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Sample records for central vietnam detected

  1. Ichthyofauna of the reservoirs of Central Vietnam

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    I. A. Stolbunov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, distribution and abundance of fish in the pelagic and littoral zone of four reservoirs of Central Vietnam (Suoi Chau, Kam Lam, Da Ban and Suoi Dau were studied first. According to the research data the fish community of the reservoirs is represented by 43 species of 19 fish families.

  2. Linkages between precipitation and discharge trends in Central Vietnam

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    Souvignet, Maxime; Freer, Jim; Cloke, Hannah; Laux, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Trend detection in precipitation and river discharge datasets can provide important insights into the impacts of climatic variability and change. Regions with poor observed hydrometeorological data coverage, often coincident with developing countries, are particularly prone to affects of changes in rainfall and temperature. In such regions, e.g. Central Vietnam, which are frequently affected by floods and droughts, knowledge about climate trends and their evolution over time is essential to project potential impacts on local water availability, agricultural productivity and risk analysis. Consequently, the quantification of the impact of global climate change in poorly gauged regions is of crucial importance for stakeholders and policy makers. In this study, we analyse change in rainfall, temperature and river discharge over the last three decades in Central Vietnam. To overcome the limited data availability, the high resolution APHRODITE gridded dataset is used in addition to the existing rain gauges network. Finally, linkages between discharge changes and trends in rainfall and temperature are explored. Results are indicative of an intensification of rainfall (+15%/decade), with more extreme and longer events. A significant increase in winter rainfall and a decrease in consecutive dry days provides strong evidence for a lengthening wet season in Central Vietnam. In addition, trends based on APHRODITE suggest a strong orographic signal in winter and annual trends. These results underline the local variability in the impacts of climatic change at the global scale. Consequently, it is important that change detection investigations are conducted at the local scale. A very weak signal is detected in the trend of minimum temperature (+0.2°C/decade). River discharge trends show an increase in mean discharge (31% to 35%/decade) over the last decades. Between 54 and 74% of this increase is explained by the increase in precipitation. The maximum discharge also responds

  3. Carbonate platform growth and demise offshore Central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Michael B.W.; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Nielsen, Lars H.;

    2013-01-01

    Miocene carbonate platforms cover a large part of the Central Vietnamese South China Sea margin. Early carbonate deposition took place on two regional platforms separated by a narrow depression developed along the trace of the East Vietnam Boundary Fault Zone. West of the East Vietnam Boundary...... nutrient input derived from the uplifted mainland, possibly enhanced by deteriorated climatic conditions and rapid sea-level fluctuations promoting platform drowning....

  4. Cost of treatment for breast cancer in central Vietnam

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    Nguyen Hoang Lan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, cases of breast cancer have been on the rise in Vietnam. To date, there has been no study on the financial burden of the disease. This study estimates the direct medical cost of a 5-year treatment course for women with primary breast cancer in central Vietnam. Methods: Retrospective patient-level data from medical records at the Hue Central Hospital between 2001 and 2006 were analyzed. Cost analysis was conducted from the health care payers’ perspective. Various direct medical cost categories were computed for a 5-year treatment course for patients with breast cancer. Costs, in US dollars, discounted at a 3% rate, were converted to 2010 after adjusting for inflation. For each cost category, the mean, standard deviation, median, and cost range were estimated. Median regression was used to investigate the relationship between costs and the stage, age at diagnosis, and the health insurance coverage of the patients. Results: The total direct medical cost for a 5-year treatment course for breast cancer in central Vietnam was estimated at $975 per patient (range: $11.7–$3,955. The initial treatment cost, particularly the cost of chemotherapy, was found to account for the greatest proportion of total costs (64.9%. Among the patient characteristics studied, stage at diagnosis was significantly associated with total treatment costs. Patients at later stages of breast cancer did not differ significantly in their total costs from those at earlier stages however, but their survival time was much shorter. The absence of health insurance was the main factor limiting service uptake. Conclusion: From the health care payers’ perspective, the Government subsidization of public hospital charges lowered the direct medical costs of a 5-year treatment course for primary breast cancer in central Vietnam. However, the long treatment course was significantly influenced by out-of-pocket payments for patients without health insurance.

  5. Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    The Country Opinion Survey in Vietnam assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Vietnam perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Vietnam on 1) their views regarding the general environment in ...

  6. Effects of ENSO on Autumn Rainfall in Central Vietnam

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    Thang Van Vu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 28 years (1980–2007 of station and gridded reanalysis data were used to investigate the effects of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO on autumn rainfall in the Extended Central Vietnam (ECV region. Results show that, under El Niño conditions, autumn rainfall in Central Vietnam is reduced by about 10 to 30%. This reduction seems to be caused by a weakening of the North East monsoon circulation, which appears to be linked to an anomalous anticyclonic vortex and a positive sea level pressure anomaly over the East Sea. In addition, the disappearance of a secondary moisture source over the southern region of the East Sea also favors the reduction in rainfall over this region. Conversely, during La Niña, the total autumn rainfall in the ECV region increases by about 9 to 19%. The strengthening of the North East monsoon, with a cyclonic wind anomaly over the East Sea, helps to increase the moisture supply to the area by about 10 to 20%, resulting in enhanced rainfall in the ECV. It is also found that the La Niña conditions do not only cause an increase in rainfall, but also change the temporal distribution of the monthly rainfall over the region, with more rainfall in the latter months of the year.

  7. Geological evolution, regional perspectives and hydrocarbon potential of the northwest Phu Khanh Basin, offshore Central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Michael Bryld Wessel; Nielsen, Lars H.; Boldreel, Lars Ole;

    2009-01-01

      Seismic stratigraphic and structural analyses of the northwest Phu Khanh Basin, offshore Central Vietnam, based on 2-D seismic data, indicate that the initial rifting began during the latest Cretaceous? or Palaeogene controlled by left-lateral transtension along the East Vietnam Boundary Fault ...

  8. 78 FR 17745 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Vietnam Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Vietnam, and I hereby waive this restriction....

  9. Competing for Coffee Space: Development-Induced Displacement in the Central Highlands of Vietnam

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    Doutriaux, Sylvie; Geisler, Charles; Shively, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam has emerged as the world's second largest producer of coffee. The benefits of this expanding coffee economy are substantial but not universal; their distribution follows ethnic lines despite government commitment to equalize welfare. Focusing on Dak Lak Province in Vietnam's Central Highlands, we investigate this commercial transformation…

  10. Metals in Sediment Cores from Nine Coastal Lagoons in Central Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Romano; Cristian Mugnai; Silvia Giuliani; Clara Turetta; Nguyen H. Cu; Bellucci, Luca G.; Dang H. Nhon; Gabriele Capodaglio; Mauro Frignani

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: After being dramatically hit by war events, Vietnam is presently experiencing a huge economical and social development. However, very few data, relative to pollution levels and trends, are available for the correct management of critical areas such as coastal lagoons, where many economical activities are linked to high value environmental features. Approach: A set of sediment cores from nine coastal lagoons of central Vietnam (Lang Co, Truong Giang, An Khe, Nuoc Man, Nuoc N...

  11. Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: 1923-1924: Beginning of use of radioactive sources for cancer treatment in Vietnam (namely in the L'Institut de Radium de L'Indochine, which was founded in Hanoi on 19 October 1923; 1960-1969: Nuclear physics began to be studied in the following education institutions in the country: - University of Natural Sciences (in Hanoi); - Institute of Physics (in Hanoi); - Hanoi University of Technology (in Hanoi); - Saigon University and Nuclear Reactor in Da Lat (South Vietnam). Since the early 1960s, nuclear techniques were applied in Vietnam for searching coal mines and minerals. Since then there were more and more demands in nuclear engineer for industrial applications. According to idea of the first Minister of the Ministry of Higher Education of Vietnam, the Late Prof. Ta Quang Buu, on introducing Nuclear Engineering Education into the country, preparation for establishing the Department of Nuclear Engineering Physics (DONEP) was started at the end of 1967. This process led to the establishment of the DONEP at Hanoi University of Technology (HUT) in 1970. The objectives of nuclear engineering education programme of HUT are as follows: - To develop peaceful applications of atomic energy in Vietnam; - To prepare initial engineering manpower for introduction of nuclear energy into Vietnam. The number of students enrolled in the nuclear engineering education programme at HUT was 10-15 people every year during 1970-1990. The period 1990-1999 was the most difficult post-Chernobyl time for nuclear education in the country. During this time, the HUT's DONEP could not enrol any new students to follow its education programme. In order to overcome the severe difficulties in this period, DONEP had to adapt its programme considerably. The education programme of DONEP was adapted by keeping its above mentioned traditional objectives without any changes but successfully realizing a fruitful combination of the field of nuclear engineering and the field of environmental

  12. Vectors and malaria transmission in deforested, rural communities in north-central Vietnam

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    Do Manh Cuong

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is still prevalent in rural communities of central Vietnam even though, due to deforestation, the primary vector Anopheles dirus is uncommon. In these situations little is known about the secondary vectors which are responsible for maintaining transmission. Basic information on the identification of the species in these rural communities is required so that transmission parameters, such as ecology, behaviour and vectorial status can be assigned to the appropriate species. Methods In two rural villages - Khe Ngang and Hang Chuon - in Truong Xuan Commune, Quang Binh Province, north central Vietnam, a series of longitudinal entomological surveys were conducted during the wet and dry seasons from 2003 - 2007. In these surveys anopheline mosquitoes were collected in human landing catches, paired human and animal bait collections, and from larval surveys. Specimens belonging to species complexes were identified by PCR and sequence analysis, incrimination of vectors was by detection of circumsporozoite protein using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Over 80% of the anopheline fauna was made up of Anopheles sinensis, Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles harrisoni, Anopheles maculatus, Anopheles sawadwongporni, and Anopheles philippinensis. PCR and sequence analysis resolved identification issues in the Funestus Group, Maculatus Group, Hyrcanus Group and Dirus Complex. Most species were zoophilic and while all species could be collected biting humans significantly higher densities were attracted to cattle and buffalo. Anopheles dirus was the most anthropophilic species but was uncommon making up only 1.24% of all anophelines collected. Anopheles sinensis, An. aconitus, An. harrisoni, An. maculatus, An. sawadwongporni, Anopheles peditaeniatus and An. philippinensis were all found positive for circumsporozoite protein. Heterogeneity in oviposition site preference between species enabled vector densities to be high in both

  13. Genetically variant populations of Paragonimus proliferus Hsia & Chen, 1964 from central Vietnam.

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    Doanh, P N; Hien, H V; Nonaka, N; Horii, Y; Nawa, Y

    2013-06-01

    Among about 50 nominal Paragonimus species, Paragonimus proliferus is rather a rare species, found only in Yunnan province, China, until our recent discovery of this species in Lai Chau province, northern Vietnam close to Yunnan, China. Here we add Quang Binh province, central Vietnam as a new endemic area of P. proliferus. Large excysted metacercariae found in mountainous crabs, Potamiscus tannanti, were morphologically identified as P. proliferus, which was confirmed further by molecular analyses. Second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) sequences of the P. proliferus population in Quang Binh province were completely (100%) identical with those of P. proliferus populations in Lai Chau province, northern Vietnam and Yunnan province, China. However, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene sequences of Quang Binh population were significantly different (5.6%) from that of previously reported northern Vietnam and Yunnan, China populations. A phylogenetic tree revealed that all CO1 sequences of P. proliferus Quang Binh population formed a distinct group, which was clustered with northern Vietnam and Yunnan, China populations with the bootstrap value of 75%. This is the first record of the genetically variant population of P. proliferus, distribution of which is geographically remote from the previously reported endemic areas in the border between northern Vietnam and Yunnan, China, suggesting that P. proliferus may be much more widely distributed in the Indochina peninsula (or South-East Asia) than expected.

  14. Characterization of smallholder pig breeding practices within a rural commune of North Central Vietnam.

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    Ieda, Nahoko; Van Bui, Quang; Nguyen, Nga Thi Duong; Lapar, Lucy; Marshall, Karen

    2015-08-01

    This case study focused on a pig production system in a rural area of North Central Vietnam, with a focus on describing household pig breeding practices and estimating herd demographic parameters, particularly on reproduction. One hundred five households undertaking small-scale piglet production were surveyed, with information gathered on 3268 individual pigs. Pig keeping contributed variably to the overall household livelihood portfolio, with female household members as the main decision makers, contributors to labor, and beneficiaries of income from the pig enterprise. All households kept between one and four young or adult sows, with 69% of these sows of a local breed type (predominantly Mong Cai), 28% a cross between a local sow and an exotic sow (predominantly Large White), and the remainder (3%) as exotic sows. Eighty-eight percent of the piglets produced were cross-bred, while 12% were local breed. No adult males were kept by the surveyed households, reflecting the common use of artificial insemination for mating purposes. The most common breeding system practiced-the keeping of Mong Cai females and production of cross-bred piglets-capitalizes on the small body size and high fecundity of the sows and the fast growth rate and leanness of the cross-bred piglets. The survey tool used, which was based on farmer recall of events over the preceding 12-month period, appeared to give reasonable results although some recall bias could be detected. This case study will serve as an entry point to planned broader scale characterization and development of pig breeding systems in North Central Vietnam. PMID:25947237

  15. Popowia bachmaensis (Annonaceae), a new species from Bach Ma National Park, Central Vietnam.

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    Ngoc, Nguyen Van; Tagane, Shuichiro; Binh, Hoang Thi; Toyama, Hironori; Okabe, Norikazu; Duy, Chinh Nguyen; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Popowia bachmaensis Ngoc, Tagane & Yahara, sp. nov. is described from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. This species is morphologically similar to Popowia pisocarpa (Blume) Endl. ex Walp., but can be readily distinguished from it by its lower stems, smaller leaves, shorter flowering pedicels, shorter carpels, longer sepals and inner petals. A detailed description, comprising illustrations, and supplemented with DNA barcodes of the two regions of rbcL and matK, are provided.

  16. Central Vietnam climate over the past five centuries from cypress tree rings

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    Buckley, Brendan M.; Stahle, Daniel K.; Luu, Hong Truong; Wang, S.-Y. Simon; Nguyen, Tran Quoc Trung; Thomas, Philip; Le, Canh Nam; Ton, That Minh; Bui, The Hoang; Nguyen, Van Thiet

    2016-08-01

    We present the first crossdated tree ring record from central Vietnam, derived from the growth rings of the rare cypress Fokienia hodginsii from the mountains of Quang Nam Province near the Laos border. The Quang Nam Fokienia hodginsii time series (QNFH), based on the crossdated sequences of 71 increment core samples from 37 mature trees, is the third published dendrochronological record from this species. The record extends 667 years from AD 1347 to 2013 and exhibits a mean series intercorrelation of 0.526, similarly significant with the first two published Fokienia hodginsii records: 0.474 for Mu Cang Chai (MCFH) and 0.578 for Bidoup-Nui Ba National Park (BDFH) in the north and south of Vietnam, respectively. The Expressed Population Signal (EPS) for the QNFH record exceeds the generally accepted threshold of 0.85 back to AD 1567, but remains above 0.8 back to 1550. Similar to the MCFH and BDFH records, QNFH expresses statistically significant linkages to regional hydroclimate metrics and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Here we present a reconstruction of the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index for the month of April, averaged over a large region of Southeast Asia. As with prior studies we demonstrate that cool phase (La Niña) and warm phase (El Niño) events are linked to regional wet and dry conditions, respectively, with linkages to modulation of the surface water temperature over the adjacent sea to the east of Vietnam as well as the Indian Ocean. A late eighteenth century megadrought that is expressed widely across South and Southeast Asia, and notably from the MCFH and BDFH records described above, is not as pronounced in Central Vietnam and we explore the reasons why.

  17. Decadal oscillation of autumn precipitation in Central Vietnam modulated by the East Pacific–North Pacific (EP–NP) teleconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autumn precipitation over Central Vietnam is associated with an increase in the occurrence of tropical cyclones that lead to frequent flooding and pose a significant threat to lives and property. The present analyses reveal a pronounced decadal oscillation of autumn precipitation in Central Vietnam within the 8–11 year frequency band that is modulated by the East Pacific–North Pacific (EP–NP) teleconnection. The negative phase of the EP–NP pattern is associated with a positive sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly in the South China Sea (SCS) that induces low-level convergence, enhances convection, and increases precipitation over Central Vietnam and adjacent islands including Hainan (China) and the Philippines. This circulation feature around the SCS is embedded in a large-scale circulation associated with SST anomalies across the Pacific Ocean—i.e., cooling in the Eastern and Central tropical Pacific sandwiched by warming in the North and South Pacific as well as the Western Pacific Ocean. The positive phase of the EP–NP features opposite SST and circulation anomalies, with the result being reduced rainfall in Central Vietnam. This out-of-phase relationship and shared decadal spectral coherence between the EP–NP index and autumn precipitation in Central Vietnam might be useful for future climate predictions and flood management. (letter)

  18. Decadal oscillation of autumn precipitation in Central Vietnam modulated by the East Pacific-North Pacific (EP-NP) teleconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R.; Wang, S.-Y.; Gillies, R. R.; Buckley, B. M.; Truong, L. H.; Cho, C.

    2015-02-01

    Autumn precipitation over Central Vietnam is associated with an increase in the occurrence of tropical cyclones that lead to frequent flooding and pose a significant threat to lives and property. The present analyses reveal a pronounced decadal oscillation of autumn precipitation in Central Vietnam within the 8-11 year frequency band that is modulated by the East Pacific-North Pacific (EP-NP) teleconnection. The negative phase of the EP-NP pattern is associated with a positive sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly in the South China Sea (SCS) that induces low-level convergence, enhances convection, and increases precipitation over Central Vietnam and adjacent islands including Hainan (China) and the Philippines. This circulation feature around the SCS is embedded in a large-scale circulation associated with SST anomalies across the Pacific Ocean—i.e., cooling in the Eastern and Central tropical Pacific sandwiched by warming in the North and South Pacific as well as the Western Pacific Ocean. The positive phase of the EP-NP features opposite SST and circulation anomalies, with the result being reduced rainfall in Central Vietnam. This out-of-phase relationship and shared decadal spectral coherence between the EP-NP index and autumn precipitation in Central Vietnam might be useful for future climate predictions and flood management.

  19. Metals in Sediment Cores from Nine Coastal Lagoons in Central Vietnam

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    Stefania Romano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: After being dramatically hit by war events, Vietnam is presently experiencing a huge economical and social development. However, very few data, relative to pollution levels and trends, are available for the correct management of critical areas such as coastal lagoons, where many economical activities are linked to high value environmental features. Approach: A set of sediment cores from nine coastal lagoons of central Vietnam (Lang Co, Truong Giang, An Khe, Nuoc Man, Nuoc Ngot, Thi Nai, O Loan, Thuy Trieu and Dam Nai were sampled in 2008 and analyzed to assess metal and (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, U and Zn and As levels and historical trends. Results: Concentrations are generally low, with the exception of As, which often exceeds ERL guidelines and Ni that does the same at O Loan. In some cases, concentrations-depth profiles account for recent increasing trends but surficial values are still low when compared to both international guidelines and polluted sediments all around the world. Sediment grain size seems to affect the depth distribution of a number of metals and when normalized to the content of silt and clay, values are particularly high at Dam Nai and Thi Nai, due to the very coarse composition of surficial sediments. Conclusion: Metal concentrations in lagoon sediments derive from the composition of rocks and soils in the watersheds. However, recent increasing trends need for further monitoring.

  20. Callicarpa bachmaensis Soejima & Tagane (Lamiaceae), a new species from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejima, Akiko; Tagane, Shuichiro; Van, Ngoc Nguyen; Duy, Chinh Nguyen; Huong, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Callicarpa bachmaensis Soejima & Tagane, sp. nov., is described and illustrated from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. This species has a characteristic liana habit, white corolla, and narrowly elliptic to narrowly lanceolate, entire, occasionally subequal leaves, by which it is clearly distinguished from the other previously known species of this genus.

  1. Effect of genotype and dietary protein level on growth performance and carcass characteristics of fattening pigs in central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, K.T.; Nghia, D.H.; Ngoan, L.D.; Hendriks, W.H.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the optimum dietary crude protein level in a typical diet for fattening pigs fed ad libitum under normal climate conditions in Central Vietnam. One hundred and ninety two gilts of Mong Cai local breed (MC), F1 Large White??Mong Cai and F2 crossbreds of (Landrace??Mong C

  2. Sending the Right Bill to the Right People: Climate change, environmental degradation, and social vulnerabilities in Central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2012-01-01

    the resulting technocratic approaches are applied to aid programs, addressing climate change as an autonomous field, the problems on the ground become distorted. Based on field studies in central Vietnam, the paper argues that fragmented approaches risk missing the target of helping the most vulnerable...

  3. Village-based primary health care in the Central Highlands of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, B; Ladinsky, J; Volk, N

    2001-02-01

    This paper describes the first year of an ongoing village health care and economic development project in the Krong Buk district of Dak Lak province in Vietnam's Central Highlands. The project serves 21 villages with a total population of just over 15,000. Most belong to ethnic minority groups. Physicians from the province capital of Boun Me Thuot were trained by a multi-disciplinary team of American health care workers to be trainers and supervisors of 21 village health care workers (VHWs). Two months later, a VHW from each village was trained in primary and preventive health care by the physician-supervisors. Since this initial training, each VHW has been provided with materials, medicines and monthly supervision by the physician-supervisors. The health care component has been complemented by an economic development project based on a system of small loans. Data from the first year of monthly reports and from a baseline survey are presented in this paper.

  4. Aflatoxins, Fumonisins and Zearalenone Contamination of Maize in the Southeastern and Central Highlands Provinces of Vietnam

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    Nguyen Hieu Phuong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the contamination of maize with aflatoxins, fumonisins and zearalenone was carried out in the Southeastern and Central Highland provinces in Vietnam. Four provinces were chosen for sampling maize: Dong Nai (22, Binh Phuoc (25, Dak Lak (30 and Dak Nong (20. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, B2 (AFB2, G1 (AFG1, G2 (AFG2, fumonisin B1 (FB1, fumonisin B2 (FB2 and zearalenone (ZEA were analysed by HPLC in 97 maize kernel samples. Fumonisins were the most common toxins found in all samples (67%, followed by aflatoxins (55.7% and zearalenone (27.8%. The incidence of aflatoxin positive samples (61.7% in the Southeastern provinces was higher than in the Central Highlands (50%, while fumonisins and zearalenone incidences were higher in the Central Highlands. The mean level of fumonisin B1 in samples from the Central Highlands provinces (1757 µg/kg was significantly greater (p < 0.05 than in the Southeastern provinces (740 µg/kg. Importantly, the percentage of positive samples (about 70% that had over 20 µg/kg (ppb aflatoxin was very high. Moreover, many samples (53% contained more than one mycotoxin and this result highlights the difficulty of diagnosing mycotoxicoses in the field and the need for ongoing research to reduce the occurrence of mycotoxins in Vietnamese maize.

  5. Epidemiology of forest malaria in central Vietnam: a large scale cross-sectional survey.

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    Erhart, Annette; Ngo, Duc Thang; Phan, Van Ky; Ta, Thi Tinh; Van Overmeir, Chantal; Speybroeck, Niko; Obsomer, Valerie; Le, Xuan Hung; Le, Khanh Thuan; Coosemans, Marc; D'alessandro, Umberto

    2005-01-01

    In Vietnam, a large proportion of all malaria cases and deaths occurs in the central mountainous and forested part of the country. Indeed, forest malaria, despite intensive control activities, is still a major problem which raises several questions about its dynamics.A large-scale malaria morbidity survey to measure malaria endemicity and identify important risk factors was carried out in 43 villages situated in a forested area of Ninh Thuan province, south central Vietnam. Four thousand three hundred and six randomly selected individuals, aged 10-60 years, participated in the survey. Rag Lays (86%), traditionally living in the forest and practising "slash and burn" cultivation represented the most common ethnic group. The overall parasite rate was 13.3% (range [0-42.3] while Plasmodium falciparum seroprevalence was 25.5% (range [2.1-75.6]). Mapping of these two variables showed a patchy distribution, suggesting that risk factors other than remoteness and forest proximity modulated the human-vector interactions. This was confirmed by the results of the multivariate-adjusted analysis, showing that forest work was a significant risk factor for malaria infection, further increased by staying in the forest overnight (OR= 2.86; 95%CI [1.62; 5.07]). Rag Lays had a higher risk of malaria infection, which inversely related to education level and socio-economic status. Women were less at risk than men (OR = 0.71; 95%CI [0.59; 0.86]), a possible consequence of different behaviour. This study confirms that malaria endemicity is still relatively high in this area and that the dynamics of transmission is constantly modulated by the behaviour of both humans and vectors. A well-targeted intervention reducing the "vector/forest worker" interaction, based on long-lasting insecticidal material, could be appropriate in this environment.

  6. Epidemiology of forest malaria in central Vietnam: a large scale cross-sectional survey

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    Hung Le

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Vietnam, a large proportion of all malaria cases and deaths occurs in the central mountainous and forested part of the country. Indeed, forest malaria, despite intensive control activities, is still a major problem which raises several questions about its dynamics. A large-scale malaria morbidity survey to measure malaria endemicity and identify important risk factors was carried out in 43 villages situated in a forested area of Ninh Thuan province, south central Vietnam. Four thousand three hundred and six randomly selected individuals, aged 10–60 years, participated in the survey. Rag Lays (86%, traditionally living in the forest and practising "slash and burn" cultivation represented the most common ethnic group. The overall parasite rate was 13.3% (range [0–42.3] while Plasmodium falciparum seroprevalence was 25.5% (range [2.1–75.6]. Mapping of these two variables showed a patchy distribution, suggesting that risk factors other than remoteness and forest proximity modulated the human-vector interactions. This was confirmed by the results of the multivariate-adjusted analysis, showing that forest work was a significant risk factor for malaria infection, further increased by staying in the forest overnight (OR= 2.86; 95%CI [1.62; 5.07]. Rag Lays had a higher risk of malaria infection, which inversely related to education level and socio-economic status. Women were less at risk than men (OR = 0.71; 95%CI [0.59; 0.86], a possible consequence of different behaviour. This study confirms that malaria endemicity is still relatively high in this area and that the dynamics of transmission is constantly modulated by the behaviour of both humans and vectors. A well-targeted intervention reducing the "vector/forest worker" interaction, based on long-lasting insecticidal material, could be appropriate in this environment.

  7. Morphodynamics of seasonally closed coastal inlets at the central coast of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, T.T.

    2011-01-01

    Situated in a monsoon-prone humid tropical region, Vietnam is affected by both oceanic and continental climates causing disasters to the country like riverine flooding and storm induced damage. The coastal districts of Vietnam have a population of about 18 million habitants, account for nearly one fourth of the total population of the country and locate about 50% of the major towns and cities of Vietnam. Most of the people currently living in the coastal zone have their livelihood mainly rely...

  8. Adult survivorship of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti varies seasonally in central Vietnam.

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    Leon E Hugo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The survival characteristics of the mosquito Aedes aegypti affect transmission rates of dengue because transmission requires infected mosquitoes to survive long enough for the virus to infect the salivary glands. Mosquito survival is assumed to be high in tropical, dengue endemic, countries like Vietnam. However, the survival rates of wild populations of mosquitoes are seldom measured due the difficulty of predicting mosquito age. Hon Mieu Island in central Vietnam is the site of a pilot release of Ae. aegypti infected with a strain of Wolbachia pipientis bacteria (wMelPop that induces virus interference and mosquito life-shortening. We used the most accurate mosquito age grading approach, transcriptional profiling, to establish the survival patterns of the mosquito population from the population age structure. Furthermore, estimations were validated on mosquitoes released into a large semi-field environment consisting of an enclosed house, garden and yard to incorporate natural environmental variability. Mosquito survival was highest during the dry/cool (January-April and dry/hot (May-August seasons, when 92 and 64% of Hon Mieu mosquitoes had survived to an age that they were able to transmit dengue (12 d, respectively. This was reduced to 29% during the wet/cool season from September to December. The presence of Ae. aegypti older than 12 d during each season is likely to facilitate the observed continuity of dengue transmission in the region. We provide season specific Ae. aegypti survival models for improved dengue epidemiology and evaluation of mosquito control strategies that aim to reduce mosquito survival to break the dengue transmission cycle.

  9. Morphodynamics of seasonally closed coastal inlets at the central coast of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, T.T.

    2011-01-01

    Situated in a monsoon-prone humid tropical region, Vietnam is affected by both oceanic and continental climates causing disasters to the country like riverine flooding and storm induced damage. The coastal districts of Vietnam have a population of about 18 million habitants, account for nearly one f

  10. Nont-timber forest products collection and use by rural households living near Phong Dien Nature Reserve, central Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Vaňousková, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    Non-timber forest products represent important source of subsistence for households living in rural areas, particularly near the forests. These products have many possibilities of use, such as food, construction material, medicine, or, as a source of additional income. Bachelor thesis documents results of research focused on collection and utilization of non-timber forest products in four villages in Phong My commune, Thua Thien Hue province, central Vietnam. The aim of the thesis was to (i) ...

  11. Living with typhoon and flood disasters : a case study in Huong Phong commune, Tam Giang lagoon area, central Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thanh Duc; Tanaka, Ueru; Kobayashi, Hirohide

    2012-01-01

    Central Vietnam frequently suffers from typhoons and floods. Disaster preparedness for local residents is one of the major focuses of efforts to mitigate natural disasters. In Huong Phong commune, located beside the Tam Giang lagoon in Huong Tra district, Thua Thien Hue province, a research team focused on three specific objectives: 1) evaluating the impacts of typhoons and flooding on local residents over the past 25 years, 2) describing the activities of local authorities in responding to n...

  12. Climate Change Impacts on Runoff Regimes at a River Basin Scale in Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Hoai Nam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming has resulted in significant variability of global climate especially with regard to variation in temperature and precipitation. As a result, it is expected that river flow regimes will be accordingly varied. This study presents a preliminary projection of medium-term and long-term runoff variation caused by climate change at a river basin scale. The large scale precipitation projection at the middle and the end of the 21st century under the A1B scenario simulated by the CGCM model (MRI & JMA, 300 km resolution is statistically downscaled to a basin scale and then used as input for the super-tank model for runoff analysis at the upper Thu Bon River basin in Central Vietnam. Results show that by the middle and the end of this century annual rainfall will increase slightly; together with a rising temperature, potential evapotranspiration is also projected to increase as well. The total annual runoff, as a result, is found to be not distinctly varied relative to the baseline period 1981 - 2000; however, the runoff will decrease in the dry season and increase in the rainy season. The results also indicate the delay tendency of the high river flow period, shifting from Sep-Dec at present to Oct-Jan in the future. The present study demonstrates potential impacts of climate change on streamflow regimes in attempts to propose appropriate adaptation measures and responses at the river basin scales.

  13. Flood risk assessment and coping capacity with floods in central Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Thanh Tu; Ranzi, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    Some elements of the integrated risk assessment framework developed within the European KULTURISK project (www.kulturisk.eu), named KIRAF (Kulturisk Integrated Risk Assessment Framework-KIRAF is applied for flood risk assessment in a flood prone area of Quang Ngai province, central Vietnam. Since the socio-economic condition is developing and living standards are increasing, to help decision-makers in examining the possible risks and damages associated with uncertain future flood hazards and identifying the most appropriate structural and non-structural risk prevention measures, it is necessary to apply appropriate risk assessment methodologies. Starting from flood hazard maps estimated for different return periods in terms of depth, duration or velocity using a 2D hydrodynamic model, for vulnerability assessment and exposure estimation, direct tangible and intangible, indirect tangible and intangible costs are estimated, based on over 380 responses of local people to 39 questions in a questionnaire directly related to flood risk and preparedness. In this way cost functions for some, at least, of these four damage classes can be fitted to local conditions. Field surveys and technical reports were used for a better understanding of the questionnaire responses. In this way social and behavioral aspects influencing adaptive capacity, coping capacity and susceptibility to the physical hazard can be made more explicit for the successive Socio-Economic Regional Risk Assessment (SERRA) methodology proposed in KULTURISK.

  14. Elimination of dengue by community programs using Mesocyclops(Copepoda) against Aedes aegypti in central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Sinh Nam; Nguyen, Thi Yen; Tran, Vu Phong; Truong, Uyen Ninh; Le, Quyen Mai; Le, Viet Lo; Le, Trung Nghia; Bektas, Ahmet; Briscombe, Alistair; Aaskov, John G; Ryan, Peter A; Kay, Brian H

    2005-01-01

    From September 2000 to June 2003, a community-based program for dengue control using local predacious copepods of the genus Mesocyclops was conducted in three rural communes in the central Vietnam provinces of Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, and Khanh Hoa. Post-project, three subsequent entomologic surveys were conducted until March 2004. The number of households and residents in the communes were 5,913 and 27,167, respectively, and dengue notification rates for these communes from 1996 were as high as 2,418.5 per 100,000 persons. Following knowledge, attitude, and practice evaluations, surveys of water storage containers indicated that Mesocyclops spp. already occurred in 3-17% and that large tanks up to 2,000 liters, 130-300-liter jars, wells, and some 220-liter metal drums were the most productive habitats for Aedes aegypti. With technical support, the programs were driven by communal management committees, health collaborators, schoolteachers, and pupils. From quantitative estimates of the standing crop of third and fourth instars from 100 households, Ae. aegypti were reduced by approximately 90% by year 1, 92.3-98.6% by year 2, and Ae. aegypti immature forms had been eliminated from two of three communes by June 2003. Similarly, from resting adult collections from 100 households, densities were reduced to 0-1 per commune. By March 2004, two communes with no larvae had small numbers but the third was negative; one adult was collected in each of two communes while one became negative. Absolute estimates of third and fourth instars at the three intervention communes and one left untreated had significant correlations (P = 0.009-dengue disease in the treated communes was reduced by 76.7% compared with non-intervention communes within the same districts, and no dengue was evident in 2002 and 2003, compared with 112.8 and 14.4 cases per 100,000 at district level. Since we had similar success in northern Vietnam from 1998 to 2000, this study demonstrates that this control

  15. Elimination of dengue by community programs using Mesocyclops(Copepoda) against Aedes aegypti in central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Sinh Nam; Nguyen, Thi Yen; Tran, Vu Phong; Truong, Uyen Ninh; Le, Quyen Mai; Le, Viet Lo; Le, Trung Nghia; Bektas, Ahmet; Briscombe, Alistair; Aaskov, John G; Ryan, Peter A; Kay, Brian H

    2005-01-01

    From September 2000 to June 2003, a community-based program for dengue control using local predacious copepods of the genus Mesocyclops was conducted in three rural communes in the central Vietnam provinces of Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, and Khanh Hoa. Post-project, three subsequent entomologic surveys were conducted until March 2004. The number of households and residents in the communes were 5,913 and 27,167, respectively, and dengue notification rates for these communes from 1996 were as high as 2,418.5 per 100,000 persons. Following knowledge, attitude, and practice evaluations, surveys of water storage containers indicated that Mesocyclops spp. already occurred in 3-17% and that large tanks up to 2,000 liters, 130-300-liter jars, wells, and some 220-liter metal drums were the most productive habitats for Aedes aegypti. With technical support, the programs were driven by communal management committees, health collaborators, schoolteachers, and pupils. From quantitative estimates of the standing crop of third and fourth instars from 100 households, Ae. aegypti were reduced by approximately 90% by year 1, 92.3-98.6% by year 2, and Ae. aegypti immature forms had been eliminated from two of three communes by June 2003. Similarly, from resting adult collections from 100 households, densities were reduced to 0-1 per commune. By March 2004, two communes with no larvae had small numbers but the third was negative; one adult was collected in each of two communes while one became negative. Absolute estimates of third and fourth instars at the three intervention communes and one left untreated had significant correlations (P = 0.009-< 0.001) with numbers of adults aspirated from inside houses on each of 15 survey periods. By year 1, the incidence of dengue disease in the treated communes was reduced by 76.7% compared with non-intervention communes within the same districts, and no dengue was evident in 2002 and 2003, compared with 112.8 and 14.4 cases per 100,000 at district

  16. Modeling the Projected Changes of River Flow in Central Vietnam under Different Climate Change Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan B. Le

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC indicate that Vietnam is one of the countries most affected by climate change. The variability of climate in this region, characterized by large fluctuations in precipitation and temperature, has caused significant changes in surface water resources. This study aims to project the impact of climate change on the seasonal availability of surface water of the Huong River in Central Vietnam in the twenty-first century through hydrologic simulations driven by climate model projections. To calibrate and validate the hydrologic model, the model was forced by the rain gage-based gridded Asian Precipitation–Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of water resources (APHRODITE V1003R1 Monsoon Asia precipitation data along with observed temperature, humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation data from local weather stations. The simulated discharge was compared to observations for the period from 1951 until present. Three Global Climate Models (GCMs ECHAM5-OM, HadCM3 and GFDL-CM2.1 integrated into Long Ashton Research Station-Weather Generator (LARS-WG stochastic weather generator were run for three IPCC–Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (IPCC-SRES emissions scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 to simulate future climate conditions. The hydrologic model simulated the Huong River discharge for each IPCC-SRES scenario. Simulation results under the three GCMs generally indicate an increase in summer and fall river discharge during the twenty-first century in A2 and B1 scenarios. For A1B scenario, HadCM3 and GFDL-CM2.1 models project a decrease in river discharge from present to the 2051–2080 period and then increase until the 2071–2100 period while ECHAM5-OM model produces opposite projection that discharge will increase until the 2051–2080 period and then decrease for the rest of the century. Water management

  17. Coastal evolution between two giant rivers: The Chan May embayment in central Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouramanis, C.; Switzer, A.; Bristow, C.; Pham, D. T.; Mauz, B.; Pile, J.; Doan, L. D.; Hoang, Q. D.; Ngo, C. K.; Dao, N.; Polivka, P.; Soria, L.; Lee, Y.; Sloss, C.; Hoang, L. V.

    2015-12-01

    The coastal landscapes of Vietnam are dominated in the north and south by the very large Red and Mekong rivers. Central Vietnam, in contrast, has few large rivers that flow to the coastal zone. This coupled with the high relief (>1500 m) of the granitic Truong Son Range and shallow gradient continental shelf, has produced two different coastal geomorphologies. The first is a shallow basin infilled with a sequence of parallel, arcuate beach ridges, and the second includes the development of shore-parallel spits and coastal lagoons. All systems are Holocene in age and we present evidence of the Holocene evolution of the northward-facing, beach ridge strandplain located in the Chan May embayment, approximately 35 km north of Danang. This embayment is relatively small (5 km long at the beach and with a beach ridge sequence that spans 11 km from the modern beach to the base of the Truong Son Range) compared to other beach ridge strandplains to the north and south and serves as an analogue for the evolution of these larger systems. The Holocene evolution of the embayment was resolved using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), high-resolution sedimentological analysis and quartz Optically Stimulated Luminescence were used to investigate the internal stratigraphy and chronological development of the beach ridges at Chan May. The strandplain contains uniform, clean quartz-rich sediment interspersed by thin heavy mineral rich bands forming shallow-gradient beach ridges that have steadily prograded seaward during the regression after the mid-Holocene sea level highstand. As the beach ridges prograded seaward, a small river feeding directly from the Truong Son Range meandered across the strandplain and significantly modified the embayment. Recently, the river has become much reduced due to anthropogenic modification of the river and landscape. Prior to the Holocene marine highstand, the area was similarly characterized by a surface of prograding beach ridges that were eroded by

  18. Homalium glandulosum (Salicaceae), a new species from Vu Quang National Park, North Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagane, Shuichiro; Nguyen, Viet Hung; Ngoc, Nguyen Van; Son, Hoang Thanh; Toyama, Hironori; Yang, Chen-Jui; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    Homalium glandulosum Tagane & V. H. Nguyen, from Vu Quang National Park in northern Vietnam, is newly described. This species is characterized by distinct glands, often stalked, at the base of the lamina and along the margin of the stipules and bracteoles. Illustrations, DNA barcodes of the two regions of rbcL and matK, and a key to the species of Homalium in Vietnam are also provided.

  19. Ecological factors associated with dengue fever in a central highlands Province, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Phan Thao TT; Doan Huong TM; Pham Hau V; Tran Minh Nguyen N

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Dengue is a leading cause of severe illness and hospitalization in Vietnam. This study sought to elucidate the linkage between climate factors, mosquito indices and dengue incidence. Methods Monthly data on dengue cases and mosquito larval indices were ascertained between 2004 and 2008 in the Dak Lak province (Vietnam). Temperature, sunshine, rainfall and humidity were also recorded as monthly averages. The association between these ecological factors and dengue was assess...

  20. Willing, but Unable: Determinants of Participation Rates for TrainingWorkshops in Central Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Gockel, Ryan P.; Cullen, Alison C.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the determinants affecting individuals’ previous participation in training workshops in rural Vietnam. This is the firststudy to examine training program participation ratesin a rural Asian context. According to a survey conducted in Ha Tinh Province, Vietnam in 2008, more than 90 per cent of individuals expressed an interest in participating in a job-training program, yet only 41 per cent participated the previous year. This disconnect presents a serious challenge to in...

  1. Willing, but Unable: Determinants of Participation Rates for Training Workshops in Central Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Gockel, Ryan P.; Cullen, Alison C.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the determinants affecting individuals’ previous participation in training workshops in rural Vietnam. This is the first study to examine training program participation rates in a rural Asian context. According to a survey conducted in Ha Tinh Province, Vietnam in 2008, more than 90 per cent of individuals expressed an interest in participating in a job-training program, yet only 41 per cent participated the previous year. This disconnect presents a serious challenge to ...

  2. Impact of climate change and sea level rise on a coastal aquifer, Central Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyen, Ine; Batelaan, Okke; Thanh Tam, Vu

    2014-05-01

    The Gio Linh district in the Quang Tri province, Central Vietnam has, like many other coastal areas in the world, to deal with negative impacts of Global Climate Change (GCC) and sea level rise (SLR). This research aims at investigating the impact of GCC/SLR and designing an adaptive water use plan till the year 2030 for the 150,000 local residents of the Gio Linh district and the city of Dong Ha. The coastal plain covers an area of about 450 km2 between the rivers Ben Hai in the North and Thach Han in the South. The area has a tropical monsoon climate which is characterized by an average precipitation of 1500 to 2700 mm in nearly 180 days from August to April. GCC/SLR scenarios are built and assessed for estimating the changes in hydrometeorological conditions of the study area. Depending on the level of gas emission the sea level is expected to rise 7-9 cm by 2020 and around 11-14 cm by 2030 for low to high gas emission respectively. The salt-freshwater interface is expected to experience an inland shift due to SLR, affecting the amount of exploitable groundwater for drinking and irrigation water production. Water production mainly comes from shallow aquifers in unconsolidated Quarternary coastal formations. These geological formations have a highly heterogeneous lithology. A 3D groundwater model is built to study possible seawater intrusion under the changing conditions. Data from meteorological stations over a period of about 30 years and some data from 63 boreholes in and around the Gio Linh district are available. Geophysical measurements have been carried out recently and in the past and are used to support the model.

  3. Undiagnosed cryptic diversity in small, microendemic frogs (Leptolalax from the Central Highlands of Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi J L Rowley

    Full Text Available A major obstacle in prioritizing species or habitats for conservation is the degree of unrecognized diversity hidden within complexes of morphologically similar, "cryptic" species. Given that amphibians are one of the most threatened groups of organisms on the planet, our inability to diagnose their true diversity is likely to have significant conservation consequences. This is particularly true in areas undergoing rapid deforestation, such as Southeast Asia. The Southeast Asian genus Leptolalax is a group of small-bodied, morphologically conserved frogs that inhabit the forest-floor. We examined a particularly small-bodied and morphologically conserved subset, the Leptolalax applebyi group, using a combination of molecular, morphometric, and acoustic data to identify previously unknown diversity within. In order to predict the geographic distribution of the group, estimate the effects of habitat loss and assess the degree of habitat protection, we used our locality data to perform ecological niche modelling using MaxEnt. Molecular (mtDNA and nuDNA, acoustic and subtle morphometric differences revealed a significant underestimation of diversity in the L. applebyi group; at least two-thirds of the diversity may be unrecognised. Patterns of diversification and microendemism in the group appear driven by limited dispersal, likely due to their small body size, with several lineages restricted to watershed basins. The L. applebyi group is predicted to have historically occurred over a large area of the Central Highlands of Vietnam, a considerable portion of which has already been deforested. Less than a quarter of the remaining forest predicted to be suitable for the group falls within current protected areas. The predicted distribution of the L. applebyi group extends into unsurveyed watershed basins, each potentially containing unsampled diversity, some of which may have already been lost due to deforestation. Current estimates of amphibian

  4. Undiagnosed cryptic diversity in small, microendemic frogs (Leptolalax) from the Central Highlands of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Tran, Dao T A; Frankham, Greta J; Dekker, Anthony H; Le, Duong T T; Nguyen, Truong Q; Dau, Vinh Q; Hoang, Huy D

    2015-01-01

    A major obstacle in prioritizing species or habitats for conservation is the degree of unrecognized diversity hidden within complexes of morphologically similar, "cryptic" species. Given that amphibians are one of the most threatened groups of organisms on the planet, our inability to diagnose their true diversity is likely to have significant conservation consequences. This is particularly true in areas undergoing rapid deforestation, such as Southeast Asia. The Southeast Asian genus Leptolalax is a group of small-bodied, morphologically conserved frogs that inhabit the forest-floor. We examined a particularly small-bodied and morphologically conserved subset, the Leptolalax applebyi group, using a combination of molecular, morphometric, and acoustic data to identify previously unknown diversity within. In order to predict the geographic distribution of the group, estimate the effects of habitat loss and assess the degree of habitat protection, we used our locality data to perform ecological niche modelling using MaxEnt. Molecular (mtDNA and nuDNA), acoustic and subtle morphometric differences revealed a significant underestimation of diversity in the L. applebyi group; at least two-thirds of the diversity may be unrecognised. Patterns of diversification and microendemism in the group appear driven by limited dispersal, likely due to their small body size, with several lineages restricted to watershed basins. The L. applebyi group is predicted to have historically occurred over a large area of the Central Highlands of Vietnam, a considerable portion of which has already been deforested. Less than a quarter of the remaining forest predicted to be suitable for the group falls within current protected areas. The predicted distribution of the L. applebyi group extends into unsurveyed watershed basins, each potentially containing unsampled diversity, some of which may have already been lost due to deforestation. Current estimates of amphibian diversity based on

  5. On the frontiers of climate and environmental change. Vulnerabilities and adaptions in central Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun, Ole; Casse, Thorkil (eds.) [Roskilde Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Society and Globalization

    2013-06-01

    Based on new research in Central Vietnam with inputs from a range of disciplines. Suggests a broader, interdisciplinary approach to climate change adaptation and environmental planning. Advises steps on how to formulate a research framework for analyses of social and economic impacts of climate changes, using both quantitative and qualitative techniques. Concludes that climate change adaptation will not be successful unless integrated with environmental planning takes into account local man-made environmental changes, such as hydropower construction and changing forestry and land-use patterns. This book is intended to fill a gap in climate-change literature by providing a comprehensive regional study and identifying the overall adaptation challenges in a real-life context. The way in which possible climate impacts interact with a range of other challenges in agriculture, forestry, disaster planning, health care, general economic development, and common livelihoods are presented, and it is argued that greater realism and broader vision are needed in order to address the climate challenge. For instance, unsuitable land- use changes in both coastal and highland regions may increase the vulnerability of rural people, many of whom are already living on the fringes. The author(s) also state(s) that, depending on context, it may be pertinent to address short-term and unsustainable resource use, irregularities in local land management, ineffective governance and social inequality, which are all likely to aggravate the impact of external climate and weather. Not least, it is imperative to integrate general environmental management with any climate-change adaptation effort.

  6. The effect of participatory community communication on HIV preventive behaviors among ethnic minority youth in central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Huy V

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Vietnam, socially marginalized groups such as ethnic minorities in mountainous areas are often difficult to engage in HIV research and prevention programs. This intervention study aimed to estimate the effect of participatory community communication (PCC on changing HIV preventive ideation and behavior among ethnic minority youth in a rural district from central Vietnam. Methods In a cross-sectional survey after the PCC intervention, using a structured questionnaire, 800 ethnic minority youth were approached for face-to-face interviews. Propensity score matching (PSM technique was then utilized to match these participants into two groups-intervention and control-for estimating the effect of the PCC. Results HIV preventive knowledge and ideation tended to increase as the level of recall changed accordingly. The campaign had a significant indirect effect on condom use through its effect on ideation or perceptions. When intervention and control group statistically equivalently reached in terms of individual and social characteristics by PSM, proportions of displaying HIV preventive knowledge, ideation and condom use were significantly higher in intervention group than in matched control counterparts, accounting for net differences of 7.4%, 12.7% and 5%, respectively, and can be translated into the number of 210; 361 and 142 ethnic minority youth in the population. Conclusions The study informs public health implications both theoretically and practically to guide effective HIV control programs for marginalized communities in resources-constrained settings like rural Vietnam and similar contexts of developing countries.

