities will not be inflationary

  9. Comparison of risk-dominant scenario assumptions for several TRU waste facilities in the DOE complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to gain a risk management perspective, the DOE Rocky Flats Field Office (RFFO) initiated a survey of other DOE sites regarding risks from potential accidents associated with transuranic (TRU) storage and/or processing facilities. Recently-approved authorization basis documents at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) have been based on the DOE Standard 3011 risk assessment methodology with three qualitative estimates of frequency of occurrence and quantitative estimates of radiological consequences to the collocated worker and the public binned into three severity levels. Risk Class 1 and 2 events after application of controls to prevent or mitigate the accident are designated as risk-dominant scenarios. Accident Evaluation Guidelines for selection of Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) are based on the frequency and consequence bin assignments to identify controls that can be credited to reduce risk to Risk Class 3 or 4, or that are credited for Risk Class 1 and 2 scenarios that cannot be further reduced. This methodology resulted in several risk-dominant scenarios for either the collocated worker or the public that warranted consideration on whether additional controls should be implemented. RFFO requested the survey because of these high estimates of risks that are primarily due to design characteristics of RFETS TRU waste facilities (i.e., Butler-type buildings without a ventilation and filtration system, and a relatively short distance to the Site boundary). Accident analysis methodologies and key assumptions are being compared for the DOE sites responding to the survey. This includes type of accidents that are risk dominant (e.g., drum explosion, material handling breach, fires, natural phenomena, external events, etc.), source term evaluation (e.g., radionuclide material-at-risk, chemical and physical form, damage ratio, airborne release fraction, respirable fraction, leakpath factors), dispersion analysis (e.g., meteorological

  10. Materials and Security Consolidation Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not Listed

    2011-09-01

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Security Consolidation Center facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  11. α-Cyclodextrin dimer complexes of dopamine and levodopa derivatives to assess drug delivery to the central nervous system: ADME and molecular docking studies

    OpenAIRE

    Shityakov, Sergey; Broscheit, Jens; Förster, Carola

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to predict and emphasize molecular interactions of dopamine, levodopa, and their derivatives (Dopimid compounds) containing 2-phenyl-imidazopyridine moiety with the α-cyclodextrin dimer in order to assess and improve drug delivery to the central nervous system. The molecular docking method is used to determine the energetic profiles, hydrogen bond formation, and hydrophobic effect of 14 host–guest complexes. The results show that the “chemical branching” represented by add...

  12. Study on coloration of Monascus-nata complex using combination of rice flour, tofu solid waste, and rice bran extracts as the medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATNA SETYANINGSIH

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Monascus-nata complex was made up from fermented nata which was grown in the medium containing Monascus purpureus fungi, that could be used as coloration of nata. Rice flour usually used as medium to produce pigments by M. purpureus. Tofu solid waste and rice bran could be used to produce pigments although the colour intensity of M. purpureus pigment was lower than rice. The aims of these research were to study colour, pH medium and weight of miselium Monascus-nata complex from the combination of rice flour with tofu solid waste extracts and rice flour with rice bran extracts as the medium. In these research, 5% (b/v rice flour extracts, combination of rice flour extract : tofu solid waste extract in the ratio of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and rice flour : rice bran extracts in the ratio of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 were used as the medium. Ten nata de coco (1x1x1 cm3 were put in to the extracts of medium (100mL in bottle, then inoculated with 10% (v/v starter of M. purpureus containing 1.3x107 cfu/mL and incubated at room temperature on an orbital shaker at 100 rpm for 16 days. Parameters which were measured, i.e. colour intensity, preferable test, pH medium, weight of miselium Monascus-nata complex. Data were analyzed using analysis of variant and followed by DMRT in 5% significations except preferable test which were analyzed using hedonic test. Combination of rice flour extract : tofu solid waste extracts in the ratio of 1:1 could be used to replace rice flour extracts on the making of Monascus-nata complex. Orange colour intensity from rice flour extract : tofu solid waste extracts in the ratio of 1:1 was higher than from rice flour extracts. Orange colour intensity from rice flour extract : tofu solid waste extracts in the ratio of 1:1 and rice flour were 0.156 and 0.123 respectively. Red colour intensity from medium rice flour extract : tofu solid waste extracts in the ratio of 1:1 approach the red colour intensity of rice flour. Red colour intensity from medium

  13. Strengthening the decision making in Spain, the national centralized waste storage project and the Cowam-Spain initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yves Le Bars, analysed the Spanish case within the European context. First, he summarised the evolution of policy-making approaches since the Second World War. In the first stage. decision-making authority was assigned to experts. Dialogue was not part of decision processes; opposition manifested itself in protest actions. In the second stage, society demanded the consideration of alternative solutions. Opponents organised legal actions and in this way decision-making authority was transferred to the courts, which based their judgements on hearing experts on differing sides of the question. The third stage is characterised by the involvement of relevant stakeholders and an interaction between decision makers, experts and stakeholders. According to this approach, public policy needs to be elaborated, adapted to, and adopted by different interest groups. He argued that the Spanish history of radioactive waste management went through the former two stages. The siting attempt for an underground disposal facility followed the approach of the first stage. Decision makers and experts were of the view that deep geological disposal was the best solution and they were not willing to share information with the public. This led to a failure and a moratorium. The Vandellos -I decommissioning case shows some features of the second stage. for example. the introduction of independent expertise in the Municipal Monitoring Commission. Finally, with the involvement of AMAC. a shift to the third stage can be seen: the COWAM-Spain project defined main principles for a decision-making process where policy makers, experts and stakeholders could collaborate to define a viable radioactive waste management policy. He observed that the current Spanish situation raises a number of questions. On the national level, the direction of radioactive waste management policy is defined by the national Plan. which is periodically revised. It is an open question as to how the national planning process

  14. MANAGING HANFORD'S LEGACY NO-PATH-FORWARD WASTES TO DISPOSITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL) has adopted the 2015 Vision for Cleanup of the Hanford Site. This vision will protect the Columbia River, reduce the Site footprint, and reduce Site mortgage costs. The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company's (CHPRC) Waste and Fuels Management Project (W and FMP) and their partners support this mission by providing centralized waste management services for the Hanford Site waste generating organizations. At the time of the CHPRC contract award (August 2008) slightly more than 9,000 m3 of waste was defined as 'no-path-forward waste.' The majority of these wastes are suspect transuranic mixed (TRUM) wastes which are currently stored in the low-level Burial Grounds (LLBG), or stored above ground in the Central Waste Complex (CWC). A portion of the waste will be generated during ongoing and future site cleanup activities. The DOE-RL and CHPRC have collaborated to identify and deliver safe, cost-effective disposition paths for 90% (∼8,000 m3) of these problematic wastes. These paths include accelerated disposition through expanded use of offsite treatment capabilities. Disposal paths were selected that minimize the need to develop new technologies, minimize the need for new, on-site capabilities, and accelerate shipments of transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico.

  15. Microstructural studies of rocks from the 25 S oceanic core complex, along the Central Indian Ocean Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda, Yusuke; Sawaguchi, Takashi; Enomoto, Tsubasa; Takagi, Hideo; Neo, Natsuki; Morishita, Tomoaki; Kumagai, Hidenori

    2010-05-01

    This study shows the microstructural development of rocks from the 25° S oceanic core complex (OCC) along the Central Indian Ocean Ridge, located near the Rodriguez Triple Junction. The samples described here are recovered by three submersible SHINKAI 6500 dives (Kumagai et al., 2008, Morishita et al., 2009). Characteristic foliated rocks with slickenline are recognized at a top surface of OCC, making up platy landform. Attitudes of those rocks are striking NE-SW and dipping to the NW and SE at moderate angle (20-30° ). Direction of lineation structures is perpendicular to the divergence ridge axis. We collect 55 samples during the three dives, and evaluate 10 samples as deformed rocks based on hand specimen scale structures on the shipboard. Deformed rocks distributed around the OCC surface consist of peridotite, gabbro, basalt, breccia and those altered rocks. Although almost olivine grains in peridotite are altered and replaced by talc, which forms anastmosing texture, olivine remnants show mylonitic texture characterized by undulose extinction and grain size reduction. Orthopyroxene grains are also elongated. Serpentine with platy shape makes up foliation, showing serpentinite mylonite texture. Olivine and serpentine are replaced by talc following mylonitization. Talc occurs as two different textures. One is static replacing primary minerals, and the other is syn-tectonic deformation textures such as foliated with shape preferred orientations, comprising talc schist. Gabbro also shows mylonitic structures featured by grain size reduction of plagioclase. Tremolite/actinolite is dominant facies in well foliated and altered gabbro in which has porphyroclasts of hornblende and plagioclase. Deformation of basalt is inhomogeneous and accompanying chloritization. Some part of basalt keeps plagioclase with basaltic textures, glassy texture and pseudomorph texture of them. Chlorite-rich basalt develops penetrative foliation and alters to chlorite schist. Breccia is

  16. Regional Sm-Nd isotopic study of the central part of the Brasilia belt, Goias: implications of the age and origin of the Anapolis-Itaucu granulitic complex and metasedimentary rocks of the Araxa Group, central region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the central part of the Brasilia Belt, central Brazil, a high grade terrain, the Anapolis-Itaucu Complex, is exposed within the metasedimentary rocks of the Araxa Group. The Anapolis-Itaucu Complex in Goias represents a complex association of high-grade rocks including mafic-ultramafic bodies, charnockites, enderbites, as well as aluminous granulites of sedimentary origin, associated with marbles and quartzites, Narrow volcano-sedimentary belts formed mainly by amphibolites and micashists are also recognized within the complex. This high-grade terrain has been traditionally interpreted as part of the old (Archaean/Paleoproterozoic) sialic basement to the Neo- or mesoproterozoic sediments of the Araxa Group, Brasilia Belt. The granulites and metasediments of the Araxa Group are intruded by a large number of granite intrusions, many of which slow peraluminous character. Sm-Nd isotopic analyses for the garnet-and sillimanite-bearing aluminous granulites indicate TDM model ages between ca. 1.3 and 1.6 Ga. These values represent the upper limit for the age of the protoliths of the granulites, demonstrating that they are (at least in part) younger than suggested in previous models. The intrusive granites have a Sm-Nd isotopic pattern which is not much different from that observed for the felsic granulites, with TDM model ages ranging in the interval between ca. 1.37 and 1.85 Ga. The isotopic compositions of the granitic and granulitic rocks investigated are also similar to those determined for metasediments of the internal zone of the Brasilia Belt (Araxa Group) in central-southern Goias. These metasediments show Nd model ages between ca. 1.2 and 2.2 Ga. The preliminary isotopic data presented are consistent with a model in which the voluminous granitic magmatism identified in the Anapolis-Itaucu Complex and adjacent areas is Neoproterozoic in age, being the result of re-melting of the older sialic crust. The peraluminous nature of many of these granites

  17. Materials and Fuels Complex Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Storage and Treatment Permit Reapplication, Environmental Protection Agency Number ID4890008952

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzemer, Michael J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hart, Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Storage and Treatment Permit Reapplication for the Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Partial Permit, PER-116. This Permit Reapplication is required by the PER-116 Permit Conditions I.G. and I.H., and must be submitted to the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality in accordance with IDAPA 58.01.05.012 [40 CFR §§ 270.10 and 270.13 through 270.29].

  18. Subsurface Investigations Program at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Annual progress report, FY-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Subsurface Investigations Program is obtaining program objectives of a field calibration of a model to predict long-term radionuclide migration and measurement of the actual migration to date. Three deep boreholes were drilled at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) to collect sample material for evaluation of radionuclide content in the interbeds, to determine geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the sediments, and to provide monitoring sites for moisture movement in these sediments. Suction lysimeters and heat dissipation sensors were installed in two deep boreholes to collect moisture data. Data from the moisture sensing instruments installed at the RWMC continued to be collected during FY-1987. Because of the large volume of collected data, the RWMC Data Management System was developed and implemented to facilitate the storage, retrieval, and manipulation of the database. Work on the Computer Model Development task focused on a detailed review of previous vadose zone modeling studies at INEL, acquisition and installation of a suite of computer models for unsaturated flow and contaminant transport, and preliminary applications of computer models using site-specific data. Computer models installed on the INEL CRAY computer for modeling transport through the subsurface pathway include SEMTRA, FEMTRA, TRACR3D, MAGNUM, and CHAINT. In addition to the major computer models, eight other codes, referred to as support codes and models, have been acquired and implemented. 27 refs., 70 figs., 22 tabs

  19. Microstructure of red clay from the central Pacific deep-sea basin: Significance to subseabed nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microstructure of deep-sea illitic red clay from the central Pacific Basin was investigated using transmission and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Gravity core samples (''undisturbed'') and sediments from dredge hauls (''disturbed'') were used in the investigations and analysis. Dredged samples were remolded and reconsolidated to equivalent in situ porosities by geotechnical engineers. To a first approximation, no significant difference in the fabric was observed between the undisturbed and remolded illitic sediment. Samples adjacent to the heater probe were subjected to temperatures slightly below 3000C. Slight preferential clay particle alignment probably resulting from shearing stresses developed in the sediment during probe insertion. Heating of the sediment did not appear to have a significant effect on the fabric, with the exception of localized ''quasi-expansion'' and flow features observed in the microfabric in the near field. 34 refs., 28 figs

  20. STRECA project: A north-south collaboration initiative for strengthening radioactive waste management infrastructure in Central America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented project (STRECA) intends to expand the knowledge and experience gained in previous projects of collaboration between Latin American and European countries. During a first workshop held in Cuba in July 2004, a number of countries from Central America and the Caribbean met with representatives from France, Spain and Sweden to discuss these topics and propose possible way forward to further develop their internal expertise and promote multilateral co-operation. This paper presents the findings from this workshop and proposes a work program to fulfil some insufficiencies in the countries of the Sub region such as: regulatory framework, education and training of human resources, application of technologies, safety assessment tools, environmental monitoring capabilities, etc. (author)

  1. Waste management and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Waste Management (WM) has become an applied science. It is used at the point of generation, at the centralized treatment facilities, and at the disposal sites. In the government and private sector, much research is being done in waste by-product utilization. Some of the important factors that affect waste are sources of waste, classification of waste, waste treatment and conditioning, minimization of waste, laws and regulations governing waste and present and future issues. WM has become a career with a promising future as the cost of waste disposal increases tremendously. Scientists have started working on waste minimization and most organizations implement a formalized waste minimization program of their own. The waste disposal is approached in an analytical manner and this paper describes development in radioactive waste disposal and safe transportation practices

  2. Low-level waste certification plan for the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Hazardous Waste Handling Facility. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This plan is composed to meet the requirements found in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and follows the suggested outline provided by WHC in the letter of April 26, 1990, to Dr. R.H. Thomas, Occupational Health Division, LBL. LLW is to be transferred to the WHC Hanford Site Central Waste Complex and Burial Grounds in Hanford, Washington

  3. High exhaust chrome complex using chrome tanned tannery, solid wastes and common hydrocarbons as reductants and masking agents to minimize the liquid and solid wastes: tanning and environmental impact studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Still no alternate of chrome tanning has been found to achieve the best quality and quantity of leather. But the chrome tanning process is associated with the generation of very toxic liquid and solid wastes. Therefore we emphasized to develop an efficient process for the synthesis of high exhaust chrome complex that could minimize the both liquid and solid wastes up to very low limit. In this research, chrome shavings and raw organic compounds have beneficially utilized as a reductant as well as potential masking agents providing a comprehensive close loop. Two chrome tanning materials have been developed using leather shavings with molasses in product A and replacement of molasses by other organic compounds for chrome complex B. These materials have also been employed for the tanning of goatskins parallel to the commercial BCS from the market. The comparative studies revealed that, the quality of leather made from product B is either better or comparable with the conventional tanning material. The chrome contents in leather have been increased with the simultaneous decreased in spent chrome liquor. Hence the exhaustion rate of chrome complex B has been noted up to 95%. While the physical characteristics of resulted leather from product A and B have been found comparable to that of conventional tanned leather. Therefore this methodology would not only reduce liquid and solid wastes but also provide quality leather and economically multi benefits. (author)

  4. Colonization of a Central Venous Catheter by the Hyaline Fungus Fusarium solani Species Complex: A Case Report and SEM Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Colombo; Giuseppe Maccari; Terenzio Congiu; Petra Basso; Andreina Baj; Antonio Toniolo

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of opportunistic infections by filamentous fungi is increasing partly due to the widespread use of central venous catheters (CVC), indwelling medical devices, and antineoplastic/immunosuppressive drugs. The case of a 13-year-old boy under treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia is presented. The boy was readmitted to the Pediatric Ward for intermittent fever of unknown origin. Results of blood cultures drawn from peripheral venous sites or through the CVC were compared. CVC-d...

  5. Chemical mass balance modeling for air quality analysis near a waste-to-energy facility in a complex urban area: Program design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an ambient monitoring and receptor modeling study to evaluate air quality impacts from a state-of-the-art municipal waste management facility in a major urban area. The Robbins Resource Recovery Facility (RRRF), located in the Chicago metropolitan area, processes municipal solid waste (MSW) to recover recyclables, process the residual waste to create refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and burns the RDF to reduce the residual waste volume and recover energy. The RRRF is cooperating with the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) and the Illinois Office of the Attorney General (OAG) to analyze air quality and facility impacts in the plant vicinity. An ambient monitoring program began one year before plant operation and will continue for five years after startup. Because the impacts of the RRRF are projected to be very low, and because the Chicago area includes a complex mix of existing industrial, commercial, and residential activity, the ambient data will be analyzed using Version 7.0 of the USEPA s Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model to estimate the extent of the RRRF's impact on air quality in the area. The first year of pre-operational ambient data is currently under analysis. This paper describes the study design considerations, ambient monitoring program, emission data acquisition, background source data needs, and data analysis procedures developed to conduct CMB modeling in a complex industrialized area

  6. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    mike lewis

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2009 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of compliance activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 permit year, approximately 164 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  7. 2013 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2012–October 31, 2013. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of compliance activities • Noncompliance issues • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2013 permit year, approximately 238 million gallons of wastewater was discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters are below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  8. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance and other issues Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts During the 2011 permit year, approximately 166 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  9. 2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance issues Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 permit year, approximately 183 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  10. 2014 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2013–October 31, 2014. The report contains the following information; Facility and system description; Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; Permit required groundwater monitoring data; Status of compliance activities; Noncompliance issues; and Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2014 permit year, approximately 238 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters are below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the downgradient monitoring wells.

