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  1. Vulnerability in north- central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Nguyen, Thao Phuong

    2015-01-01

    This article examines changes in livelihood strategies in response to flooding. It does so on the basis of a household survey which was undertaken in three provinces in north central Vietnam. All households in the survey were regularly affected by flooding, but only poor households experience...

  2. Ichthyofauna of the reservoirs of Central Vietnam

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    I. A. Stolbunov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, distribution and abundance of fish in the pelagic and littoral zone of four reservoirs of Central Vietnam (Suoi Chau, Kam Lam, Da Ban and Suoi Dau were studied first. According to the research data the fish community of the reservoirs is represented by 43 species of 19 fish families.

  3. Decentralized forest governance in central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Nam, T.; Burgers, P.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in decentralized forest governance in Vietnam is developing a mechanism that would support both reforestation and poverty reduction among people in rural communities. To help address this challenge, Forest Land Allocation (FLA) policies recognize local communities and individuals a

  4. Fatty acid supply of growing pigs in Central Vietnam

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    Nguyen, Linh Quang

    2002-01-01

    This thesis concerns the influence of essential dietary fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and growth performance of growing pigs kept on samll holdings in Central Vietnam. Essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the body and have to be ingested with the feed. There a

  5. Cost of treatment for breast cancer in central Vietnam

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    Nguyen Hoang Lan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, cases of breast cancer have been on the rise in Vietnam. To date, there has been no study on the financial burden of the disease. This study estimates the direct medical cost of a 5-year treatment course for women with primary breast cancer in central Vietnam. Methods: Retrospective patient-level data from medical records at the Hue Central Hospital between 2001 and 2006 were analyzed. Cost analysis was conducted from the health care payers’ perspective. Various direct medical cost categories were computed for a 5-year treatment course for patients with breast cancer. Costs, in US dollars, discounted at a 3% rate, were converted to 2010 after adjusting for inflation. For each cost category, the mean, standard deviation, median, and cost range were estimated. Median regression was used to investigate the relationship between costs and the stage, age at diagnosis, and the health insurance coverage of the patients. Results: The total direct medical cost for a 5-year treatment course for breast cancer in central Vietnam was estimated at $975 per patient (range: $11.7–$3,955. The initial treatment cost, particularly the cost of chemotherapy, was found to account for the greatest proportion of total costs (64.9%. Among the patient characteristics studied, stage at diagnosis was significantly associated with total treatment costs. Patients at later stages of breast cancer did not differ significantly in their total costs from those at earlier stages however, but their survival time was much shorter. The absence of health insurance was the main factor limiting service uptake. Conclusion: From the health care payers’ perspective, the Government subsidization of public hospital charges lowered the direct medical costs of a 5-year treatment course for primary breast cancer in central Vietnam. However, the long treatment course was significantly influenced by out-of-pocket payments for patients without health insurance.

  6. 78 FR 17745 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Vietnam Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Vietnam, and I hereby waive this restriction....

  7. Competing for Coffee Space: Development-Induced Displacement in the Central Highlands of Vietnam

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    Doutriaux, Sylvie; Geisler, Charles; Shively, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam has emerged as the world's second largest producer of coffee. The benefits of this expanding coffee economy are substantial but not universal; their distribution follows ethnic lines despite government commitment to equalize welfare. Focusing on Dak Lak Province in Vietnam's Central Highlands, we investigate this commercial transformation…

  8. Thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam.

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    Nguyen, Hoa Van; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Nguyen, Dung; Phan, Hoa Thi Thuy; Siridamrongvattana, Sirivara; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Fucharoen, Supan; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Schelp, Frank P

    2013-01-01

    A community-based assessment of thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies was conducted at the Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. By cluster sampling, a total of 410 pregnant women attending the antenatal care service at 30 commune health centers were recruited consecutively from September 2011 to June 2012. Hemoglobin (Hb) analysis was performed using an automated Hb analyzer. α-Thalassemia (α-thal) genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. Out of the 410 pregnant women, 2.7% carried α(0)-thal and 1.2% were β-thal carriers. One woman with the - -(THAI) deletion was also found. Among the females under survey, structural Hb variants with 3.2% Hb E [β26(B8)Glu→Lys, GAG>AAG; HBB: c.78G>C] and 3.7% Hb Constant Spring [Hb CS; α142, Term→Gln, TAA>CAA (α2); HBA2: c.427T>C] were found. Assessing the frequency of thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies by ethnicity, Kinh (Vietnamese) and ethnic minority groups, Hb CS with a high frequency of 24.0% was observed in the ethnic minority groups. These results provide basic population-based information, are useful not only for implementing measures for prevention and control of thalassemias in the region but also for studying the importance of thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies in ethnic minorities within Southeast Asia.

  9. Vectors and malaria transmission in deforested, rural communities in north-central Vietnam

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    Do Manh Cuong

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is still prevalent in rural communities of central Vietnam even though, due to deforestation, the primary vector Anopheles dirus is uncommon. In these situations little is known about the secondary vectors which are responsible for maintaining transmission. Basic information on the identification of the species in these rural communities is required so that transmission parameters, such as ecology, behaviour and vectorial status can be assigned to the appropriate species. Methods In two rural villages - Khe Ngang and Hang Chuon - in Truong Xuan Commune, Quang Binh Province, north central Vietnam, a series of longitudinal entomological surveys were conducted during the wet and dry seasons from 2003 - 2007. In these surveys anopheline mosquitoes were collected in human landing catches, paired human and animal bait collections, and from larval surveys. Specimens belonging to species complexes were identified by PCR and sequence analysis, incrimination of vectors was by detection of circumsporozoite protein using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Over 80% of the anopheline fauna was made up of Anopheles sinensis, Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles harrisoni, Anopheles maculatus, Anopheles sawadwongporni, and Anopheles philippinensis. PCR and sequence analysis resolved identification issues in the Funestus Group, Maculatus Group, Hyrcanus Group and Dirus Complex. Most species were zoophilic and while all species could be collected biting humans significantly higher densities were attracted to cattle and buffalo. Anopheles dirus was the most anthropophilic species but was uncommon making up only 1.24% of all anophelines collected. Anopheles sinensis, An. aconitus, An. harrisoni, An. maculatus, An. sawadwongporni, Anopheles peditaeniatus and An. philippinensis were all found positive for circumsporozoite protein. Heterogeneity in oviposition site preference between species enabled vector densities to be high in both

  10. Mantle Xenoliths from Central and South Vietnam: Petrology and Geochemistry

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    Hauzenberger, Christoph; Konzett, Juergen; Nguyen, Hoang; Nguyen, Khoi

    2014-05-01

    Mantle xenoliths, spinel lherzolites and subordinate amounts of spinel harzburgites and pyroxenites, are commonly found in alkali basalts from south-central Vietnam. The basalts are part of widespread Neogene volcanism found in southern China and Indochina regions. Samples from different localities between the cities of Ban Me Thuot and Saigon were recovered. In addition one xenolith sample from an off-shore volcano SE of Ho Chi Minh City in the South China Sea was investigated. The mineral assemblage in most samples consists of the simple lherzolitic mineral assemblage Ol-Opx-Cpx-Sp. The Ol, Cpx and Opx crystals are equigranular while Sp occurs usually as smaller sized intersertal phase or as partly oriented inclusions in Cpx. Cpx II occurs in some samples as recrystallized "spongy rim" around Cpx I. Cpx I has a a very uniform composition between different samples with a typical XMg (=Mg/(Mg+Fe2+) of 0.92 to 0.98, a XNa (=Na/(Na+Ca) of 0.10 to 0.16, a Cr2O3 content of 0.6-0.9 wt. .% and Al2O3 values of c. 6 to 8 wt.%. Cpx II has a lower XNa and Al content as well as higher XMg and Cr content compared to Cpx I. Orthopyroxene typically has a XMg of c. 0.90 to 0.93. The XMg values for Ol differ slightly between different samples but are within 0.84 to 0.94. Spinel grains have a variable composition with XMg from 0.65 to 0.92 and XCr (Cr/Cr+Al+Fe3+) of 0.08 to 0.25. The use of the Cpx-Opx thermometer (BREY & KOEHLER, 1990) and the Al and Cr in Ol thermometer (DE HOOG et al., 2010) allowed to constrain the temperature with 800 to 1100 °C. Trace and rare earth element composition of Cpx was determined by LA-ICPMS. While most Cpx compositions are slightly depleted in LREE, typical for average depleted mantle compositions, some samples are strongly enriched in LREE indicating mantle metasomatic processes. The sample displaying the highest level of LREE enrichment in Cpx has the lowest calculated temperature (T = c. 800°C) and the highest Ni content in olivine (3000 ppm

  11. Genetically variant populations of Paragonimus proliferus Hsia & Chen, 1964 from central Vietnam.

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    Doanh, P N; Hien, H V; Nonaka, N; Horii, Y; Nawa, Y

    2013-06-01

    Among about 50 nominal Paragonimus species, Paragonimus proliferus is rather a rare species, found only in Yunnan province, China, until our recent discovery of this species in Lai Chau province, northern Vietnam close to Yunnan, China. Here we add Quang Binh province, central Vietnam as a new endemic area of P. proliferus. Large excysted metacercariae found in mountainous crabs, Potamiscus tannanti, were morphologically identified as P. proliferus, which was confirmed further by molecular analyses. Second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) sequences of the P. proliferus population in Quang Binh province were completely (100%) identical with those of P. proliferus populations in Lai Chau province, northern Vietnam and Yunnan province, China. However, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene sequences of Quang Binh population were significantly different (5.6%) from that of previously reported northern Vietnam and Yunnan, China populations. A phylogenetic tree revealed that all CO1 sequences of P. proliferus Quang Binh population formed a distinct group, which was clustered with northern Vietnam and Yunnan, China populations with the bootstrap value of 75%. This is the first record of the genetically variant population of P. proliferus, distribution of which is geographically remote from the previously reported endemic areas in the border between northern Vietnam and Yunnan, China, suggesting that P. proliferus may be much more widely distributed in the Indochina peninsula (or South-East Asia) than expected.

  12. Geological evolution, regional perspectives and hydrocarbon potential of the northwest Phu Khanh Basin, offshore Central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Michael Bryld Wessel; Nielsen, Lars H.; Boldreel, Lars Ole;

    2009-01-01

    and subsidence rates increased after the Middle Miocene times due to eastward tilting of Central Vietnam and the adjacent offshore area. Potential direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHIs) in the Phu Khanh Basin include common amplitude anomalies, gas chimney-like features and seafloor gas seeps. In addition, oil...

  13. Popowia bachmaensis (Annonaceae), a new species from Bach Ma National Park, Central Vietnam.

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    Ngoc, Nguyen Van; Tagane, Shuichiro; Binh, Hoang Thi; Toyama, Hironori; Okabe, Norikazu; Duy, Chinh Nguyen; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Popowia bachmaensis Ngoc, Tagane & Yahara, sp. nov. is described from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. This species is morphologically similar to Popowia pisocarpa (Blume) Endl. ex Walp., but can be readily distinguished from it by its lower stems, smaller leaves, shorter flowering pedicels, shorter carpels, longer sepals and inner petals. A detailed description, comprising illustrations, and supplemented with DNA barcodes of the two regions of rbcL and matK, are provided.

  14. Central Vietnam climate over the past five centuries from cypress tree rings

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    Buckley, Brendan M.; Stahle, Daniel K.; Luu, Hong Truong; Wang, S.-Y. Simon; Nguyen, Tran Quoc Trung; Thomas, Philip; Le, Canh Nam; Ton, That Minh; Bui, The Hoang; Nguyen, Van Thiet

    2016-08-01

    We present the first crossdated tree ring record from central Vietnam, derived from the growth rings of the rare cypress Fokienia hodginsii from the mountains of Quang Nam Province near the Laos border. The Quang Nam Fokienia hodginsii time series (QNFH), based on the crossdated sequences of 71 increment core samples from 37 mature trees, is the third published dendrochronological record from this species. The record extends 667 years from AD 1347 to 2013 and exhibits a mean series intercorrelation of 0.526, similarly significant with the first two published Fokienia hodginsii records: 0.474 for Mu Cang Chai (MCFH) and 0.578 for Bidoup-Nui Ba National Park (BDFH) in the north and south of Vietnam, respectively. The Expressed Population Signal (EPS) for the QNFH record exceeds the generally accepted threshold of 0.85 back to AD 1567, but remains above 0.8 back to 1550. Similar to the MCFH and BDFH records, QNFH expresses statistically significant linkages to regional hydroclimate metrics and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Here we present a reconstruction of the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index for the month of April, averaged over a large region of Southeast Asia. As with prior studies we demonstrate that cool phase (La Niña) and warm phase (El Niño) events are linked to regional wet and dry conditions, respectively, with linkages to modulation of the surface water temperature over the adjacent sea to the east of Vietnam as well as the Indian Ocean. A late eighteenth century megadrought that is expressed widely across South and Southeast Asia, and notably from the MCFH and BDFH records described above, is not as pronounced in Central Vietnam and we explore the reasons why.

  15. Carbonate platform growth and demise offshore Central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Michael B.W.; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Nielsen, Lars H.;

    2013-01-01

    Fault Zone, the Tuy Hoa Carbonate Platform fringes the continental margin between Da Nang and Nha Trang. Here, platform growth initiated during the Early Miocene and continued until Middle Miocene time when regional uplift led to subaerial exposure, termination of platform growth and karstification...... is interpreted as a consequence of regional uplift and denudation of central and south Indochina starting during Middle Miocene time when the Tuy Hoa Carbonate Platform became subaerially exposed. Stressed carbonate growth conditions on the Triton Carbonate Platform probably resulted from increased inorganic...

  16. The evolutionary dynamics of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in south-central Vietnam reveals multiple clades evolving from Chinese and Cambodian viruses.

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    Nguyen, Tinh Huu; Than, Van Thai; Thanh, Hien Dang; Nguyen, Van Quang; Nguyen, Kim Hue; Nguyen, Duc Tan; Park, Jong-Hwa; Chung, In Sik; Jeong, Dae Gwin; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Oh, Tae Kwang; Kim, Wonyong

    2015-10-01

    In Vietnam, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), such as that caused by H5N1 viruses, is the most highly contagious infectious disease that has been affecting domestic poultry in recent years. Vietnam might be an evolutionary hotspot and a potential source of globally pandemic strains. However, few studies have reported viruses circulating in the south-central region of Vietnam. In the present study, 47 H5N1-positive samples were collected from both vaccinated and unvaccinated poultry farms in the South Central Coast region of Vietnam during 2013-2014, and their genetic diversity was analyzed. A common sequence motif for HPAI virus was identified at HA-cleavage sites in all samples: either RERRRKR/G (clades 2.3.2.1c and 2.3.2.1a) or REGRRKKR/G (clade 1.1.2). Phylogenetic analysis of HA genes identified three clades of HPAI H5N1: 1.1.2 (n=1), 2.3.2.1a (n=1), and 2.3.2.1c (n=45). The phylogenetic analysis indicated that these Vietnamese clades may have evolved from Chinese and Cambodian virus clades isolated in 2012-2013 but are less closely related to the clades detected from the Tyva Republic, Bulgaria, Mongolia, Japan, and Korea in 2009-2011. Detection of the coexistence of virus clades 2.3.2.1 and the very virulent 1.1.2 in the south-central regions suggests their local importance and highlights concerns regarding their spread, both northwards and southwards, as well as the potential for reassortment. The obtained data highlight the importance of regular identification of viral evolution and the development and use of region-specific vaccines.

  17. Callicarpa bachmaensis Soejima & Tagane (Lamiaceae), a new species from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam.

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    Soejima, Akiko; Tagane, Shuichiro; Van, Ngoc Nguyen; Duy, Chinh Nguyen; Huong, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Callicarpa bachmaensis Soejima & Tagane, sp. nov., is described and illustrated from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. This species has a characteristic liana habit, white corolla, and narrowly elliptic to narrowly lanceolate, entire, occasionally subequal leaves, by which it is clearly distinguished from the other previously known species of this genus.

  18. Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini-Like Fluke Infection in Ducks in Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam.

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    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Tran, Ha Thi Lam; Gabriël, Sarah; Smit, Suzanne; Le, Phap Ngoc; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Following the first report of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in a domestic duck in Phu My District of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam, many other cases were observed in the province. We determined the infection rate and intensity of O. viverrini infection in ducks in 4 districts of the province. A total of 178 ducks were randomly selected from 34 farms for examination of flukes in the liver and gall bladder. An infection rate of 34.3% (range 20.7-40.4% among districts) was found; the intensity of infection was 13.8 worms per infected duck (range 1-100). These findings show the role of ducks as a host for O. viverrini, duck genotype, which is sympatric with the human O. viverrini genotype in this province. It also stresses the need for investigations on the zoonotic potential and the life cycle of this parasite.

  19. A striking new species of phytotelm-breeding tree frog (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from central Vietnam.

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    Rowley, Jodi J L; Le, Duong Thi Thuy; Dau, Vinh Quang; Hoang, Huy Duc; Cao, Trung Tien

    2014-04-02

    We describe a distinctive new species of phytotelm-breeding rhacophorid frog from central Vietnam. Gracixalus lumarius sp. nov. is distinguished from all other rhacophorids in Indochina by a combination of (1) medium body size (adult males 38.9-41.6 mm; adult female 36.3 mm), (2) dorsum brown diurnally and yellow nocturnally, (3) venter pink, (4) tympanum and supratympanic fold indistinct (5) iris dark gold with a dense, relatively uniformly distributed network of black reticulations, (6) dorsum with distinctive white conical tubercles in males, and (7) eggs deposited on wall of a phyptotelm. The new species is known from montane bamboo and montane evergreen forest in Ngoc Linh Nature Reserve in Kon Tum Province, between ~1845-2160 m elevation.

  20. Village-based primary health care in the Central Highlands of Vietnam.

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    Barrett, B; Ladinsky, J; Volk, N

    2001-02-01

    This paper describes the first year of an ongoing village health care and economic development project in the Krong Buk district of Dak Lak province in Vietnam's Central Highlands. The project serves 21 villages with a total population of just over 15,000. Most belong to ethnic minority groups. Physicians from the province capital of Boun Me Thuot were trained by a multi-disciplinary team of American health care workers to be trainers and supervisors of 21 village health care workers (VHWs). Two months later, a VHW from each village was trained in primary and preventive health care by the physician-supervisors. Since this initial training, each VHW has been provided with materials, medicines and monthly supervision by the physician-supervisors. The health care component has been complemented by an economic development project based on a system of small loans. Data from the first year of monthly reports and from a baseline survey are presented in this paper.

  1. Opisthorchis viverrini infection in the snail and fish intermediate hosts in Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Ha Thanh Thi; Dermauw, Veronique; Gabriël, Sarah; Suwannatrai, Apiporn; Tesana, Smarn; Nguyen, Giang Thanh Thi; Dorny, Pierre

    2017-02-24

    Opisthorchis viverrini, a carcinogenic fish borne fluke, requires freshwater snails and fish as intermediate hosts. Opisthorchiasis is endemic in parts of Southeast Asia, including Central and South Vietnam. In this region the transmission by intermediate hosts has received little attention. Therefore, freshwater snails and wild fish from Bau My Tho, an opisthorchiasis endemic area in Binh Dinh Province were collected for examination of O. viverrini cercariae and metacercariae, respectively. A total of 12,000 snails belonging to six families, of which 1616 Bithynia snails representing Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos and Bithynia funiculata; as well as 754 fish representing 12 species were examined. Shedding of O. viverrini cercariae was observed only in B. s. goniomphalos and B. funiculata, at infection rates of 0.86% and 0.14%, respectively. O. viverrini infection in Bithynia spp. was significantly associated with the habitat but not with the species and the shell size of Bithynia spp. O. viverrini metacercariae were found in 10 fish species representing both Cyprinidae and non-Cyprinidae families. The prevalence of O. viverrini infection in fish was significantly associated with species. Carassius auratus, a fish species commonly eaten raw, Rasbora aurotaenia and Puntius brevis had the highest prevalence of 74.0%, 55.8% and 31.6%, respectively. Sharing of the same snail and fish intermediate host species was found for O. viverrini and a O. viverrini duck-genotype that are sympatric in the study region. This study is the first to report on the intermediate host species of O. viverrini in Central Vietnam and indicates a high risk of acquiring opistorchiasis when eating raw fish dishes.

  2. Epidemiology of forest malaria in central Vietnam: a large scale cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Annette; Ngo, Duc Thang; Phan, Van Ky; Ta, Thi Tinh; Van Overmeir, Chantal; Speybroeck, Niko; Obsomer, Valerie; Le, Xuan Hung; Le, Khanh Thuan; Coosemans, Marc; D'alessandro, Umberto

    2005-01-01

    In Vietnam, a large proportion of all malaria cases and deaths occurs in the central mountainous and forested part of the country. Indeed, forest malaria, despite intensive control activities, is still a major problem which raises several questions about its dynamics.A large-scale malaria morbidity survey to measure malaria endemicity and identify important risk factors was carried out in 43 villages situated in a forested area of Ninh Thuan province, south central Vietnam. Four thousand three hundred and six randomly selected individuals, aged 10-60 years, participated in the survey. Rag Lays (86%), traditionally living in the forest and practising "slash and burn" cultivation represented the most common ethnic group. The overall parasite rate was 13.3% (range [0-42.3] while Plasmodium falciparum seroprevalence was 25.5% (range [2.1-75.6]). Mapping of these two variables showed a patchy distribution, suggesting that risk factors other than remoteness and forest proximity modulated the human-vector interactions. This was confirmed by the results of the multivariate-adjusted analysis, showing that forest work was a significant risk factor for malaria infection, further increased by staying in the forest overnight (OR= 2.86; 95%CI [1.62; 5.07]). Rag Lays had a higher risk of malaria infection, which inversely related to education level and socio-economic status. Women were less at risk than men (OR = 0.71; 95%CI [0.59; 0.86]), a possible consequence of different behaviour. This study confirms that malaria endemicity is still relatively high in this area and that the dynamics of transmission is constantly modulated by the behaviour of both humans and vectors. A well-targeted intervention reducing the "vector/forest worker" interaction, based on long-lasting insecticidal material, could be appropriate in this environment.

  3. Epidemiology of forest malaria in central Vietnam: a large scale cross-sectional survey

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    Hung Le

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Vietnam, a large proportion of all malaria cases and deaths occurs in the central mountainous and forested part of the country. Indeed, forest malaria, despite intensive control activities, is still a major problem which raises several questions about its dynamics. A large-scale malaria morbidity survey to measure malaria endemicity and identify important risk factors was carried out in 43 villages situated in a forested area of Ninh Thuan province, south central Vietnam. Four thousand three hundred and six randomly selected individuals, aged 10–60 years, participated in the survey. Rag Lays (86%, traditionally living in the forest and practising "slash and burn" cultivation represented the most common ethnic group. The overall parasite rate was 13.3% (range [0–42.3] while Plasmodium falciparum seroprevalence was 25.5% (range [2.1–75.6]. Mapping of these two variables showed a patchy distribution, suggesting that risk factors other than remoteness and forest proximity modulated the human-vector interactions. This was confirmed by the results of the multivariate-adjusted analysis, showing that forest work was a significant risk factor for malaria infection, further increased by staying in the forest overnight (OR= 2.86; 95%CI [1.62; 5.07]. Rag Lays had a higher risk of malaria infection, which inversely related to education level and socio-economic status. Women were less at risk than men (OR = 0.71; 95%CI [0.59; 0.86], a possible consequence of different behaviour. This study confirms that malaria endemicity is still relatively high in this area and that the dynamics of transmission is constantly modulated by the behaviour of both humans and vectors. A well-targeted intervention reducing the "vector/forest worker" interaction, based on long-lasting insecticidal material, could be appropriate in this environment.

  4. Aflatoxins, Fumonisins and Zearalenone Contamination of Maize in the Southeastern and Central Highlands Provinces of Vietnam

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    Nguyen Hieu Phuong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the contamination of maize with aflatoxins, fumonisins and zearalenone was carried out in the Southeastern and Central Highland provinces in Vietnam. Four provinces were chosen for sampling maize: Dong Nai (22, Binh Phuoc (25, Dak Lak (30 and Dak Nong (20. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, B2 (AFB2, G1 (AFG1, G2 (AFG2, fumonisin B1 (FB1, fumonisin B2 (FB2 and zearalenone (ZEA were analysed by HPLC in 97 maize kernel samples. Fumonisins were the most common toxins found in all samples (67%, followed by aflatoxins (55.7% and zearalenone (27.8%. The incidence of aflatoxin positive samples (61.7% in the Southeastern provinces was higher than in the Central Highlands (50%, while fumonisins and zearalenone incidences were higher in the Central Highlands. The mean level of fumonisin B1 in samples from the Central Highlands provinces (1757 µg/kg was significantly greater (p < 0.05 than in the Southeastern provinces (740 µg/kg. Importantly, the percentage of positive samples (about 70% that had over 20 µg/kg (ppb aflatoxin was very high. Moreover, many samples (53% contained more than one mycotoxin and this result highlights the difficulty of diagnosing mycotoxicoses in the field and the need for ongoing research to reduce the occurrence of mycotoxins in Vietnamese maize.

  5. Adult survivorship of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti varies seasonally in central Vietnam.

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    Leon E Hugo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The survival characteristics of the mosquito Aedes aegypti affect transmission rates of dengue because transmission requires infected mosquitoes to survive long enough for the virus to infect the salivary glands. Mosquito survival is assumed to be high in tropical, dengue endemic, countries like Vietnam. However, the survival rates of wild populations of mosquitoes are seldom measured due the difficulty of predicting mosquito age. Hon Mieu Island in central Vietnam is the site of a pilot release of Ae. aegypti infected with a strain of Wolbachia pipientis bacteria (wMelPop that induces virus interference and mosquito life-shortening. We used the most accurate mosquito age grading approach, transcriptional profiling, to establish the survival patterns of the mosquito population from the population age structure. Furthermore, estimations were validated on mosquitoes released into a large semi-field environment consisting of an enclosed house, garden and yard to incorporate natural environmental variability. Mosquito survival was highest during the dry/cool (January-April and dry/hot (May-August seasons, when 92 and 64% of Hon Mieu mosquitoes had survived to an age that they were able to transmit dengue (12 d, respectively. This was reduced to 29% during the wet/cool season from September to December. The presence of Ae. aegypti older than 12 d during each season is likely to facilitate the observed continuity of dengue transmission in the region. We provide season specific Ae. aegypti survival models for improved dengue epidemiology and evaluation of mosquito control strategies that aim to reduce mosquito survival to break the dengue transmission cycle.

  6. Adult survivorship of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti varies seasonally in central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Leon E; Jeffery, Jason A L; Trewin, Brendan J; Wockner, Leesa F; Nguyen, Thi Yen; Nguyen, Hoang Le; Nghia, Le Trung; Hine, Emma; Ryan, Peter A; Kay, Brian H

    2014-02-01

    The survival characteristics of the mosquito Aedes aegypti affect transmission rates of dengue because transmission requires infected mosquitoes to survive long enough for the virus to infect the salivary glands. Mosquito survival is assumed to be high in tropical, dengue endemic, countries like Vietnam. However, the survival rates of wild populations of mosquitoes are seldom measured due the difficulty of predicting mosquito age. Hon Mieu Island in central Vietnam is the site of a pilot release of Ae. aegypti infected with a strain of Wolbachia pipientis bacteria (wMelPop) that induces virus interference and mosquito life-shortening. We used the most accurate mosquito age grading approach, transcriptional profiling, to establish the survival patterns of the mosquito population from the population age structure. Furthermore, estimations were validated on mosquitoes released into a large semi-field environment consisting of an enclosed house, garden and yard to incorporate natural environmental variability. Mosquito survival was highest during the dry/cool (January-April) and dry/hot (May-August) seasons, when 92 and 64% of Hon Mieu mosquitoes had survived to an age that they were able to transmit dengue (12 d), respectively. This was reduced to 29% during the wet/cool season from September to December. The presence of Ae. aegypti older than 12 d during each season is likely to facilitate the observed continuity of dengue transmission in the region. We provide season specific Ae. aegypti survival models for improved dengue epidemiology and evaluation of mosquito control strategies that aim to reduce mosquito survival to break the dengue transmission cycle.

  7. Morphodynamics of seasonally closed coastal inlets at the central coast of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, T.T.

    2011-01-01

    Situated in a monsoon-prone humid tropical region, Vietnam is affected by both oceanic and continental climates causing disasters to the country like riverine flooding and storm induced damage. The coastal districts of Vietnam have a population of about 18 million habitants, account for nearly one f

  8. The phytogeographic note on the orchids flora of Vietnam: a case study from the Hon Ba Nature Reserve, Central Vietnam

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    Vuong Ba Truong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The survey of the Orchid flora at Hon Ba Nature Reserve, where was a part of the famous Annamite Range in Vietnam, had been achieved from March to December 2014. A total of 106 species in 4 life forms were accounted i.e. epiphyte (67 species, terrestrial (20 species, lithophyte (13 species and mycoheterotrophic (6 species. Among those, there were two newly recorded species to the Annamite Range i.e. Lecanorchis nigricans Honda and Bulbophyllum dasystachys J.J.Verm., P. Thavipoke & J. Phelps. The most diverse genera were Dendrobium, Bulbophyllum, Liparis and Paphiopedilum respectively. The result area revealed that the Annamite Range performed as a “cross road” of 4 floristic regions in Asia, i.e. the Himalayan Range, the Indo-China Mainland and Myanmar, the Sino-Japanese and the Malesian Region.

  9. Description of two new species of the genus Devadatta from northern Vietnam and central Laos (Odonata: Devadattidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Quoc Toan; Sasamoto, Akihiko; Hayashi, Fumio

    2015-04-01

    Two new species of the genus Devadatta Kirby, 1890, D. kompieri sp. nov. from northern Vietnam (holotype: male, Mu Cang Chai district, Yen Bai Province) and D. yokoii sp. nov. from central Laos (holotype: male, Vang Vieng, Vientiane Province) are described. These new species are allied to D. ducatrix Lieftinck, 1969, but are distinguished by specific characteristics of their wings and anal appendages. The other Indochinese species are also briefly discussed.

  10. Opisthorchis viverrini infections and associated risk factors in a lowland area of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Bui, Tuan Van; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Gabriël, Sarah; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Huynh, Quang Hong; Nguyen, Chuong Van; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a major public health problem in the Mekong Basin in South East Asia. It is associated with cholangiocarcinoma, a fatal cancer of the bile duct, which is very common in some areas of Thailand and Lao PDR. Although there is evidence of opisthorchiasis in the central and Southern provinces of Vietnam, data are scarce and Vietnam is often not considered an opisthorchiasis endemic area in the international literature. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in June 2015 in a lowland rural area of Binh Dinh Province in Central Vietnam to investigate the apparent prevalence of O. viverrini infection in the population and the associated risk factors. A total of 254 stool samples were collected and examined by the Kato Katz method. Consenting people shedding Opisthorchis-like eggs with their stools were treated with praziquantel and MgSO4 and adult worms were collected from stools for morphological and molecular identifications. Risk factors were studied with a structured questionnaire and the association with infection was evaluated by univariate and multivariate Firth's logistic regression analysis. The apparent prevalence in the investigated population determined by stool examination was 11.4% (CI: 8-16%). Infection with O. viverrini was confirmed in all 11 individuals consenting to receive praziquantel treatment and subsequent worm recovery from stools. The mean number of worms recovered after treatment/purgation was 14.5 (range 2-44). Male gender and the consumption of dishes prepared from raw small wild-caught freshwater fish (Carassius auratus) were found to be significant risk factors associated with opisthorchiasis in the area. These findings confirm the presence of O. viverrini infection in Central Vietnam related to the consumption of raw fish dishes. Awareness campaigns and control programs should be implemented in the region to combat this potentially fatal fluke infection.

  11. Modeling the Projected Changes of River Flow in Central Vietnam under Different Climate Change Scenarios

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    Tuan B. Le

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC indicate that Vietnam is one of the countries most affected by climate change. The variability of climate in this region, characterized by large fluctuations in precipitation and temperature, has caused significant changes in surface water resources. This study aims to project the impact of climate change on the seasonal availability of surface water of the Huong River in Central Vietnam in the twenty-first century through hydrologic simulations driven by climate model projections. To calibrate and validate the hydrologic model, the model was forced by the rain gage-based gridded Asian Precipitation–Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of water resources (APHRODITE V1003R1 Monsoon Asia precipitation data along with observed temperature, humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation data from local weather stations. The simulated discharge was compared to observations for the period from 1951 until present. Three Global Climate Models (GCMs ECHAM5-OM, HadCM3 and GFDL-CM2.1 integrated into Long Ashton Research Station-Weather Generator (LARS-WG stochastic weather generator were run for three IPCC–Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (IPCC-SRES emissions scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 to simulate future climate conditions. The hydrologic model simulated the Huong River discharge for each IPCC-SRES scenario. Simulation results under the three GCMs generally indicate an increase in summer and fall river discharge during the twenty-first century in A2 and B1 scenarios. For A1B scenario, HadCM3 and GFDL-CM2.1 models project a decrease in river discharge from present to the 2051–2080 period and then increase until the 2071–2100 period while ECHAM5-OM model produces opposite projection that discharge will increase until the 2051–2080 period and then decrease for the rest of the century. Water management

  12. Elimination of dengue by community programs using Mesocyclops(Copepoda) against Aedes aegypti in central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Sinh Nam; Nguyen, Thi Yen; Tran, Vu Phong; Truong, Uyen Ninh; Le, Quyen Mai; Le, Viet Lo; Le, Trung Nghia; Bektas, Ahmet; Briscombe, Alistair; Aaskov, John G; Ryan, Peter A; Kay, Brian H

    2005-01-01

    From September 2000 to June 2003, a community-based program for dengue control using local predacious copepods of the genus Mesocyclops was conducted in three rural communes in the central Vietnam provinces of Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, and Khanh Hoa. Post-project, three subsequent entomologic surveys were conducted until March 2004. The number of households and residents in the communes were 5,913 and 27,167, respectively, and dengue notification rates for these communes from 1996 were as high as 2,418.5 per 100,000 persons. Following knowledge, attitude, and practice evaluations, surveys of water storage containers indicated that Mesocyclops spp. already occurred in 3-17% and that large tanks up to 2,000 liters, 130-300-liter jars, wells, and some 220-liter metal drums were the most productive habitats for Aedes aegypti. With technical support, the programs were driven by communal management committees, health collaborators, schoolteachers, and pupils. From quantitative estimates of the standing crop of third and fourth instars from 100 households, Ae. aegypti were reduced by approximately 90% by year 1, 92.3-98.6% by year 2, and Ae. aegypti immature forms had been eliminated from two of three communes by June 2003. Similarly, from resting adult collections from 100 households, densities were reduced to 0-1 per commune. By March 2004, two communes with no larvae had small numbers but the third was negative; one adult was collected in each of two communes while one became negative. Absolute estimates of third and fourth instars at the three intervention communes and one left untreated had significant correlations (P = 0.009-dengue disease in the treated communes was reduced by 76.7% compared with non-intervention communes within the same districts, and no dengue was evident in 2002 and 2003, compared with 112.8 and 14.4 cases per 100,000 at district level. Since we had similar success in northern Vietnam from 1998 to 2000, this study demonstrates that this control

  13. Coastal evolution between two giant rivers: The Chan May embayment in central Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouramanis, C.; Switzer, A.; Bristow, C.; Pham, D. T.; Mauz, B.; Pile, J.; Doan, L. D.; Hoang, Q. D.; Ngo, C. K.; Dao, N.; Polivka, P.; Soria, L.; Lee, Y.; Sloss, C.; Hoang, L. V.

    2015-12-01

    The coastal landscapes of Vietnam are dominated in the north and south by the very large Red and Mekong rivers. Central Vietnam, in contrast, has few large rivers that flow to the coastal zone. This coupled with the high relief (>1500 m) of the granitic Truong Son Range and shallow gradient continental shelf, has produced two different coastal geomorphologies. The first is a shallow basin infilled with a sequence of parallel, arcuate beach ridges, and the second includes the development of shore-parallel spits and coastal lagoons. All systems are Holocene in age and we present evidence of the Holocene evolution of the northward-facing, beach ridge strandplain located in the Chan May embayment, approximately 35 km north of Danang. This embayment is relatively small (5 km long at the beach and with a beach ridge sequence that spans 11 km from the modern beach to the base of the Truong Son Range) compared to other beach ridge strandplains to the north and south and serves as an analogue for the evolution of these larger systems. The Holocene evolution of the embayment was resolved using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), high-resolution sedimentological analysis and quartz Optically Stimulated Luminescence were used to investigate the internal stratigraphy and chronological development of the beach ridges at Chan May. The strandplain contains uniform, clean quartz-rich sediment interspersed by thin heavy mineral rich bands forming shallow-gradient beach ridges that have steadily prograded seaward during the regression after the mid-Holocene sea level highstand. As the beach ridges prograded seaward, a small river feeding directly from the Truong Son Range meandered across the strandplain and significantly modified the embayment. Recently, the river has become much reduced due to anthropogenic modification of the river and landscape. Prior to the Holocene marine highstand, the area was similarly characterized by a surface of prograding beach ridges that were eroded by

  14. Mobile devices for community-based REDD+ monitoring: a case study for Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Herold, Martin; Avitabile, Valerio; de Bruin, Sytze; Bartholomeus, Harm; Souza, Carlos M; Ribbe, Lars

    2012-12-20

    Monitoring tropical deforestation and forest degradation is one of the central elements for the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) scheme. Current arrangements for monitoring are based on remote sensing and field measurements. Since monitoring is the periodic process of assessing forest stands properties with respect to reference data, adopting the current REDD+ requirements for implementing monitoring at national levels is a challenging task. Recently, the advancement in Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) and mobile devices has enabled local communities to monitor their forest in a basic resource setting such as no or slow internet connection link, limited power supply, etc. Despite the potential, the use of mobile device system for community based monitoring (CBM) is still exceptional and faces implementation challenges. This paper presents an integrated data collection system based on mobile devices that streamlines the community-based forest monitoring data collection, transmission and visualization process. This paper also assesses the accuracy and reliability of CBM data and proposes a way to fit them into national REDD+ Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) scheme. The system performance is evaluated at Tra Bui commune, Quang Nam province, Central Vietnam, where forest carbon and change activities were tracked. The results show that the local community is able to provide data with accuracy comparable to expert measurements (index of agreement greater than 0.88), but against lower costs. Furthermore, the results confirm that communities are more effective to monitor small scale forest degradation due to subsistence fuel wood collection and selective logging, than high resolution remote sensing SPOT imagery.

  15. Homalium glandulosum (Salicaceae), a new species from Vu Quang National Park, North Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagane, Shuichiro; Nguyen, Viet Hung; Ngoc, Nguyen Van; Son, Hoang Thanh; Toyama, Hironori; Yang, Chen-Jui; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    Homalium glandulosum Tagane & V. H. Nguyen, from Vu Quang National Park in northern Vietnam, is newly described. This species is characterized by distinct glands, often stalked, at the base of the lamina and along the margin of the stipules and bracteoles. Illustrations, DNA barcodes of the two regions of rbcL and matK, and a key to the species of Homalium in Vietnam are also provided.

  16. On the frontiers of climate and environmental change. Vulnerabilities and adaptions in central Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun, Ole; Casse, Thorkil (eds.) [Roskilde Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Society and Globalization

    2013-06-01

    Based on new research in Central Vietnam with inputs from a range of disciplines. Suggests a broader, interdisciplinary approach to climate change adaptation and environmental planning. Advises steps on how to formulate a research framework for analyses of social and economic impacts of climate changes, using both quantitative and qualitative techniques. Concludes that climate change adaptation will not be successful unless integrated with environmental planning takes into account local man-made environmental changes, such as hydropower construction and changing forestry and land-use patterns. This book is intended to fill a gap in climate-change literature by providing a comprehensive regional study and identifying the overall adaptation challenges in a real-life context. The way in which possible climate impacts interact with a range of other challenges in agriculture, forestry, disaster planning, health care, general economic development, and common livelihoods are presented, and it is argued that greater realism and broader vision are needed in order to address the climate challenge. For instance, unsuitable land- use changes in both coastal and highland regions may increase the vulnerability of rural people, many of whom are already living on the fringes. The author(s) also state(s) that, depending on context, it may be pertinent to address short-term and unsustainable resource use, irregularities in local land management, ineffective governance and social inequality, which are all likely to aggravate the impact of external climate and weather. Not least, it is imperative to integrate general environmental management with any climate-change adaptation effort.

  17. Undiagnosed cryptic diversity in small, microendemic frogs (Leptolalax) from the Central Highlands of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Tran, Dao T A; Frankham, Greta J; Dekker, Anthony H; Le, Duong T T; Nguyen, Truong Q; Dau, Vinh Q; Hoang, Huy D

    2015-01-01

    A major obstacle in prioritizing species or habitats for conservation is the degree of unrecognized diversity hidden within complexes of morphologically similar, "cryptic" species. Given that amphibians are one of the most threatened groups of organisms on the planet, our inability to diagnose their true diversity is likely to have significant conservation consequences. This is particularly true in areas undergoing rapid deforestation, such as Southeast Asia. The Southeast Asian genus Leptolalax is a group of small-bodied, morphologically conserved frogs that inhabit the forest-floor. We examined a particularly small-bodied and morphologically conserved subset, the Leptolalax applebyi group, using a combination of molecular, morphometric, and acoustic data to identify previously unknown diversity within. In order to predict the geographic distribution of the group, estimate the effects of habitat loss and assess the degree of habitat protection, we used our locality data to perform ecological niche modelling using MaxEnt. Molecular (mtDNA and nuDNA), acoustic and subtle morphometric differences revealed a significant underestimation of diversity in the L. applebyi group; at least two-thirds of the diversity may be unrecognised. Patterns of diversification and microendemism in the group appear driven by limited dispersal, likely due to their small body size, with several lineages restricted to watershed basins. The L. applebyi group is predicted to have historically occurred over a large area of the Central Highlands of Vietnam, a considerable portion of which has already been deforested. Less than a quarter of the remaining forest predicted to be suitable for the group falls within current protected areas. The predicted distribution of the L. applebyi group extends into unsurveyed watershed basins, each potentially containing unsampled diversity, some of which may have already been lost due to deforestation. Current estimates of amphibian diversity based on

  18. Undiagnosed cryptic diversity in small, microendemic frogs (Leptolalax from the Central Highlands of Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi J L Rowley

    Full Text Available A major obstacle in prioritizing species or habitats for conservation is the degree of unrecognized diversity hidden within complexes of morphologically similar, "cryptic" species. Given that amphibians are one of the most threatened groups of organisms on the planet, our inability to diagnose their true diversity is likely to have significant conservation consequences. This is particularly true in areas undergoing rapid deforestation, such as Southeast Asia. The Southeast Asian genus Leptolalax is a group of small-bodied, morphologically conserved frogs that inhabit the forest-floor. We examined a particularly small-bodied and morphologically conserved subset, the Leptolalax applebyi group, using a combination of molecular, morphometric, and acoustic data to identify previously unknown diversity within. In order to predict the geographic distribution of the group, estimate the effects of habitat loss and assess the degree of habitat protection, we used our locality data to perform ecological niche modelling using MaxEnt. Molecular (mtDNA and nuDNA, acoustic and subtle morphometric differences revealed a significant underestimation of diversity in the L. applebyi group; at least two-thirds of the diversity may be unrecognised. Patterns of diversification and microendemism in the group appear driven by limited dispersal, likely due to their small body size, with several lineages restricted to watershed basins. The L. applebyi group is predicted to have historically occurred over a large area of the Central Highlands of Vietnam, a considerable portion of which has already been deforested. Less than a quarter of the remaining forest predicted to be suitable for the group falls within current protected areas. The predicted distribution of the L. applebyi group extends into unsurveyed watershed basins, each potentially containing unsampled diversity, some of which may have already been lost due to deforestation. Current estimates of amphibian

  19. Distribution and depth profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment collected from offshore waters of Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tri, Tran Manh; Anh, Hoang Quoc; Tham, Trinh Thi; Van Quy, Tran; Long, Nguyen Quang; Nhung, Dao Thi; Nakamura, Masafumi; Nishida, Masayo; Maeda, Yasuaki; Van Boi, Luu; Minh, Tu Binh

    2016-05-15

    Concentrations of PCBs and OCPs were measured in 35 surface sediment samples collected from offshore waters of Central Vietnam. The mean concentrations of PCBs, HCHs, and DDTs in surface sediments were 86.5, 37.0, and 44.5pgg(-1), respectively. Additionally, nine PCDDs, eleven PCDFs, and twelve dl-PCBs were also examined in 19 sediment core samples collected from five locations. Concentration of PCDDs, PCDFs, and dl-PCBs ranged from 200 to 460, 0.39 to 2.9, and 1.6 to 22pgg(-1), respectively. OCDD was detected at the highest concentration, ranged from 100 to 300pgg(-1). Generally, the concentrations of PCDD/Fs at shallower depths were higher, meanwhile the depth profiles of dl-PCBs in sediment cores were different than the depth profiles of PCDD/Fs. The results suggest that the pollution of PCBs might be from many different sources leading to the variation between depths.

  20. The cost of antiretroviral treatment service for patients with HIV/AIDS in a central outpatient clinic in Vietnam

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    Nguyen LT

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Long Thanh Nguyen,1 Bach Xuan Tran,2 Cuong Tuan Tran,1 Huong Thi Le,1 Son Van Tran1 1Authority of HIV/AIDS Control, Ministry of Health, Hanoi, Vietnam; 2Institute for Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam Introduction: Antiretroviral treatment (ART services are estimated to account for 30% of the total resources needed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS control and prevention in Vietnam during the 2011–2020 timeframe. With international funding decreasing, determining the total cost of HIV/AIDS treatment is necessary in order to develop a master plan for the transition of ART services delivery and management. We analyzed the costs of HIV/AIDS treatment paid by both HIV programs and patients in a central outpatient clinic, and we explored factors associated with the capacity of patients to pay for this service. Methods: Patients (n=315 receiving ART in the Department of Infectious Diseases at Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam, were interviewed. Patient records and expenses were reviewed. Results: The total cost of ART per patient was US$611 (75% from health care providers, 25% from patients or their families. The cost of a second-line regimen was found to be 2.7 times higher than the first-line regimen cost. Most outpatients (73.3% were able to completely pay for all of their ART expenses. Capacity to pay for ART was influenced by five factors, including marital status, distance from house to clinic, patient's monthly income, household economic condition, and health insurance status. Most of the patients (84.8% would have been willing to pay for health insurance if a copayment scheme for ART were to be introduced. Conclusion: This study provides evidence on payment capacity of HIV/AIDS patients in Vietnam and supplies information on ART costs from both provider and patient perspectives. In particular, results from this study suggest that earlier access to ART

  1. Long-Lasting Insecticidal Hammocks for controlling forest malaria: a community-based trial in a rural area of central Vietnam.

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    Ngo Duc Thang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, malaria remains a problem in some remote areas located along its international borders and in the central highlands, partly due to the bionomics of the local vector, mainly found in forested areas and less vulnerable to standard control measures. Long Lasting Insecticidal Hammocks (LLIH, a tailored and user-friendly tool for forest workers, may further contribute in reducing the malaria burden. Their effectiveness was tested in a large community-based intervention trial carried out in Ninh Thuan province in Central Vietnam. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Thirty villages (population 18,646 were assembled in 20 clusters (1,000 individuals per cluster that were randomly allocated to either the intervention or control group (no LLIH after stratification according to the pre-intervention P. falciparum antibody prevalence ( or =30%. LLIH were distributed to the intervention group in December 2004. For the following 2 years, the incidence of clinical malaria and the prevalence of infection were determined by passive case detection at community level and by bi-annual malariometric surveys. A 2-fold larger effect on malaria incidence in the intervention as compared to the control group was observed. Similarly, malaria prevalence decreased more substantially in the intervention (1.6-fold greater reduction than in the control group. Both for incidence and prevalence, a stronger and earlier effect of the intervention was observed in the high endemicity stratum. The number of malaria cases and infections averted by the intervention overall was estimated at 10.5 per 1,000 persons and 5.6/100 individuals, respectively, for the last half of 2006. In the high endemicity stratum, the impact was much higher, i.e. 29/1000 malaria cases and 15.7 infections/100 individuals averted. CONCLUSIONS: LLIH reduced malaria incidence and prevalence in this remote and forested area of Central Vietnam. As the targets of the newly-launched Global Malaria Action

  2. Agricultural land for urban development : The process of land conversion in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuc, Nguyen Quang; Westen, A. C M van; Zoomers, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, Vietnam's progressive integration into the global market economy has triggered major economic and social transformations. In spatial terms, these are marked by a massive conversion of agricultural land for industrial and urban development. While this process has attracted considerab

  3. Evaluation of local protein resources for growing pigs in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Thi Hoa Ly, Ly

    2012-01-01

     The general objectives of the work presented here were to evaluate processing methods for the preservations of cassava leaves (CL) and sweet potato vines (SPV) for later feeding during feed shortages in Vietnam. In addition, the nutritional value (including hydrogen cyanide (HCN) contents) of

  4. Genetic and phenotypic diversity of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. in groundnut fields in central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, N.C.; Mendes, R.; Kruijt, M.; Raaijmakers, J.

    2012-01-01

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an economically important legume crop in Vietnam and many other countries worldwide. Stem and pod rot, caused by the soil-borne fungus Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., is a major yield limiting factor in groundnut cultivation. To develop sustainable measures to control th

  5. Detection of Grass Carp Hemorrhage Virus (GCHV) from Vietnam and Comparison with GCHV Strain from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Grass carp plays an important role in small-scale aquaculture in Vietnam. However, a severe disease, known in Vietnam as "Red Spot Disease", is causing significant economic loss in grass carp aquaculture. In this study, the tissue samples isolated from the grass carp with Red Spot Disease in Vietnam are investigated and comparied with the control GCHV isolated in China by experimental infection, culture cell infection, serological cross reactivity, and RT-PCR amplification. Infected grass carp exhibits hemorrhage symptoms about 5 days after experimental injection with GCHV-V (Vietnam) strain. The symptoms and lethality induced by the GCHV-V strain are identical to that induced by the Chinese GCHV-9014 strain. The Chinese GCHV-873 strain induces typical cytopathogenic effects in 4 cell lines, such as CIK, CAB, FHM and GCO, from the 6 fish cell lines examined. No cytopathogenic effects are observed in all the 6 examined cell lines, including CAB, FHM, CIK, EPC, CCO and GCO, infected by the GCHV-V strain and GCHV-9014 strain. Immunodiffusion assays demonstrate an obvious cross-reactivity among three GCHV strains. Precipitin lines are clearly observed not only between the anti-GCHV-873 serum and the two strains GCHV-873 and GCHV-9014, but also between the anti-GCHV-873 serum and the GCHV-V strain. GCHV can be detected by immunodiffusion assays after three generations of blind propagations in the cell lines inoculated by GCHV-V strain. This implicates that GCHV-V viruses have been replicated and amplified despite there being no cytopathogenic effects observed in these examined cell lines. Three genome segments of GCHV, including S8, S9 and S10, are amplified by three sets of PCR primers designed according to the segment sequences published recently. The Q8fp and Q8rp primer set specific for genome segment S8 amplifies a 955 bp fragment from the extracted sample of diseased fish with Red Spot Disease, and the fragment size is identical to that amplified by the same

  6. Doing Business in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Tran, Thi Thu Yen; Nguyen, Hung Vo

    2005-01-01

    still reflects inheritances from the central plan system, Vietnam today has a vibrant economy with small businesses springing up at every street corner. Foreign investors have been flogging to Vietnam since the early 1990s, with a new peak of FDI inflow in 2004. This paper reviews the Vietnamese economy...