  7. The cost of antiretroviral treatment service for patients with HIV/AIDS in a central outpatient clinic in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen LT

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Long Thanh Nguyen,1 Bach Xuan Tran,2 Cuong Tuan Tran,1 Huong Thi Le,1 Son Van Tran1 1Authority of HIV/AIDS Control, Ministry of Health, Hanoi, Vietnam; 2Institute for Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam Introduction: Antiretroviral treatment (ART services are estimated to account for 30% of the total resources needed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS control and prevention in Vietnam during the 2011–2020 timeframe. With international funding decreasing, determining the total cost of HIV/AIDS treatment is necessary in order to develop a master plan for the transition of ART services delivery and management. We analyzed the costs of HIV/AIDS treatment paid by both HIV programs and patients in a central outpatient clinic, and we explored factors associated with the capacity of patients to pay for this service. Methods: Patients (n=315 receiving ART in the Department of Infectious Diseases at Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam, were interviewed. Patient records and expenses were reviewed. Results: The total cost of ART per patient was US$611 (75% from health care providers, 25% from patients or their families. The cost of a second-line regimen was found to be 2.7 times higher than the first-line regimen cost. Most outpatients (73.3% were able to completely pay for all of their ART expenses. Capacity to pay for ART was influenced by five factors, including marital status, distance from house to clinic, patient's monthly income, household economic condition, and health insurance status. Most of the patients (84.8% would have been willing to pay for health insurance if a copayment scheme for ART were to be introduced. Conclusion: This study provides evidence on payment capacity of HIV/AIDS patients in Vietnam and supplies information on ART costs from both provider and patient perspectives. In particular, results from this study suggest that earlier access to ART

  8. Agricultural land for urban development : The process of land conversion in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuc, Nguyen Quang; Westen, A. C M van; Zoomers, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, Vietnam's progressive integration into the global market economy has triggered major economic and social transformations. In spatial terms, these are marked by a massive conversion of agricultural land for industrial and urban development. While this process has attracted considerab

  9. Evaluation of local protein resources for growing pigs in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Thi Hoa Ly, Ly

    2012-01-01

     The general objectives of the work presented here were to evaluate processing methods for the preservations of cassava leaves (CL) and sweet potato vines (SPV) for later feeding during feed shortages in Vietnam. In addition, the nutritional value (including hydrogen cyanide (HCN) contents) of

  10. Long-Lasting Insecticidal Hammocks for controlling forest malaria: a community-based trial in a rural area of central Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Duc Thang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, malaria remains a problem in some remote areas located along its international borders and in the central highlands, partly due to the bionomics of the local vector, mainly found in forested areas and less vulnerable to standard control measures. Long Lasting Insecticidal Hammocks (LLIH, a tailored and user-friendly tool for forest workers, may further contribute in reducing the malaria burden. Their effectiveness was tested in a large community-based intervention trial carried out in Ninh Thuan province in Central Vietnam. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Thirty villages (population 18,646 were assembled in 20 clusters (1,000 individuals per cluster that were randomly allocated to either the intervention or control group (no LLIH after stratification according to the pre-intervention P. falciparum antibody prevalence ( or =30%. LLIH were distributed to the intervention group in December 2004. For the following 2 years, the incidence of clinical malaria and the prevalence of infection were determined by passive case detection at community level and by bi-annual malariometric surveys. A 2-fold larger effect on malaria incidence in the intervention as compared to the control group was observed. Similarly, malaria prevalence decreased more substantially in the intervention (1.6-fold greater reduction than in the control group. Both for incidence and prevalence, a stronger and earlier effect of the intervention was observed in the high endemicity stratum. The number of malaria cases and infections averted by the intervention overall was estimated at 10.5 per 1,000 persons and 5.6/100 individuals, respectively, for the last half of 2006. In the high endemicity stratum, the impact was much higher, i.e. 29/1000 malaria cases and 15.7 infections/100 individuals averted. CONCLUSIONS: LLIH reduced malaria incidence and prevalence in this remote and forested area of Central Vietnam. As the targets of the newly-launched Global Malaria Action

  11. Detection of Grass Carp Hemorrhage Virus (GCHV) from Vietnam and Comparison with GCHV Strain from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Grass carp plays an important role in small-scale aquaculture in Vietnam. However, a severe disease, known in Vietnam as "Red Spot Disease", is causing significant economic loss in grass carp aquaculture. In this study, the tissue samples isolated from the grass carp with Red Spot Disease in Vietnam are investigated and comparied with the control GCHV isolated in China by experimental infection, culture cell infection, serological cross reactivity, and RT-PCR amplification. Infected grass carp exhibits hemorrhage symptoms about 5 days after experimental injection with GCHV-V (Vietnam) strain. The symptoms and lethality induced by the GCHV-V strain are identical to that induced by the Chinese GCHV-9014 strain. The Chinese GCHV-873 strain induces typical cytopathogenic effects in 4 cell lines, such as CIK, CAB, FHM and GCO, from the 6 fish cell lines examined. No cytopathogenic effects are observed in all the 6 examined cell lines, including CAB, FHM, CIK, EPC, CCO and GCO, infected by the GCHV-V strain and GCHV-9014 strain. Immunodiffusion assays demonstrate an obvious cross-reactivity among three GCHV strains. Precipitin lines are clearly observed not only between the anti-GCHV-873 serum and the two strains GCHV-873 and GCHV-9014, but also between the anti-GCHV-873 serum and the GCHV-V strain. GCHV can be detected by immunodiffusion assays after three generations of blind propagations in the cell lines inoculated by GCHV-V strain. This implicates that GCHV-V viruses have been replicated and amplified despite there being no cytopathogenic effects observed in these examined cell lines. Three genome segments of GCHV, including S8, S9 and S10, are amplified by three sets of PCR primers designed according to the segment sequences published recently. The Q8fp and Q8rp primer set specific for genome segment S8 amplifies a 955 bp fragment from the extracted sample of diseased fish with Red Spot Disease, and the fragment size is identical to that amplified by the same

  12. Agent Orange Footprint Still Visible in Rural Areas of Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Banout

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of polychlorinated dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDF in selected environmental samples (soils, sediments, fish, and farm animals were analyzed from the area of Phong My commune (Thua Thien-Hue province, Vietnam. This area was affected by Agent Orange spraying during the Vietnam war (1968–1971. Whereas PCDD/PCDF content in soil and sediment samples is relatively low and ranges between 0.05 and 5.1 pg WHO-TEQ/g for soils and between 0.7 and 6.4 pg WHO-TEQ/g for sediments, the PCDD/PCDF content in poultry muscle and liver in most cases exceeded the maximum permissible limit of dioxin content per unit fat mass. In some cases of soil and sediments samples, 2,3,7,8-TCDD represented more than 90% of the total PCDD/PCDF, which indicates Agent Orange as the main source.

  13. Ecological factors associated with dengue fever in a central highlands Province, Vietnam

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    Phan Thao TT

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue is a leading cause of severe illness and hospitalization in Vietnam. This study sought to elucidate the linkage between climate factors, mosquito indices and dengue incidence. Methods Monthly data on dengue cases and mosquito larval indices were ascertained between 2004 and 2008 in the Dak Lak province (Vietnam. Temperature, sunshine, rainfall and humidity were also recorded as monthly averages. The association between these ecological factors and dengue was assessed by the Poisson regression model with adjustment for seasonality. Results During the study period, 3,502 cases of dengue fever were reported. Approximately 72% of cases were reported from July to October. After adjusting for seasonality, the incidence of dengue fever was significantly associated with the following factors: higher household index (risk ratio [RR]: 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.62-1.70 per 5% increase, higher container index (RR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.73-1.83 per 5% increase, and higher Breteau index (RR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.53-1.60 per 5 unit increase. The risk of dengue was also associated with elevated temperature (RR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.25-1.55 per 2°C increase, higher humidity (RR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.51-1.67 per 5% increase, and higher rainfall (RR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.21-1.74 per 50 mm increase. The risk of dengue was inversely associated with duration of sunshine, the number of dengue cases being lower as the sunshine increases (RR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.73-0.79 per 50 hours increase. Conclusions These data suggest that indices of mosquito and climate factors are main determinants of dengue fever in Vietnam. This finding suggests that the global climate change will likely increase the burden of dengue fever infection in Vietnam, and that intensified surveillance and control of mosquito during high temperature and rainfall seasons may be an important strategy for containing the burden of dengue fever.

  14. Pathways to malaria persistence in remote central Vietnam: a mixed-method study of health care and the community

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    Doan Nhan H

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in underlying socio-cultural, economic, environmental and health-system influences on the persistence of malaria. Vietnam is a Mekong regional 'success story' after dramatic declines in malaria incidence following introduction of a national control program providing free bed-nets, diagnosis and treatment. Malaria has largely retreated to pockets near international borders in central Vietnam, where it remains a burden particularly among impoverished ethnic minorities. In these areas commune and village health workers are lynchpins of the program. This study in the central province of Quang Tri aimed to contribute to more effective malaria control in Vietnam by documenting the non-biological pathways to malaria persistence in two districts. Methods Multiple and mixed (qualitative and quantitative methods were used. The formative stage comprised community meetings, observation of bed-net use, and focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews with health managers, providers and community. Formative results were used to guide development of tools for the assessment stage, which included a provider quiz, structured surveys with 160 community members and 16 village health workers, and quality check of microscopy facilities and health records at district and commune levels. Descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis were used for quantitative data. Results The study's key findings were the inadequacy of bed-nets (only 45% of households were fully covered and sub-optimal diagnosis and treatment at local levels. Bed-net insufficiencies were exacerbated by customary sleeping patterns and population mobility. While care at district level seemed good, about a third of patients reportedly self-discharged early and many were lost to follow-up. Commune and village data suggested that approximately half of febrile patients were treated presumptively, and 10 village health workers did not carry

  15. Good governance and tourism development in protected areas: The case of Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park, central Vietnam

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    Anna Hübner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas are increasingly expected to serve as a natural income-producing resource via the exploitation of recreational and touristic activities. Whilst tourism is often considered a viable option for generating income which benefits the conservation of a protected area, there are many cases in which insufficient and opaque planning hinder sustainable development, thereby reducing local benefit sharing and, ultimately, nature conservation. This article delineated and examined factors in governance which may underlie tourism development in protected areas. Based on Graham, Amos and Plumptre’s five good governance principles, a specific analysis was made of the Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park in central Vietnam, which highlighted challenges in the practical implementation of governing principles arising for nature conservation, sustainable tourism development and complex stakeholder environments. Despite the limited opportunity of this study to examine the wider national and international context, the discussion facilitated an overview of the factors necessary to understand governance principles and tourism development. This article could serve as a basis for future research, especially with respect to comparative analyses of different management structures existing in Vietnam and in other contested centrally steered protected area spaces. Conservation implications: This research has shown that tourism and its development, despite a more market-oriented and decentralised policymaking, is a fragmented concept impacted by bureaucratic burden, lack of institutional capacities, top-down processes and little benefit-sharing. There is urgent need for stakeholders – public and private – to reconcile the means of protected areas for the ends (conservation by clarifying responsibilities as well as structures and processes which determine decision-making.

  16. Designing a community engagement framework for a new dengue control method: a case study from central Vietnam.

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    Darlene McNaughton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Wolbachia strategy aims to manipulate mosquito populations to make them incapable of transmitting dengue viruses between people. To test its efficacy, this strategy requires field trials. Public consultation and engagement are recognized as critical to the future success of these programs, but questions remain regarding how to proceed. This paper reports on a case study where social research was used to design a community engagement framework for a new dengue control method, at a potential release site in central Vietnam. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The approach described here, draws on an anthropological methodology and uses both qualitative and quantitative methods to design an engagement framework tailored to the concerns, expectations, and socio-political setting of a potential trial release site for Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The process, research activities, key findings and how these were responded to are described. Safety of the method to humans and the environment was the most common and significant concern, followed by efficacy and impact on local lives. Residents expected to be fully informed and engaged about the science, the project, its safety, the release and who would be responsible should something go wrong. They desired a level of engagement that included regular updates and authorization from government and at least one member of every household at the release site. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results demonstrate that social research can provide important and reliable insights into public concerns and expectations at a potential release site, as well as guidance on how these might be addressed. Findings support the argument that using research to develop more targeted, engagement frameworks can lead to more sensitive, thorough, culturally comprehensible and therefore ethical consultation processes. This approach has now been used successfully to seek public input and eventually support for

  17. Determinants of marginalization and inequitable maternal health care in North–Central Vietnam: a framework analysis

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    Pauline Binder-Finnema

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vietnam has achieved great improvements in maternal healthcare outcomes, but there is evidence of increasing inequity. Disadvantaged groups, predominantly ethnic minorities and people living in remote mountainous areas, do not gain access to maternal health improvements despite targeted efforts from policymakers. Objective: This study identifies underlying structural barriers to equitable maternal health care in Nghe An province, Vietnam. Experiences of social inequity and limited access among child-bearing ethnic and minority women are explored in relation to barriers of care provision experienced by maternal health professionals to gain deeper understanding on health outcomes. Design: In 2012, 11 focus group discussions with women and medical care professionals at local community health centers and district hospitals were conducted using a hermeneutic–dialectic method and analyzed for interpretation using framework analysis. Results: The social determinants ‘limited negotiation power’ and ‘limited autonomy’ orchestrate cyclical effects of shared marginalization for both women and care professionals within the provincial health system’s infrastructure. Under-staffed and poorly equipped community health facilities refer women and create overload at receiving health centers. Limited resources appear diverted away from local community centers as compensation to the district for overloaded facilities. Poor reputation for low care quality exists, and professionals are held in low repute for causing overload and resulting adverse outcomes. Country-wide reforms force women to bear responsibility for limited treatment adherence and health insight, but overlook providers’ limited professional development. Ethnic minority women are hindered by relatives from accessing care choices and costs, despite having advanced insight about government reforms to alleviate poverty. Communication challenges are worsened by non

  18. Mantle xenoliths from Central Vietnam: evidence for at least Meso-Proterozoic formation of the lithospheric mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proßegger, Peter; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Ackerman, Lukáš; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Tran, Tuan Anh

    2016-04-01

    Intraplate Cenozoic basalts that are widely dispersed along the continental margin of East Asia belong to the Western Pacific "diffuse" igneous province. They consist mainly of alkali basalts, basanites,rarely nephelinites, which are mantle xenolith-bearing, potassic rocks and quartz tholeiites. The volcanism in this area has been attributed to the continental extension caused by the collision of India with Asia and by the subduction of the Pacific Ocean below Asia. We studied a suite of 24 mantle xenoliths from La Bang Lake, Dak Doa district and Bien Ho, Pleiku city in the Gia Province, Central Vietnam. They are predominantly spinel lherzolites (19) but spinel harburgites (3) and two garnet pyroxenites are present as well. The sizes of the xenoliths range from 5 to 40 cm in diameter with medium to coarse-grained protogranular textures. Whole rock major and trace element analyses display a wide range of compositions. The MgO concentration varies from 36.0 to 45.8 wt% whereas Al2O3 and CaO range from 0.63 to 4.36 wt% and from 0.52 to 4.21 wt% (with one sample having CaO of 6.63 wt%) respectively. Both CaO and Al2O3 positively correlate with MgO most likely indicating that the sampled rocks were derived from a common mantle source experienced variable degrees of partial melting. Mineral analyses show that the rock forming minerals are chemically homogeneous. The Fo contents of olivine vary between 89.2 and 91.2 and the Mg# of orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene range from 89 to 92 and 89 to 94 respectively. The range of Cr# for spinel is 0.06-0.26. Model calculations in both whole rock and clinopyroxenes show that lithospheric mantle underneath Central Vietnam experienced melt extractions that vary between 2-7, 12-15 and 20-30%. The majority of the primitive mantle-normalized whole rock and clinopyroxene REE patterns are parallel to each other indicating that clinopyroxene is the main repository of the trace elements. Clinopyroxenes are divided into two groups: group A

  19. Economic evaluation of proposed pure and mixed stands in Central Vietnam highlands

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    Lubomir Salek

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In comparison with mixed forest stands, the cultivation of pure plantations in Vietnam entails serious ecological consequences such as loss of biodiversity and higher rate of soil erosion. The economic evaluation is elaborated between pure plantations and mixed forests where the fast-growing tree species are mixed with slow growing tree species which are planted in stripes separating the segments with fast-growing tree species (Acacia sp.. For the evaluation, the input values were used from local costs of goods, services and labour. The results show that the internal rate of return is the highest in the case of pure plantation in comparison with mixed forests – 86% to 77%(first planting pattern: Acacia sp. + noble hardwood species and 54% (second planting pattern: Acacia + Dipterocarpus sp. + Sindora sp.. The average profit per hectare and year is almost five times higher in the case of mixed stands. The first planting pattern reaches 2,650 $, the second planting pattern 2,280 $ and the pure acacia plantation only 460 $. From an economic point of view, the cultivation of mixed forests that corresponds to the principles of sustainable forestry generates a good economical profit while maintaining habitat complexity and biodiversity.

  20. Delayed parasite clearance after treatment with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in Plasmodium falciparum malaria patients in central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thriemer, Kamala; Hong, Nguyen Van; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Phuc, Bui Quang; Ha, Do Manh; Pockele, Evi; Guetens, Pieter; Van, Nguyen Van; Duong, Tran Thanh; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Erhart, Annette

    2014-12-01

    Reduced susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum toward artemisinin derivatives has been reported from the Thai-Cambodian and Thai-Myanmar borders. Following increasing reports from central Vietnam of delayed parasite clearance after treatment with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ), the current first-line treatment, we carried out a study on the efficacy of this treatment. Between September 2012 and February 2013, we conducted a 42-day in vivo and in vitro efficacy study in Quang Nam Province. Treatment was directly observed, and blood samples were collected twice daily until parasite clearance. In addition, genotyping, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and in vitro sensitivity testing of isolates was performed. The primary endpoints were parasite clearance rate and time. The secondary endpoints included PCR-corrected and uncorrected cure rates, qPCR clearance profiles, in vitro sensitivity results (for chloroquine, dihydroartemisinin, and piperaquine), and genotyping for mutations in the Kelch 13 propeller domain. Out of 672 screened patients, 95 were recruited and 89 available for primary endpoint analyses. The median parasite clearance time (PCT) was 61.7 h (interquartile range [IQR], 47.6 to 83.2 h), and the median parasite clearance rate had a slope half-life of 6.2 h (IQR, 4.4 to 7.5 h). The PCR-corrected efficacy rates were estimated at 100% at day 28 and 97.7% (95% confidence interval, 91.2% to 99.4%) at day 42. At day 3, the P. falciparum prevalence by qPCR was 2.5 times higher than that by microscopy. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of isolates with delayed clearance times (≥ 72 h) were significantly higher than those with normal clearance times for all three drugs. Delayed parasite clearance (PCT, ≥ 72 h) was significantly higher among day 0 samples carrying the 543 mutant allele (47.8%) than those carrying the wild-type allele (1.8%; P = 0.048). In central Vietnam, the efficacy of DHA-PPQ is still satisfactory, but the parasite clearance time

  1. Neochrysocharis okazakii (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as a Major Parasitoid Wasp of Stone Leek Leaf Miner Liriomyza chinensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Central Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Takatoshi Ueno; Dang Hoa Tran

    2015-01-01

    Liriomyza chinensis is a major pest of Welsh onion Allium fistulosum in Asia but little is known about the abundance of its natural enemies. A field survey was made to explore the major parasitoids of L. chinensis leaf miner in central Vietnam. An eulophid parasitoid, Neochrysocharis okazakii, comprised more than 95% of parasitoids reared from leaf miner larvae collected in the onion field and 98.3% of leaf miner parasitoids found during searches of onion plants. The mean number of female N. ...

  2. Threshold Effect of Capital Structure on Firm Value: Evidence from Seafood Processing Enterprises in the South Central Region of Vietnam

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    Nguyen Thanh Cuong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether there is an optimal capital structure at which point firm is able to maximize its value. An advanced panel threshold regression model is applied to test the panel threshold effect of capital structure on firm value among 90 unlisted Seafood Processing Enterprises in the South Central region of Vietnam (SEASCRs during 2005–2011 period. In this study, I use BVE and ROE as surrogate for firm value and debt ratio (TD/TA as surrogate for capital structure and as the threshold variable. The empirical results strongly indicate that triple threshold effect exists between debt ratio and firm value when BVE is selected to proxy firm value. However, when ROE is selected to proxy firm value, the result shows that there exists double thresholds effect between debt ratio and firm value. From these results, I may conclude that the relationship between capital structure and firm value has a nonlinear relationship represents an convex Parapol shape. In addition, the findings suggest implications for SEASCRs on flexible usage of financial leverage. Specifically, SEASCRs should not use loans over 57.39%. To ensure and enhance the Firm value, the scope of the optimal debt ratio should be less than 57.39%.

  3. Doing Business in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Tran, Thi Thu Yen; Nguyen, Hung Vo

    2005-01-01

    Over the last thirty years, Vietnam evolved from `war after war' to an emerging economy with an attractive foreign investment policy and commitment to a liberalized economy. Although the GDP per capita is still considerably lower than in the Asian Tiger economies, and the institutional framework...... still reflects inheritances from the central plan system, Vietnam today has a vibrant economy with small businesses springing up at every street corner. Foreign investors have been flogging to Vietnam since the early 1990s, with a new peak of FDI inflow in 2004. This paper reviews the Vietnamese economy......, society, culture, and policies towards foreign investment to inform those considering to invest in Vietnam, and to provide some practical advice....

  4. Two new species of the genus Wilkinsonellus Mason (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) from northern Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Long, K.D.; Achterberg, van, T.

    2003-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Wilkinsonellus Mason (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) from northern Vietnam are described and illustrated: W. paramplus spec. nov. from Hoa Binh Province (northern Vietnam), and W. longicentrus spec. nov. from Ha Tinh Province (North Central Vietnam).

  5. Ubiquitous Detection of Artificial Sweeteners and Iodinated X-ray Contrast Media in Aquatic Environmental and Wastewater Treatment Plant Samples from Vietnam, The Philippines, and Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuta; Bach, Leu Tho; Van Dinh, Pham; Prudente, Maricar; Aguja, Socorro; Phay, Nyunt; Nakata, Haruhiko

    2016-05-01

    Water samples from Vietnam, The Philippines, and Myanmar were analyzed for artificial sweeteners (ASs) and iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICMs). High concentrations (low micrograms per liter) of ASs, including aspartame, saccharin, and sucralose, were found in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influents from Vietnam. Three ICMs, iohexol, iopamidol, and iopromide were detected in Vietnamese WWTP influents and effluents, suggesting that these ICMs are frequently used in Vietnam. ASs and ICMs were found in river water from downtown Hanoi at concentrations comparable to or lower than the concentrations in WWTP influents. The ASs and ICMs concentrations in WWTP influents and adjacent surface water significantly correlated (r (2) = 0.99, p < 0.001), suggesting that household wastewater is discharged directly into rivers in Vietnam. Acesulfame was frequently detected in northern Vietnamese groundwater, but the concentrations varied spatially by one order of magnitude even though the sampling points were very close together. This implies that poorly performing domestic septic tanks sporadically leak household wastewater into groundwater. High acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin, and sucralose concentrations were found in surface water from Manila, The Philippines. The sucralose concentrations were one order of magnitude higher in the Manila samples than in the Vietnamese samples, indicating that more sucralose is used in The Philippines than in Vietnam. Acesulfame and cyclamate were found in surface water from Pathein (rural) and Yangon (urban) in Myanmar, but no ICMs were found in the samples. The ASs concentrations were two-three orders of magnitude lower in the samples from Myanmar than in the samples from Vietnam and The Philippines, suggesting that different amounts of ASs are used in these countries. We believe this is the first report of persistent ASs and ICMs having ubiquitous distributions in economically emerging South Asian countries. PMID:26304512

  6. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR CLASSIFICATION OF GENUS MACROPODUS LACÉPÈDE, 1801 IN GIANH RIVER IN THE NORTH CENTRAL PART OF VIETNAM

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    Ho Anh TUAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and identification of 57 specimens of genus Macropodus Lacépède collected from Gianh River in Quang Binh province in north center region Vietnam. We have classified three species: Macropodus erythropterus (Frey. & Her., 2002, Macropodus opercularis (Linneaeus, 1758, Macropodus spechti (Schreitmüller, 1936 was first discovered in the study area and north center region Vietnam.CARACTERISTICA MORFOLOGICĂ PENTRU CLASIFICAREA GENULUI MACROPODUS LACÉPÈDE, 1801 DIN BAZINUL RÂULUI GIANH, REGIUNEA CENTRALĂ DE NORD A VIETNAMULUIAu fost analizate şi identificate 57 de exemplare ale genului Macropodus Lacépède colectate din bazinul râului Gianh, provincia Quang Binh, regiunea centrală de nord a Vietnamului. Noi am clasificat 3 specii: Macropodus erythropterus (Frey. & Her., 2002, Macropodus opercularis (Linneaeus, 1758 şi Macropodus spechti (Schreitmüller, 1936, descoperite în aria de studiu şi în regiunea centrală de nord a Vietnamului.

  7. Primary healthcare system capacities for responding to storm and flood-related health problems: a case study from a rural district in central Vietnam

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    Hoang Van Minh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: As a tropical depression in the East Sea, Vietnam is greatly affected by climate change and natural disasters. Knowledge of the current capacity of the primary healthcare system in Vietnam to respond to health issues associated with storms and floods is very important for policy making in the country. However, there has been little scientific research in this area. Objective: This research was to assess primary healthcare system capacities in a rural district in central Vietnam to respond to such health issues. Design: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative methods used self-administered questionnaires. Qualitative methods (in-depth interviews and focus groups discussions were used to broaden understanding of the quantitative material and to get additional information on actions taken. Results: 1 Service delivery: Medical emergency services, especially surgical operations and referral systems, were not always available during the storm and flood seasons. 2 Governance: District emergency plans focus largely on disaster response rather than prevention. The plans did not clearly define the role of primary healthcare and had no clear information on the coordination mechanism among different sectors and organizations. 3 Financing: The budget for prevention and control of flood and storm activities was limited and had no specific items for healthcare activities. Only a little additional funding was available, but the procedures to get this funding were usually time-consuming. 4 Human resources: Medical rescue teams were established, but there were no epidemiologists or environmental health specialists to take care of epidemiological issues. Training on prevention and control of climate change and disaster-related health issues did not meet actual needs. 5 Information and research: Data that can be used for planning and management (including population and epidemiological

  8. The feasibility of a school-based VI polysaccharide vaccine mass immunization campaign in Hue City, central Vietnam: streamlining a typhoid fever preventive strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiem, Vu Dinh; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Canh, Do Gia; Son, Nguyen Dinh; Hoa, Nyugen Thai; Thuy, Dang Thi Dieu; Ochiai, R Leon; Lan, Nguyen Thi; Hop, Tran Quang; Ali, Mohammad; Park, Jin Kyung; Abu-Elyazeed, Remon; Holliday, Kris; Ivanoff, Bernard; Anh, Dang Duc; Pang, Tikki; Donner, Allan; Galindo, Claudia M; Trach, Dang Duc; Clemens, John D; Acosta, Camilo J

    2006-05-01

    We report the coverage, safety, and logistics of a school-based typhoid fever immunization campaign that took place in Hue City, central Vietnam; a typhoid fever endemic area. A cluster-randomized evaluation-blinded controlled trial was designed where 68 schools (cluster) were randomly allocated the single dose Vi polysaccharide vaccine (Typherix) or the active control hepatitis A vaccine (Havrix). A safety surveillance system was implemented. A total of 32,267 children were immunized with a coverage of 57.5%. Strong predictors for vaccination were attending primary schools, peri-urban location of the school, and low family income. Human resources were mainly schoolteachers and the campaign was completed in about 1 month. Most adverse events reported were mild. Safe injection and safe sharp-waste disposal practices were followed. A typhoid fever school-based immunization campaign was safe and logistically possible. Coverage was moderate and can be interpreted as the minimum that could have been achievable because individual written informed consent procedures were sought for the first time in Hue City and the trial nature of the campaign. The lessons learned, together with cost-effectiveness results to be obtained by the end of follow-up period, will hopefully accelerate the introduction of Vi typhoid fever vaccine in Vietnam.

  9. Separation of land-use change induced signals from noise by means of evaluating perturbed RCM ensembles: Assessing the potential impacts of urbanization and deforestation in Central Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Patrick; Nguyen, Phuong N. B.; Cullmann, Johannes; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Regional climate models (RCMs) comprise both terrestrial and atmospheric compartments and thereby allowing to study land atmosphere feedbacks, and in particular the land-use and climate change impacts. In this study, a methodological framework is developed to separate the land use change induced signals in RCM simulations from noise caused by perturbed initial boundary conditions. The framework is applied for two different case studies in SE Asia, i.e. an urbanization and a deforestation scenario, which are implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The urbanization scenario is produced for Da Nang, one of the fastest growing cities in Central Vietnam, by converting the land-use in a 20 km, 14 km, and 9 km radius around the Da Nang meteorological station systematically from cropland to urban. Likewise, three deforestation scenarios are derived for Nong Son (Central Vietnam). Based on WRF ensemble simulations with perturbed initial conditions for 2010, the signal to-noise ratio (SNR) is calculated to identify areas with pronounced signals induced by LULCC. While clear and significant signals are found for air temperature, latent and sensible heat flux in the urbanization scenario (SNR values up to 24), the signals are not pronounced for deforestation (SNR values < 1). Albeit statistically significant signals are found for precipitation, low SNR values hinder scientifically sound inferences for climate change adaptation options. It is demonstrated that ensemble simulations with more than at least 5 ensemble members are required to derive robust LULCC adaptation strategies, particularly if precipitation is considered. This is rarely done in practice, thus potentially leading to erroneous estimates of the LULCC induced signals of water and energy fluxes, which are propagated through the regional climate - hydrological model modeling chains, and finally leading to unfavorable decision support.

  10. Separation of land-use change induced signals from noise by means of evaluating perturbed RCM ensembles: Assessing the potential impacts of urbanization and deforestation in Central Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Patrick; Nguyen, Phuong N. B.; Cullmann, Johannes; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Regional climate models (RCMs) comprise both terrestrial and atmospheric compartments and thereby allowing to study land atmosphere feedbacks, and in particular the land-use and climate change impacts. In this study, a methodological framework is developed to separate the land use change induced signals in RCM simulations from noise caused by perturbed initial boundary conditions. The framework is applied for two different case studies in SE Asia, i.e. an urbanization and a deforestation scenario, which are implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The urbanization scenario is produced for Da Nang, one of the fastest growing cities in Central Vietnam, by converting the land-use in a 20 km, 14 km, and 9 km radius around the Da Nang meteorological station systematically from cropland to urban. Likewise, three deforestation scenarios are derived for Nong Son (Central Vietnam). Based on WRF ensemble simulations with perturbed initial conditions for 2010, the signal to-noise ratio (SNR) is calculated to identify areas with pronounced signals induced by LULCC. While clear and significant signals are found for air temperature, latent and sensible heat flux in the urbanization scenario (SNR values up to 24), the signals are not pronounced for deforestation (SNR values sound inferences for climate change adaptation options. It is demonstrated that ensemble simulations with more than at least 5 ensemble members are required to derive robust LULCC adaptation strategies, particularly if precipitation is considered. This is rarely done in practice, thus potentially leading to erroneous estimates of the LULCC induced signals of water and energy fluxes, which are propagated through the regional climate - hydrological model modeling chains, and finally leading to unfavorable decision support.

  11. Landslide susceptibility analysis in central Vietnam based on an incomplete landslide inventory: Comparison of a new method to calculate weighting factors by means of bivariate statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Markus; Fink, Manfred; Tünschel, Hannes

    2015-04-01

    Vietnam is regarded as a country strongly impacted by climate change. Population and economic growth result in additional pressures on the ecosystems in the region. In particular, changes in landuse and precipitation extremes lead to a higher landslide susceptibility in the study area (approx. 12,400 km2), located in central Vietnam and impacted by a tropical monsoon climate. Hence, this natural hazard is a serious problem in the study area. A probability assessment of landslides is therefore undertaken through the use of bivariate statistics. However, the landslide inventory based only on field campaigns does not cover the whole area. To avoid a systematic bias due to the limited mapping area, the investigated regions are depicted as the viewshed in the calculations. On this basis, the distribution of the landslides is evaluated in relation to the maps of 13 parameters, showing the strongest correlation to distance to roads and precipitation increase. An additional weighting of the input parameters leads to better results, since some parameters contribute more to landslides than others. The method developed in this work is based on the validation of different parameter sets used within the statistical index method. It is called "omit error" because always omitting another parameter leads to the weightings, which describe how strong every single parameter improves or reduces the objective function. Furthermore, this approach is used to find a better input parameter set by excluding some parameters. After this optimization, nine input parameters are left, and they are weighted by the omit error method, providing the best susceptibility map with a success rate of 92.9% and a prediction rate of 92.3%. This is an improvement of 4.4% and 4.2%, respectively, compared to the basic statistical index method with the 13 input parameters.

  12. A tectonomagnetic effect detected in Central Italy

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    P. Palangio

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Significant variations in the absolute value of the geomagnetic field intensity related to tectonic events, as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, have been observed in several cases. To detect such a tectonomagnetic effect related to seismic activity, a seismomagnetic network was installed by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica (ING in the Abruzzi region (CentraI Italy, in July 1989. This area is being uplifting since the Pliocene. A logistic compromise between geophysical requirements and the electrified railway system tracks distribution led to the installation of five total magnetic field intensity data acquisition sites. From July 1989 to September 1992 geomagnetic intensity data were simultaneously recorded at all stations and compared to that recorded at the L'Aquila Observatory, located in the same area. A variation of about 10 nT in the absolute level of the geomagnetic field was measured at two stations located on the eastern side of the network. We suggest that the detected magnetic anomaly could resuIt from aseismic-changes in crustal stress during this time.

  13. Detection and Characterization of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli from Young Children in Hanoi, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Trung Vu; Le Van, Phung; Le Huy, Chinh; Gia, Khanh Nguyen; Weintraub, Andrej

    2005-01-01

    Diarrhea continues to be one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality among infants and children in developing countries. Escherichia coli is an emerging agent among pathogens that cause diarrhea. The development of a highly applicable technique for the detection of different categories of diarrheagenic E. coli is important. We have used multiplex PCR by combining eight primer pairs specific for enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enterohemorrhagic E. ...

  14. Impact of Forage Fertilization with Urea and Composted Cattle Manure on Soil Fertility in Sandy Soils of South-Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keenan C. McRoberts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased production in smallholder beef systems requires improved forage management. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of composted cattle manure and mineral nitrogen (urea application on soil fertility and partial nutrient balances in plots established to Brachiaria cv. Mulato II in south-central coastal Vietnam from 2010 to 2013. A randomized complete block design was implemented on six farms (blocks, with five rates of composted cattle manure (0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 Mg DM/ha per yr and three urea rates (0, 60, and 120 kg N/ha per yr in a factorial design. Soil was analyzed before and after the experiment. Compost increased soil pH, organic matter, Ca, Mg, and Mn. The effect of compost and urea applications on postexperiment soil fertility depended on preexperiment soil fertility for K, P, S, Mg, Zn, Mn, Cu, and organic matter, suggesting that the ability to maintain soil fertility depends on the interaction between soil organic and inorganic amendments and existing soil fertility. Highest farm yields were also achieved on farms with higher preexperiment soil fertility levels. Negative partial nutrient balances for N, P, and K suggest that yields will not be sustainable over time even for the highest fertilization inputs used in this experiment.

  15. Central position detection method for fuel assembly and device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a method for detecting a central position of a fuel assembly by an image processing technique without influenced by a deviation of the central position of the fuel assembly depending on the accuracy for the stoppage of an underwater vehicle and rattling of fuels in a fuel basket. Namely, a characteristic amount comparing method and a linear detecting method are utilized by image processing techniques. Images are taken by a camera disposed at a predetermined position, and common characteristically shaped portions of each of the top portions of fuel assemblies are detected based on the photographed images. The central position at the top of the fuel assembly is detected based on the characteristic. In a case of a BWR fuel assembly, a channel fastener screw portion and a handle at the top of the fuel constitute the characteristic portions. The longitudinal component of the handle is detected by the linear method, and the aperture like circular portion of the channel fastener screw portion is detected by the characteristic amount comparing method. In a case of a PWR type fuel assembly, two positioning pin holes at a fuel top corner portion are detected using the characteristic amount comparing method. The central position of the fuel assembly is detected based on each of the results. (I.S.)

  16. In-house-made capillary electrophoresis instruments coupled with contactless conductivity detection as a simple and inexpensive solution for water analysis: a case study in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Hong Anh; Le, Minh Duc; Nguyen, Kim Diem Mai; Hauser, Peter C; Pham, Hung Viet; Mai, Thanh Duc

    2015-11-01

    A simple and inexpensive method for the determination of various ionic species in different water matrices is discussed in this study. The approach is based on the employment of in-house-made capillary electrophoresis (CE) instruments with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D), which can be realized even when only a modest financial budget and limited expertise are available. Advantageous features and considerations of these instruments are detailed following their pilot deployment in Vietnam. Different categories of ionic species, namely major inorganic cations (K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and NH4(+)) and major inorganic anions (Cl(-), NO3(-), NO2(-), SO4(2-), and phosphate), in different water matrices in Vietnam were determined using these in-house fabricated instruments. Inorganic trivalent arsenic (As(iii)), which is the most abundant form of arsenic in reducing groundwater, was determined by CE-C(4)D. The effect of some interfering ions in groundwater on the analytical performance was investigated and is highlighted. The results from in-house-made CE-C(4)D-instruments were cross-checked with those obtained using the standard methods (AAS, AES, UV and IC), with correlation coefficients r(2) ≥ 0.9 and deviations from the referenced results less than 15%.

  17. Vietnam nursing in transition

    OpenAIRE

    Petrini, Marcia, A

    2000-01-01

    Vietnam as a country is undergoing major changes. Nursing is also experiencing many changes in education and practice. This study evaluated the current status of nursing in Vietnam, the planned direction for chage and the process that is being utilized

  18. Detection of polychlorinated biphenyls in transformer oils in Vietnam by multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry using a far-ultraviolet femtosecond laser as an ionization source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Thi Thuy Duong; Vu, Duong; Nghiem, Thi Ha Lien; Imasaka, Tomoko; Tang, Yuanyuan; Shibuta, Shinpei; Hamachi, Akifumi; Do, Quang Hoa; Imasaka, Totaro

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer and food oils were measured using gas chromatography combined with multiphoton ionization mass spectroscopy. An ultrashort laser pulse emitting in the far-ultraviolet region was utilized for efficient ionization of the analytes. Numerous signal peaks were clearly observed for a standard sample mixture of PCBs when the third and fourth harmonic emissions (267 and 200nm) of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (800nm) were employed. The signal intensities were found to be greater when measured at 200nm compared with those measured at 267nm, providing lower detection limits especially for highly chlorinated PCBs at shorter wavelengths. After simple pretreatment using disposable columns, PCB congeners were measured and found to be present in the transformer oils used in Vietnam. PMID:26717841

  19. Prevalence of Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, and Cryptosporidium spp in Da Nang, Vietnam, detected by a multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ögren, Jessica; Van Nguyen, Song; Nguyen, Minh Khac; Dimberg, Jan; Matussek, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    We surveyed the prevalence of Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Cryptosporidium spp in individuals with and without gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms residing in and around Da Nang city, Vietnam. Fecal samples were collected from children (n = 100) and adults (n = 80) with GI symptoms and from healthy individuals (n = 88) reporting no GI symptoms. Parasite detection was performed by multiplex real-time PCR. Overall, except for G. duodenalis, we found a low prevalence (histolytica and C. spp in all participants with GI symptoms. Specifically for D. fragilis this contrasts with findings in European populations of children with GI symptoms showing prevalence up to 73%. Moreover, our results indicate that the prevalence of G. duodenalis is higher in patients with GI symptoms compared to asymptomatic individuals and this difference is most obvious in young patients. PMID:27102222

  20. Detection of polychlorinated biphenyls in transformer oils in Vietnam by multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry using a far-ultraviolet femtosecond laser as an ionization source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Thi Thuy Duong; Vu, Duong; Nghiem, Thi Ha Lien; Imasaka, Tomoko; Tang, Yuanyuan; Shibuta, Shinpei; Hamachi, Akifumi; Do, Quang Hoa; Imasaka, Totaro

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer and food oils were measured using gas chromatography combined with multiphoton ionization mass spectroscopy. An ultrashort laser pulse emitting in the far-ultraviolet region was utilized for efficient ionization of the analytes. Numerous signal peaks were clearly observed for a standard sample mixture of PCBs when the third and fourth harmonic emissions (267 and 200nm) of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (800nm) were employed. The signal intensities were found to be greater when measured at 200nm compared with those measured at 267nm, providing lower detection limits especially for highly chlorinated PCBs at shorter wavelengths. After simple pretreatment using disposable columns, PCB congeners were measured and found to be present in the transformer oils used in Vietnam.

  1. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should not have fought,…

  2. Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Vietnam: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Horii, Yoichiro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2013-12-01

    Paragonimiasis is a food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Vietnam, research on Paragonimus and paragonimiasis has been conducted in northern and central regions of the country. Using a combination of morphological and molecular methods, 7 Paragonimus species, namely P. heterotremus, P. westermani, P. skrjabini, P. vietnamensis, P. proliferus, P. bangkokenis and P. harinasutai, have been identified in Vietnam. Of these, the first 3, P. heterotremus, P. westermani and P. skrjabini, are known to infect humans in other countries. However, in Vietnam, only P. heterotremus, found in some northern provinces, has been shown to infect humans. Even nowadays, local people in some northern provinces, such as Lai Chau and Yen Bai, are still suffering from P. heterotremus infection. In some provinces of central Vietnam, the prevalence and infection intensity of P. westermani metacercariae in freshwater crabs (the second intermediate hosts) are extremely high, but human cases have not been reported. Likewise, although P. skrjabini was found in Thanh Hoa Province, its pathogenicity to humans in Vietnam still remains uncertain. The results of molecular phylogenetic analyses of Vietnamese Paragonimus species provides new insights on the phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Paragonimus. Comprehensive molecular epidemiological and geobiological studies on the genus in Vietnam and adjacent countries are needed to clarify the biodiversity and public health significance of the lung flukes.

  3. Weighting links based on edge centrality for community detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng Gang

    2014-01-01

    Link weights have the equally important position as links in complex networks, and they are closely associated with each other for the emergence of communities. How to assign link weights to make a clear distinction between internal links of communities and external links connecting communities is of vital importance for community detection. Edge centralities provide a powerful approach for distinguishing internal links from external ones. Here, we first use edge centralities such as betweenness, information centrality and edge clustering coefficient to weight links of networks respectively to transform unweighted networks into weighted ones, and then a weighted function that both considers links and link weights is adopted on the weighted networks for community detection. We evaluate the performance of our approach on random networks as well as real-world networks. Better results are achieved on weighted networks with stronger weights of internal links of communities, and the results on unweighted networks outperform that of weighted networks with weaker weights of internal links of communities. The availability of our findings is also well-supported by the study of Granovetter that the weak links maintain the global integrity of the network while the strong links maintain the communities. Especially in the Karate club network, all the nodes are correctly classified when we weight links by edge betweenness. The results also give us a more comprehensive understanding on the correlation between links and link weights for community detection.

  4. Vulnerability in north- central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Nguyen, Thao Phuong

    2015-01-01

    a long term negative effect of floods. The research showed that a high impact of natural disasters is correlated with decreases in income over time. As the disaster relief offered by the authorities is marginal compared to economic losses, some households react by increasing off-farm incomes (including...... the impact of flooding in the provinces. The article ends by looking at the vulnerability-resilience debate concluding that the poorer households could enter a vulnerability loop, unless new strategies to cope with natural hazards are suggested....

  5. Plantation livelihoods in central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben

    2014-01-01

    Social vulnerability to disturbances is influenced by the economic and political context in which actors and institutions both enable and constrain household access to productive resources. These resources are crucial as a means for mitigating, coping, and responding to impacts of natural disturb...... on short-term insecure income from casual labour. A growing concentration of landholdings, coupled with a commune economy based on monoculture plantations, threatens resilience and potentially could constrain future government development interventions....

  6. Simulated central apnea detection using the pressure variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Daphne I; Holtzman, Megan; Goubran, Rafik; Frize, Monique; Knoefel, Frank

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents use of an unobtrusive pressure sensor array for simulated central apnea detection. Data was collected from seven volunteers who performed a series of regular breathing and breath holding exercises to simulate central apneas. Results of the feature extraction from the breathing signals show that breathing events may be differentiated with epoch based variance calculations. Two approaches were considered: the single sensor approach and the multisensor vote approach. The multisensor vote approach can decrease false positives and increase the value of Matthew's Correlation Coefficient. The effect of lying position on correct classification was investigated by modifying the multisensor vote approach to reduce false positives segments caused by the balistocardiogram signal and as such increase sensitivity while maintaining a low false positive rate. Intersubject classification results had low variability in both approaches. PMID:19964320

  7. Application of remote sensing and GIS for detection of long-term mangrove shoreline changes in Mui Ca Mau, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Thi, V.; Tien Thi Xuan, A.; Phan Nguyen, H.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F.; Koedam, N.

    2014-07-01

    Mui Ca Mau at the southern tip of Vietnam supports a large area of mangroves and has a high value for biodiversity and scenic beauty. This area is affected by erosion along the East Sea and accretion along the Gulf of Thailand, leading to the loss of huge stretches of mangroves along the East Sea and, in some cases, loss of environmental and ecosystem services provided by mangroves. In this study, we used remotely sensed aerial (1953), Landsat (1979, 1988 and 2000) and SPOT (1992, 1995, 2004, 2008, 2009 and 2011) images and the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) to quantify the rate of mangrove shoreline change for a 58 yr period. There were 1129 transects sampled at 100 m intervals along the mangrove shoreline and two statistical methods, namely end point rate (EPR) and linear regression rate (LRR), were used to calculate the rate of change of mangrove shorelines and distance from 1953 to 2011. The study confirms that erosion and accretion, respectively, are significant at the East Sea and Gulf of Thailand sides of Mui Ca Mau. The East Sea side had a mean erosion LRR of 33.24 m yr-1. The accretion trend at the Gulf of Thailand side had an average rate of 40.65 m yr-1. The results are important in predicting changes of coastal ecosystem boundaries and enable advanced planning for specific sections of coastline, to minimize or neutralize losses, to inform provincial rehabilitation efforts and reduce threats to coastal development and human safety.

  8. Application of remote sensing and GIS for detection of long-term mangrove shoreline changes in Ca Mau, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Thi, V.; Phan Nguyen, H.; Tien Thi Xuan, A.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F.; Koedam, N.

    2013-12-01

    Ca Mau at the southern tip of Vietnam supports a large area of mangroves and has a high value for biodiversity and scenic beauty. This area is affected by erosion along the East Sea and accretion along the Gulf of Thailand, leading to the loss of huge stretches of mangroves along the East Sea and, in some cases, loss of ecosystems services provided by mangroves. In this study, we used remotely sensed aerial (1953), Landsat (1979, 1988, and 2000) and SPOT (1992, 1995, 2004, 2008 and 2009, and 2011) images and the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) to quantify the rate of mangrove shoreline change for a 58 yr period. There were 1129 transects sampled at 100 m intervals along the mangrove shoreline and two statistical methods, namely End Point Rate (EPR) and Linear Regression Rate (LRR), were used to calculate the rate of change of mangrove shorelines and distance from 1953 to 2011. The study confirms erosion and accretion respectively are significant at the Eastern and Western Sea sides of the Ca Mau tip. The East Sea side had a mean erosion LRR of 33.24 m yr-1. For the accretion trend at the Gulf of Thailand side averaged at rate of 40.65 m yr-1. The results are important in predicting changes of coastal ecosystem boundaries and enable advanced planning for specific sections of coastline, to minimize or neutralize losses, to inform provincial rehabilitation efforts and reduce threats to coastal development and human safety.

  9. TerraSAR-X time-series interferometry detects human-induce subsidence in the Historical Centre of Hanoi, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tuan; Chang, Chung-Pai; Nguyen, Xuan

    2016-04-01

    Hanoi was the capital of 12 Vietnamese dynasties, where the most historical relics, archaeological ruins and ancient monuments are located over Vietnam. However, those heritage assets are threatened by the land subsidence process occurred in recent decades, which mainly triggered by massive groundwater exploitation and construction activities. In this work, we use a set of high resolution TerraSAR-X images to map small-scale land subsidence patterns in the Historical Centre of Hanoi from April 2012 to November 2013. Images oversampling is integrated into the Small Baseline InSAR processing chain in order to enlarge the monitoring coverage by increasing the point-wise measurements, maintaining the monitoring scale of single building and monument. We analyzed over 2.4 million radar targets on 13.9 km2 area of interest based on 2 main sites: The Citadel, the Old Quarter and French Quarter. The highest subsidence rate recorded is -14.2 mm/year. Most of the heritage assets are considered as stable except the Roman Catholic Archdiocese and the Ceramic Mosaic Mural with the subsidence rates are -14.2 and -13.7 mm/year, respectively. Eventually, optical image and soil properties map are used to determine the causes of subsidence patterns. The result shows the strong relationships between the existing construction sites, the component of sediments and land subsidence processes that occurred in the study site.

  10. Capacity Building in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Adam McCarty

    2001-01-01

    This report is the outcome of a study commissioned to examine the capacity building needs in Vietnam, and is a supplementary document to the Asian Development Bank's Country Operational Strategy for Vietnam. Vietnam's needs in terms of capacity building are particularly important given that is it a transitional economy and also one with little institutional experience in dealing with the international donor community. This paper examines the international awareness of capacity building and ca...

  11. Vietnam Urban Wastewater Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is facing the challenge of trying to keep pace with increasing environmental pollution associated with rapid urbanization, especially in the larger cities. Over the past 20 years, the Government of Vietnam has made considerable effort to develop urban sanitation policies, legislations and regulations, and to invest in urban sanitation including wastewater treatment systems. This st...

  12. Emergency medicine in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, J R

    1997-04-01

    The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is one of the poorest countries in the world. Recent economic developments, as the country attempts to start a market economy, have had a profound impact on its health care system. This report describes the state of prehospital and emergency medical care in Vietnam and possibilities for the future.

  13. EU and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    towards Vietnam. However, it is likely that the antidumping measures used by the EU are not primarily directed at Vietnam, but rather at China. This means that Vietnam is affected by the re-polarization of the world economy through its proximity to and links with China, but that the relation is perhaps......This paper discusses the changing relationship between the EU and Vietnam, and asks whether there is a shift from a “parental” to a “competitive” relationship. The focus of the paper is on the shift from aid to trade as the main interface between the EU and Vietnam. Aid relationships are often...... understood as hierarchical, linking a benevolent donor to a needy recipient, whereas commercial relationships are typically expected to involve a more competitive relationship. However, we argue that the bilateral relationship was never a “parental” one, even at the time when Vietnam’s relation to the EU...

  14. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS ANALYSIS AND FIRMS’ VALUATION IN VIETNAM

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Trang Thu

    2009-01-01

    Valuation is the central focus in fundamental analysis. This dissertation considers the usefulness of financial statements in predicting market values of companies in Vietnam stock market by adopting the valuation model constructed by Chung et al., (2001). The overview of Vietnam stock market; some definitions about financial statements, valuation; description of several basis valuation models and empirical evidence including the description of valuation model developed by Chung et al., (2001...

  15. Corporate Governance in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Centre for Asia Private Equity Research Ltd.

    2015-01-01

    Corporate governance (CG) success stories in Vietnam are part of the International Finance Corporation’s ongoing efforts to raise greater awareness of the merits of CG. These success stories in Vietnam can serve as a guiding light for the immediate benefit and long-term value of CG to corporate development. The Law on Enterprise 2005, implemented in July 2006, marked the first introduction...

  16. Seed-borne viruses detected on farm-retained seeds from smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe, Burkina Faso, Bangladesh and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manyangarirwa, W.; Sibiya, J.; Mortensen, C A Nieves Paulino

    2010-01-01

    The smallholder farming sector in much of the developing world relies on the use of farm-retained seed. The availability of good quality disease free seed is important in enhancing food security but seed-borne viruses can be a major problem on farm-retained seed. Seeds of tomato (Lycopersicon...... electron microscopy, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and biological assays. Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) was detected in 36% of tomato samples and in 8% of paprika samples using indicator Nicotiana tabacum cultivars Xanthinc and White Burley. Some 43% of cowpea samples were infected with Cowpea....... The results imply that resources must be invested in improving the quality of seed from the smallholder sector. National and international germplasm collection centres should be equipped with capacity to test for seed-borne viruses so as to minimize the movement of infected germplasm in breeding materials...

  17. Customer relationship management in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Chau Minh Duc

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is considered a potential market for Customer Relationship Management (CRM). As the Vietnam economy is booming, especially when Vietnam joined WTO in 2007, along with the economic growth exceed 7.5% every year and potential young labour force, Vietnam economy is developing a miracle, the living standard was increasing significantly which lead Vietnamese consumers very keen on choosing the goods and services. To understand the customer high demand, maximizing the efficiency of marke...

  18. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This report assesses Vietnam's corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Vietnam. It is an update of the 2006 Corporate Governance ROSC for Vietnam. Good corporate governance enhances investor trust, protec...

  19. MOTIVATION OF CHINESE INVESTMENT IN VIETNAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China attracted a record ofUS$52.7×109 in foreign direct investment (FDI) in the year 2002, surpassing the United States to become the world's largest FDI recipient. China's success in attracting FDI has received significant attention from academics. Several theoretical approaches have been developed to explain the determinants of FDI in China.However, it seems to be ignored that China has also become a growing provider of significant FDI to the rest of the world.According to United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)'s 2004 report, as a developing country,replacing Japan, China has made the list of the expected top five home countries worldwide for the first time in terms of geographical coverage (2004-2005). Vietnam is second largest market and another emerging transition tiger in Southeast Asia. Both China and Vietnam were and are experiencing transitions from centrally planned economy to free market economy. This paper, therefore, attempts to explore the development of Chinese investment in Vietnam, analysing the main motives for, and characteristics of, Chinese Multinational Enterprises' (MNEs) investment in Vietnam.