  11. The role of performance assessment in the evaluation of remedial action alternatives for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is operated by the Department of Energy (DOE) and is involved in nuclear research and development. The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the INEL serves as a disposal facility for low level radioactive wastes generated onsite. Transuranic (TRU) wastes received from other DOE sites are currently stored at the RWMC, but were buried at the facility from 1952 until 1970. Recent findings of the Subsurface Investigations Program have determined that migration of TRU nuclides and hazardous materials from the RWMC has occurred. The primary source of organics in the buried TRU waste was generated by the Rocky Flats Plant. The INEL has proposed an aggressive four-year action plan for buried TRU waste. As a part of this plan, a task has been identified to evaluate existing remedial technologies for preventing further contaminant migration or removing the source of TRU radionuclides and nonradioactive hazardous material from the RWMC. A systems approach is being applied to evaluate, compare and recommend technologies or combinations of technologies. One criterion used in the evaluation is the net risk reduction afforded by each proposed remedial action. The method used to develop the criterion relies on models to assess the potential pathways and scenarios for the migration of radioactive and nonradioactive materials and the subsequent exposure of individuals to those materials. This paper describes the approach used to assess the performance of various remedial actions and the results obtained to date

  12. Multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis of the montane Craugastor podiciferus species complex (Anura: Craugastoridae) in Isthmian Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streicher, Jeffrey W; Crawford, Andrew J; Edwards, Cody W

    2009-12-01

    The Craugastor podiciferus complex is a group of phenotypically polymorphic direct-developing frogs that inhabit the Talamancan highlands of Costa Rica and Panama. The montane distribution of this group creates natural allopatry among members and offers an excellent opportunity to explore geographic models of speciation. Using a multilocus approach, we obtained data from one nuclear (c-myc) and three mitochondrial (12S, 16S, and COI) gene regions from 40 individuals within the C. podiciferus complex. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed a basal split that placed samples from western Panama as sister to Costa Rican (CR) samples, corroborating a previous suggestion that the former lineage may represent an undescribed species. Within the CR clades we found six distinct haplogroups whose distributions largely corresponded to geographic features and included instances of sympatry. Divergence estimates were used to develop a preliminary evolutionary timeframe for the diversification of the C. podiciferus complex. Based on collective evidence, we hypothesize that movement of the CR haplogroups has occurred between currently isolated areas of suitable habitat via second order climatic fluctuations during the Pleistocene. The levels of genetic differentiation within the C. podiciferus complex are remarkable given the relatively small geographic area (ca. 8000 km(2)) of occurrence. This diversity emphasizes the need for further study and taxonomic revision to aid in conservation planning for this complex which, like many amphibians, has experienced recent population declines. PMID:19602442

  13. [Substantiation of a complex of radiation-hygienic approaches to the management of very low-level waste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenkov, I P; Lashchenova, T N; Shandala, N K

    2015-01-01

    In the article there are presented materials on radiation-hygienic approaches to the treatment of very low level radioactive waste (VLLW) and industrial waste containing radionuclides. There is done detailed information on radiation-hygienic principles and criteria for the assurance ofradiation safety in the collection, transportation, storage and processing of VLLW as a category of radioactive waste.. Particular attention is paid to the problem of designing VLLW landfill site choice, system of radiation monitoring in operation and decommissioning of the landfill. There are presented data about the criteria for the release of VLLW buried at the site, from regulatory control. Also there are considered in detail the radiation-hygienic requirements for radiation safety of industrial waste containing radionuclides for which there is assumed unlimited and limited use of solid materials in economic activity, based on the requirements ofthe revised Basic Sanitary Rules for Radiation Safety - 99/2010. There are considered basic requirements for the organization of industrial waste landfill. As an example, there-are presented the hygiene requirements for industrial waste management and results of waste categorization in Northern Federal Enterprise for Radioactive Waste Management. PMID:26031036

  14. The early Cretaceous orogen-scale Dabieshan metamorphic core complex: implications for extensional collapse of the Triassic HP-UHP orogenic belt in east-central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wenbin; Lin, Wei; Faure, Michel; Shi, Yonghong; Wang, Qingchen

    2016-03-01

    The Dabieshan massif is famous as a portion of the world's largest HP-UHP metamorphic belt in east-central China that was built by the Triassic North-South China collision. The central domain of the Dabieshan massif is occupied by a huge migmatite-cored dome [i.e., the central Dabieshan dome (CDD)]. Origin of this domal structure remains controversial. Synthesizing previous and our new structural and geochronological data, we define the Cretaceous Dabieshan as an orogen-scale metamorphic core complex (MCC) with a multistage history. Onset of lithospheric extension in the Dabieshan area occurred as early as the commencement of crustal anatexis at the earliest Cretaceous (ca. 145 Ma), which was followed by primary (early-stage) detachment during 142-130 Ma. The central Dabieshan complex in the footwall and surrounding detachment faults recorded a consistently top-to-the-NW shearing. It is thus inferred that the primary detachment was initiated from a flat-lying detachment zone at the middle crust level. Removal of the orogenic root by delamination at ca. 130 Ma came into the extensional climax, and subsequently isostatic rebound resulted in rapid doming. Along with exhumation of the footwall, the mid-crustal detachment zone had been warped as shear zones around the CDD. After 120 Ma, the detachment system probably experienced a migration accommodated to the crustal adjustment, which led to secondary (late-stage) detachment with localized ductile shearing at ca. 110 Ma. The migmatite-gneiss with HP/UHP relicts in the CDD (i.e., the central Dabieshan complex) was product of the Cretaceous crustal anatexis that consumed the deep-seated part of the HP-UHP slices and the underlying para-autochthonous basement. Compared with the contemporaneous MCCs widely developed along the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent, we proposed that occurrence of the Dabieshan MCC shares the same tectonic setting as the "destruction of the North China craton". However, geodynamic trigger

  15. Who is the best connected EC researcher? Centrality analysis of the complex network of authors in evolutionary computation

    CERN Document Server

    Merelo, Juan J

    2007-01-01

    Co-authorship graphs (that is, the graph of authors linked by co-authorship of papers) are complex networks, which expresses the dynamics of a complex system. Only recently its study has started to draw interest from the EC community, the first paper dealing with it having been published two years ago. In this paper we will study the co-authorship network of EC at a microscopic level. Our objective is ascertaining which are the most relevant nodes (i.e. authors) in it. For this purpose, we examine several metrics defined in the complex-network literature, and analyze them both in isolation and combined within a Pareto-dominance approach. The result of our analysis indicates that there are some well-known researchers that appear systematically in top rankings. This also provides some hints on the social behavior of our community.

  16. Study on coloration of Monascus-nata complex using combination of rice flour, tofu solid waste, and rice bran extracts as the medium

    OpenAIRE

    RATNA SETYANINGSIH; SURANTO; TIAS HESTI KUSUMAWATI

    2005-01-01

    Monascus-nata complex was made up from fermented nata which was grown in the medium containing Monascus purpureus fungi, that could be used as coloration of nata. Rice flour usually used as medium to produce pigments by M. purpureus. Tofu solid waste and rice bran could be used to produce pigments although the colour intensity of M. purpureus pigment was lower than rice. The aims of these research were to study colour, pH medium and weight of miselium Monascus-nata complex from the combinatio...

  17. Study of the leaching of heavy metals from waste water sludge and incinerator's ash, using coupled thermostated columns and DTPA as complex agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the metallic composition from waste water sludge and incinerators ashes of an incinerator located in Toluca, Mexico, the qualitative studies were made using the Activation Analysis technique, and fluorescence X-ray techniques. The quantitative analysis of heavy metals in the wastes were made using Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (Icp-Aes). For leaching the samples, we used four coupled thermostated columns, each one had a p H of 2,5, 7 and 10. The flux of the air was of 1600 cc/min. The temperature was maintain constant in 60 Centigrade using a thermostated system. For this study we used 100 g of wastes mixed with mineral acid or sodium hydroxide to reach p H 2,5,7 and 10. We added a reducing and tensoactive agents and finally DTPA as complex agent. With this method, we obtain a better leaching efficiency using a complex agent. However the high DTPA cost, make this process expansive that is why we recommend to work with another classes of complex agents, that be cheaper to leach metals of different chemistry matrix. (Author)

  18. Depletion of the "gamma-type carbonic anhydrase-like" subunits of complex I affects central mitochondrial metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, Steffanie; Göing, Jennifer; Lorenz, Christin; Peterhänsel, Christoph; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    "Gamma-type carbonic anhydrase-like" (CAL) proteins form part of complex I in plants. Together with "gamma carbonic anhydrase" (CA) proteins they form an extra domain which is attached to the membrane arm of complex I on its matrix exposed side. In Arabidopsis two CAL and three CA proteins are present, termed CAL1, CAL2, CA1, CA2 and CA3. It has been proposed that the carbonic anhydrase domain of complex I is involved in a process mediating efficient recycling of mitochondrial CO2 for photosynthetic carbon fixation which is especially important during growth conditions causing increased photorespiration. Depletion of CAL proteins has been shown to significantly affect plant development and photomorphogenesis. To better understand CAL function in plants we here investigated effects of CAL depletion on the mitochondrial compartment. In mutant lines and cell cultures complex I amount was reduced by 90-95% but levels of complexes III and V were unchanged. At the same time, some of the CA transcripts were less abundant. Proteome analysis of CAL depleted cells revealed significant reduction of complex I subunits as well as proteins associated with photorespiration, but increased amounts of proteins participating in amino acid catabolism and stress response reactions. Developmental delay of the mutants was slightly alleviated if plants were cultivated at high CO2. Profiling of selected metabolites revealed defined changes in intermediates of the citric acid cycle and amino acid catabolism. It is concluded that CAL proteins are essential for complex I assembly and that CAL depletion specifically affects central mitochondrial metabolism. PMID:26482706

  19. Oppida, production and social status. Complexity of the Late La Tène period in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danielisová, Alžběta

    Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2014 - (Fernández-Götz, M.; Wendling, H.; Winger, K.), s. 76-83 ISBN 978-1-78297-723-0 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP405/12/0926 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : oppida * production * settlement patterns * complexity * economy Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  20. Detrital zircon provenance from three turbidite depocenters of the Middle-Upper Triassic Songpan-Ganzi complex, central China: Record of collisional tectonics, erosional exhumation, and sediment production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weislogel, A.L.; Graham, S.A.; Chang, E.Z.; Wooden, J.L.; Gehrels, G.E.

    2010-01-01

    To test the idea that the voluminous upper Middle to Upper Triassic turbidite strata in the Songpan-Ganzi complex of central China archive a detrital record of Dabie ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) terrane unroofing, we report 2080 single detrital U-Pb zircon ages by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis from 29 eastern Songpan-Ganzi complex sandstone samples. Low (zircons, consistent with crystallization under UHP conditions, are rare in eastern Songpan-Ganzi complex zircon, and U-Pb ages of low Th/U zircons are incompatible with a Dabie terrane source. An unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean nearest-neighbor analysis of Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample test results reveals that the eastern Songpan-Ganzi complex is not a single contiguous turbidite system but is instead composed of three subsidiary depocenters, each associated with distinct sediment sources. The northeastern depocenter contains zircon ages characterized by Paleozoic and bimodally distributed Precambrian zircon populations, which, together with south-to southeast-directed paleocurrent data, indicate derivation from the retro-side of the Qinling-Dabie (Q-D) collisional orogen wedge. In the central depocenter, the dominantly Paleozoic detrital zircon signature and south-to southwest-oriented paleocurrent indicators reflect a profusion of Paleozoic zircon grains. These data are interpreted to reflect an influx of material derived from erosion of Paleozoic supra-UHP rocks of the Dabie terrane in the eastern Qinling-Dabie orogen, which we speculate may have been enhanced by development of a monsoonal climate. This suggests that erosional unroofing played a significant role in the initial phase of UHP exhumation and likely influenced the petrotectonic and structural evolution of the Qinling-Dabie orogen, as evidenced by compressed Triassic isotherms/grads reported in the Huwan shear

  1. Granting the consent of the Congress to the Central Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact. A report submitted to the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, December 5, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The House Energy and Commerce Commission is favorable to H.R. 1046, which establishes the Central Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact for the states of Arkansas, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and Oklahoma. The committee report summarizes the bill and its intent, reports on committee hearings and findings concerning the need for regional cooperation in siting waste facilities and incentives to encourage that cooperation, and estimates the cost to the federal government to be minor. There is a section-by-section analysis of the bill, followed by the changes in the 1980 Act the bill entails

  2. Development of database for spent fuel and special waste from the Spanish nuclear power plants; Desarrollo de la base de datos para el combustible gastado y residuos especiales de las centrales nucleares espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Gandal, R.; Rodriguez Gomez, M. A.; Serrano, G.; Lopez Alvarez, G.

    2013-07-01

    GNF Engineering is developing together with ENRESA and with the UNESA participation, the spent fuel and high activity radioactive waste data base of Spanish nuclear power plants. In the article is detailed how this strategic project essential to carry out the CTS (centralized temporary storage) future management and other project which could be emerged is being dealing with, This data base will serve as mechanics of relationship between ENRESA and Spanish NPPS, covering the expected necessary information to deal with mentioned future management of spent fuel and high activity radioactive waste. (Author)

  3. The complex biogeography of the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa: genetic evidence of introductions and Subspecific introgression in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunney, Leonard; Ortiz, Beatriz; Russell, Stephanie A; Ruiz Sánchez, Rebeca; Stouthamer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen with a history of economically damaging introductions of subspecies to regions where its other subspecies are native. Genetic evidence is presented demonstrating the introduction of two new taxa into Central America and their introgression into the native subspecies, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa. The data are from 10 genetic outliers detected by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of isolates from Costa Rica. Six (five from oleander, one from coffee) defined a new sequence type (ST53) that carried alleles at six of the eight loci sequenced (five of the seven MLST loci) diagnostic of the South American subspecies Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca which causes two economically damaging plant diseases, citrus variegated chlorosis and coffee leaf scorch. The two remaining loci of ST53 carried alleles from what appears to be a new South American form of X. fastidiosa. Four isolates, classified as X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa, showed a low level of introgression of non-native DNA. One grapevine isolate showed introgression of an allele from X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca while the other three (from citrus and coffee) showed introgression of an allele with similar ancestry to the alleles of unknown origin in ST53. The presence of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca in Central America is troubling given its disease potential, and establishes another route for the introduction of this economically damaging subspecies into the US or elsewhere, a threat potentially compounded by the presence of a previously unknown form of X. fastidiosa. PMID:25379725

  4. Application of risk-based approach to post-closure safety assessment in radioactive waste disposal: An integration of complex radiation exposure situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Integrated approach for systematic risk assessment of radioactive waste disposal. ► Consideration of respective probability of initiating events, release, and transport in post-closure safety assessment. ► Advantage: modularity, i.e., respective evaluation and integration of risk elements. -- Abstract: Based on the concept of risk, the post-closure safety criteria for High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) disposal are under development in Korea. For compliance with the safety criteria of disposal, the risk-based safety assessment methodology should be implemented. In this paper, the authors suggest a risk-based approach to safety assessment for Korea radioactive waste disposal to evaluate an aggregative radiological risk for scenarios of complex radiation exposure situations; accordingly, the most plausible three cases are carefully selected. This risk-based approach deals with the scenarios from the viewpoint of the receptor to estimate the total risk. For respective exposure situations, it considers the occurrence probabilities of the relevant exposure scenarios as the probability of giving rise to doses to estimate the total risk to a representative person by aggregating the respective risks. In addition, the probability of an exposure scenario is estimated on the assumption that the initiating events influence release mechanisms and transport pathways. This integrated approach enables a systematic risk assessment and is informative when judging the probable overall risk for complex exposure situations of radioactive waste disposal. In this paper, the risk-based approach is applied for the case of the Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (LILW) Disposal, and also the results should be applicable to the HLW disposal facilities.

  5. Low silica activity for hydrogen generation during serpentinization: An example of natural serpentinites in the Mineoka ophiolite complex, central Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Katayama, Ikuo; Kurosaki, Iori; Hirauchi, Ken-ichi

    2010-01-01

    The textural evolution in the serpentinite of the Mineoka ophiolite complex has been investigated to constrain the natural environment for hydrogen production in the serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal vent systems. Textural relations of the serpentinites from the Mineoka ophiolite indicate at least two stages in the process of serpentinization, with the replacement of olivine by a mesh texture of serpentine and brucite, followed by the development of magnetite-bearing or -free serpentine veins....

  6. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 2: Solid waste retrieval facilities -- Phase 1, detail design drawings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 2 provides the complete set of the Detail Design drawings along with a listing of the drawings. Once approved by WHC, these drawings will be issued and baselined for the Title 3 construction effort.

  7. Quantities and characteristics of the contact-handled low-level mixed waste streams for the DOE complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report supports the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Study initiated by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (EM-50), which is a system engineering assessment of a variety of mixed waste treatment process. The DOE generates and stores large quantities of mixed wastes that are contaminated with both chemically hazardous and radioactive species. The treatment of these mixed wastes requires meeting the standards established by the Environmental Protection Agency for the specific hazardous contaminants regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act while also providing adequate control of the radionuclides. The thrust of the study is to develop preconceptual designs and life-cycle cost estimates for integrated thermal treatment systems ranging from conventional incinerators, such as rotary kiln and controlled air systems, to more innovative but not yet established technologies, such as molten salt and molten metal waste destruction systems. Prior to this engineering activity, the physical and chemical characteristics of the DOE low-level mixed waste streams to be treated must be defined or estimated. This report describes efforts to estimate the DOE waste stream characteristics

  8. A Cleaner Process for Selective Recovery of Valuable Metals from Electronic Waste of Complex Mixtures of End-of-Life Electronic Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi; Xiao, Y; Sietsma, J; Agterhuis, H; Yang, Y

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, recovery of metals from electronic waste within the European Union has become increasingly important due to potential supply risk of strategic raw material and environmental concerns. Electronic waste, especially a mixture of end-of-life electronic products from a variety of sources, is of inherently high complexity in composition, phase, and physiochemical properties. In this research, a closed-loop hydrometallurgical process was developed to recover valuable metals, i.e., copper and precious metals, from an industrially processed information and communication technology waste. A two-stage leaching design of this process was adopted in order to selectively extract copper and enrich precious metals. It was found that the recovery efficiency and extraction selectivity of copper both reached more than 95% by using ammonia-based leaching solutions. A new electrodeposition process has been proven feasible with 90% current efficiency during copper recovery, and the copper purity can reach 99.8 wt %. The residue from the first-stage leaching was screened into coarse and fine fractions. The coarse fraction was returned to be releached for further copper recovery. The fine fraction was treated in the second-stage leaching using sulfuric acid to further concentrate precious metals, which could achieve a 100% increase in their concentrations in the residue with negligible loss into the leaching solution. By a combination of different leaching steps and proper physical separation of light materials, this process can achieve closed-loop recycling of the waste with significant efficiency. PMID:26061274

  9. An Integrated Approach to Risk-Based Post-Closure Safety Evaluation of Complex Radiation Exposure Situations in Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embodying the safety of radioactive waste disposal requires the relevant safety criteria and the corresponding stylized methods to demonstrate its compliance with the criteria. This paper proposes a conceptual model of risk-based safety evaluation for integrating complex potential radiation exposure situations in radioactive waste disposal. For demonstrating compliance with a risk constraint, the approach deals with important exposure scenarios from the viewpoint of the receptor to estimate the resulting risk. For respective exposure situations, it considers the occurrence probabilities of the relevant exposure scenarios as their probability of giving rise to doses to estimate the total risk to a representative person by aggregating the respective risks. In this model, an exposure scenario is simply constructed with three components: radionuclide release, radionuclide migration and environment contamination, and interaction between the contaminated media and the receptor. A set of exposure scenarios and the representative person are established from reasonable combinations of the components, based on a balance of their occurrence probabilities and the consequences. In addition, the probability of an exposure scenario is estimated on the assumption that the initiating external factors influence release mechanisms and transport pathways, and its effect on the interaction between the environment and the receptor may be covered in terms of the representative person. This integrated approach enables a systematic risk assessment for complex exposure situations of radioactive waste disposal and facilitates the evaluation of compliance with risk constraints

  10. HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU CLEANUP COMPLETION STRATEGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGMAN TB

    2011-01-14

    Cleanup of the Hanford Site is a complex and challenging undertaking. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a comprehensive vision for completing Hanford's cleanup mission including transition to post-cleanup activities. This vision includes 3 principle components of cleanup: the {approx}200 square miles ofland adjacent to the Columbia River, known as the River Corridor; the 75 square miles of land in the center of the Hanford Site, where the majority of the reprocessing and waste management activities have occurred, known as the Central Plateau; and the stored reprocessing wastes in the Central Plateau, the Tank Wastes. Cleanup of the River Corridor is well underway and is progressing towards completion of most cleanup actions by 2015. Tank waste cleanup is progressing on a longer schedule due to the complexity of the mission, with construction of the largest nuclear construction project in the United States, the Waste Treatment Plant, over 50% complete. With the progress on the River Corridor and Tank Waste, it is time to place increased emphasis on moving forward with cleanup of the Central Plateau. Cleanup of the Hanford Site has been proceeding under a framework defmed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In early 2009, the DOE, the State of Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency signed an Agreement in Principle in which the parties recognized the need to develop a more comprehensive strategy for cleanup of the Central Plateau. DOE agreed to develop a Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy as a starting point for discussions. This DOE Strategy was the basis for negotiations between the Parties, discussions with the State of Oregon, the Hanford Advisory Board, and other Stakeholder groups (including open public meetings), and consultation with the Tribal Nations. The change packages to incorporate the Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy were

  11. H.R. 1046: a bill to grant the consent of the Congress to the Central Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact. Introduced in the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, February 7, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The House version of the Central Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact (H.R. 1046) establishes Congressional consent for Arkansas, Iowa, Kansas, Kouisiana, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and Oklahoma to cooperate on a regional basis in managing and storing low-level radioactive wastes. The purpose of the compact is to help the participating states establish an equitable distribution of the costs and benefits and to encourage those who generate low-level wastes to reduce the quantity. The bill defines pertinent terms, outlines the rights and responsibilities of participating states in maintaining a storage facility, establishes a managing commission, and specifies how the commission should develop and operate a regional facility

  12. Granting the consent of the Congress to the Central Interstate Low-level Radioactive Waste Compact. Report submitted to the US House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, October 22, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The committee recommendation and suggested amendments for H.R. 1046 describes the Central Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact, which has been ratified by Kansas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Nebraska. Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, and North Dakota are also eligible to participate in the regional compact. The report summarizes the legislation, which permits a regional compact to handle, allocate, and regulate low-level wastes. It also establishes the conditions for the congressional consent, gives a section-by-section analysis of the compact's provisions and requirements for member states, and concludes that the cost of waste facilities will not be inflationary or result in any significant cost to any level of government

  13. A parameter-free community detection method based on centrality and dispersion of nodes in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yafang; Jia, Caiyan; Yu, Jian

    2015-11-01

    K-means is a simple and efficient clustering algorithm to detect communities in networks. However, it may suffer from a bad choice of initial seeds (also called centers) that seriously affect the clustering accuracy and the convergence rate. Additionally, in K-means, the number of communities should be specified in advance. Till now, it is still an open problem on how to select initial seeds and how to determine the number of communities. In this study, a new parameter-free community detection method (named K-rank-D) was proposed. First, based on the fact that good initial seeds usually have high importance and are dispersedly located in a network, we proposed a modified PageRank centrality to evaluate the importance of a node, and drew a decision graph to depict the importance and the dispersion of nodes. Then, the initial seeds and the number of communities were selected from the decision graph actively and intuitively as the 'start' parameter of K-means. Experimental results on synthetic and real-world networks demonstrate the superior performance of our approach over competing methods for community detection.