  7. Agent Orange Footprint Still Visible in Rural Areas of Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Banout

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of polychlorinated dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDF in selected environmental samples (soils, sediments, fish, and farm animals were analyzed from the area of Phong My commune (Thua Thien-Hue province, Vietnam. This area was affected by Agent Orange spraying during the Vietnam war (1968–1971. Whereas PCDD/PCDF content in soil and sediment samples is relatively low and ranges between 0.05 and 5.1 pg WHO-TEQ/g for soils and between 0.7 and 6.4 pg WHO-TEQ/g for sediments, the PCDD/PCDF content in poultry muscle and liver in most cases exceeded the maximum permissible limit of dioxin content per unit fat mass. In some cases of soil and sediments samples, 2,3,7,8-TCDD represented more than 90% of the total PCDD/PCDF, which indicates Agent Orange as the main source.

  8. Ecological factors associated with dengue fever in a central highlands Province, Vietnam

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    Phan Thao TT

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue is a leading cause of severe illness and hospitalization in Vietnam. This study sought to elucidate the linkage between climate factors, mosquito indices and dengue incidence. Methods Monthly data on dengue cases and mosquito larval indices were ascertained between 2004 and 2008 in the Dak Lak province (Vietnam. Temperature, sunshine, rainfall and humidity were also recorded as monthly averages. The association between these ecological factors and dengue was assessed by the Poisson regression model with adjustment for seasonality. Results During the study period, 3,502 cases of dengue fever were reported. Approximately 72% of cases were reported from July to October. After adjusting for seasonality, the incidence of dengue fever was significantly associated with the following factors: higher household index (risk ratio [RR]: 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.62-1.70 per 5% increase, higher container index (RR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.73-1.83 per 5% increase, and higher Breteau index (RR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.53-1.60 per 5 unit increase. The risk of dengue was also associated with elevated temperature (RR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.25-1.55 per 2°C increase, higher humidity (RR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.51-1.67 per 5% increase, and higher rainfall (RR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.21-1.74 per 50 mm increase. The risk of dengue was inversely associated with duration of sunshine, the number of dengue cases being lower as the sunshine increases (RR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.73-0.79 per 50 hours increase. Conclusions These data suggest that indices of mosquito and climate factors are main determinants of dengue fever in Vietnam. This finding suggests that the global climate change will likely increase the burden of dengue fever infection in Vietnam, and that intensified surveillance and control of mosquito during high temperature and rainfall seasons may be an important strategy for containing the burden of dengue fever.

  9. Pathways to malaria persistence in remote central Vietnam: a mixed-method study of health care and the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doan Nhan H

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in underlying socio-cultural, economic, environmental and health-system influences on the persistence of malaria. Vietnam is a Mekong regional 'success story' after dramatic declines in malaria incidence following introduction of a national control program providing free bed-nets, diagnosis and treatment. Malaria has largely retreated to pockets near international borders in central Vietnam, where it remains a burden particularly among impoverished ethnic minorities. In these areas commune and village health workers are lynchpins of the program. This study in the central province of Quang Tri aimed to contribute to more effective malaria control in Vietnam by documenting the non-biological pathways to malaria persistence in two districts. Methods Multiple and mixed (qualitative and quantitative methods were used. The formative stage comprised community meetings, observation of bed-net use, and focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews with health managers, providers and community. Formative results were used to guide development of tools for the assessment stage, which included a provider quiz, structured surveys with 160 community members and 16 village health workers, and quality check of microscopy facilities and health records at district and commune levels. Descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis were used for quantitative data. Results The study's key findings were the inadequacy of bed-nets (only 45% of households were fully covered and sub-optimal diagnosis and treatment at local levels. Bed-net insufficiencies were exacerbated by customary sleeping patterns and population mobility. While care at district level seemed good, about a third of patients reportedly self-discharged early and many were lost to follow-up. Commune and village data suggested that approximately half of febrile patients were treated presumptively, and 10 village health workers did not carry

  10. Designing a community engagement framework for a new dengue control method: a case study from central Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlene McNaughton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Wolbachia strategy aims to manipulate mosquito populations to make them incapable of transmitting dengue viruses between people. To test its efficacy, this strategy requires field trials. Public consultation and engagement are recognized as critical to the future success of these programs, but questions remain regarding how to proceed. This paper reports on a case study where social research was used to design a community engagement framework for a new dengue control method, at a potential release site in central Vietnam. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The approach described here, draws on an anthropological methodology and uses both qualitative and quantitative methods to design an engagement framework tailored to the concerns, expectations, and socio-political setting of a potential trial release site for Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The process, research activities, key findings and how these were responded to are described. Safety of the method to humans and the environment was the most common and significant concern, followed by efficacy and impact on local lives. Residents expected to be fully informed and engaged about the science, the project, its safety, the release and who would be responsible should something go wrong. They desired a level of engagement that included regular updates and authorization from government and at least one member of every household at the release site. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results demonstrate that social research can provide important and reliable insights into public concerns and expectations at a potential release site, as well as guidance on how these might be addressed. Findings support the argument that using research to develop more targeted, engagement frameworks can lead to more sensitive, thorough, culturally comprehensible and therefore ethical consultation processes. This approach has now been used successfully to seek public input and eventually support for

  11. Cost-effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide-treated hammocks in preventing malaria in South-central Vietnam.

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    Chantal M Morel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite much success in reducing the burden of malaria in Vietnam, pockets of malaria persist and eliminating them remains an important development goal. In central Vietnam, insecticide-treated hammocks have recently been introduced to help counter the disease in the highly forested, mountainous areas, where other measures have so far been unsuccessful. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of using long-lasting insecticide-treated hammocks in this area. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This cost-effectiveness study was run alongside a randomized control trial testing the efficacy of the long-lasting insecticide-treated hammocks. Data were collected through an exit survey, a household survey, expenditure records and key informant interviews. The study estimates that under normal (non-trial conditions the total net societal cost per malaria episode averted in using long-lasting insecticide-treated hammocks in this area was 126 USD. Cost per hammock, including insecticidal netting, sewing, transport, and distribution was found to be approximately 11.76 USD per hammock. Average savings per episode averted were estimated to be $14.60 USD for the health system and 14.37 USD for households (including both direct and indirect cost savings. The study estimates that the annual financial outlay required of government to implement this type of programme to be 3.40 USD per person covered per year. CONCLUSION: The study finds that the use of a hammock intervention could represent good value for money to help prevent malaria in more remote areas, where traditional control measures such as insecticide-treated bednets and indoor residual spraying are insufficient or inappropriate to control malaria. However, the life span of the hammock-the number of years over which it effectively deters mosquitoes-has a significant impact on the cost-effectiveness of the intervention and study results should be interpreted in light of the evidence on effectiveness

  12. Central venous line complications and tip detection

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    Ameneh Rezaee Gheshlaghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Central venous line is one of a creative instrument that saves human’s life in critical medical situation. Central venous line access is frequently involved in the disease management. It is used for rapid fluid therapy, transvenous pacemakers, infusion of some medications, hemodialysis or plasmapheresis and etc. Most of the emergency departments have some staffs that are trained for central venous line insertion but related complications occur during central venous line placement.Central venous line might have some complications and complication follow-up should be considered. Thromboembolism and infection are two important medical complications. Arterial puncture, hematoma, pneumothorax and hemothorax are mechanical Central venous line complications. Chest X-ray and some other techniques should be used for detecting these complications.Central venous line tip misplace is a considerable problem for emergency department staffs, previously chest X-ray has been used for central venous line misplace detection. In some recent studies, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and intravascular electrocardiography have been used for central venous line misplace.

  13. Determinants of marginalization and inequitable maternal health care in North–Central Vietnam: a framework analysis

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    Pauline Binder-Finnema

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vietnam has achieved great improvements in maternal healthcare outcomes, but there is evidence of increasing inequity. Disadvantaged groups, predominantly ethnic minorities and people living in remote mountainous areas, do not gain access to maternal health improvements despite targeted efforts from policymakers. Objective: This study identifies underlying structural barriers to equitable maternal health care in Nghe An province, Vietnam. Experiences of social inequity and limited access among child-bearing ethnic and minority women are explored in relation to barriers of care provision experienced by maternal health professionals to gain deeper understanding on health outcomes. Design: In 2012, 11 focus group discussions with women and medical care professionals at local community health centers and district hospitals were conducted using a hermeneutic–dialectic method and analyzed for interpretation using framework analysis. Results: The social determinants ‘limited negotiation power’ and ‘limited autonomy’ orchestrate cyclical effects of shared marginalization for both women and care professionals within the provincial health system’s infrastructure. Under-staffed and poorly equipped community health facilities refer women and create overload at receiving health centers. Limited resources appear diverted away from local community centers as compensation to the district for overloaded facilities. Poor reputation for low care quality exists, and professionals are held in low repute for causing overload and resulting adverse outcomes. Country-wide reforms force women to bear responsibility for limited treatment adherence and health insight, but overlook providers’ limited professional development. Ethnic minority women are hindered by relatives from accessing care choices and costs, despite having advanced insight about government reforms to alleviate poverty. Communication challenges are worsened by non

  14. Mantle xenoliths from Central Vietnam: evidence for at least Meso-Proterozoic formation of the lithospheric mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proßegger, Peter; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Ackerman, Lukáš; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Tran, Tuan Anh

    2016-04-01

    Intraplate Cenozoic basalts that are widely dispersed along the continental margin of East Asia belong to the Western Pacific "diffuse" igneous province. They consist mainly of alkali basalts, basanites,rarely nephelinites, which are mantle xenolith-bearing, potassic rocks and quartz tholeiites. The volcanism in this area has been attributed to the continental extension caused by the collision of India with Asia and by the subduction of the Pacific Ocean below Asia. We studied a suite of 24 mantle xenoliths from La Bang Lake, Dak Doa district and Bien Ho, Pleiku city in the Gia Province, Central Vietnam. They are predominantly spinel lherzolites (19) but spinel harburgites (3) and two garnet pyroxenites are present as well. The sizes of the xenoliths range from 5 to 40 cm in diameter with medium to coarse-grained protogranular textures. Whole rock major and trace element analyses display a wide range of compositions. The MgO concentration varies from 36.0 to 45.8 wt% whereas Al2O3 and CaO range from 0.63 to 4.36 wt% and from 0.52 to 4.21 wt% (with one sample having CaO of 6.63 wt%) respectively. Both CaO and Al2O3 positively correlate with MgO most likely indicating that the sampled rocks were derived from a common mantle source experienced variable degrees of partial melting. Mineral analyses show that the rock forming minerals are chemically homogeneous. The Fo contents of olivine vary between 89.2 and 91.2 and the Mg# of orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene range from 89 to 92 and 89 to 94 respectively. The range of Cr# for spinel is 0.06-0.26. Model calculations in both whole rock and clinopyroxenes show that lithospheric mantle underneath Central Vietnam experienced melt extractions that vary between 2-7, 12-15 and 20-30%. The majority of the primitive mantle-normalized whole rock and clinopyroxene REE patterns are parallel to each other indicating that clinopyroxene is the main repository of the trace elements. Clinopyroxenes are divided into two groups: group A

  15. Economic evaluation of proposed pure and mixed stands in Central Vietnam highlands

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    Lubomir Salek

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In comparison with mixed forest stands, the cultivation of pure plantations in Vietnam entails serious ecological consequences such as loss of biodiversity and higher rate of soil erosion. The economic evaluation is elaborated between pure plantations and mixed forests where the fast-growing tree species are mixed with slow growing tree species which are planted in stripes separating the segments with fast-growing tree species (Acacia sp.. For the evaluation, the input values were used from local costs of goods, services and labour. The results show that the internal rate of return is the highest in the case of pure plantation in comparison with mixed forests – 86% to 77%(first planting pattern: Acacia sp. + noble hardwood species and 54% (second planting pattern: Acacia + Dipterocarpus sp. + Sindora sp.. The average profit per hectare and year is almost five times higher in the case of mixed stands. The first planting pattern reaches 2,650 $, the second planting pattern 2,280 $ and the pure acacia plantation only 460 $. From an economic point of view, the cultivation of mixed forests that corresponds to the principles of sustainable forestry generates a good economical profit while maintaining habitat complexity and biodiversity.

  16. Delayed parasite clearance after treatment with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in Plasmodium falciparum malaria patients in central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thriemer, Kamala; Hong, Nguyen Van; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Phuc, Bui Quang; Ha, Do Manh; Pockele, Evi; Guetens, Pieter; Van, Nguyen Van; Duong, Tran Thanh; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Erhart, Annette

    2014-12-01

    Reduced susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum toward artemisinin derivatives has been reported from the Thai-Cambodian and Thai-Myanmar borders. Following increasing reports from central Vietnam of delayed parasite clearance after treatment with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ), the current first-line treatment, we carried out a study on the efficacy of this treatment. Between September 2012 and February 2013, we conducted a 42-day in vivo and in vitro efficacy study in Quang Nam Province. Treatment was directly observed, and blood samples were collected twice daily until parasite clearance. In addition, genotyping, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and in vitro sensitivity testing of isolates was performed. The primary endpoints were parasite clearance rate and time. The secondary endpoints included PCR-corrected and uncorrected cure rates, qPCR clearance profiles, in vitro sensitivity results (for chloroquine, dihydroartemisinin, and piperaquine), and genotyping for mutations in the Kelch 13 propeller domain. Out of 672 screened patients, 95 were recruited and 89 available for primary endpoint analyses. The median parasite clearance time (PCT) was 61.7 h (interquartile range [IQR], 47.6 to 83.2 h), and the median parasite clearance rate had a slope half-life of 6.2 h (IQR, 4.4 to 7.5 h). The PCR-corrected efficacy rates were estimated at 100% at day 28 and 97.7% (95% confidence interval, 91.2% to 99.4%) at day 42. At day 3, the P. falciparum prevalence by qPCR was 2.5 times higher than that by microscopy. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of isolates with delayed clearance times (≥ 72 h) were significantly higher than those with normal clearance times for all three drugs. Delayed parasite clearance (PCT, ≥ 72 h) was significantly higher among day 0 samples carrying the 543 mutant allele (47.8%) than those carrying the wild-type allele (1.8%; P = 0.048). In central Vietnam, the efficacy of DHA-PPQ is still satisfactory, but the parasite clearance time

  17. Hot spot detection and spatio-temporal dispersion of dengue fever in Hanoi, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toan, Do Thi Thanh; Hu, Wenbiao; Quang Thai, Pham; Hoat, Luu Ngoc; Wright, Pamela; Martens, Pim

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dengue fever (DF) in Vietnam remains a serious emerging arboviral disease, which generates significant concerns among international health authorities. Incidence rates of DF have increased significantly during the last few years in many provinces and cities, especially Hanoi. The purpo

  18. Ubiquitous Detection of Artificial Sweeteners and Iodinated X-ray Contrast Media in Aquatic Environmental and Wastewater Treatment Plant Samples from Vietnam, The Philippines, and Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuta; Bach, Leu Tho; Van Dinh, Pham; Prudente, Maricar; Aguja, Socorro; Phay, Nyunt; Nakata, Haruhiko

    2016-05-01

    Water samples from Vietnam, The Philippines, and Myanmar were analyzed for artificial sweeteners (ASs) and iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICMs). High concentrations (low micrograms per liter) of ASs, including aspartame, saccharin, and sucralose, were found in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influents from Vietnam. Three ICMs, iohexol, iopamidol, and iopromide were detected in Vietnamese WWTP influents and effluents, suggesting that these ICMs are frequently used in Vietnam. ASs and ICMs were found in river water from downtown Hanoi at concentrations comparable to or lower than the concentrations in WWTP influents. The ASs and ICMs concentrations in WWTP influents and adjacent surface water significantly correlated (r (2) = 0.99, p ubiquitous distributions in economically emerging South Asian countries.

  19. Sending the Right Bill to the Right People: Climate change, environmental degradation, and social vulnerabilities in Central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2012-01-01

    In a range of international reports Vietnam is pointed out as among the 5 to 10 most climate-vulnerable countries, which are taking center stage in global climate change assistance and thus attracting huge amounts of foreign aid for research, mitigation, adaptation, disaster management, etc. Howe...

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR CLASSIFICATION OF GENUS MACROPODUS LACÉPÈDE, 1801 IN GIANH RIVER IN THE NORTH CENTRAL PART OF VIETNAM

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    Ho Anh TUAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and identification of 57 specimens of genus Macropodus Lacépède collected from Gianh River in Quang Binh province in north center region Vietnam. We have classified three species: Macropodus erythropterus (Frey. & Her., 2002, Macropodus opercularis (Linneaeus, 1758, Macropodus spechti (Schreitmüller, 1936 was first discovered in the study area and north center region Vietnam.CARACTERISTICA MORFOLOGICĂ PENTRU CLASIFICAREA GENULUI MACROPODUS LACÉPÈDE, 1801 DIN BAZINUL RÂULUI GIANH, REGIUNEA CENTRALĂ DE NORD A VIETNAMULUIAu fost analizate şi identificate 57 de exemplare ale genului Macropodus Lacépède colectate din bazinul râului Gianh, provincia Quang Binh, regiunea centrală de nord a Vietnamului. Noi am clasificat 3 specii: Macropodus erythropterus (Frey. & Her., 2002, Macropodus opercularis (Linneaeus, 1758 şi Macropodus spechti (Schreitmüller, 1936, descoperite în aria de studiu şi în regiunea centrală de nord a Vietnamului.

  1. Central venous line complications and tip detection

    OpenAIRE

    Ameneh Rezaee Gheshlaghi; Hamid Zamani Moghadam Dolu; Elham Pishbin; Maryam Salehi

    2015-01-01

    Central venous line is one of a creative instrument that saves human’s life in critical medical situation. Central venous line access is frequently involved in the disease management. It is used for rapid fluid therapy, transvenous pacemakers, infusion of some medications, hemodialysis or plasmapheresis and etc. Most of the emergency departments have some staffs that are trained for central venous line insertion but related complications occur during central venous line placement.Central veno...

  2. Primary healthcare system capacities for responding to storm and flood-related health problems: a case study from a rural district in central Vietnam

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    Hoang Van Minh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: As a tropical depression in the East Sea, Vietnam is greatly affected by climate change and natural disasters. Knowledge of the current capacity of the primary healthcare system in Vietnam to respond to health issues associated with storms and floods is very important for policy making in the country. However, there has been little scientific research in this area. Objective: This research was to assess primary healthcare system capacities in a rural district in central Vietnam to respond to such health issues. Design: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative methods used self-administered questionnaires. Qualitative methods (in-depth interviews and focus groups discussions were used to broaden understanding of the quantitative material and to get additional information on actions taken. Results: 1 Service delivery: Medical emergency services, especially surgical operations and referral systems, were not always available during the storm and flood seasons. 2 Governance: District emergency plans focus largely on disaster response rather than prevention. The plans did not clearly define the role of primary healthcare and had no clear information on the coordination mechanism among different sectors and organizations. 3 Financing: The budget for prevention and control of flood and storm activities was limited and had no specific items for healthcare activities. Only a little additional funding was available, but the procedures to get this funding were usually time-consuming. 4 Human resources: Medical rescue teams were established, but there were no epidemiologists or environmental health specialists to take care of epidemiological issues. Training on prevention and control of climate change and disaster-related health issues did not meet actual needs. 5 Information and research: Data that can be used for planning and management (including population and epidemiological

  3. The feasibility of a school-based VI polysaccharide vaccine mass immunization campaign in Hue City, central Vietnam: streamlining a typhoid fever preventive strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiem, Vu Dinh; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Canh, Do Gia; Son, Nguyen Dinh; Hoa, Nyugen Thai; Thuy, Dang Thi Dieu; Ochiai, R Leon; Lan, Nguyen Thi; Hop, Tran Quang; Ali, Mohammad; Park, Jin Kyung; Abu-Elyazeed, Remon; Holliday, Kris; Ivanoff, Bernard; Anh, Dang Duc; Pang, Tikki; Donner, Allan; Galindo, Claudia M; Trach, Dang Duc; Clemens, John D; Acosta, Camilo J

    2006-05-01

    We report the coverage, safety, and logistics of a school-based typhoid fever immunization campaign that took place in Hue City, central Vietnam; a typhoid fever endemic area. A cluster-randomized evaluation-blinded controlled trial was designed where 68 schools (cluster) were randomly allocated the single dose Vi polysaccharide vaccine (Typherix) or the active control hepatitis A vaccine (Havrix). A safety surveillance system was implemented. A total of 32,267 children were immunized with a coverage of 57.5%. Strong predictors for vaccination were attending primary schools, peri-urban location of the school, and low family income. Human resources were mainly schoolteachers and the campaign was completed in about 1 month. Most adverse events reported were mild. Safe injection and safe sharp-waste disposal practices were followed. A typhoid fever school-based immunization campaign was safe and logistically possible. Coverage was moderate and can be interpreted as the minimum that could have been achievable because individual written informed consent procedures were sought for the first time in Hue City and the trial nature of the campaign. The lessons learned, together with cost-effectiveness results to be obtained by the end of follow-up period, will hopefully accelerate the introduction of Vi typhoid fever vaccine in Vietnam.

  4. Separation of land-use change induced signals from noise by means of evaluating perturbed RCM ensembles: Assessing the potential impacts of urbanization and deforestation in Central Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Patrick; Nguyen, Phuong N. B.; Cullmann, Johannes; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Regional climate models (RCMs) comprise both terrestrial and atmospheric compartments and thereby allowing to study land atmosphere feedbacks, and in particular the land-use and climate change impacts. In this study, a methodological framework is developed to separate the land use change induced signals in RCM simulations from noise caused by perturbed initial boundary conditions. The framework is applied for two different case studies in SE Asia, i.e. an urbanization and a deforestation scenario, which are implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The urbanization scenario is produced for Da Nang, one of the fastest growing cities in Central Vietnam, by converting the land-use in a 20 km, 14 km, and 9 km radius around the Da Nang meteorological station systematically from cropland to urban. Likewise, three deforestation scenarios are derived for Nong Son (Central Vietnam). Based on WRF ensemble simulations with perturbed initial conditions for 2010, the signal to-noise ratio (SNR) is calculated to identify areas with pronounced signals induced by LULCC. While clear and significant signals are found for air temperature, latent and sensible heat flux in the urbanization scenario (SNR values up to 24), the signals are not pronounced for deforestation (SNR values < 1). Albeit statistically significant signals are found for precipitation, low SNR values hinder scientifically sound inferences for climate change adaptation options. It is demonstrated that ensemble simulations with more than at least 5 ensemble members are required to derive robust LULCC adaptation strategies, particularly if precipitation is considered. This is rarely done in practice, thus potentially leading to erroneous estimates of the LULCC induced signals of water and energy fluxes, which are propagated through the regional climate - hydrological model modeling chains, and finally leading to unfavorable decision support.

  5. RESEARCH ON INDIGENOUS BUILDING TECHNOLOGY OF COTU MINORITIES IN CENTRAL VIETNAM - Case study of traditional community houses in Thuong Quang and Thuong Lo commune, Thua Thien-Hue province -

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The traditional community house named "Guol" is a unique architecture of Cotu minorities living upland area of central Vietnam. Two community houses in Nam Dong district, Thua Thien Hue province show the typical "Guol" and are surveyed for case studies of indigenous building technology. The building technology can be understood as their conventional design methodology and construction technique. The field research was conducted by interview and measurement to obtain the information relating t...

  6. Impact of Forage Fertilization with Urea and Composted Cattle Manure on Soil Fertility in Sandy Soils of South-Central Vietnam

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    Keenan C. McRoberts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased production in smallholder beef systems requires improved forage management. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of composted cattle manure and mineral nitrogen (urea application on soil fertility and partial nutrient balances in plots established to Brachiaria cv. Mulato II in south-central coastal Vietnam from 2010 to 2013. A randomized complete block design was implemented on six farms (blocks, with five rates of composted cattle manure (0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 Mg DM/ha per yr and three urea rates (0, 60, and 120 kg N/ha per yr in a factorial design. Soil was analyzed before and after the experiment. Compost increased soil pH, organic matter, Ca, Mg, and Mn. The effect of compost and urea applications on postexperiment soil fertility depended on preexperiment soil fertility for K, P, S, Mg, Zn, Mn, Cu, and organic matter, suggesting that the ability to maintain soil fertility depends on the interaction between soil organic and inorganic amendments and existing soil fertility. Highest farm yields were also achieved on farms with higher preexperiment soil fertility levels. Negative partial nutrient balances for N, P, and K suggest that yields will not be sustainable over time even for the highest fertilization inputs used in this experiment.

  7. Potential flood hazard assessment by integration of ALOS PALSAR and ASTER GDEM: a case study for the Hoa Chau commune, Hoa Vang district, in central Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Do Thi Viet; Nagasawa, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    The potential flood hazard was assessed for the Hoa Chau commune in central Vietnam in order to identify the high flood hazard zones for the decision makers who will execute future rural planning. A new approach for deriving the potential flood hazard based on integration of inundation and flow direction maps is described. Areas inundated in the historical flood event of 2007 were extracted from Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) phased array L-band synthetic aperture data radar (PALSAR) images, while flow direction characteristics were derived from the ASTER GDEM to extract the depressed surfaces. Past flood experience and the flow direction were then integrated to analyze and rank the potential flood hazard zones. The land use/cover map extracted from LANDSAT TM and flood depth point records from field surveys were utilized to check the possibility of susceptible inundated areas, extracting data from ALOS PALSAR and ranking the potential flood hazard. The estimation of potential flood hazard areas revealed that 17.43% and 17.36% of Hoa Chau had high and medium potential flood hazards, respectively. The flow direction and ALOS PALSAR data were effectively integrated for determining the potential flood hazard when hydrological and meteorological data were inadequate and remote sensing images taken during flood times were not available or were insufficient.

  8. Neochrysocharis okazakii (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae as a Major Parasitoid Wasp of Stone Leek Leaf Miner Liriomyza chinensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae in Central Vietnam

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    Takatoshi Ueno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liriomyza chinensis is a major pest of Welsh onion Allium fistulosum in Asia but little is known about the abundance of its natural enemies. A field survey was made to explore the major parasitoids of L. chinensis leaf miner in central Vietnam. An eulophid parasitoid, Neochrysocharis okazakii, comprised more than 95% of parasitoids reared from leaf miner larvae collected in the onion field and 98.3% of leaf miner parasitoids found during searches of onion plants. The mean number of female N. okazakii on plants was greater in onion fields with a higher density of L. chinensis, and, during searches, a greater proportion of N. okazakii was found on onion with more L. chinensis mines, suggesting density-dependent parasitoid aggregation. Melanized dead larvae of L. chinensis were more frequently found in onion fields with more parasitoids, demonstrating that melanized leaf miners are a good indicator of parasitoid activity. Mean instant rate of host encounter by N. okazakii in the field was estimated at 0.077, and the likelihood of a parasitoid finding a host increased with host density. Taken together, these results show that N. okazakii is the major parasitoid of L. chinensis. Usefulness of this parasitoid in stone leek leaf miner management is discussed.

  9. Seed-borne viruses detected on farm-retained seeds from smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe, Burkina Faso, Bangladesh and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manyangarirwa, W.; Sibiya, J.; Mortensen, C A Nieves Paulino

    2010-01-01

    esculentum Mill.), paprika (Capsicum annuum L.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), bambara [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.] and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) from smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe, Burkina Faso, Bangladesh and Vietnam were tested for seed-borne viruses using various techniques including...

  10. Rotifers from Thuy Tien lake and Nhu Y river in central Vietnam, with a description of Ploesoma asiaticum new species (Rotifera: Monogononta

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    Mau Trinh Dang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed Thuy Tien lake and Nhu Y river, Thua Thien Hue province, Vietnam, for rotifers from March to August 2010, and additionally in February 2012 in Thuy Tien lake. A total of 98 species-level taxa are identified, belonging to 31 genera and 21 families. Of there, 52 are first records for Vietnam, Filinia minuta (Smirnov, 1928 is new to the Oriental region and Ploesoma asiaticum n. sp. is new to science. These results increase the rotifer record for Vietnam from 122 to 174 taxa. In addition to describing the new taxon, we provide comparative illustrations including trophi scanning electron microscopy photographs of Ploesoma hudsoni (Imhof 1891.

  11. Real-time PCR detection and phylogenetic relationships of Neorickettsia spp. in digeneans from Egypt, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiman, Stephen E; Vaughan, Jefferson A; Elmahy, Rasha; Adisakwattana, Poom; Van Ha, Nguyen; Fayton, Thomas J; Khalil, Amal I; Tkach, Vasyl V

    2017-02-01

    Neorickettsia (Rickettsiales, Anaplasmataceae) is a genus of obligate intracellular bacterial endosymbionts of digeneans (Platyhelminthes, Digenea). Some Neorickettsia are able to invade cells of the digenean's vertebrate host and are known to cause diseases of domestic animals, wildlife, and humans. In this study we report the results of screening digenean samples for Neorickettsia collected from bats in Egypt and Mindoro Island, Philippines, snails and fishes from Thailand, and fishes from Vietnam and the USA. Neorickettsia were detected using a real-time PCR protocol targeting a 152bp fragment of the heat shock protein coding gene, GroEL, and verified with nested PCR and sequencing of a 1853bp long region of the GroESL operon and a 1371bp long region of 16S rRNA. Eight unique genotypes of Neorickettsia were obtained from digenean samples. Neorickettsia sp. 8 obtained from Lecithodendrium sp. from Egypt; Neorickettsia sp. 9 and 10 obtained from two species of Paralecithodendrium from Mindoro, Philippines; Neorickettsia sp. 11 from Lecithodendrium sp. and Neorickettsia sp. 4 (previously identified from Saccocoelioides lizae, from China) from Thailand; Neorickettsia sp. 12 from Dicrogaster sp. Florida, USA; Neorickettsia sp. 13 and SF agent from Vietnam. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the forms, provisionally named Neorickettsia sp. 8-13, represent new genotypes. We have for the first time detected Neorickettsia in a digenean from Egypt (and the African continent as a whole), the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam based on PCR and sequencing evidence. Our findings suggest that further surveys from the African continent, SE Asia, and island countries are likely to reveal new Neorickettsia lineages as well as new digenean host associations.

  12. The genus Anarsia in Cambodia and the Northern Vietnam (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae), with descriptions of ten new species and a catalogue of the genus in the Central-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yang-Seop; Shin, Young-Min; Na, Sol-Moon; Park, Kyu-Tek

    2016-01-07

    The genus Anarsia Zeller in Vietnam and Cambodia is reviewed, with 19 species including 10 new species: A. deuterodes Park, sp. nov., Anarsia diversiola Park, sp. nov., A. porthmista Park, sp. nov., A. melanodes Park, sp. nov., A. gryphodes Park, sp. nov., A. campestra Park, sp. nov., A. similicampa Park, sp. nov., A. kepensis Park, sp. nov., A. pusillidia Park, sp. nov., and A. houhunlii Park, sp. nov. Nine previously described species, namely A. tricornis Meyrick, A. choana Park, A. isogona Meyrick, A. paraisogona Meyrick, A. incerta Ueda, A. acerata Meyrick, A. didymopa Meyrick, A. phortica Meyrick, and A. patulella (Walker), are reported for the first time from Vietnam or Cambodia. Anarsia magnibimaculata Li & Zheng, 1998 is newly synonymized with A. bimaculata Ponomarenko, 1989. A tentative check list of the genus in the Central and East Asia (including Indochina, China, Russian Far East, Korea, and Japan) is given.

  13. In-house-made capillary electrophoresis instruments coupled with contactless conductivity detection as a simple and inexpensive solution for water analysis: a case study in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Hong Anh; Le, Minh Duc; Nguyen, Kim Diem Mai; Hauser, Peter C; Pham, Hung Viet; Mai, Thanh Duc

    2015-11-01

    A simple and inexpensive method for the determination of various ionic species in different water matrices is discussed in this study. The approach is based on the employment of in-house-made capillary electrophoresis (CE) instruments with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D), which can be realized even when only a modest financial budget and limited expertise are available. Advantageous features and considerations of these instruments are detailed following their pilot deployment in Vietnam. Different categories of ionic species, namely major inorganic cations (K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and NH4(+)) and major inorganic anions (Cl(-), NO3(-), NO2(-), SO4(2-), and phosphate), in different water matrices in Vietnam were determined using these in-house fabricated instruments. Inorganic trivalent arsenic (As(iii)), which is the most abundant form of arsenic in reducing groundwater, was determined by CE-C(4)D. The effect of some interfering ions in groundwater on the analytical performance was investigated and is highlighted. The results from in-house-made CE-C(4)D-instruments were cross-checked with those obtained using the standard methods (AAS, AES, UV and IC), with correlation coefficients r(2) ≥ 0.9 and deviations from the referenced results less than 15%.

  14. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  15. Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Vietnam: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Horii, Yoichiro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2013-12-01

    Paragonimiasis is a food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Vietnam, research on Paragonimus and paragonimiasis has been conducted in northern and central regions of the country. Using a combination of morphological and molecular methods, 7 Paragonimus species, namely P. heterotremus, P. westermani, P. skrjabini, P. vietnamensis, P. proliferus, P. bangkokenis and P. harinasutai, have been identified in Vietnam. Of these, the first 3, P. heterotremus, P. westermani and P. skrjabini, are known to infect humans in other countries. However, in Vietnam, only P. heterotremus, found in some northern provinces, has been shown to infect humans. Even nowadays, local people in some northern provinces, such as Lai Chau and Yen Bai, are still suffering from P. heterotremus infection. In some provinces of central Vietnam, the prevalence and infection intensity of P. westermani metacercariae in freshwater crabs (the second intermediate hosts) are extremely high, but human cases have not been reported. Likewise, although P. skrjabini was found in Thanh Hoa Province, its pathogenicity to humans in Vietnam still remains uncertain. The results of molecular phylogenetic analyses of Vietnamese Paragonimus species provides new insights on the phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Paragonimus. Comprehensive molecular epidemiological and geobiological studies on the genus in Vietnam and adjacent countries are needed to clarify the biodiversity and public health significance of the lung flukes.

  16. Prevalence of Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, and Cryptosporidium spp in Da Nang, Vietnam, detected by a multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ögren, Jessica; Van Nguyen, Song; Nguyen, Minh Khac; Dimberg, Jan; Matussek, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    We surveyed the prevalence of Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Cryptosporidium spp in individuals with and without gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms residing in and around Da Nang city, Vietnam. Fecal samples were collected from children (n = 100) and adults (n = 80) with GI symptoms and from healthy individuals (n = 88) reporting no GI symptoms. Parasite detection was performed by multiplex real-time PCR. Overall, except for G. duodenalis, we found a low prevalence (histolytica and C. spp in all participants with GI symptoms. Specifically for D. fragilis this contrasts with findings in European populations of children with GI symptoms showing prevalence up to 73%. Moreover, our results indicate that the prevalence of G. duodenalis is higher in patients with GI symptoms compared to asymptomatic individuals and this difference is most obvious in young patients.

  17. Detection of polychlorinated biphenyls in transformer oils in Vietnam by multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry using a far-ultraviolet femtosecond laser as an ionization source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Thi Thuy Duong; Vu, Duong; Nghiem, Thi Ha Lien; Imasaka, Tomoko; Tang, Yuanyuan; Shibuta, Shinpei; Hamachi, Akifumi; Do, Quang Hoa; Imasaka, Totaro

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer and food oils were measured using gas chromatography combined with multiphoton ionization mass spectroscopy. An ultrashort laser pulse emitting in the far-ultraviolet region was utilized for efficient ionization of the analytes. Numerous signal peaks were clearly observed for a standard sample mixture of PCBs when the third and fourth harmonic emissions (267 and 200nm) of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (800nm) were employed. The signal intensities were found to be greater when measured at 200nm compared with those measured at 267nm, providing lower detection limits especially for highly chlorinated PCBs at shorter wavelengths. After simple pretreatment using disposable columns, PCB congeners were measured and found to be present in the transformer oils used in Vietnam.

  18. Weighting links based on edge centrality for community detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng Gang

    2014-01-01

    Link weights have the equally important position as links in complex networks, and they are closely associated with each other for the emergence of communities. How to assign link weights to make a clear distinction between internal links of communities and external links connecting communities is of vital importance for community detection. Edge centralities provide a powerful approach for distinguishing internal links from external ones. Here, we first use edge centralities such as betweenness, information centrality and edge clustering coefficient to weight links of networks respectively to transform unweighted networks into weighted ones, and then a weighted function that both considers links and link weights is adopted on the weighted networks for community detection. We evaluate the performance of our approach on random networks as well as real-world networks. Better results are achieved on weighted networks with stronger weights of internal links of communities, and the results on unweighted networks outperform that of weighted networks with weaker weights of internal links of communities. The availability of our findings is also well-supported by the study of Granovetter that the weak links maintain the global integrity of the network while the strong links maintain the communities. Especially in the Karate club network, all the nodes are correctly classified when we weight links by edge betweenness. The results also give us a more comprehensive understanding on the correlation between links and link weights for community detection.

  19. Plantation livelihoods in central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben

    2014-01-01

    , few studies have examined these issues at the local level or analysed the interplay between plantation forest expansion, household vulnerability, and community resilience to climatic disturbances. The article documents the extent to which the introduction of acacia tree species has reinforced existing...... inequalities in landholding, which in turn increases household vulnerability to natural disturbances. This has resulted in the emergence of a social-ecological context characterized by decreasing resilience. The most vulnerable households are those of the landless and ethnic minorities, both of which depend...

  20. Unweighted Betweenness Centrality for Critical Fault Detection for Cascading Outage Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pauli Fríðheim; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the possible use of unweighted betweenness centrality instead of weighted betweenness centrality, for critical fault detection for assessment of cascading failures. As unweighted betweenness centrality is significantly faster to compute, the possible use of this will significa...

  1. TerraSAR-X time-series interferometry detects human-induce subsidence in the Historical Centre of Hanoi, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tuan; Chang, Chung-Pai; Nguyen, Xuan

    2016-04-01

    Hanoi was the capital of 12 Vietnamese dynasties, where the most historical relics, archaeological ruins and ancient monuments are located over Vietnam. However, those heritage assets are threatened by the land subsidence process occurred in recent decades, which mainly triggered by massive groundwater exploitation and construction activities. In this work, we use a set of high resolution TerraSAR-X images to map small-scale land subsidence patterns in the Historical Centre of Hanoi from April 2012 to November 2013. Images oversampling is integrated into the Small Baseline InSAR processing chain in order to enlarge the monitoring coverage by increasing the point-wise measurements, maintaining the monitoring scale of single building and monument. We analyzed over 2.4 million radar targets on 13.9 km2 area of interest based on 2 main sites: The Citadel, the Old Quarter and French Quarter. The highest subsidence rate recorded is -14.2 mm/year. Most of the heritage assets are considered as stable except the Roman Catholic Archdiocese and the Ceramic Mosaic Mural with the subsidence rates are -14.2 and -13.7 mm/year, respectively. Eventually, optical image and soil properties map are used to determine the causes of subsidence patterns. The result shows the strong relationships between the existing construction sites, the component of sediments and land subsidence processes that occurred in the study site.

  2. Application of remote sensing and GIS for detection of long-term mangrove shoreline changes in Mui Ca Mau, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Thi, V.; Tien Thi Xuan, A.; Phan Nguyen, H.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F.; Koedam, N.

    2014-07-01

    Mui Ca Mau at the southern tip of Vietnam supports a large area of mangroves and has a high value for biodiversity and scenic beauty. This area is affected by erosion along the East Sea and accretion along the Gulf of Thailand, leading to the loss of huge stretches of mangroves along the East Sea and, in some cases, loss of environmental and ecosystem services provided by mangroves. In this study, we used remotely sensed aerial (1953), Landsat (1979, 1988 and 2000) and SPOT (1992, 1995, 2004, 2008, 2009 and 2011) images and the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) to quantify the rate of mangrove shoreline change for a 58 yr period. There were 1129 transects sampled at 100 m intervals along the mangrove shoreline and two statistical methods, namely end point rate (EPR) and linear regression rate (LRR), were used to calculate the rate of change of mangrove shorelines and distance from 1953 to 2011. The study confirms that erosion and accretion, respectively, are significant at the East Sea and Gulf of Thailand sides of Mui Ca Mau. The East Sea side had a mean erosion LRR of 33.24 m yr-1. The accretion trend at the Gulf of Thailand side had an average rate of 40.65 m yr-1. The results are important in predicting changes of coastal ecosystem boundaries and enable advanced planning for specific sections of coastline, to minimize or neutralize losses, to inform provincial rehabilitation efforts and reduce threats to coastal development and human safety.

  3. Application of remote sensing and GIS for detection of long-term mangrove shoreline changes in Ca Mau, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Thi, V.; Phan Nguyen, H.; Tien Thi Xuan, A.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F.; Koedam, N.

    2013-12-01

    Ca Mau at the southern tip of Vietnam supports a large area of mangroves and has a high value for biodiversity and scenic beauty. This area is affected by erosion along the East Sea and accretion along the Gulf of Thailand, leading to the loss of huge stretches of mangroves along the East Sea and, in some cases, loss of ecosystems services provided by mangroves. In this study, we used remotely sensed aerial (1953), Landsat (1979, 1988, and 2000) and SPOT (1992, 1995, 2004, 2008 and 2009, and 2011) images and the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) to quantify the rate of mangrove shoreline change for a 58 yr period. There were 1129 transects sampled at 100 m intervals along the mangrove shoreline and two statistical methods, namely End Point Rate (EPR) and Linear Regression Rate (LRR), were used to calculate the rate of change of mangrove shorelines and distance from 1953 to 2011. The study confirms erosion and accretion respectively are significant at the Eastern and Western Sea sides of the Ca Mau tip. The East Sea side had a mean erosion LRR of 33.24 m yr-1. For the accretion trend at the Gulf of Thailand side averaged at rate of 40.65 m yr-1. The results are important in predicting changes of coastal ecosystem boundaries and enable advanced planning for specific sections of coastline, to minimize or neutralize losses, to inform provincial rehabilitation efforts and reduce threats to coastal development and human safety.

  4. Ocean Dynamics: Vietnam DRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Dynamics: Vietnam DRI Robert Pinkel Marine Physical Laboratory Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla California 92093-0213 Phone: (858) 534...DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ocean Dynamics: Vietnam DRI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...cycle.. The Thorpe-scale estimates are local to Site III. South China Sea Process Cruise 2014 Under Vietnam DRI funding, Researcher Drew Lucas

  5. Capacity Building in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Adam McCarty

    2001-01-01

    This report is the outcome of a study commissioned to examine the capacity building needs in Vietnam, and is a supplementary document to the Asian Development Bank's Country Operational Strategy for Vietnam. Vietnam's needs in terms of capacity building are particularly important given that is it a transitional economy and also one with little institutional experience in dealing with the international donor community. This paper examines the international awareness of capacity building and ca...

  6. EU and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    was limited to aid. The reason is largely Vietnam’s historical experiences from the aid relationship with the Soviet Union, which created dependence and eventually an economic crisis when aid flows dried up in the late 1980s. Instead, there has been substantial tension between the donor community and Vietnam...... towards Vietnam. However, it is likely that the antidumping measures used by the EU are not primarily directed at Vietnam, but rather at China. This means that Vietnam is affected by the re-polarization of the world economy through its proximity to and links with China, but that the relation is perhaps...

  7. Climate Change and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    expansion of large hydropower and reservoir construction can increase social resilience through associated economic development . However, the same...of the most vulnerable countries globally to the consequences of climate change, Vietnam is highly likely to experience a variety of negative...iii ABSTRACT Climate Change and Vietnam As one of the most vulnerable countries globally to the consequences

  8. Emergency medicine in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, J R

    1997-04-01

    The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is one of the poorest countries in the world. Recent economic developments, as the country attempts to start a market economy, have had a profound impact on its health care system. This report describes the state of prehospital and emergency medical care in Vietnam and possibilities for the future.

  9. MOTIVATION OF CHINESE INVESTMENT IN VIETNAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China attracted a record ofUS$52.7×109 in foreign direct investment (FDI) in the year 2002, surpassing the United States to become the world's largest FDI recipient. China's success in attracting FDI has received significant attention from academics. Several theoretical approaches have been developed to explain the determinants of FDI in China.However, it seems to be ignored that China has also become a growing provider of significant FDI to the rest of the world.According to United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)'s 2004 report, as a developing country,replacing Japan, China has made the list of the expected top five home countries worldwide for the first time in terms of geographical coverage (2004-2005). Vietnam is second largest market and another emerging transition tiger in Southeast Asia. Both China and Vietnam were and are experiencing transitions from centrally planned economy to free market economy. This paper, therefore, attempts to explore the development of Chinese investment in Vietnam, analysing the main motives for, and characteristics of, Chinese Multinational Enterprises' (MNEs) investment in Vietnam.

  10. New Species of Ophiopogon and Peliosanthes (Asparagaceae from Laos and Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid V. AVERYANOV

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Ophiopogon, O. alatus, O. erectus from N. Vietnam and O. patulus from NE. Laos, and three new species of Peliosanthes, P. inaperta from central Laos and P. kenhilloides, P. splendens from NW. Vietnam, are described with illustrations. These taxa are regarded as local endemics of the respective countries. Peliosanthes macrostegia is recorded as new to the flora of Vietnam. Data on distribution and ecological aspects of O. hayatae is added with photographic illustrations, because our knowledge on this species in Vietnam is still insufficient.

  11. We have to eat, right? : food safety concerns and shopping for daily vegetables in modernizing Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyses how people during everyday life confront real food safety risks that are difficult to influence and come to grips with and focuses on food safety risks in modernizing Vietnam. Over the past 40 years Vietnam has developed from war torn country with a highly centralized planned ec

  12. Molecular and morphological variation of Paragonimus westermani in Vietnam with records of new second intermediate crab hosts and a new locality in a northern province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doanh, N Pham; Tu, A Luu; Bui, T Dung; Loan, T Ho; Nonaka, Nariaki; Horii, Yoichiro; Blair, David; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2016-10-01

    Paragonimus westermani is one of the most medically important lung flukes and is widely distributed in Asia. It exhibits considerable variation in morphological, genetic and biological features. In central provinces of Vietnam, a high prevalence of metacercariae of this species has been reported from the crab intermediate host, Vietopotamon aluoiense. In this study, we detected P. westermani metacercariae in two additional crab hosts, Donopotamon haii in Quang Tri Province, central Vietnam and Indochinamon tannanti in Yen Bai Province in the north. The latter is a new locality for P. westermani in a northern region of Vietnam where P. heterotremus is the only species currently known to cause human paragonimiasis. Paragonimus westermani metacercariae found in Vietnam showed considerable morphological variation but slight genetic variation based on DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal ITS2 region and the mitochondrial 16S gene. Co-infection of the same individual crabs with P. westermani and P. heterotremus and/or some other Paragonimus species was found frequently, suggesting potential for co-infection in humans. The findings of the present study emphasize the need for highly specific molecular and immunodiagnostic methods to differentially diagnose between P. westermani and P. heterotremus infections.

  13. Upstream profitability in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingeberg, K.

    1993-12-01

    This report outlines the main characteristics of the petroleum industry in Vietnam. First, it discusses the exploration history and the fiscal regime and concession system for international companies searching for new exploration ventures in the country. Second, it presents an economic analysis of exploration and field development decisions. The analysis is based on a cash flow tax model reflecting the current economic framework. Calculations of upstream profitability are based on typical offshore oil project assumptions. The analysis includes the effects of different levels of exploration risks, tax position and tax agreements. The report also compares fiscal terms in Vietnam and Malaysia and their effect on attractivity. 20 refs., 3 figs., 19 tabs.

  14. The Vietnam War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, James; Larsen, Chris Holmsted; Rasmussen, Søren Hein

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the role of the Vietnam War in Danish and Norwegian politics. We argue that Danish and Norwegian membership in NATO and an unstable parliamentary situation may explain why these countries, unlike Sweden, did not take on the lead in the international protest against the war...... in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and in all three countries powerful protest movements emerged that were remarkably similar. The Vietnam War strengthened the left in general and promoted a leftist politics of solidarity that influenced Swedish, Danish and Norwegian foreign policy-making of the 1970s....

  15. Vietnam and the sustainable development of the Mekong river basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang, Nguyen Nhan

    2002-01-01

    Vietnam is a riparian country located in most downstream area of the Mekong river basin which is also shared by other states namely China, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand and Cambodia. While the Central Highlands of Vietnam has a great potential for hydropower development in tributaries of Mekong river, the Mekong delta in Vietnam territory is rich in natural resources which are favorable for agricultural development. However, besides local constraints which being gradually remedied by Vietnam, the development of the Mekong delta is subject to, in both terms of quantity and quality, availability of water resources which relates to the water use of or discharge into the river of upper riparians. With a view to co-developing these resources in a sustainable and mutually beneficial manner, Vietnam has cooperated with other states through framework of the Mekong River Commission set up by the 1995 Mekong Agreement. This paper describes the strategy and action plan applied by Viet Nam National Mekong Committee to reach the sustainable development of the Mekong river basin in general and of Vietnam parts located in the Mekong basin in particular.

  16. The relationship between change detection and recognition of centrally attended objects in motion pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, Bonnie L; Levin, Daniel T; Simons, Daniel J

    2003-01-01

    Observers typically detect changes to central objects more readily than changes to marginal objects, but they sometimes miss changes to central, attended objects as well. However, even if observers do not report such changes, they may be able to recognize the changed object. In three experiments we explored change detection and recognition memory for several types of changes to central objects in motion pictures. Observers who failed to detect a change still performed at above chance levels on a recognition task in almost all conditions. In addition, observers who detected the change were no more accurate in their recognition than those who did not detect the change. Despite large differences in the detectability of changes across conditions, those observers who missed the change did not vary in their ability to recognize the changing object.

  17. Vietnam in Childrens' Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY. United States Committee.

    Twenty-five nonfiction and 18 fiction and folklore listings are included in this bulletin on Vietnam in childrens' books. Slides, filmstrips, and film listings are also included. Each listing is accompanied by a brief annotation. Subjects include customs and culture, the country and the people, Ho Chi Min, the Vietnamese revolution, Vietnamese…

  18. Rural Credit in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders, but formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation. Interest rates fell from 1997...... to credit policy is clearly inappropriate....