  20. Detection of pepper mild mottle virus as an indicator for drinking water quality in Hanoi, Vietnam, in large volume of water after household treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangsanont, Jatuwat; The Dan, Dang; Thi Viet Nga, Tran; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the removal of bacteria and viruses by household point-of-use (POU) treatments and to apply a previously developed large-volume virus concentration method (∼20 L). First, the removal of microbes by household POU treatment was investigated in the laboratory. Second, the prevalence of viruses in drinking water sources for households and the removal efficiency of microbes by POU treatments in two suburban communities in Hanoi, Vietnam, were investigated. Indigenous pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) was used as the main target together with adenovirus, Aichi virus, enterovirus, F-specific bacteriophage genogroup 1, and Escherichia coli to investigate the removal efficiency of household treatments. The results from laboratory and field survey were compared. From the laboratory study, ceramic membranes were not effective for removing viruses and bacteria from water; pathogen reduction was less than 1.5 log10. By contrast, reverse osmosis (RO) devices reduced microbes by 3 to > 5 log10. In a field study, PMMoV was found to be the most prevalent waterborne virus. Household sand filtration was ineffective for removing E. coli, total coliforms and PMMoV; the reduction was less than 1 order of magnitude. Boiling the water and then filtering it with a ceramic membrane reduced E. coli by 3 orders of magnitude, but this was not effective for removing PMMoV. RO filtration was one of the promising methods for removing E. coli, total coliforms and PMMoV to below their detection limits in most of the samples studied. The removal of E. coli, total coliforms and PMMoV was >2.3, >4 and >3 log10, respectively. The laboratory results of virus removal efficiency by POU devices agreed with the field study. Due to the prevalence and characteristics of PMMoV, it is a strong candidate for an indigenous indicator to investigate the viral removal efficiency of household POU treatments.

  1. We have to eat, right? : food safety concerns and shopping for daily vegetables in modernizing Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyses how people during everyday life confront real food safety risks that are difficult to influence and come to grips with and focuses on food safety risks in modernizing Vietnam. Over the past 40 years Vietnam has developed from war torn country with a highly centralized planned ec

  2. A new algorithm for detecting central apnea in neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apnea of prematurity is an important and common clinical problem, and is often the rate-limiting process in NICU discharge. Accurate detection of episodes of clinically important neonatal apnea using existing chest impedance (CI) monitoring is a clinical imperative. The technique relies on changes in impedance as the lungs fill with air, a high impedance substance. A potential confounder, however, is blood coursing through the heart. Thus, the cardiac signal during apnea might be mistaken for breathing. We report here a new filter to remove the cardiac signal from the CI that employs a novel resampling technique optimally suited to remove the heart rate signal, allowing improved apnea detection. We also develop an apnea detection method that employs the CI after cardiac filtering. The method has been applied to a large database of physiological signals, and we prove that, compared to the presently used monitors, the new method gives substantial improvement in apnea detection. (paper)

  3. Upstream profitability in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingeberg, K.

    1993-12-01

    This report outlines the main characteristics of the petroleum industry in Vietnam. First, it discusses the exploration history and the fiscal regime and concession system for international companies searching for new exploration ventures in the country. Second, it presents an economic analysis of exploration and field development decisions. The analysis is based on a cash flow tax model reflecting the current economic framework. Calculations of upstream profitability are based on typical offshore oil project assumptions. The analysis includes the effects of different levels of exploration risks, tax position and tax agreements. The report also compares fiscal terms in Vietnam and Malaysia and their effect on attractivity. 20 refs., 3 figs., 19 tabs.

  4. Molecular and morphological variation of Paragonimus westermani in Vietnam with records of new second intermediate crab hosts and a new locality in a northern province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doanh, N Pham; Tu, A Luu; Bui, T Dung; Loan, T Ho; Nonaka, Nariaki; Horii, Yoichiro; Blair, David; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2016-10-01

    Paragonimus westermani is one of the most medically important lung flukes and is widely distributed in Asia. It exhibits considerable variation in morphological, genetic and biological features. In central provinces of Vietnam, a high prevalence of metacercariae of this species has been reported from the crab intermediate host, Vietopotamon aluoiense. In this study, we detected P. westermani metacercariae in two additional crab hosts, Donopotamon haii in Quang Tri Province, central Vietnam and Indochinamon tannanti in Yen Bai Province in the north. The latter is a new locality for P. westermani in a northern region of Vietnam where P. heterotremus is the only species currently known to cause human paragonimiasis. Paragonimus westermani metacercariae found in Vietnam showed considerable morphological variation but slight genetic variation based on DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal ITS2 region and the mitochondrial 16S gene. Co-infection of the same individual crabs with P. westermani and P. heterotremus and/or some other Paragonimus species was found frequently, suggesting potential for co-infection in humans. The findings of the present study emphasize the need for highly specific molecular and immunodiagnostic methods to differentially diagnose between P. westermani and P. heterotremus infections.

  5. USE OF EIGENVECTOR CENTRALITY TO DETECT GRAPH ISOMORPHISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Meghanathan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Graph Isomorphism is one of the classical problems of graph theory for which no deterministic polynomial-time algorithm is currently known, but has been neither proven to be NP-complete. Several heuristic algorithms have been proposed to determine whether or not two graphs are isomorphic (i.e., structurally the same. In this research, we propose to use the sequence (either the non-decreasing or nonincreasing order of eigenvector centrality (EVC values of the vertices of two graphs as a precursor step to decide whether or not to further conduct tests for graph isomorphism. The eigenvector centrality of a vertex in a graph is a measure of the degree of the vertex as well as the degrees of its neighbors. We hypothesize that if the non-increasing (or non-decreasing order of listings of the EVC values of the vertices of two test graphs are not the same, then the two graphs are not isomorphic. If two test graphs have an identical non-increasing order of the EVC sequence, then they are declared to be potentially isomorphic and confirmed through additional heuristics. We test our hypothesis on random graphs (generated according to the Erdos-Renyi model and we observe the hypothesis to be indeed true: graph pairs that have the same sequence of non-increasing order of EVC values have been confirmed to be isomorphic using the well-known Nauty software.

  6. Vietnam in Childrens' Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY. United States Committee.

    Twenty-five nonfiction and 18 fiction and folklore listings are included in this bulletin on Vietnam in childrens' books. Slides, filmstrips, and film listings are also included. Each listing is accompanied by a brief annotation. Subjects include customs and culture, the country and the people, Ho Chi Min, the Vietnamese revolution, Vietnamese…

  7. Rural Credit in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders, but formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation. Interest rates fell from 1997...

  8. Chinese Commodities and Vietnam Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Last April, with the support of China Machinery Industry Federation and Vietnam Em bassy in China, the Society of Automotive Engineers of CCPIT successfully held "China Famous Brand Auto Vietnam Show". I am informed that the Organizing Committee plans to hold the 3rd China Auto International Exhibition Tour in this November. According to the agenda, this activity will extend from Vietnam to other ASEAN member countries, therefore, it will have a larger scale, a longer route and a richer content. On beha...

  9. Vietnam's Labour Market in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Adam McCarty

    2001-01-01

    This report examines the employment structure and structural change (1986-1999) of Vietnam, discusses Vietnam's labour market regulations and examines how Vietnam's labour markets could become more efficient. Vietnam’s labour policies remain focused on control of state enterprises: who they employ, how many, and what they pay them. The Labour Code of 1995 saw a move to extend state worker privileges throughout the economy. This is a futile exercise to establish a welfare state in a country wi...

  10. Livelihood strategies under climate change vulnerability in Quang Nam province, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil

    Analysis of the transformation of primary to plantation forest under risk of severe natural disasters in central Vietnam. The articles argues that the process could be seen as an example of government induced vulnerability......Analysis of the transformation of primary to plantation forest under risk of severe natural disasters in central Vietnam. The articles argues that the process could be seen as an example of government induced vulnerability...

  11. The Vietnam War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, James; Larsen, Chris Holmsted; Rasmussen, Søren Hein

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the role of the Vietnam War in Danish and Norwegian politics. We argue that Danish and Norwegian membership in NATO and an unstable parliamentary situation may explain why these countries, unlike Sweden, did not take on the lead in the international protest against the war....... Non-socialistic coalitions came to power in Norway and Denmark in the latter half of the 1960s which to an extent explains why the social democratic parties in both countries became more critical of the US. By the end of the 1960s, foreign policy as well as public attitudes towards the war converged...... in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and in all three countries powerful protest movements emerged that were remarkably similar. The Vietnam War strengthened the left in general and promoted a leftist politics of solidarity that influenced Swedish, Danish and Norwegian foreign policy-making of the 1970s....

  12. Internet Marketing in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Mai Lan

    2013-01-01

    The thesis is divided into three main chapters. The first chapter is an overview of theoretical marketing, internet marketing, its characteristics and its impact on local environment. Therefore, in this chapter, it also consists of the statement of advantage and disadvantage of applying internet marketing in enterprises, particularly in developing countries. The second chapter describes a general overview of Vietnam country: the background of country’s geography, economy, history of developme...

  13. Teaching in Vietnam

    CERN Multimedia

    Vitale,B

    1974-01-01

    Monsieur B.Vitale porte depuis plusieurs années un grand interêt aux questions d'enseignement dans les pays du tiers monde et a recemment eu l'occasion de faire un séjour dans la république démocratique du Vietnam. Il va nous faire part de ses impressions dans le domaine de l'enseignement, qu'il a vu, entrevu et essayé de comprendre

  14. Demystifying Poverty Measurement in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Demombynes, Gabriel; Hoang Vu, Linh

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of poverty measurement issues in Vietnam for the non-specialist. Vietnam has two main approaches to measuring poverty. An income-based approach is used by the Ministry of Labor, Invalids, and Social Affairs to generate a classification used for determining anti-poverty program eligibility as well as poverty monitoring over the short term. A separate consumpt...

  15. Developing School Psychology in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Phuong; Hagans, Kristi; Powers, Kristin; Hass, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Like China, Vietnam is a communist country with increasingly capitalist economic policies. A fundamental change occurred in these policies with the enactment of Vietnam's "doi moi" (renovation) policy in 1986 that called for a "free market with socialist orientations." However, this economic modernization has inadvertently changed the social…

  16. The Lessons of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M., Ed.

    This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…

  17. Operation homecoming: psychological observations of repatriated Vietnam prisoners of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, R S

    1975-02-01

    While in military service as a psychiatrist stationed at Scott Air Force Base, I had the opportunity to do the psychiatric evaluations on a number of the prisoners of war returning from North Vietnam. Scott Air Force Base is an area medical center (North Central United States), and was responsible for administering the medical and psychiatric examinations on all the men whose homes were in this area. Our hospital processed 29 returning POWS, of whom I saw 14. This group of POWS was probably unique in military history in that it was comprised almost entirely of officers. Their period of confinement was considerably longer than that of the prisoners of World War II and the Korean War, with the typical Vietnam POW being in captivity about six or seven years. This paper is an attempt to share my observations and thoughts on the experience of being a Vietnam Prisoner of War. PMID:1114192

  18. Potential economic corridors between Vietnam and Lao PDR: Roles played by Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Binh Giang

    2012-01-01

    The Third Thai-Lao Friendship over the Mekong officially opened on 11th November 2011 facilitates the cross-border trade along Asian Highway 15 and Asian Highway 131 between Northeast Thailand, Central Lao PDR and North Central Vietnam. Since the establishment of East-West Economic Corridor (EWEC) which based on the Asian Highway 16, the cross-border trade among countries in Greater Mekong Sub-region has been much facilitated. The success of EWEC encourages local governments in the region to...

  19. Evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses in Vietnam between 2001 and 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Feng Wan

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 viruses have caused dramatic economic losses to the poultry industry of Vietnam and continue to pose a serious threat to public health. As of June 2008, Vietnam had reported nearly one third of worldwide laboratory confirmed human H5N1 infections. To better understand the emergence, spread and evolution of H5N1 in Vietnam we studied over 300 H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated from Vietnam since their first detection in 2001. Our phylogenetic analyses indicated that six genetically distinct H5N1 viruses were introduced into Vietnam during the past seven years. The H5N1 lineage that evolved following the introduction in 2003 of the A/duck/Hong Kong/821/2002-like viruses, with clade 1 hemagglutinin (HA, continued to predominate in southern Vietnam as of May 2007. A virus with a clade 2.3.4 HA newly introduced into northern Vietnam in 2007, reassorted with pre-existing clade 1 viruses, resulting in the emergence of novel genotypes with neuraminidase (NA and/or internal gene segments from clade 1 viruses. A total of nine distinct genotypes have been present in Vietnam since 2001, including five that were circulating in 2007. At least four of these genotypes appear to have originated in Vietnam and represent novel H5N1 viruses not reported elsewhere. Geographic and temporal analyses of H5N1 infection dynamics in poultry suggest that the majority of viruses containing new genes were first detected in northern Vietnam and subsequently spread to southern Vietnam after reassorting with pre-existing local viruses in northern Vietnam. Although the routes of entry and spread of H5N1 in Vietnam remain speculative, enhanced poultry import controls and virologic surveillance efforts may help curb the entry and spread of new HPAI viral genes.

  20. Phenotypic characterization of goat breeds in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are eight goat breeds in Vietnam with more than 1.5 thousand heads and about 95% of them are indigenous breeds. As one of the important livestock species, goat also plays an important role in income earning and poverty alleviation in the rural areas and is potential resource for supplying high quality meat. The Vietnamese indigenous goat breeds were created many years ago by indiscriminate crossbreeding under natural selection or crossbreeding with imported breeds. Therefore, This study is being carried out to phenotypic characterize the goat populations of the country as part of Characterization of Small Ruminant Genetic Resources in Asia supported by Vietnamese basis research project in life sciences and IAEA. Methods: Survey and distribute the questionnaires for interviewing, collect data, morphology description of the breeds and their productivity performance, where available. The research was carried out in five provinces in different geographic areas as follows: Northern Vietnam: Ha Giang province; Red river delta: HaTay province; Western Vietnam: Son la province, center Vietnam: Thanh Hoa and Ninh Thuan Provinces. The results showed that the goat population in the North is 72,5%, the south is 27,5%, in which 12,3% is in Tay Nguyen, 8,9% is in Central Coast, 2,5 % and 3,8% are in East and West Southern part consequently. The Goat population distributes mainly in the Northern Mountains, about 48% of all over country and 67% of the North (MARD). Co native goats, the most common goat breed of the country, are reared under semi-intensive or extensive system by rural peoples. The Co goat population distributes all over the country, but concentrates mainly in the North Mountains and midland provinces; they are raised for meat. There are several kinds of Co goat breeds separate by colours and figures. The Bach Thao goat population is raised mainly in central coastal provinces for both meat and milk. Six breeds were introduced to Vietnam for milk and meat

  1. Sustainable urbanization in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakakis-smith, D; Dixon, C

    1997-01-01

    "This paper examines the nature of [urban-based economic growth in Vietnam] and contends that the present size of Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi are much greater than official figures suggest. It then goes on to review the situation with regard to urban poverty, basic needs and the environment to illustrate the extent to which this unacknowledged growth is not only threatening the sustained expansion of those cities, but also the sustainability of the economic growth on which the country is so reliant."

  2. Modeling the impact of rubella vaccination in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vynnycky, Emilia; Yoshida, Lay Myint; Huyen, Dang Thi Thanh; Trung, Nguyen Dac; Toda, Kohei; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Thi Hong, Duong; Ariyoshi, Koya; Miyakawa, Masami; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Tho, Le Huu; Nguyen, Hien Anh; Duc Anh, Dang; Jit, Mark; Hien, Nguyen Tran

    2016-01-01

    Supported by GAVI Alliance, measles-rubella vaccination was introduced in Vietnam in 2014, involving a mass campaign among 1-14 year olds and routine immunization of children aged 9 months. We explore the impact on the incidence of Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) during 2013-2050 of this strategy and variants involving women aged 15-35 years. We use an age and sex-structured dynamic transmission model, set up using recently-collected seroprevalence data from Central Vietnam, and also consider different levels of transmission and contact patterns. If the serological profile resembles that in Central Vietnam, the planned vaccination strategy could potentially prevent 125,000 CRS cases by 2050 in Vietnam, despite outbreaks predicted in the meantime. Targeting the initial campaign at 15-35 year old women with or without children aged 9 months-14 years led to sustained reductions in incidence, unless levels of ongoing transmission were medium-high before vaccination started. Assumptions about contact greatly influenced predictions if the initial campaign just targeted 15-35 year old women and/or levels of ongoing transmission were medium-high. Given increased interest in rubella vaccination, resulting from GAVI Alliance funding, the findings are relevant for many countries.

  3. Industrial Estates and the Environment: A Study of Water Pollution in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le Quang Thong; Nguyen Anh Ngoc

    2004-01-01

    In Vietnam, as in many other rapidly-developing countries in Southeast Asia, industrial estates have sprung up to provide the infrastructure that factories need. Such estates can reduce the environmental impact of the industries they support, by providing central wastewater pollution control facilities. Since there are economies of scale in wastewater treatment, sharing common facilities should reduce costs. Unfortunately, wastewater treatment is often not practised and Vietnam is currently e...

  4. 越南蒲马特国家自然保护区植物区系特征%Floristic characteristics of Pu Mat National Park,Nghe An Province, Central Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春强; 阮青闲; 阮义辰; 朱华

    2008-01-01

    Pu Mat National Park(PMNP)is situated in Nghe An Province, Central Vietnam and in the core area of the well-known biodiversity richness Annamite district. Based on the identification of specimens, 2 018 Species and 771 gene-ra belonging to 184 families of vascular plant were recorded in the protected area of PMNP. The flora of PMNP repre-sents 21%of the total Vietnamese flora. In the floristic composttion of PMNP,magnoliophyta contributes 90.98% spe-cies,90.4% genera, and 83.7% families of the total flora. The families with most species richness in the flora include Rubiaceae(37genera/129species),Euphorbiaceae(36/99),Orchidaceae(34/73),Lauraceae(11/66),Moraceae(10/54),Papilionaceae(24/51),Fagaceae(4/50),Myrsinaceae(5/48)and Rutaceae(14/45).From the study on the geographical el-ements of seed plants, 11areal types at family level and 14areal types at generic level were recognized. Tropical elements in total make up 95.6% of the total family and 90.1% of the total genera, in which tropical Asia elements contribute to 31.4% of the total genera. It is concluded that the flora of PMNP is typically tropical in nature, and is part of tropical A-sian flora.%蒲马特国家公园位于越南中部的义安省,国际著名的生物多样性极为丰富的Annamite山系的核心地区.基于植物标本鉴定,在蒲马特国家公园保护区内记录有维管束植物184科,771属,2018种(包括变种和亚种).该植物区系占整个越南植物区系的21%,其中的木兰亚纲植物占该植物区系总种数的90.98%,总属数的90.4%及总科数的83.7%.含种数最多的科包括茜草科(37属/129种),大戟科(36/99),兰科(34/73),樟科(11/66),桑科(10/54),蝶形花科(24/51),壳斗科(4/50),紫金牛科(5/48)及芸香科(14/45)等.在种子植物地理成分组成上,有11个科的分布区类型及14属分布区类型,其中,热带分布型分别占总科数的85.6%和总属数的90.1%,并且在其热带分布属中,热带亚洲成分占总属数的31.4%.这些

  5. Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Land-use and Land-cover Change: A Multi-agent Simulation Model and Its Application to an Upland Watershed in Central Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Q.; Vlek, P. L.; Park, S.

    2005-12-01

    flexible interactions among human and landscape agents, and monitors consequent land-use changes and associated socio-economic dynamics. The model was applied in a watershed of about 100 km2 in A-Luoi district, Central Vietnam. Spatially explicit data were obtained from Landsat ETM images, thematic maps, an extensive forest inventory, and an intensive household survey. Field data were used for calibrating agent's parameters and develop an initial database for simulation runs. Scenarios of land-use changes under different policy options on forest protection zoning, agrochemical subsidies and agricultural extension were generated to evaluate the consequences of such policy interventions. Preliminary simulation runs for 10 different policy options suggest that reducing the current proportion of protected area from 90% to 50% and increasing the enforcement of protection, together with the provision of extension services for a third of the total population, and subsidizing 5% of the population with agrochemicals ($US 16 household-1 year-1) would, on average, increase per capita gross income by 15% and significantly reduce forest degradation compared to the scenario based on the status quo (i.e., the policy settings of 2002).

  6. Anti-triangle centrality-based community detection in complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Songwei; Gao, Lin; Gao, Yong; Wang, Haiyang

    2014-06-01

    Community detection has been extensively studied in the past decades largely because of the fact that community exists in various networks such as technological, social and biological networks. Most of the available algorithms, however, only focus on the properties of the vertices, ignoring the roles of the edges. To explore the roles of the edges in the networks for community discovery, the authors introduce the novel edge centrality based on its antitriangle property. To investigate how the edge centrality characterises the community structure, they develop an approach based on the edge antitriangle centrality with the isolated vertex handling strategy (EACH) for community detection. EACH first calculates the edge antitriangle centrality scores for all the edges of a given network and removes the edge with the highest score per iteration until the scores of the remaining edges are all zero. Furthermore, EACH is characterised by being free of the parameters and independent of any additional measures to determine the community structure. To demonstrate the effectiveness of EACH, they compare it with the state-of-the art algorithms on both the synthetic networks and the real world networks. The experimental results show that EACH is more accurate and has lower complexity in terms of community discovery and especially it can gain quite inherent and consistent communities with a maximal diameter of four jumps. PMID:25014378

  7. Detection of the Central Star of the Planetary Nebula NGC 6302

    CERN Document Server

    Szyszka, C; Zijlstra, Albert A; Tsamis, Y G

    2009-01-01

    NGC 6302 is one of the highest ionization planetary nebulae known and shows emission from species with ionization potential > 300eV. The temperature of the central star must be >200,000K to photoionize the nebula, and has been suggested to be up to 400,000K. On account of the dense dust and molecular disc, the central star has not convincingly been directly imaged. NGC 6302 was imaged in six narrow band filters by Wide Field Camera 3 on HST as part of the Servicing Mission 4 Early Release Observations. The central star is directly detected for the first time, and is situated, as expected, at the nebula centre and on the foreground (eastern) edge of the equatorial disc. The magnitudes of the central star have been reliably detected in two filters (F469N and F673N). Assuming a hot black body, the reddening has been measured from the 469-673 colour and a value of c=3.1, A_{v}=6.6 mag determined. A main sequence binary companion earlier than K5 can be excluded. The position of the star on the HR diagram suggests ...

  8. Genetic and antigenic characterization of enterovirus 71 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Phan Kim Thoa

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 frequently causes fatal infections in young children in Asia. In 2011, EV71 epidemics occurred in southern Vietnam. We conducted genetic and antigenic analysis of the EV71 isolates and found that 94% of them were genotype C4a related to two lineages circulating in China and 6% were genotype C5 which have circulated in Vietnam since 2003. Antigenic variants were not detected. EV71 vaccines are being developed. Longitudinal enterovirus surveillance data are critical to formulate vaccination policy in Vietnam.

  9. Higher Education in Vietnam: Change and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloper, David, Ed.; Le, Thac Can, Ed.

    This collection of 12 essays examines the development of higher education in Vietnam, focusing on current issues related to educational reform, expansion, and funding. They are: (1) "Higher Education in Vietnam: The Door Opens--From Inside" (Le Thac Can and David Sloper); (2) "Socio-Economic Background of Vietnam Since 1986: Impact on Education…

  10. Constructions of gender in Vietnam: in pursuit of the 'Three Criteria'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Hoang, Tu Anh; Vu, Song Ha; Tan, Hung Minh; Bui, Thi Thanh Mai; Pham, Vu Thien

    2006-01-01

    Vietnam has advanced far beyond most other developing countries and, indeed, surpasses many developed countries in adopting a legal framework based on gender equality, and in creating institutions and programmes to support women's advancement. Inegalitarian gender norms have also persisted, however. The Vietnam Women's Union promotes women's educational, political and economic advancement but simultaneously exhorts women to pay attention to their Confucian role of maintaining family hierarchy and harmony. This paper presents findings from qualitative research examining gender relations at the grassroots level in central Vietnam. It argues that the Vietnam Women's Union could support women more effectively by promoting greater diversity in gender norms and by initiating a public discussion to address the pressures women face in trying to achieve ideals that are often experienced as contradictory and unattainable. PMID:16923643

  11. Potential Use of HF Radar for Tsunami Detection in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokacar, Tulay; Necmioglu, Ocal; Ozer, Ceren

    2016-04-01

    Today, HF radar is recognized as internationally cost-effective and efficient solution to provide near-real time measurements that cover a large area continuously over time for ocean hazards warning and long term ocean monitoring studies such as, seasonal forecasts of climate, hurricanes, s torm surges and large-scale ocean circulation changes. These radar systems recently became an operational tool in coastal monitoring worldwide. They are used for many operational applications that include ship detection, tracking, guidance, distribution of pollutants, fishery and oceanography. HF radar data used for the tsunami warnings, can also be used for the other purposes and be of potential interest to wide application area users and stakeholders. Moreover multi user applications will ensure the system is maintained operationally over the long term. Hence the system is cost effective also with regards to maintenance. New algorithms allow useful detection and verification for tsunami detection. While technical monitoring capacity and the algorithms for tsunami detection is improved significantly, further studies are required to obtain complete wave height determination. We analysed the available technology and algorithms for the purpose of tsunami detection in the central-eastern Mediterranean and its connected Seas (Aegean and Black Sea). Since the study area is characterized by narrow continental shelf area, the HF radar observation for the purpose of tsunami detection is possible in restricted areas. While extensive continental shelves in the northeastern Black Sea and along the coast of Tunisia in the central Mediterranean let tsunami detection 2.5 hours before tsunami waves hit the coast, the detection is possible around 1 hr or less in advance for the remaining basins with wide continental shelf areas. The bathymetric structure is important for deciding the applicability of HF radar systems for the tsunami detection in continental shelf areas, which can be covered by

  12. Vietnam and the regional crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masina, Pietro Paolo

    2002-01-01

    The paper explores the linkages between Vietnam and the regional economy before and after the East Asian financial crisis of 1997 and 1998, indicating that the country is more closely associated with the region than normally assumed. Thus, key indicators, such as falling foreign direct investment...... (including a restructuring of the so-called 'flying geese' pattern) Vietnam's chances of benefitting from closer integration in the world economy will depend on a clearcut industrial and trade policy, rather than on embarking a so-called 'neutral trade regime'. Preliminary evidence seems to indicate...... that Vietnam can successfully exploit market niches opened up by postcrisis regional economic reorganisation, thus offering some optimism for the country's immediate economic future....

  13. Detection of Dry Intrusion on Water Vapor Images Over Central Europe - June 2010 TO September 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, J.; Dejmal, K.; Hudec, F.; Kolar, P.

    2016-06-01

    The knowledge of evaluation of the intensity of cyclogenesis which could be connected with the weather having a significant impact on Earth's surface is quite useful. If, as one of the basic assumptions, the existence of connection between dry intrusions, dry bands, tropopause height and warm dark areas distribution on water vapor images (WV images) is considered, it is possible to set up a method of detecting dry intrusions on searching and tracking areas with higher brightness temperature compared with the surrounding environment. This paper covers the period between June 2010 and September 2011 over Central Europe. The ISIS method (Instrument de Suivi dans I'Imagerie satellitaire), originally developed for detection of cold cloud tops, was used as an initial ideological point. Subsequently, this method was modified by Michel and Bouttier for usage on WV images. Some of the applied criteria and parameters were chosen with reference to the results published by Michel and Bouttier as well as by Novotny. The procedure can be divided into two steps: detection of warm areas and their tracking. Cases of detection of areas not evidently connected with dry intrusions can be solved by filtering off based on the connection between detected warm areas to the cyclonic side of jet streams and significant lowering of the tropopause.

  14. Detection of transient synchrony across oscillating receptors by the central electrosensory system of mormyrid fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Alejandro; Carlson, Bruce A

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported evidence for a novel mechanism of peripheral sensory coding based on oscillatory synchrony. Spontaneously oscillating electroreceptors in weakly electric fish (Mormyridae) respond to electrosensory stimuli with a phase reset that results in transient synchrony across the receptor population (Baker et al., 2015). Here, we asked whether the central electrosensory system actually detects the occurrence of synchronous oscillations among receptors. We found that electrosensory stimulation elicited evoked potentials in the midbrain exterolateral nucleus at a short latency following receptor synchronization. Frequency tuning in the midbrain resembled peripheral frequency tuning, which matches the intrinsic oscillation frequencies of the receptors. These frequencies are lower than those in individual conspecific signals, and instead match those found in collective signals produced by groups of conspecifics. Our results provide further support for a novel mechanism for sensory coding based on the detection of oscillatory synchrony among peripheral receptors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16851.001 PMID:27328322

  15. Detection and Cellular Localization of Phospho-STAT2 in the Central Nervous System by Immunohistochemical Staining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Owens, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) indicates their involvement in active signaling. Here we describe immunohistochemical staining procedures for detection and identification of the cellular localization of phospho-STAT2 in the central nervous system (CNS...

  16. Immunoassay for the Detection of Animal Central Nervous Tissue in Processed Meat and Feed Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Qinchun; Richt, Juergen A; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy

    2016-05-11

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) based on the detection of the thermal-stable central nervous tissue (CNT) marker protein, myelin basic protein (MBP), was developed to detect animal CNT in processed meat and feedstuffs. Two meat samples (cooked at 100 °C for 30 min and autoclaved at 133 °C for 20 min) of bovine brain in beef and two feed samples (bovine brain meal in beef meal and in soybean meal) were prepared at levels of 0.0008, 0.0031, 0.0063, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6%. An anti-MBP monoclonal antibody (mAb3E3) was produced using the hybridoma technique and characterized using Western blot. The optimized icELISA was CNT-specific without cross-reactivity with either meat (beef and pork) or soybean meal samples and had low intra-assay (%CV ≤ 3.5) and interassay variability (%CV ≤ 3.3), with low detection limits for bovine MBP (6.4 ppb) and bovine CNT spiked in both meat (0.05%) and feed (0.0125%) samples. This assay is therefore suitable for the quantitative detection of trace amounts of contaminated animal CNT in processed food and feed products.

  17. Immunoassay for the Detection of Animal Central Nervous Tissue in Processed Meat and Feed Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Qinchun; Richt, Juergen A; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy

    2016-05-11

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) based on the detection of the thermal-stable central nervous tissue (CNT) marker protein, myelin basic protein (MBP), was developed to detect animal CNT in processed meat and feedstuffs. Two meat samples (cooked at 100 °C for 30 min and autoclaved at 133 °C for 20 min) of bovine brain in beef and two feed samples (bovine brain meal in beef meal and in soybean meal) were prepared at levels of 0.0008, 0.0031, 0.0063, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6%. An anti-MBP monoclonal antibody (mAb3E3) was produced using the hybridoma technique and characterized using Western blot. The optimized icELISA was CNT-specific without cross-reactivity with either meat (beef and pork) or soybean meal samples and had low intra-assay (%CV ≤ 3.5) and interassay variability (%CV ≤ 3.3), with low detection limits for bovine MBP (6.4 ppb) and bovine CNT spiked in both meat (0.05%) and feed (0.0125%) samples. This assay is therefore suitable for the quantitative detection of trace amounts of contaminated animal CNT in processed food and feed products. PMID:27109117

  18. Data on Vietnam Era Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterans Administration, Washington, DC. Office of the Controller.

    Statistical data are presented on Vietnam era veterans for the following topics: employment status, medical status, compensation and pension, education, housing assistance, expenditures, and demographic information. The estimated number and age of veterans in civil life, categorized by sex and state, and the educational attainment of veterans at…

  19. Vietnam in the 1980s: price reforms and stabilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. LEUNG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Before the 1980s, Vietnam was modelled as a centrally-planned economy (CPE along the same lines as the Soviet economy. During the 1980-88 period a kind of 'modified' planned economy (MPE developed in which some partial reforms were effected within the CPE framework. These reforms and Vietnam's latest plans and reforms are surveyed. Economic reform measures in 1985 focused on the insignificant monetary overhang problem, which involved 'forced' money holdings by households owing to shortages in consumer goods. At the same time, it failed to address the problem of 'flow' of net domestic credit extended to the government and state-owned enterprises. Confiscatory monetary reform aggravated the situation as it reduced the demand for real balances. Budgetary and credit limits and shifts in asset portfolio choices by the Vietnamese, on the other hand, were responsible for the success of the 1989 reforms.

  20. Mental health priorities in Vietnam: a mixed-methods analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemi Maria

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mental Health Country Profile is a tool that was generated by the International Mental Health Policy and Services Project to inform policy makers, professionals and other key stakeholders about important issues which need to be considered in mental health policy development. The Mental Health Country Profile contains four domains, which include the mental health context, resources, provision and outcomes. We have aimed to generate a Mental Health Country Profile for Vietnam, in order to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the Vietnamese mental health situation, in order to inform future reform efforts and decision-making. Methods This study used snowball sampling to identify informants for generating a Mental Health Country Profile for Vietnam, and the data gathering was done through semi-structured interviews and collection of relevant reports and documents. The material from the interviews and documents was analysed according to qualitative content analysis. Results Marked strengths of the Vietnam mental health system are the aims to move toward community management and detection of mental illness, and the active involvement of several multilateral organizations and NGOs. However, there are a number of shortages still found, including the lack of treatment interventions apart from medications, the high proportion of treatments to be paid out-of-pocket, prominence of large tertiary psychiatric hospitals, and a lack of preventative measures or mental health information to the public. Conclusions At the end of this decade, mental health care in Vietnam is still characterised by unclear policy and poor critical mass especially within the governmental sector. This initial attempt to map the mental health situation of Vietnam suffers from a number of limitations and should be seen as a first step towards a comprehensive profile.

  1. Hoya thuathienhuensis and Hoya graveolens (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae), a new species and a new record for the Flora of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Rodda, M.; Trân, Thê Bách; Simonsson Juhonewe, N.; Sâm, Lý Ngọc

    2012-01-01

    A new species from the Annamite mountain range of central Vietnam, Hoya thuathienhuensis, is here described and illustrated. Its flowers bear similarity with Hoya lockii, a taxon recently described from the same area with which it shares the reflexed corolla and the thin coriaceous laves. Hoya lockii is an epiphytic shrub, whereas H. thuathienhuensis is a strong climbing liana. We also report the noteworthy extension into southern Vietnam of Hoya graveolens, a taxon previously considered to b...

  2. Satellite-based detection of volcanic sulphur dioxide from recent eruptions in Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Loyola

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions can emit large amounts of rock fragments and fine particles (ash into the atmosphere, as well as several gases, including sulphur dioxide (SO2. These ejecta and emissions are a major natural hazard, not only to the local population, but also to the infrastructure in the vicinity of volcanoes and to aviation. Here, we describe a methodology to retrieve quantitative information about volcanic SO2 plumes from satellite-borne measurements in the UV/Visible spectral range. The combination of a satellite-based SO2 detection scheme and a state-of-the-art 3D trajectory model enables us to confirm the volcanic origin of trace gas signals and to estimate the plume height and the effective emission height. This is demonstrated by case-studies for four selected volcanic eruptions in South and Central America, using the GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 instruments.

  3. Epidemiology of bovine hemoprotozoa parasites in cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    WEERASOORIYA, Gayani; SIVAKUMAR, Thillaiampalam; LAN, Dinh Thi Bich; LONG, Phung Thang; TAKEMAE, Hitoshi; IGARASHI, Ikuo; INOUE, Noboru; YOKOYAMA, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    A PCR-based survey of hemoprotozoa parasites detected Babesia bigemina, Theileria orientalis and Trypanosoma theileri among cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam, and a new Babesia sp. closely related to Babesia ovata was detected in cattle only. In addition, Theileria annulata and Trypanosoma evansi were not detected in both cattle and water buffalo. Phylogenetic analysis detected T. orientalis MPSP genotypes 3, 5, 7 and N3 in cattle and 5, 7, N1 and N2 in water buffalo. Additionally, water buffalo-derived T. theileri CATL sequences clustered together with a previously reported cattle-derived sequence from Vietnam. This is the first report of a new Babesia sp. in cattle, and T. orientalis MPSP genotype 7 and T. theileri in water buffalo in Vietnam. PMID:27149894

  4. The First Chinese Emperor in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Vietnam,a close neighbor of China,was influenced by the Chinese Culture for generations.In history,Vietnam had been under the administration and protection of ancient Chinese imperial court for a long period of time.The first Chinese emperor in Vietnam,who can be traced far back to Qin and Han dynasty,is referred to as the oldest emperor worldwide, His name was Zhao Tuo,

  5. China-Vietnam Friendship Bringing Light Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Vietnam Union of Friendship Organizations (VUFO),a delegation headed by CPAFFC Vice President Feng Zuoku and composed of a medical team from Beijing Tongren Hospital made a"China-Vietnam Friendship Bringing Light Tour to Vietnam"from November 13 to 20,2009 and gave free cataract surgery to about 100 patients in Bac Giang Province.

  6. Launching Nuoc Phan Lan brand in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Huydong

    2015-01-01

    Environmental issues are emerging as another side of economic development in Vietnam. From Finland, through its strong network in South East Asia, Finnish Water Forum recognised the opportunity and the need of having a Finnish brand promoting Finnish water expertise in the environmental sector, especially water treatment in Vietnam. The research objective is to launch the brand successfully in Vietnam within 2014. In order to achieve that, this paper describes carefully the process of bu...

  7. Betweenness centrality and its applications from modeling traffic flows to network community detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yihui

    network and we demonstrate that the changes can propagate globally, affecting traffic several hundreds of miles away. Because of its principled nature, this method can inform many applications related to human mobility driven flows in spatial networks, ranging from transportation, through urban planning to mitigation of the effects of catastrophic events. In the second part of the thesis we focus on network deconstruction and community detection problems, both intensely studied topics in network science, using a weighted betweenness centrality approach. We present an algorithm that solves both problems efficiently and accurately and demonstrate that on both benchmark networks and data networks.

  8. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísis Assis Braga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5% cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4% cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned.

  9. Detection of nonylphenol and persistent organic pollutants in fish from the North Pacific Central Gyre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassel, Margy; Harwani, Suhash; Park, June-Soo; Jahn, Andrew

    2013-08-15

    Despite scientific and public concern, research on food web contamination from chemicals in plastic is limited, and distinguishing plastic sources from prey remains a challenge. We analyzed juvenile yellowtail (Seriola lalandi) from the North Pacific Central Gyre for plastic ingestion and tissue concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and nonionic surfactants to investigate potential contamination from plastic exposure. Ingestion of synthetic debris occurred in ~10% of the sample population. PCBs and DDTs were 352±240 (mean±SD) and 1425±1118 ng/g lw, respectively. PBDEs were 9.08±10.6 ng/g lw, with BDEs-47, 99, and 209 representing 90% of PBDEs. Nonylphenol (NP) was detected in one-third of the yellowtail with a mean of 52.8±88.5 ng/g ww overall and 167±72.3 ng/g ww excluding non-detects. Because environmental NP is strongly associated with wastewater treatment effluents, long-range transport is unlikely, and NP was previously measured in gyre plastic, we concluded that plastic-mediated exposure best explained our findings of NP in yellowtail. PMID:23746941

  10. Strengthening global health security capacity--Vietnam demonstration project, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phu Dac; Vu, Long Ngoc; Nguyen, Hien Tran; Phan, Lan Trong; Lowe, Wayne; McConnell, Michelle S; Iademarco, Michael F; Partridge, Jeffrey M; Kile, James C; Do, Trang; Nadol, Patrick J; Bui, Hien; Vu, Diep; Bond, Kyle; Nelson, David B; Anderson, Lauren; Hunt, Kenneth V; Smith, Nicole; Giannone, Paul; Klena, John; Beauvais, Denise; Becknell, Kristi; Tappero, Jordan W; Dowell, Scott F; Rzeszotarski, Peter; Chu, May; Kinkade, Carl

    2014-01-31

    Over the past decade, Vietnam has successfully responded to global health security (GHS) challenges, including domestic elimination of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and rapid public health responses to human infections with influenza A(H5N1) virus. However, new threats such as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and influenza A(H7N9) present continued challenges, reinforcing the need to improve the global capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to public health threats. In June 2012, Vietnam, along with many other nations, obtained a 2-year extension for meeting core surveillance and response requirements of the 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR). During March-September 2013, CDC and the Vietnamese Ministry of Health (MoH) collaborated on a GHS demonstration project to improve public health emergency detection and response capacity. The project aimed to demonstrate, in a short period, that enhancements to Vietnam's health system in surveillance and early detection of and response to diseases and outbreaks could contribute to meeting the IHR core capacities, consistent with the Asia Pacific Strategy for Emerging Diseases. Work focused on enhancements to three interrelated priority areas and included achievements in 1) establishing an emergency operations center (EOC) at the General Department of Preventive Medicine with training of personnel for public health emergency management; 2) improving the nationwide laboratory system, including enhanced testing capability for several priority pathogens (i.e., those in Vietnam most likely to contribute to public health emergencies of international concern); and 3) creating an emergency response information systems platform, including a demonstration of real-time reporting capability. Lessons learned included awareness that integrated functions within the health system for GHS require careful planning, stakeholder buy-in, and intradepartmental and interdepartmental coordination and

  11. Vietnam stock market liberalisation's effect

    OpenAIRE

    Khuc, Minh Hieu

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation examine the effect of stock market liberalisation upon the Vietnam economy and shows the changes during liberalisation period. The stock return and stock return volatility were tested using a generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity model. The stock return was found to be increased after market was liberalised. The stock return volatility, however show no sign of increasing. The effect upon economic growth, inflation and private investment growth was also d...

  12. Amorphophallus kienluongensis (Araceae), a new species from the Mekong Delta, Southern Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, V.D.; Luu, H.T.; Nguyen, Q.D.; Hetterscheid, W.L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Amorphophallus kienluongensis is described as a new species from southern Vietnam. It is morphologically close to A. brevispathus Gagnep. (Thailand) and A. prolificus Hett. & A.Galloway (Thailand). However, it differs from both these species by a stigma with a central depression and an obconic male

  13. Eco-modernizing small en medium-sized agro-industries in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Hong Nhat,

    2007-01-01

    Following ‘Doi Moi’ (Renovation), which started in 1986, the former centrally planned economy in Vietnam is shifting to an economy where production is linked to market demand and consumption. As a result, the nation has been enjoying an unprecedentedly fast economic growth, especially in recent year

  14. Fetal Central Nervous System Anomalies Detected by Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Two-Year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Sefidbakht

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is gradually becoming more common for thorough visualization of the fetus than ultrasound (US, especially for neurological anomalies, which are the most common indications for fetal MRI and are a matter of concern for both families and society. Objectives We investigated fetal MRIs carried out in our center for frequency of central nervous system anomalies. This is the first such report in southern Iran. Materials and Methods One hundred and seven (107 pregnant women with suspicious fetal anomalies in prenatal ultrasound entered a cross-sectional retrospective study from 2011 to 2013. A 1.5 T Siemens Avanto scanner was employed for sequences, including T2 HASTE and Trufisp images in axial, coronal, and sagittal planes to mother’s body, T2 HASTE and Trufisp relative to the specific fetal body part being evaluated, and T1 flash images in at least one plane based on clinical indication. We investigated any abnormality in the central nervous system and performed descriptive analysis to achieve index of frequency. Results Mean gestational age ± standard deviation (SD for fetuses was 25.54 ± 5.22 weeks, and mean maternal age ± SD was 28.38 ± 5.80 years Eighty out of 107 (74.7% patients who were referred with initial impression of borderline ventriculomegaly. A total of 18 out of 107 (16.82% patients were found to have fetuses with CNS anomalies and the remainder were neurologically normal. Detected anomalies were as follow: 3 (16.6% fetuses each had the Dandy-Walker variant and Arnold-Chiari II (with myelomeningocele. Complete agenesis of corpus callosum, partial agenesis of corpus callosum, and aqueductal stenosis were each seen in 2 (11.1% fetuses. Arnold-Chiari II without myelomeningocele, anterior spina bifida associated with neurenteric cyst, arachnoid cyst, lissencephaly, and isolated enlarged cisterna magna each presented in one (5.5% fetus. One fetus had concomitant schizencephaly and complete

  15. Analysis of Regionally Detected Icequakes Using the STEEP Network, South-Central AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neel, S.; Leblanc, L.; Larsen, C.; Truffer, M.; Hansen, R.; Rupert, N.; Pavlis, G.; None, N.

    2007-12-01

    Glaciers produce seismic energy that is detectable from local to teleseismic distances. Glaciolgical processes including calving, surface crevassing, basal sliding and other, yet unresolved source processes are capable of producing recordable seismicity. Twenty-two broadband sensors deployed in south-central Alaska during the SainT Elias TEctonics and Erosion Project (STEEP) provide an excellent means to study glacier-generated seismicity at regional distances. These instruments surround over 7500 km2 of glacier area including the Bering Glacier, Bagley Icefield and the tidewater calving glaciers of Icy Bay (Yahtse, Guyot, Tyndal). Our analysis shows that icequakes nominally occur several times hourly, and can be separated from tectonic seismicity using their unique spectral characteristics and hypocenter locations. The events typically propagate over 50-75 km distances, but occasionally are recorded at stations over 150 km away from the energy source. Hypocenters for more than 1000 events were manually calculated through a 26-day interval during October 2006, and suggest that a majority of the icequakes are associated with calving at tidewater glaciers that terminate in Icy Bay. Events with similar time and frequency domain characteristics also occur at locations away from calving fronts, but less often, and their mechanical origin remains undetermined. Automated detections from a frequency domain event detector exhibit strong correlation with the handpicked time series, and extend our analysis to all available data collected during 2006. We present the time distribution of several categories of icequakes and compare these distributions to environmental variables such as precipitation, temperature and tides to explore potential forcing for observed variability in icequake occurrence.

  16. Vietnam kan nieuwe bron voor kokkels worden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Wageningse onderzoekers gaan Vietnam helpen om de puntjes op de i te zetten bij hun monitoringsprogramma voor de voedselveiligheid van schaal- en schelpdieren, en ze bijscholen in risicomanagement en HACCP-audits. Want Vietnam wil graag de controles op visproductie verbeteren en meer kokkels, mossel

  17. Educational Reform and Teacher Education in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the current state and a challenge faced by teachers and teacher education in Vietnam, and analyzes international aid projects providing support to teacher education there. It is necessary to grasp changes in teacher education in Vietnam in the context of the current comprehensive reform of education, which has been greatly…

  18. Financing Vietnam's Response to Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Vietnam Ministry of Planning and Investment; World Bank Group; United Nations Development Programme

    2015-01-01

    Climate-related hazards have adverse effects on national growth and poverty reduction, affecting the poor and several sectors of the economy simultaneously. At its current rate of growth, Vietnam will become a major global greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter. The Government of Vietnam initiated the Climate Public Expenditure and Investment Review (CPEIR) to advance an understanding of the current...

  19. A STUDY ON UNIVERSAL SERVICE IN VIETNAM FROM AN INSTITUTIONAL PERSPECTIVE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do Manh, Thai; Falch, Morten; Williams, Idongesit

    2016-01-01

    Applying the institutional theory to examine the universal services policy in Vietnam, the paper looked at the institutional factors influencing the formulation and deployment of “the Program on provision of universal service till 2010”. The formulation of universal services policy in Vietnam was...... services, and households could get the same subsidies from two or three operators. The outcome of this paper recommends that the central government should emphasize the role of DICs and encourage them to be more involved in the formulation and implementation of universal services policy....

  20. 45 CFR 506.10 - “Vietnam conflict” defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 506.10 “Vietnam conflict” defined. Vietnam conflict refers to the period beginning February 28, 1961... “Vietnam conflict” for purposes of payment of interest on missing military service members' deposits in the... ending date for the Vietnam conflict for purposes of determining eligibility for compensation under 50...

  1. Vietnam: The Political Economy of Education in a "Socialist" Periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Jonathan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article I examine historic changes in the goals, conduct and outcomes of education policies in Vietnam from the 1940s to the present, under the Communist Party of Vietnam. Recent studies of Vietnam's education system centre on econometric and demographic analysis of education data dating back to the early 1990s, when Vietnam began an…

  2. Lyme disease and the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in Ixodes ricinus ticks from central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Pascucci

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Province of Pesaro-Urbino, situated in the Marche Region of central Italy, can be considered to be an area at risk for Lyme disease because of its ecological features. Field data are not yet available although the disease is known to be present in neighbouring areas. During a field study lasting twelve months, ticks were collected from the vegetation, from wild cervids and also from humans who reported a tick bite at the local hospital. All ticks were identified and Ixodes ricinus specimens were tested using three different polymerase chain reaction tests for the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl. To identify the genospecies of B. burgdorferi sl, a fragment of the 5S-23S ribosomal rRNA intergenic spacer of the positive samples was amplified and then sequenced. Sequencing of the 5S-23S intergenic spacer led to the identification of two different genospecies, namely: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. lusitaniae, both of which are involved in cases of human infection. Findings on the host-tick relationships and on the genospecies involved in the cycle of borreliosis confirm the suitable conditions for Lyme disease in the study area. The results concur with previous findings reported in the Mediterranean region.

  3. Malware Detection Module using Machine Learning Algorithms to Assist in Centralized Security in Enterprise Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyank Singhal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Malicious software is abundant in a world of innumerable computer users, who are constantly faced withthese threats from various sources like the internet, local networks and portable drives. Malware is potentially low to high risk and can cause systems to function incorrectly, steal data and even crash.Malware may be executable or system library files in the form of viruses, worms, Trojans, all aimed atbreaching the security of the system and compromising user privacy. Typically, anti-virus software is based on a signature definition system which keeps updating from the internet and thus keeping track of known viruses. While this may be sufficient for home-users, a security risk from a new virus could threaten an entire enterprise network. This paper proposes a new and more sophisticated antivirus engine that can not only scan files, but also build knowledge and detect files as potential viruses. This is done by extracting system API calls made by various normal and harmful executable, and using machine learning algorithms to classify and hence, rank files on a scale of security risk. While such a system is processor heavy, it is very effective when used centrally to protect an enterprise network which maybe more prone to such threats.