  14. Assessing health impacts in complex eco-epidemiological settings in the humid tropics: The centrality of scoping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural resources development projects are - and have been for more than 150 years - located in remote rural areas in developing countries, where local level data on community health is notoriously scarce. Health impact assessment (HIA) aims at identifying potential negative health consequences of such projects and providing the initial evidence-base for prevention and mitigation of diseases, injuries and risk factors, as well as promotion of positive effects. An important, but under-systematised early phase of the HIA process is scoping. It aims at organising diverse, often fragmentary, evidence and identifying potential project-related health impacts and underlying data gaps. It is also a key element in defining the terms of reference for the entire assessment. We present novel methodological features for the scoping process, emphasising the evaluation of quality of evidence, and illustrate its use in a contemporary HIA of the Simandou iron ore project in the Republic of Guinea. Assessment of data quality is integrated with specific content information via an analytical framework for the systematic identification of health outcomes and determinants of major concern. A subsequent gap analysis is utilised to assess the need for further baseline data collection and to facilitate the specification of a set of potential key performance indicators and strategies to inform the required evidence-base. We argue that scoping also plays a central role in the design of surveillance systems for longitudinal monitoring of health, equity and wellbeing following project implementation.

  15. A methodology for a risk-based approach to complex scenarios in a long-term safety assessment of a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology for a risk-based approach to complex scenarios in a long-term safety assessment of a radioactive waste repository was developed using a Monte Carlo sampling method. The methodology consists of event characterization, influence evaluation, scenario combination, scenario assessment, and a convergence check. The methodology was applied to a hypothetical repository system considering earthquake events for illustration. Since two independent impacts by earthquakes were considered in the illustration, the complex scenarios could be categorized into 5 types including the simultaneous occurrence of impacts. From the assessment results, the total risk computed by the new methodology involved the occurrence probabilities of the complex scenarios, and these probabilities were reasonably converging to pseudo-theoretical probabilities. For further study, the characterizations of events and their impacts on a repository system must be preliminarily determined for a successful assessment

  16. Expertise concerning the request by the ZWILAG Intermediate Storage Facility Wuerenlingen AG for granting of a licence for the building and operation of the Central Intermediate Storage Facility for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On July 15, 1993, the Intermediate Storage Facility Wuerenlingen AG (ZWILAG) submitted a request to the Swiss Federal Council for granting of a license for the construction and operation of a central intermediate storage facility for radioactive wastes. The project foresees intermediate storage halls as well as conditioning and incineration installations. The Federal Agency for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (HSK) has to examine the project from the point of view of nuclear safety. The present report presents the results of this examination. Different waste types have to be treated in ZWILAG: spent fuel assemblies from Swiss nuclear power plants (KKWs); vitrified, highly radioactive wastes from reprocessing; intermediate and low-level radioactive wastes from KKWs and from reprocessing; wastes from the dismantling of nuclear installations; wastes from medicine, industry and research. The wastes are partitioned into three categories: high-level (HAA) radioactive wastes containing, amongst others, α-active nuclides, intermediate-level (MAA) radioactive wastes and low-level (SAA) radioactive wastes. The projected installation consists of three repository halls for each waste category, a hot cell, a conditioning plant and an incineration and melting installation. The HAA repository can accept 200 transport and storage containers with vitrified high-level wastes or spent fuel assemblies. The expected radioactivity amounts to 1020 Bq, including 1018 Bq of α-active nuclides. The thermal power produced by decay is released to the environment by natural circulation of air. The ventilation system is designed for a maximum power of 5.8 MW. Severe conditions are imposed to the containers as far as tightness and shielding against radiation is concerned. In the repository for MAA wastes the maximum radioactivity is 1018 Bq with 1015 Bq of α-active nuclides. The maximum thermal power of 250 kW is removed by forced air cooling. Because of the high level of radiation the

  17. European Union: European Commission studies and projects in the field of low level radioactive waste in countries of Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European Commission studies and projects in the nuclear sector are financed through a number of programmes and managed by various technical services in the Commission. The PHARE Nuclear Safety Programme is managed by the Task Force for Nuclear Issues (TFNI) of DG-Enlargement, which provided funding for projects in the then EU candidate countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Over the course of the PHARE Nuclear Safety Programme there were numerous projects in the field of LLW within the EU candidate countries. A useful, though not definitive, guide to projects before 1999 can be found in the Commission Report EUR 19154. As a result of the reorganization of the Commission's services in 2000, no PHARE multicountry programme was launched that year. TFNI restarted the nuclear safety programming activities in 2001. However, one project of interest was implemented during the intervening period: Project -006-RO/PHARESCR/ A6-01, Preparatory Measures for the Long-term Safety Assessment of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Repository Baita Bihor, Romania (completed in September 2001). Following the accession of the majority of these countries in 2004 there are no further PHARE annual programmes and the TFNI, along with DG-Enlargement, will be disbanded. The Euratom Research Framework Programme is managed by DG-Research (Unit JO4). Most of the research projects in the field of radioactive waste launched under the fifth Euratom Framework Programme were concerned with high level waste issues. Nonetheless, the work that has been undertaken within this programme could be of general interest to anyone in the radwaste sector. A complete summary of the various research conducted within the programme can be found in the following publication: Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection Projects Selected for Funding 1999-2001, which is available at http://www.cordis.lu/fp5-euratom/src/lib_docs.htm. The first call for proposals for the sixth Framework Programme has now taken place. However

  18. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wäger, Patrick A., E-mail: patrick.waeger@empa.ch; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6–10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. - Highlights: • LCA of plastics production from plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues • Multiple stakeholder perspectives addressed via different research questions • Plastics production from WEEE treatment residues clearly superior to alternatives • Robust results as demonstrated by extensive sensitivity analyses.

  19. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäger, Patrick A; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6-10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. PMID:26022405

  20. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6–10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. - Highlights: • LCA of plastics production from plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues • Multiple stakeholder perspectives addressed via different research questions • Plastics production from WEEE treatment residues clearly superior to alternatives • Robust results as demonstrated by extensive sensitivity analyses

  1. Effects of input discretization, model complexity, and calibration strategy on model performance in a data-scarce glacierized catchment in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasova, L.; Knoche, M.; Dietrich, J.; Merz, R.

    2016-06-01

    Glacierized high-mountainous catchments are often the water towers for downstream region, and modeling these remote areas are often the only available tool for the assessment of water resources availability. Nevertheless, data scarcity affects different aspects of hydrological modeling in such mountainous glacierized basins. On the example of poorly gauged glacierized catchment in Central Asia, we examined the effects of input discretization, model complexity, and calibration strategy on model performance. The study was conducted with the GSM-Socont model driven with climatic input from the corrected High Asia Reanalysis data set of two different discretizations. We analyze the effects of the use of long-term glacier volume loss, snow cover images, and interior runoff as an additional calibration data. In glacierized catchments with winter accumulation type, where the transformation of precipitation into runoff is mainly controlled by snow and glacier melt processes, the spatial discretization of precipitation tends to have less impact on simulated runoff than a correct prediction of the integral precipitation volume. Increasing model complexity by using spatially distributed input or semidistributed parameters values does not increase model performance in the Gunt catchment, as the more complex model tends to be more sensitive to errors in the input data set. In our case, better model performance and quantification of the flow components can be achieved by additional calibration data, rather than by using a more distributed model parameters. However, a semidistributed model better predicts the spatial patterns of snow accumulation and provides more plausible runoff predictions at the interior sites.

  2. Sr isotope tracing of multiple water sources in a complex river system, Noteć River, central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Mateusz; Dopieralska, Jolanta; Belka, Zdzislaw; Walczak, Aleksandra; Siepak, Marcin; Jakubowicz, Michal

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic impact on surface waters and other elements in the environment was investigated in the Noteć River basin in central Poland. The approach was to trace changes in the Sr isotope composition ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) and concentration in space and time. Systematic sampling of the river water shows a very wide range of (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios, from 0.7089 to 0.7127. This strong variation, however, is restricted to the upper course of the river, whereas the water in the lower course typically shows (87)Sr/(86)Sr values around 0.7104-0.7105. Variations in (87)Sr/(86)Sr are associated with a wide range of Sr concentrations, from 0.14 to 1.32mg/L. We find that strong variations in (87)Sr/(86)Sr and Sr concentrations can be accounted for by mixing of two end-members: 1) atmospheric waters charged with Sr from the near-surface weathering and wash-out of Quaternary glaciogenic deposits, and 2) waters introduced into the river from an open pit lignite mine. The first reservoir is characterized by a low Sr content and high (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios, whereas mine waters display opposite characteristics. Anthropogenic pollution is also induced by extensive use of fertilizers which constitute the third source of Sr in the environment. The study has an important implication for future archeological studies in the region. It shows that the present-day Sr isotope signatures of river water, flora and fauna cannot be used unambiguously to determine the "baseline" for bioavailable (87)Sr/(86)Sr in the past. PMID:26802358

  3. Extensive Field Survey, Laboratory and Greenhouse Studies Reveal Complex Nature of Pseudomonas syringae-Associated Hazelnut Decline in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Bartoli, Claudia; Varvaro, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas avellanae (Pav) has been reported as the causal agent of bacterial decline and bacterial canker of hazelnut in Italy and Greece, respectively. Both hazelnut diseases were reported to be similar in terms of symptoms, severity and persistence. In this study, we found that both symptomatic and asymptomatic trees in the field were colonized by Pav. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) analysis showed that Pav strains isolated during this study in Italy belong to the P. syringae phylogroup 1 and they are closely related to Pav strains previously isolated in Greece from hazelnut bacterial canker. On the other hand, strains isolated in earlier studies from hazelnut decline in Italy belong to both phylogroup 1 and 2 of P. syringae. Both phylogroup 1 strains of P. syringae from Greece and Italy are different than strains isolated in this study in terms of their capacity to excrete fluorescent pigments on different media. Despite the same plant genotype and cropping practices adopted, the incidence of hazelnut decline ranged from nearly 0 to 91% across our study sites. No disease developed on plants inoculated with Pav through wounding while leaf scar inoculations produced only mild disease symptoms. Based on our results and the previously reported correlation between pedo-climatic conditions and hazelnut decline, we conclude that hazelnut decline in central Italy could be incited by a combination of predisposing (adverse pedo-climatic conditions) and contributing factors (Pav). Because this is a true decline different from "bacterial canker" described in Greece, we refer to it as hazelnut decline (HD). PMID:26840951

  4. Extensive Field Survey, Laboratory and Greenhouse Studies Reveal Complex Nature of Pseudomonas syringae-Associated Hazelnut Decline in Central Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Ram Lamichhane

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas avellanae (Pav has been reported as the causal agent of bacterial decline and bacterial canker of hazelnut in Italy and Greece, respectively. Both hazelnut diseases were reported to be similar in terms of symptoms, severity and persistence. In this study, we found that both symptomatic and asymptomatic trees in the field were colonized by Pav. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST analysis showed that Pav strains isolated during this study in Italy belong to the P. syringae phylogroup 1 and they are closely related to Pav strains previously isolated in Greece from hazelnut bacterial canker. On the other hand, strains isolated in earlier studies from hazelnut decline in Italy belong to both phylogroup 1 and 2 of P. syringae. Both phylogroup 1 strains of P. syringae from Greece and Italy are different than strains isolated in this study in terms of their capacity to excrete fluorescent pigments on different media. Despite the same plant genotype and cropping practices adopted, the incidence of hazelnut decline ranged from nearly 0 to 91% across our study sites. No disease developed on plants inoculated with Pav through wounding while leaf scar inoculations produced only mild disease symptoms. Based on our results and the previously reported correlation between pedo-climatic conditions and hazelnut decline, we conclude that hazelnut decline in central Italy could be incited by a combination of predisposing (adverse pedo-climatic conditions and contributing factors (Pav. Because this is a true decline different from "bacterial canker" described in Greece, we refer to it as hazelnut decline (HD.

  5. Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) Waste Management Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VOLKMAN, D.D.

    1999-10-27

    This document is the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. (WMH), that implements the requirements of the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC), HNF-MP-599, Project Hanford Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) document, and the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement with Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), Sections 6.5 and 7.8. WHM is responsible for the treatment, storage, and disposal of liquid and solid wastes generated at the Hanford Site as well as those wastes received from other US Department of Energy (DOE) and non-DOE sites. WMH operations include the Low-Level Burial Grounds, Central Waste Complex (a mixed-waste storage complex), a nonradioactive dangerous waste storage facility, the Transuranic Storage Facility, T Plant, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facility, 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility, the 242-A Evaporator, 300 Area Treatment Effluent Disposal Facility, the 340 Facility (a radioactive liquid waste handling facility), 222-S Laboratory, the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility, and the Hanford TRU Waste Program.

  6. Actinide phosphonate complexes in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complexes formed by actinides with carboxylic acids, polycarboxylic acids, and aminopolycarboxylic acids play a central role in both the basic and process chemistry of the actinides. Recent studies of f-element complexes with phosphonic acid ligands indicate that new ligands incorporating doubly ionizable phosphonate groups (-PO3H2) have many properties which are unique chemically, and promise more efficient separation processes for waste cleanup and environmental restoration. Simple diphosphonate ligands form much stronger complexes than isostructural carboxylates, often exhibiting higher solubility as well. In this manuscript recent studies of the thermodynamics and kinetics of f-element complexation by 1,1 and 1,2 diphosphonic acid ligands are described

  7. The structural architecture of the Los Humeros volcanic complex and geothermal field, Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norini, Gianluca; Groppelli, Gianluca; Sulpizio, Roberto; Carrasco Núñez, Gerardo; Davila Harris, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The development of geothermal energy in Mexico is a very important goal, given the presence of a large heat anomaly, associated with the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, the renewability of the resource and the low environmental impact. The Quaternary Los Humeros volcanic complex is an important geothermal target, whose evolution involved at least two caldera events, that alternated with other explosive and effusive activity. The first caldera forming event was the 460 ka eruption that produced the Xaltipan ignimbrite and formed a 15-20 km wide caldera. The second collapse event occurred 100 ka with the formation of the Zaragoza ignimbrite and a nested 8-10 km wide caldera. The whole volcano structure, the style of the collapses and the exact location of the calderas scarps and ring faults are still a matter of debate. The Los Humeros volcano hosts the productive Los Humeros Geothermal Field, with an installed capacity of 40 MW and additional 75 MW power plants under construction. Recent models of the geothermal reservoir predict the existence of at least two reservoirs in the geothermal system, separated by impermeable rock units. Hydraulic connectivity and hydrothermal fluids circulation occurs through faults and fractures, allowing deep steam to ascend while condensate flows descend. As a consequence, the plans for the exploration and exploitation of the geothermal reservoir have been based on the identification of the main channels for the circulation of hydrothermal fluids, constituted by faults, so that the full comprehension of the structural architecture of the caldera is crucial to improve the efficiency and minimize the costs of the geothermal field operation. In this study, we present an analysis of the Los Humeros volcanic complex focused on the Quaternary tectonic and volcanotectonics features, like fault scarps and aligned/elongated monogenetic volcanic centres. Morphostructural analysis and field mapping reveal the geometry, kinematics and dynamics of

  8. The transition from large-magnitude extension to distributed dextral faulting in the Buckskin-Rawhide metamorphic core complex, west-central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, John S.

    2015-08-01

    Brittle fault data from the Buckskin-Rawhide metamorphic core complex, west-central Arizona, document the Miocene transition from large-magnitude, NE directed extension to distributed E-W extension and dextral faulting. The Buckskin-Rawhide detachment fault locally records a clockwise rotation of the slip direction from dominant top-NE directed slip to ENE and E directed slip during the last stages of activity. Postmylonitic brittle deformation is dominated by normal and dextral slip along moderately to steeply NE dipping faults. Relative timing relationships indicate that most postmylonitic normal faulting was coeval with middle Miocene detachment fault slip, whereas dextral and oblique dextral faulting postdates detachment fault slip (post ~11 Ma). Based on the persistent SW dip of lower plate fabrics and NE dip of abundant normal faults, the amount of NE-SW brittle extension across the mylonitic lower plate is estimated to be 20-30% in several areas. The end of detachment faulting in the Buckskin-Rawhide metamorphic core complex was marked by a transition to dominantly E-W extension and associated dextral-normal faulting. At least 10 NE dipping postdetachment faults record ~0.1-1 km dextral or oblique dextral displacement. The cumulative amount of dextral shear across the core complex is probably 7-9 km, which is the amount needed to restore the topographic trend of lower plate corrugations into alignment with the dominant extension direction. Postdetachment dextral/transtensional faulting across the core complex reflects the increasing influence of the diffuse Pacific-North America transform plate boundary toward the end of the middle Miocene.

  9. Platinum group elements geochemistry of ultramafic and associated rocks from Pindar in Madawara Igneous Complex, Bundelkhand massif, central India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Balaram; S P Singh; M Satyanarayanan; K V Anjaiah

    2013-02-01

    Ultramafic rocks comprising dunite, harburgite, lehzolite, olivine webserite and websterite occur as intrusives in the form of small hillocks at around Pindar into the granite–gneisses of Bundelkhand Gneissic Complex (BnGC). The peridotites are dominated by olivine cumulates where chromite and precious metal-bearing sulphides crystallized along with pyroxenes, subsequent to crystallization of olivine into the interstitial spaces of cumulates during cooling. Ultramafic rocks of Pindar are characterized by high MgO (up to 46.0 wt%) and FeO (up to 5.8 wt%); low SiO2 (40.8 to 48.0 wt%), TiO2 (0.2 to 0.5 wt%), Al2O3 (∼3.2 wt% av.), CaO(∼ 2.7 wt% av.) and Cu (11 to 73 g/g). Cr and Ni values range from 2297 to 3150 g/g and 2434 to 2767 g/g, respectively. Distribution of Ir (up to 20 ng/g), Ru (27 to 90 ng/g), Rh (3 to 14 ng/g), Pt (18 to 72 ng/g), Pd (10 to 27 ng/g) and Au (22 to 57 ng/g) indicate platinum group element (PGE) and associated gold mineralization in these ultramafic rocks. A mineral phase representing sperrylite (PtAs2) was also identified within the sulphides in Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM–EDS) studies. The primitive mantle-normalized siderophile elements pattern shows platinum group element PGE (PPGE) enrichment (Rh, Pt, Pd). Discrimination diagrams of Pd/Ir vs. Ni/Cu, Pd/Pt vs. Ni/Cu, Cu/Pd vs. Pd, and Cu vs. Pd for the peridotites of Pindar attribute to affinity towards komatiite magma, derived from high degree of partial melting of prolonged depleted mantle, and the sulphur saturation condition incurred during the crystallization of chromite which was favourable for PGE mineralization.

  10. Nature and origin of a Pleistocene-age massive ground-ice body exposed in the Chapman Lake moraine complex, central Yukon Territory, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacelle, Denis; Lauriol, Bernard; Clark, Ian D.; Cardyn, Raphaelle; Zdanowicz, Christian

    2007-09-01

    A massive ground-ice body was found exposed in the headwall of a thaw flow developed within the Chapman Lake terminal moraine complex on the Blackstone Plateau (Ogilvie Mountains, central Yukon Territory), which is contemporaneous to the Reid glaciation. Based on visible cryostructures in the 4-m-high headwall, two units were identified: massive ground ice, overlain sharply by 2 m of icy diamicton. The nature and origin of the Chapman Lake massive ground ice was determined using cryostratigraphy, petrography, stable O-H isotopes and the molar concentration of occluded gases (CO 2, O 2, N 2 and Ar) entrapped in the ice, a new technique in the field of periglacial geomorphology that allows to distinguish between glacial and non-glacial intrasedimental ice. Collectively, the results indicate that the Chapman Lake massive ground ice formed by firn densification with limited melting-refreezing and underwent deformation near its margin. Given that the massive ground-ice body consists of relict glacier ice, it suggests that permafrost persisted, at least locally, on plateau areas in the central Yukon Territory since the middle Pleistocene. In addition, the d value of Chapman Lake relict glacier ice suggests that the ice covering the area during the Reid glaciation originated from a local alpine glaciation in the Ogilvie Mountains.