  19. USE OF EIGENVECTOR CENTRALITY TO DETECT GRAPH ISOMORPHISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Meghanathan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Graph Isomorphism is one of the classical problems of graph theory for which no deterministic polynomial-time algorithm is currently known, but has been neither proven to be NP-complete. Several heuristic algorithms have been proposed to determine whether or not two graphs are isomorphic (i.e., structurally the same. In this research, we propose to use the sequence (either the non-decreasing or nonincreasing order of eigenvector centrality (EVC values of the vertices of two graphs as a precursor step to decide whether or not to further conduct tests for graph isomorphism. The eigenvector centrality of a vertex in a graph is a measure of the degree of the vertex as well as the degrees of its neighbors. We hypothesize that if the non-increasing (or non-decreasing order of listings of the EVC values of the vertices of two test graphs are not the same, then the two graphs are not isomorphic. If two test graphs have an identical non-increasing order of the EVC sequence, then they are declared to be potentially isomorphic and confirmed through additional heuristics. We test our hypothesis on random graphs (generated according to the Erdos-Renyi model and we observe the hypothesis to be indeed true: graph pairs that have the same sequence of non-increasing order of EVC values have been confirmed to be isomorphic using the well-known Nauty software.

  20. Chinese Commodities and Vietnam Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Last April, with the support of China Machinery Industry Federation and Vietnam Em bassy in China, the Society of Automotive Engineers of CCPIT successfully held "China Famous Brand Auto Vietnam Show". I am informed that the Organizing Committee plans to hold the 3rd China Auto International Exhibition Tour in this November. According to the agenda, this activity will extend from Vietnam to other ASEAN member countries, therefore, it will have a larger scale, a longer route and a richer content. On beha...

  1. Vietnam's Labour Market in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Adam McCarty

    2001-01-01

    This report examines the employment structure and structural change (1986-1999) of Vietnam, discusses Vietnam's labour market regulations and examines how Vietnam's labour markets could become more efficient. Vietnam’s labour policies remain focused on control of state enterprises: who they employ, how many, and what they pay them. The Labour Code of 1995 saw a move to extend state worker privileges throughout the economy. This is a futile exercise to establish a welfare state in a country wi...

  2. Livelihood strategies under climate change vulnerability in Quang Nam province, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil

    Analysis of the transformation of primary to plantation forest under risk of severe natural disasters in central Vietnam. The articles argues that the process could be seen as an example of government induced vulnerability......Analysis of the transformation of primary to plantation forest under risk of severe natural disasters in central Vietnam. The articles argues that the process could be seen as an example of government induced vulnerability...

  3. Teaching in Vietnam

    CERN Multimedia

    Vitale,B

    1974-01-01

    Monsieur B.Vitale porte depuis plusieurs années un grand interêt aux questions d'enseignement dans les pays du tiers monde et a recemment eu l'occasion de faire un séjour dans la république démocratique du Vietnam. Il va nous faire part de ses impressions dans le domaine de l'enseignement, qu'il a vu, entrevu et essayé de comprendre

  4. The Lessons of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M., Ed.

    This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…

  5. Developing School Psychology in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Phuong; Hagans, Kristi; Powers, Kristin; Hass, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Like China, Vietnam is a communist country with increasingly capitalist economic policies. A fundamental change occurred in these policies with the enactment of Vietnam's "doi moi" (renovation) policy in 1986 that called for a "free market with socialist orientations." However, this economic modernization has inadvertently…

  6. Developing School Psychology in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Phuong; Hagans, Kristi; Powers, Kristin; Hass, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Like China, Vietnam is a communist country with increasingly capitalist economic policies. A fundamental change occurred in these policies with the enactment of Vietnam's "doi moi" (renovation) policy in 1986 that called for a "free market with socialist orientations." However, this economic modernization has inadvertently changed the social…

  7. Potential economic corridors between Vietnam and Lao PDR: Roles played by Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Binh Giang

    2012-01-01

    The Third Thai-Lao Friendship over the Mekong officially opened on 11th November 2011 facilitates the cross-border trade along Asian Highway 15 and Asian Highway 131 between Northeast Thailand, Central Lao PDR and North Central Vietnam. Since the establishment of East-West Economic Corridor (EWEC) which based on the Asian Highway 16, the cross-border trade among countries in Greater Mekong Sub-region has been much facilitated. The success of EWEC encourages local governments in the region to...

  8. Centralized Disturbance Detection in Smart Microgrids With Noisy and Intermittent Synchrophasor Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyedi, Younes; Karimi, Houshang; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    Microgrids are prone to network-wide disturbances such as voltage and frequency deviations. Detection of disturbances by a microgrid central controller (MGCC) is therefore necessary for improving the network operation. Motivated by this application, this paper presents a new structure...... for the centralized detection of disturbances with noisy synchrophasor data and packet delay/dropouts. We build the proposed structure starting from the analysis of noise-delay tradeoff in synchrophasor networks, and developing a new phasor data concentrator (PDC) for compensation of data losses. The statistical...... of false detection. Moreover, it can achieve the lower bound of average detection time in a wide range of packet drop rates. This study is useful to network designers who need to employ data acquisition systems for reliable and robust microgrid control applications....

  9. Rural Credit in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders, but formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation. Interest rates fell from 1997...... to 2002, reflecting increased market integration; but the determinants of formal and informal credit demand are distinct. Credit rationing depends on education and credit history, but we find no evidence of a bias against women. Regional differences are striking, and a ‘one size fits all’ approach...

  10. Sustainable urbanization in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakakis-smith, D; Dixon, C

    1997-01-01

    "This paper examines the nature of [urban-based economic growth in Vietnam] and contends that the present size of Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi are much greater than official figures suggest. It then goes on to review the situation with regard to urban poverty, basic needs and the environment to illustrate the extent to which this unacknowledged growth is not only threatening the sustained expansion of those cities, but also the sustainability of the economic growth on which the country is so reliant."

  11. The Dynamic Range Paradox: A Central Auditory Model of Intensity Change Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Andrew J.R.; Reiss, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we use empirical loudness modeling to explore a perceptual sub-category of the dynamic range problem of auditory neuroscience. Humans are able to reliably report perceived intensity (loudness), and discriminate fine intensity differences, over a very large dynamic range. It is usually assumed that loudness and intensity change detection operate upon the same neural signal, and that intensity change detection may be predicted from loudness data and vice versa. However, while loudness grows as intensity is increased, improvement in intensity discrimination performance does not follow the same trend and so dynamic range estimations of the underlying neural signal from loudness data contradict estimations based on intensity just-noticeable difference (JND) data. In order to account for this apparent paradox we draw on recent advances in auditory neuroscience. We test the hypothesis that a central model, featuring central adaptation to the mean loudness level and operating on the detection of maximum central-loudness rate of change, can account for the paradoxical data. We use numerical optimization to find adaptation parameters that fit data for continuous-pedestal intensity change detection over a wide dynamic range. The optimized model is tested on a selection of equivalent pseudo-continuous intensity change detection data. We also report a supplementary experiment which confirms the modeling assumption that the detection process may be modeled as rate-of-change. Data are obtained from a listening test (N = 10) using linearly ramped increment-decrement envelopes applied to pseudo-continuous noise with an overall level of 33 dB SPL. Increments with half-ramp durations between 5 and 50,000 ms are used. The intensity JND is shown to increase towards long duration ramps (p<10−6). From the modeling, the following central adaptation parameters are derived; central dynamic range of 0.215 sones, 95% central normalization, and a central loudness JND

  12. The dynamic range paradox: a central auditory model of intensity change detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J R Simpson

    Full Text Available In this paper we use empirical loudness modeling to explore a perceptual sub-category of the dynamic range problem of auditory neuroscience. Humans are able to reliably report perceived intensity (loudness, and discriminate fine intensity differences, over a very large dynamic range. It is usually assumed that loudness and intensity change detection operate upon the same neural signal, and that intensity change detection may be predicted from loudness data and vice versa. However, while loudness grows as intensity is increased, improvement in intensity discrimination performance does not follow the same trend and so dynamic range estimations of the underlying neural signal from loudness data contradict estimations based on intensity just-noticeable difference (JND data. In order to account for this apparent paradox we draw on recent advances in auditory neuroscience. We test the hypothesis that a central model, featuring central adaptation to the mean loudness level and operating on the detection of maximum central-loudness rate of change, can account for the paradoxical data. We use numerical optimization to find adaptation parameters that fit data for continuous-pedestal intensity change detection over a wide dynamic range. The optimized model is tested on a selection of equivalent pseudo-continuous intensity change detection data. We also report a supplementary experiment which confirms the modeling assumption that the detection process may be modeled as rate-of-change. Data are obtained from a listening test (N = 10 using linearly ramped increment-decrement envelopes applied to pseudo-continuous noise with an overall level of 33 dB SPL. Increments with half-ramp durations between 5 and 50,000 ms are used. The intensity JND is shown to increase towards long duration ramps (p<10(-6. From the modeling, the following central adaptation parameters are derived; central dynamic range of 0.215 sones, 95% central normalization, and a central

  13. Migration and persistence of human influenza A viruses, Vietnam, 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Mai Quynh; Lam, Ha Minh; Cuong, Vuong Duc; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Halpin, Rebecca A; Wentworth, David E; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Thanh, Le Thi; Phuong, Hoang Vu Mai; Horby, Peter; Boni, Maciej F

    2013-11-01

    Understanding global influenza migration and persistence is crucial for vaccine strain selection. Using 240 new human influenza A virus whole genomes collected in Vietnam during 2001-2008, we looked for persistence patterns and migratory connections between Vietnam and other countries. We found that viruses in Vietnam migrate to and from China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Cambodia, Japan, South Korea, and the United States. We attempted to reduce geographic bias by generating phylogenies subsampled at the year and country levels. However, migration events in these phylogenies were still driven by the presence or absence of sequence data, indicating that an epidemiologic study design that controls for prevalence is required for robust migration analysis. With whole-genome data, most migration events are not detectable from the phylogeny of the hemagglutinin segment alone, although general migratory relationships between Vietnam and other countries are visible in the hemagglutinin phylogeny. It is possible that virus lineages in Vietnam persisted for >1 year.

  14. Multi-Centrality Graph Spectral Decompositions and Their Application to Cyber Intrusion Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Pin-Yu; Choudhury, Sutanay; Hero, Alfred

    2016-03-01

    Many modern datasets can be represented as graphs and hence spectral decompositions such as graph principal component analysis (PCA) can be useful. Distinct from previous graph decomposition approaches based on subspace projection of a single topological feature, e.g., the centered graph adjacency matrix (graph Laplacian), we propose spectral decomposition approaches to graph PCA and graph dictionary learning that integrate multiple features, including graph walk statistics, centrality measures and graph distances to reference nodes. In this paper we propose a new PCA method for single graph analysis, called multi-centrality graph PCA (MC-GPCA), and a new dictionary learning method for ensembles of graphs, called multi-centrality graph dictionary learning (MC-GDL), both based on spectral decomposition of multi-centrality matrices. As an application to cyber intrusion detection, MC-GPCA can be an effective indicator of anomalous connectivity pattern and MC-GDL can provide discriminative basis for attack classification.

  15. Ensemble climate projections of mean and extreme rainfall over Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, S. V.; Vu, M. T.; Liong, S. Y.

    2017-01-01

    A systematic ensemble high resolution climate modelling study over Vietnam has been performed using the PRECIS model developed by the Hadley Center in UK. A 5 member subset of the 17-member Perturbed Physics Ensembles (PPE) of the Quantifying Uncertainty in Model Predictions (QUMP) project were simulated and analyzed. The PRECIS model simulations were conducted at a horizontal resolution of 25 km for the baseline period 1961-1990 and a future climate period 2061-2090 under scenario A1B. The results of model simulations show that the model was able to reproduce the mean state of climate over Vietnam when compared to observations. The annual cycles and seasonal averages of precipitation over different sub-regions of Vietnam show the ability of the model in also reproducing the observed peak and magnitude of monthly rainfall. The climate extremes of precipitation were also fairly well captured. Projections of future climate show both increases and decreases in the mean climate over different regions of Vietnam. The analyses of future extreme rainfall using the STARDEX precipitation indices show an increase in 90th percentile precipitation (P90p) over the northern provinces (15-25%) and central highland (5-10%) and over southern Vietnam (up to 5%). The total number of wet days (Prcp) indicates a decrease of about 5-10% all over Vietnam. Consequently, an increase in the wet day rainfall intensity (SDII), is likely inferring that the projected rainfall would be much more severe and intense which have the potential to cause flooding in some regions. Risks due to extreme drought also exist in other regions where the number of wet days decreases. In addition, the maximum 5 day consecutive rainfall (R5d) increases by 20-25% over northern Vietnam but decreases in a similar range over the central and southern Vietnam. These results have strong implications for the management water resources, agriculture, bio diversity and economy and serve as some useful findings to be

  16. Vietnam: achievements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Tien Duc

    1999-01-01

    The Vietnamese Government's successful development of the National Population and Family Planning Program has contributed in raising people's awareness on population issues and changing their attitudes and behavior regarding fostering small families. It has also been found to be very effective in substantially decreasing fertility level. In addition, economic levels of many households have been greatly improved since the adoption of a renovation policy. The advancement of welfare accompanied by the provision of better basic social services, including health services, has boost people's health. Several factors behind the achievements of the National Population and Family Planning Program include: 1) Strengthening of the political commitment of national and local leaders; 2) Nationwide mobilization of mass organizations and NGOs; 3) A strong advocacy and information, education and communication program; 4) Provision of various kinds of contraceptives; 5) Effective management of the program by priority; and 6) Support of the international community. Despite such successes, Vietnam is facing a number of new issues such as enlargement of the work force, shifting migration patterns and accelerating urbanization, aging of population, and change of household structure. Nevertheless, the Government of Vietnam is preparing a New Population Strategy aimed to address these issues.

  17. Modeling the impact of rubella vaccination in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vynnycky, Emilia; Yoshida, Lay Myint; Huyen, Dang Thi Thanh; Trung, Nguyen Dac; Toda, Kohei; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Thi Hong, Duong; Ariyoshi, Koya; Miyakawa, Masami; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Tho, Le Huu; Nguyen, Hien Anh; Duc Anh, Dang; Jit, Mark; Hien, Nguyen Tran

    2016-01-01

    Supported by GAVI Alliance, measles-rubella vaccination was introduced in Vietnam in 2014, involving a mass campaign among 1-14 year olds and routine immunization of children aged 9 months. We explore the impact on the incidence of Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) during 2013-2050 of this strategy and variants involving women aged 15-35 years. We use an age and sex-structured dynamic transmission model, set up using recently-collected seroprevalence data from Central Vietnam, and also consider different levels of transmission and contact patterns. If the serological profile resembles that in Central Vietnam, the planned vaccination strategy could potentially prevent 125,000 CRS cases by 2050 in Vietnam, despite outbreaks predicted in the meantime. Targeting the initial campaign at 15-35 year old women with or without children aged 9 months-14 years led to sustained reductions in incidence, unless levels of ongoing transmission were medium-high before vaccination started. Assumptions about contact greatly influenced predictions if the initial campaign just targeted 15-35 year old women and/or levels of ongoing transmission were medium-high. Given increased interest in rubella vaccination, resulting from GAVI Alliance funding, the findings are relevant for many countries.

  18. Air Power and the Ground War in Vietnam, Ideas and Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    George Bertolt Brecht Notwithstanding the claims of their critics, civilian officials and advisers in Washington always saw the problems of Vietnam...different visions of war, sometimes calling for contrary solutions . And the war on the ground and in the air over Vietnam played against the war...but still hypothetical nuclear war . In the short run, then, the ominous cloud at Hiroshima verified the central role the Air Force would play in the

  19. Vietnam, Four American Perspectives: Lectures

    OpenAIRE

    McGovern, George S.; Westmoreland, William C.; Luttwak, Edward N.; McCormick, Thomas J.; Hearden, Patrick F.

    1990-01-01

    This collection of speeches delivered in 1987 presents the widely diverging opinions of four men: an eminent politician, a professional soldier, a government consultant, and a distinguished scholar. The first contributor, Senator George S. McGovern, ran as the Democratic candidate for president in 1972 on a platform that called for the withdrawal of American troops from Vietnam. The second speaker, General William C. Westmoreland, commanded American military forces in Vietnam until growing ba...

  20. Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Land-use and Land-cover Change: A Multi-agent Simulation Model and Its Application to an Upland Watershed in Central Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Q.; Vlek, P. L.; Park, S.

    2005-12-01

    flexible interactions among human and landscape agents, and monitors consequent land-use changes and associated socio-economic dynamics. The model was applied in a watershed of about 100 km2 in A-Luoi district, Central Vietnam. Spatially explicit data were obtained from Landsat ETM images, thematic maps, an extensive forest inventory, and an intensive household survey. Field data were used for calibrating agent's parameters and develop an initial database for simulation runs. Scenarios of land-use changes under different policy options on forest protection zoning, agrochemical subsidies and agricultural extension were generated to evaluate the consequences of such policy interventions. Preliminary simulation runs for 10 different policy options suggest that reducing the current proportion of protected area from 90% to 50% and increasing the enforcement of protection, together with the provision of extension services for a third of the total population, and subsidizing 5% of the population with agrochemicals ($US 16 household-1 year-1) would, on average, increase per capita gross income by 15% and significantly reduce forest degradation compared to the scenario based on the status quo (i.e., the policy settings of 2002).

  1. Genetic and antigenic characterization of enterovirus 71 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Phan Kim Thoa

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 frequently causes fatal infections in young children in Asia. In 2011, EV71 epidemics occurred in southern Vietnam. We conducted genetic and antigenic analysis of the EV71 isolates and found that 94% of them were genotype C4a related to two lineages circulating in China and 6% were genotype C5 which have circulated in Vietnam since 2003. Antigenic variants were not detected. EV71 vaccines are being developed. Longitudinal enterovirus surveillance data are critical to formulate vaccination policy in Vietnam.

  2. Study on nuclear power introduction into Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuong Huu Tan [Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission, 59 Ly Thuong Kiet, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2000-03-01

    The report presents main results of the study on nuclear power introduction into Vietnam which have been carried out at Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission in collaboration with Ministry of Industry of Vietnam and other countries like Japan, Canada and Korea. The study covers all topics related to the nuclear power introduction into Vietnam such as electricity demands and supply, economics, finance, technology, safety, manpower, site selection etc. (author)

  3. Flexibility, Reach, and the Vietnam Fire Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    48 v ACRONYMS AVRN Army of the Republic of Vietnam COIN Counterinsurgency DRV Democratic Republic of Vietnam DOD Department of...insect-transmitted diseases like malaria, dengue, and encephalitis. Cholera , hepatitis, and typhoid were common in the countryside because of a...watch? v =Q-m96RoxwrI (accessed 18 January 2014). 75PBS, “Battlefield: Vietnam; The Siege at Khe Sanh,” Battlefield Vietnam Web Site, Adobe Shockwave

  4. Higher Education in Vietnam: Change and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloper, David, Ed.; Le, Thac Can, Ed.

    This collection of 12 essays examines the development of higher education in Vietnam, focusing on current issues related to educational reform, expansion, and funding. They are: (1) "Higher Education in Vietnam: The Door Opens--From Inside" (Le Thac Can and David Sloper); (2) "Socio-Economic Background of Vietnam Since 1986: Impact on Education…

  5. Current status of fasciolosis in Vietnam: an update and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, T D; Doanh, P N; Saegerman, C; Losson, B

    2016-09-01

    Vietnam is recognized to be endemic for fasciolosis. However, most of the available publications have not been published in international journals. This review is based on national and international Vietnamese publications and highlights the current status of fasciolosis in Vietnam. It also provides some information available for neighbouring countries. Updated data on responsible species, distribution, transmission and control aspects are summarized. The central region of Vietnam is reported as being highly endemic for fasciolosis, with a high number of human patients (more than 20,000 in 2011). Fasciola gigantica is reported to be the main species in Vietnam. However, hybrids between F. gigantica and F. hepatica were identified. Both humans and animals are infected by the ingestion of raw vegetables and possibly contaminated drinking water. Three lymnaeid snail species (Austropeplea viridis, Radix auricularia and Radix rubiginosa) may act as intermediate hosts of Fasciola spp. However, due to the likely misidentification of snail species and cercariae during the past decade the critical analysis of published data is difficult. A better understanding of transmission aspects of fasciolosis would allow the implementation of preventive measures of this important neglected zoonotic disease.

  6. CenLP: A centrality-based label propagation algorithm for community detection in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Heli; Liu, Jiao; Huang, Jianbin; Wang, Guangtao; Yang, Zhou; Song, Qinbao; Jia, Xiaolin

    2015-10-01

    Community detection is an important work for discovering the structure and features of complex networks. Many existing methods are sensitive to critical user-dependent parameters or time-consuming in practice. In this paper, we propose a novel label propagation algorithm, called CenLP (Centrality-based Label Propagation). The algorithm introduces a new function to measure the centrality of nodes quantitatively without any user interaction by calculating the local density and the similarity with higher density neighbors for each node. Based on the centrality of nodes, we present a new label propagation algorithm with specific update order and node preference to uncover communities in large-scale networks automatically without imposing any prior restriction. Experiments on both real-world and synthetic networks manifest our algorithm retains the simplicity, effectiveness, and scalability of the original label propagation algorithm and becomes more robust and accurate. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superior performance of our algorithm over the baseline methods. Moreover, our detailed experimental evaluation on real-world networks indicates that our algorithm can effectively measure the centrality of nodes in social networks.

  7. Potential Use of HF Radar for Tsunami Detection in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokacar, Tulay; Necmioglu, Ocal; Ozer, Ceren

    2016-04-01

    Today, HF radar is recognized as internationally cost-effective and efficient solution to provide near-real time measurements that cover a large area continuously over time for ocean hazards warning and long term ocean monitoring studies such as, seasonal forecasts of climate, hurricanes, s torm surges and large-scale ocean circulation changes. These radar systems recently became an operational tool in coastal monitoring worldwide. They are used for many operational applications that include ship detection, tracking, guidance, distribution of pollutants, fishery and oceanography. HF radar data used for the tsunami warnings, can also be used for the other purposes and be of potential interest to wide application area users and stakeholders. Moreover multi user applications will ensure the system is maintained operationally over the long term. Hence the system is cost effective also with regards to maintenance. New algorithms allow useful detection and verification for tsunami detection. While technical monitoring capacity and the algorithms for tsunami detection is improved significantly, further studies are required to obtain complete wave height determination. We analysed the available technology and algorithms for the purpose of tsunami detection in the central-eastern Mediterranean and its connected Seas (Aegean and Black Sea). Since the study area is characterized by narrow continental shelf area, the HF radar observation for the purpose of tsunami detection is possible in restricted areas. While extensive continental shelves in the northeastern Black Sea and along the coast of Tunisia in the central Mediterranean let tsunami detection 2.5 hours before tsunami waves hit the coast, the detection is possible around 1 hr or less in advance for the remaining basins with wide continental shelf areas. The bathymetric structure is important for deciding the applicability of HF radar systems for the tsunami detection in continental shelf areas, which can be covered by

  8. Detection of Dry Intrusion on Water Vapor Images Over Central Europe - June 2010 TO September 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, J.; Dejmal, K.; Hudec, F.; Kolar, P.

    2016-06-01

    The knowledge of evaluation of the intensity of cyclogenesis which could be connected with the weather having a significant impact on Earth's surface is quite useful. If, as one of the basic assumptions, the existence of connection between dry intrusions, dry bands, tropopause height and warm dark areas distribution on water vapor images (WV images) is considered, it is possible to set up a method of detecting dry intrusions on searching and tracking areas with higher brightness temperature compared with the surrounding environment. This paper covers the period between June 2010 and September 2011 over Central Europe. The ISIS method (Instrument de Suivi dans I'Imagerie satellitaire), originally developed for detection of cold cloud tops, was used as an initial ideological point. Subsequently, this method was modified by Michel and Bouttier for usage on WV images. Some of the applied criteria and parameters were chosen with reference to the results published by Michel and Bouttier as well as by Novotny. The procedure can be divided into two steps: detection of warm areas and their tracking. Cases of detection of areas not evidently connected with dry intrusions can be solved by filtering off based on the connection between detected warm areas to the cyclonic side of jet streams and significant lowering of the tropopause.

  9. Detection and Cellular Localization of Phospho-STAT2 in the Central Nervous System by Immunohistochemical Staining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Owens, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) indicates their involvement in active signaling. Here we describe immunohistochemical staining procedures for detection and identification of the cellular localization of phospho-STAT2 in the central nervous system (CNS...

  10. Molecular detection and characterization of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks from Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpulla, M; Barlozzari, G; Marcario, A; Salvato, L; Blanda, V; De Liberato, C; D'Agostini, C; Torina, A; Macrì, G

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of rickettsial pathogens in ticks from Central Italy. A total of 113 ticks hailed from Latium and Tuscany regions were identified and tested by PCR to detect gltA, ompA, ompB genes of Rickettsia. Positive amplicons were sequenced and identified at species level. Ticks were analyzed individually or in pools. The percentage of positivity for SFG rickettsiae was 12.4%, expressed as minimum infection rate (MIR) assuming that one tick was positive in each positive pool. Rickettsia aeschlimannii was detected in Hyalomma marginatum, Rickettsia monacensis in Ixodes ricinus and Rickettsia massiliae and Rickettsia conorii in Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. These findings confirm the circulation of pathogenic rickettsiae in Latium and Tuscany regions. To our knowledge this is the first report of R. massiliae in Latium region.

  11. Immunoassay for the Detection of Animal Central Nervous Tissue in Processed Meat and Feed Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Qinchun; Richt, Juergen A; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy

    2016-05-11

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) based on the detection of the thermal-stable central nervous tissue (CNT) marker protein, myelin basic protein (MBP), was developed to detect animal CNT in processed meat and feedstuffs. Two meat samples (cooked at 100 °C for 30 min and autoclaved at 133 °C for 20 min) of bovine brain in beef and two feed samples (bovine brain meal in beef meal and in soybean meal) were prepared at levels of 0.0008, 0.0031, 0.0063, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6%. An anti-MBP monoclonal antibody (mAb3E3) was produced using the hybridoma technique and characterized using Western blot. The optimized icELISA was CNT-specific without cross-reactivity with either meat (beef and pork) or soybean meal samples and had low intra-assay (%CV ≤ 3.5) and interassay variability (%CV ≤ 3.3), with low detection limits for bovine MBP (6.4 ppb) and bovine CNT spiked in both meat (0.05%) and feed (0.0125%) samples. This assay is therefore suitable for the quantitative detection of trace amounts of contaminated animal CNT in processed food and feed products.

  12. Greening textile industry in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Thi Phuong, L.

    2011-01-01

        The textile and garment industry has made a remarkable contribution to the economic development of Vietnam and employs currently a large labor force of 2.5 million people.However, the textile industry is also seen as a most polluting and unsustainable industry due to the use of exces

  13. Universal service policy in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do Manh, Thai; Falch, Morten; Von Salakpi, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    Universal service provision is a key to bridge the digital divide. This paper provides an empirical examination of the Vietnamese universal policy introduced in 2015 for implementation up to 2020. Using the framework of King et al. (1994) the paper analyses the universal services policy in Vietnam...

  14. Data on Vietnam Era Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterans Administration, Washington, DC. Office of the Controller.

    Statistical data are presented on Vietnam era veterans for the following topics: employment status, medical status, compensation and pension, education, housing assistance, expenditures, and demographic information. The estimated number and age of veterans in civil life, categorized by sex and state, and the educational attainment of veterans at…

  15. Vietnam recommended dietary allowances 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nguyen Cong; Hoan, Pham Van

    2008-01-01

    It has been well acknowledged that Vietnam is undergoing a nutrition transition. With a rapid change in the country's reform and economic growth, food supply at the macronutrient level has improved. Changes of the Vietnamese diet include significantly more foods of animal origin, and an increase of fat/oils, and ripe fruits. Consequently, nutritional problems in Vietnam now include not only malnutrition but also overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases related to nutrition and lifestyles. The recognition of these shifts, which is also associated with morbidity and mortality, was a major factor in the need to review and update the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for the Vietnamese population. This revised RDA established an important science-based tool for evaluation of nutrition adequacy, for teaching, and for scientific communications within Vietnam. It is expected that the 2007 Vietnam RDA and its conversion to food-based dietary guidelines will facilitate education to the public, as well as the policy implementation of programs for prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases and addressing the double burden of both under and over nutrition.

  16. The Vietnam Experience in Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurse, Ronald J.; Fleming, Dan B.

    1982-01-01

    Ten recent editions of secondary school-level United States history textbooks were analyzed to determine coverage and balance of the Vietnam War. Treatment of topics such as Vietnamese culture, the roles of wartime leaders, the aims of the United States government, the antiwar movement, and costs of the war are discussed. (PP)

  17. Vietnam in the 1980s: price reforms and stabilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. LEUNG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Before the 1980s, Vietnam was modelled as a centrally-planned economy (CPE along the same lines as the Soviet economy. During the 1980-88 period a kind of 'modified' planned economy (MPE developed in which some partial reforms were effected within the CPE framework. These reforms and Vietnam's latest plans and reforms are surveyed. Economic reform measures in 1985 focused on the insignificant monetary overhang problem, which involved 'forced' money holdings by households owing to shortages in consumer goods. At the same time, it failed to address the problem of 'flow' of net domestic credit extended to the government and state-owned enterprises. Confiscatory monetary reform aggravated the situation as it reduced the demand for real balances. Budgetary and credit limits and shifts in asset portfolio choices by the Vietnamese, on the other hand, were responsible for the success of the 1989 reforms.

  18. Mental health priorities in Vietnam: a mixed-methods analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemi Maria

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mental Health Country Profile is a tool that was generated by the International Mental Health Policy and Services Project to inform policy makers, professionals and other key stakeholders about important issues which need to be considered in mental health policy development. The Mental Health Country Profile contains four domains, which include the mental health context, resources, provision and outcomes. We have aimed to generate a Mental Health Country Profile for Vietnam, in order to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the Vietnamese mental health situation, in order to inform future reform efforts and decision-making. Methods This study used snowball sampling to identify informants for generating a Mental Health Country Profile for Vietnam, and the data gathering was done through semi-structured interviews and collection of relevant reports and documents. The material from the interviews and documents was analysed according to qualitative content analysis. Results Marked strengths of the Vietnam mental health system are the aims to move toward community management and detection of mental illness, and the active involvement of several multilateral organizations and NGOs. However, there are a number of shortages still found, including the lack of treatment interventions apart from medications, the high proportion of treatments to be paid out-of-pocket, prominence of large tertiary psychiatric hospitals, and a lack of preventative measures or mental health information to the public. Conclusions At the end of this decade, mental health care in Vietnam is still characterised by unclear policy and poor critical mass especially within the governmental sector. This initial attempt to map the mental health situation of Vietnam suffers from a number of limitations and should be seen as a first step towards a comprehensive profile.

  19. The United States and Vietnam Relationship: Benefits and Challenges for Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    59 Regarding its economy, Vietnam, after renovation (doi moi), has gradually integrated into the global economy with a market economy recognized...to access the U.S. market . The standards maintained in Vietnam such as Best Aquaculture Practices, Global Good Agriculture Practice, and Aquaculture... Strategy toward Vietnam and Interest in Vietnam The United States’ Rebalance to the Pacific In the global context, U.S. policy now states that it

  20. Epidemiology of bovine hemoprotozoa parasites in cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    WEERASOORIYA, Gayani; SIVAKUMAR, Thillaiampalam; LAN, Dinh Thi Bich; LONG, Phung Thang; TAKEMAE, Hitoshi; IGARASHI, Ikuo; INOUE, Noboru; YOKOYAMA, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    A PCR-based survey of hemoprotozoa parasites detected Babesia bigemina, Theileria orientalis and Trypanosoma theileri among cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam, and a new Babesia sp. closely related to Babesia ovata was detected in cattle only. In addition, Theileria annulata and Trypanosoma evansi were not detected in both cattle and water buffalo. Phylogenetic analysis detected T. orientalis MPSP genotypes 3, 5, 7 and N3 in cattle and 5, 7, N1 and N2 in water buffalo. Additionally, water buffalo-derived T. theileri CATL sequences clustered together with a previously reported cattle-derived sequence from Vietnam. This is the first report of a new Babesia sp. in cattle, and T. orientalis MPSP genotype 7 and T. theileri in water buffalo in Vietnam. PMID:27149894

  1. Progressive reduction in central blood volume is not detected by sublingual capnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin K; Ryan, Kathy L; Rickards, Caroline A; Hinojosa-Laborde, Carmen; Pamplin, Jeremy C; Patel, Shimul S; Herold, Thomas S; Convertino, Victor A

    2012-06-01

    Early detection and management of shock are important in optimizing clinical outcomes. One regional marker, sublingual capnography (SLCO2), is particularly appealing as redistribution of blood flow away from the sublingual mucosa can happen very early in the compensatory phase of hypovolemic shock. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that SLCO2 would detect early hypovolemia in a human laboratory model of hemorrhage: progressive lower body negative pressure until onset of cardiovascular collapse. Eighteen healthy nonsmoking subjects (10 males, 8 females) with mean age of 28 (SD, 8) years, body weight of 72 (SD, 13) kg, and height of 172 (SD, 9) cm were recruited to participate, of whom 17 completed the experiment. Average time to presyncope was 1,579 ± 72 s (mean ± SE). At the time of cardiovascular collapse, lower body negative pressure altered (P < 0.001) systolic blood pressure (mean ± SE: 130 ± 3 vs. 98 ± 2 mm Hg), pulse pressure (mean ± SE: 58 ± 2 vs. 33 ± 2 mm Hg), and heart rate (mean ± SE: 63 ± 3 vs. 102 ± 6 beats/min) when compared with baseline, whereas SLCO2 did not change (49.1 ± 1.0 vs. 48.6 ± 1.5 mm Hg, P = 0.624). In a model of progressive central hypovolemia in humans, we did not detect metabolic derangements in the sublingual mucosa as measured by SLCO2.

  2. China-Vietnam Friendship Bringing Light Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Vietnam Union of Friendship Organizations (VUFO),a delegation headed by CPAFFC Vice President Feng Zuoku and composed of a medical team from Beijing Tongren Hospital made a"China-Vietnam Friendship Bringing Light Tour to Vietnam"from November 13 to 20,2009 and gave free cataract surgery to about 100 patients in Bac Giang Province.

  3. The First Chinese Emperor in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Vietnam,a close neighbor of China,was influenced by the Chinese Culture for generations.In history,Vietnam had been under the administration and protection of ancient Chinese imperial court for a long period of time.The first Chinese emperor in Vietnam,who can be traced far back to Qin and Han dynasty,is referred to as the oldest emperor worldwide, His name was Zhao Tuo,

  4. Investment climate in Vietnam: potentials and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Thi Hong Bach Lien; Shatokhina, Anastasia Olegovna

    2016-01-01

    Due to economic renovation in 1986, Vietnam has gained a number of convincing social-economic achievements. One of the factors determining the success of Vietnam's economy is the support of foreign direct investment. Thus, the study and analysis of the determinants, affecting the ability to attract foreign investment have become more practically oriented and necessary. The main purpose of the article is to clarify the definition of investment climate and its characteristics in Vietnam. The ar...

  5. Satellite-based detection of volcanic sulphur dioxide from recent eruptions in Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Loyola

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions can emit large amounts of rock fragments and fine particles (ash into the atmosphere, as well as several gases, including sulphur dioxide (SO2. These ejecta and emissions are a major natural hazard, not only to the local population, but also to the infrastructure in the vicinity of volcanoes and to aviation. Here, we describe a methodology to retrieve quantitative information about volcanic SO2 plumes from satellite-borne measurements in the UV/Visible spectral range. The combination of a satellite-based SO2 detection scheme and a state-of-the-art 3D trajectory model enables us to confirm the volcanic origin of trace gas signals and to estimate the plume height and the effective emission height. This is demonstrated by case-studies for four selected volcanic eruptions in South and Central America, using the GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 instruments.

  6. Characterization of rubella virus genotypes among pregnant women in northern Vietnam, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Le, Son; Le, Duc Hoang; Hoang, Huong Thi; Hoang, Ha; Nguyen, Nam Trung; Chu, Ha Hoang

    2015-02-01

    Rubella virus (RV) infection is an unresolved clinical complication that affects children in developing countries including Vietnam. RV infection during the first trimester of pregnancy causes severe birth defects known as congenital rubella syndrome. This study reports on the genomic characterization of RV strains circulating in northern Vietnam during 2011-2013. RV-IgM positive amniotic fluid specimens were collected from 38 women from northern Vietnam who presented with clinical rubella at the National Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Hanoi, Vietnam. The RV genes were determined by nested PCR with primers amplifying the 739-nucleotide coding region of the E1 gene. The sequences from the amplified DNA fragments were phylogenetically analyzed and compared to reference RV strains. Seventeen out of 38 samples are positive for RV detecting. All new RV isolates are clustered to genotype 2B. Eighteen amino acid mutations were found in the T and B cell epitopes. These results suggest that genotype 2B RV strains frequently circulate in northern Vietnam. These data describe the RV genotype in Vietnam with the aim of improving maternal and child health in this country.

  7. Detection and molecular characterization of avian Plasmodium from mosquitoes in central Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inci, A; Yildirim, A; Njabo, K Y; Duzlu, O; Biskin, Z; Ciloglu, A

    2012-08-13

    Assessing vector-parasite relationship is important in understanding the emergence of vector-borne diseases and the evolution of parasite diversity. This study investigates avian Plasmodium parasites in mosquitoes collected from Kayseri province in Central Anatolian, Turkey and determines the haemosporidian parasite lineages from these mosquito species. A total of 6153 female mosquitos from 6 species were collected from 46 sites during June-August of 2008 and 2009. Each mosquito's head-thorax and abdomen were separated, categorized with respect to species and collection area and pooled for DNA extraction. A total of 1198 genomic DNA pools (599 thorax-head, 599 abdomen) were constituted of which 128 pools (59 thorax-head, 69 abdomen) were positive for avian haemosporidian parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) by Nested-PCR analysis. Culex pipens, Aedes vexans, Culex theileri and Culiseta annulata were positive with minimum infection rates (MIRs) of 16.22 and 18.15, 4.72 and 5.98, 5.18 and 10.36, 10.64 and 10.64 in their thorax-head and abdomen parts, respectively. No avian haemosporidian DNA was detected from Culex hortensis and Anopheles maculipennis. Phylogenetic analyses of the partial cytb gene of avian haemosporidian mt-DNA from 13 positive pools revealed that 11 lineages in four phylogenic groups were Plasmodium and the other two were Haemoproteus. Our results suggest that Cx. pipiens could probably be the major vector of avian Plasmodium in Central Turkey. This is the first report of molecular detection and characterization of avian Plasmodium lineages from mosquitoes in Turkey.

  8. Betweenness centrality and its applications from modeling traffic flows to network community detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yihui

    network and we demonstrate that the changes can propagate globally, affecting traffic several hundreds of miles away. Because of its principled nature, this method can inform many applications related to human mobility driven flows in spatial networks, ranging from transportation, through urban planning to mitigation of the effects of catastrophic events. In the second part of the thesis we focus on network deconstruction and community detection problems, both intensely studied topics in network science, using a weighted betweenness centrality approach. We present an algorithm that solves both problems efficiently and accurately and demonstrate that on both benchmark networks and data networks.

  9. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísis Assis Braga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5% cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4% cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned.

  10. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Ísis Assis; dos Santos, Luana Gabriela Ferreira; de Souza Ramos, Dirceu Guilherme; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; da Cruz Mestre, Gustavo Leandro; de Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2014-01-01

    Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5%) cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4%) cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned.

  11. Molecular detection and prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in horses of central Balkan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davitkov, Darko; Vucicevic, Milos; Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Krstic, Vanja; Slijepcevic, Dajana; Glavinic, Uros; Stanimirovic, Zoran

    2016-03-01

    Equine piroplasmosis is significant tick-borne disease with wide distribution. The prevalence of equine piroplasmosis in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina is unknown. In aim to obtain a first insight into the prevalence we performed molecular epidemiological study which included 142 horses, on seven locations in these three countries. We first performed PCR for the detection of a 450bp long section of the 18S rRNA of piroplasma-specific region. For all positive samples we have done multiplex PCR for the species detection. Species determination was further confirmed by sequencing PCR products of 10 randomly selected Theileria equi and all Babesia caballi samples. The overall prevalence rates in analysed region for T. equi and B. caballi were 22.5% and 2.1%, respectively. Possible risk factors (such as location, age, sex and activity) associated with PCR positivity were evaluated. Marked differences were found in prevalence between geographic areas. There was no significant association between positivity and age group. T. equi was more prevalent in females and farming horses. This is the first report on the molecular survey of T. equi and B. caballi in central Balkan. Further prevalence studies on definitive host and vectors in this region are necessary.

  12. Detection of nonylphenol and persistent organic pollutants in fish from the North Pacific Central Gyre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassel, Margy; Harwani, Suhash; Park, June-Soo; Jahn, Andrew

    2013-08-15

    Despite scientific and public concern, research on food web contamination from chemicals in plastic is limited, and distinguishing plastic sources from prey remains a challenge. We analyzed juvenile yellowtail (Seriola lalandi) from the North Pacific Central Gyre for plastic ingestion and tissue concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and nonionic surfactants to investigate potential contamination from plastic exposure. Ingestion of synthetic debris occurred in ~10% of the sample population. PCBs and DDTs were 352±240 (mean±SD) and 1425±1118 ng/g lw, respectively. PBDEs were 9.08±10.6 ng/g lw, with BDEs-47, 99, and 209 representing 90% of PBDEs. Nonylphenol (NP) was detected in one-third of the yellowtail with a mean of 52.8±88.5 ng/g ww overall and 167±72.3 ng/g ww excluding non-detects. Because environmental NP is strongly associated with wastewater treatment effluents, long-range transport is unlikely, and NP was previously measured in gyre plastic, we concluded that plastic-mediated exposure best explained our findings of NP in yellowtail.

  13. Vietnam and the regional crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masina, Pietro Paolo

    2002-01-01

    inflows, should be understood in the broader frame of regional contingencies, and not be simplistically explained as investors' discontent (i.e., in order to pressure Vietnamese authorities into implementing a more orthodox neo-liberal agenda). And in a post-crisis regional economic reorganisation......The paper explores the linkages between Vietnam and the regional economy before and after the East Asian financial crisis of 1997 and 1998, indicating that the country is more closely associated with the region than normally assumed. Thus, key indicators, such as falling foreign direct investment...... (including a restructuring of the so-called 'flying geese' pattern) Vietnam's chances of benefitting from closer integration in the world economy will depend on a clearcut industrial and trade policy, rather than on embarking a so-called 'neutral trade regime'. Preliminary evidence seems to indicate...

  14. Eco-modernizing small en medium-sized agro-industries in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Hong Nhat,

    2007-01-01

    Following ‘Doi Moi’ (Renovation), which started in 1986, the former centrally planned economy in Vietnam is shifting to an economy where production is linked to market demand and consumption. As a result, the nation has been enjoying an unprecedentedly fast economic growth, especially in recent year

  15. Amorphophallus kienluongensis (Araceae), a new species from the Mekong Delta, Southern Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, V.D.; Luu, H.T.; Nguyen, Q.D.; Hetterscheid, W.L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Amorphophallus kienluongensis is described as a new species from southern Vietnam. It is morphologically close to A. brevispathus Gagnep. (Thailand) and A. prolificus Hett. & A.Galloway (Thailand). However, it differs from both these species by a stigma with a central depression and an obconic male

  16. Burden of care for persons with disabilities in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Van Minh, Hoang; Huong, Nguyen Thuy; Dung, Pham; Wright, E Pamela

    2014-11-01

    Vietnam has more than 6 million persons with disabilities (PWD), or 7.8% of the population. To provide better services for them, it is important to investigate the care they currently receive, and to obtain evidence on the health outcomes from that care. This study aimed to estimate the quality of life and functional status of a group of PWD in Vietnam and the cost of care they receive. This was an analytical study exploring the time and cost of informal care, the cost of illness (prevalence-based, patient perspective), quality of life using EuroQoL and functional status using the Barthel Index. The sample was selected from urban and rural areas of Quang Tri province in Central Vietnam, using systematic random sampling. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews, and in a 1-month diary recorded during July-August 2010 for summer and in December 2010 for winter. The costs are presented in 2010 USD values. The data were analysed by descriptive, univariate and multivariate statistics to summarise and explore the relationships among dependent and independent variables. The study sample included 210 PWD, with an average age of 38 years and duration of disability on average 26 years. The health-related quality of life measured in terms of the health utility score (0 = death, 1 = full health) was on average 0.44 and 0.39 in summer and winter respectively. The total cost of illness per year per case was USD 971 (83% of gross domestic product per capita); explanatory variables were the age of the PWD, receiving community-based rehabilitation, receiving government support and the severity of the disability. This illustrates the importance of services and support for reduction of the economic burden on the family. In conclusion, the results of this study provide information on the burden caused by disabilities in rural and urban households in Vietnam.

  17. Zoonotic transmission of mcr-1 colistin resistance gene from small-scale poultry farms, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, Nguyen Vinh; Matamoros, Sébastien; Carrique-Mas, Juan J.; Nghia, Nguyen Huu; Nhung, Nguyen Thi; Chieu, Tran Thi Bich; Mai, Ho Huynh; Rooijen, van Willemien; Campbell, James; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Hardon, Anita; Mai, Nguyen Thi Nhu; Hieu, Thai Quoc; Thwaites, Guy; Jong, de Menno D.; Schultsz, Constance; Hoa, Ngo Thi

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the consequences of colistin use in backyard chicken farms in Vietnam by examining the prevalence of mcr-1 in fecal samples from chickens and humans. Detection of mcr-1-carrying bacteria in chicken samples was associated with colistin use and detection in human samples with exposure

  18. Vietnam: The Political Economy of Education in a "Socialist" Periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Jonathan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article I examine historic changes in the goals, conduct and outcomes of education policies in Vietnam from the 1940s to the present, under the Communist Party of Vietnam. Recent studies of Vietnam's education system centre on econometric and demographic analysis of education data dating back to the early 1990s, when Vietnam began an…

  19. Chinese Friendly Personages’ Delegation Visits Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>A 50-member "Meeting at Uncle Ho’s Hometown" Chinese friendly personages’delegation led by Wang Yunze, vice president of the China-Vietnam Friendship Association (CVFA), paid a visit to Vietnam from May 15 to 23. Nguyen Minh Triet, Vietnamese president;

  20. Vietnam kan nieuwe bron voor kokkels worden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Wageningse onderzoekers gaan Vietnam helpen om de puntjes op de i te zetten bij hun monitoringsprogramma voor de voedselveiligheid van schaal- en schelpdieren, en ze bijscholen in risicomanagement en HACCP-audits. Want Vietnam wil graag de controles op visproductie verbeteren en meer kokkels, mossel

  1. Fetal Central Nervous System Anomalies Detected by Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Two-Year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Sefidbakht

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is gradually becoming more common for thorough visualization of the fetus than ultrasound (US, especially for neurological anomalies, which are the most common indications for fetal MRI and are a matter of concern for both families and society. Objectives We investigated fetal MRIs carried out in our center for frequency of central nervous system anomalies. This is the first such report in southern Iran. Materials and Methods One hundred and seven (107 pregnant women with suspicious fetal anomalies in prenatal ultrasound entered a cross-sectional retrospective study from 2011 to 2013. A 1.5 T Siemens Avanto scanner was employed for sequences, including T2 HASTE and Trufisp images in axial, coronal, and sagittal planes to mother’s body, T2 HASTE and Trufisp relative to the specific fetal body part being evaluated, and T1 flash images in at least one plane based on clinical indication. We investigated any abnormality in the central nervous system and performed descriptive analysis to achieve index of frequency. Results Mean gestational age ± standard deviation (SD for fetuses was 25.54 ± 5.22 weeks, and mean maternal age ± SD was 28.38 ± 5.80 years Eighty out of 107 (74.7% patients who were referred with initial impression of borderline ventriculomegaly. A total of 18 out of 107 (16.82% patients were found to have fetuses with CNS anomalies and the remainder were neurologically normal. Detected anomalies were as follow: 3 (16.6% fetuses each had the Dandy-Walker variant and Arnold-Chiari II (with myelomeningocele. Complete agenesis of corpus callosum, partial agenesis of corpus callosum, and aqueductal stenosis were each seen in 2 (11.1% fetuses. Arnold-Chiari II without myelomeningocele, anterior spina bifida associated with neurenteric cyst, arachnoid cyst, lissencephaly, and isolated enlarged cisterna magna each presented in one (5.5% fetus. One fetus had concomitant schizencephaly and complete

  2. Visual attention measures predict pedestrian detection in central field loss: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta F Alberti

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The ability of visually impaired people to deploy attention effectively to maximize use of their residual vision in dynamic situations is fundamental to safe mobility. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate whether tests of dynamic attention (multiple object tracking; MOT and static attention (Useful Field of View; UFOV were predictive of the ability of people with central field loss (CFL to detect pedestrian hazards in simulated driving. METHODS: 11 people with bilateral CFL (visual acuity 20/30-20/200 and 11 age-similar normally-sighted drivers participated. Dynamic and static attention were evaluated with brief, computer-based MOT and UFOV tasks, respectively. Dependent variables were the log speed threshold for 60% correct identification of targets (MOT and the increase in the presentation duration for 75% correct identification of a central target when a concurrent peripheral task was added (UFOV divided and selective attention subtests. Participants drove in a simulator and pressed the horn whenever they detected pedestrians that walked or ran toward the road. The dependent variable was the proportion of timely reactions (could have stopped in time to avoid a collision. RESULTS: UFOV and MOT performance of CFL participants was poorer than that of controls, and the proportion of timely reactions was also lower (worse (84% and 97%, respectively; p = 0.001. For CFL participants, higher proportions of timely reactions correlated significantly with higher (better MOT speed thresholds (r = 0.73, p = 0.01, with better performance on the UFOV divided and selective attention subtests (r = -0.66 and -0.62, respectively, p<0.04, with better contrast sensitivity scores (r = 0.54, p = 0.08 and smaller scotomas (r = -0.60, p = 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that brief laboratory-based tests of visual attention may provide useful measures of functional visual ability of individuals with CFL relevant to

  3. Community-based control of Aedes aegypti by using Mesocyclops in southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinh Nam, Vu; Thi Yen, Nguyen; Minh Duc, Hoang; Cong Tu, Tran; Trong Thang, Vu; Hoang Le, Nguyen; Hoang San, Le; Le Loan, Luu; Que Huong, Vu Thi; Kim Khanh, Ly Huynh; Thuy Trang, Huynh Thi; Lam, Leonie Z Y; Kutcher, Simon C; Aaskov, John G; Jeffery, Jason A L; Ryan, Peter A; Kay, Brian H

    2012-05-01

    We previously reported a new community-based mosquito control strategy that resulted in elimination of Aedes aegypti (Linn.) in 40 of 46 communes in northern and central Vietnam, and with annual recurrent total costs (direct and indirect) of only $0.28-$0.89 international dollars per person. This control strategy was extended to four provinces in southern Vietnam in Long An and Hau Giang (2004-2007) and to Long An, Ben Tre, and Vinh Long (2005-2010). In a total of 14 communes with 124,743 residents, the mean ± SD of adult female Ae. aegypti was reduced from 0.93 ± 0.62 to 0.06 ± 0.09, and the reduction of immature Ae. aegypti averaged 98.8%. By the final survey, no adults could be collected in 6 of 14 communes, and one commune, Binh Thanh, also had no immature forms. Although the community-based programs also involved community education and clean-up campaigns, the prevalence of Mesocyclops in large water storage containers > 50 liters increased from 12.77 ± 8.39 to 75.69 ± 9.17% over periods of 15-45 months. At the conclusion of the study, no confirmed dengue cases were detected in four of the five communes for which diagnostic serologic analysis was performed. The rate of progress was faster in communes that were added in stages to the program but the reason for this finding was unclear. At the completion of the formal project, sustainability funds were set up to provide each commune with the financial means to ensure that community-based dengue control activities continued.