  4. Interannual variability of rainy season in Vietnam during 1951-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, D. L.; Matsumoto, J.; Ngo, T. D.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, interannual variations of onset and withdrawal dates of rainy season in Vietnam during the period of 1951-2007 are investigated by using the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and Pettitt-Mann-Whitney test. The results suggest remarkably spatio-temporal differences of seasonal march of rainfall among sub-climatic regions of Vietnam. In detail, the first dominant EOF mode represents the increase rainfall over northern and southern area during summer regime while the second mode reveals the autumn-winter rainy season on central coastal plain. The summer rainy season onset occurs in May 5th on the average, with the standard deviation of 8 days, and the withdrawal is generally found around late October. Inversely, the seasonal march of rainfall in central coastal plain has the average onset and withdrawal dates is in late August and mid- following January, respectively. The summer rainy season in northern and southern area starts simultaneously with the northeastward shift of the Western North Pacific sub-tropical high and the evolution of summer monsoon westerlies. While its withdrawal phase is typically related to the full prevailing northeasterly winter monsoon circulation and stable establishment of the cold high-pressure area over China mainland. Conversely, the retreat of summer monsoon in early autumn indeed signifies the beginning of autumn-winter rainy season over the central coastal plain. That rainy season begins to end when the cold high weakened and shifted eastward to form a ridge over the ocean in mid- to late winter. Particularly, it also causes the increase of rainfall amount in the northern area as a result of more moisture brought from the South China Sea by the easterly wind, which originating from southeastern periphery of the ridge. The Mann-Kendall trend analysis using block bootstrap detected advances in onset of summer- and withdrawal of autumn-winter rainy season in recent decades at the 90% significance level. In case

  5. Remote sensing analysis for fault-zones detection in the Central Andean Plateau (Catamarca, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traforti, Anna; Massironi, Matteo; Zampieri, Dario; Carli, Cristian

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been extensively used to detect the structural framework of investigated areas, which includes lineaments, fault zones and fracture patterns. The identification of these features is fundamental in exploration geology, as it allows the definition of suitable sites for the exploitation of different resources (e.g. ore mineral, hydrocarbon, geothermal energy and groundwater). Remote sensing techniques, typically adopted in fault identification, have been applied to assess the geological and structural framework of the Laguna Blanca area (26°35'S-66°49'W). This area represents a sector of the south-central Andes localized in the Argentina region of Catamarca, along the south-eastern margin of the Puna plateau. The study area is characterized by a Precambrian low-grade metamorphic basement intruded by Ordovician granitoids. These rocks are unconformably covered by a volcano-sedimentary sequence of Miocene age, followed by volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of Upper Miocene to Plio-Pleistocene age. All these units are cut by two systems of major faults, locally characterized by 15-20 m wide damage zones. The detection of main tectonic lineaments in the study area was firstly carried out by classical procedures: image sharpening of Landsat 7 ETM+ images, directional filters applied to ASTER images, medium resolution Digital Elevation Models analysis (SRTM and ASTER GDEM) and hill shades interpretation. In addition, a new approach in fault zone identification, based on multispectral satellite images classification, has been tested in the Laguna Blanca area and in other sectors of south-central Andes. In this perspective, several prominent fault zones affecting basement and granitoid rocks have been sampled. The collected fault gouge samples have been analyzed with a Field-Pro spectrophotometer mounted on a goniometer. We acquired bidirectional reflectance spectra, from 0.35μm to 2.5μm with 1nm spectral sampling, of the sampled fault rocks

  6. Simultaneous detection of both GDNF and GFRα1 expression patterns in the mouse central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Ortega-de San Luis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF is proposed as a therapeutic tool in Parkinson’s disease, addiction-related disorders, and neurodegenerative conditions affecting motor neurons. Despite the high amount of work about GDNF therapeutic application, the neuronal circuits requiring GDNF trophic support in the brain and spinal cord are poorly characterized. Here, we defined GDNF and GDNF family receptor-α 1 (GFRα1 expression pattern in the brain and spinal cord of newborn and adult mice. We performed systematic and simultaneous detection of EGFP and LacZ expressing alleles in reporter mice and asked whether modifications of this signaling pathway lead to a significant central nervous system (CNS alteration. GFRα1 was predominantly expressed by neurons but also by an unexpected population of non-neuronal cells. GFRα1 expression pattern was wider in neonatal than in adult CNS and GDNF expression was restricted in comparison with GFRα1 at both developmental time points. The use of confocal microscopy to imaging X-gal deposits and EGFP allowed us to identify regions containing cells that expressed both proteins and to discriminate between auto and non-autotrophic signaling. We also suggested long-range GDNF-GFRα1 circuits taking advantage of the ability of the EGFP genetically encoded reporter to label long distance projecting axons. The complete elimination of either the ligand or the receptor during development did not produce major abnormalities, suggesting a preponderant role for GDNF signaling during adulthood. In the spinal cord, our results pointed to local modulatory interneurons as the main target of GDNF produced by Clarke’s column cells. Our work increases the understanding on how GDNF signals in the CNS and establish a crucial framework for posterior studies addressing either the biological role of GDNF or the optimization of trophic factor-based therapies.

  7. Molecular detection of vector-borne bacteria and protozoa in healthy hunting dogs from Central Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valentina; Virginia; Ebani; Simona; Nardoni; Giulia; Fognani; Linda; Mugnaini; Fabrizio; Bertelloni; Guido; Rocchigiani; Roberto; Amerigo; Papini; Francesco; Stefani; Francesca; Mancianti

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the pi’evalence of vector-bome bacteria and protozoa in hunting dogs living in Central Italy.Methods:Molecular testing was executed on DNA which was extracted from blood specimens collected from 117 asymptomatic dogs to detect Anaplasma phagocytophilum,Babesia canis(B.canis),Bartonella spp..Coxiella burnetii(C.burnetii).Ehrlichia canis.Hepatozoon canis.and Leislnnania infantum.Results:A total of 48 dogs(41.0%) were infested by Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks.Tick-borne infections were observed in 64(54.7%) animals.More in detail.38 dogs(32.5%) screened positive for Hepatozoon canis,24(20.5%) for Bartonella rinsonii subsp.berkhoffii.20(17.1%) for Leishmania infantum,6(5.1%) for C.burnetii,5(4.3%) for B.canis(3 B.canis vogeli and 2 B.canis canis),3(2.5%) for Anaplasma phagocytophilum,and 2(1.7%) for Ehrlichia canis.Mixed infection by 2 agents occurred in 17(14.5%) subjects,by 3 agents in 7(6.0%) dogs,and by 4 agents in 1(0.9%) animal.Conclusions:The results demonstrated that several vector-borne pathogens were circulating in this region and dogs infected by these agents were usually asymptomatic.A relevant finding was the presence of DNA of C.burnetii,a severe zoonotic agent,in the 5.1% of tested dogs,which can be source of infection for their owners not only through tick bites,but also directly with urine,feces and birth products.

  8. MODIS-Aqua detects Noctiluca scintillans and hotspots in the central Arabian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, R; Priyaja, P; Rafeeq, M; Sudhakar, M

    2016-01-01

    Northern Arabian Sea is considered as an ecologically sensitive area as it experiences a massive upwelling and long-lasting algal bloom, Noctiluca scintillans (green tide) during summer and spring-winter, respectively. Diatom bloom is also found to be co-located with N. scintillans and both have an impact on ecology of the basin. In-house technique of detecting species of these blooms from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua data was used to generate a time-series of images revealing their spatial distribution. A study of spatial-temporal variability of these blooms using satellite data expressed a cyclic pattern of their spread over a period of 13 years. An average distribution of the blooms for January-March period revealed a peak in 2015 and minimum in 2013. Subsequently, a time-series of phytoplankton species images were generated for these 2 years to study their inter-annual variability and the associated factors. Species images during active phase of the bloom (February) in 2015 indicated development of N. scintillans and diatom in the central Arabian Sea also, up to 12° N. This observation was substantiated with relevant oceanic parameters measured from the ship as well as satellite data and the same is highlight of the paper. While oxygen depletion and release of ammonia associated with N. scintillans are detrimental for waters on the western side; it is relatively less extreme and supports the entire food chain on the eastern side. In view of these contrasting eco-sensitive events, it is a matter of concern to identify biologically active persistent areas, hot spots, in order to study their ecology in detail. An ecological index, persistence of the bloom, was derived from the time-series of species images and it is another highlight of our study. PMID:26690080

  9. Cancer incidence in Australian Vietnam veterans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E.; Horsley, K. [Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs (Australia); Hoek, R. van der [Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    Australian Defence Force (ADF) personnel participated in the Vietnam Conflict from 1962 to 1973, involving nearly 60,000 personnel, of whom over 500 died during service and 3131 were severely physically wounded. Service in the Vietnam conflict presented distinct health challenges. Besides the hazards of combat conditions for extended periods, herbicides and other toxic chemicals were used extensively. The United States military sprayed more than 76,000,000L of herbicide over Vietnam in their Air Force Ranch Hand and Operation Trail Dust programs. The most heavily used herbicide was Agent Orange, contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin. Since the Vietnam conflict, ex-Service organisations (ESOs) have maintained that Vietnam service adversely affected the health of veterans. Initial studies showed no excess risk attributable to their service. However, more recent studies have shown that Vietnam veterans have excess incidence and mortality rates from several conditions such as cancers and heart disease. This paper describes the first cancer incidence study for all ADF Vietnam veterans.

  10. Secondary dengue virus type 4 infections in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchy, Philippe; Vo, Van Luong; Bui, Khanh Toan; Trinh, Thi Xuan Mai; Glaziou, Philippe; Le, Thi Thu Ha; Le, Viet Lo; Bui, Trong Chien

    2005-01-01

    This study was designated to describe clinical and biological features of patients with a suspected diagnosis of dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever during an outbreak in Central Vietnam. One hundred and twenty-five consecutive patients hospitalized at Khanh Hoa and Binh Thuan Provincial hospitals between November 2001 and January 2002 with a diagnosis of suspected dengue infection were included in the present study. Viruses were isolated in C6/36 and VERO E6 cell cultures or detected by RT-PCR. A hemagglutination-inhibition test (HI) was done on each paired sera using dengue antigens type 1-4, Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus antigen, Chickungunya virus antigen and Sindbis virus antigen. Anti-dengue and anti-JE virus IgM were measured by a capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA). Anti-dengue and anti-JE virus IgG were measured by an ELISA test. Dengue viruses were isolated in cell culture and/or detected by RT-PCR in 20.8% of blood samples. DEN-4 and DEN-2 serotypes were found in 18.4% and 2.4% of the patients, respectively. A total of 86.4% of individuals had a diagnosis of acute dengue fever by using the HI test and/or dengue virus-specific IgM capture-ELISA and/or virus isolation and/or RT-PCR. The prevalence of primary and secondary acute dengue infection was 4% and 78.4%, respectively. Anti-dengue IgG ELISA test was positive in 88.8% of the patients. In 5 cases (4%), Japanese encephalitis virus infection was positive by serology but the cell culture was negative. No Chickungunya virus or Sindbis virus infection was detected by the HI test. In patients with acute dengue virus infection, the most common presenting symptom was headache, followed by conjunctivitis, petechial rash, muscle and joint pain, nausea and abdominal pain. Four percent of hospitalized patients were classified as dengue hemorrhagic fever. The clinical presentation and blood cell counts were similar between patients hospitalized with acute dengue fever and patients with other

  11. Exporting and Productivity: Learning from Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn;

    2016-01-01

    For Africa to industrialise and develop, it must learn from successful cases of structural transformation. Just two decades ago, Vietnam had a level of per capita income and structural characteristics similar to many African economies. In the meantime, Vietnam has with great success taken a very....... To enlarge the body of empirical evidence, we use an extensive 2005–2012 firm-level panel data set from Vietnam and separate out productivity effects of exporting due to self-selection. This allows us to conclude that firms actually learn by exporting. We also examine how this learning takes place. Our...

  12. Statistical sulcal shape comparisons: application to the detection of genetic encoding of the central sulcus shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Goualher, G; Argenti, A.M.; Duyme, M;

    2000-01-01

    encoding. When applied to real data, this study highlighted genetic constraints on the shape of the central sulcus. We found from 10 pairs of monozygotic twins that the intrapair modal distance of the central sulcus was significantly smaller than the interpair modal distance, for both the left central...... sulcus (Z = -2.66; P sulcus (Z = -2.26; P sulcus shape were confirmed by applying the same experiment to 10 pairs of normal young individuals (Z = -1.39; Z = -0.63, i.e., values not significant at the P

  13. [Vietnam and its population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veron, J

    1993-01-01

    80% rural. The population is concentrated in the Red River delta, the Mekong delta, and the southeastern region including Ho Chi Minh City. The 4 main cities are Ho Chi Minh City with 3.2 million inhabitants,. Hanoi with 1.1 million, Hai Phong with 456,000, and Da Nang with 371,000. Although internal migration has not yet assumed great weight, there has been some rural exodus and movement from poor to richer regions. The policy of population redistribution to reduce density in the Red River delta and central coastal plain and to control city growth has led to some movement. 88% of the population over 10 was literate in 1989. Almost 75% of the population over age 13 is economically active. 71% of the economically active population is employed in agriculture, 12% in industry, and 7% in commerce. If current growth trends continue, Viet Nam is projected to have a population of 80 million in 2000 and 96 million in 2014.

  14. SHARAD Detection of Subsurface Interfaces in Southern-Central Utopia Planitia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuurman, C. M.; Brothers, T. C.; Holt, J. W.; Kerrigan, M.; Osinski, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    Characterising the extent and distribution of subsurface ice in the middle-latitudes of Mars is an ongoing endeavour, with applications to both paleoclimate and future missions. Utopia Planitia has been posited as an ice-rich area by climate models, Gamma-Ray Spectrometer results suggestive of high hydrogen concentrations, and high densities of periglacial and glacial surface morphologies. The SHAllow RADar (SHARAD) instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is a radar sounder which transmits a 15-25 MHz chirped pulse. The data is recorded in the time delay and can be used to map and characterize Mars' subsurface. In the Utopia Planitia region, SHARAD data can potentially constrain modeling efforts, help locate potential water resources for future exploration, and give volumetric constraints on features that were previously only observed in two dimensions. Thus far, most mid-latitudinal reflectors using the SHARAD instrument have been associated with isolated surface morphologies, such as lobate debris aprons, lineated valley fill, and reflectors beneath volcanic flows. Recently, SHARAD radargrams over pedestal craters in the mid-latitudes have also yielded results suggestive of water-ice composition, and a massive, radar-transparent layer has been found in Arcadia Planitia. Overall, however, there has been a dearth of SHARAD evidence suggestive of the massive subsurface ice sheets predicted by climate models. This project analyzed several hundred SHARAD radargrams throughout Utopia Planitia. Subsurface reflectors were detected by visually inspecting radar data and comparing to simulated radargrams that predict off nadir surface echoes that can be confused with subsurface reflections. Regions of high amplitude subsurface reflections that do not appear in the simulated radargrams were thus interpreted as reflectors represenative of geologic contacts. SHARAD analysis revealed several reflectors in the Southern-Central Utopia Planitia region. These reflectors were

  15. Lessons from Vietnam's first marine park

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, C

    1994-01-01

    The recent establishment of a marine park in Vietnam offers lessons for future marine reserves in the country as well as for other countries considering their establishment. These lessons are contained in this brief article.

  16. The 2003 Merged Model for Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Tarp, Finn

    domestic credit, private domestic credit, and private net foreign debt, are discussed with reference to historical time series data. Accordingly, the current monograph facilitates the future implementation of the Merged Model for Vietnam by going through the main considerations necessary...

  17. Building an Extension Network in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussard, H.

    1999-01-01

    Agricultural extension in Vietnam is in transition as the economy moves to a market orientation. The national extension service created in 1993 is constrained by lack of funding, staff, and access to current extension knowledge. (SK)

  18. Central venous catheters: detection of catheter complications and therapeutical options; Zentralvenoese Katheter: Diagnostik von Komplikationen und therapeutische Optionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebauer, B.; Beck, A. [Universitaetsmedizin Charite, Berlin (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde; Wagner, H.J. [Vivantes-Kliniken, Friedrichshain und Am Urban, Berlin (Germany). Radiologie; Vivantes-Kliniken, Hellersdorf und Prenzlauer Berg (Germany). Radiologie

    2008-06-15

    For modern medicine central venous catheters play an important role for diagnostic and therapeutic options. Catheter implantation, complication detection and therapy of catheter complications are an increasing demand for the radiologist. The review article provides an overview of different catheter types, their indications, advantages and disadvantages. Catheter malpositions are usually detectable in conventional X-ray. Most malpositions are correctable using interventional-radiological techniques. In addition therapeutical options for thrombotic complications (venous thrombosis, catheter occlusion, fibrin sheath) are discussed. In case of an infectious catheter complication, usually a catheter extraction and re-implantation is necessary.

  19. Multidimensional Poverty: First Evidence from Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Ha; Nguyen, Cuong Van; Phung, Tung

    2014-01-01

    This study examines multidimensional poverty in Vietnam using the method of Alkire and Foster (2007, 2011) and household data from Vietnam Household Living Standard Surveys 2010 and 2012. The poverty is analyzed in five dimensions including health, education, insurance and social support, living condition, and social participation. The result shows that multidimensional poverty has decreased slightly during the 2010-2012 period. There is a large difference between multidimensional poverty and...

  20. Updating Poverty Maps of Vietnam using Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey 2002 and Population Census 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Viet, Cuong; Van der Weide, Roy; Tran, Ngoc Truong

    2007-01-01

    Poverty map is an important for poverty targeting in developing countries. In this study, we combine the Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey (VHLSS) in 2002 and the Population Census in 1999 to estimate poverty and inequality indexes of all provinces and districts of Vietnam in the year 2002.

  1. Flood loss assessment in Can Tho City, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, T. C.; Kreibich, H.

    2012-04-01

    Floods are recurring events in the Lower Mekong Basin resulting in loss of life and property, causing damage to agriculture and rural infrastructure, and disrupting social and economic activities. Flood management and mitigation has become a priority issue at the national and regional levels. Besides, it is expected that large areas of the Mekong delta, the Red River delta and the central coast will be flooded by sea-level rise due to climate change. Can Tho City is ranked under the five most flood-tide-influenced cities of Vietnam. It is the biggest city in the Mekong delta and it is located near the Hau river. Like other region of the Mekong delta, Can Tho suffers due to floods from upstream and flood tides from the sea. In the flood season large rural areas of the city are flooded, particularly during tidal days. Flood risk management policy includes preparative measures for living with floods and to minimise the damage caused by floods as well as to take advantage of floods for sustainable development. An intensive literature review, including administrative reports as well as expert interviews have been undertaken to gain more insight into flood characteristics, their consequences and risk mitigation. Therefore, flood damaging processes and trends have been reviewed for Can Tho City and the Mekong Basin in Vietnam. Additionally, suitable flood damage estimation methodologies have been collected as important input for flood risk analyses. On this basis it has been investigated which flood risk mitigation and management strategies promise to be effective in Can Tho City, Vietnam.

  2. Utilisation agricole de plantes aquatiques, notamment en tant qu'amendement des sols, dans la province de Thua Thien Hue, Centre Vietnam. 1. Inventaire, abondance et caractérisation chimique des plantes aquatiques disponibles localement.

    OpenAIRE

    Ancion, PY.; Hoang Thi Thai Hoa; Ton That, P.; Pham Khanh, T.; Chiang, CN.; Dufey, JE

    2009-01-01

    Agricultura Use of Aquatic Plants, mainly as Soil Amendment, in the Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. 1. Inventory, Abundance and Chemical Characterization of Collected Plants. The use of aquatic plants for various purposes, and notably as organic amendment for sandy soils with low inherent fertility is a frequent empirical practice in Central Vietnam. In the Thua Thien Hue Province, the Tam Giang lagoon covering 22,000 ha represents a source of exogenous biomass potentially important...

  3. Detection of east/central/south African genotype of chikungunya virus in Myanmar, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun, Mya Myat Ngwe; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Aoki, Kotaro; Kyaw, Aung Kyaw; Myint, Tin; Tar, Thi; Maung, Kay Thwe Thwe; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Morita, Kouichi

    2014-08-01

    In 2010, chikungunya virus of the East Central South African genotype was isolated from 4 children in Myanmyar who had dengue-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to isolates from China, Thailand, and Malaysia that harbor the A226V mutation in this gene.

  4. Detection of East/Central/South African Genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Myanmar, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Tun, Mya Myat Ngwe; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Aoki, Kotaro; Kyaw, Aung Kyaw; Myint, Tin; Tar, Thi; Maung, Kay Thwe Thwe; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Morita, Kouichi

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, chikungunya virus of the East Central South African genotype was isolated from 4 children in Myanmyar who had dengue-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to isolates from China, Thailand, and Malaysia that harbor the A226V mutation in this gene.

  5. Industrial Clustering Policy and Economic Restructuring in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Thi Thanh Hong; Nguyen, Binh Giang

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the industrial agglomeration and evaluates the industrial clustering policy in Vietnam. Base on the Kuchiki flowchart on the building of industrial clustering policy for developing countries, the authors suggest a policy framework for Vietnam.

  6. Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    As a Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Viet Nam will make its strong effort to implement the UNFCCC through effective activities in order to reduce GHG emissions as well as enhance carbon sinks in the country. The UNEP/GEF Project `Economics of GHG Limitation - Phase 1: Establishment of a Methodological Framework for Climate Change Mitigation Assessment` developed by the UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) in cooperation with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has been deployed in Viet Nam since 1996. The project deals with GHG mitigation analysis and options, focusing on the main issues: a) Associated macro-economics, b) Energy, c) Land use and forestry. For this study, a number of different data related to energy, industry, forestry and agriculture sectors as well as Viet Nam socio-economic development up to the year 2030, are collected. Besides, several models such as MEDEE-S, EFOM-ENV, COMAP are applied for development and assessment of GHG mitigation options in the next decades. The MEDEE-S and EFOM-ENV models are used as a tool for determining the cost-effective strategies to abate GHG emissions for energy sector while COMAP model is applied for forestry sector. (au) 39 refs.

  7. Primary factors influencing online shopping behavior in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Ngoc Thao Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Recently, in Vietnam, e-commerce is growing significantly, and the growth rate of Vietnam online shopping is among the highest in the Asia-Pacific region. The purpose of this thesis was to examine and get a deep understanding of factors affecting online shopping behavior in Vietnam. Price, Trust, Convenience, and Products were identified as important factors. Another purpose of this thesis is to, based on the results, give suggestions for an electronics manufacturer and retailer in Vietnam – ...

  8. Understanding responsible innovation in small producers’ clusters in Northern Vietnam : A grounded theory approach to globalization and poverty alleviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voeten, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The PhD thesis explores new economic dynamics within poor small producers’ clusters in craft villages in northern Vietnam; a country in full economic swing after market economy reforms and opening up to the world. The central research question of the thesis - positioned in current debates about pove

  9. Assessing decentralised policy implementation in Vietnam : The case of land recovery and resettlement in the Vung Ang Economic Zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. de Wit (Joop); L. Viet Sang (Luong); L. Van Chien (Le); L. Thu Hien (Luong); H. Viet Hung (Ha); D. Thi Anh Tuyet (Dang); D. Ngoc Bau (Dao); Q. Hoa (Quang); M. Thi Thanh Tam (Mai)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractFrom 2006 plans were implemented to create a deep-sea water port linked to an Economic Zone in the coastal Province of Ha Tinh, located in north central Vietnam. The multi-purpose Zone entitled ‘Vung Ang’, was to attract foreign investors, while the port would provide a link to nearby La

  10. Detection and characterization of Chlamydophila psittaci in asymptomatic feral pigeons(Columba livia domestica) in central Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ladawan; Sariya; Phirom; Prompiram; Siriporn; Tangsudjai; Kanaporn; Poltep; Tatiyanuch; Chamsai; Chalisa; Mongkolphan; Kamolphan; Rattanavibul; Verachai; Sakdajivachareon

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To detect and characterize Chlamydophila psittaci(C.psittaci) in asymptomatic feral pigeons in central Thailand.Methods:A total 814 swabs from the trachea and cloacae of 407non-clinical feral pigeons in central Thailand were collected and tested for the presence of C.psittaci.Results:A 10.8%of feral pigeons in the sample group were positive as determined by nested PCR primer specific to C.psittaci.The outer membrane protein A(orupA) gene of positive samples exhibited amino acid identity of C.psittaci ranging from 71 to 100%and were grouped in genotype B.Exceptionally,BF1676-56 isolate was closely related to Chlamydia avium with99%identification of the I6 S ribosomal(r) RNA gene.Conclusions:This is the first report on C.psittaci isolated from asymptomatic feral pigeons in Thailand,which provides knowledge for the disease status in pigeon populations in Thailand.

  11. Detection of planets in extremely weak central perturbation microlensing events via next-generation ground-based surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Sun-Ju; Koo, Jae-Rim

    2014-01-01

    Even though the recently discovered high-magnification event MOA-2010-BLG-311 had complete coverage over the peak, confident planet detection did not happen due to extremely weak central perturbations (fractional deviations of $\\lesssim 2\\%$). For confident detection of planets in extremely weak central perturbation (EWCP) events, it is necessary to have both high cadence monitoring and high photometric accuracy better than those of current follow-up observation systems.The next-generation ground-based observation project, KMTNet (Korea Microlensing Telescope Network), satisfies the conditions. We estimate the probability of occurrence of EWCP events with fractional deviations of $\\leq 2\\%$ in high-magnification events and the efficiency of detecting planets in the EWCP events using the KMTNet. From this study, we find that the EWCP events occur with a frequency of $> 50\\%$ in the case of $\\lesssim 100\\ M_{\\rm E}$ planets with separations of $0.2\\ {\\rm AU} \\lesssim d \\lesssim 20\\ {\\rm AU}$. We find that for m...

  12. Shaping the Health Policy Agenda: The Case of Safe Motherhood Policy in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Thi Thu Ha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Maternal health remains a central policy concern in Vietnam. With a commitment to achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5 target of maternal mortality rate (MMR of 70/100 000 by 2015, the Ministry of Health (MoH issued the National Plan for Safe Motherhood (NPSM 2003-2010. In 2008, reproductive health, including safe motherhood (SM became a national health target program with annual government funding. Methods A case study of how SM emerged as a political priority in Vietnam over the period 2001-2008, drawing on Kingdon’s theory of agenda-setting was conducted. A mixed method was adopted for this study of the NPSM. Results Three related streams contributed to SM priority in Vietnam: (1 the problem of high MMR was officially recognized from high-quality research, (2 the strong roles of policy champion from MoH in advocating for the needs to reducing MMR as well as support from government and donors, and (3 the national and international events, providing favorable context for this issue to emerge on policy agenda. Conclusion This paper draws on the theory of agenda-setting to analyze the Vietnam experience and to develop guidance for SM a political priority in other high maternal mortality communities.

  13. Evaluating the SEVIRI Fire Thermal Anomaly Detection Algorithm across the Central African Republic Using the MODIS Active Fire Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick H. Freeborn

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based remote sensing of active fires is the only practical way to consistently and continuously monitor diurnal fluctuations in biomass burning from regional, to continental, to global scales. Failure to understand, quantify, and communicate the performance of an active fire detection algorithm, however, can lead to improper interpretations of the spatiotemporal distribution of biomass burning, and flawed estimates of fuel consumption and trace gas and aerosol emissions. This work evaluates the performance of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI Fire Thermal Anomaly (FTA detection algorithm using seven months of active fire pixels detected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS across the Central African Republic (CAR. Results indicate that the omission rate of the SEVIRI FTA detection algorithm relative to MODIS varies spatially across the CAR, ranging from 25% in the south to 74% in the east. In the absence of confounding artifacts such as sunglint, uncertainties in the background thermal characterization, and cloud cover, the regional variation in SEVIRI’s omission rate can be attributed to a coupling between SEVIRI’s low spatial resolution detection bias (i.e., the inability to detect fires below a certain size and intensity and a strong geographic gradient in active fire characteristics across the CAR. SEVIRI’s commission rate relative to MODIS increases from 9% when evaluated near MODIS nadir to 53% near the MODIS scene edges, indicating that SEVIRI errors of commission at the MODIS scene edges may not be false alarms but rather true fires that MODIS failed to detect as a result of larger pixel sizes at extreme MODIS scan angles. Results from this work are expected to facilitate (i future improvements to the SEVIRI FTA detection algorithm; (ii the assimilation of the SEVIRI and MODIS active fire products; and (iii the potential inclusion of SEVIRI into a network of geostationary

  14. Living With the Dead: Memory and State Authority in Post-Socialist Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa T. Nguyen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The commemoration of war martyrs has been an im-portant issue in contemporary Vietnam. These collec-tive memories of war martyrs, however, do not appear independently but are organized and shaped by the powerful state machine. The state does not only control the means of remembering, but also prescribes rules for how the past should be remembered. Yet, the state’s centralized authority is not absolute, since it exposes some limits and is challenged by local agents.

  15. Water Level Flux in Household Containers in Vietnam - A Key Determinant of Aedes aegypti Population Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffery, Jason A. L.; Archie C.A. Clements; Yen Thi Nguyen; Le Hoang Nguyen; Son Hai Tran; Nghia Trung Le; Nam Sinh Vu; Ryan, Peter A; Kay, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    We examined changes in the abundance of immature Aedes aegypti at the household and water storage container level during the dry-season (June-July, 2008) in Tri Nguyen village, central Vietnam. We conducted quantitative immature mosquito surveys of 171 containers in the same 41 households, with replacement of samples, every two days during a 29-day period. We developed multi-level mixed effects regression models to investigate container and household variability in pupal abundance. The percen...

  16. Lithocarpus dahuoaiensis (Fagaceae), a new species from Lam Dong Province, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ngoc, Nguyen; Van Dung, Luong; Tagane,Shuichiro; Binh, Hoang Thi; Son, Hoang Thanh; Trung, Vo Quang; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    Lithocarpus dahuoaiensis Ngoc & L. V. Dung, a new species from the Central highland of Vietnam, is described and illustrated. The new species is morphologically similar to Lithocarpus macphailii (M. R. Hend.) Barnett or Lithocarpus encleisocarpus (Korth.) A. Camus in having completely entire leaf margin, solitary cupule, long stalks of fruits, deeply cup-shaped or turbinate cupules, with a number of horizontal filiform lines. The species differs in its nut enclosure ca. 1/2 – 2/3 of the n...

  17. Entry modes of European firms in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simonet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the entry modes of EU firms setting up operations in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: we use a case study approach on Haymarket, Cadbury, Creative Education, Fairchild, Aventis and Artemisinin and Farming International using interviews from managerial professionals in Vietnam. Findings: Despite the fact that Vietnam has been opening up for more than 20 years, licensing is the preferred entry mode because of the risks involved in venturing with local firms; that preference signals a low level commitment and a high perception of risk and state interference. In line with Vietnam transition to state - rather than private market - capitalism, a foreign company opting for a joint-venture will do so with a state-owned rather than privately-owned company. The choice of a subsidiary can be explained by the lack of trust in partners and institutions, not by improvement in the socio-political environment. Limitations: In determining the entry mode strategy, the paper focuses on the Uppsala school’s “psychic distance” (e.g. cultural distance, lack of trust rather than on firm-specific advantages (Rugman, 1980; 2006. Key-words: international entry mode; emerging markets; subsidiary; joint-venture; India; Vietnam

  18. Vietnam military service history and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritschi Lin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three decades after US and Australian forces withdrew from Vietnam, there has been much public interest in the health consequences of service in Vietnam. One controversial question is whether the risk of prostate cancer amongst Vietnam veterans is increased. This paper examines relationships between military history, family history and risk of prostate cancer in a population-based case control study. Methods Cases were selected from the Cancer Registry of Western Australia as incident cases of histologically-confirmed prostate cancer, and controls were age-matched and selected from the Western Australian electoral roll. Study participants were asked to report any military service history and details about that service. Results Between January 2001 and September 2002, 606 cases and 471 controls aged between 40–75 years were recruited. An increased prostate cancer risk was observed in men reporting they were deployed in Vietnam although this was not statistically significant (OR = 2.12; 95% CI 0.88–5.06. An increased risk was also observed in men reporting prostate cancer in fathers (OR = 1.90; 95% CI 1.20–3.00 or brothers (OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.20–3.50 diagnosed with prostate cancer. Conclusion These findings support a positive association between prostate cancer and military service history in the Vietnam war and a first degree relative family history of prostate cancer.

  19. The Lessons of the Vietnam War: Unit 13. Teacher's Manual: Strategies and Resources for Teaching the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Social Studies Education, Pittsburgh, PA.

    This teacher's manual is designed to accompany the curriculum "The Lessons of the Vietnam War." For each of 12 units of the curriculum, this manual suggests projects for student research and classroom activities. The 12 units are entitled: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and…

  20. First detection of Bacillus anthracis in feces of free-ranging raptors from central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggese, Miguel D; Noseda, Ramón P; Uhart, Marcela M; Deem, Sharon L; Ferreyra, Hebe; Romano, Marcelo C; Ferreyra-Armas, María C; Hugh-Jones, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Prevalence of anthrax spores in feces of raptors was determined from samples collected in November-December 2000 and April-May 2001 in an agricultural region of Santa Fé province, Argentina. Feces were tested from 48 birds of six raptor species. One of 14 chimango caracaras (Milvago chimango) and one of eight road-side hawks (Buteo magnirostris) tested positive. The prevalence of Bacillus anthracis spores in feces for the six species was 4% (n=48). The prevalence was 7% (n=14) for chimango caracaras, 13% for road-side hawks (n=8), and 0% for the remaining species (Burrowing owl [Speotyto cunicularia] [n=17], Swainson's hawk [Buteo swainsoni] [n=3], Aplomado falcon [Falco femoralis] [n=2], and American kestrel [Falco sparverius] [n=4]). Grouped by their feeding habits, prevalence for scavenger species was not significantly different than for predators (7% vs. 3%, P>0.999). This study provides evidence that in central Argentina scavenger and non-scavenger raptors may have a role in the epidemiology of anthrax. Long-term studies to determine the extent of this potential involvement in the epidemiology of anthrax in central Argentina are required.

  1. Detection and Characterization of Autoantibodies to Neuronal Cell-Surface Antigens in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Coevorden-Hameete, Marleen H; Titulaer, Maarten J; Schreurs, Marco W J; de Graaff, Esther; Sillevis Smitt, Peter A E; Hoogenraad, Casper C

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune encephalitis (AIE) is a group of disorders in which autoantibodies directed at antigens located on the plasma membrane of neurons induce severe neurological symptoms. In contrast to classical paraneoplastic disorders, AIE patients respond well to immunotherapy. The detection of neuronal surface autoantibodies in patients' serum or CSF therefore has serious consequences for the patients' treatment and follow-up and requires the availability of sensitive and specific diagnostic tests. This mini-review provides a guideline for both diagnostic and research laboratories that work on the detection of known surface autoantibodies and/or the identification of novel surface antigens. We discuss the strengths and pitfalls of different techniques for anti-neuronal antibody detection: (1) Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence on rat/primate brain sections; (2) Immunocytochemistry (ICC) of living cultured hippocampal neurons; and (3) Cell Based Assay (CBA). In addition, we discuss the use of immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis for the detection of novel neuronal surface antigens, which is a crucial step in further disease classification and the development of novel CBAs. PMID:27303263

  2. Detection and Characterization of Autoantibodies to Neuronal Cell-Surface Antigens in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen eVan Coevorden-Hameete

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune encephalitis (AIE is a group of disorders in which autoantibodies directed at antigens located on the plasma membrane of neurons induce severe neurological symptoms. In contrast to classical paraneoplastic disorders, AIE patients respond well to immunotherapy. The detection of neuronal surface autoantibodies in patients’ serum or CSF therefore has serious consequences for the patients’ treatment and follow-up and requires the availability of sensitive and specific diagnostic tests. This mini-review provides a guideline for both diagnostic and research laboratories that work on the detection of known surface autoantibodies and/or the identification of novel surface antigens. We discuss the strengths and pitfalls of different techniques for anti-neuronal antibody detection: 1 Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence on rat/ primate brain sections, 2 Immunocytochemistry of living cultured hippocampal neurons, 3 Cell Based Assay (CBA. In addition, we discuss the use of immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis for the detection of novel neuronal surface antigens, which is a crucial step in further disease classification and the development of novel CBAs.

  3. India-Vietnam Trade : Current Relations and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Mehta

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyse the level, growth and composition of India-Vietnam Trade in goods, identify sectors/products in which India has export potential in Vietnam, if a duty free regime is agreed between India and Vietnam, and examine the implication of India-Vietnam bilateral free trade agreement. Our preliminary results show that India has export potential in number of sectors, if a duty free regime is agreed between Indian and Vietnam. The identified commodity group...

  4. Technique de lombriculture au Sud Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haubruge E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Vermicomposting technique in South Vietnam. Earthworms play a major role in organic matter transformation. The vermicomposting allows to combine several advantages: the management of diversified organic wastes, and the production of earthworms and vermicompost. Crop residues and other plant wastes mixed with animal manure from individual farms can be used. In South Vietnam, farmers are rearing some livestock and growing a few number of crop species. From several years, an increasing number of vermicomposting units were set in many farms from the Ho Chi Minh City region. Two kinds of infrastructure materials are used: baked clay blocks or bamboo stems with plastic covers. In South Vietnam, all conditions are pooled to ensure an efficient earthworm production: suitable climate, available organic wastes and materials to build the vermicomposting structures. Both field plot fertility and protein feed for livestock (pigs, poultry, etc. can be provided by rearing earthworms.

  5. The Independence of Vietnam Regulatory Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field of peaceful purposes, the activity of nuclear agencies is often divided into 2 systems: the nuclear application system and the safety system. Depending on the magnitude of atomic energy application development, the responsibility of the safety system was assigned to a few agencies in each country. In Vietnam, the nuclear safety responsibility is assigned primarily to the radiation and nuclear safety agency. However, the provisions of the normative system of law prevailing in other sectors such as investment, construction, electricity or environmental protection, many agencies are responsible for ensuring safety in each sector, leading to a conflict of interest among those agencies. This is the weakness in the management system of Vietnam compared to other countries with nuclear power development. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the state of Vietnam's legal framework in nuclear safety regulation and its dependence of regulatory body aspects and promoting the way to overcome it

  6. Central Dog-ma Disease Detectives: A Molecular Biology Inquiry Activity for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, T. K.; Yuh, P.; Black, F.

    2010-12-01

    The Minority Access to Research Careers (MARC) and Minority Biomedical Research Support (MBRS) are programs at the University of California at Santa Cruz designed to support minority undergraduate students majoring in the sciences. Each summer MARC/MBRS sponsors a Summer Institute that involves week long "rotations" with different faculty mentors. In 2008, the Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) Professional Development Program (PDP) was responsible for overseeing one week of the Summer Institute, and designed it to be a Biomedical Short Course. As part of this short course, we designed a four-hour activity in which students collected their own data and explored relationships between the basic biomolecules DNA, RNA, and protein. The goal was to have the students use experimental data to support their explanation of the "Central Dogma" of molecular biology. Here we describe details of our activity and provide a post-teaching reflection on its success.

  7. Accuracy of Ultrasound in Detection of Gross Prenatal Central Nervous System Anomalies after the Eighteenth Week of Gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tahmasebi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Ultrasound (US detection of prenatal central nervous system (CNS anatomic anomalies is very important in making decision about therapeutic termination. In the present study, the accuracy of US in detection of gross prenatal CNS anatomic anomalies has been investigated."nPatients and Methods: 3012 pregnant women were scanned after 18 weeks of gestation by an expert operator in a referring center. All delivered fetuses were followed after birth through clinical examination and sonography."nResults: In this study, the accuracy of US in detection of gross CNS anatomic anomalies of fetuses after 18 weeks gestation was found to be 100%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of US were 100%. In sonographic examination of these 3012 pregnant women, 36 fetuses were detected with CNS anomalies, some of whom had more than one anomaly. Gross CNS anomalies observed included microcephaly, hydrocephaly, anencephaly, holoprosencephaly, ventriculomegaly, meningocele, encephalocele, lissencephaly, agenesis of corpus callosum, bilateral choroid plexus cysts and hypoplastic cerebellum."nConclusion: US is highly operator dependent and operator experience may be the most determinant affecting the results. Sonographic scanning after 18 weeks of gestation is associated with the best results.

  8. Detection and Characterization of Autoantibodies to Neuronal Cell-Surface Antigens in the Central Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Marleen eVan Coevorden-Hameete; Maarten eTitulaer; Marco eSchreurs; Esther ede Graaff; Peter eSillevis Smitt; Casper eHoogenraad

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune encephalitis (AIE) is a group of disorders in which autoantibodies directed at antigens located on the plasma membrane of neurons induce severe neurological symptoms. In contrast to classical paraneoplastic disorders, AIE patients respond well to immunotherapy. The detection of neuronal surface autoantibodies in patients’ serum or CSF therefore has serious consequences for the patients’ treatment and follow-up and requires the availability of sensitive and specific diagnostic tests...

  9. Dientamoeba fragilis detection in suid populations: an emerging zoonosis hypothesized in Central Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele Crotti; Silvia Crotti; Marco Sensi; Sonia Salamida; Elisabetta Manuali; Cacciò, Simone M.; Edoardo Pozio

    2012-01-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis (D. fragilis) is a worldwide distributed protozoan parasite; it is pathogenic for humans. A wide spectrum of gastrointestinal symptoms has been described in infected patients: diarrhoea, flatulence, abdominal pains, colic and weight loss. However, asymptomatic infection has been also described. D. fragilis is still not well known; no cystic stage has been demonstrated and only the trophozoites are detected in stool samples. For identifying this typically more often binucl...

  10. English in Vietnam and Its Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼璐; 张婷

    2014-01-01

    English spoken by people from different countries takes on different characteristics. Many linguists conducted researches on World Englishes. Focusing on the pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary and literature achievement, these studies present the target English's environment and features. However, there is rare achievement of study.in English in Vietnam. Under the economy boom, Vietnamese government attached importance to the English education, which led to the wide utilization of English. This article analyzes English in Vietnam and its features , including pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary, in the hope of making complements to world Englishes.

  11. English in Vietnam and Its Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼璐; 张婷

    2014-01-01

    English spoken by people from different countries takes on different characteristics. Many linguists conducted researches on World Englishes. Focusing on the pronunciation,grammar, vocabulary and literature achievement, these studies present the target English’s environment and features. However,there is rare achievement of study.in English in Vietnam. Under the economy boom, Vietnamese government attached importance to the English education, which led to the wide utilization of English. This article analyzes English in Vietnam and its features,including pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary, in the hope of making complements to world Englishes.

  12. The role of trade unions in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of matched employer–employee data from 2007 to 2009, this paper examines the union wage gap among small and medium non-state manufacturing enterprises in Vietnam. Controlling for both worker and firm characteristics, the results provide evidence that union members earn higher wages...... than non-members, and are more likely to receive social benefits.Within unionised firms, a substantial wage premium is revealed for workers employed in Southern firms, a finding which among other factors may be attributed to historical differences between the North and South of Vietnam....

  13. Vietnam anthracite - current situation and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doan van Kien [Vietnam National Coal Corporation (Vietnam)

    2004-07-01

    A resume is given of Vietnam's resources of anthracite, sub-bituminous coal, peat, coking coal and brown coal. Details are given of anthracite produced by the Vietnam National Coal Corporation (VINACOAL). Sales, coal quality and markets are discussed. Markets include the steel, non-ferrous metal and cement industries, power generation, water treatment and electrode and calcium carbide manufacture. VINACOAL is aiming to increase anthracite production especially for PCI, and is investing in coal mining and coal preparation plants and expansion of Cam Pha port. A series of eight slides/overheads accompanies the presentation (file Doan van Kien.pdf).

  14. The Economic Lives of People with Disabilities in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Palmer

    Full Text Available Through a series of focus group discussions conducted in northern and central Vietnam, this study gives voice to the lived economic experience of families with disabilities and how they manage the economic challenges associated with disability. The dynamic of low and unstable income combined with on-going health care and other disability-related costs gives rise to a range of coping mechanisms (borrowing, reducing and foregoing expenditures, drawing upon savings and substituting labour that helps to maintain living standards in the short-run yet threatens the longer-term welfare of both the individual with disability and their household. Current social protection programs were reported as not accessible to all and while addressing some immediate economic costs of disability, do not successfully meet current needs nor accommodate wider barriers to availing benefits.

  15. The Economic Lives of People with Disabilities in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Michael; Groce, Nora; Mont, Daniel; Nguyen, Oanh Hong; Mitra, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Through a series of focus group discussions conducted in northern and central Vietnam, this study gives voice to the lived economic experience of families with disabilities and how they manage the economic challenges associated with disability. The dynamic of low and unstable income combined with on-going health care and other disability-related costs gives rise to a range of coping mechanisms (borrowing, reducing and foregoing expenditures, drawing upon savings and substituting labour) that helps to maintain living standards in the short-run yet threatens the longer-term welfare of both the individual with disability and their household. Current social protection programs were reported as not accessible to all and while addressing some immediate economic costs of disability, do not successfully meet current needs nor accommodate wider barriers to availing benefits.

  16. [Epizootological assessment of the possibilities of importing plague from Vietnam to Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, L P; Maramovich, A S; Nikitin, A Ia; Okunev, L P; Innokent'eva, T I; Kosilko, S A; Voronova, G A

    2011-01-01

    To assess whether the plague microbe with vectors or carriers can be imported from Vietnam to Russia, the authors consider the specific features of pathogen circulation in this country's biotopes varying in anthropogenic transformation. The idea that there were natural foci of plague in Vietnam dominated until the late 1990s. The small rat Rattus exulans that inhabits open stations and ensures a parasitic contact with the synanthropic representatives of the fauna was considered to be a major carrier. The recent years have provided conclusive proofs that plague foci are absent in Vietnam wild nature. Anthropurgic foci develop in the network of localities whose conditions are favorable to the existence of synanthropic rodents and the fleas Xenopsylla cheopis. Cases of the plague pathogen, FI antigen and its antibodies being detected in wild mammals are due to their parasitic contacts with synanthropic rats in the agrocultural area around the localities with running epizootias. These contacts are provided by X.cheopis only. Since 2003, there have been no reports on the incidence of human plague or its pathogen isolation from environmental objects in Vietnam. However, all conditions and prerequisites for the formation ofanthropurgic plague foci remain in this country. Further epizootological monitoring is required for appropriate services to rapidly and adequately respond if the epizootological or epidemiological situation of this infection changes. PMID:21797070

  17. Central aperture detection for auto direct read-write photoresist fabrication and inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierchio, Justin M.; Zaverton, Melissa; Johnson, Lee; Densmore, Victor; Milster, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    We show the design for a laser scanning microscopy defect detection system based upon the idea that the light can reflect off a photoresist-laden fused-silica sample containing defects, allowing height and depth information to be obtained through changes in light intensity. Image registration using predefined points is employed. Image processing techniques involving median and deconvolution filtering are used. Results show that the 2.1-μm resolution of these defects is obtainable, and receiver operating characteristic curves are used for quantifying results. Discriminabilities of 0.73 are achieved. Preliminary results for larger-array patterns through stitching processes are also shown.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging: early detection of central nervous system involvement in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central Nervous System (CNS) involvement, whether primary by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV - itself, or secondary (toxoplasmosis or lymphoma) is remarkably frequent in AIDS, in 40 to 70% of cases, depending upon the author. In order to study the natural history of this illness, a cohort of 25 asymptomatic seropositive patients have been established. Every 6 months these patients undergo biological and clinical examinations, as well as Magnetic Resonance brain scans. After two examinations at a 6 month's interval, the first results are reported. Out of these 25 cases, 9 present anomalies: One patient with diffuse cerebral atrophy and 8 others with high signal intensity areas on T2 weighted sequences, like those of the Multiple Sclerosis. No relationship could be demonstrated between the existence of these lesions and various criteria such as age, sex, risk factors and T4 cells count. The nature of these lesions is not lear. They certainly indicate early involvement of the CNS after primary infection by the HIV virus. They may either represent scars of the primary infection or early alterations announcing developing encephalopathy

  19. Protein-protein interface detection using the energy centrality relationship (ECR characteristic of proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjana Sudarshan

    Full Text Available Specific protein interactions are responsible for most biological functions. Distinguishing Functionally Linked Interfaces of Proteins (FLIPs, from Functionally uncorrelated Contacts (FunCs, is therefore important to characterizing these interactions. To achieve this goal, we have created a database of protein structures called FLIPdb, containing proteins belonging to various functional sub-categories. Here, we use geometric features coupled with Kortemme and Baker's computational alanine scanning method to calculate the energetic sensitivity of each amino acid at the interface to substitution, identify hotspots, and identify other factors that may contribute towards an interface being FLIP or FunC. Using Principal Component Analysis and K-means clustering on a training set of 160 interfaces, we could distinguish FLIPs from FunCs with an accuracy of 76%. When these methods were applied to two test sets of 18 and 170 interfaces, we achieved similar accuracies of 78% and 80%. We have identified that FLIP interfaces have a stronger central organizing tendency than FunCs, due, we suggest, to greater specificity. We also observe that certain functional sub-categories, such as enzymes, antibody-heavy-light, antibody-antigen, and enzyme-inhibitors form distinct sub-clusters. The antibody-antigen and enzyme-inhibitors interfaces have patterns of physical characteristics similar to those of FunCs, which is in agreement with the fact that the selection pressures of these interfaces is differently evolutionarily driven. As such, our ECR model also successfully describes the impact of evolution and natural selection on protein-protein interfaces. Finally, we indicate how our ECR method may be of use in reducing the false positive rate of docking calculations.

  20. Detection of central circuits implicated in the formation of novel pain memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Jaymin; Granitzka, Julia; Bauermann, Thomas; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Breimhorst, Markus; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Birklein, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Being able to remember physically and emotionally painful events in one’s own past may shape behavior, and can create an aversion to a variety of situations. Pain imagination is a related process that may include recall of past experiences, in addition to production of sensory and emotional percepts without external stimuli. This study aimed to understand 1) the central nervous system processes that underlie pain imagination, 2) the retrieval of pain memories, and 3) to compare the latter with visual object memory. These goals were achieved by longitudinally investigating brain function with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a unique group of healthy volunteers who had never experienced tooth pain. In these subjects, we compared brain responses elicited during three experimental conditions in the following order: imagination of tooth pain (pain imagination), remembering one’s own house (object memory), and remembrance of tooth pain following an episode of induced acute tooth pain (pain memory). Key observations stemming from group-level conjunction analyses revealed common activation in the posterior parietal cortex for both pain imagination and pain memory, while object and pain memory each had strong activation predominantly within the middle frontal gyrus. When contrasting pain imagination and memory, significant activation differences were observed in subcortical structures (ie, parahippocampus − pain imagination > pain memory; midbrain − pain memory > pain imagination). Importantly, these findings were observed in the presence of consistent and reproducible psychophysical and behavioral measures that informed on the subjects’ ability to imagine novel and familiar thoughts, as well as the subjects’ pain perception.

  1. Detection of central circuits implicated in the formation of novel pain memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upadhyay J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Jaymin Upadhyay,1 Julia Granitzka,1 Thomas Bauermann,2 Ulf Baumgärtner,3 Markus Breimhorst,1 Rolf-Detlef Treede,3 Frank Birklein1 1Department of Neurology, 2Department of Neuroradiology, University Medical Centre, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, 3Department of Neurophysiology, Center for Biomedicine and Medical Technology Mannheim (CBTM, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany Abstract: Being able to remember physically and emotionally painful events in one’s own past may shape behavior, and can create an aversion to a variety of situations. Pain imagination is a related process that may include recall of past experiences, in addition to production of sensory and emotional percepts without external stimuli. This study aimed to understand 1 the central nervous system processes that underlie pain imagination, 2 the retrieval of pain memories, and 3 to compare the latter with visual object memory. These goals were achieved by longitudinally investigating brain function with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a unique group of healthy volunteers who had never experienced tooth pain. In these subjects, we compared brain responses elicited during three experimental conditions in the following order: imagination of tooth pain (pain imagination, remembering one’s own house (object memory, and remembrance of tooth pain following an episode of induced acute tooth pain (pain memory. Key observations stemming from group-level conjunction analyses revealed common activation in the posterior parietal cortex for both pain imagination and pain memory, while object and pain memory each had strong activation predominantly within the middle frontal gyrus. When contrasting pain imagination and memory, significant activation differences were observed in subcortical structures (ie, parahippocampus – pain imagination > pain memory; midbrain – pain memory > pain imagination. Importantly, these findings were observed in the presence of

  2. Coping with drought in the central highlands - Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tinh Dang

    Tørke er et naturligt fænomen forårsaget af nedbørsunderskud i et bestemt område gennem et vis tid. Globalt set kan store områder blive berørt med omfattende skader på samfundsøkonomien og menneskers levevilkår og helbred og til følge. Tørke kan ikke forhindres, men forudseenhed og afhjælpende fo...

