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Sample records for central venous infusion

  1. Adjacent central venous catheters can result in immediate aspiration of infused drugs during renal replacement therapy.

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    Kam, K Y R; Mari, J M; Wigmore, T J

    2012-02-01

    Dual-lumen haemodiafiltration catheters enable continuous renal replacement therapy in the critically ill and are often co-located with central venous catheters used to infuse drugs. The extent to which infusions are immediately aspirated by an adjacent haemodiafiltration catheter remains unknown. A bench model was constructed to evaluate this effect. A central venous catheter and a haemodiafiltration catheter were inserted into a simulated central vein and flow generated using centrifugal pumps within the simulated vein and haemodiafiltration circuit. Ink was used as a visual tracer and creatinine solution as a quantifiable tracer. Tracers were completely aspirated by the haemodiafiltration catheter unless the infusion was at least 1 cm downstream to the arterial port. No tracer was aspirated from catheters infusing at least 2 cm downstream. Orientation of side ports did not affect tracer elimination. Co-location of central venous and haemodiafiltration catheters may lead to complete aspiration of infusions into the haemodiafilter with resultant drug under-dosing. Anaesthesia © 2011 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  2. Alteplase infusion versus dwell for clearance of partially occluded central venous catheters in critically ill pediatric patients.

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    Ragsdale, Carolyn E; Oliver, Maggee R; Thompson, A Jill; Evans, Melissa C

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of alteplase infusions and alteplase local instillations (dwells) to clear partially occluded central venous catheters in critically ill children. Retrospective study. PICU in a single, tertiary care, academic children's hospital. Retrospective review of the medical records of all critically ill pediatric patients less than 18 years old who received an alteplase infusion or dwell as the treatment for a partial central venous catheter occlusion. The typical infusion regimen was to administer 0.1 mg/kg of body weight (maximum, 2 mg/dose) of alteplase in 25 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride over 3 hours. The standard dwell was to administer and aspirate alteplase in a 1 mg/mL concentration as a fixed dose as ordered by the prescriber (maximum, 2 mg/dose). Efficacy was defined as documentation of positive blood return from the catheter. Radiology reports, nursing and physician documentation, and laboratory values were reviewed to assess for bleeding events. None. One hundred fifty occlusion events were included for analysis. Overall, 72 of 84 alteplase infusions (86%) and 53 of 66 alteplase dwells (80%) resulted in resolution of the lumen occlusion event as documented by positive blood return from the catheter after a maximum of two doses (p = 0.39). One major bleeding event occurred in each arm; both were deemed unlikely related to alteplase. Alteplase infusions to clear partially occluded central venous catheters appear to be as efficacious as alteplase dwells in critically ill children. In occlusions treated with an infusion, more occlusions resolved in older and larger patients and in patients with catheters in place less than 7 days. In occlusions treated with a dwell, more occlusions resolved in smaller catheters. The safety profile for both infusions and dwells was acceptable for the pediatric critically ill population.

  3. Water Infused Surface Protection as an Active Mechanism for Fibrin Sheath Prevention in Central Venous Catheters.

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    Sutherland, David W; Zhang, Xin; Charest, Joseph L

    2017-10-01

    Protein adhesion in central venous catheters (CVCs) leads to fibrin sheath formation, the precursor to thrombotic and biofilm-related CVC failures. Advances in material properties and surface coatings do not completely prevent fibrin sheath formation and post-formation treatment options are limited and expensive. We propose water infused surface protection (WISP), an active method for prevention of fibrin sheath formation on CVCs, which creates a blood-free boundary layer on the inner surface of the CVC, limiting blood contact with the CVC lumen wall. A hollow fiber membrane (HFM) in a benchtop device served as a CVC testing model to demonstrate the WISP concept. Porcine blood was pumped through the HFM while phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was infused through the HFM wall, creating the WISP boundary layer. Protein adherences on model CVC surfaces were measured and imaged. Analytical and finite volume lubrication models were used to justify the assumption of a blood-free boundary layer. We found a 92.2% reduction in average adherent protein density when WISP is used, compared with our model CVC without WISP flow. Lubrication models matched our experimental pressure drop measurements suggesting that a blood-free boundary layer was created. The WISP technique also provides a novel strategy for drug administration for biofilm treatment. Reduction in adherent protein indicates a restriction on long-term fibrin sheath and biofilm formation making WISP a promising technology which improves a wide range of vascular access treatments. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Central venous infusion port inserted via high versus low jugular venous approaches: Retrospective comparison of outcome and complications

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    Park, Hong Suk [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, 809 Madu 1-dong, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 411-764 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hpark@dreamwiz.com; Kim, Young Il; Lee, Sang Hyun; Kim, Jung Im; Seo, Hyobin; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Youkyung; Lim, Min Kyung [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, 809 Madu 1-dong, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 411-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Suk [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively compare immediate and long-term outcome of central venous infusion port inserted via right high versus low jugular vein approaches. Materials and methods: The study included 163 patients (125 women patients, 38 men patients; age range, 18-79 years; mean age, 53 years); 142 patients underwent port insertion with low jugular vein approach and 21 patients with high jugular vein approach. The causes of high jugular vein puncture were metastatic lymphadenopathy (n = 7), operation scar (n = 6), radiation scar (n = 5), failure of low jugular vein puncture (n = 2), and abnormal course of right subclavian artery (n = 1). Medical records and radiologic studies were reviewed retrospectively to determine and compare the outcome and the occurrence of complication related to port. Results: The procedure-related complications were all minor (n = 14, 8.6%) in both groups; hematoma (n = 4, 2.8% in low jugular puncture group and n = 1, 4.8% in high jugular puncture group, p = 0.6295), air embolism (n = 2, 1.4% in low jugular puncture group and n = 0 in high jugular puncture group, p = 0.5842) and minor bleeding (n = 5, 3.5% in low jugular vein puncture group and n = 2, 9.5% in high jugular vein puncture group, p = 0.2054). The average length of follow-up was 431 days for low jugular vein puncture group and 284 days for high jugular vein puncture group. The difference between two groups was significant (p = 0.0349). The reasons for catheter removal were patients' death (59 in low jugular puncture group and 14 in high jugular puncture group, p = 0.0465), suspected infection (11 in low jugular vein puncture group and 2 in high jugular vein puncture group, p = 0.8242), catheter occlusion (four in low jugular vein puncture group and one in high jugular vein puncture group, p = 0.6583). The catheter tip migrated upward an average of 1.86 cm (range, -0.5 to 5.0 cm) in low jugular vein puncture group and 1.56 cm (range, 0-3.6 cm) in high jugular vein

  5. Cardiac tamponade in an infant during contrast infusion through central venous catheter for chest computed tomography; Tamponamento cardiaco durante infusao de contraste em acesso venoso central para realizacao de tomografia computadorizada do torax em lactente

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    Daud, Danilo Felix; Campos, Marcos Menezes Freitas de; Fleury Neto, Augusto de Padua [Hospital Geral de Palmas, TO (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    Complications from central venous catheterization include infectious conditions, pneumothorax, hemothorax and venous thrombosis. Pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade hardly occurs, and in infants is generally caused by umbilical catheterization. The authors describe the case of cardiac tamponade occurred in an infant during chest computed tomography with contrast infusion through a central venous catheter inserted into the right internal jugular vein. (author)

  6. Single bolus intravenous regadenoson injection versus central venous infusion of adenosine for maximum coronary hyperaemia in fractional flow reserve measurement.

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    van Nunen, Lokien X; Lenders, Guy D; Schampaert, Stéphanie; van 't Veer, Marcel; Wijnbergen, Inge; Brueren, Guus R G; Tonino, Pim A L; Pijls, Nico H J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the hyperaemic effect of a single bolus regadenoson injection to a central venous adenosine infusion for inducing hyperaemia in the measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR). One hundred patients scheduled for FFR measurement were enrolled. FFR was first measured by IV adenosine (140 µg/kg/min), thereafter by IV bolus regadenoson injection (400 µg), followed by another measurement by IV adenosine and bolus injection of regadenoson. The regadenoson injections were randomised to central or peripheral intravenous. Hyperaemic response and duration of steady state maximum hyperaemia were studied, central versus peripheral venous regadenoson injections were compared, and safety and reproducibility of repeated injections were investigated. Mean age was 66±8 years, 75% of the patients were male. The target stenosis was located in the LM, LAD, LCX, and RCA in 7%, 54%, 20% and 19%, respectively. There was no difference in FFR measured by adenosine or by regadenoson (ΔFFR=0.00±0.01, r=0.994, pregadenoson was variable (10-600 s). No serious side effects of either drug were observed. Maximum coronary hyperaemia can be achieved easily, rapidly, and safely by one single intravenous bolus of regadenoson administered either centrally or peripherally. Repeated regadenoson injections are safe. The hyperaemic plateau is variable. Clinical Trial Registration: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/ show/study/NCT01809743?term=NCT01809743&rank=1 (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01809743).

  7. Central venous catheter - flushing

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000157.htm Central venous catheter - flushing To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have a central venous catheter. This is a tube that goes into a ...

  8. Central Venous Catheter (Central Line)

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    ... venous catheter (KATHeter), also known as a central line or CVC, is long, soft, thin, hollow tube ... into a large vein (blood vessel). A central line is much like an intravenous (IV) catheter that ...

  9. Central venous access related adverse events after trabectedin infusions in soft tissue sarcoma patients; experience and management in a nationwide multi-center study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboom, M.C.; Ouwerkerk, J.; Steeghs, N.; Lutjeboer, J.; Kerst, J.M.; Graaf, W.T.A. van der; Reyners, A.K.; Sleijfer, S.; Gelderblom, H.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trabectedin has shown efficacy against soft tissue sarcomas (STS) and has manageable toxicity. Trabectedin is administered through central venous access devices (VAD), such as subcutaneous ports with tunneled catheters, Hickman catheters and PICC lines. Venous access related adverse

  10. Central venous line complications and tip detection

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    Ameneh Rezaee Gheshlaghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Central venous line is one of a creative instrument that saves human’s life in critical medical situation. Central venous line access is frequently involved in the disease management. It is used for rapid fluid therapy, transvenous pacemakers, infusion of some medications, hemodialysis or plasmapheresis and etc. Most of the emergency departments have some staffs that are trained for central venous line insertion but related complications occur during central venous line placement.Central venous line might have some complications and complication follow-up should be considered. Thromboembolism and infection are two important medical complications. Arterial puncture, hematoma, pneumothorax and hemothorax are mechanical Central venous line complications. Chest X-ray and some other techniques should be used for detecting these complications.Central venous line tip misplace is a considerable problem for emergency department staffs, previously chest X-ray has been used for central venous line misplace detection. In some recent studies, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and intravascular electrocardiography have been used for central venous line misplace.

  11. Central Venous Catheter-Related Hydrothorax

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    Se Hun Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a case of 88-year-old women who developed central venous catheter-related bilateral hydrothorax, in which left pleural effusion, while right pleural effusion was being drained. The drainage prevented accumulation of fluid in the right pleural space, indicating that there was neither extravasation of infusion fluid nor connection between the two pleural cavities. The only explanation for bilateral hydrothorax in this case is lymphatic connections. Although vascular injuries by central venous catheter can cause catheter-related hydrothorax, it is most likely that the positioning of the tip of central venous catheter within the lymphatic duct opening in the right sub-clavian-jugular confluence or superior vena cava causes the catheter-related hydrothorax. Pericardial effusion can also result from retrograde lymphatic flow through the pulmonary lymphatic chains.

  12. Central venous catheter - dressing change

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000156.htm Central venous catheter - dressing change To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have a central venous catheter. This is a tube that goes into a ...

  13. Pediatric central venous access devices: nursing interventions

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    Duffy EA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth A Duffy, Kathryn N Nelson Department of Health Behavior and Biological Sciences, The University of Michigan School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: A central venous catheter (CVC is an indwelling catheter that provides permanent or temporary stable venous access for both acute and chronically ill pediatric patients. These catheters provide stable venous access that can be used for a variety of medical purposes including drawing blood, hemodynamic monitoring, infusion of intravenous medications, infusion of intravenous fluids, chemotherapy, blood products, and parenteral nutrition. Each day, nurses access and care for CVCs in infants, children, and adolescents; the precision of this care can prevent life-threatening complications. The purpose of this review and the case study is to highlight the importance and components of evidence-based nursing practice in pediatric CVC care. A historical perspective of CVC care is provided in conjunction with current national initiatives to improve patient outcomes for children with CVCs. Infection prevention, clinical practice guidelines, quality improvement, and evidence-based care bundles are discussed. Keywords: pediatric nursing, central venous catheters, central line-associated bloodstream infection, care bundles, pediatric case study 

  14. Placement of an implantable central venous access device

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    Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Young Suk [Dan Kook Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Hospital

    1998-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of placement of a central venous catheter with infusion port into the superior vena cava. Central venous catheters with a infusion port were implanted in 21 patients (M:F=4:17, age range:15-63, mean age: 41) diagnosed as suffering from breast cancer (n=9), lymphoma (n=7), thymoma (n=2) rhabdomyosarcoma(n=2) and rectal cancer (n=1). The per(n=9), lymphoma(n=7), thymoma (n=2) rhabdomyosarcoma (n=2) and rectal cancer (n=1). The peripheral portion of the subclavian vein was punctured under fluoroscopic guidance during injection of contrast media at the site of the ipsilateral peripheral vein (20 cases) and under ultrasonographic guidance (1 case). 9.6F central venous catheters placed in the superior vena cava via the subclavian vein and the connected infusion ports were implanted in the subcutaneous pocket near the puncture site of the right anterosuperior chest wall. Radiologic placement under fluoroscopic guidance of a central venous catheter with a infusion port is easy, safe and useful for patients requiring long-term venous access. (author). 21 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Starling curves and central venous pressure

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    Berlin, Cheryl; Bakker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRecent studies challenge the utility of central venous pressure monitoring as a surrogate for cardiac preload. Starting with Starling’s original studies on the regulation of cardiac output, this review traces the history of the experiments that elucidated the role of central venous pressure in circulatory physiology. Central venous pressure is an important physiologic parameter, but it is not an independent variable that determines cardiac output.

  16. [Central venous blood gas analysis].

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    Marano, Marco; D'Amato, Anna; Guiotto, Giovanna; Schiraldi, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The hemodialysis might interfere with patients hemodynamic, as the technique allows a sophisticated game with extra and intravascular fluids. As the cardiocirculatory response could sometimes be unpredictable, it is interesting to collect valuable information by reaching a deep understanding of the tissue metabolism which is mirrored by the blood gas analysis of variations in arterial and central venous blood samples. Particularly interesting are the time course variations of the central venous hemoglobin saturation (ScvO2), which are directly related to the patient with O2-demand as well as to the O2-Delivery (DO2). The ScvO2 is determined by four parameters (cardiac output, Hb concentration, arterial Hb saturation and O2 consumption): If the fluids subtraction during dialysis was about to determine an occult hypoperfusion, the ScvO2 reduction would be a timely warning sign to be considered. Moreover, while the normal veno-arterial PCO2 difference is 2-4 mmHg, whenever a mismatch between O2-demand and DO2arise, a larger v-aPCO2 difference should be observed.

  17. An unusual Complication of Central Venous Cannulation

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    Ashvini Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Central venous catheter (CVC hub fracture is a rare complication of central venous cannulation. We report a case where catheter hub fracture was detected immediately after CVC insertion. Causes of catheter hub fracture and its complications are discussed.

  18. Starling curves and central venous pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Berlin (Cheryl); J. Bakker (Jan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRecent studies challenge the utility of central venous pressure monitoring as a surrogate for cardiac preload. Starting with Starling’s original studies on the regulation of cardiac output, this review traces the history of the experiments that elucidated the role of central venous

  19. Central venous catheters: the role of radiology

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    Tan, P.L. [Department of Radiology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: pecklingtan@hotmail.com; Gibson, M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading, Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-15

    The insertion and management of long-term venous catheters have long been the province of anaesthetists, intensive care physicians and surgeons. Radiologists are taking an increasing role in the insertion of central venous catheters (CVCs) because of their familiarity with the imaging equipment and their ability to manipulate catheters and guide-wires. The radiological management of the complications of CVCs has also expanded as a result. This article reviews the role of radiology in central venous access, covering the detection and management of their complications.

  20. Central venous catheters: incidence and predictive factors of venous thrombosis.

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    Hammes, Mary; Desai, Amishi; Pasupneti, Shravani; Kress, John; Funaki, Brian; Watson, Sydeaka; Herlitz, Jean; Hines, Jane

    2015-07-01

    Central venous catheter access in an acute setting can be a challenge given underlying disease and risk for venous thrombosis. Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) are commonly placed but limit sites for fistula creation in patients with chronic renal failure (CKD). The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of venous thrombosis from small bore internal jugular (SBIJ) and PICC line placement. This investigation identifies populations of patients who may not be ideal candidates for a PICC and highlights the importance of peripheral vein preservation in patients with renal failure. A venous Doppler ultrasound was performed at the time of SBIJ insertion and removal to evaluate for thrombosis in the internal jugular vein. Data was collected pre- and post-intervention to ascertain if increased vein preservation knowledge amongst the healthcare team led to less use of PICCs. Demographic factors were collected in the SBIJ and PICC groups and risk factor analysis was completed. 1,122 subjects had PICC placement and 23 had SBIJ placement. The incidence of thrombosis in the PICC group was 10%. One patient with an SBIJ had evidence of central vein thrombosis when the catheter was removed. Univariate and multivariate analysis demonstrated a history of transplant, and the indication of total parenteral nutrition was associated with thrombosis (p<0.001). The decrease in PICCs placed in patients with CKD 6 months before and after intervention was significant (p<0.05). There are subsets of patients ith high risk for thrombosis who may not be ideal candidates for a PICC.

  1. Traditional Long-Term Central Venous Catheters Versus Transhepatic Venous Catheters in Infants and Young Children.

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    Marshall, Amanda Marie; Danford, David A; Curzon, Christopher L; Anderson, Venus; Delaney, Jeffrey W

    2017-10-01

    Children with congenital heart disease may require long-term central venous access for intensive care management; however, central venous access must also be preserved for future surgical and catheterization procedures. Transhepatic venous catheters may be an useful alternative. The objective of this study was to compare transhepatic venous catheters with traditional central venous catheters regarding complication rate and duration of catheter service. Retrospective review of 12 congenital heart disease patients from September 2013 to July 2015 who underwent placement of one or more transhepatic venous catheters. Single freestanding pediatric hospital located in the central United States. Pediatric patients with congenital heart disease who underwent placement of transhepatic venous catheter. Cohort's central venous catheter complication rates and duration of catheter service were compared with transhepatic venous catheter data. Twelve patients had a total of 19 transhepatic venous lines. Transhepatic venous lines had a significantly longer duration of service than central venous lines (p = 0.001). No difference between the two groups was found in the number of documented thrombi, thrombolytic burden, or catheter sites requiring wound care consultation. A higher frequency of infection in transhepatic venous lines versus central venous lines was found, isolated to four transhepatic venous lines that had a total of nine infections. All but one was successfully managed without catheter removal. The difference in the proportion of infections to catheters in transhepatic venous lines versus central venous lines was significant (p = 0.0001), but no difference in the rate of infection-related catheter removal was found. Without compromising future central venous access sites, transhepatic venous lines had superior duration of service without increased thrombosis, thrombolytic use, or insertion site complications relative to central venous lines. Transhepatic venous

  2. Iliac venous pressure estimates central venous pressure after laparotomy.

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    Boone, Brian A; Kirk, Katherine A; Tucker, Nikia; Gunn, Scott; Forsythe, Raquel

    2014-09-01

    Central venous pressure (CVP) is traditionally obtained through subclavian or internal jugular central catheters; however, many patients who could benefit from CVP monitoring have only femoral lines. The accuracy of illiac venous pressure (IVP) as a measure of CVP is unknown, particularly following laparotomy. This was a prospective, observational study. Patients who had both internal jugular or subclavian lines and femoral lines already in place were eligible for the study. Pressure measurements were taken from both lines in addition to measurement of bladder pressure, mean arterial pressure, and peak airway pressure. Data were evaluated using paired t-test, Bland-Altman analysis, and linear regression. Measurements were obtained from 40 patients, 26 of which had laparotomy. The mean difference between measurements was 2.2 mm Hg. There were no significant differences between patients who had laparotomy and nonsurgical patients (P = 0.93). Bland-Altman analysis revealed a bias of 1.63 ± 2.44 mm Hg. There was no correlation between IVP accuracy and bladder pressure, mean arterial pressure, or peak airway pressure. IVP is an adequate measure of CVP, even in surgical patients who have had recent laparotomy. Measurement of IVP to guide resuscitation is encouraged in patients who have only femoral venous catheter access. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Central venous pressure monitoring in clinical practice.

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    Scales, Katie

    This article provides an overview of central venous pressure (CVP) monitoring in clinical practice. It explores the underpinning anatomy and physiology, as well as the indications and means of access, for the procedure. The mechanics and practicalities of measuring CVP are discussed and information for troubleshooting is provided.

  4. Complications of central venous stenosis due to permanent central venous catheters in children on hemodialysis.

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    Rinat, Choni; Ben-Shalom, Efrat; Becker-Cohen, Rachel; Feinstein, Sofia; Frishberg, Yaacov

    2014-11-01

    Central venous catheters are frequently used as access for hemodialysis (HD) in children. One of the known complications is central venous stenosis. Although this complication is not rare, it is often asymptomatic and therefore unacknowledged. Superior vena cava (SVC) stenosis is obviously suspected in the presence of upper body edema, but several other signs and symptoms are often unrecognized as being part of this syndrome. We describe four patients with various manifestations of central venous stenosis and SVC syndrome. These sometimes life- or organ-threatening conditions include obstructive sleep apnea, unresolving stridor, increased intracranial pressure, increased intraocular pressure, right-sided pleural effusion, protein-losing enteropathy and lymphadenopathy. The temporal relationship of these complications associated with the use of central venous catheters and documentation of venous stenosis, together with their resolution after alleviation of high venous pressure, points to a causal role. We suggest pathophysiological mechanisms for the formation of each of these complications. In patients with occlusion of the SVC, various unexpected clinical entities can be caused by high central venous pressure. As often the etiology is not obvious, a high index of suspicion is needed as in some cases prompt alleviation of the high pressure is mandatory.

  5. Correlation of central venous pressure with venous blood gas analysis parameters; a diagnostic study

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    Sima Rahim-Taleghani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to assess the correlation between central venous pressure (CVP and venous blood gas (VBG analysis parameters, to facilitate management of severe sepsis and septic shock in emergency department. Material and methods: This diagnostic study was conducted from January 2014 until June 2015 in three major educational medical centers, Tehran, Iran. For patients selected with diagnosis of septic shock, peripheral blood sample was taken for testing the VBG parameters and the anion gap (AG was calculated. All the mentioned parameters were measured again after infusion of 500 cc of normal saline 0.9% in about 1 h. Results: Totally, 93 patients with septic shock were enrolled, 63 male and 30 female. The mean age was 72.53 ± 13.03 and the mean Shock Index (SI before fluid therapy was 0.79 ± 0.30. AG and pH showed significant negative correlations with CVP, While HCO3 showed a significant positive correlation with CVP. These relations can be affected by the treatment modalities used in shock management such as fluid therapy, mechanical ventilation and vasopressor treatment. Conclusion: It is likely that there is a significant statistical correlation between VBG parameters and AG with CVP, but further research is needed before implementation of the results of this study. Keywords: Shock, Septic, Central venous pressure, Blood gas analysis, Emergency department, Emergency medicine

  6. Central Venous Access in the Pediatric Population With Emphasis on Complications and Prevention Strategies.

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    Duesing, Lori A; Fawley, Jason A; Wagner, Amy J

    2016-08-01

    Central venous catheters are often necessary in the pediatric population. Access may be challenging, and each vessel presents its own unique set of risks and complications. Central venous catheterization is useful for hemodynamic monitoring, rapid fluid infusion, and administration of hyperosmolar medications, including vasopressors, antibiotics, chemotherapy, and parenteral nutrition. Recent advances have improved the catheters used as well as techniques for insertion. A serious complication of central access is infection, which is associated with morbidity, mortality, and significant financial costs. Reduction of catheter-related bloodstream infections is realized with use of ethanol locks, single lumens when appropriate, and prudent adherence to insertion and maintenance bundles. Ultrasound guidance used for central venous catheter placement improves accuracy of placement, reducing time and unsuccessful insertion and complication rates. Patients with central venous catheters are best served by multidisciplinary team involvement. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  7. Noninvasive measurement of central venous pressure

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    Webster, J. G.; Mastenbrook, S. M., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A technique for the noninvasive measurement of CVP in man was developed. The method involves monitoring venous velocity at a point in the periphery with a transcutaneous Doppler ultrasonic velocity meter while the patient performs a forced expiratory maneuver. The idea is the CVP is related to the value of pressure measured at the mouth which just stops the flow in the vein. Two improvements were made over the original procedure. First, the site of venous velocity measurement was shifted from a vein at the antecubital fossa (elbow) to the right external jugular vein in the neck. This allows for sensing more readily events occurring in the central veins. Secondly, and perhaps most significantly, a procedure for obtaining a curve of relative mean venous velocity vs mouth pressure was developed.

  8. Central venous obstruction in the thorax.

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    Collin, G; Jones, R G; Willis, A P

    2015-06-01

    Central venous stenosis and occlusion can occur secondary to a spectrum of conditions ranging from aggressive malignancy to benign extrinsic anatomical compression in otherwise healthy individuals. Irrespective of aetiology, significant morbidity in the acute setting and long term can occur unless prompt accurate diagnosis and appropriate management is initiated, the radiologist being central to both. The present review will provide radiologists with a thorough illustration and explanation of the range of central venous conditions in the thorax (including deep vein thrombosis, thoracic outlet syndrome, haemodialysis, and malignancy related causes), the salient imaging findings and interventional management using case examples from the authors' practice. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Incidence of central venous catheter hub contamination.

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    Holroyd, Julie L; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Rice, Mark J; Rand, Kenneth H; Fahy, Brenda G

    2017-06-01

    To investigate microorganisms causing central venous catheter contamination and how this contamination differs across different catheter metrics. After obtaining IRB approval and informed consent, 830 cultures were prospectively obtained from 45 ICU patients with central venous catheter or peripherally inserted central catheter. Bacterial colonies were identified by mass spectrometry. Bacterial contamination of central catheter hubs occurred 44% of the time in this study in the ICU setting. Coagulase-positive staphylococci cultures had higher median (±interquartile range) CFUs (12±232) versus coagulase-negative (3±10) and other bacteria (1±3; Pcentral venous pressure monitoring connections (25.8% vs. 7.1% without). Internal jugular sites (10.0% vs. 2.7% femoral, 6.2% PICC, P=0.031) and medial lumens of triple lumen catheters (11.9% vs. 5.6% distal, 7.0% proximal, P=0.049) had increased incidence of higher bacteria loads (>15 CFUs). This study found a high incidence of central access catheter hub bacterial contamination, which correlated with positive blood cultures in 2 of 3 total bacteremia cases identified in the 45 patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. In-line filters in central venous catheters in a neonatal intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoogen, A; Krediet, TG; Uiterwaal, CSPM; Bolenius, JFGA; Gerards, LJ; Fleer, A

    Nosocomial sepsis remains an important cause of morbidity in neonatal intensive care units. Central venous catheters (CVCs) and parenteral nutrition (TPN) are major risk factors. In-line filters in the intravenous (IV) administration sets prevent the infusion of particles, which may reduce

  11. Correlation of central venous pressure with venous blood gas analysis parameters; a diagnostic study.

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    Rahim-Taleghani, Sima; Fatemi, Alireza; Alavi Moghaddam, Mostafa; Shojaee, Majid; Abushouk, Abdelrahman Ibrahim; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Mehdi; Baratloo, Alireza

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to assess the correlation between central venous pressure (CVP) and venous blood gas (VBG) analysis parameters, to facilitate management of severe sepsis and septic shock in emergency department. This diagnostic study was conducted from January 2014 until June 2015 in three major educational medical centers, Tehran, Iran. For patients selected with diagnosis of septic shock, peripheral blood sample was taken for testing the VBG parameters and the anion gap (AG) was calculated. All the mentioned parameters were measured again after infusion of 500 cc of normal saline 0.9% in about 1 h. Totally, 93 patients with septic shock were enrolled, 63 male and 30 female. The mean age was 72.53 ± 13.03 and the mean Shock Index (SI) before fluid therapy was 0.79 ± 0.30. AG and pH showed significant negative correlations with CVP, While HCO3 showed a significant positive correlation with CVP. These relations can be affected by the treatment modalities used in shock management such as fluid therapy, mechanical ventilation and vasopressor treatment. It is likely that there is a significant statistical correlation between VBG parameters and AG with CVP, but further research is needed before implementation of the results of this study.

  12. [Patient's consent to central venous catheterization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, F; Palumbo, G; Ciliberti, R

    2004-01-01

    The need to obtain a patient's consent for his health care is a principle set out in the Italian Constitution, which safeguards a person's right to health. Articles 13 and 32.2 confirm a person's freedom and the right to make free decisions about one's medical treatment. Nobody must be obliged to any medical procedure, unless as by law enacted. The obligation to inform patients is important during the contractual phase: consent is an essential element in the professional contract governing the relationship between a physician and a patient. The former is obligated to inform the latter about his medical intervention clearly and precisely, to enable the patient to decide freely whether to undergo a medical procedure. At this point, it is also essential to obtain a patient's consent for those treatments that although they are carried out in a correct and careful way, could damage a person's physical integrity. The failure to obtain consent could give rise to a burden of responsibility on behalf of the clinician. A central venous catheterization in hemodialysis (HD) is a common procedure performed during routine nephrological treatments. Our signed informed consent form prior to introducing a central venous catheter is thought to satisfy requirements provided for in current regulations to give correct information.

  13. Central Venous Line Insertion Revealing Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return: Diagnosis and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Alzghoul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Central venous line malposition is a well-known complication of line insertion. Rarely, it can be mal-positioned in an anomalous pulmonary vein. We present an unusual case of a 56-year-old woman that was found to have partial anomalous pulmonary venous return on central venous line insertion. In this report, we describe a systematic approach to diagnosis and management of this unusual situation.

  14. Central Venous Line Insertion Revealing Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return: Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzghoul, Bashar; Innabi, Ayoub; Chada, Aditya; Tarawneh, Ahmad R; Kakkera, Krishna; Khasawneh, Khaled

    2017-01-01

    Central venous line malposition is a well-known complication of line insertion. Rarely, it can be mal-positioned in an anomalous pulmonary vein. We present an unusual case of a 56-year-old woman that was found to have partial anomalous pulmonary venous return on central venous line insertion. In this report, we describe a systematic approach to diagnosis and management of this unusual situation.

  15. Is there resetting of central venous pressure in microgravity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Ludwig, D. A.; Elliott, J. J.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    In the early phase of the Space Shuttle program, NASA flight surgeons implemented a fluid-loading countermeasure in which astronauts were instructed to ingest eight 1-g salt tablets with 960 ml of water approximately 2 hours prior to reentry from space. This fluid loading regimen was intended to enhance orthostatic tolerance by replacing circulating plasma volume reduced during the space mission. Unfortunately, fluid loading failed to replace plasma volume in groundbased experiments and has proven minimally effective as a countermeasure against post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance. In addition to the reduction of plasma volume, central venous pressure (CVP) is reduced during exposure to actual and groundbased analogs of microgravity. In the present study, we hypothesized that the reduction in CVP due to exposure to microgravity represents a resetting of the CVP operating point to a lower threshold. A lower CVP 'setpoint' might explain the failure of fluid loading to restore plasma volume. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted an investigation in which we administered an acute volume load (stimulus) and measured responses in CVP, plasma volume and renal functions. If our hypothesis is true, we would expect the elevation in CVP induced by saline infusion to return to its pre-infusion levels in both HDT and upright control conditions despite lower vascular volume during HDT. In contrast to previous experiments, our approach is novel in that it provides information on alterations in CVP and vascular volume during HDT that are necessary for interpretation of the proposed CVP operating point resetting hypothesis.

  16. Central venous oxygen saturation during hypovolaemic shock in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P; Iversen, H; Secher, N H

    1993-01-01

    We compared central venous oxygen saturation and central venous pressure (CVP) as indices of the effective blood volume during 50 degrees head-up tilt (anti-Trendelenburg's position) induced hypovolaemic shock in eight healthy subjects. Head-up tilt increased thoracic electrical impedance from 31...

  17. Can Peripheral Central Venous Lines be inserted safely and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Primary care settings often lack facilities for radiological evaluation of the position of supra-and infra-clavicularly inserted central venous catheters. If peripherally inserted central venous lines could reliably be successfully inserted this would make the need for immediate confirmatory radiological studies less ...

  18. Central venous catheters and catheter locks in children with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handrup, Mette Møller; Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Schrøder, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    To determine if the catheter lock taurolidine can reduce the number of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) in pediatric cancer patients with tunneled central venous catheters (CVC).......To determine if the catheter lock taurolidine can reduce the number of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) in pediatric cancer patients with tunneled central venous catheters (CVC)....

  19. Venous plasma levels of endothelin-1 are not altered immediately after nitroglycerin infusion in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, L L; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Emmeluth, C

    1995-01-01

    before and immediately (5-30 s) after 80 min infusion of NTG (glyceryl trinitrate) or saline in 12 healthy subjects. On two different days separated by at least 1 week, NTG in four different doses, 0.015, 0.25, 1.0, and 2.0 micrograms. kg-1. min-1, or placebo (isotonic saline) was infused successively...... for 20 min each dose. During the infusion blood pressure and heart rate were measured. NTG infusion significantly decreased systolic blood pressure from 112.4 to 103.4 mmHg and pulse pressure from 39.3 to 29.5 mmHg. Heart rate increased from 62.7 to 73.1 beats. min-1. No changes in endothelin-1 plasma...... levels were induced by NTG infusion (2.4 pg.ml-1 before NTG vs. 2.7 pg.ml-1 after NTG) and placebo infusion also did not affect plasma endothelin-1. It is concluded that venous plasma levels of endothelin-1 are not altered immediately after NTG infusion....

  20. No agreement of mixed venous and central venous saturation in sepsis, independent of sepsis origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beest, Paul A.; van Ingen, Jan; Boerma, E. Christiaan; Holman, Nicole D.; Groen, Henk; Koopmans, Matty; Spronk, Peter E.; Kuiper, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Controversy remains regarding the relationship between central venous saturation (ScvO(2)) and mixed venous saturation (SvO(2)) and their use and interchangeability in patients with sepsis or septic shock. We tested the hypothesis that ScvO(2) does not reliably predict SvO(2) in sepsis. Additionally

  1. Femoral venous oxygen saturation is no surrogate for central venous oxygen saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beest, Paul A.; van der Schors, Alice; Liefers, Henriette; Coenen, Ludo G. J.; Braam, Richard L.; Habib, Najib; Braber, Annemarije; Scheeren, Thomas W. L.; Kuiper, Michael A.; Spronk, Peter E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective:  The purpose of our study was to determine if central venous oxygen saturation and femoral venous oxygen saturation can be used interchangeably during surgery and in critically ill patients. Design:  Prospective observational controlled study. Setting:  Nonacademic university-affiliated

  2. Imaging of the complications of peripherally inserted central venous catheters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amerasekera, S.S.H. [Department of Radiology, Good Hope Hospital, Sutton Coldfield, Birmingham (United Kingdom)], E-mail: steve.amerasekera@nhs.net; Jones, C.M.; Patel, R.; Cleasby, M.J. [Department of Radiology, Good Hope Hospital, Sutton Coldfield, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) are widely used to provide central venous access, often in chronically ill patients with long-term intravenous access requirements. There are a number of significant complications related to both insertion and maintenance of PICC lines, including catheter malposition, migration, venous thrombosis, and line fracture. The incidence of these complications is likely to rise as the number of patients undergoing intravenous outpatient therapy increases, with a corresponding rise in radiologist input. This paper provides an overview of the relevant peripheral and central venous anatomy, including anatomical variations, and outlines the complications of PICC lines. Imaging examples demonstrate the range of radiological findings seen in these complications.

  3. The incidence and risk of central venous catheter malpositioning: a prospective cohort study in 1619 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikwer, A; Bååth, L; Davidson, B; Perstoft, I; Akeson, J

    2008-01-01

    Central venous catheters are used in various hospital wards. An anterior-posterior chest X-ray is usually obtained soon after cannulation to assess the location of the catheter tip. This prospective clinical study was designed to determine the radiographic catheter tip position after central venous cannulation by various routes, to identify clinical problems possibly associated with the use of malpositioned catheters and to make a cost-benefit analysis of routine chest X-ray with respect to catheter malposition. A total 1619 central venous cannulations were recorded during a three-year period with respect to patient data, information about the cannulation procedures, the radiographic catheter positions and complications during clinical use. The total incidence of radiographic catheter tip malposition, defined as extrathoracic or ventricular positioning, was 3.3% (confidence interval 25 to 4.3%). Cannulation by the right subclavian vein was associated with the highest risk of malposition, 9.1%, compared with 1.4% by the right internal jugular vein. Six of the 53 malpositioned catheters were removed or adjusted. No case of malposition was associated with vascular perforation, local venous thrombosis or cerebral symptoms. We conclude that the radiographic incidence of central venous catheter malpositioning is low and that clinical use of malpositioned catheters is associated with few complications. However, determination of the catheter position by chest X-ray should be considered when mechanical complications cannot be excluded, aspiration of venous blood is not possible, or the catheter is intended for central venous pressure monitoring, high flow use or infusion of local irritant drugs.

  4. Intravascular thrombosis as a result of central venous access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacka, Jadwiga; Nestorowicz, Andrzej; Wach, Małgorzata

    2002-01-01

    Central venous access represents one of the most basic therapeutic procedures in modern medicine. Unfortunately, numerous advantages that result from maintaining a central venous line are accompanied by some complications among which the venous thrombosis is the most significant clinically. The study was designed to assess frequency and natural history of this complication in the setting at a multi profile clinical hospital. Central venous cannulation was performed by a fully qualified anaesthesiologist in every case. There were 887 cannulations and only 5 patients with clinically significant venous thrombosis. The analysis of the collected data allowed us to state that the frequency of intravascular thrombosis is low, but this complication is often associated with extensive impairment of patency of the central veins. Full recanalization is not always achieved regardless of the treatment applied. Pulmonary embolism in the course of central venous thrombosis was diagnosed in one patient only and appeared as a multiple and fine X-ray infiltrates. It seems that in the presence of permanent or even life threatening complications of central venous thrombosis their risk should be minimized by frequent examination of the cannulation site and early initiation of antithrombotic treatment.

  5. Continuous central venous saturation monitoring in pediatrics: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spenceley, Neil; Skippen, Peter; Krahn, Gordon; Kissoon, Niranjan

    2008-03-01

    To report the use of a new pediatric central venous catheter that offers continuous central venous saturation (ScVO2) monitoring in the critically ill child. Case report. Pediatric intensive care unit in a tertiary care children's hospital. A 3-month-old child, following cardiac surgery, with an isolated decrease in central venous saturations. Diagnosis of pericardial effusion by echocardiography followed by surgical drainage. ScVO2 readings quickly returned to normal, and the remaining patient course was uneventful. We report the first case of a newly modified central venous catheter (PediaSat Oximetry Catheter, Edwards Lifesciences LLC, Irvine, CA) for children and demonstrate its utility in a patient with impaired oxygen delivery when traditional markers remain stable. This catheter enabled the rapid diagnosis of cardiac compromise due to pericardial effusion, leading to early treatment. Traditional central catheter functions and insertion technique are maintained, making the catheter potentially useful in any critically ill child.

  6. The where, what and how of paediatric central venous access

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... disturbances or congenital heart disease, these may be sustained. Electrolyte ... Specialist Anaesthetist, Red Cross Children's Hospital, University of Cape Town ... Keywords: central venous catheter, children, acute complications, infection, thrombosis, subclavian vein, femoral vein, internal jugular vein.

  7. Percutaneous central venous catheters versus peripheral cannulae for delivery of parenteral nutrition in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Sean; McGuire, William

    2015-10-06

    Neonatal parenteral nutrition may be delivered via peripheral cannulas or central venous catheters (umbilical or percutaneous). As the result of complications associated with umbilical catheters, many neonatal units prefer to use percutaneous catheters after initial stabilisation. Although they can be difficult to place, these catheters may be more stable than peripheral cannulae and require less frequent replacement. These delivery methods may be associated with different risks of adverse events, including acquired invasive infection and extravasation injury. To determine the effects of infusion of parenteral nutrition via percutaneous central venous catheters versus peripheral cannulae on nutrient input, growth and development and complications among hospitalised neonates receiving parenteral nutrition in terms of adverse consequences such as bacteraemia or invasive fungal infection, cardiac tamponade or other extravasation injuries. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2015) and EMBASE (1980 to June 2015), as well as conference proceedings and previous reviews. Randomised controlled trials that compared delivery of intravenous fluids (primarily parenteral nutrition) via percutaneous central venous catheters versus peripheral cannulae in hospitalised neonates. We extracted data using standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Group, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two review authors. We found six trials recruiting a total of 549 infants. One trial showed that use of a percutaneous central venous catheter was associated with a smaller deficit between prescribed and actual nutrient intake during the trial period (mean difference (MD) -7.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI) -11.02 to -3.2). Infants in the percutaneous central venous catheter group needed significantly fewer catheters/cannulae (MD -4.3, 95% CI -5.24, -3.43). Meta-analysis of data from all trials

  8. Upper body central venous catheters in pediatric cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeffrey W; Vu, Dien N; Chai, Paul J; Kreutzer, Janet H; John, J Blaine; Vener, David F; Jacobs, Jeffrey P

    2013-11-01

    A central venous catheter located in the jugular or subclavian vein provides rapid, reliable vascular access for pediatric heart surgery. However, intravascular catheters are associated with vessel injury. Stenosis or thrombosis of central veins in the upper body can lead to 'superior vena cava syndrome' with markedly elevated venous pressures in the head and neck, causing facial swelling and headaches. This complication may be especially serious for patients with superior cavopulmonary (Glenn) or total cavopulmonary (Fontan) circulation. The authors hypothesized that upper body central line placement would be associated with a low risk of venous thrombosis or stenosis. A three-year retrospective review of infant and univentricular cardiac procedures at a single institution was performed. Two hundred and thirty-five consecutive cardiac surgical patients central lines are routinely placed by the anesthesiologist after induction of anesthesia for pediatric cardiac surgery at the study institution. The major exception is existing central venous access via an umbilical vein or femoral vein. Patients central line [Cook Medical polyurethane, no antibiotic or heparin coating]. Those over two years of age received a 5.0-French, 8-cm triple lumen central line [Cook Medical polyurethane, no antibiotic or heparin coating]. A retrospective review of charts, hospital reports, echocardiographic studies, and cardiac catheterization studies was performed. The combined population of infants central lines were inserted. A total of 158 right internal jugular vein catheters were placed. Two left internal jugular lines, two left subclavian lines, and nine right subclavian lines were placed in this population after failure to obtain right internal jugular access. Due to the small sample size (N = 13), the central lines not placed in the right internal jugular vein were excluded from further review. Two cases with right internal jugular venous lines were excluded due to death (without

  9. An alternative central venous route for cardiac surgery: supraclavicular subclavian vein catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocum, Aysu; Sener, Mesut; Calıskan, Esra; Bozdogan, Nesrin; Atalay, Hakan; Aribogan, Anis

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical success rate, safety, and usefulness for intraoperative central venous pressure monitoring, and the intravenous access of the supraclavicular subclavian vein approach when compared with the infraclavicular subclavian vein approach and the internal jugular vein approach for central venous catheterization during open-chest cardiac surgery. A prospective, randomized, single-center study. A university hospital. One hundred ninety-five patients scheduled for open-chest cardiac surgery. The study population consisted of patients for whom central vein catheterization was intended during cardiac surgery. Patients were randomized to 3 groups according to the route of central vein catheterization: the supraclavicular group: the supraclavicular approach for the subclavian vein (n = 65); the infraclavicular group: the infraclavicular approach for the subclavian vein (n = 65); and the jugular group: the internal jugular vein approach (n = 65). After the induction of anesthesia, central venous catheterization was performed according to the assigned approach. The success rates for the assigned approach were 98%, 98%, and 92% for the supraclavicular, infraclavicular, and jugular groups, respectively (p > 0.05). The success rates in the first 3 attempts in patients who were catheterized successfully according to the assigned approach were 96%, 100%, and 96% for the supraclavicular, infraclavicular, and jugular groups, respectively (p > 0.05). There was no difference among groups in catheter insertion time (p > 0.05). After sternal retraction, central venous pressure trace loss and difficulty in fluid infusion were significantly more frequent in the infraclavicular group (21%) when compared with the supraclavicular (3%) and jugular groups (0%) (p = 0.01). There was no difference among groups in terms of catheter malposition, complications during catheterization, and rate of catheter-related infection. The supraclavicular approach for subclavian vein

  10. Effects of endotoxin infusion on mean systemic filling pressure and flow resistance to venous return

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hiesmayr (Michael); J.R.C. Jansen (Jos); A. Versprille (Adrian)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMean systemic filling pressure (Psf) is an indicator of the filling state of the systemic circulation. Cardiac output (Q′) is related linearly to the difference between Psf and central venous pressure (Pcv), according to:Q′ = (Psf -Pcv)/Rsf, where Rsf is the flow resistance downstream

  11. A comparison of infections and complications in central venous catheters in adults with solid tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Karin; Ali, Mohammed; Sidloff, David; Kenningham, Richard R; Ahmed, Samreen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the complication rates of three vascular access devices in patients with solid tumours having infusion chemotherapy. An observational study of 58 central venous catheter (CVC) lines inserted in 55 patients with solid tumours requiring infusional chemotherapy was performed. The study was conducted between January 2011 and August 2013, looking at complication and infection rates as primary outcomes. Data were recorded from patients with 19 tunnelled cuffed silicone catheters, nine with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) and 30 central venous ports. The two CVC groups (ports and non-ports) matched equally in terms of tumour site; all patients with solid tumours were included, haematology patients were excluded and chemotherapy regimens were comparable. Thirteen out of 28 non- ports had complications compared with one out of 30 central venous ports. Ten out of 19 tunnelled catheters had complications including three displacements and seven were removed due to infection. There were no reports of line-related sepsis in the PICC or ports. Three out of nine PICC lines had complications including two displacements and one PICC blocked permanently requiring removal. In addition, one port out of 30 was removed due to erosion through the skin. There were no episodes of thrombosis or fibrin sheath formation related to any of the devices. In our study, we demonstrated that central venous ports and PICC lines in patients undergoing infusional chemotherapy had lower line infection rates than tunnelled catheters, and only ports have been shown to be almost complication-free. In addition, we found infection rates higher in CVCs s cared for by patient/carers rather than hospital only care, and higher in colorectal patients with stomas. Therefore, we recommend that central venous ports are a safe, acceptable CVC option for infusional chemotherapy for adults with solid tumours.

  12. Percutaneous retrieval of dislodged totally implantable central venous access system in 92 cases: Experience in a single hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, C.-C.; Tsai, T.-N. [Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yang, C.-C. [Department of Medicine, Armed Forces Tao-Yuan General Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Han, C.-L. [Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: allexll.cheng@msa.hinet.net

    2009-02-15

    Objective: To investigate the clinical presentation of dislodged totally implantable central venous access system (central venous port-catheter) fragments and the efficacy and safety of percutaneous retrieval of them in our hospital. Materials and methods: Ninety-two cancer patients, mean age of 53.8 years old with 51.1% male, were enrolled from January 2005 to March 2007. They were referred to our catheterization laboratory for retrieval of fractured central venous port-catheter in our hospital. All patients were followed in the outpatient department for at least 1 month after surgical insertion. The characteristics of disrupted central venous port-catheter were recorded. The procedure-related clinical condition was evaluated. Results: The most common presentation of central venous port-catheter dislodgement is irrigation resistance to infusion (51/92). The most common location of fractured fragments is between superior vena cava and right atrium (i.e. proximal end remained in superior vena cava and distal end in right atrium) (22/92). The most common fracture site of the catheter is at the anastomosis between injection port and catheter (77/92). The retrieval set used mostly is loop snare. The success rate of the percutaneous retrieval of dislodged fragment was 97.8% and the complication rate was 3.3% only. Conclusion: The faulty connection between catheter and injection port contributes mainly to dislodgement of central venous port-catheter. Percutaneous retrieval of dislodged catheter is a highly successful, safe and efficient method.

  13. Central venous line associated osteomyelitis in children with intestinal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Children with intestinal failure often require long-term central venous access for parenteral nutrition. Line-related complications often include liver dysfunction, sepsis, and loss of venous access. Osteomyelitis is a rare complication that has been reported in adults with intestinal failure. There has been little focus, however, on the development of osteomyelitis in the pediatric population. In this study we present 2 case studies of patients with intestinal failure requiring parenteral nutrition who subsequently developed acute osteomyelitis.

  14. Femoral venous oxygen saturation and central venous oxygen saturation in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Wang, Jiandong; Dong, Yun; Chen, Youdai

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO(2)) and femoral venous oxygen saturation (SfvO(2)) in a large group of critically ill patients. Observational study. A group of unselected critically ill patients with central line placed into superior vena cava were included. A 26-bed intensive care unit in a tertiary referral hospital. None. Venous blood samples of superior vena cava and femoral vein were collected within an interval of 5 to 15 minutes and analyzed with blood gas/electrolyte analyzer immediately. Although SfvO(2) was significantly correlated with ScvO(2) (r = 0.493, P 731 pairs of blood samples collected from 357 patients. The fit line of scatter diagram ScvO(2) vs SfvO(2) had a large intercept (48.68%) and a low slope (0.2978); ScvO(2) was still around 50% while SfvO(2) was nearing 0%. The distribution of blood flow, measured with Doppler ultrasound, had a similar trend in 237 patients and 412 measurements. The ratio of femoral artery flow over common carotid artery flow varied widely (from 0 to 7.13). Blood flow was not distributed in a fixed ratio to the superior vena cava-drained organs and tissues. Central venous oxygen saturation was not representative of the whole systemic circulation in critically ill patients. Central venous oxygen saturation alone might be misleading in goal-directed therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Complications of central venous catheter insertion in a teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Comerlato

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Central venous catheters are fundamental to daily clinical practice. This procedure is mainly performed by residents, often without supervision or structured training. Objective: To describe the characteristics of central venous catheterization and the complication rate related to it. Method: Retrospective cohort study. Adult patients undergoing central venous catheter insertion out of the intensive care unit (ICU of a teaching hospital were selected from March 2014 to February 2015. Data were collected from medical charts using an electronic form. Clinical and laboratory characteristics from patients, procedure characteristics, and mechanical and infectious complications rates were assessed. Patients with and without complications were compared. Results: Three hundred and eleven (311 central venous catheterizations were evaluated. The main reasons to perform the procedure were lack of peripheral access, chemotherapy and sepsis. There were 20 mechanical complications (6% of procedures. Arterial puncture was the most common. Procedures performed in the second semester were associated with lower risk of complications (odds ratio 0.35 [95CI 0.12-0.98; p=0.037]. Thirty-five (35 catheter-related infection cases (11.1% were reported. They were related to younger patients and procedures performed by residents with more than one year of training. Procedures performed after the first trimester had a lower chance of infection. Conclusion: These results show that the rate of mechanical complications of central venous puncture in our hospital is similar to the literature, but more attention should be given to infection prevention measures.

  16. [Venous thrombosis associated with central venous catheter use in patients with cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias Rey, Leticia; Fernández Pérez, Isaura; Barbagelata López, Cristina; Rivera Gallego, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The use of central venous catheters for various applications (administration of chemotherapy, blood products and others) in patients with cancer is increasingly frequent. The association between thrombosis and catheter use has been fully established but aspects such as its causes, diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment have not. We describe a case of thrombosis in a patient with cancer treated with chemotherapy who carried a central venous catheter. We also perform a review of the risk factors, the role of the prophylaxis and the treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Ultrasound-guided peripheral venous access for therapeutic apheresis procedures reduces need for central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Eric; Garcia, Salvador; Miguel, Robin; Segura, Francisco J; Ipe, Tina S; Leveque, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    Therapeutic and donor apheresis requires adequate vascular access to achieve inlet flow rates of ∼50-100 mL/min. While central dialysis-type venous catheters can usually provide such access, their use includes several associated risks. Some of these risks can be avoided or diminished if adequate peripheral venous access can be established. Some patients have adequate peripheral veins for apheresis that cannot be readily identified visually or by palpation. We hypothesized that ultrasound-guided peripheral venous access would benefit such patients and would lead to placement of fewer central venous catheters. The technique of ultrasound-guided peripheral access for apheresis has been in use at Houston Methodist Hospital since 2012. We performed a prospective review of patients undergoing inpatient and outpatient apheresis at Houston Methodist Hospital from July 1, 2015 to September 30, 2015, to assess its benefit. During this time, we performed 831 procedures on 186 patients, including 787 therapeutic plasma exchanges, three red blood cell exchanges, 41 peripheral stem cell collections. Ultrasound-guided vascular access was used for 68 procedures (8% of all procedures), including 62 therapeutic plasma exchanges, 4 peripheral stem cell collections, and 2 red blood cell changes. Use of ultrasound-guided peripheral access prevented the placement of central venous catheters in 37 (20%) patients, demonstrating its utility in a busy transfusion service. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Central venous access: techniques and indications in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcy, Pierre-Yves [Antoine Lacassagne Anticancer Research Institute, Department of Radiodiagnostics and Interventional Radiology, Nice, Cedex 1 (France)

    2008-10-15

    Long lines can be inserted centrally or peripherally through patent veins into the central venous system down to the atrial caval junction. Traditionally surgeons, anesthetists, cardiologists and more recently interventional radiologists have been placing them using vein cutdown or percutaneous needle puncture techniques. Typical candidates for implanted venous catheters are cancer patients undergoing long-term chemotherapy. The most important issues, in addition to the patency of central veins and the history of previous indwelling catheters, pacewires or venous thrombosis, are the patient's performance status, body mass index, medical history and respiratory status, and the relevant technique. The present article will give an overview of the radiological and surgical implantation techniques and will highlight the impact of imaging means on the technical feasibility, assessment and treatment of device-related complications. (orig.)

  19. Central Venous Catheter-related Fungemia Caused by Rhodotorula glutinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglietta, Fabio; Letizia Faneschi, Maria; Braione, Adele; Palumbo, Claudio; Rizzo, Adriana; Lobreglio, Giambattista; Pizzolante, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Bloodstream infection due to Rhodotorula glutinis is extremely rare and mostly associated with underlying immunosuppression or cancer. Vascular access devices provide the necessary surfaces for biofilm formation and are currently responsible for a significant percentage of human infections. In this work, we describe a rare case of central venous catheter-related Rhodotorula glutinis fungemia in a female patient with acute myelogenous leukemia in remission. The timely removal of central venous catheter was an essential element for overcoming this CVC-related Rhodotorula fungemia.

  20. Malfunctioning central venous catheters in children: a diagnostic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnacle, Alex; Arthurs, Owen J.; Roebuck, Derek; Hiorns, Melanie P. [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-04-15

    Central venous access is increasingly becoming the domain of the radiologist, both in terms of the insertion of central venous catheters (CVCs) and in the subsequent management of these lines. This article seeks to provide an overview of the CVC types available for paediatric patients and a more detailed explanation of the spectrum of complications that may lead to catheter malfunction. A standard catheter contrast study or 'linogram' technique is described. The normal appearances of such a study and a detailed pictorial review of abnormal catheter studies are provided, together with a brief overview of how information from catheter investigations can guide the management of catheter complications. (orig.)

  1. Central Venous Disease in Hemodialysis Patients: An Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modabber, Milad, E-mail: mmodabber@gmail.com [McMaster University, Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine (Canada); Kundu, Sanjoy [Scarborough Hospital and Scarborough Vascular Ultrasound, The Vein Institute of Toronto (Canada)

    2013-08-01

    Central venous occlusive disease (CVD) is a common concern among the hemodialysis patient population, with the potential to cause significant morbidity. Endovascular management of CVD, comprising percutaneous balloon angioplasty and bare-metal stenting, has been established as a safe alternative to open surgical treatment. However, these available treatments have poor long-term patency, requiring close surveillance and multiple repeat interventions. Recently, covered stents have been proposed and their efficacy assessed for the treatment of recalcitrant central venous stenosis and obstruction. Moreover, newly proposed algorithms for the surgical management of CVD warrant consideration. Here, we seek to provide an updated review of the current literature on the various treatment modalities for CVD.

  2. Nitroglycerine and patient position effect on central, hepatic and portal venous pressures during liver surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, L; Lundin, S; Rizell, M; Wiklund, J; Stenqvist, O; Houltz, E

    2014-09-01

    To reduce blood loss during liver surgery, a low central venous pressure (CVP) is recommended. Nitroglycerine (NG) with its rapid onset and offset can be used to reduce CVP. In this study, the effect of NG on portal and hepatic venous pressures (PVP and HVP) in different body positions was assessed. Thirteen patients undergoing liver resection were studied. Cardiac output (CO), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and CVP were measured. PVP and HVP were measured using tip manometer catheters at baseline (BL) in horizontal position; during NG infusion, targeting a MAP of 60 mmHg, with NG infusion and the patient placed in 10 head-down position. NG infusion reduced HVP from 9.7 ± 2.4 to 7.2 ± 2.4, PVP from 12.3 ± 2.2 to 9.7 ± 3.0 and CVP from 9.8 ± 1.9 to 7.2 ± 2.1 mmHg at BL. Head-down tilt during ongoing NG resulted in increases in HVP to 8.2 ± 2.1, PVP to 10.7 ± 3 and CVP to 11 ± 1.9 mmHg. CO at BL was 6.3 ± 1.1, which was reduced by NG to 5.8 ± 1.2. Head-down tilt together with NG infusion restored CO to 6.3 ± 1.0 l/min. NG infusion leads to parallel reductions in CVP, HVP and PVP at horizontal body position. Thus, CVP can be used to guide NG dosage and fluid administration at horizontal position. NG infusion can be used to reduce HVP. Head-down tilt can be used during NG infusion to improve both blood pressure and CO without substantial increase in liver venous pressure. In head-down tilt, CVP dissociates from HVP and PVP. © 2014 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Central venous catheter insertion into the false lumen of a complicated aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Ahmet; Goksedef, Deniz; Kandemirli, Sedat G; Gulsen, Fatih; Numan, Furuzan

    2017-08-01

    Thoracic endovascular repair is considered the first-line treatment in complicated acute type B dissection. Central venous catheters provide valuable vascular access during endovascular treatments. However, central venous catheters are not without complications. Herein, we report a case of central venous catheter insertion into the false lumen of a complicated acute type B aortic dissection by direct aortic puncture. The tip of the central venous catheter was in the false lumen. The central venous catheter was left in place initially and was removed after graft stent deployment. This case illustrates the importance of image guidance during central venous catheter insertion, which may further complicate an already complicated aortic dissection case.

  4. External jugular venous pressure as an alternative to conventional central venous pressure in right lobe donor hepatectomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohamed Hussein; Soliman, Hossam El Deen; Morad, Wessam Saber

    2011-12-01

    Many centers have adopted central vein cannulation both for central venous pressure monitoring and fluid administration for right hepatectomy in living-liver donors. However, use of central venous catheters is associated with adverse events that are hazardous to patients and expensive to treat. This study sought to examine the use of external jugular venous pressure as an alternative to conventional central venous pressure in right lobe donor hepatectomies Forty ASA grade I adult living liver-donors without a known history of significant cardiac or pulmonary diseases were enrolled in this prospective observational study. Paired measurement of venous pressures (external jugular venous pressure and internal jugular venous pressure) were taken at the following times: after induction of anesthesia, 30 minutes after skin incision, during right lobe mobilization (every 15 minutes), during hepatic transaction (every 15 minutes), after right lobe resection (every 15 minutes), and after abdominal closure. Paired measurements were equal in 47.5%, 53.5%, 61.5%, 46.3%, and 52.5% for after induction, after skin incision, right lobe mobilization, right lobe transection, after resection, and before abdominal closure periods. However, all measurements were within acceptable limits of bias measurements (± 2 mm Hg). Central venous pressure catheter placement can be avoided and replaced by a less-invasive method such as external jugular venous pressure (which gave an acceptable estimate of central venous pressure in all phases of right lobe resection) in living-donor liver transplant and allowed equivalent monitor even during fluid restriction phases.

  5. Supraventricular tachycardia following insertion of a central venous catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavascan Onder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Placement of central venous catheters (CVCs in patients is associated with several risks including endocardial injury and dysrhythmias. In addition, CVC extending into intracardiac chambers can provoke premature atrial and ventricular complexes, which have been reported to initiate supraventricular tachycardia (SVT. A 15-year-old boy with end-stage renal failure developed SVT after insertion of a CVC.

  6. Complications of peripherally inserted central venous catheters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The objective of this study was to assess the complications of peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICC) in neonates admitted to neonatal surgical intensive care unit (NSICU). Patients and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 237 neonates admitted to NSICU from January 2010 to December 2011 ...

  7. Percutaneous central venous catheterization in children, is it efficient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective To evaluate the frequent use of percutaneous central venous catheters (CVCs) in pediatric agegroup. Methods Retrospectively we reviewed the records of all children that had percutaneous CVCs in the pediatric surgical ward and pediatric intensive care unit at King Hussein Medical Center between January

  8. Ultrasonic Guided Insertion of Central Venous Catheter in Infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Purpose: ultrasound is licensed for application of regional blocks and insertion of vascular access. We aimed to compare ultrasonic guided (USG) and anatomical landmark technique (ALT) for insertion of central venous catheter (CVC) as regard success rate and rate of complications in infants and children.

  9. Retained Fractured Fragment of A Central Venous Catheter: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Complication following fracture of a central venous catheter can be catastrophic to both the patient and the attending doctor. Catheter fracture has been attributed to several factors namely prolong mechanical force acting on the catheter, and forceful removal or insertion of the catheter. CASE DETAILS: In ...

  10. The nutritional management of a central venous incident | Prins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional management of a central venous incident. ... When malnutrition is present in patients who have an acute CVI, the increased risk of poor functional outcomes relates to complications such as gastrointestinal bleeding, pressure ulcers, and urinary tract and respiratory infections. These are associated with higher ...

  11. Risk assessment of thrombosis associated with central venous catheter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooden, Cornelis Jan van

    2006-01-01

    Venous thrombosis is a well-known complication of central vein catheters (CVCs), which may cause serious morbidity and may result in potentially lethal complications such as pulmonary embolism. In this thesis the general risk of CVC related thrombosis has been assessed, i.e., what is the overall

  12. Retained Fractured Fragment of A Central Venous Catheter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... of the catheter was notably missing, and an emergency chest radiograph confirmed our diagnosis of a ... Emergency chest radiograph was requested, and it confirmed the diagnosis of retained fractured central venous catheter (Figure 1). The case was ... and septic shock secondary to line related sepsis.

  13. Comparison of complication rates between umbilical and peripherally inserted central venous catheters in newborns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnts, I.J.J.; Bullens, L.M.; Groenewoud, J.M.M.; Liem, K.D.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the complication rates between umbilical central venous catheters and peripherally inserted central venous catheters in newborns and to investigate whether other variables might increase complication rates. DESIGN: A retrospective observational study. SETTING: A Level III

  14. Implementation of a children's hospital-wide central venous catheter insertion and maintenance bundle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Helder MScN (Onno); R.F. Kornelisse (René); C. van der Starre (Cynthia); D. Tibboel (Dick); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); R.M.H. Wijnen (René); M.J. Poley (Marten); E. Ista (Erwin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections in children are an increasingly recognized serious safety problem worldwide, but are often preventable. Central venous catheter bundles have proved effective to prevent such infections. Successful implementation

  15. Repositioning of malpositioned or flipped central venous catheters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thalhammer, A.; Jacobi, V.; Balzer, J.; Vogl, T.J. [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Central Radiology Clinic, J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2002-03-01

    Primary misplaced or secondary flipped implanted catheters are located mostly in the right jugular vein. We demonstrate an effective method to replace fix implanted catheters such as Ports, Grochomg or Hickman catheters. Using a femoral venous approach, replacement into the superior vena cava can easily be done with a Sidewinder 1 catheter which is hooked over the misplaced central venous approach. In all our patients the method was successful. The repositioning technique described is simple, fast and has low costs. We can keep sterile conditions and do not need to solve the catheters' fixation. (orig.)

  16. Increased rates of local complication of central venous catheters in the targeted anticancer therapy era: a 2-year retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardi, R; Rinaldi, S; Santini, D; Vincenzi, B; Giampieri, R; Maccaroni, E; Marcucci, F; Francoletti, M; Onofri, A; Lucarelli, A; Pierantoni, C; Tonini, G; Cascinu, S

    2015-05-01

    Totally implantable central venous accesses (port-a-cath) are often used for chemotherapy administration or prolonged intravenous infusions in cancer patients. Local and systemic complications may occur both during and after placement of port-a-cath despite the well-established techniques for its placement and care. Out of other catheter-related local complications, thrombosis and infections represent the most common. Complications related to central venous catheter may be associated with infusion of both conventional chemotherapy and molecularly targeted therapy. Incidence and nature of complications of central venous catheter have been well established for long-term chemotherapy. However, very sparse data exists on the incidence of complications of molecularly targeted therapies administered through a central venous catheter. Hence, we decided to retrospectively analyze the local complications of a central venous catheter in patients receiving molecularly targeted therapy and conventional chemotherapy, respectively. Over a 2-year period, 459 devices were placed in two academic Italian institutions. Patients' characteristics, catheter-related complications, and their relationship with targeted therapy administration were retrospectively assessed. Catheter-related complications occurred in 30 out of the 459 analyzed cancer patients (7 %). Local complications occurred in 12 (40 %) and 18 (60 %) patients receiving standard chemotherapy and biological drugs, respectively. Eighteen (72 %) out of 25 patients developing biological complications (BC) were receiving biological drugs. Infusion of a biological drug through a central venous catheter has been shown to increase the risk of central venous catheter complications (p = 0.02). No difference between the incidence of complication between anti-angiogenic and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) agents was observed in our study despite the statistically significant early development of port

  17. Peripheral venous pressure as a predictor of central venous pressure in continuous monitoring in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoozgar, H; Ajami, Gh H; Borzuoee, M; Amirghofran, A A; Ebrahimi, P

    2011-05-01

    Measurement of central venous pressure (CVP) is a reliable method for evaluating intravascular volume status and cardiac function; however it is an invasive and expensive method that may result in some complications such as arterial puncture, pneumothorax and development of infections. This study was performedto compare CVP measurements between central and peripheral catheters in infant and children with congenital heart disease. The CVP and peripheral venous pressure (PVP) were measured simultaneously in 30 patients within 10 consecutive hours. The mean difference between CVP and PVP was 1.48±0.98 mmHg. The linear regression equation showed that CVP was 0.374+0.774 PVP (r(2) = 0.725). PVP measured from a peripheral intravenous catheter in infants and children with congenital heart disease is an accurate estimation of CVP and its changes has good concordance with CVP over a long period of time.

  18. Effects of intraoperative diltiazem infusion on flow changes in arterial and venous grafts in coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozan Erdem

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: This study aimed to show the effects of intra-operative diltiazem infusion on flow in arterial and venous grafts in coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Methods: Hundred fourty patients with a total of 361 grafts [205 (57% arterial and 156 (43% venous] underwent isolated coronary surgery. All the grafts were measured by intraoperative transit time flow meter intra-operatively. Group A (n=70 consisted of patients who received diltiazem infusion (dose of 2.5 microgram/kg/min, and Group B (n=70 didn't receive diltiazem infusion. Results: Mean graft flow values of left internal mammary artery were 53 ml/min in Group A and 40 ml/min in Group B (P<0.001. Pulsatility index (PI values of left internal mammary artery for Group A and Group B were 2.6 and 3.0 respectively (P<0.001. No statistically significant difference was found between venous graft parameters. Conclusion: We recommend an effect of diltiazem infusion in increasing graft flows in coronary artery bypass graft operations.