  4. Lyme disease and the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in Ixodes ricinus ticks from central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Pascucci

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Province of Pesaro-Urbino, situated in the Marche Region of central Italy, can be considered to be an area at risk for Lyme disease because of its ecological features. Field data are not yet available although the disease is known to be present in neighbouring areas. During a field study lasting twelve months, ticks were collected from the vegetation, from wild cervids and also from humans who reported a tick bite at the local hospital. All ticks were identified and Ixodes ricinus specimens were tested using three different polymerase chain reaction tests for the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl. To identify the genospecies of B. burgdorferi sl, a fragment of the 5S-23S ribosomal rRNA intergenic spacer of the positive samples was amplified and then sequenced. Sequencing of the 5S-23S intergenic spacer led to the identification of two different genospecies, namely: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. lusitaniae, both of which are involved in cases of human infection. Findings on the host-tick relationships and on the genospecies involved in the cycle of borreliosis confirm the suitable conditions for Lyme disease in the study area. The results concur with previous findings reported in the Mediterranean region.

  5. InSAR detection of permafrost landform dynamics at Kapp Linné central Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rune Lauknes, Tom; Christiansen, Hanne; Eckerstorfer, Markus; Larsen, Yngvar

    2013-04-01

    Permafrost is one of six cryospheric indicators of global climate change. As permafrost contains various forms of ground ice, thawing, degradation and speed up of particularly ice-rich periglacial landforms can lead to substantial landscape change and development. This has geomorphological, biological and socio-economical impacts, with changes in the water balance, increase in greenhouse gas emissivity, changes in flora and fauna and impacts on infrastructure. The present scientific challenge is to combine detailed site/point scale geomorphological field process observations with remote sensing data covering at landscape scale. We apply a multi-temporal satellite radar interferometric (InSAR) method to data obtained using the TerraSAR-X satellite. TerraSAR-X has a high spatial resolution and with 11 days repeat cycle, it is well suited to detect seasonal permafrost deformation. To test the usability of X-band InSAR data, we compare hourly field measurements between 2008-2011 of solifluction ground deformation at Kapp Linné, central Svalbard, with InSAR deformation time-series. We show that InSAR is able to pick up the seasonal deformation patterns of frost heave, ground settlement and associated solifluction as well as the interannual downslope movement. These results are a promising first step towards successful upscaling periglacial field point measurements to landscape scale, enabling observations of periglacial processes in larger parts of the permafrost landscapes.

  6. Malware Detection Module using Machine Learning Algorithms to Assist in Centralized Security in Enterprise Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyank Singhal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Malicious software is abundant in a world of innumerable computer users, who are constantly faced withthese threats from various sources like the internet, local networks and portable drives. Malware is potentially low to high risk and can cause systems to function incorrectly, steal data and even crash.Malware may be executable or system library files in the form of viruses, worms, Trojans, all aimed atbreaching the security of the system and compromising user privacy. Typically, anti-virus software is based on a signature definition system which keeps updating from the internet and thus keeping track of known viruses. While this may be sufficient for home-users, a security risk from a new virus could threaten an entire enterprise network. This paper proposes a new and more sophisticated antivirus engine that can not only scan files, but also build knowledge and detect files as potential viruses. This is done by extracting system API calls made by various normal and harmful executable, and using machine learning algorithms to classify and hence, rank files on a scale of security risk. While such a system is processor heavy, it is very effective when used centrally to protect an enterprise network which maybe more prone to such threats.

  7. Cancer incidence in Australian Vietnam veterans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E.; Horsley, K. [Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs (Australia); Hoek, R. van der [Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    Australian Defence Force (ADF) personnel participated in the Vietnam Conflict from 1962 to 1973, involving nearly 60,000 personnel, of whom over 500 died during service and 3131 were severely physically wounded. Service in the Vietnam conflict presented distinct health challenges. Besides the hazards of combat conditions for extended periods, herbicides and other toxic chemicals were used extensively. The United States military sprayed more than 76,000,000L of herbicide over Vietnam in their Air Force Ranch Hand and Operation Trail Dust programs. The most heavily used herbicide was Agent Orange, contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin. Since the Vietnam conflict, ex-Service organisations (ESOs) have maintained that Vietnam service adversely affected the health of veterans. Initial studies showed no excess risk attributable to their service. However, more recent studies have shown that Vietnam veterans have excess incidence and mortality rates from several conditions such as cancers and heart disease. This paper describes the first cancer incidence study for all ADF Vietnam veterans.

  8. Molecular detection of vector-borne bacteria and protozoa in healthy hunting dogs from Central Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valentina; Virginia; Ebani; Simona; Nardoni; Giulia; Fognani; Linda; Mugnaini; Fabrizio; Bertelloni; Guido; Rocchigiani; Roberto; Amerigo; Papini; Francesco; Stefani; Francesca; Mancianti

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the pi’evalence of vector-bome bacteria and protozoa in hunting dogs living in Central Italy.Methods:Molecular testing was executed on DNA which was extracted from blood specimens collected from 117 asymptomatic dogs to detect Anaplasma phagocytophilum,Babesia canis(B.canis),Bartonella spp..Coxiella burnetii(C.burnetii).Ehrlichia canis.Hepatozoon canis.and Leislnnania infantum.Results:A total of 48 dogs(41.0%) were infested by Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks.Tick-borne infections were observed in 64(54.7%) animals.More in detail.38 dogs(32.5%) screened positive for Hepatozoon canis,24(20.5%) for Bartonella rinsonii subsp.berkhoffii.20(17.1%) for Leishmania infantum,6(5.1%) for C.burnetii,5(4.3%) for B.canis(3 B.canis vogeli and 2 B.canis canis),3(2.5%) for Anaplasma phagocytophilum,and 2(1.7%) for Ehrlichia canis.Mixed infection by 2 agents occurred in 17(14.5%) subjects,by 3 agents in 7(6.0%) dogs,and by 4 agents in 1(0.9%) animal.Conclusions:The results demonstrated that several vector-borne pathogens were circulating in this region and dogs infected by these agents were usually asymptomatic.A relevant finding was the presence of DNA of C.burnetii,a severe zoonotic agent,in the 5.1% of tested dogs,which can be source of infection for their owners not only through tick bites,but also directly with urine,feces and birth products.

  9. Different Lineage of Porcine Deltacoronavirus in Thailand, Vietnam and Lao PDR in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeng-Chuto, K; Lorsirigool, A; Temeeyasen, G; Vui, D T; Stott, C J; Madapong, A; Tripipat, T; Wegner, M; Intrakamhaeng, M; Chongcharoen, W; Tantituvanont, A; Kaewprommal, P; Piriyapongsa, J; Nilubol, D

    2017-02-01

    Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was detected by RT-PCR in 12 of 97 (12.4%) intestinal samples collected during 2015 from piglets with diarrhoea in Thailand, Vietnam and Lao PDR. Spike, membrane and nucleocapsid genes were characterized, and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that PDCoV isolates from Thai and Lao PDR form a novel cluster, separated from US and China isolates, but relatively were more closely related to China PDCoV than US isolates. Vietnam PDCoVs, however, were grouped together with US PDCoV. The analyses of amino acid changes suggested that they were from different lineage.

  10. Comparison of three nucleic acid-based tests for detecting Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma centrale in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamohale E. Chaisi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several nucleic acid-based assays have been developed for detecting Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma centrale in vectors and hosts, making the choice of method to use in endemic areas difficult. We evaluated the ability of the reverse line blot (RLB hybridisation assay, two nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR assays and a duplex real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR assay to detect A. marginale and A. centrale infections in cattle (n = 66 in South Africa. The lowest detection limits for A. marginale plasmid DNA were 2500 copies by the RLB assay, 250 copies by the nPCR and qPCR assays and 2500, 250 and 25 copies of A. centrale plasmid DNA by the RLB, nPCR and qPCR assays respectively. The qPCR assay detected more A. marginale- and A. centrale-positive samples than the other assays, either as single or mixed infections. Although the results of the qPCR and nPCR tests were in agreement for the majority (38 of A. marginale-positive samples, 13 samples tested negative for A. marginale using nPCR but positive using qPCR. To explain this discrepancy, the target sequence region of the nPCR assay was evaluated by cloning and sequencing the msp1β gene from selected field samples. The results indicated sequence variation in the internal forward primer (AM100 area amongst the South African A. marginale msp1β sequences, resulting in false negatives. We propose the use of the duplex qPCR assay in future studies as it is more sensitive and offers the benefits of quantification and multiplex detection of both Anaplasma spp.

  11. Statistical sulcal shape comparisons: application to the detection of genetic encoding of the central sulcus shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Goualher, G; Argenti, A.M.; Duyme, M;

    2000-01-01

    encoding. When applied to real data, this study highlighted genetic constraints on the shape of the central sulcus. We found from 10 pairs of monozygotic twins that the intrapair modal distance of the central sulcus was significantly smaller than the interpair modal distance, for both the left central...... sulcus (Z = -2.66; P sulcus (Z = -2.26; P sulcus shape were confirmed by applying the same experiment to 10 pairs of normal young individuals (Z = -1.39; Z = -0.63, i.e., values not significant at the P

  12. [Vietnam and its population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veron, J

    1993-01-01

    80% rural. The population is concentrated in the Red River delta, the Mekong delta, and the southeastern region including Ho Chi Minh City. The 4 main cities are Ho Chi Minh City with 3.2 million inhabitants,. Hanoi with 1.1 million, Hai Phong with 456,000, and Da Nang with 371,000. Although internal migration has not yet assumed great weight, there has been some rural exodus and movement from poor to richer regions. The policy of population redistribution to reduce density in the Red River delta and central coastal plain and to control city growth has led to some movement. 88% of the population over 10 was literate in 1989. Almost 75% of the population over age 13 is economically active. 71% of the economically active population is employed in agriculture, 12% in industry, and 7% in commerce. If current growth trends continue, Viet Nam is projected to have a population of 80 million in 2000 and 96 million in 2014.

  13. Building an Extension Network in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussard, H.

    1999-01-01

    Agricultural extension in Vietnam is in transition as the economy moves to a market orientation. The national extension service created in 1993 is constrained by lack of funding, staff, and access to current extension knowledge. (SK)

  14. 2009 China-Vietnam Border Friendship Gala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>International dragon boat races at sea, youth ex- changes, art performances and a symbolic friendship tree plant- ing ceremony were among the many colourful activities held during the 2009 China-Vietnam

  15. Vietnam Land Policy - Adjusting to Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Conflicts over Land in Vietnam’s Red River Delta," Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, (2007): 317, accessed 6 September 2013, JSTOR . 5...Responsibility and No Rice,”: The Rise and Fall of Agricultural Collectivization in Vietnam,” Agricultural History: vol 82, no. 1, (2008), 54, JSTOR . 18...Performance and Communist Legitimacy,” World Politics, vol. 38 no. 3, (1986): 463, accessed 22 October 2013, JSTOR . 32 Ibid., 463. 33 Elliott

  16. SHARAD Detection of Subsurface Interfaces in Southern-Central Utopia Planitia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuurman, C. M.; Brothers, T. C.; Holt, J. W.; Kerrigan, M.; Osinski, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    Characterising the extent and distribution of subsurface ice in the middle-latitudes of Mars is an ongoing endeavour, with applications to both paleoclimate and future missions. Utopia Planitia has been posited as an ice-rich area by climate models, Gamma-Ray Spectrometer results suggestive of high hydrogen concentrations, and high densities of periglacial and glacial surface morphologies. The SHAllow RADar (SHARAD) instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is a radar sounder which transmits a 15-25 MHz chirped pulse. The data is recorded in the time delay and can be used to map and characterize Mars' subsurface. In the Utopia Planitia region, SHARAD data can potentially constrain modeling efforts, help locate potential water resources for future exploration, and give volumetric constraints on features that were previously only observed in two dimensions. Thus far, most mid-latitudinal reflectors using the SHARAD instrument have been associated with isolated surface morphologies, such as lobate debris aprons, lineated valley fill, and reflectors beneath volcanic flows. Recently, SHARAD radargrams over pedestal craters in the mid-latitudes have also yielded results suggestive of water-ice composition, and a massive, radar-transparent layer has been found in Arcadia Planitia. Overall, however, there has been a dearth of SHARAD evidence suggestive of the massive subsurface ice sheets predicted by climate models. This project analyzed several hundred SHARAD radargrams throughout Utopia Planitia. Subsurface reflectors were detected by visually inspecting radar data and comparing to simulated radargrams that predict off nadir surface echoes that can be confused with subsurface reflections. Regions of high amplitude subsurface reflections that do not appear in the simulated radargrams were thus interpreted as reflectors represenative of geologic contacts. SHARAD analysis revealed several reflectors in the Southern-Central Utopia Planitia region. These reflectors were

  17. Numerical estimation on balance coefficients of central difference averaging method for quench detection of the KSTAR PF coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Sub; An, Seok Chan; Ko, Tae Kuk [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chu, Yong [National Fusion Research Institute(NFRI), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    A quench detection system of KSTAR Poloidal Field (PF) coils is inevitable for stable operation because normal zone generates overheating during quench occurrence. Recently, new voltage quench detection method, combination of Central Difference Averaging (CDA) and Mutual Inductance Compensation (MIK) for compensating mutual inductive voltage more effectively than conventional voltage detection method, has been suggested and studied. For better performance of mutual induction cancellation by adjacent coils of CDA+MIK method for KSTAR coil system, balance coefficients of CDA must be estimated and adjusted preferentially. In this paper, the balance coefficients of CDA for KSTAR PF coils were numerically estimated. The estimated result was adopted and tested by using simulation. The CDA method adopting balance coefficients effectively eliminated mutual inductive voltage, and also it is expected to improve performance of CDA+MIK method for quench detection of KSTAR PF coils.

  18. Central venous catheters: detection of catheter complications and therapeutical options; Zentralvenoese Katheter: Diagnostik von Komplikationen und therapeutische Optionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebauer, B.; Beck, A. [Universitaetsmedizin Charite, Berlin (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde; Wagner, H.J. [Vivantes-Kliniken, Friedrichshain und Am Urban, Berlin (Germany). Radiologie; Vivantes-Kliniken, Hellersdorf und Prenzlauer Berg (Germany). Radiologie

    2008-06-15

    For modern medicine central venous catheters play an important role for diagnostic and therapeutic options. Catheter implantation, complication detection and therapy of catheter complications are an increasing demand for the radiologist. The review article provides an overview of different catheter types, their indications, advantages and disadvantages. Catheter malpositions are usually detectable in conventional X-ray. Most malpositions are correctable using interventional-radiological techniques. In addition therapeutical options for thrombotic complications (venous thrombosis, catheter occlusion, fibrin sheath) are discussed. In case of an infectious catheter complication, usually a catheter extraction and re-implantation is necessary.

  19. Central Congenital Hypothyroidism Detected by Neonatal Screening in Sapporo, Japan (2000-2004): It's Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Fumie; Fujikura, Kaori; Okuhara, Koji; Tsubaki, Jyunko; Fukushi, Masaru; Fujita, Kozo; Fujieda, Kenji; Tajima, Toshihiro

    2008-01-01

    In Sapporo, Japan, a neonatal screening program for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) has employed measurement of free thyroxine (T4) and TSH in the same filter-paper blood spot. This system has enabled us to identify primary CH and central CH during the neonatal period. The aim of this study was to clarify the prevalence and clinical characteristics of central CH. For this purpose, the screening program requested serum from infants with free T4 concentrations below the cut off value regardless of the TSH levels. Between January 2000 and December 2004, 83,232 newborns were screened and six central CH patients were detected as a result of follow-up of low free T4 and non-elevated TSH screening (1:13,872). This frequency is higher than in other studies. Four patients showed multiple pituitary hormone deficiency with pituitary malformations on magnetic resonance imaging. One patient was diagnosed as having Prader-Willie syndrome. The remaining patient was considered to have isolated central CH. Our study demonstrated that the frequency of central CH is 1:13,872. Free T4 measurement would also be advantageous in early recognition of multiple pituitary hormone deficiency.

  20. Flood loss assessment in Can Tho City, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, T. C.; Kreibich, H.

    2012-04-01

    Floods are recurring events in the Lower Mekong Basin resulting in loss of life and property, causing damage to agriculture and rural infrastructure, and disrupting social and economic activities. Flood management and mitigation has become a priority issue at the national and regional levels. Besides, it is expected that large areas of the Mekong delta, the Red River delta and the central coast will be flooded by sea-level rise due to climate change. Can Tho City is ranked under the five most flood-tide-influenced cities of Vietnam. It is the biggest city in the Mekong delta and it is located near the Hau river. Like other region of the Mekong delta, Can Tho suffers due to floods from upstream and flood tides from the sea. In the flood season large rural areas of the city are flooded, particularly during tidal days. Flood risk management policy includes preparative measures for living with floods and to minimise the damage caused by floods as well as to take advantage of floods for sustainable development. An intensive literature review, including administrative reports as well as expert interviews have been undertaken to gain more insight into flood characteristics, their consequences and risk mitigation. Therefore, flood damaging processes and trends have been reviewed for Can Tho City and the Mekong Basin in Vietnam. Additionally, suitable flood damage estimation methodologies have been collected as important input for flood risk analyses. On this basis it has been investigated which flood risk mitigation and management strategies promise to be effective in Can Tho City, Vietnam.

  1. Industrial Clustering Policy and Economic Restructuring in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Thi Thanh Hong; Nguyen, Binh Giang

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the industrial agglomeration and evaluates the industrial clustering policy in Vietnam. Base on the Kuchiki flowchart on the building of industrial clustering policy for developing countries, the authors suggest a policy framework for Vietnam.

  2. Hoya thuathienhuensis and Hoya graveolens (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae), a new species and a new record for the Flora of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodda, M.; Trân, Thê Bách; Simonsson Juhonewe, N.; Sâm, Lý Ngọc

    2012-01-01

    A new species from the Annamite mountain range of central Vietnam, Hoya thuathienhuensis, is here described and illustrated. Its flowers bear similarity with Hoya lockii, a taxon recently described from the same area with which it shares the reflexed corolla and the thin coriaceous laves. Hoya locki

  3. Assessing decentralised policy implementation in Vietnam : The case of land recovery and resettlement in the Vung Ang Economic Zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. de Wit (Joop); L. Viet Sang (Luong); L. Van Chien (Le); L. Thu Hien (Luong); H. Viet Hung (Ha); D. Thi Anh Tuyet (Dang); D. Ngoc Bau (Dao); Q. Hoa (Quang); M. Thi Thanh Tam (Mai)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractFrom 2006 plans were implemented to create a deep-sea water port linked to an Economic Zone in the coastal Province of Ha Tinh, located in north central Vietnam. The multi-purpose Zone entitled ‘Vung Ang’, was to attract foreign investors, while the port would provide a link to nearby La

  4. Understanding responsible innovation in small producers’ clusters in Northern Vietnam : A grounded theory approach to globalization and poverty alleviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voeten, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The PhD thesis explores new economic dynamics within poor small producers’ clusters in craft villages in northern Vietnam; a country in full economic swing after market economy reforms and opening up to the world. The central research question of the thesis - positioned in current debates about pove

  5. U.S.-Vietnam Military Relations: Game Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    13 Andrew X. Pham, Catfish and Mandala : A Two-Wheeled Voyage through the Landscape and Memory of Vietnam...140. 17 Karnow, Vietnam: A History, 141; Pham, Catfish and Mandala , 229. 10 U.S. Prisoners of War/Missing in Action (POW/MIAs).18 Vietnam did not...22, 2011. Pham, Andrew X. Catfish and Mandala : A Two-Wheeled Voyage through the Landscape and Memory of Vietnam, Picador, New York, 1999. Phong

  6. Detection of east/central/south African genotype of chikungunya virus in Myanmar, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun, Mya Myat Ngwe; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Aoki, Kotaro; Kyaw, Aung Kyaw; Myint, Tin; Tar, Thi; Maung, Kay Thwe Thwe; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Morita, Kouichi

    2014-08-01

    In 2010, chikungunya virus of the East Central South African genotype was isolated from 4 children in Myanmyar who had dengue-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to isolates from China, Thailand, and Malaysia that harbor the A226V mutation in this gene.

  7. Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    As a Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Viet Nam will make its strong effort to implement the UNFCCC through effective activities in order to reduce GHG emissions as well as enhance carbon sinks in the country. The UNEP/GEF Project `Economics of GHG Limitation - Phase 1: Establishment of a Methodological Framework for Climate Change Mitigation Assessment` developed by the UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) in cooperation with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has been deployed in Viet Nam since 1996. The project deals with GHG mitigation analysis and options, focusing on the main issues: a) Associated macro-economics, b) Energy, c) Land use and forestry. For this study, a number of different data related to energy, industry, forestry and agriculture sectors as well as Viet Nam socio-economic development up to the year 2030, are collected. Besides, several models such as MEDEE-S, EFOM-ENV, COMAP are applied for development and assessment of GHG mitigation options in the next decades. The MEDEE-S and EFOM-ENV models are used as a tool for determining the cost-effective strategies to abate GHG emissions for energy sector while COMAP model is applied for forestry sector. (au) 39 refs.

  8. 75 FR 54087 - Education Trade Mission to Indonesia and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... Mission to Indonesia and Vietnam AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce... and Vietnam, April 3-8, 2011. Led by a senior Department of Commerce official, the mission to these..., challenges and marketing strategies for each market. Commercial Setting Vietnam With a population of...

  9. Current status of soil-transmitted helminths in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hoek, Wim; De, Nguyen Van; Konradsen, Flemming;

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a review of surveys on soil-transmitted helminths that were done in Vietnam between 1990 and 2001. Prevalence estimates could be obtained for 29 of the 61 provinces. Extrapolating from this, it is estimated that 33.9 million people in Vietnam are infected with Ascaris......, and human behavioral factors in the transmission of intestinal nematode infections in Vietnam....

  10. Supplement to Vietnam 1964-1973: An American Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Vietnam MiG Killers: Deadly Duel Over Vietnam. Osceola, Wis: Motorbooks Intl, 1988. (DS 558.8 .D67 1988) Drake, Ricky J. The Rules of Defeat...34Vietnamese Infant and Childhood Mortality in Relation to the Vietnam War." American Journal of Public Health 83 (Aug 1993): 1134-1138. "Southeast Asian

  11. 78 FR 7452 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... imports of steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam, provided for in subheading 7326.20.00 of the... countervailing and antidumping duty orders on steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam. Background The...

  12. Shaping the Health Policy Agenda: The Case of Safe Motherhood Policy in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Thi Thu Ha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Maternal health remains a central policy concern in Vietnam. With a commitment to achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5 target of maternal mortality rate (MMR of 70/100 000 by 2015, the Ministry of Health (MoH issued the National Plan for Safe Motherhood (NPSM 2003-2010. In 2008, reproductive health, including safe motherhood (SM became a national health target program with annual government funding. Methods A case study of how SM emerged as a political priority in Vietnam over the period 2001-2008, drawing on Kingdon’s theory of agenda-setting was conducted. A mixed method was adopted for this study of the NPSM. Results Three related streams contributed to SM priority in Vietnam: (1 the problem of high MMR was officially recognized from high-quality research, (2 the strong roles of policy champion from MoH in advocating for the needs to reducing MMR as well as support from government and donors, and (3 the national and international events, providing favorable context for this issue to emerge on policy agenda. Conclusion This paper draws on the theory of agenda-setting to analyze the Vietnam experience and to develop guidance for SM a political priority in other high maternal mortality communities.

  13. Living With the Dead: Memory and State Authority in Post-Socialist Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa T. Nguyen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The commemoration of war martyrs has been an im-portant issue in contemporary Vietnam. These collec-tive memories of war martyrs, however, do not appear independently but are organized and shaped by the powerful state machine. The state does not only control the means of remembering, but also prescribes rules for how the past should be remembered. Yet, the state’s centralized authority is not absolute, since it exposes some limits and is challenged by local agents.

  14. The Lessons of the Vietnam War: Unit 13. Teacher's Manual: Strategies and Resources for Teaching the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Social Studies Education, Pittsburgh, PA.

    This teacher's manual is designed to accompany the curriculum "The Lessons of the Vietnam War." For each of 12 units of the curriculum, this manual suggests projects for student research and classroom activities. The 12 units are entitled: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and…

  15. Entry modes of European firms in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simonet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the entry modes of EU firms setting up operations in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: we use a case study approach on Haymarket, Cadbury, Creative Education, Fairchild, Aventis and Artemisinin and Farming International using interviews from managerial professionals in Vietnam. Findings: Despite the fact that Vietnam has been opening up for more than 20 years, licensing is the preferred entry mode because of the risks involved in venturing with local firms; that preference signals a low level commitment and a high perception of risk and state interference. In line with Vietnam transition to state - rather than private market - capitalism, a foreign company opting for a joint-venture will do so with a state-owned rather than privately-owned company. The choice of a subsidiary can be explained by the lack of trust in partners and institutions, not by improvement in the socio-political environment. Limitations: In determining the entry mode strategy, the paper focuses on the Uppsala school’s “psychic distance” (e.g. cultural distance, lack of trust rather than on firm-specific advantages (Rugman, 1980; 2006. Key-words: international entry mode; emerging markets; subsidiary; joint-venture; India; Vietnam

  16. If they get sick, they are in trouble: health care restructuring, user charges, and equity in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Ardeshir; Chernomas, Robert; Akram-Lodhi, A Haroon

    2003-01-01

    The transition from a centrally planned economy in the 1980s and the implementation of a series of neoliberal health policy reform measures in 1989 affected the delivery and financing of Vietnam's health care services. More specifically, legalization of private medical practice, liberalization of the pharmaceutical industry, and introduction of user charges at public health facilities have effectively transformed Vietnam's near universal, publicly funded and provided health services into a highly unregulated private-public mix system, with serious consequences for Vietnam's health system. Using Vietnam's most recent household survey data and published facility-based data, this article examines some of the problems faced by Vietnam's health sector, with particular reference to efficiency, access, and equity. The data reveal four important findings: self-treatment is the dominant mode of treatment for both the poor and nonpoor; there is little or no regulation to protect patients from financial abuse by private medical providers, pharmacies, and drug vendors; in the face of a dwindling share of the state health budget in public hospital revenues and low salaries, hospitals increasingly rely on user charges and insurance premiums to finance services, including generous staff bonuses; and health care costs, especially hospital costs, are substantial for many low- and middle-income households.

  17. DETECTION OF DRY INTRUSION ON WATER VAPOR IMAGES OVER CENTRAL EUROPE – JUNE 2010 TO SEPTEMBER 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Novotny

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of evaluation of the intensity of cyclogenesis which could be connected with the weather having a significant impact on Earth’s surface is quite useful. If, as one of the basic assumptions, the existence of connection between dry intrusions, dry bands, tropopause height and warm dark areas distribution on water vapor images (WV images is considered, it is possible to set up a method of detecting dry intrusions on searching and tracking areas with higher brightness temperature compared with the surrounding environment. This paper covers the period between June 2010 and September 2011 over Central Europe. The ISIS method (Instrument de Suivi dans I’Imagerie satellitaire, originally developed for detection of cold cloud tops, was used as an initial ideological point. Subsequently, this method was modified by Michel and Bouttier for usage on WV images. Some of the applied criteria and parameters were chosen with reference to the results published by Michel and Bouttier as well as by Novotny. The procedure can be divided into two steps: detection of warm areas and their tracking. Cases of detection of areas not evidently connected with dry intrusions can be solved by filtering off based on the connection between detected warm areas to the cyclonic side of jet streams and significant lowering of the tropopause.

  18. Tetanus in Southern Vietnam: Current Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy, Duong Bich; Campbell, James I.; Thanh, Tran Tan; Thuy, Cao Thu; Loan, Huynh Thi; Hao, Nguyen Van; Minh, Yen Lam; Tan, Le Van; Boni, Maciej F.; Thwaites, C. Louise

    2017-01-01

    In Vietnam, there are no accurate data on tetanus incidence to allow assessment of disease burden or vaccination program efficacy. We analyzed age structure of 786 tetanus cases admitted to a tertiary referral center in Vietnam for three separate years during an 18-year period to examine the impact of tetanus prevention programs, namely the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) and the Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus (MNT) initiative. Most cases were born before the initiation of EPI. Median age increased from 33 (interquartile range: 20–52) in 1994, to 46 (32–63) in 2012 (P anti-tetanus antibody compared with 24.4% (95% CI: 15.9–34.7%) of men, indicating continued tetanus vulnerability in older men in Vietnam. PMID:27821690

  19. Technique de lombriculture au Sud Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haubruge E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Vermicomposting technique in South Vietnam. Earthworms play a major role in organic matter transformation. The vermicomposting allows to combine several advantages: the management of diversified organic wastes, and the production of earthworms and vermicompost. Crop residues and other plant wastes mixed with animal manure from individual farms can be used. In South Vietnam, farmers are rearing some livestock and growing a few number of crop species. From several years, an increasing number of vermicomposting units were set in many farms from the Ho Chi Minh City region. Two kinds of infrastructure materials are used: baked clay blocks or bamboo stems with plastic covers. In South Vietnam, all conditions are pooled to ensure an efficient earthworm production: suitable climate, available organic wastes and materials to build the vermicomposting structures. Both field plot fertility and protein feed for livestock (pigs, poultry, etc. can be provided by rearing earthworms.

  20. Lightning protection for wind turbines in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuan Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy has become increasingly important in the total electrical energy supply mix in Vietnam over the last few years. Small, kW turbines were installed in isolated areas a decade ago, while wind farms of several MW to few hundred MW are now being connected directly to national grid, with many additional projects in planning or under construction to fulfill an objective of 6% of the total installed capacity by 2030 (approximately 6200 MW of wind energy component. The increase in wind farm generation results in increased damage from lightning. In this paper, the annual frequency of lightning strikes to wind turbines in Vietnam is calculated using electrogeometric model. Reported lightning incidents to three major wind farms in Vietnam are summarized. Possible causes of failure are discussed, and an EMTP simulation for each incident was performed accordingly. The simulations suggest the failure mechanisms as well the potential of improved grounding to reduce lightning induced damage in future windfarms.

  1. [Health and health care in Vietnam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessa, S

    2003-05-01

    The South East Asian state of Vietnam is currently undergoing a transition from a centralised socialism to a so-called socialist market economy strongly promoting the private sector. For the last 17 years economy experienced an impressive growth. If the assumption is true that economic growth is positively correlated with the health status of the population, the strengthened economy of Vietnam must go along with an improved health situation and health care system of this country. The following paper evaluates this assumption. It is demonstrated that there is indeed a strongly positive correlation between health and development in many aspects. However, it becomes obvious that economic growth is definitely accompanied by increasing regional and social disparity challenging the health care policy of Vietnam and her international partners.

  2. Game Theoretic Evaluation of Threat Detection Problems-The Central Role of the Adversary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heasler, Patrick G.; Wood, Thomas W.; Reichmuth, Barbara A.

    2007-01-01

    A wide variety of security problems hinge on the detection of threats and discrimination of threats from innocuous objects. The theory that frames these problems is common among medical diagnostics, radar and sonar imaging, and detection of radiological, chemical, and biological agents. In many of these problems, the nature of the threat is subject to control by a malicious adversary, and the choice of a reference (or "design basis") threat is a very diffcult, and often intractable, aspect of the problem. It is this class of problems that this report considers.

  3. First detection of Bacillus anthracis in feces of free-ranging raptors from central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggese, Miguel D; Noseda, Ramón P; Uhart, Marcela M; Deem, Sharon L; Ferreyra, Hebe; Romano, Marcelo C; Ferreyra-Armas, María C; Hugh-Jones, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Prevalence of anthrax spores in feces of raptors was determined from samples collected in November-December 2000 and April-May 2001 in an agricultural region of Santa Fé province, Argentina. Feces were tested from 48 birds of six raptor species. One of 14 chimango caracaras (Milvago chimango) and one of eight road-side hawks (Buteo magnirostris) tested positive. The prevalence of Bacillus anthracis spores in feces for the six species was 4% (n=48). The prevalence was 7% (n=14) for chimango caracaras, 13% for road-side hawks (n=8), and 0% for the remaining species (Burrowing owl [Speotyto cunicularia] [n=17], Swainson's hawk [Buteo swainsoni] [n=3], Aplomado falcon [Falco femoralis] [n=2], and American kestrel [Falco sparverius] [n=4]). Grouped by their feeding habits, prevalence for scavenger species was not significantly different than for predators (7% vs. 3%, P>0.999). This study provides evidence that in central Argentina scavenger and non-scavenger raptors may have a role in the epidemiology of anthrax. Long-term studies to determine the extent of this potential involvement in the epidemiology of anthrax in central Argentina are required.

  4. Can a central blood volume deficit be detected by systolic pressure variation during spontaneous breathing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael; Hayes, Chris Frederick; Steen Rasmussen, Bodil;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whether during spontaneous breathing arterial pressure variations (APV) can detect a volume deficit is not established. We hypothesized that amplification of intra-thoracic pressure oscillations by breathing through resistors would enhance APV to allow identification of a reduced card...

  5. The role of trade unions in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of matched employer–employee data from 2007 to 2009, this paper examines the union wage gap among small and medium non-state manufacturing enterprises in Vietnam. Controlling for both worker and firm characteristics, the results provide evidence that union members earn higher wages...... than non-members, and are more likely to receive social benefits.Within unionised firms, a substantial wage premium is revealed for workers employed in Southern firms, a finding which among other factors may be attributed to historical differences between the North and South of Vietnam....

  6. Vietnam anthracite - current situation and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doan van Kien [Vietnam National Coal Corporation (Vietnam)

    2004-07-01

    A resume is given of Vietnam's resources of anthracite, sub-bituminous coal, peat, coking coal and brown coal. Details are given of anthracite produced by the Vietnam National Coal Corporation (VINACOAL). Sales, coal quality and markets are discussed. Markets include the steel, non-ferrous metal and cement industries, power generation, water treatment and electrode and calcium carbide manufacture. VINACOAL is aiming to increase anthracite production especially for PCI, and is investing in coal mining and coal preparation plants and expansion of Cam Pha port. A series of eight slides/overheads accompanies the presentation (file Doan van Kien.pdf).

  7. English in Vietnam and Its Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼璐; 张婷

    2014-01-01

    English spoken by people from different countries takes on different characteristics. Many linguists conducted researches on World Englishes. Focusing on the pronunciation,grammar, vocabulary and literature achievement, these studies present the target English’s environment and features. However,there is rare achievement of study.in English in Vietnam. Under the economy boom, Vietnamese government attached importance to the English education, which led to the wide utilization of English. This article analyzes English in Vietnam and its features,including pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary, in the hope of making complements to world Englishes.

  8. English in Vietnam and Its Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼璐; 张婷

    2014-01-01

    English spoken by people from different countries takes on different characteristics. Many linguists conducted researches on World Englishes. Focusing on the pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary and literature achievement, these studies present the target English's environment and features. However, there is rare achievement of study.in English in Vietnam. Under the economy boom, Vietnamese government attached importance to the English education, which led to the wide utilization of English. This article analyzes English in Vietnam and its features , including pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary, in the hope of making complements to world Englishes.

  9. The Economic Lives of People with Disabilities in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Palmer

    Full Text Available Through a series of focus group discussions conducted in northern and central Vietnam, this study gives voice to the lived economic experience of families with disabilities and how they manage the economic challenges associated with disability. The dynamic of low and unstable income combined with on-going health care and other disability-related costs gives rise to a range of coping mechanisms (borrowing, reducing and foregoing expenditures, drawing upon savings and substituting labour that helps to maintain living standards in the short-run yet threatens the longer-term welfare of both the individual with disability and their household. Current social protection programs were reported as not accessible to all and while addressing some immediate economic costs of disability, do not successfully meet current needs nor accommodate wider barriers to availing benefits.

  10. The Economic Lives of People with Disabilities in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Michael; Groce, Nora; Mont, Daniel; Nguyen, Oanh Hong; Mitra, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Through a series of focus group discussions conducted in northern and central Vietnam, this study gives voice to the lived economic experience of families with disabilities and how they manage the economic challenges associated with disability. The dynamic of low and unstable income combined with on-going health care and other disability-related costs gives rise to a range of coping mechanisms (borrowing, reducing and foregoing expenditures, drawing upon savings and substituting labour) that helps to maintain living standards in the short-run yet threatens the longer-term welfare of both the individual with disability and their household. Current social protection programs were reported as not accessible to all and while addressing some immediate economic costs of disability, do not successfully meet current needs nor accommodate wider barriers to availing benefits.

  11. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi isolates from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Chien-Shun; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Phung, Dac Cam; Watanabe, Haruo; Kuo, Jung-Che; Wang, Pei-Jen; Liu, Yen-Yi; Liang, Shiu-Yun; Chen, Pei-Chen

    2014-11-01

    We characterized Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam to investigate their genetic relatedness and antimicrobial resistance. The isolates from Bangladesh and Vietnam were genetically closely related but were distant from those from Indonesia and Taiwan. All but a few isolates from Indonesia and Taiwan were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. The majority of isolates from Bangladesh and Vietnam were multidrug resistant (MDR) and belonged to the widespread haplotype H58 clone. IncHI1 plasmids were detected in all MDR S. Typhi isolates from Vietnam but in only 15% of MDR isolates from Bangladesh. Resistance genes in the majority of MDR S. Typhi isolates from Bangladesh should reside in the chromosome. Among the isolates from Bangladesh, 82% and 40% were resistant to various concentrations of nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Several resistance mechanisms, including alterations in gyrase A, the presence of QnrS, and enhanced efflux pumps, were involved in the reduced susceptibility and resistance to fluoroquinolones. Intensive surveillance is necessary to monitor the spread of chromosome-mediated MDR and fluoroquinolone-resistant S. Typhi emerging in Bangladesh.

  12. Sonographic detection of central nervous system defects in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, A C; Joyeux, L; Brantner, C; De Keersmaecker, B; De Catte, L; Baud, D; Deprest, J; Van Mieghem, T

    2016-03-01

    The fetal central nervous system can already be examined in the first trimester of pregnancy. Acrania, alobar holoprosencephaly, cephaloceles, and spina bifida can confidently be diagnosed at that stage and should actively be looked for in every fetus undergoing first-trimester ultrasound. For some other conditions, such as vermian anomalies and agenesis of the corpus callosum, markers have been identified, but the diagnosis can only be confirmed in the second trimester of gestation. For these conditions, data on sensitivity and more importantly specificity and false positives are lacking, and one should therefore be aware not to falsely reassure or scare expecting parents based on first-trimester findings. This review summarizes the current knowledge of first-trimester neurosonography in the normal and abnormal fetus and gives an overview of which diseases can be diagnosed.

  13. Serological detection of circulating Angiostrongylus vasorum antigen and specific antibodies in dogs from central and northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardone, L; Schnyder, M; Macchioni, F; Deplazes, P; Magi, M

    2013-02-18

    The most frequently employed method for the diagnosis of Angiostrongylus vasorum in dogs is the detection of first stage larvae (L1) in faeces. The sensitivity of coproscopy, however, is limited in case of low parasite load, intermittent larval excretion, and during pre-patency. An epidemiological survey on dogs was conducted applying serological methods in two Italian regions where angiostrongylosis is endemic in foxes. 265 dog serum samples from Tuscany (central Italy - site A) and 447 from Liguria (north-western Italy - site B) were tested with a sandwich-ELISA for detection of circulating antigen, and with an ELISA using A. vasorum adult somatic antigen purified by monoclonal antibodies for specific antibody detection. During previous examinations dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum (n=149), Dirofilaria immitis (n=40), Dirofilaria repens (n=30), Acanthocheilonema reconditum (n=27), Crenosoma vulpis (n=1), A. vasorum (n=2), Capillaria aerophila (n=35), Capillaria boehmi (n=3), Toxocara canis (n=68), Toxascaris leonina (n=5), hookworms (n=37) and Trichuris vulpis (n=39) were detected. Sera of these dogs were used to evaluate cross reactions. In site A, 2 dogs (0.8%) were seropositive for antibody and antigen detection and 4 (1.5%) for antibody detection only. From site B, 4 dogs (0.9%) were seropositive for both tests, while other 4 dogs (0.9%) for antigen detection only and 9 dogs (2%) for antibody detection only. Considering a subgroup of 347 dogs from site B which had also been tested with the Baermann technique, 2 (0.6%) were positive for both tests, 4 (1.2%) for antigen detection only and 9 (2.6%) for antibody detection only. The two dogs which were positive for both serological tests were also positive for A. vasorum L1 in the faeces. No significant difference in seropositivities was observed in the group of dogs with other proven parasitic infections. A. vasorum serology presents significant advantages (diagnosis before patency, single serum

  14. Effects of stop-level habitat change on cerulean warbler detections along breeding bird survey routes in the central appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhone, P.M.; Wood, P.B.; Dawson, D.K.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of habitat change on Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea) populations at stops along Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) routes in the central Appalachians. We used aerial photographs to compare early (1967/1971), middle (1982/1985), and late (2000/2003) periods and compared 1992 and 2001 National Land Cover Data (NLCD). Mean Cerulean Warbler detections per stop decreased at 68 BBS stops between the early (0.05) and middle (0.01) time periods and their distribution became more restricted (15 vs. 3% of stops), but the amount of deciduous/mixed forest increased. Mean detections at 240 stops decreased from the middle (0.09) to the late (0.06) time periods, but the deciduous/mixed forest land cover and fragmentation metrics did not change. The amounts of deciduous/mixed forest, core forest area, and edge density in the NLCD analysis decreased from 1992 to 2001, whereas the amount of non-forest land cover increased. The number of Cerulean Warbler detections did not change (1992 ?=? 0.08, 2001 ?=? 0.10; P ?=? 0.11). The lack of concordance between Cerulean Warbler detections and broad habitat features suggests that smaller, microhabitat features may be most important in affecting Cerulean Warbler breeding habitat suitability. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  15. Accuracy of Ultrasound in Detection of Gross Prenatal Central Nervous System Anomalies after the Eighteenth Week of Gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tahmasebi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Ultrasound (US detection of prenatal central nervous system (CNS anatomic anomalies is very important in making decision about therapeutic termination. In the present study, the accuracy of US in detection of gross prenatal CNS anatomic anomalies has been investigated."nPatients and Methods: 3012 pregnant women were scanned after 18 weeks of gestation by an expert operator in a referring center. All delivered fetuses were followed after birth through clinical examination and sonography."nResults: In this study, the accuracy of US in detection of gross CNS anatomic anomalies of fetuses after 18 weeks gestation was found to be 100%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of US were 100%. In sonographic examination of these 3012 pregnant women, 36 fetuses were detected with CNS anomalies, some of whom had more than one anomaly. Gross CNS anomalies observed included microcephaly, hydrocephaly, anencephaly, holoprosencephaly, ventriculomegaly, meningocele, encephalocele, lissencephaly, agenesis of corpus callosum, bilateral choroid plexus cysts and hypoplastic cerebellum."nConclusion: US is highly operator dependent and operator experience may be the most determinant affecting the results. Sonographic scanning after 18 weeks of gestation is associated with the best results.

  16. Comparison of the Roche RealTime ready Influenza A/H1N1 Detection Set with CDC A/H1N1pdm09 RT-PCR on samples from three hospitals in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Nguyen thi; Hang, Vu thi Ty; Khanh, Trong Huu; Viet, Do Chau; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy; van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; van Doorn, H. Rogier

    2012-01-01

    Background Real-time PCR can be considered the gold standard for detection of influenza viruses due to its high sensitivity and specificity. Roche has developed the RealTime ready Influenza A/H1N1 Detection Set, consisting of a generic influenza virus A PCR targeting the M2 gene (M2 PCR) and a specific PCR targeting the HA of A/H1N1-pdm09 (HA PCR, 2009 H1N1), with the intention to make a reliable, rapid, and simple test to detect and quantify 2009 H1N1 in clinical samples. Methods We evaluated this kit against the USCDC/WHO real-time PCR for influenza virus using 419 nose and throat swabs from 210 patients collected in 3 large hospitals in Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam. Results In the per patient analysis, when compared to CDC PCR, the sensitivity and specificity of the M2 PCR were 85.8 and 97.6%, respectively; the sensitivity and specificity of HA PCR were 88.2 and 100%, respectively. In the per sample analysis, the sensitivity and specificity in nose swabs were higher than in throat swabs for both M2 and HA PCRs. The viral loads as determined with the M2 and HA PCRs correlated well with the Ct values of the CDC PCR. Conclusion Compared with the CDC PCR, the kit has a reasonable sensitivity and very good specificity for the detection and quantification of Influenza A virus and A/H1N1-pdm09. However, given the current status of 2009 H1N1, a kit that can detect all circulating seasonal influenza viruses would be preferable. PMID:22785431

  17. Master plan envisions multi-billion-dollar expansion of Vietnam's electricity monopoly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    Massive investment in Vietnam's electricity monopoly by Western aid and export credit agencies form part of the ten-year master plan developed for Vietnam. Central planning and political patronage, instead of market assessments and customer choice form the basis for monopoly investments in a centralized grid linking big hydro, gas, coal, and nuclear power projects. Western aid agencies might effectively crowd out viable private-sector energy investments by financing power projects considered too large and risky by the private sector. These investments by Western aid agencies would assist in winning contracts for favoured exporters of engineering services and equipment. It would be a breeding ground for corruption in Vietnam if market discipline, public oversight, and enforceable property rights are not present in the face of power sector aid. There is a real possibility that damages to the environment could result from electricity investments, and some communities might be victimized, electricity costs might increase, the indebtedness level of the population might increase.

  18. Lucerne transient streak virus; a Recently Detected Virus Infecting Alfafa (Medicago sativa) in Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Ahmed; Al-Shahwan, Ibrahim M.; Abdalla, Omer A.; Al-Saleh, Mohammed A.; Amer, Mahmoud A.

    2017-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the status of Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) in three high-yielding alfalfa regions in central Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Qassim, and Hail) during 2014. Three hundred and eight symptomatic alfalfa, and seven Sonchus oleraceus samples were collected. DAS-ELISA indicated that 59 of these samples were positive to LTSV. Two isolates of LTSV from each region were selected for molecular studies. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of LTSV in the selected samples using a specific primer pair. Percentage identity and homology tree comparisons revealed that all Saudi isolates were more closely related to each other but also closely related to the Canadian isolate-JQ782213 (97.1–97.6%) and the New Zealand isolate-U31286 (95.8–97.1%). Comparing Saudi isolates of LTSV with ten other sobemoviruses based on the coat protein gene sequences confirmed the distant relationship between them. Eleven out of fourteen plant species used in host range study were positive to LTSV. This is the first time to document that Trifolium alexandrinum, Nicotiana occidentalis, Chenopodium glaucum, and Lathyrus sativus are new host plant species for LTSV and that N. occidentalis being a good propagative host for it. PMID:28167887

  19. Detection of shrew-borne hantavirus in Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosa, Lukáš; Schlegel, Mathias; Gebauer, Petra; Ansorge, Hermann; Heroldová, Marta; Jánová, Eva; Stanko, Michal; Mošanský, Ladislav; Fričová, Jana; Pejčoch, Milan; Suchomel, Josef; Purchart, Luboš; Groschup, Martin H; Krüger, Detlev H; Ulrich, Rainer G; Klempa, Boris

    2013-10-01

    Recently, it was found that not only rodents but also shrews are reservoir hosts of hantaviruses. In Central Europe, only Seewis virus, associated with the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), has been recognized until now. In the present report, tissue samples from shrews belonging to Crocidurinae and Soricinae subfamilies, trapped in Czech Republic, Germany, and Slovakia, were screened for the presence of novel hantaviruses. Three new hantavirus partial L-segment sequences were obtained from pygmy shrews (Sorex minutus) trapped in Czech Republic and Germany. Complete nucleocapsid protein- and glycoprotein precursor-coding S- and M-segment sequences were then determined for the newly recognized hantavirus strains, CZ/Beskydy/412/2010/Sm, CZ/Drahany/420/2010/Sm, and DE/Dürrbach/1912/2009/Sm. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they represent strains of Asikkala virus (ASIV), a novel hantavirus also found in pygmy shrews from Finland. Our study reveals a broad geographic distribution of ASIV across Europe and indicates pygmy shrew as the primary reservoir host. Future studies will have to determine the pathogenic relevance of ASIV.

  20. The detection of stellar velocity dispersion drops in the central regions of five isolated Seyfert spirals

    CERN Document Server

    Márquez, I; Durret, F; González-Delgado, R M; Moles, M; Maza, J; Pérez, E; Roth, M

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the kinematics of the central regions of five isolated Seyfert spiral galaxies from the DEGAS sample (four with new data presented in this paper, IC184, UGC3223, NGC2639, NGC6814, and NGC6951 from our previous data), by using long slit spectroscopy in the CaII triplet range (at ~ 8600 A) obtained with a 4m-class telescope. A drop of the velocity dispersions in the innermost 1-3 arcsec is observed in four of them, and hinted in the remaining galaxy (NGC6814). The available HST images for our sample together with another nine galaxies with reported velocity dispersion drops, are also used to investigate the presence of morphological inner structures at the scales of the kinematical drops. Evidence for disk-like shapes is found in 12 out of the 14 cases. The only exceptions are NGC6814 and NGC6951. Existing N-body simulations including stars, gas and star formation predict that such a drop is most probably due to a young stellar population born from dynamically cold gas accreted in a circumnuclear dis...

  1. Lucerne transient streak virus; a Recently Detected Virus Infecting Alfafa (Medicago sativa) in Central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Ahmed; Al-Shahwan, Ibrahim M; Abdalla, Omer A; Al-Saleh, Mohammed A; Amer, Mahmoud A

    2017-02-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the status of Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) in three high-yielding alfalfa regions in central Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Qassim, and Hail) during 2014. Three hundred and eight symptomatic alfalfa, and seven Sonchus oleraceus samples were collected. DAS-ELISA indicated that 59 of these samples were positive to LTSV. Two isolates of LTSV from each region were selected for molecular studies. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of LTSV in the selected samples using a specific primer pair. Percentage identity and homology tree comparisons revealed that all Saudi isolates were more closely related to each other but also closely related to the Canadian isolate-JQ782213 (97.1-97.6%) and the New Zealand isolate-U31286 (95.8-97.1%). Comparing Saudi isolates of LTSV with ten other sobemoviruses based on the coat protein gene sequences confirmed the distant relationship between them. Eleven out of fourteen plant species used in host range study were positive to LTSV. This is the first time to document that Trifolium alexandrinum, Nicotiana occidentalis, Chenopodium glaucum, and Lathyrus sativus are new host plant species for LTSV and that N. occidentalis being a good propagative host for it.