  3. Cassava leaves as protein source for pigs in Central Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to evaluate the use of cassava leaves as protein sources for pigs when used at high levels in the diet, either in fresh form or with simplified methods of processing. In twenty cassava varieties taken from the upper part of the plant at the root harvesting, the crude protein varied from 23.7 to 29.5 % in DM and the HCN from 610 to 1840 mg/kg DM. Chopping, washing and wilting the leaves are simple ways to process the. There was a 58% reductio...

  4. Cassava leaves as protein source for pigs in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to evaluate the use of cassava leaves as protein sources for pigs when used at high levels in the diet, either in fresh form or with simplified methods of processing. In twenty cassava varieties taken from the upper part of the plant at the root

  5. Climate change, adaptation and the environment in central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole; Casse, Thorkil

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need for integrated approaches, such as the building of environmental management into climate change responses, addressing the total impact of livelihood stresses in social vulnerability perspectives, and ensuring that overall adaptation policies adequately address social justice...

  6. Morphodynamic modelling for Thuan An inlet, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, T.N.; Stive, M.J.; Verhagen, H.J.; Wang, Z.B.

    2006-01-01

    Thuan An is a tidal inlet located in Vietnam in a tropical monsoon area. The inlet is very dynamic and variable under the influences of not only tides and waves from the sea but also flows and floods from upstream rivers. Therefore, morphodynamic behaviour of the inlet is very complicated and not we

  7. Vietnam Student Assessment : SABER Country Report 2009

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    In 2009, Vietnam joined the Russia Education Aid for Development (READ) trust fund program, the goal of which is to help countries improve their capacity to design, carry out, analyze, and use assessments for improved student learning. As part of the READ trust fund program, and in order to gain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of its existing assessment system, Tajikistan ...

  8. Health utilities of hypertensive patients in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.P.; Postma, M.J.; Veninga, Catharina

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: With a lack of an essential evidence on utilities to support cost-effectiveness analysis of hypertension management in Vietnam, we aimed to gather data on health utilities for hypertensive patients and identify predictors of utility. Methods: Hypertensive patients, from 40 to 80 years ol

  9. Firm-Level Corruption in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2012-01-01

    This article uses panel data from a survey of small- and medium-sized enterprises in Vietnam to uncover which firms pay bribes and which do not. We also study how bribe paying evolved between 2005 and 2007 and test how the determinants of bribes changed between the two years. Three sets of insights...

  10. Learning Vocabulary in Group Work in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Pham Hoai

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated learning vocabulary in group work at university in Vietnam. The students were studied in two kinds of group settings, "unassisted" and "assisted", the first consisting of five students from the same class level and the second of four from the same class and a student from a higher class. Differences were observed in both…

  11. Gender patterns in Vietnam's child mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thong Le Pham, [No Value; Kooreman, Peter; Koning, Ruud H.; Wiersma, Doede

    2013-01-01

    We analyze child mortality in Vietnam focusing on gender aspects. Contrary to several other countries in the region, mortality rates for boys are substantially larger than for girls. The mortality rate of boys appears to be more sensitive to parents' education levels than the mortality rate of girls

  12. Abortion in Vietnam: measurements, puzzles, and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkind, D

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes current knowledge about abortion in Vietnam, drawing upon government statistics, survey data, and fieldwork undertaken by the author in Vietnam throughout 1993 and part of 1994. The official total abortion rate in Vietnam in 1992 was about 2.5 per woman, the highest in Asia and worrisome for a country with a still-high total fertility rate of 3.7 children per woman. Vietnamese provinces exhibited substantial variation in both the rate of abortion and the type of procedures performed. Among the hypotheses explored to explain Vietnam's high rate of abortion are the borrowing of family planning strategies from other poor socialist states where abortion is common; current antinatal population policies that interact with a lack of contraceptive alternatives; and a rise in pregnancies among young and unmarried women in the wake of recent free-market reforms. Because family-size preferences are still declining, abortion rates may continue to increase unless the incidence of unwanted pregnancy can be reduced, a goal that Vietnamese population specialists are seeking to achieve. PMID:7716799

  13. Value Chain Development of Avocado in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O.; Quaedackers, P.; Nguyen Trung Anh,; Wijk, van S.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid economic development, urbanisation and rising income levels, in Vietnam offer potential for pro-poor development, by creating new market opportunities for producers, traders and retailers. This article describes the process of value chain development, which involves all actors in the broad cha

  14. Vietnam : Higher Education and Skills for Growth

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The demand for skills has been increasing significantly in Vietnam, due to a combination of inter-industry employment changes, capital accumulation and some evidence which is consistent with skill-biased technical change. As a result employment opportunities for tertiary graduates now exist in most sectors. Higher education graduates are also shown to contribute positively to firm producti...

  15. Governing pesticide in vegetable production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoi, Van P.

    2010-01-01

    The economic liberalization in Vietnam, initiated in the middle of the 1980s, contributed to the further intensification and expansion of private actor-engagement in agriculture and food-supply. Vietnamese farmers, who already considered applying pesticides the most effective manner to protect their

  16. Abortion in Vietnam: measurements, puzzles, and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkind, D

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes current knowledge about abortion in Vietnam, drawing upon government statistics, survey data, and fieldwork undertaken by the author in Vietnam throughout 1993 and part of 1994. The official total abortion rate in Vietnam in 1992 was about 2.5 per woman, the highest in Asia and worrisome for a country with a still-high total fertility rate of 3.7 children per woman. Vietnamese provinces exhibited substantial variation in both the rate of abortion and the type of procedures performed. Among the hypotheses explored to explain Vietnam's high rate of abortion are the borrowing of family planning strategies from other poor socialist states where abortion is common; current antinatal population policies that interact with a lack of contraceptive alternatives; and a rise in pregnancies among young and unmarried women in the wake of recent free-market reforms. Because family-size preferences are still declining, abortion rates may continue to increase unless the incidence of unwanted pregnancy can be reduced, a goal that Vietnamese population specialists are seeking to achieve.

  17. Technology network for machine tools in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuno, Junko

    2012-01-01

    When Vietnam joined the WTO, it accepted foreign direct investment and started to grow. Technically, it was then greatly influenced by the enterprises that entered the country through direct investment. This report shows that the technology network for machine tools is formed via direct investment and subcontracting.

  18. Social networks and wage outcomes in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between the use of informal contacts and wage outcomes using matched employer-employee data from small and medium firms in Vietnam. We find that obtaining a job through knowing another worker in the firm generally is positively associated with individual wages...

  19. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    In most of the empirical literature on land titling, the household is regarded as unitary, and land rights are found to have ambiguous effects on land allocation, investment and productivity. Using data from 12 provinces in Vietnam, we diversify land titles, and show in a household fixed effects...

  20. Doing Business Economy Profile 2015 : Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Vietnam. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. E...

  1. Naturally occurring clay nanoparticles in Latosols of Brazil central region: detection and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominika Dybowska, Agnieszka; Luciene Maltoni, Katia; Piella, Jordi; Najorka, Jens; Puntes, Victor; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2015-04-01

    Stability and reactivity of minerals change as a particle size function, which makes mineral nanoparticles (defined here as nanoparticles contribute to many biogeochemical processes, however much remains to be learnt about these materials, their size dependent behavior and environmental significance. Advances in analytical, imaging and spectroscopic techniques made it now possible to study such particles; however we still have limited knowledge of their chemical, structural and morphological identity and reactivity, in particular in soils. The aim of this research was to characterize the naturally occurring nanoparticles in three soils from Brazil central region. The samples were collected in the A horizon, treated with H2O2 to remove organic material, dispersed in ultrasonic bath and wet sieved (53 µm) to remove the sand fraction. The clay fraction was collected by siphoning the supernatant, conditioned in 1000 ml cylinder, according to the Stock's law. This fraction was further processed by re-suspension in water, sonication and repeated centrifugation, to separate the fraction smaller than 100nm. This material, called here the soil "nanofraction", was analyzed using a range of techniques: 1) nanoparticle size/morphology and crystallinity with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM operateing in scanning (HAADF-STEM) and High Resolution (HRTEM) mode), 2) size distribution in water with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and surface charge estimated from electrophoretic mobility measurements 3) crystal phase and crystallite size with X-ray Diffraction (XRD) 4) Chemical composition by quantitative analysis of elements (e.g., Si, Fe, Al, Ti) and their spatial distribution with HRTEM/EDS elemental mappings. The nanofraction had an average hydrodynamic particle diameter ranging from 83 to 92nm with a low polydispersity index of 0.13-0.17 and was found highly stable in aqueous suspension (no change in average particle size up to several months of storage). Particle surface

  2. A hidden HIV epidemic among women in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Hien

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV epidemic in Vietnam is still concentrated among high risk populations, including IDU and FSW. The response of the government has focused on the recognized high risk populations, mainly young male drug users. This concentration on one high risk population may leave other populations under-protected or unprepared for the risk and the consequences of HIV infection. In particular, attention to women's risks of exposure and needs for care may not receive sufficient attention as long as the perception persists that the epidemic is predominantly among young males. Without more knowledge of the epidemic among women, policy makers and planners cannot ensure that programs will also serve women's needs. Methods More than 300 documents appearing in the period 1990 to 2005 were gathered and reviewed to build an understanding of HIV infection and related risk behaviors among women and of the changes over time that may suggest needed policy changes. Results It appears that the risk of HIV transmission among women in Vietnam has been underestimated; the reported data may represent as little as 16% of the real number. Although modeling predicted that there would be 98,500 cases of HIV-infected women in 2005, only 15,633 were accounted for in reports from the health system. That could mean that in 2005, up to 83,000 women infected with HIV have not been detected by the health care system, for a number of possible reasons. For both detection and prevention, these women can be divided into sub-groups with different risk characteristics. They can be infected by sharing needles and syringes with IDU partners, or by having unsafe sex with clients, husbands or lovers. However, most new infections among women can be traced to sexual relations with young male injecting drug users engaged in extramarital sex. Each of these groups may need different interventions to increase the detection rate and thus ensure that the women receive the care they

  3. Detection and characterization ofChlamydophila psittaci in asymptomatic feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica) in central Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ladawan Sariya; Phirom Prompiram; Siriporn Tangsudjai; Kanaporn Poltep; Tatiyanuch Chamsai; Chalisa Mongkolphan; Kamolphan Rattanavibul; Verachai Sakdajivachareon

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To detect and characterizeChlamydophila psittaci(C. psittaci) in asymptomatic feral pigeons in centralThailand.Methods:A total814 swabs from the trachea and cloacae of407 non-clinical feral pigeons in centralThailand were collected and tested for the presence ofC. psittaci.Results:A10.8% of feral pigeons in the sample group were positive as determined by nestedPCR primer specific toC. psittaci.The outer membrane proteinA(ompA) gene of positive samples exhibited amino acid identity ofC. psittaci ranging from71 to100% and were grouped in genotypeB.Exceptionally,BF1676-56 isolate was closely related toChlamydia avium with 99% identification of the16S ribosomal(r)RNA gene.Conclusions:This is the first report onC. psittaci isolated from asymptomatic feral pigeons inThailand, which provides knowledge for the disease status in pigeon populations inThailand.

  4. Analysis of variables affecting unemployment rate and detecting for cluster in West Java, Central Java, and East Java in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Putra A.; Widyaningsih, Yekti; Lestari, Dian

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is modeling the Unemployment Rate (UR) in West Java, Central Java, and East Java, with rate of disease, infant mortality rate, educational level, population size, proportion of married people, and GDRP as the explanatory variables. Spatial factors are also considered in the modeling since the closer the distance, the higher the correlation. This study uses the secondary data from BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik). The data will be analyzed using Moran I test, to obtain the information about spatial dependence, and using Spatial Autoregressive modeling to obtain the information, which variables are significant affecting UR and how great the influence of the spatial factors. The result is, variables proportion of married people, rate of disease, and population size are related significantly to UR. In all three regions, the Hotspot of unemployed will also be detected districts/cities using Spatial Scan Statistics Method. The results are 22 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed (Most likely cluster) in the study area; 2 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed in West Java; 1 district/city as a regional groups with the highest unemployed in Central Java; 15 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed in East Java.

  5. Structure tensor based automated detection of macular edema and central serous retinopathy using optical coherence tomography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Bilal; Raja, Gulistan; Hassan, Taimur; Usman Akram, M

    2016-04-01

    Macular edema (ME) and central serous retinopathy (CSR) are two macular diseases that affect the central vision of a person if they are left untreated. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging is the latest eye examination technique that shows a cross-sectional region of the retinal layers and that can be used to detect many retinal disorders in an early stage. Many researchers have done clinical studies on ME and CSR and reported significant findings in macular OCT scans. However, this paper proposes an automated method for the classification of ME and CSR from OCT images using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. Five distinct features (three based on the thickness profiles of the sub-retinal layers and two based on cyst fluids within the sub-retinal layers) are extracted from 30 labeled images (10 ME, 10 CSR, and 10 healthy), and SVM is trained on these. We applied our proposed algorithm on 90 time-domain OCT (TD-OCT) images (30 ME, 30 CSR, 30 healthy) of 73 patients. Our algorithm correctly classified 88 out of 90 subjects with accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 97.77%, 100%, and 93.33%, respectively. PMID:27140751

  6. Malware Detection Module using Machine Learning Algorithms to Assist in Centralized Security in Enterprise Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Singhal, Priyank; 10.5121/ijnsa.2012.4106

    2012-01-01

    Malicious software is abundant in a world of innumerable computer users, who are constantly faced with these threats from various sources like the internet, local networks and portable drives. Malware is potentially low to high risk and can cause systems to function incorrectly, steal data and even crash. Malware may be executable or system library files in the form of viruses, worms, Trojans, all aimed at breaching the security of the system and compromising user privacy. Typically, anti-virus software is based on a signature definition system which keeps updating from the internet and thus keeping track of known viruses. While this may be sufficient for home-users, a security risk from a new virus could threaten an entire enterprise network. This paper proposes a new and more sophisticated antivirus engine that can not only scan files, but also build knowledge and detect files as potential viruses. This is done by extracting system API calls made by various normal and harmful executable, and using machine l...

  7. 31 CFR 500.560 - Bank accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. 500.560... governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. Specific licenses are issued... Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam for transactions which are not inconsistent with the......

  8. Detection of ULF geomagnetic signals associated with seismic events in Central Mexico using Discrete Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Chavez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The geomagnetic observatory of Juriquilla Mexico, located at longitude –100.45° and latitude 20.70°, and 1946 m a.s.l., has been operational since June 2004 compiling geomagnetic field measurements with a three component fluxgate magnetometer. In this paper, the results of the analysis of these measurements in relation to important seismic activity in the period of 2007 to 2009 are presented. For this purpose, we used superposed epochs of Discrete Wavelet Transform of filtered signals for the three components of the geomagnetic field during relative seismic calm, and it was compared with seismic events of magnitudes greater than Ms > 5.5, which have occurred in Mexico. The analysed epochs consisted of 18 h of observations for a dataset corresponding to 18 different earthquakes (EQs. The time series were processed for a period of 9 h prior to and 9 h after each seismic event. This data processing was compared with the same number of observations during a seismic calm. The proposed methodology proved to be an efficient tool to detect signals associated with seismic activity, especially when the seismic events occur in a distance (D from the observatory to the EQ, such that the ratio D/ρ < 1.8 where ρ is the earthquake radius preparation zone. The methodology presented herein shows important anomalies in the Ultra Low Frequency Range (ULF; 0.005–1 Hz, primarily for 0.25 to 0.5 Hz. Furthermore, the time variance (σ2 increases prior to, during and after the seismic event in relation to the coefficient D1 obtained, principally in the Bx (N-S and By (E-W geomagnetic components. Therefore, this paper proposes and develops a new methodology to extract the abnormal signals of the geomagnetic anomalies related to different stages of the EQs.

  9. Social sustainability of Mesocyclops biological control for dengue in South Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thanh Tam; Olsen, Anna; Viennet, Elvina; Sleigh, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Copepod Mesocyclops as biological control agents for dengue was previously proven to be effective and sustainable in the Northern and Central provinces of Vietnam. We aim to study social sustainability of Mesocyclops intervention in south Vietnam. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used. An entomological survey was carried out in 100 random households of Chanh An commune, Vinh Long Province. Aedes larval indices and Mesocyclops prevalence were compared with historical pre- and post-intervention values. In the same commune, using purposeful sampling, sixteen semi-structured interviews (1 villager leader, 1 local doctor, 10 villagers, 2 teachers, 2 entomology officials), and a focus group discussion (6 Mesocyclops program collaborators) explored water storage habits, beliefs about dengue prevention and behaviour related to Mesocyclops. Thematic analysis was conducted to interpret the qualitative findings. Aedes abundance increased after responsibility for Mesocyclops intervention moved from government to community in 2010, with post-transfer surges in Breteau Index, Container Index, and Larval Density Index. Larval increments coincided with decrease in Mesocyclops prevalence. Villagers had some knowledge of dengue but it was conflated with other mosquito borne diseases and understanding of Mesocyclops was incomplete. Program adoption among the villagers was limited. With reduced government support program collaborators reported limited capacity to conduct population monitoring, and instead targeted 'problem' households. Although the Mesocyclops program was highly sustainable in northern and central provinces of Vietnam, the intervention has not been consistently adopted by southern households in Chanh An commune. Limited education, household monitoring and government support are affecting sustainability. Findings were based on a small household sample visited over a short time period, so other evaluations are needed. However, our results suggest that

  10. Dientamoeba fragilis detection in suid populations: an emerging zoonosis hypothesized in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Crotti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dientamoeba fragilis (D. fragilis is a worldwide distributed protozoan parasite; it is pathogenic for humans. A wide spectrum of gastrointestinal symptoms has been described in infected patients: diarrhoea, flatulence, abdominal pains, colic and weight loss. However, asymptomatic infection has been also described. D. fragilis is still not well known; no cystic stage has been demonstrated and only the trophozoites are detected in stool samples. For identifying this typically more often binucleate protozoan, is necessary to perform permanent stain (eg. Giemsa on fresh stool specimens. This protozoan is extremely difficult to cultivate but molecular techniques such as the Polymerase Chain Reaction offer promise as a means of diagnosing infection. In five years time (2006-2010, faecal samples were collected from pigs housed in farrow-to-finish herds (494 samples, splitted in three different categories: sows, growers, finishing pigs and from hunted or slaughtered wild boars (87 samples. Simultaneously, the study was undertaken on human faeces (17 samples to evaluate the presence of D. fragilis in pig breeders. All samples were collected directly from the rectum, cooled and sent to the laboratory where they were examined for D. fragilis by direct microscopic examination. The fresh faecal smears were stained with a 10% Giemsa solution in distilled water for 30 min. Biomolecular investigations (TaqMan real-time PCR which targets the 5.8S rRNA, nested PCR for the 18S rRNA, nested PCR for the internal transcribed spacer 1 region were carried out on 38 pigs and 17 pig breeders specimens. The microscopic examination of the fresh fecal smears revealed positivity in 277 domestic pigs, corresponding to 56.07%. In particular higher positivity was observed on youngest animal (76.57%, while oldest or mature pigs recorded an important decreasing of positivity according the age (Table 1. Concerning wild boars, we revealed positivity in 35 animals (40.22%. Among

  11. Social media for non-profit organizations in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thy

    2016-01-01

    The thesis presents about social media in general and social media for non-profit organizations in Vietnam in particular. The writer wanted to explore the disadvantages that non-profits in Vietnam face when using social media and search for recommendations which helps them to use it more efficiently. In the theoretic part, core concepts related to social media were introduced, namely, definition of social media, its types, the popular platforms, situation of social media in Vietnam, pros...

  12. SERVICE ISSUES: overview of electric vehicles use in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Xuan Truong; Nguyen, Quang Hung

    2015-01-01

    Due to the problems caused by the gasoline engine on the environment and people, the automotive industry has turned to the electrically powered vehicle. Electric Vehicles (EVs) such as electric two-wheelers and electric cars provide convenient local transportation and are becoming popular means of transport in Vietnam in recent years. Electric bicycles, electric motorbikes and electric cars appeared in Vietnam since the early 2000s and are growing very quickly. As of September 2015, Vietnam's...

  13. Economic integration and trade deficit: A case of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    BUI Trinh; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi; Vu, Trung Dien

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to present a quantitative analysis in order to figure out the reasons of continuousincrease of trade deficit in the last decade in Vietnam. After a long period of unceasing economicgrowth and macroeconomic stability, Vietnam has become one of the attractive investment destinationsfor many foreigner investors. However, the country starts to worry about its overall economic situationafter overexciting the first half of 2007 when Vietnam officially joined the World Trade Orga...

  14. Public Attitudes toward a Market Economy in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Minh Hac, Pham; Thanh Nghi, Pham

    2006-01-01

    This paper first describes Vietnam's experience with the doimoi reforms, and how these reforms have affected the economy. Over the past two decades, Vietnam has undergone a profound economic transformation, and this is a continuing process. Then, the paper examines public orientations toward the market and the values underlying market competition, drawing upon the World Values Survey in Vietnam and additional survey evidence from the Institute of Human Studies

  15. Vietnam's Economic Transformation and Convergence with the Dynamic ASEAN Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Carolyn L Gates

    2000-01-01

    Vietnam's market reform process and the adoption of economic institutions that have also fueled rapid economic growth and industrialization in the dynamic ASEAN economies (DAEs) have reversed the decades of growing divergence between it and the DAEs. Nevertheless, a fundamental dichotomy or “transitional gap” between Vietnam and the DAEs remains. This is partly an outcome of Vietnam's resistance to adopt two other crucial components of the DAEs' experience: robust private sector development a...

  16. Statistical discrimination of induced and tectonic earthquake sequences in Central and Eastern US based on waveform detected catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, X.; Daniels, C.; Smith, E.; Peng, Z.; Chen, X.; Wagner, L. S.; Fischer, K. M.; Hawman, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2001, the number of M>3 earthquakes increased significantly in Central and Eastern United States (CEUS), likely due to waste-water injection, also known as "induced earthquakes" [Ellsworth, 2013]. Because induced earthquakes are driven by short-term external forcing and hence may behave like earthquake swarms, which are not well characterized by branching point-process models, such as the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model [Ogata, 1988]. In this study we focus on the 02/15/2014 M4.1 South Carolina and the 06/16/2014 M4.3 Oklahoma earthquakes, which likely represent intraplate tectonic and induced events, respectively. For the South Carolina event, only one M3.0 aftershock is identified by the ANSS catalog, which may be caused by a lack of low-magnitude events in this catalog. We apply a recently developed matched filter technique to detect earthquakes from 02/08/2014 to 02/22/2014 around the epicentral region. 15 seismic stations (both permanent and temporary USArray networks) within 100 km of the mainshock are used for detection. The mainshock and aftershock are used as templates for the initial detection. Newly detected events are employed as new templates, and the same detection procedure repeats until no new event can be added. Overall we have identified more than 10 events, including one foreshock occurred ~11 min before the M4.1 mainshock. However, the numbers of aftershocks are still much less than predicted with the modified Bath's law. For the Oklahoma event, we use 1270 events from the ANSS catalog and 182 events from a relocated catalog as templates to scan through continuous recordings 3 days before to 7 days after the mainshock. 12 seismic stations within the vicinity of the mainshock are included in the study. After obtaining more complete catalogs for both sequences, we plan to compare the statistical parameters (e.g., b, a, K, and p values) between the two sequences, as well as their spatial-temporal migration pattern, which may

  17. State of the environment and natural resources in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Thi Thu Ha

    2015-01-01

    Vietnam is considered as one of the countries having rich resources from forest and sea, with a high average annual rainfall. However, in view of IWRA, water volume per capita annually in Vietnam is lower than the standard for nations having water resources at average level. Vietnam was recognized by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) as having three out of more than 200 biological zones of the world. Flora and fauna in Vietnam are very rich and abundant, but due to indiscriminate exploitation, al...

  18. Determinants of foreign direct investment in Vietnam 1988-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Bui, Anh Tuan

    2011-01-01

    This thesis analyses the determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in Vietnam from 1988-2009. It examines the nature, motivation and impact of FDI upon the Vietnam economy and its contribution to the subsequent leap forward in economic growth. The focus is on developing Dunning’s eclectic theory through case study analysis of Honda-Vietnam Motorbike Company and ANZ-Vietnam Bank. The prominent theories on FDI generally used in the thesis focus on Vernon’s Product Life Cycle (PLC) model, the Ma...

  19. Detection of faint BLR components in the starburst/Seyfert galaxy NGC 6221 and measure of the central BH mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eLa Franca

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, using single epoch virial based techniques in the optical band, it has been possible to measure the central black hole mass on large type 1 Active Galactive Nuclei (AGN samples. However these measurements use the width of the broad line region as a proxy of the virial velocities and are therefore difficult to be carried out on those obscured (type 2 or low luminosity AGN where the nuclear component does not dominate in the optical. Here we present the optical and near infrared spectrum of the starburst/Seyfert galaxy NGC 6221, observed with X-shooter/VLT. Previous observations of NGC 6221 in the X-ray band shows an absorbed (N_H=8.5 +/- 0.4 x 10^21 cm^-2 spectrum typical of a type 2 AGN with luminosity log(L_14-195/ erg s^-1 = 42.05, while in the optical band its spectrum is typical of a reddened (A_V=3 starburst. Our deep X-shooter/VLT observations have allowed us to detect faint broad emission in the H_alpha, HeI and Pa_beta lines (FWHM=1400-2300 km s^-1 confirming previous studies indicating that NGC 6221 is a reddened starbust galaxy which hosts an AGN. We use the measure of the broad components to provide a first estimate of its central black hole mass (M_BH = 10^6.6+/-0.3 Msol, lambda_Edd=0.01-0.03, obtained using recently calibrated virial relations suitable for moderately obscured (N_H<10^24 cm^-2 AGN.

  20. Utilisation agricole de plantes aquatiques, notamment en tant qu'amendement des sols, dans la province de Thua Thien Hue, Centre Vietnam. 2. Relevé des pratiques de terrain, enquête auprès des agriculteurs, impact potentiel sur l'écologie de la lagune de Tam Giang.

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, CN.; Pham Khanh, T.; Ton That, P.; Hoang Thi Thai Hoa; Ancion, PY.; Dufey, JE

    2009-01-01

    Use of Aquatic Plants, mainly as Soil Amendment, in the Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. 2. Field Practices, Survey among Farmers, and Possible Impact on the Tam Giang Lagoon Ecology. The sandy soils of the coastal area of Central Vietnam, particularly in the Thua Thien Hue Province, have a limited natural fertility. Amending these soils with organic materials is the most important way to improve their productivity. In this region, numerous farmers are fertilizing their soils with aq...

  1. Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Vietnam: some clarifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Le

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recently published comment on a report of Plasmodium knowlesi infections in Vietnam states that this may not accurately represent the situation in the study area because the PCR primers used may cross-hybridize with Plasmodium vivax. Nevertheless, P. knowlesi infections have been confirmed by sequencing. In addition, a neighbour-joining tree based on the 18S S-Type SSUrRNA gene shows that the Vietnamese samples clearly cluster with the P. knowlesi isolates identified in Malaysia and are distinct from the corresponding P. vivax sequences. All samples came from asymptomatic individuals who did not consult for fever during the months preceding or following the survey, indicating that asymptomatic P. knowlesi infections occur in this population, although this does not exclude the occurrence of symptomatic cases. Large-scale studies to determine the extent and the epidemiology of P. knowlesi malaria in Vietnam are further needed.

  2. Adoption of agile software development in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Trung Hieu; Duong, Nhat Duy

    2014-01-01

    Agile software development method is considered as an essential for software companies, bringing critical benefits. The adoption and implementation of agile software development method enable organizations to adapt to the dramatically changing business environment. This thesis aims at investigating the adoption practices of agile development methods in companies in Vietnam, with three main goals. The first one is to explore the reasons and motivations determining the adoption of agile dev...

  3. Geography and economic growth in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo, Thu Hien Laura; Santos, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Using panel data from Vietnam, this paper estimates the determinants of consumption growth for the period 2002-04, using a microgrowth model. While controlling for individual heterogeneity, particular attention is devoted to the question of whether geography, broadly defined to include natural and man-made characteristics at the level of the commune, can be responsible for lower growth rates and, consequently, poverty persistence. We find very limited support for this hypothesis. Neither publ...

  4. Checklist of the marine macroalgae of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, T.V.; Le, H.N.; Lin, S. M.; Steen, F. van der; De Clerck, O.

    2013-01-01

    Despite a rich seaweed flora, information about Vietnamese seaweeds is scattered throughout a large number of often regional publications and, hence, difficult to access. This paper presents an up-to-date checklist of the marine macroalgae of Vietnam, compiled by means of an exhaustive bibliographical search and revision of taxon names. A total of 827 species are reported, of which the Rhodophyta show the highest species number (412 species), followed by the Chlorophyta (180 species), Phaeoph...

  5. Governing pesticide in vegetable production in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Hoi, Van, P.

    2010-01-01

    The economic liberalization in Vietnam, initiated in the middle of the 1980s, contributed to the further intensification and expansion of private actor-engagement in agriculture and food-supply. Vietnamese farmers, who already considered applying pesticides the most effective manner to protect their vegetable crops from pests and disease attacks, started using more pesticides. Pesticide use in agriculture has, therefore, increased astonishingly in recent decades which causes increasing anxiet...

  6. Dairy Production in Vietnam : Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    YOKOGAWA, hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Tsunemasa

    2004-01-01

    Dairy cow raising in Vietnam has been assessed as a key occupation to neet the sosiety's denabd for high nutritive food products and to improve cash income for farmers. The overall objective of the study thus is to examine the development of dairy production in the country over last years, and then to point out its opportunities and challenges to have a good strategy for next development. The reseach results are mostly based on secondary data collected from different sources. Descriptive stat...

  7. Viral Advertising on Facebook in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Phuong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore which factors affect the effectiveness of viral advertising on Facebook in Vietnam. The quantitative research method is applied in this research and the sample is Vietnamese Facebook users. After the data analysis stage using SPSS, it became clear that weak ties, perceptual affinity and emotions have an impact on the effectiveness of viral advertising. The results provide a pratical implication of how to make an Ad which can go viral on Facebook. Moreo...

  8. Macroeconomic Forces and Stock Returns in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Phan, Van Hang

    2008-01-01

    Capital market development, especially the appearance of Vietnamese equity market recently has a strategic importance in the economic growth and structural reform process of Vietnam (Chun et al, 2003). This dissertation focuses on the impacts of macroeconomic forces on stock market returns in Vietnamese stock market which has not been investigated in detail before, and thereby to contribute further literature on this new emerging stock market. Specifically, the research will intensively inves...

  9. Seepage in Vietnam - onshore and offshore examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traynor, J.J.; Sladen, C. [BP Exploration, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    1997-06-01

    Hydrocarbon seepages in Vietnam are generally linked to migration from Tertiary source rocks, and seeps are present both onshore and offshore. Residual oil can be observed at outcrop in breached traps within Tertiary sections and in exhumed `buried hill` traps in pre-Tertiary rocks in the onshore Hanoi Basin. There is active oil seepage on the western margin of the offshore Phu Khanh Basin through fractured granites that outcrop at the basin margin. There are examples of onshore gas seepages in southern Vietnam. These are predominantly non-hydrocarbon, mantle-derived gases, sometimes mixed with biogenic methane, and are seeping via hot springs from fractured Mezosoic igneous rocks in active fault zones. Offshore, in the Nam Con Son Basin, sonar, seismic data and sea bed cores show a variety of seepage features, including shallow gas anomalies, mounds and pockmarks on the sea bed, and gas effects in the water column, sometimes visible on sonar records. However, sea bed seepage features are not particularly common, and have a low preservation potential in the area due to powerful sea bed currents. Aircraft surveys of the sea surface have revealed several oil slicks that could be related to active oil seepages in the Nam Con Son Basin. Seepage appears to be occurring in Vietnam at two fundamentally different rates. `Background` seepages flow at low rates, typically tens of thousands of cubic feet per day of gas, and up to tens of barrels per day of oil. (author)

  10. Project Hue: Report and field study on the water related problems and solutions in and around the Cau Hai lagoon and the Tu Hien inlet, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, T.; Jongerius, Y.R.; Franken, J.T.; Ponsioen, L.A.; Tieleman, O.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Tam Giang-Cau Hai lagoon system, lying in the Thua Thien-Hue province in central Vietnam, is affected by a tropical monsoon climate. This among others is the reason the Cau Hai Lagoon area has a long history of floods and other water related problems. Inhabitants are very dependent on the lagoon

  11. Bioturbational structures record environmental changes in the upwelling area off Vietnam (South China Sea) for the last 150,000 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzel, A.; Tjallingii, R.; Wiesner, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    The sediments in the upwelling area off central Vietnam are totally bioturbated and display a low-diverse assemblage of bioturbational structures. During interglacial times (Marine Isotope Stage MIS 1, 5a, 5c, 5e), summer monsoon leads to pronounced upwelling and seasonally pulsed arrival of organic

  12. Cervical human papillomavirus infection among female sex workers in southern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez Brenda Y

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among women in southern Vietnam where its incidence is one of the highest observed worldwide. Results Cervical HPV DNA infection was measured in a cross-sectional sample of 282 female sex workers (FSW in Soc Trang province in southern Vietnam. HPV DNA was detected in 85% of FSW and prevalence did not vary by age. Thirty-five HPV genotypes were detected; HPV 52 was the most common type. Half of HPV-positive women were infected with oncogenic types and 37% were infected with multiple genotypes. The prevalence of oncogenic HPV infection was lower among FSW with more formal education (adj. prevalence ratio = 0.63, 95% CI 0.42–0.93, those servicing 25 or more clients per month (adj. PR = 0.66 95% CI 0.48–0.92, and those engaging in withdrawal prior to ejaculation (adj. PR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.53–0.87. Oncogenic HPV prevalence was higher among FSW with regular male partners who had other female partners (adj. PR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.34–2.28 and FSW who were HIV+ (adj. PR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.08–1.88. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that although cervical HPV infection is extremely common among FSW in southern Vietnam, prevalence varies by education level, sexual activity, habits of regular partners, and HIV status.

  13. Detection and genome analysis of a novel (dima)rhabdovirus (Riverside virus) from Ochlerotatus sp. mosquitoes in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Gábor; Boros, Ákos; Pál, József; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric; Pankovics, Péter

    2016-04-01

    During an investigation for potential arboviruses present in mosquitoes in Hungary (Central Europe) three highly similar virus strains of a novel rhabdovirus (family Rhabdoviridae) called Riverside virus (RISV, KU248085-KU248087) were detected and genetically characterized from Ochlerotatus sp. mosquito pools collected from 3 geographical locations using viral metagenomic and RT-PCR methods. The ssRNA(-) genome of RISVs follows the general genome layout of rhabdoviruses (3'-N-P-M-G-L-5') with two alternatives, small ORFs in the P and G genes (Px and Gx). The genome of RISVs contains some unusual features such as the large P proteins, the short M proteins with the absence of N-terminal region together with the undetectable "Late budding" motif and the overlap of P and M genes. The unusually long 3' UTRs of the M genes of RISVs probably contain a remnant transcription termination signal which is suggesting the presence of an ancestral gene. The phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparisons show that the closest known relative of RISVs is the recently identified partially sequenced mosquito-borne rhabdovirus, North Creek virus (NOCRV), from Australia. The RISVs and NOCRV form a distinct, basally rooted lineage in the dimarhabdovirus supergroup. The host species range of RISVs is currently unknown, although the presence of these viruses especially in Ochlerotatus sp. mosquitoes which are known to be fierce biting pests of humans and warm-blooded animals and abundant and widespread in Hungary could hold some potential medical and/or veterinary risks. PMID:26883377

  14. Molecular analysis using DHPLC of cystic fibrosis: increase of the mutation detection rate among the affected population in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nardone Anna

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic fibrosis (CF is a multisystem disorder characterised by mutations of the CFTR gene, which encodes for an important component in the coordination of electrolyte movement across of epithelial cell membranes. Symptoms are pulmonary disease, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, male infertility and elevated sweat concentrations. The CFTR gene has numerous mutations (>1000 and functionally important polymorphisms (>200. Early identification is important to provide appropriate therapeutic interventions, prognostic and genetic counselling and to ensure access to specialised medical services. However, molecular diagnosis by direct mutation screening has proved difficult in certain ethnic groups due to allelic heterogeneity and variable frequency of causative mutations. Methods We applied a gene scanning approach using DHPLC system for analysing specifically all CFTR exons and characterise sequence variations in a subgroup of CF Italian patients from the Lazio region (Central Italy characterised by an extensive allelic heterogeneity. Results We have identified a total of 36 different mutations representing 88% of the CF chromosomes. Among these are two novel CFTR mutations, including one missense (H199R and one microdeletion (4167delCTAAGCC. Conclusion Using this approach, we were able to increase our standard power rate of mutation detection of about 11% (77% vs. 88%.

  15. Detection of Faint BLR Components in the Starburst/Seyfert Galaxy NGC 6221 and Measure of the Central BH Mass

    CERN Document Server

    La Franca, Fabio; Ricci, Federica; Bianchi, Stefano; Marconi, Alessandro; Sani, Eleonora; Vignali, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, using single epoch virial based techniques in the optical band, it has been possible to measure the central black hole mass on large AGN1 samples. However these measurements use the width of the broad line region as a proxy of the virial velocities and are therefore difficult to be carried out on those obscured (type 2) or low luminosity AGN where the nuclear component does not dominate in the optical. Here we present the optical and near infrared spectrum of the starburst/Seyfert galaxy NGC 6221, observed with X-shooter/VLT. Previous observations of NGC 6221 in the X-ray band show an absorbed (N_H=8.5 +/- 0.4 x 10^21 cm^-2) spectrum typical of a type 2 AGN with luminosity log(L_14-195 keV) = 42.05 erg/s, while in the optical band its spectrum is typical of a reddened (A_V=3) starburst. Our deep X-shooter/VLT observations have allowed us to detect faint broad emission in the H_alpha, HeI and Pa_beta lines (FWHM ~1400-2300 km/s) confirming previous studies indicating that NGC 6221 is a redd...

  16. Halogenated organics in Vietnamese and in Vietnam food. Dioxins, dibenzofurans, PCBs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and selected pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schecter, A.; Tung, K.C. [Univ. of Texas School of Public Health at Dallas, TX (United States); Quynh, Hong Trong [Oncology Institute, Ha Noi, Vietnam (Viet Nam); Paepke, O. [ERGO Research Laboratory, Hamburg (Germany); Malisch, R. [State Laboratory for Chemical and Veterinary Analysis, Freiburg (Germany); Constable, J.D. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Vietnam is frequently thought of as the location of the world's largest dioxin contamination, with over 400 pounds of 2,3,7,8-TCDD from Agent Orange defoliant sprayed from 1962 to 1971. Although this is true, distribution of dioxin from Agent Orange is far from ubiquitous in Vietnam. The north was never sprayed and only certain areas of central and south Vietnam were sprayed. Dioxins have been found in very high levels in human milk and in food in some select areas of Vietnam from the 1970s to the present. Other pesticides including DDT and metabolites, {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} HCH, and HCB have also been found in humans and in food. We review dioxin ''hot spots'' studied in the past with current suspect hot spots and also add to the chemicals studied in Vietnamese by measuring polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in nursing Vietnamese women's milk and compare these to levels from other countries.

  17. Commodification and politicization of heritage: implications for heritage tourism at the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long, Hanoi (Vietnam)

    OpenAIRE

    Bui, Huong T.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    "The current study deconstructs the process of turning heritage resources into tourism products. A case study of the Central Sector of the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long, a UNESCO World Heritage site located in the capital city of Vietnam, Hanoi, provides an in-depth understanding of the plural use of heritage. Findings from the study reveal issues of heritage dissonance inherent in the process of resource selection, interpretation, and targeting for different audiences. It is apparent that c...

  18. Vietnam : A Handwashing Behavior Change Journey for the Caretakers’ Program

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The Vietnam Handwashing Initiative (HWI) was launched in January 2006 by the Ministry of Health (MoH) with funds from the Danish Embassy in Vietnam and technical assistance from the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). This learning note documents the development process of the caretakers' program with a focus on how it was designed, implemented, and monitored. Lessons learned and challenge...

  19. The History and Future of Community Colleges in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Anh T.

    2013-01-01

    Since 1986, with the creation of the Renovation ("Doi moi") policy, Vietnam has demonstrated a strong commitment to the improvement of its higher education system. After 25 years of opening its doors to the global educational environment, Vietnam has achieved some notable accomplishments. The country's higher educational system has become more…

  20. Analysis on Rice Production and International Trade in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Liu-qing; JIANG Yun-zhu; LU Li-xiang; LIN Hai; PANG Qian-lin

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces Vietnam’s climate condition,main rice production regions and analyses the expansion of rice planting area,rice cropping system during the last decades.The result from the change of rice production,planting area,yield,and rice trade indicates that the economic reforms in Vietnam from 1986 have contributed to a spectacular rise in rice production and exports.However,there are still problems and opportunities for rice production and export in Vietnam.The paper suggests that Vietnam should make the most use of the advanced international rice cultivars and technology to improve irrigation and water conservancy facilities to benefit rice farmer and consolidate Vietnam to be the major exporter of rice in the world market.%This paper introduces Vietnam's climate condition,main rice production regions and analyses the expansion of rice planting area,rice cropping system during the last decades.The result from the change of rice production,planting area,yield,and rice trade indicates that the economic reforms in Vietnam from 1986 have contributed to a spectacular rise in rice production and exports.However,there are still problems and opportunities for rice production and export in Vietnam.The paper suggests that Vietnam should make the most use of the advanced international rice cultivars and technology to improve irrigation and water conservancy facilities to benefit rice farmer and consolidate Vietnam to be the major exporter of rice in the world market.

  1. Education and Economic, Political, and Social Change in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Pham Lan; Fry, Gerald W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the complex relations among history, education, political economy, and social change in Vietnam. Vietnam has a long history of education and a literate culture. The evolution of Vietnamese culture and society is characterized by both persistence and change. Social and political persistence and change have been…

  2. Vietnam: Education Financing. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This study examines the system of education and training in Vietnam and poses the question: what changes in educational policies will ensure that students who pass through the system today will acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for Vietnam to successfully complete the transition from a planned to a market economy? The report…

  3. Teaching the New Vietnam: It's a Country, Not a War

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCornac, Dennis C.

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam has made remarkable progress over the past two decades in its transition to a market economy resulting in numerous changes to both its social and economic institutions. It is a nation at peace focusing on economic development and integrating into the world economy. Although the tragic events in Vietnam's history cannot be forgotten, the…

  4. 78 FR 7452 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Register on August 20, 2012 (77 FR 50160) and on August 22, 2012 (77 FR 50713, corrected). The hearing was... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... imports of steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam, provided for in subheading 7326.20.00 of...

  5. Transforming Vietnam's Medical Education through E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churton, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The costs for providing medical school education and services in Vietnam's universities continue to increase. Through a collaborative project between the Government of the Netherlands and Vietnam's Ministry of Health, a five year experimental program to develop in-country capacity and reduce the dependence upon a foreign medical service delivery…

  6. Formal and Informal Rural Credit in Four Provinces of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders. Formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation, while informal loans are used...... are striking. A ‘one size fits all' approach to credit policy in Vietnam would be inappropriate...

  7. Health economics of screening for hypertension in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Thi Phuong Lan

    2016-01-01

    The studies aims to identify the burden of a cardiovascular diseases and solutions to manage it in Vietnam, notably hypertension screening. The studies confirmed that hypertension creates a great burden in Vietnam in terms of cardiovascular diseases, from economic, clinical and social perspectives.

  8. The Future of Patriotism: The War Film, The Cinema Industry, and the Vietnam Veteran Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Examines the media's effect on attitudes about Vietnam veterans. Discusses the relationship between media and culture. Analyzes the film industry's ideological battle over Vietnam. Critiques the media's treatment of the Vietnam experience, and considers the impact of media portrayals of the war on the Vietnam Veteran's movement. (RW)

  9. 38 CFR 3.313 - Claims based on service in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in Vietnam. 3.313 Section 3.313 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.313 Claims based on service in Vietnam. (a) Service in Vietnam. Service in Vietnam includes service in the waters offshore, or service in other locations if the conditions...

  10. 78 FR 59650 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005) (``Order''). \\2\\ See, generally, Goldenquality... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') meets the statutory and...

  11. 75 FR 55740 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... Vietnam and the People's Republic of China, 75 FR 18154 (April 9, 2010). The preliminary results of the... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers...

  12. Vietnam - The Role of Postal Networks in Expanding Access to Financial Services Country case : Vietnam's postal finance services

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of the postal network in expanding access to financial services in Vietnam. It reviews the public postal operator within the postal sector and within the broader context of the communications sector. The roles of the Vietnam postal network and post bank are also reviewed from the perspective of the financial sector development, with particular focus on payment...

  13. Pronura bidoup n. sp. (Collembola, Neanuridae, Neanurinae, Paleonurini from southern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deharveng, L.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Pronura Delamare Debouteville, 1953, Pronura bidoup n. sp. is described from the Bi Doup massif in southern Vietnam, where it is largely distributed above 1,350 m. The new species exhibits a combination of characters unusual for the genus: shift of chaeta f towards chaeta e on labium, large central reticulate plate on head, presence of microchaetae on furcal rest, reduced chaetotaxy of legs and abdominal segment VI. It is related to Pronura ornata Deharveng & Bedos, 1993 from high altitude in Thailand.

  14. Eco-modernizing small en medium-sized agro-industries in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Hong Nhat

    2007-01-01

    Following ‘Doi Moi’ (Renovation), which started in 1986, the former centrally planned economy in Vietnam is shifting to an economy where production is linked to market demand and consumption. As a result, the nation has been enjoying an unprecedentedly fast economic growth, especially in recent years: 8.4% in 2005 and 8.17% in 2006. The economic renovation also brought an expansion of the private sector, which consists mainly of small- and medium-sized enterprises, SMEs. The reform process ha...

  15. Standardisation of Western blotting to detect HTLV-1 antibodies synthesised in the central nervous system of HAM/TSP patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claudio Pereira Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrathecal synthesis of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 antibodies (Abs represents conclusive evidence of a specific immune response in the central nervous system of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP patients. Western blotting (WB for HTLV Abs in serum is a confirmatory test for HTLV-1 infection. The aim of this study was to standardise the Western blot to demonstrate the intrathecal pattern of Abs against HTLV-1 proteins in HAM/TSP patients. Paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serum samples were selected from 20 patients with definite HAM/TSP, 19 HTLV-1 seronegative patients and two HTLV-1 patients without definite HAM/TSP. The presence of reactive bands of greater intensity in the CSF compared to serum (or bands in only the CSF indicated the intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs. All definite HAM/TSP patients presented with an intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs; these Abs were not detected in the control patients. The most frequent intrathecal targets of anti-HTLV-1 Abs were GD21, rgp46-I and p24 and, to a lesser extent, p19, p26, p28, p32, p36, p53 gp21 and gp46. The intrathecal immune response against env (GD21 and rgp46-I and gag (p24 proteins represents the most important humoral pattern in HAM/TSP. This response may be used as a diagnostic marker, considering the frequent association of intrathecal anti-HTLV-1 Ab synthesis with HAM/TSP and the pathogenesis of this neurological disease.

  16. Thematic mapper detection of changes in the leaf area of closed canopy pine plantations in central Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote sensing studies of conifer forests have previously reported that the Thematic Mapper Band 4/Band 3 ratio is positively correlated with regional differences in leaf area index (LAI). Our study was an attempt to determine whether Landsat Thematic Mapper data can be used to detect differences and changes in the LAI of closed canopy pine plantations on a local scale in central Massachusetts. Field measurements of LAI were obtained using locally-derived allometric relationships between leaf area and trunk diameter (DBH). A thinning treatment, which reduced the LAI of one of the larger plantations by more than 25%, resulted in a significant decrease (P < 0.001) in the 4/3 ratio from the prethinned value. No significant change in the 4/3 ratio was found in a nearby broadleaved hardwood forest which served as a radiometric control. However, a decrease in the 4/3 ratio similar to that observed in the thinned plantation was observed in nearby unthinned pine plantations. This change in the reflectance of the unthinned stands may be attributable to a moderate natural reduction in LAI. Such a reduction in LAI would demonstrate the limitations of allometric equations for evaluating LAI under conditions in which the relationship between leaf area and DBH may be changing from year to year. It also would explain why no significant relationship (P > 0.1) was found between the 4/3 ratio and the LAI of the different unthinned plantations which had LAI values ranging from 3.96 to 7.01. We conclude that the TM sensor may be a better guide to moderate changes and differences in the LAI of closed canopy pine plantations at local scales than field measurements involving allometric equations. (author)

  17. Interseismic Crustal Deformation in and around the Atotsugawa Fault System, Central Japan, Detected by InSAR and GNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Y.; Sagiya, T.; Nishimura, T.

    2015-12-01

    Interseismic crustal deformation of active faults provides crucial information to understand the stress accumulation process on the fault planes. Recently, the interseismic surface movements are detected with very high spatial resolution using combination of InSAR and GNSS survey. Most of the successful reports, however, addressed the fault creep in less vegetated area which enables C-band SAR interferometry. In this study, we report the interseismic crustal deformation in and around the Atotsugawa fault system, a strike-slip active fault in central Japan. This area is covered with dense vegetation in summer and with heavy snow in winter. We created a series of InSAR images acquired by ALOS/PALSAR and applied SBAS based time-series analysis (Berardino et al., 2002) to extract small deformation. Next, we corrected the long wave-length phase trend by GNSS network maintained by Japanese University Group (e.g, Ohzono et al., 2011) and GSI, Japan. The mean velocity field thus obtained shows a strain concentration zone along the Ushikubi fault, a major strand of the Atotsugawa fault system. The Ushikubi fault is seismically less active than the Atotsugawa fault, but it shows good correlation with a zone of large spatial gradient of Bouguer gravity anomaly. We further discuss on the deformation style at the junction between the Atotsugawa fault and the Hida mountain range (Tateyama volcano). Acknowledgement: The PALSAR level 1.0 data were provided by JAXA via the PALSAR Interferometry Consortium to Study our Evolving Land surface (PIXEL) based on a cooperative research contract between JAXA and the ERI, the University of Tokyo. The PALSAR product is owned by JAXA and METI.

  18. Frog value chain case study in Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Minh Quoc

    2012-01-01

    Frog is valuable product in Vietnam but the natural frogs are overexploited thus, the new model to raising frog is desired. Many species of frogs are cultured in Vietnam, especially in Ho Chi Minh City, for trial of the adaptive ability of exotic species in Vietnam condition. Recently, the frogs’ species from Thailand and Taiwan are prepotent and spread out Vietnam. Nowadays, frog culture becomes one of the newest industries in Vietnam. With a short life cycle, frog culture is farming as econ...

  19. Road Infrastructure and Climate Change in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Chinowsky

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a potential threat to Vietnam’s development as current and future infrastructure will be vulnerable to climate change impacts. This paper focuses on the physical asset of road infrastructure in Vietnam by evaluating the potential impact of changes from stressors, including: sea level rise, precipitation, temperature and flooding. Across 56 climate scenarios, the mean additional cost of maintaining the same road network through 2050 amount to US$10.5 billion. The potential scale of these impacts establishes climate change adaptation as an important component of planning and policy in the current and near future.

  20. Political Connections and Investment in Rural Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tarp, Finn

    behaviour in environments with developing institutions and markets. They also suggest the presence of an untapped potential for economic development: if households without connections could obtain equally strong property rights and access to credit and insurance as the well-connected households, investment......This paper uses household panel data from rural Vietnam to explore the effects of having a relative in a position of political or bureaucratic power on farmers’ agricultural investment decisions. Our main result is that households significantly increase their investment in land improvement...