  11. 226Ra in waters of an estuarine system formerly affected by direct discharges of wastes from a phosphate fertilizer processing complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of 226Ra in an estuaryformerly affected by direct discharges of waste from a phosphate fertilizer complex has been investigated. Specific activities ranging from 3.6 to 45.2 mBq/l have been detected. In general, activity levels are lower than those detected when direct discharges were carried out. However, there is still a clear contamination due to the disposal of phosphogypsum in open air piles by the river. Moreover, it seems that 226Ra is being redissolved from the contaminated bed sediments, which also contributes to an enhancement in the activity levels of the estuary waters. (author)

  12. Intranasal inoculation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with lyophilized chronic wasting disease prion particulate complexed to montmorillonite clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or TSE of deer and elk, occurring primarily in North America. The TSEs are fatal neurodegenerative disorders associated with conversion of a normal cell protein to a pathogenic and potentially infectious agent by post trans...

  13. Review of the transport of selected radionuclides in the interim risk assessment for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Waste Area Group 7 Operable Unit 7-13/14, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Joseph P.; Landa, Edward R.; Nimmo, John R.; Cecil, L. DeWayne; Knobel, LeRoy L.; Glynn, Pierre D.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Curtis, Gary P.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.; Anderson, Steven R.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Bossong, Clifford R.; Orr, Brennon R.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey conduct an independent technical review of the Interim Risk Assessment (IRA) and Contaminant Screening for the Waste Area Group 7 (WAG-7) Remedial Investigation, the draft Addendum to the Work Plan for Operable Unit 7-13/14 WAG-7 comprehensive Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS), and supporting documents that were prepared by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies, Inc. The purpose of the technical review was to assess the data and geotechnical approaches that were used to estimate future risks associated with the release of the actinides americium, uranium, neptunium, and plutonium to the Snake River Plain aquifer from wastes buried in pits and trenches at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). The SDA is located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex in southeastern Idaho within the boundaries of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Radionuclides have been buried in pits and trenches at the SDA since 1957 and 1952, respectively. Burial of transuranic wastes was discontinued in 1982. The five specific tasks associated with this review were defined in a ?Proposed Scope of Work? prepared by the DOE, and a follow-up workshop held in June 1998. The specific tasks were (1) to review the radionuclide sampling data to determine how reliable and significant are the reported radionuclide detections and how reliable is the ongoing sampling program, (2) to assess the physical and chemical processes that logically can be invoked to explain true detections, (3) to determine if distribution coefficients that were used in the IRA are reliable and if they have been applied properly, (4) to determine if transport model predictions are technically sound, and (5) to identify issues needing resolution to determine technical adequacy of the risk assessment analysis, and what additional work is required to resolve those issues.

  14. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet is a publication by International Atomic Energy Agency for general awareness of citizens and policy-makers to clarify their concept of nuclear wastes. In a very simple way it tells what is radioactivity, radiations and radioactive wastes. It further hints on various medial and industrial uses of radiations. It discusses about different types of radioactive wastes and radioactive waste management. Status of nuclear power plants in Central and Eastern European countries are also discussed

  15. Hydrological, meteorological and geohydrological data for an unsaturated zone study near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho - 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1952, radioactive waste has been buried at the RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Complex) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in southeastern Idaho. In 1985, the US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, began a study of the geohydrology of the RWMC to provide a basis for estimating the extent of and the potential for migration of radionuclides in the unsaturated zone beneath the waste burial trenches and pits. This study is being conducted to provide hydrological, meteorological and geohydrological data for the test trench area adjacent to the northern boundary of the RWMC. During 1987, data were collected from the test trench area, where several types of instrumentation were installed in the surficial sediment in 1985. Hydrological data collected from both disturbed and undisturbed soil included measurements, from 28 thermocouple psychrometers placed at selected depths to about 6m. Soil moisture content measurements were collected bi-weekly in 9 neutron-probe access holes with a neutron moisture depth gage. Meteorological data summarized daily included: (1) incoming and emitted long-wave radiation; (2) incoming and reflected short-wave radiation; (3) air temperature; (4) relative humidity; (5) wind speed; (6) wind direction; and (7) precipitation. To describe grain-size distribution with depth, 17 samples were analyzed using sieve and pipette methods. Statistical parameters, carbonate content, color, particle roundness and sphericity, and mineralogic and clastic constituents were determined for each sample. Some samples were analyzed by x-ray diffraction techniques to determine bulk and clay mineralogy

  16.  α-Cyclodextrin dimer complexes of dopamine and levodopa derivatives to assess drug delivery to the central nervous system: ADME and molecular docking studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shityakov S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sergey Shityakov, Jens Broscheit, Carola FörsterDepartment of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, GermanyAbstract: This paper attempts to predict and emphasize molecular interactions of dopamine, levodopa, and their derivatives (Dopimid compounds containing 2-phenyl-imidazopyridine moiety with the α-cyclodextrin dimer in order to assess and improve drug delivery to the central nervous system. The molecular docking method is used to determine the energetic profiles, hydrogen bond formation, and hydrophobic effect of 14 host–guest complexes. The results show that the “chemical branching” represented by additional ethyl-acetate residue is energetically unfavorable and promotes a conformational shift due to the high root mean square deviation levels. This phenomenon is characterized by a low number of H-bonds and a significant decrease of the host–guest hydrophobic potential surface. Finally, the overall docking procedure presents a powerful rationale for screening and analyzing various sets of promising drug-like chemical compounds in the fields of supramolecular chemistry, molecular sensing, synthetic receptors, and nanobiotechnology.Keywords: dopamine, levodopa, Dopimid compounds, α-CD dimer, molecular docking, complexation

  17. Cyclodextrin-Complexed Ocimum basilicum Leaves Essential Oil Increases Fos Protein Expression in the Central Nervous System and Produce an Antihyperalgesic Effect in Animal Models for Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone S. Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O. basilicum leaves produce essential oils (LEO rich in monoterpenes. The short half-life and water insolubility are limitations for LEO medical uses. β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD has been employed to improve the pharmacological properties of LEO. We assessed the antihyperalgesic profile of LEO, isolated or complexed in β-CD (LEO/β-CD, on an animal model for fibromyalgia. Behavioral tests: mice were treated every day with either LEO/β-CD (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg, p.o., LEO (25 mg/kg, p.o., tramadol (TRM 4 mg/kg, i.p. or vehicle (saline, and 60 min after treatment behavioral parameters were assessed. Therefore, mice were evaluated for mechanical hyperalgesia (von Frey, motor coordination (Rota-rod and muscle strength (Grip Strength Metter in a mice fibromyalgia model. After 27 days, we evaluated the central nervous system (CNS pathways involved in the effect induced by experimental drugs through immunofluorescence protocol to Fos protein. The differential scanning analysis (DSC, thermogravimetry/derivate thermogravimetry (TG/DTG and infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR curves indicated that the products prepared were able to incorporate the LEO efficiently. Oral treatment with LEO or LEO-βCD, at all doses tested, produced a significant reduction of mechanical hyperalgesia and we were able to significantly increase Fos protein expression. Together, our results provide evidence that LEO, isolated or complexed with β-CD, produces analgesic effects on chronic non-inflammatory pain as fibromyalgia.

  18. Influence of domestic pets on soil concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus under turfgrass in apartment complexes of Central Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, M.; Aitkenhead-Peterson, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    High nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) watershed loading rates increases the concentration and loads present in urban streams and rivers, resulting in eutrophication and degradation of surface water quality. Domestic pet animal feed may represent a significant proportion of nitrogen loading in urban watersheds, and because it is deposited directly on the watershed surface may have a large effect on N loads in urban surface waters (Baker et al. 2001). Animal manure has long been used to increase soil N and phosphorus concentrations for the purpose of growing agricultural crops; however, little is known about unintentional urban manuring resulting from a high density of domesticated pets. The purpose of this study is to determine if the presence of domesticated animals in high density urban developments results in increased concentrations of soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), N, and P and the potential to contribute to loading of urban streams. Composite soil samples from the 0 to 5 cm and 5 to 10 cm soil depth were collected from apartment complexes in Bryan/College Station (BCS) and San Antonio, Texas during August, 2009. Apartment complexes were randomly located around the city and were chosen based on their rules regarding pet ownership. Four apartment complexes that allowed all domestic pets were compared to four that did not allow any domestic pets on the property. A 10:1 water extraction of field moist soil was conducted immediately after sampling. Soil water extracts were analyzed for DOC, total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), nitrate-N, ammonium-N, dissolved organic N, and orthophosphate-P. Results indicated significantly increased concentrations of DOC and N species at both depths in BCS apartments that allowed pets compared to those that did not; however, opposite trends were found in San Antonio. There is a trend for increased concentrations of orthophosphate-P at both locations. Baker, L.A., D. Hope, Y. Xu, et al. 2001. Nitrogen balance for the central Arizona

  19. Study on separation of 137Cs from 235U fission process waste - utilization of silica gel-supported ferrocyanide complex salt for 137Cs picking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with the potential domestic demand especially in the fields of industry and nuclear medicine, the separation of 137Cs from 235U fission process waste is to be of interest although its economic value could be a polemic. A preliminary study on the separation of 137Cs from the 235U fission process waste generated in the production of 99Mo in P.T. BATAN Teknologi, Serpong, was performed through experiments on 137Cs picking from sample solution of the radioactive fission waste (RFW). The presented study is aimed to gain experimental data supporting utilization of the matrix of silica gel-supported ferrocyanide complex salt for the separation of 137Cs from RFW. Subsequent step would be the recovery and purification of 137Cs as part of production technology of 137Cs. The RFW sample was batch-treated with the matrix of silica gel-supported ferrocyanide complex salt which was synthesized from silica gel, potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) and copper(II) chloride. The binding of radioisotopes in RFW on the matrix was observed by γ-spectrometry of the RFW solution before and during the treatment. The results showed that approximately 85% of 137Cs could be picked from the RFW sample into the matrix. Less amount of 95Zr and 95Nb was bound into the matrix. 103Ru was slightly bound into the matrix whereas 141/144Ce and 129mTe were not. It was observed that by using 0.2 and 0.4 g of matrix for 10 ml of RFW, the amount of matrix influenced the binding quantity of 95Zr and 95Nb but not that of 137Cs. (author)

  20. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 1: Title II design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 1 provides a comprehensive narrative description of the proposed facility and systems, the basis for each of the systems design, and the engineering assessments that were performed to support the technical basis of the Title II design. The intent of the system description presented is to provide WHC an understanding of the facilities and equipment provided and the A/E`s perspective on how these systems will operate.

  1. Combustion and fuel loading characteristics of Hanford Site transuranic solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility is being designed for construction in the north end of the Central Waste Complex. The WRAP Facility will receive, store, and process radioactive solid waste of both transuranic (TRU) and mixed waste (mixed radioactive-chemical waste) categories. Most of the waste is in 208-L (55-gal) steel drums. Other containers such as wood and steel boxes, and various sized drums will also be processed in the facility. The largest volume of waste and the type addressed in this report is TRU in 208-L (55-gal) drums that is scheduled to be processed in the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 (WRAP 1). Half of the TRU waste processed by WRAP 1 is expected to be retrieved stored waste and the other half newly generated waste. Both the stored and new waste will be processed to certify it for permanent storage in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) or disposal. The stored waste will go through a process of retrieval, examination, analysis, segregation, repackaging, relabeling, and documentation before certification and WIPP shipment. Newly generated waste should be much easier to process and certify. However, a substantial number of drums of both retrievable and newly generated waste will require temporary storage and handling in WRAP. Most of the TRU waste is combustible or has combustible components. Therefore, the presence of a substantial volume of drummed combustible waste raises concern about fire safety in WRAP and similar waste drum storage facilities. This report analyzes the fire related characteristics of the expected WRAP TRU waste stream

  2. Degradation of a cobalt(II)-EDTA complex by photocatalysis and H2O2/UV-C. Application to nuclear wastes containing 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 60Co present in some low-level effluents forms complexes with organic ligands such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). These complexes make it difficult to remove the 60Co using conventional filtration methods. The aim of this study was to test the use of titanium-based photocatalysis (TiO2/UV) and photochemical methods involving the use of oxidation agents (H2O2/UV-C) (both of which are advanced oxidation processes) to degrade EDTA and recover 60Co once it has been released from the complex. In preliminary experiments on the 59Co-EDTA complex, we tested the efficiency of the TiO2/UV and H2O2/UV-C processes as means of degrading EDTA molecules and releasing cobalt in its cationic forms Co2+ and Co3+. These cations can be trapped by either precipitating and/or adsorbing them on TiO2 depending on the pH. When this treatment was applied experimentally to radioactive wastes, it turned out to be highly effective since it improved the decontamination factor (DF: initial volumic activity/final volumic activity) twofold. (author)

  3. Monitoring Cloud-prone Complex Landscapes At Multiple Spatial Scales Using Medium And High Resolution Optical Data: A Case Study In Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Bikash

    Tracking land surface dynamics over cloud-prone areas with complex mountainous terrain and a landscape that is heterogeneous at a scale of approximately 10 m, is an important challenge in the remote sensing of tropical regions in developing nations, due to the small plot sizes. Persistent monitoring of natural resources in these regions at multiple spatial scales requires development of tools to identify emerging land cover transformation due to anthropogenic causes, such as agricultural expansion and climate change. Along with the cloud cover and obstructions by topographic distortions due to steep terrain, there are limitations to the accuracy of monitoring change using available historical satellite imagery, largely due to sparse data access and the lack of high quality ground truth for classifier training. One such complex region is the Lake Kivu region in Central Africa. This work addressed these problems to create an effective process for monitoring the Lake Kivu region located in Central Africa. The Lake Kivu region is a biodiversity hotspot with a complex and heterogeneous landscape and intensive agricultural development, where individual plot sizes are often at the scale of 10m. Procedures were developed that use optical data from satellite and aerial observations at multiple scales to tackle the monitoring challenges. First, a novel processing chain was developed to systematically monitor the spatio-temporal land cover dynamics of this region over the years 1988, 2001, and 2011 using Landsat data, complemented by ancillary data. Topographic compensation was performed on Landsat reflectances to avoid the strong illumination angle impacts and image compositing was used to compensate for frequent cloud cover and thus incomplete annual data availability in the archive. A systematic supervised classification, using the state-of-the-art machine learning classifier Random Forest, was applied to the composite Landsat imagery to obtain land cover thematic maps

  4. New Sm/Nd and U/Pb geochronological constraints of the Archean to neoproterozoic evolution of the Amparo basement complex of the Central Ribeira Belt, Southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Amparo Basement Complex is a distinctive collage of migmatitic tronjhemitetonalite- granodiorite (TTG) orthogneisses that represents the older basement exposures within the Central Ribeira Belt, a Late Neoproterozoic (ca. 600 Ma) collisional belt in southeastern Brazil. These basement gneisses are overlain by Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic supracrustal sequences, and intruded by Neoproterozoic collisional granitoids. Pioneering Rb/Sr, Pb/Pb and K/Ar geochronological studies of the Amparo Complex, e.g. (Wernick et al., 1981; Wernick and Oliveira, 1986; Arthur, 1988; Tassinari, 1988; Campos Neto, 1991) provided some initial insights into the antiquity and geologic evolution of the complex, but little about the crustal evolution of the constituent gneisses. Furthermore, the susceptibility of these systems to partial isotopic resetting, left some doubt about the timing and true number of geologic events recorded by these polydeformed rocks. Recent Sm/Nd whole rock (Dantas et al., 2000) and new U/Pb single crystal zircon and monazite data obtained from the Amparo Complex, however, now furnish information on the crustal growth history of the basement and provide precise age constraints on the timing of events related to the geologic evolution of the complex. Based on these new data, it appears that the oldest rocks within the complex are polymigmatized tronjhemitic gneisses located near the town of Amparo. The oldest phase of this migmatite yields a U/Pb zircon age of 3,024 +/- 9 Ma. Sm/Nd data from this locale yields a Nd T(DM) model age of 3.28 Ga suggesting that the genesis of this crustal unit involved some input from yet older crust. Data from banded tonalitic gneisses collected ca. 50 km south of Amparo indicate that subsequent Archean crustal growth around the older core occurred around 2.77 Ga (U/Pb zircon age of 2,772 +/- 26 Ma. A Nd T(DM) model age of 3.02 Ga obtained from these tonalites also indicate enrichment from older crustal sources during their

  5. Waste remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2015-12-29

    A system including a steam generation system and a chamber. The steam generation system includes a complex and the steam generation system is configured to receive water, concentrate electromagnetic (EM) radiation received from an EM radiation source, apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, and transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the water to steam. The chamber is configured to receive the steam and an object, wherein the object is of medical waste, medical equipment, fabric, and fecal matter.

  6. Prelimilary Geological and Geochemical Data from the Cangaldag Complex (Kastamonu-Turkey): Implications for the Geodynamic Evolution of the Central Pontides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimen, Okay; Sayit, Kaan; Goncuoglu, M. Cemal

    2015-04-01

    The Cangaldag Complex, one of the tectonic units lying in the Central Pontides of the Sakarya Composite Terrane, comprises variably deformed and metamorphosed rocks of mostly magmatic origin. These lithologies include both extrusive and intrusive varieties as well as volcaniclastic types, with a wide range of compositions from felsic to mafic. Petrographically the complex consists of diverse rock types, including basalt, tuff, diabase, gabbro, andesite, and rhyo-dacite. The mafic lithologies generally appear to be affected by greenschist facies metamorphism with typical assemblage of ab+act+chl+ep. A well-developed schistosity is observed in some cases. The dacitic types are generally slightly metamorphic, displaying porphyritic textures with quartz and feldspar phenocrysts embedded in a fine-grained groundmass. Mylonitic varieties of this type are also found. On the basis of geochemistry, the Cangaldag samples are of sub-alkaline character and represented by both primitive and evolved members. All rock types are variably depleted in Nb compared to LREE, similar to the lavas from subduction-related tectonic settings. In N-MORB normalized plots, the primitive members are separated into 3 groups on the basis of levels of enrichment. The first group display highly depleted characteristics akin to boninitic lavas. The second group is relatively enriched compared to the first group but still depleted than N-MORB. The third group, however, is the most enriched among the three, whose level of enrichment is around N-MORB. The overall geochemical features suggest that the Cangaldag meta-igneous rocks have been generated in an intra-oceanic system with the involvement of a subduction-modified mantle source. The chemistry of the primitive members further indicate that the melt generation within the Cangaldag Unit probably occurred on both arc and back-arc regions of the Intra-Pontide supra-subduction zone.

  7. Next-generation sequencing of ABCA4: High frequency of complex alleles and novel mutations in patients with retinal dystrophies from Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ścieżyńska, Aneta; Oziębło, Dominika; Ambroziak, Anna M; Korwin, Magdalena; Szulborski, Kamil; Krawczyński, Maciej; Stawiński, Piotr; Szaflik, Jerzy; Szaflik, Jacek P; Płoski, Rafał; Ołdak, Monika

    2016-04-01

    Variation in the ABCA4 locus has emerged as the most prevalent cause of monogenic retinal diseases. The study aimed to discover causative ABCA4 mutations in a large but not previously investigated cohort with ABCA4-related diseases originating from Central Europe and to refine the genetic relevance of all identified variants based on population evidence. Comprehensive clinical studies were performed to identify patients with Stargardt disease (STGD, n = 76) and cone-rod dystrophy (CRD, n = 16). Next-generation sequencing targeting ABCA4 was applied for a widespread screening of the gene. The results were analyzed in the context of exome data from a corresponding population (n = 594) and other large genomic databases. Our data disprove the pathogenic status of p.V552I and provide more evidence against a causal role of four further ABCA4 variants as drivers of the phenotype under a recessive paradigm. The study identifies 12 novel potentially pathogenic mutations (four of them recurrent) and a novel complex allele p.[(R152*; V2050L)]. In one third (31/92) of our cohort we detected the p.[(L541P; A1038V)] complex allele, which represents an unusually high level of genetic homogeneity for ABCA4-related diseases. Causative ABCA4 mutations account for 79% of STGD and 31% of CRD cases. A combination of p.[(L541P; A1038V)] and/or a truncating ABCA4 mutation always resulted in an early disease onset. Identification of ABCA4 retinopathies provides a specific molecular diagnosis and justifies a prompt introduction of simple precautions that may slow disease progression. The comprehensive, population-specific study expands our knowledge on the genetic landscape of retinal diseases. PMID:26593885

  8. Carbon isotopic evidence for biodegradation of organic contaminants in the shallow vadose zone of the radioactive waste management complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste material buried in drums in the shallow subsurface at the Radioactive Waste Management Facility (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) contained significant amounts of organic compounds including lubricating oils and chlorinated solvents. CO2 concentrations in pore gas samples from monitoring wells in the vicinity of the disposal pits are 3 to 5 times higher than the concentrations in nearby background wells. The stable carbon isotope ratios ((delta)13C values) of CO2 from the disposal pits averaged 2.4. less than CO2 from the background wells, indicating that the elevated CO2 concentrations around the pits were derived from source materials with (delta)13C values in the range of -24(perthousand) to -29(perthousand). These (delta)13C values are typical of lubricating oils, but higher than most solvents. The radiocarbon (14C) contents of CO2 across most of the site were significantly elevated above modern concentrations due to reactor blocks buried in a subsurface vault at the site. However, several samples collected from the high-CO2 zone on the far side of the RWMC from the reactor blocks had very low 14C contents (less than 0.13 times modern), confirming production from lubricating oils manufactured from fossil hydrocarbons. The magnitude of the CO2 anomaly observed at the site is consistent with intrinsic biodegradation rates on the order of 0.5 to 3.0 metric tons of carbon per year

  9. Hazardous Wastes from Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, John

    The management of waste materials has become more complex with the increase in human population and the development of new substances. This illustrated booklet traces the history of waste management and provides guidelines for individuals and communities in disposing of certain hazardous wastes safely. It addresses such topics as: (1) how people…

  10. A pair of dopamine neurons target the D1-like dopamine receptor DopR in the central complex to promote ethanol-stimulated locomotion in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C Kong

    Full Text Available Dopamine is a mediator of the stimulant properties of drugs of abuse, including ethanol, in mammals and in the fruit fly Drosophila. The neural substrates for the stimulant actions of ethanol in flies are not known. We show that a subset of dopamine neurons and their targets, through the action of the D1-like dopamine receptor DopR, promote locomotor activation in response to acute ethanol exposure. A bilateral pair of dopaminergic neurons in the fly brain mediates the enhanced locomotor activity induced by ethanol exposure, and promotes locomotion when directly activated. These neurons project to the central complex ellipsoid body, a structure implicated in regulating motor behaviors. Ellipsoid body neurons are required for ethanol-induced locomotor activity and they express DopR. Elimination of DopR blunts the locomotor activating effects of ethanol, and this behavior can be restored by selective expression of DopR in the ellipsoid body. These data tie the activity of defined dopamine neurons to D1-like DopR-expressing neurons to form a neural circuit that governs acute responding to ethanol.