  2. Assessing the National Logistics System of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Banomyong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to present and analyse the current situation regarding the capability of the national logistics system in Vietnam. A national assessment framework for macro-logistics is utilised in combination with semi-structured interviews of key Vietnamese stakeholders to reflect on the current situation in the country. There are still numerous shortcomings in the Vietnamese logistics system. These shortcomings are not purely infrastructure based but also from a regulatory and commercial perspective. The presented national logistics system assessment framework can be replicated in other countries or regions when assessing national logistics capability. The findings can help foreign investors, international logistics providers wanting to provide their services in Vietnam to understand the logistics context within the country. These findings are also helpful for policy makers in Vietnam on how to improve their national logistics system. This study proposes a template to assess national logistics systems and provides an in-depth understanding of logistics in Vietnam, a country that has not been much studied in the literature.

  3. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    In most of the empirical literature on land titling, the household is regarded as unitary, and land rights are found to have ambiguous effects on land allocation, investment and productivity. Using data from 12 provinces in Vietnam, we diversify land titles, and show in a household fixed effects...

  4. Deep Friendship Between Vietnam And China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vu; Xuan; Hong

    2014-01-01

    <正>Vietnam and China are neighbors joined by rivers and mountains.Geographical location and history ensure close friendship.This is especially true since they both endured a long revolutionary struggle to achieve national liberation,forging what Chairman Ho Chi Minh once praised as"deep friendship between comrades and brothers".The history of the past 60 years

  5. Health utilities of hypertensive patients in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.P.; Postma, M.J.; Veninga, Catharina

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: With a lack of an essential evidence on utilities to support cost-effectiveness analysis of hypertension management in Vietnam, we aimed to gather data on health utilities for hypertensive patients and identify predictors of utility. Methods: Hypertensive patients, from 40 to 80 years ol

  6. Learning Vocabulary in Group Work in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Pham Hoai

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated learning vocabulary in group work at university in Vietnam. The students were studied in two kinds of group settings, "unassisted" and "assisted", the first consisting of five students from the same class level and the second of four from the same class and a student from a higher class. Differences were observed in both…

  7. Learning Vocabulary in Group Work in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Pham Hoai

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated learning vocabulary in group work at university in Vietnam. The students were studied in two kinds of group settings, "unassisted" and "assisted", the first consisting of five students from the same class level and the second of four from the same class and a student from a higher class. Differences were…

  8. Value Chain Development of Avocado in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O.; Quaedackers, P.; Nguyen Trung Anh,; Wijk, van S.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid economic development, urbanisation and rising income levels, in Vietnam offer potential for pro-poor development, by creating new market opportunities for producers, traders and retailers. This article describes the process of value chain development, which involves all actors in the broad cha

  9. Governing pesticide in vegetable production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoi, Van P.

    2010-01-01

    The economic liberalization in Vietnam, initiated in the middle of the 1980s, contributed to the further intensification and expansion of private actor-engagement in agriculture and food-supply. Vietnamese farmers, who already considered applying pesticides the most effective manner to protect their

  10. Abortion in Vietnam: measurements, puzzles, and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkind, D

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes current knowledge about abortion in Vietnam, drawing upon government statistics, survey data, and fieldwork undertaken by the author in Vietnam throughout 1993 and part of 1994. The official total abortion rate in Vietnam in 1992 was about 2.5 per woman, the highest in Asia and worrisome for a country with a still-high total fertility rate of 3.7 children per woman. Vietnamese provinces exhibited substantial variation in both the rate of abortion and the type of procedures performed. Among the hypotheses explored to explain Vietnam's high rate of abortion are the borrowing of family planning strategies from other poor socialist states where abortion is common; current antinatal population policies that interact with a lack of contraceptive alternatives; and a rise in pregnancies among young and unmarried women in the wake of recent free-market reforms. Because family-size preferences are still declining, abortion rates may continue to increase unless the incidence of unwanted pregnancy can be reduced, a goal that Vietnamese population specialists are seeking to achieve.

  11. Technology network for machine tools in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuno, Junko

    2012-01-01

    When Vietnam joined the WTO, it accepted foreign direct investment and started to grow. Technically, it was then greatly influenced by the enterprises that entered the country through direct investment. This report shows that the technology network for machine tools is formed via direct investment and subcontracting.

  12. Social networks and wage outcomes in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between the use of informal contacts and wage outcomes using matched employer-employee data from small and medium firms in Vietnam. We find that obtaining a job through knowing another worker in the firm generally is positively associated with individual wages...

  13. Prevalence and first genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in beef calves in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sam Thi; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Nguyen, Duc Tan; Tada, Chika; Nakai, Yutaka

    2016-04-01

    Little information is available on the epidemiology of Giardia duodenalis in beef cattle from Vietnam. This study was performed to determine the prevalence and genotypes/assemblages of G. duodenalis in native beef calves younger than 6 months in the region. A total of 412 calf fecal samples, randomly selected from 99 small-scale farms located in DacLac and KhanhHoa provinces, central Vietnam, were screened for the presence of G. duodenalis cysts using the zinc-sulfate flotation method followed by iodine staining. The overall prevalence on the sample and herd levels were 13.8% (57/412) and 42.4% (42/99), respectively. Molecular analysis in the β-giardin and triosephosphate isomerase genes demonstrated the presence of only G. duodenalis assemblage E in the animals. Since assemblage E has been rarely reported in humans, the zoonotic risk in beef calves in the region appears to be minimal.

  14. Creating Social Safeguards for REDD+: Lessons Learned from Benefit Sharing Mechanisms in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mucahid Mustafa Bayrak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many studies on benefit sharing mechanisms (BSM and the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation programme (REDD+ focus on poverty alleviation and livelihood development. However, relatively few studies incorporate an integrated livelihood framework. This study employs the sustainable livelihoods framework to assess the impact of BSM in Vietnam. The lessons learned could be used in creating social safeguards for REDD+. The communities in Central Vietnam involved in BSM were impacted by the programme on various dimensions. These dimensions, expressed in different types of capital, are interconnected and contribute to a person’s well-being. While the communities have restricted access to their natural forests, they benefited in terms of income diversification, knowledge improvement and network expansion. On the other hand, they faced food insecurity, they were more vulnerable to natural hazards, and their human, social and cultural capital faced risk of deterioration.

  15. A hidden HIV epidemic among women in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Hien

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV epidemic in Vietnam is still concentrated among high risk populations, including IDU and FSW. The response of the government has focused on the recognized high risk populations, mainly young male drug users. This concentration on one high risk population may leave other populations under-protected or unprepared for the risk and the consequences of HIV infection. In particular, attention to women's risks of exposure and needs for care may not receive sufficient attention as long as the perception persists that the epidemic is predominantly among young males. Without more knowledge of the epidemic among women, policy makers and planners cannot ensure that programs will also serve women's needs. Methods More than 300 documents appearing in the period 1990 to 2005 were gathered and reviewed to build an understanding of HIV infection and related risk behaviors among women and of the changes over time that may suggest needed policy changes. Results It appears that the risk of HIV transmission among women in Vietnam has been underestimated; the reported data may represent as little as 16% of the real number. Although modeling predicted that there would be 98,500 cases of HIV-infected women in 2005, only 15,633 were accounted for in reports from the health system. That could mean that in 2005, up to 83,000 women infected with HIV have not been detected by the health care system, for a number of possible reasons. For both detection and prevention, these women can be divided into sub-groups with different risk characteristics. They can be infected by sharing needles and syringes with IDU partners, or by having unsafe sex with clients, husbands or lovers. However, most new infections among women can be traced to sexual relations with young male injecting drug users engaged in extramarital sex. Each of these groups may need different interventions to increase the detection rate and thus ensure that the women receive the care they

  16. Detection of central circuits implicated in the formation of novel pain memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upadhyay J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Jaymin Upadhyay,1 Julia Granitzka,1 Thomas Bauermann,2 Ulf Baumgärtner,3 Markus Breimhorst,1 Rolf-Detlef Treede,3 Frank Birklein1 1Department of Neurology, 2Department of Neuroradiology, University Medical Centre, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, 3Department of Neurophysiology, Center for Biomedicine and Medical Technology Mannheim (CBTM, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany Abstract: Being able to remember physically and emotionally painful events in one’s own past may shape behavior, and can create an aversion to a variety of situations. Pain imagination is a related process that may include recall of past experiences, in addition to production of sensory and emotional percepts without external stimuli. This study aimed to understand 1 the central nervous system processes that underlie pain imagination, 2 the retrieval of pain memories, and 3 to compare the latter with visual object memory. These goals were achieved by longitudinally investigating brain function with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a unique group of healthy volunteers who had never experienced tooth pain. In these subjects, we compared brain responses elicited during three experimental conditions in the following order: imagination of tooth pain (pain imagination, remembering one’s own house (object memory, and remembrance of tooth pain following an episode of induced acute tooth pain (pain memory. Key observations stemming from group-level conjunction analyses revealed common activation in the posterior parietal cortex for both pain imagination and pain memory, while object and pain memory each had strong activation predominantly within the middle frontal gyrus. When contrasting pain imagination and memory, significant activation differences were observed in subcortical structures (ie, parahippocampus – pain imagination > pain memory; midbrain – pain memory > pain imagination. Importantly, these findings were observed in the presence of

  17. Detection of a new sub-lithospheric discontinuity in Central Europe with S-receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Rainer; Handy, Mark R.; Yuan, Xiaohui; Meier, Thomas; Kämpf, Horst; Soomro, Riaz

    2017-03-01

    We used S-receiver functions (i.e. S-to-P converted signals) to study seismic discontinuities in the upper mantle between the Moho and the 410 km discontinuity beneath central Europe. This was done by using c. 49,000 S-receiver functions from c. 700 permanent and temporary broadband stations made available by the open EIDA Archives. Below Phanerozoic Europe we observed expected discontinuities like the Moho, the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), the Lehmann discontinuity and the 410 km discontinuity with an additional overlying low velocity zone. Below the East European Craton (EEC), we observed the Mid-Lithospheric Discontinuity (MLD) at c. 100 km depth as well as the controversial cratonic LAB at c. 200 km depth. At the boundary of the EEC but still below the Phanerozoic surface, we observed downward velocity reductions below the LAB in the following regions: the North German-Polish Plain at about 200 km depth; the Bohemian Massive, north-west dipping from 200 to 300 km depth; the Pannonian Basin, north-east dipping from 150 to 200 km depth underneath the western Carpathians and the EEC. We named this newly observed structure Sub-Lithospheric Discontinuity (SLD). At the northern edge of the Bohemian Massive, we see a sharp vertical step of about 100 km between the SLD below the Bohemian Massive and the North German-Polish Plain. This step follows the surface trace of the Rheic Suture between the continental Saxo-Thuringian and Rheno-Herzynian zones of the Variscan orogen. A preliminary interpretation of these features is that a prong of the cratonic mantle lithosphere penetrated the Phanerozoic asthenosphere during the continental collision at the western and south-western edges of the EEC.

  18. Detection of central circuits implicated in the formation of novel pain memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Jaymin; Granitzka, Julia; Bauermann, Thomas; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Breimhorst, Markus; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Birklein, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Being able to remember physically and emotionally painful events in one’s own past may shape behavior, and can create an aversion to a variety of situations. Pain imagination is a related process that may include recall of past experiences, in addition to production of sensory and emotional percepts without external stimuli. This study aimed to understand 1) the central nervous system processes that underlie pain imagination, 2) the retrieval of pain memories, and 3) to compare the latter with visual object memory. These goals were achieved by longitudinally investigating brain function with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a unique group of healthy volunteers who had never experienced tooth pain. In these subjects, we compared brain responses elicited during three experimental conditions in the following order: imagination of tooth pain (pain imagination), remembering one’s own house (object memory), and remembrance of tooth pain following an episode of induced acute tooth pain (pain memory). Key observations stemming from group-level conjunction analyses revealed common activation in the posterior parietal cortex for both pain imagination and pain memory, while object and pain memory each had strong activation predominantly within the middle frontal gyrus. When contrasting pain imagination and memory, significant activation differences were observed in subcortical structures (ie, parahippocampus − pain imagination > pain memory; midbrain − pain memory > pain imagination). Importantly, these findings were observed in the presence of consistent and reproducible psychophysical and behavioral measures that informed on the subjects’ ability to imagine novel and familiar thoughts, as well as the subjects’ pain perception.

  19. Protein-protein interface detection using the energy centrality relationship (ECR characteristic of proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjana Sudarshan

    Full Text Available Specific protein interactions are responsible for most biological functions. Distinguishing Functionally Linked Interfaces of Proteins (FLIPs, from Functionally uncorrelated Contacts (FunCs, is therefore important to characterizing these interactions. To achieve this goal, we have created a database of protein structures called FLIPdb, containing proteins belonging to various functional sub-categories. Here, we use geometric features coupled with Kortemme and Baker's computational alanine scanning method to calculate the energetic sensitivity of each amino acid at the interface to substitution, identify hotspots, and identify other factors that may contribute towards an interface being FLIP or FunC. Using Principal Component Analysis and K-means clustering on a training set of 160 interfaces, we could distinguish FLIPs from FunCs with an accuracy of 76%. When these methods were applied to two test sets of 18 and 170 interfaces, we achieved similar accuracies of 78% and 80%. We have identified that FLIP interfaces have a stronger central organizing tendency than FunCs, due, we suggest, to greater specificity. We also observe that certain functional sub-categories, such as enzymes, antibody-heavy-light, antibody-antigen, and enzyme-inhibitors form distinct sub-clusters. The antibody-antigen and enzyme-inhibitors interfaces have patterns of physical characteristics similar to those of FunCs, which is in agreement with the fact that the selection pressures of these interfaces is differently evolutionarily driven. As such, our ECR model also successfully describes the impact of evolution and natural selection on protein-protein interfaces. Finally, we indicate how our ECR method may be of use in reducing the false positive rate of docking calculations.

  20. Coping with drought in the central highlands - Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tinh Dang

    Tørke er et naturligt fænomen forårsaget af nedbørsunderskud i et bestemt område gennem et vis tid. Globalt set kan store områder blive berørt med omfattende skader på samfundsøkonomien og menneskers levevilkår og helbred og til følge. Tørke kan ikke forhindres, men forudseenhed og afhjælpende fo...

  1. Cassava leaves as protein source for pigs in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to evaluate the use of cassava leaves as protein sources for pigs when used at high levels in the diet, either in fresh form or with simplified methods of processing. In twenty cassava varieties taken from the upper part of the plant at the root

  2. Climate change, adaptation and the environment in central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole; Casse, Thorkil

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need for integrated approaches, such as the building of environmental management into climate change responses, addressing the total impact of livelihood stresses in social vulnerability perspectives, and ensuring that overall adaptation policies adequately address social justice...

  3. Social sustainability of Mesocyclops biological control for dengue in South Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thanh Tam; Olsen, Anna; Viennet, Elvina; Sleigh, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Copepod Mesocyclops as biological control agents for dengue was previously proven to be effective and sustainable in the Northern and Central provinces of Vietnam. We aim to study social sustainability of Mesocyclops intervention in south Vietnam. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used. An entomological survey was carried out in 100 random households of Chanh An commune, Vinh Long Province. Aedes larval indices and Mesocyclops prevalence were compared with historical pre- and post-intervention values. In the same commune, using purposeful sampling, sixteen semi-structured interviews (1 villager leader, 1 local doctor, 10 villagers, 2 teachers, 2 entomology officials), and a focus group discussion (6 Mesocyclops program collaborators) explored water storage habits, beliefs about dengue prevention and behaviour related to Mesocyclops. Thematic analysis was conducted to interpret the qualitative findings. Aedes abundance increased after responsibility for Mesocyclops intervention moved from government to community in 2010, with post-transfer surges in Breteau Index, Container Index, and Larval Density Index. Larval increments coincided with decrease in Mesocyclops prevalence. Villagers had some knowledge of dengue but it was conflated with other mosquito borne diseases and understanding of Mesocyclops was incomplete. Program adoption among the villagers was limited. With reduced government support program collaborators reported limited capacity to conduct population monitoring, and instead targeted 'problem' households. Although the Mesocyclops program was highly sustainable in northern and central provinces of Vietnam, the intervention has not been consistently adopted by southern households in Chanh An commune. Limited education, household monitoring and government support are affecting sustainability. Findings were based on a small household sample visited over a short time period, so other evaluations are needed. However, our results suggest that

  4. Naturally occurring clay nanoparticles in Latosols of Brazil central region: detection and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominika Dybowska, Agnieszka; Luciene Maltoni, Katia; Piella, Jordi; Najorka, Jens; Puntes, Victor; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2015-04-01

    Stability and reactivity of minerals change as a particle size function, which makes mineral nanoparticles (defined here as nanoparticles contribute to many biogeochemical processes, however much remains to be learnt about these materials, their size dependent behavior and environmental significance. Advances in analytical, imaging and spectroscopic techniques made it now possible to study such particles; however we still have limited knowledge of their chemical, structural and morphological identity and reactivity, in particular in soils. The aim of this research was to characterize the naturally occurring nanoparticles in three soils from Brazil central region. The samples were collected in the A horizon, treated with H2O2 to remove organic material, dispersed in ultrasonic bath and wet sieved (53 µm) to remove the sand fraction. The clay fraction was collected by siphoning the supernatant, conditioned in 1000 ml cylinder, according to the Stock's law. This fraction was further processed by re-suspension in water, sonication and repeated centrifugation, to separate the fraction smaller than 100nm. This material, called here the soil "nanofraction", was analyzed using a range of techniques: 1) nanoparticle size/morphology and crystallinity with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM operateing in scanning (HAADF-STEM) and High Resolution (HRTEM) mode), 2) size distribution in water with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and surface charge estimated from electrophoretic mobility measurements 3) crystal phase and crystallite size with X-ray Diffraction (XRD) 4) Chemical composition by quantitative analysis of elements (e.g., Si, Fe, Al, Ti) and their spatial distribution with HRTEM/EDS elemental mappings. The nanofraction had an average hydrodynamic particle diameter ranging from 83 to 92nm with a low polydispersity index of 0.13-0.17 and was found highly stable in aqueous suspension (no change in average particle size up to several months of storage). Particle surface

  5. Detection and characterization ofChlamydophila psittaci in asymptomatic feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica) in central Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ladawan Sariya; Phirom Prompiram; Siriporn Tangsudjai; Kanaporn Poltep; Tatiyanuch Chamsai; Chalisa Mongkolphan; Kamolphan Rattanavibul; Verachai Sakdajivachareon

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To detect and characterizeChlamydophila psittaci(C. psittaci) in asymptomatic feral pigeons in centralThailand.Methods:A total814 swabs from the trachea and cloacae of407 non-clinical feral pigeons in centralThailand were collected and tested for the presence ofC. psittaci.Results:A10.8% of feral pigeons in the sample group were positive as determined by nestedPCR primer specific toC. psittaci.The outer membrane proteinA(ompA) gene of positive samples exhibited amino acid identity ofC. psittaci ranging from71 to100% and were grouped in genotypeB.Exceptionally,BF1676-56 isolate was closely related toChlamydia avium with 99% identification of the16S ribosomal(r)RNA gene.Conclusions:This is the first report onC. psittaci isolated from asymptomatic feral pigeons inThailand, which provides knowledge for the disease status in pigeon populations inThailand.

  6. Malware Detection Module using Machine Learning Algorithms to Assist in Centralized Security in Enterprise Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Singhal, Priyank; 10.5121/ijnsa.2012.4106

    2012-01-01

    Malicious software is abundant in a world of innumerable computer users, who are constantly faced with these threats from various sources like the internet, local networks and portable drives. Malware is potentially low to high risk and can cause systems to function incorrectly, steal data and even crash. Malware may be executable or system library files in the form of viruses, worms, Trojans, all aimed at breaching the security of the system and compromising user privacy. Typically, anti-virus software is based on a signature definition system which keeps updating from the internet and thus keeping track of known viruses. While this may be sufficient for home-users, a security risk from a new virus could threaten an entire enterprise network. This paper proposes a new and more sophisticated antivirus engine that can not only scan files, but also build knowledge and detect files as potential viruses. This is done by extracting system API calls made by various normal and harmful executable, and using machine l...

  7. Vietnam's Foreign Policy toward China since the 1970s

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    There is much debate about how Southeast Asia views China's ascendance on the world stage. Beijing's expanding economic, diplomatic, and military influence has countries in the region concerned about how China will use its new power and influence. Vietnam is particularly concerned, since it shares a border with China and for many centuries was under China's control. Vietnam's experience with China may shed some light on how Southeast Asia is adapting to China's rise. Today, Vietnam find...

  8. Dientamoeba fragilis detection in suid populations: an emerging zoonosis hypothesized in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Crotti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dientamoeba fragilis (D. fragilis is a worldwide distributed protozoan parasite; it is pathogenic for humans. A wide spectrum of gastrointestinal symptoms has been described in infected patients: diarrhoea, flatulence, abdominal pains, colic and weight loss. However, asymptomatic infection has been also described. D. fragilis is still not well known; no cystic stage has been demonstrated and only the trophozoites are detected in stool samples. For identifying this typically more often binucleate protozoan, is necessary to perform permanent stain (eg. Giemsa on fresh stool specimens. This protozoan is extremely difficult to cultivate but molecular techniques such as the Polymerase Chain Reaction offer promise as a means of diagnosing infection. In five years time (2006-2010, faecal samples were collected from pigs housed in farrow-to-finish herds (494 samples, splitted in three different categories: sows, growers, finishing pigs and from hunted or slaughtered wild boars (87 samples. Simultaneously, the study was undertaken on human faeces (17 samples to evaluate the presence of D. fragilis in pig breeders. All samples were collected directly from the rectum, cooled and sent to the laboratory where they were examined for D. fragilis by direct microscopic examination. The fresh faecal smears were stained with a 10% Giemsa solution in distilled water for 30 min. Biomolecular investigations (TaqMan real-time PCR which targets the 5.8S rRNA, nested PCR for the 18S rRNA, nested PCR for the internal transcribed spacer 1 region were carried out on 38 pigs and 17 pig breeders specimens. The microscopic examination of the fresh fecal smears revealed positivity in 277 domestic pigs, corresponding to 56.07%. In particular higher positivity was observed on youngest animal (76.57%, while oldest or mature pigs recorded an important decreasing of positivity according the age (Table 1. Concerning wild boars, we revealed positivity in 35 animals (40.22%. Among

  9. Determinants of foreign direct investment in Vietnam 1988-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Bui, Anh Tuan

    2011-01-01

    This thesis analyses the determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in Vietnam from 1988-2009. It examines the nature, motivation and impact of FDI upon the Vietnam economy and its contribution to the subsequent leap forward in economic growth. The focus is on developing Dunning’s eclectic theory through case study analysis of Honda-Vietnam Motorbike Company and ANZ-Vietnam Bank. The prominent theories on FDI generally used in the thesis focus on Vernon’s Product Life Cycle (PLC) model, the Ma...

  10. Statistical discrimination of induced and tectonic earthquake sequences in Central and Eastern US based on waveform detected catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, X.; Daniels, C.; Smith, E.; Peng, Z.; Chen, X.; Wagner, L. S.; Fischer, K. M.; Hawman, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2001, the number of M>3 earthquakes increased significantly in Central and Eastern United States (CEUS), likely due to waste-water injection, also known as "induced earthquakes" [Ellsworth, 2013]. Because induced earthquakes are driven by short-term external forcing and hence may behave like earthquake swarms, which are not well characterized by branching point-process models, such as the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model [Ogata, 1988]. In this study we focus on the 02/15/2014 M4.1 South Carolina and the 06/16/2014 M4.3 Oklahoma earthquakes, which likely represent intraplate tectonic and induced events, respectively. For the South Carolina event, only one M3.0 aftershock is identified by the ANSS catalog, which may be caused by a lack of low-magnitude events in this catalog. We apply a recently developed matched filter technique to detect earthquakes from 02/08/2014 to 02/22/2014 around the epicentral region. 15 seismic stations (both permanent and temporary USArray networks) within 100 km of the mainshock are used for detection. The mainshock and aftershock are used as templates for the initial detection. Newly detected events are employed as new templates, and the same detection procedure repeats until no new event can be added. Overall we have identified more than 10 events, including one foreshock occurred ~11 min before the M4.1 mainshock. However, the numbers of aftershocks are still much less than predicted with the modified Bath's law. For the Oklahoma event, we use 1270 events from the ANSS catalog and 182 events from a relocated catalog as templates to scan through continuous recordings 3 days before to 7 days after the mainshock. 12 seismic stations within the vicinity of the mainshock are included in the study. After obtaining more complete catalogs for both sequences, we plan to compare the statistical parameters (e.g., b, a, K, and p values) between the two sequences, as well as their spatial-temporal migration pattern, which may

  11. Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Vietnam: some clarifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Le

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recently published comment on a report of Plasmodium knowlesi infections in Vietnam states that this may not accurately represent the situation in the study area because the PCR primers used may cross-hybridize with Plasmodium vivax. Nevertheless, P. knowlesi infections have been confirmed by sequencing. In addition, a neighbour-joining tree based on the 18S S-Type SSUrRNA gene shows that the Vietnamese samples clearly cluster with the P. knowlesi isolates identified in Malaysia and are distinct from the corresponding P. vivax sequences. All samples came from asymptomatic individuals who did not consult for fever during the months preceding or following the survey, indicating that asymptomatic P. knowlesi infections occur in this population, although this does not exclude the occurrence of symptomatic cases. Large-scale studies to determine the extent and the epidemiology of P. knowlesi malaria in Vietnam are further needed.

  12. Clinical microbiology during the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Michael; Brown, Matthew; Palys, Thomas; Tyner, Stuart; Bowden, Robert

    2009-11-01

    During the period of 1965-1968, over two dozen Army microbiologists were deployed to various locations in Southeast Asia in support of the Vietnam War. Their role was to serve both a clinical laboratory mission/function at the mobile Army surgical hospital and mobile laboratory level as well as to perform research roles in all of the facilities. They were essential to the formulation of medical intelligence as well as to the practice of operational medicine in the deployed environment. The results of their laboratory investigations provided commanders and military physicians with critical medical information for patient care, outbreak investigation, and forensic analysis. As with many soldiers in support of the infantry and armor combat forces, most of the work occurs behind the scenes and their contributions are often left out of the historical literature. This article presents a brief overview of microbiology performed by Army microbiologists during the Vietnam War.

  13. Project Hue: Report and field study on the water related problems and solutions in and around the Cau Hai lagoon and the Tu Hien inlet, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, T.; Jongerius, Y.R.; Franken, J.T.; Ponsioen, L.A.; Tieleman, O.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Tam Giang-Cau Hai lagoon system, lying in the Thua Thien-Hue province in central Vietnam, is affected by a tropical monsoon climate. This among others is the reason the Cau Hai Lagoon area has a long history of floods and other water related problems. Inhabitants are very dependent on the lagoon

  14. Detection of faint BLR components in the starburst/Seyfert galaxy NGC 6221 and measure of the central BH mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eLa Franca

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, using single epoch virial based techniques in the optical band, it has been possible to measure the central black hole mass on large type 1 Active Galactive Nuclei (AGN samples. However these measurements use the width of the broad line region as a proxy of the virial velocities and are therefore difficult to be carried out on those obscured (type 2 or low luminosity AGN where the nuclear component does not dominate in the optical. Here we present the optical and near infrared spectrum of the starburst/Seyfert galaxy NGC 6221, observed with X-shooter/VLT. Previous observations of NGC 6221 in the X-ray band shows an absorbed (N_H=8.5 +/- 0.4 x 10^21 cm^-2 spectrum typical of a type 2 AGN with luminosity log(L_14-195/ erg s^-1 = 42.05, while in the optical band its spectrum is typical of a reddened (A_V=3 starburst. Our deep X-shooter/VLT observations have allowed us to detect faint broad emission in the H_alpha, HeI and Pa_beta lines (FWHM=1400-2300 km s^-1 confirming previous studies indicating that NGC 6221 is a reddened starbust galaxy which hosts an AGN. We use the measure of the broad components to provide a first estimate of its central black hole mass (M_BH = 10^6.6+/-0.3 Msol, lambda_Edd=0.01-0.03, obtained using recently calibrated virial relations suitable for moderately obscured (N_H<10^24 cm^-2 AGN.

  15. Detection of faint BLR components in the starburst/Seyfert galaxy NGC 6221 and measure of the central BH mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Franca, Fabio; Onori, Francesca; Ricci, Federica; Bianchi, Stefano; Marconi, Alessandro; Sani, Eleonora; Vignali, Cristian

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade, using single epoch virial based techniques in the optical band, it has been possible to measure the central black hole mass on large type 1 Active Galactive Nuclei (AGN) samples. However these measurements use the width of the broad line region as a proxy of the virial velocities and are therefore difficult to be carried out on those obscured (type 2) or low luminosity AGN where the nuclear component does not dominate in the optical. Here we present the optical and near infrared spectrum of the starburst/Seyfert galaxy NGC 6221, observed with X-shooter/VLT. Previous observations of NGC 6221 in the X-ray band shows an absorbed (N_H=8.5 +/- 0.4 x 10^21 cm^-2) spectrum typical of a type 2 AGN with luminosity log(L_14-195/ erg s^-1) = 42.05, while in the optical band its spectrum is typical of a reddened (A_V=3) starburst. Our deep X-shooter/VLT observations have allowed us to detect faint broad emission in the H_alpha, HeI and Pa_beta lines (FWHM=1400-2300 km s^-1) confirming previous studies indicating that NGC 6221 is a reddened starbust galaxy which hosts an AGN. We use the measure of the broad components to provide a first estimate of its central black hole mass (M_BH = 10^6.6+/-0.3 Msol, lambda_Edd=0.01-0.03), obtained using recently calibrated virial relations suitable for moderately obscured (N_H<10^24 cm^-2) AGN.

  16. DNA from KI, WU and Merkel cell polyomaviruses is not detected in childhood central nervous system tumours or neuroblastomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Giraud

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: BK and JC polyomaviruses (BKV and JCV are potentially oncogenic and have in the past inconclusively been associated with tumours of the central nervous system (CNS, while BKV has been hinted, but not confirmed to be associated with neuroblastomas. Recently three new polyomaviruses (KIPyV, WUPyV and MCPyV were identified in humans. So far KIPyV and WUPyV have not been associated to human diseases, while MCPyV was discovered in Merkel Cell carcinomas and may have neuroepithelial cell tropism. However, all three viruses can be potentially oncogenic and this compelled us to investigate for their presence in childhood CNS and neuroblastomas. METHODOLOGY: The presence of KI, WU and MCPyV DNA was analysed, by a joint WU and KI specific PCR (covering part of VP1 and by a MCPyV specific regular and real time quantitative PCR (covering part of Large T in 25 CNS tumour biopsies and 31 neuroblastoma biopsies from the Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden. None of the three new human polyomaviruses were found to be associated with any of the tumours, despite the presence of PCR amplifiable DNA assayed by a S14 housekeeping gene PCR. CONCLUSION: In this pilot study, the presence of MCPyV, KI and WU was not observed in childhood CNS tumours and neuroblastomas. Nonetheless, we suggest that additional data are warranted in tumours of the central and peripheral nervous systems and we do not exclude that other still not yet detected polyomaviruses could be present in these tumours.

  17. Assessing the National Logistics System of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Banomyong; Vinh V. Thai; Kum Fai Yuen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to present and analyse the current situation regarding the capability of the national logistics system in Vietnam. A national assessment framework for macro-logistics is utilised in combination with semi-structured interviews of key Vietnamese stakeholders to reflect on the current situation in the country. There are still numerous shortcomings in the Vietnamese logistics system. These shortcomings are not purely infrastructure based but also from a regulatory ...

  18. Viral Advertising on Facebook in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Phuong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore which factors affect the effectiveness of viral advertising on Facebook in Vietnam. The quantitative research method is applied in this research and the sample is Vietnamese Facebook users. After the data analysis stage using SPSS, it became clear that weak ties, perceptual affinity and emotions have an impact on the effectiveness of viral advertising. The results provide a pratical implication of how to make an Ad which can go viral on Facebook. Moreo...

  19. Spectrum of Common α-Globin Deletion Mutations in the Southern Region of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui Thi Kim, Ly; Phu Chi, Dung; Hoang Thanh, Chi

    2016-06-01

    The common deletion mutations of α-globin genes in the Vietnamese population is not well known. Here we report the presence of five deletional mutations of Southeast Asia in the southern region of Vietnam. The - -(SEA) (NG_000006.1: g.26264_45564del19301) mutation is the most common type of deletion (87.35%), followed by the -α(3.7) (rightward) (NG_000006.1: g.34164_37967del3804) deletion (9.64%), -α(4.2) (leftward) (AF221717) deletion (2.41%) and - -(THAI) (NG_000006.1: g.10664_44164del33501) (0.6%) mutation in this region. The - -(FIL) (NG_000006.1: g.11684_43534del31581) mutation was not detected in this study. This result provided a view of the distribution of common α-globin gene mutations in Vietnam and could serve as a baseline for further investigations into these genetic defects.

  20. Contamination by perfluorinated compounds in water near waste recycling and disposal sites in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Isobe, Tomohiko; Misaki, Kentaro; Takahashi, Shin; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-04-01

    There are very few reports on the contamination by perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in the environment of developing countries, especially regarding their emission from waste recycling and disposal sites. This is the first study on the occurrence of a wide range of PFCs (17 compounds) in ambient water in Vietnam, including samples collected from a municipal dumping site (MD), an e-waste recycling site (ER), a battery recycling site (BR) and a rural control site. The highest PFC concentration was found in a leachate sample from MD (360 ng/L). The PFC concentrations in ER and BR (mean, 57 and 16 ng/L, respectively) were also significantly higher than those detected in the rural control site (mean, 9.4 ng/L), suggesting that municipal solid waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment are potential contamination sources of PFCs in Vietnam. In general, the most abundant PFCs were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUDA; waste materials.

  1. Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of canine distemper virus among domestic dogs in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    NGUYEN, Dung Van; SUZUKI, Junko; MINAMI, Shohei; YONEMITSU, Kenzo; NAGATA, Nao; KUWATA, Ryusei; SHIMODA, Hiroshi; VU, Chien Kim; TRUONG, Thuy Quoc; MAEDA, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is one of the most serious pathogens found in many species of carnivores, including domestic dogs. In this study, hemagglutinin (H) genes were detected in five domestic Vietnamese dogs with diarrhea, and two CDVs were successfully isolated from dogs positive for H genes. The complete genome of one isolate, CDV/dog/HCM/33/140816, was determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all Vietnamese CDVs belonged to the Asia-1 genotype. In addition, the H proteins of Vietnamese CDV strains were the most homologous to those of Chinese CDVs (98.4% to 99.3% identity). These results indicated that the Asia-1 genotype of CDV was the predominant genotype circulating among the domestic dog population in Vietnam and that transboundary transmission of CDV has occurred between Vietnam and China. PMID:27746406

  2. Cervical human papillomavirus infection among female sex workers in southern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez Brenda Y

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among women in southern Vietnam where its incidence is one of the highest observed worldwide. Results Cervical HPV DNA infection was measured in a cross-sectional sample of 282 female sex workers (FSW in Soc Trang province in southern Vietnam. HPV DNA was detected in 85% of FSW and prevalence did not vary by age. Thirty-five HPV genotypes were detected; HPV 52 was the most common type. Half of HPV-positive women were infected with oncogenic types and 37% were infected with multiple genotypes. The prevalence of oncogenic HPV infection was lower among FSW with more formal education (adj. prevalence ratio = 0.63, 95% CI 0.42–0.93, those servicing 25 or more clients per month (adj. PR = 0.66 95% CI 0.48–0.92, and those engaging in withdrawal prior to ejaculation (adj. PR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.53–0.87. Oncogenic HPV prevalence was higher among FSW with regular male partners who had other female partners (adj. PR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.34–2.28 and FSW who were HIV+ (adj. PR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.08–1.88. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that although cervical HPV infection is extremely common among FSW in southern Vietnam, prevalence varies by education level, sexual activity, habits of regular partners, and HIV status.

  3. A renewal of astronomy education in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzel, Donat G.

    Vietnam was scientifically completely isolated for almost 30 years. With French help, several lecture courses have introduced modern astrophysics to Vietnamese physicists, and four students are studying abroad. The IAU program "Teaching for Astronomy Development" (TAD) has concentrated on modernizing the on-going astronomy course for students in the third year of the pedagogical universities. Three one-to-two week "Teachers' Workshops" have served to introduce selected up-to-date astronomical topics and a few modern teaching methods. The TAD program has also provided appropriate journals, books, a PC and educational software. A new text, Astrophysics, in Vietnamese and English on facing pages and with color pictures - apparently a first for any textbook in Vietnam - will first be used starting in September 2000. Future aditional activities: collaboration to plan a new astronomy course in the twelfth grade of the natural science branch of the secondary schools; collaboration so that the 41-cm telescope and astronomers in Hanoi can produce some simple quality science; helping the only planetarium in Vietnam to acquire a wider range of offerings; helping to create a set of B.Sc.-level astrophysics courses for three universities; and supporting the Vietnamese Astronomical Society in effective public outreach.

  4. Halogenated organics in Vietnamese and in Vietnam food. Dioxins, dibenzofurans, PCBs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and selected pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schecter, A.; Tung, K.C. [Univ. of Texas School of Public Health at Dallas, TX (United States); Quynh, Hong Trong [Oncology Institute, Ha Noi, Vietnam (Viet Nam); Paepke, O. [ERGO Research Laboratory, Hamburg (Germany); Malisch, R. [State Laboratory for Chemical and Veterinary Analysis, Freiburg (Germany); Constable, J.D. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Vietnam is frequently thought of as the location of the world's largest dioxin contamination, with over 400 pounds of 2,3,7,8-TCDD from Agent Orange defoliant sprayed from 1962 to 1971. Although this is true, distribution of dioxin from Agent Orange is far from ubiquitous in Vietnam. The north was never sprayed and only certain areas of central and south Vietnam were sprayed. Dioxins have been found in very high levels in human milk and in food in some select areas of Vietnam from the 1970s to the present. Other pesticides including DDT and metabolites, {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} HCH, and HCB have also been found in humans and in food. We review dioxin ''hot spots'' studied in the past with current suspect hot spots and also add to the chemicals studied in Vietnamese by measuring polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in nursing Vietnamese women's milk and compare these to levels from other countries.

  5. Environmental Health Risk Assessment of Dioxin Exposure through Foods in a Dioxin Hot Spot—Bien Hoa City, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thi Tuyet-Hanh; Le Vu-Anh; Nguyen Ngoc-Bich; Thomas Tenkate

    2010-01-01

    This study used the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework to assess the human health risk of dioxin exposure through foods for local residents in two wards of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam. These wards are known hot-spots for dioxin and a range of stakeholders from central government to local levels were involved in this process. Publications on dioxin characteristics and toxicity were reviewed and dioxin concentrations in local soil, mud, foods, milk and blood samples were used ...

  6. Managing Transitions: Examining the Institutional Army’s Transformation Following the Vietnam War and Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-23

    interrelated reforms after Vietnam, the expansion to the Sixteen-Division Force was announced in the April 1974 Army Posture Statement by CSA General Creighton...reserve components into the support formations and forming habitual relationships with Round-Out Brigades to active units allowed the Army to create the...in deterring the Soviet military expansion in central Europe as noted in the Secretary of Defense’s 1974 Posture Statement to Congress.45 Secretary

  7. 75 FR 55740 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers the... of the antidumping duty orders on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Vietnam and the...

  8. 38 CFR 3.313 - Claims based on service in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in Vietnam. 3.313 Section 3.313 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.313 Claims based on service in Vietnam. (a) Service in Vietnam. Service in Vietnam includes service in the waters offshore, or service in other locations if the conditions...

  9. 77 FR 51514 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... of steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'').\\1\\ On August 2... Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Determination of Sales...

  10. 77 FR 46044 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less... preliminarily determine that steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') are... (``AD'') petition concerning imports of steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam filed in proper form...

  11. 77 FR 32930 - Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... garment hangers (garment hangers) from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam). For information on the... received a countervailing duty (CVD) petition concerning imports of garment hangers from Vietnam filed...

  12. Detection of Faint BLR Components in the Starburst/Seyfert Galaxy NGC 6221 and Measure of the Central BH Mass

    CERN Document Server

    La Franca, Fabio; Ricci, Federica; Bianchi, Stefano; Marconi, Alessandro; Sani, Eleonora; Vignali, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, using single epoch virial based techniques in the optical band, it has been possible to measure the central black hole mass on large AGN1 samples. However these measurements use the width of the broad line region as a proxy of the virial velocities and are therefore difficult to be carried out on those obscured (type 2) or low luminosity AGN where the nuclear component does not dominate in the optical. Here we present the optical and near infrared spectrum of the starburst/Seyfert galaxy NGC 6221, observed with X-shooter/VLT. Previous observations of NGC 6221 in the X-ray band show an absorbed (N_H=8.5 +/- 0.4 x 10^21 cm^-2) spectrum typical of a type 2 AGN with luminosity log(L_14-195 keV) = 42.05 erg/s, while in the optical band its spectrum is typical of a reddened (A_V=3) starburst. Our deep X-shooter/VLT observations have allowed us to detect faint broad emission in the H_alpha, HeI and Pa_beta lines (FWHM ~1400-2300 km/s) confirming previous studies indicating that NGC 6221 is a redd...

  13. Molecular analysis using DHPLC of cystic fibrosis: increase of the mutation detection rate among the affected population in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nardone Anna

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic fibrosis (CF is a multisystem disorder characterised by mutations of the CFTR gene, which encodes for an important component in the coordination of electrolyte movement across of epithelial cell membranes. Symptoms are pulmonary disease, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, male infertility and elevated sweat concentrations. The CFTR gene has numerous mutations (>1000 and functionally important polymorphisms (>200. Early identification is important to provide appropriate therapeutic interventions, prognostic and genetic counselling and to ensure access to specialised medical services. However, molecular diagnosis by direct mutation screening has proved difficult in certain ethnic groups due to allelic heterogeneity and variable frequency of causative mutations. Methods We applied a gene scanning approach using DHPLC system for analysing specifically all CFTR exons and characterise sequence variations in a subgroup of CF Italian patients from the Lazio region (Central Italy characterised by an extensive allelic heterogeneity. Results We have identified a total of 36 different mutations representing 88% of the CF chromosomes. Among these are two novel CFTR mutations, including one missense (H199R and one microdeletion (4167delCTAAGCC. Conclusion Using this approach, we were able to increase our standard power rate of mutation detection of about 11% (77% vs. 88%.

  14. Transgender at Work: Livelihoods for Transgender People in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.A.; Oosterhoff, P.

    2016-01-01

    The laws in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam promote equality for all citizens and refer to ‘persons’ rather than ‘men’ or ‘women’. However, because of traditional gender norms, transgender people in Vietnam are facing severe stigma and discrimination in public, in schools, at home and in the workp

  15. Vietnam: Education Financing. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This study examines the system of education and training in Vietnam and poses the question: what changes in educational policies will ensure that students who pass through the system today will acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for Vietnam to successfully complete the transition from a planned to a market economy? The report…

  16. Teaching the New Vietnam: It's a Country, Not a War

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCornac, Dennis C.

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam has made remarkable progress over the past two decades in its transition to a market economy resulting in numerous changes to both its social and economic institutions. It is a nation at peace focusing on economic development and integrating into the world economy. Although the tragic events in Vietnam's history cannot be forgotten, the…

  17. Transforming Vietnam's Medical Education through E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churton, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The costs for providing medical school education and services in Vietnam's universities continue to increase. Through a collaborative project between the Government of the Netherlands and Vietnam's Ministry of Health, a five year experimental program to develop in-country capacity and reduce the dependence upon a foreign medical service delivery…

  18. The History and Future of Community Colleges in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Anh T.

    2013-01-01

    Since 1986, with the creation of the Renovation ("Doi moi") policy, Vietnam has demonstrated a strong commitment to the improvement of its higher education system. After 25 years of opening its doors to the global educational environment, Vietnam has achieved some notable accomplishments. The country's higher educational system has…

  19. Health economics of screening for hypertension in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Thi Phuong Lan

    2016-01-01

    The studies aims to identify the burden of a cardiovascular diseases and solutions to manage it in Vietnam, notably hypertension screening. The studies confirmed that hypertension creates a great burden in Vietnam in terms of cardiovascular diseases, from economic, clinical and social perspectives.

  20. Refighting the Last War: Afghanistan and the Vietnam Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    exact political and military reenactment of the Vietnam War, and the lack of self-awareness of the repetition of events 50 years ago is deeply...as in the Bill Murray film ) epitomized by the paradigmatic tragedy of Hamburger Hill in Vietnam. Instead of “clear, hold and build,” what the U.S

  1. Regional year-round sypply of vegetables in North Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Wijk, van M.S.; Pham Van Hoi,

    2008-01-01

    A discussion is presented about the patterns in the present year-round supply of vegetables to large cities in the Red River Delta in North Vietnam. Especially during the hot summer season, vegetables are supplied from Dalat in South Vietnam or from Kunming Province in China. Generally speaking, imp

  2. Changing forestry discourses in Vietnam in the past 20 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dang, T.K.P.; Turnhout, E.; Arts, B.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Governance and sustainability are important topics of debate in global forest policy. It is however crucial to understand how these ideas have impacted national and local forest policy and management. The case of Vietnam is interesting and relevant because since the late 1980s, Vietnam's state fores

  3. Education and Economic, Political, and Social Change in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Pham Lan; Fry, Gerald W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the complex relations among history, education, political economy, and social change in Vietnam. Vietnam has a long history of education and a literate culture. The evolution of Vietnamese culture and society is characterized by both persistence and change. Social and political persistence and change have been…

  4. Analysis on Rice Production and International Trade in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Liu-qing; JIANG Yun-zhu; LU Li-xiang; LIN Hai; PANG Qian-lin

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces Vietnam’s climate condition,main rice production regions and analyses the expansion of rice planting area,rice cropping system during the last decades.The result from the change of rice production,planting area,yield,and rice trade indicates that the economic reforms in Vietnam from 1986 have contributed to a spectacular rise in rice production and exports.However,there are still problems and opportunities for rice production and export in Vietnam.The paper suggests that Vietnam should make the most use of the advanced international rice cultivars and technology to improve irrigation and water conservancy facilities to benefit rice farmer and consolidate Vietnam to be the major exporter of rice in the world market.%This paper introduces Vietnam's climate condition,main rice production regions and analyses the expansion of rice planting area,rice cropping system during the last decades.The result from the change of rice production,planting area,yield,and rice trade indicates that the economic reforms in Vietnam from 1986 have contributed to a spectacular rise in rice production and exports.However,there are still problems and opportunities for rice production and export in Vietnam.The paper suggests that Vietnam should make the most use of the advanced international rice cultivars and technology to improve irrigation and water conservancy facilities to benefit rice farmer and consolidate Vietnam to be the major exporter of rice in the world market.

  5. Geographic distribution of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus collected from used tires in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Yukiko; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Kawada, Hitoshi; Son, Tran Hai; Hoa, Nguyen Thuy; Takagi, Masahiro

    2010-03-01

    The spatial distribution of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in environmental and geographical zones, e.g., urban-rural, coastal-mountainous, and north-south, was investigated throughout Vietnam. Immature stages were collected from used tires along roads. The effects of regions, seasons, and the degree of urbanization on the density and the frequency were statistically analyzed. Aedes aegypti predominated in the southern and central regions, while Ae. albopictus predominated in the northern region, which may be related to climatic conditions (temperature and rainfall). Larval collection from used tires may be suitable to assess rapidly the current distribution of dengue mosquitoes for estimating health risks and implementing vector control measures.

  6. Eco-modernizing small en medium-sized agro-industries in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Hong Nhat

    2007-01-01

    Following ‘Doi Moi’ (Renovation), which started in 1986, the former centrally planned economy in Vietnam is shifting to an economy where production is linked to market demand and consumption. As a result, the nation has been enjoying an unprecedentedly fast economic growth, especially in recent years: 8.4% in 2005 and 8.17% in 2006. The economic renovation also brought an expansion of the private sector, which consists mainly of small- and medium-sized enterprises, SMEs. The reform process ha...

  7. Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Truong Son

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bat communities of mainland Southeast Asia can be highly diverse. Many are under threat. Despite this, regional faunal composition is not well documented for many areas, including regions of Vietnam.  We assessed the biodiversity of bats in a watershed protection forest in the southeastern Truong Son (Annamite Mountains, southwestern Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam in 2011–2013.  Twenty species of insectivorous bats were documented including a high diversity of Murina species Tube-nosed Bats.  Diversity and abundance indices were compared with that recorded previously in two nature reserves and one national park in Vietnam, and were higher or comparable in several measures despite the lack of a karst substrate for roosts.  Reproduction in the insectivorous bat fauna coincided with the early rainy season.  In the late dry season, pregnant females of several species were observed but volant juveniles were not present, whereas in the early wet season adult females were lactating or post-lactating and volant juveniles of nine species were detected.  We recorded echolocation calls of 14 bat species; for each species, we compared features of calls with those reported previously in other Asian localities.  For some species we found discrepancies in call metrics among studies, perhaps suggesting a greater hidden biodiversity of bats in Southeast Asia.

  8. Standardisation of Western blotting to detect HTLV-1 antibodies synthesised in the central nervous system of HAM/TSP patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claudio Pereira Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrathecal synthesis of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 antibodies (Abs represents conclusive evidence of a specific immune response in the central nervous system of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP patients. Western blotting (WB for HTLV Abs in serum is a confirmatory test for HTLV-1 infection. The aim of this study was to standardise the Western blot to demonstrate the intrathecal pattern of Abs against HTLV-1 proteins in HAM/TSP patients. Paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serum samples were selected from 20 patients with definite HAM/TSP, 19 HTLV-1 seronegative patients and two HTLV-1 patients without definite HAM/TSP. The presence of reactive bands of greater intensity in the CSF compared to serum (or bands in only the CSF indicated the intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs. All definite HAM/TSP patients presented with an intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs; these Abs were not detected in the control patients. The most frequent intrathecal targets of anti-HTLV-1 Abs were GD21, rgp46-I and p24 and, to a lesser extent, p19, p26, p28, p32, p36, p53 gp21 and gp46. The intrathecal immune response against env (GD21 and rgp46-I and gag (p24 proteins represents the most important humoral pattern in HAM/TSP. This response may be used as a diagnostic marker, considering the frequent association of intrathecal anti-HTLV-1 Ab synthesis with HAM/TSP and the pathogenesis of this neurological disease.