  19. Central or peripheral catheters for initial venous access of ICU patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, Jean-Damien; Salomon, Laurence; Boyer, Alexandre; Thiery, Guillaume; Meybeck, Agnes; Roy, Carine; Pasquet, Blandine; Le Mière, Eric; Dreyfuss, Didier

    2013-09-01

    The vast majority of ICU patients require some form of venous access. There are no evidenced-based guidelines concerning the use of either central or peripheral venous catheters, despite very different complications. It remains unknown which to insert in ICU patients. We investigated the rate of catheter-related insertion or maintenance complications in two strategies: one favoring the central venous catheters and the other peripheral venous catheters. Multicenter, controlled, parallel-group, open-label randomized trial. Three French ICUs. Adult ICU patients with equal central or peripheral venous access requirement. Patients were randomized to receive central venous catheters or peripheral venous catheters as initial venous access. The primary endpoint was the rate of major catheter-related complications within 28 days. Secondary endpoints were the rate of minor catheter-related complications and a composite score-assessing staff utilization and time spent to manage catheter insertions. Analysis was intention to treat. We randomly assigned 135 patients to receive a central venous catheter and 128 patients to receive a peripheral venous catheter. Major catheter-related complications were greater in the peripheral venous catheter than in the central venous catheter group (133 vs 87, respectively, p=0.02) although none of those was life threatening. Minor catheter-related complications were 201 with central venous catheters and 248 with peripheral venous catheters (p=0.06). 46% (60/128) patients were managed throughout their ICU stay with peripheral venous catheters only. There were significantly more peripheral venous catheter-related complications per patient in patients managed solely with peripheral venous catheter than in patients that received peripheral venous catheter and at least one central venous catheter: 1.92 (121/63) versus 1.13 (226/200), pcentral venous catheter-related complications per patient between patients initially randomized to peripheral

  20. Concurrent Central Venous Stent and Central Venous Access Device Placement Does Not Compromise Stent Patency or Catheter Function in Patients with Malignant Central Venous Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Katherine; Chick, Jeffrey Forris Beecham; Reddy, Shilpa N; Shin, Benjamin J; Nadolski, Gregory J; Clark, Timothy W; Trerotola, Scott O

    2017-04-01

    To determine if concurrent placement of a central venous stent (CVS) and central venous access device (CVAD) compromises stent patency or catheter function in patients with malignant central venous obstruction. CVS placement for symptomatic stenosis resulting from malignant compression was performed in 33 consecutive patients who were identified retrospectively over a 10-year period; 28 (85%) patients had superior vena cava syndrome, and 5 (15%) had arm swelling. Of patients, 11 (33%) underwent concurrent CVS and CVAD placement, exchange, or repositioning; 22 (67%) underwent CVS deployment alone and served as the control group. Types of CVADs ranged from 5-F to 9.5-F catheters. Endpoints were CVS patency as determined by clinical symptoms or CT and CVAD function, which was determined by clinical performance. All procedures were technically successful. There was no difference between the 2 groups in clinically symptomatic CVS occlusion (P = .2) or asymptomatic in-stent stenosis detected on CT (P = .5). None of the patients in the CVS and CVAD group had recurrent clinical symptoms, but 3 (30%) of 10 patients with imaging follow-up had asymptomatic in-stent stenosis. In the control group, 3 (14%) patients had clinically symptomatic CVS occlusion and required stent revision, whereas 4 (21%) of 19 patients with imaging follow-up had asymptomatic in-stent stenosis. During the study, 2 (20%) functional but radiographically malpositioned catheters were identified (0.66 per 1,000 catheter days). Presence of a CVAD through a CVS may not compromise stent patency or catheter function compared with CVS placement alone. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Malposition of Central Venous Catheters in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzierzega, Maria; Ossowska, Magdalena; Chmiel, Dariusz; Wieczorek, Aleksandra; Balwierz, Walentyna

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Contemporary medical care, especially in the field of pediatrics often requires central venous line (CVC – Central Venous Catheter) implantation for carrying out treatment. Some conditions are treated intravenously for several months, other require long-term venous access due to periodical administration of medications or daily nutritional supplementation. Material/Methods A total number of 309 CVCs were implanted at Children’s University Hospital in Cracow between January 2011 and December 2012 (24 months). Malposition of the CVC is not common. The target of our article was to present two rare cases of malposition of catheters and two displacements of catheter due to chest tumors, and to enhance the importance of differential diagnostic imaging when difficulties occur. Results CVC malposition was detected with different imaging modalities followed by appropriate medical procedures. Conclusions In case of any difficulties with central lines, it is necessary to investigate the underlying cause. The central line team at hospital cooperating with other specialists is needed to detect complications and to prevent them. PMID:25177409

  2. Continuous central venous oxygen saturation monitoring under varying physiological conditions in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissoon, N; Spenceley, N; Krahn, G; Milner, R

    2010-09-01

    We compared saturations from a paediatric central venous oximetry catheter with co-oximetry values with changes in drug infusions, intravascular blood volume and hypoxia in an animal model. Piglets (large white) were anaesthetised, intubated and mechanically ventilated. PediaSat oximetry catheters were placed in the superior vena cava via jugular vein cut-down and in the inferior vena cava percutaneously via the femoral vein. A carotid arterial catheter was placed via cut-down for blood sampling and pressure monitoring. Anaesthesia was maintained with continuous thiopentone and supplemental morphine. Haemodynamics (heart rate, mean arterial blood, central venous pressure), fibreoptic ScvO2 (ScvO2-inferior) from inferior vena cava, fibreoptic ScvO2 (ScvO2-superior) from superior vena cava and blood gas oximetry (ScvO2-co-ox) were measured simultaneously at predetermined intervals during increasing adrenaline and sodium nitroprusside infusions and during increasing hypoxia and hypovolaemia. There was good agreement of both superior vena cava and inferior vena cava ScvO2 catheters with co-oximetry during adrenaline and sodium nitroprusside infusions. During the hypoxia study there was good agreement between the co-oximeter to ScvO2-superior catheter but poor agreement with to the inferior vena cava catheter samples. In the hypovolaemic phase of the experiment there was good agreement between the measured co-oximetry value and ScvO2-superior catheter until the mean blood pressure reached 43 mmHg. The oximetry catheter is capable of identifying changes in ScvO2 under physiological conditions usually encountered in clinical medicine but was less accurate at the extremes of physiology and when placed in the inferior vena cava catheter especially during hypovolaemia and hypoxia.

  3. Central Venous Catheter Insertion Site and Colonization in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-04

    Central Line-associated Bloodstream Infection (CLABSI); Central Venous Catheter Associated Bloodstream Infection; Heart; Surgery, Heart, Functional Disturbance as Result; Congenital Heart Disease; Newborn; Infection

  4. Radiographic signs of non-venous placement of intended central venous catheters in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Erin C. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Taylor, George A. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are commonly used in children, and inadvertent arterial or extravascular cannulation is rare but has potentially serious complications. To identify the radiographic signs of arterial placement of CVCs. We retrospectively reviewed seven cases of arterially malpositioned CVCs on chest radiograph. These cases were identified through departmental quality-assurance mechanisms and external consultation. Comparison of arterial cases was made with 127 age-matched chest radiographs with CVCs in normal, expected venous location. On each anteroposterior (AP) radiograph we measured the distance of the catheter tip from the right lateral border of the thoracic spine, and the angle of the vertical portion of the catheter relative to the midline. On each lateral radiograph we measured the angle of the vertical portion of each catheter relative to the anterior border of the thoracic spine. When bilateral subclavian catheters were present, the catheter tips were described as crossed, overlapping or uncrossed. On AP radiographs, arterially placed CVCs were more curved to the left, with catheter tip positions located farther to the left of midline than normal venous CVCs. When bilateral, properly placed venous catheters were present, all catheters crossed at the level of the superior vena cava (SVC). When one of the bilateral catheters was in arterial position, neither of the catheters crossed or the inter-catheter crossover distance was exaggerated. On lateral radiographs, there was a marked anterior angulation of the vertical portion of the catheter (mean angle 37 ± 15 standard deviation [SD] in arterial catheters versus 5.9 ± 8.3 SD in normally placed venous catheters). Useful radiographic signs suggestive of unintentional arterial misplacement of vascular catheters include leftward curvature of the vertical portion of the catheter, left-side catheter tip position, lack of catheter crossover on the frontal radiograph, as well as exaggerated

  5. Radiographic signs of non-venous placement of intended central venous catheters in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Erin C; Taylor, George A

    2016-02-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are commonly used in children, and inadvertent arterial or extravascular cannulation is rare but has potentially serious complications. To identify the radiographic signs of arterial placement of CVCs. We retrospectively reviewed seven cases of arterially malpositioned CVCs on chest radiograph. These cases were identified through departmental quality-assurance mechanisms and external consultation. Comparison of arterial cases was made with 127 age-matched chest radiographs with CVCs in normal, expected venous location. On each anteroposterior (AP) radiograph we measured the distance of the catheter tip from the right lateral border of the thoracic spine, and the angle of the vertical portion of the catheter relative to the midline. On each lateral radiograph we measured the angle of the vertical portion of each catheter relative to the anterior border of the thoracic spine. When bilateral subclavian catheters were present, the catheter tips were described as crossed, overlapping or uncrossed. On AP radiographs, arterially placed CVCs were more curved to the left, with catheter tip positions located farther to the left of midline than normal venous CVCs. When bilateral, properly placed venous catheters were present, all catheters crossed at the level of the superior vena cava (SVC). When one of the bilateral catheters was in arterial position, neither of the catheters crossed or the inter-catheter crossover distance was exaggerated. On lateral radiographs, there was a marked anterior angulation of the vertical portion of the catheter (mean angle 37 ± 15° standard deviation [SD] in arterial catheters versus 5.9 ± 8.3° SD in normally placed venous catheters). Useful radiographic signs suggestive of unintentional arterial misplacement of vascular catheters include leftward curvature of the vertical portion of the catheter, left-side catheter tip position, lack of catheter crossover on the frontal radiograph, as well as

  6. Radiologic Placement of Tunneled Central Venous Catheters in Pediatric Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Ji; Song, Soon Young; Cho, On Koo; Koh, Byung Hee; Kim, Yong Soo; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Lee, Yong Ho [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    We evaluated the technical success and complication rates associated with the radiological placement of tunneled central venous catheters in pediatric patients. Between May 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008, a total of 46 tunneled central venous catheters were placed in 34 children (M:F = 22:12; mean age, 9.9 years [9 months to 16.8 years]). All procedures were performed under ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic guidance. Follow-up data were obtained through the retrospective review of the medical records. We used the Kaplan-Meier survival method for the evaluation of survival rate of the catheters. All procedures were technically successful. The observed periprocedural complications included hematoma formation in three patients. The mean catheter life was 189.3 days (total, 8710 days; range, 7-810). Catheters were removed due to death (n=9), the end of treatment (n=8), catheter sepsis (n=4), malfunction (n=8), and accidental removal (n=4). The rate of catheter sepsis and malfunction was 0.459 and 0.919 for every 1000 catheter days, respectively. The expected mean catheter life was 479.6 days as per the Kaplan- Meier analysis. The results suggest that the radiologic placement of a tunneled central venous catheter is an effective technique with a high technical success rate and low complication rate.

  7. Development of Needle Insertion Manipulator for Central Venous Catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yo; Hong, Jaesung; Hamano, Ryutaro; Hashizume, Makoto; Okada, Kaoru; Fujie, Masakatsu G.

    Central venous catheterization is a procedure, which a doctor insert a catheter into the patient’s vein for transfusion. Since there are risks of bleeding from arterial puncture or pneumothorax from pleural puncture. Physicians are strictly required to make needle reach up into the vein and to stop the needle in the middle of vein. We proposed a robot system for assisting the venous puncture, which can relieve the difficulties in conventional procedure, and the risks of complication. This paper reports the design structuring and experimental results of needle insertion manipulator. First, we investigated the relationship between insertion force and angle into the vein. The results indicated that the judgment of perforation using the reaction force is possible in case where the needling angle is from 10 to 20 degree. The experiment to evaluate accuracy of the robot also revealed that it has beyond 0.5 mm accuracy. We also evaluated the positioning accuracy in the ultrasound images. The results displays that the accuracy is beyond 1.0 mm and it has enough for venous puncture. We also carried out the venous puncture experiment to the phantom and confirm our manipulator realized to make needle reach up into the vein.

  8. Microstructural evaluation by confocal and electron microscopy in thrombi developed in central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Thabata Coaglio; Silva, Eliata Ester da; Souza, Danilo Olzon Dionysio; Santos, Amanda Rodrigues Dos; Lara, Maristela Oliveira

    2017-08-28

    Evaluating thrombi microstructure developed in central venous catheters using confocal and electron microscopy. An experimental, descriptive study carrying out a microstructural evaluation of venous thrombi developed in central venous catheters using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy. A total of 78 venous catheters were collected over a period of three months. Different fibrin structures were distinguished: fibrin plates, fibrin network, and fibrin fibers. It was observed that the thrombus had thick fibrin plates adhered to the catheter wall openings in both a catheter with three days of permanence as well as in a catheter with 20 days of insertion in the patient. However, a greater amount of erythrocytes and fibrin fibers were found in the central region of the thrombus. This study contributes to improving health care and can have a positive impact on clinical practice, as easy adherence of platelets and fibrins to the catheter wall demonstrated in this study makes it possible to adopt thrombus prevention strategies such as therapy discontinuation for an extended period, blood reflux by a catheter, slow infusion rate and hypercoagulo pathyclinical conditions. Avaliar a microestrutura por microscopia confocal e eletrônica em trombos desenvolvidos em cateteres venosos centrais. Pesquisa experimental, descritiva, em que foi feita uma avaliação microestrutural de trombos venosos desenvolvidos em cateteres venosos centrais por Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura e Microscopia Confocal de Varredura a Laser. Foram coletados 78 cateteres venosos centrais num período de três meses. Distinguiram-se diferentes estruturas de fibrina: a placa de fibrina, a rede de fibrina e as fibras de fibrina. Observou-se que tanto em um cateter com três dias de permanência quanto em um cateter com 20 dias inserido no paciente o trombo apresentou placas de fibrina espessas aderidas às paredes dos orifícios dos cateteres. Na região central do

  9. [A mathematic analysis of different manners of replacement fluid infusion in continuous veno-venous hemofiltration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunzhen; Wang, Chunting

    2015-05-01

    To establish a mathematical formula for choosing the manner of replacement fluid infusion in continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), so as to provide the basis for improving the treatment effect. A mathematical formula for choosing the manner of replacement fluid infusion with continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) was taken as an example, and it was compared with the result of standard replacement fluid in order to analyze the effect of different manners of infusion. (1) Comparison parameters: the plasma volume ("Vreturn") and some electrolyte concentration ("Creturn") in back way of CRRT ( if other thing was solute, filter coefficient should be 1.0). (2) Research objects: the actual replacement fluid (for example, the most complex should be sorted into A and B type) mode (pre or post) was compared with the standard replacement fluid (the A and B in one). (3) Based on the formula of standard replacement, four equations in different conditions were derived: pre-dilution and post-dilution mode; same direction and same ratio; same direction and different ratio; different direction and same ratio; different direction and different ratio. The calculated results of "Vreturn" (except hematocrit) and "Creturn" were same to the standard only following the rule of same direction and ratio for A and B no matter pre-dilution mode or post-dilution mode, and it was different from the standard in others. In pre-dilution mode and post-dilution mode, it showed: (1) A and B in same direction and different ratio: "Vreturn" and "Creturn" were different from the standard for the alterative ratio of B. (2) A and B in different direction and same ratio: "Vreturn" was same to the standard, but "Creturn" was different from the standard for the completely different and more complex computational formula. (3) A and B in different direction and different ratio: both "Vreturn" and "Creturn" were different from the standard. The different "Vreturn" was due to the different ratio of

  10. Chronic central leptin infusion restores cardiac sympathetic-vagal balance and baroreflex sensitivity in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Jussara M; Hall, John E; da Silva, Alexandre A

    2008-11-01

    This study tested whether leptin restores sympathetic-vagal balance, heart rate (HR) variability, and cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented with arterial and venous catheters, and a cannula was placed in the lateral ventricle for intracerebroventricular (ICV) leptin infusion. Blood pressure (BP) and HR were monitored by telemetry. BRS and HR variability were estimated by linear regression between HR and BP responses to phenylephrine or sodium nitroprusside and autoregressive spectral analysis. Measurements were made during control period, 7 days after induction of diabetes, and 7 days after ICV leptin infusion. STZ diabetes was associated with hyperglycemia (422 +/- 17 mg/dl) and bradycardia (-79 +/- 4 beats/min). Leptin decreased glucose levels (165 +/- 16 mg/dl) and raised HR to control values (303 +/- 10 to 389 +/- 10 beats/min). Intrinsic HR (IHR) and chronotropic responses to a full-blocking dose of propranolol and atropine were reduced during diabetes (260 +/- 7 vs. 316 +/- 6, -19 +/- 2 vs. -43 +/- 6, and 39 +/- 3 vs. 68 +/- 8 beats/min), and leptin treatment restored these variables to normal (300 +/- 7, -68 +/- 10, and 71 +/- 8 beats/min). Leptin normalized BRS (bradycardia, -2.6 +/- 0.3, -1.7 +/- 0.2, and -3.0 +/- 0.5; and tachycardia, -3.2 +/- 0.4, -1.9 +/- 0.3, and -3.4 +/- 0.3 beats.min(-1).mmHg(-1) for control, diabetes, and leptin) and HR variability (23 +/- 4 to 11 +/- 1.5 ms2). Chronic glucose infusion to maintain hyperglycemia during leptin infusion did not alter the effect of leptin on IHR but abolished the improved BRS. These results show rapid impairment of autonomic nervous system control of HR after the induction of diabetes and that central nervous system actions of leptin can abolish the hyperglycemia as well as the altered IHR and BRS in STZ-induced diabetes.

  11. Peripheral venous pressure as a reliable predictor for monitoring central venous pressure in patients with burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Lulu; Joshi, Vikas S; Ollapally, Anjali; Jain, Prithi; Shetty, Kishan; Ribeiro, Karl Sa

    2015-04-01

    Optimizing cardiovascular function to ensure adequate tissue oxygen delivery is a key objective in the care of critically ill patients with burns. Hemodynamic monitoring may be necessary to optimize resuscitation in serious burn patients with reasonable safety. Invasive central venous pressure (CVP) monitoring has become the corner stone of hemodynamic monitoring in patients with burns but is associated with inherent risks and technical difficulties. Previous studies on perioperative patients have shown that measurement of peripheral venous pressure (PVP) is a less invasive and cost-effective procedure and can reliably predict CVP. The aim of the present prospective clinical study was to determine whether a reliable association exists between changes in CVP and PVP over a long period in patients admitted to the Burns Intensive Care Unit (BICU). The CVP and PVP were measured simultaneously hourly in 30 burns patients in the BICU up to 10 consecutive hours. The predictability of CVP by monitoring PVP was tested by applying the linear regression formula and also using the Bland-Altman plots of repeated measures to evaluate the agreement between CVP and PVP. The regression formula revealed a reliable and significant association between CVP and PVP. The overall mean difference between CVP and PVP was 1.628 ± 0.84 mmHg (P venous pressure measured from a peripheral intravenous catheter in burns patients is a reliable estimation of CVP, and its changes have good concordance with CVP over a long period of time.

  12. Percutaneously inserted long-term central venous catheters in pigs of different sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, N; Claesson Lingehall, H; Al Zaidi, N; Claesson, J; Jensen-Waern, M; Lehtipalo, S

    2015-07-01

    Pigs are used for long-term biomedical experiments requiring repeated injections, infusions and collections of blood samples. Thus, it is necessary for vascular catheters to be indwelling to avoid undue stress to the animals and the use of restraints. We propose a refined model of percutaneous insertion of long-term central venous catheters to minimize the surgical trauma and postoperative complications associated with catheter insertion. Different sizes of needles (18 Ga versus 21 Ga) for initial puncture of the veins were compared. In conventional pigs weighing less than 30 kg, catheter insertion may be facilitated by using a microintroducer set with a 21 Ga needle. In pigs weighing 50 kg, a standard 18 Ga needle may be preferable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Pain and efficacy of local anesthetics for central venous access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C Culp Jr

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available William C Culp Jr1, Mohammed Yousaf2, Benjamin Lowry1, Timothy C McCowan3, William C Culp21Division of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology, Scott and White Hospital, The Texas A&M University College of Medicine, Temple, TX, USA; 2Division of Interventional Radiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA; 3Department of Radiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USAPurpose: To compare pain during injection and efficacy of analgesia of local anesthetics during central venous line placement.Methods: Sixty-two patients were studied in a randomized, double-blinded prospective fashion. Patients received 1% lidocaine (L, buffered 1% lidocaine (LB, or 2% chloroprocaine (CP injected around the internal jugular vein for procedural analgesia for central venous access. Patients reported pain via a standard linear visual analog scale, with 0 representing no pain and 10 being the worst pain imaginable.Results: Overall patient perception of pain was better with CP and L than LB with mean scores of CP 2.4, L 2.6, LB 4.2. Pain with injection mean scores were CP 2.1, L 2.5, LB 3.2. Pain with catheter placement scores were CP 2.5, L 1.7, LB 3.4. Operator assessment of overall pain values were CP 1.9, L 2.2, LB 3.4. LB consistently scored the worst, though compared with CP, this only reached statistical significance in overall patient pain and pain at catheter insertion compared with L.Conclusion: Though chloroprocaine scored better than lidocaine in 3 of 4 parameters, this trend did not achieve statistical significance. Adding sodium bicarbonate to lidocaine isn’t justified in routine practice, nor is routine replacement of lidocaine with chloroprocaine.Keywords: local anesthesia, analgesia, central venous access, lidocaine, chloroprocaine

  14. Spontaneous migration of central venous catheter tip following extubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Prabaharan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Migration of the tip of central venous catheters is not an uncommon event and the mechanism for this is not clear. Increased intrathoracic pressure due to coughing, sneezing or weight lifting, changing the body position or physical movements such as abduction or adduction of the arms is thought to be the cause of such migration. We present here a case of a patient with a port catheter tip that migrated from the left subclavian to the superior vene cava following extubation.

  15. Role of central venous pressure monitoring in critical care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Hill, Barry

    2018-01-31

    Central venous pressure (CVP) monitoring is used to assess the fluid status of patients in critical care settings. This article explains CVP monitoring, discussing the rationale for its use, the ways CVP can be measured, and the physiological factors that can affect the reliability and validity of CVP measurement. It also discusses the complications associated with CVP monitoring and the nursing responsibilities in relation to this activity. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  16. Stenting of the Superior Vena Cava and Left Brachiocephalic Vein with Preserving the Central Venous Catheter in Situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isfort, Peter; Penzkofer, Tobias; Goerg, Fabian; Mahnken, Andreas H. [University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen(Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Stenting of the central veins is well established for treating localized venous stenosis. The techniques regarding catheter preservation for central venous catheters in the superior vena cava have been described. We describe here a method for stent implantation in the superior vena cava and the left brachiocephalic vein, and principally via a single jugular venous puncture, while saving a left sided jugular central venous catheter in a patient suffering from central venous stenosis of the superior vena cava and the left brachiocephalic vein.

  17. [Complications associated to central venous catheters in hematology patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gabás, Carmen; Castillo-Ayala, Ana; Hinojo-Marín, Begoña; Muriel-Abajo, M Ángeles; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Isabel; de Mena-Arenas, Ana M; Rodríguez-Gonzalo, Ana; Chao-Lozano, Cristina; García-Menéndez, Carmen; Madroñero-Agreda, M Antonia

    2015-01-01

    To discover the incidence of central venous catheters (tunnelled, subcutaneous and PICC) in patients with onco-hematological conditions, hospitalized in the Hematology or Transplantations of Hematopoietic Stem Cells Units, in two tertiary care hospitals. A cross-sectional, descriptive study form was developed in order to gather sociodemographic, clinical data as well as complications and follow-up of the care protocol. Each catheter was assigned a correlative identification number. Information was collected on 366 catheters: 185 in the University Hospital Ramón y Cajal (HURYC), 80 tunnelled, 40 subcutaneous venous access and 65 PICC, and 181 in the University Hospital Gregorio Marañón (HUGM), 101 tunnelled and 80 subcutaneous venous access. Major complications in the tunnellized were infections (13.7% in HURYC vs. 6.8% in HUGM - pvenous access, infections were confirmed in 5% in HURYC vs. 1.2% in HUGM. There were occlusions at least once in 10% in HUGM and no other significant complications were detected. Regarding PICC, information was only collected in HURYC, where complications were phlebitis 10.8%, thrombosis 7.7%, confirmed or suspected infection 4.6%, occlusion at least once 7.7%. Differences between hospitals with regard to major complications, infection and occlusion may be related to different care protocol. We need to stress the high incidence of phlebitis and thrombosis in PICC catheters, compared with data of lower incidence of other papers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. [The influence of joining central venous catheter and pressure transducer with T-junctions on central venous pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiuling; Yang, Wanjie; An, Youzhong; Teng, Hongyun; Zhang, Rumei; Wang, Yumei; Gao, Hailing; Hua, Ning; Song, Yan

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the influence of the number of T-junctions between central venous catheter and pressure transducer on measurement of central venous pressure ( CVP ) in patients. A prospective controlled study was conducted. The patients with CVP monitoring in Department of Critical Care Medicine of the Fifth Center Hospital in Tianjin from February to October in 2014 were enrolled. The patients were divided into three groups according to the number of T-junction between central venous catheter and pressure transducer: without T-junction control group and 1, 2, 3 T-junctions groups. In each patient, corresponding CVP values with different number of T-junctions placed between the central venous catheter and pressure sensors were determined within a certain period, and a square-wave graphic was obtained and preserved on the monitor. The own frequency ( fn ) and the attenuation coefficient ( D ) of the system of pressure measurement were calculated after measurement of the shock wave following a square-wave to obtain the distance between two vibrations and the amplitude of the shock wave. The difference in CVP, fn and D were compared among the groups. A total of 20 cases were enrolled, and 150 groups of data were collected. (1) With the increase in the number of T-junction, CVP showed a tendency of gradual reduction. The CVP of the groups of control and 1, 2, 3 T-junctions was ( 7.00±1.60 ), ( 7.00±3.00 ), ( 5.00±2.00 ), and ( 4.00±1.00 ) mmHg ( 1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa ), respectively. The CVP of 3 T-junctions group was significantly lower than that of the control group ( F = 9.333, P = 0.015 ). (2) With an increase in the number of T-junction, fn showed a tendency of gradual increase. The fn of groups control and 1, 2, 3 T-junctions was ( 12.30±0.79 ), ( 16.00±0.91 ), ( 18.10±1.75 ), ( 20.90±2.69 ) Hz, respectively. The fn of 1, 2, 3 T-junctions group was significantly higher than that of the control group ( F1 = 45.962, F2 = 45.414, F3 = 46.830, all P = 0

  19. [A Case of Delayed Vascular Injury as a Complication Related to Implanted Central Venous Port Catheter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; Kondo, Tomohiro; Fujii, Ryoji; Minagawa, Takeyoshi; Fujie, Shinya; Kimura, Tomohiro; Ihara, Hideyuki; Yoshizaki, Naohito; Kondo, Hitoshi; Kitayama, Hiromitsu; Sugiyama, Junko; Hirayama, Michiaki; Tsuji, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Kazuyuki; Kawarada, You; Okushiba, Shunichi; Nishioka, Noriko; Shimizu, Tadashi

    2015-12-01

    A 74-year-old woman with advanced gastric cancer was admitted to our hospital. A central venous (CV) port catheter was implanted into the right subclavian vein for preoperative chemotherapy and parenteral nutritional management. On the 35th day after implantation, she complained of diarrhea, fever and dyspnea. The chest radiograph showed a right-sided massive pleural effusion. As the patient progressively fell into severe respiratory distress, endotracheal intubation was performed for management of respiration by mechanical ventilation. Initially, given the patient's symptoms, she was diagnosed with septic shock. Therefore, after placement of a CV catheter through the right femoral vein, in consideration of the possibility of a port infection, she was treated with thoracentesis and infusion of antibiotics. The patient gradually recovered, and again received parenteral nutrition through the CV port catheter. After the infusion was administered, she complained of dyspnea. A CT scan of the chest revealed a right pleural effusion and displacement of the tip of the CV port catheter out of the wall of the superior vena cava. We diagnosed delayed vascular injury (DVI), and the CV port catheter was removed. She soon recovered with conservative treatment. We speculated that the initial respiratory symptoms such as the pleural effusion were caused by DVI. DVI should therefore be recognized as a complication related to implanted CV port catheters.

  20. Risk factors for the appearance of central venous catheters colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mioljević Vesna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Aim. Intravascular device placement (IVD is a part of everyday medical practice, however, its application is associated with a high risk of onset of nosocomial infections (NI and increased mortality and morbidity. Nosocomial blood infections (NBIs account for 10% of all the registered NI. NBIs are more frequent in patients with a placed IVD and it present an important risk factor for the onset of NBI, i.e. catheter-associated NBIs (CANBIs. Pathogenesis of CANBIs is complex and conditioned by the presence of different characteristics related to a catheter, patient and a specific causative organism. The most common CRBSI causes include coagulase-negative staphylococcus, S. aureus, Enterobacter spp, Candida spp, Klebsiella spp, Pseudomonas spp. and Enterococcus spp. Methods. All the patients hospitalized at the Intensive Care Department of the Clinic of Digestive Diseases over the period January 1, 2004-September 1, 2004 were retrospectively analyzed. The study included 107 patients in whom central venous catheter (CVC was placed for more than 48 h. All the causes isolated from a CVC segment were recorded. Culture, isolation and identification of the causative organisms were performed using standard microbiological methods in the Bacteriological Laboratory within the Emergency Center, Clinical Center of Serbia. Catheter segment samples (tip of the CVC 3-5 cm long were analyzed. Based on the insight into medical documentation, patients’ examination and medical staff interview, catheter and patient-related characteristics were recorded. Results. A total of 107 CVCs were analyzed, out of which 56 (52% were sterile while 51 (48% were colonized. The results of our study evidenced that total parenteral nutrition (TPN (p < 0.05, number of catheterization days (p < 0.05, and central venous pressure measurement (p < 0.05 were significantly associated with CVC colonization. In this study, no statistically significant difference in catheter

  1. Central venous oxygenation: when physiology explains apparent discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squara, Pierre

    2014-11-10

    Central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) >70% or mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) >65% is recommended for both septic and non-septic patients. Although it is the task of experts to suggest clear and simple guidelines, there is a risk of reducing critical care to these simple recommendations. This article reviews the basic physiological and pathological features as well as the metrological issues that provide clear evidence that SvO2 and ScvO2 are adaptative variables with large inter-patient variability. This variability is exemplified in a modeled population of 1,000 standard ICU patients and in a real population of 100 patients including 15,860 measurements. In these populations, it can be seen how optimizing one to three of the four S(c)vO2 components homogenized the patients and yields a clear dependency with the fourth one. This explains the discordant results observed in large studies where cardiac output was increased up to predetermined S(c)vO2 thresholds following arterial oxygen hemoglobin saturation, total body oxygen consumption needs and hemoglobin optimization. Although a systematic S(c)vO2 goal-oriented protocol can be statistically profitable before ICU admission, appropriate intensive care mandates determination of the best compromise between S(c)vO2 and its four components, taking into account the specific constraints of each individual patient.

  2. Radiologic placement of hemodialysis central venous catheters: a practical guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schemmer, D.; Sadler, D.J.; Gray, R.R.; Saliken, J.C.; So, C.B. [Foothills Hospital, Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2001-04-01

    Typical indications for central venous catheters (CVCs) are hemodialysis (HD), apheresis, total parenteral nutrition, analgesia, chemotherapy, long-term antibiotic therapy and cases of difficult or absent peripheral venous access. One of the largest medical services requesting CVC insertion is nephrology for HD patients. Demographics dictate that the demand for CVCs will continue to grow over the next few decades, placing striking demands on interventional radiology departments. In our centre, interventional radiologists now place nearly all percutaneously inserted HD CVCs. Radiologists provide rapid access to CVC services with significantly fewer complications than CVCs placed by other clinicians. With the demand for CVC management increasing and available operating room time decreasing, many clinicians now refer CVC insertions to radiologists. As well, clinicians who ordinarily place their own lines often refer high-risk patients, such as those who are obese or uncooperative and those with burns or coagulopathy. Our experience, derived from over 7000 CVC insertions, manipulations and removals, has allowed us to continually progress and improve our techniques, many of which are summarized here. (author)

  3. Central venous catheter associated thrombosis of major veins: thrombolytic treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenhuis, S.; van't Hek, L. G.; Vlasveld, L. T.; Kröger, R.; Dubbelman, R.; van Tol, R. G.

    1993-01-01

    Major thromboses can occur in the venous system in association with central venous catheters. This usually necessitates removal of the catheter. The effectiveness of low dose recombinant tissue type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in combination with heparin was assessed in patients with central

  4. Evaluation of 6 years use of sodium hydroxide solution to clear partially occluded central venous catheters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, Suzanne G.; Balke, Petra; Jonkers-Schuitema, Cora F.; Tas, Tirzah A. J.; Sauerwein, Hans P.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Central venous catheter occlusion is a frequently occurring complication during home parenteral nutrition (HPN). The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) administration to clear an occluded central venous catheter especially in HPN.

  5. Hematologic patients' clinical and psychosocial experiences with implanted long-term central venous catheter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Tom; Adamsen, Lis

    2010-01-01

    A significant decrease in catheter-related infections was demonstrated in our earlier randomized controlled trial of central venous catheter (CVC) care in hematologic patients.......A significant decrease in catheter-related infections was demonstrated in our earlier randomized controlled trial of central venous catheter (CVC) care in hematologic patients....

  6. Evidence for central venous pressure resetting during initial exposure to microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Ludwig, D. A.; Elliott, J. J.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    We measured central venous pressure (CVP); plasma volume (PV); urine volume rate (UVR); renal excretion of sodium (UNa); and renal clearances of creatinine, sodium, and osmolality before and after acute volume infusion to test the hypothesis that exposure to microgravity causes resetting of the CVP operating point. Six rhesus monkeys underwent two experimental conditions in a crossover counterbalance design: 1) continuous exposure to 10 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) and 2) a control, defined as 16 h/day of 80 degrees head-up tilt and 8 h prone. After 48 h of exposure to either test condition, a 120-min course of continuous infusion of isotonic saline (0.4 ml. kg(-1). min(-1) iv) was administered. Baseline CVP was lower (P = 0.011) in HDT (2.3 +/- 0.3 mmHg) compared with the control (4.5 +/- 1.4 mmHg) condition. After 2 h of saline infusion, CVP was elevated (P = 0.002) to a similar magnitude (P = 0.485) in HDT (DeltaCVP = 2.7 +/- 0.8 mmHg) and control (DeltaCVP = 2.3 +/- 0.8 mmHg) conditions and returned to preinfusion levels 18 h postinfusion in both treatments. PV followed the same pattern as CVP. The response relationships between CVP and UVR and between CVP and UNa shifted to the left with HDT. The restoration of CVP and PV to lower preinfusion levels after volume loading in HDT compared with control supports the notion that lower CVP during HDT may reflect a new operating point about which vascular volume is regulated. These results may explain the ineffective fluid intake procedures currently employed to treat patients and astronauts.

  7. Deep Venous Thrombosis Screening in Patients with Inherited Bleeding Disorders and Central Venous Catheters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cost, Carrye R.; Journeycake, Janna M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Children with inherited bleeding disorders often require central venous catheters (CVC). Although CVCs are known to be complicated by deep venous thrombosis (DVT), little is known about the timeline of DVT development or risk of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). Aim To determine the timeline and confirm the incidence of thrombosis in patients with bleeding disorders who have CVCs. Methods In 2002 we instituted a screening program to monitor for CVC-related complications in children with hemophilia and von Willebrand disease. This is a retrospective review of this cohort. All children with CVC followed between January 1, 2000 and June 1, 2009 were evaluated for DVT every 24 months with contrast venography and Doppler sonography. An institutional PTS severity scale was utilized at each visit. Results Thirty-six patients had 37 CVCs placed. Thirty patients had imaging studies, with DVT observed in 14 (47%). Most DVT were diagnosed at the first venogram (median CVC duration 26 months). There were no abnormal ultrasound results. Sixteen patients (44%) had clinical findings consistent with PTS, including 10 (71%) with an abnormal venogram. Dilated chest wall veins appeared to be more strongly associated with underlying DVT (positive predictive value of 0.8) than arm circumference discrepancy. Successful transition to use of peripheral veins occurred at a median of 11 months after abnormal venograms. Conclusions CVC-related DVT is common in children with inherited bleeding disorders, and likely occurs earlier than previously thought. Clinical signs of PTS are also common, but long-term sequelae and severity of PTS are not known. PMID:21435117

  8. Placement of central venous catheters in patients undergoing major maxillofacial surgery - a retrospective clinical audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zochios, Vasileios; Gilhooly, Michael; Fenner, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The subclavian vein is thought to be the most appropriate route for central venous access in major maxillofacial surgery. Evidence suggests that left-sided central venous catheters should lie below the carina and be angulated at less than 40 degrees to superior vena cava wall. This reduces perforation risk. With this in mind we audited our current practice for placement of central venous catheters for major maxillofacial surgery. The criteria against which we compared our practice were: 1) all catheter tips should lie below the carina and 2) the angle of the distal 1 cm of the catheter should be no more than 40 degrees to the superior vena cava wall. Left subclavian central venous catheters placed on a weekly operating list between September 2005 and August 2008 were identified retrospectively: 83 patients were identified; 22 were excluded. The angle of the central venous catheter tip and distance from the carina were measured on the first post-procedure chest-X ray. All central venous catheters used were 16 cm long. 82% of the catheter tips were located above the carina while 61% were angulated at greater than 40 degrees ; 11% of central venous catheters met both standards; 14% of central venous catheters placed by a consultant and 12% of catheters placed by a trainee met both standards. 89% of the central venous catheters were not correctly placed. The majority of central venous catheter tips above the carina were at an adverse angle to the superior vena cava wall. We suggest that for left subclavian central lines, 20 cm catheters be used.

  9. Misplaced central venous catheters: applied anatomy and practical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, F; Bodenham, A

    2013-03-01

    Large numbers of central venous catheters (CVCs) are placed each year and misplacement occurs frequently. This review outlines the normal and abnormal anatomy of the central veins in relation to the placement of CVCs. An understanding of normal and variant anatomy enables identification of congenital and acquired abnormalities. Embryological variations such as a persistent left-sided superior vena cava are often diagnosed incidentally only after placement of a CVC, which is seen to take an abnormal course on X-ray. Acquired abnormalities such as stenosis or thrombosis of the central veins can be problematic and can present as a failure to pass a guidewire or catheter or complications after such attempts. Catheters can also be misplaced outside veins in a patient with otherwise normal anatomy with potentially disastrous consequences. We discuss the possible management options for these patients including the various imaging techniques used to verify correct or incorrect catheter placement and the limitations of each. If the course of a misplaced catheter can be correctly identified as not lying within a vulnerable structure then it can be safely removed. If the misplaced catheter is lying within or traversing large and incompressible arteries or veins, it should not be removed before consideration of what is likely to happen when it is removed. Advice and further imaging should be sought, typically in conjunction with interventional radiology or vascular surgery. With regard to misplaced CVCs, in the short term, a useful aide memoir is: 'if in doubt, don't take it out'.

  10. The importance of radiology in detection of complications associated with central venous catheter insertion: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Sabetian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: One of the goals of central venous catheter (CVC insertion is monitoring of fluid therapy, but the catheter insertion can be associated with several complications. The objective of this study was to determine the role of radiology in central venous catheter complications. Case presentation: 77-year-old woman, a known case of chronic lymphocytic leukemia due to deep vein thrombosis treated with warfarin and due to peritonitis is undergoing emergency surgery. After insertion of central venous catheters and receiving fresh frozen plasma to correct the clotting dysfunction, the candidate is transferred to the operating room. Once during Intraoperative and again immediately after entering the ICU were involved with ventricular arrhythmia. Chest x-ray showed massive unilateral hydrothorax. Conclusion: Most complications of central venous catheter is diagnosed on chest radiograph and appropriate treatment of these complications is tsaving. Key words: Central Venous Catheter, Hydrothorax, Radiography

  11. The increase in the cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration in the sella turcica venous blood during vagal afferents stimulation or after angiotensin II infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goraca, A.; Orlowska-Majdak, M.; Traczyk, W.Z. [Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland). Katedra Fizjologii

    1996-12-31

    It has previously been demonstrated that the cardiodepressant activity is present in the bovine hypothalamic extract and in the fluid incubating the posterior pituitary lobe {sup i}n situ{sup .} The present study was an attempt to reveal if the cardiodepressant factor and vasopressin were simultaneously released from the pituitary into blood. The samples of venous blood flowing from the sella turcica and, for comparison, from the posterior paw were collected in anesthetized rats. Blood from the sella turcica was collected with a fine cannula inserted into the internal maxillary vein. The concentration of vasopressin in blood plasma was determined by radioimmunoassay and cardiodepressant activity-using a biological test on a spontaneously discharged pacemaker tissue of the right auricle of the right heart atrium. Stimulation of the central ends of the cut vagus nerves or intra-arterial infusion of angiotensin II simultaneously caused an increase in the cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration in the sella turcica venous blood. The cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration was also enhanced to some degree in blood outflowing from the posterior paw. Present results indicate that both vasopressin and the cardiodepressant factor are released into blood from the posterior pituitary lobe. (author). 37 refs, 4 figs.

  12. [Survival and complication rate of central venous catheters in newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Heladia Josefa; Torres-Yáñez, Héctor Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    In the current medical practice, central venous catheters (CVC) are very useful; however, their use involves certain risks, which increase morbidity and mortality, especially in newborns. The aim of this study was to describe both the frequency of complications and survival of CVC placed in newborns hospitalized in a third level neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A descriptive, observational and prospective study was carried-out in the NICU from the Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI. Demographic, perinatal and CVC variables were recorded. We included 152 CVCs, which were inserted in 123 newborns. For the CVC insertion, the puncture technique [percutaneous and subclavian] was used in 56.6 % (n = 86). There was at least one complication in 48.7 %.(n = 74). The most frequent complications were colonization 32.4 % (n = 24) and CVC-related bacteremia in 27 % (n = 20). Survival probability for CVC was 93.4 % at 10 days and 91.4 % at 17 days. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated significantly lower survival probability for non-central catheters. Most of CVC complications occurred within the first two weeks after these CVC were installed. Infectious complications were the most frequent.

  13. Evaluation of a continuous blood glucose monitoring system using a central venous catheter with an integrated microdialysis function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierenbeck, Fanny; Öwall, Anders; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Liska, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Glycemic control in critically ill patients has been the topic of an interesting debate during the last decade. An accurate continuous glucose monitoring system is essential to better understand this field. This prospective study thus evaluates the accuracy and technical feasibility of a continuous glucose monitoring system using intravascular microdialysis. Thirty patients undergoing cardiac surgery were monitored using a triple-lumen central venous catheter (Eirus TLC; Eirus Medical AB, Solna, Sweden) with an integrated microdialysis function. The catheter functions as a central venous catheter, enabling blood sampling and administration of infusions and medication while simultaneously providing continuous glucose monitoring. The patients were monitored for up to 48 h postoperatively. As reference, arterial blood gas samples were taken every hour and analyzed in a blood gas analyzer. Six hundred seven paired samples were obtained for analysis. Using Clarke Error Grid analysis, 100% of the paired samples were in Zones A+B, and 97% were in Zone A. Mean difference (bias) was -0.12 mmol/L, and mean absolute relative difference was 5.6%. Of the paired samples, 97.5% were correct according to International Organization for Standardization criteria. Bland-Altman analysis showed bias ± limits of agreement were -0.12 ± 0.7 mmol/L. No hypoglycemic episodes were observed. Central venous microdialysis is an accurate and reliable method for continuous blood glucose monitoring up to 48 h in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. With the microdialysis function integrated in a central venous catheter, no extra device for the continuous glucose monitoring is required. The system may be useful in critically ill patients.

  14. External jugular vein cross-over as a new technique for percutaneous central venous port access in case of left central venous occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcy, Pierre Yves; El Hajjam, Mostafa; Lacout, Alexis; Nöel, Caroline; Simon, Jean Jacques; Figl, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    To report the cross-over venous catheter technique in case of left-sided central venous (internal jugular, subclavian and innominate veins) occlusion and right-sided central vein patency. A 60-year-old right breast cancer patient presented with a local recurrence requiring chemotherapy. He presented with a left-sided catheter-related central venous occlusion and radiodermatitis of the right chest and neck. The nonsymptomatic side of insertion was defined as the patient's left side. Successful percutaneous left-to-right external jugular vein (EJV) cross-over access tips and tricks are reported. They include performing (a) the EJV access at the lower neck, (b) the 0.032 hydrophilic guidewire (GW) catheterization of the venous curves, (c) the GW anchor technique into the inferior vena cava, (d) the GW + Glidecath catheter stiffening technique and (e) the over-the-stiff wire implantable catheter push. The cross-over technique was successful by using real-time ultrasonography/X-ray monitoring and interventional radiology tools (hydrophilic 0.032 in. and stiff 0.0035 in. GW and "J-shaped" Glidecath catheter) and the five-step technique. In case of left innominate vein occlusion and necessity of left neck venous access, percutaneous EJV access should be attempted under real-time ultrasound/X-ray monitoring when other standard (subclavian venous port and internal jugular vein) routes are no longer available.

  15. Central venous oxygen saturation does not correlate with the venous oxygen saturation at the surgical site during abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, Malte; Scheingraber, Stefan; Stephan, Bernhard; Weiss, Christel; Kayser, Anna; Kopp, Berit; Schilling, Martin K

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of central venous oxygen saturation has become a surrogate parameter for fluid administration, blood transfusions and treatment with catecholamines in (early) goal directed therapy in the treatment of acute septic patients. These strategies are not easily transferred to the postoperative management of abdominal surgery due to the different conditions in surgical patients. A study population of 15 patients (8 females/7 males) underwent elective major abdominal surgery: 6 gastrectomies, 5 major liver resections and 4 lower anterior rectum resections. Surgery was performed for primary or secondary malignancy. The patients' age was 65.4+/-12.7 (mean+/-standard deviation, range 44-84, median 62) years. Blood samples were taken intraoperatively from indwelling central venous lines as well as from draining veins at the surgical site. Blood gas analyses to determine the oxygen saturations were performed immediately. All patients were operated in standardized general anesthesia including epidural analgesia and in a balanced volume status. Central venous oxygen saturations and oxygen saturations in blood from the draining veins of the surgical site showed a wide range with high intra- and interindividual differences intraoperatively. Overall, at most time points no correlation between the two oxygen saturations could be detected in three operation types. A significant correlation was only observed at one time point during liver resections. Our results show a lack of correlation between central venous oxygen saturations and oxygen saturations in the draining veins of the surgical site during major abdominal surgery. Measurement of central venous oxygen saturations does not seem to be a good surrogate for the local oxygen supply in the field of interest in major abdominal surgery even under standardized conditions.

  16. Daptomycin Antibiotic Lock Therapy in a Rat Model of Staphylococcal Central Venous Catheter Biofilm Infections▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Praagh, Andrew D. G.; Li, Tongchuan; Zhang, Shuxin; Arya, Anu; Chen, Liping; Zhang, Xi-Xian; Bertolami, Shellie; Mortin, Lawrence I.

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotic lock therapy (ALT) is an adjunctive procedure to prevent or treat central venous catheter infections, ensuing catheter-related bacteremia, and catheter-related metastatic infections. Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide that is rapidly bactericidal against methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The efficacies of daptomycin against central venous catheter biofilms, catheter-related bacteremia, and catheter-related metastatic infections were evaluated by adapting a previously reported central venous catheter biofilm model in rats. Combined daptomycin ALT and systemic dosing resulted in the clearance of an established in vivo S. aureus central venous catheter biofilm after just two daily ALT treatments (30 min with daptomycin at 5 mg/ml) with concurrent systemic daptomycin dosing (40 mg/kg of body weight/day subcutaneously [s.c.]; equivalent exposure of 6 mg/kg/day in people). Daptomycin ALT solutions formulated in either saline or lactated Ringer's solution were equally fast in eradicating established in vivo methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) central venous catheter biofilms. However, the lactated Ringer's formulation was superior to that of saline in sustaining the bacterial clearance of treated central venous catheters (83% versus 50%). In MRSE-infected central venous catheter studies, 3 days of daptomycin or vancomycin ALT (18 h at 5 mg/ml) with systemic s.c. dosing (40 mg/kg/day daptomycin or 100 mg/kg/day vancomycin) was equally effective 1 week posttherapy in maintaining cleared central venous catheters (90% [n = 10] versus 100% [n = 8]). These results suggest that daptomycin ALT, along with systemic dosing, could be an effective treatment option for the prevention or eradication of staphylococcal central venous catheter biofilm infections, thereby reducing the occurrence of catheter-related bacteremia or catheter-related metastatic infections. PMID:21709082

  17. Remifentanil for the insertion and removal of long-term central venous access during monitored anesthesia care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burlacu, Crina L

    2012-02-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the analgesic efficacy of three different rates of remifentanil infusion in patients undergoing insertion or removal of long-term central venous access devices during monitored anesthesia care and local anesthetic field infiltration. DESIGN: Double-blinded, randomized, controlled study. SETTING: Operating theatre of an University hospital. PATIENTS: 44 unpremedicated, ASA physical status 1 and 2 patients, aged 18-65 years, undergoing insertion or removal of a Port-a-Cath or Hickman catheter. INTERVENTIONS: Patients sedated with a propofol target-controlled infusion were randomly allocated to three groups: Group R25 (n = 14), Group R50 (n = 15), and Group R75 (n = 15), to receive remifentanil 0.025, 0.05, and 0.075 mug\\/kg\\/min, respectively. Rescue remifentanil 0.5 mug\\/kg was administered for pain scores > 3. The remifentanil infusion rate was maintained constant unless respiratory and\\/or cardiovascular unwanted events occurred, whereupon the rate was adjusted in 0.01 mug\\/kg\\/min decrements as necessary. MEASUREMENTS: Pain scores (primary outcome), sedation, and movement scores (secondary outcomes) were assessed during local anesthetic infiltration of the anterior chest wall and 5 other procedural steps. MAIN RESULTS: All infusion rates had equal analgesic efficacy, as shown by comparable pain scores, number of rescue boluses, and number of patients requiring rescue analgesia. Excessive sedation was associated with the highest remifentanil rate such that Group R75 patients were significantly more sedated than Groups R25 or R50 at selective procedural steps (P < 0.05). More Group R75 patients (6\\/15) required remifentanil rate reduction than did patients from Group R50 (1\\/15) or Group R25 (0\\/14), P < 0.01, most commonly because of respiratory depression. CONCLUSIONS: For the insertion or removal of long-term central venous access devices, all three remifentanil infusion rates proved to be equally analgesic

  18. Transhepatic Central Venous Catheters in Pediatric Patients With Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Brian A; Zampi, Jeffrey D; Yu, Sunkyung; Donohue, Janet E; Aiyagari, Ranjit

    2015-10-01

    Patients with congenital heart disease may have limited venous access routes as a result of multiple central venous catheters, surgical interventions, and catheterization procedures. Unconventional venous access includes transhepatic central venous catheter. We evaluated transhepatic central venous catheter placed in patients with congenital heart disease and risk factors associated with complications and outcomes. Demographic, procedural, and complication data were retrospectively collected on all patients who underwent transhepatic central venous catheter placement at our center over the past 10 years. This study was completed in a tertiary congenital heart center. A total of 92 transhepatic central venous catheters were placed in 54 patients (63% male patients). The median age and weight of the patient population was 5.7 months and 5.5 kg, respectively. Placement of a transhepatic central venous catheter. Successful catheter placement occurred in 96% of cases with median procedure time of 54 minutes with a procedural complication rate of 14%. A total of 86 complications occurred in 54 catheters placed during 2,166 catheter-days (39.7 complications per 1,000 catheter-days). Individual complication rates per 1,000 catheter-days included catheter dysfunction (14.8), dislodgement (8.8), systemic infection (5.1), thrombosis (4.2), local infection (3.7), and bleeding (3.2). Two complications contributed to patient deaths. Factors associated with developing complications included polyurethane central venous catheters (p = 0.03) and catheter duration at least 21 days (p = 0.004). The overall mortality in this population was 50% with median length of hospitalization of 49 days (interquartile range, 33-97). Transhepatic central venous catheters represent a viable option for patients with limited access. Polyurethane catheters and catheter duration at least 21 days are associated with increased transhepatic central venous catheter complications. Although complication

  19. Human cerebral venous outflow pathway depends on posture and central venous pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gisolf, J; van Lieshout, J J; van Heusden, K

    2004-01-01

    Internal jugular veins are the major cerebral venous outflow pathway in supine humans. In upright humans the positioning of these veins above heart level causes them to collapse. An alternative cerebral outflow pathway is the vertebral venous plexus. We set out to determine the effect of posture...... and during a Valsalva manoeuvre in both body positions, correlate highly with model simulation of the jugular cross-sectional area (R(2) = 0.97). The results suggest that the cerebral venous flow distribution depends on posture and CVP: in supine humans the internal jugular veins are the primary pathway...

  20. Central venous catheter infection in a child: case report and review of Kluyvera infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Tami; Feldman, Sandor

    2003-02-01

    Kluyvera is an opportunistic pathogen that can occur in immunosuppressed as well as immunocompetent hosts. We report a case of Kluyvera species infection involving a central venous catheter, and we review the literature on Kluyvera infections in children. Our case demonstrates that removal of the central venous catheter was necessary to eradicate the infection and hasten the resolution of refractory neutropenia. The spectrum of disease due to Kluyvera infection in children includes central venous catheter infection and/or sepsis, urinary tract infection, enteritis, and, in one instance, fatal peritonitis. It is clear on the basis of our case report that uncommon, opportunistic organisms such as Kluyvera can be significant pathogens.

  1. JUGULAR CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER PLACEMENT THROUGH A MODIFIED SELDINGER TECHNIQUE FOR LONG-TERM VENOUS ACCESS IN CHELONIANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Mariana A; Divers, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    Long-term or repeated venous access in chelonians is difficult to obtain and manage, but can be critically important for administration of medications and blood sampling in hospitalized patients. Jugular catheterization provides the most rapid and secure route for vascular access, but catheters can be difficult to place, and maintaining catheter patency may be challenging. Long multilumen polyurethane catheters provide flexibility and sampling access, and minimize difficulties, such as catheter displacement, that have been encountered with traditional over-the-needle catheters. We describe placement of 4 Fr. 13-cm polyurethane catheters in three chelonians with the use of a modified Seldinger technique. Venous access was obtained with the use of an over-the-needle catheter, which allowed placement of a 0.018-in.-diameter wire, over which the polyurethane catheter was placed. Indwelling time has ranged between 1 and 4 mo currently. All tortoises were sedated for this procedure. Polyurethane central catheters provide safe, long-term venous access that allows clinicians to perform serial blood sampling as well as intravenous administration of medications, anesthetic agents, and fluids. A jugular catheter can also allow central venous pressure measurement. Utilization of central line catheters was associated with improvements in diagnostic efficiency and therapeutic case management, with minimal risks and complications.

  2. Prevalence of Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Thrombosis in Pediatric Oncology Patients With Tunneled Central Venous Catheters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoot, Reineke A.; van de Wetering, Marianne D.; Stijnen, Theo; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Michiels, Erna; Abbink, Floor C. H.; Raphael, Martine F.; Heij, Hugo A.; Zwaan, Michel; Lieverst, Jan A.; Caron, Hubert N.; van Ommen, Heleen

    Background. Pediatric oncology patients with tunneled central venous catheters (CVCs) are at increased risk to develop venous thromboembolic events (VTEs), but the true prevalence of (a) symptomatic VTE is unknown. Aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of (a) symptomatic VTE in pediatric

  3. Heparin Leakage in Central Venous Catheters by Hemodynamic Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Michael; McGah, Patrick; Gow, Kenneth; Aliseda, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs), placed in the superior vena cava for hemodialysis, are routinely filled with heparin, an anticoagulant, while not in use to maintain patency and prevent thrombus formation at the catheter tip. However, the heparin-lock procedure places the patient at risk for systemic bleeding incidences, as heparin is known to leak into the blood stream. We propose that the driving mechanism behind heparin leakage is advective-diffusive transport due to the pulsatile blood flow surrounding the catheter tip. This novel hypothesis is based on Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) measurements of heparin transport from a CVC placed inside an in vitro pulsatile flow loop and validated with CFD simulations. The results show an initial, fast (catheter lumen, where concentration is still high, that is insufficient at replenishing the lost heparin at the tip. These results, which estimate leakage rates consistent with published in vivo data, predict that the concentration of heparin at the catheter tip is effectively zero for the majority of the interdialytic phase, rendering the heparin lock ineffective.

  4. Factors Affecting Longevity of Tunneled Central Venous Cathe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Won; Lee, Jong Min [Dept. of Radiology, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    To evaluate factors which affect the longevity of tunneled central venous catheters (T-CVCs). A retrospective study was conducted on 363 T-CVCs. We evaluated the relevant factors affecting the longevity of the T-CVCs, such as age, gender, indication for catheterization, site of entry vessel, diameter and type of T-CVC, catheter tip position, and underlying diseases. Of the 363 T-CVCs which had been inserted, 331 (91%) were placed through the right internal jugular vein (RIJV). The catheter tip position was the strongest predictor for the longevity of the T-CVC. The short limb of the catheter tip placed either at the cavoatrial junction (CA junction) or below the lower margin of the right main bronchus had a good prognosis. The vessel through which the T-CVC was placed significantly influenced the longevity of the T-CVC; the RIJV was associated with better results than the left internal jugular vein. Also, a split-type catheter was significantly associated with a better result. A two distinct and separate type T-CVC placed through the RIJV in which the short limb catheter tip position was at the level of the CA junction, significantly increased the longevity of T-CVCs.

  5. Anti-fouling strategies for central venous catheters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albadawi, Hassan; Patel, Nikasha; Khademhosseini, Ali; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Naidu, Sailendra; Knuttinen, Grace; Oklu, Rahmi

    2017-01-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are ubiquitous in the healthcare industry and carry two common complications, catheter related infections and occlusion, particularly by thrombus. Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) are an important cause of nosocomial infections that increase patient morbidity, mortality, and hospital cost. Innovative design strategies for intravenous catheters can help reduce these preventable infections. Antimicrobial coatings can play a major role in preventing disease. These coatings can be divided into two major categories: drug eluting and non-drug eluting. Much of these catheter designs are targeted at preventing the formation of microbial biofilms that make treatment of CRBSI nearly impossible without removal of the intravenous device. Exciting developments in catheter impregnation with antibiotics as well as nanoscale surface design promise innovative changes in the way that physicians manage intravenous catheters. Occlusion of a catheter renders the catheter unusable and is often treated by tissue plasminogen activator administration or replacement of the line. Prevention of this complication requires a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of platelet aggregation, signaling and cross-linking. This article will look at the advances in biomaterial design specifically drug eluting, non-drug eluting, lubricious coatings and micropatterning as well as some of the characteristics of each as they relate to CVCs. PMID:29399528

  6. Hemodynamics of Central Venous Catheters: experiments and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Michael; McGah, Patrick; Clark, Alicia; Ng, Chin Hei; Gow, Kenneth; Aliseda, Alberto

    2013-11-01

    Central venous catheters (CVC) are used to provide vascular access during hemodialysis in patients with end-stage kidney disease. Despite several advantages and widespread use, CVCs have a high incidence rate of clot formation during the interdialytic phase (48 hrs). In an attempt the prevent clot formation, hospitals routinely administer heparin, an anticoagulant, into the catheter after a dialysis session. It has been reported, however, that up to 40% of the heparin solution will leak into the blood stream during the interdialytic phase, placing the patient at risk for systemic bleeding incidences. The aim of this study is to determine the role that advective-diffusive transport plays in the heparin leaking process. Numerical simulations of heparin convective mass transfer have been conducted, showing that while advective losses may be significant at the tip, previous studies may be overestimating the total amount of heparin leakage. To validate the quantitative prediction from the simulations, P.L.I.F. is used to experimentally measure heparin transport from CVCs placed in an idealized Superior Vena Cava with physically accurate pulsatile flow conditions. Improved understanding of flow near the catheter tip is applied to improve catheter design and heparin locking procedures.

  7. Migration of Central Venous Catheters in Neonates: A Radiographic Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ruby; Drendel, Amy L; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Quijano, Carla V; Uhing, Michael R

    2016-05-01

    Objective This study aims to determine the frequency that umbilical venous catheters (UVCs) and peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) migrate into the cardiothymic silhouette after initial verification of correct placement. Study Design This is a single-center, retrospective study in neonates in whom a PICC or UVC was placed. The frequency of catheter tip migration into the cardiothymic silhouette requiring catheter manipulation was determined radiographically at 1 and 24 hours, respectively, after insertion. Results At 1 and 24 hours, 36 and 23% of UVCs (n = 41) migrated into the cardiothymic silhouette, respectively. At 1 and 24 hours, 23 and 11% of PICCs (n = 63) migrated into the cardiothymic silhouette, respectively. Migration was not associated with birth weight, weight at insertion, or postnatal age at insertion. Conclusion UVCs and PICCs frequently migrate into the cardiothymic silhouette increase the risk for development of a pericardial effusion. Serial radiographic assessment of catheter tip location is needed to assess catheter migration within the first 24 hours of line placement. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Pyoderma gangrenosum after totally implanted central venous access device insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen Monica E

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyoderma gangrenosum is an aseptic skin disease. The ulcerative form of pyoderma gangrenosum is characterized by a rapidly progressing painful irregular and undermined bordered necrotic ulcer. The aetiology of pyoderma gangrenosum remains unclear. In about 70% of cases, it is associated with a systemic disorder, most often inflammatory bowel disease, haematological disease or arthritis. In 25–50% of cases, a triggering factor such as recent surgery or trauma is identified. Treatment consists of local and systemic approaches. Systemic steroids are generally used first. If the lesions are refractory, steroids are combined with other immunosuppressive therapy or to antimicrobial agents. Case presentation A 90 years old patient with myelodysplastic syndrome, seeking regular transfusions required totally implanted central venous access device (Port-a-Cath® insertion. Fever and inflammatory skin reaction at the site of insertion developed on the seventh post-operative day, requiring the device's explanation. A rapid progression of the skin lesions evolved into a circular skin necrosis. Intravenous steroid treatment stopped the necrosis' progression. Conclusion Early diagnosis remains the most important step to the successful treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum.

  9. Ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization in prone position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofi Khalid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Central venous catheterization (CVC is a commonly performed intraoperative procedure. Traditionally, CVC placement is performed blindly using anatomic landmarks as a guide to vessel position. Real-time ultrasound provides the operator the benefit of visualizing the target vein and the surrounding anatomic structures prior to and during the catheter insertion, thereby minimizing complications and increasing speed of placement. A 22-year-old male underwent open reduction and internal fixation of acetabulum fracture in prone position. Excessive continuous bleeding intraoperatively warranted placement of CVC in right internal jugular vein (IJV, which was not possible in prone position without the help of ultrasound. Best view of right IJV was obtained and CVC was placed using real-time ultrasound without complications. Ultrasound-guided CVC placement can be done in atypical patient positions where traditional anatomic landmark technique has no role. Use of ultrasound not only increases the speed of placement but also reduces complications known with the traditional blind technique.

  10. Central Venous Catheter (CVC related infections: a local retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Fresu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Central venous catheter (CVC related infection is associated with significant increases in morbidity, mortality, and health care cost.This local surveillance study was carry out to monitor the frequency of occurrence of CVC-related blood stream infections. Materials and methods. During the period January – December 2005, 226 CVC specimens were analyzed (quantitative method and microrganism identification from positive samples was performed by Vitek II. In 53 patients it was possible to compare quantitative results with those obtained from blood cultures. Results. Positive CVC samples were 125 (55% and 130 microrganisms were isolated: 109 Gram-positives (84%, 4 Gram-negatives (3%, and 17 mycetes (13%. Among pathogens collected simultaneously from CVC and blood samples, the most frequently isolated were Staphylococcus spp. (30% coagulase-negative staphylococci and 20%. S. aureus and Candida spp. (45%. In the group of patients that presented positive CVC and negative blood samples the most frequently recovered microrganisms were staphylococci. Many isolates (33% were polymicrobial. Conclusions. Catheter-related infections occurred in those patients who presented the same pathogen in both CVC and blood cultures. These infections were principally caused by staphylococci and Candida spp. On the contrary, a possible CVC contamination could be suspected when positive CVC and negative blood cultures were found.

  11. Obtaining Coagulation Blood Samples From Central Venous Access Devices: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Kerri A; Aucoin, Julia; Meyer, Britt

    2015-08-01

    Central venous access devices are used for chemotherapy and other medication administration, blood product administration, parenteral nutrition, and for obtaining blood samples in patients where the vasculature is difficult to access. Patients may need additional blood samples prior to invasive procedures and when clinical situations arise during cancer care. In addition, monitoring coagulability through ongoing blood testing is common in patients with cancer and requires repeated sampling to adjust anticoagulant medications. The purpose of this review of the literature is to determine the best practices for collecting coagulation test samples from central venous access devices. The authors conducted a systematic review of the literature. The only method for obtaining reliable coagulation test results from central venous access devices is the flush then waste/discard method. This method has only been studied with peripherally inserted central catheters. Additional randomized, controlled trials with larger sample sizes are needed to determine the most appropriate method for drawing coagulation test results from central venous access devices.

  12. Early removal versus expectant management of central venous catheters in neonates with bloodstream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Chakrapani; Oddie, Sam J; McGuire, William

    2016-04-20

    Uncertainty exists regarding the management of newborn infants with a bloodstream infection and a central venous catheter in place. The central venous catheter may act as a nidus for infecting organisms and observational studies have suggested that early removal of the catheter is associated with a lower incidence of persistent or complicated infection. However, since central venous catheters provide secure vascular access to deliver nutrition and medications, the possible harms of early removal versus expectant management also need to be considered. To determine the effect of early removal versus expectant management of central venous catheters on morbidity and mortality in newborn infants with bloodstream infections. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. This included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2015, Issue 11), MEDLINE (1966 to October 2015), EMBASE (1980 to October 2015), CINAHL (1982 to October 2015), conference proceedings and previous reviews. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared early removal versus expectant management of central venous catheters in neonates with bloodstream infections. We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. We did not identify any eligible randomised controlled trials. There are no trial data to guide practice regarding early removal versus expectant management of central venous catheters in newborn infants with bloodstream infections. A simple and pragmatic randomised controlled trial is needed to resolve the uncertainty about optimal management in this common and important clinical scenario.

  13. Complication rates among peripherally inserted central venous catheters and centrally inserted central catheters in the medical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Matthew E; Yadav, Hemang; Cawcutt, Kelly A; Cartin-Ceba, Rodrigo

    2016-02-01

    There are limited contemporary data describing the rates of catheter-related deep vein thrombosis (CRDVT) and central line-associated bloodstream infection for peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) and centrally inserted central venous catheters (CICCs) in the medical intensive care unit (ICU). We performed a retrospective cohort study of 200 PICCs (dual/triple lumen) and 200 CICCs (triple/quadruple lumen) placed in medical ICU adults at Mayo Rochester between 2012 and 2013. Central lines were followed from insertion time until hospital dismissal (primary analysis) or ICU discharge (secondary analysis). Symptomatic CRDVT was determined by Doppler ultrasound. Central line-associated bloodstream infection was defined according to federal reporting criteria. During 1730 PICC days and 637 CICC days, the incidence of CRDVT when followed until hospital dismissal was 4% and 1% (4.6 and 3.1 per 1000 catheter-days), respectively, P = .055. When censored at the time of ICU dismissal, the rates were 2% and 1% (5.3 and 3.7 per 1000 catheter-days), P = .685. Only 1 central line-associated bloodstream infection occurred in a PICC following ICU dismissal, P > .999. Thrombotic and infectious complications were uncommon following PICC and CICC insertion, with no significant difference in complication rates observed. Half of PICC DVTs occurred on the general floor, and like all central catheters placed in the ICU, PICCs should be aggressively discontinued when no longer absolutely needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The where, what and how of paediatric central venous access | Gray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) in paediatric patients to make informed decisions about the site, insertion technique, type of catheter to use, and care of the CVC. Keywords: central venous catheter, children, acute complications, infection, thrombosis, subclavian vein, ...