  1. Land Titling and Rural Transition in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Quy-Toan; Iyer, Lakshmi

    2008-01-01

    We examine the impact of the 1993 Land Law of Vietnam, which gave households the power to exchange, transfer, lease, inherit, and mortgage their land-use rights. We use household surveys before and after the law was passed, together with the considerable variation across provinces in the speed of implementation of the reform, to identify the impact of the law. We find that the additional land rights led to statistically significant increases in the share of total area devoted to long-term cro...

  2. Phylogenetic and pathogenic analyses of avian influenza A H5N1 viruses isolated from poultry in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongming Zhao

    Full Text Available Despite great efforts to control the infection of poultry with H5N1 viruses, these pathogens continue to evolve and spread in nature, threatening public health. Elucidating the characteristics of H5N1 avian influenza virus will benefit disease control and pandemic preparation. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 15 H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated in Vietnam in 2006 and 2007 and performed phylogenetic analyses to compare these sequences with those of other viruses available in the public databases. Molecular characterization of the H5N1 viruses revealed that seven genetically distinct clades of H5N1 viruses have appeared in Vietnam. Clade 2.3.4 viruses existed in Vietnam as early as 2005. Fifteen viruses isolated during 2006 and 2007 belonged to clade 1 and clade 2.3.4, and were divided into five genotypes. Reassortants between the clade 1 and clade 2.3.4 viruses were detected in both North and South Vietnam. We also assessed the replication and pathogenicity of these viruses in mice and found that these isolates replicated efficiently and exhibited distinct virulence in mice. Our results provide important information regarding the diversity of H5N1 viruses in nature.

  3. Desperately seeking model countries: The World Bank in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Pierre Cling; Mireille Razafindrakoto; François Roubaud

    2009-01-01

    (english) Vietnam is a very important country for the World Bank. It is the first recipient of IDA credits. It is also presented by the Bank as a model country for development success, especially in terms of poverty reduction. At the same time, the Bank is very active in Vietnam: it is the first provider of development aid; it is also the leader in economic research. Starting from a detailed diagnosis on the Bank’s activities in Vietnam and on the contents of policies it promotes in this coun...

  4. Proposed Training Plan to Improve Building Energy Efficiency in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced fast growth in energy consumption in the past decade, with annual growth rate of over 12 percent. This is accompanied by the fast increase in commercial energy use, driven by rapid industrialization, expansion of motorized transport, and increasing energy use in residential and commercial buildings. Meanwhile, Vietnam is experiencing rapid urbanization at a rate of 3.4 percent per year; and the majority of the growth centered in and near major cities such as Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. This has resulted in a construction boom in Vietnam.

  5. Secondary Traumatization in Vietnam Veterans' Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J; Gerszberg, Nicole; Dohrenwend, Bruce P

    2016-08-01

    This research focused on secondary traumatization of wives and offspring of 115 male Vietnam veterans, a subsample from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study who had one or more children aged 6 to 16 years and had had a clinical interview. Traumatization was defined as meeting criteria for lifetime war-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Secondary traumatization was operationalized by elevated scores on children's internalizing or externalizing behavior problems and on wives' demoralization. There was evidence of secondary traumatization in the veterans' sons (odds ratio [OR] = 20.31 for internalizing behavior problems). Current PTSD in the veterans was associated with demoralization in their wives or partners (β = 0.24), which in turn was associated with behavior problems in their daughters (ORs = 2.67 and 4.61 for internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, respectively; these were adjusted for veteran's PTSD). Demoralization of the wife or partner was also associated with current alcoholism in the veterans (β = 0.30, adjusting for veteran's PTSD). These associations were also adjusted for other veteran risk factors, including severity of combat exposure, involvement in harming civilians or prisoners, and prewar vulnerability. Even with the degree of secondary traumatization present, the veterans' children appeared at least as healthy as counterparts in the general population. PMID:27529559

  6. 78 FR 8107 - Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Countervailing Duty Determination and Final Affirmative Critical Circumstances Determination, 77 FR 75973... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... order on certain steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam)....

  7. Detection of borna disease virus p24 RNA from human brain tissue in patients with central nervous system tumors in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiao; XIE Peng; XU Ping; PENG Dan; ZHU Dan; ZENG Zhi-lei

    2008-01-01

    Objective:It intended to examine whether there is BDV infection in the human tumor tissues of central nervous system in China and investigate the correlation between BDV infection and tumom of central nervous system.Methods:Nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction(nRT-PCR)and fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction(FQ-PCR)was used to detect the BDV p24 fragments in 60 samples of human tumor tissues of central nervous system and 14 normal brain tissues.Results:The study indicated the positive rate of the BDV p24 fragment in human tumor tissues of the central nervous system (6.67%)was higher than that in normal brain tissues(0),but no statistical significance(P>0.05).Concluswn:It suggests that the BDV infection is present in the human tumor tissues of central nervous system in China.while the sample size wa.sn't large enough and we could not certify the possible correlation between BDV infection and cenfral nervous system tumors.

  8. Detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity identifies neuronal integrity in damaged rat central nervous system after application of bacterial melanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigran R Petrosyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to confirm the neuroregenerative effects of bacterial melanin (BM on central nervous system injury using a special staining method based on the detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity. Twenty-four rats were randomly assigned to undergo either unilateral destruction of sensorimotor cortex (group I; n = 12 or unilateral rubrospinal tract transection at the cervical level (C3–4 (group II; n = 12. In each group, six rats were randomly selected after surgery to undergo intramuscular injection of BM solution (BM subgroup and the remaining six rats were intramuscularly injected with saline (saline subgroup. Neurological testing confirmed that BM accelerated the recovery of motor function in rats from both BM and saline subgroups. Two months after surgery, Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity detection in combination with Chilingarian's calcium adenoside triphosphate method revealed that BM stimulated the sprouting of fibers and dilated the capillaries in the brain and spinal cord. These results suggest that BM can promote the recovery of motor function of rats with central nervous system injury; and detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity is a fast and easy method used to study the regeneration-promoting effects of BM on the injured central nervous system.

  9. Detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity identiifes neuronal integrity in damaged rat central nervous system after application of bacterial melanin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tigran R Petrosyan; Anna S Ter-Markosyan; Anna S Hovsepyan

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to confirm the neuroregenerative effects of bacterial melanin (BM) on central nervous system injury using a special staining method based on the detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity. Twenty-four rats were randomly assigned to undergo either unilateral destruction of sensorimotor cortex (group I;n=12) or unilateral rubrospinal tract transection at the cervical level (C3–4) (group II;n=12). In each group, six rats were randomly selected after surgery to undergo intramuscular injection of BM solution (BM subgroup) and the remaining six rats were intramuscularly injected with saline (saline subgroup). Neurological testing confirmed that BM accelerated the recovery of motor function in rats from both BM and saline subgroups. Two months after surgery, Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity detection in combination with Chilingarian’s calcium adenoside triphosphate method revealed that BM stimulated the sprouting of ifbers and dilated the capillaries in the brain and spinal cord. These results sug-gest that BM can promote the recovery of motor function of rats with central nervous system injury;and detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity is a fast and easy method used to study the regenera-tion-promoting effects of BM on the injured central nervous system.

  10. Detection of Ca(2+)-dependent acid phosphatase activity identifies neuronal integrity in damaged rat central nervous system after application of bacterial melanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, Tigran R; Ter-Markosyan, Anna S; Hovsepyan, Anna S

    2016-07-01

    The study aims to confirm the neuroregenerative effects of bacterial melanin (BM) on central nervous system injury using a special staining method based on the detection of Ca(2+)-dependent acid phosphatase activity. Twenty-four rats were randomly assigned to undergo either unilateral destruction of sensorimotor cortex (group I; n = 12) or unilateral rubrospinal tract transection at the cervical level (C3-4) (group II; n = 12). In each group, six rats were randomly selected after surgery to undergo intramuscular injection of BM solution (BM subgroup) and the remaining six rats were intramuscularly injected with saline (saline subgroup). Neurological testing confirmed that BM accelerated the recovery of motor function in rats from both BM and saline subgroups. Two months after surgery, Ca(2+)-dependent acid phosphatase activity detection in combination with Chilingarian's calcium adenoside triphosphate method revealed that BM stimulated the sprouting of fibers and dilated the capillaries in the brain and spinal cord. These results suggest that BM can promote the recovery of motor function of rats with central nervous system injury; and detection of Ca(2+)-dependent acid phosphatase activity is a fast and easy method used to study the regeneration-promoting effects of BM on the injured central nervous system. PMID:27630700

  11. Bacterial diversity associated with wild caught Anopheles mosquitoes from Dak Nong Province, Vietnam using culture and DNA fingerprint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Thuy Ngo

    Full Text Available Microbiota of Anopheles midgut can modulate vector immunity and block Plasmodium development. Investigation on the bacterial biodiversity in Anopheles, and specifically on the identification of bacteria that might be used in malaria transmission blocking approaches, has been mainly conducted on malaria vectors of Africa. Vietnam is an endemic country for both malaria and Bancroftian filariasis whose parasitic agents can be transmitted by the same Anopheles species. No information on the microbiota of Anopheles mosquitoes in Vietnam was available previous to this study.The culture dependent approach, using different mediums, and culture independent (16S rRNA PCR - TTGE method were used to investigate the bacterial biodiversity in the abdomen of 5 Anopheles species collected from Dak Nong Province, central-south Vietnam. Molecular methods, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were used to characterize the microbiota.The microbiota in wild-caught Anopheles was diverse with the presence of 47 bacterial OTUs belonging to 30 genera, including bacterial genera impacting Plasmodium development. The bacteria were affiliated with 4 phyla, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, the latter being the dominant phylum. Four bacterial genera are newly described in Anopheles mosquitoes including Coxiella, Yersinia, Xanthomonas, and Knoellia. The bacterial diversity per specimen was low ranging from 1 to 4. The results show the importance of pairing culture and fingerprint methods to better screen the bacterial community in Anopheles mosquitoes.Sampled Anopheles species from central-south Vietnam contained a diverse bacterial microbiota that needs to be investigated further in order to develop new malaria control approaches. The combination of both culture and DNA fingerprint methods allowed a thorough and complementary screening of the bacterial community in Anopheles mosquitoes.

  12. Bacterial Diversity Associated with Wild Caught Anopheles Mosquitoes from Dak Nong Province, Vietnam Using Culture and DNA Fingerprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chung Thuy; Aujoulat, Fabien; Veas, Francisco; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Manguin, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Background Microbiota of Anopheles midgut can modulate vector immunity and block Plasmodium development. Investigation on the bacterial biodiversity in Anopheles, and specifically on the identification of bacteria that might be used in malaria transmission blocking approaches, has been mainly conducted on malaria vectors of Africa. Vietnam is an endemic country for both malaria and Bancroftian filariasis whose parasitic agents can be transmitted by the same Anopheles species. No information on the microbiota of Anopheles mosquitoes in Vietnam was available previous to this study. Method The culture dependent approach, using different mediums, and culture independent (16S rRNA PCR – TTGE) method were used to investigate the bacterial biodiversity in the abdomen of 5 Anopheles species collected from Dak Nong Province, central-south Vietnam. Molecular methods, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were used to characterize the microbiota. Results and Discussion The microbiota in wild-caught Anopheles was diverse with the presence of 47 bacterial OTUs belonging to 30 genera, including bacterial genera impacting Plasmodium development. The bacteria were affiliated with 4 phyla, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, the latter being the dominant phylum. Four bacterial genera are newly described in Anopheles mosquitoes including Coxiella, Yersinia, Xanthomonas, and Knoellia. The bacterial diversity per specimen was low ranging from 1 to 4. The results show the importance of pairing culture and fingerprint methods to better screen the bacterial community in Anopheles mosquitoes. Conclusion Sampled Anopheles species from central-south Vietnam contained a diverse bacterial microbiota that needs to be investigated further in order to develop new malaria control approaches. The combination of both culture and DNA fingerprint methods allowed a thorough and complementary screening of the bacterial community in Anopheles mosquitoes. PMID:25747513

  13. Impact of deforestation on local precipitation patterns over the Da River basin, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Spartà, Daniele; Castelletti, Andrea; Boschetti, Mirco

    2014-05-01

    Change in land cover, e.g. from forest to bare soil, might severely impact the hydrological cycle at the river basin scale by altering the balance between rainfall and evaporation, ultimately affecting streamflow dynamics. These changes generally occur over decades, but they might be much more rapid in developing countries, where economic growth and growing population may cause abrupt changes in landscape and ecosystem. Detecting, analysing and modelling these changes is an essential step to design mitigation strategies and adaptation plans, balancing economic development and ecosystem protection. In this work we investigate the impact of land cover changes on the water cycle in the Da River basin, Vietnam. More precisely, the objective is to evaluate the interlink between deforestation and precipitation. The case study is particularly interesting because Vietnam is one of the world fastest growing economies and natural resources have been considerably exploited to support after-war development. Vietnam has the second highest rate of deforestation of primary forests in the world, second to only Nigeria (FAO 2005), with associated problems like abrupt change in run-off, erosion, sediment transport and flash floods. We performed land cover evaluation by combining literature information and Remote Sensing techniques, using Landsat images. We then analysed time series of precipitation observed on the period 1960-2011 in several stations located in the catchment area. We used multiple trend detection techniques, both state-of-the-art (e.g., Linear regression and Mann-Kendall) and novel trend detection techniques (Moving Average on Shifting Horizon), to investigate trends in seasonal pattern of precipitation. Results suggest that deforestation may induce a negative trend in the precipitation volume. The effect is mainly recognizable at the beginning and at the end of the monsoon season, when the local mechanisms of precipitation formation prevail over the large scale

  14. Exporting a Scandinavian Learning Model to Egypt and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Youssef, Sandra Safwat; Bygholm, Ann; Jæger, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    many challenges. In this paper, we will present findings from an ethnographic study of the learning systems in higher education in Denmark, Egypt and Vietnam. The sample includes undergraduate level classes taught in Denmark, Egypt and Vietnam. The selected learning setting include an 'Academic...... Communication and Grammar' class in Denmark, a 'Financial Management' class in Vietnam and a 'Marketing Management' class in Egypt. To analyze the data collected, the researcher developed a model based on a constructivist understanding of learning processes. Three detailed descriptions of observations made...... in the above mentioned classes by the researcher are offered in this paper. In the "Learning Situations" (LS) observed in Denmark, the interaction is interpreted as arranged in agreement with basic constructivist principles, whereas the interaction in Vietnam is predominantly student-teacher centered...

  15. Small modular reactor for developing countries as Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology with SMRs less than 300 MWt is an advanced development of nuclear power. What the role do SMRs play among developing countries such as Vietnam? Some comments and assessment are subjects for discussion in this paper. (author)

  16. Vestalaria vinnula spec. nov. from southern Vietnam (Odonata: Calopterygidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hämäläinen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Vestalaria vinnula spec.nov. (holotype male, southern Vietnam, Lam Dong province, Blao, 1962) is described in both sexes and compared with other species of Vestalaria May, 1935 (= the Vestalis smaragdina - group), which is ranked as valid genus.

  17. Essays on Impact evaluation: new empirical evidence from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Viet Cuong, N.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Credit, cash transfers, remittances, migration, poverty, inequality, impact evaluation, Vietnam, Asia This study estimates the impact of various economic flows including government-subsidized micro-credit, informal credit, public and private transfers, international remittances, and migr

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Vietnam, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial resistance (AMR in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major public health concern worldwide. In Vietnam, knowledge regarding N. gonorrhoeae prevalence and AMR is limited, and data concerning genetic characteristics of N. gonorrhoeae is totally lacking. Herein, we investigated the phenotypic AMR (previous, current and possible future treatment options, genetic resistance determinants for extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs, and genotypic distribution of N. gonorrhoeae isolated in 2011 in Hanoi, Vietnam. Methods N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Hanoi, Vietnam isolated in 2011 (n = 108 were examined using antibiograms (Etest for 10 antimicrobials, Neisseria gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST, and sequencing of ESC resistance determinants (penA, mtrR and penB. Results The levels of in vitro resistance were as follows: ciprofloxacin 98%, tetracycline 82%, penicillin G 48%, azithromycin 11%, ceftriaxone 5%, cefixime 1%, and spectinomycin 0%. The MICs of gentamicin (0.023-6 mg/L, ertapenem (0.002-0.125 mg/L and solithromycin (penA mosaic alleles were found, however, 78% of the isolates contained an alteration of amino acid A501 (A501V (44% and A501T (34% in the encoded penicillin-binding protein 2. A single nucleotide (A deletion in the inverted repeat of the promoter region of the mtrR gene and amino acid alterations in MtrR was observed in 91% and 94% of the isolates, respectively. penB resistance determinants were detected in 87% of the isolates. Seventy-five different NG-MAST STs were identified, of which 59 STs have not been previously described. Conclusions In Vietnam, the highly diversified gonococcal population displayed high in vitro resistance to antimicrobials previously recommended for gonorrhoea treatment (with exception of spectinomycin, but resistance also to the currently recommended ESCs were found. Nevertheless, the MICs of three potential future treatment options were low. It is

  19. Detection of early central circulatory transits in patients with cirrhosis by gamma variate fit of indicator dilution profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H; Møller, Søren; Fuglsang, Stefan;

    2004-01-01

    dilution curves, and the relations between flow, circulation times, and volumes were established according to kinetic principles. No significant very early central circulatory transits were identified. In contrast, early (i.e., 4 s to maximal) transits corresponding to a mean of 5.1% (vs. 0.8% in controls...... variate fit method (1.51 vs. 1.53 liter; not significant). In conclusion, no very early central circulatory transits were identified in cirrhotic patients. A significant part of the cardiac output undergoes an early transit, probably through pulmonary shunts or areas with low ventilation-perfusion ratios...

  20. Central nervous system abnormalities on midline facial defects with hypertelorism detected by magnetic resonance image and computed tomography; Anomalias de sistema nervoso central em defeitos de linha media facial com hipertelorismo detectados por ressonancia magnetica e tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Vera Lucia Gil da Silva; Giffoni, Silvio David Araujo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dep. de Genetica Medica]. E-mail: vlopes@fcm.unicamp.br

    2006-10-15

    The aim of this study were to describe and to compare structural central nervous system (CNS) anomalies detected by magnetic resonance image (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) in individuals affected by midline facial defects with hypertelorism (MFDH) isolated or associated with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). The investigation protocol included dysmorphological examination, skull and facial X-rays, brain CT and/or MRI. We studied 24 individuals, 12 of them had an isolated form (Group I) and the others, MCA with unknown etiology (Group II). There was no significant difference between Group I and II and the results are presented in set. In addition to the several CNS anomalies previously described, MRI (n=18) was useful for detection of neuronal migration errors. These data suggested that structural CNS anomalies and MFDH seem to have an intrinsic embryological relationship, which should be taken in account during the clinical follow-up. (author)

  1. Invasive Plant Species in the National Parks of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard; Pham Quang Thu; Dang Thanh Tan

    2012-01-01

    The impact of invasive plant species in national parks and forests in Vietnam is undocumented and management plans have yet to be developed. Ten national parks, ranging from uncut to degraded forests located throughout Vietnam, were surveyed for invasive plant species. Transects were set up along roads, trails where local people access park areas, and also tracks through natural forest. Of 134 exotic weeds, 25 were classified as invasive species and the number of invasive species ranged from ...

  2. Students' expectation toward service of recruiment agencies in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Hanh

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the thesis was to explore the expectations of students studying abroad to recruitment agencies in Vietnam. The study aims at recommend the right service for recruit-ment agencies offer to students to find a job and explore the culture obstacles for their career development when return home. The study originated from author’s own experience when finding an internship in Vietnam. The theoretical framework is based on relevant areas of theories of recruitment process, na-...

  3. Vietnam: An Emerging Economy at a CrossRoads

    OpenAIRE

    Quang Truong

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the institutional structure of the business system of Vietnam. It explores the role of the state, the financial system, ownership and corporate governance, the internal structure of the firm (management), employment relations, education and skills formation, inter-company relations (networks), and social capital. It highlights the critical crossroads Vietnam is facing, after a period of steady growth, in a desperate effort to save its economy from going virt...

  4. Review of Rice Policies in China, Thailand and Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Sina Xie; Orachos Napasintuwong

    2014-01-01

    China, Thailand, and Vietnam are key players in world rice market in terms of production and trade. In the past few decades, rice policies in these three countries have changed significantly resulted in changes in production, exports and influences in the world market. This paper reviews major rice policy reforms in China, Thailand and Vietnam during past five decades. It is observed that although each country has practiced different policies at different periods, with the economic developmen...

  5. Networks of Enterprises and Innovations: Evidence from SMEs in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Doan, Quang Hung; Vu, Hoang Nam

    2016-01-01

    By using the latest dataset from the survey of SMEs conducted in Vietnam in 2011, we show that a firm both participating in a wider network of input suppliers, buyers, and associations of enterprises and conducting innovative activities in production has higher labor productivity than others, implying that networks of enterprises and innovation are complementary to each other in affecting performance of SMEs in Vietnam. We also find that supports of the government including providing better i...

  6. Factors Affecting Outsourcing Software Development from Finland to Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    The past few years have seen a steady trend in the growth of Offshore Outsourcing Soft-ware Development projects from Finland. At the same time, Vietnam has been quickly growing as a competitive outsourcing destination. Many outsourcing vendors from Vietnam want to enter Finnish software development market through contracts of outsourcing projects. They have neither had a competitive edge of international business relation nor a deep understanding of the Finnish market. The objectives of the ...

  7. Air Freight Service Development Plan : Case: CMA CGM Logistics Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Giang

    2014-01-01

    Being one of the fastest-growing nations in the world, Vietnam is trading across the border actively and at the same time attracting multiple foreign investments. Import and export activities are occurring vigorously which leads to a huge potential for international transportation sectors, particularly for aviation industry. Hence, the ultimate goal of this thesis is to establish a development plan of air freight service for the case company – CMA CGM Logistics Vietnam (CCLOG VN). The stu...

  8. Lessons from enterprise reforms in China and Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. This paper surveys a few key features of SOE reforms in China and Vietnam, focusing particularly on the evolution of ownership structures and on the relative weight of market regulatory mechanisms, and discusses their general implications for socialist development. It tentatively concludes that some broad principles informing and constraining any feasible socialist-oriented economic strategy can indeed be identified. Keywords. Socialism SOEs China Vietnam.JEL. P20, P30, P31 O10, O25.

  9. Use of draft and working animals in agriculture of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Thanh Nga

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis contains analyzes the use of animals for agricultural development. Vietnam has been moving towards a market economy and modernization of agriculture. The rate of use of mechanization in agriculture is increasing; however, animals are used primarily on small farms. More than 50% of the total agriculture areas in Vietnam are still cultivated by draft animals, while only about 30% are cultivated by mechanization. The soil preparation by draft animals positively effects on yi...

  10. United States national security policy making and Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    The United States failed to achieve its goals in waging a war in Vietnam. This thesis endeavors to show that this failure was due to errors in the formulation of American national security policy regarding Vietnam. The policy making process went astray, at least in part, due to a narrowing of the role of senior military officers as national security policy makers. The restricted role of senior officers as national security policy makers adversely affected American policy formulation regarding Vietnam. The United States response to the coup against Diem in 1963 and the deployment of conventional American forces to ground combat in Vietnam, in 1965 were undertaken without a clear recognition of the considerable costs of the commitments being assumed. Senior military officers had prompted such a recognition in similar previous crises but were not in a policy making position to do so concerning Vietnam. The policymaking input that was absent was ethical counsel of a fundamental nature. Clausewitz viewed the mortality of a war as being embodied in the national will to fight that war. The absence of an accurate appreciation of the costs of a military solution in Vietnam denied civilian officials a critical policy making factor and contributed significantly to the defeat of the American purpose there.

  11. Volatile Constituents of Three Piper Species from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieua, Le D; Hoic, Tran M; Thangda, Tran D; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2015-11-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of three Piper plants grown in Vietnam are reported. The analysis was achieved by means of gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituents of the leaf oil of Piper majusculum Blume were β-caryophyllene (20.7%), germacrene D (18.6%) and β-elemene (11.3%). The quantitatively significant compounds of the volatile oils of P. harmandii C. DC were sabinene (leaves, 14.5%; stems, 16.2%), benzyl benzoate (leaves, 20.0%; stems, 29.40%) and benzyl salicylate (leaves, 14.1%; stems, 24.3%). Also, α-cadinol (17.0%) was identified in large proportion in the leaf oil. However, sabinene (leaves, 17.9%; stems, 13.5%), benzyl benzoate (leaves, 20.5%; stems, 32.5%) and β-eudesmol (leaves, 13.8%; stems, 8.4%) were the main constituents of P. brevicaule C. DC. This is the first report on the volatile constituents of both P. harmandii and P. brevicaule. PMID:26749846

  12. Recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Van So [Radioisotope Dept., Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1998-10-01

    This is a report on the recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam. Using a nuclear research reactor of 500 KW with continuous operation cycles of 100 hours a month, the production of some important radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine and research was routinely carried out. More than 80 per cent of irradiation capacity of reactor for radioisotope production were exploited. The radioactivity of more than 150 Ci of {sup 131}I, {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc, {sup 32}P, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 192}Ir was produced annually. Radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 131}I-Hippuran and in-vivo Kits for {sup 99m}Tc labelling were also prepared routinely and regularly. More than 10 in-vivo Kits including modern radiopharmaceuticals such as HmPAO kit were supplied to hospitals in Vietnam. The research on the improvement of dry distillation technology for production of {sup 131}I was carried out. As a result obtained a new distillation apparatus made from glass was successfully put to routine use in place of expensive quartz distillation furnace. We have also continued the research programme on the development of {sup 99m}Tc generators using low power research reactors. Gel technology using Zr- and Ti- molybdate gel columns for {sup 99m}Tc generator production was developed and improved continually. Portable {sup 99m}Tc generator using Zr-({sup 99}Mo) molybdate gel column and ZISORB adsorbent column for {sup 99m}Tc concentration were developed. The ZISORB adsorbent of high adsorption capacity for {sup 99}Mo and other parent radionuclides was also studied for the development purpose of alternative technology of {sup 99m}Tc and other different radionuclide generator systems. The studies on the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals labelling with {sup 153}Sm and {sup 131}I such as {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, {sup 131}I-MIBG were carried out. (author)

  13. Prematurity, asphyxia and congenital malformations underrepresented among neonates in a tertiary pediatric hospital in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruse Alexandra Y

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimated 17,000 neonates (≤ 28 days of age die in Vietnam annually, corresponding to more than half of the child mortality burden. However, current knowledge about these neonates is limited. Prematurity, asphyxia and congenital malformations are major causes of death in neonates worldwide. To improve survival and long term development, these vulnerable neonates need access to the specialized neonatal care existing, although limited, in lower middle-income countries like Vietnam. The aim of this study was to describe these conditions in a specialized Vietnamese hospital, compared to a Danish hospital. Methods We performed a comparative observational study of all neonates admitted to a tertiary pediatric hospital in South Vietnam in 2009–2010. The data were prospectively extracted from the central hospital registry and included basic patient characteristics and diagnoses (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision. Prematurity, asphyxia and designated congenital malformations (oesophageal atresia, gastroschisis, omphalocoele, diaphragmatic hernia and heart disease were investigated. In a subgroup, the prematurity diagnosis was validated using a questionnaire. The hospitalization ratio of each diagnosis was compared to those obtained from a Danish tertiary hospital. The Danish data were retrieved from the neonatal department database for a ten-year period. Results The study included 5763 neonates (missing Conclusion Our findings suggest the investigated diagnoses were underrepresented in the Vietnamese study hospital. In contrast, relatively mild diagnoses were frequent. These results indicate the use of specialized care may not be optimal. Pre-hospital selection mechanisms were not investigated and additional studies are needed to optimise utilisation of specialized care and improve neonatal survival.

  14. Eco-hydrological modeling in a tropical area of Vietnam using SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei Emam, Ammar; Kappas, Martin; Nguyen Hoang Khanh, Linh; Renchin, Tsolmon

    2016-04-01

    The tropical area of Vietnam is suffering from mismanagement of water and land resources which leads to rising floods, surface runoff and soil erosion. We used an eco-hydrological model based on SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) in Aluoi district as a representative case study of Central Vietnam. In addition to water balance calculation we simulated the flooding behavior on a single severe event (16th October 2007) by SWAT model. The model was calibrated based on multi-objective functions for stream flow and actual evapotranspiration (ETa). Nevertheless, observed stream flow was predicted by a regionalization approach and Eta-data were derived from MODIS time-series. The results of calibration and validation of model were pretty good with a high Nash-Sutcliff coefficient of 0.72 and 0.82 for river discharge and 0.77 and 0.79 for ETa, respectively. The monthly average of eight-year simulation (2006-2013) showed that the highest surface runoff occurred in October while the ratio of ETa /rainfall is the lowest, and the lowest surface runoff happened in February when the ratio of Eta /rainfall is the highest. The flooding behavior revealed that the peak flow was under predicted about 10 percent, roughly 1331 m3/s. However, the water depth was estimated approximately 7.5 m in the Main River. This water-level generated overflow of the river banks and led to inundation of land and endangered infrastructure and human life in downstream areas. Hence, best management practices (e.g. Terracing) are recommended to reduce surface runoff and flooding forces in Aluoi district of Vietnam.

  15. Dengue dynamics in Binh Thuan province, southern Vietnam: periodicity, synchronicity and climate variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoa T D Thai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue is a major global public health problem with increasing incidence and geographic spread. The epidemiology is complex with long inter-epidemic intervals and endemic with seasonal fluctuations. This study was initiated to investigate dengue transmission dynamics in Binh Thuan province, southern Vietnam. METHODOLOGY: Wavelet analyses were performed on time series of monthly notified dengue cases from January 1994 to June 2009 (i to detect and quantify dengue periodicity, (ii to describe synchrony patterns in both time and space, (iii to investigate the spatio-temporal waves and (iv to associate the relationship between dengue incidence and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO indices in Binh Thuan province, southern Vietnam. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate a continuous annual mode of oscillation and a multi-annual cycle of around 2-3-years was solely observed from 1996-2001. Synchrony in time and between districts was detected for both the annual and 2-3-year cycle. Phase differences used to describe the spatio-temporal patterns suggested that the seasonal wave of infection was either synchronous among all districts or moving away from Phan Thiet district. The 2-3-year periodic wave was moving towards, rather than away from Phan Thiet district. A strong non-stationary association between ENSO indices and climate variables with dengue incidence in the 2-3-year periodic band was found. CONCLUSIONS: A multi-annual mode of oscillation was observed and these 2-3-year waves of infection probably started outside Binh Thuan province. Associations with climatic variables were observed with dengue incidence. Here, we have provided insight in dengue population transmission dynamics over the past 14.5 years. Further studies on an extensive time series dataset are needed to test the hypothesis that epidemics emanate from larger cities in southern Vietnam.

  16. Isotopic detection of waste water disposal in deep pre-tertiary aquifers in the Weisselster basin, Central Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Central German lignite mining area pumping of ground water along with mining activities have caused severe hydraulic disturbances in the aquifer system. Moreover in the period from 1940's to mid 1970's coal processing companies injected phenolic waste water into abandoned mining pits and deep Upper Permian Zechstein aquifers. A spatial analysis of the data from 350 drillings allowed to characterise the subsurface geology; phenolic waste water traces were found in Zechstein aquifer

  17. Vietnam Vets with PTSD More Than Twice As Likely to Have Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Releases News Release Tuesday, June 25, 2013 Vietnam vets with PTSD more than twice as likely to ... a risk factor for heart disease among Vietnam vets. Computer-generated map of the heart of a ...

  18. Challenges of the introduction of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages at foreign-language universities in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viet anh Nguyen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s globalized world, it seems necessary, or even indispensable for the teaching/learning of foreign languages to be based on international standards proposed by the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL. The present article deals with issues of integration of the CEFRL in the Vietnamese context by analyzing the results of a study of training programs at six universities specializing in foreign languages, which are based in three regions of the country (Northern, Central and Southern Vietnam. Despite some positive changes and the dynamism characteristic of the approach, a mechanical and rigid introduction of CEFRL in foreign-language universities in Vietnam has actually caused several problems. These include (1 the inconsistency between the levels established by the CEFRL and the organization of teaching/learning; (2 the risk of teaching/learning becoming too “utilitarian” and too function-oriented and (3 excessive attention given to the evaluation and assessment of linguistic knowledge and of performance level  rather than on the ability to use various resources as well as to long-term process of competence development. The study results show some possible ways for the development of a referential frame for learning/teaching French in Vietnam.

  19. Advantages and Disadvantages in setting up and managing a Captive Center in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, An; Nguyen, Thanh

    2015-01-01

    This work concerns factors that Captive Centers would face when they operate in Vietnam. In other words, it purposes to perceive in detail what Vietnam offers to Captive Centers by identifying the advantages and disadvantages in establishing and managing Captive Centers in Vietnam from the perspective of foreign companies. Under the qualitative research method, the authors have done three interviews with the managers of two Captive Centers operating in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, by sending th...

  20. The Sixth Meeting of China-Vietnam People’s Forum Held in Nanning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Yan

    2015-01-01

    The CPA FFC,the China Vietnam Friendship Association(CVFA),Vietnam Union of Friendship Organizations(VUFO)and the Vietnam-China Friendship Association(VCFA)jointly held the Sixth Meeting of China-Vietnam People’s Forumin Nanning,capital of China’s Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region,from December1 to 3,2014,attracting delegates from political,economic,academic

  1. Pesticide pollution in agricultural areas of Northern Vietnam: Case study in Hoang Liet and Minh Dai communes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoai, Pham Manh [Research Center for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development, Hanoi University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai Str., Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sebesvari, Zita [United Nations University, Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS), Hermann-Ehlers-Str. 10, D-5311, Bonn (Germany); Minh, Tu Binh; Viet, Pham Hung [Research Center for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development, Hanoi University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai Str., Hanoi (Viet Nam); Renaud, Fabrice G., E-mail: renaud@ehs.unu.edu [United Nations University, Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS), Hermann-Ehlers-Str. 10, D-5311, Bonn (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Soils and agricultural products from the Red River basin in Northern Vietnam were reported to be contaminated by agrichemicals. To assess potential exposure of local farmers and consumers to these contaminants, pesticide use and management practices of local farmers were surveyed and residue concentrations were determined for recently used as well as for banned pesticides in water, soil, vegetables, and fish samples in two communes of Northern Vietnam. DDTs, HCHs, and Drin compounds still persist at relatively high concentrations in soil and occur in vegetable and fish samples. Recently used pesticides, such as fenobucarb, trichlorfon, cyfluthrin, and cypermethrin were detected in vegetable and fish samples. Thresholds for acceptable daily intake levels (ADI) were frequently reached in the analyzed food products pointing to the fact that current pesticide management practices do not only result in a pollution of the environment but also pose threats to human health. - Highlights: > Pesticide use and residue concentrations in the environment and biota was investigated. > Cypermethrin, trichlorfon, fenobucarb, cyfluthrin were frequently detected in biota. > Acceptable daily intake (ADI) levels were repeatedly exceeded in fish and vegetables. > Banned organochlorine pesticides still persist in the environment. > Better information-sharing is required to improve farmers' pesticide management. - Pollution with recently used and banned pesticides was observed in the environment and food products in Northern Vietnam and is discussed in context of human exposure.

  2. Pesticide pollution in agricultural areas of Northern Vietnam: Case study in Hoang Liet and Minh Dai communes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soils and agricultural products from the Red River basin in Northern Vietnam were reported to be contaminated by agrichemicals. To assess potential exposure of local farmers and consumers to these contaminants, pesticide use and management practices of local farmers were surveyed and residue concentrations were determined for recently used as well as for banned pesticides in water, soil, vegetables, and fish samples in two communes of Northern Vietnam. DDTs, HCHs, and Drin compounds still persist at relatively high concentrations in soil and occur in vegetable and fish samples. Recently used pesticides, such as fenobucarb, trichlorfon, cyfluthrin, and cypermethrin were detected in vegetable and fish samples. Thresholds for acceptable daily intake levels (ADI) were frequently reached in the analyzed food products pointing to the fact that current pesticide management practices do not only result in a pollution of the environment but also pose threats to human health. - Highlights: → Pesticide use and residue concentrations in the environment and biota was investigated. → Cypermethrin, trichlorfon, fenobucarb, cyfluthrin were frequently detected in biota. → Acceptable daily intake (ADI) levels were repeatedly exceeded in fish and vegetables. → Banned organochlorine pesticides still persist in the environment. → Better information-sharing is required to improve farmers' pesticide management. - Pollution with recently used and banned pesticides was observed in the environment and food products in Northern Vietnam and is discussed in context of human exposure.

  3. Stratification and the Emergence of the Postsecondary Private Education Sector in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyette, Kimberly Ann

    2012-01-01

    Vietnam has a strong public postsecondary education sector that has only recently begun to experience growth in nonpublic institutions. I investigate how the growth of nonpublic institutions may be related to stratification in Vietnam. I find that these institutions are more likely to serve more advantaged students from South Vietnam. Students pay…

  4. 75 FR 16434 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Combination Rates in Antidumping Investigations involving Non-Market Economy Countries, 70 FR 17233 (April 5... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') are being, or are likely to be, sold in the United States...

  5. 77 FR 13547 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005) (``Order... Vietnam: Amended Antidumping Duty Orders in Accordance with Final Court Decision, 76 FR 23227 (April 26... Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,'' dated February 28, 2012. Non-Market Economy...

  6. 75 FR 16428 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... report regarding discussions held with third party experts concerning banking in Vietnam. See Memorandum.... Injury Test Because Vietnam is a ``Subsidies Agreement Country'' within the meaning of section 701(b) of... merchandise. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam; Determinations, 74...

  7. 76 FR 65178 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... Administrative Review, 76 FR 17825 (March 31, 2011) (``Initiation Notice''). The preliminary results are... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') to January 30, 2012....

  8. Discovery of Paragonimus westermani in Vietnam and its molecular phylogenetic status in P. westermani complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Shinohara, Akio; Horii, Yoichiro; Habe, Shigehisa; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2009-04-01

    Paragonimus westermani is the most well-known species among the genus Paragonimus. It is widely distributed in Asia with considerable genetic diversity to form P. westermani species complex. While P. westermani distributed in Japan, Korea, China, and Taiwan are genetically homogeneous to form the East Asia group, those found in other geographic areas are heterogeneous and would be divided into several groups. Recent discoveries of P. westermani in India and Sri Lanka highlighted new insights on molecular phylogenetic relationship of geographic isolates of this species complex. Since Vietnam is located at the east end of Southeast Asia, the intermediate position between South and East Asia, it is of interest to see whether P. westermani is distributed in this country. Here, we report that P. westermani metacercariae were found in mountainous crabs, Potamiscus sp., collected in Quangtri province in the central Vietnam. Adult worms were successfully obtained by experimental infection in cats. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that P. westermani of Vietnamese isolates have high similarities with those of East Asia group.

  9. Methadone Maintenance Therapy in Vietnam: An Overview and Scaling-Up Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tam T. M. Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam is among the countries with the highest rate of HIV transmission through injecting drug users. HIV prevalence among injecting drug users is 20% and up to 50% in many provinces. An estimated number of drug users in the country by the end of 2011 were 171,000 in which the most common is heroin (85%. Detoxification at home, community, and in rehabilitation centers have been the main modalities for managing heroin addiction until Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT was piloted in 2008. Recent reports have demonstrated positive treatment outcomes. Incidence of HIV was found remarkably low among patients on MMT. Treatment has significantly improved the quality of life as well as stability for society. The government has granted the Ministry of Health (MoH to expand Methadone treatment to at least 30 provinces to provide treatment for more than 80,000 drug users by 2015. The Vietnam Administration for HIV/AIDS Control (VAAC and MOH have outlined the role and responsibility of key departments at the central and local levels in implementing and maintaining MMT treatment. This paper will describe the achievements of the MMT pilot program and the scaling-up plan as well as strategies to ensure quality and sustainability and to overcome the challenges in the coming years.

  10. Detection of Puumala virus in the tissue of infected naturally rodent hosts in the area of central Dinarides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervović, Edina; Hukić, Mirsada

    2016-04-01

    Hantaviruses are the causative agents of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Euroasia and of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the North, Central and South America. HFRS is endemic in the Balkan Peninsula, where sporadic cases or outbreaks have been reported. Puumala virus (PUUV) is the causative agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE), a mild form of HFRS. PUUV is carried by the bank voles (Myodes glareolus). In this study, we investigated viral RNA from 76 tissues samples (lung n=30, heart n=6, liver n=18 and kidney n=22) of infected naturally rodent hosts in the area of Central Dinarides caught in live traps. Puumala virus was extracted from 34,7% (16/46) rodents by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time RT-PCR. Overall, 18 (21,4%) specimens of internal organs (kidney n=8, liver n=6, heart n=2 and lung n=2) were positive for PUUV. It was shown a high rodent infestation rate in a relatively low number of rodent and their organs, although mice were not caught during the time of high density population of host rodents. PMID:26800777

  11. Sister Lab Program Prospective Partner Nuclear Profile: Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vietnam's nuclear program began in the 1960s with the installation at Dalat of a 250 kW TRIGA Mk-II research reactor under the U.S. Atoms for Peace Program. The reactor was shut down and its core removed only a few years later, and the nuclear research program was suspended until after the end of the civil war in the late 1970s. The Soviet Union assisted Vietnam in restoring the Dalat reactor to an operational status in 1984, trained a cadre of scientific and technical staff in its operation, and contributed to the development of nuclear science for the medical and agricultural sectors. In the agricultural area in particular, Vietnamese experts have been very successful in developing mutant strains of rice, and continue to work with the IAEA to yield strains that have a shorter growing period, increased resistance to disease, and other desirable characteristics. Rice has always been the main crop in Vietnam, but technical cooperation with the IAEA and other states has enabled the country to become one of the top rice producers in the world, exporting much of its annual crop to over two dozen countries annually. More recently, Vietnam's government has shown increasing interest in developing a civil nuclear program to supplement its fossil fuel and other energy resources. Projections from a variety of open sources, ranging from the IAEA, the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA), the Vietnamese government, energy corporations, and think tanks all predict a massive increase in energy consumption--especially electricity--within Vietnam and the region as a whole. This growth in consumption will require a corresponding increase in energy production, which in Vietnam is currently satisfied mainly by fossil fuels (coal) and renewable energy (hydropower and biomass); Vietnam has a refining capacity of about 800 barrels/day. Most of its crude oil is exported to generate export income, and is not used to generate electricity. Although Vietnam is

  12. Sister Lab Program Prospective Partner Nuclear Profile: Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissani, M; Tyson, S

    2006-12-14

    Vietnam's nuclear program began in the 1960s with the installation at Dalat of a 250 kW TRIGA Mk-II research reactor under the U.S. Atoms for Peace Program. The reactor was shut down and its core removed only a few years later, and the nuclear research program was suspended until after the end of the civil war in the late 1970s. The Soviet Union assisted Vietnam in restoring the Dalat reactor to an operational status in 1984, trained a cadre of scientific and technical staff in its operation, and contributed to the development of nuclear science for the medical and agricultural sectors. In the agricultural area in particular, Vietnamese experts have been very successful in developing mutant strains of rice, and continue to work with the IAEA to yield strains that have a shorter growing period, increased resistance to disease, and other desirable characteristics. Rice has always been the main crop in Vietnam, but technical cooperation with the IAEA and other states has enabled the country to become one of the top rice producers in the world, exporting much of its annual crop to over two dozen countries annually. More recently, Vietnam's government has shown increasing interest in developing a civil nuclear program to supplement its fossil fuel and other energy resources. Projections from a variety of open sources, ranging from the IAEA, the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA), the Vietnamese government, energy corporations, and think tanks all predict a massive increase in energy consumption--especially electricity--within Vietnam and the region as a whole. This growth in consumption will require a corresponding increase in energy production, which in Vietnam is currently satisfied mainly by fossil fuels (coal) and renewable energy (hydropower and biomass); Vietnam has a refining capacity of about 800 barrels/day. Most of its crude oil is exported to generate export income, and is not used to generate electricity

  13. Sugar concentration of fruits and their detection via color in the Central American spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riba-Hernández, Pablo; Stoner, Kathryn E; Lucas, Peter W

    2005-12-01

    Although most arguments explaining the predominance of polymorphic color vision in platyrrhine monkeys are linked to the advantage of trichromacy over dichromacy for foraging for ripe fruits, little information exists on the relationship between nutritional reward and performance in fruit detection with different types of color vision. The principal reward of most fruits is sugar, and thus it seems logical to investigate whether fruit coloration provides a long-distance sensory cue to primates that correlates with sugar content. Here we test the hypothesis that fruit detection performance via trichromatic color vision phenotypes provides better information regarding sugar concentration than dichromatic phenotypes (i.e., is a color vision phenotype with sufficient red-green (RG) differentiation necessary to "reveal" the concentration of major sugars in fruits?). Accordingly, we studied the fruit foraging behavior of Ateles geoffroyi by measuring both the reflectance spectra and the concentrations of major sugars in the consumed fruits. We modeled detection performance with different color phenotypes. Our results provide some support for the hypothesis. The yellow-blue (YB) color signal, which is the only one available to dichromats, was not significantly related to sugar concentration. The RG color vision signal, which is present only in trichromats, was significantly correlated with sugar content, but only when the latter was defined by glucose. There was in fact a consistent negative relationship between fruit detection performance and sucrose concentration, although this was not significant for the 430 nm and 550 nm phenotypes. The regular trichromatic phenotypes (430 nm, 533 nm, and 565 nm) showed higher correlations between fruit performance and glucose concentration than the other two trichromatic phenotypes. Our study documents a trichromatic foraging advantage in terms of fruit quality, and suggests that trichromatic color vision is advantageous over

  14. Using airborne LiDAR in geoarchaeological contexts: Assessment of an automatic tool for the detection and the morphometric analysis of grazing archaeological structures (French Massif Central).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Erwan; Toumazet, Jean-Pierre; Florez, Marta; Vautier, Franck; Dousteyssier, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) of archaeological regions of interest is nowadays a widely used and established method for accurate topographic and microtopographic survey. The penetration of the vegetation cover by the laser beam allows the reconstruction of reliable digital terrain models (DTM) of forested areas where traditional prospection methods are inefficient, time-consuming and non-exhaustive. The ALS technology provides the opportunity to discover new archaeological features hidden by vegetation and provides a comprehensive survey of cultural heritage sites within their environmental context. However, the post-processing of LiDAR points clouds produces a huge quantity of data in which relevant archaeological features are not easily detectable with common visualizing and analysing tools. Undoubtedly, there is an urgent need for automation of structures detection and morphometric extraction techniques, especially for the "archaeological desert" in densely forested areas. This presentation deals with the development of automatic detection procedures applied to archaeological structures located in the French Massif Central, in the western forested part of the Puy-de-Dôme volcano between 950 and 1100 m a.s.l.. These unknown archaeological sites were discovered by the March 2011 ALS mission and display a high density of subcircular depressions with a corridor access. The spatial organization of these depressions vary from isolated to aggregated or aligned features. Functionally, they appear to be former grazing constructions built from the medieval to the modern period. Similar grazing structures are known in other locations of the French Massif Central (Sancy, Artense, Cézallier) where the ground is vegetation-free. In order to develop a reliable process of automatic detection and mapping of these archaeological structures, a learning zone has been delineated within the ALS surveyed area. The grazing features were mapped and typical morphometric attributes

  15. Breastfeeding practices in urban and rural Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Huong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe and compare breastfeeding practices in rural and urban areas of Vietnam and to study associations with possibly influencing person and household factors. This type of study has not been conducted in Vietnam before. Methods Totally 2,690 children, born from 1st March 2008 to 30th June 2010 in one rural and one urban Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, were followed from birth to the age of 12 months. Information about demography, economy and education for persons and households was obtained from household surveys. Standard statistical methods including survival and regression analyses were used. Results Initiation of breastfeeding during the first hour of life was more frequent in the urban area compared to the rural (boys 40% vs. 35%, girls 49% vs. 40%. High birth weight and living in households with large number of assets significantly increased the probability for early initiation of breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding at three months of age was more commonly reported in the rural than in the urban area (boys 58% vs. 46%, girls 65% vs. 53%. The duration of exclusive breastfeeding as well as of any breastfeeding was longer in the rural area than in the urban area (medians for boys 97 days vs. 81 days, for girls 102 days vs. 91 days. The percentages of children with exclusive breastfeeding lasting at least 6 months, as recommended by WHO, were low in both areas. The duration of exclusive breastfeeding was significantly shorter for mothers with three or more antenatal care visits or Caesarean section in both areas. High education level of mothers was associated with longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding in the rural area. No significant associations were found between duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother’s age, household economy indicators or household size. Conclusion Intervention programs with the aim to promote breastfeeding are needed. Mothers should

  16. The oil and gas market in Vietnam : market brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The national energy plans of Vietnam were presented. In order to meet the country's increasing demand for energy, Vietnam plans to spend $19.5 billion to restructure its energy sector between 2001 and 2021 by exploiting natural gas and crude oil, and through oil refining and power generation. Opportunities exist for Canadian oil and gas equipment and service suppliers, given the fact that the trade environment has become more open and that there has been an increase in approvals for foreign investment. The strongest commercial potential lies in service companies, particularly those in exploration, drilling, training, transportation and high-tech services. The major players in Vietnam have been the United Kingdom, Taiwan, Japan, Singapore, India, Korea, the United States and Germany. In 1999, Canada exported $6.5 million of oil and natural gas equipment to Vietnam. It is recommended that foreign investors make use of a local agent to conduct business in Vietnam to facilitate market entry. Imports of oil and gas equipment are subject to a value added tax of 10 per cent. Rates vary from 0 to 20 per cent for their goods and services. refs., tabs

  17. The Vietnam Drug User Returns. Final Report. Special Action Office Monograph, Series A, Number 2, May 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Lee N.