  11. Management of small quantities of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance primarily to developing Member States on the predisposal management of small quantities of radioactive waste arising from hospitals, laboratories, industries, institutions, research reactors and research centres.The publication covers the management of liquid, solid and gaseous radioactive wastes at the users' premises and gives general guidance on procedures at a centralized waste management facility. Predisposal management of radioactive waste includes handling, treatment, conditioning, storage and transportation. This publication provides information and guidance on the following topics: national waste management framework; origin and characteristics of radioactive waste arising from users generating small quantities of waste; radioactive waste management concepts appropriate for small quantities; local waste management; the documentation and approval necessary for the consignment of waste to a centralized waste management facility; centralized waste management; exemption of radionuclides from the regulatory body; transportation; environmental monitoring; quality assurance for the whole predisposal process; regional co-operation aspects

  12. The Role of Fractional Crystallization and Magma Mixing/Mingling in the Genesis of Karacaali Magmatic Complex (Central Anatolia, Turkey) Fe, Mo-Cu Mineralizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibas, O.; Genc, Y.; de Campos, C. P.

    2009-05-01

    This work brings into focus different metal associations (Fe and Mo-Cu) characteristic for the Karacaali Magmatic Complex (KMC), in Central Anatolia, Turkey. The Mo-Cu mineralization is widespread hosted in rhyolitic-rhyodacitic/granidoid rocks or is related to N-S striking vertical quartz-calcite veins. The Fe mineralization, on the other hand, is hosted in gabbroic/basaltic rocks. Field relations and geochronologic studies on single zircons (U-Pb) point towards a coeval temporal relation between plutonites and volcanites. The relatively overlapping ages between monzonite (73.1 Ma) and rhyolitic rocks (67 Ma) reflect a long lasting gradual crystallization within a zoned magma chamber. This is confirmed by progressive transitional contacts from plutonites into volcanites. Based on detailed field, textural and petrographic studies, granitic and monzonitic rocks have been subdivided into four different facies. These are: porphyritic quartz monzonites, quartz-monzonites, fine-grained granites and porphyritic leucogranites. Furthermore, highly diverse textures and structures, which are typical for hybrid rocks, reveal important magma mixing/migling and fractional crystalization processes. From additional geochemical studies, granitic rocks show high Rb/Sr (1.52), nearly flat REE patterns and strong Eu negative anomalies. However; monzonitic and hybrid rocks have relatively low Rb/Sr ratios (0.37 and 0.32) and depleted HREE patterns. Thus, in this complex, granitic rocks are considered as evolved products from the felsic magma. Strong positive Mo-correlation within the granitoids can be explained by a high degree of magmatic fractionation (Ishihara and Tani, 2004). Therefore, last evolved granitic melts are enriched in Mo- rich volatiles giving rise to molybdenite-quartz-calcite veins. Field, macro-micro and chemical studies evidence a co-magmatic origin for the gabbroic/basaltic-hosted Fe-mineralization. Despite the very close relation between compositional character

  13. Internal P-T-t Structure of Subduction Complexes — Insights from Lu-Hf Geochronology on Garnet and Lawsonite (Halilbağı, Central Anatolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourteau, A.; Scherer, E. E.; Schmidt, A.; Bast, R.

    2014-12-01

    The subduction complex near Halilbağı (Central Anatolia) is among the best sites to investigate deep-seated tectonic, petrologic, and geochemical processes taking place in subduction zones. The Halilbağı Unit comprises slices of lawsonite- and/or epidote-bearing blueschist and eclogite, as well as meta-chert and marble. The unit is overlain by an ophiolitic slab and underlain by a HP/LT metamorphosed carbonate platform. Previous studies of the Halilbağı Unit suggested tectonic blocks were metamorphosed under diverse peak conditions, but shared a common exhumation P-T path marked by syn-decompression cooling (Davis and Whitney, 2006; Çetinkaplan et al., 2008). To better understand the internal structure and dynamics of this subduction complex, we carried out Lu-Hf geochronology on garnet (grt) and lawsonite (lws) from a variety of HP oceanic rocks, as well as the sub-ophiolitic metamorphic sole. Our results suggest that intra-oceanic subduction started at ~110 Ma (grt-amph isochron from a grt amphibolite). Less than 23 Myr later, the subduction interface was refrigerated enough to allow clockwise P-T loops (~87 Ma peak grt-matrix isochron for a lws+grt-bearing eclogitic blueschist) and syn-decompression cooling (~79 Ma retrograde lws-matrix isochron) of subducted oceanic rocks. We will present further results for several HP metamorphic sub-facies (e.g., epidote (ep) eclogite, lws+ep blueschist, lws blueschist, lws eclogite). Such data may allow unraveling whether the co-occurrence of "warm" (i.e., ep-bearing), and "cold" (i.e., lws-bearing) HP rocks in the same locality results from (a) sampling of distinct levels of the subduction slab, (b) thermal maturation of the juvenile subduction zone, or (c) inaccurate P-T estimates. Novel natural constraints are thus expected on the dynamics of the Halilbağı Unit and of subduction complexes in general. Çetinkaplan M., Candan O., Oberhänsli R. and Bousquet R., 2008. Pressure-Temperature Evolution of Lawsonite

  14. Jurassic metabasic rocks in the Kızılırmak accretionary complex (Kargı region, Central Pontides, Northern Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Ömer Faruk; Chiaradia, Massimo; Marzoli, Andrea; Özkan, Mutlu; Billor, Zeki; Topuz, Gültekin

    2016-03-01

    The Kızılırmak accretionary complex near Kargı is tectonically bounded by the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous metamorphic massives of the Central Pontides. It consists mainly of serpentinite, serpentinized peridotite, gabbro, basalt, metabasite and deep-marine sedimentary rocks. The metabasites in the Kızılırmak accretionary complex are tectonically located within a serpentinite, radiolarian chert, spilitized basalt, gabbro association and commonly display a steep contact with serpentinites. Amphiboles from metabasites yielded robust 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages ranging between 159.4 ± 0.4 Ma and 163.5 ± 0.8 Ma. These are interpreted as cooling ages of the metabasites. The metabasites have 87Sr/86Sr(i) between 0.7035 and 0.7044 and 206Pb/204Pb(i) ranging between 18.18 and 18.92. The gabbros have higher 87Sr/86Sr(i) between 0.7044 and 0.7060 and 206Pb/204Pb(i) ranging between 17.98 and 18.43. Three basalt samples display 87Sr/86Sr(i) between 0.7040 and 0.7059. Their 206Pb/204Pb(i) are unrealistically low (15.42 and 15.62), suggesting, most likely, Pb loss which results in over-corrected values for decay through time. Pb-Sr-Nd isotopic compositions for all samples consistently plot between the fields of MORB or the Depleted MORB Mantle reservoirs and enriched mantle reservoirs (EMII rather than EMI). All the samples (except one dolerite dike) have negative ɛNdDM(t = 160 Ma) values, suggesting derivation from a reservoir more enriched than the depleted mantle. The protoliths of metabasites correspond to diverse sources (N-MORB, E-MORB, OIB and IAT) based on whole rock major and trace element composition. An IAT-like protolith for the metabasites indicates that the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan ocean domain was subducting and the tectonic regime was compressional during Late Jurassic and before. The protoliths of these rocks were metamorphosed during the subduction/accretion processes, as observed in the metamorphic rocks located along the Balkan, Northern Turkey and

  15. Characterization of organic air emissions from the Certification and Segregation Building and Air Support Weather Shield II at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the latter part of Fiscal Year (FY-92), a task was initiated to characterize the organic air emissions from the Certification and Segregation (C and S) Building [Waste Management Facility (WMF) 612] and the Air Support Weather Shield II (ASWS II or ASB II) (WMF 711) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The purpose of this task, titled the RWMC Organic Air Emissions Evaluation Task, was to identify and quantify the volatile organic compounds (VOCS) present in the ambient air in these two facilities and to estimate the organic air emissions. The VOCs were identified and quantified by implementing a dual method approach using two dissimilar analytical methodologies, Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) and SUMMA canister sampling, following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analytical method TO-14. The data gathered were used in conjunction with the building's ventilation rate to calculate an estimated organic air emissions rate. This report presents the data gathered during the performance of this task and relates the data to the relevant regulatory requirements

  16. Investigation of novel electrode materials for electrochemically based remediation of high and low-level mixed wastes in the DOE complex. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'This work is focused on the preparation of novel electrode materials for the degradation of toxic wastes in the DOE complex. One of the goals of this work is to characterize whether it is possible to use controlled doping of TiO2 with species such as Nb in order to create new electrode materials that will facilitate the destruction of undesirable organics and inorganics, without light and instead only with an applied potential, in the waste tanks at the DOE sites. In the first part of this project, the authors have therefore spent an extensive amount of effort characterizing, as a baseline, the chemical and electrochemical behavior of TiO2 itself, so that they can make robust comparisons to the behavior of the Nb-doped systems in subsequent work on this project. The preparation of these electrode films is being performed by Marc Anderson at Wisconsin, who is preparing a number of different stoichiometries, grain sizes, etc. for investigation of their electrochemical properties by the Lewis group at Caltech. First they report on the progress of the electrode preparation work, and then they describe progress on the electrochemical work.'

  17. Carbon isotopic evidence for biodegradation of organic contaminants in the shallow vadose zone of the radioactive waste management complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, Mark E.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2003-09-04

    Waste material buried in drums in the shallow subsurface at the Radioactive Waste Management Facility (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) contained significant amounts of organic compounds including lubricating oils and chlorinated solvents. CO{sub 2} concentrations in pore gas samples from monitoring wells in the vicinity of the disposal pits are 3 to 5 times higher than the concentrations in nearby background wells. The stable carbon isotope ratios ({delta}{sup 13}C values) of CO{sub 2} from the disposal pits averaged 2.4. less than CO{sub 2} from the background wells, indicating that the elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations around the pits were derived from source materials with {delta}{sup 13}C values in the range of -24{per_thousand} to -29{per_thousand}. These {delta}{sup 13}C values are typical of lubricating oils, but higher than most solvents. The radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) contents of CO{sub 2} across most of the site were significantly elevated above modern concentrations due to reactor blocks buried in a subsurface vault at the site. However, several samples collected from the high-CO{sub 2} zone on the far side of the RWMC from the reactor blocks had very low {sup 14}C contents (less than 0.13 times modern), confirming production from lubricating oils manufactured from fossil hydrocarbons. The magnitude of the CO{sub 2} anomaly observed at the site is consistent with intrinsic biodegradation rates on the order of 0.5 to 3.0 metric tons of carbon per year.

  18. Hydrostratigraphy of the Snake River Plain aquifer beneath the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geophysical logs for 6 wells which penetrate the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) were analyzed for preliminary information on the hydrostratigraphy. Using stratigraphic correlation of flow groups worked out by Anderson and Lewis (1989), and by Anderson, as well as gamma signatures of flows within these flow groups, correlation of individual flows is attempted. Within these flows, probable permeable zones, suggested by density and caliper logs, are identified, and zones of hydraulic connection are tentatively correlated. In order to understand the response of density and neutron logs in basalt, the geological characteristics are quantified for the 150-ft section of the well C1A core, from depth 550 to 710 ft. 9 refs., 4 figs

  19. Impact of surface water recharge on the design of a groundwater monitoring system for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent hydrogeologic studies have been initiated to characterize the hydrogeologic conditions at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Measured water levels in wells penetrating the Snake River Plain aquifer near the RWMC and the corresponding direction of flow show change over time. This change is related to water table mounding caused by recharge from excess water diverted from the Big Lost River for flood protection during high flows. Water levels in most wells near the RWMC rise on the order of 10 ft (3 m) in response to recharge, with water in one well rising over 60 ft (18 m). Recharge changes the normal south-southwest direction of flow to the east. Design of the proposed groundwater monitoring network for the RWMC must account for the variable directions of groundwater flow. 11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Impact of surface water recharge on the design of a groundwater monitoring system for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    Recent hydrogeologic studies have been initiated to characterize the hydrogeologic conditions at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Measured water levels in wells penetrating the Snake River Plain aquifer near the RWMC and the corresponding direction of flow show change over time. This change is related to water table mounding caused by recharge from excess water diverted from the Big Lost River for flood protection during high flows. Water levels in most wells near the RWMC rise on the order of 10 ft (3 m) in response to recharge, with water in one well rising over 60 ft (18 m). Recharge changes the normal south-southwest direction of flow to the east. Design of the proposed groundwater monitoring network for the RWMC must account for the variable directions of groundwater flow. 11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Plan for studies of subsurface radionuclide migration at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1 of 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes planned studies of subsurface radionuclide migration at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. A plan is provided for each proposed study. The rational for arriving at the list of proposed studies is also presented. This document consists of two volumes. In the first volume, Sections 1 through 5 contain the introduction, the objectives of the proposed studies, and background information. The discussion is not comprehensive in detail; documents are referenced that discuss the background material in greater detail. Sections 6 through 9 identify and select the group of studies to be performed and discuss the peer review process. The second volume contains Appendices A and B, which present the assignment of responsibilities and the detailed plans, schedules, and costs for the proposed program

  2. Plan for studies of subsurface radionuclide migration at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 2 of 2. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes planned studies of subsurface radionuclide migration at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. A plan is provided for each proposed study. The rational for arriving at the list of proposed studies is also presented. This document consists of two volumes. In the first volume, Sections 1 through 5 contain the introduction, the objectives of the proposed studies, and background information. The discussion is not comprehensive in detail; documents are referenced that discuss the background material in greater detail. Sections 6 through 9 identify and select the group of studies to be performed and discuss the peer review process. The second volume contains Appendices A and B, which present the assignment of responsibilities and the detailed plans, schedules, and costs for the proposed program

  3. 3D seismic geomorphology of mass transport complexes in a foredeep basin: Examples from the Pleistocene of the Central Adriatic Basin (Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Valle, Giacomo; Gamberi, Fabiano; Rocchini, Patrizia; Minisini, Daniel; Errera, Alessia; Baglioni, Luca; Trincardi, Fabio

    2013-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) seismic-reflection data has shed light on the character of a series of mass transport complexes (MTCs) emplaced during the Pleistocene in the Pescara Basin (Central Adriatic Sea, Italy). The Pescara Basin is the Plio-Pleistocene inner foredeep of the Central Apennines orogen, which was filled by a rapidly prograding, margin-scale clinoforms system. Three MTCs punctuate the normal turbiditic and hemipelagic sedimentary succession of the Pescara Basin foredeep. MTC_0 is the oldest one and covers an area of around 74 km2. It is composed of three different mass transport deposits (MTDs) resulting from individual collapses that involved a shelf-edge delta during a period of relative sea level rise. MTC_1, the intermediate age MTC, is the largest one, with an area of 90 km2. It has a 10 km wide cookie-bite headwall region that indents the upper slope and, in places, reaches the continental shelf-break. MTC_1 is made up of four laterally and vertically stacked MTDs which are the result of a composite set of failures that migrated progressively upslope in a sedimentary setting dominated by contourite deposits. MTC_2 is the youngest and the smallest one, with an area of 55 km2. It has a 5 km long headwall confined in correspondence with a sedimentary bulge developed in the upper slope. Its geomorphic setting leads us to consider two different episodes of failure rooted at different depths. The investigation of the MTCs, through the coupling of 3D seismic geomorphology, seismic facies analysis and rollover trajectory analysis, reveals that the type of sedimentary environment, the rate of sediment accumulation, the source region and the depth of rooting of the failure, are the major controlling factors on MTC evolution and emplacement. Each MTC of the Pescara Basin foredeep is generally confined within a discrete clinotheme. Finally, the rollover trajectory analysis has shown that, in the PB foredeep, a sediment failure can possibly occur at any

  4. Solid waste handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.)

  5. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast volume summary - Volume 1 and Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid waste forecast volumes to be generated or received;at Westinghouse Hanford Company's Solid Waste program over the life cycle of the site are described in this report. Previous forecast summary reports have covered only a 30-year period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted for this FY 1996 report to ensure consistency with waste volumes reported in the 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans (MYPP). The volume data were collected on a life-cycle basis from onsite and offsite waste generators who currently ship or plan to ship solid waste to the Solid Waste program. The volumes described in detail are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic-mixed (TRU(M)) waste. The volumes reported in this document represent the external volume of the containers selected to ship the waste. Summary level information pertaining to low-level waste (LLW) is described in Appendix B. Hazardous waste volumes are also provided in Appendices E and F but are not described in detail since they will be managed by a commercial facility. Emphasis is placed on LLMW and TRU(M) waste because it will require processing and storage at Hanford Solid Waste's Central Waste Complex (CORK) prior to final disposal. The LLW will generally be sent directly to disposal. The total baselines volume of LLMW and TRU(M) waste forecast to be received by the Solid Waste program (until 2070) is approximately 100,900 cubic meters. This total waste volume is composed of the following waste categories: 077,080 cubic meters of LLMW; 23,180 cubic meters of TRU(M); 640 cubic meters of greater-than-class III LLMW. This total is about 40% of the total volume reported last year (FY 1995)

  6. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. M. Heileson

    2006-12-01

    This Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for operation of the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility Complex (ICDF). This facility includes (a) an engineered landfill that meets the substantial requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle C, Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Act, and Toxic Substances Control Act polychlorinated biphenyl landfill requirements; (b) centralized receiving, inspections, administration, storage/staging, and treatment facilities necessary for CERCLA investigation-derived, remedial, and removal waste at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prior to final disposition in the disposal facility or shipment off-Site; and (c) an evaporation pond that has been designated as a corrective action management unit. The ICDF Complex, including a buffer zone, will cover approximately 40 acres, with a landfill disposal capacity of approximately 510,000 yd3. The ICDF Complex is designed and authorized to accept INL CERCLA-generated wastes, and includes the necessary subsystems and support facilities to provide a complete waste management system. This Remedial Action Work Plan presents the operational approach and requirements for the various components that are part of the ICDF Complex. Summaries of the remedial action work elements are presented herein, with supporting information and documents provided as appendixes to this work plan that contain specific detail about the operation of the ICDF Complex. This document presents the planned operational process based upon an evaluation of the remedial action requirements set forth in the Operable Unit 3-13 Final Record of Decision.