  15. Thrombotic and infectious complications of central venous catheters in patients with hematological malignancies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, R.S.; Jie, K.S.; Verbon, A.; Pampus, EC van; Schouten, H.C.

    2008-01-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) have considerably improved the management of patients with hematological malignancies, by facilitating chemotherapy, supportive therapy and blood sampling. Complications of insertion of CVCs include mechanical (arterial puncture, pneumothorax), thrombotic and

  16. Central venous blood gas and acid-base status in conscious dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Jun; Itami, Takaharu; Ishizuka, Tomohito; Fukui, Sho; Miyoshi, Kenjirou; Sano, Tadashi; Yamashita, Kazuto

    2015-07-01

    To determine the reference level of central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) and clinical efficacy of central venous blood gas analysis, partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide, pH, oxygen saturation, base excess (B.E.) and HCO3 concentration were compared between simultaneously obtained central venous and arterial blood samples from conscious healthy 6 dogs and 5 cats. Comparisons between arteriovenous samples were performed by a paired t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. Between arteriovenous samples, B.E. showed good agreement, but there were significant differences in other parameters in the dogs, and no good agreement was detected in cats. The ScvO2 in dogs and cats were 82.3 ± 3.5 and 62.4 ± 13.5%, respectively. Central venous blood gas analysis is indispensable, especially in cats.

  17. Prophylactic antibiotics for preventing early central venous catheter Gram positive infections in oncology patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wetering, M. D.; van Woensel, J. B. M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term tunnelled central venous catheters (TCVCs) are increasingly used when treating oncology patients. Despite international guidelines on sterile insertion, appropriate catheter maintenance and use, infections still a complication of TCVC. These infections are mainly caused by

  18. Prophylactic antibiotics for preventing early central venous catheter Gram positive infections in oncology patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wetering, M. D.; van Woensel, J. B. M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term tunnelled central venous catheters (TCVC) are increasingly used in oncology patients. Despite guidelines on insertion, maintenance and use, infections remain an important complication. Most infections are caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Therefore antimicrobial prevention

  19. Injection of gadolinium contrast through pediatric central venous catheters: a safety study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, John M.; Ramos, Yanerys; Finn, J.P. [University of California, Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kung, Geoffrey L. [University of California, Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of California, Biomedical Engineering Interdepartmental Program, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Moghaddam, Abbas N. [University of California, Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ennis, Daniel B. [University of California, Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of California, Biomedical Engineering Interdepartmental Program, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of California, Biomedical Physics Interdepartmental Program, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Catheter rupture during CT angiography has prompted policies prohibiting the use of electronic injectors with peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) not only for CT but also for MRI. Consequently, many institutions mandate hand injection for MR angiography, limiting precision of infusion rates and durations of delivery. To determine whether electronic injection of gadolinium-based contrast media through a range of small-caliber, single-lumen PICCs would be safe without risk of catheter rupture over the range of clinical protocols and determine whether programmed flow rates and volumes were realized when using PICCs for contrast delivery. Experiments were performed and recorded using the Medrad Spectris Solaris EP MR Injection System. PICC sizes, contrast media and flow rates were based on common institutional protocols. No catheters were damaged during any experiments. Mean difference between programmed and delivered volume was 0.07 {+-} 0.10 mL for all experiments. Reduced flow rates and prolonged injection durations were observed when the injector's pressure-limiting algorithm was triggered, only in protocols outside the clinical range. PICCs commonly used in children can withstand in vitro power injection of gadolinium-based contrast media at protocols significantly above clinical levels. (orig.)

  20. Hydrophilic surface coatings with embedded biocidal silver nanoparticles and sodium heparin for central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kris N J; Croes, Sander; Boersma, Rinske S; Stobberingh, Ellen E; van der Marel, Cees; van der Veen, Frederik H; Knetsch, Menno L W; Koole, Leo H

    2011-02-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) have become indispensable in the treatment of neonates and patients undergoing chemotherapy or hemodialysis. A CVC provides easy access to the patient's circulation, thus enabling facile monitoring of hemodynamic parameters, nutritional support, or administration of (cytostatic) medication. However, complications with CVCs, such as bacterial bloodstream infection or thromboembolism, are common. Bloodstream infections, predominantly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, are notoriously difficult to prevent and treat. Furthermore, patients receiving infusion therapy through a CVC are at risk for deep-vein thrombosis, especially of the upper limbs. Several recent clinical trials have shown that prophylactic anticoagulation (low-molecular-weight heparin or vitamin K antagonists) is not effective. Here, we report on the systematic development of a new bifunctional coating concept that can -uniquely- be applied to make CVC surfaces antimicrobial and antithrombogenic at the same time. The novel coating consists of a moderately hydrophilic synthetic copolymer of N-vinylpyrrollidinone (NVP) and n-butyl methacrylate (BMA), containing embedded silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and sodium heparin. The work demonstrates that the AgNPs strongly inhibit adhesion of S. aureus (reference strain and clinical isolates). Surprisingly, heparin not only rendered our surfaces practically non-thrombogenic, but also contributed synergistically to their biocidal activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Laser Recanalization of Central Venous Occlusion to Salvage a Threated Arteriovenous Fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambhia, Sagar; Janko, Matthew; Hacker, Robert I

    2018-02-15

    Central venous occlusion is conventionally managed with balloon angioplasty, stent extension or sharp recanalization. Here we describe recanalization of a chronically occluded innominate vein using excimer laser after conventional techniques were unsuccessful. Patient clinical improvement and fistula patency have been sustained two years post-intervention. This technique may provide new hemodialysis access options for patients who would not otherwise be candidates for hemodialysis access on the ipsilateral side of a central venous occlusion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hemodialysis tunneled central venous catheters: five-year outcome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandolfo, Salvatore; Acconcia, Pasqualina; Bucci, Raffaella; Corradi, Bruno; Farina, Marco; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Stucchi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Tunneled central venous catheters (tCVCs) are considered inferior to arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) and grafts in all nephrology guidelines. However, they are being increasingly used as hemodialysis vascular access. The purpose of this study was to document the natural history of tCVCs and determine the rate and type of catheter replacement. This was a prospective study of 141 patients who underwent hemodialysis with tCVCs between January 2008 and December 2012. The patients used 154 tCVCs. Standard protocols about management of tCVCs, according to European Renal Best Practice, were well established. All catheters were inserted in the internal jugular vein. Criteria for catheter removal were persistent bloodstream infection, detection of an outbreak of catheter-related bloodstream (CRBS) infections, or catheter dysfunction. Event rates were calculated per 1,000 catheter days; tCVC cumulative survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Catheter replacement occurred in 15 patients (0.29 per 1,000 days); catheter dysfunction was the main cause of replacement (0.18 per 1,000 days), typically within 12 months of surgical insertion. A total of 53 CRBS events in 36 patients were identified (0.82 per 1,000 days); 17 organisms, most commonly Gram-positive pathogens, were isolated; 87% of CVC infections were treated by systemic antibiotics associated with lock therapy. tCVC cumulative survival was 91% at 1 year, 88% at 2 years and 85% at 4 years. Our data show a high survival rate of tCVCs in hemodialysis patients, with low incidence of catheter dysfunction and CRBS events. These data justify tCVC use for hemodialysis vascular access, also as first choice, especially in patients with exhausted peripheral access and limited life expectancy.

  3. CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER AS A VASCULAR APPROACH TO HEMODIALYSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verica Djordjevic

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of the central venous catheter (CVC as a temporary orpermanent vascular approach to hemodialysis has been practiced in our Center since1994. So far 30 (12,6% patients have been thus treated. The primary application hasbeen done in 25 patients, namely: the first making of the A V fistula has been done in16, the ABT in 6, while the vascular approach correction in 3 patients. The secondaryapplication has been done in 5 patients. The infection episode incidence concerningthe CVC application is 20 infections per 1.000 patients. This is the upper limitaccording to the data given in the literature (5, rang 3-20. The average duration of thecatheter is 21 + - 13 days (rang 1-47. Two-volume catheters have been used for ajugular approach though less often for a femoral one. The unsuccessful placing due tothe catheter thrombosis has occurred in 4 patients, the catheter drop-out and itsreplacing have been done in 2 patients, while no replacement has happened in onečaše. The treatment has been stopped in one patient. Tn four patients the cerebrovascularinsult has happened after placing the CVC. The mortality rate is 26,6%,that is, K patients, namely: 4 due to cerebrovascular insult, one due to lung emboly,one due to heart weakness and one due to the sepsis from the V fistula. One patientdied at home for unknown reason. A high infection episode incidence rate is related toinadequate patients' placing so that their location in the rooms for intensive care is away of reducing it. It is necessary to provide for general aseptic procedure at work aswell as for betterment of the accompanying procedures (hemoculture, antibiograms,sterilization in order to maintain a safe catheter function.

  4. Prevention of venous thrombosis by preoperative glycyrrhizin infusion in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Nobuaki; Kira, Yukimi; Yabunaka, Yoriko; Takaoka, Kunio

    2008-09-01

    Glycyrrhizin is an agent with the capacity to bind to selectin molecules expressed on vascular endothelial cells and potentially prevent the adherence of neutrophils to the vascular endothelial surface. It has been found to prevent intravenous thrombus formation. Venous thrombosis was induced in male rats by ligation of the inferior vena cava (IVC) for 6 h. Before the ligation, the study rats were given intravenous injections of glycyrrhizin through the IVC. After 6 h of venous ligation, the rats were sacrificed and the IVC segments were harvested. Thrombus within the IVC was collected to measure the wet weight. Gene expression of P-, L-, and E-selectin was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction using extracts of mRNA from the IVC vein wall. As baseline controls, IVC samples without ligation were harvested immediately after laparotomy. Neutrophil adhesion to the luminal surface of IVC was assessed on histological sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Blood samples were collected through the IVC proximal to the ligation after 6 h to estimate activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT). To investigate the effect of glycyrrhizin on binding capacity of P-selectin to human neutrophils, real-time biospecific interaction analysis was performed with the Biacore 2000 system. The mean weight of thrombus in the glycyrrhizintreated group was 12.9 +/- 11.1 mg, which is significantly lower than that of the saline-treated control group (21.3 +/- 12.5 mg). The expression level of P-and L-selectin mRNA in both saline-and glycyrrhizin-treated groups was significantly higher than that of the baseline control. Histological studies of cross sections of IVC showed significantly fewer neutrophils adhering to the luminal surface with glycyrrhizin treatment than in the saline-treated controls. There was no significant difference in the values of coagulation parameters with or without glycyrrhizin treatment. In vitro analysis showed

  5. A Rare Case of Massive Hemothorax due to Central Venous Catheterization Treated with Angiographic Stent Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Min Bae

    Full Text Available In critically ill patients, centeral venous catheterization is a widely used procedure for fluid resuscitation, massive transfusion, total parenteral nutrition, central venous pressure monitoring and hemodialysis. However, many complications are associated with central venous catheterization. Among these complications, hemothorax is rare but fatal. We recently experienced a 32-year-old female diagnosed with hemothorax due to subclavian catheterization who was successfully treated with angiographic intervention. There are no absolute indications of surgery or interventional treatment in such cases. Multicenter studies and consensus are necessary to determine the proper treatment for hemothorax due to central venous catheterization. Angiographic treatment is rarely used for this uncommon complication of subclavian catheterization. We describe a rare case with a review of the literature.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of a central venous catheter care bundle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate A Halton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A bundled approach to central venous catheter care is currently being promoted as an effective way of preventing catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI. Consumables used in the bundled approach are relatively inexpensive which may lead to the conclusion that the bundle is cost-effective. However, this fails to consider the nontrivial costs of the monitoring and education activities required to implement the bundle, or that alternative strategies are available to prevent CR-BSI. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a bundle to prevent CR-BSI in Australian intensive care patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A Markov decision model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the bundle relative to remaining with current practice (a non-bundled approach to catheter care and uncoated catheters, or use of antimicrobial catheters. We assumed the bundle reduced relative risk of CR-BSI to 0.34. Given uncertainty about the cost of the bundle, threshold analyses were used to determine the maximum cost at which the bundle remained cost-effective relative to the other approaches to infection control. Sensitivity analyses explored how this threshold alters under different assumptions about the economic value placed on bed-days and health benefits gained by preventing infection. If clinicians are prepared to use antimicrobial catheters, the bundle is cost-effective if national 18-month implementation costs are below $1.1 million. If antimicrobial catheters are not an option the bundle must cost less than $4.3 million. If decision makers are only interested in obtaining cash-savings for the unit, and place no economic value on either the bed-days or the health benefits gained through preventing infection, these cost thresholds are reduced by two-thirds. CONCLUSIONS: A catheter care bundle has the potential to be cost-effective in the Australian intensive care setting. Rather than anticipating cash-savings from this intervention, decision

  7. Chronic central nervous system MC3/4R blockade attenuates hypertension induced by nitric oxide synthase inhibition but not by angiotensin II infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Alexandre A; do Carmo, Jussara M; Dubinion, John H; Bassi, Mirian; Mokhtarpouriani, Kasra; Hamza, Shereen M; Hall, John E

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether central melanocortin 3 and 4 receptor (MC3/4R) blockade attenuates the blood pressure (BP) responses to chronic L-NAME or angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion in Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with telemetry transmitters, venous catheters, and intracerebroventricular cannula into the lateral ventricle. After 5 days of control measurements, L-NAME (10 μg/kg/min IV, groups 1 and 2) or Ang II (10 ng/kg/min IV, groups 3 and 4) were infused for 24 days, and starting on day 7 of L-NAME or Ang II infusion, the MC3/4R antagonist SHU-9119 (24 nmol/d, n=6/group; groups 1 and 3) or vehicle (saline 0.5 μL/h, n=6/group; groups 2 and 4) was infused intracerebroventricularly for 10 days. A control normotensive group also received SHU-9119 for 10 days (n=5). L-NAME and Ang II increased BP by 40±3 and 56±5 mm Hg, respectively, although heart rate was slightly reduced. MC3/4R blockade doubled food intake and reduced heart rate (≈40 to ≈50 bpm) in all groups. MC3/4R blockade caused only a small reduction in BP in normotensive group (4 mm Hg) and no change in rats receiving Ang II, although markedly reducing BP by 21±4 mm Hg in L-NAME-treated rats. After SHU-9119 infusion was stopped, food intake, heart rate, and BP gradually returned to values observed before SHU-9119 infusion was started. Ganglionic blockade at the end of L-NAME or Ang II infusion caused similar BP reduction in both groups. These results suggest that the brain MC3/4R contributes, at least in part, to the hypertension induced by chronic L-NAME infusion but not by Ang II. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. CHRONIC CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM MC3/4R BLOCKADE ATTENUATES HYPERTENSION INDUCED BY NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE INHIBITION BUT NOT BY ANGIOTENSIN II INFUSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Alexandre A.; do Carmo, Jussara M.; Dubinion, John H.; Bassi, Mirian; Mokhtarpouriani, Kasra; Hamza, Shereen M.; Hall, John E.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether central melanocortin 3 and 4 receptor (MC3/4R) blockade attenuates the BP responses to chronic L-NAME or angiotensin II (Ang-II) infusion in Sprague Dawley rats implanted with telemetry transmitters, venous catheters and intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula into the lateral ventricle. After 5 days of control measurements, L-NAME (10 μg/kg/day, i.v. – groups 1 and 2) or Ang II (10 ng/kg/min, i.v. – groups 3 and 4) were infused for 24 days and starting on day 7 of L-NAME or Ang II infusion the MC3/4R antagonist SHU-9119 (24 nmol/day, n=6/group – groups 1 and 3) or vehicle (saline 0.5 μl/hr, n=6/group – groups 2 and 4) was infused ICV for 10 days. A control normotensive group also received SHU-9119 for 10 days (n=5). L-NAME and Ang II increased BP by 40±3 and 56±5 mmHg, respectively; while heart rate (HR) was slightly reduced. MC3/4R blockade doubled food intake and reduced HR (~40 to ~50 bpm) in all groups. MC3/4R blockade caused only a small reduction in BP in normotensive group (4 mmHg) and no change in rats receiving Ang II, while markedly reducing BP by 21±4 mmHg in L-NAME treated rats. After SHU-9119 infusion was stopped, food intake, HR and BP gradually returned to values observed before SHU-9119 infusion was started. Ganglionic blockade performed at the end of L-NAME or Ang II infusion caused similar BP reduction in both groups. These results suggest that the brain MC3/4R contributes, at least in part, to the hypertension induced by chronic L-NAME infusion but not by Ang II. PMID:25287400

  9. Comparison of complication rates between umbilical and peripherally inserted central venous catheters in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnts, Inge Johanna Jacoba; Bullens, Lauren Maria; Groenewoud, Joannes Martinus Maria; Liem, Kian Djien

    2014-01-01

    To compare the complication rates between umbilical central venous catheters and peripherally inserted central venous catheters in newborns and to investigate whether other variables might increase complication rates. A retrospective observational study. A Level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Newborns (gestational age 24-42 weeks). All central venous catheter-related complications were retrospectively analyzed in newborns. The differences in survival rates between the two types of central venous catheters were evaluated using a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with removal because of complications as the event of interest. In total, 140 umbilical venous catheters and 63 peripherally inserted central catheters were included. There were no significant differences in removals due to complications between the two catheters. The central line-associated bloodstream infections had the highest complication incidence, followed by obstruction, dislocation, leakage, and extravasation. There were no influences of gestational age, birth weight, and the use of subsequent catheters on the complication incidence. A high complication incidence resulted in removal of the catheters, but it was not significantly different between the two catheters. The prevention of complications should be an important goal in the daily care of infants in the NICU. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  10. Central venous obstruction in hemodialysis patients: the usefulness of percutaneous treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Young; Goo, Dong Erk; Kim, Dae Ho; Hong, Hyun Suk; Lee, Hae Kyoung; Choi, Duk Lin; Yang, Sung Boo; Moon, Chul [College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang Univ., Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-04-01

    To analyse the effectiveness of percutaneous treatment of central venous obstruction in patients undergoing hemodialysis. In 100 patients, 107 central venous strictures (56 subclavian (occlusion:21, stenosis:35) and 51 innominate (occlusion:23,stenosis:28)) were assessed, and 170 percutaneous angioplasty procedures were performed. Balloon dilation of the venous lumen was the preferred mode, but if dilation was incomplete we inserted a stent at the site of the stricture. Technical success, procedural complications and the long-term patency rate were evaluated, and the patency difference according to location and degree of stricture, the existence of DM, and any history of central catheter insertion was also determined. We inserted 52 stents in 170 procedures, in 157 (92.4%) of which initial technical success was achieved. Stent migration occurred in two cases and balloon rupture in three. The 6- and 12-month primary patency rates were 46.2% and 24.1%, respectively, and the mean patency rate was 8.5 months. The 1-, 2-and 3-year accumulative patency rates were 59.8%, 47.5% and 35.7%, respectively, and the mean patency rate was 23.5 months. Other than in the history of central catheter insertion, there were no statistically significant differences in patency rates (p=0.0128). In hemodialysis patients with a central venous stricture, percutaneous angioplasty is a safe and useful procedure, but to maintain long-term central venous patency, repeated interventions are required.

  11. [Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection as incidental finding: Explanation for apparently paradoxical central venous blood gas analysis results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, L; Artmeier-Brandt, U

    2015-10-01

    A partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC) is a congenital abnormality of the great thoracic vessels the incidence of which is underestimated and is associated with a left-right shunt. It rarely develops into a right-sided cardiac insufficiency. Because of the mostly low left-right shunt volume, a PAPVC is often asymptomatic and mostly incidentally detected in advanced age. Incorrect positioning of a central venous catheter or paradoxical blood gas parameters can serve to indicate the presence of a PAPVC. This article presents the case a 50-year-old patient with a PAPVC of the left upper lobe pulmonary vein draining into the left innominate vein without prior clinical symptoms. Blood gas analyses from the superior vena cava, where the catheter placement was confirmed by computed tomography angiography, showed unexplainable arterial values. The anatomical abnormality was confirmed by computed tomography.

  12. Continous monitoring of central venous oxygen saturation in children and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmar, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Maintenance of adequate tissue oxygenation is an important task in intensive care units. There are many variables which are measured for this purpose. Central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) monitoring has some advantages over the mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) monitoring in children and infants as there is no need to insert a pulmonary catheter. The clinical usefulness seems promising.

  13. Central Venous Catheter-Related Tachycardia in the Newborn: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Amer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Central venous access is an important aspect of neonatal intensive care management. Malpositioned central catheters have been reported to induce cardiac tachyarrhythmia in adult populations and there are case reports within the neonatal population. We present a case of a preterm neonate with a preexisting umbilical venous catheter (UVC, who then developed a supraventricular tachycardia (SVT. This was initially treated with intravenous adenosine with transient reversion. Catheter migration was subsequently detected, with the UVC tip located within the heart. Upon withdrawal of the UVC and a final dose of adenosine, the arrhythmia permanently resolved. Our literature review confirms that tachyarrhythmia is a rare but recognised neonatal complication of malpositioned central venous catheters. We recommend the immediate investigation of central catheter position when managing neonatal tachyarrhythmia, as catheter repositioning is an essential aspect of management.

  14. Central Venous Catheter-Related Tachycardia in the Newborn: Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Aya; Broadbent, Roland S; Edmonds, Liza; Wheeler, Benjamin J

    2016-01-01

    Central venous access is an important aspect of neonatal intensive care management. Malpositioned central catheters have been reported to induce cardiac tachyarrhythmia in adult populations and there are case reports within the neonatal population. We present a case of a preterm neonate with a preexisting umbilical venous catheter (UVC), who then developed a supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). This was initially treated with intravenous adenosine with transient reversion. Catheter migration was subsequently detected, with the UVC tip located within the heart. Upon withdrawal of the UVC and a final dose of adenosine, the arrhythmia permanently resolved. Our literature review confirms that tachyarrhythmia is a rare but recognised neonatal complication of malpositioned central venous catheters. We recommend the immediate investigation of central catheter position when managing neonatal tachyarrhythmia, as catheter repositioning is an essential aspect of management.

  15. Transposition of cephalic vein to rescue hemodialysis access arteriovenous fistula and treat symptomatic central venous obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Jose Skupien

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that stenosis or central venous obstruction affects 20 to 50% of patients who undergo placement of catheters in central veins. For patients who are given hemodialysis via upper limbs, this problem causes debilitating symptoms and increases the risk of loss of hemodialysis access. We report an atypical case of treatment of a dialysis patient with multiple comorbidities, severe swelling and pain in the right upper limb (RUL, few alternative sites for hemodialysis vascular access, a functioning brachiobasilic fistula in the RUL and severe venous hypertension in the same limb, secondary to central vein occlusion of the internal jugular vein and right brachiocephalic trunk. The alternative surgical treatment chosen was to transpose the RUL cephalic vein, forming a venous necklace at the anterior cervical region, bypassing the site of venous occlusion. In order to achieve this, we dissected the cephalic vein in the right arm to its junction with the axillary vein, devalved the cephalic vein and anastomosed it to the contralateral external jugular vein, providing venous drainage to the RUL, alleviating symptoms of venous hypertension and preserving function of the brachiobasilic fistula.

  16. Interventional radiologic placement of tunneled central venous catheters : results and complications in 557 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Kyo; Do, Young Soo; Paik, Chul H. [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    1999-05-01

    To evaluate prospectively the results of interventional radiologic placement of tunneled central venous catheters, and subsequent complications. Between April 1997 and April 1998, a total of 557 tunneled central venous catheters were percutaneously placed in 517 consecutive patients in an interventional radiology suite. The indications were chemotherapy in 533 cases, total parenteral nutrition in 23 and transfusion in one. Complications were evaluated prospectively by means of a chart review, chest radiography, central vein angiography and blood/catheter culture. The technical success rate for tunneled central venous catheter placement was 100% (557/557 cases). The duration of catheter placement ranged from 4 to 356 (mean, 112{+-}4.6) days; Hickman catheters were removed in 252 cases during follow-up. Early complications included 3 cases of pneumothorax(0.5%), 4 cases of local bleeding/hematoma(0.7%), 2 cases of primary malposition(0.4%), and 1 case of catheter leakage(0.2%). Late complications included 42 cases of catheter-related infection(7.5%), 40 cases of venous thrombosis (7.2%), 18 cases of migration (3.2%), 5 cases of catheter / pericatheter of occlusion(0.8%), and 1 case of pseudoaneurysm(0.2%). The infection rate and thrombosis rate per 1000 days were 1.57 and 1.50, respectively. The technical success rate of interventional radiologic placement of tunneled central venous catheters was high. In comparison to conventional surgical placement, it is a more reliable method and leads to fewer complications.

  17. Heparinized and Saline Solutions in the Maintenance of Arterial and Central Venous Catheters After Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyaeifard, Mohsen; Alizadehasl, Azin; Aghdaii, Nahid; Sadeghi, Ali; Azarfarin, Rasoul; Masoumi, Gholamreza; Golbargian, Ghodrat

    2015-08-01

    Heparinized saline solution is used to prevent occlusion in the arterial catheters and central venous pressure monitoring catheters. Even at low dose, heparin administration can be associated with serious complications. Normal saline solution can maintain patency of arterial catheters and central venous pressure monitoring catheters. The current study aimed to compare the efficacy of normal saline with that of heparinized one to maintain patency of arterial and central venous catheters after cardiac surgery. In the current randomized controlled trial, 100 patients, with an age range of 18 - 65 years of valve and coronary artery surgery were studied in Rajaie heart center, Tehran, Iran. Patients were randomized to receive either heparinized saline (n = 50) or normal saline flush solutions (n = 50). In the study, arterial catheters and central venous pressure monitoring catheters were daily checked for any signs of occlusion in three postoperative days as primary end-point of the study. According to the information obtained from the study, four (8%) arterial catheters in the saline group (P value: 0.135) and three (6%) arterial catheters in the heparin group (P value = 0.097) were obstructed. Statistical analysis showed that the incidence of obstruction and changes in all other parameters between the two groups during the three-day follow-up was not significant (all P values > 0.05). It seems that there is no difference in the use of heparinized and normal saline solutions to prevent catheter occlusion of arterial and central venous pressure.

  18. Nerve conduction studies are safe in patients with central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Zachary N; Mundwiler, Andrew; Oral, Hakan; Gallagher, Gary W

    2017-08-01

    It is unknown if central venous catheters bypass the skin's electrical resistance and engender a risk of nerve conduction study-induced cardiac arrhythmia. The objective of this study is to determine if nerve conduction studies affect cardiac conduction and rhythm in patients with central venous catheters. Under continuous 12-lead electrocardiogram monitoring, subjects with and without central venous catheters underwent a series of upper extremity nerve conduction studies. A cardiologist reviewed the electrocardiogram tracings for evidence of cardiac conduction abnormality or arrhythmia. Ten control subjects and 10 subjects with central venous catheters underwent the nerve conduction study protocol. No malignant arrhythmias or conduction abnormalities were noted in either group. Nerve conduction studies of the upper extremities, including both proximal stimulation and repetitive stimulation, do not appear to confer increased risk of cardiac conduction abnormality in those patients with central venous catheters who are not critically ill or have a prior history of arrhythmia. Muscle Nerve 56: 321-323, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Insertion of central venous catheters for hemodialysis using angiographic techniques in patients with previous multiple catheterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotsikoris, Ioannis, E-mail: gkotsikoris@gmail.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Zygomalas, Apollon, E-mail: azygomalas@upatras.gr [Department of General Surgery, University Hospital of Patras (Greece); Papas, Theofanis, E-mail: pfanis@otenet.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Maras, Dimitris, E-mail: dimmaras@gmail.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Pavlidis, Polyvios, E-mail: polpavlidis@yahoo.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Andrikopoulou, Maria, E-mail: madric@gmail.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Tsanis, Antonis, E-mail: atsanis@gmail.com [Department of Interventional Radiology, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Alivizatos, Vasileios, E-mail: valiviz@hol.gr [Department of General Surgery and Artificial Nutrition Unit, “Agios Andreas” General Hospital of Patras (Greece); Bessias, Nikolaos, E-mail: bessias@otenet.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece)

    2012-09-15

    Introduction: Central venous catheter placement is an effective alternative vascular access for dialysis in patients with chronic renal failure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the insertion of central venous catheters for hemodialysis using angiographic techniques in patients with previous multiple catheterizations in terms of efficacy of the procedure and early complications. Materials and methods: Between 2008 and 2010, the vascular access team of our hospital placed 409 central venous catheters in patients with chronic renal failure. The procedure was performed using the Seldinger blind technique. In 18 (4.4%) cases it was impossible to advance the guidewire, and so the patients were transported to the angiography suite. Results: Using the angiographic technique, the guidewire was advanced in order to position the central venous catheter. The latter was inserted into the subclavian vein in 12 (66.6%) cases, into the internal jugular vein in 4 (22.2%) and into the femoral vein in 2 (11.1%) cases. There was only one complicated case with severe arrhythmia in 1 (5.5%) patient. Conclusion: Our results suggest that insertion of central venous catheters using angiographic techniques in hemodialysis patients with previous multiple catheterizations is a safe and effective procedure with few complications and high success rates.

  20. Dressings and securement devices for central venous catheters (CVC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Amanda J; Cooke, Marie L; Mitchell, Marion; Lin, Frances; New, Karen; Long, Debbie A; Mihala, Gabor; Rickard, Claire M

    2015-09-10

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) play a vital role in the management of acute and chronic illness. Dressings and securement devices must ensure CVCs do not dislodge or fall out, provide a barrier protection from microbial colonisation and infection, and be comfortable for the patient. There is a large range of dressing and securement products available for clinicians to use. To compare the available dressing and securement devices for CVCs, in terms of catheter-related bloodstream infection (BSI), catheter colonisation, entry- and exit-site infection, skin colonisation, skin irritation, failed catheter securement, dressing condition and mortality. In June 2015 we searched: The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); The Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE); NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHSEED); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; EBSCO CINAHL; six clinical trial registries and reference lists of identified trials. There were no restrictions based on language or date of publication or study setting. We included randomised controlled trials that evaluated the effects of dressing and securement devices for CVCs. All types of CVCs were included, i.e. short- and long-term CVCs, tunnelled and non-tunnelled, port-a-caths, haemodialysis catheters, and peripherally-inserted central catheters (PICCs). We used standard Cochrane Collaboration methods including independent review of titles and abstracts for relevance, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment of the included studies by two review authors. Results are expressed using risk ratio (RR) for categorical data with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For outcomes best presented as a rate-per-time-period, rate ratios and standard errors have been used. We performed multiple treatment meta-analyses to rank the effectiveness of each intervention for each outcome. We included 22 studies

  1. Central venous oxygen saturation: analysis, clinical use and effects on mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Megan

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this literature review was to provide a clear definition of central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO₂), highlight the differences between ScvO₂ and mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO₂), show how it can be used clinically and the effect central venous oxygen saturation has on mortality. Many articles concentrate on the individual aspects of ScvO₂, such as its use in early goal-directed therapy, but few provide a full overview of what it means, how to interpret results and how it can be used clinically. Keywords were searched for including central venous oxygen saturation ScvO₂ mixed venous oxygen saturations ScvO₂ early goal-directed therapy sepsis and mortality. Where possible only publications within the last 10 years were used but key publications were not excluded if they were out with this time frame. Central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO₂) is a very important measurement which can be easily taken in a critical care environment by both medical and nursing staff. It provides an understanding of the patient's oxygen delivery, oxygen consumption and cardiac output. It has a key role within early goal-directed therapy and has been shown to decrease mortality when taken and analysed appropriately. This literature review will highlight to nursing staff within the critical care environment the importance of central venous oxygen saturation measurement and interpretation. By raising awareness of the importance of this measurement it is hoped nursing staff will be proactive in both taking this test and analysing the results, therefore facilitating better care for the septic, critically ill patient and improving outcomes for these patients. © 2013 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  2. Alteplase use for malfunctioning central venous catheters correlates with catheter-associated bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Courtney M; Miller, Kathryn E; Beardsley, Andrew L; Ahmed, Sheikh S; Rojas, Luis A; Hedlund, Terri L; Speicher, Richard H; Nitu, Mara E

    2013-03-01

    A catheter thrombosis and the presence of a catheter-associated bloodstream infection (CBSI) often occur simultaneously, but it is unclear if or to what degree the two complications relate. Several animal and adult studies indicate a relationship between fibrin sheaths and thrombi in the development of CBSIs. To date, there has been limited human investigation in the pediatric population to determine a clear link between the presence of a thrombus and bacteremia. The use of alteplase for malfunctioning central venous catheter may indicate the formation of intraluminal thrombus or fibrin sheath. A catheter that requires alteplase is at higher risk of a CBSI. A retrospective chart review from July 2008 to December 2010. PICU. All patients with central catheters admitted to the PICU. No interventions performed with the retrospective study. Number of total central venous catheters, number of central venous catheters that received treatment with alteplase, and number of CBSIs. Preliminary data during the study period identified 3,289 central venous catheters. Twelve percent of these catheters required at least one dose of alteplase. There were 40 CBSIs during this same time period of which 28% received alteplase during the 5 days preceding the positive blood culture. The odds ratio for getting a CBSI when alteplase is administered is 2.87 (confidence interval 1.42-5.80; p = 0.002). The average age of the central venous catheters at time of infection was not statistically different, 16.1 days in the alteplase catheters compared with 25.6 days for the catheters that did not receive alteplase (p = 0.6). There is a positive correlation between the use of alteplase for malfunctioning central venous catheters and the development of a CASBI. This is likely associated with the presence of an intraluminal fibrin sheath or thrombus. This study adds evidence linking thrombus formation to CBSI.

  3. The prevention, diagnosis and management of central venous line infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesshyre, Emily; Goff, Zoy; Bowen, Asha; Carapetis, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    With advancing paediatric healthcare, the use of central venous lines has become a fundamental part of management of neonates and children. Uses include haemodynamic monitoring and the delivery of lifesaving treatments such as intravenous fluids, blood products, antibiotics, chemotherapy, haemodialysis and total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Despite preventative measures, central venous catheter-related infections are common, with rates of 0.5-2.8/1000 catheter days in children and 0.6-2.5/1000 catheter days in neonates. Central line infections in children are associated with increased mortality, increased length of hospital and intensive care unit stay, treatment interruptions, and increased complications. Prevention is paramount, using a variety of measures including tunnelling of long-term devices, chlorhexidine antisepsis, maximum sterile barriers, aseptic non-touch technique, minimal line accessing, and evidence-based care bundles. Diagnosis of central line infections in children is challenging. Available samples are often limited to a single central line blood culture, as clinicians are reluctant to perform painful venepuncture on children with a central, pain-free, access device. With the advancing evidence basis for antibiotic lock therapy for treatment, paediatricians are pushing the boundaries of line retention if safe to do so, due to among other reasons, often limited venous access sites. This review evaluates the available paediatric studies on management of central venous line infections and refers to consensus guidelines such as those of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Durability of central venous catheters. A randomized trial in children with malignant diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S W; Jungersen, D; Hole, P

    1996-01-01

    In a prospective randomized study the durability of tunnelled and non-tunnelled central venous catheters was investigated in children with malignant diseases. Twenty children were included in the study but four (two in each group) had to be excluded; three because the entry criteria turned out......, respectively. In conclusion cuffed, tunnelled central venous catheters are less prone to displacement than traditional percutaneous central venous catheters when used in children with malignant diseases....... not to be fulfilled and one because of lack of data. The median duration of the tunnelled catheters was 224 days with a range of 25-846 days which was significantly longer than that of conventional catheters (39.5 days, range 9-228 days). In addition six of eight conventional catheters were accidentally removed...

  5. Malpositioning of Central Venous Catheter from Right to Left Subclavian Vein: A Rare Complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takhar, P Rajendra; Motilal, Bunkar; Savita, Arya

    2017-11-01

    Invasive monitoring with central venous catheter (CVC) is a valuable tool now a day in Intensive Care Units and in postoperative hemodynamically unstable patients. It is often employed for administering medications and parenteral nutrition. In most of the instances, these catheters are inserted using proper topographical landmarks and ultrasonography-guided methods. Central venous cannulation is associated now and then with unexpected complications despite the use of all precautions and help of imaging techniques. There is a wide variety of complications related to the central venous cannulation including malpositioning. Malpositioning of the catheter into contralateral subclavian is an extremely unusual event. Here, we report a rare case of malpositioning of CVC from the right to the left subclavian vein also we outline how the misplacement was identified and effectively managed.

  6. Agreement and Correlation between Arterial and Central Venous Blood Gas Following Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilivand, Masoumeh; Khatony, Alireza; Moradi, Gholamreza; Najafi, Farid; Abdi, Alireza

    2017-03-01

    Arterial blood sampling, used to assess patients in acute conditions, may result in complications such as thrombosis and embolism. However, it can be replaced by venous blood sampling, but there is a dearth of information on this. To assess the correlation and agreement between the arterial and central venous blood gases analyses in patients undergoing elective Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) surgery. In this cross-sectional study, 100 ICU patients undergoing elective CABG surgery were recruited. 2 mm arterial and a 2 mm venous blood samples were obtained from each patient's arterial and central venous lines, respectively. To predict Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) values based on central Venous Blood Gas (VBG) values, the linear regression analysis was used and for evaluating their agreement Bland-Altman method was used. In total of 200 samples were obtained. The mean and Standard Deviation (SD) of age was 58.9±9.1 years and 51% of the participants were female. There was a strong correlation between ABG and central VBG values regarding pH, partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide (PCO2), Bicarbonate (HCO3) and Base Excess (BE) (r= 0.73, r=0.74, r=0.67 and r=0.71, respectively; panalysis showed an excellent agreement between all the variables (panalysis cannot replace ABG analysis in measuring exact PO2 status, necessitating arterial sampling in some matters, but with respect to the accuracy of pulse oximetry measurements in determining the exact PO2 status, for the rest of the indices a central VBG rather than an ABG can be utilised for determining patient's acid-base status. Particularly in patients who are hospitalised for a long time and have a central venous catheter in place like patients who have undergone CABG, thus reducing the risk and need for invasive arterial sampling.

  7. Clinical predictors of a low central venous oxygen saturation after major surgery: a prospective prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, E; Silbert, B; Ho, K M

    2015-01-01

    Optimising perioperative haemodynamic status may reduce postoperative complications. In this prospective prevalence study, we investigated the associations between standard haemodynamic parameters and a low central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) in patients after major surgery. A total of 201 patients requiring continuous arterial and central venous pressure monitoring after major surgery were recruited. Simultaneous arterial and central venous blood gases, haemodynamic and biochemical data and perfusion index were obtained from patients at a single time-point within 24 hours of surgery. A low ScvO2 (central venous pressure, haemoglobin concentrations, arterial pH and lactate concentrations, arterial oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide tensions (PaCO2) were all associated with a low ScvO2 in the univariate analyses. In the multivariate analysis, only a higher perfusion index (odds ratio [OR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78 to 0.98), PaO2 (OR 0.98 per mmHg increment, 95% CI 0.97 to 0.99) and PaCO2 (OR 0.88 per mmHg increment, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.95) and a lower central venous pressure (OR 1.14 per mmHg increment, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.25) were significantly associated with a reduced risk of a low ScvO2, all in a linear fashion. In conclusion, PaO2, PaCO2, perfusion index and central venous pressure were significant predictors of a low ScvO2 in patients after major surgery including cardiac surgery.

  8. Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis with a Continuous Infusion of Low-Dose Urokinase for Non-Acute Deep Venous Thrombosis of the Lower Extremity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Binbin; Zhang, Jingyong; Wu, Xuejun; Han, Zonglin; Zhou, Hua; Dong, Dianning; Jin, Xing [Shandong Provincial Hospital, Shandong University, Ji' nan (China)

    2011-02-15

    We wanted to evaluate the feasibility of catheter-directed thrombolysis with a continuous infusion of low-dose urokinase for treating non-acute (less than 14 days) deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremity. The clinical data of 110 patients who were treated by catheter-directed thrombolysis with a continuous infusion of low-dose urokinase for lower extremity deep venous thrombosis was analysed. Adjunctive angioplasty or/and stenting was performed for the residual stenosis. Venous recanalization was graded by pre- and posttreatment venography. Follow-up was performed by clinical evaluation and Doppler ultrasound. A total of 112 limbs with deep venous thrombosis with a mean symptom duration of 22.7 days (range: 15-38 days) were treated with a urokinase infusion (mean: 3.5 million IU) for a mean of 196 hours. After thrombolysis, stent placement was performed in 25 iliac vein lesions and percutaneous angioplasty (PTA) alone was done in fi ve iliac veins. Clinically significant recanalization was achieved in 81% (90 of 112) of the treated limbs: complete recanalization was achieved in 28% (31 of 112) and partial recanalization was achieved in 53% (59 of 112). Minor bleeding occurred in 14 (13%) patients, but none of the patients suffered from major bleeding or symptomatic pulmonary embolism. During followup (mean: 15.2 months, range: 3-24 months), the veins were patent in 74 (67%) limbs. Thirty seven limbs (32%) showed progression of the stenosis with luminal narrowing more than 50%, including three with rethrombosis, while one revealed an asymptomatic iliac vein occlusion: 25 limbs (22%) developed mild post-thrombotic syndrome, and none had severe post-thrombotic syndrome. Valvular reflux occurred in 24 (21%) limbs. Catheter-directed thrombolysis with a continuous infusion of low-dose urokinase combined with adjunctive iliac vein stenting is safe and effective for removal of the clot burden and for restoration of the venous flow in patients with non-acute lower

  9. Central venous oxygen saturation for the diagnosis of low cardiac output in septic shock patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Haase, N; Wiis, J

    2010-01-01

    Simple diagnostic tests are needed to screen septic patients for low cardiac output because intervention is recommended in these patients. We assessed the diagnostic value of central venous oxygen saturation in the superior vena cava (ScvO(2)) for detecting low cardiac output in patients with sep...... with septic shock.......Simple diagnostic tests are needed to screen septic patients for low cardiac output because intervention is recommended in these patients. We assessed the diagnostic value of central venous oxygen saturation in the superior vena cava (ScvO(2)) for detecting low cardiac output in patients...

  10. Human cerebral venous outflow pathway depends on posture and central venous pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gisolf, J; van Lieshout, J J; van Heusden, K

    2004-01-01

    and a Valsalva manoeuvre in the supine and standing position. The model, consisting of 2 jugular veins, each a chain of 10 units containing nonlinear resistances and capacitors, and a vertebral plexus containing a resistance, showed blood flow mainly through the internal jugular veins in the supine position......, but mainly through the vertebral plexus in the upright position. A Valsalva manoeuvre while standing completely re-opened the jugular veins. Results of ultrasound imaging of the right internal jugular vein cross-sectional area at the level of the laryngeal prominence in six healthy subjects, before...... and during a Valsalva manoeuvre in both body positions, correlate highly with model simulation of the jugular cross-sectional area (R(2) = 0.97). The results suggest that the cerebral venous flow distribution depends on posture and CVP: in supine humans the internal jugular veins are the primary pathway...

  11. Peripherally inserted central catheters are equivalent to centrally inserted catheters in intensive care unit patients for central venous pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Heath E; Rawson, Scott T; Dwyer, Timothy T; Patel, Chirag C; Wick, Jo A; Simpson, Steven Q

    2012-04-01

    To determine the equivalency of pressure measurements from peripherally inserted central catheters(PICCs) versus centrally inserted central venous catheters(CVCs) in vitro as well as in vivo. The in vitro study was performed in a clinical laboratory. Static pressure measurements from PICCs and CVCs were obtained in vitro over a physiologic range of 5–25 mmHg. Triple and dual lumen PICCs were directly compared to CVC controls.Dynamic pressure waveforms were recorded to simulate physiologic intravascular pressure variation. The in vivo study was executed in the medical intensive care unit(MICU) of a tertiary-level academic medical center. Data was collected from ten adult patients with both a PICC and a CVC in place for on-going clinical care. Measurements of central venous pressure (CVP) were recorded simultaneously from PICCs and CVCs. Duplicate measurements were taken after a stable waveform was recorded. For the in vitro study, a total of 540 pressure measurements were recorded. The average bias determined by Bland–Altman plot was 0 mmHg for the 5Fr PICC and 0.071 mmHg for the 6Fr PICC. The correlation coefficient for both catheters was 1.0 (P<0.001). Dynamic pressure waveforms revealed equivalent amplitude. During the in vivo trial, 70CVP measurements were collected. The paired CVP measurements were found to be highly reliable across subjects (r = 0.99, P<0.0001). No significance in the average difference in CVP measurement (PICC–CVC) was determined by the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test (S = 1,P = 0.93). In conclusion, PICCs are equivalent to CVCs when measuring static and dynamic pressure in vitro and CVP in ICU patients.

  12. Impregnated central venous catheters for prevention of bloodstream infection in children (the CATCH trial): a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Ruth E; Mok, Quen; Dwan, Kerry; Harron, Katie; Moitt, Tracy; Millar, Mike; Ramnarayan, Padmanabhan; Tibby, Shane M; Hughes, Dyfrig; Gamble, Carrol

    2016-04-23

    Impregnated central venous catheters are recommended for adults to reduce bloodstream infections but not for children because there is not enough evidence to prove they are effective. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of any type of impregnation (antibiotic or heparin) compared with standard central venous catheters to prevent bloodstream infections in children needing intensive care. We did a randomised controlled trial of children admitted to 14 English paediatric intensive care units. Children younger than 16 years were eligible if they were admitted or being prepared for admission to a participating paediatric intensive care unit and were expected to need a central venous catheter for 3 or more days. Children were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive a central venous catheter impregnated with antibiotics, a central venous catheter impregnated with heparin, or a standard central venous catheter with computer generated randomisation in blocks of three and six, stratified by method of consent, site, and envelope storage location within the site. The clinician responsible for inserting the central venous catheter was not masked to allocation, but allocation was concealed from patients, their parents, and the paediatric intensive care unit personnel responsible for their care. The primary outcome was time to first bloodstream infection between 48 h after randomisation and 48 h after central venous catheter removal with impregnated (antibiotic or heparin) versus standard central venous catheters, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. Safety analyses compared central venous catheter-related adverse events in the subset of children for whom central venous catheter insertion was attempted (per-protocol population). This trial is registered with ISRCTN number, ISRCTN34884569. Between Nov 25, 2010, and Nov 30, 2012, 1485 children were recruited to this study. We randomly assigned 502 children to receive standard central venous catheters, 486 to receive

  13. Endovascular electrocardiography to guide placement of totally implantable central venous catheters in oncologic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelagatti, Cecilia; Villa, Gianluca; Casini, Andrea; Chelazzi, Cosimo; De Gaudio, Angelo Raffaele

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate tip position of totally implantable central venous catheters is essential in order to prevent catheter-related complications, in particular thrombosis. Endovascular electrocardiography is an economic and safe method to guide placement of catheters into the central veins. Although widely utilized, there is still lack of conclusive evidence about its efficacy. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of endovascular electrocardiographic guided placement compared to the anthropometric method. Endovascular ECG was employed to guide electrocardiographic placement of a central venous catheter in a cohort of oncologic patients. The rate of correct placement and the incidence of catheter-related thrombosis were considered. Patients in which central venous catheters were inserted with the anthropometric technique were considered as control group. The rate of correct placement was 91% and 50% for ECG-guided and anthropometric catheters (pcatheter-related vascular thrombosis was lower for ECG-guided catheters (3.6% vs. 9.6%, n.s.), in particular for left-inserted catheters (0% vs. 33.3%, p=0.02). Endovascular electrocardiography was more effective than the anthropometric technique in placement of implantable central venous catheters and was associated with a lower incidence of catheter-related thrombosis, in particular for those inserted from the left-side.

  14. A systematic review of extravasation and local tissue injury from administration of vasopressors through peripheral intravenous catheters and central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubani, Osama M; Green, Robert S

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to collect and describe all published reports of local tissue injury or extravasation from vasopressor administration via either peripheral intravenous (IV) or central venous catheter. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases was performed from inception through January 2014 for reports of adults who received vasopressor intravenously via peripheral IV or central venous catheter for a therapeutic purpose. We included primary studies or case reports of vasopressor administration that resulted in local tissue injury or extravasation of vasopressor solution. Eighty-five articles with 270 patients met all inclusion criteria. A total of 325 separate local tissue injury and extravasation events were identified, with 318 events resulting from peripheral vasopressor administration and 7 events resulting from central administration. There were 204 local tissue injury events from peripheral administration of vasopressors, with an average duration of infusion of 55.9 hours (±68.1), median time of 24 hours, and range of 0.08 to 528 hours. In most of these events (174/204, 85.3%), the infusion site was located distal to the antecubital or popliteal fossae. Published data on tissue injury or extravasation from vasopressor administration via peripheral IVs are derived mainly from case reports. Further study is warranted to clarify the safety of vasopressor administration via peripheral IVs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevention of neonatal late-onset sepsis associated with the removal of percutaneously inserted central venous catheters in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemels, Marieke A. C.; van den Hoogen, Agnes; Verboon-Maciolek, Malgorzata A.; Fleer, Andre; Krediet, Tannette G.

    Objectives: Indwelling central venous catheters are the most important risk factors for the development of sepsis attributable to coagulase-negative staphylococci among preterm infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units. In addition, removal of a central venous catheter also may cause

  16. Endovascular repair of inadvertent arterial injury induced by central venous catheterization using a vascular closure device: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, So Hee; Jang, Woo Jin; Oh, Ju Heyon; Song, Yun Gyu [Samsung Changwon Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Central venous catheterization can cause various complications. Inadvertent subclavian artery catheterization was performed during insertion of a central venous catheter in a 73-year-old man suffering from panperitonitis due to small-bowel perforation. Endovascular treatment was conducted to treat the injured subclavian artery with a FemoSeal vascular closure device.

  17. Removal of percutaneously inserted central venous catheters in neonates is associated with the occurrence of sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoogen, Agnes; Brouwer, Mieke J.; Gerards, Leo J.; Fleer, Andre; Krediet, Tannette G.

    Background: Clinical signs of sepsis are frequently observed after removal of a percutaneously inserted central venous catheter (PCVC) in neonates admitted at our Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). To substantiate this finding and to evaluate the effect of antibiotics administered at the time of

  18. Ultrasound-guided central venous catheter placement : a structured review and recommendations for clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saugel, Bernd; Scheeren, Thomas W L; Teboul, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-01

    The use of ultrasound (US) has been proposed to reduce the number of complications and to increase the safety and quality of central venous catheter (CVC) placement. In this review, we describe the rationale for the use of US during CVC placement, the basic principles of this technique, and the

  19. An unknown complication of peripherally inserted central venous catheter in a patient with ventricular assist device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikh M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an unknown complication of peripherally inserted central venous catheter in a patient with Ventricular Assist Device. This rare complication led to the failure of the right ventricular assist device, which could be detrimental in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.

  20. Central venous oxygen saturation monitoring: role in adult donor care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powner, David J; Doshi, Pratik B

    2010-12-01

    Monitoring oxygen saturation of blood drawn from a catheter placed within the superior vena cava (Scvo2) has recently been promoted as a substitute for evaluating oxygen saturation of mixed venous blood drawn from the pulmonary artery (Svo2). The Svo2 reflects the balance between oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption throughout the body and, among critically ill patients, may be helpful for assessing resuscitation, cardiac function, or oxygen homeostasis end points. Use of Scvo2 instead has been promoted because of its easier access and recent use during resuscitation of patients with severe infections. Although data from healthy subjects and critically ill patients are available, no study has been done among organ donors to evaluate customary values for either Scvo2 or Svo2 or how well the values correspond. After loss of oxygen consumption in the brain following brain death, the customary values for these variables may be different from values in other groups of patients. Therefore, until donor-specific normative values for these important parameters are identified, we do not recommend that Scvo2 be used to evaluate the balance between donor oxygen consumption and delivery or as a variable to guide treatment.

  1. Complications Involving Central Venous Catheter Insertion in Newborns Admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torkaman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Developments in the use of central venous catheters have improved the treatment of critically ill newborns. Objectives The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the rate of catheter-related complications and associated risk factors in newborns. Patients and Methods This cross sectional study evaluated 60 infants with indications for central venous catheters who were selected by census from 2007 to 2014 in Baqiyatallah Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The catheters were Broviac numbers 14 - 16. Results Ultimately, 60 cases (17 males and 43 females with a mean age of 26.25 ± 20.09 days (Min = 1 day and Max = 153 days underwent analysis. The most common reasons for venous catheter placement (98.3% were prolonged hospitalization and lack of peripheral vessels. The most common complication was catheter-related infection, which occurred in 20 patients (33.3%. Death occurred in 24 patients (40.0%, but only 3 deaths (5% were due to complications from the central venous catheter. A significant relationship was evident between infection and catheterization duration (P = 0.02. Conclusions Most of the catheter-related deaths were due to severe sepsis and hemothorax, and a significant relationship was noted between infection and both the mortality rate and catheterization duration. A significant relationship was also evident between birth weight and infection rates.

  2. Optimal insertion lengths of right and left internal jugular central venous catheters in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Hun; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Shin, Seung Han; Shin, Su-Mi; Lee, So Mi; Cho, Hyun-Hae; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In-One

    2015-07-01

    Knowledge of the optimal lengths for central venous catheterization prior to the procedure may lessen the need for repositioning and prevent vascular complications. To establish the optimal lengths for non-tunneled central venous catheter insertion through the right and left internal jugular veins. We included 92 children who received US-guided central venous catheterization via right or left internal jugular veins in intensive care units. The calculated distance between the skin and carina was considered the optimal length for right and left internal jugular venous catheterization. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses was used to identify predictors. Age, height and weight showed significant correlations with optimal insertion lengths for right and left internal jugular vein approaches on univariate analysis, while height was the only significant independent predictor of optimal insertion length. The optimal insertion lengths (cm) suggested by our data are, for the right internal jugular vein 0.034 × height (cm) + 3.173, and for the left 0.072 × height (cm) + 2.113.

  3. The accuracy of the central venous blood gas for acid-base monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkey, Allan J; Farber, Harrison W; O'Donnell, Charles; Cabral, Howard; Eagan, Janet S; Philippides, George J

    2010-01-01

    Routine use of central venous blood gases (VBGs) may reduce complications from prolonged arterial cannulation. We investigated the reliability of the VBG as a substitute for arterial blood gas (ABG) in multiple care settings. We developed a VBG adjustment rule of ABG pH = VBG pH + 0.05, ABG CO(2) = VBG PCO(2) -5 mm Hg from prior studies and validated this relationship with simultaneous venous and arterial blood obtained from 187 medical/surgical intensive care, cardiac catheterization laboratory, and coronary care unit patients with central venous access. The overall accuracy of a normal adjusted VBG (aVBG) to predict a normal ABG was 90%. After adjustment, the mean systematic difference (bias) between ABG and VBG pH decreased from 0.035 +/- 0.02 to -0.015 +/- 0.02 and PCO(2) bias decreased from -4.5 +/- 3.5 to 0.5 +/- 3.5. Intraclass correlation coefficients for agreement improved after applying the adjustment rule to venous pH (from 0.84 to 0.93, P central VBG.

  4. Comparison between noninvasive measurement of central venous pressure using near infrared spectroscopy with an invasive central venous pressure monitoring in cardiac surgical Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathish, N; Singh, Naveen G; Nagaraja, P S; Sarala, B M; Prabhushankar, C G; Dhananjaya, Manasa; Manjunatha, N

    2016-01-01

    Central venous pressure (CVP) measurement is essential in the management of certain clinical situations, including cardiac failure, volume overload and sepsis. CVP measurement requires catheterization of the central vein which is invasive and may lead to complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of measurement of CVP using a new noninvasive method based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in a group of cardiac surgical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. Thirty patients in cardiac surgical ICU were enrolled in the study who had an in situ central venous catheter (CVC). Sixty measurements were recorded in 1 h for each patient. A total of 1800 values were compared between noninvasive CVP (CVPn) obtained from Mespere VENUS 2000 CVP system and invasive CVP (CVPi) obtained from CVC. Strong positive correlation was found between CVPi and CVPn (R = 0.9272, P < 0.0001). Linear regression equation - CVPi = 0.5404 + 0.8875 × CVPn (r2 = 0.86, P < 0.001), Bland-Altman bias plots showed mean difference ± standard deviation and limits of agreement: -0.31 ± 1.36 and - 2.99 to + 2.37 (CVPi-CVPn). Noninvasive assessment of the CVP based on NIRS yields readings consistently close to those measured invasively. CVPn may be a clinically useful substitute for CVPi measurements with an advantage of being simple and continuous. It is a promising tool for early management of acute state wherein knowledge of CVP is helpful.

  5. Venous air embolism related to the use of central catheters revisited: with emphasis on dialysis catheters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwaan, Hau C; Ing, Todd S

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Venous air embolism is a dreaded condition particularly relevant to the field of nephrology. In the face of a favourable, air-to-blood pressure gradient and an abnormal communication between the atmosphere and the veins, air entrance into the circulation is common and can bring about venous air embolism. These air emboli can migrate to different areas through three major routes: pulmonary circulation, paradoxical embolism and retrograde ascension to the cerebral venous system. The frequent undesirable outcome of this disease entity, despite timely and aggressive treatment, signifies the importance of understanding the underlying pathophysiological mechanism and of the implementation of various preventive measures. The not-that-uncommon occurrence of venous air embolism, often precipitated by improper patient positioning during cervical catheter procedures, suggests that awareness of this procedure-related complication among health care workers is not universal. This review aims to update the pathophysiology of venous air embolism and to emphasize the importance of observing the necessary precautionary measures during central catheter use in hopes of eliminating this unfortunate but easily avoidable mishap in nephrology practice. PMID:29225809

  6. Experience of an implantable central venous access system in a district general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, I C; Miller, E J; Mitchell, A; Moir, D; Souter, R G

    1995-02-01

    Reliable access to a central vein is increasingly important in the treatment of major acute and chronic disease. The use of an implantable central venous access device in a district general hospital is reviewed. Fifty-four PortaCaths (Kabi Pharmacia, Milton Keynes, UK) were inserted in 51 patients over a 7-year period. Most patients had haematological disease, often with neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. There were a total of 22,515 catheter days experience. Twelve catheters were removed for complications with an overall complication rate of 0.93/1000 catheter days. There were four line infections and four episodes of periport sepsis. Occasional catheter thrombosis was usually cleared with urokinase. Neutropenic and immunocompromised patients had an increased complication rate. PortaCaths were well tolerated by patients and required minimum maintenance. An implantable central venous access device proved safe and reliable for use in a district general hospital.

  7. Long-term central venous lines and their complications; Langfristige zentralvenoese Zugaenge und deren Komplikationsmanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teichgraeber, U.K.M.; Gebauer, B. [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Benter, T. [Charite Campus Buch im Helios Klinikum Berlin, Robert-Roessle-Klinik, Berlin (Germany); Wagner, J. [Medizinisches Zentrum fuer Radiologie, Klinikum der Philipps-Univ. Marburg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The implantation of permanent (>14 days) central venous catheters is constantly increasing, accelerated by a trend toward outpatient therapies. Subcutaneous tunneled and non-tunneled catheters as well as port systems are available. The interventional radiologist plays an important role in the implantation of central venous catheters as well as in detection and treatment of any complications. Various access ways via peripheral and central veins are described and the implantation techniques for the different systems explained. The use of peel-away sheaths allows the radiologist to implant subcutaneous tunneled catheters via the Seldinger technique without surgical preparation. Procedure-related early and late complications may occur, and the radiologist plays an important role in the surveillance and management of catheter-associated complications. This review demonstrates the different catheter systems and implantation techniques. (orig.)

  8. Relationship between Central and Peripheral Venous Oxygen Saturation and Lactate Levels: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Nikhil; Taylor, Andrew R; Rivers, Emanuel P

    2016-06-01

    Optimization of tissue oxygen delivery to meet consumption demands is important in the resuscitation of critically ill patients. Central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) and lactate levels are often used to guide resuscitation; however, invasive monitoring is required for the former. Clinicians searching for less invasive alternatives may consider using peripheral venous oxygen saturation (SpvO2) and lactate levels as a substitute. To determine the relationship between SpvO2 and ScvO2 and peripheral and central lactate levels. All patients with a central venous catheter in an academic emergency department and intensive care unit were eligible for the study. Blood was obtained simultaneously from a central and peripheral vein and measured for oxygen saturation and lactate levels. Results were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Bland-Altman plots, and receiver operating characteristic curves. Seventy-nine paired blood samples were analyzed. SpvO2 and ScvO2 have moderate agreement: ICC = 0.53 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35-0.67). A Bland-Altman plot revealed substantial bias (-4.47; limits of agreement -38.6, 29.6). SpvO2 ≥ 85% was 90% specific for ScvO2 ≥ 70%, and SpvO2 of ≤ 55% had a 94% sensitivity for ScvO2 Central and peripheral venous lactate levels showed almost perfect agreement: ICC = 0.92 (95% CI 0.87-0.95), bias of 0.46 (limits of agreement -1.78-2.70). SpvO2 and ScvO2 have moderate agreement. There was excellent agreement between peripheral and central lactate levels, making them interchangeable. The clinical implications of these substitutions in real-time patient management require further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Correlation between Arterial Lactate and Central Venous Lactate in Children with Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Fernández Sarmiento

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lactate is an important indicator of tissue perfusion. The objective of this study is to evaluate if there are significant differences between the arterial and central venous measurement of lactate in pediatric patients with sepsis and/or septic shock. Methods. Longitudinal retrospective observational study. Forty-two patients were included between the age of 1 month and 17 years, with a diagnosis of sepsis and septic shock, who were admitted to the intensive care unit of a university referral hospital. The lactate value obtained from an arterial blood sample and a central venous blood sample drawn simultaneously, and within 24 hours of admission to the unit, was recorded. Results. The median age was 2.3 years (RIC 0,3–15, with a predominance of males (71.4%, having a 2.5 : 1 ratio to females. Most of the patients had septic shock (78.5% of pulmonary origin (50.0%, followed by those of gastrointestinal origin (26.1%. Using Spearman’s Rho, a 0.872 (p<0.001 correlation was found between arterial and venous lactate, which did not vary when adjusted for age (p<0.05 and the use of vasoactive drugs (p<0.05. Conclusion. There is a good correlation between arterial and venous lactate in pediatric patients with sepsis and septic shock, which is not affected by demographic variables or type of vasoactive support.

  10. [Injuries to blood vessels near the heart caused by central venous catheters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, J; Klocker, J; Innerhofer-Pompernigg, N; Mittermayr, M; Freund, M C; Gravenstein, N; Wenzel, V

    2016-11-01

    Injuries to blood vessels near the heart can quickly become life-threatening and include arterial injuries during central venous puncture, which can lead to hemorrhagic shock. We report 6 patients in whom injury to the subclavian artery and vein led to life-threatening complications. Central venous catheters are associated with a multitude of risks, such as venous thrombosis, air embolism, systemic or local infections, paresthesia, hemothorax, pneumothorax, and cervical hematoma, which are not always immediately discernible. The subclavian catheter is at a somewhat lower risk of catheter-associated sepsis and symptomatic venous thrombosis than approaches via the internal jugular and femoral veins. Indeed, access via the subclavian vein carries a substantial risk of pneumo- and hemothorax. Damage to the subclavian vein or artery can also occur during deliberate and inadvertent punctures and result in life-threatening complications. Therefore, careful consideration of the access route is required in relation to the patient and the clinical situation, to keep the incidence of complications as low as possible. For catheterization of the subclavian vein, puncture of the axillary vein in the infraclavicular fossa is a good alternative, because ultrasound imaging of the target vessel is easier than in the subclavian vein and the puncture can be performed much further from the lung.

  11. Non-invasive bedside assessment of central venous pressure: scanning into the future.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Rizkallah

    Full Text Available Noninvasive evaluation of central venous pressure (CVP can be achieved by assessing the Jugular Venous Pressure (JVP, Peripheral Venous Collapse (PVC, and ultrasound visualization of the inferior vena cava. The relative accuracy of these techniques compared to one another and their application by trainees of varying experience remains uncertain. We compare the application and utility of the JVP, PVC, and handheld Mini Echo amongst trainees of varying experience including a medical student, internal medicine resident, and cardiology fellow. We also introduce and validate a new physical exam technique to assess central venous pressures, the Anthem sign.Patients presenting for their regularly scheduled echocardiograms at the hospital echo department had clinical evaluations of their CVP using these non-invasive bedside techniques. The examiners were blinded to the echo results, each other's assessments, and patient history; their CVP estimates were compared to the gold standard level 3 echo-cardiographer's estimates at the completion of the study.325 patients combined were examined (mean age 65, s.d. 16 years. When compared to the gold standard of central venous pressure by a level 3 echocardiographer, the JVP was the most sensitive at 86%, improving with clinical experience (p<0.01. The classic PVC technique and Anthem sign had better specificity compared to the JVP. Mini Echo estimates were comparable to physical exam assessments.JVP evaluation is the most sensitive physical examination technique in CVP assessments. The PVC techniques along with the newly described Anthem sign may be of value for the early learner who still has not mastered the art of JVP assessment and in obese patients in whom JVP evaluation is problematic. Mini Echo estimates of CVPs are comparable to physical examination by trained clinicians and require less instruction. The use of Mini Echo in medical training should be further evaluated and encouraged.

  12. Central venous pressure monitoring via peripherally or centrally inserted central catheters: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Filippo; Noto, Alberto; Martucci, Gennaro; Farbo, Marco; Burgio, Gaetano; Biasucci, Daniele G

    2017-07-14

    The central venous pressure (CVP) is the most commonly used static marker of preload for guiding fluid therapy in critically ill patients, though its usefulness remains controversial. Centrally inserted central catheters (CICCs) are the gold-standard devices for CVP monitoring but peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) may represent a valid alternative. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis with the aim to investigate whether the difference between PICC- and CICC-measured CVP is not significant. We searched for clinical studies published in PubMed and EMBASE databases from inception until December 21st 2016. We included studies providing data on paired and simultaneous CVP measurement from PICCs and CICCs. We conducted two analyses on the values of CVP, the first one according to the total number of CVP assessments, the second one considering the number of patients recruited. Four studies matched the inclusion criteria, but only three of them provided data for the meta-analyses. Both analyses showed non-significant differences between PICC-measured and CICC-measured CVP: 1489 paired simultaneous CVP assessments (MD 0.16, 95%CI -0.14, 0.45, p = 0.30) on a total of 57 patients (MD 0.22, 95%CI -1.46, 1.91, p = 0.80). Both analyses showed no heterogeneity (I2 = 0%). Available evidence supports that CVP monitoring with PICCs is accurate and reproduces similar values to those obtained from CICCs. The possibility to monitor CVP should not be used among clinical criteria for preferring a CICC over a PICC line.

  13. Incidence of thrombosis in children with tunneled central venous access devices versus peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanin, Maralee; Young, Guy

    2013-11-01

    The recent proliferation of deep vein thrombosis in children has been attributed to the increased use of central venous catheters, specifically tunneled lines and peripherally inserted central catheters. A formal comparison of the incidence rate for deep vein thrombosis between tunneled lines and peripherally inserted central catheters has not been undertaken. Children central line. Data collected included type of central line, deep vein thrombosis event, and underlying medical illnesses classified according to chronic complex conditions. Over the seven year study period there was an overall rate of 73 deep vein thromboses per 10,000 hospital discharges. Of the 6915 eligible subjects, 181 had a deep vein thrombosis for an overall incidence rate of 2.6%. There were 152 thrombi (2.6%) in subjects with peripherally inserted central catheters and 29 thrombi (3.1%) in subjects with tunneled lines [OR=.83 (0.55, 1.29), p=0.38]. Despite the relative ease and simplicity of use of peripherally inserted central catheters leading to a substantial rise in their use, this study demonstrates that such lines pose a substantial risk for venous thrombosis and no difference in incidence was detected between such lines and tunneled lines. © 2013.

  14. Improved usability of a multi-infusion setup using a centralized control interface : A task-based usability test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg, Frank; Cnossen, Fokie; Dieperink, Willem; Bult, Wouter; de Smet, Anne Marie; Touw, Daan J.; Nijsten, Maarten W.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the usability benefits of adding a bedside central control interface that controls all intravenous (IV) infusion pumps compared to the conventional individual control of multiple infusion pumps. Eighteen dedicated ICU nurses volunteered in a between-subjects

  15. Radiographic inguinal curl may indicate paraspinal misplacement of percutaneously inserted central venous catheters: report of three cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chedid, Faris [Al Tawam Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Al Ain, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Abbas, Adil [Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Clinical Haematology/Oncology, Brisbane (Australia); Morris, Lloyd [Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Adelaide (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    Misplacement of percutaneously inserted central venous catheters (PCVCs) into the paraspinal venous plexus can result in devastating outcomes. Several cases have been reported in the literature together with an explanation of the mechanism. To describe three premature babies with their PCVCs inserted through the left saphenous vein that ended up in the lumbar spinal dural venous plexus. Plain radiographs obtained to check positions showed an unusual 360 curl of the PCVC in the left inguinal area. We believe that misplacement of the catheter into the paraspinal venous plexus could be diagnosed with great accuracy if such a curl is seen. (orig.)