    This report, based upon case records and follow-up interviews with 965 U.S. Servicemen returning from Vietnam investigates: (1) the availability and utilization of narcotics, marihuana and alcohol in Vietnam; (2) the psychosocial and demographic predictors of pre- and post-Vietnam narcotic use; and (3) the post-Vietnam adjustment difficulties of…

  18. Joint malaria surveys lead towards improved cross-border cooperation between Savannakhet province, Laos and Quang Tri province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongvongsa Tiengkham

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Savannakhet province, Laos and Quang Tri province, Vietnam, malaria is still an important health problem and most cases are found in the mountainous, forested border areas where ethnic minority groups live. The objectives of this study were to obtain a better joint understanding of the malaria situation along the border and, on the basis of that, improve malaria control methods through better cooperation between the two countries. Methods Fourteen villages in Savannakhet and 22 villages in Quang Tri were randomly selected within 5 km from the border where a blood survey for microscopic diagnosis (n = 1256 and n = 1803, respectively, household interviews (n = 400, both sides and vector surveys were conducted between August and October 2010. Satellite images were used to examine the forest density around the study villages. Results Malaria prevalence was significantly higher in Laos (5.2% than in Vietnam (1.8% and many other differences were found over the short distance across the border. Bed net coverage was high (> 90% in both Laos and Vietnam but, while in Laos more than 60% of the nets were long-lasting insecticide-treated, Vietnam used indoor residual spraying in this area and the nets were untreated. Anopheles mosquitoes were more abundant in Laos than in Vietnam, especially many Anopheles dirus were captured in indoor light traps while none were collected in Vietnam. The forest cover was higher around the Lao than the Vietnamese villages. After this study routine exchange of malaria surveillance data was institutionalized and for the first time indoor residual spraying was applied in some Lao villages. Conclusions The abundance of indoor-collected An. dirus on the Laos side raises doubts about the effectiveness of a sole reliance on long-lasting insecticide-treated nets in this area. Next to strengthening the early detection, correct diagnosis and prompt, adequate treatment of malaria infections, it is

  19. Infection with high-risk HPV types among female sex workers in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Huyen Thi Thanh; Ishizaki, Azumi; Nguyen, Cuong Hung; Tran, Vuong Thi; Matsushita, Kaori; Saikawa, Kunikazu; Hosaka, Norimitsu; Pham, Hung Viet; Bi, Xiuqiong; Ta, Van Thanh; Van Pham, Thuc; Ichimura, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    Vaccines against two high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, HPV-16, and HPV-18, are in use currently, with high efficacy for preventing infections with these HPV types and consequent cervical cancers. However, circulating HPV types can vary with geography and ethnicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV types and the association between HPV types and abnormal cervical cytology among female sex workers in Northern Vietnam. Cervical swabs and plasma samples were collected from 281 female sex workers at two health centers in Hanoi and Hai Phong in 2009. The HPV L1 gene was amplified by PCR using original and modified GP5(+)/6(+) primers. Amplified PCR products were genotyped by the microarray system GeneSquare (KURABO) and/or clonal sequencing. Of the 281 women, 139 (49.5%) were positive for HPV DNA. Among the HPV-positive samples, 339 strains and 29 different types were identified. Multiple-type and high risk-type HPV infections were found in 85 (61.2%) and 124 (89.2%) women, respectively. The most common genotype was HPV-52, followed by HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-58. Abnormal cervical cytology was detected in 3.2% (9/281) of the women, and all of these samples were positive for HPV-DNA. Age ≤25 years and infection with human immunodeficiency virus were associated positively with HPV infection among the women while ever smoking was associated negatively. These results show that HPV-52 is most prevalent among female sex workers in Northern Vietnam, most of whom had normal cervical cytology. This information may be important for designing vaccination strategies in Vietnam.

  20. Application of ELISA for diagnosing and investigating the epidemiology of trypanosomiasis in buffaloes in north Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An antigen-detection enzyme immunoassay (Ag-ELISA) based on a Trypanosoma evansi specific monoclonal antibody was used for the detection of circulating antigens in experimentally infected buffaloes and in buffaloes kept in different geographical regions of Vietnam. In experimental infections, circulating antigens were detected around 7 to 14 days after infection but the levels detected were considerably lower than those in sera collected from the field, suggesting that the parasite isolate used became highly adapted to mice thorough passage. In a study of field sera the agreement between the Ag-ELISA and parasitological methods for detecting infected cases was 80% and the apparent specificity of the test was 90%. In these and other studies the Ag-ELISA consistently detected many more infected cases than did the conventional parasitological methods. In most cases animals whose sera reacted in the Ag-ELISA also had trypanosome specific antibodies in their circulation. Treatment of infected animals with a trypanocidal drug in most cases resulted in a significant drop in trypanosome antigen levels but their status with respect to trypanosomal antibodies remained unchanged. Seroepidemiological surveys using Ag-ELISA and Ab-ELISA and base on an analysis of around 1000 sera collected from different regions of Vietnam demonstrated prevalence ranging between 17% and 50% with no apparent relationship to geographical region. However, prevalence of infection was generally higher in summer (rainy season), when fly activity is highest. It is concluded that serological methods based on Ag-ELISA and Ab-ELISA are valuable adjuncts to clinical and parasitological methods for diagnosing trypanosomiasis, studying the epidemiology of the disease and monitoring the effectiveness of control programmes. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  1. Dissolved Pesticide and Organic Carbon Concentrations Detected in Surface Waters, Northern Central Valley, California, 2001-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, James L.; Jacobson, Lisa A.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.

    2004-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effects of pesticide mixtures on Chinook salmon under various environmental conditions in surface waters of the northern Central Valley of California. This project was a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the University of California. The project focused on understanding the environmental factors that influence the toxicity of pesticides to juvenile salmon and their prey. During the periods January through March 2001 and January through May 2002, water samples were collected at eight surface water sites in the northern Central Valley of California and analyzed by the USGS for dissolved pesticide and dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Water samples were also collected by the USGS at the same sites for aquatic toxicity testing by the Aquatic Toxicity Laboratory at the University of California Davis; however, presentation of the results of these toxicity tests is beyond the scope of this report. Samples were collected to characterize dissolved pesticide and dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and aquatic toxicity, associated with winter storm runoff concurrent with winter run Chinook salmon out-migration. Sites were selected that represented the primary habitat of juvenile Chinook salmon and included major tributaries within the Sacramento and San Joaquin River Basins and the Sacramento?San Joaquin Delta. Water samples were collected daily for a period of seven days during two winter storm events in each year. Additional samples were collected weekly during January through April or May in both years. Concentrations of 31 currently used pesticides were measured in filtered water samples using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry at the U.S. Geological Survey's organic chemistry laboratory in Sacramento, California. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations were analyzed in filtered water samples using a Shimadzu TOC-5000A total organic carbon

  2. Molecular detection assay of the bud mite Trisetacus juniperinus on Cupressus sempervirens in nurseries of central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouneb, Mabrouk; de Lillo, Enrico; Roversi, Pio Federico; Simoni, Sauro

    2014-02-01

    Trisetacus juniperinus (Nalepa) sensu Keifer (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Phytoptidae) causes irregular development of buds, shoot deformations and stunted growth of trees, resulting in a serious threat to nurseries and young stands of Cupressus sempervirens L. (Mediterranean cypress). Recently, some cypress clones selected for their resistance to the fungal canker agent Seiridium cardinale (Wag.) have shown high susceptibility to the mite. Considering its tiny body, its hidden lifestyle inside the buds and the probable occurrence of other species (the vagrant Epitrimerus cupressi (Keifer) is common on the Mediterranean cypress in Italy), detection and monitoring of T. juniperinus require taxonomic expertise and are often time-consuming and challenging before serious damage is discernible. In the present study, a rapid, cost-effective PCR-based method was developed and validated to detect T. juniperinus on cypresses. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene was amplified with degenerate and specific primers, but the latter were the only ones able to discriminate between T. juniperinus and E. cupressi. PCR products distinguished the two species both in a pool of individuals in a mixed population of both species and in single individuals, indicating the sensitivity of the detection method. PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) by means of XmnI and XbaI endonucleases separated the two species. Furthermore, a washing-sieving protocol was used to make mite collection from the tree sample faster and simpler; this procedure did not interfere with the molecular detection of the species. The possibility of the routine use of this assay to monitor quarantine eriophyoids infesting plant material is discussed. PMID:24030201

  3. Evaluating the SEVIRI Fire Thermal Anomaly Detection Algorithm across the Central African Republic Using the MODIS Active Fire Product

    OpenAIRE

    Freeborn, Patrick H.; Wooster, Martin J.; Gareth Roberts; Weidong Xu

    2014-01-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing of active fires is the only practical way to consistently and continuously monitor diurnal fluctuations in biomass burning from regional, to continental, to global scales. Failure to understand, quantify, and communicate the performance of an active fire detection algorithm, however, can lead to improper interpretations of the spatiotemporal distribution of biomass burning, and flawed estimates of fuel consumption and trace gas and aerosol emissions. This work e...

  4. Vietnam: opportunities in a developing oil and gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this report is to act as an introduction to Vietnam and its oil industry opportunities for manufacturing, contracting, service and supplies companies which are seeking entry into other markets. The chapters of the report present an overview of the country, its recent history and formative events; in addition, the country's economy, industries and rebuilding process are reviewed. Detailed attention is given to trade, investment and finance, as these factors directly influence all business ventures in Vietnam, and are essential considerations in the assessment of the overall business environment. The appendices contain an extensive list of organisational contacts in Vietnam, the U.K. and elsewhere, and other useful information to support these activities. (author)

  5. Formal and informal credit in four provinces of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel; Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders. Formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation, while informal loans are used for consumption smoothen......This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders. Formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation, while informal loans are used for consumption...... smoothening. The determinants of formal and informal credit demand are distinct. While credit rationing depends on education and credit history, in particular, regional differences in the demand for credit are striking. A 'one size fits all' approach to credit policy in Vietnam would be inappropriate...

  6. Ultra-sensitive molecular MRI of cerebrovascular cell activation enables early detection of chronic central nervous system disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since endothelial cells can be targeted by large contrast-carrying particles, molecular imaging of cerebrovascular cell activation is highly promising to evaluate the underlying inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we aimed to demonstrate that molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cerebrovascular cell activation can reveal CNS disorders in the absence of visible lesions and symptoms. To this aim, we optimized contrast carrying particles targeting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and MRI protocols through both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Although, pre-contrast MRI images failed to reveal the ongoing pathology, contrast-enhanced MRI revealed hypoperfusion-triggered CNS injury in vascular dementia, unmasked amyloid-induced cerebrovascular activation in Alzheimer's disease and allowed monitoring of disease activity during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Moreover, contrast-enhanced MRI revealed the cerebrovascular cell activation associated with known risk factors of CNS disorders such as peripheral inflammation, ethanol consumption, hyperglycemia and aging. By providing a dramatically higher sensitivity than previously reported methods and molecular contrast agents, the technology described in the present study opens new avenues of investigation in the field of neuro-inflammation. (authors)

  7. Detection of active faults using EMR-Technique and Cerescope at Landau area in central Upper Rhine Graben, SW Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagag, Wael; Obermeyer, Hennes

    2016-01-01

    Two conjugate sets of active faults oriented NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE have been detected at Landau area in SW Germany. These faults follow the old trends of the rift-related structures predominating in the Upper Rhine Graben (URG), which originated during Late Eocene-Miocene time. Linear and horizontal measurements were performed by using the Cerescope device and interpreted, applying the Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) Technique. Linear EMR-profiles were helpful for mapping active faults, while the main horizontal stress (σH, N to NNE) was easily identified with EMR-horizontal measurements. Reactivation of rift-related structures of the Upper Rhine Graben at Landau area produces a new system of active shallow fractures following old trends, and has been detected through the present study by Cerescope applying the EMR-Technique. The present results imply that the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) to the south of Landau has a great impact on reactivation of the pre-existing rift-related faults by mechanical hydro-fracturing occurring within the reservoir rocks underneath the area.

  8. The prevalence and genetic diversity of group A rotaviruses on pig farms in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hong Anh; Carrique-Mas, Juan J; Nguyen, Van Cuong; Ngo, Thi Hoa; Nguyet, Lam Anh; Do, Tien Duy; Vo, Be Hien; Phan, Vu Tra My; Rabaa, Maia A; Farrar, Jeremy; Baker, Stephen; Bryant, Juliet E

    2014-06-01

    Group A rotaviruses (ARoVs) are a common cause of severe diarrhea among children worldwide and the cause of approximately 45% of pediatric hospitalizations for acute diarrhea in Vietnam. ARoVs are known to cause significant economic losses to livestock producers by reducing growth performance and production efficiencies, however little is known about the implications of asymptomatic endemic circulation of ARoV. We aimed to determine the prevalence and predominant circulating genotypes of ARoVs on pig farms in a southern province of Vietnam. We found overall animal-level and farm-level prevalence of 32.7% (239/730) and 74% (77/104), respectively, and identified six different G types and 4 P types in various combinations (G2, G3, G4, G5, G9, G11 and P[6], P[13], P[23], and P[34]). There was no significant association between ARoV infection and clinical disease in pigs, suggesting that endemic asymptomatic circulation of ARoV may complicate rotavirus disease attribution during outbreaks of diarrhea in swine. Sequence analysis of the detected ARoVs suggested homology to recent human clinical cases and extensive genetic diversity. The epidemiological relevance of these findings for veterinary practitioners and to ongoing pediatric ARoV vaccine initiatives in Vietnam merits further study. PMID:24679960

  9. Milk production on smallholder dairy cattle farms in Southern Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Vo

    2011-01-01

    Dairy production is a rather new and not a traditional system in Vietnam. It is mainly based on smallholder dairy farms. The general aim of the studies in this thesis was to improve milk production on smallholder dairy farms in Southern Vietnam and also to create a foundation that could be used in the advisory service or/and in further research for better milking management routines. Studies were done to cover the specific objectives of this thesis. The studies were designed to identify the p...

  10. Karyotypes of two rare rodents, Hapalomys delacouri and Typhlomys cinereus (Mammalia, Rodentia, from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Abramov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Karyotypes of Hapalomys delacouri (Rodentia, Muridae and Typhlomys cinereus (Rodentia, Platacanthomyidae from Vietnam are described for the first time. The diploid karyotype of H. delacouri is 38 (NFa=48, consisting of six pairs of bi-armed and 12 pairs of acrocentric autosomes decreasing in size; plus a large metacentric X chromosome and Y chromosome, also metacentric, that is equal in size to the largest pair of acrocentric autosomes. The newly described karyotype differs significantly from that reported for H. delacouri from northern Thailand. The latter record very likely represents a different species of Hapalomys, possibly the taxon H. pasquieri described from north-central Laos. The diploid karyotype of Typhlomys cinereus is 38 (NF=48, consisting of five pairs of meta- to submetacentric and 14 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes varying in size from large to small; sex chromosomes were not defined.

  11. Cheсklist of gastropod molluscs in mangroves of Khanh Hoa province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvonareva, Sofya; Kantor, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Gastropod molluscs are one of the most important components of mangrove ecosystem. Mangroves in Central Vietnam have a rather limited distribution due to peculiarities of the coastline morphology and presently their fauna remains understudied. Extensive surveys were conducted in both natural vegetation and artificial mangrove plantations in several localities in Nha Trang Bay from 2005 to 2015. In total 65 species of gastropod molluscs were found alive, 17 of which can be considered as predominantly mangrove-associated. An illustrated guide is provided, with short synonymies and data on ecology and distribution. The recorded molluscan diversity is compared with published data on mangrove gastropods in different regions of the Indo-Pacific. Total species number and the proportion of mangrove-associated species are similar to studied faunas in Hong Kong, Malaysia and Thailand, but the diversity is much lower than that of the mangal fauna of the Philippines.

  12. Zircon Hf isotopic constraints on the mantle source of felsic magmatic rocks in the Phan Si Pan uplift and Tu Le basin, northern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuki, T.; Lan, C.; Tran, T.; Pham, T.; Wang, K.

    2013-12-01

    Permian plume-related rocks, such as picrites, flood basalts and silicic volcanic rocks occur in northern Vietnam. This area was displaced 600 km southeastward along the Ailao Shan-Red River fault during mid-Tertiary in response to the India-Eurasia collision. The original location of the area was situated at the central Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP) in SW China before Tertiary. The picrites and flood basalts in northern Vietnam have been investigated by many authors and are comparable with the ELIP. While, felsic magmatisms in northern Vietnam has been poorly studied. Zircon U-Pb age and Hf isotopic data are useful to compare the felsic magmatism in northern Vietnam with that in the ELIP, because the magmatisms of the ELIP had a characteristic time period (260-250 Ma) and the Hf isotopes show a remarkable mantle signature. Therefore, this study carried out in-situ U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic compositions for 300 zircon grains in eighteen granitoids and rhyolites in Phan Si Pan uplift and Tu Le basin in northern Vietnam. Zircons from the granitoids and rhyolites occasionally show development of {101} pyramid and {100} prism crystal facies, suggesting typical zircons crystallized from high temperature alkaline granite. 206Pb/238U ages of granitoid and rhyolite yield consistently in a narrow range of 260 to 250 Ma, which coincides with those from peralkaline to metaluminous granites in the ELIP. ɛHf(t) values of zircons in rhyolites and granites of this study dominate in the range of +5 to +10, which is consistent with those from the ELIP. U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic compositions of zircons indicate that felsic magmatic rocks in the Phan Si Pan uplift and Tu La basin have been derived from the same mantle source with the ELIP.

  13. Molecular identification of Fasciola spp. (Digenea: Platyhelminthes in cattle from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen S.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola spp. were collected from naturally infected cattle at a local abattoir of Khanh Hoa province, Vietnam, for morphological and genetic investigations. Microscopic examination detected no sperm cells in the seminal vesicles, suggesting a parthenogenetic reproduction of the flukes. Analyses of sequences from the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2 of the ribosomal RNA revealed that 13 out of 16 isolates were of Fasciola gigantica type, whereas three isolates presented a hybrid sequence from F. gigantica and Fasciola hepatica. Interestingly, all the mitochondrial sequences (partial COI and NDI were of F. gigantica type, suggesting that the maternal lineage of the hybrid form is from F. gigantica. No intra-sequence variation was detected.

  14. The Hidden Burden of Trichinellosis in Vietnam: A Postoutbreak Epidemiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nga Vu Thi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in Muong Lat town (Thanh Hoa province, North Vietnam, following the confirmed diagnosis of trichinellosis in six patients from that town who had eaten hunted wild boar meat during the Vietnamese lunar year celebration. All inhabitants who declared to have eaten undercooked or raw wild boar meat at the celebration and showed at least one clinical symptom compatible with trichinellosis were included in the study and blood sampled. Anti-Trichinella IgG were determined by ELISA and Western Blot. Seropositive persons were given appropriate albendazole treatment and were followed up. A total of 100 inhabitants met the inclusion criteria. Among these, 30 (30% had antibodies to Trichinella. Serologically confirmed cases had fever (90.0%, myalgia (86.7%, facial oedema (63.3%, diarrhoea (53.3%, and pain of the masseter muscles (43.3%. Eosinophilia was detected in 83.3% of these individuals. Clinical symptoms resolved in all patients during albendazole treatment. The results suggest that only a proportion of the trichinellosis cases had sought health care during the outbreak. There is a need to implement surveillance and better diagnosis for trichinellosis and to set up educational programs to prevent infection in North Vietnam.

  15. Paragonimus heterotremus Chen and Hsia (1964), in Vietnam: a molecular identification and relationships of isolates from different hosts and geographical origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thanh H; Van De, Nguyen; Blair, David; McManus, Donald P; Kino, Hideto; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2006-04-01

    Paragonimus heterotremus Chen and Hsia (1964), and paragonimiasis caused by this species is a newly detected disease in Vietnam. Twelve samples of Paragonimus (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Digenea: Paragonimidae) from different life-stages (eggs, miracidia, metacercariae, adults from natural and experimental hosts) and host species (crab, dog, cat and human) were collected in different geographical locations in Vietnam. DNA sequences were obtained from each for partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) (387 bp) and the entire second ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) (361 bp). The ITS-2 sequences were identical among all specimens, including those previously reported in GenBank. For cox1, there were sequence differences between specimens from Vietnam (four provinces, different locations) and those from Guangxi (China) and Saraburi (Thailand). Phylogenetic trees inferred from cox1 and ITS-2 sequences using sequence data for 15 P. heterotremus and for other Paragonimus spp. revealed that all P. heterotremus originating from Vietnam, Thailand and China form a distinct group. This information also confirms the identity of the Vietnamese specimens as P. heterotremus.

  16. Detecting the environmental impact of off-road vehicles on Rawdat Al Shams in central Saudi Arabia by remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewidar, K; Thomas, J; Bayoumi, S

    2016-07-01

    Off-road vehicles can have a devastating impact on vegetation and soil. Here, we sought to quantify, through a combination of field vegetation, bulk soil, and image analyses, the impact of off-road vehicles on the vegetation and soils of Rawdat Al Shams, which is located in central Saudi Arabia. Soil compaction density was measured in the field, and 27 soil samples were collected for bulk density analysis in the lab to quantify the impacts of off-road vehicles. High spatial resolution images, such as those obtained by the satellites GeoEye-1 and IKONOS-2, were used for surveying the damage to vegetation cover and soil compaction caused by these vehicles. Vegetation cover was mapped using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) technique based on high-resolution images taken at different times of the year. Vehicle trails were derived from satellite data via visual analysis. All damaged areas were determined from high-resolution image data. In this study, we conducted quantitative analyses of vegetation cover change, the impacts of vehicle trails (hereafter "trail impacts"), and a bulk soil analysis. Image data showed that both vegetation cover and trail impacts increased from 2008 to 2015, with the average percentage of trail impacts nearly equal to that of the percentage of vegetation cover during this period. Forty-six species of plants were found to be present in the study area, consisting of all types of life forms, yet trees were represented by a single species, Acacia gerrardii. Herbs composed the largest share of plant life, with 29 species, followed by perennial herbs (12 species), grasses (5 species), and shrubs (3 species). Analysis of soil bulk density for Rawdat Al Shams showed that off-road driving greatly impacts soil density. Twenty-two plant species were observed on the trails, the majority of which were ephemerals. Notoceras bicorne was the most common, with a frequency rate of 93.33 %, an abundance value of 78.47 %, and a density of 0

  17. Detecting the environmental impact of off-road vehicles on Rawdat Al Shams in central Saudi Arabia by remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewidar, K; Thomas, J; Bayoumi, S

    2016-07-01

    Off-road vehicles can have a devastating impact on vegetation and soil. Here, we sought to quantify, through a combination of field vegetation, bulk soil, and image analyses, the impact of off-road vehicles on the vegetation and soils of Rawdat Al Shams, which is located in central Saudi Arabia. Soil compaction density was measured in the field, and 27 soil samples were collected for bulk density analysis in the lab to quantify the impacts of off-road vehicles. High spatial resolution images, such as those obtained by the satellites GeoEye-1 and IKONOS-2, were used for surveying the damage to vegetation cover and soil compaction caused by these vehicles. Vegetation cover was mapped using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) technique based on high-resolution images taken at different times of the year. Vehicle trails were derived from satellite data via visual analysis. All damaged areas were determined from high-resolution image data. In this study, we conducted quantitative analyses of vegetation cover change, the impacts of vehicle trails (hereafter "trail impacts"), and a bulk soil analysis. Image data showed that both vegetation cover and trail impacts increased from 2008 to 2015, with the average percentage of trail impacts nearly equal to that of the percentage of vegetation cover during this period. Forty-six species of plants were found to be present in the study area, consisting of all types of life forms, yet trees were represented by a single species, Acacia gerrardii. Herbs composed the largest share of plant life, with 29 species, followed by perennial herbs (12 species), grasses (5 species), and shrubs (3 species). Analysis of soil bulk density for Rawdat Al Shams showed that off-road driving greatly impacts soil density. Twenty-two plant species were observed on the trails, the majority of which were ephemerals. Notoceras bicorne was the most common, with a frequency rate of 93.33 %, an abundance value of 78.47 %, and a density of 0

  18. Constraints on agricultural production in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui Tan, Y.; Visser, S.M.; Hoanh, C.T.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Northern Uplands of Vietnam form one of the largest ecological regions in the country, characterized by complex biophysical conditions and a high diversity in ethnic minorities, cultures, and farming systems. The Doi moi (“renovation”) program has, since the early 1980s, resulted in significant

  19. Neonatal bloodstream infections in a pediatric hospital in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Yasmin; Thieu Chuong, D.H.; Phuong, C.N.;

    2013-01-01

    Septicemia and bloodstream infections (BSIs) are major causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We prospectively recorded all positive blood cultures (BSI) among neonates admitted consecutively to a tertiary pediatric hospital in Vietnam during a 12-month period. Among...

  20. Utilities of Patients with Hypertension in Northern Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Thi-Phuong-Lan; Krabbe, Paul F. M.; Nguyen, Thi-Bach-Yen; Schuiling-Veninga, Catharina C. M.; Wright, E. Pamela; Postma, Maarten J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The study aims to inform potential cost-effectiveness analysis of hypertension management in Vietnam by providing utilities and predictors of utilities in patients with hypertension. Methods Hypertensive patients up to 80 years old visiting the hospital were invited to participate in a su

  1. A hidden HIV epidemic among women in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Nguyen; P. Oosterhoff; A. Hardon; H.N. Tran; R.A. Coutinho; P. Wright

    2008-01-01

    Background: The HIV epidemic in Vietnam is still concentrated among high risk populations, including IDU and FSW. The response of the government has focused on the recognized high risk populations, mainly young male drug users. This concentration on one high risk population may leave other populatio

  2. Partnerships for sustainable design in Vietnam: leveraging culture and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, S.; Crul, M.R.M.; Brezet, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses need and relevance of new local-global collaborations for sustainable design. Future Living Studio is a case study that explores how to enable cross-cultural collaboration in Vietnam towards addressing sustainable design and production issues. This paper presents the first empir

  3. Cost of Illness of Chronic Hepatitis B Infection in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, Hong Anh T.; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Kane, Sumit; Le, Diep M.; Postma, Maarten J.; Li, Shu Chuen

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the total financial burden of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection for Vietnam by quantifying the direct medical, the direct nonmedical, and indirect costs among patients with various stages of chronic HBV infection. Direct medical cost data were retrieved retrospectively from medic

  4. Developing the Profession of School Psychology in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terjesen, Mark D.; Kassay, Kimberly S.; Bolger, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Building upon a successful prior initial trip to Vietnam in January 2008, students and faculty from St. John's University (STJ) School Psychology program returned to work with the faculty from Hanoi National University of Education (HNUE) in developing the profession of school psychology in that country. The purpose of this trip was twofold: (1)…

  5. A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), C. lingafelteri Woodley, new species, is described from northern Vietnam. It is diagnosed relative to other species using the recent revision of the genus by Rozkošný and Kozánek (2007). This is the first species of Culcua reported from Viet...

  6. Dengue as a cause of acute undifferentiated fever in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L. Phuong; P.J. de Vries; T.T.T. Nga; P.T. Giao; L.Q. Hung; T.Q. Binh; N.V. Nam; N. Nagelkerke; P.A. Kager

    2006-01-01

    Background: Dengue is a common cause of fever in the tropics but its contribution to the total burden of febrile illnesses that is presented to primary health facilities in endemic regions such as Vietnam, is largely unknown. We aimed to report the frequency of dengue as a cause of fever in Binh Thu

  7. The Feminist Sophistic Enterprise: From Euripides to the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Audrey

    1992-01-01

    Uses feminist sophistic historiography to open the doors of two distant historical movements onto each other, reading tensions between masculinity and femininity in Athens during the Peloponnesian war and in the United States during the Vietnam War. Foregrounds the possibility of forestalling arbitrary closure on gender questions which determined…

  8. Risk analysis of coastal flood defences: A Vietnam case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mai, C.V.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; Vrijling, J.K.; Mai, T.C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at risk analysis and the investigation of safety aspects of coastal flood defences in Vietnam. The sea dike system has been actually designed by a 20 to 25 years return period. From the current situation it seems that the dike system is not sufficient to withstand the actual sea boun

  9. Human papillomavirus infection among women in South and North Vietnam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, TH; Nguyen, T.H.; Herrero, R; Vaccarella, S; Smith, J.S.; Thuy, TT Nguyen; Nguyen, HN; Nguyen, BD; Ashley, R; Snijders, P.J.F.; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Munoz, N.; Parkin, DM; Franceschi, S

    2003-01-01

    The incidence rate of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) is 4-fold higher in Ho Chi Minh City, in the South of Vietnam, than in Hanoi, in the North. Thus, we explored the prevalence of and the risk factors for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in these 2 areas. A population-based random sample of

  10. Networks at Their Limits: Software, Similarity, and Continuity in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lilly Uyen

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the social worlds of pirated software discs and free/open source software in Vietnam to describe the practices of copying, evangelizing, and translation. This dissertation also reveals the cultural logics of similarity and continuity that sustain these social worlds. Taken together, this dissertation argues that the…

  11. Perceptions of Higher Education Quality at Three Universities in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Huong Thi; Starkey, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Vietnam is experiencing rapid expansion in the provision of higher education that requires quality assurance appropriate for the Vietnamese-centralised Confucian cultural context. This paper aims to examine the concept of quality from the perspectives of academic leaders, quality assurance members and academics at three higher education…

  12. Groundwater arsenic in the Red River delta, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Søren

    Afhandlingen omhandler problemerne med høje koncentrationer af arsen i grundvandet i Den Røde Flod deltaet (Vietnam), der bebos af omkring 11 millioner mennesker. Forgiftning med arsen fra grundvand brugt til drikkevand kan give alvorlige og ultimativt dødelige sygdomme. Afhandlingen beskriver hv...

  13. Arsenic in groundwater of the Red River Floodplain, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Larsen, Flemming; Jessen, Søren;

    2007-01-01

    The mobilization of arsenic (As) to the groundwater was studied in a shallow Holocene aquifer on the Red River flood plain near Hanoi, Vietnam. Results show an anoxic aquifer featuring organic carbon decomposition with redox zonation dominated by the reduction of Fe-oxides and methanogenesis...

  14. International Briefing 18: Training and Development in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Nguyen Ngoc; Quang, Truong

    2007-01-01

    Vietnam provides a typical case of an emerging economy, which has attempted to develop the country and join the world economic mainstream with a highly agricultural base, large and young labour force, and a dynamically growing private sector. After a long period of quantitative growth, it is now focusing on achieving quality of development, with a…

  15. Doi Moi, Education and Identity Formation in Contemporary Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Matthieu; Ket, Vu Doan

    2007-01-01

    In 2006 Vietnam had experienced more than two decades of reform. However, while the reforms have transformed the entire Vietnamese economy and opened the country to globalization, the education system is still very much under the Vietnamese Communist Party's control. The schoolbooks are published under close supervision of the authorities. The…

  16. "Doi Moi" (Renovation) and Higher Education Reform in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Pham Thi Hong

    2011-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced significant social, economic, political, and educational changes during the last two decades since the "Doi Moi" policy was implemented. To respond to new requirements required by the global economy, Vietnamese education has undergone remarkable reforms. This article critically examines these reforms in three areas:…

  17. Social Policy Reforms and Daughters' Schooling in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Daniele; Liu, Jianye

    2004-01-01

    Vietnam's social policy reforms in the transition to a market economy included the introduction of fees for primary and secondary school in the late 1980s. Using data from the Viet Nam Living Standards Surveys, this paper examines how the increasing costs of education to households have impacted on school enrollment between 1993 and 1998, giving…

  18. Pedagogical Suggestions for Teaching Business and Economics in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCornac, Dennis C.; Chi, Phan Thuy

    2005-01-01

    Given the overwhelming need for foreign faculty to assist Vietnam in its transition to a market economy, there will be opportunities for economics and business educators to teach at various institutions in that country. In this article, the authors provide a top-10 list of suggestions regarding pedagogical approaches and techniques for teaching in…

  19. Traditional medicinal plants in Ben En National Park, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Sam, Hoang; Baas, P.; Keßler, P.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper surveys the medicinal plants and their traditional use by local people in Ben En National Park, Vietnam. A total of 230 medicinal plant species (belonging to 200 genera and 84 families) is used by local people for treatment of 68 different diseases. These include species that are collecte

  20. Country Social Analysis : Ethnicity and Development in Vietnam - Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This report " Country Social Analysis (CSA) " focused on ethnicity and development in Vietnam is a provocative analysis of marginality in contemporary Southeast Asia. It seeks to understand the macro social and political processes, and provides an analysis of how social, political, and cultural factors influence the opportunities and constraints to more equitable, inclusive development. Th...

  1. Country Social Analysis : Ethnicity and Development in Vietnam - Summary report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This report " Country Social Analysis (CSA) " focused on ethnicity and development in Vietnam is a provocative analysis of marginality in contemporary Southeast Asia. It seeks to understand the macro social and political processes, and provides an analysis of how social, political, and cultural factors influence the opportunities and constraints to more equitable, inclusive development. Th...

  2. Greening Food Processing Industries in Vietnam: Opportunities and Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi My Dieu,

    2006-01-01

    The food processing sector in Vietnam plays a vital role in its economic development, but its rapid growth seems to go hand-in-hand with environmental deterioration. Several decades of applying the conventional end-of-pipe approach made clear that it only deals with treating the symptoms. It is nece

  3. Integrated Coastal Management in the Province Ca Mau - Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, B.; Bouziotas, D.; Hanssen, J.L.J.; Dunnewolt, J.; Postma, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    The province of Ca Mau is the southernmost part of Vietnam and the Mekong Delta. The water system of Ca Mau faces multiple challenges, both in its coastal zone and in its inland regions. the coastal zone in the province. In view of this, this study presents an integrated approach for combined coasta

  4. Social Change and Fathering: Change or Continuity in Vietnam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakody, Rukmalie; Phuong, Pham Thi Thu

    2013-01-01

    Dramatic social changes have restructured virtually all aspects of Vietnam society. Although the economic consequences of these changes are well documented, little is known about how family roles and relationships have been affected. Because social and cultural contexts powerfully shape conceptions of parenting, the accelerated rate of social…

  5. Review of Palaemoninae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from Vietnam, Macrobrachium excepted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xuan, Van N.

    1992-01-01

    An account is presented of the species of Palaemoninae known from Vietnam, the genus Macrobrachium excluded. Of each species a description or descriptive notes are provided, and the habitat and economic importance are discussed. Illustrations of each species, two of which are new to science, are giv

  6. The organization of the liberalized rice market in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hai, L.T.D.

    2003-01-01

    Gedurende de eerste tien jaar na afloop van de oorlog stond de rijstmarkt in Vietnam onder sterke controle van de overheid en werd de handel gedomineerd door overheidsbedrijven. Ongeveer 20 jaar geleden is een proces van liberalisering in gang gezet. De rijstproductie is sterk gestegen. In de 80er j

  7. Strength of the landward slopes of sea dikes in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, L.H.; Verhagen, H.J.; Van der Meer, J.W.; Cat, V.M.

    2012-01-01

    The landware slopes of sea dikes in the north of Vietnam are steep and solely constructed by soil covered with grass due to the budget constraints and also the out-of-date design guidelines.The resistance against erosion due to wave overtopping of several grass covered slopes were tested with the Wa

  8. 一个基于中心度的社团结构发现新算法%New algorithm of detecting community structure based on degree centrality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴爱明; 高学东; 王立敏

    2011-01-01

    Using GN algorithm to detect the community structure, there will be high time complexity. This paper proposed a new GN algorithm based on degree centrality ( DCGN). According to node degree centrality and the shortest path among them, the algorithm first confirmed the community structure central nodes, then deleted edges with the biggest betweenness among the community structure central nodes by step, to finish the community structure dividing. This algorithm got rid of high cost of parameter calculating when using GN algorithm, the algorithm ran in time O(cmn) when c was a constant, n was the number of network member, m was the number of network edge. Applied both this algorithm and GN algorithm to Zachary net and the net generated randomly by computer, and then compared them. Experiment results shows the proposed algorithm has advantage in feasibility and effectiveness.%针对GN算法在社团结构发现中时间复杂度高等问题,提出一种基于中心度的GN改进算法(DCGN).该算法根据节点中心度以及节点之间的最短路径首先确定社团结构中心节点集,然后逐步删除社团结构中心节点之间的最大边介数连边,完成社团结构划分.DCGN算法避免了GN算法边介数计算开销大的问题,算法的时间复杂度约为D(cmn),其中c为常数,n为网络成员数,m为网络连边数.将DCGN和GN算法同时应用到Za-chary网络及计算机随机生成网络中并进行了比较.实验结果表明,所提出的DCGN算法在运行效率和效果方面较之GN算法均具有一定的优势.

  9. Detection of Herpesvirus, Enterovirus, and Arbovirus infection in patients with suspected central nervous system viral infection in the Western Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Michele S; Lessa, Natália; Naveca, Felipe G; Monte, Rossicléia L; Braga, Wornei S; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu M; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Mourão, Maria Paula G

    2014-09-01

    Acute infections of the central nervous system (CNS) can be caused by various pathogens. In this study, the presence of herpesviruses (HHV), enteroviruses (EVs), and arboviruses were investigated in CSF samples from 165 patients with suspected CNS viral infection through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase PCR. The genomes of one or more viral agents were detected in 29.7% (49/165) of the CSF samples. EVs were predominant (16/49; 32.6%) followed by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (22.4%), Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) (20.4%), Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (18.4%), herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) (4.1%), (HSV-2) (4.1%), and the arboviruses (14.3%). Four of the arboviruses were of dengue virus (DENV) and three of oropouche virus (OROV). The detection of different viruses in the CNS of patients with meningitis or encephalitis highlight the importance of maintaining an active laboratory monitoring diagnostics with rapid methodology of high sensitivity in areas of viral hyperendemicity that may assist in clinical decisions and in the choice of antiviral therapy.

  10. A Low-intensity Approach for Early Intervention and Detection of Childhood Disability in Central Java: Long-term Findings and Implications for “Inclusive Development”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Maratmo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper describes a qualitative follow-up study, conducted eight years after completion of a low-intensity early intervention and detection of childhood disability project in Central Java, Indonesia. The original project sought to increase the level of skills and engagement of existing community health volunteers, for the support of children with disabilities. This followup study explored long-term outcomes and implications for the inclusive development approach.Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 of the original volunteers. Interview notes were translated and thematically categorised.Results: While the study was qualitative and descriptive, results indicate that despite the low intensity of the project, some early detection and prevention activities were still going on eight years later.Conclusions: The study suggests that a low-intensity initiative such as this, which is closely aligned with the goals of a government department, may indeed achieve some ongoing change by extending the focus of the department towards disability-related concerns.Implications: Implications are drawn for the emerging area of “inclusive development”, which similarly seeks to promote change in mainstream services for the benefit of people with disabilities.DOI: 10.5463/dcid.v22i3.48

  11. Description of New Dermacentor (Acari: Ixodidae) Species from Malaysia and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apanaskevich, Maria A; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A

    2015-03-01

    A new tick species belonging to the genus Dermacentor Koch, 1844, namely, Dermacentor limbooliati n. sp., is described. Adults of this species are similar to those of Dermacentor auratus Supino, 1897 and Dermacentor compactus Neumann, 1901, with which it was previously confused. Males of D. limbooliati may be distinguished from those of D. auratus and D. compactus by the following suite of characters: relatively broad conscutum with slightly straightened lateral sides, conscutum widest approximately at mid-length, oval shape of pseudoscutum, central brown patch in the center of pseudoscutum broad and diffused and not continuous with central patch in posteromedian area, conscutum posterior to pseudoscutum rugose, wide and blunt internal spur on coxa I, relatively long, narrow, and pointed external spur on coxa I, numerous internal spurs on coxa IV and trochanter I with moderate and broadly triangular spur with tapering apex. Females of D. limbooliati may be distinguished from those of D. auratus and D. compactus by the following suite of characters: rounded shape of scutum, central brown patch broad and diffused in the center of scutum, relatively long alloscutum setae, genital aperture moderately narrow V-shaped with preatrial fold bulging, wide and blunt internal spur on coxa I, relatively long, narrow, and pointed external spur on coxae I and trochanter I with moderate and broadly triangular spur with tapering apex. D. limbooliati is known from Malaysia and Vietnam where the adults were collected from vegetation, Sus scrofa resting beds, a human, and clothing. The immature stages remain unknown. PMID:26336300

  12. Securitization of infectious diseases in Vietnam: the cases of HIV and avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herington, Jonathan

    2010-11-01

    The frequent and swift emergence of new and devastating infectious diseases has brought renewed attention to health as an issue of international importance. Some states and regional organizations, including in Asia, have begun to regard infectious disease as a national and international security issue. This article seeks to examine the Vietnamese government's response to the epidemics of avian influenza and Human immunodeficiency virus. Both diseases have been recognized at different times as threats to international security and both are serious infectious disease problems in Vietnam. Yet, the character of the central government's response to these two epidemics has been starkly different. How and why this disparity in policy approaches occurs depends largely on the epidemiological, economic and political context in which they occur. Although epidemiological factors are frequently explored when discussing disease as a security issue, seldom are the political, social and economic characteristics of the state invoked. These dimensions, and their interaction with the epidemiology of the disease, are central to understanding which diseases are ultimately treated by states as security issues. In particular, the role of economic security as a powerful motivator for resistance to control measures and the role that local implementation of policies can have in disrupting the effect of central government policy are explored. In exploring both the outcomes of securitization, and its facilitating conditions, I suggest some preliminary observations on the potential costs and benefits of securitizing infectious disease and its utility as a mechanism for protecting health in Asia. PMID:20961947

  13. Mapping Urban Transitions Using Multi-Temporal Landsat and DMSP-OLS Night-Time Lights Imagery of the Red River Delta in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Castrence, Miguel; Nong, Duong; Tran, Chinh; Young, Luisa; Fox, Jefferson

    2014-01-01

    The urban transition that has emerged over the past quarter century poses new challenges for mapping land cover/land use change (LCLUC). The growing archives of imagery from various earth-observing satellites have stimulated the development of innovative methods for change detection in long-term time series. We tested two different multi-temporal remote sensing datasets and techniques for mapping the urban transition. Using the Red River Delta of Vietnam as a case study, we compared supervise...

  14. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Chung, W. S.; Yun, S. W.; Ko, H. S.; Lee, J. K

    2000-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with vietnam and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Vietnam. During the study, current status of use and development of nuclear energy in vietnam, were investigated including nuclear power plant and cooperative relations between two nations were also established. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) holding of policy seminar for high level decision makers of Vietnam 3) cooperaton between KAERI/VAEC, 4) joint feasibility study for the construction of KSNP into Vietnam and technical presentation of KSNP. It is recommended that cooperaion with vietnam be implemented systematically through the long term based basic directions and integrated national strategies.

  15. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with vietnam and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Vietnam. During the study, current status of use and development of nuclear energy in vietnam, were investigated including nuclear power plant and cooperative relations between two nations were also established. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) holding of policy seminar for high level decision makers of Vietnam 3) cooperaton between KAERI/VAEC, 4) joint feasibility study for the construction of KSNP into Vietnam and technical presentation of KSNP. It is recommended that cooperaion with vietnam be implemented systematically through the long term based basic directions and integrated national strategies

  16. Moving toward universal coverage of health insurance in Vietnam: barriers, facilitating factors, and lessons from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Ngan; Oh, Juhwan; Lee, Jin-Seok

    2014-07-01

    Vietnam has pursued universal health insurance coverage for two decades but has yet to fully achieve this goal. This paper investigates the barriers to achieve universal coverage and examines the validity of facilitating factors to shorten the transitional period in Vietnam. A comparative study of facilitating factors toward universal coverage of Vietnam and Korea reveals significant internal forces for Vietnam to further develop the National Health Insurance Program. Korea in 1977 and Vietnam in 2009 have common characteristics to be favorable of achieving universal coverage with similarities of level of income, highly qualified administrative ability, tradition of solidarity, and strong political leadership although there are differences in distribution of population and structure of the economy. From a comparative perspective, Vietnam can consider the experience of Korea in implementing the mandatory enrollment approach, household unit of eligibility, design of contribution and benefit scheme, and resource allocation to health insurance for sustainable government subsidy to achieve and sustain the universal coverage of health insurance.

  17. Monitoring of Antibiotic Residues in Aquatic Products in Urban and Rural Areas of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Kotaro; Konishi, Yoshimasa; Harada, Kazuo; Okihashi, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Do, Mai Hoang Ngoc; Thi Bui, Long; Duc Nguyen, Thinh; Do Nguyen, Phuc; Thi Khong, Diep; Thi Tran, Hoa; Nam Nguyen, Thang; Viet Le, Ha; Van Chau, Vien; Thi Van Dao, Khanh; Thi Ngoc Nguyen, Hue; Kajimura, Keiji; Kumeda, Yuko; Tran Pham, Khanh; Ngoc Pham, Khai; Trong Bui, Chien; Quang Vien, Mai; Hoang Le, Ninh; Van Dang, Chinh; Hirata, Kazumasa; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2016-08-10

    Antibiotic residues in aquatic products in Vietnam were investigated. A total of 511 fish and shrimp samples were collected from markets in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Thai Binh (TB), and Nha Trang (NT) from July 2013 to October 2015. The samples were extracted with 2% formic acid in acetonitrile and washed with dispersive C18 sorbent. Thirty-two antibiotics were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Of the 362 samples from HCMC, antibiotic residues were found in 53 samples. Enrofloxacin was commonly detected, at a rate of 10.8%. In contrast, samples from TB and NT were less contaminated: only 1 of 118 analyzed samples showed residues in TB and only 1 of 31 showed residues in NT. These differences were attributed to the local manufacturing/distribution systems. To understand the current status of antibiotic use and prevent adverse effects that may be caused by their overuse, continual monitoring is required. PMID:27160655

  18. Book review: the psychology of strategy: exploring rationality in the Vietnam War by Kenneth Payne

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In The Psychology of Strategy: Exploring Rationality in the Vietnam War, Kenneth Payne utilises the case study of the Vietnam War to show how psychology affects warfare, including discussion of confirmation bias, social identity and the psychology of fear. The book’s extensive subject matter and effective use of the Vietnam War as an illuminating prism offers an important contribution to the study of decision-making in International Relations, writes Michael Warren.

  19. Factors Affecting the Online Shopping Behavior: An Empirical Investigation in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo Tan Vu Khanh; Gwangyong Gim

    2014-01-01

    Online shopping has become new type of retail shopping. It has now been adopted all over the world including Vietnam. This shopping method is still not as well known or accepted as in many other countries, and though the knowledge of online shopping in Vietnam is now beginning to increase rapidly, to know the factors influencing online shopping behavior of Vietnam consumers there are several articles written. The main objective of this study is to analyze factors affecting on ...

  20. Greening Food Processing Industry in Vietnam: Putting Industrial Ecology to Work

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thi My Dieu

    2003-01-01

    The significant contribution to Vietnam's gross domestic product over the years give evidence of the important role of food processing industry in the economic and industrial development of the country. This is even more relevant from now onwards, as it is Vietnam's development strategy to become one of the top agricultural countries in the world by the year 2010. However, it is not difficult to recognize that the rapid growth of food processing industry in Vietnam goes together with environm...

  1. Exporting Procedure for an Out-of-Gauge Cargo from Vietnam to Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Hoang Anh

    2014-01-01

    Exporting has played a critical role for industrial projects in Vietnam. The developing economy has been opened for many global freight forwarders to join its logistics and supply chain market. As a global freight forwarder in Vietnam, Geodis Wilson has potentials to develop its industrial project operations to meet customers’ special demand for handling heavy lift or out-of-gauge shipments. The research aim was to improve industrial project operating system in Vietnam. This aim was reache...

  2. Delays in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis patients in Vietnam: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanh Vu T

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment delay is an important indicator of access to tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment. Analyses of patient delay (i.e. time interval between onset of symptoms and first consultation of a health care provider and health care delay (i.e. time interval between first consultation and start of treatment can inform policies to improve access. This study assesses the patient, health care provider and total delay in diagnosis and treatment of new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients, and the risk factors for long delay, in Vietnam. Methods A cross-sectional survey of new patients treated by the National Tuberculosis Control Programme was conducted in 70 randomly selected districts in Vietnam. All consecutively registered patients in one quarter of 2002 were interviewed using a pre-coded structured questionnaire. Results Median (range delay was 4 weeks (1–48 for total, 3 (1–48 weeks for patient and 1 (0–25 week for health care delay. Patients with long total delay (≥ 12 weeks, 15% accounted for 49% of the cumulative number of delay-weeks. Independent risk factors (p 5 km distance from a health facility or in the northern area. For long health care delay (≥ 6 weeks this was urban setting, residence in the central area and initial visit to a communal health post, TB hospital or the private sector. Conclusion Analyses of patient and treatment delays can indicate target groups and areas for health education and strengthening of the referral system, in particular between the private sector and the NTP.

  3. Genetic structure of the threatened Hopea chinensis in the Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, N T P; Triest, L

    2016-01-01

    Hopea chinensis Hand-Mazz (synonym H. hongayensis Tardieu), is a wind and insect pollinated species. It is a threatened species known only from two locations: Quang Ninh (Vietnam) and Guangxi (China). As an endemic species, it is worth preserving both for dipterocarp biodiversity, as well as for its medicinal use and economic importance as a fine wood. The genetic diversity and population genetic structure of H. chinensis was investigated, using natural populations distributed throughout the Ba Mun and Cai Lim islands, Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam. A total of 65 alleles were detected. The adult allelic richness was higher than that found in juveniles and seedlings in both populations. Inbreeding was found to be significant in Ba Mun adults (F(ST) = 0.139), as well as in Cai Lim juveniles and seedlings (F(ST) = 0.283 and 0.345, respectively). Evidence of a bottleneck could be detected in the juveniles and seedlings of the Cai Lim population. A Bayesian analysis and F(ST) values suggested high genetic differentiation among the age classes of the Ba Mun and Cai Lim populations. Whereas the adults of the Ba Mun population showed evidence of inbreeding, the next generations showed more potential heterozygotes. In contrast, the adults in the Cai Lim population showed no significant inbreeding, but the observed heterozygosity in the next generation was lower than expected, suggesting significant inbreeding. The H. chinensis populations on islands are developed well and showed re-generation under good condition. Thus, the forestry protector should conserve and protect the natural spatial structure of H. chinensis on each island as their natural habitats and keep them through natural regeneration. PMID:27173306

  4. GC/MS detection of central nervous tissues as specified BSE risk material in meat products: validation by an externally controlled blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücker, Ernst; Biedermann, Wolfgang; Lachhab, Sandra; Hensel, Andreas

    2010-11-01

    The addition of central nervous tissues (CNT), such as brain and spinal cord, in the manufacturing of meat products is either forbidden--if the material falls under the legal definition of specified risk material (SRM)--or must be labelled on the packed product. To foster official food control, several CNT detection methods were developed, but only fatty acid patterns as detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) allow the further characterization of the detected CNT as to both the animal species and--surprisingly--the age of the animal from which the CNT was derived in accordance with the legal definition. Complementing a previous report in this journal by Lücker et al. 2010 (doi: 10.1007/s00216-010-3956-5) on CNT quantification by GC/MS, we now report results of the validation of this new analytical approach by an externally controlled blind trial elucidating its potential to identify the species and age of the CNT detected. The 72 samples (24 standards of emulsion-type sausage, each heated in three different batches: 75°C, 30 min; 115°C, 25 min; 133°C, 40 min) containing porcine, ovine or bovine muscle tissue and differing amounts of CNT (bovine or ovine brain: 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0% m/m) were produced externally and provided blind for analyses to our laboratory. In accordance with the previous study, heating had no detectable effect on the GC/MS analysis. Judged by the present sensitivity of this method (cut-off 0.2% CNT), all of the samples containing 0.5% or more CNT (n = 57, 100%) were identified correctly as CNT-positive. The CNT species was identified correctly in 54 samples (94.7%), with three samples of one specific standard (0.5% ovine CNT) falsely classified as bovine CNT. However, the CNT age of these samples was correctly classified (more than 12 months). Overall, 57 samples (100%) were correctly classified as SRM-positive and 15 samples (100%) as SRM-negative. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a legal demand

  5. Contested Sovereignty: Local Politics and State Power in Territorial Conflicts on the Vietnam-China Border, 1650s-1880s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vũ Đường Luân

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes territorial disputes and political relationships at the border between China and Vietnam from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries. Predominant Western scholarship argues that, owing to the tributary relationship among states and polities, there was no territorial boundary in premodern Asia; furthermore, it suggests, the concept of the “geo-body” of a nation or sovereign state only arose with the transfer of new mapping technology from Europe. This article argues instead that the absence of lines of demarcation on Vietnamese and Chinese maps before the late nineteenth century does not connote a lack of consciousness of the existence of borders. The quest for autonomy throughout history by local communities living between China and Vietnam gave rise to border conflicts, which led to the intervention by and expansion of these two states, as well as negotiations and territorial division between them. The transformation of the China-Vietnam border from a premodern to a modern form thus did not depend solely on its cartographic representation; it also involved the power of the state to control space. Additionally, this article demonstrates that tensions over the border did not simply involve central governments but often resulted from a combination of local conflicts and the complicated relations between local actors and the state. The article suggests a new approach to exploring the history of state borders from the perspective of local people, in which the “in-between communities” are not seen as passive objects of border demarcation but are also a driving force in the establishment of a frontier. While the “in-between communities” discussed in this article were behind conflicts over land and its division into national territories, their manipulations of ethnic identity and transgressive mobility also helped blur the border between the two countries.