  9. Phylogenetic and pathogenic analyses of avian influenza A H5N1 viruses isolated from poultry in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongming Zhao

    Full Text Available Despite great efforts to control the infection of poultry with H5N1 viruses, these pathogens continue to evolve and spread in nature, threatening public health. Elucidating the characteristics of H5N1 avian influenza virus will benefit disease control and pandemic preparation. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 15 H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated in Vietnam in 2006 and 2007 and performed phylogenetic analyses to compare these sequences with those of other viruses available in the public databases. Molecular characterization of the H5N1 viruses revealed that seven genetically distinct clades of H5N1 viruses have appeared in Vietnam. Clade 2.3.4 viruses existed in Vietnam as early as 2005. Fifteen viruses isolated during 2006 and 2007 belonged to clade 1 and clade 2.3.4, and were divided into five genotypes. Reassortants between the clade 1 and clade 2.3.4 viruses were detected in both North and South Vietnam. We also assessed the replication and pathogenicity of these viruses in mice and found that these isolates replicated efficiently and exhibited distinct virulence in mice. Our results provide important information regarding the diversity of H5N1 viruses in nature.

  10. Firm-Level Corruption in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2012-01-01

    and government contracts. Third, the observed decrease in bribe incidence between 2005 and 2007 is largely driven by significant behavioral changes. These behavioral changes seem to be associated with policy initiatives to improve law enforcement and increased media focus on punitive actions against corruption.......This article uses panel data from a survey of small- and medium-sized enterprises in Vietnam to uncover which firms pay bribes and which do not. We also study how bribe paying evolved between 2005 and 2007 and test how the determinants of bribes changed between the two years. Three sets of insights...

  11. [Tapeworm fauna of gallinaceans (Galliformes) of Vietnam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguen Thi, K y; Dubinina, M N

    1978-01-01

    131 specimens of 3 species of Galliformes from Vietnam were investigated (Gallus gallus dom., G. g. jaboruillei, Francolinus pintadeanus and Lophora nycthemerus). In them 9 species of cestodes were found as follows: Davainea proglottina (Davainea, 1860), Cotugnia digonopora (Pasquale, 1890), Raillietina tetragona (Molin, 1858), R. echinobothrida (Megnin, 1880), Skrjabinia cesticillus (Molin, 1858), Paroniella tinguiana Tubangui et Masilungan, 1937, Amoebotaenia cuneata (Linstow, 1872), Echinolepis carioca (Magalhaes, 1898), Dilepidoides bauchei (Joyeux, 1924). In domestic hens there were found all 9 species of cestodes while in wild Galliformes--only 7, which are mentioned for them for the first time.

  12. Applications of fluorescence spectroscopy to problems of food safety: detection of fecal contamination and of the presence of central nervous system tissue and diagnosis of neurological disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Ramkrishna; Bose, Sayantan; Casey, Thomas A.; Gapsch, Al; Rasmussen, Mark A.; Petrich, Jacob W.

    2010-02-01

    Applications of fluorescence spectroscopy that enable the real-time or rapid detection of fecal contamination on beef carcasses and the presence of central nervous system tissue in meat products are discussed. The former is achieved by employing spectroscopic signatures of chlorophyll metabolites; the latter, by exploiting the characteristic structure and intensity of lipofuscin in central nervous system tissue. The success of these techniques has led us to investigate the possibility of diagnosing scrapie in sheep by obtaining fluorescence spectra of the retina. Crucial to this diagnosis is the ability to obtain baseline correlations of lipofuscin fluorescence with age. A murine model was employed as a proof of principle of this correlation.

  13. Proposed Training Plan to Improve Building Energy Efficiency in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced fast growth in energy consumption in the past decade, with annual growth rate of over 12 percent. This is accompanied by the fast increase in commercial energy use, driven by rapid industrialization, expansion of motorized transport, and increasing energy use in residential and commercial buildings. Meanwhile, Vietnam is experiencing rapid urbanization at a rate of 3.4 percent per year; and the majority of the growth centered in and near major cities such as Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. This has resulted in a construction boom in Vietnam.

  14. Formal and Informal Rural Credit in Four Provinces of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders. Formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation, while informal loans are used for co...... are striking. A ‘one size fits all' approach to credit policy in Vietnam would be inappropriate......This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders. Formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation, while informal loans are used...

  15. Opisthorchis viverrini-like liver fluke in birds from Vietnam: morphological variability and rDNA/mtDNA sequence confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, T H; Nguyen, T G; Victor, B; Gabriël, S; Dorny, P

    2014-12-01

    Flukes were found in the bile ducts of domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), necropsied in the Binh Dinh province of Central Vietnam. Following staining, morphological characteristics of the bird flukes were compatible with Opisthorchis viverrini, although some characteristics differed from those described in specimens collected from mammal hosts. Computation of the phylogenetic trees on the partial sequences of the second internal ribosomal spacer (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) markers of the mitochondrial DNA showed close similarity of the 'bird' Opisthorchis sp. with O. viverrini. We speculate that these bird flukes are O. viverrini that show intraspecies morphological and molecular variability compared to isolates from mammals. This demonstrates the complex epidemiological situation of opisthorchiasis in Vietnam and urges investigations on the potential of birds as a reservoir host of this zoonotic fluke.

  16. Connectivity and distant drivers of land change: A case study of land use, land cover, and livelihood changes in Quang Tri, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Eric

    The urban lowland areas of Vietnam have been at the forefront of economic liberalization over the last 30 years, while the more remote mountainous areas of the country have lagged behind. Upland areas in the Northern and Central portions of Vietnam in particular remain largely impoverished and disconnected from broader national and regional markets. To address this economic inequality in the uplands, recent economic development efforts such as the East-West Economic Corridor (EWEC) have aimed at expanding road infrastructure to remote areas in Central Vietnam. This study examines the impact of road expansion in the EWEC on a single village in Quang Tri, Vietnam. It draws from social economic data gathered during fieldwork and a historical land cover analysis to address how land use, land cover, and livelihoods have changed in recent decades. Moreover, the paper discusses the distal and proximate drivers of these changes. Findings show that the improved road connectivity provided by new roads has facilitated the transmission of distant market-related drivers into the study area, and that these drivers have fostered significant changes in land use, land cover, and livelihoods.

  17. Bacterial diversity associated with wild caught Anopheles mosquitoes from Dak Nong Province, Vietnam using culture and DNA fingerprint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Thuy Ngo

    Full Text Available Microbiota of Anopheles midgut can modulate vector immunity and block Plasmodium development. Investigation on the bacterial biodiversity in Anopheles, and specifically on the identification of bacteria that might be used in malaria transmission blocking approaches, has been mainly conducted on malaria vectors of Africa. Vietnam is an endemic country for both malaria and Bancroftian filariasis whose parasitic agents can be transmitted by the same Anopheles species. No information on the microbiota of Anopheles mosquitoes in Vietnam was available previous to this study.The culture dependent approach, using different mediums, and culture independent (16S rRNA PCR - TTGE method were used to investigate the bacterial biodiversity in the abdomen of 5 Anopheles species collected from Dak Nong Province, central-south Vietnam. Molecular methods, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were used to characterize the microbiota.The microbiota in wild-caught Anopheles was diverse with the presence of 47 bacterial OTUs belonging to 30 genera, including bacterial genera impacting Plasmodium development. The bacteria were affiliated with 4 phyla, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, the latter being the dominant phylum. Four bacterial genera are newly described in Anopheles mosquitoes including Coxiella, Yersinia, Xanthomonas, and Knoellia. The bacterial diversity per specimen was low ranging from 1 to 4. The results show the importance of pairing culture and fingerprint methods to better screen the bacterial community in Anopheles mosquitoes.Sampled Anopheles species from central-south Vietnam contained a diverse bacterial microbiota that needs to be investigated further in order to develop new malaria control approaches. The combination of both culture and DNA fingerprint methods allowed a thorough and complementary screening of the bacterial community in Anopheles mosquitoes.

  18. Bacterial Diversity Associated with Wild Caught Anopheles Mosquitoes from Dak Nong Province, Vietnam Using Culture and DNA Fingerprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chung Thuy; Aujoulat, Fabien; Veas, Francisco; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Manguin, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Background Microbiota of Anopheles midgut can modulate vector immunity and block Plasmodium development. Investigation on the bacterial biodiversity in Anopheles, and specifically on the identification of bacteria that might be used in malaria transmission blocking approaches, has been mainly conducted on malaria vectors of Africa. Vietnam is an endemic country for both malaria and Bancroftian filariasis whose parasitic agents can be transmitted by the same Anopheles species. No information on the microbiota of Anopheles mosquitoes in Vietnam was available previous to this study. Method The culture dependent approach, using different mediums, and culture independent (16S rRNA PCR – TTGE) method were used to investigate the bacterial biodiversity in the abdomen of 5 Anopheles species collected from Dak Nong Province, central-south Vietnam. Molecular methods, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were used to characterize the microbiota. Results and Discussion The microbiota in wild-caught Anopheles was diverse with the presence of 47 bacterial OTUs belonging to 30 genera, including bacterial genera impacting Plasmodium development. The bacteria were affiliated with 4 phyla, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, the latter being the dominant phylum. Four bacterial genera are newly described in Anopheles mosquitoes including Coxiella, Yersinia, Xanthomonas, and Knoellia. The bacterial diversity per specimen was low ranging from 1 to 4. The results show the importance of pairing culture and fingerprint methods to better screen the bacterial community in Anopheles mosquitoes. Conclusion Sampled Anopheles species from central-south Vietnam contained a diverse bacterial microbiota that needs to be investigated further in order to develop new malaria control approaches. The combination of both culture and DNA fingerprint methods allowed a thorough and complementary screening of the bacterial community in Anopheles mosquitoes. PMID:25747513

  19. Detection of borna disease virus p24 RNA from human brain tissue in patients with central nervous system tumors in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiao; XIE Peng; XU Ping; PENG Dan; ZHU Dan; ZENG Zhi-lei

    2008-01-01

    Objective:It intended to examine whether there is BDV infection in the human tumor tissues of central nervous system in China and investigate the correlation between BDV infection and tumom of central nervous system.Methods:Nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction(nRT-PCR)and fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction(FQ-PCR)was used to detect the BDV p24 fragments in 60 samples of human tumor tissues of central nervous system and 14 normal brain tissues.Results:The study indicated the positive rate of the BDV p24 fragment in human tumor tissues of the central nervous system (6.67%)was higher than that in normal brain tissues(0),but no statistical significance(P>0.05).Concluswn:It suggests that the BDV infection is present in the human tumor tissues of central nervous system in China.while the sample size wa.sn't large enough and we could not certify the possible correlation between BDV infection and cenfral nervous system tumors.

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Vietnam, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial resistance (AMR in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major public health concern worldwide. In Vietnam, knowledge regarding N. gonorrhoeae prevalence and AMR is limited, and data concerning genetic characteristics of N. gonorrhoeae is totally lacking. Herein, we investigated the phenotypic AMR (previous, current and possible future treatment options, genetic resistance determinants for extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs, and genotypic distribution of N. gonorrhoeae isolated in 2011 in Hanoi, Vietnam. Methods N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Hanoi, Vietnam isolated in 2011 (n = 108 were examined using antibiograms (Etest for 10 antimicrobials, Neisseria gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST, and sequencing of ESC resistance determinants (penA, mtrR and penB. Results The levels of in vitro resistance were as follows: ciprofloxacin 98%, tetracycline 82%, penicillin G 48%, azithromycin 11%, ceftriaxone 5%, cefixime 1%, and spectinomycin 0%. The MICs of gentamicin (0.023-6 mg/L, ertapenem (0.002-0.125 mg/L and solithromycin (penA mosaic alleles were found, however, 78% of the isolates contained an alteration of amino acid A501 (A501V (44% and A501T (34% in the encoded penicillin-binding protein 2. A single nucleotide (A deletion in the inverted repeat of the promoter region of the mtrR gene and amino acid alterations in MtrR was observed in 91% and 94% of the isolates, respectively. penB resistance determinants were detected in 87% of the isolates. Seventy-five different NG-MAST STs were identified, of which 59 STs have not been previously described. Conclusions In Vietnam, the highly diversified gonococcal population displayed high in vitro resistance to antimicrobials previously recommended for gonorrhoea treatment (with exception of spectinomycin, but resistance also to the currently recommended ESCs were found. Nevertheless, the MICs of three potential future treatment options were low. It is

  1. Impact of deforestation on local precipitation patterns over the Da River basin, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Spartà, Daniele; Castelletti, Andrea; Boschetti, Mirco

    2014-05-01

    Change in land cover, e.g. from forest to bare soil, might severely impact the hydrological cycle at the river basin scale by altering the balance between rainfall and evaporation, ultimately affecting streamflow dynamics. These changes generally occur over decades, but they might be much more rapid in developing countries, where economic growth and growing population may cause abrupt changes in landscape and ecosystem. Detecting, analysing and modelling these changes is an essential step to design mitigation strategies and adaptation plans, balancing economic development and ecosystem protection. In this work we investigate the impact of land cover changes on the water cycle in the Da River basin, Vietnam. More precisely, the objective is to evaluate the interlink between deforestation and precipitation. The case study is particularly interesting because Vietnam is one of the world fastest growing economies and natural resources have been considerably exploited to support after-war development. Vietnam has the second highest rate of deforestation of primary forests in the world, second to only Nigeria (FAO 2005), with associated problems like abrupt change in run-off, erosion, sediment transport and flash floods. We performed land cover evaluation by combining literature information and Remote Sensing techniques, using Landsat images. We then analysed time series of precipitation observed on the period 1960-2011 in several stations located in the catchment area. We used multiple trend detection techniques, both state-of-the-art (e.g., Linear regression and Mann-Kendall) and novel trend detection techniques (Moving Average on Shifting Horizon), to investigate trends in seasonal pattern of precipitation. Results suggest that deforestation may induce a negative trend in the precipitation volume. The effect is mainly recognizable at the beginning and at the end of the monsoon season, when the local mechanisms of precipitation formation prevail over the large scale

  2. Detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity identifies neuronal integrity in damaged rat central nervous system after application of bacterial melanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigran R Petrosyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to confirm the neuroregenerative effects of bacterial melanin (BM on central nervous system injury using a special staining method based on the detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity. Twenty-four rats were randomly assigned to undergo either unilateral destruction of sensorimotor cortex (group I; n = 12 or unilateral rubrospinal tract transection at the cervical level (C3–4 (group II; n = 12. In each group, six rats were randomly selected after surgery to undergo intramuscular injection of BM solution (BM subgroup and the remaining six rats were intramuscularly injected with saline (saline subgroup. Neurological testing confirmed that BM accelerated the recovery of motor function in rats from both BM and saline subgroups. Two months after surgery, Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity detection in combination with Chilingarian's calcium adenoside triphosphate method revealed that BM stimulated the sprouting of fibers and dilated the capillaries in the brain and spinal cord. These results suggest that BM can promote the recovery of motor function of rats with central nervous system injury; and detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity is a fast and easy method used to study the regeneration-promoting effects of BM on the injured central nervous system.

  3. Vestalaria vinnula spec. nov. from southern Vietnam (Odonata: Calopterygidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hämäläinen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Vestalaria vinnula spec.nov. (holotype male, southern Vietnam, Lam Dong province, Blao, 1962) is described in both sexes and compared with other species of Vestalaria May, 1935 (= the Vestalis smaragdina - group), which is ranked as valid genus.

  4. Delegation of Chinese Advisers And Veterans Visits Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Vietnam Union of Friendship Organizations (VUFO),Jing Dunquan, vice president of the CPAFFC, led the delegation of Chinese advisers and veterans who had participated in China’s aid mission to help

  5. Essays on Impact evaluation: new empirical evidence from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Viet Cuong, N.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Credit, cash transfers, remittances, migration, poverty, inequality, impact evaluation, Vietnam, Asia This study estimates the impact of various economic flows including government-subsidized micro-credit, informal credit, public and private transfers, international remittances, and migr

  6. Understanding Presidential Rhetoric: The Vietnam Statements of Lyndon Johnson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, Lee; Miller, Lawrence

    1978-01-01

    Focuses on Lyndon Johnson's public statements about Vietnam during the final eighteen months of his presidency in an attempt to gain a perspective on the factors which shape presidential rhetoric. (MH)

  7. State-Owned Enterprises and Economic Reform in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    FDI ), and prevents the effective development of required infrastructure. Vietnam cannot enjoy sustained economic growth while grand corruption... FDI ) has also suffered. Research shows that systemic corruption has a significant negative impact on FDI and the impact is cumulative with higher...levels of corruption resulting in a greater loss of FDI . 9 This is particularly unfortunate for Vietnam whose economy is riddled with corruption but

  8. Students' expectation toward service of recruiment agencies in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Hanh

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the thesis was to explore the expectations of students studying abroad to recruitment agencies in Vietnam. The study aims at recommend the right service for recruit-ment agencies offer to students to find a job and explore the culture obstacles for their career development when return home. The study originated from author’s own experience when finding an internship in Vietnam. The theoretical framework is based on relevant areas of theories of recruitment process, na-...

  9. Rewriting the Vietnam Narrative: Strategic Partnership Opportunities in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    subjected the people of Vietnam to their colonial policies remaining in tight control with the exception of World War II when Japan seized Vietnam and...awards/benefit2005/vietnamese_essay.shtml (accessed December 22, 2012). 4 Nguyen Hong Thao and Ramses Amer, “Managing Vietnam’s Maritime Boundary...Disputes,” Ocean Development & International Law 38, no. 3 (August 2007): 306 5 Ibid., 306. 6 Ramses Amer, “The Territorial Disputes between China and

  10. Towards improving perinatal maternal mental health in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Niemi, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Major depression is increasing world-wide, and is the third leading cause of the global disease burden. In Vietnam, perinatal depression is underdiagnosed and under-treated, leading to severe consequences for the pregnant mother, her child and surroundings. AIMS: The overall aim was to improve knowledge about perinatal depression to contribute to evidence based development of prevention and treatment strategies in Vietnam. The specific aims were: To generate a report of the mental health prio...

  11. Vietnam’s Drive to Modernize Militarily - Causes and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The SCS is of utmost importance to Vietnam because of its role in economic activities, which include fishing, tourism , and oil and gas exploitation...shifted [Vietnam’s] foreign policy from one of confrontation to one of accommodation with former foes.”366 Essentially, Vietnam’s defense ministry...pursued a similar accommodating and omnidirectional strategy with the international community. Hiep notes, “Facing a far more powerful China, Vietnam

  12. Molecular Epidemiological Survey of Theileria orientalis in Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Theileria orientalis is a benign bovine protozoan parasite that occasionally causes serious economic loss in the livestock industry.We report the findings of a molecular epidemiological survey of T. orientalis in 94 Vietnamese yellow cattle, 43 water buffaloes,21 sheep, 21 goats and 85 blood-sucking ticks of cattle in the Thua Thien Hue province of Vietnam. The major piroplasm surface protein(MPSP) gene of T. orientalis was detected using polymerase chain reaction from 13 cattle (13.8%), 11 w...

  13. Real-time detection of central carbon metabolism in living Escherichia coli and its response to perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Sebastian; Jensen, Pernille R; Duus, Jens Ø

    2011-10-03

    The direct tracking of cellular reactions in vivo has been facilitated with recent technologies that strongly enhance NMR signals in substrates of interest. This methodology can be used to assay intracellular reactions that occur within seconds to few minutes, as the NMR signal enhancement typically fades on this time scale. Here, we show that the enhancement of (13)C nuclear spin polarization in deuterated glucose allows to directly follow the flux of glucose signal through rather extended reaction networks of central carbon metabolism in living Escherichia coli. Alterations in central carbon metabolism depending on the growth phase or upon chemical perturbations are visualized with minimal data processing by instantaneous observation of cellular reactions.

  14. Detection of early central circulatory transits in patients with cirrhosis by gamma variate fit of indicator dilution profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H; Møller, Søren; Fuglsang, Stefan;

    2004-01-01

    dilution curves, and the relations between flow, circulation times, and volumes were established according to kinetic principles. No significant very early central circulatory transits were identified. In contrast, early (i.e., 4 s to maximal) transits corresponding to a mean of 5.1% (vs. 0.8% in controls...... variate fit method (1.51 vs. 1.53 liter; not significant). In conclusion, no very early central circulatory transits were identified in cirrhotic patients. A significant part of the cardiac output undergoes an early transit, probably through pulmonary shunts or areas with low ventilation-perfusion ratios...

  15. Central nervous system abnormalities on midline facial defects with hypertelorism detected by magnetic resonance image and computed tomography; Anomalias de sistema nervoso central em defeitos de linha media facial com hipertelorismo detectados por ressonancia magnetica e tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Vera Lucia Gil da Silva; Giffoni, Silvio David Araujo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dep. de Genetica Medica]. E-mail: vlopes@fcm.unicamp.br

    2006-10-15

    The aim of this study were to describe and to compare structural central nervous system (CNS) anomalies detected by magnetic resonance image (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) in individuals affected by midline facial defects with hypertelorism (MFDH) isolated or associated with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). The investigation protocol included dysmorphological examination, skull and facial X-rays, brain CT and/or MRI. We studied 24 individuals, 12 of them had an isolated form (Group I) and the others, MCA with unknown etiology (Group II). There was no significant difference between Group I and II and the results are presented in set. In addition to the several CNS anomalies previously described, MRI (n=18) was useful for detection of neuronal migration errors. These data suggested that structural CNS anomalies and MFDH seem to have an intrinsic embryological relationship, which should be taken in account during the clinical follow-up. (author)

  16. Driving with Central Visual Field Loss II: How Scotomas above or below the Preferred Retinal Locus (PRL) Affect Hazard Detection in a Driving Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstad, P Matthew; Albu, Amanda; Bowers, Alex R; Goldstein, Robert; Peli, Eli

    2015-01-01

    We determined whether binocular central scotomas above or below the preferred retinal locus affect detection of hazards (pedestrians) approaching from the side. Seven participants with central field loss (CFL), and seven age-and sex-matched controls with normal vision (NV), each completed two sessions of 5 test drives (each approximately 10 minutes long) in a driving simulator. Participants pressed the horn when detecting pedestrians that appeared at one of four eccentricities (-14°, -4°, left, 4°, or 14°, right, relative to car heading). Pedestrians walked or ran towards the travel lane on a collision course with the participant's vehicle, thus remaining in the same area of the visual field, assuming participant's steady forward gaze down the travel lane. Detection rates were nearly 100% for all participants. CFL participant reaction times were longer (median 2.27s, 95% CI 2.13 to 2.47) than NVs (median 1.17s, 95%CI 1.10 to 2.13; difference pretinal locus delay reaction times to a greater extent; however, taken together, the results of our studies suggest that any binocular CFL might negatively impact timely hazard detection while driving and should be a consideration when evaluating vision for driving.

  17. A hybrid symplectic principal component analysis and central tendency measure method for detection of determinism in noisy time series with application to mechanomyography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong-Bo; Dokos, Socrates

    2013-06-01

    We present a hybrid symplectic geometry and central tendency measure (CTM) method for detection of determinism in noisy time series. CTM is effective for detecting determinism in short time series and has been applied in many areas of nonlinear analysis. However, its performance significantly degrades in the presence of strong noise. In order to circumvent this difficulty, we propose to use symplectic principal component analysis (SPCA), a new chaotic signal de-noising method, as the first step to recover the system dynamics. CTM is then applied to determine whether the time series arises from a stochastic process or has a deterministic component. Results from numerical experiments, ranging from six benchmark deterministic models to 1/f noise, suggest that the hybrid method can significantly improve detection of determinism in noisy time series by about 20 dB when the data are contaminated by Gaussian noise. Furthermore, we apply our algorithm to study the mechanomyographic (MMG) signals arising from contraction of human skeletal muscle. Results obtained from the hybrid symplectic principal component analysis and central tendency measure demonstrate that the skeletal muscle motor unit dynamics can indeed be deterministic, in agreement with previous studies. However, the conventional CTM method was not able to definitely detect the underlying deterministic dynamics. This result on MMG signal analysis is helpful in understanding neuromuscular control mechanisms and developing MMG-based engineering control applications.

  18. Volatile Constituents of Three Piper Species from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieua, Le D; Hoic, Tran M; Thangda, Tran D; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2015-11-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of three Piper plants grown in Vietnam are reported. The analysis was achieved by means of gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituents of the leaf oil of Piper majusculum Blume were β-caryophyllene (20.7%), germacrene D (18.6%) and β-elemene (11.3%). The quantitatively significant compounds of the volatile oils of P. harmandii C. DC were sabinene (leaves, 14.5%; stems, 16.2%), benzyl benzoate (leaves, 20.0%; stems, 29.40%) and benzyl salicylate (leaves, 14.1%; stems, 24.3%). Also, α-cadinol (17.0%) was identified in large proportion in the leaf oil. However, sabinene (leaves, 17.9%; stems, 13.5%), benzyl benzoate (leaves, 20.5%; stems, 32.5%) and β-eudesmol (leaves, 13.8%; stems, 8.4%) were the main constituents of P. brevicaule C. DC. This is the first report on the volatile constituents of both P. harmandii and P. brevicaule.

  19. Eco-hydrological modeling in a tropical area of Vietnam using SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei Emam, Ammar; Kappas, Martin; Nguyen Hoang Khanh, Linh; Renchin, Tsolmon

    2016-04-01

    The tropical area of Vietnam is suffering from mismanagement of water and land resources which leads to rising floods, surface runoff and soil erosion. We used an eco-hydrological model based on SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) in Aluoi district as a representative case study of Central Vietnam. In addition to water balance calculation we simulated the flooding behavior on a single severe event (16th October 2007) by SWAT model. The model was calibrated based on multi-objective functions for stream flow and actual evapotranspiration (ETa). Nevertheless, observed stream flow was predicted by a regionalization approach and Eta-data were derived from MODIS time-series. The results of calibration and validation of model were pretty good with a high Nash-Sutcliff coefficient of 0.72 and 0.82 for river discharge and 0.77 and 0.79 for ETa, respectively. The monthly average of eight-year simulation (2006-2013) showed that the highest surface runoff occurred in October while the ratio of ETa /rainfall is the lowest, and the lowest surface runoff happened in February when the ratio of Eta /rainfall is the highest. The flooding behavior revealed that the peak flow was under predicted about 10 percent, roughly 1331 m3/s. However, the water depth was estimated approximately 7.5 m in the Main River. This water-level generated overflow of the river banks and led to inundation of land and endangered infrastructure and human life in downstream areas. Hence, best management practices (e.g. Terracing) are recommended to reduce surface runoff and flooding forces in Aluoi district of Vietnam.

  20. Exporting and Productivity: Learning from Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn;

    2017-01-01

    different policy stance than typical in Africa. This is especially so in promoting export-oriented industry. If learning by exporting is a key driver of progress, then a fundamental reason for Africa's lack of transformation is likely to be the low policy priority given to export promotion in the past....... To enlarge the body of empirical evidence, we use an extensive 2005–2012 firm-level panel data set from Vietnam and separate out productivity effects of exporting due to self-selection. This allows us to conclude that firms actually learn by exporting. We also examine how this learning takes place. Our...... findings suggest that productivity gains are associated with moving to larger scale for foreign-owned firms with little evidence of subsequent learning on export markets. We find strong evidence to suggest that private domestic firms learn and accumulate knowledge from export markets with learning...

  1. Political Connections and Investment in Rural Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tarp, Finn

    as a result of relatives moving into public office. Connections to office holders appear to be important for investment because they strengthen de facto land property rights and improve access to off-farm employment and to informal loans. The findings underline the importance of informal networks for economic......This paper uses household panel data from rural Vietnam to explore the effects of having a relative in a position of political or bureaucratic power on farmers’ agricultural investment decisions. Our main result is that households significantly increase their investment in land improvement...... behaviour in environments with developing institutions and markets. They also suggest the presence of an untapped potential for economic development: if households without connections could obtain equally strong property rights and access to credit and insurance as the well-connected households, investment...

  2. Recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Van So [Radioisotope Dept., Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1998-10-01

    This is a report on the recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam. Using a nuclear research reactor of 500 KW with continuous operation cycles of 100 hours a month, the production of some important radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine and research was routinely carried out. More than 80 per cent of irradiation capacity of reactor for radioisotope production were exploited. The radioactivity of more than 150 Ci of {sup 131}I, {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc, {sup 32}P, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 192}Ir was produced annually. Radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 131}I-Hippuran and in-vivo Kits for {sup 99m}Tc labelling were also prepared routinely and regularly. More than 10 in-vivo Kits including modern radiopharmaceuticals such as HmPAO kit were supplied to hospitals in Vietnam. The research on the improvement of dry distillation technology for production of {sup 131}I was carried out. As a result obtained a new distillation apparatus made from glass was successfully put to routine use in place of expensive quartz distillation furnace. We have also continued the research programme on the development of {sup 99m}Tc generators using low power research reactors. Gel technology using Zr- and Ti- molybdate gel columns for {sup 99m}Tc generator production was developed and improved continually. Portable {sup 99m}Tc generator using Zr-({sup 99}Mo) molybdate gel column and ZISORB adsorbent column for {sup 99m}Tc concentration were developed. The ZISORB adsorbent of high adsorption capacity for {sup 99}Mo and other parent radionuclides was also studied for the development purpose of alternative technology of {sup 99m}Tc and other different radionuclide generator systems. The studies on the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals labelling with {sup 153}Sm and {sup 131}I such as {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, {sup 131}I-MIBG were carried out. (author)

  3. Dengue dynamics in Binh Thuan province, southern Vietnam: periodicity, synchronicity and climate variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoa T D Thai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue is a major global public health problem with increasing incidence and geographic spread. The epidemiology is complex with long inter-epidemic intervals and endemic with seasonal fluctuations. This study was initiated to investigate dengue transmission dynamics in Binh Thuan province, southern Vietnam. METHODOLOGY: Wavelet analyses were performed on time series of monthly notified dengue cases from January 1994 to June 2009 (i to detect and quantify dengue periodicity, (ii to describe synchrony patterns in both time and space, (iii to investigate the spatio-temporal waves and (iv to associate the relationship between dengue incidence and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO indices in Binh Thuan province, southern Vietnam. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate a continuous annual mode of oscillation and a multi-annual cycle of around 2-3-years was solely observed from 1996-2001. Synchrony in time and between districts was detected for both the annual and 2-3-year cycle. Phase differences used to describe the spatio-temporal patterns suggested that the seasonal wave of infection was either synchronous among all districts or moving away from Phan Thiet district. The 2-3-year periodic wave was moving towards, rather than away from Phan Thiet district. A strong non-stationary association between ENSO indices and climate variables with dengue incidence in the 2-3-year periodic band was found. CONCLUSIONS: A multi-annual mode of oscillation was observed and these 2-3-year waves of infection probably started outside Binh Thuan province. Associations with climatic variables were observed with dengue incidence. Here, we have provided insight in dengue population transmission dynamics over the past 14.5 years. Further studies on an extensive time series dataset are needed to test the hypothesis that epidemics emanate from larger cities in southern Vietnam.

  4. Challenges of the introduction of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages at foreign-language universities in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viet anh Nguyen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s globalized world, it seems necessary, or even indispensable for the teaching/learning of foreign languages to be based on international standards proposed by the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL. The present article deals with issues of integration of the CEFRL in the Vietnamese context by analyzing the results of a study of training programs at six universities specializing in foreign languages, which are based in three regions of the country (Northern, Central and Southern Vietnam. Despite some positive changes and the dynamism characteristic of the approach, a mechanical and rigid introduction of CEFRL in foreign-language universities in Vietnam has actually caused several problems. These include (1 the inconsistency between the levels established by the CEFRL and the organization of teaching/learning; (2 the risk of teaching/learning becoming too “utilitarian” and too function-oriented and (3 excessive attention given to the evaluation and assessment of linguistic knowledge and of performance level  rather than on the ability to use various resources as well as to long-term process of competence development. The study results show some possible ways for the development of a referential frame for learning/teaching French in Vietnam.

  5. Identifying and Improving the image of Vietnam Tourism as a Tourism destination among Finnish tourist

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Anh Van

    2012-01-01

    This writing attempts to identify the images of Vietnam as a tourism destination for Finnish tourists and suggests marketing solution for Vietnamese traveling company to improve the images of Vietnam by enhancing marketing activities in the Finnish market. Saigontourist Transportation Corporation (STC), Vietnam which is a commissioner of this thesis project, has provided updated information about the current situation of tourism in Vietnam as well as marketing activities of company durin...

  6. The Sixth Meeting of China-Vietnam People’s Forum Held in Nanning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Yan

    2015-01-01

    The CPA FFC,the China Vietnam Friendship Association(CVFA),Vietnam Union of Friendship Organizations(VUFO)and the Vietnam-China Friendship Association(VCFA)jointly held the Sixth Meeting of China-Vietnam People’s Forumin Nanning,capital of China’s Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region,from December1 to 3,2014,attracting delegates from political,economic,academic

  7. Advantages and Disadvantages in setting up and managing a Captive Center in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, An; Nguyen, Thanh

    2015-01-01

    This work concerns factors that Captive Centers would face when they operate in Vietnam. In other words, it purposes to perceive in detail what Vietnam offers to Captive Centers by identifying the advantages and disadvantages in establishing and managing Captive Centers in Vietnam from the perspective of foreign companies. Under the qualitative research method, the authors have done three interviews with the managers of two Captive Centers operating in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, by sending th...

  8. 75 FR 57501 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely...

  9. 75 FR 60730 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1,...

  10. 75 FR 48724 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely...

  11. 75 FR 22842 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... COMMISSION Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis... imports from Vietnam of polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs), provided for in subheading 3923.21.00 of... Commerce (Commerce) to be subsidized by the Government of Vietnam.\\2\\ The Commission further...

  12. Stratification and the Emergence of the Postsecondary Private Education Sector in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyette, Kimberly Ann

    2012-01-01

    Vietnam has a strong public postsecondary education sector that has only recently begun to experience growth in nonpublic institutions. I investigate how the growth of nonpublic institutions may be related to stratification in Vietnam. I find that these institutions are more likely to serve more advantaged students from South Vietnam. Students pay…

  13. 77 FR 9700 - Utility Scale Wind Towers From China and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... COMMISSION Utility Scale Wind Towers From China and Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... with material injury by reason of imports from Vietnam of utility scale wind towers, provided for in... wind towers from China and Vietnam. Accordingly, effective December 29, 2011, the Commission...

  14. 77 FR 39613 - Presidential Determination on a U.S. Export Import Bank Transaction with Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ...--Presidential Determination on a U.S. Export-Import Bank Transaction With Vietnam #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Presidential Determination on a U.S. Export Import Bank Transaction with Vietnam Memorandum for the Secretary... States to extend a loan in the amount of approximately $125,870,890 to the Vietnam Post...

  15. 76 FR 55947 - Industrial Relations Promotion Project, Phase II in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... of the Secretary Industrial Relations Promotion Project, Phase II in Vietnam AGENCY: Bureau of... implementing a program to strengthen compliance with international labor standards in Vietnam, focusing... has the recognized authority and capacity to fulfill the intent of the IRRP Phase II in Vietnam....

  16. 78 FR 45271 - Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... COMMISSION Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam Determination On the... injured by reason of imports from Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of welded stainless steel pressure pipe... pipe from Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. Accordingly, effective May 16, 2013, the...

  17. 31 CFR 500.576 - Authorization of transactions concerning certain development projects in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... concerning certain development projects in Vietnam. 500.576 Section 500.576 Money and Finance: Treasury... § 500.576 Authorization of transactions concerning certain development projects in Vietnam. (a) All... in Vietnam formally proposed or approved for execution, funding or sponsorship by the...

  18. 78 FR 10210 - Utility Scale Wind Towers From China and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... COMMISSION Utility Scale Wind Towers From China and Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... with material injury by reason of imports of utility scale wind towers from China and Vietnam, provided... of imports of utility scale wind towers from China and Vietnam. Commissioner Dean A....

  19. 77 FR 32873 - Commemoration of the 50th Anniversary of the Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Vietnam War Proclamation 8830--National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2012 Proclamation 8831--Prayer for... ] Proclamation 8829 of May 25, 2012 Commemoration of the 50th Anniversary of the Vietnam War By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As we observe the 50th anniversary of the Vietnam War,...

  20. 77 FR 9701 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from Taiwan and Vietnam of steel wire garment hangers, provided for in... the United States at less than fair value (LTFV) and steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam that...

  1. 78 FR 8105 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... order on steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). DATES... sales at less than fair value in the antidumping duty investigation of steel wire garment hangers...

  2. 77 FR 3737 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation... concerning imports of steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam) filed in... of Antidumping Duties on Steel Wire Garment Hangers from Taiwan and the Social Republic of...

  3. Driving with Central Visual Field Loss II: How Scotomas above or below the Preferred Retinal Locus (PRL Affect Hazard Detection in a Driving Simulator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Matthew Bronstad

    Full Text Available We determined whether binocular central scotomas above or below the preferred retinal locus affect detection of hazards (pedestrians approaching from the side. Seven participants with central field loss (CFL, and seven age-and sex-matched controls with normal vision (NV, each completed two sessions of 5 test drives (each approximately 10 minutes long in a driving simulator. Participants pressed the horn when detecting pedestrians that appeared at one of four eccentricities (-14°, -4°, left, 4°, or 14°, right, relative to car heading. Pedestrians walked or ran towards the travel lane on a collision course with the participant's vehicle, thus remaining in the same area of the visual field, assuming participant's steady forward gaze down the travel lane. Detection rates were nearly 100% for all participants. CFL participant reaction times were longer (median 2.27s, 95% CI 2.13 to 2.47 than NVs (median 1.17s, 95%CI 1.10 to 2.13; difference p<0.01, and CFL participants would have been unable to stop for 21% of pedestrians, compared with 3% for NV, p<0.001. Although the scotomas were not expected to obscure pedestrian hazards, gaze tracking revealed that scotomas did sometimes interfere with detection; late reactions usually occurred when pedestrians were entirely or partially obscured by the scotoma (time obscured correlated with reaction times, r = 0.57, p<0.001. We previously showed that scotomas lateral to the preferred retinal locus delay reaction times to a greater extent; however, taken together, the results of our studies suggest that any binocular CFL might negatively impact timely hazard detection while driving and should be a consideration when evaluating vision for driving.

  4. Environmental regulatory failure and metal contamination at the Giap Lai pyrite mine, Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkan Tarras-Wahlberg, N; Nguyen, Lan T

    2008-03-01

    The causes for the failure in enforcement of environmental regulations at the Giap Lai pyrite mine in northern Vietnam are considered and the environmental impacts that are associated with this mine are evaluated. It is shown that sulphide-rich tailings and waste rock in the mining area represent significant sources of acid rock drainage (ARD). The ARD is causing elevated metal levels in downstream water bodies, which in turn, represent a threat to both human health and to aquatic ecosystems. Metal concentrations in impacted surface waters have increased after mine closure, suggesting that impacts are becoming progressively more serious. No post-closure, remediation measures have been applied at the mine, in spite of the existence of environmental legislation and both central and regional institutions charged with environmental supervision and control. The research presented here provides further emphasis for the recommendation that, while government institutions may need to be strengthened, and environmental regulations need to be in place, true on the ground improvement in environmental quality in Vietnam and in many other developing countries require an increased focus on promoting public awareness of industrial environmental issues.

  5. Discovery of Paragonimus westermani in Vietnam and its molecular phylogenetic status in P. westermani complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Shinohara, Akio; Horii, Yoichiro; Habe, Shigehisa; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2009-04-01

    Paragonimus westermani is the most well-known species among the genus Paragonimus. It is widely distributed in Asia with considerable genetic diversity to form P. westermani species complex. While P. westermani distributed in Japan, Korea, China, and Taiwan are genetically homogeneous to form the East Asia group, those found in other geographic areas are heterogeneous and would be divided into several groups. Recent discoveries of P. westermani in India and Sri Lanka highlighted new insights on molecular phylogenetic relationship of geographic isolates of this species complex. Since Vietnam is located at the east end of Southeast Asia, the intermediate position between South and East Asia, it is of interest to see whether P. westermani is distributed in this country. Here, we report that P. westermani metacercariae were found in mountainous crabs, Potamiscus sp., collected in Quangtri province in the central Vietnam. Adult worms were successfully obtained by experimental infection in cats. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that P. westermani of Vietnamese isolates have high similarities with those of East Asia group.

  6. Methadone Maintenance Therapy in Vietnam: An Overview and Scaling-Up Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tam T. M. Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam is among the countries with the highest rate of HIV transmission through injecting drug users. HIV prevalence among injecting drug users is 20% and up to 50% in many provinces. An estimated number of drug users in the country by the end of 2011 were 171,000 in which the most common is heroin (85%. Detoxification at home, community, and in rehabilitation centers have been the main modalities for managing heroin addiction until Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT was piloted in 2008. Recent reports have demonstrated positive treatment outcomes. Incidence of HIV was found remarkably low among patients on MMT. Treatment has significantly improved the quality of life as well as stability for society. The government has granted the Ministry of Health (MoH to expand Methadone treatment to at least 30 provinces to provide treatment for more than 80,000 drug users by 2015. The Vietnam Administration for HIV/AIDS Control (VAAC and MOH have outlined the role and responsibility of key departments at the central and local levels in implementing and maintaining MMT treatment. This paper will describe the achievements of the MMT pilot program and the scaling-up plan as well as strategies to ensure quality and sustainability and to overcome the challenges in the coming years.

  7. Real-time RT-PCR assay to differentiate clades of H5N1 avian influenza viruses circulating in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Z; Jones, J; Creanga, A; Ferdinand, K; Inui, K; Gerloff, N; Davis, C T; Nguyen, T; Donis, R O

    2013-11-01

    Continued circulation and geographical expansion of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus have led to the emergence of numerous clades in Vietnam. Although viral RNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis are the gold standard for H5N1 HA clade designation, limited sequencing capacity in many laboratories precludes rapid H5N1 clade identification and detection of novel viruses. Therefore, a Taqman real-time RT-PCR assay for rapid differentiation of the four major H5N1 clades detected in Vietnam was developed. Using HA sequence alignments of clades 1.1, 2.3.2.1, 2.3.4, and 7 viruses, primers and FAM-labeled probes were designed to target conserved regions characteristic of each clade. The assay was optimized and evaluated using circulating clades of H5N1 collected in Vietnam from 2007 to 2012 and shown to be both sensitive and specific for the differentiation of the four H5N1 clades. The assay provides a useful tool for screening of large specimen collections for HA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis and for the rapid identification of molecular clade signatures to support outbreak investigations and surveillance activities. Finally, this assay may be useful to monitor for the emergence of novel or variant clades of H5N1 in Vietnam in the future or in other countries where these particular clades may circulate.

  8. The Vietnam Drug User Returns. Final Report. Special Action Office Monograph, Series A, Number 2, May 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Lee N.

    This report, based upon case records and follow-up interviews with 965 U.S. Servicemen returning from Vietnam investigates: (1) the availability and utilization of narcotics, marihuana and alcohol in Vietnam; (2) the psychosocial and demographic predictors of pre- and post-Vietnam narcotic use; and (3) the post-Vietnam adjustment difficulties of…

  9. 77 FR 75980 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Determination of Sales...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final... antidumping investigation of steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam... continue to determine that steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam are being, or are likely to be, sold...

  10. 78 FR 8107 - Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... order on certain steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam). DATES... duty investigation of certain steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam.\\1\\ On January 28, 2013, the...

  11. Diagnostic value of color doppler ultrasonography in detecting stenosis and occlusion of central veins in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Masoud Pezeshki; Kazemzadeh, Gholam Hosain; Ziaee, Masood; Azarkar, Ghodsieh

    2015-03-01

    Venography is an invasive diagnostic test that uses contrast material that provides a picture of the condition of the veins. But, complications, including adverse effects on the kidney, do occur. On the other hand, with the current technological development, application of ultrasound in the diagnosis of obstructive diseases of the veins is gaining popularity, being non-invasive, easy to perform and cost-effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of central vein stenosis. In this descriptive-analytical study, 41 hemodialysis patients who had been referred for 50 upper limb venographies to the radiology department of Imam Reza (AS) were included. Patients with chronic kidney disease with a history of catheterization of the vein, jugular or subclavian, and who had established fistulas or synthetic vascular grafts were targeted. Central venous ultrasound was performed on both sides to evaluate stenosis or occlusion. Venography was performed by the radiologist the next day or the day before hemodialysis. Data on demographic characteristics, findings of clinical examination and findings of ultrasound as well as venography were recorded by using the SPSS software, Chi-square test and Spearman correlation, and Kappa agreement was calculated for sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Twenty-three (56%) patients were male subjects and 18 patients (44%) were female. Twenty-three (56%) patients of the study population were aged 60 years. The overall sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Doppler sonography in the proximal veins in hemodialysis patients compared with venography were, respectively, 80.9%, 79.3%, 73.9% and 85.1%. Color Doppler sonography, as a non-invasive method, could be a good alternative for venography in the assessment of the upper limb with central vein stenosis and occlusion.

  12. Diagnostic value of color doppler ultrasonography in detecting stenosis and occlusion of central veins in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Pezeshki Rad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Venography is an invasive diagnostic test that uses contrast material that provides a picture of the condition of the veins. But, complications, including adverse effects on the kidney, do occur. On the other hand, with the current technological development, application of ultrasound in the diagnosis of obstructive diseases of the veins is gaining popularity, being non-invasive, easy to perform and cost-effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of central vein stenosis. In this descriptive-analytical study, 41 hemodialysis patients who had been referred for 50 upper limb venographies to the radiology department of Imam Reza (AS were included. Patients with chronic kidney disease with a history of catheterization of the vein, jugular or subclavian, and who had established fistulas or synthetic vascular grafts were targeted. Central venous ultrasound was performed on both sides to evaluate stenosis or occlusion. Venography was performed by the radiologist the next day or the day before hemodialysis. Data on demographic characteristics, findings of clinical examination and findings of ultrasound as well as venography were recorded by using the SPSS software, Chi-square test and Spearman correlation, and Kappa agreement was calculated for sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Twenty-three (56% patients were male subjects and 18 patients (44% were female. Twenty-three (56% patients of the study population were aged 60 years. The overall sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Doppler sonography in the proximal veins in hemodialysis patients compared with venography were, respectively, 80.9%, 79.3%, 73.9% and 85.1%. Color Doppler sonography, as a non-invasive method, could be a good alternative for venography in the assessment of the upper limb with central vein stenosis and occlusion.

  13. Bartonella infection in urban and rural dogs from the tropics: Brazil, Colombia, Sri Lanka and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, E C; Chomel, B B; Singhasivanon, O-U; Namekata, D Y; Kasten, R W; Kass, P H; Cortés-Vecino, J A; Gennari, S M; Rajapakse, R P; Huong, L T; Dubey, J P

    2013-01-01

    Dogs can be infected by a wide range of Bartonella spp., but limited studies have been conducted in tropical urban and rural dog populations. We aimed to determine Bartonella antibody prevalence in 455 domestic dogs from four tropical countries and detect Bartonella DNA in a subset of these dogs. Bartonella antibodies were detected in 38 (8·3%) dogs, including 26 (10·1%) from Colombia, nine (7·6%) from Brazil, three (5·1%) from Sri Lanka and none from Vietnam. DNA extraction was performed for 26 (63%) of the 41 seropositive and 10 seronegative dogs. Four seropositive dogs were PCR positive, including two Colombian dogs, infected with B. rochalimae and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, and two Sri Lankan dogs harbouring sequences identical to strain HMD described in dogs from Italy and Greece. This is the first detection of Bartonella infection in dogs from Colombia and Sri Lanka and identification of Bartonella strain HMD from Asia.

  14. Joint malaria surveys lead towards improved cross-border cooperation between Savannakhet province, Laos and Quang Tri province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongvongsa Tiengkham

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Savannakhet province, Laos and Quang Tri province, Vietnam, malaria is still an important health problem and most cases are found in the mountainous, forested border areas where ethnic minority groups live. The objectives of this study were to obtain a better joint understanding of the malaria situation along the border and, on the basis of that, improve malaria control methods through better cooperation between the two countries. Methods Fourteen villages in Savannakhet and 22 villages in Quang Tri were randomly selected within 5 km from the border where a blood survey for microscopic diagnosis (n = 1256 and n = 1803, respectively, household interviews (n = 400, both sides and vector surveys were conducted between August and October 2010. Satellite images were used to examine the forest density around the study villages. Results Malaria prevalence was significantly higher in Laos (5.2% than in Vietnam (1.8% and many other differences were found over the short distance across the border. Bed net coverage was high (> 90% in both Laos and Vietnam but, while in Laos more than 60% of the nets were long-lasting insecticide-treated, Vietnam used indoor residual spraying in this area and the nets were untreated. Anopheles mosquitoes were more abundant in Laos than in Vietnam, especially many Anopheles dirus were captured in indoor light traps while none were collected in Vietnam. The forest cover was higher around the Lao than the Vietnamese villages. After this study routine exchange of malaria surveillance data was institutionalized and for the first time indoor residual spraying was applied in some Lao villages. Conclusions The abundance of indoor-collected An. dirus on the Laos side raises doubts about the effectiveness of a sole reliance on long-lasting insecticide-treated nets in this area. Next to strengthening the early detection, correct diagnosis and prompt, adequate treatment of malaria infections, it is

  15. Sister Lab Program Prospective Partner Nuclear Profile: Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissani, M; Tyson, S

    2006-12-14

    Vietnam's nuclear program began in the 1960s with the installation at Dalat of a 250 kW TRIGA Mk-II research reactor under the U.S. Atoms for Peace Program. The reactor was shut down and its core removed only a few years later, and the nuclear research program was suspended until after the end of the civil war in the late 1970s. The Soviet Union assisted Vietnam in restoring the Dalat reactor to an operational status in 1984, trained a cadre of scientific and technical staff in its operation, and contributed to the development of nuclear science for the medical and agricultural sectors. In the agricultural area in particular, Vietnamese experts have been very successful in developing mutant strains of rice, and continue to work with the IAEA to yield strains that have a shorter growing period, increased resistance to disease, and other desirable characteristics. Rice has always been the main crop in Vietnam, but technical cooperation with the IAEA and other states has enabled the country to become one of the top rice producers in the world, exporting much of its annual crop to over two dozen countries annually. More recently, Vietnam's government has shown increasing interest in developing a civil nuclear program to supplement its fossil fuel and other energy resources. Projections from a variety of open sources, ranging from the IAEA, the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA), the Vietnamese government, energy corporations, and think tanks all predict a massive increase in energy consumption--especially electricity--within Vietnam and the region as a whole. This growth in consumption will require a corresponding increase in energy production, which in Vietnam is currently satisfied mainly by fossil fuels (coal) and renewable energy (hydropower and biomass); Vietnam has a refining capacity of about 800 barrels/day. Most of its crude oil is exported to generate export income, and is not used to generate electricity

  16. Infection with high-risk HPV types among female sex workers in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Huyen Thi Thanh; Ishizaki, Azumi; Nguyen, Cuong Hung; Tran, Vuong Thi; Matsushita, Kaori; Saikawa, Kunikazu; Hosaka, Norimitsu; Pham, Hung Viet; Bi, Xiuqiong; Ta, Van Thanh; Van Pham, Thuc; Ichimura, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    Vaccines against two high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, HPV-16, and HPV-18, are in use currently, with high efficacy for preventing infections with these HPV types and consequent cervical cancers. However, circulating HPV types can vary with geography and ethnicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV types and the association between HPV types and abnormal cervical cytology among female sex workers in Northern Vietnam. Cervical swabs and plasma samples were collected from 281 female sex workers at two health centers in Hanoi and Hai Phong in 2009. The HPV L1 gene was amplified by PCR using original and modified GP5(+)/6(+) primers. Amplified PCR products were genotyped by the microarray system GeneSquare (KURABO) and/or clonal sequencing. Of the 281 women, 139 (49.5%) were positive for HPV DNA. Among the HPV-positive samples, 339 strains and 29 different types were identified. Multiple-type and high risk-type HPV infections were found in 85 (61.2%) and 124 (89.2%) women, respectively. The most common genotype was HPV-52, followed by HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-58. Abnormal cervical cytology was detected in 3.2% (9/281) of the women, and all of these samples were positive for HPV-DNA. Age ≤25 years and infection with human immunodeficiency virus were associated positively with HPV infection among the women while ever smoking was associated negatively. These results show that HPV-52 is most prevalent among female sex workers in Northern Vietnam, most of whom had normal cervical cytology. This information may be important for designing vaccination strategies in Vietnam.