  16. Update on Insertion and Complications of Central Venous Catheters for Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bream, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Central venous catheters are a popular choice for the initiation of hemodialysis or for bridging between different types of access. Despite this, they have many drawbacks including a high morbidity from thrombosis and infection. Advances in technology have allowed placement of these lines relatively safely, and national guidelines have been established to help prevent complications. There is an established algorithm for location and technique for placement that minimizes harm to the patient; however, there are significant short- and long-term complications that proceduralists who place catheters should be able to recognize and manage. This review covers insertion and complications of central venous catheters for hemodialysis, and the social and economic impact of the use of catheters for initiating dialysis is reviewed. PMID:27011425

  17. Catheter-directed Thrombolysis in Acute Superior Vena Cava Syndrome Caused by Central Venous Catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jie; Kawai, Tasuo; Irani, Zubin

    2015-01-01

    Indwelling central venous catheters have been reported to increase the risk of superior venous cava (SVC) syndrome. This case report describes the development of acute SVC syndrome in a 28-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease implanted with a left-side hemodialysis reliable outflow graft and a right-side double lumen hemodialysis catheter via internal jugular veins. Her symptoms were not alleviated after catheter removal and systemic anticoagulation therapy. She was eventually treated with catheter-directed thrombolysis and a predischarge computer tomographic venogram on postthrombolytic procedure day 7 showed patent central veins and patient remained asymptomatic. This case demonstrates that catheter-directed thrombolysis can be safely employed to treat refractory catheter-induced acute SVC syndrome in end-stage renal disease patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Intercostal artery damage and massive hemothorax after thoracocentesis by central venous catheter: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai-Qiang Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Central venous catheters (CVCs are widely used in various puncture and drainage operations in intensive care units (ICUs in recent years. Compared to conventional operating devices, CVC was welcomed by clinicians because of the advantages of easy use, less damage to the body and convenient fixation process. We came across a patient with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP who developed cardiac arrest due to thoracic cavity massive bleeding 24 h after thoracocentesis with CVC. Thoracotomy surgery was carried out immediately, which confirmed an intercostal artery injury. The patient was discharged from hospital without any neurological complications two months later. Here we report this case to remind all the emergency department and ICU physicians to pay more attention to the complication of thoracic cavity bleeding following thoracocentesis conducted by CVC. Keywords: Central venous catheters, Thoracentesis, Hemothorax

  19. New method for noninvasive quantification of central venous pressure by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Chang-Yang; Liu, Yuan-Ling; Zhao, Mei-Ling; Yang, Rui-Jing; Duan, Yun-You; Zhang, Lian-Hua; Sun, Xu-De; Yuan, Li-Jun; Cao, Tie-Sheng

    2015-05-01

    The central venous pressure (CVP) is essential for assessing the cardiac preload and circulating blood volume in clinic. The invasive CVP measurement by central venous catheter has been reported with various complications. The aim of this study was to develop a new noninvasive method for quantification of CVP by ultrasound. Seventy-six patients who had their CVP monitored for intraoperative or postoperative management were recruited. By accurate location of the collapse point of the internal jugular vein and the center of the right atrium using ultrasound imaging, the height of the fluid column between those 2 points was measured as the noninvasive CVP (CVPn). A total of 118 measurements were performed and compared with the invasive CVP (CVPi). Linear correlation analysis revealed a significant correlation between CVPi and CVPn (preoperative measurements, r=0.90; Pmonitoring the hemodynamic status in clinic. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Radiographic mislead: apparent arterial placement of subclavian central venous catheter due to mediastinal shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaji Mathew

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal placement of central venous catheters (CVC is essential for accurate monitoring of central venous pressure (CVP in major surgeries and ensuring long-term use of the catheter for managing the critically ill patient. Accidental subclavian artery catheterization is one of the most serious complications of the procedure. Radiography is commonly used to ensure optimal placement of CVC tip and rule out subclavian artery catheterization in the absence of Doppler ultrasound and a pressure transducer. We present a case of a haemodynamically unstable and hypoxaemic patient with mediastinal shift, in which the anaesthesiologist was in a dilemma about the arterial placement of the right subclavian CVC. The CVC crossing the midline due to mediastinal shift gave the false impression of it being placed in subclavian artery rather than the vein. Subsequently, it was proved to be correctly placed in the subclavian vein.

  1. Noninvasive estimation of central venous pressure in anesthetized dogs by measurement of hepatic venous blood flow velocity and abdominal venous diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nathan C; Drost, Wm Tod; Lerche, Phillip; Bonagura, John D

    2010-01-01

    Determination of central venous pressure (CVP) is relevant to patients with right heart disease, hypovolemia, and following intravenous fluid therapy. We hypothesized that changes in CVP in dogs could be predicted by measurements of hepatic vein diameter, caudal vena cava (CVC) diameter, and hepatic venous flow velocities. Nine healthy American Foxhounds were anesthetized. Following baseline recordings, intravenous fluids were administered to increase CVP. Volume administration created treatment periods with CVP ranges of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mm Hg. Flow velocities in the right medial hepatic vein were recorded using pulsed wave Doppler ultrasound. Hepatic vein, CVC, and aorta diameters were determined with B-mode ultrasound. Variables were compared across the treatment periods by ANOVA for repeated measures. Relationships between CVP, Doppler, and B-mode variables were evaluated using Spearman's rank correlations, multiple linear regression, and repeated measures linear regression. The a-, S- and v-wave velocities were augmented significantly with volume loading. The best part (semipartial) correlation coefficients predicting increasing CVP were identified with v-wave velocity (0.823), S-wave velocity (-0.800), CVC diameter (0.855), and hepatic vein diameter (0.815). Multiple linear regression indicated that CVP in this study could be predicted best by a combination of CVC and hepatic vein diameter and the v-wave velocity (r = 0.928). Ultrasound imaging identified gallbladder and pancreatic edema consistently, likely related to acute volume loading. These findings may be applicable in the assessment of volume status, dogs with right heart disease, and during serial monitoring of dogs receiving fluid or diuretic therapy.

  2. Use of central venous catheter and peripheral venous catheter as risk factors for nosocomial bloodstream infection in very-low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffers, Christine; Gastmeier, Anne; Schwab, Frank; Groneberg, Katrin; Rüden, Henning; Gastmeier, Petra

    2010-04-01

    To describe the relationship between the use of central and peripheral venous catheters and the risk of nosocomial, primary, laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection (BSI) for neonates with a birth weight less than 1,500 g (very-low-birth-weight [VLBW] infants). Cox proportional hazard regression analysis with time-dependent variable was used to determine the risk factors for the occurrence of BSI in a cohort of VLBW infants. We analyzed previously collected surveillance data from the German national nosocomial surveillance system for VLBW infants. All VLBW infants in 22 participating neonatal departments who had a complete daily record of patient information were included. Of 2,126 VLBW infants, 261 (12.3%) developed a BSI. The incidence density for BSI was 3.3 per 1,000 patient-days. The multivariate analysis identified the following significant independent risk factors for BSI: lower birth weight (hazard ratio [HR], 1.1-2.2), vaginal delivery (HR, 1.5), central venous catheter use (HR, 6.2) or peripheral venous catheter use (HR, 6.0) within 2 days before developing BSI, and the individual departments (HR, 0.0-4.6). After adjusting for other risk factors, use of peripheral venous catheter and use of central venous catheter were significantly related to occurrence of BSI in VLBW infants.

  3. A comprehensive intervention program on the long-term placement of peripherally inserted central venous catheters

    OpenAIRE

    Wenfeng Chen; Haoyu Deng; Liangfang Shen; Man Qin; Lianxian He

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) have been increasingly utilized in treating patients in intensive care. The purpose of this study is to analyze the related complications and to evaluate effect of a comprehensive intervention on long-term PICCs. Materials and Methods: We selected 217 and 243 cases before and after comprehensive intervention respectively from the department of radiotherapy in our hospital. Various possible factors affecting PICCs insertions...

  4. [Doctor-nurse delegation of the insertion of central venous lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellupica, Mary

    2015-01-01

    The Léon Bérard Cancer Centre treats the disease in all its complexity with numerous disciplines such as surgery, medicine, radiotherapy, palliative care, home care, etc. The insertion of a central venous line is an essential part of cancer care and the nursing profession. It enables patients to have their treatment administered in the best possible conditions and without risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Transoesophageal Doppler compared to central venous pressure for perioperative hemodynamic monitoring and fluid guidance in liver resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sharkawy, Osama A; Refaat, Emad K; Ibraheem, Abdel Elmoniem M; Mahdy, Wafiya R; Fayed, Nirmeen A; Mourad, Wesam S; Abd Elhafez, Hanaa S; Yassen, Khaled A

    2013-10-01

    Major hepatic resections may result in hemodynamic changes. Aim is to study transesophageal Doppler (TED) monitoring and fluid management in comparison to central venous pressure (CVP) monitoring. A follow-up comparative hospital based study. 59 consecutive cirrhotic patients (CHILD A) undergoing major hepatotomy. CVP monitoring only (CVP group), (n=30) and TED (Doppler group), (n=29) with CVP transduced but not available on the monitor. Exclusion criteria include contra-indication for Doppler probe insertion or bleeding tendency. An attempt to reduce CVP during the resection in both groups with colloid restriction, but crystalloids infusion of 6 ml/kg/h was allowed to replace insensible loss. Post-resection colloids infusion were CVP guided in CVP group (5-10 mmHg) and corrected flow time (FTc) aortic guided in Doppler group (>0.4 s) blood products given according to the laboratory data. Using the FTc to guide Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 significantly decreased intake in TED versus CVP (1.03 [0.49] versus 1.74 [0.41] Liter; P 0.05). Cardiac index and stroke volume of TED increased post-resection compared to baseline, 3.0 (0.9) versus 3.6 (0.9) L/min/m(2), Pmonitoring was able to reduced colloids administration post-resection, lower morbidity and shorten hospital stay. TED consumed less time to insert and was also able to present significant hemodynamic changes. Advanced surgical techniques of resection play a key role in reducing blood loss despite CVP more than 5 cm H2O. TED fluid management protocols during resection need to be developed.

  6. Minimising central line-associated bloodstream infection rate in inserting central venous catheters in the adult intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hina, Hedaya Rateb; McDowell, Joan R S

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the procedural aspects in inserting central venous catheters that minimise central line-associated bloodstream infection rates in adult intensive care units through a structured literature review. In adult intensive care units, central line-associated bloodstream infections are a major cause of high mortality rates and increased in costs due to the consequences of complications. Eligible articles were identified by combining indexed keywords using Boolean operator of "AND" under databases of Ovid and CINAHL. Titles and abstract of retrieved papers were screened and duplicates removed. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to derive the final papers, which contained seminal studies. The quality of papers was assessed using a special data extraction form. The number of papers retrieved from all databases was 337, reduced to 302 after removing duplicates. Papers were scanned for titles and abstract to locate those relevant to the review question. After this, 250 papers were excluded for different reasons and a total of 52 papers were fully accessed to assess for eligibility. The final number of papers included was 10 articles. Many interventions can be implemented in the adult intensive care unit during the insertion of a central venous catheter to minimise central line-associated bloodstream infections rates. These include choosing the subclavian site to insert the catheters as the least infectious and decolonising patients' skin with alcoholic chlorhexidine gluconate preparation due to its broad antimicrobial effect and durability. Choosing optimal sites for central venous catheter insertion is a complex process that relies on many factors. Furthermore, the introduction of chlorhexidine gluconate preparations should be accompanied with multifaceted interventions including quality improvement initiatives to improve healthcare workers' compliance. As a quality marker in adult intensive care units, healthcare sectors should work on establishing

  7. In the absence of a central venous catheter, risk of venous thromboembolism is low in critically injured children, adolescents, and young adults: evidence from the National Trauma Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Sarah H; Candrilli, Sean D

    2011-05-01

    To describe the incidence and risk factors of venous thromboembolism in a large sample of critical care pediatric, adolescent, and young adult trauma patients. The National Trauma Data Bank-the largest and most complete aggregation of trauma registry data in the United States. Seven hundred eighty-four level I to level IV trauma centers. Patients ≤ 21 yrs of age who spent at least 1 day in a critical care unit during a trauma admission between 2001 and 2005. To characterize differences between patients with and without venous thromboembolism, we extracted variables regarding patient demographics, injury pattern and severity, procedures, total length of stay, and intensive care unit and ventilator days. Odds ratios for predictors of venous thromboembolism were estimated with a logistic regression model. Among the 135,032 critical care patients analyzed, venous thromboembolism was uncommon (6 per 1,000 discharges). Placement of a central venous catheter was a significant predictor of venous thromboembolism (odds ratio = 2.24; p risk of venous thromboembolism in critical care patients without a central venous catheter was risk of venous thromboembolism in pediatric critical care patients and the efficacy and safety of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis preclude the ability to make definitive recommendations for the use of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in this setting. Our results, however, suggest that venous thromboembolism prophylaxis may need to be considered only in critically injured adolescents and young adults with a continuing need for central venous access.

  8. Predicting the optimal depth of left-sided central venous catheters in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H; Jeong, C-H; Byon, H-J; Shin, H K; Yun, T J; Lee, J-H; Park, Y-H; Kim, J-T

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the optimal depth for insertion of a left-sided central venous catheter in children. Using 3D chest computed tomography angiography, we measured the distance from a point where the internal jugular vein is at the superior border of the clavicle, and from a point where the subclavian vein is inferior to the anterior border of the clavicle, to the junction of the superior vena cava and the right atrium in 257 children. Linear regression analysis revealed that the distances correlated with age, weight and height. Simple formulae for the depth of a central venous catheter via the left internal jugular vein (0.07 × height (cm)) and the left subclavian vein (0.08 × height (cm)) were developed to predict placement of the central venous catheter tip at the junction of the superior vena cava with the right atrium. Using these fomulae, the proportion of catheter tips predicted to be correctly located was 98.5% (95% CI 96.8-100%) and 94.0% (95% CI 90.8-97.3%), respectively. © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. Optoacoustic monitoring of central and peripheral venous oxygenation during simulated hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Andrey; Kinsky, Michael; Prough, Donald S.; Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Irene Y.; Henkel, S. Nan; Seeton, Roger; Salter, Michael G.; Khan, Muzna N.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2014-03-01

    Circulatory shock may be fatal unless promptly recognized and treated. The most commonly used indicators of shock (hypotension and tachycardia) lack sensitivity and specificity. In the initial stages of shock, the body compensates by reducing blood flow to the peripheral (skin, muscle, etc.) circulation in order to preserve vital organ (brain, heart, liver) perfusion. Characteristically, this can be observed by a greater reduction in peripheral venous oxygenation (for instance, the axillary vein) compared to central venous oxygenation (the internal jugular vein). While invasive measurements of oxygenation are accurate, they lack practicality and are not without complications. We have developed a novel optoacoustic system that noninvasively determines oxygenation in specific veins. In order to test this application, we used lower body negative pressure (LBNP) system, which simulates hemorrhage by exerting a variable amount of suction on the lower body, thereby reducing the volume of blood available for central circulation. Restoration of normal blood flow occurs promptly upon cessation of LBNP. Using two optoacoustic probes, guided by ultrasound imaging, we simultaneously monitored oxygenation in the axillary and internal jugular veins (IJV). LBNP began at -20 mmHg, thereafter was reduced in a step-wise fashion (up to 30 min). The optoacoustically measured axillary oxygenation decreased with LBNP, whereas IJV oxygenation remained relatively constant. These results indicate that our optoacoustic system may provide safe and rapid measurement of peripheral and central venous oxygenation and diagnosis of shock with high specificity and sensitivity.

  10. Sharp Central Venous Recanalization in Hemodialysis Patients: A Single-Institution Experience

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    Arabi, Mohammad, E-mail: marabi2004@hotmail.com; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Mat’hami, Abdulaziz [Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC), Division of Endovascular Interventional Radiology, Department of Medical Imaging (Saudi Arabia); Ahmed, Dildar; Aslam, Naveed [Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC), Department of Nephrology (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-15

    PurposeWe report our institutional experience with sharp central venous recanalization in chronic hemodialysis patients who failed standard techniques.Materials and MethodsSince January 2014, a series of seven consecutive patients (four males and three females), mean age 35 years (18–65 years), underwent sharp central venous recanalization. Indications included obtaining hemodialysis access (n = 6) and restoration of superior vena cava (SVC) patency to alleviate occlusion symptoms and restore fistula function (n = 1). The transseptal needle was used for sharp recanalization in six patients, while it could not be introduced in one patient due to total occlusion of the inferior vena cava. Instead, transmediastinal SVC access using Chiba needle was obtained.ResultsTechnical success was achieved in all cases. SVC recanalization achieved symptoms’ relief and restored fistula function in the symptomatic patient. One patient underwent arteriovenous fistula creation on the recanalized side 3 months after the procedure. The remaining catheters were functional at median follow-up time of 9 months (1–14 months). Two major complications occurred including a right hemothorax and a small hemopericardium, which were managed by covered stent placement across the perforated SVC.ConclusionSharp central venous recanalization using the transseptal needle is feasible technique in patients who failed standard recanalization procedures. The potential high risk of complications necessitates thorough awareness of anatomy and proper technical preparedness.

  11. Instructional design affects the efficacy of simulation-based training in central venous catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Christopher; Feldon, David F; Brown, Eric A

    2014-05-01

    Simulation-based learning is a common educational tool in health care training and frequently involves instructional designs based on Experiential Learning Theory (ELT). However, little research explores the effectiveness and efficiency of different instructional design methodologies appropriate for simulations. The aim of this study was to compare 2 instructional design models, ELT and Guided Experiential Learning (GEL), to determine which is more effective for training the central venous catheterization procedure. Using a quasi-experimental randomized block design, nurse anesthetists completed training under 1 of the 2 instructional design models. Performance was assessed using a checklist of central venous catheterization performance, pass rates, and critical action errors. Participants in the GEL condition performed significantly better than those in the ELT condition on the overall checklist score after controlling for individual practice time (F[1, 29] = 4.021, P = .027, Cohen's d = .71), had higher pass rates (P = .006, Cohen's d = 1.15), and had lower rates of failure due to critical action errors (P = .038, Cohen's d = .81). The GEL model of instructional design is significantly more effective than ELT for simulation-based learning of the central venous catheterization procedure, yielding large differences in effect size. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chlorhexidine and gauze and tape dressings for central venous catheters: a randomized clinical trial

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    Edivane Pedrolo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess the effectiveness of the chlorhexidine antimicrobial dressing in comparison to the gauze and tape dressing in the use of central venous catheters.METHOD: a randomized clinical trial was conducted in the intensive care and adult semi intensive care units of a university hospital in the south of Brazil. The subjects were patients using short-term central venous catheters, randomly assigned to the intervention (chlorhexidine antimicrobial dressing or control (gauze and micro porous tape groups.RESULTS: a total of 85 patients were included: 43 in the intervention group and 42 in the control group. No statistically significant differences were found between dressings in regard to the occurrence of: primary bloodstream infections (p-value = 0.5170; local reactions to the dressing (p-value = 0.3774; and dressing fixation (p-value = 0.2739.CONCLUSION: both technologies are effective in covering central venous catheters in regard to the investigated variables and can be used for this purpose. Registry ECR: RBR-7b5ycz.

  13. Percutaneous central venous catheter colonization with Malassezia furfur: incidence and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschner, J L; Punsalang, A; Maniscalco, W M; Menegus, M A

    1987-10-01

    Malassezia furfur colonization of central venous catheters has been implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic infections with this lipid-dependent yeast. To determine the incidence of catheter colonization in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), 25 consecutively removed percutaneous central venous catheters were examined by rinsing the lumen with saline and plating the rinse fluid on Sabouraud dextrose agar overlaid with olive oil. M furfur grew from the lumina of eight catheters (32%). Surveillance skin cultures were performed in the NICU on two occasions to determine the prevalence of skin colonization with M furfur. M furfur was found on the skin of 64% of the infants. In contrast, only 3% (1/33) of healthy, nonhospitalized infants 2 to 8 weeks of age had skin colonized with M furfur. During the 5-month study period, two NICU infants had evidence of systemic infection with M furfur. We conclude that M furfur frequently colonizes both the skin and percutaneous central venous catheters in NICU infants. Further studies are needed to determine the relationship between skin colonization and catheter colonization, and the factors contributing to systemic disease with this organism.

  14. Internal jugular vein/common carotid artery cross-sectional area ratio and central venous pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein-Nejad, Hooman; Mohammadinejad, Payam; Ahmadi, Faezeh

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the accuracy of the sonographic assessment of internal jugular vein/common carotid artery (IJV/CCA) cross-sectional area ratio in predicting central venous pressure (CVP) in critically ill patients. In adult patients who underwent central venous catheterization for monitoring of hemodynamic status, we used bedside sonography for diameter and cross-sectional area measurement of IJV and CCA. The IJV/CCA ratio was then calculated, and its correlation with CVP as well as its sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were analyzed. We enrolled 52 patients with a mean age of 58.8 ± 10.7 years. The mean IJV/CCA ratio was 1.89 ± 0.83 and 1.90 ± 0.83, respectively, at inspiration and expiration. A significant correlation was observed between IJV/CCA ratio and CVP (r = 0.728, p central venous catheterization in order to evaluate the hemodynamic status of critically ill patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 44:312-318, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Correction of malposition of central venous catheter with 9-Fr introducer sheath assisted by mobile type diagnostic X-ray apparatus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jaekyu; Yoon, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Eun-Joon; Lee, Chia An; Woo, Seong Chang; Jeong, Chang-Young

    2015-08-01

    Central venous catheters provide long-term available vascular access. They are useful for central venous pressure monitoring, rapid fluid management, massive transfusion and direct cardiovascular medication, especially in operation. Central venous catheterization is usually performed by the landmark bedside technique without imaging guidance. The complications of central venous catheterization are frequent, which include malposition, pneumothorax, hemothorax, chylothorax, arterial puncture, hematoma, air embolism and infection. Malposition of a central venous catheter is not rare and may cause several complications such as malfunction of the catheter, default measurement of central venous pressure, catheter erosion, thrombophlebitis and cardiac tamponade. In this case, we report a malposition of central venous catheter with 9-Fr introducer sheath which is located in the right subclavian vein via ipsilateral internal jugular vein and the correction of this misplacement assisted by mobile type diagnostic X-ray apparatus (C-arm fluoroscope).

  16. Central venous device-related thrombosis as imaged with MDCT in oncologic patients: prevalence and findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, Orlando; Castelguidone, Elisabetta de Lutio di; Granata, Vincenza; D' Errico, Adolfo Gallipoli (Dept. of Radiology, National Cancer Institute ' Fondazione G Pascale' (Italy)), email: orlandcat@tin.it; Sandomenico, Claudia (Dept. of Esophago-gastro-bilio-pancreatic Oncology, National Cancer Institute ' Fondazione G Pascale' (Italy)); Petrillo, Mario (Dept. of Radiology, Second Univ. of Naples (Italy)); Aprea, Pasquale (Dept. of Critical Illness and Anaesthesiology, National Cancer Institute ' Fondazione G Pascale' , Naples, (Italy))

    2011-02-15

    Background: Venous thrombosis is a common occurrence in cancer patients, developing spontaneously or in combination with indwelling central venous devices (CVD). Purpose: To analyze the multidetector CT (MDCT) prevalence, appearance, and significance of catheter related thoracic venous thrombosis in oncologic patients and to determine the percentage of thrombi identified in the original reports. Material and Methods: Five hundred consecutive patients were considered. Inclusion criteria were: presence of a CVD; availability of a contrast-enhanced MDCT; and cancer history. Exclusion criteria were: direct tumor compression/infiltration of the veins; poor image quality; device tip not in the scanned volume; and missing clinical data. Seventeen (3.5%) out of the final 481 patients had a diagnosis of venous thrombosis. Results: Factors showing the highest correlation with thrombosis included peripherally-inserted CVD, right brachiocephalic vein tip location, patient performance status 3, metastatic stage disease, ongoing chemotherapy, and longstanding CVD. The highest prevalence was in patients with lymphoma, lung carcinoma, melanoma, and gynecologic malignancies. Eleven out of 17 cases had not been identified in the original report. Conclusion: CVD-related thrombosis is not uncommon in cancer patients and can also be observed in outpatients with a good performance status and a non-metastatic disease. Thrombi can be very tiny. Radiologists should be aware of the possibility to identify (or overlook) small thrombi

  17. Percutaneous retrieval of an intracardiac central venous port fragment using snare with triple loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghaderian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripherally inserted venous ports fracture with embolization in patients who received chemotherapy is a serious and rare complication, and few cases have been reported in children. We report a successful endovascular technique using a snare for retrieving broken peripherally inserted venous ports in a child for chemotherapy. Catheter fragments may cause complications such as cardiac perforation, arrhythmias, sepsis, and pulmonary embolism. A 12-year-old female received chemotherapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia through a central venous port implanted into her right subclavian area. The patient completed chemotherapy without complications 6 months ago. Venous port was accidentally fractured during its removal. Chest radiographs of the patient revealed intracardiac catheter fragment extending from the right subclavian to the right atrium (RA and looping in the RA. The procedure was performed under ketamine and midazolam anesthesia and fluoroscopic guidance using a percutaneous femoral vein approach. A snare with triple loops (10 mm in diameter was used to successfully retrieve the catheter fragments without any complication. Percutaneous transcatheter retrieval of catheter fragments is occasionally extremely useful and should be considered by interventional cardiologists for retrieving migrated catheters and can be chosen before resorting to surgery, which has potential risks related to thoracotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass, and general anesthesia.

  18. Ultrasound-guided central venous access using Google Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Teresa S; Dameff, Christian J; Tully, Jeffrey L

    2014-12-01

    The use of ultrasound during invasive bedside procedures is quickly becoming the standard of care. Ultrasound machine placement during procedures often requires the practitioner to turn their head during the procedure to view the screen. Such turning has been implicated in unintentional hand movements in novices. Google Glass is a head-mounted computer with a specialized screen capable of projecting images and video into the view of the wearer. Such technology may help decrease unintentional hand movements. Our aim was to evaluate whether or not medical practitioners at various levels of training could use Google Glass to perform an ultrasound-guided procedure, and to explore potential advantages of this technology. Forty participants of varying training levels were randomized into two groups. One group used Google Glass to perform an ultrasound-guided central line. The other group used traditional ultrasound during the procedure. Video recordings of eye and hand movements were analyzed. All participants from both groups were able to complete the procedure without difficulty. Google Glass wearers took longer to perform the procedure at all training levels (medical student year 1 [MS1]: 193 s vs. 77 s, p > 0.5; MS4: 197s vs. 91s, p ≤ 0.05; postgraduate year 1 [PGY1]: 288s vs. 125 s, p > 0.5; PGY3: 151 s vs. 52 s, p ≤ 0.05), and required more needle redirections (MS1: 4.4 vs. 2.0, p > 0.5; MS4: 4.8 vs. 2.8, p > 0.5; PGY1: 4.4 vs. 2.8, p > 0.5; PGY3: 2.0 vs. 1.0, p > 0.5). In this study, it was possible to perform ultrasound-guided procedures with Google Glass. Google Glass wearers, on average, took longer to gain access, and had more needle redirections, but less head movements were noted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultrasound-Guided Peripheral Intravenous Catheters to Reduce Central Venous Catheter Use on the Inpatient Medical Ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, Benjamin T; Southern, William N

    The traditional technique of placing a peripheral intravenous (IV) catheter is successful in most cases on inpatient wards. However, when the traditional method fails, a central venous catheter may be placed to maintain IV access. These catheters are associated with risks including central line-associated bloodstream infection. We evaluated the effectiveness and acceptability of an ultrasound-guided peripheral IV service to reduce the number of newly placed central venous catheters on an inpatient ward. Central venous catheters were counted daily on intervention and control wards using a standard protocol, and rates of newly placed catheters were compared using a Poisson regression model. Nurses were surveyed to assess acceptability and perceived benefit. We found a reduction in the rate of newly placed central venous catheters on the intervention unit compared with the control unit at 90 days: mean 0.47 versus 0.67 newly placed central venous catheters/day, but the difference was not significant (P = .08). Nurses were in favor of the ultrasound-guided IV service, with perceived benefit to their patients. Ultrasound-guided peripheral IV might reduce unnecessary central venous catheters on general inpatient wards. A portable ultrasound used for this purpose was found to be acceptable by nursing staff.

  20. [Early goal-directed therapy (EDGT) using continuous central venous oxygen saturation monitoring in a patient with septic shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Yoshimasa; Goto, Koji; Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Kusaka, Jyunya; Hidaka, Seigo; Shingu, Chihiro; Noguchi, Takayuki

    2008-04-01

    Septic shock is an adverse clinical condition resulting in multiple organ failure from global tissue hypoxia. The importance of initial treatment is widely recognized. Thus, guidelines for septic shock recommend early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) during the first six hours of treatment. Central venous oxygen saturation monitoring is useful to maintain adequate tissue oxygen delivery. A newly developed central venous oximetry catheter (PreSep Oximetery Catheter, Edwards Lifesciences) allows continuous and easy monitoring of central venous oxygen saturation. This report shows the usefulness of this catheter in a patient who developed septic shock during an emergency operation for perforated bowel. By using EGDT perioperatively with continuous central venous oximetry, multiple organ failure might be successfully avoided.

  1. Comparison between noninvasive measurement of central venous pressure using near infrared spectroscopy with an invasive central venous pressure monitoring in cardiac surgical Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sathish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Central venous pressure (CVP measurement is essential in the management of certain clinical situations, including cardiac failure, volume overload and sepsis. CVP measurement requires catheterization of the central vein which is invasive and may lead to complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of measurement of CVP using a new noninvasive method based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS in a group of cardiac surgical Intensive Care Unit (ICU patients. Methodology: Thirty patients in cardiac surgical ICU were enrolled in the study who had an in situ central venous catheter (CVC. Sixty measurements were recorded in 1 h for each patient. A total of 1800 values were compared between noninvasive CVP (CVPn obtained from Mespere VENUS 2000 CVP system and invasive CVP (CVPi obtained from CVC. Results: Strong positive correlation was found between CVPi and CVPn (R = 0.9272, P < 0.0001. Linear regression equation - CVPi = 0.5404 + 0.8875 × CVPn (r2 = 0.86, P < 0.001, Bland-Altman bias plots showed mean difference ± standard deviation and limits of agreement: −0.31 ± 1.36 and − 2.99 to + 2.37 (CVPi-CVPn. Conclusion: Noninvasive assessment of the CVP based on NIRS yields readings consistently close to those measured invasively. CVPn may be a clinically useful substitute for CVPi measurements with an advantage of being simple and continuous. It is a promising tool for early management of acute state wherein knowledge of CVP is helpful.

  2. Flow confirmation study for central venous port in oncologic outpatient undergoing chemotherapy: Evaluation of suspected system-related mechanical complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofue, Keitaro, E-mail: ksofue@ncc.go.jp [Divisions of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Department of Radiology, Kobe University, Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Arai, Yasuaki; Takeuchi, Yoshito [Divisions of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro [Department of Radiology, Kobe University, Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and outcome of a flow confirmation study (FCS) in oncologic outpatients undergoing chemotherapy suspected of a central venous port (CVP) system-related mechanical complication. Materials and methods: A total of 66 patients (27 men, 39 women; mean age, 60 years) received FCS for the following reasons: prolonged infusion time during chemotherapy (n = 32), inability to inject saline fluid (n = 15), lateral neck and/or back pain (n = 6), subcutaneous extravasation of anticancer drug (n = 5), arm swelling (n = 4), and inability to puncture the port (n = 4). FCS consisted of examining the position of CVP, potential secondary shifts or fractures, and integrity of the system using contrast material through the port. Results: Of the 66 patients, 43 had an abnormal finding uncovered by FCS. The most frequent abnormal findings was catheter kinking (n = 22). Explantation and reimplantation of the CVP system was required in 21 of the 66 patients. Remaining 45 patients were able continue using the CVP system after the FCS without any system malfunction. Conclusion: FCS was effective for evaluating CVP system-related mechanical complications and was useful for deciding whether CVP system explantation and reimplantation was required.

  3. Chlorhexidine 2% and choice of transparent dressing increase skin reactions at central venous catheter insertion sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, Mark; Dobson, Pauline; Boyle, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Infection at central venous catheter (CVC) sites remains a common problem, particularly with long-term use. This report discusses the influence of choice of transparent dressing type and chlorhexidine concentration on skin reactions at CVC insertion sites. A concentration of 2% chlorhexidine is associated with a higher rate of skin reactions than either 0.5% or 1% chlorhexidine. Higher chlorhexidine concentrations may not decrease the number of central line-associated bloodstream infections. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference and the effect of venous hyperoxia: A limiting factor, or an additional marker of severity in shock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saludes, P; Proença, L; Gruartmoner, G; Enseñat, L; Pérez-Madrigal, A; Espinal, C; Mesquida, J

    2017-12-01

    Central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference (P cva CO 2 ) has demonstrated its prognostic value in critically ill patients suffering from shock, and current expert recommendations advocate for further resuscitation interventions when P cva CO 2 is elevated. P cva CO 2 combination with arterial-venous oxygen content difference (P cva CO 2 /C av O 2 ) seems to enhance its performance when assessing anaerobic metabolism. However, the fact that PCO 2 values might be altered by changes in blood O 2 content (the Haldane effect), has been presented as a limitation of PCO 2 -derived variables. The present study aimed at exploring the impact of hyperoxia on P cva CO 2 and P cva CO 2 /C av O 2 during the early phase of shock. Prospective interventional study. Ventilated patients suffering from shock within the first 24 h of ICU admission. Patients requiring FiO 2  ≥ 0.5 were excluded. At inclusion, simultaneous arterial and central venous blood samples were collected. Patients underwent a hyperoxygenation test (5 min of FiO 2 100%), and arterial and central venous blood samples were repeated. Oxygenation and CO 2 variables were calculated at both time points. Twenty patients were studied. The main cause of shock was septic shock (70%). The hyperoxygenation trial increased oxygenation parameters in arterial and venous blood, whereas PCO 2 only changed at the venous site. Resulting P cva CO 2 and P cva CO 2 /C av O 2 significantly increased [6.8 (4.9, 8.1) vs. 7.6 (6.7, 8.5) mmHg, p 0.001; and 1.9 (1.4, 2.2) vs. 2.3 (1.8, 3), p venous site within the trial (ρ -0.46, p 0.04; ρ 0.6, p venous hyperoxia. Elevated P cva CO 2 /C av O 2 values were associated with higher PO 2 transmission to the venous compartment, suggesting higher shunting phenomena.

  5. Mixed venous versus central venous oxygen saturation in patients undergoing on pump beating coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshaer Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the validity of central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO 2 as a numerical substitution of mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO 2 in adult patients undergoing normothermic on pump beating coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. Materials and Methods: Prospective clinical observational study was done at King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Thirty four adult patients scheduled for coronary artery surgery were included. Patients were monitored by a pulmonary artery catheter (PAC as a part of our routine intraoperative monitoring. SvO 2 and ScvO 2 were simultaneously measured 15 minutes (T1 and 30 minutes (T2 after induction of anesthesia, 15 and 30 minutes after initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass (T3 and T4, and 15 and 30 minutes after admission to intensive care unit (T5 and T6. Results: ScvO 2 showed higher reading than SvO 2 all through our study. Our results showed perfect positive statistically significant correlation between SvO 2 and ScvO 2 at all data points. Individual mean of difference (MOD between both the readings at study time showed MOD of 1.34 and 1.44 at T1 and T2 simultaneously. This MOD was statistically insignificant, but after on pump beating normothermic bypass was initiated; MOD was 5.2 and 4.4 at T3 and T4 with high statistical significance. In ICU, MOD continues to have high statistical significance, MOD was 6.3 at T5 and at T6 it was 4.6. Conclusions: In on pump beating CABG patients; ScvO 2 and SvO 2 are not interchangeable numerically. ScvO 2 is useful in the meaning of trend; our data suggest that ScvO 2 is equivalent to SvO 2 , only in the course of clinical decisions as long as absolute values are not required.

  6. Air Embolism after Central Venous Catheter Removal: Fibrin Sheath as the Portal of Persistent Air Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meggiolaro Marco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Central venous catheterization is of common practice in intensive care units; despite representing an essential device in various clinical circumstances, it represents a source of complications, sometimes even fatal, related to its management. We report the removal of a central venous catheter (CVC that had been wrongly positioned through left internal jugular vein. The vein presented complete thrombosis at vascular ultrasonography. An echocardiogram performed 24 hours after CVC removal showed the presence, apparently unjustified, of microbubbles in right chambers of the heart. A neck-thorax CT scan showed the presence of air bubbles within the left internal jugular vein, left innominate vein, and left subclavian vein. A vascular ultrasonography, focused on venous catheter insertion site, disclosed the presence of a vein-to-dermis fistula, as portal of air entry. Only after air occlusive dressing, we documented echographic disappearance of air bubbles within the right cardiac cavity. This report emphasizes possible air entry even many hours after CVC removal, making it mandatory to perform 24–72-hour air occlusive dressing or, when inadequate, to perform a purse string.

  7. Central venous catheter insertion problem solving using intravenous catheter: technical communication

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    Alemohammad M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Insertion of central venous catheter is an accepted method for hemodynamic monitor-ring, drug and fluid administration, intravenous access, hemodialysis and applying cardiac pace-maker in hospitalized patients. This procedure can be associated with severe complications. The aim of this article is to provide a practical approach to prevent catheter malposition in states that the guide wire will not pass freely.During central venous insertion in internal jugular vein using modified seldinger technique, when after venous insertion, the passage of the guide wire shows difficulties and don’t pass freely, insertion of an intravenous cannula over the wire and re-insertion of the wire can help to prevent malposition of the wire and the catheter. Use of an intravenous cannula over the guide, in situations that the guide wire cannot pass freely among the needle inserted in internal jugular vein, and re-insertion of the guide can probably prevent or reduce the tissue or vascular trauma and the associated complica-tions. This simple maneuver can be helpful in difficult cases especially in cardiac surgery patients who receive high dose heparin and it is necessary to avoid traumatize-tion of carotid artery.

  8. Estimation of central venous pressure using inferior vena caval pressure from a femoral endovascular cooling catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Kook; Lee, Hyoung Youn; Jeung, Kyung Woon; Jung, Yong Hun; Lee, Geo Sung

    2013-01-01

    Endovascular cooling using the femoral cooling catheter is widely practiced. Central venous pressure (CVP) monitoring in patients undergoing femoral endovascular cooling may require the placement of another catheter near the right atrium (RA). We sought to estimate the agreement between the CVP recorded from catheters placed in the superior vena caval pressure (SVCP) and the inferior vena caval pressure (IVCP) recorded from the femoral cooling catheter in patients undergoing femoral endovascular cooling. We enrolled adult cardiac arrest survivors undergoing femoral endovascular cooling. A commercially available central venous catheter was placed in the SVC (superior vena cava) near the RA via subclavian venous access. Both SVCP and IVCP were recorded every 4 hours during therapeutic hypothermia. Arterial pressure, heart rate, peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), and positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) at the time of vena caval pressure measurements were obtained. A total of 323 pairs of SVCP and IVCP measurements were collected. The correlation coefficient between SVCP and IVCP was 0.965 (P monitoring CVP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Central venous access through the external jugular vein in children submitted to bone marrow transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz de Godoy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of long-term central venous access is a sine qua non step for bone marrow transplantation in children. Most frequently, long-term central venous access has been obtained via blind percutaneous cannulation of subclavian and internal jugular veins or via internal jugular vein cutdown. In order to avoid some potential minor and major complications associated with the subclavian or internal jugular approaches, the authors describe an easy, simple and safe method for central venous access through an external jugular vein cutdown that should be of interest to readers involved in the field of bone marrow transplantation. It should be also considered for children as well as adults needing central venous access via an external catheter - or totally implantable port - for reasons other than bone marrow transplantation, such as total parenteral nutrition and administration of chemotherapeutic agents.O estabelecimento de um acesso venoso central de longa duração é uma condição sine qua non para realizar o transplante de medula óssea em crianças. Com frequência, este acesso tem sido obtido através da punção percutânea das veias subclávia e jugular interna ou via dissecção da jugular interna. Com o objetivo de evitar algumas complicações maiores e menores associadas com a subclávia e a jugular interna, os autores descrevem um método simples, fácil e seguro para o acesso venoso central através de dissecção da veia jugular externa. Este método deveria ser de interesse dos leitores envolvidos com o transplante de medula óssea e ser considerado também para crianças e/ou adultos que necessitem de cateter venoso central de longa permanência (externo ou totalmente implantável devido a outras razões, como a nutrição parenteral ou a administração de agentes quimioterápicos.

  10. Accuracy of continuous central venous oxygen saturation monitoring in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baulig, Werner; Dullenkopf, Alexander; Kobler, Andreas; Baulig, Barbara; Roth, Hans Rudolf; Schmid, Edith R

    2008-06-01

    Continuous assessment of central venous oxygen saturation (S(cevox)O(2)) with the CeVOX device (Pulsion Medical Systems, Munich, Germany) was evaluated against central venous oxygen saturation (S(cv)O(2)) determined by co-oximetry. In 20 cardiac surgical patients, a CeVOX fiberoptic probe was introduced into a standard central venous catheter placed in the right internal jugular vein and advanced 2-3 cm beyond the catheter tip. After in vivo calibration of the probe, S(cevox)O(2), S(cv)O(2), mixed venous oxygen saturation (S(mv)O(2)) haemoglobin (Hb), body temperature, heart rate, central venous and mean arterial pressure, and cardiac index were assessed simultaneously at 30 min intervals during surgery and at 60 min intervals during recovery in the intensive care unit. Agreement between S(cevox)O(2), and S(cv)O(2) was determined by Bland-Altman analysis. Simple regression analysis was used to assess the correlation of S(cevox)O(2), and S(cv)O(2) to Hb, body temperature and haemodynamic parameters. Values of S(cevox)O(2) and S(cv)O(2) (84 data pairs during surgery and 106 in the intensive care unit) ranged between 45-89% and 43-90%, respectively. Mean bias and limits of agreement of S(cevox)O(2) and S(cv)O(2) were -0.9 (-7.9/+6.1)% during surgery and -1.2 (-10.5/+8.1)% in the intensive care unit. In 37.9% of all measured data pairs, the difference between S(cevox)O(2) and S(cv)O(2) was beyond clinically acceptable limits (> or =1 s.d.). Mean bias was significantly influenced by cardiac index. Sensitivity and specificity of S(cevox)O(2) to detect substantial (> or =1 s.d.) changes in S(cv)O(2) were 89 and 82%, respectively. In adult patients during and after cardiac surgery, the current version of the CeVOX device might not be the tool to replace S(cv)O(2) determined by co-oxymetry, although sensitivity and specificity of S(cevox)O(2 )to predict substantial changes in S(cv)O(2) were acceptable.

  11. Multicenter study in monitoring central venous catheters complications in hematologic patiennts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen García Gabás

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Most hematological patients suffer a significant venous damage related to different administrated intravenous therapy, being necessary to place central venous catheters (CVC. CVC is associated with various complications. The most common catheter-related complications are occlusion and infection. To avoid such of them, the development of protocols for insertion and care are needed, as well as recording and following up complications. To this end, we propose a cross-sectional carried out during 13 months whose main goal is to know the incidence of CVC- related complications (mainly occlusion and infection in hematological patients.Population included all the =14 ages patients admitted to different hematological units at Ramon y Cajal and Gregorio Marañón hospitals in Madrid and who signed informed consent. Socio-demographic, clinical characteristics and complications were entered into a log which included a pursuit of care protocol.

  12. Increased pulsatile intracranial pressure in patients with symptomatic pineal cysts and magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers indicative of central venous hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Per Kristian; Ringstad, Geir

    2016-08-15

    In symptomatic individuals with non-hydrocephalic pineal cysts (PCs), it remains controversial what causes the symptoms. Based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers, we proposed that PC-associated crowding of the pineal recess may cause central venous hypertension. The aim of this study was to compare pulsatile and static ICP in patients with PCs and chronic daily headache (CDH), and compare ICP data in PC patients with the previously identified MRI biomarkers. All patients assessed with over-night ICP monitoring for PCs or CDH who had been ruled out for idiopathic intracranial hypertension without papilledema (IIHWOP) were retrieved from the database. The symptoms as well as the pulsatile and static ICP scores were compared between the PC and CDH patients, and ICP scores were compared with the MRI biomarkers indicative of central venous hypertension. The pulsatile ICP was significantly increased in the symptomatic patients with non-hydrocephalic PCs as compared to the CDH patients. Pulsatile ICP was significantly increased in the individuals with PC-grades 3-4, who had MRI biomarkers indicative of central venous hypertension. The tectum-splenium-cyst ratio correlated positively with pulsatile ICP and an index of thalamic edema. Pulsatile ICP is increased in symptomatic patients with PCs and imaging evidence of central venous hypertension, supporting the hypothesis that PC-induced crowding of the pineal recess and venous obstruction may cause a central venous hypertension syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The use of central venous lines in the treatment of chronically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barczykowska, Ewa; Szwed-Kolińska, Marzena; Wróbel-Bania, Agnieszka; Ślusarz, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of chronic diseases in children is a special medical problem. Maintaining constant access to the central vascular system is necessary for long-term hemato-oncological and nephrological therapies as well as parenteral nutrition. Providing such access enables chemotherapic treatment, complete parenteral nutrition, long-term antibiotic therapy, hemodialysis, treatment of intensive care unit patients, monitoring blood pressure in the pulmonary artery and stimulation of heart rate in emergency situations as well as treatment of patients suffering from complications, especially when chances of access into peripheral veins are exhausted. Continuous access to the central vascular system is desirable in the treatment of chronically ill children. Insertion of a central venous catheter line eliminates the unnecessary pain and stress to a child patient accompanying injection into peripheral vessels. In order to gain long-term and secure access to the central venous system, respecting the guidelines of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention contained in the updated 'Guidelines for the Prevention of Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections' is necessary.

  14. Incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections in neonates following removal of peripherally inserted central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casner, Michael; Hoesli, Sandra J; Slaughter, James C; Hill, Melissa; Weitkamp, Jörn-Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Catheter-associated bloodstream infections are a significant source of morbidity and healthcare cost in the neonatal ICU. Previous studies examining the prevalence of bloodstream infections after removal of peripherally inserted central venous catheters in neonates are equivocal. A retrospective cohort study. All infants with peripherally inserted central venous catheters treated at the Vanderbilt neonatal ICU between 2007 and 2009. We evaluated the following outcomes: 1) bloodstream infections, 2) culture-negative sepsis, 3) number of sepsis evaluations, and 4) number of significant apnea/bradycardia events comparing odds ratios between 72 hours before and 72 hours after peripherally inserted central venous catheter removal. We analyzed a total of 1,002 peripherally inserted central venous catheters in 856 individual infants with a median (interquartile range) gestational age of 31 weeks (28-37 wk) and a median birth weight of 1,469 g (960-2,690 g). Comparing 72 hours before with 72 hours after peripherally inserted central venous catheter removal did not show a difference in the prevalence of bloodstream infections (9 vs 3, p = 0.08), prevalence of culture-negative sepsis (37 vs 40, p = 0.73), number of sepsis evaluations (p = 0.42), or number of apnea/bradycardia events (p = 0.32). However, in peripherally inserted central venous catheter not used for delivery of antibiotics, there was a 3.83-fold increase in odds for culture-negative sepsis following peripherally inserted central venous catheter removal (95% confidence interval, 1.48-10.5; p = 0.001). For infants less than 1,500 g birth weight (very low birth weight), odds for culture-negative sepsis increased to 6.3-fold following removal of peripherally inserted central venous catheters not used for antibiotic delivery (95% confidence interval, 1.78-26.86; p central venous catheter removal, they suggests that very low birth weight infants not recently exposed to antibiotics are at increased odds for

  15. Antimicrobial-impregnated central venous catheters for prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infection in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balain, Munisha; Oddie, Sam J; McGuire, William

    2015-09-27

    Central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in newborn infants cared for in neonatal units. Potential strategies to prevent these infections include the use of central venous catheters impregnated with antimicrobial agents. To determine the effect of antimicrobial-impregnated central venous catheters in preventing catheter-related bloodstream infection in newborn infants. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2015, Issue 8), MEDLINE (1966 to September 2015), EMBASE (1980 to September 2015), CINAHL (1982 to September 2015), conference proceedings and previous reviews. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing central venous catheters impregnated or coated with any antibiotic or antiseptic versus central venous catheters without antibiotic or antiseptic coating or impregnation in newborn infants. We extracted data using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Group, with independent evaluation of risk of bias and data extraction by two review authors. We found only one small trial (N = 98). This trial found that silver zeolite-impregnated umbilical venous catheters reduced the incidence of bloodstream infection in very preterm infants (risk ratio 0.11, 95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.87; risk difference -0.17, 95% CI -0.30 to -0.04; number needed to treat for benefit 6, 95% CI 3 to 25]. Although the data from one small trial indicates that antimicrobial-impregnated central venous catheters might prevent catheter-related bloodstream infection in newborn infants, the available evidence is insufficient to guide clinical practice. A large, simple and pragmatic randomised controlled trial is needed to resolve on-going uncertainty.

  16. Comparison of three types of central venous catheters in patients with malignant tumor receiving chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang S

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Shirong Fang,1 Jinhong Yang,2 Lei Song,3 Yan Jiang,1 Yuxiu Liu4 1Department of Anesthesiology, 2Department of Oncology, Weifang People’s Hospital, Weifang, 3Intensive Care Unit, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, 4Nursing College, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, People’s Republic of China Background: Central venous catheters (CVCs have been an effective access for chemotherapy instead of peripherally intravenous catheters. There were limited studies on the choices and effects of different types of CVCs for chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to compare the complications, cost, and patients’ quality of life and satisfaction of three commonly used CVCs for chemotherapy, such as implanted venous port, peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs, and external non-tunneled central venous catheters (NTCs.Methods: A double-center prospective cohort study was carried out from March 2014 to December 2016. Catheterization situation, complications, catheter maintenance, cost, and patients’ quality of life and satisfaction were recorded, investigated, and analyzed. Forty-five ports, 60 PICCs and 40 NTCs were included. All the CVCs were followed up to catheter removal.Results: There was no statistical difference in catheterization success rates between port and PICC. NTC had less success rate by one puncture compared with port. Ports had fewer complications compared with PICCs and NTCs. The complication rates of ports, PICCs and NTCs were 2.2%, 40%, and 27.5%, respectively. If the chemotherapy process was <12 months, NTCs cost least, and the cost of port was much higher than PICC and NTC. When the duration time was longer than 12 months, the cost of port had no difference with the cost of PICC. Quality of life and patients’ satisfaction of port group were significantly higher than the other two groups. Conclusion: Although port catheterization costs more and needs professional medical staff and strict operational

  17. Jugular Venous Catheterization: A Case of Knotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Erkılıç

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 79-year-old woman, diagnosed for cancer of the ovary, had a central catheter that was placed with difficulty through the right internal jugular vein intraoperatively. After oophorectomy, it was realized that the catheter was knotted. Thus, the central venous catheter was removed successfully using a traction technique in the operating room. Central venous catheter use may result in various complications, although it has been used as an invasive method for hemodynamic monitoring and fluid and drug infusion. Here, we present catheter knotting in a case with solutions for this complication, under literature review.

  18. An Evaluation of Complications in Ultrasound-Guided Central Venous Catheter Insertion in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin OZAKIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Objectives: In emergency departments, emergency physicians frequently have to perform central venous access. In cases where peripheral venous access is not possible, central venous access is required for dialysis, fulfillment of urgent fluid need, or central venous pressure measurement. This study was carried out to evaluate the emergence of complications in the process of and in the 15 days following the insertion of central venous catheter under ultrasound guidance in the emergency department. Methods: For this study, patients who presented to the emergency department over a period of eight months with an urgent need for central catheter were examined prospectively. Age, gender, and accompanying diseases of patients as well as the type, time, duration, and indication of the venous access were recorded. Furthermore, the amount of experience of the physician was taken into consideration. Results: In the emergency department, physicians performed ultrasound-guided central venous catheter insertion for 74 patients (40 men and 34 women. For access, internal jugular vein was used in 65 (87.8% patients, and femoral vein was used in 9 (12.2% patients. The reason for access was urgent dialysis need in 55 (74.3%, CVP measurement in 3 (4.1%, fluid support due to severe hypovolemia in 6 (8.1%, and difficulty of peripheral venous access in 10 (13.5% patients. None of the patients developed complications in the process of or after the insertion. Patients did not have infections related to the catheter in 15 days following the insertion. Conclusions: Central venous access is frequently required in emergency departments. The risk of complication is little if any in ultrasonographyguided access carried out under appropriate conditions. ÖZET: Amaç: Acil servislerde acil tıp hekimlerince santral damar yolu işlemi sık uygulanır. Periferik damar yolu açılamadığı hallerde, diyaliz, acil sıvı ihtiyacı veya santral venöz basınç

  19. Complications of an implantable venous access device (Port-a-Cath) during intermittent continuous infusion of chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, R. L.; Lauw, F. N.; Bemelman, W. A.; Bakker, P. J.; Taat, C. W.; Veenhof, C. H.

    1996-01-01

    In 149 patients, treated with intermittent continuous infusion of different chemotherapeutic agents, 169 Port-a-Caths were implanted by qualified surgeons and residents in training. The peri- and postoperative complications of implantation of the Port-a-Cath system and the complications during

  20. To clot or not to clot? That is the question in central venous catheters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadman, A.; Lawrance, J.A.L. E-mail: jeremy.lawrance@btopenworld.com; Fitzsimmons, L.; Spencer-Shaw, A.; Swindell, R

    2004-04-01

    AIM: To establish the relationship between the tip position of tunnelled central venous catheters (CVC) and the incidence of venous thrombosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomly sampled, retrospective review of 428 CVC inserted into 334 patients was performed. The chest radiograph obtained post-catheter insertion, as well as follow-up radiographs, linograms, venograms and Doppler ultrasounds (US), were reviewed. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 72 days (range 1-720 days), with a total follow-up of 23,040 line days. Venous thrombosis occurred in five out of 191 (2.6%) CVC in a distal position (distal third of the superior vena cava (SVC) or right atrium (RA)), five of 95 (5.3%) in an intermediate position (middle third of the SVC) and 20 of 48 (41.7%) in a proximal position (proximal third SVC or thoracic inlet veins). There was a significant difference in thrombosis rate between lines sited with the tip in a distal compared with a proximal position (p<0.0005). CVC with tips in a proximal position were 16 times more likely to thrombose than those in a distal position. None of the 58 CVC with the tip located in the RA thrombosed or caused complications. CONCLUSION: Distal placement of tunnelled CVC, either in the distal third of the SVC or proximal RA is optimal.

  1. Retrospective analysis of intravertebral collateral enhancement in patients with central venous obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeone, F.J.; Chang, Connie Y.; Huang, Ambrose J.; Kattapuram, Susan V.; Bredella, Miriam A.; Torriani, Martin [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Bennett, Debbie L. [Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Saint Louis, MO (United States)

    2016-02-15

    To compare prevalence and patterns of intravertebral collateral enhancement in patients with and without central venous obstruction (CVO). Chest CTs performed between 1/1/2000 and 12/15/2012 with reports containing terms indicating CVO were identified. All contrast enhanced CTs were examined for the presence of CVO and collateral venous pathways. If intravertebral collateral enhancement was present, the pattern was recorded as nodular, linear, or both. In 209 suspected cases of CVO, 53 (25 %) were confirmed with obstruction and 156 (75 %) were without obstruction. In patients with CVO, 47 % (25/53) demonstrated collateral venous flow through an intravertebral marrow pathway compared to 5 % (8/156) of patients without CVO (P < 0.0001). The most common level of enhancement was the upper thoracic spine, involving only the vertebral body. Nodular, linear, and combined nodular-linear enhancement patterns were seen with similar frequency. Nodular intravertebral collateral enhancement was mistaken for sclerotic metastases in 33 % (3/9) of cases. Intravertebral collateral enhancement was seen in almost half the patients with CVO and when nodular enhancement is present, it is important to differentiate between metastatic lesions and enhancement related to CVO. (orig.)

  2. Primary thromboprophylaxis for cancer patients with central venous catheters--a reappraisal of the evidence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cunningham, M S

    2006-01-30

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is responsible for an estimated 25 000 deaths per annum in UK hospital practice. It is well established that many of these deaths could be prevented through the use of appropriate thromboprophylaxis. This issue is of particular relevance in oncology practice, where the risks of VTE and bleeding are both significantly higher than those observed in general medical patients. Cancer patients with in-dwelling central venous catheters (CVCs) are at particularly high risk of developing thrombotic complications. However, the literature has produced conflicting conclusions regarding the efficacy of using routine primary thromboprophylaxis in these patients. Indeed such is the level of confusion around this topic, that the most recent version of the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) guidelines published in 2004 actually reversed their previous recommendation (published in 2001). Nevertheless, minidose warfarin continues to be routinely used in many oncology centres in the UK. In this article, we have performed a systematic review of the published literature regarding the efficacy and the risks, associated with using thromboprophylaxis (either minidose warfarin or low-dose LMWH) in cancer patients with CVC. On the basis of this evidence, we conclude that there is no proven role for using such thromboprophylaxis. However, asymptomatic CVC-related venous thrombosis remains common, and further more highly powered studies of better design are needed in order to define whether specific subgroups of cancer patients might benefit from receiving thromboprophylaxis.

  3. Central Venous-to-Arterial CO2 Gap Is a Useful Parameter in Monitoring Hypovolemia-Caused Altered Oxygen Balance: Animal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsi, Szilvia; Demeter, Gabor; Erces, Daniel; Nagy, Eniko; Kaszaki, Jozsef; Molnar, Zsolt

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring hypovolemia is an everyday challenge in critical care, with no consensus on the best indicator or what is the clinically relevant level of hypovolemia. The aim of this experiment was to determine how central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) and central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference (CO2 gap) reflect hypovolemia-caused changes in the balance of oxygen delivery and consumption. Anesthetized, ventilated Vietnamese minipigs (n = 10) were given a bolus followed by a continuous infusion of furosemide. At baseline and then in five stages hemodynamic, microcirculatory measurements and blood gas analysis were performed. Oxygen extraction increased significantly, which was accompanied by a significant drop in ScvO2 and a significant increase in CO2 gap. There was a significant negative correlation between oxygen extraction and ScvO2 and significant positive correlation between oxygen extraction and CO2 gap. Taking ScvO2 6 mmHg values together to predict an oxygen extraction >30%, the positive predictive value is 100%; negative predicted value is 72%. Microcirculatory parameters, capillary perfusion rate and red blood cell velocity, decreased significantly over time. Similar changes were not observed in the sham group. Our data suggest that ScvO2 6 mmHg can be complementary tools in detecting hypovolemia-caused imbalance of oxygen extraction.

  4. Bloodstream Infection Incidence of Different Central Venous Catheters in Neonates: A Descriptive Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerdina H. Dubbink-Verheij

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Central venous catheters (CVCs in neonates are associated with a risk of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI. Most reports on the incidence of CLABSI in neonates focus on umbilical venous catheters (UVCs and peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs. We evaluated the incidence and risk factors for CLABSI in a cohort of neonates with femoral venous catheters (FVCs, UVCs, and PICCs, with a gestational age ≥34 weeks born between January 1, 2006 and June 30, 2013. We included 2,986 neonates with a total of 656 catheters. The CLABSI incidence rate varied from 12.3 per 1,000 catheter-days in FVCs to 10.6 per 1,000 catheter-days in UVCs and 5.3 per 1,000 catheter-days in PICCs. In a Kaplan–Meier survival analysis, we did not find a difference in CLABSI risk between the catheter types (p = 0.29. The following factors were independently associated with an increased risk of CLABSI: parenteral nutrition [hazard ratio (HR 2.60, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.25–5.41], male gender (HR 2.63, 95% CI 1.17–5.90, and higher birth weight (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.002–1.09, whereas antibiotic treatment at birth (HR 0.25, 95% CI 0.12–0.52 was associated with a decreased risk. Conclusion: In our cohort, we did not find a difference between the CLABSI incidence in FVCs, PICCs, and UVCs. Occurrence of CLABSI is associated with parenteral nutrition, male gender, and higher birth weight. Antibiotic treatment at birth was associated with a decreased risk of CLABSI.

  5. Bloodstream Infection Incidence of Different Central Venous Catheters in Neonates: A Descriptive Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbink-Verheij, Gerdina H; Bekker, Vincent; Pelsma, Iris C M; van Zwet, Erik W; Smits-Wintjens, Vivianne E H J; Steggerda, Sylke J; Te Pas, Arjan B; Lopriore, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) in neonates are associated with a risk of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI). Most reports on the incidence of CLABSI in neonates focus on umbilical venous catheters (UVCs) and peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). We evaluated the incidence and risk factors for CLABSI in a cohort of neonates with femoral venous catheters (FVCs), UVCs, and PICCs, with a gestational age ≥34 weeks born between January 1, 2006 and June 30, 2013. We included 2,986 neonates with a total of 656 catheters. The CLABSI incidence rate varied from 12.3 per 1,000 catheter-days in FVCs to 10.6 per 1,000 catheter-days in UVCs and 5.3 per 1,000 catheter-days in PICCs. In a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, we did not find a difference in CLABSI risk between the catheter types ( p  = 0.29). The following factors were independently associated with an increased risk of CLABSI: parenteral nutrition [hazard ratio (HR) 2.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-5.41], male gender (HR 2.63, 95% CI 1.17-5.90), and higher birth weight (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.002-1.09), whereas antibiotic treatment at birth (HR 0.25, 95% CI 0.12-0.52) was associated with a decreased risk. In our cohort, we did not find a difference between the CLABSI incidence in FVCs, PICCs, and UVCs. Occurrence of CLABSI is associated with parenteral nutrition, male gender, and higher birth weight. Antibiotic treatment at birth was associated with a decreased risk of CLABSI.

  6. Assessment of central venous catheter-associated infections using semi-quantitative or quantitative culture methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Pizzolitto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Semiquantitative (Maki and quantitative (Brun- Buisson culture techniques were employed in the diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI in patients who have a short-term central venous catheter (inserted for 30 days. The diagnosis of CRBSI was based on the results of semiquantitative and quantitative culture of material from the removed catheters. Catheter tips (118 from 100 patients were evaluated by both methods. Semiquantitative analysis revealed 34 catheters (28.8% colonized by ≥15 colonyforming units (cfu, while quantitative cultures (34 catheters, 28.8% showed the growth of ≥103 cfu/mL. Bacteremia was confirmed in four patients by isolating microorganisms of identical species from both catheters and blood samples. Using the semiquantitative culture technique on short-term central venous catheter tips, we have shown that with a cut-off level of ≥15 cfu, the technique had 100.0% sensitivity, specificity of 68.4%, 25.0% positive predictive value (PPV and 100.0% negative predictive value (NPV, efficiency of 71.4% and a prevalence of 9.5%. The quantitative method, with a cut-off limit of ≥103 cfu/mL, gave identical values: the sensitivity was 100.0%, specificity 68.4%, positive predictive value (PPV 25.0%, negative predictive value (NPV 100.0%, efficiency 71.4% and prevalence 9.5%. We concluded that the semiquantitative and quantitative culture methods, evaluated in parallel, for the first time in Brazil, have similar sensitivity and specificity. Keywords: central venous catheter; semi-quantitative culture; quantitative culture; catheter-related bacteremia.

  7. A review of 5434 percutaneous pediatric central venous catheters inserted by anesthesiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbezin, Serge; Gauss, Tobias; Smith, Ian; Bruneau, Beatrice; Mangalsuren, Nyamjargal; Diallo, Thierno; Skhiri, Alia; Nivoche, Yves; Dahmani, Souhayl; Brasher, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    To review the results of an anesthesiologist led pediatric percutaneous central venous access service. Prospective data on percutaneous pediatric central venous catheter (CVC) insertions were collected over 22 years. Data included age, gender, weight, previous central CVCs, venous thromboses, investigations for great vein patency, type of CVC, external diameter, previous CVC insertions, intended use, operator identity, and the vein into which the CVC was inserted. The default technique was internal jugular vein cannulation using landmark technique (LT). Complication was defined as the following: failure to cannulate any vein, hemothorax, pneumothorax, right atrial perforation, extravenous wire positioning or CVC position and whether the patient was taken back to theater for CVC repositioning. Five thousand four hundred and thirty-four percutaneous CVC insertion procedures were performed on 3954 patients. One-third involved children <1 year of age (n = 1823: 34%). Five thousand one hundred and twenty-five CVCs (95.3%) were inserted into internal jugular veins. The majority were tunneled CVCs (n = 5190: 96.2%). The perioperative complication rate was 1.3%. Successful cannulation occurred in 99.5% of patients. Failure was more likely in children <3 kg, during large bore hemodialysis CVC insertions and during the first 4 years of the service - the latter suggesting a learning curve. Ninety-nine percent of CVCs were inserted using LTs. This study demonstrates a high success rate and low complication rate during pediatric percutaneous internal jugular vein CVC insertions by trained anesthesiologists using LTs. Smaller children, hemodialysis CVCs, and the team's learning curve were identified as risk factors for insertion failure. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Surgical retrieval of a guide wire lost during central venous catheterization in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Jade M; Lansdowne, Jennifer L; Himsel, Carol A; Freer, Sean R

    2017-05-01

    To report a case of successful surgical removal of a guide wire lost during central venous catheterization. A 28 kg, 4-year-old female neutered mixed breed dog presented to the primary care veterinarian with diabetic ketosis. During the process of central venous catheterization, the guide wire was accidently released and the entire length of the guide wire slipped into the jugular vein. Due to the absence of nearby interventional radiology facilities, surgical intervention was proposed. An ultrasound was used to determine that the guide wire was located in the caudal vena cava extending caudally into the right internal iliac vein. Rommel tourniquets were placed around the iliac vein cranial to the bifurcation of the common iliac vein into the external and internal iliac veins. A venotomy was performed in the right common iliac vein and the guide wire was grasped with hemostats and gently removed while alternately relaxing the cranial then caudal tourniquets. During anesthesia, ventricular premature contractions were noted that varied in frequency with the dog's positioning. Postoperative color flow Doppler ultrasound evaluation of the caudal vena cava, right common, internal and external iliac veins, and right femoral vein was normal with no evidence of thrombosis. Several days postoperative the dog's diabetic ketosis and ventricular premature contractions had resolved and color flow Doppler ultrasound evaluation was normal with no evidence of thrombosis. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported veterinary case of loss and subsequent surgical retrieval of a central venous catheter guide wire. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  9. Misplaced central venous catheter in the vertebral artery: endovascular treatment of foreseen hemorrhage during catheter withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkan, Koray; Cindil, Emetullah; Kilic, Koray; Ilgit, Erhan; Onal, Baran; Erbas, Gonca

    2014-01-01

    We report on the endovascular management of hemorrhage with stent-graft due to a misplaced central venous catheter in the vertebral artery (VA) during percutaneous internal jugular vein catheterization in a child. A 16-year-old female was presented with the diagnosis of familial Mediterranean fever related chronic renal insufficiency. An attempt was made to place a central venous catheter via the right internal jugular vein without image guidance and the patient experienced dyspnea and pain at the catheter insertion site. Computerized tomography (CT) showed hemorrhage in the cervical region and upper mediastinum, also reformatted images showed that the catheter was passing through the proximal part of the VA and terminating in the right mediastinum. The catheter was removed during manual compression under angio-flouroscopic monitoring and ongoing extravasation was observed. A stent-graft was placed to the bleeding site of the VA. Angiography immediately after the stent-graft placement revealed complete disappearance of extravasation and patency of vertebral and subclavian arteries. Central venous catheterization (CVC) is not a risk-free procedure and arterial injuries are in a wide spectrum from a simple puncture to rupture of the artery. Inadvertent VA cannulation is a rare and serious complication necessitating prompt diagnosis and early treatment. If an arterial injury with a large-caliber catheter occurs, endovascular treatment with stent-graft seems to be a safe and effective option in terms of achieving hemostasis and preserving arterial patency. Recent findings suggest that endovascular management of inadvertent cervical arterial injury secondary to CVC seems to be the safest strategy.