  6. Globalization, industrialization, and labor markets in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørlund, Irene; Tran, *Angie Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the dilemmas of reaching the Vietnamese goal of ‘civilized and equitable’ society expressed from central planning towards a ‘socialist market economy under state guidance’ with deeper integration into the global capitalist system, and their impacts on the labor markets...

  7. Detection of rifampin resistance by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of cerebrospinal fluid of patients with tuberculosis of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpellini, P; Braglia, S; Brambilla, A M; Dalessandro, M; Cichero, P; Gori, A; Lazzarin, A

    1997-01-01

    Mutations in a 69-bp region of the rpoB gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are associated with rifampin resistance (Rif[r]). These have been detected with mycobacterial DNA extracted from bacterial suspensions or respiratory specimens that were acid-fast smear positive. We experimented with a strategy for the rapid detection of Rif(r) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. The strategy involves the amplification of the 69-bp region of rpoB by means of PCR and the identification of nucleotide mutations by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the amplification products. Sixty-five CSF specimens collected from 29 patients (19 patients were coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus) with culture or autopsy-confirmed (22 patients) or highly probable (7 patients) tuberculosis of the central nervous system (CNS-TB) were processed. Amplified products suitable for evaluation by SSCP analysis were obtained from 37 CSF specimens from 25 subjects (86.2%). PCR-SSCP of CSF correctly identified the rifampin susceptibility phenotype of isolates from all 17 patients for whom the results of susceptibility tests carried out with strains cultured from CSF or respiratory samples were available. Moreover, this assay revealed the rifampin susceptibility genotype of isolates from the eight patients (three patients with culture-confirmed CNS-TB and five patients in whom CNS-TB was highly probable) for whom no susceptibility test results were available; the PCR-SSCP data obtained for these patients were concordant with the outcome after a standard antituberculosis treatment. The evolution of a mutation in the rpoB gene was documented in a patient during the course of treatment. PCR-SSCP analysis of CSF seems to be an efficacious method of predicting Rif(r) and would reduce the time required for susceptibility testing from approximately 4 to 8 weeks to a few days. PMID:9350737

  8. Hygiene and sanitation among ethnic minorities in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    the cultural perceptions of hygiene and sanitation which inform everyday hygiene practices did not differ substantially and were similar to hygiene explanations found in the rural majority population elsewhere in Vietnam. However, the difficult living conditions, particularly in highland communities, reinforce......Improving sanitation and hygiene to prevent infectious diseases is of high priority in developing countries. This study attempts to gain in-depth understanding of hygiene and sanitation perceptions and practices among four Ethnic Minority Groups (EMGs) in a rural area of northern Vietnam...... a sense of marginalization among the EMGs, which had great impact on how they perceive and respond to government sanitation interventions. The enclosed latrines promoted by authorities are met with reluctance by the EMGs due to cultural perceptions of the body as permeable and therefore, vulnerable...

  9. Raymond Carver's "Vitamins" and the Discourses of the Vietnam War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Shariati-Rad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available By integrating the discourses of the Vietnam War into the texture of his short story "Vitamins," Raymond Carver would like to emphasize that the war was not only fought outside the United States. The present paper is an attempt to show how Carver connects the mechanics of the battlefield to the discourses of similar kind present in the individual and social spheres of the latter part of the twentieth century in America – a view consistent with Carver's interest in drawing attention to the contextual motives behind his characters' moods and actions. Providing an understanding of both Carver's short narrative and the period in which it was written and received, this paper investigates the various clashes of the story's characters within the broader social conflicts surrounding the issues of poverty, racism, and sexism.Keywords: Carver, "Vitamins," America, Vietnam, discourse, context, conflict (clash, working class, race, sexism

  10. PV technology and success of solar electricity in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dung, T.Q. [Vietnam National Center for Science and Technology, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Solarlab

    1997-12-31

    Since 1990 the PV Technology and the Solar electricity have been strongly developed in Vietnam. The PV experts of Solarlab have studied and set up an appropriate PV Technology responding to local Market needs. It has not only stood well but has been also transferred to Mali Republic and Lao P.D.R. The PV off grid systems of Solarlab demonstrate good efficiency and low prices. Over 60 solar stations and villages have been built to provide solar lighting for about 3000 families along the country in remote, mountainous areas and islands. 400 families are using stand-alone Solar Home Systems. The Solar electricity has been chosen for Rural Electrification and National Telecommunication Network in remote and mountainous regions. Many International projects in cooperation with FONDEM-France, SELF USA and Governmental PV projects have been realized by Solarlab. The experiences of maintenance, management and finance about PV development in Vietnam are also mentioned.

  11. The expansion of farm-based plantation forestry in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandewall, Mats; Ohlsson, Bo; Sandewall, R Kajsa; Viet, Le Sy

    2010-12-01

    This study targets plantation forestry by farm households (small holders), which is increasing globally and most rapidly in China and Vietnam. By use of an interdisciplinary approach on three study sites in Vietnam, we examined the trends in farmers' tree planting over time, the various pre-requisites for farm-based plantation forestry and its impact on rural people's livelihood strategies, socioeconomic status, income and security. The findings indicated a change from subsistence to cash-based household economy, diversification of farmers' incomes and a transformation of the landscape from mainly natural forests, via deforestation and shifting cultivation, to a landscape dominated by farm-based plantations. The trend of transformation, over a period of some 30 years, towards cash crops and forestry was induced by a combination of policy, market, institutional, infrastructural and other conditions and the existence of professional farming communities, and was most rapid close to the industrial market. PMID:21141776

  12. Climate change and its gendered impacts on agriculture in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung, P.T

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that Vietnam is one of the countries that most affected by climate change because of its geographical and natural conditions together with its fast but massive and unplanned urbanization. There are many research and studies that have been conducted to assess the impacts of climate change on different sectors in Vietnam. Agriculture plays an important role in the country’s economy in terms of poverty reduction, food security, employment and export but projected to be heavily affected because of sea level rise, floods or droughts etc. A large proportion of Vietnam’s population, especially women, involves with agricultural works and production. So, this paper using a gender perspective will examine possible impacts that climate change has been causing to women and men differently in order to propose some solutions for the facing problems. Since the paper only utilizes available resources, it can serve as a concept note for further works in the future.

  13. Infrastructure investments in developing economies the case of Vietnam

    CERN Document Server

    Dang, Giang

    2015-01-01

    This book aims to provide knowledge on how infrastructure is planned and built in a typical developing country, and what key variables are there in the system limiting the efficient use of public investments in infrastructure. The book begins with a comprehensive literature review on construction and economic development, and trade and economic development. The focus of the book is on the case of Vietnam, with lessons drawn for other developing economies. The book employs the mixed use of data to provide a stronger basis for analysis and interpretation of related government policies. Based on the research findings, the book recommends significant capacity building work for Vietnam to develop capacities that would remove constraints on the efficient use of public investments in infrastructure. The general principles of significant capacity building work which are useful for policy implications are introduced in the book. Analysts, academics, public and private communities in developing countries can adopt the ...

  14. The expansion of farm-based plantation forestry in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandewall, Mats; Ohlsson, Bo; Sandewall, R Kajsa; Viet, Le Sy

    2010-12-01

    This study targets plantation forestry by farm households (small holders), which is increasing globally and most rapidly in China and Vietnam. By use of an interdisciplinary approach on three study sites in Vietnam, we examined the trends in farmers' tree planting over time, the various pre-requisites for farm-based plantation forestry and its impact on rural people's livelihood strategies, socioeconomic status, income and security. The findings indicated a change from subsistence to cash-based household economy, diversification of farmers' incomes and a transformation of the landscape from mainly natural forests, via deforestation and shifting cultivation, to a landscape dominated by farm-based plantations. The trend of transformation, over a period of some 30 years, towards cash crops and forestry was induced by a combination of policy, market, institutional, infrastructural and other conditions and the existence of professional farming communities, and was most rapid close to the industrial market.

  15. SOME PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM STUDY OF CRUSTAL DEFORMATION IN VIETNAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Dinh Trieu; Le Van Dung; Nguyen Huu Tuyen; Pham Nam Hung

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the authors present some results of strain monitoring within the territory of Vietnam from 1984 to 2001. Data analysis shows that (1) the Phu Lien area is tectonically stable with low strain rate, 1×10-6/a; (2) the Hoa Binh area has indication of tectonic instability with relatively high strain rate of the earth crust: absolute value of the strain reaching 100 × 10-6 , usual average strain amplitude of 60 × 10-6 , whereas the monthly average strain intensity varies in a range from 30× 10-6 to 50× 10-6 (3) there are clear indications of the strain state of the earth crust before occurrence of earthquakes of medium or higher magnitude. This is a very important indication in the research and short-term prediction of earthquakes, especially for the areas with low seismic stability like the NW of Vietnam.

  16. Determination of toxic elements in foodstuffs in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studying samples of this work have been collected from different areas of Vietnam including industrial areas in HCM city, Dongnai, Vungtau and non-industrial area, Dalat city. The concentrations of the toxic elements as: As, Hg, Cr, Co, Fe, Cu, Cd, Se, As, Zn, Pb in many foodstuff samples together with intercomparison sample which have been distributed by National Food Administration (Sweden) were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis (RNAA); Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and Anodic Stripping Voltammeter (ASV). The obtained results shown that the concentration of toxic elements in the collected samples from selected industrial areas of Vietnam are lower than the maximum permissible concentrations. (author)

  17. Race-related PTSD: the Asian American Vietnam veteran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, C M

    1994-10-01

    This article presents a conceptual framework by which to understand race-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for the Asian American Vietnam veteran. The framework draws from cognitive schema theory, social behaviorism, the notion of cumulative racism as trauma, and the assumption that bifurcation and negation of one's bicultural identity is injurious. Classifications of race-related stress or trauma that may be experienced by Asian American Vietnam veterans, with exemplifying clinical case material, are presented. These types of stressors include being mistaken for Vietnamese, verbal and physical assaults that are race-related, death and near-death experiences that are race-related, racial stigmatization, dissociation from one's Asian identity, and marginalization. As studies of combat trauma and sexual assault forced the psychological stresses attendant to war and sexist oppression into public consciousness, so this article addresses psychological stress and trauma attendant to racism. PMID:7820354

  18. What drives strategic foreign bank investments in Vietnam?

    OpenAIRE

    山口, 昌樹

    2011-01-01

    Abstract:This paper examines foreign banks' market entry motives into Vietnam and gives evidence showing whether the efficiency hypothesis or the market power hypothesis better explains strategic investments by foreign banks. The efficiency hypothesis suggests that efficient foreign banks target inefficient local banks to transfer their superior technologies and management practices. On the other hand, the market power hypothesis explains that foreign banks target large local banks irrespecti...

  19. The medical libraries of Vietnam--a service in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennen, P W

    1992-07-01

    The medical libraries of Vietnam maintain high profiles within their institutions and are recognized by health care professionals and administrators as an important part of the health care system. Despite the multitude of problems in providing even a minimal level of medical library services, librarians, clinicians, and researchers nevertheless are determined that enhanced services be made available. Currently, services can be described as basic and unsophisticated, yet viable and surprisingly well organized. The lack of hard western currency required to buy materials and the lack of library technology will be major obstacles to improving information services. Vietnam, like many developing nations, is about to enter a period of technological upheaval, which ultimately will result in a transition from the traditional library limited by walls to a national resource that will rely increasingly on electronic access to international knowledge networks. Technology such as CD-ROM, Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), and satellite telecommunication networks such as Internet can provide the technical backbone to provide access to remote and widely distributed electronic databases to support the information needs of the health care community. Over the long term, access to such databases likely will be cost-effective, in contrast to the assuredly astronomical cost of building a comparable domestic print collection. The advent of new, low-cost electronic technologies probably will revolutionize health care information services in developing nations. However, for the immediate future, the medical libraries of Vietnam will require ongoing sustained support from the international community, so that minimal levels of resources will be available to support the information needs of the health care community. It is remarkable, and a credit to the determination of Vietnam's librarians that, in a country with a legacy of war, economic deprivation, and international isolation

  20. Clay Mineralogy of Various Marginal Soils in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Quang Hai; Egashira, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Various marginal soils derived from different parent materials were collected from different landforms and agro-ecological regions in Vietnam and were subjected to clay mineral analysis in addition to particle-size analysis. The result showed that the particle-size distribution of the soils had a close relationship with the landform. The clay content was highest for the soils from the meander floodplain and inland valley, followed by the soil from the hill and lowest for the soils from the ...

  1. Childhood disability and parental moral responsibility in northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine

    2008-01-01

    a phenomenologically inspired 'intercorporeal' perspective as a conceptual alternative to 'medical' and 'social' models of disability. Through this approach I show how, in northern Vietnam, disability in children brings into question the moral integrity of their parents and how this compels parents to define...... their children's subjectivities in ways that diminish their personhood. The analysis identifies Buddhist notions of karma, everyday ethics of reciprocity, and party-state discourses of productivity as particularly important forces structuring such social responses to human impairment....

  2. Inequity in maternal health care utilization in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goland Emilia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Vietnam has succeeded in reducing maternal mortality in the last decades. Analysis of survey data however indicate that large inequities exist between different segments of the population. We have analyzed utilization of antenatal care and skilled birth attendance among Vietnamese women of reproductive age in relation to social determinants with the aim to reveal health inequities and identify disadvantaged groups. Method Data on maternal health care utilization and social determinants were derived from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS conducted in Vietnam in 2006, and analyzed through stratified logistic regressions and g-computation. Results Inequities in maternal health care utilization persist in Vietnam. Ethnicity, household wealth and education were all significantly associated with antenatal care coverage and skilled birth attendance, individually and in synergy. Although the structural determinants included in this study were closely related to each other, analysis revealed a significant effect of ethnicity over and above wealth and education. Within the group of mothers from poor households ethnic minority mothers were at a three-fold risk of not attending any antenatal care (OR 3.06, 95% CI 1.27–7.41 and six times more likely not to deliver with skilled birth attendance (OR 6.27, 95% CI 2.37–16.6. The association between ethnicity and lack of antenatal care and skilled birth attendance was even stronger within the non-poor group. Conclusions In spite of policies to out rule health inequities, ethnic minority women constitute a disadvantaged group in Vietnam. More efficient ways to target disadvantaged groups, taking synergy effects between multiple social determinants into consideration, are needed in order to assure safe motherhood for all.

  3. Mobile Gaming in Vietnam : Launching and Marketing Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Thanh, Trung

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the characteristics of the Vietnamese mobile game market from the launching and marketing perspective in order to provide a comprehensive view of the mobile gaming industry in Vietnam. Additionally, the reader can acquire information about digital marketing approaches for a mobile game in gen-eral. As the purpose is to conduct a practical research, this study covers only the most critical factors of digital marketing for mobile gaming that the writer concl...

  4. Policy processes underpinning universal health insurance in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Bui T. T.; Frizen, Scott; Thi, Le M.; Doan T. T. Duong; Duc, Duong M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In almost 30 years since economic reforms or ‘renovation’ (Doimoi) were launched, Vietnam has achieved remarkably good health results, in many cases matching those in much higher income countries. This study explores the contribution made by Universal Health Insurance (UHI) policies, focusing on the past 15 years. We conducted a mixed method study to describe and assess the policy process relating to health insurance, from agenda setting through implementation and evaluation.Desig...

  5. A Review of Foodborne Bacterial and Parasitic Zoonoses in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Carrique-Mas, Juan J.; Bryant, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced unprecedented economic and social development in recent years, and the livestock sector is undergoing significant transformations. Although food animal production is still dominated by small-scale ‘backyard’ enterprises with mixed crop–livestock or livestock–aquatic systems, there is a trend towards more intensive and vertically integrated operations. Changes in animal production, processing and distribution networks for meat and animal products, and the shift from wet...

  6. Vietnam As A Potential Market For Finnish Education Export

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo, Huong

    2016-01-01

    The project aims at discovering the potentiality of Vietnamese market of a case company from company A in exporting Finnish educational expertise. The research will support decision makers and audience in getting a general view of business market in Vietnam, as well as business culture and business practices. Furthermore, the thesis provides a better understanding of the current situation in the education market particularly. The implementation of the research is conducted in both ways of...

  7. 5th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering in Vietnam

    CERN Document Server

    Phuong, Tran

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the Development of Biomedical Engineering in Vietnam which was held from June 16-18, 2014 in Ho Chi Minh City. The volume reflects the progress of Biomedical Engineering and discusses problems and solutions. I aims identifying new challenges, and shaping future directions for research in biomedical engineering fields including medical instrumentation, bioinformatics, biomechanics, medical imaging, drug delivery therapy, regenerative medicine and entrepreneurship in medical devices.

  8. Applications of radioisotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dien, N.N.; Quang, N.H. [Nucealr Research Institute, Dalat, (Viet Nam)

    1997-10-01

    Nowadays, in Vietnam radioisotopes have been used very widely in various socio-economic branches, especially in industry and healthcare. Applications of radioisotopes have significant meaning in economic development, people health protection, as well as in scientific research. In this paper, the present status and main applications of radiation and radioactive isotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam are reported. In order to control and monitor industrial processes, nucleonic control systems and radioactive tracer techniques have been utilized. Actually, sealed source applications are popular in Vietnam industry. A number of nuclear control devices and gauges have been used in the various industrial factories, such as liquid level gauges in steel industry, cement and beverage factories; density and moisture gauges in paper industry, etc. Tracer technique and sealed source applications have also been utilized in industrial production plants and in trouble-shooting in the petroleum industry. For medicine purposes, two departments of nuclear medicine were primarily established at the beginning of the 1970s. At the present time, a number of nuclear medicine departments have been set up and they have been equipped with advanced equipment. Main activities are focused on thyroid function studies, nuclear cardiology, brain scans, gastrointestinal studies, bone scans, etc. Since march 1984 Dalat nuclear research reactor of nominal power of 500 kW has been reconstructed and put into operation. This reactor is unique in Vietnam and has become an important scientific tool for development of nuclear techniques and radioisotope applications for socio-economic progress. Thanks to this important scientific tool, a variety of radioisotopes for medicine and industry applications as well as for scientific research has been produced. Utilization of the Dalat research reactor for radioisotope production is also summarized in this paper

  9. Applications of radioisotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, in Vietnam radioisotopes have been used very widely in various socio-economic branches, especially in industry and healthcare. Applications of radioisotopes have significant meaning in economic development, people health protection, as well as in scientific research. In this paper, the present status and main applications of radiation and radioactive isotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam are reported. In order to control and monitor industrial processes, nucleonic control systems and radioactive tracer techniques have been utilized. Actually, sealed source applications are popular in Vietnam industry. A number of nuclear control devices and gauges have been used in the various industrial factories, such as liquid level gauges in steel industry, cement and beverage factories; density and moisture gauges in paper industry, etc. Tracer technique and sealed source applications have also been utilized in industrial production plants and in trouble-shooting in the petroleum industry. For medicine purposes, two departments of nuclear medicine were primarily established at the beginning of the 1970s. At the present time, a number of nuclear medicine departments have been set up and they have been equipped with advanced equipment. Main activities are focused on thyroid function studies, nuclear cardiology, brain scans, gastrointestinal studies, bone scans, etc. Since march 1984 Dalat nuclear research reactor of nominal power of 500 kW has been reconstructed and put into operation. This reactor is unique in Vietnam and has become an important scientific tool for development of nuclear techniques and radioisotope applications for socio-economic progress. Thanks to this important scientific tool, a variety of radioisotopes for medicine and industry applications as well as for scientific research has been produced. Utilization of the Dalat research reactor for radioisotope production is also summarized in this paper

  10. The Cattle Challenge: Controling Backyard Pollution in North Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Quoc Chinh

    2005-01-01

    As anyone who has stood in a field of cows will tell you, cattle manure can be a particularly unpleasant pollution problem. In many countries across Southeast Asia, it has become a significant environmental challenge because cattle are being reared in ever-larger ' numbers close to human habitation. In an effort to improve the situation, this study from Vietnam has looked at several pollution control options available to farmers. It finds that pollution caused by cattle husbandry is having a ...

  11. Prospects for coal and clean coal technologies in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baruya, P. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    Vietnam's energy economy is largely served by traditional biofuels and oil products. Within the power generating sector, hydropower and gas-fired power dominate. However, Vietnam still maintains a 40 Mt/y coal industry, parts of which have recently undergone a long overdue programme of renovation and expansion. Vietnam has been a successful exporter of anthracite, with more than half of the country's production being shipped or barged to steel mills in Japan or power stations in southern China, as well as most other Far Eastern coal importers. The industry is due to take a different form. Opencast mining has recently accounted for around 60% of production but this mining method could be phased out as reserves become more difficult and costly to extract. A shift to underground mining is expected, with a greater emphasis on more modern and mechanised production techniques. Coal is located mainly in the coalfields in Quang Ninh in the north easternmost province of Vietnam. The lower rank reserves located within the Red River coalfields, close to the existing anthracite operations, may yield many more millions of tonnes of coal for exploitation. Underground coal gasification could possibly be exploited in the deeper reserves of the Red River Basin. While coal production could rapidly change in future years, the power generation sector is also transforming with the country's 12,000 MWe development programme for new coal-fired power capacity. The economy suffers from a threat of power shortages due to a lack of generating and transmission capacity, while inefficiencies blight both energy production and end-users. Delivering power to the regions of growth remains difficult as the economy and the demand for power outpaces power generation. While hydroelectric power is being pursued, coal is therefore becoming a growing factor in the future prosperity of the Vietnamese economy. 111 refs., 33 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. Engaged Learning and Filmmaking by Way of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Emmanuel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Virginia Wesleyan professor Steven Emmanuel and five students spent four weeks in Vietnam in the summer of 2007. Their work, supported by an ASIANetwork Student-Faculty Fellows Grant, resulted in a documentary film that won several awards in national and international film festivals. In the following piece, he describes the project and talks about how the grant experience gave him a new perspective on study abroad.

  13. Price Elasticity Estimates for Cigarette Demand in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Eozenou; Burke Fishburn

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze a complete demand system to estimate the price elasticity for cigarette demand in Vietnam. Following Deaton (1990), we build a spatial panel using cross sectional household survey data. We consider a model of simultaneous choice of quantity and quality. This allows us to exploit unit values from cigarette consumption in order to disentangle quality choice from exogenous price variations. We then rely on spatial variations in prices and quantities demanded to estimate...

  14. Mitigation of climate change: which technologies for Vietnam?

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Thi Thu Ha

    2012-01-01

    Vietnam is one of the countries suffering from the most serious adverse effects due to climate change and sea level rise. The main cause of climate change is the increased activities generating greenhouse gases. Organic waste is the main source of carbon dioxide emission, which has the largest concentration among different kinds of greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere. The conversion of organic waste and biomass into energy contributes not only to supply cleaner energy but also to reduc...

  15. Policy processes underpinning universal health insurance in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui T. T. Ha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In almost 30 years since economic reforms or ‘renovation’ (Doimoi were launched, Vietnam has achieved remarkably good health results, in many cases matching those in much higher income countries. This study explores the contribution made by Universal Health Insurance (UHI policies, focusing on the past 15 years. We conducted a mixed method study to describe and assess the policy process relating to health insurance, from agenda setting through implementation and evaluation. Design: The qualitative research methods implemented in this study were 30 in-depth interviews, 4 focus group discussions, expert consultancy, and 420 secondary data review. The data were analyzed by NVivo 7.0. Results: Health insurance in Vietnam was introduced in 1992 and has been elaborated over a 20-year time frame. These processes relate to moving from a contingent to a gradually expanded target population, expanding the scope of the benefit package, and reducing the financial contribution from the insured. The target groups expanded to include 66.8% of the population by 2012. We characterized the policy process relating to UHI as incremental with a learning-by-doing approach, with an emphasis on increasing coverage rather than ensuring a basic service package and financial protection. There was limited involvement of civil society organizations and users in all policy processes. Intertwined political economy factors influenced the policy processes. Conclusions: Incremental policy processes, characterized by a learning-by-doing approach, is appropriate for countries attempting to introduce new health institutions, such as health insurance in Vietnam. Vietnam should continue to mobilize resources in sustainable and viable ways to support the target groups. The country should also adopt a multi-pronged approach to achieving universal access to health services, beyond health insurance.

  16. Jasminanthes xuanlienensis (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae), a new species from Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, The Bach; Bui, Thu Ha; Ha,Bui Thu; Rodda,Michele

    2016-01-01

    Jasminanthes xuanlienensis (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae), a new species from Vietnam is described, illustrated and compared with its five congeners. Jasminanthes xuanlienensis differs distinctly from congeners by the longer peduncles (14–18 cm vs. 4 cm at most in J. pilosa and J. saxatilis, salmon-pink color of the inner corolla lobes (white or greenish in the other species), and corolla tube length (12.0–14.5 mm vs. shorter or longer in congeners).

  17. Essays on the innovation and intellectual property system in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan Anh, Vu

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation provide not only a comprehensive overview on concepts and models of innovation, but it also provide critical analysis on the intellectual property system with an emphasize on the patent system and enforcement system in Vietnam. The empirical findings have suggested that legal business types, firm's age are amongst the determinant characteristics that indicate manufacturing innovation. Furthermore, a number of factors including rewarding scheme,average employee education,coll...

  18. Incentives for Wastewater Management in Industrial Estates in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le Quang Thong; Nguyen Anh Ngoc

    2004-01-01

    This study provides information on the level and effectiveness of wastewater pollution control in industrial estates in four provinces of Vietnam. It finds low levels of wastewater treatment in many industrial estates in the areas surveyed and identifies significant negative effects on many rivers. It investigates why many estates and the factories that operate inside them have not invested in wastewater treatment plants. It also looks at why many companies (even those connected to treatments...

  19. Organizational Culture : a case study of standard chartered (Vietnam) Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Kien Doan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to understand the definition of organizational culture and examine organizational culture of Standard Chartered Bank (Vietnam) Ltd (SCB). Organizational culture has become a interesting topic. The company now are aware of its important role as a competitive advantage. The thesis will go though definitions of various researcher to find out the common understanding. A few methods of approaching organizational culture are considered to find a prooer framework for ca...

  20. 早安,越南%Good Morning,Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BARRY HILLENBRAND

    2005-01-01

    @@ Ithought returning to Vietnam would be difficult.After all,my first attempt had not gone well.In October 1974,1 left the country newly married to Nguyen thi Phuong Nga and for a new assignment in Rio de Janeiro.I had just completed two years in Saigon for TIME,reporting the chaotic1 endgame2 of a cruel war.

  1. Price Elasticity Estimates of Cigarette Demand in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Eozenou, Patrick; Fishburn, Burke

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze a complete demand system to estimate the price elasticity for cigarette demand in Vietnam. Following Deaton (1990), we build a spatial panel using cross sectional household survey data. We consider a model of simultaneous choice of quantity and quality. This allows us to exploit unit values from cigarette consumption in order to disentangle quality choice from exogenous price variations. We then rely on spatial variations in prices and quantities demanded to estimate...

  2. Biogas in Vietnam : a proposed business model in biogas sector

    OpenAIRE

    Phan, Thi Thanh Thao

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to discover a biogas opportunity in the Mekong Delta area in Vietnam. The discussed biogas production is derived from organic waste and targeted to fullfill the demand for gas for cooking in condition of non-pipeline system. However, different products from this production were introduced to maximize the technology profitability. Another aim was to propose a business model to foreign investors who own advanced technologies in biogas production. Qualitative r...

  3. Dynamics of Agrarian Systems in Hai Duong Province, North Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Han Quang, Hanh

    2013-01-01

    In Vietnam, the agrarian systems have evolved considerably during the socio-economic transformation period initiated in the late 1980s with the political reform (Doi Moi). In a region around the capital, where the process of industrialization, urbanization, and international integration has been accelerating, a number of questions about the sustainability of agrarian systems are raising. By diagnosing and analysing the dynamics of agrarian systems from 1980 to 2010, this study aims to provid...

  4. Economic Development, Inequality and Climate Change in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Vinh; Do, Trang; Nguyen, Cuong Van; Phung, Thu; Phung, Tung

    2013-01-01

    From 2011 till 2013, Vietnam has been experiencing an economic slowdown and macroeconomic problems such as high inflation, bad debt from commercial banks and the inefficient operation of state-owned companies. The poverty reduction rate has slowed down and poverty incidence in remote and mountainous areas remains high. Inequality in income and socio-economic development between different geographic and ethnic groups is still significant. Climate changes such as escalating frequency of extreme...

  5. Examine the Agriculture, Poverty, and Climate Change Nexus in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Bingxin; Zhu, Tingju; Breisinger, Clemens; Manh Hai, Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Vietnam is likely to be among the hardest hit countries by climate change, which may threaten the recent progress it has made in accelerating agricultural growth and poverty reduction. To examine how agriculture and the rural poor may be affected by a changing climate, this paper measures Vietnamese farmers’ adaptation behavior in terms of adjustments to the production portfolio and input usage. Specifically, the paper estimates a rice yield function based on household-level crop production, ...

  6. Temporal fluctuation of multidrug resistant salmonella typhi haplotypes in the mekong river delta region of Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E Holt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: typhoid fever remains a public health problem in Vietnam, with a significant burden in the Mekong River delta region. Typhoid fever is caused by the bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi, which is frequently multidrug resistant with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolone-based drugs, the first choice for the treatment of typhoid fever. We used a GoldenGate (Illumina assay to type 1,500 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and analyse the genetic variation of S. Typhi isolated from 267 typhoid fever patients in the Mekong delta region participating in a randomized trial conducted between 2004 and 2005. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: the population of S. Typhi circulating during the study was highly clonal, with 91% of isolates belonging to a single clonal complex of the S. Typhi H58 haplogroup. The patterns of disease were consistent with the presence of an endemic haplotype H58-C and a localised outbreak of S. Typhi haplotype H58-E2 in 2004. H58-E2-associated typhoid fever cases exhibited evidence of significant geo-spatial clustering along the Sông H u branch of the Mekong River. Multidrug resistance was common in the established clone H58-C but not in the outbreak clone H58-E2, however all H58 S. Typhi were nalidixic acid resistant and carried a Ser83Phe amino acid substitution in the gyrA gene. SIGNIFICANCE: the H58 haplogroup dominates S. Typhi populations in other endemic areas, but the population described here was more homogeneous than previously examined populations, and the dominant clonal complex (H58-C, -E1, -E2 observed in this study has not been detected outside Vietnam. IncHI1 plasmid-bearing S. Typhi H58-C was endemic during the study period whilst H58-E2, which rarely carried the plasmid, was only transient, suggesting a selective advantage for the plasmid. These data add insight into the outbreak dynamics and local molecular epidemiology of S. Typhi in southern Vietnam.

  7. Invasive Plant Species in the National Parks of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Dell

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of invasive plant species in national parks and forests in Vietnam is undocumented and management plans have yet to be developed. Ten national parks, ranging from uncut to degraded forests located throughout Vietnam, were surveyed for invasive plant species. Transects were set up along roads, trails where local people access park areas, and also tracks through natural forest. Of 134 exotic weeds, 25 were classified as invasive species and the number of invasive species ranged from 8 to 15 per park. An assessment of the risk of invasive species was made for three national parks based on an invasive species assessment protocol. Examples of highly invasive species were Chromolaena odorata and Mimosa diplotricha in Cat Ba National Park (island evergreen secondary forest over limestone; Mimosa pigra, Panicum repens and Eichhornia crassipes in Tram Chim National Park (lowland wetland forest dominated by melaleuca; and C. odorata, Mikania micrantha and M. diplotricha in Son Tra Nature Conservation area (peninsula evergreen secondary forest. Strategies to monitor and manage invasive weeds in forests and national parks in Vietnam are outlined.

  8. Son preference, sex selection, and kinship in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilmoto, Christophe Z

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the recent rise in the sex ratio at birth in Vietnam and relates its emergence to kinship systems and ethnic composition using 2009 census micro-data. Presentation of the main socioeconomic and ethnic differentials in birth masculinity is followed by a review of the three intermediate factors leading to increases in the sex ratio at birth: prenatal technology, declining fertility, and gender bias. An indirect measurement of fertility behavior is used to demonstrate the close association between levels of the sex ratio at birth and the intensity of son preference. Data on household composition indicate that Vietnam is characterized by the co-existence of kinship patterns typical of East and Southeast Asia. Son preference in Vietnam is found to be related to the prevalence of more traditional patrilineal systems. The article concludes by considering the implications of the cultural dimensions of prenatal sex selection for policy responses and for the likely future change in the sex ratio at birth.

  9. Status and threats on seagrass beds using GIS in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Cao Van; Thao, Nguyen Van; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Ve, Nguyen Dac; Tien, Dam Duc

    2012-10-01

    Seagrasses, marine flowering plants, are widely distributed along temperate and tropical coastlines of the world. Seagrasses have key ecological roles in coastal ecosystems and can form extensive meadows supporting high biodiversity. Till now, fourteen seagrass species belonging to four families were found in Vietnam: Halophila beccarii, H. decipiens, H. ovalis, H. minor, Thalassia hemprichii, Enhalus acoroides, Ruppia maritima, Halodule pinifolia, H. uninervis, Syringodium isoetifolium, Cymadocea rotundata, C. serrulata and Thalassodendron ciliatum. A total area of seagrass beds in Vietnam is estimated to be approximately 17000 ha by satellite images and GIS technology. In recent years, the distribution areas and densities of seagrass beds in Vietnam have been serious decreased compared with those 10-15 years ago. The decline level depended on the impacts by the natural process, the economical activities and the conservation awareness of local people. Thus, it is different at each coastal area. Generally speaking, the distribution areas and densities of seagrass beds were decreased by more than 50%. Seagrasses on tidal flats in some areas such as Quang Ninh, Hai Phong, Phu Quoc seem to be nearly lost. The distribution areas of seagrass beds in 2009 at Tam Giang-Cau Hai lagoon and Cua Dai estuary was decreased by 50-70% of those in early 1990s.

  10. Challenges for municipal solid waste management practices in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Duc Luong

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste (MSW management is currently one of the major environmental problems facing by Vietnam. Improper management of MSW has caused adverse impacts on the environment, community health, and social-economic development. This study attempts to provide a review of the generation and characterization, disposal and treatment technologies of MSW to evaluate the current status and identify the problems of MSW management practices in Vietnam. Finally, this study is concluded with fruitful recommendations which may be useful in encouraging the responsible agencies to work towards the further improvement of the existing MSW management system.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.17-21Citation:  Luong, N.D., Giang, H.M., Thanh, B.X. and Hung, N.T.  2013. Challenges for municipal solid waste management practices in Vietnam. Waste Technology 1(1:6-9.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.17-21

  11. Researchers report HIV and STD statistics from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-20

    Vietnam will experience an extensive rise in the projected HIV and AIDS rates as reported by researchers. Although the country has already seen an extensive HIV spread among injecting drug users, the heterosexual HIV epidemic in Vietnam is still in its early phase. Researchers estimated that by the end of 1997 between 64,000 and 78,000 Vietnamese had contracted HIV and 3000-5000 people had developed AIDS. By the year 2000, the number is estimated to reach a cumulative total of 135,000-160,000 HIV-infected people, with 14,000-21,000 AIDS cases. In addition, there were 119,188 reported cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in 1998, of which 3088 were syphilis, 6859 were gonorrhea, and 108,152 were other STDs. Researchers also reported an alarming increase in penicillin-resistant gonococcal strains, reaching up to 80-90%. Meanwhile, gonococcal resistance to quinolon increased from 3% to 7% during 1994-97 according to recent documentations. Based on the findings, researchers pointed out the need to improve STD/HIV/AIDS prevention and control in Vietnam for the years 2000-05 in the areas of surveillance; STD services; information, education, and communication; safe blood supply; and program management.

  12. Serpents in jars: the snake wine industry in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Somaweera

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of snakes in Vietnam takes place for different purposes, and among them the snake wine industry is prominent but has received far less attention than other dealings, such as the pet trade. Despite widespread commercialisation there is a general lack of information about this snake trade, which makes it difficult to evaluate its magnitude and impact on snake populations. This study documents the use of snakes in snake wine in four cities in Vietnam through surveys conducted in 127 locations selling snake wine in September 2009. This study provides a list of species used along with the number of individuals observed. While none of the species involved are listed in the IUCN Red List, seven species are listed in the Vietnam Red Data Book, of which five are regulated by CITES. On the other hand, the most abundant species used in the trade, Xenochrophis flavipunctatus, is not listed in any conservation document. The popularity and economic importance of snakes in the form of snake wine demonstrates the need for the development of sustainable use programs for these species.

  13. First SHRIMP U Pb zircon dating of granulites from the Kontum massif (Vietnam) and tectonothermal implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Tran Ngoc; Sano, Yuji; Terada, Kentaro; Toriumi, Mitsuhiro; Van Quynh, Phan; Dung, Le Tien

    2001-02-01

    The Kontum massif in Central Vietnam represents the largest continuous exposure of crystalline basement of the Indochina craton. The central Kontum massif is chiefly made of orthopyroxene granulites (enderbite, charnockite) and associated rocks of the Kannack complex. Mineral assemblages and geothermobarometric studies have shown that the Kannack complex has severely metamorphosed under granulite facies corresponding to P-T conditions of 800-850°C and 8±1 kbars. Twenty-three SHRIMP II U-Pb analyses of eighteen zircon grains separated from a granulite sample of the Kannack complex yield ca 254 Ma, and one analysis gives ca 1400 Ma concordant age for a zoned zircon core. This result shows that granulites of the Kannack complex in the Kontum massif have formed from a high-grade granulite facies tectonothermal event of Indosinian age (Triassic). The cooling history and subsequent exhumation of the Kannack complex during Indosinian times ranged from ˜850°C at ca 254 Ma to ˜300°C at 242 Ma, with an average cooling rate of ˜45°C/Ma.

  14. Description of a New Dermacentor (Acari: Ixodidae) Species from Thailand and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Apanaskevich, Maria A

    2015-09-01

    A new tick species belonging to the genus Dermacentor Koch, 1844, namely, Dermacentor filippovae n. sp., is described. All stages of this species are similar to those of D. auratus Supino, 1897, D. compactus Neumann, 1901, and D. limbooliati Apanaskevich and Apanaskevich, 2015 with which it was previously confused. Males of D. filippovae may be distinguished from those of D. auratus, D. compactus, and D. limbooliati by the following suite of characters: conscutum broadly oval with convex lateral sides, widest posteriorly; trapezium-like shape of pseudoscutum; central brown patch on conscutum indistinct; coxa I with internal spur narrowly triangular with tapering apex and external spur fairly long, narrowly triangular with tapering apex; numerous internal spurs on coxa IV; and trochanter I with moderate, broadly triangular spur with tapering apex. Females of D. filippovae may be distinguished from those of D. auratus, D. compactus, and D. limbooliati by the following suite of characters: central patch of scutum narrow, distinct line interrupted around midlength; more rounded shape of scutum; long and distinct alloscutal setae; moderately broad U-shaped genital aperture with preatrial fold bulging anteriorly and thereafter sharply sloping to flat surface posteriorly; coxa I with internal spur narrowly triangular with tapering apex and external spur fairly long, narrowly triangular with tapering apex; and trochanter I with moderate, broadly triangular spur with tapering apex. Dermacentor filippovae is known from Thailand and Vietnam where the adults were collected from wild boar, Sus scrofa L., and vegetation. PMID:26336207

  15. 78 FR 55676 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ...: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 68 FR 47909 (August 12, 2003) (``Order... calculated in accordance with section 772 of the Act. Because Vietnam is a non-market economy (``NME... Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 71 FR...

  16. 77 FR 75984 - Utility Scale Wind Towers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Determination of Sales at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Department considers Vietnam to be a non-market economy (``NME'') country.\\10\\ In accordance with section 771... Postponement of Final Determination: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 68 FR... Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 68 FR 37116 (June 23, 2003). Section 776(b) of the Act provides that,...

  17. 76 FR 78313 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... COMMISSION Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam... United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam of circular welded carbon- quality steel pipe, provided for in... of India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec....

  18. Resource Use Among Rural Agricultural Households Near Protected Areas in Vietnam: The Social Costs of Conservation and Implications for Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwee, Pamela D.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the use of forests in a protected area by nearby agriculturalists in central Vietnam. Research indicates that the majority of rural farmers interviewed who lived near a state designated protected area were receiving both subsistence and cash incomes from forest-based activities, primarily from the collection of forest products. However, much of the collection of forest produce was officially illegal, as it occurred in state protected forests, and interdiction efforts were on the increase. Yet, little attention has been paid in Vietnam to the need for income substitution for households who lose access to forest produce as a result of conservation enforcement, particularly in the case of farmers who live near, but not in, protected areas; their resources use has been ‘invisible’ due to a lack of attention and research on the topic. This misunderstanding of the importance of forests to rural farmers has the potential to result in households facing adverse welfare and livelihood outcomes as protected areas boundaries are tightened, and local communities face increased opportunity costs due to stricter conservation enforcement. The article concludes that substitution for loss of income due to conservation activities would best be achieved through carefully targeted interventions to specific high-impact and high-dependency households. Additionally, investments in new sources of wage labor and other low capital-input activities, rather than in agriculture, would likely be of most benefit.

  19. Waveform Correlation Based Detection of Aftershocks of the 6 August 2007 4.1 Mw Crandall Canyon Mine Collapse in Central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koper, K. D.; Kubacki, T. M.; McCarter, M. K.; Pankow, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    On 6 August 2007 at 08:48:40 (UTC) a 3.9 ML seismic event occurred about 22 km ESE of the town of Mount Pleasant in the coal mining district of central Utah [Pechmann et al., 2008]. An epicenter of 39.4675°N, 111.2249°W and source depth of 0.5 km were determined by University of Utah Seismograph Stations (UUSS). It quickly became clear that the seismic event was associated with a catastrophic collapse at the Crandall Canyon coal mine in which six miners were killed. Subsequent moment tensor inversion showed that a pure double-couple mechanism did not fit the observed waveforms and instead a mechanism dominated by a closing crack (which incorporates an isotropic component) and a smaller residual double-couple and/or CLVD source was preferred [Ford et al., 2008]. The full moment tensor had a scalar moment corresponding to 4.1 Mw. In the 60 days following the mine collapse UUSS located 42 seismic events in the immediate source region. These events had magnitudes of 0.8-2.5 Mc and were detected using standard network association procedures with data from permanent stations of the Utah Regional Seismic Network (URSN), as well as 5 temporary seismometers that UUSS installed in the source area within 2-3 days of the main event. Simple inspection of continuous data from the nearest station shows evidence for a much larger number of seismic events, especially in the hours immediately following the collapse. These events originally went undetected because they were too small to be recorded at a significant number of the permanent URSN stations. Here we use waveform correlation methods to formally detect and locate these tiny aftershocks. We performed multi-channel cross-correlation [vanDecar and Crosson, 1990] on the 42 catalog events using data recorded at the nearest permanent broadband URSN station, MTPU, which was located about 19 km to the south of the mine. A 15-s long window starting 5 s before the expected P arrival was used on data that had been bandpass filtered

  20. 31 CFR 500.413 - Participation in certain development projects in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... is completed, Vietnam hires a U.S. marketing firm to develop marketing strategies for the product worldwide. It further asks the marketing firm to execute the strategies it devises and to represent the product in South-East Asia, including the domestic market in Vietnam. The marketing firm in turn...

  1. Transparency of State Owned Enterprises in Vietnam : Current Status and Ideas for Reform

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Information disclosure by State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) is part of a broader agenda to promote greater public sector transparency in Vietnam. Recent studies by the World Bank and others have shown that despite progress, compliance with legal requirements for transparency remains a challenge across a wide range of public sector governance areas in Vietnam. However, the marginal benefit to ...

  2. Past Perspectives on Teaching about the Vietnam War: Implications for Teaching about Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    During the Vietnam War, and the years following the conflict, history teachers were often hesitant to examine the war in the classroom for a variety of reasons. This article explores some of the factors that prohibited the effective teaching of the Vietnam War. Implications regarding how these inhibiting factors might affect teaching about the…

  3. Strategies for the prevention and treatment of reproductive tract infections among women in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huong, Nguyen My; Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents selected findings from a larger study on reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among women seeking abortion in Northern Vietnam. In particular it focuses on women's experience of RTIs within the context of their perceptions of female physiology and what women do to prevent...... system, while also pointing to important cultural paradoxes in the understanding of womanhood in contemporary Vietnam....

  4. The Vietnam War: A Four Week Instructional Unit. Grades 11-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Darrell

    This 4-week curriculum is designed to help 11th and 12th grade students reach an understanding of the history and culture of Vietnam and the roots of U.S. military involvement there, and also to draw lessons from U.S. actions during the war in Vietnam. Students are encouraged to engage in critical thinking, evaluation, drawing conclusions, taking…

  5. 78 FR 31574 - Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... the Commission's Handbook on Filing Procedures, 76 FR 62092 (Oct. 6, 2011), available on the... COMMISSION Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of... materially retarded, by reason of imports from Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of welded stainless...

  6. 78 FR 45271 - Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Commission, Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of May 24, 2013 (78 FR 31574... COMMISSION Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam Determination On the... injured by reason of imports from Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of welded stainless steel pressure...

  7. 78 FR 764 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... amended. The amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam..., Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in subheadings 0306.17.00,...

  8. 78 FR 10210 - Utility Scale Wind Towers From China and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Register on August 22, 2012 (77 FR 50715). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on December 13, 2012... COMMISSION Utility Scale Wind Towers From China and Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... with material injury by reason of imports of utility scale wind towers from China and Vietnam,...

  9. Limitation on the Development of Skills in Higher Education in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi Tuyet

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the perceptions of higher education students, recent graduates and employers in Vietnam on the issue of skill development in the higher education system in Vietnam. Enhancing skill development is considered essential for students, not only to pursue their study, but also for their success later, at work and in life. The…

  10. 77 FR 39613 - Presidential Determination on a U.S. Export Import Bank Transaction with Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, June 25, 2012 [FR Doc. 2012-16527 Filed 7-2-12...--Presidential Determination on a U.S. Export-Import Bank Transaction With Vietnam #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Presidential Determination on a U.S. Export Import Bank Transaction with Vietnam Memorandum for the...

  11. 77 FR 9701 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... Commission, Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of January 6, 2012 (77 FR... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from Taiwan and Vietnam of steel wire garment hangers, provided for...

  12. 75 FR 22842 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of December 3, 2009 (74 FR 63410). The hearing was held in... COMMISSION Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis... imports from Vietnam of polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs), provided for in subheading 3923.21.00...

  13. Patterns of Health Expenditures and Financial Protections in Vietnam 1992-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Van Minh; Oh, Juhwan; Tran, Tuan Anh; Tran, Thi Giang Huong; Ha, Anh Duc; Luu, Ngoc Hoat; Nguyen, Thi Kim Phuong

    2015-11-01

    Health financing has been considered as an important building block of a health system and has a key role in promoting universal health coverage in the Vietnam. This paper aims to describe the pattern of health expenditure, including total health expenditure and composition of health expenditure, over the last two decades in Vietnam. The paper mainly uses the data from Vietnam National Health Account and Vietnam Living Standards Survey. We also included data from other relevant published literature, reports and statistics about health care expenditure in Vietnam. The per capita health expenditure in Vietnam increased from US$ 14 in 1995 to US$ 86 in 2012. The total health expenditure as a share of GDP also rose from 5.2% in 1995 to 6.9% in 2012. Public health expenditure as percentage of government expenditure rose from 7.4% in 1995 to nearly 10% in 2012. The coverage of health insurance went up from 10% in 1995 to 68.5% in 2012. However, health financing in Vietnam was depending on private expenditures (57.4% in 2012). As a result, the proportion of households with catastrophic expenditure in 2012 was 4.2%. The rate of impoverishment in 2012 was 2.5%. To ensure equity and efficient goal of health system, policy actions for containing the health care out-of-pocket payments and their poverty impacts are urgently needed in Vietnam.

  14. A dynamic approach to assess international competitiveness of Vietnam's garment and textile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Huong Thanh; Pham, Lam Cat

    2016-01-01

    Garment and textile (G&T) industry has been playing as a driving force for the socio-economic development of Vietnam. With the international integration process and rising challenges from the global market, there is a need to examine international competitiveness of Vietnam's G&T industry to find out what Vietnam should focus on to enhance its position in the global market place. This paper, by using the Generalized Double Diamond Model (GDDM), analyzed international competitiveness of Vietnam's G&T industry and compared it with China. The results showed that Vietnam was less competitive than China in all four attributes of the GDDM. The lowest competitiveness of Vietnam in comparison with China was Related and Supporting industries, followed by Factor Conditions. Therefore, the paper argued that although Vietnam should improve all of the four attributes in the long term, Vietnam must put a high priority on developing Related and Supporting Industries and then enhance Factor Conditions while maintaining its strengths over China in terms of G&T export growths and favorable business context. PMID:27026899

  15. New species of the genus Sinularia (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) from Nha Trang Bay, South China Sea, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dautova, T.N.; Ofwegen, van L.P.; Savinkin, O.V.

    2010-01-01

    A total of eight Sinularia species is described and depicted, all from Nha Trang Bay, Vietnam (South China Sea). Six are new to science: S. capricornis, S. multiflora, S. pumila, S. sarmentosa, S. torta, and S. uva. Two other ones represent just new records for Vietnam: S. rigida (Dana, 1846) and S.

  16. A dynamic approach to assess international competitiveness of Vietnam's garment and textile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Huong Thanh; Pham, Lam Cat

    2016-01-01

    Garment and textile (G&T) industry has been playing as a driving force for the socio-economic development of Vietnam. With the international integration process and rising challenges from the global market, there is a need to examine international competitiveness of Vietnam's G&T industry to find out what Vietnam should focus on to enhance its position in the global market place. This paper, by using the Generalized Double Diamond Model (GDDM), analyzed international competitiveness of Vietnam's G&T industry and compared it with China. The results showed that Vietnam was less competitive than China in all four attributes of the GDDM. The lowest competitiveness of Vietnam in comparison with China was Related and Supporting industries, followed by Factor Conditions. Therefore, the paper argued that although Vietnam should improve all of the four attributes in the long term, Vietnam must put a high priority on developing Related and Supporting Industries and then enhance Factor Conditions while maintaining its strengths over China in terms of G&T export growths and favorable business context.

  17. 75 FR 23670 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination, 75 FR... Retail Carrier Bags from Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam, USITC Publication 4144, Investigation Nos. 701... carrying merchandise from retail establishments, e.g., garbage bags, lawn bags, trash-can liners....

  18. Foreign wage premium, gender and education : insights from Vietnam household surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Fukase,Emiko

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the differential impacts of foreign ownership on wages for different types of workers (in terms of educational background and gender) in Vietnam using the Vietnam Household Living Standards Surveys of 2002 and 2004. Whereas most previous studies have compared wage levels between foreign and domestic sectors using firm-level data (thus excluding the informal sector), ...

  19. 78 FR 6297 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... been calculated in accordance with section 772 of the Act. Because Vietnam is a nonmarket economy... Vietnam: Final Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and New Shipper Reviews, 75 FR 12726... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of...

  20. 77 FR 1053 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005... Economy Inputs, Expected Non-Market Economy Wages, Duty Drawback; and Request for Comments, 71 FR 61716... of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 64307 (October 18, 2011) (``Fifth Vietnam...