  7. Petrology and mineralogy of the La Peña igneous complex, Mendoza, Argentina: An alkaline occurrence in the Miocene magmatism of the Southern Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Diego Sebastián; Galliski, Miguel Ángel; Márquez-Zavalía, María Florencia; Colombo, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    The La Peña alkaline igneous complex (LPC) is located in the Precordillera (32°41‧34″ S - 68°59‧48″ W) of Mendoza province, Argentina, above the southern boundary of the present-day flat-slab segment. It is a 19 km2 and 5 km diameter subcircular massif emplaced during the Miocene (19 Ma) in the Silurian-Devonian Villavicencio Fm. The LPC is composed of several plutonic and subvolcanic intrusions represented by: a cumulate of clinopyroxenite intruded by mafic dikes and pegmatitic gabbroic dikes, isolated bodies of malignite, a central intrusive syenite that develops a wide magmatic breccia in the contact with clinopyroxenite, syenitic and trachytic porphyries, a system of radial and ring dikes of different compositions (trachyte, syenite, phonolite, alkaline lamprophyre, tephrite), and late mafic breccias. The main minerals that form the LPC, ordered according to their abundance, are: pyroxene (diopside, hedenbergite), calcium amphibole (pargasite, ferro-pargasite, potassic-ferro-pargasite, potassic-hastingsite, magnesio-hastingsite, hastingsite, potassic-ferro-ferri-sadanagaite), trioctahedral micas (annite-phlogopite series), plagioclase (bytownite to oligoclase), K-feldspar (sanidine and orthoclase), nepheline, sodalite, apatite group minerals (fluorapatite, hydroxylapatite), andradite, titanite, magnetite, spinel, ilmenite, and several Cu-Fe sulfides. Late hydrothermal minerals are represented by zeolites (scolecite, thomsonite-Ca), epidote, calcite and chlorite. The trace element patterns, coupled with published data on Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes, suggest that the primary magma of the LPC was generated in an initially depleted but later enriched lithospheric mantle formed mainly by a metasomatized spinel lherzolite, and that this magmatism has a subduction-related signature. The trace elements pattern of these alkaline rocks is similar to other Miocene calc-alkaline occurrences from the magmatic arc of the Southern Central Andes. Mineral and whole

  8. Crustal melting and magma mixing in a continental arc setting: Evidence from the Yaloman intrusive complex in the Gorny Altai terrane, Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Cai, Keda; Zhao, Guochun; Kulikova, Anna V.; Rubanova, Elena S.

    2016-05-01

    Granitoids and their hosted mafic enclaves may retain important information on crust-mantle interaction, and thus are significant for study of crustal growth and differentiation. An integrated petrological, geochronological and geochemical study on the granitoid plutons of the Yaloman intrusive complex from the Gorny Altai terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, was conducted to determine their source nature, petrogenesis and geodynamics. Mafic enclaves are common in the plutons, and a zircon U-Pb age (389 Ma ± 4 Ma) indicates that they are coeval with their granitoid hosts (ca. 393-387 Ma). Petrographic observations reveal that these mafic enclaves probably represent magmatic globules commingled with their host magmas. The relatively low SiO2 contents (46.0-60.7 wt.%) and high Mg# (38.9-56.5) further suggest that mantle-derived mafic melts served as a crucial component in the formation of these mafic enclaves. The granitoid hosts, including quartz diorites and granodiorites, are I-type in origin, possessing higher SiO2 contents (60.2-69.9 wt.%) and lower Mg# (32.0-44.2). Their zircon Hf and whole-rock Nd isotopic compositions indicate that the magmas were dominated by remelting of Neoproterozoic (0.79-1.07 Ga) crustal materials. Meanwhile, the geochemical modeling, together with the common occurrence of igneous mafic enclaves and the observation of reversely zoned plagioclases, suggests that magma mixing possibly contributed significantly to the geochemical variation of the granitoid hosts. Our results imply that mafic magmas from the mantle not only provided substantial heat to melt the lower crust, but also mixed with the crust-derived melts to form the diverse granitoids. The oxidizing and water-enriched properties inferred from the mineral assemblages and compositions imply that the granitoid plutons of the Yaloman intrusive complex were possibly formed in a continental arc-related setting, which is also supported by their geochemistry. The

  9. Intranasal inoculation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus with lyophilized chronic wasting disease prion particulate complexed to montmorillonite clay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy A Nichols

    Full Text Available Chronic wasting disease (CWD, the only known prion disease endemic in wildlife, is a persistent problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations. This disease continues to spread and cases are found in new areas each year. Indirect transmission can occur via the environment and is thought to occur by the oral and/or intranasal route. Oral transmission has been experimentally demonstrated and although intranasal transmission has been postulated, it has not been tested in a natural host until recently. Prions have been shown to adsorb strongly to clay particles and upon oral inoculation the prion/clay combination exhibits increased infectivity in rodent models. Deer and elk undoubtedly and chronically inhale dust particles routinely while living in the landscape while foraging and rutting. We therefore hypothesized that dust represents a viable vehicle for intranasal CWD prion exposure. To test this hypothesis, CWD-positive brain homogenate was mixed with montmorillonite clay (Mte, lyophilized, pulverized and inoculated intranasally into white-tailed deer once a week for 6 weeks. Deer were euthanized at 95, 105, 120 and 175 days post final inoculation and tissues examined for CWD-associated prion proteins by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that CWD can be efficiently transmitted utilizing Mte particles as a prion carrier and intranasal exposure.

  10. Rb-Sr geochronology and petrogenesis of granitoids from the Chhotanagpur granite gneiss complex of Raikera-Kunkuri region, Central India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Precambrian Chhotanagpur granite gneiss complex (CGGC) terrain covers more than 80,000 sq km area, and is dominated by granitoid gneisses and migmatites. Recent geochronological data indicate that the CGGC terrain has witnessed five tectonomagmatic thermal events at: (i) 2.5-2.4 Ga, (ii) 2.2-2.0 Ga (iii)1.6-1.4 Ga (iv) 1.2-1.0 Ga and (v) 0.9-0.8 Ga. Of these, the third and the fourth events are widespread. The whole-rock Rb-Sr isotopic analysis of twenty granite samples from the CGGC of Raikera-Kunkuri region, Jashpur district, Chhattisgarh, Central India yields two distinct isochrons. The eleven samples of grey granites define an isochron age of 1005±51 Ma with moderate initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7047±0.0065, which corresponds to the fourth tectonomagmatic event. On the other hand, the nine samples of pink granites indicate younger isochron age of 815±47 Ma with a higher initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7539±0.0066 that matches with the fifth phase of the thermal event. The data suggest emplacement of large bodies of grey granite at ∼1005 Ma that evolved possibly from precursors of tonalitic-granodioritic composition. Furthermore, the younger age (∼ 815 Ma) suggests the age of metasomatism, involving isotopic resetting, that resulted in genesis of pink granite bodies of limited areal extent. By analogy, the age of metasomatism (∼815 Ma) may also be taken to represent the age of Y-mineralisation in the Raikera-Kunkuri region of the CGGC terrain. (author)

  11. Active faulting Vs other surface displacing complex geomorphic phenomena. Case studies from a tectonically active area, Abruzzi Region, central Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Sardo, Lorenzo; Gori, Stefano; Falcucci, Emanuela; Saroli, Michele; Moro, Marco; Galadini, Fabrizio; Lancia, Michele; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Pezzo, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    could be possible to infer the genesis of the scarps as due to complex tectono-karstic phenomena. As for case (ii), our ongoing analyses are aimed to analyze the tectonic "significance" of some closed depressions, up to 4 km long and to 0,5-1 km large, that occur along the south-western slope of the Gran Sasso Range. All these small depression are NW-SE trending. As already described by Bosi et al. (1989), Galadini and Giuliani (1993), D'Agostino et al. (1998), Falcucci et al. (2015), these closed depressions are bounded by scarps carved onto the carbonate bedrock and, subordinately, onto early Quaternary slope deposits, reaching height of up to 5 m. These scarps are preferentially NE dipping, even if in few cases some SW dipping scarp are also present . The field work has permitted to attest that these scarps are related to shear planes that that displaced two subsequent of Early Pleistocene breccias formations (the Valle Valiano Fm. and Fonte Vedice Fm.; Bosi e Bertini, 1993; D'agostino et al., 1997). A paleoseismological trench was also performed across one of these scarps, attesting the activity of these shear planes also in recent times, providing indications result about the deformation style. Reference Bertini, T., & Bosi, C. (1993). La tettonica quaternaria della conca di Fossa (L'Aquila). Il Quaternario, 6(2), 293-314. Bertini, T., Bosi, C., & Galadini, F. (1989). La conca di Fossa-S. Demetrio dei Vestini. CNR, Centro di Studio per la Geologia Tecnica, ENEA, PAS in Elementi di tettonica pliocenicoquaternaria ed indizi di sismicita olocenica nell'Appennino laziale-abruzzese, Societa Geologica Italiana, L'Aquila, 26-58. Bosi, C., & Bertini, T. (1970). Geologia della media valle dell'Aterno. Memorie Società Geologica Italiana, 9(4), 719-777. D'Agostino, N., F. Speranza, & R. Funiciello., (1997) "Le Brecce Mortadella dell'Appennino Centrale: primi risultati di stratigrafia magnetica." Il Quaternario10.2: 385-388. D'Agostino, N., Chamot-Rooke, N., Funiciello, R

  12. Chitosan-bound pyridinedicarboxylate Ni(II) and Fe(III) complex biopolymer films as waste water decyanidation agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewuyi, Sheriff; Jacob, Julianah Modupe; Olaleye, Oluwatoyin Omolola; Abdulraheem, Taofiq Olanrewaju; Tayo, Jubril Ayopo; Oladoyinbo, Fatai Oladipupo

    2016-10-20

    Chitosan is a biopolymer with immense structural advantage for chemical and mechanical modifications to generate novel properties, functions and applications. This work depicts new pyridinedicarboxylicacid (PDC) crosslinked chitosan-metal ion films as veritable material for cyanide ion removal from aqueous solution. The PDC-crosslinked chitosan-metal films (PDC-Chit-Ni(II) and PDC-Chit-Fe(III)) were formed by complexing PDC-crosslinked chitosan film with anhydrous nickel(II) and iron(III) chloride salts respectively. The PDC-Chit and its metal films were characterized employing various analytical and spectroscopic techniques. The FT-IR, UV-vis and the XRD results confirm the presence of the metal ions in the metal coordinated PDC-crosslinked chitosan film. The surface morphological difference of PDC-Chit-Ni(II) film before and after decyanidation was explored with scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, the quantitative amount of nickel(II) and iron(III) present in the complex were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer as 32.3 and 37.2μg/g respectively which portends the biopolymer film as a good complexing agent. Removal of cyanide from aqueous solution with PDC-Chit, PDC-Chit-Ni(II) and PDC-Chit-Fe(III) films was studied with batch equilibrium experiments. At equilibrium, decyanidation capacity (DC) followed the order PDC-Chit-Ni (II)≈PDC-Chit-Fe(III)>PDC-Chit. PDC-Chit-Ni(II) film gave 100% CN(-) removal within 40min decyanidation owing to favorable coordination geometry. PMID:27474675

  13. TSA waste stream and final waste form composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, J.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    A final vitrified waste form composition, based upon the chemical compositions of the input waste streams, is recommended for the transuranic-contaminated waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The quantities of waste are large with a considerable uncertainty in the distribution of various waste materials. It is therefore impractical to mix the input waste streams into an ``average`` transuranic-contaminated waste. As a result, waste stream input to a melter could vary widely in composition, with the potential of affecting the composition and properties of the final waste form. This work examines the extent of the variation in the input waste streams, as well as the final waste form under conditions of adding different amounts of soil. Five prominent Rocky Flats Plant 740 waste streams are considered, as well as nonspecial metals and the ``average`` transuranic-contaminated waste streams. The metals waste stream is the most extreme variation and results indicate that if an average of approximately 60 wt% of the mixture is soil, the final waste form will be predominantly silica, alumina, alkaline earth oxides, and iron oxide. This composition will have consistent properties in the final waste form, including high leach resistance, irrespective of the variation in waste stream. For other waste streams, much less or no soil could be required to yield a leach resistant waste form but with varying properties.

  14. TSA waste stream and final waste form composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A final vitrified waste form composition, based upon the chemical compositions of the input waste streams, is recommended for the transuranic-contaminated waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The quantities of waste are large with a considerable uncertainty in the distribution of various waste materials. It is therefore impractical to mix the input waste streams into an ''average'' transuranic-contaminated waste. As a result, waste stream input to a melter could vary widely in composition, with the potential of affecting the composition and properties of the final waste form. This work examines the extent of the variation in the input waste streams, as well as the final waste form under conditions of adding different amounts of soil. Five prominent Rocky Flats Plant 740 waste streams are considered, as well as nonspecial metals and the ''average'' transuranic-contaminated waste streams. The metals waste stream is the most extreme variation and results indicate that if an average of approximately 60 wt% of the mixture is soil, the final waste form will be predominantly silica, alumina, alkaline earth oxides, and iron oxide. This composition will have consistent properties in the final waste form, including high leach resistance, irrespective of the variation in waste stream. For other waste streams, much less or no soil could be required to yield a leach resistant waste form but with varying properties

  15. Radioactive waste. House of Commons Environment Committee: minutes of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Committee received a memorandum submitted by the Central Electricity Generating Board on radioactive wastes from [CEGB] nuclear power stations, under the headings: introduction; regulatory aspects; gaseous wastes; liquid wastes; solid wastes; PWR proposals; options for solid waste management; conclusions on CEGB wastes. The Committee examined witnesses on various aspects of the topics covered. (U.K.)

  16. Quality Assurance Program Plan Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. (WMH), that implements the requirements of the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC), HNF-MP-599, Project Hanford Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) document, and the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement with Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), Sections 6.5 and 7.8. WHM is responsible for the treatment, storage, and disposal of liquid and solid wastes generated at the Hanford Site as well as those wastes received from other US Department of Energy (DOE) and non-DOE sites. WMH operations include the Low-Level Burial Grounds, Central Waste Complex (a mixed-waste storage complex), a nonradioactive dangerous waste storage facility, the Transuranic Storage Facility, T Plant, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facility, 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility, the 242-A Evaporator, 300 Area Treatment Effluent Disposal Facility, the 340 Facility (a radioactive liquid waste handling facility), 222-S Laboratory, the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility, and the Hanford TRU Waste Program

  17. Formation and emplacement of two contrasting late-Mesoproterozoic magma types in the central Namaqua Metamorphic Complex (South Africa, Namibia): Evidence from geochemistry and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bial, Julia; Büttner, Steffen H.; Frei, Dirk

    2015-05-01

    The Namaqua Metamorphic Complex is a Mesoproterozoic low-pressure, granulite facies belt along the southern and western margin of the Kaapvaal Craton. The NMC has formed between ~ 1.3 and 1.0 Ga and its central part consists essentially of different types of granitoids intercalated with metapelites and calc-silicate rocks. The granitoids can be subdivided into three major groups: (i) mesocratic granitoids, (ii) leucocratic granitoids and (iii) leucogranites. The high-K, ferroan mesocratic granitoids (54-75 wt% SiO2) have a variable composition ranging from granitic to tonalitic, and contain biotite and/or hornblende or orthopyroxene. They are strongly enriched in REE and LILE, indicating A-type chemical characteristics, and are depleted in Ba, Sr, Eu, Nb, Ta and Ti. The leucocratic granitoids and leucogranites (68-76 wt% SiO2) differ from the other group in having a granitic or slightly syenitic composition containing biotite and/or garnet/sillimanite. They have lower REE and MgO, FeOt, CaO, TiO2, MnO concentrations, but higher Na2O and K2O contents. Compositional variations in mesocratic granitoids indicate their formation by fractional crystallization of a mafic parental magma. Leucocratic granitoids and leucogranites lack such trends, which suggests melting of a felsic crustal source without subsequent further evolution of the generated magmas. The mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the mesocratic granitoids are consistent magmatic differentiation of a mantle derived, hot (> 900 °C) parental magma. The leucocratic granitoids and leucogranites granites were formed from low-temperature magmas (< 730 °C), generated during fluid-present melting from metasedimentary sources. New U-Pb zircon ages reveal that both magma types were emplaced into the lower crust within a 30-40 million years interval between 1220-1180 Ma. In this time period the crust reached its thermal peak, which led to the formation of the leucocratic granitoids and leucogranites. A

  18. Extraction of uranium and lead from mixed waste debris using a variety of metal/ligand complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To ensure the safety of our Nation's nuclear stockpile, Los Alamos National Laboratory is in the process of constructing the DARHT (Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test) facility. DARHT will examine the effects of aging and the stability of our stockpile. Contained testing will be phased in to reduce the impact of these tests, which contain depleted uranium, on our environment. The main focus of this research is to develop a treatment scheme for the recovery of depleted uranium and lead from shot debris that will result from these tests. The goals of this research are to optimize the conditions on a bench scale using a commercially available water soluble polymer to bind the lead and a variety of metal/ligand complexes such as 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzene-disulfonic acid, dithionite, sodium carbonate/bicarbonate, and sodium hypochlorite to bind the uranium. Studies were conducted on a mixture of debris, such as wood, cable, paper towels, and tubing that contained both uranium and lead ranging in concentration from 10-1000's of ppm of contaminants. Experiments were done varying combinations and successions of extractant solutions as well as a number of sequential extractions. Studies show that a mixture of sodium hypochlorite and carbonate removed 90+% of both uranium and lead. We then focused on a separation scheme for the lead and uranium

  19. Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program annual progress report, FY 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Programs (HAZWRAP), a unit of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., supports the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office in broadly environmental areas, especially those relating to waste management and environmental restoration. HAZWRAP comprises six program areas, which are supported by central administrative and technical organizations. Existing programs deal with airborne hazardous substances, pollution prevention, remedial actions planning, environmental restoration, technology development, and information and data systems. HAZWRAP's mission to develop, promote, and apply-cost-effective hazardous waste management and environmental technologies to help solve national problems and concerns. HAZWRAP seeks to serve as integrator for hazardous waste and materials management across the federal government. It applies the unique combination of research and development (R D) capabilities, technologies, management expertise, and facilities in the Energy Systems complex to address problems of national importance. 24 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Recent developments in multi-layer flat knitting technology for waste free production of complex shaped 3D-reinforcing structures for composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trümper, W.; Lin, H.; Callin, T.; Bollengier, Q.; Cherif, C.; Krzywinski, S.

    2016-07-01

    Constantly increasing prices for raw materials and energy as well as the current discourse on the reduction of CO2-emissions places a special emphasis on the advantages of lightweight constructions and its resource conserving production methods. Fibre-reinforced composites are already seeing a number of applications in automobile, energy and mechanical engineering. Future applications within the named areas require greater material and energy efficiency and therefore manufacturing methods for textile preforms and lightweight constructions enabling an optimal arrangement of the reinforcing fibres while in the same time limiting waste to a minimum. One manufacturing method for textile reinforced preforms fulfilling quite many of the named requirements is the multilayer weft knitting technology. Multilayer weft knitted fabrics containing straight reinforcing yarns at least in two directions. The arrangement of these yarns is fixed by the loop yarn. Used yarn material in each knitting row is adaptable e. g. according to the load requirements or for the local integration of sensors. Draping properties of these fabrics can be varied within a great range and through this enabling draping of very complex shaped 3D-preforms without wrinkles from just one uncut fabric. The latest developments at ITM are concentrating on the development of a full production chain considering the 3D-CAD geometry, the load analysis, the generation of machine control programs as well as the development of technology and machines to enable the manufacturing of innovative net shape 3D-multilayer weft knitted fabrics such as complex shaped spacer fabrics and tubular fabrics with biaxial reinforcement.

  1. Radioactive waste management in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Neubauer Josef

    2004-01-01

    At the Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf, there are several facilities in stalled for treatment of waste of low and intermediate radioactivity level (radwaste). A separate company within Centers, Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf, has been formed recently, acting as a centralized facility for treatment, conditioning and storing of such waste within the country. The relevant treatment technology is applied depending on the waste category. In total about 6900 m3 of solid waste of low and inte...

  2. The industrial applicability of purified cellulase complex indigenously produced by Trichoderma viride through solid-state bio-processing of agro-industrial and municipal paper wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irshad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An indigenous strain of Trichoderma viride produced high titers of cellulase complex in solid-state bio-processing of agro-industrial orange peel waste, which was used as the growth-supporting substrate. When the conditions of the SSF medium containing 15 g orange peel (50% w/w moisture inoculated with 5 mL of inoculum were optimal, the maximum productions of endoglucanase (655 ± 5.5 U/mL, exoglucanase (412 ± 4.3 U/mL, and β-glucosidase (515 ± 3.7 U/mL were recorded after 4 days of incubation at pH 5 and 35 °C. The enzyme with maximum activity (endoglucanase was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and Sephadex G-100 column gel filtration chromatographic technique. Endoglucanase was 5.5-fold purified with specific activity of 498 U/mg in comparison to the crude enzyme. The enzyme was shown to have a molecular weight of 58 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulphate poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The shelf life profile revealed that the enzyme could be stored at room temperature (30 °C for up to 45 days without losing much of its activity.