  10. Central venous oxygen saturation and thoracic admittance during dialysis: new approaches to hemodynamic monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, J.; Olde, B.; Solem, K.

    2008-01-01

    events are reflected in the central venous oxygen saturation (ScO(2)) and thoracic admittance (TA) during dialysis. Twenty ambulatory HD patients, 11 hypotension prone (HP) and 9 hypotension resistant, with central vascular access, were monitored during 3 HD sessions each. ScO(2), TA, finger blood...... in ScO(2) and TA correlated much closer than did changes in ScO(2) and DeltaBV (r=0.43 and 0.18, respectively). Our results suggest that an intradialytic decrease in cardiac output, as reflected by a fall in ScO(2), is a common feature to HD patients prone to IDH. In patients using a central vascular...... access, ScO(2) and TA measurements may be more specific to the pathophysiologic events preceding IDH than DeltaBV-the current standard monitoring method Udgivelsesdato: 2008/7...

  11. Effect of patient position and PEEP on hepatic, portal and central venous pressures during liver resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, L; Rizell, M; Houltz, E; Karlsen, K; Wiklund, J; Odenstedt Hergès, H; Stenqvist, O; Lundin, S

    2011-10-01

    It has been suggested that blood loss during liver resection may be reduced if central venous pressure (CVP) is kept at a low level. This can be achieved by changing patient position but it is not known how position changes affect portal (PVP) and hepatic (HVP) venous pressures. The aim of the study was to assess if changes in body position result in clinically significant changes in these pressures. We studied 10 patients undergoing liver resection. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and CVP were measured using fluid-filled catheters, PVP and HVP with tip manometers. Measurements were performed in the horizontal, head up and head down tilt position with two positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels. A 10° head down tilt at PEEP 5 cm H(2) O significantly increased CVP (11 ± 3 to 15 ± 3 mmHg) and MAP (72 ± 8 to 76 ± 8 mmHg) while head up tilt at PEEP 5 cm H(2) O decreased CVP (11 ± 3 to 6 ± 4 mmHg) and MAP (72 ± 8 to 63 ± 7 mmHg) with minimal changes in transhepatic venous pressures. Increasing PEEP from 5 to 10 resulted in small increases, around 1 mmHg in CVP, PVP and HVP. There was no significant correlation between changes in CVP vs. PVP and HVP during head up tilt and only a weak correlation between CVP and HVP by head down tilt. Changes of body position resulted in marked changes in CVP but not in HVPs. Head down or head up tilt to reduce venous pressures in the liver may therefore not be effective measures to reduce blood loss during liver surgery. 2011 The Authors Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 2011 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  12. A Rare and Dangerous Complication of Central Venous Catheterization: Intimal Injury

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    Emine Akkuzu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Central venous catheters are frequently used for urgent patient resuscitation and for prolonged intravenous route requirements. However, the patient may be injured or may need additional intervention due to complications associated with catheter insertion. Various mechanical complications such as catheter malposition, arterial puncture, hemothorax and pneumothorax can be seen in 5-19% of patients and early recognition has a vital effect. Here, we present a case of pleural effusion leading to significant hypoxemia due to intimal injury to the superior vena cava which developed in the second day of catheter insertion.

  13. Improving safety and efficiency during emergent central venous catheter placement with a needleless securing clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silich, Bert; Chrobak, Paul; Siu, Jeffrey; Schlichting, Adam; Patel, Samir; Yang, James

    2013-08-01

    To compare the needleless securing clamp to the traditional suture-secured clamp for central venous catheters. Compare the holding strength of each type of clamps by measuring the amount of kinetic energy absorbed, ask 20 physicians to evaluate the clamp placement using sutures or staples, and summarise the clamps effectiveness and complications in 10 patients. Compared to sutured clamp, the needleless clamp was more secure. The needleless clamp was also significantly better with regard to ease of use, safety, perceived strength (p value clamps. Without incurring complications or increasing risk to patients, the needleless clamp is secure and improves safety and efficiency for physicians.

  14. Case report of a guide wire loss and migration after central venous access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doninck, J; Maleux, G; Coppens, S; Moke, L

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of guide wire loss and migration after central venous access for spinal deformity surgery. Guide wire migration was noticed on a follow-up full spine x-ray 69 days postoperatively. Percutaneous retrieval was successfully performed using endovascular techniques. With this case report, we want to highlight the fact that one could miss other pathologies visible on these full spine x-rays when concentrating only on the measurement of spinopelvic parameters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Intraluminal instillation of urokinase and autologous plasma: a method to unblock occluded central venous ports

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    Henze Guenter

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Therapeutic use and effective function of recombinant urokinase (r-UK for occluded ports need the presence of plasminogen. Methods As a therapeutic proof of principle, we demonstrate that the use of r-UK and autologous plasma effectively reestablishes the function of occluded central venous ports (CVP resistant to routine management of catheter occlusion. Five patients with occluded ports resistant to the routine management were treated. Results All patients were successfully treated with thrombolytic therapy using intraluminal instillation of r-UK and autologous plasma. Conclusion Instillation of r-UK and autologous plasma is a safe and effective method for management of CVP occlusion.

  16. The role of intracarotid cold saline infusion on a theoretical brain model incorporating the circle of willis and cerebral venous return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimark, Matthew A; Konstas, Angelos-Aristeidis; Choi, Jae H; Laine, Andrew F; Pile-Spellman, John

    2007-01-01

    This study describes a theoretical model of brain cooling by intracarotid cold saline infusion which takes into account redistribution of cold perfusate through the circle of Willis (CoW) and cold venous return (VR) from the head. This model is developed in spherical coordinates on a four tissue layer hemispherical geometrical configuration. Temperature evolution is modeled according to the Pennes bioheat transfer equation. Simulations were run over a 1 hour period and 30 ml/min of freezing cold saline with the baseline model (no VR, no CoW), VR model (without CoW), and CoW model (with VR). The VR model demonstrates continuing temperature drop in the treatment region of the brain not observed in the baseline model and its final mean ipsilateral anterior temperature was approximately 31 degrees C. The temperature effect in the CoW model was present but less robust in the ipsilateral anterior region, as final temperature was 32 degrees C. However, cooling was also achieved in contralateral and posterior brain regions. This model continues to demonstrate the feasibility of intracarotid cold saline infusion for ischemic stroke therapy.

  17. When one port does not return blood: two case reports of rare causes for misplaced central venous catheters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pereira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We present two cases of misplaced central venous catheters having in common theabsence of free blood return from one lumen immediately after placement. The former is acase of right hydrothorax associated with central venous catheterization with the catheter tipin intra-pleural location. In this case the distal port was never patent. In the latter case therewas an increased aspiration pressure through the middle port due to a catheter looping.The absence of free flow on aspiration from one lumen of a central catheter should not beundervalued. In these circumstances the catheter should not be used and needs to be removed.

  18. Factors Influencing Intracavitary Electrocardiographic P-Wave Changes during Central Venous Catheter Placement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guorong Wang

    Full Text Available Amplitude changes in the P-wave of intracavitary electrocardiography have been used to assess the tip placement of central venous catheters. The research assessed the sensitivity and specificity of this sign in comparison with standard radiographic techniques for tip location, focusing on factors influencing its clinical utility. Both intracavitary electrocardiography guided tip location and X-ray positioning were used to verify catheter tip locations in patients undergoing central venous catheter insertion. Intracavitary electrocardiograms from 1119 patients (of a total 1160 subjects showed specific amplitude changes in the P-wave. As the results show, compared with X-ray positioning, the sensitivity of electrocardiography-guided tip location was 97.3%, with false negative rate of 2.7%; the specificity was 1, with false positive rate of zero. Univariate analyses indicated that features including age, gender, height, body weight, and heart rate have no statistically significant influence on P-wave amplitude changes (P > 0.05. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that catheter insertion routes (OR = 2.280, P = 0.003 and basal P-wave amplitude (OR = 0.553, P = 0.003 have statistically significant impacts on P-wave amplitude changes. As a reliable indicator of tip location, amplitude change in the P-wave has proved of good sensitivity and excellent specificity, and the minor, zero, false positive rate supports the clinical utility of this technique in early recognition of malpositioned tips. A better sensitivity was achieved in placement of centrally inserted central catheters (CICCs than that of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs. In clinical practice, a combination of intracavitary electrocardiography, ultrasonic inspection and the anthropometric measurement method would further improve the accuracy.

  19. Monitoring Central Venous Catheter Resistance to Predict Imminent Occlusion: A Prospective Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Joshua; Tang, Li; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E; Brennan, Rachel C; Shook, David R; Stokes, Dennis C; Monagle, Paul; Curtis, Nigel; Worth, Leon J; Allison, Kim; Sun, Yilun; Flynn, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Long-term central venous catheters are essential for the management of chronic medical conditions, including childhood cancer. Catheter occlusion is associated with an increased risk of subsequent complications, including bloodstream infection, venous thrombosis, and catheter fracture. Therefore, predicting and pre-emptively treating occlusions should prevent complications, but no method for predicting such occlusions has been developed. We conducted a prospective trial to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of catheter-resistance monitoring, a novel approach to predicting central venous catheter occlusion in pediatric patients. Participants who had tunneled catheters and were receiving treatment for cancer or undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation underwent weekly catheter-resistance monitoring for up to 12 weeks. Resistance was assessed by measuring the inline pressure at multiple flow-rates via a syringe pump system fitted with a pressure-sensing transducer. When turbulent flow through the device was evident, resistance was not estimated, and the result was noted as "non-laminar." Ten patients attended 113 catheter-resistance monitoring visits. Elevated catheter resistance (>8.8% increase) was strongly associated with the subsequent development of acute catheter occlusion within 10 days (odds ratio = 6.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-21.5; p monitoring as highly acceptable. In this pediatric hematology and oncology population, catheter-resistance monitoring is feasible, acceptable, and predicts imminent catheter occlusion. Larger studies are required to validate these findings, assess the predictive value for other clinical outcomes, and determine the impact of pre-emptive therapy. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01737554.

  20. Smart central venous port for early detection of bacterial biofilm related infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, J; Alonso-Arce, M; Schmidt, C; Valderas, D; Sedano, B; Legarda, J; Arizti, F; Gómez, E; Aguinaga, A; Del Pozo, J L; Arana, S

    2014-06-01

    Central venous catheters (CVC) are commonly used in clinical practice to improve a patient's quality of life. Unfortunately, there is an intrinsic risk of acquiring an infection related to microbial biofilm formation inside the catheter lumen. It has been estimated that 80 % of all human bacterial infections are biofilm-associated. Additionally, 50 % of all nosocomial infections are associated with indwelling devices. Bloodstream infections account for 30-40 % of all cases of severe sepsis and septic shock, and are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of bloodstream infections must be performed promptly so that adequate antimicrobial therapy can be started and patient outcome improved. An ideal diagnostic technology would identify the infecting organism(s) in a timely manner, so that appropriate pathogen-driven therapy could begin promptly. Unfortunately, despite the essential information it provides, blood culture, the gold standard, largely fails in this purpose because time is lost waiting for bacterial or fungal growth. This work presents a new design of a venous access port that allows the monitoring of the inner reservoir surface by means of an impedimetric biosensor. An ad-hoc electronic system was designed to manage the sensor and to allow communication with the external receiver. Historic data recorded and stored in the device was used as the reference value for the detection of bacterial biofilm. The RF communication system sends an alarm signal to the external receiver when a microbial colonization of the port occurs. The successful in vitro analysis of the biosensor, the electronics and the antenna of the new indwelling device prototype are shown. The experimental conditions were selected in each case as the closest to the clinical working conditions for the smart central venous catheter (SCVC) testing. The results of this work allow a new generation of this kind of device that could potentially provide more efficient treatments for

  1. Percutaneous Placement of Central Venous Catheters: Comparing the Anatomical Landmark Method with the Radiologically Guided Technique for Central Venous Catheterization Through the Internal Jugular Vein in Emergent Hemodialysis Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koroglu, M.; Demir, M.; Koroglu, B.K.; Sezer, M.T.; Akhan, O.; Yildiz, H.; Yavuz, L.; Baykal, B.; Oyar, O. [Suleyman Demirel Univ., Isparta (Turkey). Depts. of Radiology, Internal Medicine and Anesthesiology

    2006-02-15

    Purpose: To compare the success and immediate complication rates of the anatomical landmark method (group 1) and the radiologically (combined real-time ultrasound and fluoroscopy) guided technique (group 2) in the placement of central venous catheters in emergent hemodialysis patients. Material and Methods: The study was performed prospectively in a randomized manner. The success and immediate complication rates of radiologically guided placement of central venous access catheters through the internal jugular vein (n = 40) were compared with those of the anatomical landmark method (n 40). The success of placement, the complications, the number of passes required, and whether a single or double-wall puncture occurred were also noted and compared. Results: The groups were comparable in age and sex. The indication for catheter placement was hemodialysis access in all patients. Catheter placement was successful in all patients in group 2 and unsuccessful in 1 (2.5%) patient in group 1. All catheters functioned adequately and immediately after the placement (0% initial failure rate) in group 2, but 3 catheters (7.5% initial failure rate) were non-functional just after placement in group 1. The total number of needle passes, double venous wall puncture, and complication rate were significantly lower in group 2. Conclusion: Percutaneous central venous catheterization via the internal jugular vein can be performed by interventional radiologists with better technical success rates and lower immediate complications. In conclusion, central venous catheterization for emergent dialysis should be performed under both real-time ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance.

  2. Central venous cutdown in neonates: feasibility as a bedside procedure without general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Min; Lee, Hyeon-Soo; Moon, Suk-Bae

    2013-08-01

    A silicone central venous catheter (CVC) is usually inserted using a percutaneous technique under general anesthesia. However, there are numerous reports on the postoperative adverse effects of general anesthesia in neonates. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of open surgical cutdown (OSC) for central venous access without general anesthesia. The medical records of patients who underwent OSC at bedside under sedation and local anesthesia were reviewed. Chloral hydrate (100mg/kg) was given orally for the induction of moderate to deep sedation 15 minutes before OSC; then the operative field was infiltrated with 1% lidocaine. When adequate sedation was not achieved, a bolus of phenobarbital (20mg/kg) was given intravenously. Thirteen Broviac lines were inserted into 12 patients. At insertion, the median gestational age was 29 weeks, birth weight was 1,140 g and age was 33 days. No patients required invasive ventilator care; 7 patients received nasal non-invasive ventilator care. Neither intubation nor inotropics were required during the intra- or postoperative period and no perioperative surgical complications occurred. The median catheter duration was 19.5 days. OSC at bedside for CVC insertion, using adequate sedation and local anesthesia, is a feasible procedure in neonates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Antiseptic-impregnated central venous catheters: their evaluation in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, G; Bolgiani, A; Patiño, O; Prezzavento, G; Guastavino, P; Durlach, R; Fernandez Caniggia, L; Benaim, F

    2006-06-30

    Central venous catheter-related infections are an important source of morbidity and mortality in burn patients. Antiseptic impregnated catheters have been recommended to prevent infections related to central venous lines in high-risk patients who require short-term catheters. This prospective, randomized, and controlled study compared the efficacy of standard and antiseptic devices in reducing catheter-related infections in burn patients. Twenty-two patients were included in the study with an average age of 47.6 yr and an average burned total body surface area of 38.7%. Thirty-eight silver-sulphadiazine, chlorhexidine catheters were compared with 40 non-antiseptic catheters. No differences in bacteraemia or colonization rates were observed between standard and antiseptic-coated catheters. Antiseptic catheters were more effective in reducing S. epidermidiscolonization than standard catheters (4% vs 31%, p < 0.01). However, Gram-negative bacilli were responsible more often than Gram-positive cocci for catheter tip colonization (53% vs 46%) and they were responsible for all the bacteraemias (5.1%) related to catheters in the present study. We conclude that antiseptic-impregnated catheters could be more effective for Gram-positive cocci and could therefore be less effective in patients with high Gram-negative bacilli bloodstream infection prevalence, as burn patients are.

  4. In-vitro evaluation of the PediaSat continuous central venous oxygenation monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baulig, Werner; Spielmann, Nelly; Zaiter, Hassan; Lijovic, Tomislav; Bettex, Dominique; Bürki, Christoph; Weiss, Markus

    2010-03-01

    In-vitro performance of the PediaSat system for continuous monitoring of central venous oxygen saturation by spectrophotometry has been evaluated. PediaSat continuous fibre-optic oximetry catheters were inserted in a black testing chamber, connected with an extracorporeal circuit and filled with human whole blood. Oxygen inflow into the cardiopulmonary bypass system was varied, and the testing chamber was perfused with blood flow of 1000 ml min(-1). Oxygen saturation values measured by PediaSat (S PediaSat O2) were compared with cooximetry (S CO-OX O2) values from simultaneously taken blood samples by Bland-Altman and simple regression analyses. Fifty data pairs were obtained. S PediaSat O2 and S CO-OX O2 values ranged between 28-98 and 24.9-99.5%, respectively. Correlation between S PediSat O2 and S CO-OX O2 was high with an r2 value equal to 0.96 (P central venous oxygen saturation.

  5. Usefulness of central venous oxygen saturation monitoring during bidirectional Glenn shunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuta, Nami; Kawahito, Shinji; Mita, Naoji; Kambe, Noriko; Kasai, Asuka; Wakamatsu, Narutomo; Katayama, Toshiko; Soga, Tomohiro; Tada, Fumihiko; Kitaichi, Takashi; Kitagawa, Tetsuya; Kitahata, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    A PediaSat™ oximetry catheter (PediaSat: Edwards Lifesciences Co., Ltd., Irvine, CA, U. S. A.), which facilitates continuous measurement of central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2), may be useful for surgery for pediatric congenital heart disease. We used PediaSat during a bidirectional Glenn shunt. The patient was a 13-month-old boy. Under a diagnosis of left single ventricle (pulmonary atresia, right ventricular hypoplasia, atrial septal defect) and residual left aortic arch/left superior vena cava, a modified right Blalock-Taussig shunt was performed. Cyanosis deteriorated, so a bidirectional Glenn shunt was scheduled. After anesthesia induction, a 4.5 Fr double-lumen (8 cm) PediaSat was inserted through the right internal jugular vein for continuous ScvO2 monitoring. Furthermore, the probe of a near-infrared, mixed blood oxygen saturation-measuring monitor was attached to the forehead for continuous monitoring of the regional brain tissue mixed blood oxygen saturation (rSO2) (INVOS™ 5100C, Covidien; Boulder, CO, U. S. A.). Blockage of the right pulmonary artery and right superior vena cava decreased the oxygen saturation, ScvO2, and rSO2, but increased the central venous pressure. Although changes in ScvO2 were parallel to those in rSO2, the former showed more marked changes. A combination of ScvO2 and rSO2 for monitoring during Glenn shunt may be safer.

  6. A retrospective analysis of liver resection performed without central venous pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, D B; Zerillo, J; Tabrizian, P; Schwartz, M; Hill, B; Lin, H-M; DeMaria, S

    2016-10-01

    Studies have suggested that blood loss can be reduced during liver resection by monitoring and maintaining low central venous pressure (CVP) through fluid restriction or other means, but such a strategy carries risks to the patient including those inherent to central venous catheterization. We sought to characterize fluid management and blood loss during liver resections done without CVP monitoring. Retrospective data were extracted from electronic anesthesia records for 993 liver resections. For 135 resections, between 2011 through 2013, where a documentation template was used that recorded fluid administration prior to hepatic inflow occlusion, multivariate analysis was performed to test for an association between pre-clamp fluid volumes administered and blood loss and other adverse outcomes. The median estimated blood loss was 300 mL and overall rate of transfusion was 8.6%. There was no statistically significant association between crystalloid volume administered prior to inflow clamping (median 900 mL) and blood loss, mortality or length of stay in the subset of patients with supplemental fluid data. Liver resection can be performed safely without either CVP monitoring or non-invasive continuous cardiac output monitoring. Additionally, there was no disadvantage to a practical approach to fluid administration prior to inflow clamping during liver resections in the absence of CVP monitoring with regard to blood loss or short-term outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of central venous saturation monitoring in a patient with pediatric cardiac beriberi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majima, Nozomi; Umegaki, Osamu; Soen, Masako

    2013-09-16

    The patient was a 1-year-and-4-mo-old boy. He had drunk about 1 L of an isotonic drink for infants daily since about 10 mo after birth. He was examined by a local doctor due to anorexia and vomiting, found to have cardiomegaly, and transported to our hospital with suspected myocarditis. After admission, the patient showed polypnea, a decreased level of consciousness, and marked metabolic acidosis and lapsed into circulatory insufficiency, requiring catecholamine administration, endotracheal intubation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Initially, low-output heart failure due to acute myocarditis was suspected, but the central venous oxygen saturation was high, at 82%. Considering high-output heart failure to be more likely, we evaluated its cause and noted, by urinary organic acid analysis, increases in lactate, pyruvate, 3-OH-butyrate, acetoacetate, metabolic products of branched-chain amino acids, 2-ketoglutarate, 2-OH-glutarate, 2-keto-adipate, and 2-OH-adipate. Since the vitamin B1 level was reduced to 12 ng/mL (normally 20-50 ng/mL), a diagnosis of cardiac beriberi due to vitamin B1 deficiency was made. When unexplained heart failure is observed in children, cardiac beriberi must be excluded as a differential diagnosis of myocarditis and cardiomyopathy. The measurement of the central venous oxygen saturation may be useful for the diagnosis.

  8. Superior vena cava injury after central venous catheterization: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Central venous catheters are useful instruments in monitoring of critical patients and are important roots for total parentral nutrition. The catheters are widely used in general wards and intensive care units. Their use may be associated with serious and rare complications. "n"nCase presentation: We reported a 24 years old woman that admitted to Ghaem hospital Mashhad University of Medical Science, in Mashhad, Iran, because of penetrating chest wall injury and surgical exploration indicated due to massive hemorrhage. Central vein (right jugular vein was canulated for resuscitation and monitoring. Superior vena cava was injured after canulation and presented with delay massive mediastinal hematoma. "n"nConclusion: We aim to introduce this rare complication and its management. This management could be conservative or surgical intervention according to severity of the vein damage.

  9. Elevated Mean Airway Pressure and Central Venous Pressure in the First Day of Mechanical Ventilation Indicated Poor Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yun; Su, Longxiang; Zhang, Qing; Zhou, Xiang; Wang, Hao; Cui, Na; Chai, Wenzhao; Wang, Xiaoting; Rui, Xi; Liu, Dawei

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between respiratory mechanical parameters and hemodynamic variables remains unclear. This study was performed to determine whether mean airway pressure and central venous pressure in the first day of mechanical ventilation are associated with patient outcomes. Retrospective first 24-hour comparison during ICU stay. The Department of Critical Care Medicine of Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Patients with mechanical ventilation. None. The clinical data of patients who received mechanical ventilation, especially respiratory and hemodynamic data, were collected and analyzed. In terms of the hemodynamic and perfusion data, the nonsurvivors group (177/2,208) had higher heart rate, respiratory rate, central venous pressure, and lactates and a lower perfusion index and P(v-a)CO2 (p mechanical ventilation, patients with elevated mean airway pressure and elevated central venous pressure had worse outcomes.

  10. Performance and safety of femoral central venous catheters in pediatric autologous peripheral blood stem cell collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooling, Laura; Hoffmann, Sandra; Webb, Dawn; Yamada, Chisa; Davenport, Robertson; Choi, Sung Won

    2017-12-01

    Autologous peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cell collection (A-HPCC) in children typically requires placement of a central venous catheter (CVC) for venous access. There is scant published data regarding the performance and safety of femoral CVCs in pediatric A-HPCC. Seven-year, retrospective study of A-HPCC in pediatric patients collected between 2009 and January 2017. Inclusion criteria were an age ≤ 21 years and A-HPCC using a femoral CVC for venous access. Femoral CVC performance was examined by CD34 collection rate, inlet rate, collection efficiency (MNC-FE, CD34-FE), bleeding, flow-related adverse events (AE), CVC removal, and product sterility testing. Statistical analysis and graphing were performed with commercial software. A total of 75/119 (63%) pediatric patients (median age 3 years) met study criteria. Only 16% of children required a CVC for ≥ 3 days. The CD34 collect rate and CD34-FE was stable over time whereas MNC-FE decreased after day 4 in 80% of patients. CD34-FE and MNC-FE showed inter- and intra-patient variability over time and appeared sensitive to plerixafor administration. Femoral CVC showed fewer flow-related AE compared to thoracic CVC, especially in pediatric patients (6.7% vs. 37%, P = 0.0005; OR = 0.12 (95%CI: 0.03-0.45). CVC removal was uneventful in 73/75 (97%) patients with hemostasis achieved after 20-30 min of pressure. In a 10-year period, there were no instances of product contamination associated with femoral CVC colonization. Femoral CVC are safe and effective for A-HPCC in young pediatric patients. Femoral CVC performance was maintained over several days with few flow-related alarms when compared to thoracic CVCs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Simulation improves procedural protocol adherence during central venous catheter placement: a randomized-controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltan, Ithan D.; Shiga, Takashi; Gordon, James A.; Currier, Paul F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Simulation training may improve proficiency at and reduces complications from central venous catheter (CVC) placement, but the scope of simulation’s effect remains unclear. This randomized controlled trial evaluated the effects of a pragmatic CVC simulation program on procedural protocol adherence, technical skill, and patient outcomes. Methods Internal medicine interns were randomized to standard training for CVC insertion or standard training plus simulation-based mastery training. Standard training involved a lecture, a video-based online module, and instruction by the supervising physician during actual CVC insertions. Intervention-group subjects additionally underwent supervised training on a venous access simulator until they demonstrated procedural competence. Raters evaluated interns’ performance during internal jugular CVC placement on actual patients in the medical intensive care unit. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for outcome clustering within trainees. Results We observed 52 interns place 87 CVCs. Simulation-trained interns exhibited better adherence to prescribed procedural technique than interns who received only standard training (p=0.024). There were no significant differences detected in first-attempt or overall cannulation success rates, mean needle passes, global assessment scores or complication rates. Conclusions Simulation training added to standard training improved protocol adherence during CVC insertion by novice practitioners. This study may have been too small to detect meaningful differences in venous cannulation proficiency and other clinical outcomes, highlighting the difficulty of patient-centered simulation research in settings where poor outcomes are rare. For high-performing systems, where protocol deviations may provide an important proxy for rare procedural complications, simulation may improve CVC insertion quality and safety. PMID:26154250

  12. Cellular cardiomyoplasty into infracted swine's hearts by retrograde infusion through the venous coronary sinus: An experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prifti, Edvin, E-mail: edvinprifti@hotmail.com [Division of Cardiac Surgery, University Hospital Center of Tirana (Albania); Di Lascio, Gabriella [Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Section, Department of Health Sciences, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Harmelin, Guy [Cardiac Surgery, Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Bani, Daniele [Research Unit of Histology & Embryology, Departments of Clinical & Experimental Medicine, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Briganti, Vittorio [Unit of Nuclear Medicine, Careggi Hospital, Florence (Italy); Veshti, Altin [Division of Cardiac Surgery, University Hospital Center of Tirana (Albania); Bonacchi, Massimo [Cardiac Surgery, Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    Objectives: The aim was to create a model of myocardial infarction with a borderline myocardial impairment which would enable evaluation of the retrograde cellular cardiomyoplasty through the venous coronary sinus in a large animal model. Materials and methods: Fifteen (study group) and 10 juvenile farm pigs (control group) underwent distal left anterior descending artery ligation. One month later the study group animals underwent sternotomy and a murine myoblastic line C2-C12 was injected at a constant pressure of 30 mmHg, into the coronary sinus. Thirty days later all animals that survived from both groups underwent transthoracic echocardiography and 99Tc scintigraphy and were later euthanized and specimens were taken for microscopic evaluation. Results: Cardiac output decreased significantly after ligation (p < 0.001) and increased significantly after cardiomyoplasty (p < 0.001). In all animals, the surgical induction of myocardial infarction caused a marked decline in the echocardiographic values of cardiac function; however, the cardiac function and dimensions were significantly improved in the study group after cardiomyoplasty versus the control group. All animals undergoing cardiomyoplasty demonstrated a significant reduction of the perfusion deficit in the left anterior descending artery territory, instead such data remained unchanged in the control group. The histological examination demonstrated the engrafted myoblasts could be distinguished from the activated fibroblasts in the scar tissue because they never showed any signs of collagen secretion and fiber buildup. Conclusions: In conclusion, the venous retrograde delivery route through the coronary sinus is safe and effective, providing a significant improvement in function and viability.

  13. Central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Harsha V.; Patil, Virendra C.; Ramteerthkar, M. N.; Kulkarni, R. D.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Aims: This study was conducted to determine the incidence of central venous catheter-related infections (CRIs) and to identify the factors influencing it. So far, there are very few studies that have been conducted on CRBSI in the intensive care unit in India. Settings and Design: This was a prospective, observational study carried out in the medical intensive care unit (MICU) over a period of 1 year from January to December 2004. Materials and Methods: A total of 54 patients with indwelling central venous catheters of age group between 20 and 75 years were included. The catheters were cultured using the standard semiquantitative culture (SQC) method. Statistical analysis used SPSS-10 version statistical software. Results: A total of 54 CVC catheters with 319 catheter days were included in this study. Of 54 patients with CVCs studied for bacteriology, 39 (72.22%) catheters showed negative SQCs and also negative blood cultures. A total of 15 (27.77%) catheters were positive on SQC, of which 10 (18.52%) were with catheter-associated infection and four (7.41%) were with catheter-associated bacteremia; the remaining one was a probable catheter-associated bacteremia. CRIs were high among catheters that were kept in situ for more than 3 days and emergency procedures where two or more attempts were required for catheterization (P catheter in situ for >3 days, inexperienced venupucturist, more number of attempts and emergency CVC were associated with more incidence of CVCBSIs, with P catheter in situ was negatively correlated (-0.53) and number of attempts required to put CVC was positively correlated (+0.39) with incidence of CVCBSIs. Sixty-five percent of the isolates belonged to the CONS group (13/20). Staphylococcus epidermidis showed maximum susceptibility to amikacin, doxycycline and amoxycillin with clavulanic

  14. Radiologists need to be aware of secondary central venous stenosis in patients with SAPHO syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Mizuho; Kanazawa, Hidenori; Shinozaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Hideharu [Jichi Medical University, Department of Radiology, Shimotsuke, Tochigi (Japan)

    2017-11-15

    We aimed to define central venous stenosis (CVS) caused by sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis as a feature of synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome on routine contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) images. The relationship between SAPHO syndrome and CVS without venous thrombosis caused by anterior chest wall compression has not been investigated. Therefore, the present study evaluated CVS in patients with SAPHO syndrome at our hospital. We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced CT images of ten patients with suspected or diagnosed SAPHO syndrome between January 2007 and November 2015. The patients were assessed by contrast-enhanced CT using 16-, 64- or 128-detector row scanners. Two radiologists independently assessed the presence of CVS or obstruction and SAPHO syndrome in a retrospective review of CT images. Six of the ten patients had findings of CVS with SAPHO syndrome. The mean diameter and patency rate at the site of CVS were 1.88 mm and 27.2%, respectively. Stenosis was more significant in terms of the mean diameter of CVS sites than of stenotic sites that crossed the anteroposterior vein (p < 0.05). Radiologists who routinely assess contrast-enhanced CT images should be aware that sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis with SAPHO syndrome could cause secondary CVS. (orig.)

  15. Infection related to implantable central venous access devices in cancer patients: epidemiology and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Maristela P; Pierrotti, Ligia C; Zerati, Antônio E; Araújo, Pedro H X N; Motta-Leal-Filho, J M; Duarte, Laiane P G; Ibrahim, Karim Y; Souza, Antonia A L; Diz, Maria P E; Pereira, Juliana; Hoff, Paulo M; Abdala, Edson

    2013-07-01

    To describe the epidemiology of infections related to the use of implantable central venous access devices (CVADs) in cancer patients and to evaluate measures aimed at reducing the rates of such infections. Prospective cohort study. Referral hospital for cancer in São Paulo, Brazil. We prospectively evaluated all implantable CVADs employed between January 2009 and December 2011. Inpatients and outpatients were followed until catheter removal, transfer to another facility, or death. Outcome measures were bloodstream infection and pocket infection. We also evaluated the effects that the creation of a multidisciplinary team for CVAD care, avoiding in-hospital implantation of CVADs, and limiting CVAD insertion in neutropenic patients have on the rates of such infections. During the study period, 966 CVADs (mostly venous ports) were implanted in 933 patients, for a combined total of 243,792 catheter-days. We identified 184 episodes of infection: 154 (84%) were bloodstream infections, 21 (11%) were pocket infections, and 9 (5%) were surgical site infections. During the study period, the rate of CVAD-related infection dropped from 2.2 to 0.24 per 1,000 catheter-days ([Formula: see text]). Multivariate analysis revealed that relevant risk factors for such infection include surgical reintervention, implantation in a neutropenic patient, in-hospital implantation, use of a cuffed catheter, and nonchemotherapy indication for catheter use. Establishing a multidisciplinary team specifically focused on CVAD care, together with systematic reporting of infections, appears to reduce the rates of infection related to the use of these devices.

  16. Endovascular stent placement in the treatment of upper extremity central venous obstruction in hemodialysis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aytekin, Cueneyt E-mail: cuneytaytekin@hotmail.com; Boyvat, Fatih; Yagmurdur, Mahmut Can; Moray, Goekhan; Haberal, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of stent placement for treating upper extremity central venous obstruction in chronic hemodialysis patients. Methods and Material: Between January 1999 and October 2001, we inserted metallic stents into the upper extremity central veins of 14 patients with shunt dysfunction and/or arm swelling. The indications for stent placement were stenosis or occlusion of the central vein in the upper extremity used for dialysis. Six of the individuals were diagnosed with subclavian vein stenosis, and 5 with brachiocephalic vein stenosis. Of the remaining 3 patients, 2 had subclavian vein occlusion, and 1 had left brachiocephalic vein occlusion. Results: All the stent placement procedures were technically successful, and there were no major complications. Follow-up ranged from 2 weeks to 29 months. The 1-, 3-, 6- and 12-month primary stent patency rates were 92.8, 85.7, 50 and 14.3%, respectively. Repeat interventions, including percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and additional stent placement, were required in 9 patients. The 3-, 6-, 12-month, and 2-year assisted primary stent patency rates were 100, 88.8, 55.5 and 33.3%, respectively. Conclusion: Endovascular stent placement is an effective alternative to surgery in patients with shunt dysfunction due to obstruction of an upper extremity central vein. Repeated interventions are usually required to prolong stent patency.

  17. Central Venous Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection with Kocuria kristinae in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Kimura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kocuria kristinae is a catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, Gram-positive coccus found in the environment and in normal skin and mucosa in humans; however, it is rarely isolated from clinical specimens and is considered a nonpathogenic bacterium. We describe a case of catheter-related bacteremia due to K. kristinae in a young adult with propionic acidemia undergoing periodic hemodialysis. The patient had a central venous catheter implanted for total parenteral nutrition approximately 6 months prior to the onset of symptoms because of repeated acute pancreatitis. K. kristinae was isolated from two sets of blood cultures collected from the catheter. Vancomycin followed by cefazolin for 16 days and 5-day ethanol lock therapy successfully eradicated the K. kristinae bacteremia. Although human infections with this organism appear to be rare and are sometimes considered to result from contamination, physicians should not underestimate its significance when it is isolated in clinical specimens.

  18. Central Venous Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection with Kocuria kristinae in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masato; Kawai, Eichiro; Yaoita, Hisao; Ichinoi, Natsuko; Sakamoto, Osamu; Kure, Shigeo

    2017-01-01

    Kocuria kristinae is a catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, Gram-positive coccus found in the environment and in normal skin and mucosa in humans; however, it is rarely isolated from clinical specimens and is considered a nonpathogenic bacterium. We describe a case of catheter-related bacteremia due to K. kristinae in a young adult with propionic acidemia undergoing periodic hemodialysis. The patient had a central venous catheter implanted for total parenteral nutrition approximately 6 months prior to the onset of symptoms because of repeated acute pancreatitis. K. kristinae was isolated from two sets of blood cultures collected from the catheter. Vancomycin followed by cefazolin for 16 days and 5-day ethanol lock therapy successfully eradicated the K. kristinae bacteremia. Although human infections with this organism appear to be rare and are sometimes considered to result from contamination, physicians should not underestimate its significance when it is isolated in clinical specimens.

  19. Management of occlusion and thrombosis associated with long-term indwelling central venous catheters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Jacquelyn L.; Pui, Ching-Hon; Reiss, Ulrike; Wilimas, Judith A.; Metzger, Monika L.; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Howard, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term central venous catheters (CVC) facilitate care for patients with chronic illnesses, but catheter occlusions and catheter-related thrombosis (CRT) are common complications. This review summarizes management of CVC and CRT. Mechanical CVC occlusions require cause-specific therapy; whereas, thrombotic occlusions usually resolve with thrombolytic therapy, such as alteplase. Prophylaxis with thrombolytic flushes may decrease CVC infections and CRT, but confirmatory studies and cost-effectiveness analysis are needed. Risk factors for CRT include previous catheter infections, malposition of the catheter tip, and prothrombotic states. CRT can lead to catheter infection, pulmonary embolism, and post-thrombotic syndrome. CRT is diagnosed primarily using Doppler ultrasound or venography and treated with anticoagulation for 6 weeks to a year, depending on the extent of the thrombus, response to initial therapy, and whether thrombophilic factors persist. Prevention of CRT includes proper positioning of the CVC and prevention of infections; anticoagulation prophylaxis is not recommended at present. PMID:19595350

  20. Outcomes of a Percutaneous Technique for Shortening of Totally Implanted Indwelling Central Venous Chest Port Catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Christopher; Trerotola, Scott O

    2016-07-01

    Central venous port catheters that are too long are typically removed or revised. The subcutaneous position of port reservoirs precludes standard over-the-wire exchange techniques, and a method of percutaneous revision using an intravascular loop snare technique has been previously described. A retrospective review was conducted of 38 procedures that were performed at a single academic institution between 2005 and 2015. Technical success was 100%, without immediate or delayed complications with follow-up until port removal or death in 94% of patients. Percutaneous revision is an effective method for shortening too-long port catheters, allowing uninterrupted use of the port. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Biofilm formation in long-term central venous catheters in children with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handrup, Mette Møller; Fuursted, Kurt; Funch, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Taurolidine has demonstrated inhibition of biofilm formation in vitro. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of catheter locking with taurolidine vs heparin in biofilm formation in central venous catheters. Forty-eight children with cancer were randomized to catheter locking by heparin (n...... = 22) or taurolidine (n = 26), respectively. After removal, catheters were examined by standardized scanning electron microscopy to assess quantitative biofilm formation. Biofilm was present if morphologically typical structures and bacterial cells were identified. Quantitative and semi......-quantitative cultures were also performed. Biofilm was identified in 23 of 26 catheters from the taurolidine group and 21 of 22 catheters from the heparin group. A positive culture was made of six of the catheters locked with taurolidine and heparin, respectively (p = 0.78). The rate of catheter-related bloodstream...

  2. Between the lines: The 50th anniversary of long-term central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Kenneth W; Tapper, David; Hickman, Robert O

    2017-05-01

    Tunneled central venous catheters (CVC) were developed five decades ago. Since then, several clinician-inventors have created a variety of catheters with different functions. Indeed, many catheters have been named after their inventor. Many have wondered who the inventors were of each catheter, and what specifically inspired their inventions. Many of these compelling stories have yet to be told. A literature review of common catheters and personal communication with inventors. Only first person accounts from inventors or those close to the invention were used. CVCs are now essential devices that have saved countless lives. Though the inventors have earned the honor of naming their catheters, it may be reasonable to consider more consistent terminology to describe these catheters to avoid confusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Multimedia application in mobile platform for teaching the measurement of central venous pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Elizabeth Correia Ferreira; Püschel, Vilanice Alves Araújo

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to develop and assess an application software for the teaching of the procedure Manual Measurement of the Central Venous Pressure which can be used in mobile devices. The research was conducted in three phases (Survey of needs; Methodology for multimedia application development and evaluation of the multimedia application).The multimedia was the method chosen because it favors an encouraging and dynamic environment, as it integrates images and texts into an application software available for cell phones, constituting a mobile and autonomous means for learning. The research allowed to demonstrate the feasibility of the development from this pedagogical tool and open up prospects for believing that, in Nursing education, the technology available can uncover new ways of learning in a meaningful manner.

  4. Radiologic interventional retrieval of retained central venous catheter fragment in prematurity: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jee Won; Jo, Jung Hyun; Park, Byeong Ho [College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    The fracture of a central venous catheter is a rare but potentially serious complication. Moreover, removal of the broken catheter pieces is considerably challenging, especially for premature infants. We report 3 case studies of the percutaneous transcatheter retrieval of broken catheter parts in 3 premature infants. We confirmed the location of the catheter fragments via a DSA venogram with diluted contrast media. Using the minimum amount of contrast, and extreme caution, we made certain no contrast-induced nephrotoxicity of air embolism occurred during catheter manipulation. In addition, when the broken fragment was curled or attached to the cardiac wall, we used a hook-shaped catheter to facilitate the capturing of the catheter with a loopsnare. This report demonstrates the feasibility of removing a retained catheter fragment in a premature infant using a percutaneous transcatheter approach.

  5. Central Venous Catheters and Bloodstream Infection During Induction Therapy in Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Kristin; Hasle, Henrik; Asdahl, Peter

    2016-01-01

    treated at 3 pediatric centers in Denmark between 2008 and 2014. A total of 136 patients were followed from initial CVC placement until first BSI, CVC removal, death, or day 28, whichever occurred first. Thirty-nine BSIs were detected, of which 67% were gram-positive infections, and 59% met the criteria......The purpose of the study was to assess the risk of firsttime bloodstream infection (BSI) according to type of central venous catheter (CVC) during induction therapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Patients eligible for our analysis were all newly diagnosed children with ALL...... for being CVC associated. The 28-day cumulative incidence of BSI was similar in 77 patients with a nontunneled CVC (28%; 95% confidence interval, 19%-40%) and in 59 patients with a tunneled CVC with external lines (TE) (33%; 95% confidence interval, 23%-47%). Subgroup analyses showed that gram...

  6. Tricuspid valve endocarditis following central venous cannulation: The increasing problem of catheter related infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Babu Kale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A central venous catheter (CVC is inserted for measurement of haemodynamic variables, delivery of nutritional supplements and drugs and access for haemodialysis and haemofiltration. Catheterization and maintenance are common practices and there is more to the technique than routine placement as evident when a procedure-related complication occurs. More than 15% of the patients who receive CVC placement have some complications and infectious endocarditis involving the tricuspid valve is a rare and serious complication with high morbidity and mortality. Overenthusiastic and deep insertion of the guide wire and forceful injection through the CVC may lead to injury of the tricuspid valve and predispose to bacterial deposition and endocarditis. We report a case of tricuspid valve endocarditis, probably secondary to injury of the anterior tricuspid leaflet by the guide wire or the CVC that required open heart surgery with vegetectomy and repair of the tricuspid valve.

  7. [Central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference in critically ill pediatric patients with septic shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongxin; Zhang, Yucai; Cui, Yun; Miao, Huijie; Xu, Liang; Rong, Qunfang

    2014-12-01

    To assess the value of central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference [ P( cv-a) CO₂] in evaluation of disease severity and prognosis in children with septic shock who already had central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO₂) higher than 70% after early resuscitation. In this prospective study, 48 septic shock children seen in Shanghai Children's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University were enrolled from Jun 2012 to May 2014. 36(75.0%) were male, 12 (25.0%) were female, the average age was (31.9 ± 24.5) months. The critically ill patients with septic shock were treated to achieve ScvO₂greater than 70% depending on early goal-directed therapy (EGDT). All patients were divided into two groups, based on P(cv-a)CO₂, low P(cv-a)CO₂group with P(cv-a)CO₂pediatric critical illness score, PRISMIII score, and 28 days in-hospital mortality were recorded for all patients. Of the 48 cases with septic shock whose ScvO₂was higher than 70%, 17 patients (35.4%) had high P(cv-a)CO₂( ≥ 6 mmHg) and 31 (65.6%) had lower P(cv-a)CO₂( 0.05 ), but Lac and P(cv-a)CO₂values were significantly different ( P 70% was achieved after early resuscitation in septic shock children, P(cv-a) CO₂is a sensitive biomarker to assess tissue perfusion, and high P(cv-a) CO₂group patients had poor outcome.

  8. End expiratory oxygen concentrations to predict central venous oxygen saturation: an observational pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steuerwald Michael

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A non-invasive surrogate measurement for central venous oxygen saturation (ScVO2 would be useful in the ED for assessing therapeutic interventions in critically ill patients. We hypothesized that either linear or nonlinear mathematical manipulation of the partial pressure of oxygen in breath at end expiration (EtO2 would accurately predict ScVO2. Methods Prospective observational study of a convenience sample of hemodialysis patients age > 17 years with existing upper extremity central venous catheters were enrolled. Using a portable respiratory device, we collected both tidal breathing and end expiratory oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations, volume and flow on each patient. Simultaneous ScVO2 measurements were obtained via blood samples collected from the hemodialysis catheter. Two models were used to predict ScVO2: 1 Best-fit multivariate linear regression equation incorporating all respiratory variables; 2 MathCAD to model the decay curve of EtO2 versus expiratory volume using the least squares method to estimate the pO2 that would occur at Results From 21 patients, the correlation between EtO2 and measured ScVO2 yielded R2 = 0.11. The best fit multivariate equation included EtCO2 and EtO2 and when solved for ScVO2, the equation yielded a mean absolute difference from the measured ScVO2 of 8 ± 6% (range -18 to +17%. The predicted ScVO2 value was within 10% of the actual value for 57% of the patients. Modeling of the EtO2 curve did not accurately predict ScVO2 at any lung volume. Conclusion We found no significant correlation between EtO2 and ScVO2. A linear equation incorporating EtCO2 and EtO2 had at best modest predictive accuracy for ScVO2.

  9. End expiratory oxygen concentrations to predict central venous oxygen saturation: an observational pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alan E; Kuehne, Karl; Steuerwald, Michael; Kline, Jeffrey A

    2006-09-20

    A non-invasive surrogate measurement for central venous oxygen saturation (ScVO2) would be useful in the ED for assessing therapeutic interventions in critically ill patients. We hypothesized that either linear or nonlinear mathematical manipulation of the partial pressure of oxygen in breath at end expiration (EtO2) would accurately predict ScVO2. Prospective observational study of a convenience sample of hemodialysis patients age > 17 years with existing upper extremity central venous catheters were enrolled. Using a portable respiratory device, we collected both tidal breathing and end expiratory oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations, volume and flow on each patient. Simultaneous ScVO2 measurements were obtained via blood samples collected from the hemodialysis catheter. Two models were used to predict ScVO2: 1) Best-fit multivariate linear regression equation incorporating all respiratory variables; 2) MathCAD to model the decay curve of EtO2 versus expiratory volume using the least squares method to estimate the pO2 that would occur at <20% of total lung capacity. From 21 patients, the correlation between EtO2 and measured ScVO2 yielded R2 = 0.11. The best fit multivariate equation included EtCO2 and EtO2 and when solved for ScVO2, the equation yielded a mean absolute difference from the measured ScVO2 of 8 +/- 6% (range -18 to +17%). The predicted ScVO2 value was within 10% of the actual value for 57% of the patients. Modeling of the EtO2 curve did not accurately predict ScVO2 at any lung volume. We found no significant correlation between EtO2 and ScVO2. A linear equation incorporating EtCO2 and EtO2 had at best modest predictive accuracy for ScVO2.

  10. A single institution experience of seven hundred consecutively placed peripherally inserted central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainathan, Sandeep; Hempstead, Margaret; Andaz, Shahriyour

    2014-01-01

    Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) are being increasingly placed at the bedside by trained vascular access professional such as nurses. This is to increase the availability of the service, for cost containment, and to reduce the workload on the interventional radiologist. We describe a single institution experience with over 700 PICC lines placed by trained nurses at the bedside and determine the success rate, malposition rate of the PICC line , degree of support needed from the Interventional radiologist, and factors affecting a successful placement of a PICC line by the nurses. Seven hundred and five PICC lines were placed at the South Nassau Communities hospital between July 2011 and November 2012 by trained vascular access nurses with interventional radiology backup. Bedside ultrasound was used for venous access, an electromagnetic catheter tip detection device was used to navigate the catheter into the desired central vein and catheter tip position was confirmed using a portable bedside chest X-ray. The nurses, with a malposition rate of 3.8%, successfully placed 91.6% (646/705) catheters. Interventional radiology support was needed for 59 cases (8.4%) and 17 cases (2.4%) for failed placement and catheter malposition adjustment, respectively. Risk factor such as presence of pacemaker wires and multiple attempts at insertion were factors predictive of an unsuccessful placement of a PICC line by the nurses. Bedside placement of PICC line by trained vascular nurses is an effective method with a high success rate, low malposition rate and requires minimal support from interventional radiology.

  11. Thrombotic complications in children from short-term percutaneous central venous catheters: what can we do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Gregory J; Thompson, Douglas R

    2014-09-01

    The reported incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in children has increased dramatically over the past decade, and the primary risk factor for VTE in neonates and infants is the presence of a central venous catheter (CVC). Although the associated morbidity and mortality are significant, very few trials have been conducted in children to guide clinicians in the prophylaxis, diagnosis, and treatment of CVC-related VTE. Furthermore, pediatric guidelines for prophylaxis and management of VTE are largely extrapolated from adult data. How then should the anesthesiologist approach central access in children of different ages to lessen the risk of CVC-related VTE or in children with prior thrombosis and vessel occlusion? A comprehensive review of the pediatric and adult literature is presented with the goal of assisting anesthesiologists with point-of-care decision-making regarding the risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of CVC-related VTE. Illustrative cases are also provided to highlight decision-making in varying situations. The only risk factor strongly associated with CVC-related VTE formation in children is the duration of the indwelling CVC. Several other factors show a trend toward altering the incidence of CVC-related VTE formation and may be under the control of the anesthesiologist placing and managing the catheter. In particular, because children with VTE may live decades with its sequelae and chronic vein thrombosis, careful consideration of lessening the risk of VTE is warranted in every child. Further studies are needed to form a clearer understanding of the risk factors, prophylaxis, and management of CVC-related VTE in children and to guide the anesthesiologist in lessening the risk of VTE. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Stroke volume variation in hepatic resection: a replacement for standard central venous pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunki-Jacobs, Erik M; Philips, Prejesh; Scoggins, Charles R; McMasters, Kelly M; Martin, Robert C G

    2014-02-01

    Central venous pressure (CVP) is the standard method of volume status evaluation during hepatic resection. CVP monitoring requires preoperative placement of a central venous catheter (CVC), which can be associated with increased time, cost, and adverse events. Stroke volume variation (SVV) is a preload index that can be used to predict an individual's fluid responsiveness through an existing arterial line. The purpose of this study was to determine if SVV is as safe and effective as CVP in measuring volume status during hepatic resection. Two cohorts of 40 consecutive patients (80 total) were evaluated during hepatic resection between December 2010 and August 2012. The initial evaluation group of 40 patients had continuous CVP monitoring and SVV monitoring performed simultaneously to establish appropriate SVV parameters for hepatic resection. A validation group of 40 patients was then monitored with SVV alone to confirm the accuracy of the established SVV parameters. Type of hepatic resection, transection time, blood loss, complications, and additional operative and postoperative factors were collected prospectively. SVV was calculated using the Flotrac™/Vigileo™ System. The evaluation group included 40 patients [median age 62 (29-82) years; median body mass index (BMI) 27.7 (16.5-40.6)] with 18 laparoscopic, 22 open, and 24 undergoing major (≥3 segments) hepatectomy. Median transection times were 43 (range 20-65) min, median blood loss 250 (range 20-950) cc, with no Pringle maneuver utilized. In this evaluation group, a CVP of -1 to 1 significantly correlated to a SVV of 18-21 (R (2) = 0.85, p monitoring during hepatic resection with equivalent outcomes in terms of blood loss and parenchymal transection time. Using SVV as a predictor of fluid status could prove to be advantageous by avoiding the need for CVC insertion and therefor eliminating the risk of CVC related complications in patients undergoing hepatic resection.

  13. Predictors of Unattempted Central Venous Catheterization in Septic Patients Eligible for Early Goal-directed Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Vinson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Central venous catheterization (CVC can be an important component of the management of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. CVC, however, is a time- and resource-intensive procedure associated with serious complications. The effects of the absence of shock or the presence of relative contraindications on undertaking central line placement in septic emergency department (ED patients eligible for early goal-directed therapy (EGDT have not been well described. We sought to determine the association of relative normotension (sustained systolic blood pressure >90 mmHg independent of or in response to an initial crystalloid resuscitation of 20 mL/kg, obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30, moderate thrombocytopenia (platelet count <50,000 per μL, and coagulopathy (international normalized ratio ≥2.0 with unattempted CVC in EGDT-eligible patients. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of 421 adults who met EGDT criteria in 5 community EDs over a period of 13 months. We compared patients with attempted thoracic (internal jugular or subclavian CVC with those who did not undergo an attempted thoracic line. We also compared patients with any attempted CVC (either thoracic or femoral with those who did not undergo any attempted central line. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to calculate adjusted odd ratios (AORs. Results: In our study, 364 (86.5% patients underwent attempted thoracic CVC and 57 (13.5% did not. Relative normotension was significantly associated with unattempted thoracic CVC (AOR 2.6 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-4.3, as were moderate thrombocytopenia (AOR 3.9; 95% CI, 1.5-10.1 and coagulopathy (AOR 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.6. When assessing for attempted catheterization of any central venous site (thoracic or femoral, 382 (90.7% patients underwent attempted catheterization and 39 (9.3% patients did not. Relative normotension (AOR 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.5 and moderate thrombocytopenia (AOR 3.9; 95

  14. On-demand antimicrobial release from a temperature-sensitive polymer - Comparison with ad libitum release from central venous catheters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjollema, Jelmer; Dijkstra, Rene J.B.; Abeln, Caroline; van der Mei, Henderina; Van Asseldonk, Dirk; Busscher, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial releasing biomaterial coatings have found application for instance in the fixation of orthopedic joint prostheses and central venous catheters. Most frequently, the release kinetics is such that antimicrobially-effective concentrations are only reached within the first days to weeks

  15. Importance of blood cultures from peripheral veins in pediatric patients with cancer and a central venous line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handrup, Mette Møller; Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Rutkjaer, Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    When an infection is suspected in a child with cancer and a central venous line (CVL), cultures are often only obtained from the CVL and not from a peripheral vein (PV). This study was undertaken to evaluate the importance of concomitant blood cultures from the CVL and a PV....

  16. Central venous oxygen saturation in septic shock - a marker of cardiac output, microvascular shunting and/or dysoxia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Nicolai; Perner, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Shock therapy aims at increasing central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2), which is a marker of inadequate oxygen delivery. In this issue of Critical Care, Textoris and colleagues challenge this notion by reporting that high levels of ScvO2 are associated with mortality in patients with septic...

  17. Assessment of insertion techniques and complication rates of dual lumen central venous catheters in patients with hematological malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F.M. Jansen (Ruud); T. Wiggers (Theo); B.N. van Geel (Bert); W.L.J. van Putten (Wim)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractOne hundred and twenty-three dual lumen silicone rubber central venous catheters were inserted into 101 patients with hematological malignancies undergoing intensive treatment. There was a perioperative complication rate of 13%. Open and closed techniques for inserting the catheter were

  18. University HealthSystem Consortium quality performance benchmarking study of the insertion and care of central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harting, Brian P; Talbot, Thomas R; Dellit, Timothy H; Hebden, Joan; Cuny, Joanne; Greene, William H; Segreti, John

    2008-05-01

    We report data from an observational benchmarking study of adherence to recommended practices for insertion and maintenance of central venous catheters at a heterogeneous group of academic medical centers. These centers demonstrated a need for significant improvement in implementation and documentation of quality performance measures for the prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections.

  19. Prophylactic antibiotics for preventing early Gram-positive central venous catheter infections in oncology patients, a Cochrane systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wetering, M. D.; van Woensel, J. B. M.; Kremer, L. C. M.; Caron, H. N.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Long-term tunnelled central venous catheters (TCVC) are increasingly used in oncology patients. Infections are a frequent complication of TCVC, mostly caused by Gram-positive bacteria. The objective of this review is to evaluate the efficacy of antibiotics in the prevention of early

  20. Prophylactic antibiotics for preventing Gram positive infections associated with long-term central venous catheters in oncology patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wetering, Marianne D.; van Woensel, Job B. M.; Lawrie, Theresa A.

    2013-01-01

    This is an updated version of the review which was first published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in 2006. Long-term central venous catheters (CVCs), including tunnelled CVCs (TCVCs) and totally implanted devices or ports (TIDs), are increasingly used when treating oncology patients.

  1. International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment and prophylaxis of thrombosis associated with central venous catheters in patients with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debourdeau, P.; Farge, D.; Beckers, M.; Baglin, C.; Bauersachs, R. M.; Brenner, B.; Brilhante, D.; Falanga, A.; Gerotzafias, G. T.; Haim, N.; Kakkar, A. K.; Khorana, A. A.; Lecumberri, R.; Mandala, M.; Marty, M.; Monreal, M.; Mousa, S. A.; Noble, S.; Pabinger, I.; Prandoni, P.; Prins, M. H.; Qari, M. H.; Streiff, M. B.; Syrigos, K.; Buller, H. R.; Bounameaux, H.

    . Background: Although long-term indwelling central venous catheters (CVCs) may lead to pulmonary embolism (PE) and loss of the CVC, there is lack of consensus on management of CVC-related thrombosis (CRT) in cancer patients and heterogeneity in clinical practices worldwide. Objectives: To establish

  2. Improved usability of a multi-infusion setup using a centralized control interface: A task-based usability test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Doesburg

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the usability benefits of adding a bedside central control interface that controls all intravenous (IV infusion pumps compared to the conventional individual control of multiple infusion pumps. Eighteen dedicated ICU nurses volunteered in a between-subjects task-based usability test. A newly developed central control interface was compared to conventional control of multiple infusion pumps in a simulated ICU setting. Task execution time, clicks, errors and questionnaire responses were evaluated. Overall the central control interface outperformed the conventional control in terms of fewer user actions (40±3 vs. 73±20 clicks, p<0.001 and fewer user errors (1±1 vs. 3±2 errors, p<0.05, with no difference in task execution times (421±108 vs. 406±119 seconds, not significant. Questionnaires indicated a significant preference for the central control interface. Despite being novice users of the central control interface, ICU nurses displayed improved performance with the central control interface compared to the conventional interface they were familiar with. We conclude that the new user interface has an overall better usability than the conventional interface.

  3. Does the central venous pressure predict fluid responsiveness? An updated meta-analysis and a plea for some common sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marik, Paul E; Cavallazzi, Rodrigo

    2013-07-01

    Despite a previous meta-analysis that concluded that central venous pressure should not be used to make clinical decisions regarding fluid management, central venous pressure continues to be recommended for this purpose. To perform an updated meta-analysis incorporating recent studies that investigated indices predictive of fluid responsiveness. A priori subgroup analysis was planned according to the location where the study was performed (ICU or operating room). MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, and citation review of relevant primary and review articles. Clinical trials that reported the correlation coefficient or area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) between the central venous pressure and change in cardiac performance following an intervention that altered cardiac preload. From 191 articles screened, 43 studies met our inclusion criteria and were included for data extraction. The studies included human adult subjects, and included healthy controls (n = 1) and ICU (n = 22) and operating room (n = 20) patients. Data were abstracted on study characteristics, patient population, baseline central venous pressure, the correlation coefficient, and/or the AUC between central venous pressure and change in stroke volume index/cardiac index and the percentage of fluid responders. Meta-analytic techniques were used to summarize the data. Overall 57% ± 13% of patients were fluid responders. The summary AUC was 0.56 (95% CI, 0.54-0.58) with no heterogenicity between studies. The summary AUC was 0.56 (95% CI, 0.52-0.60) for those studies done in the ICU and 0.56 (95% CI, 0.54-0.58) for those done in the operating room. The summary correlation coefficient between the baseline central venous pressure and change in stroke volume index/cardiac index was 0.18 (95% CI, 0.1-0.25), being 0.28 (95% CI, 0.16-0.40) in the ICU patients, and 0.11 (95% CI, 0.02-0.21) in the operating room patients. There are no data to support the widespread

  4. Central venous catheters: detection of catheter complications and therapeutical options; Zentralvenoese Katheter: Diagnostik von Komplikationen und therapeutische Optionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebauer, B.; Beck, A. [Universitaetsmedizin Charite, Berlin (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde; Wagner, H.J. [Vivantes-Kliniken, Friedrichshain und Am Urban, Berlin (Germany). Radiologie; Vivantes-Kliniken, Hellersdorf und Prenzlauer Berg (Germany). Radiologie

    2008-06-15

    For modern medicine central venous catheters play an important role for diagnostic and therapeutic options. Catheter implantation, complication detection and therapy of catheter complications are an increasing demand for the radiologist. The review article provides an overview of different catheter types, their indications, advantages and disadvantages. Catheter malpositions are usually detectable in conventional X-ray. Most malpositions are correctable using interventional-radiological techniques. In addition therapeutical options for thrombotic complications (venous thrombosis, catheter occlusion, fibrin sheath) are discussed. In case of an infectious catheter complication, usually a catheter extraction and re-implantation is necessary.

  5. Single-stick tunneled central venous access using the jugular veins in infants weighing less than 5 kg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquester, Will S; Hawkins, C Matthew; Monroe, Eric J; Gill, Anne E; Shivaram, Giridhar M; Seidel, F Glen; Lungren, Matthew P

    2017-11-01

    Despite the demonstrated feasibility of the single-stick technique in the femoral vein, its use in neonates and infants for placing central lines in internal and external jugular veins has not been reported. Describe and assess the safety and efficacy of tunneled jugular central venous catheter placement performed under ultrasound (US) and fluoroscopic guidance in neonates and infants weighing central venous access in either internal or external jugular veins using the single-stick technique. Patient history, procedural records and clinical follow-up documents were retrospectively reviewed. Complication rates were compared to those of 41 patients receiving single-stick femoral central lines. Technical complications occurred during one (3.0%) jugular placement with the patient having a failed right-side attempt with subsequent successful left-side placement. The catheters did not last the entire course of treatment in three (9.1%) patients with jugular lines. One patient had the catheter removed due to concern for infection, one catheter was accidentally removed during dressing changes, and one catheter was displaced and subsequently exchanged. Of patients receiving femoral central lines, 1 (2.4%) had a technical complication and 5 catheters (12.2%) did not last the entire course of treatment. The placement of tunneled central venous catheters in neonates/infants catheter infection by avoiding the diaper area and thrombosis by using larger veins, it may be preferable in certain patient populations.

  6. Polyurethane versus silicone catheters for central venous port devices implanted at the forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildgruber, Moritz; Lueg, Claudia; Borgmeyer, Sebastian; Karimov, Ilham; Braun, Ulrike; Kiechle, Marion; Meier, Reinhard; Koehler, Michael; Ettl, Johannes; Berger, Hermann

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to analyse short and long-term complications of polyurethane (PU) versus silicone catheters used in totally implantable venous-access ports (TIVAPs) implanted at the forearm. Retrospective analysis of 698 consecutively implanted TIVAPs was performed. Primary end-points were defined as rates of major complications associated with either type of central venous port catheter. Technical success rate, device service interval as well as minor complications not requiring port explantation were defined as secondary end-points. A total of 698 port devices were implanted in 681 patients, 396 equipped with a PU catheter, 302 with a silicone catheter. The technical success rate was 99.9% with no major periprocedural complications. During follow-up a total of 211 complications in 146 patients were observed (1.0/1000 catheter days), 183 occurred associated with PU catheters (1.8/100 catheter days), 28 (0.3/1000 catheter days) with silicone catheters (log rank test p Catheter-related bloodstream infections as well as thrombotic complications occurred significantly more frequently with PU catheters, while silicone catheters exhibited a trend towards a higher rate of mechanical failure such as disconnection or catheter rupture. Major complications requiring explantation of the device occurred more frequently with PU-based catheters (10.6%) compared to silicone catheter carrying ports (4.6%, log rank test p catheters are more susceptible to catheter-related infections and exhibit a higher thrombogenicity, compared to silicone catheters. Silicone catheters instead exhibit a trend towards decreased mechanical stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An Endovascular Approach to the Entrapped Central Venous Catheter After Cardiac Surgery

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    Desai, Shamit S., E-mail: shamit.desai@northwestern.edu [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology (United States); Konanur, Meghana [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine (United States); Foltz, Gretchen [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology at Washington University, Interventional Radiology (United States); Malaisrie, S. Chris [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery (United States); Resnick, Scott, E-mail: sresnick@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Interventional Radiology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital (United States)

    2016-03-15

    PurposeEntrapment of central venous catheters (CVC) at the superior vena cava (SVC) cardiopulmonary bypass cannulation site by closing purse-string sutures is a rare complication of cardiac surgery. Historically, resternotomy has been required for suture release. An endovascular catheter release approach was developed.Materials and MethodsFour cases of CVC tethering against the SVC wall and associated resistance to removal, suggestive of entrapment, were encountered. In each case, catheter removal was achieved using a reverse catheter fluoroscopically guided over the suture fixation point between catheter and SVC wall, followed by the placement of a guidewire through the catheter. The guidewire was snared and externalized to create a through-and-through access with the apex of the loop around the suture. A snare placed from the femoral venous access provided concurrent downward traction on the distal CVC during suture release maneuvers.ResultsIn the initial attempt, gentle traction freed the CVC, which fractured and was removed in two sections. In the subsequent three cases, traction alone did not release the CVC. Therefore, a cutting balloon was introduced over the guidewire and inflated. Gentle back-and-forth motion of the cutting balloon atherotomes successfully incised the suture in all three attempts. No significant postprocedural complications were encountered. During all cases, a cardiovascular surgeon was present in the interventional suite and prepared for emergent resternotomy, if necessary.ConclusionAn endovascular algorithm to the “entrapped CVC” is proposed, which likely reduces risks posed by resternotomy to cardiac surgery patients in the post-operative period.

  8. Risk Factors for Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheter Complications in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumani, Ketan; Advani, Sonali; Reich, Nicholas G.; Gosey, Leslie; Milstone, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective(s) To characterize the epidemiology and identify risk factors for complications necessitating removal of peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) in children. Design Cohort study Setting The Johns Hopkins Children’s Center, Baltimore, Maryland. Participants Hospitalized children who had a PICC inserted outside of the neonatal ICU between January 1, 2003 and December 1, 2009. Main Exposures Age, PICC dwell time, PICC insertion site, PICC tip location, pediatric ICU exposure, indication for PICC insertion Outcome Measures Complications necessitating PICC removal as recorded by the PICC Team. Results During the study period, 2574 PICCs were placed in 1807 children. Complications necessitating catheter removal occurred in 20.8% of PICCs during 46,021 catheter days (11.6 complications per 1,000 catheter days). These included accidental dislodgement (4.6%), infection (4.3%), occlusion (3.6%), local infiltration (3.0%), leakage (1.5%), breaks (1.4%), phlebitis (1.2%) and thrombosis (0.5%). From 2003 to 2009 complications decreased by 15% per year (IRR 0.85; 95%CI 0.81-0.89). In adjusted analysis, all non-central PICC tip locations - midline (IRR 4.59, 95% CI 3.69-5.69), mid-clavicular (IRR 2.15, 95% CI 1.54-2.98), and other (IRR 3.26 95% CI 1.72-6.15) - compared to central tip location were associated with an increased risk of complications. Pediatric ICU exposure and age less than one year old were independently associated with complications necessitating PICC removal. Conclusion(s) Non-central PICC tip locations, younger age, and pediatric ICU exposure were independent risk factors for complications necessitating PICC removal. Despite reductions in PICC complications, further efforts are needed to prevent PICC-associated complications in children. PMID:23549677

  9. Serious Gaming to Improve the Safety of Central Venous Catheter Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Katz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 5 million central venous catheters (CVCs are placed by physicians annually in the United States, with a complication rate of 15%.1 Guidelines and recommendations are continually being established and updated regarding CVC placement.2 While much has been done regarding training the technical skills of CVC placement using part-task trainers (i.e., mannequins, successfully finding and cannulating a central vein is but one part of the process. In fact, many steps designed to prevent untoward complications involve non-technical skills which are perhaps more important in training practitioners to safely place CVCs. First in aviation and now in healthcare, practitioners are being trained in realistic and highly interactive simulated environments so they can learn not just technical skills , but the key management and non-technical steps which make their task safer.3 One modality being used to improve performance is video gaming simulation, or "serious gaming." Gaming as a learning tool is being increasingly utilized in health care fields and can lead to better skill-based outcomes.4 As such, we have developed a game based around the placement of CVCs that will be used as a new teaching modality in a pilot program for instructing residents in safe CVC placement.