  17. Estimating the extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Palmer, Michael; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Duong, Le Bach

    2015-01-01

    Disability is shown to be both a cause and a consequence of poverty. However, relatively little research has investigated the economic cost of living with a disability. This study reports the results of a study on the extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam in 2011. The study was carried out in eight cities/provinces in Vietnam, including Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh cities (two major metropolitan in Vietnam) and six provinces from each of the six socio-economic regions in Vietnam. Costs are estimated using the standard of living approach whereby the difference in incomes between people with disability and those without disability for a given standard of living serves as a proxy for the cost of living with disability. The extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam accounted for about 8.8-9.5% of annual household income, or valued about US$200-218. Communication difficulty was shown to result in highest additional cost of living with disability and self-care difficulty was shown to lead to the lowest levels of extra of living cost. The extra cost of living with disability increased as people had more severe impairment. Interventions to promote the economic security of livelihood for people with disabilities are needed.

  18. Breastfeeding practices in urban and rural Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Huong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe and compare breastfeeding practices in rural and urban areas of Vietnam and to study associations with possibly influencing person and household factors. This type of study has not been conducted in Vietnam before. Methods Totally 2,690 children, born from 1st March 2008 to 30th June 2010 in one rural and one urban Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, were followed from birth to the age of 12 months. Information about demography, economy and education for persons and households was obtained from household surveys. Standard statistical methods including survival and regression analyses were used. Results Initiation of breastfeeding during the first hour of life was more frequent in the urban area compared to the rural (boys 40% vs. 35%, girls 49% vs. 40%. High birth weight and living in households with large number of assets significantly increased the probability for early initiation of breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding at three months of age was more commonly reported in the rural than in the urban area (boys 58% vs. 46%, girls 65% vs. 53%. The duration of exclusive breastfeeding as well as of any breastfeeding was longer in the rural area than in the urban area (medians for boys 97 days vs. 81 days, for girls 102 days vs. 91 days. The percentages of children with exclusive breastfeeding lasting at least 6 months, as recommended by WHO, were low in both areas. The duration of exclusive breastfeeding was significantly shorter for mothers with three or more antenatal care visits or Caesarean section in both areas. High education level of mothers was associated with longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding in the rural area. No significant associations were found between duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother’s age, household economy indicators or household size. Conclusion Intervention programs with the aim to promote breastfeeding are needed. Mothers should

  19. Using airborne LiDAR in geoarchaeological contexts: Assessment of an automatic tool for the detection and the morphometric analysis of grazing archaeological structures (French Massif Central).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Erwan; Toumazet, Jean-Pierre; Florez, Marta; Vautier, Franck; Dousteyssier, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) of archaeological regions of interest is nowadays a widely used and established method for accurate topographic and microtopographic survey. The penetration of the vegetation cover by the laser beam allows the reconstruction of reliable digital terrain models (DTM) of forested areas where traditional prospection methods are inefficient, time-consuming and non-exhaustive. The ALS technology provides the opportunity to discover new archaeological features hidden by vegetation and provides a comprehensive survey of cultural heritage sites within their environmental context. However, the post-processing of LiDAR points clouds produces a huge quantity of data in which relevant archaeological features are not easily detectable with common visualizing and analysing tools. Undoubtedly, there is an urgent need for automation of structures detection and morphometric extraction techniques, especially for the "archaeological desert" in densely forested areas. This presentation deals with the development of automatic detection procedures applied to archaeological structures located in the French Massif Central, in the western forested part of the Puy-de-Dôme volcano between 950 and 1100 m a.s.l.. These unknown archaeological sites were discovered by the March 2011 ALS mission and display a high density of subcircular depressions with a corridor access. The spatial organization of these depressions vary from isolated to aggregated or aligned features. Functionally, they appear to be former grazing constructions built from the medieval to the modern period. Similar grazing structures are known in other locations of the French Massif Central (Sancy, Artense, Cézallier) where the ground is vegetation-free. In order to develop a reliable process of automatic detection and mapping of these archaeological structures, a learning zone has been delineated within the ALS surveyed area. The grazing features were mapped and typical morphometric attributes

  20. Earthquakes: Risk, Detection, Warning, and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    and central China, and as far away as Bangladesh , Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Several large aftershocks occurred after the main seismic event...34 The number of stations necessary to generate a data-based ShakeMap depends on the urban area and geology ...Research Congressional Research Service 24 • Earthquake geology and paleoseismology: studies of the history, effects, and mechanics of earthquakes

  1. Molecular detection of Rickettsia, Borrelia, and Babesia species in Ixodes ricinus sampled in northeastern, central, and insular areas of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Lyda R; Gabrielli, Simona; Iori, Albertina; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide insight into the diversity of tick-borne pathogens circulating in Italy, carried/transmitted by Ixodes ricinus, one of the most abundant tick species in the country. A total of 447 specimens sampled in five areas of northeastern, central and insular Italy were analysed by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing for the presence of rickettsiae, borreliae and babesiae. Several rickettsial species of the spotted fever group of zoonotic concern and other zoonotic pathogens were found, such as Borrelia burgdorferi s.s., Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Babesia venatorum. These findings confirm a wide distribution of tick-borne bacterial and protozoan species in Italy, and highlight the sanitary importance of I. ricinus, often recorded as feeding on humans.

  2. A review of foodborne bacterial and parasitic zoonoses in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrique-Mas, Juan J; Bryant, J E

    2013-12-01

    Vietnam has experienced unprecedented economic and social development in recent years, and the livestock sector is undergoing significant transformations. Although food animal production is still dominated by small-scale 'backyard' enterprises with mixed crop-livestock or livestock-aquatic systems, there is a trend towards more intensive and vertically integrated operations. Changes in animal production, processing and distribution networks for meat and animal products, and the shift from wet markets to supermarkets will undoubtedly impact food safety risks in Vietnam in unforeseen and complex ways. Here, we review the available published literature on bacterial and parasitic foodborne zoonoses (FBZ) in Vietnam. We report on clinical disease burden and pathogen prevalence in animal reservoirs for a number of important FBZ, and outline opportunities for future research.

  3. Molecular detection of Mayaro virus during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Central-West Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Zuchi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mayaro virus (MAYV is frequently reported in Pan-Amazonia. The aim of this study was to investigate the circulation of alphaviruses during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Serum samples from dengue-suspected patients were subjected to multiplex semi-nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for 11 flaviviruses and five alphaviruses, to nucleotide sequencing and to viral isolation. MAYV was detected in 15 (2.5% of 604 patients. Twelve were co-infected with dengue virus 4, which was isolated from 10 patients. The molecular detection of MAYV in dengue-suspected patients suggests that other arboviruses may be silently circulating during dengue outbreaks in Brazil.

  4. Molecular detection of Mayaro virus during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Central-West Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuchi, Nayara; Heinen, Letícia Borges da Silva; Santos, Marcelo Adriano Mendes dos; Pereira, Fernanda Carla; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini

    2014-09-01

    Mayaro virus (MAYV) is frequently reported in Pan-Amazonia. The aim of this study was to investigate the circulation of alphaviruses during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Serum samples from dengue-suspected patients were subjected to multiplex semi-nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for 11 flaviviruses and five alphaviruses, to nucleotide sequencing and to viral isolation. MAYV was detected in 15 (2.5%) of 604 patients. Twelve were co-infected with dengue virus 4, which was isolated from 10 patients. The molecular detection of MAYV in dengue-suspected patients suggests that other arboviruses may be silently circulating during dengue outbreaks in Brazil.

  5. Molecular detection assay of the bud mite Trisetacus juniperinus on Cupressus sempervirens in nurseries of central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouneb, Mabrouk; de Lillo, Enrico; Roversi, Pio Federico; Simoni, Sauro

    2014-02-01

    Trisetacus juniperinus (Nalepa) sensu Keifer (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Phytoptidae) causes irregular development of buds, shoot deformations and stunted growth of trees, resulting in a serious threat to nurseries and young stands of Cupressus sempervirens L. (Mediterranean cypress). Recently, some cypress clones selected for their resistance to the fungal canker agent Seiridium cardinale (Wag.) have shown high susceptibility to the mite. Considering its tiny body, its hidden lifestyle inside the buds and the probable occurrence of other species (the vagrant Epitrimerus cupressi (Keifer) is common on the Mediterranean cypress in Italy), detection and monitoring of T. juniperinus require taxonomic expertise and are often time-consuming and challenging before serious damage is discernible. In the present study, a rapid, cost-effective PCR-based method was developed and validated to detect T. juniperinus on cypresses. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene was amplified with degenerate and specific primers, but the latter were the only ones able to discriminate between T. juniperinus and E. cupressi. PCR products distinguished the two species both in a pool of individuals in a mixed population of both species and in single individuals, indicating the sensitivity of the detection method. PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) by means of XmnI and XbaI endonucleases separated the two species. Furthermore, a washing-sieving protocol was used to make mite collection from the tree sample faster and simpler; this procedure did not interfere with the molecular detection of the species. The possibility of the routine use of this assay to monitor quarantine eriophyoids infesting plant material is discussed.

  6. Childhood disability and parental moral responsibility in northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the roles played by parents living in Hanoi, Vietnam, in shaping the subjectivities of children who are categorized as physically or intellectually impaired. In an effort to comprehend disability in terms of an active and embodied engagement with the world, I employ...... a phenomenologically inspired 'intercorporeal' perspective as a conceptual alternative to 'medical' and 'social' models of disability. Through this approach I show how, in northern Vietnam, disability in children brings into question the moral integrity of their parents and how this compels parents to define...

  7. Exporting a Scandinavian Learning Model to Egypt and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Youssef, Sandra Safwat; Bygholm, Ann; Jæger, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    many challenges. In this paper, we will present findings from an ethnographic study of the learning systems in higher education in Denmark, Egypt and Vietnam. The sample includes undergraduate level classes taught in Denmark, Egypt and Vietnam. The selected learning setting include an 'Academic......The recent advances in technology have made the process of exporting Western education more easy, and Blended Learning techniques is often the method of choice for exported educational programs. Although, in theory, this make perfect sense, yet in practice, the export of education has encountered...

  8. Formal and informal credit in four provinces of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel; Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders. Formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation, while informal loans are used for consumption...... smoothening. The determinants of formal and informal credit demand are distinct. While credit rationing depends on education and credit history, in particular, regional differences in the demand for credit are striking. A 'one size fits all' approach to credit policy in Vietnam would be inappropriate...

  9. Cheсklist of gastropod molluscs in mangroves of Khanh Hoa province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvonareva, Sofya; Kantor, Yuri

    2016-09-12

    Gastropod molluscs are one of the most important components of mangrove ecosystem. Mangroves in Central Vietnam have a rather limited distribution due to peculiarities of the coastline morphology and presently their fauna remains understudied. Extensive surveys were conducted in both natural vegetation and artificial mangrove plantations in several localities in Nha Trang Bay from 2005 to 2015. In total 65 species of gastropod molluscs were found alive, 17 of which can be considered as predominantly mangrove-associated. An illustrated guide is provided, with short synonymies and data on ecology and distribution. The recorded molluscan diversity is compared with published data on mangrove gastropods in different regions of the Indo-Pacific. Total species number and the proportion of mangrove-associated species are similar to studied faunas in Hong Kong, Malaysia and Thailand, but the diversity is much lower than that of the mangal fauna of the Philippines.

  10. Changes in the health care system of Vietnam in response to the emerging market economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladinsky, J L; Nguyen, H T; Volk, N D

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact on the Vietnamese health care system of the change from a centralized socialist system to a market economy. It discusses recent policies based on expectations in relation to actual outcomes, and the impacts these changes have had on health care delivery and health infrastructure in Vietnam. It has become clear that the private medical sector is draining resources from the State rather than complementing the weakened national health system. Impacts on health education, pharmaceuticals, infrastructure support, geographic distribution of physicians, and equity are all discussed in terms of recent economic changes. It is suggested that adjustments must be made to ensure adequate health care for all Vietnamese including those in rural areas and the urban poor. The State must develop mechanisms to support the national health service before further deterioration occurs.

  11. Karyotypes of two rare rodents, Hapalomys delacouri and Typhlomys cinereus (Mammalia, Rodentia), from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Alexei V; Aniskin, Vladimir M; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V

    2012-01-01

    Karyotypes of Hapalomys delacouri (Rodentia, Muridae) and Typhlomys cinereus (Rodentia, Platacanthomyidae) from Vietnam are described for the first time. The diploid karyotype of Hapalomys delacouri is 38 (NFa=48), consisting of six pairs of bi-armed and 12 pairs of acrocentric autosomes decreasing in size; plus a large metacentric X chromosome and Y chromosome, also metacentric, that is equal in size to the largest pair of acrocentric autosomes. The newly described karyotype differs significantly from that reported for Hapalomys delacouri from northern Thailand. The latter record very likely represents a different species of Hapalomys, possibly the taxon Hapalomys pasquieri described from north-central Laos.The diploid karyotype of Typhlomys cinereus is 38 (NF=48), consisting of five pairs of meta- to submetacentric and 14 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes varying in size from large to small; sex chromosomes were not defined.

  12. Karyotypes of two rare rodents, Hapalomys delacouri and Typhlomys cinereus (Mammalia, Rodentia, from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Abramov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Karyotypes of Hapalomys delacouri (Rodentia, Muridae and Typhlomys cinereus (Rodentia, Platacanthomyidae from Vietnam are described for the first time. The diploid karyotype of H. delacouri is 38 (NFa=48, consisting of six pairs of bi-armed and 12 pairs of acrocentric autosomes decreasing in size; plus a large metacentric X chromosome and Y chromosome, also metacentric, that is equal in size to the largest pair of acrocentric autosomes. The newly described karyotype differs significantly from that reported for H. delacouri from northern Thailand. The latter record very likely represents a different species of Hapalomys, possibly the taxon H. pasquieri described from north-central Laos. The diploid karyotype of Typhlomys cinereus is 38 (NF=48, consisting of five pairs of meta- to submetacentric and 14 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes varying in size from large to small; sex chromosomes were not defined.

  13. Paragonimus heterotremus Chen and Hsia (1964), in Vietnam: a molecular identification and relationships of isolates from different hosts and geographical origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thanh H; Van De, Nguyen; Blair, David; McManus, Donald P; Kino, Hideto; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2006-04-01

    Paragonimus heterotremus Chen and Hsia (1964), and paragonimiasis caused by this species is a newly detected disease in Vietnam. Twelve samples of Paragonimus (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Digenea: Paragonimidae) from different life-stages (eggs, miracidia, metacercariae, adults from natural and experimental hosts) and host species (crab, dog, cat and human) were collected in different geographical locations in Vietnam. DNA sequences were obtained from each for partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) (387 bp) and the entire second ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) (361 bp). The ITS-2 sequences were identical among all specimens, including those previously reported in GenBank. For cox1, there were sequence differences between specimens from Vietnam (four provinces, different locations) and those from Guangxi (China) and Saraburi (Thailand). Phylogenetic trees inferred from cox1 and ITS-2 sequences using sequence data for 15 P. heterotremus and for other Paragonimus spp. revealed that all P. heterotremus originating from Vietnam, Thailand and China form a distinct group. This information also confirms the identity of the Vietnamese specimens as P. heterotremus.

  14. Ultra-sensitive molecular MRI of cerebrovascular cell activation enables early detection of chronic central nervous system disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagne, Axel; Gauberti, Maxime; Macrez, Richard; Jullienne, Amandine; Briens, Aurélien; Raynaud, Jean-Sébastien; Louin, Gaelle; Buisson, Alain; Haelewyn, Benoit; Docagne, Fabian; Defer, Gilles; Vivien, Denis; Maubert, Eric

    2012-11-01

    Since endothelial cells can be targeted by large contrast-carrying particles, molecular imaging of cerebrovascular cell activation is highly promising to evaluate the underlying inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we aimed to demonstrate that molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cerebrovascular cell activation can reveal CNS disorders in the absence of visible lesions and symptoms. To this aim, we optimized contrast carrying particles targeting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and MRI protocols through both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Although, pre-contrast MRI images failed to reveal the ongoing pathology, contrast-enhanced MRI revealed hypoperfusion-triggered CNS injury in vascular dementia, unmasked amyloid-induced cerebrovascular activation in Alzheimer's disease and allowed monitoring of disease activity during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Moreover, contrast-enhanced MRI revealed the cerebrovascular cell activation associated with known risk factors of CNS disorders such as peripheral inflammation, ethanol consumption, hyperglycemia and aging. By providing a dramatically higher sensitivity than previously reported methods and molecular contrast agents, the technology described in the present study opens new avenues of investigation in the field of neuroinflammation.

  15. Parasite egg contamination of vegetables from a suburban market in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uga, S; Hoa, N T V; Noda, S; Moji, K; Cong, L; Aoki, Y; Rai, S K; Fujimaki, Y

    2009-06-01

    Helminth egg contamination of vegetables purchased at suburban market in Hanoi, Vietnam was examined. A total of 317 vegetables were examined and 82 (26%) were revealed to be positive for parasite eggs. Of the 15 varieties, 13 were positive except for horseradish and cucumber. Contamination was highest in leafy vegetables (31%), followed by root vegetables (17%) and fruit vegetables (3%). Throughout the survey, five species of parasite eggs were found: Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp., Toxocara sp., Taenia sp. and Ascaridia galli. In the interview with the villagers, 121 (81%) of 149 adult villagers stated that they usually use not only animal feces but also human feces as a fertilizer. Throughout the survey, a total of 453 eggs were recovered. Number of eggs recovered from vegetables was higher in the dry season (355 eggs) than in the rainy season (98 eggs). The study revealed that vegetables purchased at a market in suburban Hanoi (Vietnam) were highly contaminated with parasite eggs excreted by humans and animals. Considering the eating habits of the Vietnamese and the 17% embryonation rate of detected parasites, vegetables seem to play an important role in soil-transmitted helminth infection in this country.

  16. Early childhood development interventions and cognitive development of young children in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Koichiro; Flores, Rafael; Fujiwara, Junko; Tran, Lien Thi Huong

    2005-08-01

    Little is known about the long-term benefits of interventions that aim to promote early childhood development programs. The goal of this research was to determine whether an early childhood development intervention added to a nutrition intervention during preschool ages had lasting effects on the cognitive development of school-age children in communes of Thanh Hoa province in rural Vietnam. The study focused on a total of 313 children aged 6.5-8.5 y (grades 1 and 2 in primary school) in 2 communes that were exposed to nutrition intervention or nutrition and early childhood development (ECD) intervention from 1999 to 2003. Measurements of height and cognitive test scores (Raven's Progressive Matrices Test) were collected from the children; household characteristics were determined by interviews with mothers. Longitudinal analysis was performed by integrating the data with that collected from the same children in past surveys. Significant effects of the ECD intervention compared with the nutrition intervention were detected. The beneficial effect of ECD intervention on the cognitive test scores was large for the most nutritionally challenged children whose height-for-age Z-scores declined or remained in the stunted range. The findings help provide useful insights into the development of an effective integrated model of ECD and nutrition intervention for children in rural Vietnam.

  17. The Hidden Burden of Trichinellosis in Vietnam: A Postoutbreak Epidemiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nga Vu Thi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in Muong Lat town (Thanh Hoa province, North Vietnam, following the confirmed diagnosis of trichinellosis in six patients from that town who had eaten hunted wild boar meat during the Vietnamese lunar year celebration. All inhabitants who declared to have eaten undercooked or raw wild boar meat at the celebration and showed at least one clinical symptom compatible with trichinellosis were included in the study and blood sampled. Anti-Trichinella IgG were determined by ELISA and Western Blot. Seropositive persons were given appropriate albendazole treatment and were followed up. A total of 100 inhabitants met the inclusion criteria. Among these, 30 (30% had antibodies to Trichinella. Serologically confirmed cases had fever (90.0%, myalgia (86.7%, facial oedema (63.3%, diarrhoea (53.3%, and pain of the masseter muscles (43.3%. Eosinophilia was detected in 83.3% of these individuals. Clinical symptoms resolved in all patients during albendazole treatment. The results suggest that only a proportion of the trichinellosis cases had sought health care during the outbreak. There is a need to implement surveillance and better diagnosis for trichinellosis and to set up educational programs to prevent infection in North Vietnam.

  18. Molecular identification of Fasciola spp. (Digenea: Platyhelminthes in cattle from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen S.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola spp. were collected from naturally infected cattle at a local abattoir of Khanh Hoa province, Vietnam, for morphological and genetic investigations. Microscopic examination detected no sperm cells in the seminal vesicles, suggesting a parthenogenetic reproduction of the flukes. Analyses of sequences from the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2 of the ribosomal RNA revealed that 13 out of 16 isolates were of Fasciola gigantica type, whereas three isolates presented a hybrid sequence from F. gigantica and Fasciola hepatica. Interestingly, all the mitochondrial sequences (partial COI and NDI were of F. gigantica type, suggesting that the maternal lineage of the hybrid form is from F. gigantica. No intra-sequence variation was detected.

  19. Detection of active faults using EMR-Technique and Cerescope at Landau area in central Upper Rhine Graben, SW Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagag, Wael; Obermeyer, Hennes

    2016-01-01

    Two conjugate sets of active faults oriented NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE have been detected at Landau area in SW Germany. These faults follow the old trends of the rift-related structures predominating in the Upper Rhine Graben (URG), which originated during Late Eocene-Miocene time. Linear and horizontal measurements were performed by using the Cerescope device and interpreted, applying the Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) Technique. Linear EMR-profiles were helpful for mapping active faults, while the main horizontal stress (σH, N to NNE) was easily identified with EMR-horizontal measurements. Reactivation of rift-related structures of the Upper Rhine Graben at Landau area produces a new system of active shallow fractures following old trends, and has been detected through the present study by Cerescope applying the EMR-Technique. The present results imply that the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) to the south of Landau has a great impact on reactivation of the pre-existing rift-related faults by mechanical hydro-fracturing occurring within the reservoir rocks underneath the area.

  20. A second species of Euscorpiops Vachon from caves in Vietnam (Scorpiones, Euscorpiidae, Scorpiopinae). Cave Euscorpiops scorpion from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Wilson R; Pham, Dinh-Sac

    2014-09-01

    Euscorpiops dakrong sp. n., belonging to the family Euscorpiidae Laurie, is described on the basis of one male and one female collected in the Dakrong Nature Reserve cave system, Dakrong District, Quang Tri Province, Vietnam. The new species presents most features exhibited by scorpions of the genus Euscorpiops, but it is characterized by a slender body and elongated pedipalps. This new scorpion taxon represents the second species of Scorpiopinae discovered in a cave system and may be yet another endemic element in the fauna of Vietnam. Some taxonomic propositions on the generic position of Scorpiops oligotrichus Fage, 1933 are also suggested.

  1. Remote sensing detection of gold related alteration zones in Um Rus area, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Reda; Kusky, Timothy; El Mezayen, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) images covering the Um Rus area in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt were evaluated for mapping geologic structure, lithology, and gold-related alteration zones. The study area is covered by Pan-African basement rocks including gabbro and granodiorite intruded into a variable mixture of metavolcanics and metasediments. The first three principal component analyses (PCA1, PCA2, PCA3) in a Red-Green-Blue (RGB) of the visible through shortwave-infrared (VNIR + SWIR) ASTER bands enabled the discrimination between lithological units. The results show that ASTER band ratios ((2 + 4)/3, (5 + 7)/6, (7 + 9)/8) in RGB identifies the lithological units and discriminates the granodiorite very well from the adjacent rock units.The granodiorites are dissected by gold-bearing quartz veins surrounded by alteration zones. The microscopic examination of samples collected from the alteration zones shows sericitic and argillic alteration zones. The Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Spectral Information Divergence (SID) supervised classification methods were applied using the reference spectra of the USGS spectral library. The results show that these classification methods are capable of mapping the alteration zones as indicated by field verification work. The PALSAR image was enhanced for fracture mapping using the second moment co-occurrence filter. Overlying extracted faults and alteration zone classification images show that the N30E and N-S fractures represent potential zones for gold exploration. It is concluded that the proposed methods can be used as a powerful tool for ore deposit exploration.

  2. North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) anuran detection data from the eastern and central United States (1994-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Tasha M.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Weir, Linda A.

    2017-01-01

    The North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) was a collaborative citizen science effort between the US Geological Survey (USGS) and 26 Partners (state agencies, universities, and nonprofits) for monitoring calling amphibian populations over much of the eastern and central United States. Initiated in 1997 in response to needs set forth by the Declining Amphibian Populations Task Force in 1994 regarding increased anecdotal observations of global amphibian declines, NAAMP was designed to provide scientifically and statistically defensible, long-term distribution and trends data for calling amphibian populations at the state and regional level in the United States. The USGS discontinued coordination of the program at the conclusion of the 2015 field season. Modeled after the USGS Breeding Bird Survey, NAAMP used a network of random and state-requested non-random roadside routes with listening stops near wetlands to collect frog and toad occupancy and environmental data in predominantly unprotected lands. Data collection and verification under a unified protocol began in 2001 and continued through 2015 with the addition of observer assessment scores in 2006. The USGS utilized verified 2001-2015 data from random routes to produce occupancy trend reports for anuran species of the Northeast, Southeast, and Midwest regions and states of the United States. This dataset includes all raw, verified NAAMP data from 1997 through 2015 and also raw, verified data from Partner States that precede the program (1994-1996). Data preceding 2001 followed variations of the unified protocol. Please refer to metadata for additional information regarding protocol and a list of the represented states and see the Species.csv file for the list of 58 represented species.

  3. Changes in contraceptive use in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Nguyen Minh; Huong, Vu Thu

    2003-10-01

    This analysis used data, primarily from the 1997 Vietnamese Demographic and Health Survey (VN-DHS 1997), to determine the changes in contraceptive use in Vietnam. A descriptive analysis of individual, household and community characteristics was made to obtain a general description of contraceptive use. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were also performed on the currently married in (a) a sample of all women and (b) only those women who live in rural areas, to identify the strength of association that each variable has with the use of modern contraceptives. The use of any contraceptive method and the use of modern methods increased from 1988 to 1997. The primary contraceptive method utilized is the IUD and its use has increased substantially from 1988 to 1997. Younger women (aged 15-24) were less likely to use any contraceptive method. Women not desiring additional children were significantly more likely to use contraceptive methods than those desiring more children. Education has a clear impact on both contraceptive knowledge and use by women, with higher educated women being more likely to use a contraceptive method. Illiterate women with no formal education were significantly less likely to use modern methods of contraception. Differentials in contraceptive use exist regarding place of residence. Urban women are more likely than rural women to use contraception, but the difference is not large. Women living in mountainous areas are less likely to use contraception, compared with women living in the lowlands. Living standards, especially the availability of electricity in the community, have a large effect on the methods of contraception adopted by women. Religion is not strongly related to the contraceptive behaviour of women. There were significant differences in the use of contraceptives in communities with good quality of care, with increased contraceptive use corresponding to the increase in availability of family planning workers at communes

  4. Detecting the environmental impact of off-road vehicles on Rawdat Al Shams in central Saudi Arabia by remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewidar, K; Thomas, J; Bayoumi, S

    2016-07-01

    Off-road vehicles can have a devastating impact on vegetation and soil. Here, we sought to quantify, through a combination of field vegetation, bulk soil, and image analyses, the impact of off-road vehicles on the vegetation and soils of Rawdat Al Shams, which is located in central Saudi Arabia. Soil compaction density was measured in the field, and 27 soil samples were collected for bulk density analysis in the lab to quantify the impacts of off-road vehicles. High spatial resolution images, such as those obtained by the satellites GeoEye-1 and IKONOS-2, were used for surveying the damage to vegetation cover and soil compaction caused by these vehicles. Vegetation cover was mapped using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) technique based on high-resolution images taken at different times of the year. Vehicle trails were derived from satellite data via visual analysis. All damaged areas were determined from high-resolution image data. In this study, we conducted quantitative analyses of vegetation cover change, the impacts of vehicle trails (hereafter "trail impacts"), and a bulk soil analysis. Image data showed that both vegetation cover and trail impacts increased from 2008 to 2015, with the average percentage of trail impacts nearly equal to that of the percentage of vegetation cover during this period. Forty-six species of plants were found to be present in the study area, consisting of all types of life forms, yet trees were represented by a single species, Acacia gerrardii. Herbs composed the largest share of plant life, with 29 species, followed by perennial herbs (12 species), grasses (5 species), and shrubs (3 species). Analysis of soil bulk density for Rawdat Al Shams showed that off-road driving greatly impacts soil density. Twenty-two plant species were observed on the trails, the majority of which were ephemerals. Notoceras bicorne was the most common, with a frequency rate of 93.33 %, an abundance value of 78.47 %, and a density of 0

  5. International Briefing 18: Training and Development in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Nguyen Ngoc; Quang, Truong

    2007-01-01

    Vietnam provides a typical case of an emerging economy, which has attempted to develop the country and join the world economic mainstream with a highly agricultural base, large and young labour force, and a dynamically growing private sector. After a long period of quantitative growth, it is now focusing on achieving quality of development, with a…

  6. Doi Moi, Education and Identity Formation in Contemporary Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Matthieu; Ket, Vu Doan

    2007-01-01

    In 2006 Vietnam had experienced more than two decades of reform. However, while the reforms have transformed the entire Vietnamese economy and opened the country to globalization, the education system is still very much under the Vietnamese Communist Party's control. The schoolbooks are published under close supervision of the authorities. The…

  7. "Doi Moi" (Renovation) and Higher Education Reform in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Pham Thi Hong

    2011-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced significant social, economic, political, and educational changes during the last two decades since the "Doi Moi" policy was implemented. To respond to new requirements required by the global economy, Vietnamese education has undergone remarkable reforms. This article critically examines these reforms in three areas:…

  8. Social Policy Reforms and Daughters' Schooling in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Daniele; Liu, Jianye

    2004-01-01

    Vietnam's social policy reforms in the transition to a market economy included the introduction of fees for primary and secondary school in the late 1980s. Using data from the Viet Nam Living Standards Surveys, this paper examines how the increasing costs of education to households have impacted on school enrollment between 1993 and 1998, giving…

  9. Pedagogical Suggestions for Teaching Business and Economics in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCornac, Dennis C.; Chi, Phan Thuy

    2005-01-01

    Given the overwhelming need for foreign faculty to assist Vietnam in its transition to a market economy, there will be opportunities for economics and business educators to teach at various institutions in that country. In this article, the authors provide a top-10 list of suggestions regarding pedagogical approaches and techniques for teaching in…

  10. Networks at Their Limits: Software, Similarity, and Continuity in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lilly Uyen

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the social worlds of pirated software discs and free/open source software in Vietnam to describe the practices of copying, evangelizing, and translation. This dissertation also reveals the cultural logics of similarity and continuity that sustain these social worlds. Taken together, this dissertation argues that the…

  11. Social Change and Fathering: Change or Continuity in Vietnam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakody, Rukmalie; Phuong, Pham Thi Thu

    2013-01-01

    Dramatic social changes have restructured virtually all aspects of Vietnam society. Although the economic consequences of these changes are well documented, little is known about how family roles and relationships have been affected. Because social and cultural contexts powerfully shape conceptions of parenting, the accelerated rate of social…

  12. "Doi Moi" (Renovation) and Higher Education Reform in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Pham Thi Hong

    2011-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced significant social, economic, political, and educational changes during the last two decades since the "Doi Moi" policy was implemented. To respond to new requirements required by the global economy, Vietnamese education has undergone remarkable reforms. This article critically examines these reforms in three…

  13. A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), C. lingafelteri Woodley, new species, is described from northern Vietnam. It is diagnosed relative to other species using the recent revision of the genus by Rozkošný and Kozánek (2007). This is the first species of Culcua reported from Viet...

  14. Living with autism spectrum disorder in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Vu Song; Whittaker, Andrea; Whittaker, Maxine; Rodger, Sylvia

    2014-11-01

    There is limited understanding of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Vietnam. This ethnographic study aimed to explore how ASD is represented and managed in the cultural, social and economic contexts of Vietnam, and describe the experiences of families with children with ASD in Hanoi, Vietnam. This study was conducted from 2011 to 2012 in Hanoi and employed a range of methods, including participant observation, in-depth interviews with 27 parents of children with ASD and 17 key informants, and online survey. This study found that within Hanoi, Vietnam, ASD has been culturally and socially constructed as a 'disease', 'karmic demerit' and 'family problem' rather than a life-long developmental disorder that needs support from government. Children with ASD and their families experience various forms of stigma and discrimination. There are limitations in assessment and diagnosis of ASD. Parents of children with ASD have little access to services for their children, and the limited political and economic supports exacerbate their difficulties. This study highlights some of the ways in which the understandings and management of ASD vary cross culturally. It also suggests further attention is required to the provision of appropriate public education, low cost interventions and support for family advocacy groups.

  15. Current status of taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De, Nguyen; Le, Thanh Hoa; Lien, Phan Thi Huong; Eom, Keeseon S

    2014-04-01

    Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated.

  16. Developing the Profession of School Psychology in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terjesen, Mark D.; Kassay, Kimberly S.; Bolger, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Building upon a successful prior initial trip to Vietnam in January 2008, students and faculty from St. John's University (STJ) School Psychology program returned to work with the faculty from Hanoi National University of Education (HNUE) in developing the profession of school psychology in that country. The purpose of this trip was twofold: (1)…

  17. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinh, Le Xuan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the job satisfaction of small-scale shrimp trawl fishers in the vicinity of Camau National Park in southern Vietnam. The research sample consisted of 77 fishers who belong to a growing population of shrimp fishers in the region. The results suggest that 60% would change their fishing metier, 78% would leave fishing for…

  18. Traditional medicinal plants in Ben En National Park, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Sam, Hoang; Baas, P.; Keßler, P.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper surveys the medicinal plants and their traditional use by local people in Ben En National Park, Vietnam. A total of 230 medicinal plant species (belonging to 200 genera and 84 families) is used by local people for treatment of 68 different diseases. These include species that are collecte

  19. CPAFFC Delegation Visits Singapore,Laos and Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Singapore-China Friendship Association (SCFA), the Lao-Chinese Friendship Association (LCFA) and the Vietnam-China Friendship Association, a CPAFFC Delegation led by its vice president Feng Zuoku paid goodwill visits to the three countries from January 12 to 25.

  20. Utilities of Patients with Hypertension in Northern Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Thi-Phuong-Lan; Krabbe, Paul F. M.; Nguyen, Thi-Bach-Yen; Schuiling-Veninga, Catharina C. M.; Wright, E. Pamela; Postma, Maarten J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The study aims to inform potential cost-effectiveness analysis of hypertension management in Vietnam by providing utilities and predictors of utilities in patients with hypertension. Methods Hypertensive patients up to 80 years old visiting the hospital were invited to participate in a su

  1. A hidden HIV epidemic among women in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Nguyen; P. Oosterhoff; A. Hardon; H.N. Tran; R.A. Coutinho; P. Wright

    2008-01-01

    Background: The HIV epidemic in Vietnam is still concentrated among high risk populations, including IDU and FSW. The response of the government has focused on the recognized high risk populations, mainly young male drug users. This concentration on one high risk population may leave other populatio

  2. After Access: Divergent Learning Profiles in Vietnam and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolleston, Caine; James, Zoe

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, both India and Vietnam have successfully expanded access to schooling to near-universal levels and have shifted their focus to quality-oriented policy reform. Yet, international and national evidence shows strongly contrasting learning profiles for children within the two systems. Simple indicators of numeracy suggest similar…

  3. Agricultural knowledge transfer and innovation processes in Vietnam's northwestern uplands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thai, Thi Minh; Neef, Andreas; Hoffmann, Volker

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses processes of adoption of agricultural innovations introduced to the northwestern uplands of Vietnam since the late 1950s as a result of external driving forces and the motivation of adopting farmers. We found that innovations which meet the immediate needs of food security...

  4. IMPROVING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EXCHANGE RATE POLICY IN CONTEMPORARY VIETNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Dong Phung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issue of effectiveness of exchange rate policy in contemporary Vietnam, along with the assessment of the mechanism of this policy from 1989 to the present day. The author analyzes constraints of implementing the exchange rate policy in the past and gives recommendations aimed at improving its efficiency nowadays.

  5. The Feminist Sophistic Enterprise: From Euripides to the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Audrey

    1992-01-01

    Uses feminist sophistic historiography to open the doors of two distant historical movements onto each other, reading tensions between masculinity and femininity in Athens during the Peloponnesian war and in the United States during the Vietnam War. Foregrounds the possibility of forestalling arbitrary closure on gender questions which determined…

  6. Perceptions of Higher Education Quality at Three Universities in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Huong Thi; Starkey, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Vietnam is experiencing rapid expansion in the provision of higher education that requires quality assurance appropriate for the Vietnamese-centralised Confucian cultural context. This paper aims to examine the concept of quality from the perspectives of academic leaders, quality assurance members and academics at three higher education…

  7. Dengue as a cause of acute undifferentiated fever in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuong, H.L.; de Vries, P.J.; Nga, T.T.T.; Giao, P.T.; Hung, L.Q.; Binh, T.Q.; Nam, N.V.; Nagelkerke, N.; Kager, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Dengue is a common cause of fever in the tropics but its contribution to the total burden of febrile illnesses that is presented to primary health facilities in endemic regions such as Vietnam, is largely unknown. We aimed to report the frequency of dengue as a cause of fever in Binh Thu

  8. Review of Power System Expansion Planning in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Mario

    2008-01-01

    This report assesses current energy expansion planning practices in Vietnam. This assessment comprises both technical aspects (methodology, planning criteria, construction of scenarios, sensitivity analysis and others) and evaluation of recent planning studies. In addition to an assessment of planning practices, it includes proposing a number of scenarios for the local consultant to carry ...

  9. An Empirical Analysis of Primary Teacher Standards in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Patrick; Cuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Gillis, Shelley; Thanh, Mai Thi

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an account of the development of competency standards and profiles for primary teachers in Vietnam. The development project has taken more than four years and used a combination of consultative, actuarial, and item response modeling procedures to develop and validate a scale of teacher competence. In the overall project, more…

  10. Blacks in Vietnam; A Holistic Perspective Through Fiction and Journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Norman

    1986-01-01

    Examining Afro-Americans in Vietnam in three novels reveals three components of their war experience: (1) a positive opportunity to prove fighting skills; (2) disillusionment when treated discriminatorily by white commanding officers; and (3) a cultural-historical search to make sense of their involvement in the war. (LHW)

  11. Structural Transformation, Biased Technological Change, and Employment in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Tarp, Finn; Wu, Ce

    2015-01-01

    Employment in Vietnam and elsewhere in Asia has grown more slowly than GDP over the last several decades. This means GDP per capita is rising. Vietnamese policymakers, however, are concerned that ongoing structural transformation is creating too few jobs. We use data for seven aggregated sectors ...

  12. Structural transformation, biased technological change, and employment in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Tarp, Finn; Wu, Ce

    Employment in Vietnam and elsewhere in Asia has grown more slowly than GDP over the last several decades. This means GDP per capita is rising. Vietnamese policymakers, however, are concerned that ongoing structural transformation is creating too few jobs. We use data for seven aggregated sectors ...

  13. Mangrove restoration in Vietnam: Key considerations and a practical guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchand, M.

    2008-01-01

    In Vietnam mangrove rehabilitation has a long history and gained momentum after the war that destroyed huge forested areas, especially in the Mekong Delta. In addition, in various places mangrove have been and still are being planted specifically as a way to protect shorelines and sea-dykes from wav

  14. Neonatal bloodstream infections in a pediatric hospital in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Yasmin; Thieu Chuong, D.H.; Phuong, C.N.;

    2013-01-01

    Septicemia and bloodstream infections (BSIs) are major causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We prospectively recorded all positive blood cultures (BSI) among neonates admitted consecutively to a tertiary pediatric hospital in Vietnam during a 12-month period. Among...

  15. Country Social Analysis : Ethnicity and Development in Vietnam - Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This report " Country Social Analysis (CSA) " focused on ethnicity and development in Vietnam is a provocative analysis of marginality in contemporary Southeast Asia. It seeks to understand the macro social and political processes, and provides an analysis of how social, political, and cultural factors influence the opportunities and constraints to more equitable, inclusive development. Th...

  16. Country Social Analysis : Ethnicity and Development in Vietnam - Summary report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This report " Country Social Analysis (CSA) " focused on ethnicity and development in Vietnam is a provocative analysis of marginality in contemporary Southeast Asia. It seeks to understand the macro social and political processes, and provides an analysis of how social, political, and cultural factors influence the opportunities and constraints to more equitable, inclusive development. Th...

  17. Greening Food Processing Industries in Vietnam: Opportunities and Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi My Dieu,

    2006-01-01

    The food processing sector in Vietnam plays a vital role in its economic development, but its rapid growth seems to go hand-in-hand with environmental deterioration. Several decades of applying the conventional end-of-pipe approach made clear that it only deals with treating the symptoms. It is nece

  18. Integrated Coastal Management in the Province Ca Mau - Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, B.; Bouziotas, D.; Hanssen, J.L.J.; Dunnewolt, J.; Postma, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    The province of Ca Mau is the southernmost part of Vietnam and the Mekong Delta. The water system of Ca Mau faces multiple challenges, both in its coastal zone and in its inland regions. the coastal zone in the province. In view of this, this study presents an integrated approach for combined coasta

  19. Review of Palaemoninae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from Vietnam, Macrobrachium excepted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xuan, Van N.

    1992-01-01

    An account is presented of the species of Palaemoninae known from Vietnam, the genus Macrobrachium excluded. Of each species a description or descriptive notes are provided, and the habitat and economic importance are discussed. Illustrations of each species, two of which are new to science, are giv

  20. Witness for the Innocent: Children's Literature and the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, E. Wendy

    1985-01-01

    Presents findings from a study of treatment of the Vietnam war in children's literature. Found that there have not been a large number of books published on subject. Those dealing with subject witness the horrors of the war while treating the conflict as an isolated incident, without a past, and having only a tenuous relationship to our national…

  1. Partnerships for sustainable design in Vietnam: leveraging culture and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, S.; Crul, M.R.M.; Brezet, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses need and relevance of new local-global collaborations for sustainable design. Future Living Studio is a case study that explores how to enable cross-cultural collaboration in Vietnam towards addressing sustainable design and production issues. This paper presents the first empir

  2. Strength of the landward slopes of sea dikes in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, L.H.; Verhagen, H.J.; Van der Meer, J.W.; Cat, V.M.

    2012-01-01

    The landware slopes of sea dikes in the north of Vietnam are steep and solely constructed by soil covered with grass due to the budget constraints and also the out-of-date design guidelines.The resistance against erosion due to wave overtopping of several grass covered slopes were tested with the Wa

  3. Development of an integrated procedure for the detection of central nervous tissue in meat products using cholesterol and neuron-specific enolase as markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücker, E; Eigenbrodt, E; Wenisch, S; Failing, K; Leiser, R; Bülte, M

    1999-03-01

    The emergence of a new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease during the bovine spongiform encephalopathy epidemic has focused attention on the use of tissue from the central nervous system (CNS) in food. So far, the banning of CNS tissue could not be effectively controlled because procedures for detection were missing. With regard to preventive health protection and labeling law enforcement, we have developed an integrated procedure for the detection of CNS tissue in meat products. Herein, we show that antigenic characteristics of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) quantitatively survive technological treatment including severe homogenization and pressure heating. Using both poly- and monoclonal antibodies against NSE in the Western blot, bovine and porcine brain could be detected in sausages, albeit with varying sensitivity (1 to 4%). Sensitivity was increased after reduction of fat content (30 to 40%) of the samples by means of a soxhlet extraction. This made possible the detection of brain addition as low as 0.25% when using monoclonal antibodies. Immunohistology showed distribution of CNS tissue in heat-treated meat products to be homogeneous. Immunoreaction was not found to be bound to morphologically intact histological or cytological structures; however, it proved to be highly specific. The quantification of cholesterol provides a low-cost screening method for the rapid identification of meat products, suspicious with regard to CNS tissue addition. Cholesterol content increased by 26 mg per 100 g of fresh substance for each percentage of brain added to internally produced reference material. Using three different approaches (internal reference material, raw material, and field samples), a provisional cutoff point of normal cholesterol content was calculated for emulsion-type cooked sausages to be 115 mg/100 g (P < 0.05).

  4. Weaver ant role in cashew orchards in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Renkang; Lan, La Pham; Christian, Keith

    2014-08-01

    Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is a very important source of income for more than 200,000 farmer households in Vietnam. The present cashew productivity in Vietnam is low and unstable, and pest damage is partly responsible for this. Cashew farmers rely on pesticides to minimize the damage, resulting in adverse impacts on farm environment and farmers' health. Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp) are effective biocontrol agents of a range of cashew insect pests in several cashew-growing countries, and these ants are widely distributed in Vietnam. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of weaver ants in cashew orchards in Vietnam. Field surveys and field experiment were conducted in five cashew orchards from July 2006 to January 2008 in Binh Phuoc, Dong Nai, and Ba Ria Vung Tau provinces, Vietnam. Based on the field surveys, the most important pests that damage flushing foliar and floral shoots and young cashew fruits and nuts were mosquito bugs, brown shoot borers, blue shoot borers, and fruit-nut borers. The damage caused by each of these pests was significantly lower on trees with weaver ants compared with trees without the ants, showing that the ants were able to keep these pest damages under the control threshold. Regular monitoring of the field experiment showed that weaver ants were similar to insecticides for controlling mosquito bugs, blue shoot borers, fruit-nut borers, leaf rollers, and leaf miners. Aphids did not become major pests in plot with weaver ants. To manage insect pest assemblage in cashew orchards, an integrated pest management using weaver ants as a major component is discussed.

  5. 一个基于中心度的社团结构发现新算法%New algorithm of detecting community structure based on degree centrality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴爱明; 高学东; 王立敏

    2011-01-01

    Using GN algorithm to detect the community structure, there will be high time complexity. This paper proposed a new GN algorithm based on degree centrality ( DCGN). According to node degree centrality and the shortest path among them, the algorithm first confirmed the community structure central nodes, then deleted edges with the biggest betweenness among the community structure central nodes by step, to finish the community structure dividing. This algorithm got rid of high cost of parameter calculating when using GN algorithm, the algorithm ran in time O(cmn) when c was a constant, n was the number of network member, m was the number of network edge. Applied both this algorithm and GN algorithm to Zachary net and the net generated randomly by computer, and then compared them. Experiment results shows the proposed algorithm has advantage in feasibility and effectiveness.%针对GN算法在社团结构发现中时间复杂度高等问题,提出一种基于中心度的GN改进算法(DCGN).该算法根据节点中心度以及节点之间的最短路径首先确定社团结构中心节点集,然后逐步删除社团结构中心节点之间的最大边介数连边,完成社团结构划分.DCGN算法避免了GN算法边介数计算开销大的问题,算法的时间复杂度约为D(cmn),其中c为常数,n为网络成员数,m为网络连边数.将DCGN和GN算法同时应用到Za-chary网络及计算机随机生成网络中并进行了比较.实验结果表明,所提出的DCGN算法在运行效率和效果方面较之GN算法均具有一定的优势.

  6. Women’s education in Vietnam and the changes of socio-economic environment. Comparative thoughts based on cases from Vietnam and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørlund, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Tendensen til at kvinder i stigende grad vinder ind på mænd i uddannelsessystemet og har overhalet dem på selv de høejeste niveauer i forhold til antal i Danmark er ikke uden parelleller i Vietnam. Kvinderne i Vietnam er ikke så ligestillede i Danmark, men der er sket store forbedringer inden for...

  7. A Low-intensity Approach for Early Intervention and Detection of Childhood Disability in Central Java: Long-term Findings and Implications for “Inclusive Development”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Maratmo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper describes a qualitative follow-up study, conducted eight years after completion of a low-intensity early intervention and detection of childhood disability project in Central Java, Indonesia. The original project sought to increase the level of skills and engagement of existing community health volunteers, for the support of children with disabilities. This followup study explored long-term outcomes and implications for the inclusive development approach.Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 of the original volunteers. Interview notes were translated and thematically categorised.Results: While the study was qualitative and descriptive, results indicate that despite the low intensity of the project, some early detection and prevention activities were still going on eight years later.Conclusions: The study suggests that a low-intensity initiative such as this, which is closely aligned with the goals of a government department, may indeed achieve some ongoing change by extending the focus of the department towards disability-related concerns.Implications: Implications are drawn for the emerging area of “inclusive development”, which similarly seeks to promote change in mainstream services for the benefit of people with disabilities.DOI: 10.5463/dcid.v22i3.48

  8. Detection of Herpesvirus, Enterovirus, and Arbovirus infection in patients with suspected central nervous system viral infection in the Western Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Michele S; Lessa, Natália; Naveca, Felipe G; Monte, Rossicléia L; Braga, Wornei S; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu M; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Mourão, Maria Paula G

    2014-09-01

    Acute infections of the central nervous system (CNS) can be caused by various pathogens. In this study, the presence of herpesviruses (HHV), enteroviruses (EVs), and arboviruses were investigated in CSF samples from 165 patients with suspected CNS viral infection through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase PCR. The genomes of one or more viral agents were detected in 29.7% (49/165) of the CSF samples. EVs were predominant (16/49; 32.6%) followed by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (22.4%), Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) (20.4%), Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (18.4%), herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) (4.1%), (HSV-2) (4.1%), and the arboviruses (14.3%). Four of the arboviruses were of dengue virus (DENV) and three of oropouche virus (OROV). The detection of different viruses in the CNS of patients with meningitis or encephalitis highlight the importance of maintaining an active laboratory monitoring diagnostics with rapid methodology of high sensitivity in areas of viral hyperendemicity that may assist in clinical decisions and in the choice of antiviral therapy.