  3. Design/Installation and Structural Integrity Assessment of Bethel Valley Low-Level Waste collection and transfer system upgrade for Building 3092 (central off-gas scrubber facility) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes and assesses planned modifications to be made to the Building 3092 Central Off-Gas Scrubber Facility of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The modifications are made in response to the requirements of 40CFR264 Subpart J, relating to environmental protection requirements for buried tank systems. The modifications include the provision of a new scrubber recirculation tank in a new, below ground, lined concrete vault, replacing an existing recirculation sump that does not provide double containment. A new buried, double contained pipeline is provided to permit discharge of spent scrubber recirculation fluid to the Central Waste Collection Header. The new vault, tank, and discharge line are provided with leak detection and provisions to remove accumulated liquid. Ne scrubber recirculation pumps, piping, and accessories are also provided. This assessment concludes that the planned modifications comply with applicable requirements of 40CFR264 Subpart J, as set forth in Appendix F to the Federal Facility Agreement, Docket No. 89-04-FF, covering the Oak Ridge Reservation. A formal design certification statement is included herein on Page 53, a certification covering the installation shall be executed prior to placing the modified facility into service

  4. Design/installation and structural integrity assessment of Bethel Valley low-level waste collection and transfer system upgrade for Building 3092 (Central Off-Gas Scrubber Facility) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes and assesses planned modifications to be made to the Building 3092 Central Off-Gas Scrubber Facility of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The modifications are made in responsible to the requirements of 40CFR264 Subpart J, relating to environmental protection requirements for buried tank systems. The modifications include the provision of a new scrubber recirculation tank in a new, below ground, lines concrete vault, replacing and existing recirculation sump that does not provide double containment. A new buried, double contained pipeline is provided to permit discharge of spent scrubber recirculation fluid to the Central Waste Collection Header. The new vault, tank, and discharge line are provided with leak detection and provisions to remove accumulated liquid. New scrubber recirculation pumps, piping, and accessories are also provided. This assessment concludes that the planned modifications comply with applicable requirements of 40CFR264 Subpart J, as set forth in Appendix F to the Federal Facility Agreement, Docket No. 89-04-FF, covering the Oak Ridge Reservation

  5. Geochronology, mantle source composition and geodynamic constraints on the origin of Neoarchean mafic dikes in the Zanhuang Complex, Central Orogenic Belt, North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hao; Kusky, Timothy; Polat, Ali; Wang, Junpeng; Wang, Lu; Fu, Jianmin; Wang, Zhensheng; Yuan, Ye

    2014-09-01

    Mafic granulitic and amphibolitic boudins dispersed in Archean felsic gneisses are widely distributed in the Central Orogenic Belt (COB) and the Eastern Block of the North China Craton (NCC) and are considered to constitute deformed mafic dike swarms. Previous studies have demonstrated that the mafic dikes in the Zanhuang Complex of the NCC intruded the fabrics of an Archean mélange belt and were boudinaged during younger deformation. Igneous zircons from an undeformed mafic dike yield a 207Pb/206Pb age of 2535 ± 30 Ma, which is interpreted as the crystallization age. In addition, pegmatites cutting across the mafic dikes in the field also yield an igneous zircon 207Pb/206Pb age of 2504 ± 16 Ma, providing strong evidence that the mafic dikes in the NCC intruded during the Neoarchean. Metamorphic zircons from one deformed mafic dike sample yield a metamorphic 207Pb/206Pb age of 2090 ± 83 Ma, and another four samples from deformed mafic dikes have a consistent metamorphic zircon age of ca. 1850 Ma, indicating that the mafic dikes underwent at least two generations of Paleoproterozoic metamorphism of ca. 2.1 Ga and ca. 1.85 Ga. Previously reported trace element systematics of the mafic dikes are consistent with an arc-related lithospheric mantle source region, rather than an ocean island basalt (OIB)-like source region. The new whole rock Nd isotopic composition (ɛNd(t) = + 0.71 to + 3.70) is relatively more evolved compared to that of the depleted mantle at 2.5 Ga, indicating an enriched lithospheric mantle source. Accordingly, the mafic dikes are proposed to have been formed in a subduction-related environment and their enriched mantle source was metasomatized by the melts and fluids derived from the subducted slab. Based on previous studies of the NCC and new geochronological and isotopic data in this contribution, a new comprehensive tectonic model is proposed for the evolution of the NCC between 2.7 Ga and 1.85 Ga: (1) from 2.7 to 2.5 Ga, an oceanic arc

  6. Temporal relationships between Mg-K mafic magmatism and catastrophic melting of the Variscan crust in the southern part of Velay Complex (Massif Central, France)

    OpenAIRE

    Couzini??, Simon; Moyen, Jean-Fran??ois; Villaros, Arnaud; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Scarrow, Jane H.; Marignac, Christian

    2014-01-01

    International audience Mg-K mafic intrusive rocks are commonly observed during the late stages of the evolution of orogenic belts. The Variscan French Massif Central has many outcrops of these rocks, locally called vaugnerites. Such magmas have a mantle-derived origin and therefore allow discussion of the role of mantle melting and crust-mantle interactions during late-orogenic processes. In the Southern Velay area of the French Massif Central, LA-ICPMS U-Pb dating on zircons and monazites...

  7. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast container summary volume 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past six years, a waste volume forecast has been collected annually from onsite and offsite generators that currently ship or are planning to ship solid waste to the Westinghouse Hanford Company's Central Waste Complex (CWC). This document provides a description of the containers expected to be used for these waste shipments from 1996 through the remaining life cycle of the Hanford Site. In previous years, forecast data have been reported for a 30-year time period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted this year to maintain consistency with FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans. This document is a companion report to the more detailed report on waste volumes: WHC-EP0900, FY 1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Volume Summary. Both of these documents are based on data gathered during the FY 1995 data call and verified as of January, 1996. These documents are intended to be used in conjunction with other solid waste planning documents as references for short and long-term planning of the WHC Solid Waste Disposal Division's treatment, storage, and disposal activities over the next several decades. This document focuses on the types of containers that will be used for packaging low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). The major waste generators for each waste category and container type are also discussed. Containers used for low-level waste (LLW) are described in Appendix A, since LLW requires minimal treatment and storage prior to onsite disposal in the LLW burial grounds. The FY 1996 forecast data indicate that about 100,900 cubic meters of LLMW and TRU(M) waste are expected to be received at the CWC over the remaining life cycle of the site. Based on ranges provided by the waste generators, this baseline volume could fluctuate between a minimum of about 59,720 cubic meters and a maximum of about 152,170 cubic meters

  8. Radioactive wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the French way to deal with nuclear wastes. 4 categories of radioactive wastes have been defined: 1) very low-level wastes (TFA), 2) low or medium-wastes with short or medium half-life (A), 3) low or medium-level wastes with long half-life (B), and 4) high-level wastes with long half-life (C). ANDRA (national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) manages 2 sites of definitive surface storage (La-Manche and Aube centers) for TFA-wastes. The Aube center allows the storage of A-wastes whose half-life is less than 30 years. This site will receive waste packages for 50 years and will require a regular monitoring for 300 years after its decommissioning. No definitive solutions have been taken for B and C wastes, they are temporarily stored at La Hague processing plant. Concerning these wastes the French parliament will have to take a decision by 2006. At this date and within the framework of the Bataille law (1991), scientific studies concerning the definitive or retrievable storage, the processing techniques (like transmutation) will have been achieved and solutions will be proposed. These studies are numerous, long and complex, they involve fresh knowledge in geology, chemistry, physics,.. and they have implied the setting of underground facilities in order to test and validate solutions in situ. This article presents also the transmutation technique. (A.C.)

  9. It Just Keeps Getting Better-Tru Waste Inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) opened on March 26, 1999, becoming the nation's first deep geologic repository for the permanent disposal of defense-generated transuranic (TRU) waste. In May 1998, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified WIPP and re-certified WIPP in March 2006. The knowledge of TRU waste inventory is fundamental to packaging, transportation, disposal strategies, resource allocation, and is also imperative when working in a regulatory framework. TRU waste inventory data are used to define the waste that will fill the WIPP repository in terms of volume, radionuclides, waste material parameters, other chemical components, and to model the impact of the waste on the performance of the WIPP over a 10,000-year evolution. The data that pertain to TRU waste is defined in the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA), as '..waste containing more that 100 nanocuries of alpha-emitting transuranic isotopes per gram of waste, with half-lives greater than 20 years..' Defining TRU waste further, the wastes are classified as either contact-handled (CH) or remote-handled (RH) TRU waste, depending on the dose rate at the surface of the waste container. CH TRU wastes are packaged with an external surface dose rate not greater than 200 milli-rem (mrem) per hour, while RH TRU wastes are packaged with an external surface dose rate of 200 mrem per hour or greater. The Los Alamos National Laboratory-Carlsbad Operations (LANL-CO) Inventory Team has developed a powerful new database, the Comprehensive Inventory Database (CID), to maintain the TRU waste inventory information. The CID is intended to replace the Transuranic Waste Baseline Inventory Database (TWBID), Revision 2.1, as the central inventory information repository for tracking all existing and potential (TRU) waste generated across the Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste complex. It is also the source for information submitted for the Annual TRU Waste Inventory Reports some of which will be used in

  10. The European Waste Hierarchy: from the sociomateriality of waste to a politics of consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Johan Hultman; Hervé Corvellec

    2012-01-01

    Municipal solid waste is a central concern for environmental policy, and the sociomateriality of waste—the ways in which waste is socially defined and dealt with—is an important issue for sustainability. We show how applying the European Union’s waste policy through the European Waste Hierarchy (EWH) affects the sociomateriality of waste. The EWH ranks the desirability of different waste-management approaches according to their environmental impact. We investigate how the EWH has been acknowl...

  11. Determination of Background Uranium Concentration in the Snake River Plain Aquifer under the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molly K. Leecaster; L. Don Koeppen; Gail L. Olson

    2003-06-01

    Uranium occurs naturally in the environment and is also a contaminant that is disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. To determine whether uranium concentrations in the Snake River Plain Aquifer, which underlies the laboratory, are elevated as a result of migration of anthropogenic uranium from the Subsurface Disposal Area in the RWMC, uranium background concentrations are necessary. Guideline values are calculated for total uranium, 234U, 235U, and 238U from analytical results from up to five datasets. Three of the datasets include results of samples analyzed using isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) and two of the datasets include results obtained using alpha spectrometry. All samples included in the statistical testing were collected from aquifer monitoring wells located within 10 miles of the RWMC. Results from ID-TIMS and alpha spectrometry are combined when the data are not statistically different. Guideline values for total uranium were calculated using four of the datasets, while guideline values for 234U were calculated using only the alpha spectrometry results (2 datasets). Data from all five datasets were used to calculate 238U guideline values. No limit is calculated for 235U because the ID-TIMS results are not useful for comparison with routine monitoring data, and the alpha spectrometry results are too close to the detection limit to be deemed accurate or reliable for calculating a 235U guideline value. All guideline values presented represent the upper 95% coverage 95% confidence tolerance limits for background concentration. If a future monitoring result is above this guideline, then the exceedance will be noted in the quarterly monitoring report and assessed with respect to other aquifer information. The guidelines (tolerance limits) for total U, 234U, and 238U are 2.75 pCi/L, 1.92 pCi/L, and 0.90 pCi/L, respectively.

  12. Source Resolution and Risk Apportionment of Air Emission Sources in AN Industrial Complex for Risk Reduction Considerations: AN Air Waste Management Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerjee, Shaibal

    The purpose of this study was to develop an air waste management methodology for apportioning the health risks associated with air emission source categories that are identified in a given airshed. This was implemented by expanding the receptor model technique to assess the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic inhalation risks to an exposed population for certain element pollutants determined to be coming from specific emission sources. The concept was demonstrated using air quality data from a mid-sized industrial complex located in a rural/residential area. It was demonstrated that risks from identified, major elemental emission categories can be quantified and that a total, additive risk be determined for main source categories in the airshed. Potential risk reduction measures were targeted at main risk sources without arbitrarily reducing risk for all sources in the airshed thereby making it a cost-effective approach. Dispersion modeling was utilized from previous emission inventory data so that risk estimates for these sources could be modeled at other receptor points in the airshed. The factor analytic procedure for Source Resolution in the initial receptor modeling approach was used to show whether the ambient data fitted a Maximum-Likelihood Factor Analysis or Principal Component Analysis for identifying underlying emission sources. It was also shown how Maximum -Likelihood Factor Analysis can be a stronger source resolution procedure as opposed to Principal Component Analysis since Factor Analysis is metrically invariant. Finally, the use of the ambient air data for total particulates was used to expand the Source Resolution and Risk Apportionment concepts to augment the Bubble Policy currently used in Air Quality Management.

  13. EM-21 Retrieval Knowledge Center: Waste Retrieval Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EM-21 is the Waste Processing Division of the Office of Engineering and Technology, within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). In August of 2008, EM-21 began an initiative to develop a Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) to provide the DOE, high level waste retrieval operators, and technology developers with centralized and focused location to share knowledge and expertise that will be used to address retrieval challenges across the DOE complex. The RKC is also designed to facilitate information sharing across the DOE Waste Site Complex through workshops, and a searchable database of waste retrieval technology information. The database may be used to research effective technology approaches for specific retrieval tasks and to take advantage of the lessons learned from previous operations. It is also expected to be effective for remaining current with state-of-the-art of retrieval technologies and ongoing development within the DOE Complex. To encourage collaboration of DOE sites with waste retrieval issues, the RKC team is co-led by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Two RKC workshops were held in the Fall of 2008. The purpose of these workshops was to define top level waste retrieval functional areas, exchange lessons learned, and develop a path forward to support a strategic business plan focused on technology needs for retrieval. The primary participants involved in these workshops included retrieval personnel and laboratory staff that are associated with Hanford and Savannah River Sites since the majority of remaining DOE waste tanks are located at these sites. This report summarizes and documents the results of the initial RKC workshops. Technology challenges identified from these workshops and presented here are expected to be a key component to defining future RKC-directed tasks designed to facilitate tank waste retrieval solutions

  14. EM-21 Retrieval Knowledge Center: Waste Retrieval Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellinger, Andrew P.; Rinker, Michael W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Minichan, Richard L.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Martin, Bruce A.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Saldivar, Eloy; Mullen, O Dennis; Chapman, Noel F.; Wells, Beric E.; Gibbons, Peter W.

    2009-04-10

    EM-21 is the Waste Processing Division of the Office of Engineering and Technology, within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). In August of 2008, EM-21 began an initiative to develop a Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) to provide the DOE, high level waste retrieval operators, and technology developers with centralized and focused location to share knowledge and expertise that will be used to address retrieval challenges across the DOE complex. The RKC is also designed to facilitate information sharing across the DOE Waste Site Complex through workshops, and a searchable database of waste retrieval technology information. The database may be used to research effective technology approaches for specific retrieval tasks and to take advantage of the lessons learned from previous operations. It is also expected to be effective for remaining current with state-of-the-art of retrieval technologies and ongoing development within the DOE Complex. To encourage collaboration of DOE sites with waste retrieval issues, the RKC team is co-led by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Two RKC workshops were held in the Fall of 2008. The purpose of these workshops was to define top level waste retrieval functional areas, exchange lessons learned, and develop a path forward to support a strategic business plan focused on technology needs for retrieval. The primary participants involved in these workshops included retrieval personnel and laboratory staff that are associated with Hanford and Savannah River Sites since the majority of remaining DOE waste tanks are located at these sites. This report summarizes and documents the results of the initial RKC workshops. Technology challenges identified from these workshops and presented here are expected to be a key component to defining future RKC-directed tasks designed to facilitate tank waste retrieval solutions.

  15. Characterization of weapons-legacy Pu-contaminated waste for disposal at WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Department of Energy (DOE) weapons program legacy transuranic (TRU) waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is scheduled for shipment and disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility beginning in 1999. The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) located within the INEEL contains facilities and equipment to manage low-level, mixed, and TRU solid radioactive waste generated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and other DOE laboratories and operations. The mission of the RWMC with respect to the nuclear weapons legacy waste is the safe temporary storage and characterization of mixed and TRU waste. Much of this waste will be retrieved, nondestructively examined, and shipped to a centralized DOE disposal facility, such as the WIPP facility in New Mexico. The authors provide an overview of the TRU waste nondestructive assay and examination characterization activities at the INEEL. The TRU waste characterization and certification is a critical path for the start of shipment of TRU waste out of the state of Idaho in accordance with the DOE and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement

  16. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast characteristics summary. Volumes 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past six years, a waste volume forecast has been collected annually from onsite and offsite generators that currently ship or are planning to ship solid waste to the Westinghouse Hanford Company's Central Waste Complex (CWC). This document provides a description of the physical waste forms, hazardous waste constituents, and radionuclides of the waste expected to be shipped to the CWC from 1996 through the remaining life cycle of the Hanford Site (assumed to extend to 2070). In previous years, forecast data has been reported for a 30-year time period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted this year to maintain consistency with FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans. This document is a companion report to two previous reports: the more detailed report on waste volumes, WHC-EP-0900, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Volume Summary and the report on expected containers, WHC-EP-0903, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Container Summary. All three documents are based on data gathered during the FY 1995 data call and verified as of January, 1996. These documents are intended to be used in conjunction with other solid waste planning documents as references for short and long-term planning of the WHC Solid Waste Disposal Division's treatment, storage, and disposal activities over the next several decades. This document focuses on two main characteristics: the physical waste forms and hazardous waste constituents of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). The major generators for each waste category and waste characteristic are also discussed. The characteristics of low-level waste (LLW) are described in Appendix A. In addition, information on radionuclides present in the waste is provided in Appendix B. The FY 1996 forecast data indicate that about 100,900 cubic meters of LLMW and TRU(M) waste is expected to be received at the CWC over the remaining life cycle of the site. Based on

  17. On the complexity of earthquake sequences: a historical seismology perspective based on the L'Aquila seismicity (Abruzzo, Central Italy), 1315-1915

    OpenAIRE

    Guidoboni, E.; EEDIS; Valensise, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia

    2015-01-01

    Most damaging earthquakes come as complex sequences characterized by strong aftershocks, sometimes by foreshocks and often by multiple mainshocks. Complex earthquake sequences have enormous seismic hazard, engineering and societal implications as their impact on buildings and infrastructures may be much more severe at the end of the sequence than just after the mainshock. In this paper we examine whether historical sources can help characterizing the rare earthquake sequences of pre-instrumen...

  18. Life+ Trout Project (LIFE12 NAT/IT/0000940) for the recovery and conservation of Mediterranean trout (Salmo trutta complex) in the central Apennines (Italy).

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Caputo Barucchi; Antonella Carosi

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean brown trout (Salmo trutta complex) is one of the freshwater fish species complex at greater risk of extinction in the Mediterranean area. The introduction of alien invasive species and their interaction with the native fauna represent some of the major threats to the survival of this species (Caputo et al., 2004). Currently, the genetic integrity of the Mediterranean trout is being compromised by the introgressive hybridization with the Atlantic trout. This hybridization, wh...

  19. Duration of formation of magmatic system of polyphase paleozoic alkaline complexes of the Central Kola: U-Pb, Rb-Sr, Ar-Ar data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attempt was made for the determination of duration of all abyssal system formation in the central part of the Kola peninsula. System of isotope methods inclosing Rb-Sr-isochronic dating, 40Ar/39Ar-age analysis of rocks as well as U-Th-Pb-dating is applied. Formation of the Khibiny-Lovozero-Kurga volcano-plutonic system is proposed to have a multiphase character. Summary scheme of the order of events is performed

  20.  α-Cyclodextrin dimer complexes of dopamine and levodopa derivatives to assess drug delivery to the central nervous system: ADME and molecular docking studies

    OpenAIRE

    Shityakov S; Broscheit J; Förster C

    2012-01-01

    Sergey Shityakov, Jens Broscheit, Carola FörsterDepartment of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, GermanyAbstract: This paper attempts to predict and emphasize molecular interactions of dopamine, levodopa, and their derivatives (Dopimid compounds) containing 2-phenyl-imidazopyridine moiety with the α-cyclodextrin dimer in order to assess and improve drug delivery to the central nervous system. The molecular docking method is...

  1. α-Cyclodextrin dimer complexes of dopamine and levodopa derivatives to assess drug delivery to the central nervous system: ADME and molecular docking studies

    OpenAIRE

    Shityakov, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    Sergey Shityakov, Jens Broscheit, Carola FörsterDepartment of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, GermanyAbstract: This paper attempts to predict and emphasize molecular interactions of dopamine, levodopa, and their derivatives (Dopimid compounds) containing 2-phenyl-imidazopyridine moiety with the α-cyclodextrin dimer in order to assess and improve drug delivery to the central nervous system. The molecular docking method is...

  2. Petrogenesis of the Çiçekdağ Igneous Complex, N of Kırşehir, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    YILMAZ, Sabah; BOZTUĞ, DURMUŞ

    1998-01-01

    Central Anatolia typically represents well-preserved geological features of a collision zone. This collision zone is characterized by some geological events occurred in the Anatolide passive margin of the Anatolide-Pontide collision along the Ankara Erzincan suture zone. This suture zone is commonly known to be formed by the pre-Maastrichtian northward subduction of the northern branch of Neo-Tethys beneath the Pontides which was constituting the southernmost tip of Eurasiain plate at that...