  10. Second-Generation central venous catheter in the prevention of bloodstream infection: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janislei Gislei Dorociaki Stocco

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness and safety in the use of second-generation central venous catheters impregnated in clorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine when compared with other catheters, being them impregnated or not, in order to prevent the bloodstream infection prevention. Method: systematic review with meta-analysis. Databases searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS/SciELO, Cochrane CENTRAL; search in Congress Proceedings and records from Clinical Trials. Results: 1.235 studies were identified, 97 were pre-selected and 4 were included. In catheter-related bloodstream infection, there was no statistical significance between second-generation impregnated catheter compared with the non-impregnated ones, absolute relative risk 1,5% confidence interval 95% (3%-1%, relative risk 0,68 (confidence interval 95%, 0,40-1,15 and number needed to treat 66. In the sensitivity analysis, there was less bloodstream infection in impregnated catheters (relative risk 0,50, confidence interval 95%, 0,26-0,96. Lower colonization, absolute relative risk 9,6% (confidence interval 95%, 10% to 4%, relative risk 0,51 (confidence interval 95% from 0,38-0,85 and number needed to treat 5. Conclusion: the use of second-generation catheters was effective in reducing the catheter colonization and infection when a sensitivity analysis is performed. Future clinical trials are suggested to evaluate sepsis rates, mortality and adverse effects.

  11. Improved usability of a multi-infusion setup using a central control display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg, Frank; Cnossen, Fokeltje; Dieperink, Willem; Bult, Wouter; Nijsten, Maarten W

    2016-01-01

    Infusion pumps are often associated with poor usability and an increased likelihood of medication errors [1]. Critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) usually receive multiple infusions simultaneously, which increases the likelihood of pump-related errors. Furthermore, the ICU is

  12. External jugular vein cutdown approach for chronic indwelling central venous access in cancer patients: A potentially useful alternative

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    Povoski Stephen P

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cephalic vein (CV cutdown approach for chronic indwelling central venous access device (CICVAD placement has previously been shown to be technically feasible in 82% of cancer patients. No data are available as to the potential utilization of external jugular vein (EJV cutdown approach in cancer patients when CV cutdown approach is not technically feasible. Patients and methods One hundred and twenty consecutive cancer patients were taken to the operating room with the intention of placing a CICVAD. All patients were first subjected to attempted CV cutdown approach. If CV cutdown approach was unsuccessful and there were no contraindications to establishing central venous access in the ipsilateral neck region, an ipsilateral EJV cutdown approach was attempted. Results Ninety-five cancer patients (79% underwent CICVAD placement via CV cutdown. Of those 25 patients in which CV cutdown was not technically feasible, 7 had a contraindication to establishing central venous access in the ipsilateral neck region and a CICVAD was placed via the ipsilateral subclavian vein percutaneous approach. Of those remaining 18 patients in which CV cutdown approach was not technically feasible, 17 (94% underwent CICVAD placement via ipsilateral EJV cutdown approach. Combined success of the CV and EJV cutdown approaches, excluding those 7 patients with a contraindication to central venous access in the ipsilateral neck region, was greater than 99%. Conclusions Venous cutdown approaches for CICVAD placement are viable alternatives to subclavian vein percutaneous approach in cancer patients. EJV cutdown approach appears to be a highly successful and safe alternative route when CV cutdown approach is not technically feasible and may be considered a potentially useful primary route for CICVAD placement in cancer patients.

  13. When one port does not return blood: two case reports of rare causes for misplaced central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sandra; Preto, César; Pinho, Carla; Vasconcelos, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    We present two cases of misplaced central venous catheters having in common the absence of free blood return from one lumen immediately after placement. The former is a case of right hydrothorax associated with central venous catheterization with the catheter tip in intra-pleural location. In this case the distal port was never patent. In the latter case there was an increased aspiration pressure through the middle port due to a catheter looping. The absence of free flow on aspiration from one lumen of a central catheter should not be undervalued. In these circumstances the catheter should not be used and needs to be removed. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Sodium citrate versus heparin catheter locks for cuffed central venous catheters: a single-center randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Albert; Duncan, Neill; Singh, Seema K; Brown, Wendy; Dalby, Elizabeth; Edwards, Claire; Lynch, Kathleen; Prout, Virginia; Cairns, Tom; Griffith, Megan; McLean, Adam; Palmer, Andrew; Taube, David

    2009-06-01

    Sodium citrate has antibacterial and anticoagulant properties that are confined to the catheter when used as a catheter lock. Studies of its use as a catheter lock have suggested its efficacy in preventing infection and bleeding complications compared with sodium heparin. Open-label randomized controlled trial of 2 catheter locks to examine the hypothesis that sodium citrate catheter locks will reduce catheter-related bacteremia and exit-site infection. 232 consenting long-term hemodialysis patients in 4 satellite dialysis units to a large dialysis program with protocolized treatment and targets. All patients were using twin-catheter single-lumen Tesio-Caths (MedComp, Harleysville, PA). 6 months' use of 46.7% sodium citrate (citrate) or 5% heparin (heparin) locked postdialysis in the dead space of the central venous catheter. Primary end point of catheter-related bacteremia and exit-site infection. Secondary end points of catheter thrombosis defined by the use of urokinase lock and infusion, new catheter insertion, catheter-related admission, blood transfusions, parenteral iron, and erythropoietin requirements. Catheter-related bacteremia did not differ in the 2 groups, with an incidence of 0.7 events/1,000 catheter-days. There was no significant difference in rates of exit-site infection (0.7 versus 0.5 events/1,000 catheter-days; P = 0.5). The secondary end point of catheter thrombosis defined by the use of a urokinase lock was significantly more common in the citrate group, with an incidence of 8 versus 4.3/1,000 catheter-days (P < 0.001). Other secondary end points did not differ. Citrate treatment was curtailed compared with heparin because of a greater incidence of adverse events, with a mean treatment duration before withdrawal of 4.8 +/- 2.0 versus 5.7 +/- 1.2 months, respectively (P < 0.001). Low baseline catheter-related bacteremia and exit-site infection event rates may have underpowered this study. High adverse-event rates may have been related to high

  15. Regarding optical coherence tomography grading of ischemia in central retinal venous occlusion

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    Tripathy K

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Koushik TripathyDepartment of Vitreoretina and Uvea, ICARE Eye Hospital & Postgraduate Institute, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaThe author read with interest the article by Browning et al.1 The author humbly wants to discuss a few facts.1. The article1 discusses grading of retinal ischemia based on optical coherence tomography features in central retinal venous occlusion. As coexisting central retinal arterial occlusion or cilioretinal arterial occlusion may also cause inner retinal hyper-reflectivity, exclusion of such cases is an important consideration before implicating central retinal venous occlusion for the ischemia. Extensive intraretinal hemorrhages are other important hindrances to the evaluation of the perfusion status of the retina using both fluorescein angiogram and optical coherence tomography.2. It would be interesting to know the gonioscopic findings, especially neovascularization of the anterior chamber angle if it was performed at presentation and during the follow-ups.3. The manuscript documented that the incidence of anterior segment neovascularization at 1 year was 8.9% in severe ischemia group.1 The incidence of anterior segment neovascularization in perfused groups was higher (15.4% and 17.6% for mild and moderate ischemia, respectively. Although the sample size was low, such findings are contrary to the literature2 and require further discussion. Authors' replyDavid J Browning, Omar S Punjabi, Chong LeeDepartment of Ophthalmology, Charlotte Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Associates, P.A., Charlotte, NC, USA We thank Dr Tripathy for his interest in our article and would respond to his above-mentioned points.1. We agree that excluding eyes with cilioretinal artery and central retinal artery occlusions is necessary to be able to attribute inner retinal reflectivity changes to central retinal vein occlusion. Cilioretinal artery occlusion is associated with a band of ischemic retinal whitening and central retinal artery occlusion

  16. Prophylaxis with gentamicin locking of chronic tunnelled central venous catheters does not cause bacterial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Gallego, J; Martín, M; Gutiérrez, E; Cobelo, C; Frías, P; Jironda, C; Hidalgo, P; Jiménez, T

    2011-01-01

    Prophylaxis with gentamicin locking of chronic tunnelled central venous catheter branches in chronic haemodialysis patients reduces bacterial infections and morbidity and mortality associated with catheter bacteraemia. We undertook a 7-year, prospective, observational study involving 101 patients on chronic haemodialysis with catheters treated with prophylaxis to evaluate the appearance of bacterial resistance to the antibiotic in pathogens usually sensitive to its action. A protocol of universal asepsis in catheter management. Postdialysis intraluminal locking of the branches with gentamicin at 5mg/branch + 1% heparin sodium, monitoring trough levels in the blood and modifying the dose according to the established protocol. The diagnosis of bacteraemia was based on usual criteria. The main study variables were: Diagnosis by the bacteriology department of bacterial resistance in pathogens sensitive to gentamicin. Diagnosis of clinical ototoxicity. Secondary variables were: Patients hospitalised/bacteraemia; number of bacteraemia/catheter/1000 days; infectious mortality; and catheter withdrawal/bacteraemia. Pathogens found in blood culture. We found no resistance of pathogens usually sensitive to the antibiotic or clinical ototoxicity. The mean number of months each patient remained in the study was 23 (1-84). Secondary variables: Three patients (3%) were hospitalised due to bacteraemia; number of bacteraemias: 8; number of bacteraemia/catheter/1000 days: 0.11; infectious mortality per bacteraemia: 1 patient (1%); catheter withdrawal due to bacteraemia: 2 (2%). No patients were diagnosed with endocarditis or spondylodiscitis. The mean trough level of gentamicin in each patient during the study was 0.17µg/ml (0.05-0.31); the mean intraluminal gentamicin locking dose per branch was 3mg (2-5), equivalent to 1.1-1.7mg/ml/branch. This 7-year, prospective observational study of 101 patients on chronic haemodialysis with tunnelled central venous catheters showed: 1

  17. Evaluation of mupirocin ointment in control of central venous catheter related infections: a randomized clinical trial

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    Rezaei J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Central venous catheter (CVC related infections are important complications of cathter application. This study assessed the usefulness of mupirocin in prevention and control of these infections."n"nMethods: In this randomized clinical trial, consecutive surgical patients requiring central venous catheter (for more than 2 days in Amir-Alam Hospital from 2006-2008 were enrolled. Patients were divided in two groups; in "case group" patients received topical mupirocin 2% every 48 hours at the time of insertion of catheter and dressing change and for "control group" mupirocin was not used. All of the patients received chlorhexidine and enoxoparin as complementary treatments. Two groups were comparable in regard of age, sex and risk factors."n"nResults: One hundred eighteen patients enrolled in the study (57 in case and 61 in control group completed the study. 84 catheters in case group and 88 catheters in control group were inserted. The catheters in 90% of patients were inserted in jugular vein. At the end of study 29(16.8% patients (16 in control versus 13 in case group had catheter colonization (p=NS. Catheter related bloodstream infection was observed in 16(9.3% patients (6 in

  18. Reference Levels for Central Venous Pressure and Pulmonary Artery Occlusion Pressure Monitoring in the Lateral Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In-Kyung; Ro, Soohan; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Eun-Hee; Kim, Hee-Soo; Bahk, Jae-Hyon; Kim, Jin-Tae

    2017-06-01

    To investigate reference levels for central venous pressure or pulmonary artery occlusion pressure monitoring in a lateral position. Retrospective observational study. A tertiary university hospital. A total of 204 adults who underwent chest computed tomography scan in the 90° lateral position from November 2006 to February 2015. None. Distances from the mid-sternum to the uppermost and lowermost blood levels of both atria were measured. Ratios of the distance from the bottom of the thorax to the uppermost and the lowermost blood levels of both atria to the largest diameter of the thorax were calculated. There were significant differences between the distances from the mid-sternum to the uppermost and the lowermost blood levels of the right atrium and those of the left atrium in the right and left lateral positions, respectively. There were significant differences in the uppermost (3.3±0.1 cm; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.1-3.5) and the lowermost (4.4±0.1 cm; 95% CI 4.2-4.7) blood levels of the right atrium between the right and left lateral positions. Although the uppermost (1.5±0.1 cm; 95% CI 1.3-1.8) and the lowermost (0.4±0.1 cm; 95% CI 0.2-0.6) blood levels of the left atrium between the right and left lateral positions showed differences, their extent was smaller than the right atrium. The uppermost and the lowermost blood levels of the right atrium lay lower than those of the left atrium in the 90° right lateral position. In contrast, in the 90° left lateral position, the uppermost and the lowermost blood levels of the right atrium lay higher than those of the left atrium. When monitoring the central venous pressure and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure with patients in the lateral position, changes in the blood level of both atria should be considered when releveling the reference transducer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A comparative study between two central veins for the introduction of totally implantable venous access devices in 1201 cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, C; Silva, J P; Antunes, P; Fernandes, J M; Dias, C; Pereira, H; Dias, T; Fougo, J L

    2008-02-01

    The Subclavian vein has been traditionally the vein of choice for central venous catheterization by general surgeons. Alternative settings for the introduction of totally implantable venous access devices (TIVAD) and the search for lower rates of morbidity led to the choice of other central veins. This study compares two different venous accesses, the subclavian (SC) versus the internal jugular (IJ), in terms of early and late morbidity. This is a prospective, non-randomized, observational, uni-institutional (tertiary cancer centre) study. From March 2003 to March 2006, 1231 TIVADs were placed (1201 patients), in an ambulatory operating room, under vital signs and EKG monitoring, using local anaesthesia and without perioperative radiological control. Of the 1231 TIVAD, 617 were inserted via the SC and 614 via the IJ vein. The two groups (SC vs. IJ) were comparable as to general patient characteristics. Immediate complications were more frequent in the SC than in the IJ approach (respectively, 5.0% vs. 1.5%; pVenous thrombosis developed in 2.0% of patients with an SC TIVAD as compared to 0.6% with an IJ TIVAD (p=0.044). Catheter malfunction was significantly dependent on the vein used: SC - 9.4% vs. IJ - 4.3% (p=0.001). Our results support the preferential use of the Internal Jugular vein for the insertion of TIVAD.

  20. Osteosarcoma of the lumbosacral spine invading the central venous pathways, right-sided cardiac chambers, and pulmonary artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, Neely; Lantos, George; Hochzstein, Jay [Jacobi Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Gitig, Alon [Montefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Bronx, NY (United States); DeAnda, Abe [Montefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2007-11-15

    We report an unusual case of lumbosacral osteogenic sarcoma with cauda equina syndrome and invasion into the central venous and cardiac system. A 41-year-old Hispanic man presented to the emergency department complaining of severe low back pain, cauda equina syndrome, bilateral lower extremity edema, and an extra heart sound on physical examination. CT of the lumbosacral spine done in the emergency department demonstrated a sclerotic lesion in the sacrum with cortical destruction, extension into the spinal canal and a bulky soft tissue mass containing calcifications. Supplemental MRI demonstrated marrow replacement of L4, L5, and the sacrum, soft tissue extension of the tumor, and invasion iliac veins extending into the IVC; however, the full extent of the intravascular tumor was not seen on this examination. Surgical laminectomy and biopsy of the spinal tumor provided the diagnosis of osteogenic sarcoma. A transthoracic echocardiogram was performed while the patient was recovering due to nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, which showed an echogenic mass within the right atrium and ventricle. CT pulmonary angiogram confirmed the echocardiogram showing a tumor extending through the pulmonary valve into the main pulmonary artery. The patient underwent en bloc resection of the tumor from the venous and cardiac systems. Histologic examination of the tumor confirmed osteogenic sarcoma. While vertebral osteogenic sarcoma is uncommon, invasion of the spinal canal is common in these tumors. However, tumor extending into the central venous and cardiac system is rare. The previously reported cases of central venous and cardiac involvement have been related to distant metastases or primary cardiac osteosarcomas. There is only one other reported case of direct extension into the venous system by an iliac bone osteosarcoma in an adolescent; however, the tumor did not extend into the pulmonary circulation. (orig.)

  1. Anti-infective external coating of central venous catheters: a randomized, noninferiority trial comparing 5-fluorouracil with chlorhexidine/silver sulfadiazine in preventing catheter colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, J Matthias; Avelar, Rui L; Longtine, Karen J; Carter, Kent L; Mermel, Leonard A; Heard, Stephen O

    2010-11-01

    The antimetabolite drug, 5-fluorouracil, inhibits microbial growth. Coating of central venous catheters with 5-fluorouracil may reduce the risk of catheter infection. Our objective was to compare the safety and efficacy of central venous catheters externally coated with 5-fluorouracil with those coated with chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine. Prospective, single-blind, randomized, active-controlled, multicentered, noninferiority trial. Twenty-five US medical center intensive care units. A total of 960 adult patients requiring central venous catheterization for up to 28 days. Patients were randomized to receive a central venous catheter externally coated with either 5-fluorouracil (n = 480) or chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine (n = 480). The primary antimicrobial outcome was a dichotomous measure (forming units or ≥ 15 colony-forming units) for catheter colonization determined by the roll plate method. Secondary antimicrobial outcomes included local site infection and catheter-related bloodstream infection. Central venous catheters coated with 5-fluorouracil were noninferior to chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine coated central venous catheters with respect to the incidence of catheter colonization (2.9% vs. 5.3%, respectively). Local site infection occurred in 1.4% of the 5-fluorouracil group and 0.9% of the chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine group. No episode of catheter-related bloodstream infection occurred in the 5-fluorouracil group, whereas two episodes were noted in the chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine group. Only Gram-positive organisms were cultured from 5-fluorouracil catheters, whereas Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and Candida were cultured from the chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine central venous catheters. Adverse events were comparable between the two central venous catheter coatings. Our results suggest that central venous catheters externally coated with 5-fluorouracil are a safe and effective alternative to

  2. Does the preference of peripheral versus central venous access in peripheral blood stem cell collection/yield change stem cell kinetics in autologous stem cell transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogu, Mehmet Hilmi; Kaya, Ali Hakan; Berber, Ilhami; Sari, İsmail; Tekgündüz, Emre; Erkurt, Mehmet Ali; Iskender, Dicle; Kayıkçı, Ömur; Kuku, Irfan; Kaya, Emin; Keskin, Ali; Altuntaş, Fevzi

    2016-02-01

    Central venous access is often used during apheresis procedure in stem cell collection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether central or peripheral venous access has an effect on stem cell yield and the kinetics of the procedure and the product in patients undergoing ASCT after high dose therapy. A total of 327 patients were retrospectively reviewed. The use of peripheral venous access for stem cell yield was significantly more frequent in males compared to females (p = 0.005). Total volume of the product was significantly lower in central venous access group (p = 0.046). As being a less invasive procedure, peripheral venous access can be used for stem cell yield in eligible selected patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Central venous parathyroid hormone monitoring using a novel, specific anatomic method accurately predicts cure during minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Courtney M; Folek, Jessica; Dayawansa, Samantha; Govednik, Cara M; Quinn, Courtney E; Sigmond, Benjamin R; Lee, Cortney Y; Angel, Melissa S; Hendricks, John C; Lairmore, Terry C

    2016-12-01

    Measurement of intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels is an important adjunct to confirm biochemical cure during parathyroidectomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a simplified anatomic technique for PTH sampling from the central veins through the minimally invasive neck incision, and to compare the predictive accuracy of central and peripheral PTH values. A specific anatomic method for central PTH sampling was employed in 48 patients. Samples were drawn simultaneously from peripheral and central veins at baseline and 10 minutes postexcision of all hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands. The central venous PTH levels independently predicted biochemical cure according to the Miami criterion in all the patients. There was no significant difference in the postexcision central and peripheral values, which were 24.40 + 1.86 and 21.69 + 1.74, respectively (P = .877, ANOVA test). This study provides the original description of a simplified technique for measurement of intraoperative PTH levels in the central veins with direct comparison to peripheral venous levels, and confirmation of accuracy in predicting biochemical cure when relying on centrally obtained values alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chronic central leptin infusion modulates the glycemia response to insulin administration in male rats through regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos Ramos, Emma; Canelles, Sandra; Rodríguez, Amaia; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Laura M. Frago; Chowen, Julie; Frühbeck, Gema; Argente, J.; Barrios, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Leptin and insulin use overlapping signaling mechanisms to modify hepatic glucose metabolism, which is critical in maintaining normal glycemia. We examined the effect of an increase in central leptin and insulin on hepatic glucose metabolism and its influence on serum glucose levels. Chronic leptin infusion increased serum leptin and reduced hepatic SH-phosphotyrosine phosphatase 1, the association of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 to the insulin receptor in liver and the rise in glycemia...

  5. Single-centre experience with tunnelled central venous catheters in 150 cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, D. A.; van Laarhoven, H. W. M.; Wobbes, Th; Punt, C. J. A.

    2002-01-01

    Tunnelled venous catheters improve venous access in cancer patients, but are associated with complications. We retrospectively analysed the outcome of Hickman catheter and Port-A-Cath (PAC) insertion in cancer patients from a department of medical oncology and compared these results with the

  6. Single-centre experience with tunnelled central venous catheters in 150 cancer patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, D.A.; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Wobbes, Th.; Punt, C.J.A.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tunnelled venous catheters improve venous access in cancer patients, but are associated with complications. We retrospectively analysed the outcome of Hickman catheter and Port-A-Cath (PAC) insertion in cancer patients from a department of medical oncology and compared these results with

  7. Antibiotic-Impregnated Central Venous Catheters Do Not Change Antibiotic Resistance Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Isaiah R; Buckman, Sara A; Horn, Christopher B; Bochicchio, Grant V; Mazuski, John E

    2018-01-01

    Antibiotic-impregnated central venous catheters (CVCs) decrease the incidence of infection in high-risk patients. However, use of these catheters carries the hypothetical risk of inducing antibiotic resistance. We hypothesized that routine use of minocycline and rifampin-impregnated catheters (MR-CVC) in a single intensive care unit (ICU) would change the resistance profile for Staphylococcus aureus. We reviewed antibiotic susceptibilities of S. aureus isolates obtained from blood cultures in a large urban teaching hospital from 2002-2015. Resistance patterns were compared before and after implementation of MR-CVC use in the surgical ICU (SICU) in August 2006. We also compared resistance patterns of S. aureus obtained in other ICUs and in non-ICU patients, in whom MR-CVCs were not used. Data for rifampin, oxacillin, and clindamycin were available for 9,703 cultures; tetracycline resistance data were available for 4,627 cultures. After implementation of MR-CVC use in the SICU, rifampin resistance remained unchanged, with rates the same as in other ICU and non-ICU populations (3%). After six years of use of MR-CVCs in the SICU, the rate of tetracycline resistance was unchanged in all facilities (1%-3%). The use of MR-CVCs was not associated with any change in S. aureus oxacillin-resistance rates in the SICU (66% vs. 60%). However, there was a significant decrease in S. aureus clindamycin resistance (59% vs. 34%; p resistance of S. aureus isolates to rifampin or tetracyclines.

  8. Induction of life-threatening supraventricular tachycardia during central venous catheter placement: an unusual complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Paulo Sergio Lucas; Waisberg, Jaques

    2010-08-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias during central venous catheter (CVC) insertion are typically transient events with no hemodynamic repercussions. Pediatric reports on this condition are scarce and fail to describe potentially life-threatening complications. A 14-day-old boy was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit presenting with septic shock. During CVC insertion, the patient developed supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), which was unresponsive to vagal maneuvers or adenosine. Chest roentgenogram control revealed the tip of the catheter positioned in the midportion of the superior vena cava. After 30 minutes, the patient had a heart rate of 215 beats/min (bpm) and signs of hemodynamic compromise. The SVT eventually reverted to a sinus rhythm with synchronized cardioversion. The patient was discharged in good health. Awareness of this potential complication of CVC insertion warrants a high level of concern by pediatric surgeons performing these procedures. Patients with sepsis and/or cardiac dysfunction who present SVT during catheter insertion can represent a therapeutic challenge for surgeons. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Avoidance of complications when dealing with central venous catheters in the treatment of children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprili, D; Erb, T O

    2017-04-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are an important tool in the treatment of children. The insertion of a catheter may result in different complications depending of the type of catheter, the technique used for the insertion and the location. There are various techniques to reduce the risk of complications. In order to reduce the rate of complications of CVCs it is indispensable to perform a risk-benefit analysis for the individual patient before every insertion. The type of catheter used (for example tunneled catheters versus not-tunneled catheters) influences the rate of catheter-associated infections and the comfort of the patient significantly. The choice of the location is influenced by the expected indwelling time, the weight of the patient and the purpose of the CVC. Insertion via the vena jugularis interna is often chosen because of the reduced rate of complications during insertion. When the planned indwelling time of the catheter is longer or the child is fairly small the vena subclavia appears to be more appropriate. It is of utmost importance that the patient is positioned properly before insertion. Whenever possible the insertion should be performed with the help of ultrasound. The positioning of the catheter should be verified radiographically, possibly sonographically or with an ECG in order to avoid misplacement with potentially severe sequelae. The locally established hygienic guidelines should be strictly adhered to and everyone handling CVCs (doctors, nurses and patients) should have regular training.

  10. Large Right Atrial Thrombus Associated with Central Venous Catheter Requiring Open Heart Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Hussain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central venous catheters (CVC are used commonly in clinical practice. Incidences of CVC-related right atrial thrombosis (CRAT are variable, but, when right atrial thrombus is present, it carries a mortality risk of 18% in hemodialysis patients and greater than 40% risk in nonhemodialysis patients. Different pathogenic mechanisms have been postulated for the development of CRAT, which includes mechanical irritation of the myocardial wall, propagation of intraluminal clot, hypercoagulability, and hemodynamics of right atria. Presentation of CRAT may be asymptomatic or may be associated with one of the complications of CRAT like pulmonary embolism, systemic embolism, infected thrombi, or hemodynamic compromise. There are no established treatment guidelines for CRAT. We describe an interesting case of a 59-year-old asymptomatic male successfully treated with open heart surgery after failure of medical treatment for a large CRAT discovered during a preoperative evaluation for a kidney transplant. Our case underscores that early detection of CRAT may carry a favorable prognosis as opposed to waiting until catastrophic complications arise. It also underscores the importance of transesophageal echocardiography in the detection of thrombus and perhaps guides clinicians on which treatment modality to be used according to the size of the thrombus.

  11. The Burden of Tunneled Central Venous Catheters for Hemodialysis in a County Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillado, Eric; Korn, Abraham; de Virgilio, Christian; Bowens, Nina

    2017-10-01

    Prolonged use of central venous catheters (CVCs) for hemodialysis (HD) is associated with greater morbidity and mortality when compared with autogenous arteriovenous fistulas (AVF). The objective was to assess compliance with CVC guidelines in adults referred for hemoaccess at a county teaching hospital. Out of 256 patients, 172 (67.2%) were male, with a mean age of 50.0 ± 12.4 years. Overall 62.5 per cent initiated dialysis via CVC. Patients were divided into two groups (those with CVC (62.5%) and those without (37.5%)). Male gender was associated with initiation of dialysis via CVC versus no CVC (72.5 vs 58.3%, P = 0.02), as was a history of prior vascular access (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences between the groups regarding age, diabetes, smoking, ambulatory status, or insurance status. There were no differences in gender, age, insurance status, or prior vascular access between prolonged CVC use (≥90 days) and short-term CVC use (<90 days). We conclude that most patients initiated HD with CVC and exceed the recommended CVC duration. Men are more likely to initiate HD via CVC. Insurance status was not associated with CVC use. Multidisciplinary action may address barriers to reducing CVC duration.

  12. Proper Angle of Sono-guided Central Venous Line Insertion; a Brief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Barzegari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Determining the proper angle for inserting central venous catheter (CV line is of great importance for decreasing the complications and increasing success rate. The present study was designed to determine the proper angle of needle insertion for internal jugular vein catheterization. Methods: In the present case series study, candidate patients for catheterization of the right internal jugular vein under guidance of ultrasonography were studied. At the time of proper placing of the catheter, photograph was taken and Auto Cad 2014 software was used to measure the angles of the needle in the sagittal and axial planes, as well as patient’s head rotation. Result: 114 patients with the mean age of 56.96 ± 14.71 years were evaluated (68.4% male. The most common indications of catheterization were hemodialysis (55.3% and shock state (24.6%. The mean angles of needle insertion were 102.15 ± 6.80 for axial plane, 36.21 ± 3.12 for sagittal plane and the mean head rotation angle was 40.49 ± 5.09. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study it seems that CV line insertion under the angles 102.15 ± 6.80 degrees in the axial plane, 36.21 ± 3.12 in the sagittal plane and 40.49 ± 5.09 head rotation yield satisfactory results. 

  13. Migration patterns of peripherally inserted central venous catheters at 24 hours postinsertion in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Hari B; Tjin-A-Tam, Ansel; Galang, Rupernina; Hecht, Alan; Srinivasan, Gopal

    2013-11-01

    Migration of peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) is known to happen in neonates with changes in position of the upper limb. The aim of this study is to document the migration pattern of PICCs at 24 hours postinsertion, while controlling for arm position. This was a single-centered prospective study of 100 consecutively placed PICCs in a level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). All PICCs were inserted by one of two certified NICU nurses in either upper or lower limb. An X-ray was obtained immediately after insertion and again at 24 hours postinsertion; both were reviewed by a single pediatric radiologist. Of the PICCs placed in basilic veins, 35.5% migrated toward the heart, 14.5% migrated away from the heart, and 50% did not change in position. Of the PICCs placed in cephalic veins, 21% migrated toward the heart, 15.7% migrated away from the heart, and 63.3% did not change in position. None of the PICCs placed in the saphenous veins migrated. After controlling for arm position, 47% of PICCs placed in the upper limb migrated at 24 hours postinsertion with 32.6% migrating toward the heart. We recommend a follow-up X-ray at 24 hours postinsertion for all catheters placed in the upper limb. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. ABO blood group related venous thrombosis risk in patients with peripherally inserted central catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Chung Mo; Vissapragada, Ravi; Sharp, Rebecca; Nguyen, Phi; Ung, Thomas; Solanki, Chrismin; Esterman, Adrian

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the association between ABO blood group and upper limb venous thrombosis (VT) risk in patients with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC). Single centre retrospective cohort study. A cohort of patients who underwent PICC insertion from September 2010 to August 2014 were followed up for symptomatic VT presentations diagnosed by ultrasound. Blood group status was identified from hospital information systems. 2270 participants had 3020 PICCs inserted. There were 124 cases of symptomatic VT, an incident rate of 4% [95% confidence interval, CI (3-5%)]. Univariate analysis adjusting for the clustered sample showed that having chemotherapy, two or more previous PICCs, a larger catheter size, a diagnosis of cancer and having a blood group B were all associated with an increased risk of a VT. In the multivariate analysis, PICC diameter, cancer diagnosis and blood group B were all independently associated with increased risk of VT. Patients undergoing PICC insertion with a blood group B appear to have a higher risk of VT, independent of risks attached to the PICC procedure and cancer diagnosis. Without any existing guidelines for PICC-related VT, this investigation creates a platform for further research to be conducted in order to establish guidelines. Advances in knowledge: Previous studies investigating VT risk associated with blood group status related to large heterogeneous populations. In this article, we look at patients specifically with PICC, which reduces the heterogeneity in the cohort. In addition, due to the substantial number of patients enrolled, we had a chance to perform multivariate analyses with statistical significance.

  15. [Asymptomatic fungemia caused by Acremonium sp associated with colonization of a central venous catheter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo-Juárez, Patricia; Velásquez-Acosta, Consuelo; Martínez-Roque, Victoria; Rangel-Cordero, Andrea; Volkow-Fernández, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Microorganisms considered saprophytes have emerged as invasive or indolent pathogens among immuno-compromised patients. We detected an initial case of catheter-related Acremonium sp fungemia on a previously asymptomatic patient. We diagnosed a second case five weeks later. Both patients had a non-tunneled central venous catheter (CVC) that had been cared for following routine protocol by nurses in the Intravenous Therapy Team on a weekly basis. The sole risk factor that both patients shared was that they had received total parenteral nutrition (TPN) by a CVC 5 months prior to the date the catheter-related fungemia was detected. We retrospectively studied all patients who had received TPN during this period. We found two cases ofAcremonium fungemia, patients had gastric adenocarcinoma and received TPN for an average of 19 days. Infection was resolved with catheter removal and antifungic therapy. Another eight patients received TPN from the same commercial firm during this period; average administration was 9.5 days (range, 6-20). Neither blood cultures nor tip-catheters culture reported Acremonium sp. Patients with CVC for TPN should be closely monitored to identify colonization with a low pathogenic microorganism that could be mistakenly diagnosed as asymptomatic.

  16. Long-term central venous access in a pediatric leukemia population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Aurelia B; Hodgman, Erica I; Burkhalter, Lorraine S; Renkes, Rachel; Slone, Tamra; Alder, Adam C

    2016-10-01

    Central venous access devices (CVADs) play an important role in the management of pediatric oncology patients; unfortunately, they are also associated with potentially serious complication rates. We hypothesized that, despite the significantly different disease courses typical of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myelogenous leukemia, there would be identifiable risk factors for premature CVAD removal. We retrospectively studied clinical characteristics and procedure records for all patients admitted with a leukemia diagnosis at our institution from May 2009 to July 2014. Our observed perioperative complication rate was 6%; over 70% of lines had at least one long-term complication (thrombosis, catheter-related bloodstream infection, or unexplained line malfunction). Obesity (odds ratio [OR], 6.9; 95% CI, 1.62-29.43), preoperative dosage of packed red blood cells (in mL/kg; OR, 3.13; 1.07-9.21), bloodstream infection (OR, 5.75; 1.69-19.56) were associated with increased risk of premature catheter removal; unexplained malfunction was associated with a lower risk (OR, 0.28; 0.09-0.93). Obesity, the preoperative dosage of packed red blood cells, the presence of a bloodstream infection, and unexplained line malfunction are significant predictors of premature CVAD removal in a pediatric leukemia population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A comprehensive intervention program on the long-term placement of peripherally inserted central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenfeng; Deng, Haoyu; Shen, Liangfang; Qin, Man; He, Lianxian

    2014-01-01

    Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) have been increasingly utilized in treating patients in intensive care. The purpose of this study is to analyze the related complications and to evaluate effect of a comprehensive intervention on long-term PICCs. We selected 217 and 243 cases before and after comprehensive intervention respectively from the department of radiotherapy in our hospital. Various possible factors affecting PICCs insertions and maintenance were analyzed. A quality control circle was formed for nursing care. The comprehensive intervention was performed both on catheter insertion and post-PICCs care. Complication rates were compared before and after the intervention. The duration for PICCs was 90 days. In the control group (before intervention), the complications were as follows: Tube feeding difficulties (23.5%), catheter dislodgment (23.5%), infection (17.6%), catheter obstruction (17.6%), puncture failure (5.9%), allergy (5.9%), and pain (5.9%). The incidence of unplanned extubations was 7.8%. The incidence of complications was significantly decreased in the test group (after intervention). Moreover, one episode of catheter obstruction (5.9%) and one episode of allergy (5.9%) were found (P < 0.01) in this study. Comprehensive intervention programs effectively reduce the incidence of complications in long-term PICCs lines.

  18. Central venous pulse pressure analysis using an R-synchronized pressure measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yoshihisa; Hayashi, Daisuke; Wada, Shinya; Yoshioka, Naoki; Yasukawa, Takeshi; Pestel, Gunther

    2006-12-01

    The information derived from central venous catheters is underused. We developed an EKG-R synchronization and averaging system to obtained distinct CVP waveforms and analyzed components of these. Twenty-five paralyzed surgical patients undergoing CVP monitoring under mechanical ventilation were studied. CVP and EKG signals were analyzed employing our system, the mean CVP and CVP at end-diastole during expiration were compared, and CVP waveform components were measured using this system. CVP waveforms were clearly visualized in all patients. They showed the a peak to be 1.8+/- 0.7 mmHg, which was the highest of three peaks, and the x trough to be lower than the y trough (-1.6+/- 0.7 mmHg and -0.9+/- 0.5 mmHg, respectively), with a mean pulse pressure of 3.4 mmHg. The difference between the mean CVP and CVP at end-diastole during expiration was 0.58+/- 0.81 mmHg. The mean CVP can be used as an index of right ventricular preload in patients under mechanical ventilation with regular sinus rhythm. Our newly developed system is useful for clinical monitoring and for education in circulatory physiology.

  19. Cost of installing and turning off hemodialysis on patients with central venous catheters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillene Santos Ferreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to identify the average total cost (ATC for installing and turning off hemodialysis on patients with central venous catheters. This quantitative, exploratory, and descriptive research, in the mode of a single-case study, was conducted in a public university hospital. The non-probabilistic sample corresponded to the observation of 100 installations and 100 terminations of hemodialysis on 42 patients during 23 days of collection. The ATC was calculated by multiplying the time spent by nurses by the unit cost of direct labor, and adding the cost of materials, solutions, and medications. The Brazilian currency (R$ was used for the calculations. The ATC for installation was R$ 80.10 and for shutting off was R$ 13.04, totaling R$ 93.14 per hemodialysis session. The results obtained will facilitate a better planning of the allocation of human, material, and financial resources enabling the increase of managerial strategies aimed at economic efficiency. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i4.23044.

  20. Complications of central venous catheter in patients transplanted with hematopoietic stem cells in a specialized service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Miotto Barretta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to identify the model, average length of stay on site and complications of central venous catheter in patients undergoing transplant of hematopoietic stem cells and verify the corresponding relationship between the variables: age, gender, medical diagnosis, type of transplant, implanted catheter and insertion site. Method: a retrospective and quantitative study with a sample of 188 patients transplanted records between 2007 and 2011. Results: the majority of patients used Hickman catheter with an average length of stay on site of 47.6 days. The complication fever/bacteremia was significant in young males with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma undergoing autologous transplant, which remained with the device for a long period in the subclavian vein. Conclusion: nurses should plan with their team the minimum waiting time, recommended between the catheter insertion and start of the conditioning regimen, as well as not to extend the length of time that catheter should be on site and undertake their continuing education, focusing on the prevention of complications.

  1. Clinical evaluation of a chlorhexidine intravascular catheter gel dressing on short-term central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpanen, Tarja J; Casey, Anna L; Whitehouse, Tony; Nightingale, Peter; Das, Ira; Elliott, Thomas S J

    2016-01-01

    A major source of microbial colonization of short-term central venous catheters (CVC) is the patients' endogenous skin microorganisms located at the CVC insertion site. The aim of this study was to determine if a transparent film dressing incorporating a 2% (weight/weight) chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) gel decreases CVC and insertion site microbial colonization compared with a nonantimicrobial dressing in adult patients in critical care. On CVC removal, samples for microbiological investigation were taken from both the skin surrounding the CVC insertion site and also from sutures securing the CVC. The sutures and intradermal and tip sections of the CVC were also collected for microbiological investigation. Microorganisms recovered from the samples were subsequently tested for susceptibility to CHG. There was a significant reduction in the number of microorganisms recovered from the CVC insertion site, suture site, sutures, and catheter surface in the CHG dressing group (n = 136) compared with the nonantimicrobial dressing group (n = 137). There was no significant difference in susceptibility to CHG between the microorganisms isolated from the CHG and standard dressing study patients. A film dressing incorporating a CHG gel pad significantly reduced the number of microorganisms at the CVC insertion and suture sites with concomitant reduced catheter colonization. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Renal function after low central venous pressure-assisted liver resection: assessment of 2116 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Gallego, Camilo; Berman, Alexandra; Denis, Stephanie C; Langdon-Embry, Liana; O'Connor, David; Arslan-Carlon, Vittoria; Kingham, T Peter; D'Angelica, Michael I; Allen, Peter J; Fong, Yuman; DeMatteo, Ronald P; Jarnagin, William R; Melendez, Jose; Fischer, Mary

    2015-03-01

    Low central venous pressure (LCVP)-assisted hepatectomy is associated with decreased blood loss and lower transfusion rates. Concerns about its impact on renal function have prevented widespread application. This study was conducted to review the dynamics of renal function after LCVP-assisted hepatectomy. A retrospective analysis of a prospective surgical database was carried out. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. The RIFLE (risk-injury-failure-loss-end-stage) criteria were used to define postoperative biochemical acute kidney injury (bAKI). Occurrences of clinically relevant AKI (cAKI) were identified in the study center postoperative database. During the period 2003-2012, 2116 LCVP-assisted hepatectomies were performed. The median patient age was 61 years [interquartile range (IQR): 51-70 years] and 51% of patients were male. The median number of resected segments was two; resections involved from one to four segments. Median estimated blood loss was 300 ml (IQR: 200-600 ml). Rates of morbidity and 90-day mortality were 21% and 2%, respectively. Low baseline eGFR (injury and 1% experienced failure. Kidney function had normalized at discharge in 159 of these patients. Nine patients (liver resection. © 2014 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  3. Challenges in the Management of Pediatric Central Venous Access Devices in the Community.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wallace, Elaine

    2012-05-25

    Central venous access devices (CVADs) play an essential role in the care of critically ill children. Significant challenges exist for teams in managing CVADs particularly in a community setting. The authors aimed to assess the experience of general practitioners (GPs) caring for children with CVADs. From 200 CVADs inserted in a pediatric hospital in 2009, 50 patients were randomly selected and 44 GPs were forwarded a questionnaire. Twenty (46%) GPs responded. The main reasons (n = 22) for using CVADs were medication administration (n = 11), nutrition (n = 6), and blood sampling (n = 5). Thirteen (65%) GPs had no education in CVAD management and 14 (70%) were unaware of existing guidelines. Those identified by GPs as having primary responsibility for care of CVADs in the community included hospital\\/pediatric teams (n = 9), parents (n = 3), GPs (n = 2), public health nurses (n = 1), and palliative care ("home care") teams (n = 1). The main challenges (n = 15) identified by GPs were lack of education (n = 4), line management difficulties (n = 3), infection risk (n = 3), infrequent exposure to CVADs (n = 3), and poor communication (n = 1). GPs felt that these challenges could be addressed through: education (n = 8), increased manpower and community support (n = 1), and improved communication (n = 1). This study highlights the inconsistency and challenges for GPs surrounding CVAD use in children. Further education and support is necessary to assist GPs in their use particularly when providing end-of-life care for children in the community.

  4. Laterality of central venous sampling: lack of effect on the accuracy of intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korovin, Lev N; Guerrero, Marlon A

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if laterality of internal jugular vein (IJV) sampling affects the accuracy of intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) monitoring during parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism. In this study, 109 patients underwent parathyroidectomy (82 with unilateral disease, 27 with multigland disease). PTH samples were taken from both the left and the right IJV at these time points: preincision (baseline) and then at 5, 10, and, in selected patients, 20 minutes after excision. The Miami criterion was used to determine operative success. In all 109 patients combined, the mean decreases in intraoperative PTH levels were 73.8 ± 22.2% for the left IJV and 71.9 ± 23.0% for the right IJV (P = .22). The Miami criterion was met in 105 patients: in 100 (95%) left IJV samples and 99 (94%) right IJV samples (P = 1.00). No difference was found in the accuracy of intraoperative PTH monitoring between patients' left and right IJV samples. Central venous laterality did not affect fulfillment of the Miami criterion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterizing the in vitro biofilm phenotype of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates from central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerckhoven, Marian; Hotterbeekx, An; Lanckacker, Ellen; Moons, Pieter; Lammens, Christine; Kerstens, Monique; Ieven, Margareta; Delputte, Peter; Jorens, Philippe G; Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Goossens, Herman; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC)-related infections are commonly caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis that is able to form a biofilm on the catheter surface. Many studies involving biofilm formation by Staphylococcus have been published each adopting an own in vitro model. Since the capacity to form a biofilm depends on multiple environmental factors, direct comparison of results obtained in different studies remains challenging. This study characterized the phenotype (strong versus weak biofilm-producers) of S. epidermidis from CVCs in four different in vitro biofilm models, covering differences in material type (glass versus polymer) and nutrient presentation (static versus continuous flow). A good correlation in phenotype was obtained between glass and polymeric surfaces independent of nutrient flow, with 85% correspondence under static growth conditions and 80% under dynamic conditions. A 80% correspondence between static and dynamic conditions on polymeric surfaces could be demonstrated as well. Incubation time had a significant influence on the biofilm phenotype with only 55% correspondence between the dynamic models at different incubation times (48h versus 17h). Screening for the presence of biofilm-related genes only revealed that ica A was correlated with biofilm formation under static but not under dynamic conditions. In conclusion, this study highlights that a high level of standardization is necessary to interpret and compare results of different in vitro biofilm models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Continuous-infusion ketamine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, P G; Caggese, G; Di Fabio, A; Di Nino, G F; Cocchi, V

    1980-08-01

    An investigation was made of the employment of ketamin as the sole anaesthetic in general surgery, using continuous infusion of a 1% solution for both induction and maintenance in 118 cases. ECG was monitored and arterial pressure was measured invasively. Central venous pressure was also determined in 10 cases. Changes in serum enzyme values during and after surgery were examined in 35 patients. Blood samples were withdrawn before induction, after the return to consciousness, and 24 hr after the operation. Side-effects were common, but slight. Five patients suffered from nightmares, but these were persons with marked imaginative activity and a melancholic nature. Cardiocirculatory function was satisfactory. In particular, peripheral perfusion was excellent in all cases.

  7. Comparing the Effect of 3 Kinds of Different Materials on the Hemostasis of the Central Venous Catheter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Ming; Liang, Zhen-Zhen; Song, Chun-Lei

    2016-05-01

    To compare the effect of 3 kinds of different materials on the hemostasis of puncture site after central venous catheterization. Method: A selection of 120 patients with peripheral central venous catheter chemotherapy in the Affiliated Hospital of our university from January 2014 to April 2015, Randomly divided into 3 groups, using the same specification (3.5cm × 2cm) alginate gelatin sponge and gauze dressing, 3 kinds of material compression puncture point, 3 groups of patients after puncture 24 h within the puncture point of local blood and the catheter after the catheter 72 h within the catheter maintenance costs. Result: (1) The local infiltration of the puncture point in the 24 h tube: The use of alginate dressing and gelatin sponge hemostatic effect is better than that of compression gauze. The difference was statistically significant (P hemostasis material for the puncture site after PICC implantation, using gelatin sponge and gauze dressing is more effective and economic.

  8. Playing games with a thrombus: a dangerous match. Paradoxical embolism from a huge central venous cathether thrombus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Sylvie

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thromboembolism is a major cause of death in cancer patients. The association between paraneoplastic hypercoagulability of oncological patients and long-term central venous catheters (CVC may result in CVC associated thrombosis. Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO, especially when associated with atrial septal aneurysm (ASA is a risk factor for paradoxical embolism. We report a case of paradoxical embolism with stroke in an oncological patient with a huge CVC thrombus playing "ping-pong" with an hypermobile ASA with a PFO. We review the management of hypercoagulability in oncologic patients and discuss the potential role of routine transthoracic echocardiography before the implantation of long term central venous catheters to identify predisposing conditions to paradoxical embolism and select patients for anticoagulant therapy.

  9. Evaluating safety of tunneled small bore central venous catheters in chronic kidney disease population: A quality improvement initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutani, Gauri; El Ters, Mireille; Kremers, Walter K; Klunder, Joe L; Taler, Sandra J; Williams, Amy W; Stockland, Andrew H; Hogan, Marie C

    2017-04-01

    Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) may adversely impact future successful arteriovenous fistulae (AVF). As part of a quality improvement project, the performance of tunneled small bore tunneled central venous catheters (TSB-CVCs), as alternatives to PICCs, was evaluated. A retrospective observational study, involving individuals ≥18 years of age who underwent TSB-CVC placement by Interventional Radiology at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN between 1/1/2010 and 8/30/2013. The study cohort included 92 patients with a median age of 55 (46-67) years, who underwent 108 TSB-CVC placements. Baseline renal disease was present in 71% (77/108). Most TSB-CVCs were placed in hospitalized patients (94%; 102/108); five French in diameter (61%; 66/108) and located in an internal jugular vein (84%; 91/108). Median catheter indwelling time was 20 (11-43) days (n = 84). TSB-CVC-related bloodstream infection, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and superficial venous thrombosis (SpVT) rates per line were 0.009 (1/108), 0.018 (2/108), and 0.009 (1/108), respectively. Venous outcomes in a subgroup of 54 patients, who had documented PICC placements (n = 161) in addition to TSB-CVC (n = 58) were compared. TSB-CVC-DVT rate was lower than the PICC-DVT rate (0.017 [1/58] vs. 0.106 per line [17/161]; P = 0.04). The TSB-CVC-SpVT rate was not different from the PICC-SpVT rate (0 [0/58] vs. 0.037 [6/161] per line; P = 0.14). TSB-CVCs demonstrated an excellent safety profile in our study. These catheters should be preferentially utilized for arm vein preservation in advanced kidney disease. Their impact on future AVF success needs further evaluation. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  10. Introducing a Fresh Cadaver Model for Ultrasound-guided Central Venous Access Training in Undergraduate Medical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan Miller; Hang Ho; Vivienne Ng; Melissa Tran; Douglas Rappaport; Rappaport, William J.A.; Stewart J. Dandorf; James Dunleavy; Rebecca Viscusi; Richard Amini

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Over the past decade, medical students have witnessed a decline in the opportunities to perform technical skills during their clinical years. Ultrasound-guided central venous access (USG-CVA) is a critical procedure commonly performed by emergency medicine, anesthesia, and general surgery residents, often during their first month of residency. However, the acquisition of skills required to safely perform this procedure is often deficient upon graduation from medical school. To a...

  11. Transpulmonary thermodilution using femoral indicator injection: a prospective trial in patients with a femoral and a jugular central venous catheter

    OpenAIRE

    Saugel, Bernd; Umgelter, Andreas; Schuster, Tibor; Phillip, Veit; Roland M. Schmid; Huber, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Advanced hemodynamic monitoring using transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) is established for measurement of cardiac index (CI), global end-diastolic volume index (GEDVI) and extra-vascular lung water index (EVLWI). TPTD requires indicator injection via a central venous catheter (usually placed via the jugular or subclavian vein). However, superior vena cava access is often not feasible due to the clinical situation. This study investigates the conformity of TPTD using femoral ac...

  12. Risk factors and current recommendations for prevention of infections associated with central venous catheters: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle de Mendonça Henrique

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: Infections related to central venous catheter (CVC use constitute an important a problem. It is estimated that approximately 90% of bloodstream infections (BSI are caused by CVC use. This study aims at reviewing the risk factors and current recommendations for prevention of infections associated with central venous catheter use. Methods: A total of 12 articles published in the last 5 years and indexed in the databases of the Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS, Nursing Database (BDENF, International Literature on Health Sciences (Medline/Pubmed were selected, as well as publications related to the recommendations for BSI prevention, such as: Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC and the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA. Results: Two categories were identified: prevention and control measures and risk factors for BSI associated with central venous catheter use. Conclusions: Some recommendations that were well-defined over the years have been questioned by some authors and continuing training and education of the multidisciplinary team are the most important factors for the prevention of bloodstream infections associated with CVC use.

  13. Central venous cannulation: are routine chest radiographs necessary after B-mode and colour Doppler sonography check?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanza, Cecilia; Fabrizzi, Giancarlo [Pediatric Radiology Department-Presidio Salesi, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti, Ancona (Italy); Russo, Marco [Ospedale Civile Engles Profili, Servizio di Radiologia, Ancona (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    After the insertion of a central venous catheter, a chest radiograph is usually obtained to ensure correct positioning of the catheter tip. To determine in a paediatric population whether B-mode and colour Doppler sonography after central venous access is useful to evaluate catheter position, thus obviating the need for a postprocedural radiograph. A prospective study of 107 consecutive central venous access procedures placed in a paediatric intensive care unit was performed. At the end of the procedure, B-mode and colour Doppler sonography were used to assess catheter position and check for complications. A postprocedural chest radiograph was obtained in all patients. In 96 patients postprocedural B-mode and colour Doppler sonography showed colour Doppler signals within the vena cava. Among the 11 patients predicted to have a potential complication, there was one pneumothorax and ten malpositions. Chest radiography showed a total of 13 complications - 1 pneumothorax and 12 malpositions. The concordance between colour Doppler sonography and chest radiography was 98.1% in the detection of catheter position; sonography had a sensitivity of 84.6% and a specificity of 100%. The close concordance between B-mode and colour Doppler sonography and chest radiography justifies the more frequent use of sonography to evaluate catheter position because ionizing radiation is eliminated. Chest radiography may then be performed only when there is suspected inappropriate catheter tip position after sonography. (orig.)

  14. Ultrasonography of inferior vena cava to determine central venous pressure: a meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi-Moghaddam, Mostafa; Kabir, Ali; Shojaee, Majid; Manouchehrifar, Mohammad; Moghimi, Mehrdad

    2017-05-01

    Background Until now, no valid alternative exists for predicting central venous pressure (CVP) with lower invasiveness than central venous catheter. Purpose To explore inferior vena cava diameter (IVCD) measurement accuracy by ultrasonography as a surrogate variable for determination of central venous pressure (CVP). Material and Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of all published studies in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar were conducted from inception to July 2013. We used the STROBE checklist for quality assessment and meta-regression. Results Thirty-seven papers with 2843 cases were identified. The correlation coefficients between each one of IVCD, inspiratory IVC (iIVC), IVC collapsibility index (IVCCI), and expiratory IVC (eIVC) with CVP, were 0.68, 0.60, 0.54, and 0.44, respectively. There was no evidence of publication bias ( P = 0.28). Based on meta-regression, male gender was an important source of heterogeneity (OR = 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 1-1.03), which resulted in a higher correlation between IVCD and CVP. The present study showed a higher strength of association with CVP pertaining to IVCD, iIVC, IVCCI, and eIVC, respectively, and they were higher in men. Conclusion This study does not support the measurement of IVCD by ultrasonography as an acceptable surrogate variable to determine CVP among critical patients.

  15. Tunneled central venous catheters in children with malignant and chronic diseases: A comparison of open vs. percutaneous implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Lea-Valeska; Abdel-Rahman, Ulf; Klingebiel, Thomas; Fiegel, Henning; Gfroerer, Stefan; Rolle, Udo

    2017-05-01

    Tunneled central venous catheters (tCVCs) are routinely used for long-term venous access in children with cancer and chronic diseases. They may be inserted by surgical venous cut-down or percutaneously. The aim of this study was to compare the operative times and intraoperative complications of both techniques. This study compared group A (surgical venous cut-down, years 2002-2006) with group B (percutaneous, years 2008-2012). Patient characteristics, operative times, and intraoperative complications were obtained from surgical reports. (IRB review and approval, number 6/15). Both Hickman/Broviac and Portacath catheters were included. 343 patients in group A and 321 patients in group B were studied. Ages at implantation and underlying diagnoses were similar. Operative time was significantly shorter in group B. Only 60% of primarily dissected veins were suitable for surgical implantation, whereas successful vessel puncture was possible in 96% (87% on the first attempt, 9% on the second). Bleeding occurred in 2% of patients in group A, and pneumothorax occurred in 1.8% of patients in group B. Early catheter dislodgement was similar in both groups. Percutaneous tCVC implantation is safe, less invasive, and faster than surgical implantation. Both techniques are feasible, and complication rates are low. Level III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Use of a Low-Concentration Heparin Solution to Extend the Life of Central Venous Catheters in the African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gamble, Christopher S; Jacobsen, Kenneth O; Leffel, Elizabeth K; Pitt, M. L

    2006-01-01

    ...), physical restraint, and capture stress. The dual-lumen central venous catheter, jacket, and tether combination described allows intravenous fluid administration and repeated blood sampling without using restraint or anesthesia...

  17. Management of central venous catheters in pediatric onco-hematology using 0.9% sodium chloride and positive-pressure-valve needleless connector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchini, Sara; Scarsini, Sara; Montico, Marcella; Buzzetti, Roberto; Ronfani, Luca; Decorti, Cinzia

    2014-08-01

    To describe, in a sample of pediatric onco-hematological patients, the rate of occlusions in unused central venous catheters (CVC) flushed once a week with a 0.9% sodium chloride solution through a positive-pressure-valve needleless connector. Retrospective cohort study. Subjects aged 0-17 years were identified through a manual search in medical and nursing records and were observed for two years or until the occurrence of one of the following events: start or resume of continuous infusion; CVC removal; death. The primary study outcome was the frequency of CVC occlusion (partial or complete). Fifty-one patients were identified (median age 6 years). The median duration of follow-up was 169 days (IQR 111-305). During the follow up period, 14 patients (27%) had one CVC occlusion, in 2 cases (4%) the occlusion was complete, in 12 (23%) partial. All the occlusions were solved without the need for catheter removal. The lumen diameter ≤ 4.2 vs > 4.2 French showed a statistically significant association with occlusion at multivariate analysis (OR 4.0; 95% CI 1.1-14.7). Our findings are reassuring with respect to the management of the CVC using the adopted protocol. The study provides useful information for patient care, by verifying the performance of the adopted CVC management protocol and by identifying critical areas for nursing care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pressão venosa central em bezerros neonatos hígidos Central venous pressure in healthy newborn calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.R. Leal

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o propósito de estabelecer valores-padrão da pressão venosa central (PVC, utilizaram-se 24 bezerros sadios, da raça Holandesa, com idade entre oito e 30 dias, e peso entre 37 e 50kg. A PVC foi medida, no átrio direito, com uso de cateter intravenoso e equipo próprio usando-se como via de acesso a veia jugular esquerda. O átrio direito foi considerado o ponto zero de referência para as leituras, estando topograficamente em correspondência externa à articulação escapuloumeral no animal em estação e à região do esterno, quando em decúbito lateral direito. Estabeleceram-se os valores médios da PVC, em centímetros de água, de 0,81±1,40 e 0,88±1,76, respectivamente, nos animais em estação e em decúbito lateral, e não houve diferença estatística entre os valores. A metodologia empregada para mensurar a PVC de bezerros revelou-se segura e exeqüível, não necessitando de aparelhagem sofisticada para a sua determinação.With the aim of determining the central venous pressure (CVP standard values, twenty-four healthy Holstein calves, aging 8-to-30 days and weighing from 37 to 50kg, were studied. To measure CVP, a specific intravenous catheter was inserted in the right atrium through the left jugular vein. The right atrium was the reference mark (zero for the measurements, topographically in external correspondence to the scapulohumeral joint, when the animal was standing; and to the sternum region, when the animal was in right lateral recumbency. It was measured a mean CVP, in centimetres of H2O - 0.81±1.40 for animals in standing position, and 0.88±1.76 for animals in lateral recumbency - with no statistical difference between those values. The technique used for measuring CVP in calves was determined to be feasible and do not require sophisticated devices.

  19. Central venous catheter repair is not associated with an increased risk of central line infection or colonization in intestinal failure pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNiven, Claire; Switzer, Noah; Wood, Melisssa; Persad, Rabin; Hancock, Marie; Forgie, Sarah; Dicken, Bryan J

    2016-03-01

    The intestinal failure (IF) population is dependent upon central venous catheters (CVC) to maintain minimal energy requirements for growth. Central venous catheter infections (CVCI) are frequent and an independent predictor of intestinal failure associated liver disease. A common complication in children with long-term CVC is the risk of line breakage. Given the often-limited usable vascular access sites in this population, it has been the standard of practice to perform repair of the broken line. Although widely practiced, it is unknown if this practice is associated with increased line colonization rates and subsequent line loss. A retrospective review of our institutional IF population over the past 8years (2006-2014) was performed. Utilizing a prospectively constructed database, all pediatric patients (n=13, ages 0-17 years) with CVC dependency enrolled in the Children's Intestinal Rehabilitation Program with IF were included who underwent a repair and/or replacement procedure of their line. The control replacement group was CVCs that were replaced without being repaired (36), the experimental repair group was CVCs that were repaired (8). The primary outcome of interest was the mean number of days in each group from the intervention (replacement or repair) to line infection/colonization. Mann-Whitney tests for significance were performed with p-values <0.05 being the threshold value for significance. There were no catheter repair associated CVCI. The mean number of days from the replacement or repair of a CVC to its removal owing to infection/colonization was 210.0 and 162.8days respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between these groups in time to removal owing to line infection (p=0.55). Repair of central venous catheters in the pediatric population with intestinal failure does not lead to an increased rate of central venous catheter infection and should be performed when possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A case of central diabetes insipidus after ketamine infusion during an external to internal carotid artery bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffar, Sharib; Eskander, Jonathan P; Beakley, Burton D; McClure, Brian P; Amenta, Peter; Pierre, Nakeisha

    2017-02-01

    We report the first teenage case of ketamine-induced transient central diabetes insipidus. The patient was an 18-year-old woman with moyamoya disease undergoing an external carotid to internal carotid bypass and given a low-dose ketamine infusion. After approximately 2 hours in the supine position, with 0.5 Minimum Alveolar Concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane, a propofol infusion at 50 μg/kg/min, a remifentanil infusion at 0.5 μg/kg/min, and a ketamine infusion at a dose of 10 μg/kg/min, this patient had an excessive urine output. Initially, the Foley catheter contained 50 mL of urine. She was given 1500 mL of crystalloid during the case but produced 2700 mL of urine output. Increasing urine output was noted 1 hour into the procedure around the time that the patient experienced a 2-minute Cushing-like response characterized by bradycardia and hypertension. Several I-Stat samples revealed a worsening hypernatremia. The decision was made to check the urine osmolality and treat the patient with 4 μg of desmopressin (DDAVP). Urine output began to slow down to a normal rate of 2 mg/kg/h, as the patient was transferred from the operating room to the computed tomographic (CT) scanning room for a CT and CT angiogram; both were unremarkable. The neurosurgery team waited until the next day to complete the procedure. The procedure was completed successfully and uneventfully the next day without a ketamine infusion as part of the general anesthetic plan. The Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction score of 4 suggested a possible relationship between the patient's ketamine infusion and subsequent central diabetes insipidus. The 2 previous cases on this topic have suggested that ketamine, as an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, inhibits vasopressin release in the neurohypophysis. Urine output, urine osmolarity, and serum osmolarity should be monitored in patients given ketamine anesthetic; desmopressin should be present to prevent dangerous long-term sequela. Copyright © 2016

  1. Central venous catheters and biofilms: where do we stand in 2017?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gominet, Marie; Compain, Fabrice; Beloin, Christophe; Lebeaux, David

    2017-04-01

    The use of central venous catheters (CVC) is associated with a risk of microbial colonization and subsequent potentially severe infection. Microbial contamination of the catheter leads to the development of a microbial consortia associated with the CVC surface and embedded in an extracellular matrix, named biofilm. This biofilm provides bacterial cells the ability to survive antimicrobial agents and the host immune system and to disseminate to other sites of the body. The best preventive strategy is to avoid any unnecessary catheterization or to reduce indwelling duration when a CVC is required. Beside aseptic care and antibiotic-impregnated catheters (like minocycline/rifampin), preventive locks can be proposed in some cases, whereas non-biocidal approaches are under active research like anti-adhesive or competitive interactions strategies. When the diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is suspected on clinical symptoms, it requires a microbiological confirmation by paired blood cultures in order to avoid unnecessary catheter removal. The treatment of CRBSI relies on catheter removal and systemic antimicrobials. However, antibiotic lock technique (ALT) can be used as an attempt to eradicate biofilm formed on the inside lumen of the catheter in case of uncomplicated long-term catheter-related BSI caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) or Enterobacteriaceae. Recently, promising strategies have been developed to improve biofilm eradication; they rely on matrix degradation or destabilization or the development of anti-persister compounds, targeting the most tolerant bacterial cells inside the biofilm. Understanding biofilm formation at the molecular level may help us to develop new approaches to prevent or treat these frequent infections. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Prevention and management of central venous catheter occlusion and thrombosis in children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Roderick; Koller, Karin; McIntosh, Nan; McCarthy, Anthony; Pizer, Barry

    2008-04-01

    The views and clinical practice of children's cancer units were surveyed regarding management of central venous catheter (CVC) occlusion (CVC-occlusion), CVC-related thrombosis (CVC-thrombosis) and thromboembolism (CVC-thromboembolism). A questionnaire was sent to all 22 United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group centres, requesting information about their views of the importance of, and their practices regarding, prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment of CVC-occlusion/thrombosis. Twenty (91%) centres responded. Eighty percent, 80% and 70%, respectively, stated that CVC-occlusion, CVC-thrombosis and CVC-thromboembolism were clinically important concerns. All centres used heparinised saline flushes as prophylaxis against CVC-occlusion, with little variation (partial CVC-occlusion, total CVC-occlusion, or CVC-thrombosis/thromboembolism were always investigated in 20%, 55% and 85% of centres, respectively, but with considerable variability in the nature and sequence of investigations performed, which included (depending on the clinical scenario) chest X-ray, contrast linography or venography, ultrasonography, echocardiography and magnetic resonance venography. A fibrinolytic lock was administered before investigation of CVC-occlusion in 75% of centres. Although 45%, 60% and 80%, respectively, always treated partial CVC-occlusion, total CVC-occlusion or CVC-thrombosis/thromboembolism, the type and order of treatments differed greatly between centres, especially for CVC-thrombosis/thromboembolism, in which CVC removal, systemic anticoagulation (heparin or warfarin), local or systemic fibrinolysis, or thrombectomy were performed in at least some centres. The clinical practice of UKCCSG centres regarding prevention, investigation and treatment of CVC-occlusion/thrombosis varies greatly. Additional trials should facilitate development of evidence-based guidelines. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Development and Evaluation of a Simulation-based Curriculum for Ultrasound-guided Central Venous Catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Robert; Chaplin, Tim; McKaigney, Conor; Rang, Louise; Jaeger, Melanie; Redfearn, Damian; Davison, Colleen; Ungi, Tamas; Holden, Matthew; Yeo, Caitlin; Keri, Zsuzsanna; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2016-11-01

    To develop a simulation-based curriculum for residents to learn ultrasound-guided (USG) central venous catheter (CVC) insertion, and to study the volume and type of practice that leads to technical proficiency. Ten post-graduate year two residents from the Departments of Emergency Medicine and Anesthesiology completed four training sessions of two hours each, at two week intervals, where they engaged in a structured program of deliberate practice of the fundamental skills of USG CVC insertion on a simulator. Progress during training was monitored using regular hand motion analysis (HMA) and performance benchmarks were determined by HMA of local experts. Blinded assessment of video recordings was done at the end of training to assess technical competence using a global rating scale. None of the residents met any of the expert benchmarks at baseline. Over the course of training, the HMA metrics of the residents revealed steady and significant improvement in technical proficiency. By the end of the fourth session six of 10 residents had faster procedure times than the mean expert benchmark, and nine of 10 residents had more efficient left and right hand motions than the mean expert benchmarks. Nine residents achieved mean GRS scores rating them competent to perform independently. We successfully developed a simulation-based curriculum for residents learning the skills of USG CVC insertion. Our results suggest that engaging residents in three to four distributed sessions of deliberate practice of the fundamental skills of USG CVC insertion leads to steady and marked improvement in technical proficiency with individuals approaching or exceeding expert level benchmarks.