  9. Securitization of infectious diseases in Vietnam: the cases of HIV and avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herington, Jonathan

    2010-11-01

    The frequent and swift emergence of new and devastating infectious diseases has brought renewed attention to health as an issue of international importance. Some states and regional organizations, including in Asia, have begun to regard infectious disease as a national and international security issue. This article seeks to examine the Vietnamese government's response to the epidemics of avian influenza and Human immunodeficiency virus. Both diseases have been recognized at different times as threats to international security and both are serious infectious disease problems in Vietnam. Yet, the character of the central government's response to these two epidemics has been starkly different. How and why this disparity in policy approaches occurs depends largely on the epidemiological, economic and political context in which they occur. Although epidemiological factors are frequently explored when discussing disease as a security issue, seldom are the political, social and economic characteristics of the state invoked. These dimensions, and their interaction with the epidemiology of the disease, are central to understanding which diseases are ultimately treated by states as security issues. In particular, the role of economic security as a powerful motivator for resistance to control measures and the role that local implementation of policies can have in disrupting the effect of central government policy are explored. In exploring both the outcomes of securitization, and its facilitating conditions, I suggest some preliminary observations on the potential costs and benefits of securitizing infectious disease and its utility as a mechanism for protecting health in Asia.

  10. Moving toward universal coverage of health insurance in Vietnam: barriers, facilitating factors, and lessons from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Ngan; Oh, Juhwan; Lee, Jin-Seok

    2014-07-01

    Vietnam has pursued universal health insurance coverage for two decades but has yet to fully achieve this goal. This paper investigates the barriers to achieve universal coverage and examines the validity of facilitating factors to shorten the transitional period in Vietnam. A comparative study of facilitating factors toward universal coverage of Vietnam and Korea reveals significant internal forces for Vietnam to further develop the National Health Insurance Program. Korea in 1977 and Vietnam in 2009 have common characteristics to be favorable of achieving universal coverage with similarities of level of income, highly qualified administrative ability, tradition of solidarity, and strong political leadership although there are differences in distribution of population and structure of the economy. From a comparative perspective, Vietnam can consider the experience of Korea in implementing the mandatory enrollment approach, household unit of eligibility, design of contribution and benefit scheme, and resource allocation to health insurance for sustainable government subsidy to achieve and sustain the universal coverage of health insurance.

  11. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Chung, W. S.; Yun, S. W.; Ko, H. S.; Lee, J. K

    2000-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with vietnam and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Vietnam. During the study, current status of use and development of nuclear energy in vietnam, were investigated including nuclear power plant and cooperative relations between two nations were also established. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) holding of policy seminar for high level decision makers of Vietnam 3) cooperaton between KAERI/VAEC, 4) joint feasibility study for the construction of KSNP into Vietnam and technical presentation of KSNP. It is recommended that cooperaion with vietnam be implemented systematically through the long term based basic directions and integrated national strategies.

  12. A Prospective Multi-Center Observational Study of Children Hospitalized with Diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, CN; Phan, MV; Hoang, NV; Minh, PV; Vinh, NT; Thuy, CT; Nga, TT; Rabaa, MA; Duy, PT; Dung, TT; Phat, VV; Nga, TV; Tu, leTP; Tuyen, HT; K. Yoshihara

    2015-01-01

    : We performed a prospective multicenter study to address the lack of data on the etiology, clinical and demographic features of hospitalized pediatric diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Over 2,000 (1,419 symptomatic and 609 non-diarrheal control) children were enrolled in three hospitals over a 1-year period in 2009-2010. Aiming to detect a panel of pathogens, we identified a known diarrheal pathogen in stool samples from 1,067/1,419 (75.2%) children with diarrhea and from 81/609 ...

  13. President Li Xiaolin Attends the Photo Exhibition on Ho Chi Minh and China-Vietnam Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Yan

    2015-01-01

    From July 17-19,CPAFFC President Li Xiaolin attended the Photo Exhibition on Ho Chi Minh and ChinaVietnam Relations and other related activities in Vietnam at the invitation of the Vietnam Union of FriendshiP Organizations(VUFO).On July 18,President Li,joined by VUFO Chairman Vu Xuan Hong,accompanied Zhang Gaoli,a member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of

  14. Monitoring of Antibiotic Residues in Aquatic Products in Urban and Rural Areas of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Kotaro; Konishi, Yoshimasa; Harada, Kazuo; Okihashi, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Do, Mai Hoang Ngoc; Thi Bui, Long; Duc Nguyen, Thinh; Do Nguyen, Phuc; Thi Khong, Diep; Thi Tran, Hoa; Nam Nguyen, Thang; Viet Le, Ha; Van Chau, Vien; Thi Van Dao, Khanh; Thi Ngoc Nguyen, Hue; Kajimura, Keiji; Kumeda, Yuko; Tran Pham, Khanh; Ngoc Pham, Khai; Trong Bui, Chien; Quang Vien, Mai; Hoang Le, Ninh; Van Dang, Chinh; Hirata, Kazumasa; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2016-08-10

    Antibiotic residues in aquatic products in Vietnam were investigated. A total of 511 fish and shrimp samples were collected from markets in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Thai Binh (TB), and Nha Trang (NT) from July 2013 to October 2015. The samples were extracted with 2% formic acid in acetonitrile and washed with dispersive C18 sorbent. Thirty-two antibiotics were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Of the 362 samples from HCMC, antibiotic residues were found in 53 samples. Enrofloxacin was commonly detected, at a rate of 10.8%. In contrast, samples from TB and NT were less contaminated: only 1 of 118 analyzed samples showed residues in TB and only 1 of 31 showed residues in NT. These differences were attributed to the local manufacturing/distribution systems. To understand the current status of antibiotic use and prevent adverse effects that may be caused by their overuse, continual monitoring is required.

  15. Delays in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis patients in Vietnam: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanh Vu T

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment delay is an important indicator of access to tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment. Analyses of patient delay (i.e. time interval between onset of symptoms and first consultation of a health care provider and health care delay (i.e. time interval between first consultation and start of treatment can inform policies to improve access. This study assesses the patient, health care provider and total delay in diagnosis and treatment of new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients, and the risk factors for long delay, in Vietnam. Methods A cross-sectional survey of new patients treated by the National Tuberculosis Control Programme was conducted in 70 randomly selected districts in Vietnam. All consecutively registered patients in one quarter of 2002 were interviewed using a pre-coded structured questionnaire. Results Median (range delay was 4 weeks (1–48 for total, 3 (1–48 weeks for patient and 1 (0–25 week for health care delay. Patients with long total delay (≥ 12 weeks, 15% accounted for 49% of the cumulative number of delay-weeks. Independent risk factors (p 5 km distance from a health facility or in the northern area. For long health care delay (≥ 6 weeks this was urban setting, residence in the central area and initial visit to a communal health post, TB hospital or the private sector. Conclusion Analyses of patient and treatment delays can indicate target groups and areas for health education and strengthening of the referral system, in particular between the private sector and the NTP.

  16. A new genus of the tribe Caliscelini (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Caliscelidae) from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnezdilov, Vladimir M; Bourgoin, Thierry; Soulier-Perkins, Adeline

    2014-12-22

    A new genus Annamatissus Gnezdilov et Bourgoin gen. nov., including the new species, Annamatissus tami Gnezdilov et Soulier-Perkins sp. nov. is described in the family Caliscelidae from the Bi-Doup massif in Lam Dong Province of Vietnam. The new taxon represents only the second genus of the tribe Caliscelini known from Vietnam. An identification key to separate Gelastissus Kirkaldy from Annamatissus gen. nov. is provided together with a check list of the Caliscelidae of Vietnam and their distribution. New distribution data in Vietnam are given for Cicimora sicildia Emeljanov, 1998 and Gelastissus hokutonis (Matsumura, 1916).

  17. Outlook for the Development of Oil and Gas Industry in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibulnikova, M. R.; Pham, V. A.; Aikina, T. Yu

    2016-09-01

    Oil and gas industry makes a significant contribution to Gross Domestic Product of Vietnam. In 2015 it appeared to be in an intricate situation under the conditions of fall in oil prices caused by excess of supply over demand in the oil market. On the one hand, low prices for oil enable Vietnam as an importer to purchase more oil in the world market. On the other hand, the state company PetroVietnam loses a part of its customers in the domestic market. This tendency can lead to stagnation of the oil and gas industry in Vietnam under weak oil prices if the government does not take timely action.

  18. Contested Sovereignty: Local Politics and State Power in Territorial Conflicts on the Vietnam-China Border, 1650s-1880s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vũ Đường Luân

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes territorial disputes and political relationships at the border between China and Vietnam from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries. Predominant Western scholarship argues that, owing to the tributary relationship among states and polities, there was no territorial boundary in premodern Asia; furthermore, it suggests, the concept of the “geo-body” of a nation or sovereign state only arose with the transfer of new mapping technology from Europe. This article argues instead that the absence of lines of demarcation on Vietnamese and Chinese maps before the late nineteenth century does not connote a lack of consciousness of the existence of borders. The quest for autonomy throughout history by local communities living between China and Vietnam gave rise to border conflicts, which led to the intervention by and expansion of these two states, as well as negotiations and territorial division between them. The transformation of the China-Vietnam border from a premodern to a modern form thus did not depend solely on its cartographic representation; it also involved the power of the state to control space. Additionally, this article demonstrates that tensions over the border did not simply involve central governments but often resulted from a combination of local conflicts and the complicated relations between local actors and the state. The article suggests a new approach to exploring the history of state borders from the perspective of local people, in which the “in-between communities” are not seen as passive objects of border demarcation but are also a driving force in the establishment of a frontier. While the “in-between communities” discussed in this article were behind conflicts over land and its division into national territories, their manipulations of ethnic identity and transgressive mobility also helped blur the border between the two countries.

  19. Detection of rifampin resistance by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of cerebrospinal fluid of patients with tuberculosis of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpellini, P; Braglia, S; Brambilla, A M; Dalessandro, M; Cichero, P; Gori, A; Lazzarin, A

    1997-01-01

    Mutations in a 69-bp region of the rpoB gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are associated with rifampin resistance (Rif[r]). These have been detected with mycobacterial DNA extracted from bacterial suspensions or respiratory specimens that were acid-fast smear positive. We experimented with a strategy for the rapid detection of Rif(r) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. The strategy involves the amplification of the 69-bp region of rpoB by means of PCR and the identification of nucleotide mutations by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the amplification products. Sixty-five CSF specimens collected from 29 patients (19 patients were coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus) with culture or autopsy-confirmed (22 patients) or highly probable (7 patients) tuberculosis of the central nervous system (CNS-TB) were processed. Amplified products suitable for evaluation by SSCP analysis were obtained from 37 CSF specimens from 25 subjects (86.2%). PCR-SSCP of CSF correctly identified the rifampin susceptibility phenotype of isolates from all 17 patients for whom the results of susceptibility tests carried out with strains cultured from CSF or respiratory samples were available. Moreover, this assay revealed the rifampin susceptibility genotype of isolates from the eight patients (three patients with culture-confirmed CNS-TB and five patients in whom CNS-TB was highly probable) for whom no susceptibility test results were available; the PCR-SSCP data obtained for these patients were concordant with the outcome after a standard antituberculosis treatment. The evolution of a mutation in the rpoB gene was documented in a patient during the course of treatment. PCR-SSCP analysis of CSF seems to be an efficacious method of predicting Rif(r) and would reduce the time required for susceptibility testing from approximately 4 to 8 weeks to a few days. PMID:9350737

  20. Contribution of ground surface altitude difference to thermal anomaly detection using satellite images: Application to volcanic/geothermal complexes in the Andes of Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Francisco J.; Lemus, Martín; Parada, Miguel A.; Benavente, Oscar M.; Aguilera, Felipe A.

    2012-09-01

    Detection of thermal anomalies in volcanic-geothermal areas using remote sensing methodologies requires the subtraction of temperatures, not provided by geothermal manifestations (e.g. hot springs, fumaroles, active craters), from satellite image kinetic temperature, which is assumed to correspond to the ground surface temperature. Temperatures that have been subtracted in current models include those derived from the atmospheric transmittance, reflectance of the Earth's surface (albedo), topography effect, thermal inertia and geographic position effect. We propose a model that includes a new parameter (K) that accounts for the variation of temperature with ground surface altitude difference in areas where steep relief exists. The proposed model was developed and applied, using ASTER satellite images, in two Andean volcanic/geothermal complexes (Descabezado Grande-Cerro Azul Volcanic Complex and Planchón-Peteroa-Azufre Volcanic Complex) where field data of atmosphere and ground surface temperature as well as radiation for albedo calibration were obtained in 10 selected sites. The study area was divided into three zones (Northern, Central and Southern zones) where the thermal anomalies were obtained independently. K value calculated for night images of the three zones are better constrained and resulted to be very similar to the Environmental Lapse Rate (ELR) determined for a stable atmosphere (ELR > 7 °C/km). Using the proposed model, numerous thermal anomalies in areas of ≥ 90 m × 90 m were identified that were successfully cross-checked in the field. Night images provide more reliable information for thermal anomaly detection than day images because they record higher temperature contrast between geothermal areas and its surroundings and correspond to more stable atmospheric condition at the time of image acquisition.

  1. Molecular Detection of Equine Herpesvirus Types 1 and 4 Infection in Healthy Horses in Isfahan Central and Shahrekord Southwest Regions, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghi Taktaz Hafshejani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate molecularly the occurrence of EHV-1 and EHV-4 infection among equine population in regions, Iran. Blood samples from 53 and 37 randomly selected horses settled in Isfahan and Shahrekord, Iran, respectively, were collected. Detection of EHV-1 and EHV-4 genes in the blood samples was done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Out of 53 and 37 samples from Isfahan and Shahrekord, 4 (18.18% and 3 (8.10% were positive for PCR of EHV-1, respectively. Nine (16.98% and 6 (16.21% were positive for PCR of EHV-4, while 6 (11.32% and 3 (8.10% were positive for PCR of both EHV-1 and EHV-4, in Isfahan and Shahrekord, respectively. Of the 7 blood samples positive for EHV-1, 4 (16.66% and 3 (8.10% were from horses >3 years old while 2 (18.18% and 1 (16.66% were from 2-3 years old horses, in Isfahan and Shahrekord, respectively. Out of the 7 and 3 samples positive for PCR of EHV-1 in Isfahan and Shahrekord, 4 (22.2% and 1 (7.69% were Standardbred, while 3 (14.28% and 2 (13.33% were Thoroughbreds, respectively. EHV-4 was detected in blood of 4 (22.22% and 2 (15.83% Standardbreds and from 4 (19.04% and 4 (26.66% Thoroughbred horses in Isfahan and Shahrekord, respectively. This study has shown that horses settled in Isfahan central and Shahrekord southwest regions, Iran, are infected by EHV-1 and EHV-4 and thus serve as potential reservoirs and disseminators of the viruses.

  2. New Species of Orchids (Orchidaceae in the Flora of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid V. AVERYANOV

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes results of joint efforts of professional botanists and orchid enthusiasts on studies of Vietnamese native orchids during years 2013–2016. It provides new original data about the discovery of 1 genus (Grammatophyllum Blume and 29 orchid species new for the flora of Vietnam. Valid name, main synonyms, data on type, ecology, phenology, estimated IUCN Red List status, distribution, studied specimens, as well as brief taxonomic and biological notes are provided for each species and varieties. Eight species (Bidupia khangii, Bulbophyllum striatulum, B. tipula, Cleisostoma dorsisacculatum, Cymbidium repens, Dendrobium congianum, Flickingeria xanthocheila, Podochilus rotundipetala and two varieties (Phreatia densiflora var. vietnamensis, P. formosana var. continentalis are described as new for science. One combination (Bulbophyllum bicolor var. funingense is proposed. An illustrated annotated list of all studied species and varieties is arranged in alphabetical order. Including present data, the known orchid flora of Vietnam comprises currently at least 1210 documented species from 172 genera.

  3. PV technology and success of solar electricity in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dung, T.Q. [Vietnam National Center for Science and Technology, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Solarlab

    1997-12-31

    Since 1990 the PV Technology and the Solar electricity have been strongly developed in Vietnam. The PV experts of Solarlab have studied and set up an appropriate PV Technology responding to local Market needs. It has not only stood well but has been also transferred to Mali Republic and Lao P.D.R. The PV off grid systems of Solarlab demonstrate good efficiency and low prices. Over 60 solar stations and villages have been built to provide solar lighting for about 3000 families along the country in remote, mountainous areas and islands. 400 families are using stand-alone Solar Home Systems. The Solar electricity has been chosen for Rural Electrification and National Telecommunication Network in remote and mountainous regions. Many International projects in cooperation with FONDEM-France, SELF USA and Governmental PV projects have been realized by Solarlab. The experiences of maintenance, management and finance about PV development in Vietnam are also mentioned.

  4. Infrastructure investments in developing economies the case of Vietnam

    CERN Document Server

    Dang, Giang

    2015-01-01

    This book aims to provide knowledge on how infrastructure is planned and built in a typical developing country, and what key variables are there in the system limiting the efficient use of public investments in infrastructure. The book begins with a comprehensive literature review on construction and economic development, and trade and economic development. The focus of the book is on the case of Vietnam, with lessons drawn for other developing economies. The book employs the mixed use of data to provide a stronger basis for analysis and interpretation of related government policies. Based on the research findings, the book recommends significant capacity building work for Vietnam to develop capacities that would remove constraints on the efficient use of public investments in infrastructure. The general principles of significant capacity building work which are useful for policy implications are introduced in the book. Analysts, academics, public and private communities in developing countries can adopt the ...

  5. The pursuit of sustainable livelihoods in Vietnam's Northern uplands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben

    Despite remarkable achievements in economic growth and poverty reduction, disparities between upland & lowland areas in Vietnam still exist. Numerous development programs have been implemented in upland areas but have frequently failed to achieve their objectives. The top-down approach of the gov......Despite remarkable achievements in economic growth and poverty reduction, disparities between upland & lowland areas in Vietnam still exist. Numerous development programs have been implemented in upland areas but have frequently failed to achieve their objectives. The top-down approach...... capital & are able to strategically negotiate with external actors & incorporate elements of intervention in existing livelihood strategies. Other actors are constrained by intervention as a result of dependency on inputs, technology for intensive farming, as well as by inequality & debt....

  6. Raymond Carver's "Vitamins" and the Discourses of the Vietnam War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Shariati-Rad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available By integrating the discourses of the Vietnam War into the texture of his short story "Vitamins," Raymond Carver would like to emphasize that the war was not only fought outside the United States. The present paper is an attempt to show how Carver connects the mechanics of the battlefield to the discourses of similar kind present in the individual and social spheres of the latter part of the twentieth century in America – a view consistent with Carver's interest in drawing attention to the contextual motives behind his characters' moods and actions. Providing an understanding of both Carver's short narrative and the period in which it was written and received, this paper investigates the various clashes of the story's characters within the broader social conflicts surrounding the issues of poverty, racism, and sexism. Keywords: Carver, "Vitamins," America, Vietnam, discourse, context, conflict (clash, working class, race, sexism

  7. The expansion of farm-based plantation forestry in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandewall, Mats; Ohlsson, Bo; Sandewall, R Kajsa; Viet, Le Sy

    2010-12-01

    This study targets plantation forestry by farm households (small holders), which is increasing globally and most rapidly in China and Vietnam. By use of an interdisciplinary approach on three study sites in Vietnam, we examined the trends in farmers' tree planting over time, the various pre-requisites for farm-based plantation forestry and its impact on rural people's livelihood strategies, socioeconomic status, income and security. The findings indicated a change from subsistence to cash-based household economy, diversification of farmers' incomes and a transformation of the landscape from mainly natural forests, via deforestation and shifting cultivation, to a landscape dominated by farm-based plantations. The trend of transformation, over a period of some 30 years, towards cash crops and forestry was induced by a combination of policy, market, institutional, infrastructural and other conditions and the existence of professional farming communities, and was most rapid close to the industrial market.

  8. The role of Stakeholders on implementing Universal Services in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do Manh, Thai; Falch, Morten; Williams, Idongesit

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at the universal services policy in Vietnam (interval 2005-2010) via analysing stakeholders in order to clarify how they exerted influence and how they implemented the policy. The stakeholder theory is employed to identify and categorize the stakeholders who participated in perfo......This paper looks at the universal services policy in Vietnam (interval 2005-2010) via analysing stakeholders in order to clarify how they exerted influence and how they implemented the policy. The stakeholder theory is employed to identify and categorize the stakeholders who participated...... of interviews on some officials was also conducted. The results demonstrate that stakeholders had a huge impact on the success of the universal service policy....

  9. Climate change and its gendered impacts on agriculture in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung, P.T

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that Vietnam is one of the countries that most affected by climate change because of its geographical and natural conditions together with its fast but massive and unplanned urbanization. There are many research and studies that have been conducted to assess the impacts of climate change on different sectors in Vietnam. Agriculture plays an important role in the country’s economy in terms of poverty reduction, food security, employment and export but projected to be heavily affected because of sea level rise, floods or droughts etc. A large proportion of Vietnam’s population, especially women, involves with agricultural works and production. So, this paper using a gender perspective will examine possible impacts that climate change has been causing to women and men differently in order to propose some solutions for the facing problems. Since the paper only utilizes available resources, it can serve as a concept note for further works in the future.

  10. Temporal fluctuation of multidrug resistant salmonella typhi haplotypes in the mekong river delta region of Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E Holt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: typhoid fever remains a public health problem in Vietnam, with a significant burden in the Mekong River delta region. Typhoid fever is caused by the bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi, which is frequently multidrug resistant with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolone-based drugs, the first choice for the treatment of typhoid fever. We used a GoldenGate (Illumina assay to type 1,500 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and analyse the genetic variation of S. Typhi isolated from 267 typhoid fever patients in the Mekong delta region participating in a randomized trial conducted between 2004 and 2005. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: the population of S. Typhi circulating during the study was highly clonal, with 91% of isolates belonging to a single clonal complex of the S. Typhi H58 haplogroup. The patterns of disease were consistent with the presence of an endemic haplotype H58-C and a localised outbreak of S. Typhi haplotype H58-E2 in 2004. H58-E2-associated typhoid fever cases exhibited evidence of significant geo-spatial clustering along the Sông H u branch of the Mekong River. Multidrug resistance was common in the established clone H58-C but not in the outbreak clone H58-E2, however all H58 S. Typhi were nalidixic acid resistant and carried a Ser83Phe amino acid substitution in the gyrA gene. SIGNIFICANCE: the H58 haplogroup dominates S. Typhi populations in other endemic areas, but the population described here was more homogeneous than previously examined populations, and the dominant clonal complex (H58-C, -E1, -E2 observed in this study has not been detected outside Vietnam. IncHI1 plasmid-bearing S. Typhi H58-C was endemic during the study period whilst H58-E2, which rarely carried the plasmid, was only transient, suggesting a selective advantage for the plasmid. These data add insight into the outbreak dynamics and local molecular epidemiology of S. Typhi in southern Vietnam.

  11. The Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS): A Strategic Approach to Studying Emerging Zoonotic Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaa, Maia A; Tue, Ngo Tri; Phuc, Tran My; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Saylors, Karen; Cotten, Matthew; Bryant, Juliet E; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Pham, Hong Anh; Berto, Alessandra; Phat, Voong Vinh; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Bao, Long Hoang; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Wertheim, Heiman; Nadjm, Behzad; Monagin, Corina; van Doorn, H Rogier; Rahman, Motiur; Tra, My Phan Vu; Campbell, James I; Boni, Maciej F; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; van der Hoek, Lia; Simmonds, Peter; Rambaut, Andrew; Toan, Tran Khanh; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Hien, Tran Tinh; Wolfe, Nathan; Farrar, Jeremy J; Thwaites, Guy; Kellam, Paul; Woolhouse, Mark E J; Baker, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    The effect of newly emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases of zoonotic origin in human populations can be potentially catastrophic, and large-scale investigations of such diseases are highly challenging. The monitoring of emergence events is subject to ascertainment bias, whether at the level of species discovery, emerging disease events, or disease outbreaks in human populations. Disease surveillance is generally performed post hoc, driven by a response to recent events and by the availability of detection and identification technologies. Additionally, the inventory of pathogens that exist in mammalian and other reservoirs is incomplete, and identifying those with the potential to cause disease in humans is rarely possible in advance. A major step in understanding the burden and diversity of zoonotic infections, the local behavioral and demographic risks of infection, and the risk of emergence of these pathogens in human populations is to establish surveillance networks in populations that maintain regular contact with diverse animal populations, and to simultaneously characterize pathogen diversity in human and animal populations. Vietnam has been an epicenter of disease emergence over the last decade, and practices at the human/animal interface may facilitate the likelihood of spillover of zoonotic pathogens into humans. To tackle the scientific issues surrounding the origins and emergence of zoonotic infections in Vietnam, we have established The Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS). This countrywide project, in which several international institutions collaborate with Vietnamese organizations, is combining clinical data, epidemiology, high-throughput sequencing, and social sciences to address relevant one-health questions. Here, we describe the primary aims of the project, the infrastructure established to address our scientific questions, and the current status of the project. Our principal objective is to develop an integrated approach to

  12. Casualties, Public Opinion, and Presidential Policy during the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    of his charts, reproduced here as Fig. 6, plotted the rising casualty levels in Korea against the declin- ing public support for the Korean war. Ball...relationship between U.S. casualties and public support for U.S. military int-rvention in Korea and Vietnam, and concludeb that a strong inverse...Contingencies," investigated possible configurations for a firepower projection force to be employed in the defense of Third World allies. One of the

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Unit Cohesion in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    Return from Overseas KIA Killed In Action MACV Military Assistance Command Vietnam MIA Missing in Action ORLL Operational Report-Lessons Learned WIA...Courts Martial Special Courts Martial Summary Courts Martial Inspector General Named operations Days in the field Enemy KIA Enemy WIA Enemy Captured...Friendly KIA Friendly WIA Friendly MIA 1 1538 564 15 84 57 8 >76 667 1856 1135 206 Operations 1 Maintenance of Discipline, Law and Order 7354 2179 237/50

  14. The Economic Impact of Land Use Rights in Rural Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Cultural Change no. 3 (2008): 531. JSTOR Arts & Sciences VII, EBSCOhost, accessed October 18, 2013 2 Michael Kirk and Nguyen Do Anh Tuan. Land-Tenure...531. JSTOR Arts & Sciences VII, EBSCOhost, accessed October 18, 2013, 6 6 Nidhiya Menon, Yana Rodgers, and Alexis Kennedy. "Land Rights and...34Land Titling and Rural Transition in Vietnam." Economic Development And Cultural Change no. 3 (2008): 531. JSTOR Arts & Sciences VII, EBSCOhost

  15. The Contributions of the American Military Working Dog in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    Robert Kollar, Mr. John Langley, and Mr. Richard Zika . Special thanks to dog handler and Vietnam historian, Sergeant First Class (Retired) Jesse...for a particularly good prospect. In general, there was little contention over the asking price. When coupled with the cost of recruiting, the fee...paid to the seller was only a fraction of the cost of canine procurement. However, not all sellers were motivated by money. Like the dogs donated in

  16. Applications of radioisotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dien, N.N.; Quang, N.H. [Nucealr Research Institute, Dalat, (Viet Nam)

    1997-10-01

    Nowadays, in Vietnam radioisotopes have been used very widely in various socio-economic branches, especially in industry and healthcare. Applications of radioisotopes have significant meaning in economic development, people health protection, as well as in scientific research. In this paper, the present status and main applications of radiation and radioactive isotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam are reported. In order to control and monitor industrial processes, nucleonic control systems and radioactive tracer techniques have been utilized. Actually, sealed source applications are popular in Vietnam industry. A number of nuclear control devices and gauges have been used in the various industrial factories, such as liquid level gauges in steel industry, cement and beverage factories; density and moisture gauges in paper industry, etc. Tracer technique and sealed source applications have also been utilized in industrial production plants and in trouble-shooting in the petroleum industry. For medicine purposes, two departments of nuclear medicine were primarily established at the beginning of the 1970s. At the present time, a number of nuclear medicine departments have been set up and they have been equipped with advanced equipment. Main activities are focused on thyroid function studies, nuclear cardiology, brain scans, gastrointestinal studies, bone scans, etc. Since march 1984 Dalat nuclear research reactor of nominal power of 500 kW has been reconstructed and put into operation. This reactor is unique in Vietnam and has become an important scientific tool for development of nuclear techniques and radioisotope applications for socio-economic progress. Thanks to this important scientific tool, a variety of radioisotopes for medicine and industry applications as well as for scientific research has been produced. Utilization of the Dalat research reactor for radioisotope production is also summarized in this paper

  17. 5th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering in Vietnam

    CERN Document Server

    Phuong, Tran

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the Development of Biomedical Engineering in Vietnam which was held from June 16-18, 2014 in Ho Chi Minh City. The volume reflects the progress of Biomedical Engineering and discusses problems and solutions. I aims identifying new challenges, and shaping future directions for research in biomedical engineering fields including medical instrumentation, bioinformatics, biomechanics, medical imaging, drug delivery therapy, regenerative medicine and entrepreneurship in medical devices.

  18. Prospects for coal and clean coal technologies in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baruya, P. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    Vietnam's energy economy is largely served by traditional biofuels and oil products. Within the power generating sector, hydropower and gas-fired power dominate. However, Vietnam still maintains a 40 Mt/y coal industry, parts of which have recently undergone a long overdue programme of renovation and expansion. Vietnam has been a successful exporter of anthracite, with more than half of the country's production being shipped or barged to steel mills in Japan or power stations in southern China, as well as most other Far Eastern coal importers. The industry is due to take a different form. Opencast mining has recently accounted for around 60% of production but this mining method could be phased out as reserves become more difficult and costly to extract. A shift to underground mining is expected, with a greater emphasis on more modern and mechanised production techniques. Coal is located mainly in the coalfields in Quang Ninh in the north easternmost province of Vietnam. The lower rank reserves located within the Red River coalfields, close to the existing anthracite operations, may yield many more millions of tonnes of coal for exploitation. Underground coal gasification could possibly be exploited in the deeper reserves of the Red River Basin. While coal production could rapidly change in future years, the power generation sector is also transforming with the country's 12,000 MWe development programme for new coal-fired power capacity. The economy suffers from a threat of power shortages due to a lack of generating and transmission capacity, while inefficiencies blight both energy production and end-users. Delivering power to the regions of growth remains difficult as the economy and the demand for power outpaces power generation. While hydroelectric power is being pursued, coal is therefore becoming a growing factor in the future prosperity of the Vietnamese economy. 111 refs., 33 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Engaged Learning and Filmmaking by Way of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Emmanuel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Virginia Wesleyan professor Steven Emmanuel and five students spent four weeks in Vietnam in the summer of 2007. Their work, supported by an ASIANetwork Student-Faculty Fellows Grant, resulted in a documentary film that won several awards in national and international film festivals. In the following piece, he describes the project and talks about how the grant experience gave him a new perspective on study abroad.

  20. The Need to Communicate: Fighting Human Trafficking in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    a solution to the human trafficking epidemic. 2 He recognized the complexity of gathering statistics to capture the scale that human trafficking ...Transnational Crime and Human Rights: Responses to Human Trafficking in the Greater Mekong Sub-region, state, “There are no reliable statistics on the...THE NEED TO COMMUNICATE: FIGHTING HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN VIETNAM By Colonel Mark D. Raschke, U.S. Army US Naval War College

  1. Zooplankton from can Giuoc River in Southern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Pham Anh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the variables of zooplankton and water quality were investigated in the Can Giuoc River, Southern Vietnam. Zooplankton was monitored in April and September 2015 at 5 sampling sites in the river. Some basic water quality parameters were also tested, including pH, total suspended solid (TSS, dissolved oxygen (DO, biological oxygen demand (BOD5, inorganic nitrogen (NH4+, dissolved phosphorus (PO43−, and coliform. The zooplankton biodiversity indices were applied for the water quality assessment.

  2. Vegetable Agroforestry and Cashew-Cacao Systems in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Thanh Ha, D. (ed.); Du, L; Thanh Loan, L.; Loi, N. Kim (ed.); Duc Thanh, N. (ed.); Duc Phuoc, P. H. (ed.); Midmore, D.; Catacutan, D.; Palada, M.; M. Reyes; Cajilig, R. (ed.); Kunta, K. (ed.); Sombatpanit, S. (ed.)

    2011-01-01

    Metadata only record This book is part of a four-book series that details the research conducted by the Nong Lam University research team concerning the addition of cacao to cashew farming systems in Vietnam. Eight cacao varieties were tested on farmer-owned cashew plantations and had promising results that showed that cacao grew exceptionally well under the cashew canopy, and will be profitable to farmers. These ecologically-sound, integrated vegetable agroforestry systems were developed ...

  3. Formal and Informal Rural Credit in Four Provinces of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders. Formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation, while informal loans are used for consumption smoothening. Interest rates fell from 1997 to 2002, reflecting increased market integration. Moreover, the determinants of formal and informal credit demand are distinct. While credit ration...

  4. Policy processes underpinning universal health insurance in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui T. T. Ha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In almost 30 years since economic reforms or ‘renovation’ (Doimoi were launched, Vietnam has achieved remarkably good health results, in many cases matching those in much higher income countries. This study explores the contribution made by Universal Health Insurance (UHI policies, focusing on the past 15 years. We conducted a mixed method study to describe and assess the policy process relating to health insurance, from agenda setting through implementation and evaluation. Design: The qualitative research methods implemented in this study were 30 in-depth interviews, 4 focus group discussions, expert consultancy, and 420 secondary data review. The data were analyzed by NVivo 7.0. Results: Health insurance in Vietnam was introduced in 1992 and has been elaborated over a 20-year time frame. These processes relate to moving from a contingent to a gradually expanded target population, expanding the scope of the benefit package, and reducing the financial contribution from the insured. The target groups expanded to include 66.8% of the population by 2012. We characterized the policy process relating to UHI as incremental with a learning-by-doing approach, with an emphasis on increasing coverage rather than ensuring a basic service package and financial protection. There was limited involvement of civil society organizations and users in all policy processes. Intertwined political economy factors influenced the policy processes. Conclusions: Incremental policy processes, characterized by a learning-by-doing approach, is appropriate for countries attempting to introduce new health institutions, such as health insurance in Vietnam. Vietnam should continue to mobilize resources in sustainable and viable ways to support the target groups. The country should also adopt a multi-pronged approach to achieving universal access to health services, beyond health insurance.

  5. Getting the Command and Control Right: A Vietnam Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    sensitivity and in concert with his final military objective of posturing for a potentially larger conflict with China, Admiral Sharp opposed changes to...two advantages. From a strategic standpoint, it provided CINCPAC with the flexibility to posture for a larger conflict should China commit to large...extends south, serves as a border between Vietnam and Laos. This spine of jungle-covered mountains terminates at Ho 32 Figure 3. Types of

  6. Childhood Lead Exposure from Battery Recycling in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Daniell, William E.; Lo Van Tung; Wallace, Ryan M.; Havens, Deborah J.; Karr, Catherine J; Nguyen Bich Diep; Croteau, Gerry A.; Beaudet, Nancy J.; Nguyen Duy Bao

    2015-01-01

    Background. Battery recycling facilities in developing countries can cause community lead exposure. Objective. To evaluate child lead exposure in a Vietnam battery recycling craft village after efforts to shift home-based recycling outside the village. Methods. This cross-sectional study evaluated 109 children in Dong Mai village, using blood lead level (BLL) measurement, parent interview, and household observation. Blood samples were analyzed with a LeadCare II field instrument; highest BLLs...

  7. The medical libraries of Vietnam--a service in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennen, P W

    1992-07-01

    The medical libraries of Vietnam maintain high profiles within their institutions and are recognized by health care professionals and administrators as an important part of the health care system. Despite the multitude of problems in providing even a minimal level of medical library services, librarians, clinicians, and researchers nevertheless are determined that enhanced services be made available. Currently, services can be described as basic and unsophisticated, yet viable and surprisingly well organized. The lack of hard western currency required to buy materials and the lack of library technology will be major obstacles to improving information services. Vietnam, like many developing nations, is about to enter a period of technological upheaval, which ultimately will result in a transition from the traditional library limited by walls to a national resource that will rely increasingly on electronic access to international knowledge networks. Technology such as CD-ROM, Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), and satellite telecommunication networks such as Internet can provide the technical backbone to provide access to remote and widely distributed electronic databases to support the information needs of the health care community. Over the long term, access to such databases likely will be cost-effective, in contrast to the assuredly astronomical cost of building a comparable domestic print collection. The advent of new, low-cost electronic technologies probably will revolutionize health care information services in developing nations. However, for the immediate future, the medical libraries of Vietnam will require ongoing sustained support from the international community, so that minimal levels of resources will be available to support the information needs of the health care community. It is remarkable, and a credit to the determination of Vietnam's librarians that, in a country with a legacy of war, economic deprivation, and international isolation

  8. The Army and the Strategic Military Legacy of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    84 Endnotes - Chapter Two ....................... 89 3. METHODOLOGY ............................. 101 In Defense of Methological ...Robert McNamara has observed a self-imposed silence on the Vietnam War.3 Former policy makers have opted to pen their own versions of the study Taylor...called for by writing from retirement. This observation indicts former policy makers. Maxwell Taylor foresaw the reticence on the part of former

  9. 早安,越南%Good Morning,Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BARRY HILLENBRAND

    2005-01-01

    @@ Ithought returning to Vietnam would be difficult.After all,my first attempt had not gone well.In October 1974,1 left the country newly married to Nguyen thi Phuong Nga and for a new assignment in Rio de Janeiro.I had just completed two years in Saigon for TIME,reporting the chaotic1 endgame2 of a cruel war.

  10. Detection of Kobe-type Babesia microti associated with Japanese human babesiosis in field rodents in central Taiwan and southeastern mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito-Ito, A; Takada, N; Ishiguro, F; Fujita, H; Yano, Y; Ma, X-H; Chen, E-R

    2008-05-01

    Field rodent surveys for Babesia infection were performed from 2002 to 2005 in the vicinities of human babesiosis occurrences in Taiwan and mainland China. Babesia microti was identified by microscopical examination and/or PCR in 1 Rattus coxinga and 1 Crocidura horsfieldii in central Taiwan and in 13 Niviventer confucianus and 1 Apodemus agrarius in Zhejiang and Fujian Provinces of southeastern China. Of 15 B. microti samples detected by PCR, all except 1 were shown to be the Kobe-type, the aetiological small subunit rRNA gene-type of the first Japanese patient; the exception was also a Kobe-related type. The Kobe-type had been found in rodents only in a few places including the human infection occurrence place in Japan. The internal transcribed spacer 1 to 2 sequences of the Taiwanese and Chinese Kobe-types were very similar to each other but considerably different (approx. 94% pairwise identities) from that of the Japanese Kobe-type. A Taiwanese Kobe-type strain was serologically differentiated from the Kobe strain originating from the Japanese first patient. The distribution of the Kobe-type in the vicinities of human babesiosis occurrences in Taiwan and China as well as in Japan is suggestive of involvement of the Kobe-type in Asian human babesiosis.

  11. Chronic sensory stroke with and without central pain is associated with bilaterally distributed sensory abnormalities as detected by quantitative sensory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Thomas; Asseyer, Susanna; Geisler, Frederik; Fiebach, Jochen B; Oeltjenbruns, Jochen; Kopf, Andreas; Villringer, Kersten; Villringer, Arno; Jungehulsing, Gerhard J

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 20% of patients suffering from stroke with pure or predominant sensory symptoms (referred to as sensory stroke patients) develop central poststroke pain (CPSP). It is largely unknown what distinguishes these patients from those who remain pain free. Using quantitative sensory testing (QST), we analyzed the somatosensory profiles of 50 patients with chronic sensory stroke, of which 25 suffered from CPSP. As compared with reference data from healthy controls, patients with CPSP showed alterations of thermal and mechanical thresholds on the body area contralateral to their stroke (P pain sensory stroke [NPSS] patients) exhibited similar albeit less pronounced contralesional changes. Paradoxical heat sensation (PHS) and dynamic mechanical allodynia (DMA) showed higher values in CPSP, and an elevated cold detection threshold (CDT) was seen more often in CPSP than in patients with NPSS (P pain summation (wind-up ratio) each correlated with the presence of pain (P < 0.05). On the homologous ipsilesional body area, both patient groups showed additional significant abnormalities as compared with the reference data, which strongly resembled the contralesional changes. In summary, our analysis reveals that CPSP is associated with impaired temperature perception and positive sensory signs, but differences between patients with CPSP and NPSS are subtle. Both patients with CPSP and NPSS show considerable QST changes on the ipsilesional body side. These results are in part paralleled by recent findings of bilaterally spread cortical atrophy in CPSP and might reflect chronic maladaptive cortical plasticity, particularly in patients with CPSP.

  12. Challenges for municipal solid waste management practices in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Duc Luong

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste (MSW management is currently one of the major environmental problems facing by Vietnam. Improper management of MSW has caused adverse impacts on the environment, community health, and social-economic development. This study attempts to provide a review of the generation and characterization, disposal and treatment technologies of MSW to evaluate the current status and identify the problems of MSW management practices in Vietnam. Finally, this study is concluded with fruitful recommendations which may be useful in encouraging the responsible agencies to work towards the further improvement of the existing MSW management system.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.17-21Citation:  Luong, N.D., Giang, H.M., Thanh, B.X. and Hung, N.T.  2013. Challenges for municipal solid waste management practices in Vietnam. Waste Technology 1(1:6-9.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.17-21

  13. Serpents in jars: the snake wine industry in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Somaweera

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of snakes in Vietnam takes place for different purposes, and among them the snake wine industry is prominent but has received far less attention than other dealings, such as the pet trade. Despite widespread commercialisation there is a general lack of information about this snake trade, which makes it difficult to evaluate its magnitude and impact on snake populations. This study documents the use of snakes in snake wine in four cities in Vietnam through surveys conducted in 127 locations selling snake wine in September 2009. This study provides a list of species used along with the number of individuals observed. While none of the species involved are listed in the IUCN Red List, seven species are listed in the Vietnam Red Data Book, of which five are regulated by CITES. On the other hand, the most abundant species used in the trade, Xenochrophis flavipunctatus, is not listed in any conservation document. The popularity and economic importance of snakes in the form of snake wine demonstrates the need for the development of sustainable use programs for these species.

  14. Son preference, sex selection, and kinship in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilmoto, Christophe Z

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the recent rise in the sex ratio at birth in Vietnam and relates its emergence to kinship systems and ethnic composition using 2009 census micro-data. Presentation of the main socioeconomic and ethnic differentials in birth masculinity is followed by a review of the three intermediate factors leading to increases in the sex ratio at birth: prenatal technology, declining fertility, and gender bias. An indirect measurement of fertility behavior is used to demonstrate the close association between levels of the sex ratio at birth and the intensity of son preference. Data on household composition indicate that Vietnam is characterized by the co-existence of kinship patterns typical of East and Southeast Asia. Son preference in Vietnam is found to be related to the prevalence of more traditional patrilineal systems. The article concludes by considering the implications of the cultural dimensions of prenatal sex selection for policy responses and for the likely future change in the sex ratio at birth.

  15. Researchers report HIV and STD statistics from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-20

    Vietnam will experience an extensive rise in the projected HIV and AIDS rates as reported by researchers. Although the country has already seen an extensive HIV spread among injecting drug users, the heterosexual HIV epidemic in Vietnam is still in its early phase. Researchers estimated that by the end of 1997 between 64,000 and 78,000 Vietnamese had contracted HIV and 3000-5000 people had developed AIDS. By the year 2000, the number is estimated to reach a cumulative total of 135,000-160,000 HIV-infected people, with 14,000-21,000 AIDS cases. In addition, there were 119,188 reported cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in 1998, of which 3088 were syphilis, 6859 were gonorrhea, and 108,152 were other STDs. Researchers also reported an alarming increase in penicillin-resistant gonococcal strains, reaching up to 80-90%. Meanwhile, gonococcal resistance to quinolon increased from 3% to 7% during 1994-97 according to recent documentations. Based on the findings, researchers pointed out the need to improve STD/HIV/AIDS prevention and control in Vietnam for the years 2000-05 in the areas of surveillance; STD services; information, education, and communication; safe blood supply; and program management.

  16. 75 FR 38985 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the Fifth...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final... review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From...

  17. 75 FR 4350 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic...

  18. 76 FR 61088 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of New Shipper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, received between August 3, 2011 and... frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam was published in the Federal Register...

  19. 78 FR 55676 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ...: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 68 FR 47909 (August 12, 2003) (``Order... calculated in accordance with section 772 of the Act. Because Vietnam is a non-market economy (``NME... Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 71 FR...

  20. 76 FR 78313 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... COMMISSION Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam... United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam of circular welded carbon- quality steel pipe, provided for in... of India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec....

  1. 77 FR 28356 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Taiwan: Postponement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Taiwan... antidumping duty investigations of steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... 6, 2012. \\1\\ See Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and...

  2. 77 FR 3731 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Taiwan: Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Taiwan...'') received antidumping duty (``AD'') petition concerning imports of steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam... wire garment hangers from Vietnam and Taiwan are being, or are likely to be, sold in the United...

  3. Environmental health risk assessment of dioxin exposure through foods in a dioxin hot spot-Bien Hoa City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Vu-Anh, Le; Ngoc-Bich, Nguyen; Tenkate, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    This study used the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework to assess the human health risk of dioxin exposure through foods for local residents in two wards of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam. These wards are known hot-spots for dioxin and a range of stakeholders from central government to local levels were involved in this process. Publications on dioxin characteristics and toxicity were reviewed and dioxin concentrations in local soil, mud, foods, milk and blood samples were used as data for this risk assessment. A food frequency survey of 400 randomly selected households in these wards was conducted to provide data for exposure assessment. Results showed that local residents who had consumed locally cultivated foods, especially fresh water fish and bottom-feeding fish, free-ranging chicken, duck, and beef were at a very high risk, with their daily dioxin intake far exceeding the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO. Based on the results of this assessment, a multifaceted risk management program was developed and has been recognized as the first public health program ever to have been implemented in Vietnam to reduce the risks of dioxin exposure at dioxin hot-spots.

  4. Environmental Health Risk Assessment of Dioxin Exposure through Foods in a Dioxin Hot Spot—Bien Hoa City, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thi Tuyet-Hanh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study used the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework to assess the human health risk of dioxin exposure through foods for local residents in two wards of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam. These wards are known hot-spots for dioxin and a range of stakeholders from central government to local levels were involved in this process. Publications on dioxin characteristics and toxicity were reviewed and dioxin concentrations in local soil, mud, foods, milk and blood samples were used as data for this risk assessment. A food frequency survey of 400 randomly selected households in these wards was conducted to provide data for exposure assessment. Results showed that local residents who had consumed locally cultivated foods, especially fresh water fish and bottom-feeding fish, free-ranging chicken, duck, and beef were at a very high risk, with their daily dioxin intake far exceeding the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO. Based on the results of this assessment, a multifaceted risk management program was developed and has been recognized as the first public health program ever to have been implemented in Vietnam to reduce the risks of dioxin exposure at dioxin hot-spots.

  5. Antimicrobial resistance, class 1 integrons, and genomic island 1 in Salmonella isolates from Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An T T Vo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic resistance and the horizontal transfer of resistance determinants from Salmonella isolates from humans and animals in Vietnam. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The susceptibility of 297 epidemiologically unrelated non-typhoid Salmonella isolates was investigated by disk diffusion assay. The isolates were screened for the presence of class 1 integrons and Salmonella genomic island 1 by PCR. The potential for the transfer of resistance determinants was investigated by conjugation experiments. Resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, trimethoprim, ampicillin, nalidixic acid, sulphonamides, and tetracycline was found in 13 to 50% of the isolates. Nine distinct integron types were detected in 28% of the isolates belonging to 11 Salmonella serovars including S. Tallahassee. Gene cassettes identified were aadA1, aadA2, aadA5, bla(PSE-1, bla(OXA-30, dfrA1, dfrA12, dfrA17, and sat, as well as open reading frames with unknown functions. Most integrons were located on conjugative plasmids, which can transfer their antimicrobial resistance determinants to Escherichia coli or Salmonella Enteritidis, or with Salmonella Genomic Island 1 or its variants. The resistance gene cluster in serovar Emek identified by PCR mapping and nucleotide sequencing contained SGI1-J3 which is integrated in SGI1 at another position than the majority of SGI1. This is the second report on the insertion of SGI1 at this position. High-level resistance to fluoroquinolones was found in 3 multiresistant S. Typhimurium isolates and was associated with mutations in the gyrA gene leading to the amino acid changes Ser83Phe and Asp87Asn. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance was common among Vietnamese Salmonella isolates from different sources. Legislation to enforce a more prudent use of antibiotics in both human and veterinary medicine should be implemented by the authorities in Vietnam.

  6. Strengthening National Cancer Planning Efforts and Building on 20 Years of US-Vietnam Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGH's Dr. Paul Pearlman discusses his detail in Vietnam as an Embassy Science Fellow: this detail has given me the opportunity to work side by side with the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the World Health Organization’s Vietnam Country Office, Hospital K, and other key organizations to engage on these issues and provide concrete recommendations for interventions.

  7. 78 FR 18957 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...'') of the antidumping duty (``AD'') order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from the... Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,...

  8. 77 FR 60675 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... request was based.\\3\\ \\1\\ See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From...

  9. 78 FR 72635 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... Department'') initiated a new shipper review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp... Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

  10. 75 FR 844 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...'') is extending the time limit for the preliminary results of the new shipper review of certain frozen... order on shrimp from Vietnam for Nhat Duc Co., Ltd. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from...

  11. 77 FR 2958 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... results of the sixth administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Vietnam....

  12. 78 FR 64009 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam Determinations On the... imports from China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in... Commission following notification of preliminary determinations by Commerce that imports of frozen...

  13. 75 FR 22424 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... concerning the antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and... antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would...

  14. 76 FR 65178 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... preliminary results of the sixth administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Vietnam....

  15. 75 FR 1078 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... (Review)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission... (19 U.S.C. 1675(c)) (the Act) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on...

  16. 77 FR 20008 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... upon which the requests were based. \\1\\ See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen...

  17. 78 FR 11221 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam..., Thailand, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in subheadings 0306.17.00, 1605.21.10 and... of frozen warmwater shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and...

  18. 78 FR 6297 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... been calculated in accordance with section 772 of the Act. Because Vietnam is a nonmarket economy... Vietnam: Final Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and New Shipper Reviews, 75 FR 12726... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of...

  19. Education and Earnings in a Transition Economy: The Case of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moock, Peter R.; Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Venkataraman, Meera

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes the return to education of liberalization of the labor market in Vietnam. Finds, for example, that private rate of return to schooling is greater for primary education than for either secondary or higher education. Overall, estimated returns to schooling in Vietnam are low compared with those for other developing countries. (Contains 6…

  20. Examining Differences in Mathematics and Reading Achievement among Grade 5 Pupils in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungi, Njora

    2008-01-01

    This study employed a multilevel technique to examine pupil-, school- and province-level factors that influence achievement in mathematics and reading of Grade 5 primary school pupils in Vietnam. The data for this study were collected as part of a major survey that sought to examine the quality of education offered in Vietnam primary schools.…