  3. Rb-Sr geochronology from Barro Alto Complex, Goias: metamorphism evidence of high degree and continental collision around 1300 Ma ago in Central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rb-Sr geochronologic investigation carried out on rocks from the Barro Alto Complex, Goias, yielded iso chronic ages of 1266 +- 17 Ma, for felsic rocks from the granulite belt and 1330 +- 67 Ma, for gneisses belonging to the Juscelandia Sequence. Rb-Sr isotope measurements suggest that Barro Alto rocks have undergone an important metamorphic event during middle Proterozoic times, around 1300 Ma ago. During that event, volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Juscelandia Sequence, as well as the underlying gabbros-anorthosite layered complex, underwent deformation and recrystallization under amphibolite facies conditions. Deformation and metamorphism took place during the collision of two continental blocks, which resulted in a southeastward directed thrust complex, allowing the exposure of granulite slices from the middle-lower crust of the overthrusted block. (author)

  4. Wastes options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a description of the EEC environmental policy, some wastes families are described: bio-contaminant wastes (municipal and industrial), hospitals wastes, toxic wastes in dispersed quantities, nuclear wastes (radioactive and thermal), plastics compounds wastes, volatiles organic compounds, hydrocarbons and used solvents. Sources, quantities and treatments are given. (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs

  5. Sill-like bodies of high-pressure ultramafic cumulates in tectonic blocks of the Pekul'ney complex (central Chukotka): their composition and inner structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazylev, B. A.; Ledneva, G. V.; Ishiwatari, A.; Kononkova, N. N.

    2012-04-01

    During the last decade petrology of high-pressure ultramafic-mafic cumulates originated in the lower crust of the relatively thick lithosphere in both subduction and extensional settings became a matter of keen interest owing to development of lower crust underplating and delamination hypothesis as well as proposals of high-pressure fractionation influence on composition of evolved magmas and volcanic rocks. Peculiar rocks of the deepest complexes are garnet ultramafic and mafic rocks that occur in the Pekul'ney complex. The latter includes several tectonic blocks that we found to be constituted by sill-like layered bodies and embedded them metamorphic rocks. These country metamorphic rocks are represented by lower crustal amphibolites and crystalline schists whose pike conditions of metamorphism correspond to high-pressure epidote-amphibolite facies field (610-680oC, 9-14 kbars). All varieties of ultramafic rocks of the Pekul'ney complex belong to a single cumulative suite. Various types of ultramafic rocks regularly and repeatedly intercalate; and their primary minerals display regular correlations consistent with trends of fractional crystallization. Peculiar features of the Pekul'ney complex ultramafic rocks are early hornblende crystallization (hornblende occur in peridotites and olivine pyroxenites), garnet crystallization in a wide interval of conditions (garnet presents in pyribolites along with clinopyroxene, ceylonite and hornblende), crystallization of igneous clinozoisite in the most differentiated assemblages (along with garnet, hornblende and clinopyroxene), and lack of plagioclase crystallization indicators. Most differentiated ultramafic rocks contain clinopyroxenes with Al2O3 contents up to 15 wt. %. A thickness of ultramafic sill-like bodies studied varies from 350 to 1100 meters in different blocks of the complex. An inner structure of bodies is determined by regular intercalation of regular cycles (dunites - peridotites and olivine

  6. Waste segregation procedures and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segregation is a critical first step in handling hazardous and radioactive materials to minimize the generation of regulated wastes. In addition, segregation can significantly reduce the complexity and the total cost of managing waste. Procedures at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque require that wastes be segregated, first, by waste type (acids, solvents, low level radioactive, mixed, classified, etc.). Higher level segregation requirements, currently under development, are aimed at enhancing the possibilities for recovery, recycle and reapplication; reducing waste volumes; reducing waste disposal costs, and facilitating packaging storage, shipping and disposal. 2 tabs

  7. Waste behavior during horizontal extrusion: Effect of waste strength for bentonite and kaolin/ludox simulants and strength estimates for wastes from Hanford waste tanks 241-SY-103, AW-101, AN-103, and S-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site has 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. Some of these wastes are known to generate mixtures of flammable gases, including hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. Nineteen of these SSTs and six of the DSTs have been placed on the Flammable Gas Watch List because they are known or suspected, in all but one case, to retain these flammable gases. Because these gases are flammable, their retention and episodic release pose a number of safety concerns. Understanding the physical mechanisms and waste properties that contribute to the retention and release of these gases will help to resolve the Flammable Gas Safety Issue. The strength of the waste plays a central role in the mechanisms of both bubble retention and bubble release. While recent in-situ measurements from the ball rheometer have provided results for five of the DSTs, waste strength measurements are typically not available for any of the SSTs or for the DSTs that have not been characterized with the ball rheometer. The overall purpose of this study is to develop a method to obtain strength estimates for actual wastes from observations of the wastes'' behavior during extrusion from core samplers. The first objective of the study was to quantify waste behavior during horizontal extrusion by documenting the extrusion behavior of simulants with known strengths; the second was to estimate the strength of actual waste based on these simulant standards. Results showed a reproducible extrusion behavior for bentonite clay and kaolin/Ludox reg-sign simulants over strengths ranging from 30 to 6,500 Pa. The extrusion behavior was documented with both video recordings and still images. Based on these visual standards, strength estimates were made for wastes from DSTs 241-SY-103, 241-AW-101, and 241-AN-103 and SST 241-S-102

  8. The Hungarian radioactive waste management project and its regulatory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1993, a National Radioactive Waste Management Project was launched to handle, treat and dispose of LLW/ILW from the nuclear power plant. Within the framework of the project a complex strategy has been elaborated for the management of all types of radioactive wastes from the NPP, including HLW, spent fuel and waste from the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. The first phase of the project will be realized between 1993-1996 and by the end of this period the possible site (or sites) - accepted by the public - will be selected for the LLW/ILW wastes. To this data the funding problem of radioactive waste management has to be solved, a legal framework should be available and regulatory requirements are to be clarified. In 1980 a law on nuclear energy was promulgated in Hungary based on former governmental level decrees regulating the application of nuclear energy. It reflects the system of a centrally planned economy, where all the facilities were state owned. The law on nuclear energy prescribes the solution of safe storage of radioactive waste as a prerequisite for licensing but no steps were taken to provide special funding for radioactive waste management. Now there is a new law on nuclear energy in preparation, and one of its most important chapters is dealing with radioactive waste management, the responsibilities for it and its funding. In the framework of the National Radioactive Waste Management Project a programme was initiated to elaborate the technical basis for the detail legal regulations. The first step of the programme is the definition of exemption levels and waste acceptance criteria. An analysis will be prepared to compare the Hungarian regulations with the internationally accepted requirements to define those areas where further regulations should be issued or where the existing ones should be amended. (author)

  9. An Orange Ripening Mutant Links Plastid NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase Complex Activity to Central and Specialized Metabolism during Tomato Fruit Maturation[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashilevitz, Shai; Melamed-Bessudo, Cathy; Izkovich, Yinon; Rogachev, Ilana; Osorio, Sonia; Itkin, Maxim; Adato, Avital; Pankratov, Ilya; Hirschberg, Joseph; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Wolf, Shmuel; Usadel, Björn; Levy, Avraham A.; Rumeau, Dominique; Aharoni, Asaph

    2010-01-01

    In higher plants, the plastidial NADH dehydrogenase (Ndh) complex supports nonphotochemical electron fluxes from stromal electron donors to plastoquinones. Ndh functions in chloroplasts are not clearly established; however, its activity was linked to the prevention of the overreduction of stroma, especially under stress conditions. Here, we show by the characterization of OrrDs, a dominant transposon-tagged tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant deficient in the NDH-M subunit, that this complex is also essential for the fruit ripening process. Alteration to the NDH complex in fruit changed the climacteric, ripening-associated metabolites and transcripts as well as fruit shelf life. Metabolic processes in chromoplasts of ripening tomato fruit were affected in OrrDs, as mutant fruit were yellow-orange and accumulated substantially less total carotenoids, mainly β-carotene and lutein. The changes in carotenoids were largely influenced by environmental conditions and accompanied by modifications in levels of other fruit antioxidants, namely, flavonoids and tocopherols. In contrast with the pigmentation phenotype in mature mutant fruit, OrrDs leaves and green fruits did not display a visible phenotype but exhibited reduced Ndh complex quantity and activity. This study therefore paves the way for further studies on the role of electron transport and redox reactions in the regulation of fruit ripening and its associated metabolism. PMID:20571113

  10. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1980-06-01

    Reported are: high-level waste immobilization, alternative waste forms, nuclear waste materials characterization, TRU waste immobilization, TRU waste decontamination, krypton solidification, thermal outgassing, iodine-129 fixation, unsaturated zone transport, well-logging instrumentation development, mobile organic complexes of fission products, waste management system and safety studies, assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems, waste/rock interactions, engineered barriers, criteria for defining waste isolation, and spent fuel and pool component integrity. (DLC)

  11. CLAB Transuranic Waste Spreadsheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyba, J.D.

    2000-08-11

    The Building 772-F Far-Field Transuranic (TRU) Waste Counting System is used to measure the radionuclide content of waste packages produced at the Central Laboratory Facilities (CLAB). Data from the instrument are entered into one of two Excel spreadsheets. The waste stream associated with the waste package determines which spreadsheet is actually used. The spreadsheets calculate the necessary information required for completion of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Form (OSR 29-90) and the Radioactive Solid Waste Burial Ground Record (OSR 7-375 or OSR 7-375A). In addition, the spreadsheets calculate the associated Low Level Waste (LLW) stream information that potentially could be useful if the waste container is ever downgraded from TRU to LLW. The spreadsheets also have the capability to sum activities from source material added to a waste container after assay. A validation data set for each spreadsheet along with the appropriate results are also presented in this report for spreadsheet verification prior to each use.

  12. U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd geochronology of the Anapolis-Itaucu complex, Araxa group and associated granites: Neoproterozoic high grade metamorphism and magmatism in the Central part of the Brasilia Belt, Goias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tocantins Province (Almeida et al. 1981) in central Brazil is a Neoproterozoic orogenic zone developed between the Amazon and Sao Francisco cratons and possibly a third continental block, known as Parapanema Block, hidden below the sedimentary rocks of the Parana Basin. The Tocantins Province comprises the eastward vergent Brasilia Belt, adjacent to the Sao Francisco Craton (Marini et al. 1984), and the westward vergent Paraguay and Araguaia belts, developed on the eastern margin of the Amazon Craton. According to Trompette (1997), the Brasilia and Araguaia belts had sedimentation starting at around 1.1-1.0 Ga and final closure at 0.6 Ga. In the northern part of the Brasilia Belt occur the Barro Alto, Canabrava and Niquelandia maficultramafic layered complexes. Inconclusive U-Pb isotopic data indicate ages between ca. 1600 and 2000 Ma for these intrusions that were affected by highgrade metamorphism ca. 740-790 Ma ago, during the Neoproterozoic (Ferreira Filho et al. 1994; Suita et al. 1994; Correia et al. 1997). In the southern part of the Brasilia Belt, in central Goias , is the Anapolis-Itaucu granulite complex. It consists of a large complex of high-grade rocks, volcano-sedimentary sequences and granites, exposed in between metasediments of the Araxa Group, the main constituent of the internal zone of the Neoproterozoic Brasilia Belt (Fuck et al. 1994). These granulites have traditionally been interpreted as the exposure of Archean sialic basement to the sediments of the Brasilia Belt (Danni et al. 1982, Marini et al. 1984; Lacerda Filho and Oliveira 1995). This work reports the results of a regional Sm- Nd isotopic investigation and U-Pb SHRIMP data in order to assess (i) the nature of the protoliths of the Araxa Group in this area; (ii) the nature and the high grade metamorphism of rocks from Anapolis-Itaucu Complex; (iii) the crystallization and metamorphism of aluminous granites (au)

  13. Mixed waste regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency are developing a dual regulatory program governing mixed low-level radioactive and hazardous waste. Due to the absence of a facility authorized to accept such waste for disposal, mixed waste generators are forced to store such waste on-site and thereby subject themselves to complex technical standards and permitting requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The paper discusses the results to date of the nuclear utility industry's technical analyses on the mixed waste issue, describes the industry's proposals for a legislative resolution of the issue, and provides general guidance for development of a facility-specific regulatory strategy by individual mixed waste generators

  14. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Interim Measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-12-08

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed interim measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MW) groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE proposes to install a small metal sheet pile dam to impound water around and over the BGC groundwater seepline. In addition, a drip irrigation system would be installed. Interim measures will also address the reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) from ''hot-spot'' regions associated with the Southwest Plume Area (SWPA). This action is taken as an interim measure for the MWMF in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to reduce the amount of tritium seeping from the BGC southwest groundwater plume. The proposed action of this EA is being planned and would be implemented concurrent with a groundwater corrective action program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). On September 30, 1999, SCDHEC issued a modification to the SRS RCRA Part B permit that adds corrective action requirements for four plumes that are currently emanating from the BGC. One of those plumes is the southwest plume. The RCRA permit requires SRS to submit a corrective action plan (CAP) for the southwest plume by March 2000. The permit requires that the initial phase of the CAP prescribe a remedy that achieves a 70-percent reduction in the annual amount of tritium being released from the southwest plume area to Fourmile Branch, a nearby stream. Approval and actual implementation of the corrective measure in that CAP may take several years. As an interim measure, the actions described in this EA would manage the release of tritium from the southwest plume area until the final actions under the CAP can be implemented. This proposed action is expected to reduce the

  15. Modeling Np and Pu transport with a surface complexation model and spatially variant sorption capacities: Implications for reactive transport modeling and performance assessments of nuclear waste disposal sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P.D.

    2003-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) geochemical transport modeling is used to demonstrate the effects of speciation and sorption reactions on the ground-water transport of Np and Pu, two redox-sensitive elements. Earlier 1D simulations (Reardon, 1981) considered the kinetically limited dissolution of calcite and its effect on ion-exchange reactions (involving 90Sr, Ca, Na, Mg and K), and documented the spatial variation of a 90Sr partition coefficient under both transient and steady-state chemical conditions. In contrast, the simulations presented here assume local equilibrium for all reactions, and consider sorption on constant potential, rather than constant charge, surfaces. Reardon's (1981) seminal findings on the spatial and temporal variability of partitioning (of 90Sr) are reexamined and found partially caused by his assumption of a kinetically limited reaction. In the present work, sorption is assumed the predominant retardation process controlling Pu and Np transport, and is simulated using a diffuse-double-layer-surface-complexation (DDLSC) model. Transport simulations consider the infiltration of Np- and Pu-contaminated waters into an initially uncontaminated environment, followed by the cleanup of the resultant contamination with uncontaminated water. Simulations are conducted using different spatial distributions of sorption capacities (with the same total potential sorption capacity, but with different variances and spatial correlation structures). Results obtained differ markedly from those that would be obtained in transport simulations using constant Kd, Langmuir or Freundlich sorption models. When possible, simulation results (breakthrough curves) are fitted to a constant K d advection-dispersion transport model and compared. Functional differences often are great enough that they prevent a meaningful fit of the simulation results with a constant K d (or even a Langmuir or Freundlich) model, even in the case of Np, a weakly sorbed radionuclide under the

  16. Regional Sm-Nd isotopic study of the central part of the Brasilia belt, Goias: implications of the age and origin of the Anapolis-Itaucu granulitic complex and metasedimentary rocks of the Araxa Group, central region, Brazil; Estudo isotopico Sm-Nd regional da porcao central da faixa Brasilia, Goias: implicacoes para idade e origem dos granulitos do Complexo Anapolis-Itaucu e rochas metassedimentares do Grupo Araxa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Fischel, Danielle Piuzanna [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: marciomp@tba.com.br

    1999-06-01

    In the central part of the Brasilia Belt, central Brazil, a high grade terrain, the Anapolis-Itaucu Complex, is exposed within the metasedimentary rocks of the Araxa Group. The Anapolis-Itaucu Complex in Goias represents a complex association of high-grade rocks including mafic-ultramafic bodies, charnockites, enderbites, as well as aluminous granulites of sedimentary origin, associated with marbles and quartzites, Narrow volcano-sedimentary belts formed mainly by amphibolites and micashists are also recognized within the complex. This high-grade terrain has been traditionally interpreted as part of the old (Archaean/Paleoproterozoic) sialic basement to the Neo- or mesoproterozoic sediments of the Araxa Group, Brasilia Belt. The granulites and metasediments of the Araxa Group are intruded by a large number of granite intrusions, many of which slow peraluminous character. Sm-Nd isotopic analyses for the garnet-and sillimanite-bearing aluminous granulites indicate T{sub DM} model ages between ca. 1.3 and 1.6 Ga. These values represent the upper limit for the age of the protoliths of the granulites, demonstrating that they are (at least in part) younger than suggested in previous models. The intrusive granites have a Sm-Nd isotopic pattern which is not much different from that observed for the felsic granulites, with T{sub DM} model ages ranging in the interval between ca. 1.37 and 1.85 Ga. The isotopic compositions of the granitic and granulitic rocks investigated are also similar to those determined for metasediments of the internal zone of the Brasilia Belt (Araxa Group) in central-southern Goias. These metasediments show Nd model ages between ca. 1.2 and 2.2 Ga. The preliminary isotopic data presented are consistent with a model in which the voluminous granitic magmatism identified in the Anapolis-Itaucu Complex and adjacent areas is Neoproterozoic in age, being the result of re-melting of the older sialic crust. The peraluminous nature of many of these granites

  17. Results of Water and Sediment Toxicity Tests and Chemical Analyses Conducted at the Central Shops Burning Rubble Pit Waste Unit, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1999-06-02

    The Central Shops Burning Rubble Pit Operable Unit consists of two inactive rubble pits (631-1G and 631-3G) that have been capped, and one active burning rubble pit (631-2G), where wooden pallets and other non-hazardous debris are periodically burned. The inactive rubble pits may have received hazardous materials, such as asbestos, batteries, and paint cans, as well as non-hazardous materials, such as ash, paper, and glass. In an effort to determine if long term surface water flows of potentially contaminated water from the 631-1G, 631-3G, and 631-2G areas have resulted in an accumulation of chemical constituents at toxic levels in the vicinity of the settling basin and wetlands area, chemical analyses for significant ecological preliminary constituents of concern (pCOCs) were performed on aqueous and sediment samples. In addition, aquatic and sediment toxicity tests were performed in accordance with U.S. EPA methods (U.S. EPA 1989, 1994). Based on the results of the chemical analyses, unfiltered water samples collected from a wetland and settling basins located adjacent to the CSBRP Operable Unit exceed Toxicity Reference Values (TRVs) for aluminum, barium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, and vanadium at one or more of the four locations that were sampled. The water contained very high concentrations of clay particles that were present as suspended solids. A substantial portion of the metals were present as filterable particulates, bound to the clay particles, and were therefore not biologically available. Based on dissolved metal concentrations, the wetland and settling basin exceeded TRVs for aluminum and barium. However, the background reference location also exceeded the TRV for barium, which suggests that this value may be too low, based on local geochemistry. The detection limits for both total and dissolved mercury were higher than the TRV, so it was not possible to determine if the TRV for mercury was exceeded. Dissolved metal levels of chromium, copper

  18. Fernald waste management and disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically waste management within the Department of Energy complex has evolved around the operating principle of packaging waste generated and storing until a later date. In many cases wastes were delivered to onsite waste management organizations with little or no traceability to origin of generation. Sites then stored their waste for later disposition offsite or onsite burial. While the wastes were stored, sites incurred additional labor costs for maintaining, inspecting and repackaging containers and capital costs for storage warehouses. Increased costs, combined with the inherent safety hazards associated with storage of hazardous material make these practices less attractive. This paper will describe the methods used at the Department of Energy's Fernald site by the Waste Programs Management Division to integrate with other site divisions to plan in situ waste characterization prior to removal. This information was utilized to evaluate and select disposal options and then to package and ship removed wastes without storage

  19. Solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized

  20. The Mitochondrial Receptor Complex: A Central Role of MOM22 in Mediating Preprotein Transfer from Receptors to the General Insertion Pore

    OpenAIRE

    Kiebler, Michael; Keil, Petra; Schneider, Helmut; van der Klei, Ida J.; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Neupert, Walter

    1993-01-01

    The receptor complex in the mitochondrial outer membrane, which consists of at least seven different proteins, is responsible for the recognition and translocation of cytosolically synthesized preproteins. Two of its subunits, MOM19 and MOM72, function as surface receptors for preproteins. Four other subunits (MOM38, MOM30, MOM8, and MOM7) have been suggested to constitute the general insertion pore (GIP). Here we report on the structure and function of MOM22. MOM22 is anchored in the outer m...