  4. Variation of Arterial and Central Venous Catheter Use in United States Intensive Care Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershengorn, Hayley B.; Garland, Allan; Kramer, Andrew; Scales, Damon C.; Rubenfeld, Gordon; Wunsch, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Background Arterial (AC) and central venous catheterization (CVC) are common in intensive care units (ICUs). Few data describe which patients receive these devices and whether variability in practice exists. Methods We conducted an observational cohort study of adult ICU admissions during 2001–2008 using Project IMPACT to determine whether AC and CVC use is consistent across United States ICUs. We examined trends over time and patients more (mechanically ventilated or on vasopressors) or less (predicted risk of hospital mortality ≤2%) likely to receive either catheter. Results Our cohort included 334,123 patients across 122 hospitals and 168 ICUs. Unadjusted AC usage rates remained constant (36.9% (2001) versus 36.4% (2008); P = 0.212) while CVC use increased (from 33.4% (2001) to 43.8% (2008), P catheters most often (unadjusted rates, ACs: 56.0% of patients vs. 22.4% in medical and 32.6% in combined units, P < 0.001; CVCs: 46.9% vs. 32.5% and 36.4%, P < 0.001). There was wide variability in AC use across ICUs in patients receiving mechanical ventilation (median (interquartile range): 49.2% (29.9%, 72.3%); adjusted Median Odds-Ratio (AMOR) 2.56), vasopressors (51.7% (30.8%,76.2%); AMOR 2.64), and with predicted mortality ≤2% (31.7% (19.5, 49.3%); AMOR 1.94). There was less variability in CVC use (mechanical ventilation: 63.4% (54.9%, 72.9%), AMOR 1.69; vasopressors: 71.4% (59.5%, 85.7%), AMOR 1.93; predicted mortality ≤2%: 18.7% (11.9%, 27.3%), AMOR 1.90). Conclusions Both ACs and CVCs are common in ICU patients. There is more variation in use of ACs than CVCs. PMID:24424071

  5. Safety and Complications of Double-Lumen Tunnelled Cuffed Central Venous Dialysis Catheters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Rana S.; Kakaria, Anupam K.; Khan, Saif A.; Mohammed, Saja; Al-Sukaiti, Rashid; Al-Riyami, Dawood; Al-Mula Abed, Yasser W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the technical success, safety and immediate and delayed complications of double-lumen tunnelled cuffed central venous catheters (TVCs) at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Muscat, Oman. Methods: This retrospective study took place between January 2012 and October 2013. The clinical records and radiological data of all patients who underwent ultrasound- and fluoroscopy-guided TVC placement at SQUH during the study period were reviewed. Demographic data and information regarding catheter placement, technical success and peri- and post-procedure complications (such as catheter-related infections or thrombosis) were collected. Results: A total of 204 TVCs were placed in 161 patients. Of these, 68 were female (42.2%) and 93 were male (57.8%). The mean age of the patients was 54.4 ± 17.3 years. The most common reason for catheter placement was the initiation of dialysis (63.4%). A total of 203 procedures were technically successful (99.5%). The right internal jugular vein was the most common site of catheter placement (74.9%). Mild haemorrhage which resolved spontaneously occurred in 11 cases (5.4%). No other complications were observed. Subsequent follow-up data was available for 132 catheters (65.0%); of these, thrombosis-related catheter malfunction was observed in 22 cases (16.7%) and catheter-related infection in 29 cases (22.0%). Conclusion: Radiological-guided placement of tunnelled haemodialysis catheters can be performed safely with excellent technical success. The success rate of catheter insertion at SQUH was favourable in comparison with other studies reported in the literature. PMID:26629377

  6. The safety of ultrasound guided central venous cannulation in patients with liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta A Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Central venous cannulation (CVC is frequently required during the management of patients with liver disease with deranged conventional coagulation parameters (CCP. Since CVC is known to be associated with vascular complications, it is standard practice to transfuse Fresh-Frozen Plasma or platelets to correct CCP. These CCP may not reflect true coagulopathy in liver disease. Additionally CVC when performed under ultrasound guidance (USG-CVC in itself reduces the incidence of complications. Aim: To assess the safety of USG-CVC and to evaluate the incidence of complications among liver disease patients with coagulopathy. Setting and Design: An audit of all USG-CVCs was performed among adult patients with liver disease in a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: Data was collected for all the adult patients (18-60 years of either gender suffering from liver disease who had required USG-CVC. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis was done to identify possible risk factors for complications. Results: The mean age of the patients was 42.1 ± 11.6 years. Mean international normalized ratio was 2.17 ± 1.16 whereas median platelet count was 149.5 (range, 12-683 × 10 9 /L. No major vascular or non-vascular complications were recorded in our patients. Overall incidence of minor vascular complications was 18.6%, of which 13% had significant ooze, 10.3% had hematoma formation and 4.7% had both hematoma and ooze. Arterial puncture and multiple attempts were independent risk factors for superficial hematoma formation whereas low platelet count and presence of ascites were independent risk factors for significant oozing. Conclusion: Ultrasound guidance -CVC in liver disease patients with deranged coagulation is a safe and highly successful modality.

  7. [Thrombosis and obstruction associated with central venous lines. Incidence and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanco Allende, A; Rey Galán, C; Rodríguez de la Rúa, M V; Alvarez García, F; Medina Villanueva, A; Concha Torre, A; Mayordomo Colunga, J; Martínez Camblor, P

    2013-09-01

    To analyse the incidence of thrombosis and obstruction associated with central venous lines (CVL) inserted in critically ill children, and to determine their risk factors. Prospective observational study in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in a University Hospital. An analysis was made of 825 CVL placed in 546 patients. Age, gender, weight, type of catheter (lines, size, and brand), final location of the catheter, mechanical ventilation, type of sedation and analgesia used, initial failure by the doctor to perform CVL catheterization, number of attempts, CVL indication, admission diagnosis, emergency or scheduled procedure, and delayed mechanical complications (DMC). Risk factors for these complications were determined by a multiple regression analysis. A total of 52 cases of DMC, 42 cases of obstruction, and 10 of thrombosis were registered. Obstruction and thrombosis rates were 4.96 and 1.18 per 100 CVL, respectively. The only risk factor independently linked to obstruction was the duration of the CVL (OR 1.05; 95% CI; 1.00-1.10). The number of lines with thrombosis (OR 4.88; 95% CI; 1.26-18.0), as well as parenteral nutrition (OR 4.17; 95% CI; 1.06-16.31) was statistically significant according to bivariate analysis. However, no risk factors for thrombosis were found in the multivariate analysis. Obstruction and thrombosis of CVL inserted in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit are relatively common complications. CVL duration is an independent risk factor for any line obstruction. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Significance of Echocardiographically Detected Central Venous Catheter Tip-Associated Thrombi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chick, Jeffrey Forris Beecham; Reddy, Shilpa N; Bhatt, Ruchika D; Shin, Benjamin J; Kirkpatrick, James N; Trerotola, Scott O

    2016-12-01

    To explore significance, management, and outcomes of central venous catheter (CVC) tip-associated thrombi incidentally detected on echocardiography. Echocardiogram data from all patients with CVCs from October 2009 to June 2011 were reviewed (N = 170). Patients with CVC tip-associated thrombi were selected (n = 49). Echocardiograms were reviewed for ejection fraction, presence of patent foramen ovale (PFO), presence of other intracardiac shunts, and mean thrombus size. Management decisions, thrombus extension, pulmonary embolism, paradoxical emboli, and stroke within 3 months were recorded. Mean thrombus size was 2.1 cm (range, 0.5-5.7 cm). Of patients with thrombi, 11 (22%) were already on anticoagulation, and there was no change in management. Anticoagulation was started without complications in 17 (35%) patients, the catheter was removed in 4 (8%) patients, and no new treatment was initiated in 17 (35%) patients. Of these 17 patients, 16 (94%) developed no complications. One (6%) patient with a PFO and right-to-left shunt experienced a stroke before PFO closure. After surgical closure of the PFO, the same patient developed catheter tip-associated thrombus without complication. There were no pulmonary emboli, strokes, or other detected embolic phenomena. In this sample with CVC tip-associated thrombi but without PFO or other intracardiac shunts, no embolic or other complications were detected, regardless of anticoagulation status. These data suggest a benign course for such thrombi and that anticoagulation, catheter removal, thrombectomy, and thrombolysis may be unnecessary when catheter tip-associated thrombi are incidentally detected on echocardiography. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Central venous catheters as a source of hemodialysis-related bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G D; McKenzie, M; Buchanan-Chell, M; Caballo, L; Chui, L; Kowalewska-Grochowska, K

    1998-09-01

    To describe investigations into an increase in hemodialysis-related bacteremia that occurred in our hospital in the first 6 months of 1996. Hemodialysis unit in a tertiary-care medical center. Prospective surveillance for hemodialysis bacteremia has been performed for several years. Cases that occurred in 1995 were compared to cases in the first 6 months of 1996. Unit data on dialysis runs and method of dialysis access were used to calculate rates. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to type 18 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 1996. A case-control study comparing 80 randomly selected hemodialysis patients from 1995 and 1996 was performed to examine infection risk factors. The hemodialysis bacteremia rate was 1.2 per 1,000 runs in 1995 and 2.8 per 1,000 in the first 6 months of 1996 (P=.0009). The 25 cases in 1995 and 32 in the first half of 1996 were similar in age, gender, means of vascular access, and microbial etiology. Central venous catheter (CVC) access accounted for >90% of cases in both time periods. S aureus was the most common microbial etiology (53% of the 1996 cases). PCR typing of S aureus isolates from 1996 demonstrated five different strains, the most common having six isolates. The use of CVCs as a means of vascular access abruptly increased in the unit in January 1996, from 40% in 1996 (P<.001), associated with structural changes in healthcare delivery in the region resulting in delays in performing surgical procedures, such as creation of vascular grafts and fistulae. A marked increase in hemodialysis bacteremia occurred in 1996, associated with increased reliance on CVCs for vascular access in hemodialysis patients during a period of healthcare restructuring.

  10. Central venous oxygen saturation during cardiopulmonary bypass predicts 3-year survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenmarker, Staffan; Häggmark, Sören; Östman, Margareta; Holmgren, Anders; Näslund, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Long-term survival after cardiac surgery is determined by a number of different risk factors. Central venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) measures the balance between oxygen delivery and demand. SvO2 levels in the intensive care situation are reported to be associated with patient outcome. The present report explores the connection between SvO2 during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and survival after cardiac surgery. METHODS Retrospective analysis of one thousand consecutive cardiac surgical patients was undertaken. SvO2 during CPB was monitored online. Registry data combining specific risk factors with SvO2 were selected for Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression analysis to examine the influence on 30-day and 3-year survivals. RESULTS Nine-hundred and thirty-two patient records were eligible for analysis. SvO2 below 75% during CPB was associated with significantly shorter 30-day and 3-year survivals. Based on Kaplan–Meier statistics, the survival rate decreased by 3.1% (98.1–95.0), P = 0.011 and 6.1% (92.7–86.6), P = 0.003, respectively. The influence of SvO2 on 3-year survival remained statistically significant after controlling for a series of risk factors in the Cox regression analysis. Patients with SvO2 <75% carried a 2-fold (odds ratio 2.1) increased relative risk of shortened 3-year survival (P = 0.003). Other risk factors statistically significantly associated with 3-year survival were age, gender, duration of CPB, blood temperature, hypertension, haematocrit and type of surgical procedure. CONCLUSIONS We report decreased 30-day and 3-year survival expectancy for patients experiencing SvO2 lower than 75% during CPB. PMID:23065747

  11. Evaluation of a continuous blood glucose monitoring system using central venous microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierenbeck, Fanny; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Liska, Jan

    2012-11-01

    Glycemic control in critically ill patients has been shown to be beneficial. In this prospective study, we evaluated the accuracy and technical feasibility of a continuous glucose monitoring system using intravascular microdialysis. Fifty patients undergoing cardiac surgery were monitored using a 4 Fr intravenous microdialysis catheter (Eirus SLC™, Dipylon Medical AB, Solna, Sweden) percutaneously placed with the tip of the catheter positioned in the superior vena cava. The catheter was connected to the Eirus™ monitoring system, and the patients were monitored for up to 48 h postoperatively in the intensive care unit (ICU). As reference, arterial blood samples were taken every hour and analyzed in a blood gas analyzer. Data were available from 48 patients. A total of 994 paired (arterial blood gas microdialysis) samples were obtained. Glucose correlation coefficient (R2) was 0.85. Using Clarke error grid analysis, 100% of the paired samples were in region AB, and 99% were in region A. Mean glucose level was 8.3 mmol/liter (149 mg/dl), mean relative difference was 0.2%, and mean absolute relative difference was 5%. A total of 99.2% of the paired samples were correct according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) criteria. Bland-Altman analysis showed that bias ± limits of agreement were 0.02 ± 1.1 mmol/liter (0.36 ± 20 mg/dl). Central venous microdialysis using the Eirus monitoring system is a highly accurate and reliable method for continuous blood glucose monitoring up to 48 h in ICU patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The system may thus be useful in critically ill ICU patients. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  12. Continuous monitoring of central venous oxygen saturation predicts postoperative liver dysfunction after liver resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Makoto; Mizuguchi, Toru; Kawamoto, Masaki; Nakamura, Yukio; Ota, Shigenori; Kukita, Kazuharu; Ishii, Masayuki; Tatsumi, Hiroomi; Hirata, Koichi

    2013-08-01

    We examined whether the data obtained by monitoring central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) and/or stroke volume variation (SVV) during hepatectomy, as measured with the FloTrac/Vigileo system, can predict postoperative liver dysfunction. This study included 33 patients with normal liver function who underwent hepatectomy between December 2007 and August 2010. Baseline ScvO2 and baseline SVV, as control values, were defined as the mean of ScvO2 and SVV, respectively, measured with the FloTrac/Vigileo system before hepatectomy. ScvO2 decrease (ΔScvO2) was defined as the difference between the baseline ScvO2 and the lowest intraoperative ScvO2 and SVV increase (ΔSVV) was defined as the difference between the baseline SVV and the highest intraoperative SVV. Moreover, mean ScvO2 and mean SVV were defined as the means of all ScvO2 and SVV values measured during surgery, respectively. We examined correlations of the new parameters with the highest postoperative values of total bilirubin (T. Bil). The cutoff values for ΔScvO2 and mean SVV for predicting the highest postoperative T. Bil level to be ≥ 3.0 mg/dL with the highest sensitivity and specificity were found to be 10.2% and 13.6%, respectively. The areas under curve in receiver-operating-characteristic analysis of ΔScvO2 and mean SVV were 0.797 and 0.757, respectively, showing significant differences. Our results suggest that ΔScvO2 and mean SVV can predict postoperative liver dysfunction. When ΔScvO2 and mean SVV exceed 10.2% and 13.6%, respectively, we advocate that adequate attention be paid to postoperative liver dysfunction, and that early intraoperative general circulatory management measures be implemented as needed. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Superior Vena Cava (SVC Endovascular Reconstruction with Implanted Central Venous Catheter Repositioning for Treatment of Malignant SVC Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Volpi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Superior vena cava (SVC syndrome is a group of clinical signs caused by the obstruction or compression of SVC and characterized by edema of the head, neck, and upper extremities, shortness of breath, and headaches. The syndrome may be caused by benign causes but most of the cases are caused by lung or mediastinal malignant tumors. Stenting of SVC has become widely accepted as the palliative treatment for this condition in malignant diseases, as it offers rapid relief of symptoms and improves the quality of life. Preserving previously placed central venous catheters (CVCs is a major issue in this population. We report the case of a patient with SVC syndrome caused by tumoral obstruction due to central small-cell lung cancer who had right subclavian implanted CVC and a preferential head and neck venous drainage through the left internal jugular and brachiocephalic vein (BCV. We describe a complex procedure of SVC reconstruction with two different objectives: left recanalization and stent placement to ensure head and neck venous drainage and right BCV stenting for CVC repositioning and subsequent replacement. We also review published cases of SVC obstructions stenting with catheter repositioning. The patient experienced quick relief of symptoms after treatment. Chemotherapy was rapidly delivered through the preserved implanted CVC access. A 3-month follow-up computed tomography showed stents patency.

  14. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided central venous catheters: the lateral in-plane technique for internal jugular vein access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Umberto G; Rigamonti, Paolo; Tichà, Vladimira; Zoffoli, Elena; Giordano, Antonino; Gallieni, Maurizio; Cariati, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    To describe the possible ultrasound guidance techniques for the insertion of central venous catheters (CVCs), with emphasis particularly to the lateral short axis in-plane technique. Numerous articles have shown significant benefits of using ultrasound guidance for venous access. Two main approaches to vein puncture are available, when considering visualization of the needle during its entry into the vein under the ultrasound beam: in-plane and out-of-plane, which can be combined with two types of vein visualization, placing the ultrasound probe on the vein long axis or short axis. Advantages and limitations in internal jugular vein (IJV) cannulation for long-term dialysis CVCs are described for the above-mentioned approaches and visualizations. The lateral short axis in-plane technique has virtually no limitations, ensuring most benefits. The lateral short axis in-plane technique should be considered the first-line technique for IJV cannulation.

  15. Guidance and examination by ultrasound versus landmark and radiographic method for placement of subclavian central venous catheters: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perbet, Sébastien; Pereira, Bruno; Grimaldi, Florian; Dualé, Christian; Bazin, Jean-Etienne; Constantin, Jean-Michel

    2014-05-20

    Central venous catheters play an important role in patient care. Real-time ultrasound-guided subclavian central venous (SCV) cannulation may reduce the incidence of complications and the time between skin penetration and the aspiration of venous blood into the syringe. Ultrasonic diagnosis of catheter misplacement and pneumothorax related to central venous catheterization is rapid and accurate. It is unclear, however, whether ultrasound real-time guidance and examination can reduce procedure times and complication rates when compared with landmark guidance and radiographic examination for SCV catheterization. The Subclavian Central Venous Catheters Guidance and Examination by UltraSound (SUBGEUS) study is an investigator-initiated single center, randomized, controlled two-arm trial. Three hundred patients undergoing SCV catheter placement will be randomized to ultrasound real-time guidance and examination or landmark guidance and radiographic examination. The primary outcome is the time between the beginning of the procedure and control of the catheter. Secondary outcomes include the times required for the six components of the total procedure, the occurrence of complications (pneumothorax, hemothorax, or misplacement), failure of the technique and occurrence of central venous catheter infections. The SUBGEUS trial is the first randomized controlled study to investigate whether ultrasound real-time guidance and examination for SCV catheter placement reduces all procedure times and the rate of complications. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01888094.

  16. Central venous catheters and upper extremity deep vein thrombosis in medical inpatients: the Medical Inpatients and Thrombosis (MITH) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, J P; Callas, P W; Cushman, M; Repp, A B; Zakai, N A

    2015-12-01

    Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) is an increasingly recognized complication in medical inpatients, with few data available regarding the incidence, risk factors and association with central venous catheter (CVC) use. Between 2002 and 2009 all cases of hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism (VTE) at a university hospital were frequency matched 1 : 2 to non-cases without VTE by admission year and medical service. Records were abstracted to identify, characterize and assess risk factors for UEDVT. Weighted logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for UEDVT associated with use of a CVC, adjusting for known VTE risk factors. Two hundred and ninety-nine cases of VTE complicated 64 034 admissions to medical services (4.6 per 1000 admissions). UEDVT constituted 51% (91/180) of all deep vein thrombosis (DVT), for an incidence of 1.4 per 1000 admissions (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8-1.7). There were 247 CVCs placed per 1000 admissions (95% CI, 203-292). The use of a CVC was associated with a 14.0-fold increased risk of UEDVT (95% CI, 5.9-33.2), but was not associated with a significantly increased risk of PE (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.8-2.1). Peripherally inserted central catheters had a higher OR for UEDVT (OR, 13.0; 95% CI, 6.1-27.6) than centrally inserted central venous catheters (CICC) (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.7-6.8). UEDVT is a relevant complication affecting medical inpatients, accounting for half of hospital-acquired DVTs. Use of CVCs was strongly associated with risk of UEDVT. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  17. Diagnostic Accuracy of Central Venous Catheter Confirmation by Bedside Ultrasound Versus Chest Radiography in Critically Ill Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablordeppey, Enyo A; Drewry, Anne M; Beyer, Alexander B; Theodoro, Daniel L; Fowler, Susan A; Fuller, Brian M; Carpenter, Christopher R

    2017-04-01

    We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the accuracy of bedside ultrasound for confirmation of central venous catheter position and exclusion of pneumothorax compared with chest radiography. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists, conference proceedings and ClinicalTrials.gov. Articles and abstracts describing the diagnostic accuracy of bedside ultrasound compared with chest radiography for confirmation of central venous catheters in sufficient detail to reconstruct 2 × 2 contingency tables were reviewed. Primary outcomes included the accuracy of confirming catheter positioning and detecting a pneumothorax. Secondary outcomes included feasibility, interrater reliability, and efficiency to complete bedside ultrasound confirmation of central venous catheter position. Investigators abstracted study details including research design and sonographic imaging technique to detect catheter malposition and procedure-related pneumothorax. Diagnostic accuracy measures included pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio. Fifteen studies with 1,553 central venous catheter placements were identified with a pooled sensitivity and specificity of catheter malposition by ultrasound of 0.82 (0.77-0.86) and 0.98 (0.97-0.99), respectively. The pooled positive and negative likelihood ratios of catheter malposition by ultrasound were 31.12 (14.72-65.78) and 0.25 (0.13-0.47). The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound for pneumothorax detection was nearly 100% in the participating studies. Bedside ultrasound reduced mean central venous catheter confirmation time by 58.3 minutes. Risk of bias and clinical heterogeneity in the studies were high. Bedside ultrasound is faster than radiography at identifying pneumothorax after central venous catheter insertion. When a central venous catheter malposition exists, bedside ultrasound will identify four out of every five earlier than

  18. Central vasopressin infusion prevents hibernation in the European hamster (Cricetus cricetus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, M L; Buijs, R M; Masson-Pévet, M; van der Woude, T P; Pévet, P; Brenklé, R; Kirsch, R

    1989-01-01

    The amount of immunocytochemically detectable vasopressin in the brain of the European hamster (Cricetus cricetus) shows a seasonal variation; i.e., dense vasopressin immunoreactivity is present in the lateral septum during summer but is absent in autumn and winter [Buijs, R. M., Pévet, P., Masson-Pévet, M., Pool, C. W., De Vries, G. J., Canguilhem, B. & Vivien-Roels, B. (1986) Brain Res. 371, 193-196]. In the winter period the European hamster hibernates. Since vasopressin in the lateral septum is known to be involved in the control of body temperature, we investigated whether infusion of vasopressin in the lateral septum during autumn-winter could influence hypothermic patterns normally seen in hibernating animals. Hamsters whose lateral septum was infused with vasopressin showed almost no periods of hypothermia, whereas hamsters treated with control infusions displayed a normal hibernation pattern. The results indicate that persistence of vasopressin release in the lateral septum of the European hamster during winter can prevent hibernation. Images PMID:2762331

  19. Complications of central venous catheter in patients transplanted with hematopoietic stem cells in a specialized service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barretta, Lidiane Miotto; Beccaria, Lúcia Marinilza; Cesarino, Cláudia Bernardi; Pinto, Maria Helena

    2016-06-07

    to identify the model, average length of stay on site and complications of central venous catheter in patients undergoing transplant of hematopoietic stem cells and verify the corresponding relationship between the variables: age, gender, medical diagnosis, type of transplant, implanted catheter and insertion site. a retrospective and quantitative study with a sample of 188 patients transplanted records between 2007 and 2011. the majority of patients used Hickman catheter with an average length of stay on site of 47.6 days. The complication fever/bacteremia was significant in young males with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma undergoing autologous transplant, which remained with the device for a long period in the subclavian vein. nurses should plan with their team the minimum waiting time, recommended between the catheter insertion and start of the conditioning regimen, as well as not to extend the length of time that catheter should be on site and undertake their continuing education, focusing on the prevention of complications. identificar o modelo, tempo médio de permanência e complicações de cateter venoso central em pacientes submetidos ao transplante de células-tronco hematopoiéticas e verificar a relação de correspondência entre as variáveis: idade, sexo, diagnóstico médico, tipo de transplante, cateter implantado e local de inserção. retrospectivo, quantitativo, com amostra de prontuários de 188 pacientes transplantados, entre 2007 e 2011. a maioria dos pacientes utilizou o cateter de Hickman com permanência média de 47,6 dias. A complicação febre/bacteremia foi significante em jovens do sexo masculino, com linfoma não Hodgkin, submetidos ao transplante autólogo, que permaneceram com o dispositivo por longo período, em veia subclávia. os enfermeiros devem planejar com a equipe o aguardo do tempo mínimo preconizado entre o implante do cateter e início do regime de condicionamento, assim como não estender o período de permanência e realizar

  20. Prospective comparison of noninvasive, bedside ultrasound methods for assessing central venous pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthoff, H; Siegemund, M; Aschwanden, M; Hunziker, L; Fabbro, T; Baumann, U; Jaeger, K A; Imfeld, S; Staub, D

    2012-12-01

    To prospectively evaluate the accuracy of noninvasive central venous pressure (CVP) assessment by compression ultrasound of a forearm vein (CUS), inferior vena cava (IVC-C) and internal jugular vein collapsibility (IJV-C) compared to invasive CVP measurement (invCVP) as the gold standard. CUS, IVC-C and IJV-C were performed in a random sequence in 81 consecutive intensive care patients with simultaneous invCVP monitoring. Examiners were blinded to invCVP and previous examinations. Median invCVP was 12.0 mmHg (range 1 - 23). CUS, IVC-C and IJV-C could be obtained in 89 %, 95 % and 100 % of cases, respectively, within a median time of 188 sec [IQR 125; 270], 133 sec [IQR 100; 211] and 60 sec [IQR 50; 109], respectively. The Spearman correlation coefficient between invCVP and CUS, IVC-C, and IJV-C was 0.485 95 %-CI [0.25; 0.65], -0.186 [-0.42; 0.07], and -0.408 [-0.59; -0.18], respectively. The median absolute difference between CUS and invCVP was 3 mmHg [IQR 2; 6.75]. CVP was categorized as low ( 0.6), normal (7 - 12 mmHg; collapsibility 0.6 - 0.2) and high (> 12 mmHg; collapsibility  0.10 for all pair-wise comparisons). The overall ability of CUS, IVC-C and IJV-C to assess invCVP was only moderate. CUS seems to be the preferable method if absolute CVP values are needed. IJV-C seems to be the fastest and most easily acquirable method, and thus may be especially valuable in emergency rooms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Reduction of central neuropathic pain with ketamine infusion in a patient with Ehlers–Danlos syndrome: a case report

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    Lo TC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tony Chung Tung Lo,1,* Stephen Tung Yeung,2,* Sujin Lee,1 Kira Skavinski,3 Solomon Liao,4 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of California Irvine, Orange, CA, 2Department of Immunology, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT, 3Department of Palliative Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, 4Department of Palliative Medicine, University of California Irvine, Orange, CA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Ehlers–Danlos syndrome frequently causes acute and chronic pain because of joint subluxations and dislocations secondary to hypermobility. Current treatments for pain related to Ehlers–Danlos syndrome and central pain syndrome are inadequate. This case report discusses the therapeutic use of ketamine intravenous infusion as an alternative. Case report: A 27-year-old Caucasian female with a history of Ehlers–Danlos syndrome and spinal cord ischemic myelopathy resulting in central pain syndrome, presented with severe generalized body pain refractory to multiple pharmacological interventions. After a 7-day course of ketamine intravenous infusion under controlled generalized sedation in the intensive care unit, the patient reported a dramatic reduction in pain levels from 7–8 out of 10 to 0–3 out of 10 on a numeric rating scale and had a significant functional improvement. The patient tolerated a reduction in her pain medication regimen, which originally included opioids, gabapentin, pregabalin, tricyclic antidepressants, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Conclusion: Ketamine infusion treatment has been used in various pain syndromes, including central neuropathic pain, ischemic pain, and regional pain syndrome. Reports have suggested that ketamine modulates pain by the regression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor to a resting state. As such, propagation of nociceptive signal to brain is interrupted allowing for the restoration of

  2. A retrospective clinical audit of 696 central venous catheterizations at a tertiary care teaching hospital in India

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    Sanjay Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malpositions after central venous cannulation are frequently encountered and may need a change in catheter. The incidence of malpositions are varied according to various studies and depend on the experience of the operator performing the cannulation. Aim: To access the incidence of malpositions and related complications associated with landmark-guided central venous cannulation in a 15-bedded medical surgical ICU over a period of three years. Settings and Design: Retrospective analysis of records of all the central venous cannulation done in a 15- bedded medical- surgical ICU over the period of three years (April 2008 to June 2011 were evaluated for the site and side of insertion, number of attempts of puncture, arterial puncture as well as the malpositions on post procedural chest X-ray. The records were also evaluated for the experience of the operator performing cannulation and relationship between experience of operator to malpositions of catheter. Statistical Analysis: Analysis was done using SPSS v 17.0 for Windows. Chi-square test was applied to evaluate the statistical significance. P > 0.05 was significant. Results: Records of 696 cannulations were evaluated. Malpositions occurred in 40 patients. Subclavian vein cannulation resulted in increased malpositions in relation to internal jugular vein cannulation. More common with left sided cannulation. Experience of operator had positive correlation with malpositions and arterial puncture. Arterial puncture was common in 6%, while more than one attempt for cannulation was taken in 100 patients. Conclusion: Incidence of malpositions was low. We conclude that experience of operator improves successful catheterization with lesser number of complications.

  3. Incidence of catheter-related thrombosis in acute leukemia patients: a comparative, retrospective study of the safety of peripherally inserted vs. centrally inserted central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaei, Mohammad; Fernandes, Bruna; Brandwein, Joseph; Goodyear, Marilyn Dawn; Pokhrel, Arun; Wu, Cynthia

    2016-12-01

    Central venous catheters are a leading cause of upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis. Concomitant severe thrombocytopenia makes anticoagulation for catheter-related thrombosis (CRT) in patients with acute leukemia (AL) a challenge. Incidence of CRT has been reported to be increased in those with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) vs. those with centrally inserted ones (CICC). Our objective is to compare the incidence rate of CRT in leukemia inpatients who received either a PICC vs. CICC. We retrospectively reviewed adult inpatients admitted to hematology wards with a new diagnosis of AL and who received either a PICC or a CICC. Baseline patient and catheter characteristics were recorded. Our primary outcome was the incidence rate of CRT in each group. The secondary outcomes included rates of infectious and mechanical complications. Six hundred sixty-three patients received at least one PICC (338) or CICC (325) insertion. A total of 1331 insertions were recorded, with 82 (11.7 %) and 41 (6.5 %) CRT in the PICC and CICC groups, respectively. The incidence rates were 1.89 and 0.52 per 1000 catheter day in the PICC and CICC groups, respectively. A PICC, when compared to CICC, was a significant risk factor for CRT (sHR 2.5, p central venous catheter.

  4. Three-dimensional gadolinium-enhanced MR venography to evaluate central venous steno-occlusive disease in hemodialysis patients

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    Gao, K.; Jiang, H.; Zhai, R.Y.; Wang, J.F.; Wei, B.J. [Department of Radiology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Huang, Q., E-mail: hq0713@163.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China)

    2012-06-15

    Aim: To determine the agreement and diagnostic accuracy of three-dimensional gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance venography (3D-Gd-MRV) in central venous steno-occlusive disease (CVSD) in haemodialysis patients. Materials and methods: Fourteen consecutive haemodialysis patients underwent interventional procedures to evaluate or treat CVSD. 3D-Gd-MRV was performed before the procedures and the results were compared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Results: DSA showed >50% stenosis in all 14 patients, 13 of whom were diagnosed correctly using 3D-Gd-MRV. Moderate stenosis was missed at 3D-Gd-MRV in one case whereby the indwelling dialysis central venous catheter may have caused an artefact on the images and hindered the accuracy of the result. The sensitivity of 3D-Gd-MRV in revealing stenosis was 93% (13/14). No complications caused by contrast agent toxicity occurred in any patient. Conclusion: 3D-Gd-MRV employing a non-breath-hold technique is highly sensitive in the diagnosis of CVSD and may be an alternative technique to DSA for the visualization of central veins.

  5. Use of a Central Venous Line for Fluids, Drugs and Nutrient Administration in a Mouse Model of Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derde, Sarah; Thiessen, Steven; Goossens, Chloë; Dufour, Thomas; Van den Berghe, Greet; Langouche, Lies

    2017-05-02

    This protocol describes a centrally catheterized mouse model of prolonged critical illness. We combine the cecal ligation and puncture method to induce sepsis with the use of a central venous line for fluids, drugs and nutrient administration to mimic the human clinical setting. Critically ill patients require intensive medical support in order to survive. While the majority of patients will recover within a few days, about a quarter of the patients need prolonged intensive care and are at high risk of dying from non-resolving multiple organ failure. Furthermore, the prolonged phase of critical illness is hallmarked by profound muscle weakness, and endocrine and metabolic changes, of which the pathogenesis is currently incompletely understood. The most widely used animal model in critical care research is the cecal ligation and puncture model to induce sepsis. This is a very reproducible model, with acute inflammatory and hemodynamic changes similar to human sepsis, which is designed to study the acute phase of critical illness. However, this model is hallmarked by a high lethality, which is different from the clinical human situation, and is not developed to study the prolonged phase of critical illness. Therefore, we adapted the technique by placing a central venous catheter in the jugular vein allowing us to administer clinically relevant supportive care, to better mimic the human clinical situation of critical illness. This mouse model requires an extensive surgical procedure and daily intensive care of the animals, but it results in a relevant model of the acute and prolonged phase of critical illness.

  6. Stuck long-term indwelling central venous catheters in adolescents: three cases and a short topical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, A; Afshari, A; Henneberg, S W

    2010-01-01

    in the vessel wall and impossible to remove. In the other two cases, catheters were removed with great difficulty by the interventional radiologists. These cases raise important questions concerning the maximum indwelling time and the choice of catheter material when implanting permanent central venous......We present three cases of fixated vascular injection ports. Two patients had cystic fibrosis and one had an immunological defect. All catheters were made from polyurethane and implanted in adolescent patients. Indwelling time were 6-8 years. One patient's catheter was entirely integrated...... catheters (CVCs) in adolescents. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of not breaking a CVC in the attempt to remove it....

  7. An establishment of vascular access through superior vena cava for a patient with multiple central venous stenosis or occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Yong Shu; Feng, Yan Huan; Liu, Chun Cheng; Cui, Tian Lei; Fu, Ping

    2016-05-01

    The patency of vascular access is of vital importance to dialysis patients. Access dysfunction is largely caused by vessel stenosis and thrombosis. Nephrologists usually find themselves helpless when all treatments fail and the vascular access seems to have exhausted. Here we report a successful establishment of vascular access through superior vena cava for a critical patient with multiple central venous stenosis or occlusion. To our knowledge, it is the first case ever reported on the successful establishment of vascular access through superior vena cava under such a complicated condition of vascular exhaustion.

  8. Central venous oxygen saturation in septic shock - a marker of cardiac output, microvascular shunting and/or dysoxia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Nicolai; Perner, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Shock therapy aims at increasing central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2), which is a marker of inadequate oxygen delivery. In this issue of Critical Care, Textoris and colleagues challenge this notion by reporting that high levels of ScvO2 are associated with mortality in patients with septic...... shock. This is of obvious interest, but as their retrospective design has inherent limitations, the association should be confirmed in a prospective, multicenter study with protocolized ScvO2 measurements and detailed registration of potentially confounding factors....

  9. The PediaSat continuous central SvO2 monitoring system does not reliably indicate state or course of central venous oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baulig, Werner; Béttex, Dominique; Bürki, Christoph; Schmitz, Achim; Spielmann, Nelly; Woitzek, Katja; Weiss, Markus

    2010-08-01

    The present study compares the accuracy of a new continuous venous oxygenation monitoring system (PediaSat Oximetry Catheter) with laboratory blood oximetry in paediatric surgical patients. Children and adolescents undergoing cardiac, orthopaedic or craniofacial surgery with major blood loss were included. A 4.5 Fr two-lumen or 5.5 Fr three-lumen central venous oximetry catheter (SPediaSatcvO2) was inserted preoperatively into the superior vena cava. After in-vivo calibration of the PediaSat system, repeated blood samples were obtained from the distal port of the venous catheter and oximetrically analysed for haemoglobin and central venous oxygen saturation (SCO-OXcvO2). Central venous oxygen saturation values measured by the PediaSat (SPediaSatcvO2) were compared with co-oximetry (SCO-OXcvO2) values from the simultaneously taken blood samples by Bland-Altman and simple regression analyses. Overall, 142 data pairs from 27 patients, aged from 0.6 to 19.0 years (median 5.3 years) were analysed. SPediaSatcvO2 and SCO-OXcvO2 values ranged from 57 to 98% and from 57.1 to 95.8%, respectively. Correlation between SPediaSatcvO2 and SCO-OXcvO2 was poor with r equal to 0.28 (P < 0.0001). SPediaSatcvO2 overestimated SCO-OXcvO2 (mean bias +2.6%), but limits of agreement (+/-2 SD of bias) were unacceptably high (-14.4/+19.6%). Sensitivity and specificity of SPediaSatcvO2 to indicate a fall or rise of SCO-OXcvO2 between two subsequent measurements were only 0.42 and 0.24, respectively. In paediatric and adolescent patients undergoing major surgery, the PediaSat system did not reliably reflect SCO-OXcvO2 values and cannot replace repeated invasive ScvO2 assessments in the clinically relevant range of ScvO2.

  10. Second-Generation central venous catheter in the prevention of bloodstream infection: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Janislei Gislei Dorociaki; Hoers, Hellen; Pott, Franciele Soares; Crozeta, Karla; Barbosa, Dulce Aparecida; Meier, Marineli Joaquim

    2016-08-08

    to evaluate the effectiveness and safety in the use of second-generation central venous catheters impregnated in clorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine when compared with other catheters, being them impregnated or not, in order to prevent the bloodstream infection prevention. systematic review with meta-analysis. Databases searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS/SciELO, Cochrane CENTRAL; search in Congress Proceedings and records from Clinical Trials. 1.235 studies were identified, 97 were pre-selected and 4 were included. In catheter-related bloodstream infection, there was no statistical significance between second-generation impregnated catheter compared with the non-impregnated ones, absolute relative risk 1,5% confidence interval 95% (3%-1%), relative risk 0,68 (confidence interval 95%, 0,40-1,15) and number needed to treat 66. In the sensitivity analysis, there was less bloodstream infection in impregnated catheters (relative risk 0,50, confidence interval 95%, 0,26-0,96). Lower colonization, absolute relative risk 9,6% (confidence interval 95%, 10% to 4%), relative risk 0,51 (confidence interval 95% from 0,38-0,85) and number needed to treat 5. the use of second-generation catheters was effective in reducing the catheter colonization and infection when a sensitivity analysis is performed. Future clinical trials are suggested to evaluate sepsis rates, mortality and adverse effects. evaluar la efectividad y seguridad del uso de catéteres venosos centrales de segunda generación, impregnados en clorhexidina y sulfadiazina de plata, comparados con otros catéteres impregnados o no impregnados, para prevención de infección de la corriente sanguínea. revisión sistemática con metaanálisis. La búsqueda fue realizada en las bases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS/SciELO, Cochrane CENTRAL; fueron consultados anales de congresos y registros de ensayos clínicos. fueron identificados 1.235 estudios, 97 preseleccionados y cuatro incluidos. En la infección de la

  11. Subclavian central venous catheter-related thrombosis in trauma patients: incidence, risk factors and influence of polyurethane type

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) related to a central venous catheter varies considerably in ICUs depending on the population included. The aim of this study was to determine subclavian central venous catheter (SCVC)-related DVT risk factors in severely traumatized patients with regard to two kinds of polyurethane catheters. Methods Critically ill trauma patients needing a SCVC for their usual care were prospectively included in an observational study. Depending on the month of inclusion, patients received one of the two available products in the emergency unit: either an aromatic polyurethane SCVC or an aliphatic polyurethane SCVC. Patients were screened weekly by ultrasound for SCVC-related DVT. Potential risk factors were collected, including history-related, trauma-related and SCVC-related characteristics. Results A total of 186 patients were included with a median Injury Severity Sore of 30 and a high rate of severe brain injuries (21% of high intracranial pressure). Incidence of SCVC-related DVT was 37% (95% confidence interval: 26 to 40) in patients or 20/1,000 catheter-days. SCVC-related DVT occurred within 8 days in 65% of cases. There was no significant difference in DVT rates between the aromatic polyurethane and aliphatic polyurethane SCVC groups (38% vs. 36%). SCVC-related DVT independent risk factors were age >30 years, intracranial hypertension, massive transfusion (>10 packed red blood cell units), SCVC tip position in the internal jugular or in the innominate vein, and ipsilateral jugular catheter. Conclusion SCVC-related DVT concerned one-third of these severely traumatized patients and was mostly clinically silent. Incidence did not depend on the type of polyurethane but was related to age >30 years, intracranial hypertension or misplacement of the SCVC. Further studies are needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of routine screening in these patients in whom thromboprophylaxis may be hazardous. PMID:23718723

  12. Introducing a Fresh Cadaver Model for Ultrasound-guided Central Venous Access Training in Undergraduate Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ryan; Ho, Hang; Ng, Vivienne; Tran, Melissa; Rappaport, Douglas; Rappaport, William J A; Dandorf, Stewart J; Dunleavy, James; Viscusi, Rebecca; Amini, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Over the past decade, medical students have witnessed a decline in the opportunities to perform technical skills during their clinical years. Ultrasound-guided central venous access (USG-CVA) is a critical procedure commonly performed by emergency medicine, anesthesia, and general surgery residents, often during their first month of residency. However, the acquisition of skills required to safely perform this procedure is often deficient upon graduation from medical school. To ameliorate this lack of technical proficiency, ultrasound simulation models have been introduced into undergraduate medical education to train venous access skills. Criticisms of simulation models are the innate lack of realistic tactile qualities, as well as the lack of anatomical variances when compared to living patients. The purpose of our investigation was to design and evaluate a life-like and reproducible training model for USG-CVA using a fresh cadaver. This was a cross-sectional study at an urban academic medical center. An 18-point procedural knowledge tool and an 18-point procedural skill evaluation tool were administered during a cadaver lab at the beginning and end of the surgical clerkship. During the fresh cadaver lab, procedure naïve third-year medical students were trained on how to perform ultrasound-guided central venous access of the femoral and internal jugular vessels. Preparation of the fresh cadaver model involved placement of a thin-walled latex tubing in the anatomic location of the femoral and internal jugular vein respectively. Fifty-six third-year medical students participated in this study during their surgical clerkship. The fresh cadaver model provided high quality and lifelike ultrasound images despite numerous cannulation attempts. Technical skill scores improved from an average score of 3 to 12 (pmedical students to improve and maintain their technical skills.

  13. Study of in vivo catheter biofilm infections using pediatric central venous catheter implanted in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ashwini; Ghigo, Jean-Marc; Beloin, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Venous access catheters used in clinics are prone to biofilm contamination, contributing to chronic and nosocomial infections. Although several animal models for studying device-associated biofilms were previously described, only a few detailed protocols are currently available. Here we provide a protocol using totally implantable venous access ports (TIVAPs) implanted in rats. This model recapitulates all phenomena observed in the clinic, and it allows bacterial biofilm development and physiology to be studied. After TIVAP implantation and inoculation with luminescent pathogens, in vivo biofilm formation can be monitored in situ, and biofilm biomass can be recovered from contaminated TIVAP and organs. We used this protocol to study host responses to biofilm infection, to evaluate preventive and curative antibiofilm strategies and to study fundamental biofilm properties. For this procedure, one should expect ∼3 h of hands-on time, including the implantation in one rat followed by in situ luminescence monitoring and bacterial load estimation.

  14. Evaluation of central venous pressure monitoring in children undergoing craniofacial reconstruction surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Paul A; Lin, Elaina E; Fiadjoe, John E; Sussman, Emily M; Pruitt, Eric Y; Zhao, Huaqing; Jobes, David R

    2013-02-01

    Massive hemorrhage during craniofacial surgery is common and often results in hypovolemia and hypotension. We conducted this study to assess the effect of the addition of routine central venous pressure (CVP) monitoring on the incidence of intraoperative hypotension and to evaluate the relationship between CVP and hypotension in this population. Data from our prospective craniofacial perioperative registry for children 6 to 24 months of age undergoing cranial vault reconstruction with CVP monitoring were compared with data from a historical cohort without CVP monitoring. The incidence and duration of hypotension in the 2 cohorts were compared. In the cohort of subjects with CVP monitoring who experienced hypotension, CVP at the onset of hypotension (T0) was compared with CVP 5 minutes before (T-5) and 5 minutes after (T+5) the onset of hypotension and with the baseline CVP. The amount of time spent at various CVP levels below the baseline, and the associated incidence of hypotension were also determined. Data from 57 registry subjects were compared with data from 115 historical cohort subjects. The median total duration of hypotension in subjects experiencing hypotension was 278 seconds in the CVP cohort versus 165 seconds in the historical cohort; the median difference was 98 seconds (95% confidence interval [CI], -45 to 345 seconds). The incidence of hypotension was 18% in the CVP cohort versus 21% in the historical cohort; the difference in the incidence of hypotension was -3% (95% CI, -10% to 15%). Analysis using a linear mixed effects model showed a significant decrease in CVP from T-5 to T0 (95% CI, -0.9 to -2.2 mm Hg), a significant increase in CVP from T0 to T+5 (95% CI, 1.0-2.4 mm Hg), no significant difference in CVP between T-5 and T+5 (95% CI, -0.9 to 0.9 mm Hg), and a significant decrease in CVP from baseline to T0 (95% CI, -3.4 to -2.1 mm Hg). CVP at T0 was less than the baseline CVP in 97% of hypotensive episodes. When all cases were examined, CVP

  15. Placement of central venous access via subclavian vein under fluoroscopic guidance with intravenous contrast injection

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    Choo, Sung Wook; Choo, In Wook; Do, Young Soo; Kim, Seung Hoon; Yoh, Kyu Tong; Ro, Duk Woo; Kim, Bo Kyung [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Hickman catheter placement via the subclavian vein under fluoroscopic guidance with intravenous contrast injection. During an eleven-month period, 187 Hickman catheters were percutaneously placed in 167 consecutive patients in an interventional radiology suite. Subclavian venous puncture was made with injection of contrast medium into the peripheral venous line. After subclavian venous access had been obtained, a subcutaneous tunnel was created using a peel-away sheath or a tunneler. The Hickman catheters were inserted through a peel-away sheath, the distal tip of which was as the junction of the right atrium and the superior vena cava. One hundred and eighty-six Hickman catheters were successfully placed ; the one failure was due to anatomical tortuosity of the vein (0.53%). Complications included one case of subclavian vein occlusion (0.53%) ; three of line occlusion by thrombus (1.6%) ; one of oozing at the suture site (0.53%) ; six of infection or inflammation (3.2%) ; eight of natural removal (4.2%) ; one case of air embolism (0.53%) and two of malposition (0.1%). Major complications such as pneumothorax or arterial puncture leading to mediastinal hemorrhage did not, however, occur. The authors concluded that radiologic Hickman catheter placement offers advantages over traditional approaches in terms of safety, convenience, and time and cost savings.

  16. Use of cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques to assess contamination of central venous catheters: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M.K.; Thomsen, T.R.; Moser, C.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Catheters are the most common cause of nosocomial infections and are associated with increased risk of mortality, length of hospital stay and cost. Prevention of infections and fast and correct diagnosis is highly important. METHODS: In this study traditional semiquantitative...... culture-dependent methods for diagnosis of bacteria involved in central venous catheter-related infections as described by Maki were compared with the following culture-independent molecular biological methods: Clone libraries, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis, phylogeny and fluorescence in situ...... observed on most of the catheters and were much more common than the cultivation-dependent methods indicated. CONCLUSION: The results show that diagnosis based on molecular methods improves the detection of microorganisms involved in central catheter-related infections. The importance...

  17. Use of cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques to assess contamination of central venous catheters: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Høiby Niels

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Catheters are the most common cause of nosocomial infections and are associated with increased risk of mortality, length of hospital stay and cost. Prevention of infections and fast and correct diagnosis is highly important. Methods In this study traditional semiquantitative culture-dependent methods for diagnosis of bacteria involved in central venous catheter-related infections as described by Maki were compared with the following culture-independent molecular biological methods: Clone libraries, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis, phylogeny and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Results In accordance with previous studies, the cultivation of central venous catheters from 18 patients revealed that S. epidermidis and other coagulase-negative staphylococci were most abundant and that a few other microorganisms such as P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae occasionally were found on the catheters. The molecular analysis using clone libraries and sequencing, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing provided several important results. The species found by cultivation were confirmed by molecular methods. However, many other bacteria belonging to the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were also found, stressing that only a minor portion of the species present were found by cultivation. Some of these bacteria are known to be pathogens, some have not before been described in relation to human health, and some were not closely related to known pathogens and may represent new pathogenic species. Furthermore, there was a clear difference between the bacterial species found in biofilm on the external (exluminal and internal (luminal side of the central venous catheter, which can not be detected by Maki's method. Polymicrobial biofilms were observed on most of the catheters and were much more common than the cultivation-dependent methods indicated. Conclusion The results show that diagnosis

  18. Safety and feasibility in highly concentrated contrast material power injections for CT-perfusion studies of the brain using central venous catheters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macht, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.macht@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Beseoglu, Kerim, E-mail: beseoglu@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Neurosurgery, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Eicker, Sven, E-mail: sven.eicker@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Neurosurgery, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Rybacki, Konrad, E-mail: rybacki@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Braun, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.braun@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Anaesthesiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Mathys, Christian, E-mail: mathys@uni-duesseldorf.de [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Antoch, Gerald, E-mail: antoch@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Turowski, Bernd, E-mail: bernd.turowski@uni-duesseldorf.de [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Introduction: CT perfusion studies play an important role in the early detection as well as in therapy monitoring of vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. High-flow injections via central venous catheters are not recommended but may sometimes be the only possibility to obtain high-quality images. Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed our data for CT perfusions performed with power injection of contrast material with an iodine concentration of 400 mg/ml via the distal 16G lumen of the Arrow three and five lumen central venous catheter with preset flow rates of 5 ml/s. Results: 104 examinations with central venous catheters were evaluated (67 with five lumen and 37 with three lumen). No complications were observed. Mean flow rates were 4.4 {+-} 0.5 ml/s using the three lumen catheter and 4.6 {+-} 0.6 ml/s using the five lumen catheter respectively. The mean injection pressure measured by the power injector was 200.7 {+-} 17.5 psi for the three lumen central venous catheter and 194.5 {+-} 6.5 psi for the five lumen catheter, respectively. Conclusion: Following a strict safety protocol there were no complications associated with power injections of contrast material containing 400 mg iodine/ml with preset flow rates up to 5 ml/s via the distal 16G lumen of the Arrow multi-lumen central venous catheter. However, since power-injections are off-label use with Arrow central venous catheters, this procedure cannot be recommended until potential safety hazards have been ruled out by the manufacturer.

  19. Safety and feasibility in highly concentrated contrast material power injections for CT-perfusion studies of the brain using central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, Stephan; Beseoglu, Kerim; Eicker, Sven; Rybacki, Konrad; Braun, Sebastian; Mathys, Christian; Antoch, Gerald; Turowski, Bernd

    2012-08-01

    CT perfusion studies play an important role in the early detection as well as in therapy monitoring of vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. High-flow injections via central venous catheters are not recommended but may sometimes be the only possibility to obtain high-quality images. We retrospectively analyzed our data for CT perfusions performed with power injection of contrast material with an iodine concentration of 400mg/ml via the distal 16G lumen of the Arrow three and five lumen central venous catheter with preset flow rates of 5ml/s. 104 examinations with central venous catheters were evaluated (67 with five lumen and 37 with three lumen). No complications were observed. Mean flow rates were 4.4±0.5ml/s using the three lumen catheter and 4.6±0.6ml/s using the five lumen catheter respectively. The mean injection pressure measured by the power injector was 200.7±17.5psi for the three lumen central venous catheter and 194.5±6.5psi for the five lumen catheter, respectively. Following a strict safety protocol there were no complications associated with power injections of contrast material containing 400mg iodine/ml with preset flow rates up to 5ml/s via the distal 16G lumen of the Arrow multi-lumen central venous catheter. However, since power-injections are off-label use with Arrow central venous catheters, this procedure cannot be recommended until potential safety hazards have been ruled out by the manufacturer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Heparin versus 0.9% sodium chloride intermittent flushing for prevention of occlusion in central venous catheters in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Briz, Eduardo; Ruiz Garcia, Vicente; Cabello, Juan B; Bort-Marti, Sylvia; Carbonell Sanchis, Rafael; Burls, Amanda

    2014-10-08

    Heparin intermittent flushing is a standard practice in the maintenance of patency in central venous catheters. However, we could find no systematic review examining its effectiveness and safety. To assess the effectiveness of intermittent flushing with heparin versus 0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline) solution in adults with central venous catheters in terms of prevention of occlusion and overall benefits versus harms. The Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Specialised Register (last searched December 2013) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2013, Issue 11). Searches were also carried out in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and clinical trials databases (December 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in adults 18 years of age and older with a central venous catheter (CVC) in which intermittent flushing with heparin (any dose with or without other drugs) was compared with 0.9% normal saline were included. No restriction on language was applied. Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed trial quality and extracted data. Trial authors were contacted to retrieve additional information, when necessary. Six eligible studies with a total of 1433 participants were included. The heparin concentrations used in these studies were very different (10-5000 IU/mL), and follow-up varied from 20 days to 180 days. The overall risk of bias in the studies was low. The quality of the evidence ranged from very low to moderate for the main outcomes (occlusion of CVC, duration of catheter patency, CVC-related sepsis, mortality and haemorrhage at any site).Combined findings from three trials in which the unit of analysis was the catheter suggest that heparin was associated with reduced CVC occlusion rates (risk ratio (RR) 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29 to 0.94). However, no clear evidence of a similar effect was found when the results of two studies in which the unit of analysis was the

  1. The dwell time and survival rates of PICC placement after balloon angioplasty in patient with unexpected central venous obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Park, Sang Woo; Chang, Il Soo; Yim, Younghee

    2016-09-21

    To evaluate the dwell time and actual survival rates of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) placements after balloon angioplasty in patients with unexpected central venous obstructions. Data were obtained on all PICC insertions performed in a tertiary care hospital from August 2008 to December 2013. Thirty-five PICCs attempted after balloon angioplasty in 25 patients (15 male and 10 female patients; mean age, 63 years). Fisher's exact test was used to test for differences in reasons for catheter removal between the groups of patients with stenosis or obstructions. Survival curves for PICC dwell time of all patients, stenosis group, and obstruction group were generated separately using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and compared with log-rank tests. There were a total 21 obstructions and 14 stenoses. The overall technical success rate of PICC placement after balloon angioplasty was 94% (33 of 35 procedures). The PICC dwell time was determined for 27 PICCs and ranged from 4 to 165 days (mean, 39.6 days). Among all PICCs, 16 were removed early, resulting in an actual survival rate of 40.7% (11 of 27 PICCs). There were no significant differences in reasons for catheter removal between the stenosis and obstruction groups (p = 0.24). The dwell times for both groups were not significantly different by Kaplan-Meier analysis (p = 0.54). PICC placement after balloon angioplasty is a good treatment option for patients with unexpected central venous lesions, and offers high technical success rates. The actual survival rate was relatively lower (40.7%) than that from previous studies.

  2. Concurrent use of pigtail and loop snare catheters for percutaneous retrieval of dislodged central venous port catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tsung Chuang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to report our experience of percutaneous retrieval of dislodged port catheters with concurrent use of pigtail and loop snare catheters. During a 5-year period at our institute (June 2005 to July 2010, a total of 23 dislodged port catheters were retrieved. The interval between port catheter implantation and dislodged catheter retrieval ranged from 43 days to 1,414 days (mean 586.7 days. The time of delayed retrieval ranged from 1 day to 45 days (mean 4.6 days. All dislodged catheters were retrieved with the concurrent use of pigtail and loop snare catheters via femoral venous route. The prevalence of port catheter dislodgement at our institute was 3.4%. All dislodged port catheters were removed successfully with pigtail and loop snare catheters together. No procedure-related complications were encountered, except for transient arrhythmia in two patients, which required no medication. In conclusion, the concurrent use of pigtail and loop snare catheters is a feasible and easy way for percutaneous retrieval of a dislodged central venous port catheter.

  3. Cohort Study: Central Venous Catheter-Related Complications in Children with Hematologic Diseases at a Single Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pektaş, Ayhan; Kara, Ateş; Gurgey, Aytemiz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to document and analyze the central venous catheter (CVC)-related complications in children with hematological diseases who were treated within a single institution. Materials and Methods: A retrospective investigation was conducted in 106 pediatric patients in whom 203 CVCs were inserted. A total of 175 catheter-related complications occurred in 5 years. Results: The rates of clinical catheter infections, local catheter infections, venous thromboembolism, bleeding, and mechanical complications were 2.6, 1.1, 0.2, 0.2, and 0.2 per 1000 catheter days. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis was the predominant infectious organism in blood and catheter cultures. The children with leukemia had a significantly higher frequency of clinical catheter infections (p=0.046). The children who underwent bone marrow transplantation had a significantly lower frequency of clinical catheter infections (p=0.043) and higher frequency of local catheter infections (p=0.003). The children with implanted catheters had a significantly lower frequency of clinical catheter infections (p=0.048). The children with thrombocytopenia had significantly fewer local catheter infections and significantly more clinical catheter infections and catheter-related bleeding (respectively p=0.001, p=0.042, and p=0.024). Conclusion: Leukemia, bone marrow transplantation, and thrombocytopenia are risk factors for CVC-associated complications. The relatively higher number of interventions performed via permanent catheters may be responsible for the significantly increased incidence of systemic infections and mechanical injury. PMID:26316482

  4. Cohort Study: Central Venous Catheter-Related Complications in Children with Hematologic Diseases at a Single Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Pektaş

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study aims to document and analyze the central venous catheter (CVC-related complications in children with hematological diseases who were treated within a single institution. METHODS: A retrospective investigation was conducted in 106 pediatric patients in whom 203 CVCs were inserted. A total of 175 catheter-related complications occurred in 5 years. RESULTS: The rates of clinical catheter infections, local catheter infections, venous thromboembolism, bleeding, and mechanical complications were 2.6, 1.1, 0.2, 0.2, and 0.2 per 1000 catheter days. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis was the predominant infectious organism in blood and catheter cultures. The children with leukemia had a significantly higher frequency of clinical catheter infections (p=0.046. The children who underwent bone marrow transplantation had a significantly lower frequency of clinical catheter infections (p=0.043 and higher frequency of local catheter infections (p=0.003. The children with implanted catheters had a significantly lower frequency of clinical catheter infections (p=0.048. The children with thrombocytopenia had significantly fewer local catheter infections and significantly more clinical catheter infections and catheter-related bleeding (respectively p=0.001, p=0.042, and p=0.024. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Leukemia, bone marrow transplantation, and thrombocytopenia are risk factors for CVC-associated complications. The relatively higher number of interventions performed via permanent catheters may be responsible for the significantly increased incidence of systemic infections and mechanical injury.

  5. Colonization of a Central Venous Catheter by the Hyaline Fungus Fusarium solani Species Complex: A Case Report and SEM Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Alberto; Maccari, Giuseppe; Congiu, Terenzio; Basso, Petra; Baj, Andreina; Toniolo, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of opportunistic infections by filamentous fungi is increasing partly due to the widespread use of central venous catheters (CVC), indwelling medical devices, and antineoplastic/immunosuppressive drugs. The case of a 13-year-old boy under treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia is presented. The boy was readmitted to the Pediatric Ward for intermittent fever of unknown origin. Results of blood cultures drawn from peripheral venous sites or through the CVC were compared. CVC-derived bottles (but not those from peripheral veins) yielded hyaline fungi that, based on morphology, were identified as belonging to the Fusarium solani species complex. Gene amplification and direct sequencing of the fungal ITS1 rRNA region and the EF-1alpha gene confirmed the isolate as belonging to the Fusarium solani species complex. Portions of the CVC were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Fungi mycelia with long protruding hyphae were seen into the lumen. The firm adhesion of the fungal formation to the inner surface of the catheter was evident. In the absence of systemic infection, catheter removal and prophylactic voriconazole therapy were followed by disappearance of febrile events and recovery. Thus, indwelling catheters are prone to contamination by environmental fungi. PMID:23935636

  6. Colonization of a Central Venous Catheter by the Hyaline Fungus Fusarium solani Species Complex: A Case Report and SEM Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Colombo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of opportunistic infections by filamentous fungi is increasing partly due to the widespread use of central venous catheters (CVC, indwelling medical devices, and antineoplastic/immunosuppressive drugs. The case of a 13-year-old boy under treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia is presented. The boy was readmitted to the Pediatric Ward for intermittent fever of unknown origin. Results of blood cultures drawn from peripheral venous sites or through the CVC were compared. CVC-derived bottles (but not those from peripheral veins yielded hyaline fungi that, based on morphology, were identified as belonging to the Fusarium solani species complex. Gene amplification and direct sequencing of the fungal ITS1 rRNA region and the EF-1alpha gene confirmed the isolate as belonging to the Fusarium solani species complex. Portions of the CVC were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Fungi mycelia with long protruding hyphae were seen into the lumen. The firm adhesion of the fungal formation to the inner surface of the catheter was evident. In the absence of systemic infection, catheter removal and prophylactic voriconazole therapy were followed by disappearance of febrile events and recovery. Thus, indwelling catheters are prone to contamination by environmental fungi.

  7. Circulating tumour cells in the central and the peripheral venous compartment in patients with metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, D J E; Van den Eynden, G G; van Dam, P-J; Prové, A; Benoy, I H; van Dam, P A; Vermeulen, P B; Pauwels, P; Peeters, M; Van Laere, S J; Dirix, L Y

    2011-04-26

    The enumeration of circulating tumour cells (CTC) has prognostic significance in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and monitoring of CTC levels over time has considerable potential to guide treatment decisions. However, little is known on CTC kinetics in the human bloodstream. In this study, we compared the number of CTC in both 7.5 ml central venous blood (CVB) and 7.5 ml peripheral venous blood (PVB) from 30 patients with MBC starting with a new line of chemotherapy. The number of CTC was found to be significantly higher in CVB (median: 43.5; range: 0-4036) than in PVB (median: 33; range: 0-4013) (P=0.001). When analysing samples pairwise, CTC counts were found to be significantly higher in CVB than in PVB in 12 out of 26 patients with detectable CTC. In contrast, only 2 out of 26 patients had higher CTC counts in PVB as compared with CVB, whereas in 12 remaining patients no significant difference was seen. The pattern of CTC distribution was independent of the sites of metastatic involvement. A substantial difference in the number of CTC was observed between CVB and PVB of patients with MBC. Registration of the site of blood collection is warranted in studies evaluating the role of CTC assessment in these patients.

  8. The effect of a pre-anesthetic infusion of amino acids on body temperature, venous blood pH, glucose, creatinine, and lactate of healthy dogs during anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Price, Stuart C; Dossin, Olivier; Ngwenyama, Thandeka R; O'Brien, Mauria A; McMichael, Maureen; Schaeffer, David J

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of preanesthetic, intravenous (IV) amino acids on body temperature of anesthetized healthy dogs. Randomized, experimental, crossover study. Eight mixed-breed dogs approximately 2 years of age weighing 20.7 ± 2.1 kg. Dogs received 10% amino acid solution (AA) or 0.9% saline (SA) IV at 5 mL kg(-1) over 60 minutes. Body temperature (BT) was recorded at 5 minute intervals during infusions. Dogs were then anesthetized with sevoflurane for 90 minutes. BT was recorded at 5 minute intervals during anesthesia. Jugular blood samples were analyzed for pH, glucose, creatinine, and lactate concentrations at baseline, after infusion, after anesthesia and after 24 hours. BT at conclusion of infusion decreased -0.34 ± 0.42 °C in group AA and -0.40 ± 0.38 °C in group SA and was not different between groups (p = 0.072). BT decreased 2.72 ± 0.37 °C in group AA and 2.88 ± 0.26 °C in group SA after anesthesia and was different between groups (p dogs, preanesthetic IV infusion of amino acids attenuated heat loss compared to controls, however, the amount attenuated may not be clinically useful. Further studies are warranted to determine if nutrient-induced thermogenesis is beneficial to dogs undergoing anesthesia. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  9. Significant air embolism: A possibility even with collapsible intravenous fluid containers when used with rapid infuser system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepanjali Pant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant venous air embolism may develop acutely during the perioperative period due to a number of causes such as during head and neck surgery, spinal surgery, improper central venous and haemodialysis catheter handling, etc. The current trend of using self collapsible intravenous (IV infusion bags instead of the conventional glass or plastic bottles has several advantages, one of thaem being protection against air embolism. We present a 56-year-old man undergoing kidney transplantation, who developed a near fatal venous air embolism during volume resuscitation with normal saline in collapsible IV bags used with rapid infuser system. To our knowledge, this problem with collapsible infusion bags has not been reported earlier.

  10. Comparison of two low-dose calcium infusion schedules for localization of insulinomas by selective pancreatic arterial injection with hepatic venous sampling for insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braatvedt, G; Jennison, E; Holdaway, I M

    2014-01-01

    Localization of small insulinomas may be difficult. Selective pancreatic arterial injection of calcium with hepatic venous insulin measurement (SACST) has been used for this purpose, but can rarely cause hypoglycaemia. Two low-dose concentrations of calcium, 0·25 and 0·1 of the usual concentration used for the test, have been compared for sensitivity of localization and safety. Selective pancreatic arterial injection of calcium with hepatic venous insulin measurement was performed at calcium concentrations of 0·0025 (Protocol A) and 0·00625 (Protocol B) mEq calcium per kg. The standard concentration is 0·025 mEq/kg. Twenty one successive patients with biochemical evidence of insulinoma were studied. Using surgical localization as the gold standard, Protocol A had a sensitivity of 91% and Protocol B 75% for correct localization. The false-positive localization rate was 16%. No hypoglycaemia was observed. These results compare favourably with published data using the standard calcium concentration. Selective pancreatic arterial injection of calcium with hepatic venous insulin measurement was superior to localization by noninvasive imaging; in seven cases, SACST was correct when conventional imaging was negative (five) or false positive (two). Low concentrations of calcium are effective and safe when performing SACST for localization of insulinoma. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Personalized Learning in Medical Education: Designing a User Interface for a Dynamic Haptic Robotic Trainer for Central Venous Catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovanoff, Mary; Pepley, David; Mirkin, Katelin; Moore, Jason; Han, David; Miller, Scarlett

    2017-09-01

    While Virtual Reality (VR) has emerged as a viable method for training new medical residents, it has not yet reached all areas of training. One area lacking such development is surgical residency programs where there are large learning curves associated with skill development. In order to address this gap, a Dynamic Haptic Robotic Trainer (DHRT) was developed to help train surgical residents in the placement of ultrasound guided Internal Jugular Central Venous Catheters and to incorporate personalized learning. In order to accomplish this, a 2-part study was conducted to: (1) systematically analyze the feedback given to 18 third year medical students by trained professionals to identify the items necessary for a personalized learning system and (2) develop and experimentally test the usability of the personalized learning interface within the DHRT system. The results can be used to inform the design of VR and personalized learning systems within the medical community.

  12. Optimization of health-care organization and perceived improvement of patient comfort by switching from intra-venous BU four-times-daily infusions to a once-daily administration scheme in adult hematopoietic stem cell recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhaard, A; Rzepecki, P; Valcarcel, D; Santarone, S; Fürst, S; Serrano, D; De Angelis, G; Krüger, W; Scheid, C

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have shown an equivalent pharmacokinetic profile between four-times-daily (4QD) and once-daily (QD) administration of intra-venous (IV) BU, without increased toxicity. We assess the impact of a switch in IV BU from a 4QD to a QD schedule, in terms of health-care organization, staff working conditions, quality of care dispensed and perceived patient comfort. Clinicians, nurses and pharmacists from nine allogeneic transplantation units in five European countries were interviewed face to face. Overall perception of QD versus 4QD BU was very positive. Both administration schemes were evaluated to be equally efficaciousZ. QD BU was perceived to be safer and more convenient. Clinicians and nurses perceived that patient comfort was improved, due to fewer complications associated with repeated infusions, and avoiding night infusions associated with stress, anxiety and decreased quality of sleep. Switching from 4QD to QD BU had a significant impact on health-care organization, with a better integration in the overall management and usual timelines in the pharmacies and transplantation units. Time spent to prepare and administer BU was significantly reduced, leading to potential financial savings that merit further assessment and would be of particular interest in the current economic climate.

  13. Central venous catheter-related infection in a prospective and observational study of 2,595 catheters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Leonardo; Henry, Christophe; Martín, María M; Jiménez, Alejandro; Mora, María L

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Central venous catheterization is commonly used in critically ill patients and may cause different complications, including infection. Although there are many studies about CVC-related infection, very few have analyzed it in detail. The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence of catheter-related local infection (CRLI) and catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) with central venous catheters (CVCs) according to different access sites. Methods This is a prospective and observational study, conducted in a 24-bed medical surgical intensive care unit of a 650-bed university hospital. All consecutive patients admitted to the ICU during 3 years (1 May 2000 and 30 April 2003) were included. Results The study included 2,018 patients. The number of CVCs and days of catheterization duration were: global, 2,595 and 18,999; subclavian, 917 and 8,239; jugular, 1,390 and 8,361; femoral, 288 and 2,399. CRLI incidence density was statistically higher for femoral than for jugular (15.83 versus 7.65, p < 0.001) and subclavian (15.83 versus 1.57, p < 0.001) accesses, and higher for jugular than for subclavian access (7.65 versus 1.57, p < 0.001). CRBSI incidence density was statistically higher for femoral than for jugular (8.34 versus 2.99, p = 0.002) and subclavian (8.34 versus 0.97, p < 0.001) accesses, and higher for jugular than for subclavian access (2.99 versus 0.97, p = 0.005). Conclusion Our results suggest that the order for punction, to minimize the CVC-related infection risk, should be subclavian (first order), jugular (second order) and femoral vein (third order). PMID:16280064

  14. [Influence of three central venous catheter biomedical materials on proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle of xuanwei lung cancer-05 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yujie; Zhou, Lan; Huang, Yunchao; Jin, Qilin; Liu, Xin; Chen, Ying; Rao, Zhongming; Chen, Xiaobo; Yang, Kaiyun

    2012-09-01

    To explore the influence of three central venous catheter biomedical materials (polyurethane, silicone, and polyvinyl chloride) on the proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle of Xuanwei Lung Cancer-05 (XWLC-05) cells so as to provide the basis for clinical choice of central venous catheter. XWLC-05 cells were cultured and subcultured, and the cells at passage 3 were cultured with polyurethane, silicone, and polyvinyl chloride (1.0 cm x 1.0 cm in size), and only cells served as a control. At 24, 48, and 72 hours after cultured, MTT assay was used to detect the cellular proliferation and flow cytometry to detect the cell cycle and apoptosis. At 72 hours after cultured, inverted microscope was used to observe the cell growth. Inverted microscope showed the cells grew well in control group, polyurethane group, and silicone group. In polyvinyl chloride group, the cells decreased, necrosed, and dissolved; residual adherent cells had morphologic deformity and decreased transmittance. At 24 and 48 hours, no significant difference in proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle was found among 4 groups (P > 0.05). At 72 hours, the proliferations of XWLC-05 cells in three material groups were significantly inhibited when compared with control group (P 0.05). Compared with the control group, three material groups had significant impact on the rate of apoptosis and cell cycle: polyvinyl chloride group was the most remarkable, followed by silicone group, polyurethane group was minimum (P < 0.05). Polyvinyl chloride can significantly impact the proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle of XWLC-05 cells; polyurethane has better biocompatibility than polyvinyl chloride and silicone.

  15. Continuous monitoring of central venous oxygen saturation (Pediasat) in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery: a validation study of a new technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranucci, Marco; Isgrò, Giuseppe; De La Torre, Teresa; Romitti, Federica; De Benedetti, Donatella; Carlucci, Concetta; Kandil, Hassan; Ballotta, Andrea

    2008-12-01

    Mixed venous oxygen saturation and central venous oxygen saturation are considered possible indicators of the adequacy of oxygen delivery with respect to the oxygen needs of critically ill adult and pediatric patients. The present study was aimed at validating the accuracy of a new technology (Pediasat central venous catheter) in providing a continuous measurement of the central venous oxygen saturation in pediatric patients. A prospective observational study. Thirty pediatric patients (age, 6 days-9 years) undergoing cardiac operations. Data obtained with the Pediasat during and after the operation were compared with simultaneously collected venous blood samples analyzed with standard laboratory techniques. A clinical research hospital. None. A Bland and Altman analysis was performed on 30 matched sets of data collected before cardiopulmonary bypass, during cardiopulmonary bypass, and during the intensive care unit stay. Before cardiopulmonary bypass, there was a bias of 0.003, with lower and upper limits of agreement, -5.84 and 5.84 (percentage error, 17.3%). During cardiopulmonary bypass, the bias was 0.57 and lower and upper limits of agreement were -7.7 and 8.7 (percentage error, 23.2%). At 2 hours after the arrival in the intensive care unit, the bias was -0.6 and the lower and upper limits of agreement were -8 and 6.8 (percentage error, 20.3%). Because of the minimal bias and the acceptable value of percentage error, the Pediasat may be considered as an accurate tool for the continuous measurement of the central venous oxygen saturation in neonates and pediatric patients during and after cardiac operations.

  16. Introducing a Fresh Cadaver Model for Ultrasound-guided Central Venous Access Training in Undergraduate Medical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Miller

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past decade, medical students have witnessed a decline in the opportunities to perform technical skills during their clinical years. Ultrasound-guided central venous access (USG-CVA is a critical procedure commonly performed by emergency medicine, anesthesia, and general surgery residents, often during their first month of residency. However, the acquisition of skills required to safely perform this procedure is often deficient upon graduation from medical school. To ameliorate this lack of technical proficiency, ultrasound simulation models have been introduced into undergraduate medical education to train venous access skills. Criticisms of simulation models are the innate lack of realistic tactile qualities, as well as the lack of anatomical variances when compared to living patients. The purpose of our investigation was to design and evaluate a life-like and reproducible training model for USG-CVA using a fresh cadaver. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study at an urban academic medical center. An 18-point procedural knowledge tool and an 18-point procedural skill evaluation tool were administered during a cadaver lab at the beginning and end of the surgical clerkship. During the fresh cadaver lab, procedure naïve third-year medical students were trained on how to perform ultrasound-guided central venous access of the femoral and internal jugular vessels. Preparation of the fresh cadaver model involved placement of a thin-walled latex tubing in the anatomic location of the femoral and internal jugular vein respectively. Results: Fifty-six third-year medical students participated in this study during their surgical clerkship. The fresh cadaver model provided high quality and lifelike ultrasound images despite numerous cannulation attempts. Technical skill scores improved from an average score of 3 to 12 (p<0.001 and procedural knowledge scores improved from an average score of 4 to 8 (p<0.001. Conclusion: The use of

  17. Comparison of POCT and central laboratory blood glucose results using arterial, capillary, and venous samples from MICU patients on a tight glycemic protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, John R; Graves, Donna F; Tacker, Danyel H; Okorodudu, Anthony O; Mohammad, Amin A; Cardenas, Victor J

    2008-10-01

    Point of care (POC) glucose meters are routinely used to monitor glucose levels for patients on tight glycemic control therapy. We determined if glucose values were different for a POC glucose meter as compared to the main clinical laboratory for medical intensive care unit patients on a tight glycemic protocol and whether the site of blood sampling had a significant impact on glucose values. Eighty-four patients (114 paired samples) who were on a tight glycemic protocol in the period November 2005 through August 2006 were enrolled. After simultaneous blood draws, we compared the glucose levels for the glucose meter (arterial/venous/capillary), blood gas (arterial/venous), and central clinical laboratory (serum/plasma from arterial/venous samples). The mean glucose levels of all arterial/venous/fingerstick samples using the glucose meter demonstrated a positive bias of 0.7-0.9 mmol/l (12.6-16.2 mg/dl) (pcentral laboratory venous plasma. There was also a smaller positive (0.1-0.3 mmol/l or 1.8-5.4 mg/dl, pvenous blood gas samples and laboratory arterial serum/plasma glucose samples. Using Parkes error grid analysis we were able to show that the bias for arterial or venous POC glucose results would have not impacted clinical care. This was not the case, however, for fingerstick sampling where a high bias could have significantly impacted clinical care. Additionally, in 3 fingerstick samples a severe underestimation (central laboratory plasma result) was found. Glucose meters using arterial/venous whole blood may be utilized in the MICU; however, due to the increased variability of results we do not recommend the routine use of capillary blood sampling for monitoring glucose levels in the MICU setting.

  18. Systematic review including re-analyses of 1148 individual data sets of central venous pressure as a predictor of fluid responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskesen, T G; Wetterslev, M; Perner, A

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Central venous pressure (CVP) has been shown to have poor predictive value for fluid responsiveness in critically ill patients. We aimed to re-evaluate this in a larger sample subgrouped by baseline CVP values. METHODS: In April 2015, we systematically searched and included all clinical...

  19. Comparison of the effects of heparin and 0.9% sodium chloride solutions in maintenance of patency of central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari Gorji, Mohammad Ali; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Jafari, Hedayat; Yazdani Cherati, Jamshid

    2015-04-01

    Occlusion of central venous catheters is one of the limiting factors in using them. Heparinized saline solution is the standard solution used for keeping the catheters open. This study aimed to determine the effect of heparin saline solution and normal saline in maintenance of patency of central venous catheters. This double-blind study was performed on 84 patients of intensive care unit who had central venous catheters. The patients were randomly divided into two groups of heparin saline receivers and normal saline receivers. In the heparin group after each drug injection into the lumen, 3 mL of heparin saline solution was injected in the catheter as well. The other group only received 10 mL of normal saline instead. The catheters were examined for blood return and flushing every eight hours for 21 days. Data was analyzed using SPSS software version 20 and descriptive and analytic statistics were studied. There was no significant difference in the rate of flushing (P = 0.872) and possibility of taking blood samples from catheters (P = 0.745) in the two groups of heparin and normal saline receivers. Furthermore, using heparin had no effect on prolonging the survival of catheters. Considering possible side effects of heparin and the increase in treatment charges and the fact that using heparin did not have a significant effect on patency and survival of catheters in the studied patients, it is recommended to use normal saline solution to maintain the patency of central venous catheters.

  20. Bacteriophage K antimicrobial-lock technique for treatment of Staphylococcus aureus central venous catheter-related infection: a leporine model efficacy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungren, Matthew P; Donlan, Rodney M; Kankotia, Ravi; Paxton, Ben E; Falk, Irene; Christensen, Diana; Kim, Charles Y

    2014-10-01

    To determine whether a bacteriophage antimicrobial-lock technique can reduce bacterial colonization and biofilm formation on indwelling central venous catheters in a rabbit model. Cuffed central venous catheters were inserted into the jugular vein of female New Zealand White rabbits under image guidance. Catheters were inoculated for 24 hours with broth culture of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. The inoculum was aspirated, and rabbits were randomly assigned to two equal groups for 24 hours: (i) untreated controls (heparinized saline lock), (ii) bacteriophage antimicrobial-lock (staphylococcal bacteriophage K, propagated titer > 10(8)/mL). Blood cultures were obtained via peripheral veins, and the catheters were removed for quantitative culture and scanning electron microscopy. Mean colony-forming units (CFU) per cm(2) of the distal catheter segment, as a measure of biofilm, were significantly decreased in experimental animals compared with controls (control, 1.2 × 10(5) CFU/cm(2); experimental, 7.6 × 10(3); P = .016). Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that biofilms were present on the surface of five of five control catheters but only one of five treated catheters (P = .048). Blood culture results were not significantly different between the groups. In a rabbit model, treatment of infected central venous catheters with a bacteriophage antimicrobial-lock technique significantly reduced bacterial colonization and biofilm presence. Our data represent a preliminary step toward use of bacteriophage therapy for prevention and treatment of central venous catheter-associated infection. Copyright © 2014 SIR. All rights reserved.

  1. The efficacy of heparinization in prolonging patency of arterial and central venous catheters in children: A randomized double-blind trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Neef, M.; Heijboer, H.; van Woensel, J. B. M.; de Haan, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of heparinization in prolonging patency of arterial and central venous catheters in children. A randomized double-blind trial in a tertiary 10-bed pediatric intensive care unit was used to evaluate 300 children (age older than 4 weeks, younger than 18 years). Trial

  2. Medical-grade honey does not reduce skin colonization at central venous catheter-insertion sites of critically ill patients: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Kwakman (Jan); M.C. Müller (Marcella); J.M. Binnekade (Jan); J.P. van den Akker (Johannes); C.A. de Borgie (Corianne); M.J. Schultz (Marcus); S.A.J. Zaat (Sebastiaan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) associated with short-term central venous catheters (CVCs) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients are a major clinical problem. Bacterial colonization of the skin at the CVC insertion site is an important etiologic factor for

  3. Spontaneous fracture of implanted central venous catheters in cancer patients: report of two cases and retrospective analysis of the 'pinch-off sign' as a risk factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, C. J.; Strijk, S.; van der Hoeven, J. J.; van de Sluis, R.; Verhagen, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    Spontaneous fracture of central venous catheters (CVC) has been reported. It results from repeated compression of the extravasal part of the CVC between the clavicle and the first rib. The so called pinch-off sign (POS) of the CVC as visible on a chest radiograph has been described as a warning for

  4. Hypotension during epidural analgesia for Caesarean section. Arterial and central venous pressure changes after acute intravenous loading with two litres of Hartmann's solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M; Thomas, P; Wilkes, R G

    1983-03-01

    The incidence of hypotension occurring in women undergoing Caesarean section with epidural analgesia was investigated in 60 patients receiving an intravenous preload of two litres Hartmann's solution. Hypotension occurred in only 6.7% of patients. Central venous pressure measurements in 20 patients confirmed the safety of the technique. A comparison is made with other preloading techniques.

  5. Prevention of central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections in paediatric oncology patients using 70% ethanol locks : A randomised controlled multi-centre trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoot, Reineke A.; van Ommen, C. Heleen; Stijnen, Theo; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Michiels, Erna; Abbink, Floor C. H.; Raphael, Martine F.; Heij, Hugo A.; Lieverst, Jan A.; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; Zwaan, C. Michel; Caron, Huib N.; van de Wetering, Marianne D.

    Background: The prevention of central venous catheter (CVC) associated bloodstream infections (CABSIs) in paediatric oncology patients is essential. Ethanol locks can eliminate pathogens colonising CVCs and microbial resistance is rare. Aim of this study was to determine whether two hour 70% ethanol

  6. Reduction of central venous catheter associated blood stream infections following implementation of a resident oversight and credentialing policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West Cheri E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assesses the impact that a resident oversight and credentialing policy for central venous catheter (CVC placement had on institution-wide central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI. We therefore investigated the rate of CLABSI per 1,000 line days during the 12 months before and after implementation of the policy. Methods This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data at an academic medical center with four adult ICUs and a pediatric ICU. All patients undergoing non-tunneled CVC placement were included in the study. Data was collected on CLABSI, line days, and serious adverse events in the year prior to and following policy implementation on 9/01/08. Results A total of 813 supervised central lines were self-reported by residents in four departments. Statistical analysis was performed using paired Wilcoxon signed rank tests. There were reductions in median CLABSI rate (3.52 vs. 2.26; p = 0.015, number of CLBSI per month (16.0 to 10.0; p = 0.012, and line days (4495 vs. 4193; p = 0.019. No serious adverse events reported to the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority. Conclusions Implementation of a new CVC resident oversight and credentialing policy has been significantly associated with an institution-wide reduction in the rate of CLABSI per 1,000 central line days and total central line days. No serious adverse events were reported. Similar resident oversight policies may benefit other teaching institutions, and support concurrent organizational efforts to reduce hospital acquired infections.

  7. Placement of central venous port catheters and peripherally inserted central catheters in the routine clinical setting of a radiology department: analysis of costs and intervention duration learning curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotzinger, Roman; Gebauer, Bernhard; Schnapauff, Dirk; Streitparth, Florian; Wieners, Gero; Grieser, Christian; Freyhardt, Patrick; Hamm, Bernd; Maurer, Martin H

    2017-12-01

    Background Placement of central venous port catheters (CVPS) and peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) is an integral component of state-of-the-art patient care. In the era of increasing cost awareness, it is desirable to have more information to comprehensively assess both procedures. Purpose To perform a retrospective analysis of interventional radiologic implantation of CVPS and PICC lines in a large patient population including a cost analysis of both methods as well as an investigation the learning curve in terms of the interventions' durations. Material and Methods All CVPS and PICC line related interventions performed in an interventional radiology department during a three-year period from January 2011 to December 2013 were examined. Documented patient data included sex, venous access site, and indication for CVPS or PICC placement. A cost analysis including intervention times was performed based on the prorated costs of equipment use, staff costs, and expenditures for disposables. The decrease in intervention duration in the course of time conformed to the learning curve. Results In total, 2987 interventions were performed by 16 radiologists: 1777 CVPS and 791 PICC lines. An average implantation took 22.5 ± 0.6 min (CVPS) and 10.1 ± 0.9 min (PICC lines). For CVPS, this average time was achieved by seven radiologists newly learning the procedures after performing 20 CVPS implantations. Total costs per implantation were €242 (CVPS) and €201 (PICC lines). Conclusion Interventional radiologic implantations of CVPS and PICC lines are well-established procedures, easy to learn by residents, and can be implanted at low costs.

  8. Predicting arterial blood gas and lactate from central venous blood analysis in critically ill patients: a multicentre, prospective, diagnostic accuracy study.

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    Boulain, T; Garot, D; Vignon, P; Lascarrou, J-B; Benzekri-Lefevre, D; Dequin, P-F

    2016-09-01

    The estimation of arterial blood gas and lactate from central venous blood analysis and pulse oximetry [Formula: see text] readings has not yet been extensively validated. In this multicentre, prospective study performed in 590 patients with acute circulatory failure, we measured blood gases and lactate in simultaneous central venous and arterial blood samples at 6 h intervals during the first 24 h after insertion of central venous and arterial catheters. The study population was randomly divided in a 2:1 ratio into model derivation and validation sets. We derived predictive models of arterial pH, carbon dioxide partial pressure, oxygen saturation, and lactate, using clinical characteristics, [Formula: see text], and central venous blood gas values as predictors, and then tested their performance in the validation set. In the validation set, the agreement intervals between predicted and actual values were -0.078/+0.084 units for arterial pH, -1.32/+1.36 kPa for arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure, -5.15/+4.47% for arterial oxygen saturation, and -1.07/+1.05 mmol litre(-1) for arterial lactate (i.e. around two times our predefined clinically tolerable intervals for all variables). This led to ∼5% (or less) of extreme-to-extreme misclassifications, thus giving our predictive models only marginal agreement. Thresholds of predicted variables (as determined from the derivation set) showed high predictive values (consistently >94%), to exclude abnormal arterial values in the validation set. Using clinical characteristics, [Formula: see text], and central venous blood analysis, we predicted arterial blood gas and lactate values with marginal accuracy in patients with circulatory failure. Further studies are required to establish whether the developed models can be used with acceptable safety. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Central venous access in critically ill patients in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, M H; Tabora, F

    1986-11-01

    Several techniques of percutaneous venipuncture and cut-downs for insertion of intravenous catheters and the respective clinical results are described. We believe that puncture of the subclavian vein from above the clavicle in the segment of the veins over the first rib is the safest anatomic approach to the vein. The first rib under the vein shields the pleural dome and the apex of the lung against the needle puncture, and the tip of the needle is directed away from the apex of the lung. Insertion of double and multiple IV catheters in one vein, adjacent veins, or even veins located away from each other is safe and much less costly than the double- and triple-lumen catheters. The special and unconventional venous cut-downs for providing IV access described here in patients with difficult access may be life saving. The experience with vascular access in our institution indicates that supervised training in vascular access and the personal experience of each physician with these techniques and teamwork help to reduce potential complications.

  10. Central Venous Catheter Placement in the Left Internal Jugular Vein Complicated by Perforation of the Left Brachiocephalic Vein and Massive Hemothorax: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Lindsay R; Patel, Priyesh R; Pesa, Nicholas L

    2017-07-01

    An elderly male presented for emergent repair of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. For anticipated volume resuscitation, vasopressor administration, and hemodynamic monitoring, a large-bore central venous catheter was placed in the left internal jugular vein under ultrasound guidance before surgical incision. Initially, there were no readily apparent signs of venous perforation. However, a massive left hemothorax developed because of perforation of the brachiocephalic vein and violation of the pleural space. This case report discusses both prevention and management of such a complication.

  11. Non-Invasive Method for the Rapid Assessment of Central Venous Pressure: Description and Validation by a Single Examiner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zidulka, Arnold

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study describes a means of assessing the external jugular venous pressure (JVP as an indicator of normal or elevated central venous pressure (CVP.Methods: Intensive care unit patients having CVP monitoring were examined. With patients in bed, the external jugular vein (EJV was occluded at the base of the neck and observed to distend. The occlusion was then removed and the vein observed for collapse. Complete collapse was hypothesized to indicate a non-elevated CVP (≤8cm of water. In those patients whose EJV collapsed incompletely, the vein was then occluded with the finger near the angle of the jaw. With the occlusion maintained, the vein was milked downwards with the other hand to cause its emptying and was then observed for filling from below. Filling from below was hypothesized to indicate an elevated CVP (>8cm of water.Results: In 12 of the 40 patients examined, the EJV could not be assessed (EJV not seen at all: 5, and difficult to visualize: 7. For the remaining 28 patients, 11 had a CVP > 8 cm, while 17 had a CVP of < 8. EJV assessment was 100% accurate (95% Confidence Interval 88-100 in predicting whether or not a patient’s CVP was greater or less than 8 cm of water.Conclusion: EJV assessment, when visible, is accurate to clinically assess a patient’s CVP in the hands of the author. Further studies are needed to see if they are reproducible by other observer.[WestJEM. 2008;9:201-205.

  12. Chronic central ghrelin infusion reduces blood pressure and heart rate despite increasing appetite and promoting weight gain in normotensive and hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, John N; do Carmo, Jussara M; Adi, Ahmad H; da Silva, Alexandre A

    2013-04-01

    Acute studies showed that ghrelin acts on the central nervous system (CNS) to reduce blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and sympathetic activity. However, the long-term CNS cardiovascular actions of ghrelin are still unclear. We tested whether chronic intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of ghrelin causes sustained reductions in BP, HR and whether it alters baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) and autonomic input to the heart. A cannula was placed in the lateral ventricle of male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for ICV infusions via osmotic minipump (0.5 μl/h). BP and HR were measured 24-h/day by telemetry. After 5 days of control measurements, ghrelin (0.21 nmol/h) or saline vehicle were infused ICV for 10 days followed by a 5-day post-treatment period. Chronic ICV ghrelin infusion increased food intake (22±3 to 26±1 g/day) leading to ~50 g body weight gain. BP fell slightly during ghrelin infusion while HR decreased by ~26 bpm. In control animals BP and HR increased modestly. ICV Ghrelin infusion caused a 50% reduction in sympathetic tone to the heart but did not alter BRS. We also tested if the depressor responses to ICV ghrelin infusion were enhanced in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) due to their high basal sympathetic tone. However, we observed similar BP and HR responses compared to normotensive rats. These results indicate that ghrelin, acting via direct actions on the CNS, has a sustained effect to lower HR and a modest impact to reduce BP in normotensive and hypertensive animals despite increasing appetite and body weight. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Chronic central ghrelin infusion reduces blood pressure and heart rate despite increasing appetite and promoting weight gain in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, John N.; do Carmo, Jussara M.; Adi, Ahmad H.; da Silva, Alexandre A.

    2013-01-01

    Acute studies showed that ghrelin acts on the central nervous system (CNS) to reduce blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and sympathetic activity. However, the long-term CNS cardiovascular actions of ghrelin are still unclear. We tested whether chronic intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of ghrelin causes sustained reductions in BP, HR and whether it alters baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) and autonomic input to the heart. A cannula was placed in the lateral ventricle of male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for ICV infusions via osmotic minipump (0.5 μl/hr). BP and HR were measured 24-hr/day by telemetry. After 5 days of control measurements, ghrelin (0.21 nmol/hr) or saline vehicle were infused ICV for 10 days followed by a 5-day post-treatment period. Chronic ICV ghrelin infusion increased food intake (22±3 to 26±1 g/day) leading to ~50 g body weight gain. BP fell slightly during ghrelin infusion while HR decreased by ~26 bpm. In control animals BP and HR increased modestly. ICV Ghrelin infusion caused a 50% reduction in sympathetic tone to the heart but did not alter BRS. We also tested if the depressor responses to ICV ghrelin infusion was enhanced in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) due to their high basal sympathetic tone. However, we observed similar BP and HR responses compared to normotensive rats. These results indicate that ghrelin, acting via direct actions on the CNS, has a sustained effect to lower HR and a modest impact to reduce BP in normotensive and hypertensive animals despite increasing appetite and body weight. PMID:23416021

  14. Long-term follow-up of children with haemophilia - low incidence of infections with central venous access devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harroche, A; Merckx, J; Salvi, N; Faivre, J; Jacqmarcq, O; Dazet, D; Makhloufi, M; Clairicia, M; Torchet, M-F; Aouba, A; Rothschild, C

    2015-07-01

    This study reports on 15 years of experience, in a single haemophilia care centre in France, with central venous access devices (VADs) in children with haemophilia. Following the insertion of a central VAD, patients were requested to return to the hospital on a quarterly basis for a multidisciplinary appointment which included clinical examination, chest X-ray, cardiac and major vessels ultrasound and preventive fibrinolysis. The family was urged to return to the Haemophilia Care Centre if complications or problems occurred. The follow-up comprised 50 patients. Data were collected prospectively. The total number of days with a VAD was 86 461 days and the total number of times the VAD was used was 41 192 (approximately every other day). Mean duration of VAD placement was 1269 days (range 113-2794 days). There were 25 complications, of which 9 haematomas and 5 systemic infections. Two VADs, infected with Staphylococcus aureus, had to be replaced. The infection rate was calculated as 0.0578 infections/1000 catheter days. There were no cases of thrombosis. This study concluded that most VAD infections in children can be avoided, even in patients requiring intense, prolonged treatment. The very low infection rate was achieved through the efforts of a multidisciplinary team, combined with extensive training for all individuals involved, adherence to written protocols and specific monitoring measures. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A Review of Central Venous Pressure and Its Reliability as a Hemodynamic Monitoring Tool in Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Kristen M; Shaw, Scott P

    2016-09-01

    To review the current literature regarding central venous pressure (CVP) in veterinary patients pertaining to placement (of central line), measurement, interpretation, use in veterinary medicine, limitations, and controversies in human medicine. CVP use in human medicine is a widely debated topic, as numerous sources have shown poor correlation of CVP measurements to the volume status of a patient. Owing to the ease of placement and monitoring in veterinary medicine, CVP remains a widely used modality for evaluating the hemodynamic status of a patient. A thorough evaluation of the veterinary and human literature should be performed to evaluate the role of CVP measurements in assessing volume status in veterinary patients. Veterinary patients that benefit from accurate CVP readings include those suffering from hypovolemic or septic shock, heart disease, or renal disease or all of these. Other patients that may benefit from CVP monitoring include high-risk anesthetic patients undergoing major surgery, trending of fluid volume status in critically ill patients, patients with continued shock, and patients that require rapid or large amounts of fluids. The goal of CVP use is to better understand a patient's intravascular volume status, which would allow early goal-directed therapy. CVP would most likely continue to play an important role in the hemodynamic monitoring of the critically ill veterinary patient; however, when available, cardiac output methods should be considered the first choice for hemodynamic monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Complications of Central Venous Totally Implantable Access Port: Internal Jugular Versus Subclavian Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil Young Jung

    Full Text Available Background: Totally implantable access port (TIAP provides reliable, long term vascular access with minimal risk of infection and allows patients normal physical activity. With wide use of ports, new complications have been encountered. We analyzed TIAP related complications and evaluated the outcomes of two different percutaneous routes of access to superior vena cava. Methods: All 172 patients who underwent port insertion with internal jugular approach (Group 1, n = 92 and subclavian approach (Group 2, n = 79 between August 2011 and May 2013 in a single center were analyzed, retrospectively. Medical records were analyzed to compare the outcomes and the occurrence of port related complications between two different percutaneous routes of access to superior vena cava. Results: Median follow-up for TIAP was 278 days (range, 1-1868. Twenty four complications were occurred (14.0%, including pneumothorax (n = 1, 0.6%, migration/malposition (n = 4, 2.3%, pinch-off syndrome (n = 4, 2.3%, malfunction (n = 2, 1.1%, infection (n = 8, 4.7%, and venous thrombosis (n = 5, 2.9%. The overall incidence was 8.7% and 20.3% in each group (p = 0.030. Mechanical complications except infectious and thrombotic complications were more often occurred in group 2 (p = 0.033. The mechanical complication free probability is significantly higher in group 1 (p = 0.040. Conclusions: We suggest that the jugular access should be chosen in patients who need long term catheterization because of high incidence of mechanical complication, such as pinch-off syndrome.

  17. Hospital costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections and cost-effectiveness of closed vs. open infusion containers. The case of Intensive Care Units in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torbica Aleksandra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim was to evaluate direct health care costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI and to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of closed fully collapsible plastic intravenous infusion containers vs. open (glass infusion containers. Methods A two-year, prospective case-control study was undertaken in four intensive care units in an Italian teaching hospital. Patients with CLABSI (cases and patients without CLABSI (controls were matched for admission departments, gender, age, and average severity of illness score. Costs were estimated according to micro-costing approach. In the cost effectiveness analysis, the cost component was assessed as the difference between production costs while effectiveness was measured by CLABSI rate (number of CLABSI per 1000 central line days associated with the two infusion containers. Results A total of 43 cases of CLABSI were compared with 97 matched controls. The mean age of cases and controls was 62.1 and 66.6 years, respectively (p = 0.143; 56% of the cases and 57% of the controls were females (p = 0.922. The mean length of stay of cases and controls was 17.41 and 8.55 days, respectively (p Conclusions CLABSI results in considerable and significant increase in utilization of hospital resources. Use of innovative technologies such as closed infusion containers can significantly reduce the incidence of healthcare acquired infection without posing additional burden on hospital budgets.

  18. [Multicenter validation study of a questionnaire assessing patient satisfaction with and acceptance of totally-implanted central venous access devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcy, Pierre Yves; Dahlet, Christian; Brenet, Olivier; Yazbec, Gabriel; Dubois, Pierre Yves; Salm, Bernard; Fouche, Yves; Mari, Veronique; Montastruc, Marion; Lebrec, Nathalie; Ancel, Benoit; Paillocher, Nicolas; Dupoiron, Denis; Rangeard, Olivier; Michel, Cécile; Chateau, Yann; Ettaiche, Marc; Ferrero, Jean-Marc; Chamorey, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    Most cancer patients require a totally-implanted central venous access device (TIVAD) for their treatment. This was a prospective, multicenter, open study to: (i) develop and validate a French-language questionnaire dubbed QASICC (Questionnaire for Acceptance of and Satisfaction with Implanted Central Venous Catheter) assessing patient's satisfaction with and acceptance of their TIVAD; (ii) develop a mean score of patient's acceptance and satisfaction; (iii) look for correlation between QASICC score and TIVAD patient/tumor pathology/device characteristics. From 2011 November to 2012 December, the first version of the QASICC questionnaire that included 27 questions assessing seven dimensions was re-tested among 998 cancer patients in eleven French cancer hospitals (eight cancer research institutes and three university/general hospitals). The goal was: (i) to reduce the questionnaire item and dimension number (pertinency, saturation effect, item correlation); (ii) to assess its psychometric properties, demonstrate its validity and independency compared to (EORTC) QLQC30; (iii) to correlate clinical and pathological patient's/tumor's/TIVAD's parameters with the QASICC questionnaire score (the higher the overall score, the greater the acceptance and satisfaction). The questionnaire was administered to the patient 30 days (±15 days) after TIVAD's implantation. Among 998 questionnaires given to cancer patients, 658 were analyzed and 464 were fully assessed as there was no missing data. Time to fill-in the questionnaire was five minutes in 90% patients. Final QASICC tool included twenty-two questions assessing four homogeneous dimensions (65%

  19. On-line blood viscosity monitoring in vivo with a central venous catheter, using electrical impedance technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Gheorghe A M; Bisschops, Laurens L A; Iliev, Blagoy; Struijk, Pieter C; van der Hoeven, Johannes G; Hoedemaekers, Cornelia W E

    2013-03-15

    Blood viscosity is an important determinant of microvascular hemodynamics and also reflects systemic inflammation. Viscosity of blood strongly depends on the shear rate and can be characterized by a two parameter power-law model. Other major determinants of blood viscosity are hematocrit, level of inflammatory proteins and temperature. In-vitro studies have shown that these major parameters are related to the electrical impedance of blood. A special central venous catheter was developed to measure electrical impedance of blood in-vivo in the right atrium. Considering that blood viscosity plays an important role in cerebral blood flow, we investigated the feasibility to monitor blood viscosity by electrical bioimpedance in 10 patients during the first 3 days after successful resuscitation from a cardiac arrest. The blood viscosity-shear rate relationship was obtained from arterial blood samples analyzed using a standard viscosity meter. Non-linear regression analysis resulted in the following equation to estimate in-vivo blood viscosity (Viscosity(imp)) from plasma resistance (R(p)), intracellular resistance (R(i)) and blood temperature (T) as obtained from right atrium impedance measurements: Viscosity(imp)=(-15.574+15.576R(p)T)SR ((-.138RpT-.290Ri)). This model explains 89.2% (R(2)=.892) of the blood viscosity-shear rate relationship. The explained variance was similar for the non-linear regression model estimating blood viscosity from its major determinants hematocrit and the level of fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (R(2)=.884). Bland-Altman analysis showed a bias between the in-vitro viscosity measurement and the in-vivo impedance model of .04 mPa s at a shear rate of 5.5s(-1) with limits of agreement between -1.69 mPa s and 1.78 mPa s. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the proof of principle to monitor blood viscosity continuously in the human right atrium by a dedicated central venous catheter equipped with an impedance measuring device. No safety

  20. Ultrasound and Fluoroscopy-Guided Placement of Central Venous Ports via Internal Jugular Vein: Retrospective Analysis of 1254 Port Implantations at a Single Center

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    Ahn, Se Jin; Kimn, Hyo Cheol; Chung, Jin Wook; Yin, Yong Hu; Jae, Hwan Jun; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); An, Sang Bu [National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    To assess the technical success and complication rates of the radiologic placement of central venous ports via the internal jugular vein. We retrospectively reviewed 1254 central venous ports implanted at our institution between August 2002 and October 2009. All procedures were guided by using ultrasound and fluoroscopy. Catheter maintenance days, technical success rates, peri-procedural, as well as early and late complication rates were evaluated based on the interventional radiologic reports and patient medical records. A total of 433386 catheter maintenance days (mean, 350 days; range 0-1165 days) were recorded. The technical success rate was 99.9% and a total of 61 complications occurred (5%), resulting in a post-procedural complication rate of 0.129 of 1000 catheter days. Among them, peri-procedural complications within 24 hours occurred in five patients (0.4%). There were 56 post-procedural complications including 24 (1.9%, 0.055 of 1000 catheter days) early and 32 (2.6%, 0.074 of 1000 catheter days) late complications including, infection (0.6%, 0.018 of 10000 catheter days), thrombotic malfunction (1.4%, 0.040 of 1000 catheter days), nonthrombotic malfunction (0.9%, 0.025 of 1000 catheter days), venous thrombosis (0.5%, 0.014 of 1000 catheter days), as well as wound problems (1.1%, 0.032 of 1000 catheter days). Thirty six CVPs (3%) were removed due to complications. Bloodstream infections and venous thrombosis were the two main adverse events prolonging hospitalization (mean 13 days and 5 days, respectively). Radiologic placement of a central venous port via the internal jugular vein is safe and efficient as evidenced by its high technical success rate and a very low complication rate.

  1. Analysis of the Sherlock II tip location system for inserting peripherally inserted central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelkes, Valdis; Kumar, Abhishek; Shukla, Pratik A; Contractor, Sohail; Rutan, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are frequently placed at the bedside. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Sherlock II tip location system (Bard Access Systems, Salt Lake City, UT), which offers electromagnetic detection of the PICC tip to assist the operator in guiding the tip to a desired location. We performed a retrospective review of patients who had a bedside PICC using the Sherlock II tip location system. Three hundred seventy-five of 384 patients (97.7%) had the catheter tip positioned appropriately. Our results suggest that the Sherlock II tip location system is an efficacious system for bedside PICC placement. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Establishment of rat model of central venous catheter (CVC): associated infection and evaluation of the virulence of bacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lian-Hua; Huang, Yun-Chao; Guo, Feng-Li; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Guang-Qiang; Duan, Lin-Can; Jin, Cong-Guo

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a central venous catheter (CVC)-associated infection model was established in rats to investigate and evaluate the effect of biofilms on the virulence of the pathogens. Twenty-four adult SD rats were randomly divided into biofilm positive (BF+) and biofilm negative (BF-) groups to be challenged with strains of S.epidermidis. Serum levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured and the infection rate and counts of bacteria cells were studied. Compared to rats of BF- group, the serum level of TNF and IL-6 significantly increased in rats of BF+ group (P infection rate and bacterial counts in tissues and blood of rats of BF + group were significantly higher than those of rats of BF- group (P associated infection model can be successfully reproduced in rats by injecting 5 × 10(6) CFU of S.epidermidis. Biofilm formation can significantly enhance the virulence of the bacteria, leading to uncontrolled infection. The serum level of inflammatory cytokines, infection rate and the extent of inflammatory cell infiltration are important markers for evaluating the virulence of biofilm.

  3. Fate of Central Venous Catheters Used for Acute Extracorporeal Treatment in Critically Ill Pediatric Patients: A Single Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Rina R; Premru, Vladimir; Novljan, Gregor; Grošelj-Grenc, Mojca; Ponikvar, Rafael

    2016-06-01

    Renal replacement treatment (RRT) is required in severe acute kidney injury, and a functioning central venous catheter (CVC) is crucial. Twenty-eight children younger than 16 years have been treated at the University Medical Centre Ljubljana between 2003 and 2012 with either acute hemodialysis (HD) and/or plasma exchange (PE), and were included in our study. The age of the patients ranged from 2 days to 14.1 years. Sixty-six CVCs were inserted (52% de novo, 48% guide wire). The sites of insertion were the jugular vein in 20% and the femoral vein in 80%. Catheters were in function from 1 day to 27 days. The most common cause for CVC removal or exchange was catheter dysfunction (50%). CVCs were mostly inserted in the femoral vein, which is the preferred site of insertion in acute HD/PE because of the smaller number of complications. © 2016 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  4. Avoiding postoperative malposition of upper body tunneled central venous catheters in children: Evaluating technique and depth of placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gish, Joshua; Wright, Tiffany; Gadepalli, Samir; Jarboe, Marcus

    2016-08-01

    Suboptimal position of tunneled central venous catheters (Broviacs) decreases long-term catheter longevity, incurring morbidity and cost. We postulated that catheter malposition is related to patient's age, technique used, and initial catheter tip location (CTL). We performed a retrospective review with 1-year follow-up of Broviacs placed in patients at our children's hospital from 3/2010 to 10/2013. We defined malposition as a noncentral CTL that required replacement, excluding catheters physically dislodged. We used logistic regression to determine whether age, technique and CTL predicted malposition with p-valuecatheters placed ≥1.5 vertebral bodies below the carina were less likely to be malpositioned (OR=0.37,p=0.015). Cox-regression shows the lateral technique to have the lowest rate of malposition within 90days (HR=0.30,p=0.03). Older patients and lines placed 1.5 vertebral bodies below the carina are less likely to become malpositioned. Using the lateral approach for insertion improves catheter longevity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Aseptic technique for accessing central venous catheters: applying a standardised tool to audit 'scrub the hub' practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desra, Andra P; Breen, Jennifer; Harper, Susan; Slavin, Monica A; Worth, Leon J

    2016-05-07

    To reduce the risk of infections associated with indwelling central venous catheters (CVCs), practices for hub disinfection have been widely promoted. The objective of this study was to design and implement a standardised tool to monitor compliance with 'scrub the hub' practices at an Australian centre. Review of existing literature and recommendations regarding scrub the hub practices was performed to identify nine key components that could be audited by direct observation of staff in clinical areas. The tool was reviewed by stakeholders in infection prevention, infectious diseases and senior nursing roles prior to pilot evaluation. Twenty attempts to access a CVC were audited. In all instances, scrub the hub practices were commenced. However, a 15-second scrub was performed in only 60% of cases, and the hub was permitted to dry in only 65% of instances. With respect to maintaining an aseptic field, the overall compliance was 40%, and compliance was lowest for maintenance of a non-touch technique for key parts and sites, and hand hygiene practices following CVC access. A standardised clinical audit tool for monitoring aseptic access of CVCs enabled identification of practices amendable to targeted intervention and education, such as duration of hub disinfection. This tool would be readily utilised to facilitate quality improvement initiatives in a range of healthcare contexts, including high-risk inpatient and ambulatory care settings.

  6. Ultraviolet-C Irradiation for Prevention of Central Venous Catheter Related Infections: An In-vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Tianhong; Tegos, George P.; St. Denis, Tyler G.; Anderson, Don; Sinofsky, Ed; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Central venous catheters (CVC) are widely used in the United States and are associated with 250,000 to 500,000 CVC-related infections in hospitals annually. We used a catheter made from ultraviolet-C (UVC) transmissive material to test whether delivery of UVC from the lumen would allow inactivation of microorganisms on the outer surface of CVC. When the catheter was exposed to UVC irradiation from a cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) inside the catheter lumen at a radiant exposure of 3.6 mJ/cm2, more than 6-log10 of drug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria adhered to the outer surface of the catheter were inactivated. Three to 7-log10 of drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria and 2.8 log10 of fungi were inactivated at a radiant exposure of 11 mJ/cm2. UVC irradiation also offered a highly selective inactivation of bacteria over keratinocytes under exactly comparable conditions. After 11 mJ/cm2 UVC light had been delivered, over 6 log10 of bacteria were inactivated while the viability loss of the keratinocytes was only about 57%. PMID:21073470

  7. Mechanic and surface properties of central-venous port catheters after removal: A comparison of polyurethane and silicon rubber materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Ulrike; Lorenz, Edelgard; Weimann, Christiane; Sturm, Heinz; Karimov, Ilham; Ettl, Johannes; Meier, Reinhard; Wohlgemuth, Walter A; Berger, Hermann; Wildgruber, Moritz

    2016-12-01

    Central venous port devices made of two different polymeric materials, thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and silicone rubber (SiR), were compared due their material properties. Both naïve catheters as well as catheters after removal from patients were investigated. In lab experiments the influence of various chemo-therapeutic solutions on material properties was investigated, whereas the samples after removal were compared according to the implanted time in patient. The macroscopic, mechanical performance was assessed with dynamic, specially adapted tests for elasticity. The degradation status of the materials was determined with common tools of polymer characterisation, such as infrared spectroscopy, molecular weight measurements and various methods of thermal analysis. The surface morphology was analysed using scanning electron microscopy. A correlation between material properties and clinical performance was proposed. The surface morphology and chemical composition of the polyurethane catheter materials can potentially result in increased susceptibility of the catheter to bloodstream infections and thrombotic complications. The higher mechanic failure, especially with increasing implantation time of the silicone catheters is related to the lower mechanical performance compared to the polyurethane material as well as loss of barium sulphate filler particles near the surface of the catheter. This results in preformed microscopic notches, which act as predetermined sites of fracture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Intraoperative monitoring of stroke volume variation versus central venous pressure in laparoscopic liver surgery: a randomized prospective comparative trial.

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    Ratti, Francesca; Cipriani, Federica; Reineke, Raffaella; Catena, Marco; Paganelli, Michele; Comotti, Laura; Beretta, Luigi; Aldrighetti, Luca

    2016-02-01

    Central venous pressure (CVP) is used as a marker of cardiac preload to control intraoperative blood loss in open hepatectomies, while its reliability in laparoscopy is less certain. The aim of this randomized prospective trial was to evaluate the outcome of laparoscopic resections performed with stroke volume variation (SVV) or CVP monitoring. All candidates for laparoscopic liver resection were assigned randomly to SVV or to CVP groups. Outcome was evaluated included conversion rate, cause of conversion, intraoperative blood loss, need for transfusions, length of surgery and postoperative results. Ninety consecutive patients were enrolled: both SVV and CVP groups included 45 patients each and were comparable in terms of patient and disease characteristics. A reduced rate of conversion was recorded in the SVV compared to the CVP group (6.7% and 17.8% respectively, p = 0.02). Blood loss was lower in the SVV group (150 mL), compared to the CVP group (300 mL, p = 0.04). Morbidity, mortality, length of stay and functional recovery were comparable. On multivariate analysis, lesion location, extent of hepatectomy and type of cardiac preload monitoring were associated significantly to risk of conversion. SVV monitoring in laparoscopic liver surgery improves intraoperative outcome, thus enhancing the benefits of the minimally-invasive approach and fast-track protocols. Copyright © 2015 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Upper arm central venous port implantation: a 6-year single institutional retrospective analysis and pictorial essay of procedures for insertion.

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    Masatoshi Shiono

    Full Text Available The requirement of central venous (CV port implantation is increasing with the increase in the number of cancer patients and advancement in chemotherapy. In our division, medical oncologists have implanted all CV ports to save time and consultation costs to other departments. Recently, upper arm implantation has become the first choice as a safe and comfortable method in our unit. Here we report our experience and discuss the procedure and its potential advantages.All CV port implantations (n = 599 performed in our unit from January 2006 to December 2011 were analyzed. Procedural success and complication rates between subclavian and upper arm groups were compared.Both groups had similar patient characteristics. Upper arm CV port and subclavian implantations were equivalently successful and safe. Although we only retrospectively analyzed data from a single center, the upper arm group had a significantly lower overall postprocedural complication rate than the subclavian group. No pneumothorax risk, less risk of arterial puncture by ultrasound, feasibility of stopping potential arterial bleeding, and prevention of accidental arterial cannulation by targeting the characteristic solitary basilic vein were the identified advantages of upper arm CV port implantation. In addition to the aforementioned advantages, there is no risk of "pinch-off syndrome," possibly less patient fear of manipulation, no scars on the neck and chest, easier accessibility, and compatibility with the "peripherally inserted central catheter" technique.Upper arm implantation may benefit clinicians and patients with respect to safety and comfort. We also introduce our methods for upper arm CV port implantation with the videos.

  10. Vasopressin-induced changes in splanchnic blood flow and hepatic and portal venous pressures in liver resection.

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    Bown, L Sand; Ricksten, S-E; Houltz, E; Einarsson, H; Söndergaard, S; Rizell, M; Lundin, S

    2016-05-01

    To minimize blood loss during hepatic surgery, various methods are used to reduce pressure and flow within the hepato-splanchnic circulation. In this study, the effect of low- to moderate doses of vasopressin, a potent splanchnic vasoconstrictor, on changes in portal and hepatic venous pressures and splanchnic and hepato-splanchnic blood flows were assessed in elective liver resection surgery. Twelve patients were studied. Cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), mean arterial (MAP), central venous (CVP), portal venous (PVP) and hepatic venous pressures (HVP) were measured, intraoperatively, at baseline and during vasopressin infusion at two infusion rates (2.4 and 4.8 U/h). From arterial and venous blood gases, the portal (splanchnic) and hepato-splanchnic blood flow changes were calculated, using Fick's equation. CO, SV, MAP and CVP increased slightly, but significantly, while systemic vascular resistance and heart rate remained unchanged at the highest infusion rate of vasopressin. PVP was not affected by vasopressin, while HVP increased slightly. Vasopressin infusion at 2.4 and 4.8 U/h reduced portal blood flow (-26% and -37%, respectively) and to a lesser extent hepato-splanchnic blood flow (-9% and -14%, respectively). The arterial-portal vein lactate gradient was not significantly affected by vasopressin. Postoperative serum creatinine was not affected by vasopressin. Short-term low to moderate infusion rates of vasopressin induced a splanchnic vasoconstriction without metabolic signs of splanchnic hypoperfusion or subsequent renal impairment. Vasopressin caused a centralization of blood volume and increased cardiac output. Vasopressin does not lower portal or hepatic venous pressures in this clinical setting. © 2016 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus: microbiology and risk factors

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    Geraldo Sadoyma

    Full Text Available Although central vascular catheters (CVC are indispensable in modern medicine, they are an important risk factor for primary bacteremias. We examined the incidence and risk factors associated with catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI caused by Staphylococcus aureus in surgical patients. A prospective study was carried out in the Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (HC-UFU from September 2000 to December 2002. The skin insertion site, catheter tip, and blood were microbiologically analyzed. Demographics and risk factors were recorded for each patient, and cultures were identified phenotypically. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent pathogen, with an incidence rate of 4.9 episodes of CR-BSIs per 1,000 catheter/days. Based on logistic regression, the independent risk factors were: colonization on the insertion site =200 colony forming units (CFU/20 cm² (p=0.03; odds ratio (OR =6.89 and catheter tip (p=0.01; OR=7.95. The CR-BSI rate was high; it was mainly associated with S. aureus, and skin colonization at the insertion site and on the catheter tip were important risk factors for CR-BSI.

  12. Central venous catheter placement by advanced practice nurses demonstrates low procedural complication and infection rates--a report from 13 years of service*.

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    Alexandrou, Evan; Spencer, Timothy R; Frost, Steven A; Mifflin, Nicholas; Davidson, Patricia M; Hillman, Ken M

    2014-03-01

    To report procedural characteristics and outcomes from a central venous catheter placement service operated by advanced practice nurses. Single-center observational study. A tertiary care university hospital in Sydney, Australia. Adult patients from the general wards and from critical care areas receiving a central venous catheter, peripherally inserted central catheter, high-flow dialysis catheter, or midline catheter for parenteral therapy between November 1996 and December 2009. None. Prevalence rates by indication, site, and catheter type were assessed. Nonparametric tests were used to calculate differences in outcomes for categorical data. Catheter infection rates were determined per 1,000 catheter days after derivation of the denominator. A total of 4,560 catheters were placed in 3,447 patients. The most common catheters inserted were single-lumen peripherally inserted central catheters (n = 1,653; 36.3%) and single-lumen central venous catheters (n = 1,233; 27.0%). A small proportion of high-flow dialysis catheters were also inserted over the reporting period (n = 150; 3.5%). Sixty-one percent of all catheters placed were for antibiotic administration. The median device dwell time (in d) differed across cannulation sites (p catheter placement had the longest dwell time with a median of 16 days (interquartile range, 8-26 d). Overall catheter dwell was reported at a cumulative 63,071 catheter days. The overall catheter-related bloodstream infection rate was 0.2 per 1,000 catheter days. The prevalence rate of pneumothorax recorded was 0.4%, and accidental arterial puncture (simple puncture-with no dilation or cannulation) was 1.3% using the subclavian vein. This report has demonstrated low complication rates for a hospital-wide service delivered by advance practice nurses. The results suggest that a centrally based service with specifically trained operators can be beneficial by potentially improving patient safety and promoting organizational efficiencies.

  13. Complications associated with 2 different types of percutaneously inserted central venous catheters in very low birth weight infants.

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    Tsai, Ming-Horng; Chu, Shih-Ming; Lien, Reyin; Huang, Hsuan-Rong; Wang, Jiunn-Wei; Chiang, Chiao-Ching; Hsu, Jen-Fu; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2011-03-01

    To identify the prevalence and risk factors for complications associated with percutaneously inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) and evaluate the effect of different catheter types and their indwelling time on catheter-related complications. Retrospective cohort study. A 49-bed neonatal intensive-care teaching hospital in Taiwan. Between 2004 and 2007, 518 single-lumen PICCs (defined as "old type") and 290 PICCs with a stiffening stylet and a thicker introducer ("new type") were inserted in a total of 534 neonates with a birth body weight of 1,500 g or less. Independent risk factors of catheter-related sepsis (CRS) were longer duration for PICC placement and PICC inserted at femoral site (compared with nonfemoral sites) (odds ratio [OR], 1.53 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.07-2.25]; P = .044). An independent predictor of catheter-related noninfectious complications was time spent for PICC insertion of more than 60 minutes (compared with less than 30 minutes) (OR, 1.96 [95% CI, 1.08-3.53]; P = .026). New-type PICCs were significantly associated with a higher rate of femoral site insertion, catheter-related noninfectious complications, and longer time for successful insertion than old-type PICCs. The hazard rates of CRS according to indwelling time, determined over 5-day periods by survival analysis, showed 0.05% for catheters in place for 4 days or less; 0.27% for 5-9 days; 0.40% for 10-14 days; 0.68% for 15-19 days; 1.18% for 20-24 days; 3.96% for 25-29 days; and 10.45% for 30 or more days. Different catheters do influence the complication rates. Spending more than 60 minutes for successful PICC insertion and PICCs indwelling for more than 30 days are associated with higher rates of catheter-related complications.

  14. Is diabetes a risk factor for central venous access port-related bloodstream infection in oncological patients?

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    Touré, A; Vanhems, P; Lombard-Bohas, C; Souquet, J-C; Lauverjat, M; Chambrier, C

    2013-01-01

    It was a dogma that patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are at increased risk of infection or death associated with an infection. However, in cancer patients, this has not been well investigated. The aim was to investigate whether diabetic patients with cancer are at high risk of central venous access port (CVAP)-related bloodstream infection (BSI), and to analyse mortality after CVAP-BSI. A total of 17 patients with type 1 DM (T1DM), 66 with type 2 DM (T2DM) and 307 non-diabetic patients were included. Each patient was followed up until the first late CVAP-BSI or for a maximum for 1 year in the absence of a CVAP-BSI. Fifty-three CVAP-BSIs occurred in 66,528 catheter-days. The cumulative incidence of CVAP-BSI was not higher in T1DM (5.9 %; p = 0.17) and T2DM (19.7 %; p = 0.70) compared with the non-diabetic patients (12.7 %). However, in patients with CVAP-BSI, the 1-month crude mortality rate was higher in DM patients (42.9 % vs. 15.4 %; p = 0.04), whereas the mortality in patients without CVAP-BSI was similar in both groups of patients (19.8 % vs. 17.1 %; p = 0.58). Of the 12 deaths that occurred within 1 month of CVAP-BSI, 16.66 % was attributable to CVAP-BSI. The predictive factor of 1-month mortality was DM (p = 0.04). Parenteral nutrition (PN) was independently associated with CVAP-BSI in diabetic patients (p = 0.001). In this study, diabetes did not increase the risk of CVAP-BSI, but mortality was higher in diabetic patients who had a CVAP-BSI. This suggests, in addition to medical treatment, CVAP should be withdrawn after infection onset.

  15. Impact of hydrochloric acid instillation on salvage of infected central venous catheters in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

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    Madsen, Mette; Rosthøj, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Bacteraemia associated with indwelling central venous catheters (CVC) causes significant morbidity in children with cancer. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) instillations have been reported to salvage CVCs with antibiotic-refractory infection. We implemented this treatment in 2002. The impact on the survival of CVCs has been evaluated in a retrospective cohort study of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Children with newly diagnosed ALL during 1999-2005 having their first CVC inserted before (n = 16) and after (n = 24) the introduction of the procedure were studied. All bacteraemic episodes were reviewed, recording bacteriological findings and treatment, and the time to premature or planned removal of the CVC was determined. In the comparison cohort, 31.0% (9/29) of bacteraemic episodes led to removal of the CVC, compared to 5.5% (2/36) in the intervention cohort (p = 0.01). Thus, the rate of catheter loss due to infection fell from 56.3% (9/16) to 8.3% (2/24) after introducing HCl treatment (p = 0.0025). Overall, the premature catheter removal rate fell from 75.0% (12/16) to 45.8% (11/24) (p = 0.10). Analysed in a CUSUM plot the reduced frequency of premature CVC removal evidently coincided with the introduction of the procedure. In a subgroup analysis of 21 monobacterial infections with coagulase-negative staphylococci, a decrease in systemic and lock antibiotic therapy was found. No adverse events were noted. HCl instillations significantly reduced the need to remove and replace CVCs. The procedure is practical, appears to be safe, and may reduce the consumption of antibiotics.

  16. Non-invasive estimation of cerebrospinal fluid pressure waveforms by means of retinal venous pulsatility and central aortic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golzan, S Mojtaba; Kim, Mi Ok; Seddighi, Amir Saied; Avolio, Alberto; Graham, Stuart L

    2012-09-01

    Current techniques used for cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFp) measurements are invasive. They require a surgical procedure for placement of a pressure catheter in the brain ventricles or in the brain tissue. The human eye provides direct visualisation of its physiological structures and due to its anatomical connection with CSF via the retrolaminar optic nerve it may provide accessible information about CSFp. A total of 25 subjects were included in this study. 15 subjects were used to characterise the relationship between intraocular pressure (IOP), spontaneous retinal venous pulsatility (SRVP), and CSFp. IOP was manipulated and SRVP amplitudes recorded dynamically using the dynamic vessel analyzer (DVA). The relationship between IOP and SRVP amplitude was established to estimate CSFp. Additionally Doppler blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery and arterial blood pressure (ABP) were acquired for all subjects. This was to compare and validate our findings with an alternative approach (ICM+) which uses these values to estimate CSFp. A CSFp waveform was extracted from central blood pressure (CBP) waveform by removing its cardiac component frequency. Furthermore to calibrate the CSFp to CBP waveform ratio, invasive CSFp, and ABP was measured from 10 subjects with brain tumours who had a range of normal to elevated CSFp (i.e., 0-30 mmHg). Results show good agreement between the two methods (correlation r (2) = 0.55) Mean estimated CSFp for the two techniques did not show any significant difference (p > 0.05). A significant correlation between CBP pulse (CBPp) and invasive CSFp pulse (CSFpp) was observed (i.e., CSFpp = 0.0654CBBp + 3.91, p invasively and may provide a novel method to estimate CSF waveforms non-invasively.

  17. Comparison of Two Central Venous Pressure Control Strategies to Prevent Atrial Fibrillation After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

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    Mario Augusto Cray da Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF takes place in 10-40% of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG, and increases cardiovascular mortality. Enlargement of atrial chambers is associated with increased AF incidence, so patients with higher central venous pressure (CVP are expected to have larger atrial distension, which increases AF incidence. Objective: To compare post-CABG AF incidence, following two CVP control strategies. Methods: Interventional, randomized, controlled clinical study. The sample comprised 140 patients undergoing CABG between 2011 and 2015. They were randomized into two groups, G15 and G20, with CVP maintained ≤ 15 cmH2O and ≤ 20 cmH2O, respectively. Results: 70 patients were included in each group. The AF incidence in G15 was 8.57%, and in G20, 22.86%, with absolute risk reduction of 14.28%, and number needed to treat (NNT of 7 (p = 0.03. Mortality (G15 = 5.71%; G20 = 11.42%; p = 0.07, hospital length of stay (G15 = 7.14 days; G20 = 8.21 days; p = 0.36, number of grafts (median: G15 = 3, G2 = 2; p = 0.22 and cardiopulmonary bypass use (G15 = 67.10%; G20 = 55.70%; p = 0.22 were statistically similar. Age (p = 0.04 and hospital length of stay (p = 0.001 were significantly higher in patients who developed AF in both groups. Conclusion: Keeping CVP low in the first 72 post-CABG hours reduces the relative risk of AF, and may be useful to prevent AF after CABG.

  18. Can a New Antiseptic Agent Reduce the Bacterial Colonization Rate of Central Venous Lines in Post- Cardiac Surgery Patients?

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    Fardin Yousefshahi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Central venous (CV catheters play an essential role in the management of critically ill patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU. CV lines are, however, allied to catheter-associated blood stream infections. Bacterial colonization of CV lines is deemed the main cause of catheter-associated infection. The purpose of our study was to compare bacterial colony counts in the catheter site before CV line insertion in two groups of post-cardiac surgery patients: a group receiving Sanosil (an antiseptic agent composed of H2 O2 and silver and a control group.Methods: This interventional prospective double-blinded clinical trial recruited the patients in three post-cardiac surgeryICUs of a heart center. The participants were divided into interventional (113 patients and control (136 patients groups. Sanosil was added to the routine preparation procedure (Chlorhexidine bath one day before and scrub with Povidone-Iodine just before the CV line insertion. After the removal of the CV lines, the catheters tips were sent for culture and evaluation of colony counts.Results: Catheter colonization occurred in 55 (22.1% patients: 26 (23% patients in the Sanosil group and 29 (21.3% in the control group; there was no significant statistical difference between the two groups (p value = 0.75, RR = 1.05, 95%CI:0.76-1.45. The most common organism having colonized in the cultures of the catheter tips was staphylococcus epidermis:20 cases in the control group and 16 cases in the intervention group.Conclusion: Catheter colonization frequently occurs in post-cardiac surgery patients. However, our results did not indicate the effectiveness of adding Sanosil to the routine preparation procedure with respect to reducing catheter bacterial colonization.

  19. Outcomes associated with stroke volume variation versus central venous pressure guided fluid replacements during major abdominal surgery

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    Lakshmi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: There is limited data on the impact of perioperative fluid therapy guided by dynamic preload variables like stroke volume variation (SVV on outcomes after abdominal surgery. We studied the effect of SVV guided versus central venous pressure (CVP guided perioperative fluid administration on outcomes after major abdominal surgery. Material and Methods: Sixty patients undergoing major abdominal surgeries were randomized into two equal groups in this prospective single blind randomized study. In the standard care group, the CVP was maintained at 10-12 mmHg while in the intervention group a SVV of 10% was achieved by the administration of fluids. The primary end-points were the length of Intensive Care Unit (ICU and hospital stay. The secondary end points were intraoperative lactate, intravenous fluid use, requirement for inotropes, postoperative ventilation and return of bowel function. Results: The ICU stay was significantly shorter in the intervention group as compared to the control group (2.9 ± 1.15 vs. 5.4 ± 2.71 days. The length of hospital stay was also shorter in the intervention group, (9.9 ± 2.68 vs. 11.96 ± 5.15 days though not statistically significant. The use of intraoperative fluids was significantly lower in the intervention group than the control group (7721.5 ± 4138.9 vs. 9216.33 ± 2821.38 ml. Other secondary outcomes were comparable between the two groups. Conclusion: Implementation of fluid replacement guided by a dynamic preload variable (SVV versus conventional static variables (CVP is associated with lesser postoperative ICU stay and reduced fluid requirements in major abdominal surgery.

  20. Systemic central venous oxygen saturation is associated with clot strength during traumatic hemorrhagic shock: A preclinical observational model

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    Brophy Donald F

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clot strength by Thrombelastography (TEG is associated with mortality during trauma and has been linked to severity of tissue hypoperfusion. However, the optimal method for monitoring this important relationship remains undefined. We hypothesize that oxygen transport measurements will be associated with clot strength during traumatic shock, and test this hypothesis using a swine model of controlled traumatic shock. Methods N = 33 swine were subjected to femur fracture and hemorrhagic shock by controlled arterial bleeding to a predetermined level of oxygen debt measured by continuous indirect calorimetry. Hemodynamics, oxygen consumption, systemic central venous oxygenation (ScvO2, base excess, lactate, and clot maximal amplitude by TEG (TEG-MA as clot strength were measured at baseline and again when oxygen debt = 80 ml/kg during shock. Oxygen transport and metabolic markers of tissue perfusion were then evaluated for significant associations with TEG-MA. Forward stepwise selection was then used to create regression models identifying the strongest associations between oxygen transport and TEG-MA independent of other known determinants of clot strength. Results Multiple markers of tissue perfusion, oxygen transport, and TEG-MA were all significantly altered during shock compared to baseline measurements (p 2 demonstrated a strong bivariate association with TEG-MA measured during shock (R = 0.7, p 2 measured during shock was also selected by forward stepwise selection as an important covariate in linear regression models of TEG-MA after adjusting for the covariates fibrinogen, pH, platelet count, and hematocrit (Whole model R2 = 0.99, p ≤ 0.032. Conclusions Among multiple measurements of oxygen transport, only ScvO2 was found to retain a significant association with TEG-MA during shock after adjusting for multiple covariates. ScvO2 should be further studied for its utility as a clinical marker of both tissue hypoxia and clot

  1. Effects of blood transfusion on oxygen extraction ratio and central venous saturation in children after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Bana; Tageldein, Mohmad; AlMesned, Abdulrahman; Kabbani, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Red blood cell transfusion is common in critically ill children after cardiac surgery. Since the threshold for hemoglobin (Hb) transfusion need is not well defined, the threshold Hb level at which dependent critical oxygen uptake-to-delivery (VO2-DO2) status compensation is uncertain. To assess the effects of blood transfusion on the oxygen extraction ratio (O2ER) and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) to identify a critical O2ER value that could help us determine the critical need for blood transfusion. Prospective, observational cohort study. Cardiac Surgical Intensive Care Unit at Prince Sultan Cardiac Center in Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Between January 2013 and December 2015, we included all children with cardiac disease who underwent surgery and needed a blood transfusion. Demographic and laboratory data with physiological parameters before and 1 and 6 hours after transfusion were recorded and O2ER before and 6 hours after transfusion was computed. Cases were divided into two groups based on O2ER: Patients with increased O2ER (O2ER > 40%) and normal patients without increased O2ER (O2ER transfusion. Changes in O2ER and ScvO2 following blood transfusion. Of 103 patients who had blood transfusion, 75 cases had normal O2ER before transfusion while 28 cases had increased O2ER before transfusion. Following blood transfusion, O2ER and ScvO2 improved in the group that had increased O2ER before transfusion, but not in the group that had normal O2ER before transfusion. The clinical and hemodynamic indicators O2ER and ScvO2 may be considered as markers that can indicate a need for blood transfusion. The limitation of this study is the small number of patients that had increased O2ER before transfusion. There were few available variables to assess oxygen consumption.

  2. Changing epidemiology of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections: increasing prevalence of Gram-negative pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Miguel; Soriano, Alex; Iñurrieta, Amaia; Martínez, José A; Romero, Alberto; Cobos, Nazaret; Hernández, Cristina; Almela, Manel; Marco, Francesc; Mensa, Josep

    2011-09-01

    Gram-positive microorganisms have been the predominant pathogens in central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs). Recent guidelines recommend empirical therapy according to this and restrict coverage for Gram-negatives to specific circumstances. This study aimed to analyse the epidemiological changes in CRBSIs over the 1991-2008 period and to analyse predictors of Gram-negative CRBSIs. A prospectively collected cohort of patients with confirmed CRBSIs was analysed. Strains isolated and antimicrobial susceptibility, as well as clinical and demographic variables were recorded. Differences observed during the study period were analysed by means of a χ² trend test and factors associated with Gram-negative CRBSIs by means of multivariable analysis. Between 1991 and 2008, 1129 episodes of monomicrobial CRBSIs were recorded. There was an increase in the incidence of CRBSIs, from 0.10 (1991-92) to 0.31 (2007-08) episodes/1000 patient-days. A significant increase in the number of Gram-negative strains among the total isolates was also found, from 3 (4.7%) in 1991-92 to 70 (40.23%) in 2007-08, with a parallel decrease in the percentage of Gram-positives. Solid organ transplantation, prior use of penicillins and hospital stay longer than 11 days were independently associated with a significantly higher risk of Gram-negative CRBSIs, while cirrhosis, diabetes and use of quinolones were associated with a higher risk of Gram-positives. Gram-negative strains are an increasing cause of CRBSIs, reaching a prevalence of 40% in the 2007-08 period in our hospital. If this trend is confirmed in other centres, a broad-spectrum empirical therapy should be considered in managing these infections.

  3. [Analysis on the prevalence of central venous catheter-related infection in burn patients and its risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li; Wang, Fan; Sun, Kedai; Zhou, Tao; Gong, Yali; Peng, Yizhi

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of central venous catheter-related infection (CRI) in burn patients and its risk factors, so as to guide the clinical practice. Clinical data of 5 026 days of 480 cases of central venous catheterization altogether in 228 burn patients admitted to our ward from June 2011 to December 2014, conforming to the study criteria, were retrospectively analyzed. (1) The incidence of CRI and that of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) in patients (the infection rates per thousand days were calculated) and mortality due to them, and detection of concerning bacteria were recorded after each case of catheterization. (2) The incidence of CRI after each case of catheterization in patients was recorded according to the classification of their gender, age, total burn area, full-thickness burn area, cause of injury, severity of inhalation injury, location of catheterization, whether catheterization through wound or not, duration of catheterization, and the data were processed with chi-square test. Indexes with statistically significant differences were selected, and they were processed with multivariate logistic stepwise regression analysis to screen the independent risk factors of CRI. (3) To all c